Science.gov

Sample records for automated sample transfer

  1. Shielded cells transfer automation

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, J J

    1984-01-01

    Nuclear waste from shielded cells is removed, packaged, and transferred manually in many nuclear facilities. Radiation exposure is absorbed by operators during these operations and limited only through procedural controls. Technological advances in automation using robotics have allowed a production waste removal operation to be automated to reduce radiation exposure. The robotic system bags waste containers out of glove box and transfers them to a shielded container. Operators control the system outside the system work area via television cameras. 9 figures.

  2. Computerized Analytical Data Management System and Automated Analytical Sample Transfer System at the COGEMA Reprocessing Plants in La Hague

    SciTech Connect

    Flament, T.; Goasmat, F.; Poilane, F.

    2002-02-25

    Managing the operation of large commercial spent nuclear fuel reprocessing plants, such as UP3 and UP2-800 in La Hague, France, requires an extensive analytical program and the shortest possible analysis response times. COGEMA, together with its engineering subsidiary SGN, decided to build high-performance laboratories to support operations in its plants. These laboratories feature automated equipment, safe environments for operators, and short response times, all in centralized installations. Implementation of a computerized analytical data management system and a fully automated pneumatic system for the transfer of radioactive samples was a key factor contributing to the successful operation of the laboratories and plants.

  3. A New Automated Sample Transfer System for Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ismail, S. S.

    2010-01-01

    A fully automated and fast pneumatic transport system for short-time activation analysis was recently developed. It is suitable for small nuclear research reactors or laboratories that are using neutron generators and other neutron sources. It is equipped with a programmable logic controller, software package, and 12 devices to facilitate optimal analytical procedures. 550 ms were only necessary to transfer the irradiated capsule (diameter: 15 mm, length: 50 mm, weight: 4 gram) to the counting chamber at a distance of 20 meters using pressurized air (4 bars) as a transport gas. PMID:20369063

  4. An automated gas exchange tank for determining gas transfer velocities in natural seawater samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider-Zapp, K.; Salter, M. E.; Upstill-Goddard, R. C.

    2014-07-01

    In order to advance understanding of the role of seawater surfactants in the air-sea exchange of climatically active trace gases via suppression of the gas transfer velocity (kw), we constructed a fully automated, closed air-water gas exchange tank and coupled analytical system. The system allows water-side turbulence in the tank to be precisely controlled with an electronically operated baffle. Two coupled gas chromatographs and an integral equilibrator, connected to the tank in a continuous gas-tight system, allow temporal changes in the partial pressures of SF6, CH4 and N2O to be measured simultaneously in the tank water and headspace at multiple turbulence settings, during a typical experimental run of 3.25 h. PC software developed by the authors controls all operations and data acquisition, enabling the optimisation of experimental conditions with high reproducibility. The use of three gases allows three independent estimates of kw for each turbulence setting; these values are subsequently normalised to a constant Schmidt number for direct comparison. The normalised kw estimates show close agreement. Repeated experiments with Milli-Q water demonstrate a typical measurement accuracy of 4% for kw. Experiments with natural seawater show that the system clearly resolves the effects on kw of spatial and temporal trends in natural surfactant activity. The system is an effective tool with which to probe the relationships between kw, surfactant activity and biogeochemical indices of primary productivity, and should assist in providing valuable new insights into the air-sea gas exchange process.

  5. An automated gas exchange tank for determining gas transfer velocities in natural seawater samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider-Zapp, K.; Salter, M. E.; Upstill-Goddard, R. C.

    2014-02-01

    In order to advance understanding of the role of seawater surfactants in the air-sea exchange of climatically active trace gases via suppression of the gas transfer velocity (kw), we constructed a fully automated, closed air-water gas exchange tank and coupled analytical system. The system allows water-side turbulence in the tank to be precisely controlled with an electronically operated baffle. Two coupled gas chromatographs and an integral equilibrator, connected to the tank in a continuous gas-tight system, allow temporal changes in the partial pressures of SF6, CH4 and N2O to be measured simultaneously in the tank water and headspace at multiple turbulence settings, during a typical experimental run of 3.25 h. PC software developed by the authors controls all operations and data acquisition, enabling the optimisation of experimental conditions with high reproducibility. The use of three gases allows three independent estimates of kw for each turbulence setting; these values are subsequently normalised to a constant Schmidt number for direct comparison. The normalised kw estimates show close agreement. Repeated experiments with MilliQ water demonstrate a typical measurement accuracy of 4% for kw. Experiments with natural seawater show that the system clearly resolves the effects on kw of spatial and temporal trends in natural surfactant activity. The system is an effective tool with which to probe the relationships between kw, surfactant activity and biogeochemical indices of primary productivity, and should assist in providing valuable new insights into the air-sea gas exchange process.

  6. Automated Factor Slice Sampling.

    PubMed

    Tibbits, Matthew M; Groendyke, Chris; Haran, Murali; Liechty, John C

    2014-01-01

    Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) algorithms offer a very general approach for sampling from arbitrary distributions. However, designing and tuning MCMC algorithms for each new distribution, can be challenging and time consuming. It is particularly difficult to create an efficient sampler when there is strong dependence among the variables in a multivariate distribution. We describe a two-pronged approach for constructing efficient, automated MCMC algorithms: (1) we propose the "factor slice sampler", a generalization of the univariate slice sampler where we treat the selection of a coordinate basis (factors) as an additional tuning parameter, and (2) we develop an approach for automatically selecting tuning parameters in order to construct an efficient factor slice sampler. In addition to automating the factor slice sampler, our tuning approach also applies to the standard univariate slice samplers. We demonstrate the efficiency and general applicability of our automated MCMC algorithm with a number of illustrative examples. PMID:24955002

  7. Automated Factor Slice Sampling

    PubMed Central

    Tibbits, Matthew M.; Groendyke, Chris; Haran, Murali; Liechty, John C.

    2013-01-01

    Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) algorithms offer a very general approach for sampling from arbitrary distributions. However, designing and tuning MCMC algorithms for each new distribution, can be challenging and time consuming. It is particularly difficult to create an efficient sampler when there is strong dependence among the variables in a multivariate distribution. We describe a two-pronged approach for constructing efficient, automated MCMC algorithms: (1) we propose the “factor slice sampler”, a generalization of the univariate slice sampler where we treat the selection of a coordinate basis (factors) as an additional tuning parameter, and (2) we develop an approach for automatically selecting tuning parameters in order to construct an efficient factor slice sampler. In addition to automating the factor slice sampler, our tuning approach also applies to the standard univariate slice samplers. We demonstrate the efficiency and general applicability of our automated MCMC algorithm with a number of illustrative examples. PMID:24955002

  8. AUTOMATING GROUNDWATER SAMPLING AT HANFORD

    SciTech Connect

    CONNELL CW; HILDEBRAND RD; CONLEY SF; CUNNINGHAM DE

    2009-01-16

    Until this past October, Fluor Hanford managed Hanford's integrated groundwater program for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). With the new contract awards at the Site, however, the CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC) has assumed responsibility for the groundwater-monitoring programs at the 586-square-mile reservation in southeastern Washington State. These programs are regulated by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and the Comprehensive Environmental Response Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA). The purpose of monitoring is to track existing groundwater contamination from past practices, as well as other potential contamination that might originate from RCRA treatment, storage, and disposal (TSD) facilities. An integral part of the groundwater-monitoring program involves taking samples of the groundwater and measuring the water levels in wells scattered across the site. More than 1,200 wells are sampled each year. Historically, field personnel or 'samplers' have been issued pre-printed forms that have information about the well(s) for a particular sampling evolution. This information is taken from the Hanford Well Information System (HWIS) and the Hanford Environmental Information System (HEIS)--official electronic databases. The samplers used these hardcopy forms to document the groundwater samples and well water-levels. After recording the entries in the field, the samplers turned the forms in at the end of the day and the collected information was posted onto a spreadsheet that was then printed and included in a log book. The log book was then used to make manual entries of the new information into the software application(s) for the HEIS and HWIS databases. This is a pilot project for automating this tedious process by providing an electronic tool for automating water-level measurements and groundwater field-sampling activities. The automation will eliminate the manual forms and associated data entry, improve the accuracy of the

  9. Automated blood sampling systems for positron emission tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Eriksson, L.; Holte, S.; Bohm, C.; Kesselberg, M.; Hovander, B.

    1988-02-01

    An automated blood sampling system has been constructed and evaluated. Two different detector units in the blood sampling system are compared. Results from studies of blood-brain barrier transfer of a C-11 labelled receptor antagonist will be discussed.

  10. Automated Grammatical Tagging of Child Language Samples.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Channell, Ron W.; Johnson, Bonnie W.

    1999-01-01

    This study evaluated the accuracy of automated methods of grammatical categorization ("tagging") of transcribed conversational language samples from 30 normally developing children. On a word-by-word basis, automated accuracy levels averaged 95.1%; accuracy of tagging whole utterances averaged 77.7%. Results suggest that further improvement of…

  11. Saturn facility oil transfer automation system

    SciTech Connect

    Joseph, Nathan R.; Thomas, Rayburn Dean; Lewis, Barbara Ann; Malagon, Hector M.

    2014-02-01

    The Saturn accelerator, owned by Sandia National Laboratories, has been in operation since the early 1980s and still has many of the original systems. A critical legacy system is the oil transfer system which transfers 250,000 gallons of transformer oil from outside storage tanks to the Saturn facility. The oil transfer system was iden- ti ed for upgrade to current technology standards. Using the existing valves, pumps, and relay controls, the system was automated using the National Instruments cRIO FGPA platform. Engineered safety practices, including a failure mode e ects analysis, were used to develop error handling requirements. The uniqueness of the Saturn Oil Automated Transfer System (SOATS) is in the graphical user interface. The SOATS uses an HTML interface to communicate to the cRIO, creating a platform independent control system. The SOATS was commissioned in April 2013.

  12. Automated storm water sampling on small watersheds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harmel, R.D.; King, K.W.; Slade, R.M.

    2003-01-01

    Few guidelines are currently available to assist in designing appropriate automated storm water sampling strategies for small watersheds. Therefore, guidance is needed to develop strategies that achieve an appropriate balance between accurate characterization of storm water quality and loads and limitations of budget, equipment, and personnel. In this article, we explore the important sampling strategy components (minimum flow threshold, sampling interval, and discrete versus composite sampling) and project-specific considerations (sampling goal, sampling and analysis resources, and watershed characteristics) based on personal experiences and pertinent field and analytical studies. These components and considerations are important in achieving the balance between sampling goals and limitations because they determine how and when samples are taken and the potential sampling error. Several general recommendations are made, including: setting low minimum flow thresholds, using flow-interval or variable time-interval sampling, and using composite sampling to limit the number of samples collected. Guidelines are presented to aid in selection of an appropriate sampling strategy based on user's project-specific considerations. Our experiences suggest these recommendations should allow implementation of a successful sampling strategy for most small watershed sampling projects with common sampling goals.

  13. Precise and automated microfluidic sample preparation.

    SciTech Connect

    Crocker, Robert W.; Patel, Kamlesh D.; Mosier, Bruce P.; Harnett, Cindy K.

    2004-07-01

    Autonomous bio-chemical agent detectors require sample preparation involving multiplex fluid control. We have developed a portable microfluidic pump array for metering sub-microliter volumes at flowrates of 1-100 {micro}L/min. Each pump is composed of an electrokinetic (EK) pump and high-voltage power supply with 15-Hz feedback from flow sensors. The combination of high pump fluid impedance and active control results in precise fluid metering with nanoliter accuracy. Automated sample preparation will be demonstrated by labeling proteins with fluorescamine and subsequent injection to a capillary gel electrophoresis (CGE) chip.

  14. SALTSTONE PROCESSING FACILITY TRANSFER SAMPLE

    SciTech Connect

    Cozzi, A.; Reigel, M.

    2010-08-04

    On May 19, 2010, the Saltstone Production Facility inadvertently transferred 1800 gallons of untreated waste from the salt feed tank to Vault 4. During shut down, approximately 70 gallons of the material was left in the Saltstone hopper. A sample of the slurry in the hopper was sent to Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) to analyze the density, pH and the eight Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) metals. The sample was hazardous for chromium, mercury and pH. The sample received from the Saltstone hopper was analyzed visually while obtaining sample aliquots and while the sample was allowed to settle. It was observed that the sample contains solids that settle in approximately 20 minutes (Figure 3-1). There is a floating layer on top of the supernate during settling and disperses when the sample is agitated (Figure 3-2). The untreated waste inadvertently transferred from the SFT to Vault 4 was toxic for chromium and mercury. In addition, the pH of the sample is at the regulatory limit. Visually inspecting the sample indicates solids present in the sample.

  15. SMART Plan. Statewide Management of Automated Record Transfer: A Plan To Automate and Transfer Student Records Statewide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nevada State Dept. of Education, Carson City. Planning, Research and Evaluation Branch.

    As of 1993, Nevada had no systems for statewide automation and transfer of student records. This guide book presents findings of a collaborative study, conducted by the Nevada Department of Education and local school districts, that explored the need for and feasibility of developing a statewide system for automating and transferring student…

  16. High throughput sample processing and automated scoring.

    PubMed

    Brunborg, Gunnar; Jackson, Petra; Shaposhnikov, Sergey; Dahl, Hildegunn; Azqueta, Amaya; Collins, Andrew R; Gutzkow, Kristine B

    2014-01-01

    The comet assay is a sensitive and versatile method for assessing DNA damage in cells. In the traditional version of the assay, there are many manual steps involved and few samples can be treated in one experiment. High throughput (HT) modifications have been developed during recent years, and they are reviewed and discussed. These modifications include accelerated scoring of comets; other important elements that have been studied and adapted to HT are cultivation and manipulation of cells or tissues before and after exposure, and freezing of treated samples until comet analysis and scoring. HT methods save time and money but they are useful also for other reasons: large-scale experiments may be performed which are otherwise not practicable (e.g., analysis of many organs from exposed animals, and human biomonitoring studies), and automation gives more uniform sample treatment and less dependence on operator performance. The HT modifications now available vary largely in their versatility, capacity, complexity, and costs. The bottleneck for further increase of throughput appears to be the scoring. PMID:25389434

  17. High throughput sample processing and automated scoring

    PubMed Central

    Brunborg, Gunnar; Jackson, Petra; Shaposhnikov, Sergey; Dahl, Hildegunn; Azqueta, Amaya; Collins, Andrew R.; Gutzkow, Kristine B.

    2014-01-01

    The comet assay is a sensitive and versatile method for assessing DNA damage in cells. In the traditional version of the assay, there are many manual steps involved and few samples can be treated in one experiment. High throughput (HT) modifications have been developed during recent years, and they are reviewed and discussed. These modifications include accelerated scoring of comets; other important elements that have been studied and adapted to HT are cultivation and manipulation of cells or tissues before and after exposure, and freezing of treated samples until comet analysis and scoring. HT methods save time and money but they are useful also for other reasons: large-scale experiments may be performed which are otherwise not practicable (e.g., analysis of many organs from exposed animals, and human biomonitoring studies), and automation gives more uniform sample treatment and less dependence on operator performance. The HT modifications now available vary largely in their versatility, capacity, complexity, and costs. The bottleneck for further increase of throughput appears to be the scoring. PMID:25389434

  18. AUTOMATING GROUNDWATER SAMPLING AT HANFORD THE NEXT STEP

    SciTech Connect

    CONNELL CW; CONLEY SF; HILDEBRAND RD; CUNNINGHAM DE; R_D_Doug_Hildebrand@rl.gov; DeVon_E_Cunningham@rl.gov

    2010-01-21

    Historically, the groundwater monitoring activities at the Department of Energy's Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State have been very "people intensive." Approximately 1500 wells are sampled each year by field personnel or "samplers." These individuals have been issued pre-printed forms showing information about the well(s) for a particular sampling evolution. This information is taken from 2 official electronic databases: the Hanford Well information System (HWIS) and the Hanford Environmental Information System (HEIS). The samplers used these hardcopy forms to document the groundwater samples and well water-levels. After recording the entries in the field, the samplers turned the forms in at the end of the day and other personnel posted the collected information onto a spreadsheet that was then printed and included in a log book. The log book was then used to make manual entries of the new information into the software application(s) for the HEIS and HWIS databases. A pilot project for automating this extremely tedious process was lauched in 2008. Initially, the automation was focused on water-level measurements. Now, the effort is being extended to automate the meta-data associated with collecting groundwater samples. The project allowed electronic forms produced in the field by samplers to be used in a work flow process where the data is transferred to the database and electronic form is filed in managed records - thus eliminating manually completed forms. Elimating the manual forms and streamlining the data entry not only improved the accuracy of the information recorded, but also enhanced the efficiency and sampling capacity of field office personnel.

  19. WASTEWATER SAMPLING, TRANSFER AND CONDITIONING SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report describes the construction and field evaluation of an automatic on-line hardware system for reliably sampling, transferring, and conditioning various wastewater-treatment process streams such that the resulting transferred and conditioned samples are suitable for inte...

  20. Large scale oil lease automation and electronic custody transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Price, C.R.; Elmer, D.C.

    1995-12-31

    Typically, oil field production operations have only been automated at fields with long term production profiles and enhanced recovery. The automation generally consists of monitoring and control at the wellhead and centralized facilities. However, Union Pacific Resources Co. (UPRC) has successfully implemented a large scale automation program for rapid-decline primary recovery Austin Chalk wells where purchasers buy and transport oil from each individual wellsite. This project has resulted in two significant benefits. First, operators are using the system to re-engineer their work processes. Second, an inter-company team created a new electronic custody transfer method. This paper will describe: the progression of the company`s automation objectives in the area; the field operator`s interaction with the system, and the related benefits; the research and development of the new electronic custody transfer method.

  1. Automated pneumatic transfer irradiation system for delayed neutron counting

    SciTech Connect

    Heifer, Paul G.; Millard, Hugh T. Jr.; Zermane, Albert J

    1982-07-01

    The Geological Survey TRIGA Reactor has been used for uranium and thorium neutron activation analysis by delayed neutron counting for the past eleven years. As the requirements for analysis increased the original General Atomic pneumatic system was upgraded in several stages. By 1979 we had reached the practical limits of safe through-put for that system and a new pneumatic transfer system was built. A single large Roots type blower is used to drive four individual transfer tubes simultaneously (two termini in the core and two outside the reflector). A microprocessor controls the operation and is paced by a minicomputer, which is also used to collect and reduce the counting data. Two irradiations and counting cycles are performed on each sample, one in the core, a Cd-lined terminus for thorium, and one in the reflector mounted terminus for uranium. Video displays at both the reactor console and the pneumatic system operating station indicate the status of the system and the locations of the samples at all times. This highly automated system is capable of 1,200 irradiations for delayed neutron counting in a 10 hour day, and, in addition, incorporates programmable versatility for other irradiation-counting experiments, and provides a high degree of reactor and radiological safety with only remote operator attention. (author)

  2. Acoustofluidic Transfer of Inflammatory Cells from Human Sputum Samples.

    PubMed

    Li, Sixing; Ren, Liqiang; Huang, Po-Hsun; Yao, Xianglan; Cuento, Rosemarie A; McCoy, J Philip; Cameron, Craig E; Levine, Stewart J; Huang, Tony Jun

    2016-06-01

    For sputum analysis, the transfer of inflammatory cells from liquefied sputum samples to a culture medium or buffer solution is a critical step because it removes the inflammatory cells from the presence of residual dithiothreitol (DTT), a reagent that reduces cell viability and interferes with further sputum analyses. In this work, we report an acoustofluidic platform for transferring inflammatory cells using standing surface acoustic waves (SSAW). In particular, we exploit the acoustic radiation force generated from a SSAW field to actively transfer inflammatory cells from a solution containing residual DTT to a buffer solution. The viability and integrity of the inflammatory cells are maintained during the acoustofluidic-based cell transfer process. Our acoustofluidic technique removes residual DTT generated in sputum liquefaction and facilitates immunophenotyping of major inflammatory cells from sputum samples. It enables cell transfer in a continuous flow, which aids the development of an automated, integrated system for on-chip sputum processing and analysis. PMID:27183317

  3. Automated collection and processing of environmental samples

    DOEpatents

    Troyer, Gary L.; McNeece, Susan G.; Brayton, Darryl D.; Panesar, Amardip K.

    1997-01-01

    For monitoring an environmental parameter such as the level of nuclear radiation, at distributed sites, bar coded sample collectors are deployed and their codes are read using a portable data entry unit that also records the time of deployment. The time and collector identity are cross referenced in memory in the portable unit. Similarly, when later recovering the collector for testing, the code is again read and the time of collection is stored as indexed to the sample collector, or to a further bar code, for example as provided on a container for the sample. The identity of the operator can also be encoded and stored. After deploying and/or recovering the sample collectors, the data is transmitted to a base processor. The samples are tested, preferably using a test unit coupled to the base processor, and again the time is recorded. The base processor computes the level of radiation at the site during exposure of the sample collector, using the detected radiation level of the sample, the delay between recovery and testing, the duration of exposure and the half life of the isotopes collected. In one embodiment, an identity code and a site code are optically read by an image grabber coupled to the portable data entry unit.

  4. Technology Transfer Opportunities: Automated Ground-Water Monitoring

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, Kirk P.; Granato, Gregory E.

    1997-01-01

    Introduction A new automated ground-water monitoring system developed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) measures and records values of selected water-quality properties and constituents using protocols approved for manual sampling. Prototypes using the automated process have demonstrated the ability to increase the quantity and quality of data collected and have shown the potential for reducing labor and material costs for ground-water quality data collection. Automation of water-quality monitoring systems in the field, in laboratories, and in industry have increased data density and utility while reducing operating costs. Uses for an automated ground-water monitoring system include, (but are not limited to) monitoring ground-water quality for research, monitoring known or potential contaminant sites, such as near landfills, underground storage tanks, or other facilities where potential contaminants are stored, and as an early warning system monitoring groundwater quality near public water-supply wells.

  5. A Chip-Capillary Hybrid Device for Automated Transfer of Sample Pre-Separated by Capillary Isoelectric Focusing to Parallel Capillary Gel Electrophoresis for Two-Dimensional Protein Separation

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Joann J.; Wang, Shili; Li, Guanbin; Wang, Wei; Pu, Qiaosheng; Liu, Shaorong

    2012-01-01

    In this report, we introduce a chip-capillary hybrid device to integrate capillary isoelectric focusing (CIEF) with parallel capillary sodium dodecyl sulfate – polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) or capillary gel electrophoresis (CGE) toward automating two-dimensional (2D) protein separations. The hybrid device consists of three chips that are butted together. The middle chip can be moved between two positions to re-route the fluidic paths, which enables the performance of CIEF and injection of proteins partially resolved by CIEF to CGE capillaries for parallel CGE separations in a continuous and automated fashion. Capillaries are attached to the other two chips to facilitate CIEF and CGE separations and to extend the effective lengths of CGE columns. Specifically, we illustrate the working principle of the hybrid device, develop protocols for producing and preparing the hybrid device, and demonstrate the feasibility of using this hybrid device for automated injection of CIEF-separated sample to parallel CGE for 2D protein separations. Potentials and problems associated with the hybrid device are also discussed. PMID:22830584

  6. Rapid Automated Sample Preparation for Biological Assays

    SciTech Connect

    Shusteff, M

    2011-03-04

    Our technology utilizes acoustic, thermal, and electric fields to separate out contaminants such as debris or pollen from environmental samples, lyse open cells, and extract the DNA from the lysate. The objective of the project is to optimize the system described for a forensic sample, and demonstrate its performance for integration with downstream assay platforms (e.g. MIT-LL's ANDE). We intend to increase the quantity of DNA recovered from the sample beyond the current {approx}80% achieved using solid phase extraction methods. Task 1: Develop and test an acoustic filter for cell extraction. Task 2: Develop and test lysis chip. Task 3: Develop and test DNA extraction chip. All chips have been fabricated based on the designs laid out in last month's report.

  7. Texture synthesis and transfer from multiple samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Yue; Zhao, Qinping

    2003-09-01

    Texture Mapping plays a very important role in Computer Graphics. Texture Synthesis is one of the main methods to obtain textures, it makes use of sample textures to generate new textures. Texture Transfer is based on Texture Synthesis, it renders objects with textures taken from different objects. Currently, most of Texture Synthesis and Transfer methods use a single sample texture. A method for Texture Synthesis adn Transfer from multi samples was presented. For texture synthesis, the L-shaped neighborhood seaching approach was used. Users specify the proportion of each sample, the number of seed points, and these seed points are scattered randomly according to their samples in horizontal and vertical direction synchronously to synthesize textures. The synthesized textures are very good. For texture transfer, the luminance of the target image and the sample textures are analyzed. This procedure is from coarse to fine, and can produce a visually pleasing result.

  8. Automated Sample collection and Analysis unit

    SciTech Connect

    Latner, Norman; Sanderson, Colin G.; Negro, Vincent C.

    1999-03-31

    Autoramp is an atmospheric radionuclide collection and analysis unit designed for unattended operation. A large volume of air passes through one of 31 filter cartridges which is then moved from a sampling chamber and past a bar code reader, to a shielded enclosure. The collected dust-borne radionuclides are counted with a high resolution germanium gamma-ray detector. An analysis is made and the results are transmitted to a central station that can also remotely control the unit.

  9. Automated biowaste sampling system feces monitoring system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunt, S. R.; Glanfield, E. J.

    1979-01-01

    The Feces Monitoring System (FMS) Program designed, fabricated, assembled and tested an engineering model waste collector system (WCS) to be used in support of life science and medical experiments related to Shuttle missions. The FMS design was patterned closely after the Shuttle WCS, including: interface provisions; mounting; configuration; and operating procedures. These similarities make it possible to eventually substitute an FMS for the Shuttle WCS of Orbiter. In addition, several advanced waste collection features, including the capability of real-time inertial fecal separation and fecal mass measurement and sampling were incorporated into the FMS design.

  10. Non-Contact Conductivity Measurement for Automated Sample Processing Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beegle, Luther W.; Kirby, James P.

    2012-01-01

    A new method has been developed for monitoring and control of automated sample processing and preparation especially focusing on desalting of samples before analytical analysis (described in more detail in Automated Desalting Apparatus, (NPO-45428), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 34, No. 8 (August 2010), page 44). The use of non-contact conductivity probes, one at the inlet and one at the outlet of the solid phase sample preparation media, allows monitoring of the process, and acts as a trigger for the start of the next step in the sequence (see figure). At each step of the muti-step process, the system is flushed with low-conductivity water, which sets the system back to an overall low-conductivity state. This measurement then triggers the next stage of sample processing protocols, and greatly minimizes use of consumables. In the case of amino acid sample preparation for desalting, the conductivity measurement will define three key conditions for the sample preparation process. First, when the system is neutralized (low conductivity, by washing with excess de-ionized water); second, when the system is acidified, by washing with a strong acid (high conductivity); and third, when the system is at a basic condition of high pH (high conductivity). Taken together, this non-contact conductivity measurement for monitoring sample preparation will not only facilitate automation of the sample preparation and processing, but will also act as a way to optimize the operational time and use of consumables

  11. Detection of carryover in automated milk sampling equipment.

    PubMed

    Løvendahl, P; Bjerring, M A

    2006-09-01

    Equipment for sampling milk in automated milking systems may cause carryover problems if residues from one sample remain and are mixed with the subsequent sample. The degree of carryover can be estimated statistically by linear regression models. This study applied various regression analyses to several real and simulated data sets. The statistical power for detecting carryover milk improved considerably when information about cow identity was included and a mixed model was applied. Carryover may affect variation between animals, including genetic variation, and thereby have an impact on management decisions and diagnostic tools based on the milk content of somatic cells. An extended procedure is needed for approval of sampling equipment for automated milking with acceptable latitudes of carryover, and this could include the regression approach taken in this study. PMID:16899700

  12. Automated File Transfer and Storage Management Concepts for Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hogie, Keith; Criscuolo, Ed; Parise, Ron

    2004-01-01

    This presentation will summarize work that has been done to prototype and analyze approaches for automated file transfer and storage management for space missions. The concepts were prototyped in an environment with data files being generated at the target mission rates and stored in onboard files. The space-to-ground link was implemented using a channel simulator to introduce representative mission delays and errors. The system was operated for days with data files building up on the spacecraft and periodically being transferred to ground storage during a limited contact time. Overall performance was measured to identify limits under which the entire data volume could be transferred automatically while still fitting into the mission s limited contact time. The overall concepts, measurements, and results will be presented.

  13. Modular Automated Processing System (MAPS) for analysis of biological samples.

    SciTech Connect

    Gil, Geun-Cheol; Chirica, Gabriela S.; Fruetel, Julia A.; VanderNoot, Victoria A.; Branda, Steven S.; Schoeniger, Joseph S.; Throckmorton, Daniel J.; Brennan, James S.; Renzi, Ronald F.

    2010-10-01

    We have developed a novel modular automated processing system (MAPS) that enables reliable, high-throughput analysis as well as sample-customized processing. This system is comprised of a set of independent modules that carry out individual sample processing functions: cell lysis, protein concentration (based on hydrophobic, ion-exchange and affinity interactions), interferent depletion, buffer exchange, and enzymatic digestion of proteins of interest. Taking advantage of its unique capacity for enclosed processing of intact bioparticulates (viruses, spores) and complex serum samples, we have used MAPS for analysis of BSL1 and BSL2 samples to identify specific protein markers through integration with the portable microChemLab{trademark} and MALDI.

  14. A modular approach for automated sample preparation and chemical analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, Michael L.; Turner, Terry D.; Klingler, Kerry M.; Pacetti, Randolph

    1994-01-01

    Changes in international relations, especially within the past several years, have dramatically affected the programmatic thrusts of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The DOE now is addressing the environmental cleanup required as a result of 50 years of nuclear arms research and production. One major obstacle in the remediation of these areas is the chemical determination of potentially contaminated material using currently acceptable practices. Process bottlenecks and exposure to hazardous conditions pose problems for the DOE. One proposed solution is the application of modular automated chemistry using Standard Laboratory Modules (SLM) to perform Standard Analysis Methods (SAM). The Contaminant Analysis Automation (CAA) Program has developed standards and prototype equipment that will accelerate the development of modular chemistry technology and is transferring this technology to private industry.

  15. Automated Imaging Techniques for Biosignature Detection in Geologic Samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williford, K. H.

    2015-12-01

    Robust biosignature detection in geologic samples typically requires the integration of morphological/textural data with biogeochemical data across a variety of scales. We present new automated imaging and coordinated biogeochemical analysis techniques developed at the JPL Astrobiogeochemistry Laboratory (abcLab) in support of biosignature detection in terrestrial samples as well as those that may eventually be returned from Mars. Automated gigapixel mosaic imaging of petrographic thin sections in transmitted and incident light (including UV epifluorescence) is supported by a microscopy platform with a digital XYZ stage. Images are acquired, processed, and co-registered using multiple software platforms at JPL and can be displayed and shared using Gigapan, a freely available, web-based toolset (e.g. . Automated large area (cm-scale) elemental mapping at sub-micrometer spatial resolution is enabled by a variable pressure scanning electron microscope (SEM) with a large (150 mm2) silicon drift energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) detector system. The abcLab light and electron microscopy techniques are augmented by additional elemental chemistry, mineralogy and organic detection/classification using laboratory Micro-XRF and UV Raman/fluorescence systems, precursors to the PIXL and SHERLOC instrument platforms selected for flight on the NASA Mars 2020 rover mission. A workflow including careful sample preparation followed by iterative gigapixel imaging, SEM/EDS, Micro-XRF and UV fluorescence/Raman in support of organic, mineralogic, and elemental biosignature target identification and follow up analysis with other techniques including secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) will be discussed.

  16. Device and method for automated separation of a sample of whole blood into aliquots

    DOEpatents

    Burtis, Carl A.; Johnson, Wayne F.

    1989-01-01

    A device and a method for automated processing and separation of an unmeasured sample of whole blood into multiple aliquots of plasma. Capillaries are radially oriented on a rotor, with the rotor defining a sample chamber, transfer channels, overflow chamber, overflow channel, vent channel, cell chambers, and processing chambers. A sample of whole blood is placed in the sample chamber, and when the rotor is rotated, the blood moves outward through the transfer channels to the processing chambers where the blood is centrifugally separated into a solid cellular component and a liquid plasma component. When the rotor speed is decreased, the plasma component backfills the capillaries resulting in uniform aliquots of plasma which may be used for subsequent analytical procedures.

  17. DNA separations in microfabricated devices with automated capillary sample introduction.

    PubMed

    Smith, E M; Xu, H; Ewing, A G

    2001-01-01

    A novel method is presented for automated injection of DNA samples into microfabricated separation devices via capillary electrophoresis. A single capillary is used to electrokinetically inject discrete plugs of DNA into an array of separation lanes on a glass chip. A computer-controlled micromanipulator is used to automate this injection process and to repeat injections into five parallel lanes several times over the course of the experiment. After separation, labeled DNA samples are detected by laser-induced fluorescence. Five serial separations of 6-carboxyfluorescein (FAM)-labeled oligonucleotides in five parallel lanes are shown, resulting in the analysis of 25 samples in 25 min. It is estimated that approximately 550 separations of these same oligonucleotides could be performed in one hour by increasing the number of lanes to 37 and optimizing the rate of the manipulator movement. Capillary sample introduction into chips allows parallel separations to be continuously performed in serial, yielding high throughput and minimal need for operator intervention. PMID:11288906

  18. Components for automated microfluidics sample preparation and analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Archer, M.; Erickson, J. S.; Hilliard, L. R.; Howell, P. B., Jr.; Stenger, D. A.; Ligler, F. S.; Lin, B.

    2008-02-01

    The increasing demand for portable devices to detect and identify pathogens represents an interdisciplinary effort between engineering, materials science, and molecular biology. Automation of both sample preparation and analysis is critical for performing multiplexed analyses on real world samples. This paper selects two possible components for such automated portable analyzers: modified silicon structures for use in the isolation of nucleic acids and a sheath flow system suitable for automated microflow cytometry. Any detection platform that relies on the genetic content (RNA and DNA) present in complex matrices requires careful extraction and isolation of the nucleic acids in order to ensure their integrity throughout the process. This sample pre-treatment step is commonly performed using commercially available solid phases along with various molecular biology techniques that require multiple manual steps and dedicated laboratory space. Regardless of the detection scheme, a major challenge in the integration of total analysis systems is the development of platforms compatible with current isolation techniques that will ensure the same quality of nucleic acids. Silicon is an ideal candidate for solid phase separations since it can be tailored structurally and chemically to mimic the conditions used in the laboratory. For analytical purposes, we have developed passive structures that can be used to fully ensheath one flow stream with another. As opposed to traditional flow focusing methods, our sheath flow profile is truly two dimensional, making it an ideal candidate for integration into a microfluidic flow cytometer. Such a microflow cytometer could be used to measure targets captured on either antibody- or DNA-coated beads.

  19. Automated generation of highly accurate, efficient and transferable pseudopotentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansel, R. A.; Brock, C. N.; Paikoff, B. C.; Tackett, A. R.; Walker, D. G.

    2015-11-01

    A multi-objective genetic algorithm (MOGA) was used to automate a search for optimized pseudopotential parameters. Pseudopotentials were generated using the atomPAW program and density functional theory (DFT) simulations were conducted using the pwPAW program. The optimized parameters were the cutoff radius and projector energies for the s and p orbitals. The two objectives were low pseudopotential error and low computational work requirements. The error was determined from (1) the root mean square difference between the all-electron and pseudized-electron log derivative, (2) the calculated lattice constant versus reference data of Holzwarth et al., and (3) the calculated bulk modulus versus reference potentials. The computational work was defined as the number of flops required to perform the DFT simulation. Pseudopotential transferability was encouraged by optimizing each element in different lattices: (1) nitrogen in GaN, AlN, and YN, (2) oxygen in NO, ZnO, and SiO4, and (3) fluorine in LiF, NaF, and KF. The optimal solutions were equivalent in error and required significantly less computational work than the reference data. This proof-of-concept study demonstrates that the combination of MOGA and ab-initio simulations is a powerful tool that can generate a set of transferable potentials with a trade-off between accuracy (error) and computational efficiency (work).

  20. Automated acoustic matrix deposition for MALDI sample preparation.

    PubMed

    Aerni, Hans-Rudolf; Cornett, Dale S; Caprioli, Richard M

    2006-02-01

    Novel high-throughput sample preparation strategies for MALDI imaging mass spectrometry (IMS) and profiling are presented. An acoustic reagent multispotter was developed to provide improved reproducibility for depositing matrix onto a sample surface, for example, such as a tissue section. The unique design of the acoustic droplet ejector and its optimization for depositing matrix solution are discussed. Since it does not contain a capillary or nozzle for fluid ejection, issues with clogging of these orifices are avoided. Automated matrix deposition provides better control of conditions affecting protein extraction and matrix crystallization with the ability to deposit matrix accurately onto small surface features. For tissue sections, matrix spots of 180-200 microm in diameter were obtained and a procedure is described for generating coordinate files readable by a mass spectrometer to permit automated profile acquisition. Mass spectral quality and reproducibility was found to be better than that obtained with manual pipet spotting. The instrument can also deposit matrix spots in a dense array pattern so that, after analysis in a mass spectrometer, two-dimensional ion images may be constructed. Example ion images from a mouse brain are presented. PMID:16448057

  1. Automation of sample plan creation for process model calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oberschmidt, James; Abdo, Amr; Desouky, Tamer; Al-Imam, Mohamed; Krasnoperova, Azalia; Viswanathan, Ramya

    2010-04-01

    The process of preparing a sample plan for optical and resist model calibration has always been tedious. Not only because it is required to accurately represent full chip designs with countless combinations of widths, spaces and environments, but also because of the constraints imposed by metrology which may result in limiting the number of structures to be measured. Also, there are other limits on the types of these structures, and this is mainly due to the accuracy variation across different types of geometries. For instance, pitch measurements are normally more accurate than corner rounding. Thus, only certain geometrical shapes are mostly considered to create a sample plan. In addition, the time factor is becoming very crucial as we migrate from a technology node to another due to the increase in the number of development and production nodes, and the process is getting more complicated if process window aware models are to be developed in a reasonable time frame, thus there is a need for reliable methods to choose sample plans which also help reduce cycle time. In this context, an automated flow is proposed for sample plan creation. Once the illumination and film stack are defined, all the errors in the input data are fixed and sites are centered. Then, bad sites are excluded. Afterwards, the clean data are reduced based on geometrical resemblance. Also, an editable database of measurement-reliable and critical structures are provided, and their percentage in the final sample plan as well as the total number of 1D/2D samples can be predefined. It has the advantage of eliminating manual selection or filtering techniques, and it provides powerful tools for customizing the final plan, and the time needed to generate these plans is greatly reduced.

  2. Automated Mars surface sample return mission concepts for achievement of essential scientific objectives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weaver, W. L.; Norton, H. N.; Darnell, W. L.

    1975-01-01

    Mission concepts were investigated for automated return to Earth of a Mars surface sample adequate for detailed analyses in scientific laboratories. The minimum sample mass sufficient to meet scientific requirements was determined. Types of materials and supporting measurements for essential analyses are reported. A baseline trajectory profile was selected for its low energy requirements and relatively simple implementation, and trajectory profile design data were developed for 1979 and 1981 launch opportunities. Efficient spacecraft systems were conceived by utilizing existing technology where possible. Systems concepts emphasized the 1979 launch opportunity, and the applicability of results to other opportunities was assessed. It was shown that the baseline missions (return through Mars parking orbit) and some comparison missions (return after sample transfer in Mars orbit) can be accomplished by using a single Titan III E/Centaur as the launch vehicle. All missions investigated can be accomplished by use of Space Shuttle/Centaur vehicles.

  3. Current advances and strategies towards fully automated sample preparation for regulated LC-MS/MS bioanalysis.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Naiyu; Jiang, Hao; Zeng, Jianing

    2014-09-01

    Robotic liquid handlers (RLHs) have been widely used in automated sample preparation for liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) bioanalysis. Automated sample preparation for regulated bioanalysis offers significantly higher assay efficiency, better data quality and potential bioanalytical cost-savings. For RLHs that are used for regulated bioanalysis, there are additional requirements, including 21 CFR Part 11 compliance, software validation, system qualification, calibration verification and proper maintenance. This article reviews recent advances in automated sample preparation for regulated bioanalysis in the last 5 years. Specifically, it covers the following aspects: regulated bioanalysis requirements, recent advances in automation hardware and software development, sample extraction workflow simplification, strategies towards fully automated sample extraction, and best practices in automated sample preparation for regulated bioanalysis. PMID:25384595

  4. Extreme pressure fluid sample transfer pump

    DOEpatents

    Halverson, Justin E.; Bowman, Wilfred W.

    1990-01-01

    A transfer pump for samples of fluids at very low or very high pressures comprising a cylinder having a piston sealed with an O-ring, the piston defining forward and back chambers, an inlet and exit port and valve arrangement for the fluid to enter and leave the forward chamber, and a port and valve arrangement in the back chamber for adjusting the pressure across the piston so that the pressure differential across the piston is essentially zero and approximately equal to the pressure of the fluid so that the O-ring seals against leakage of the fluid and the piston can be easily moved, regardless of the pressure of the fluid. The piston may be actuated by a means external to the cylinder with a piston rod extending through a hole in the cylinder sealed with a bellows attached to the piston head and the interior of the back chamber.

  5. Back to the Future: A Non-Automated Method of Constructing Transfer Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feng, Mingyu; Beck, Joseph

    2009-01-01

    Representing domain knowledge is important for constructing educational software, and automated approaches have been proposed to construct and refine such models. In this paper, instead of applying automated and computationally intensive approaches, we simply start with existing hand-constructed transfer models at various levels of granularity and…

  6. Automated, Ultra-Sterile Solid Sample Handling and Analysis on a Chip

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mora, Maria F.; Stockton, Amanda M.; Willis, Peter A.

    2013-01-01

    There are no existing ultra-sterile lab-on-a-chip systems that can accept solid samples and perform complete chemical analyses without human intervention. The proposed solution is to demonstrate completely automated lab-on-a-chip manipulation of powdered solid samples, followed by on-chip liquid extraction and chemical analysis. This technology utilizes a newly invented glass micro-device for solid manipulation, which mates with existing lab-on-a-chip instrumentation. Devices are fabricated in a Class 10 cleanroom at the JPL MicroDevices Lab, and are plasma-cleaned before and after assembly. Solid samples enter the device through a drilled hole in the top. Existing micro-pumping technology is used to transfer milligrams of powdered sample into an extraction chamber where it is mixed with liquids to extract organic material. Subsequent chemical analysis is performed using portable microchip capillary electrophoresis systems (CE). These instruments have been used for ultra-highly sensitive (parts-per-trillion, pptr) analysis of organic compounds including amines, amino acids, aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids, and thiols. Fully autonomous amino acid analyses in liquids were demonstrated; however, to date there have been no reports of completely automated analysis of solid samples on chip. This approach utilizes an existing portable instrument that houses optics, high-voltage power supplies, and solenoids for fully autonomous microfluidic sample processing and CE analysis with laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) detection. Furthermore, the entire system can be sterilized and placed in a cleanroom environment for analyzing samples returned from extraterrestrial targets, if desired. This is an entirely new capability never demonstrated before. The ability to manipulate solid samples, coupled with lab-on-a-chip analysis technology, will enable ultraclean and ultrasensitive end-to-end analysis of samples that is orders of magnitude more sensitive than the ppb goal given

  7. Semicontinuous automated measurement of organic carbon in atmospheric aerosol samples.

    PubMed

    Lu, Chao; Rashinkar, Shilpa M; Dasgupta, Purnendu K

    2010-02-15

    A fully automated measurement system for ambient aerosol organic carbon, capable of unattended operation over extended periods, is described. Particles are collected in a cyclone with water as the collection medium. The collected sample is periodically aspirated by a syringe pump into a holding loop and then delivered to a wet oxidation reactor (WOR). Acid is added, and the WOR is purged to measure dissolved CO(2) or inorganic carbonates (IC) as evolved CO(2). The IC background can often be small and sufficiently constant to be corrected for, without separate measurement, by a blank subtraction. The organic material is now oxidized stepwise or in one step to CO(2). The one-step oxidation involves UV-persulfate treatment in the presence of ozone. This treatment converts organic carbon (OC) to CO(2), but elemental carbon is not oxidized. The CO(2) is continuously purged from solution and collected by two sequential miniature diffusion scrubbers (DSs), a short DS preceding a longer one. Each DS consists of a LiOH-filled porous hydrophobic membrane tube with terminal stainless steel tubes that function as conductance-sensing electrodes. As CO(2) is collected by the LiOH-filled DSs, hydroxide is converted into carbonate and the resulting decrease in conductivity is monitored. The simultaneous use of the dual short and long DS units bearing different concentrations of LiOH permits both good sensitivity and a large dynamic range. The limit of detection (LOD, S/N = 3) is approximately 140 ng of C. With a typical sampling period of 30 min at a sampling rate of 30 L/min, this corresponds to an LOD of 160 ng/m(3). The approach also provides information on the ease of oxidation of the carbonaceous aerosol and hence the nature of the carbon contained therein. Ambient aerosol organic carbon data are presented. PMID:20092351

  8. Automated sampling assessment for molecular simulations using the effective sample size

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xin; Bhatt, Divesh; Zuckerman, Daniel M.

    2010-01-01

    To quantify the progress in the development of algorithms and forcefields used in molecular simulations, a general method for the assessment of the sampling quality is needed. Statistical mechanics principles suggest the populations of physical states characterize equilibrium sampling in a fundamental way. We therefore develop an approach for analyzing the variances in state populations, which quantifies the degree of sampling in terms of the effective sample size (ESS). The ESS estimates the number of statistically independent configurations contained in a simulated ensemble. The method is applicable to both traditional dynamics simulations as well as more modern (e.g., multi–canonical) approaches. Our procedure is tested in a variety of systems from toy models to atomistic protein simulations. We also introduce a simple automated procedure to obtain approximate physical states from dynamic trajectories: this allows sample–size estimation in systems for which physical states are not known in advance. PMID:21221418

  9. Automated sample exchange and tracking system for neutron research at cryogenic temperatures.

    PubMed

    Rix, J E; Weber, J K R; Santodonato, L J; Hill, B; Walker, L M; McPherson, R; Wenzel, J; Hammons, S E; Hodges, J; Rennich, M; Volin, K J

    2007-01-01

    An automated system for sample exchange and tracking in a cryogenic environment and under remote computer control was developed. Up to 24 sample "cans" per cycle can be inserted and retrieved in a programed sequence. A video camera acquires a unique identification marked on the sample can to provide a record of the sequence. All operations are coordinated via a LABVIEW program that can be operated locally or over a network. The samples are contained in vanadium cans of 6-10 mm in diameter and equipped with a hermetically sealed lid that interfaces with the sample handler. The system uses a closed-cycle refrigerator (CCR) for cooling. The sample was delivered to a precooling location that was at a temperature of approximately 25 K, after several minutes, it was moved onto a "landing pad" at approximately 10 K that locates the sample in the probe beam. After the sample was released onto the landing pad, the sample handler was retracted. Reading the sample identification and the exchange operation takes approximately 2 min. The time to cool the sample from ambient temperature to approximately 10 K was approximately 7 min including precooling time. The cooling time increases to approximately 12 min if precooling is not used. Small differences in cooling rate were observed between sample materials and for different sample can sizes. Filling the sample well and the sample can with low pressure helium is essential to provide heat transfer and to achieve useful cooling rates. A resistive heating coil can be used to offset the refrigeration so that temperatures up to approximately 350 K can be accessed and controlled using a proportional-integral-derivative control loop. The time for the landing pad to cool to approximately 10 K after it has been heated to approximately 240 K was approximately 20 min. PMID:17503933

  10. Device for Automated Cutting and Transfer of Plant Shoots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cipra, Raymond; Das, Hari; Ali, Khaled; Hong, Dennis

    2003-01-01

    A device that enables the automated cutting and transfer of plant shoots is undergoing development for use in the propagation of plants in a nursery or laboratory. At present, it is standard practice for a human technician to use a knife and forceps to cut, separate, and grasp a plant shoot. The great advantage offered by the present device is that its design and operation are simpler than would be those of a device based on the manual cutting/separation/grasping procedure. [The present device should not be confused with a prior device developed for partly the same purpose and described in Compliant Gripper for a Robotic Manipulator (NPO-21104), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 27, No. 3 (March 2003), page 59.]. The device (see figure) includes a circular tube sharpened at its open (lower) end and mounted on a robotic manipulator at its closed (upper) end. The robotic manipulator simply pushes the sharpened open end of the tube down onto a bed of plants and rotates a few degrees clockwise then counterclockwise about the vertical axis, causing the tube to cut a cylindrical plug of plant material. Exploiting the natural friction between the tube and plug, the tube retains the plug, without need for a gripping mechanism and control. The robotic manipulator then retracts the tube, translates it to a new location over a plant-growth tray, and inserts the tube part way into the growth medium at this location in the tray. A short burst of compressed air is admitted to the upper end of the tube to eject the plug of plant material and drive it into the growth medium. A prototype has been tested and verified to function substantially as intended. It is projected that in the fully developed robotic plant-propagation system, the robot control system would include a machine- vision subsystem that would automatically guide the robotic manipulator in choosing the positions from which to cut plugs of plant material. Planned further development efforts also include more testing and

  11. Manual versus automated blood sampling: impact of repeated blood sampling on stress parameters and behavior in male NMRI mice

    PubMed Central

    Kalliokoski, Otto; Sørensen, Dorte B; Hau, Jann; Abelson, Klas S P

    2014-01-01

    Facial vein (cheek blood) and caudal vein (tail blood) phlebotomy are two commonly used techniques for obtaining blood samples from laboratory mice, while automated blood sampling through a permanent catheter is a relatively new technique in mice. The present study compared physiological parameters, glucocorticoid dynamics as well as the behavior of mice sampled repeatedly for 24 h by cheek blood, tail blood or automated blood sampling from the carotid artery. Mice subjected to cheek blood sampling lost significantly more body weight, had elevated levels of plasma corticosterone, excreted more fecal corticosterone metabolites, and expressed more anxious behavior than did the mice of the other groups. Plasma corticosterone levels of mice subjected to tail blood sampling were also elevated, although less significantly. Mice subjected to automated blood sampling were less affected with regard to the parameters measured, and expressed less anxious behavior. We conclude that repeated blood sampling by automated blood sampling and from the tail vein is less stressful than cheek blood sampling. The choice between automated blood sampling and tail blood sampling should be based on the study requirements, the resources of the laboratory and skills of the staff. PMID:24958546

  12. Automated biowaste sampling system improved feces collection, mass measurement and sampling. [by use of a breadboard model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fogal, G. L.; Mangialardi, J. K.; Young, R.

    1974-01-01

    The capability of the basic automated Biowaste Sampling System (ABSS) hardware was extended and improved through the design, fabrication and test of breadboard hardware. A preliminary system design effort established the feasibility of integrating the breadboard concepts into the ABSS.

  13. Automated syringe sampler. [remote sampling of air and water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Purgold, G. C. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    A number of sampling services are disposed in a rack which slides into a housing. In response to a signal from an antenna, the circutry elements are activated which provide power individually, collectively, or selectively to a servomechanism thereby moving an actuator arm and the attached jawed bracket supporting an evaculated tube towards a stationary needle. One open end of the needle extends through the side wall of a conduit to the interior and the other open end is maintained within the protective sleeve, supported by a bifurcated bracket. A septum in punctured by the end of the needle within the sleeve and a sample of the fluid medium in the conduit flows through the needle and is transferred to a tube. The signal to the servo is then reversed and the actuator arm moves the tube back to its original position permitting the septum to expand and seal the hole made by the needle. The jawed bracket is attached by pivot to the actuator to facilitate tube replacement.

  14. Automated Aqueous Sample Concentration Methods for in situ Astrobiological Instrumentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aubrey, A. D.; Grunthaner, F. J.

    2009-12-01

    The era of wet chemical experiments for in situ planetary science investigations is upon us, as evidenced by recent results from the surface of Mars by Phoenix’s microscopy, electrochemistry, and conductivity analyzer, MECA [1]. Studies suggest that traditional thermal volatilization methods for planetary science in situ investigations induce organic degradation during sample processing [2], an effect that is enhanced in the presence of oxidants [3]. Recent developments have trended towards adaptation of non-destructive aqueous extraction and analytical methods for future astrobiological instrumentation. Wet chemical extraction techniques under investigation include subcritical water extraction, SCWE [4], aqueous microwave assisted extraction, MAE, and organic solvent extraction [5]. Similarly, development of miniaturized analytical space flight instruments that require aqueous extracts include microfluidic capillary electrophoresis chips, μCE [6], liquid-chromatography mass-spectrometrometers, LC-MS [7], and life marker chips, LMC [8]. If organics are present on the surface of Mars, they are expected to be present at extremely low concentrations (parts-per-billion), orders of magnitude below the sensitivities of most flight instrument technologies. Therefore, it becomes necessary to develop and integrate concentration mechanisms for in situ sample processing before delivery to analytical flight instrumentation. We present preliminary results of automated solid-phase-extraction (SPE) sample purification and concentration methods for the treatment of highly saline aqueous soil extracts. These methods take advantage of the affinity of low molecular weight organic compounds with natural and synthetic scavenger materials. These interactions allow for the separation of target organic analytes from unfavorable background species (i.e. salts) during inline treatment, and a clever method for selective desorption is utilized to obtain concentrated solutions on the order

  15. Measuring Furnace/Sample Heat-Transfer Coefficients

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosch, William R.; Fripp, Archibald L., Jr.; Debnam, William J., Jr.; Woodell, Glenn A.

    1993-01-01

    Complicated, inexact calculations now unnecessary. Device called HTX used to simulate and measure transfer of heat between directional-solidification crystal-growth furnace and ampoule containing sample of crystalline to be grown. Yields measurement data used to calculate heat-transfer coefficients directly, without need for assumptions or prior knowledge of physical properties of furnace, furnace gas, or specimen. Determines not only total heat-transfer coefficients but also coefficients of transfer of heat in different modes.

  16. Automated Urinalysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Information from NASA Tech Briefs assisted DiaSys Corporation in the development of the R/S 2000 which automates urinalysis, eliminating most manual procedures. An automatic aspirator is inserted into a standard specimen tube, the "Sample" button is pressed, and within three seconds a consistent amount of urine sediment is transferred to a microscope. The instrument speeds up, standardizes, automates and makes urine analysis safer. Additional products based on the same technology are anticipated.

  17. Technology transfer potential of an automated water monitoring system. [market research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jamieson, W. M.; Hillman, M. E. D.; Eischen, M. A.; Stilwell, J. M.

    1976-01-01

    The nature and characteristics of the potential economic need (markets) for a highly integrated water quality monitoring system were investigated. The technological, institutional and marketing factors that would influence the transfer and adoption of an automated system were studied for application to public and private water supply, public and private wastewater treatment and environmental monitoring of rivers and lakes.

  18. AST: An Automated Sequence-Sampling Method for Improving the Taxonomic Diversity of Gene Phylogenetic Trees

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Chan; Mao, Fenglou; Yin, Yanbin; Huang, Jinling; Gogarten, Johann Peter; Xu, Ying

    2014-01-01

    A challenge in phylogenetic inference of gene trees is how to properly sample a large pool of homologous sequences to derive a good representative subset of sequences. Such a need arises in various applications, e.g. when (1) accuracy-oriented phylogenetic reconstruction methods may not be able to deal with a large pool of sequences due to their high demand in computing resources; (2) applications analyzing a collection of gene trees may prefer to use trees with fewer operational taxonomic units (OTUs), for instance for the detection of horizontal gene transfer events by identifying phylogenetic conflicts; and (3) the pool of available sequences is biased towards extensively studied species. In the past, the creation of subsamples often relied on manual selection. Here we present an Automated sequence-Sampling method for improving the Taxonomic diversity of gene phylogenetic trees, AST, to obtain representative sequences that maximize the taxonomic diversity of the sampled sequences. To demonstrate the effectiveness of AST, we have tested it to solve four problems, namely, inference of the evolutionary histories of the small ribosomal subunit protein S5 of E. coli, 16 S ribosomal RNAs and glycosyl-transferase gene family 8, and a study of ancient horizontal gene transfers from bacteria to plants. Our results show that the resolution of our computational results is almost as good as that of manual inference by domain experts, hence making the tool generally useful to phylogenetic studies by non-phylogeny specialists. The program is available at http://csbl.bmb.uga.edu/~zhouchan/AST.php. PMID:24892935

  19. High-Throughput Serum 25-Hydroxy Vitamin D Testing with Automated Sample Preparation.

    PubMed

    Stone, Judy

    2016-01-01

    Serum from bar-coded tubes, and then internal standard, are pipetted to 96-well plates with an 8-channel automated liquid handler (ALH). The first precipitation reagent (methanol:ZnSO4) is added and mixed with the 8-channel ALH. A second protein precipitating agent, 1 % formic acid in acetonitrile, is added and mixed with a 96-channel ALH. After a 4-min delay for larger precipitates to settle to the bottom of the plate, the upper 36 % of the precipitate/supernatant mix is transferred with the 96-channel ALH to a Sigma Hybrid SPE(®) plate and vacuumed through for removal of phospholipids and precipitated proteins. The filtrate is collected in a second 96-well plate (collection plate) which is foil-sealed, placed in the autosampler (ALS), and injected into a multiplexed LC-MS/MS system running AB Sciex Cliquid(®) and MPX(®) software. Two Shimadzu LC stacks, with multiplex timing controlled by MPX(®) software, inject alternately to one AB Sciex API-5000 MS/MS using positive atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) and a 1.87 min water/acetonitrile LC gradient with a 2.1 × 20 mm, 2.7 μm, C18 fused core particle column (Sigma Ascentis Express). LC-MS/MS through put is ~44 samples/h/LC-MS/MS system with dual-LC channel multiplexing. Plate maps are transferred electronically from the ALH and reformatted into LC-MS/MS sample table format using the Data Innovations LLC (DI) Instrument Manager middleware application. Before collection plates are loaded into the ALS, the plate bar code is manually scanned to download the sample table from the DI middleware to the LC-MS/MS. After acquisition-LC-MS/MS data is analyzed with AB Sciex Multiquant(®) software using customized queries, and then results are transferred electronically via a DI interface to the LIS. 2500 samples/day can be extracted by two analysts using four ALHs in 4-6 h. LC-MS/MS analysis of those samples on three dual-channel LC multiplexed LC-MS/MS systems requires 19-21 h and data analysis can be

  20. Optimal sampling schedule for chemical exchange saturation transfer.

    PubMed

    Tee, Y K; Khrapitchev, A A; Sibson, N R; Payne, S J; Chappell, M A

    2013-11-01

    The sampling schedule for chemical exchange saturation transfer imaging is normally uniformly distributed across the saturation frequency offsets. When this kind of evenly distributed sampling schedule is used to quantify the chemical exchange saturation transfer effect using model-based analysis, some of the collected data are minimally informative to the parameters of interest. For example, changes in labile proton exchange rate and concentration mainly affect the magnetization near the resonance frequency of the labile pool. In this study, an optimal sampling schedule was designed for a more accurate quantification of amine proton exchange rate and concentration, and water center frequency shift based on an algorithm previously applied to magnetization transfer and arterial spin labeling. The resulting optimal sampling schedule samples repeatedly around the resonance frequency of the amine pool and also near to the water resonance to maximize the information present within the data for quantitative model-based analysis. Simulation and experimental results on tissue-like phantoms showed that greater accuracy and precision (>30% and >46%, respectively, for some cases) were achieved in the parameters of interest when using optimal sampling schedule compared with evenly distributed sampling schedule. Hence, the proposed optimal sampling schedule could replace evenly distributed sampling schedule in chemical exchange saturation transfer imaging to improve the quantification of the chemical exchange saturation transfer effect and parameter estimation. PMID:23315799

  1. MASS TRANSFER VARIATIONS IN UX MONOCEROTIS: EIGHT YEARS OF AUTOMATED PHOTOMETRIC MONITORING

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, Edward C.; Henry, Gregory W.; ETZEL, PAUL B. E-mail: henry@schwab.tsuniv.edu

    2009-11-15

    We analyze eight years (1999-2007) of automated photometric observations of the active Algol binary UX Monocerotis to search for mass transfer bursts similar to those seen in U Cephei. The largest photometric anomaly is the mean gainer luminosity difference between the stream-impact hemisphere and the opposite hemisphere. We find an updated Wilson-Devinney solution for earlier six-color observations. The UX Mon donor star fills its Roche lobe and the gainer nearly fills its rotational lobe. Instead of isolated bursts of the U Cep type, we found nearly continuous brightness fluctuations likely produced by variable mass transfer. We discuss implications for mass transfer.

  2. Rotation Matrix Sampling Scheme for Multidimensional Probability Distribution Transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srestasathiern, P.; Lawawirojwong, S.; Suwantong, R.; Phuthong, P.

    2016-06-01

    This paper address the problem of rotation matrix sampling used for multidimensional probability distribution transfer. The distribution transfer has many applications in remote sensing and image processing such as color adjustment for image mosaicing, image classification, and change detection. The sampling begins with generating a set of random orthogonal matrix samples by Householder transformation technique. The advantage of using the Householder transformation for generating the set of orthogonal matrices is the uniform distribution of the orthogonal matrix samples. The obtained orthogonal matrices are then converted to proper rotation matrices. The performance of using the proposed rotation matrix sampling scheme was tested against the uniform rotation angle sampling. The applications of the proposed method were also demonstrated using two applications i.e., image to image probability distribution transfer and data Gaussianization.

  3. Automated Sample Exchange Robots for the Structural Biology Beam Lines at the Photon Factory

    SciTech Connect

    Hiraki, Masahiko; Watanabe, Shokei; Yamada, Yusuke; Matsugaki, Naohiro; Igarashi, Noriyuki; Gaponov, Yurii; Wakatsuki, Soichi

    2007-01-19

    We are now developing automated sample exchange robots for high-throughput protein crystallographic experiments for onsite use at synchrotron beam lines. It is part of the fully automated robotics systems being developed at the Photon Factory, for the purposes of protein crystallization, monitoring crystal growth, harvesting and freezing crystals, mounting the crystals inside a hutch and for data collection. We have already installed the sample exchange robots based on the SSRL automated mounting system at our insertion device beam lines BL-5A and AR-NW12A at the Photon Factory. In order to reduce the time required for sample exchange further, a prototype of a double-tonged system was developed. As a result of preliminary experiments with double-tonged robots, the sample exchange time was successfully reduced from 70 seconds to 10 seconds with the exception of the time required for pre-cooling and warming up the tongs.

  4. The Stanford Automated Mounter: pushing the limits of sample exchange at the SSRL macromolecular crystallography beamlines

    PubMed Central

    Russi, Silvia; Song, Jinhu; McPhillips, Scott E.; Cohen, Aina E.

    2016-01-01

    The Stanford Automated Mounter System, a system for mounting and dismounting cryo-cooled crystals, has been upgraded to increase the throughput of samples on the macromolecular crystallography beamlines at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource. This upgrade speeds up robot maneuvers, reduces the heating/drying cycles, pre-fetches samples and adds an air-knife to remove frost from the gripper arms. Sample pin exchange during automated crystal quality screening now takes about 25 s, five times faster than before this upgrade. PMID:27047309

  5. The Stanford Automated Mounter: Pushing the limits of sample exchange at the SSRL macromolecular crystallography beamlines

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Russi, Silvia; Song, Jinhu; McPhillips, Scott E.; Cohen, Aina E.

    2016-02-24

    The Stanford Automated Mounter System, a system for mounting and dismounting cryo-cooled crystals, has been upgraded to increase the throughput of samples on the macromolecular crystallography beamlines at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource. This upgrade speeds up robot maneuvers, reduces the heating/drying cycles, pre-fetches samples and adds an air-knife to remove frost from the gripper arms. As a result, sample pin exchange during automated crystal quality screening now takes about 25 s, five times faster than before this upgrade.

  6. An automated atmospheric sampling system operating on 747 airliners

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perkins, P. J.; Gustafsson, U. R. C.

    1976-01-01

    An air sampling system that automatically measures the temporal and spatial distribution of particulate and gaseous constituents of the atmosphere is collecting data on commercial air routes covering the world. Measurements are made in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (6 to 12 km) of constituents related to aircraft engine emissions and other pollutants. Aircraft operated by different airlines sample air at latitudes from the Arctic to Australia. This unique system includes specialized instrumentation, a special air inlet probe for sampling outside air, a computerized automatic control, and a data acquisition system. Air constituent and related flight data are tape recorded in flight for later computer processing on the ground.

  7. Automated biowaste sampling system, solids subsystem operating model, part 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fogal, G. L.; Mangialardi, J. K.; Stauffer, R. E.

    1973-01-01

    The detail design and fabrication of the Solids Subsystem were implemented. The system's capacity for the collection, storage or sampling of feces and vomitus from six subjects was tested and verified.

  8. An automated atmospheric sampling system operating on 747 airliners

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perkins, P.; Gustafsson, U. R. C.

    1975-01-01

    An air sampling system that automatically measures the temporal and spatial distribution of selected particulate and gaseous constituents of the atmosphere has been installed on a number of commercial airliners and is collecting data on commercial air routes covering the world. Measurements of constituents related to aircraft engine emissions and other pollutants are made in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (6 to 12 km) in support of the Global Air Sampling Program (GASP). Aircraft operated by different airlines sample air at latitudes from the Arctic to Australia. This system includes specialized instrumentation for measuring carbon monoxide, ozone, water vapor, and particulates, a special air inlet probe for sampling outside air, a computerized automatic control, and a data acquisition system. Air constituents and related flight data are tape recorded in flight for later computer processing on the ground.

  9. Precision manipulator heating and cooling assembly compatible with sample transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Outlaw, R. A.; Baugh, B. T.

    1982-01-01

    A technique is described for the transfer of a UHV sample system to a precision manipulator. It allows direct sample temperature measurement in a broad range of sample temperatures (150-1750 K) and simultaneously retains the benefit of the additional degree of freedom provided by the precision manipulator flip mechanism. The technique is similar to that reported by Crider (1976) but with several modifications. The pump is mounted at the extreme end of the magnetically coupled linear motion feedthrough (to maximize the separation). Samples are mounted on a threaded circular sample holder, transferred to the flip mechanism of the manipulator. The flip mechanism contains a rear electrode assembly and thermocouple, in direct contact with the sample, and a copper plate and a flexible strap are attached to the receiving block (to facilitate sample cooling).

  10. An Automated Sample Divider for Farmers Stock Peanuts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In-shell peanuts are harvested, loaded into drying trailers, and delivered to a central facility where they are dried to a moisture content safe for long term storage, sampled, graded, then unloaded into bulk storage. Drying trailers have capacities ranging from five to twenty-five tons of dry farme...

  11. Automated biowaste sampling system urine subsystem operating model, part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fogal, G. L.; Mangialardi, J. K.; Rosen, F.

    1973-01-01

    The urine subsystem automatically provides for the collection, volume sensing, and sampling of urine from six subjects during space flight. Verification of the subsystem design was a primary objective of the current effort which was accomplished thru the detail design, fabrication, and verification testing of an operating model of the subsystem.

  12. Concepts to Automate Fluid Transfer Capability of Low Impact Docking System (LIDS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miernik, Janie H.; Lukens, Scott; Robertson, Jeff

    2005-01-01

    The capability to transfer mass between spacecraft is necessary for many mission scenarios. Docking and berthing operations have enabled fluid, electrical, crew and equipment transfers to some degree on all manned space operations since the Gemini program. The Apollo program performed some sophisticated docking maneuvers to land men on the moon and return them safely to Earth. These programs primarily transferred crew, equipment, and pressurized atmosphere between docked spacecraft. The International Space Station (ISS) U.S. modules are connected by Common Berthing Mechanism (CBM) portals. They provide many feed-through ports for electrical, and fluid transfer between modules, as well as a large diameter crew and equipment tunnel. Fluid and electrical jumpers are manually installed after the CBM sealing surfaces have been securely mated to maintain the pressurized cabin environment. CBM berthing and subsequent fluid transfer capability requires a lengthy manual process involving an active interface that mates with a passive half. The Androgynous Peripheral Attach System (MAS) a Russian technology that docked the Russian Zarya module to Unity, or Node 1, is a more complex system that also is capable of fuel transfer, enabling refueling of the Russian re-boost engines on ISS. For several years, a Low Impact Docking System (LIDS) has been under development at Johnson Space Center (JSC). This docking technology has a requirement to be androgynous in order to allow the fabrication of a single configuration that can dock with all other LIDS units. It is desired to make electrical and fluid coupling mating an automated process to enable routine docking and undocking operations to support future exploration missions. It is envisioned that modular design and vehicle assembly will require an efficient LIDS for fuel, electrical, crew, and equipment transfer. Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has joined the LIDS development effort and plans to employ fluid transfer concepts

  13. Collection, storage, and filtration of in vivo study samples using 96-well filter plates to facilitate automated sample preparation and LC/MS/MS analysis.

    PubMed

    Berna, M; Murphy, A T; Wilken, B; Ackermann, B

    2002-03-01

    The benefits of high-throughput bioanalysis within the pharmaceutical industry are well established. One of the most significant bottlenecks in bioanalysis is transferring in vivo-generated study samples from their collection tubes during sample preparation and extraction. In most cases, the plasma samples must be stored frozen prior to analysis, and the freeze/thaw (F/T) process introduces thrombin clots that are capable of plugging pipets and automated liquid-transfer systems. A new approach to dealing with this problem involves the use of Ansys Captiva 96-well 20-microm polypropylene filter plates to collect, store frozen, and filter plasma samples prior to bioanalysis. The samples are collected from the test subjects, and the corresponding plasma samples are placed directly into the wells of the filter plate. Two Duoseal (patent pending) covers are used to seal the top and bottom of the plate, and the plate is stored at down to -70 degrees C. Prior to sample analysis, the seals are removed and the plate is placed in a 96-well SPE manifold. As the plasma thaws, it passes (by gravity or mild vacuum) through the polypropylene filter into a 96-well collection plate. A multichannel pipet or automated liquid-transfer system is used to transfer sample aliquots without fear of plugging. A significant advantage of this approach is that, unlike other methods, issues related to incomplete pipetting are virtually eliminated. The entire process is rapid since thawing and filtering take place simultaneously, and if a second F/T cycle is required for reanalysis, it is not necessary to refilter the samples (additional clotting was not observed after three F/T cycles). This technique was tested using monkey, rat, and dog plasma and sodium heparin and EDTA anticoagulants. To assess the possibility of nonspecific binding to the polypropylene filter, a variety of drug candidates from diverse drug classes were studied. Validation data generated for two Lilly compounds from distinct

  14. Automated sample mounting and alignment system for biological crystallography at a synchrotron source.

    PubMed

    Snell, Gyorgy; Cork, Carl; Nordmeyer, Robert; Cornell, Earl; Meigs, George; Yegian, Derek; Jaklevic, Joseph; Jin, Jian; Stevens, Raymond C; Earnest, Thomas

    2004-04-01

    High-throughput data collection for macromolecular crystallography requires an automated sample mounting and alignment system for cryo-protected crystals that functions reliably when integrated into protein-crystallography beamlines at synchrotrons. Rapid mounting and dismounting of the samples increases the efficiency of the crystal screening and data collection processes, where many crystals can be tested for the quality of diffraction. The sample-mounting subsystem has random access to 112 samples, stored under liquid nitrogen. Results of extensive tests regarding the performance and reliability of the system are presented. To further increase throughput, we have also developed a sample transport/storage system based on "puck-shaped" cassettes, which can hold sixteen samples each. Seven cassettes fit into a standard dry shipping Dewar. The capabilities of a robotic crystal mounting and alignment system with instrumentation control software and a relational database allows for automated screening and data collection to be developed. PMID:15062077

  15. Automated sample mounting and technical advance alignment system for biological crystallography at a synchrotron source

    SciTech Connect

    Snell, Gyorgy; Cork, Carl; Nordmeyer, Robert; Cornell, Earl; Meigs, George; Yegian, Derek; Jaklevic, Joseph; Jin, Jian; Stevens, Raymond C.; Earnest, Thomas

    2004-01-07

    High-throughput data collection for macromolecular crystallography requires an automated sample mounting system for cryo-protected crystals that functions reliably when integrated into protein-crystallography beamlines at synchrotrons. Rapid mounting and dismounting of the samples increases the efficiency of the crystal screening and data collection processes, where many crystals can be tested for the quality of diffraction. The sample-mounting subsystem has random access to 112 samples, stored under liquid nitrogen. Results of extensive tests regarding the performance and reliability of the system are presented. To further increase throughput, we have also developed a sample transport/storage system based on ''puck-shaped'' cassettes, which can hold sixteen samples each. Seven cassettes fit into a standard dry shipping Dewar. The capabilities of a robotic crystal mounting and alignment system with instrumentation control software and a relational database allows for automated screening and data collection to be developed.

  16. Automated Sample Preparation for Radiogenic and Non-Traditional Metal Isotopes: Removing an Analytical Barrier for High Sample Throughput

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Field, M. Paul; Romaniello, Stephen; Gordon, Gwyneth W.; Anbar, Ariel D.; Herrmann, Achim; Martinez-Boti, Miguel A.; Anagnostou, Eleni; Foster, Gavin L.

    2014-05-01

    MC-ICP-MS has dramatically improved the analytical throughput for high-precision radiogenic and non-traditional isotope ratio measurements, compared to TIMS. The generation of large data sets, however, remains hampered by tedious manual drip chromatography required for sample purification. A new, automated chromatography system reduces the laboratory bottle neck and expands the utility of high-precision isotope analyses in applications where large data sets are required: geochemistry, forensic anthropology, nuclear forensics, medical research and food authentication. We have developed protocols to automate ion exchange purification for several isotopic systems (B, Ca, Fe, Cu, Zn, Sr, Cd, Pb and U) using the new prepFAST-MC™ (ESI, Nebraska, Omaha). The system is not only inert (all-flouropolymer flow paths), but is also very flexible and can easily facilitate different resins, samples, and reagent types. When programmed, precise and accurate user defined volumes and flow rates are implemented to automatically load samples, wash the column, condition the column and elute fractions. Unattended, the automated, low-pressure ion exchange chromatography system can process up to 60 samples overnight. Excellent reproducibility, reliability, recovery, with low blank and carry over for samples in a variety of different matrices, have been demonstrated to give accurate and precise isotopic ratios within analytical error for several isotopic systems (B, Ca, Fe, Cu, Zn, Sr, Cd, Pb and U). This illustrates the potential of the new prepFAST-MC™ (ESI, Nebraska, Omaha) as a powerful tool in radiogenic and non-traditional isotope research.

  17. 31 CFR 205.17 - Are funds transfers delayed by automated payment systems restrictions based on the size and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... automated payment systems restrictions based on the size and timing of the drawdown request subject to this... (Continued) FISCAL SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT SERVICE RULES AND PROCEDURES FOR... Treasury-State Agreement § 205.17 Are funds transfers delayed by automated payment systems...

  18. 31 CFR 205.17 - Are funds transfers delayed by automated payment systems restrictions based on the size and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... automated payment systems restrictions based on the size and timing of the drawdown request subject to this... (Continued) FISCAL SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT SERVICE RULES AND PROCEDURES FOR... Treasury-State Agreement § 205.17 Are funds transfers delayed by automated payment systems...

  19. 31 CFR 205.17 - Are funds transfers delayed by automated payment systems restrictions based on the size and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... automated payment systems restrictions based on the size and timing of the drawdown request subject to this... (Continued) FISCAL SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT SERVICE RULES AND PROCEDURES FOR... Treasury-State Agreement § 205.17 Are funds transfers delayed by automated payment systems...

  20. 31 CFR 205.17 - Are funds transfers delayed by automated payment systems restrictions based on the size and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... automated payment systems restrictions based on the size and timing of the drawdown request subject to this... (Continued) FISCAL SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BUREAU OF THE FISCAL SERVICE RULES AND PROCEDURES FOR... Treasury-State Agreement § 205.17 Are funds transfers delayed by automated payment systems...

  1. 31 CFR 205.17 - Are funds transfers delayed by automated payment systems restrictions based on the size and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... automated payment systems restrictions based on the size and timing of the drawdown request subject to this... (Continued) FISCAL SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT SERVICE RULES AND PROCEDURES FOR... Treasury-State Agreement § 205.17 Are funds transfers delayed by automated payment systems...

  2. An automated integrated platform for rapid and sensitive multiplexed protein profiling using human saliva samples

    PubMed Central

    Nie, Shuai; Henley, W. Hampton; Miller, Scott E.; Zhang, Huaibin; Mayer, Kathryn M.; Dennis, Patty J.; Oblath, Emily A.; Alarie, Jean Pierre; Wu, Yue; Oppenheim, Frank G.; Little, Frédéric F.; Uluer, Ahmet Z.; Wang, Peidong; Ramsey, J. Michael

    2014-01-01

    During the last decade, saliva has emerged as a potentially ideal diagnostic biofluid for noninvasive testing. In this paper, we present an automated, integrated platform useable by minimally trained personnel in the field for the diagnosis of respiratory diseases using human saliva as a sample specimen. In this platform, a saliva sample is loaded onto a disposable microfluidic chip containing all the necessary reagents and components required for saliva analysis. The chip is then inserted into the automated analyzer, the SDReader, where multiple potential protein biomarkers for respiratory diseases are measured simultaneously using a microsphere-based array via fluorescence sandwich immunoassays. The results are read optically, and the images are analyzed by a custom-designed algorithm. The fully automated assay requires as little as 10 μL of saliva sample, and the results are reported in 70 min. The performance of the platform was characterized by testing protein standard solutions, and the results were comparable to those from the 3.5-h lab bench assay that we have previously reported. The device was also deployed in two clinical environments where 273 human saliva samples collected from different subjects were successfully tested, demonstrating the device’s potential to assist clinicians with the diagnosis of respiratory diseases by providing timely protein biomarker profiling information. This platform, which combines non-invasive sample collection and fully automated analysis, can also be utilized in point-of-care diagnostics. PMID:24448498

  3. High-throughput sample processing and sample management; the functional evolution of classical cytogenetic assay towards automation.

    PubMed

    Ramakumar, Adarsh; Subramanian, Uma; Prasanna, Pataje G S

    2015-11-01

    High-throughput individual diagnostic dose assessment is essential for medical management of radiation-exposed subjects after a mass casualty. Cytogenetic assays such as the Dicentric Chromosome Assay (DCA) are recognized as the gold standard by international regulatory authorities. DCA is a multi-step and multi-day bioassay. DCA, as described in the IAEA manual, can be used to assess dose up to 4-6 weeks post-exposure quite accurately but throughput is still a major issue and automation is very essential. The throughput is limited, both in terms of sample preparation as well as analysis of chromosome aberrations. Thus, there is a need to design and develop novel solutions that could utilize extensive laboratory automation for sample preparation, and bioinformatics approaches for chromosome-aberration analysis to overcome throughput issues. We have transitioned the bench-based cytogenetic DCA to a coherent process performing high-throughput automated biodosimetry for individual dose assessment ensuring quality control (QC) and quality assurance (QA) aspects in accordance with international harmonized protocols. A Laboratory Information Management System (LIMS) is designed, implemented and adapted to manage increased sample processing capacity, develop and maintain standard operating procedures (SOP) for robotic instruments, avoid data transcription errors during processing, and automate analysis of chromosome-aberrations using an image analysis platform. Our efforts described in this paper intend to bridge the current technological gaps and enhance the potential application of DCA for a dose-based stratification of subjects following a mass casualty. This paper describes one such potential integrated automated laboratory system and functional evolution of the classical DCA towards increasing critically needed throughput. PMID:26520383

  4. Investigation of Automated Sampling Techniques to Measure Total Mercury in Stream- Water During Storm-Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riscassi, A. L.; Scanlon, T. M.

    2008-12-01

    High-flow events (storms and snowmelt) are a dominant transport mechanism for total mercury (HgT) from the terrestrial to the aqueous environment. High-gradient headwater catchments are a primary source of downstream contamination because they store large pools of Hg in soils and sediments. Consistent, high- frequency event-sampling of headwater streams is rare, however, because of the unpredictability of high flows, remoteness of sites, and the difficulties associated with the ultra-clean sampling procedures. The use of automated sampling techniques with an ISCO® sampler has been demonstrated in several studies for trace metals, but their use for collection of HgT samples has not been systematically evaluated in the literature. Even with clean equipment at deployment, subsequent contamination and loss by evasion are possible considering the bottles, as currently designed, are open to the atmosphere before sampling and until retrieval. Field tests are conducted using an ISCO® sampler retrofitted with pre- cleaned Teflon® sampling lines and glass bottles to determine the relative errors associated with the automated sampling method for a variety of HgT concentrations and preservation techniques. Differences between quality assurance and quality control results for automated and manual sampling are also investigated. Sample containers are filled with known standards of HgT solution and left in the ISCO® containers at the field site and each day (up to 7 days) are capped and returned for analysis. During a storm event, manual samples are taken from the middle of the water column concurrently with the ISCO® at hourly intervals using "clean hands" procedures. Evaluations of results are used to establish quality assurance guidelines for future field campaigns using automated techniques for HgT sampling.

  5. Rapid Quantification of Hepatitis B Virus DNA by Automated Sample Preparation and Real-Time PCR

    PubMed Central

    Stelzl, Evelyn; Muller, Zsofia; Marth, Egon; Kessler, Harald H.

    2004-01-01

    Monitoring of hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA in serum by molecular methods has become the standard for assessment of the replicative activity of HBV. Several molecular assays for the detection and quantification of HBV DNA have been described. However, they usually lack automated sample preparation. Moreover, those assays, which are based on PCR, are limited by a short dynamic range (2 to 3 log units). In the present study, the use of RealArt HBV LC PCR Reagents in conjunction with automated extraction on the COBAS AMPLIPREP analyzer was evaluated. Members of an HBV proficiency program panel were tested; linearity, interassay, and intra-assay variations were determined. The performance of the assay in a routine clinical laboratory was evaluated with a total of 117 clinical specimens. When members of the HBV proficiency program panel were tested by the new molecular assay, the results were found to be within ±0.5 log unit of the results obtained by reference laboratories. Determination of linearity resulted in a quasilinear curve over more than 6 log units. The interassay variation of the RealArt HBV LC PCR Reagents by use of the automated sample preparation protocol ranged from 16 to 73%, and the intra-assay variation ranged from 9 to 40%. When clinical samples were tested by the new assay with the automated sample preparation protocol and the results were compared with those obtained by the COBAS AMPLICOR HBV MONITOR Test with manual sample preparation, the results for 76% of all samples with positive results by both tests were found to be within ±0.5 log unit and the results for another 18% were found to be within between 0.5 and 1.0 log unit. In conclusion, the real-time PCR assay with automated sample preparation proved to be suitable for the routine molecular laboratory and required less hands-on time. PMID:15184417

  6. Automated laboratory based X-ray beamline with multi-capillary sample chamber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purushothaman, S.; Gauthé, B. L. L. E.; Brooks, N. J.; Templer, R. H.; Ces, O.

    2013-08-01

    An automated laboratory based X-ray beamline with a multi-capillary sample chamber capable of undertaking small angle X-ray scattering measurements on a maximum of 104 samples at a time as a function of temperature between 5 and 85 °C has been developed. The modular format of the system enables the user to simultaneously equilibrate samples at eight different temperatures with an accuracy of ±0.005 °C. This system couples a rotating anode generator and 2D optoelectronic detector with Franks X-ray optics, leading to typical exposure times of less than 5 min for lyotropic liquid crystalline samples. Beamline control including sample exchange and data acquisition has been fully automated via a custom designed LabVIEW framework.

  7. Automated laboratory based X-ray beamline with multi-capillary sample chamber

    SciTech Connect

    Purushothaman, S.; Gauthé, B. L. L. E.; Brooks, N. J.; Templer, R. H.; Ces, O.

    2013-08-15

    An automated laboratory based X-ray beamline with a multi-capillary sample chamber capable of undertaking small angle X-ray scattering measurements on a maximum of 104 samples at a time as a function of temperature between 5 and 85 °C has been developed. The modular format of the system enables the user to simultaneously equilibrate samples at eight different temperatures with an accuracy of ±0.005 °C. This system couples a rotating anode generator and 2D optoelectronic detector with Franks X-ray optics, leading to typical exposure times of less than 5 min for lyotropic liquid crystalline samples. Beamline control including sample exchange and data acquisition has been fully automated via a custom designed LabVIEW framework.

  8. Correction of an input function for errors introduced with automated blood sampling

    SciTech Connect

    Schlyer, D.J.; Dewey, S.L.

    1994-05-01

    Accurate kinetic modeling of PET data requires an precise arterial plasma input function. The use of automated blood sampling machines has greatly improved the accuracy but errors can be introduced by the dispersion of the radiotracer in the sampling tubing. This dispersion results from three effects. The first is the spreading of the radiotracer in the tube due to mass transfer. The second is due to the mechanical action of the peristaltic pump and can be determined experimentally from the width of a step function. The third is the adsorption of the radiotracer on the walls of the tubing during transport through the tube. This is a more insidious effect since the amount recovered from the end of the tube can be significantly different than that introduced into the tubing. We have measured the simple mass transport using [{sup 18}F]fluoride in water which we have shown to be quantitatively recovered with no interaction with the tubing walls. We have also carried out experiments with several radiotracers including [{sup 18}F]Haloperidol, [{sup 11}C]L-deprenyl, [{sup 18}]N-methylspiroperidol ([{sup 18}F]NMS) and [{sup 11}C]buprenorphine. In all cases there was some retention of the radiotracer by untreated silicone tubing. The amount retained in the tubing ranged from 6% for L-deprenyl to 30% for NMS. The retention of the radiotracer was essentially eliminated after pretreatment with the relevant unlabeled compound. For example less am 2% of the [{sup 18}F]NMS was retained in tubing treated with unlabelled NMS. Similar results were obtained with baboon plasma although the amount retained in the untreated tubing was less in all cases. From these results it is possible to apply a mathematical correction to the measured input function to account for mechanical dispersion and to apply a chemical passivation to the tubing to reduce the dispersion due to adsorption of the radiotracer on the tubing walls.

  9. An automated system for global atmospheric sampling using B-747 airliners

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lew, K. Q.; Gustafsson, U. R. C.; Johnson, R. E.

    1981-01-01

    The global air sampling program utilizes commercial aircrafts in scheduled service to measure atmospheric constituents. A fully automated system designed for the 747 aircraft is described. Airline operational constraints and data and control subsystems are treated. The overall program management, system monitoring, and data retrieval from four aircraft in global service is described.

  10. Automated gas sampling system for laboratory analysis of CH4 and N2O

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Analyzing the flux of CH4 and N2O from soil is labor intensive when conventional hand injection techniques are utilized in gas chromatography. An automated gas sampling system was designed and assembled from a prototype developed at the National Soil Tilth Laboratory in Ames, Iowa. The sampler was e...

  11. Technology Transfer Opportunities: Automated Ground-Water Monitoring, A Proven Technology

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, Kirk P.; Granato, Gregory E.

    1998-01-01

    Introduction The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has developed and tested an automated ground-water monitoring system that measures and records values of selected water-quality properties and constituents using protocols approved for manual sampling. Prototypes using the automated process have demonstrated the ability to increase the quantity and quality of data collected and have shown the potential for reducing labor and material costs for ground-water quality data collection. Automated ground-water monitoring systems can be used to monitor known or potential contaminant sites, such as near landfills, underground storage tanks, or other facilities where potential contaminants are stored, to serve as early warning systems monitoring ground-water quality near public water-supply wells, and for ground-water quality research.

  12. Fully Automated Sample Preparation for Ultrafast N-Glycosylation Analysis of Antibody Therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Szigeti, Marton; Lew, Clarence; Roby, Keith; Guttman, Andras

    2016-04-01

    There is a growing demand in the biopharmaceutical industry for high-throughput, large-scale N-glycosylation profiling of therapeutic antibodies in all phases of product development, but especially during clone selection when hundreds of samples should be analyzed in a short period of time to assure their glycosylation-based biological activity. Our group has recently developed a magnetic bead-based protocol for N-glycosylation analysis of glycoproteins to alleviate the hard-to-automate centrifugation and vacuum-centrifugation steps of the currently used protocols. Glycan release, fluorophore labeling, and cleanup were all optimized, resulting in a <4 h magnetic bead-based process with excellent yield and good repeatability. This article demonstrates the next level of this work by automating all steps of the optimized magnetic bead-based protocol from endoglycosidase digestion, through fluorophore labeling and cleanup with high-throughput sample processing in 96-well plate format, using an automated laboratory workstation. Capillary electrophoresis analysis of the fluorophore-labeled glycans was also optimized for rapid (<3 min) separation to accommodate the high-throughput processing of the automated sample preparation workflow. Ultrafast N-glycosylation analyses of several commercially relevant antibody therapeutics are also shown and compared to their biosimilar counterparts, addressing the biological significance of the differences. PMID:26429557

  13. Orbit transfer rocket engine technology program: Automated preflight methods concept definition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erickson, C. M.; Hertzberg, D. W.

    1991-01-01

    The possibility of automating preflight engine checkouts on orbit transfer engines is discussed. The minimum requirements in terms of information and processing necessary to assess the engine'e integrity and readiness to perform its mission were first defined. A variety of ways for remotely obtaining that information were generated. The sophistication of these approaches varied from a simple preliminary power up, where the engine is fired up for the first time, to the most advanced approach where the sensor and operational history data system alone indicates engine integrity. The critical issues and benefits of these methods were identified, outlined, and prioritized. The technology readiness of each of these automated preflight methods were then rated on a NASA Office of Exploration scale used for comparing technology options for future mission choices. Finally, estimates were made of the remaining cost to advance the technology for each method to a level where the system validation models have been demonstrated in a simulated environment.

  14. Organic cleanliness of the Mars Science Laboratory sample transfer chain.

    PubMed

    Blakkolb, B; Logan, C; Jandura, L; Okon, A; Anderson, M; Katz, I; Aveni, G; Brown, K; Chung, S; Ferraro, N; Limonadi, D; Melko, J; Mennella, J; Yavrouian, A

    2014-07-01

    One of the primary science goals of the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Rover, Curiosity, is the detection of organics in Mars rock and regolith. To achieve this, the Curiosity rover includes a robotic sampling system that acquires rock and regolith samples and delivers it to the Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) instrument on board the rover. In order to provide confidence that any significant organics detection result was Martian and not terrestrial in origin, a requirement was levied on the flight system (i.e., all sources minus the SAM instrument) to impart no more than 36 parts per billion (ppb by weight) of total reduced carbon terrestrial contamination to any sample transferred to the SAM instrument. This very clean level was achieved by a combination of a rigorous contamination control program on the project, and then using the first collected samples for a "dilution cleaning" campaign of the sample chain prior to delivering a sample to the SAM instrument. Direct cleanliness assays of the sample-contacting and other Flight System surfaces during pre-launch processing were used as inputs to determine the number of dilution cleaning samples needed once on Mars, to enable delivery of suitably clean samples to the SAM experiment. Taking into account contaminant redistribution during launch thorough landing of the MSL on Mars, the amount of residue present on the sampling hardware prior to the time of first dilution cleaning sample acquisition was estimated to be 60 ng/cm(2) on exposed outer surfaces of the sampling hardware and 20 ng/cm(2) on internal sample contacting surfaces; residues consisting mainly of aliphatic hydrocarbons and esters. After three dilution cleaning samples, estimated in-sample contamination level for the first regolith sample delivered to the SAM instrument at the Gale Crater "Rocknest" site was bounded at ≤10 ppb total organic carbon. A Project decision to forego ejecting the dilution cleaning sample and instead transfer the first drill

  15. Organic cleanliness of the Mars Science Laboratory sample transfer chain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blakkolb, B.; Logan, C.; Jandura, L.; Okon, A.; Anderson, M.; Katz, I.; Aveni, G.; Brown, K.; Chung, S.; Ferraro, N.; Limonadi, D.; Melko, J.; Mennella, J.; Yavrouian, A.

    2014-07-01

    One of the primary science goals of the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Rover, Curiosity, is the detection of organics in Mars rock and regolith. To achieve this, the Curiosity rover includes a robotic sampling system that acquires rock and regolith samples and delivers it to the Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) instrument on board the rover. In order to provide confidence that any significant organics detection result was Martian and not terrestrial in origin, a requirement was levied on the flight system (i.e., all sources minus the SAM instrument) to impart no more than 36 parts per billion (ppb by weight) of total reduced carbon terrestrial contamination to any sample transferred to the SAM instrument. This very clean level was achieved by a combination of a rigorous contamination control program on the project, and then using the first collected samples for a "dilution cleaning" campaign of the sample chain prior to delivering a sample to the SAM instrument. Direct cleanliness assays of the sample-contacting and other Flight System surfaces during pre-launch processing were used as inputs to determine the number of dilution cleaning samples needed once on Mars, to enable delivery of suitably clean samples to the SAM experiment. Taking into account contaminant redistribution during launch thorough landing of the MSL on Mars, the amount of residue present on the sampling hardware prior to the time of first dilution cleaning sample acquisition was estimated to be 60 ng/cm2 on exposed outer surfaces of the sampling hardware and 20 ng/cm2 on internal sample contacting surfaces; residues consisting mainly of aliphatic hydrocarbons and esters. After three dilution cleaning samples, estimated in-sample contamination level for the first regolith sample delivered to the SAM instrument at the Gale Crater "Rocknest" site was bounded at ≤10 ppb total organic carbon. A Project decision to forego ejecting the dilution cleaning sample and instead transfer the first drill

  16. S- to N-Palmitoyl Transfer During Proteomic Sample Preparation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Yuhuan; Bachschmid, Markus M.; Costello, Catherine E.; Lin, Cheng

    2016-04-01

    N-palmitoylation has been reported in a number of proteins and suggested to play an important role in protein localization and functions. However, it remains unclear whether N-palmitoylation is a direct enzyme-catalyzed process, or results from intramolecular S- to N-palmitoyl transfer. Here, using the S-palmitoyl peptide standard, GCpalmLGNAK, as the model system, we observed palmitoyl migration from the cysteine residue to either the peptide N-terminus or the lysine side chain during incubation in both neutral and slightly basic buffers commonly used in proteomic sample preparation. Palmitoyl transfer can take place either intra- or inter-molecularly, with the peptide N-terminus being the preferred migration site, presumably because of its lower basicity. The extent of intramolecular palmitoyl migration was low in the system studied, as it required the formation of an entropically unfavored macrocycle intermediate. Intermolecular palmitoyl transfer, however, remained a tangible problem, and may lead to erroneous reporting of in vivo N-palmitoylation. It was found that addition of the MS-compatible detergent RapiGest could significantly inhibit intermolecular palmitoyl transfer, as well as thioester hydrolysis and DTT-induced thioester cleavage. Finally, palmitoyl transfer from the cysteine residue to the peptide N-terminus can also occur in the gas phase, during collision-induced dissociation, and result in false identification of N-palmitoylation. Therefore, one must be careful with both sample preparation and interpretation of tandem mass spectra in the study of N-palmitoylation.

  17. Electron Transfer Dissociation Mass Spectrometry of Hemoglobin on Clinical Samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coelho Graça, Didia; Lescuyer, Pierre; Clerici, Lorella; Tsybin, Yury O.; Hartmer, Ralf; Meyer, Markus; Samii, Kaveh; Hochstrasser, Denis F.; Scherl, Alexander

    2012-10-01

    A mass spectrometry-based assay combining the specificity of selected reaction monitoring and the protein ion activation capabilities of electron transfer dissociation was developed and employed for the rapid identification of hemoglobin variants from whole blood without previous proteolytic cleavage. The analysis was performed in a robust ion trap mass spectrometer operating at nominal mass accuracy and resolution. Subtle differences in globin sequences, resulting with mass shifts of about one Da, can be unambiguously identified. These results suggest that mass spectrometry analysis of entire proteins using electron transfer dissociation can be employed on clinical samples in a workflow compatible with diagnostic applications.

  18. Infrared Laser Ablation Sample Transfer for MALDI and Electrospray

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Sung-Gun; Murray, Kermit King

    2011-08-01

    We have used an infrared laser to ablate materials under ambient conditions that were captured in solvent droplets. The droplets were either deposited on a MALDI target for off-line analysis by MALDI time-of-flight mass spectrometry or flow-injected into a nanoelectrospray source of an ion trap mass spectrometer. An infrared optical parametric oscillator (OPO) laser system at 2.94 μm wavelength and approximately 1 mJ pulse energy was focused onto samples for ablation at atmospheric pressure. The ablated material was captured in a solvent droplet 1-2 mm in diameter that was suspended from a silica capillary a few millimeters above the sample target. Once the sample was transferred to the droplet by ablation, the droplet was deposited on a MALDI target. A saturated matrix solution was added to the deposited sample, or in some cases, the suspended capture droplet contained the matrix. Peptide and protein standards were used to assess the effects of the number of IR laser ablation shots, sample to droplet distance, capture droplet size, droplet solvent, and laser pulse energy. Droplet collected samples were also injected into a nanoelectrospray source of an ion trap mass spectrometer with a 500 nL injection loop. It is estimated that pmol quantities of material were transferred to the droplet with an efficiency of approximately 1%. The direct analysis of biological fluids for off-line MALDI and electrospray was demonstrated with blood, milk, and egg. The implications of this IR ablation sample transfer approach for ambient imaging are discussed.

  19. Automated semiquantitative direct-current-arc spectrographic analysis of eight argonne premium coal ash samples

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Skeen, C.J.; Libby, B.J.; Crandell, W.B.

    1990-01-01

    The automated semiquantitative direct-current-arc spectre-graphic method was used to analyze 62 elements in eight Argonne Premium Coal Ash samples. All eight coal ash samples were analyzed in triplicate to verify precision and accuracy of the method. The precision for most elements was within ??10%. The accuracy of this method is limited to +50% or -33% because of the nature of the standard curves for each of the elements. Adjustments to the computer program were implemented to account for unique matrix interferences in these particular coal ash samples.

  20. Functional Profiling of Live Melanoma Samples Using a Novel Automated Platform

    PubMed Central

    Schayowitz, Adam; Bertenshaw, Greg; Jeffries, Emiko; Schatz, Timothy; Cotton, James; Villanueva, Jessie; Herlyn, Meenhard; Krepler, Clemens; Vultur, Adina; Xu, Wei; Yu, Gordon H.; Schuchter, Lynn; Clark, Douglas P.

    2012-01-01

    Aims This proof-of-concept study was designed to determine if functional, pharmacodynamic profiles relevant to targeted therapy could be derived from live human melanoma samples using a novel automated platform. Methods A series of 13 melanoma cell lines was briefly exposed to a BRAF inhibitor (PLX-4720) on a platform employing automated fluidics for sample processing. Levels of the phosphoprotein p-ERK in the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway from treated and untreated sample aliquots were determined using a bead-based immunoassay. Comparison of these levels provided a determination of the pharmacodynamic effect of the drug on the MAPK pathway. A similar ex vivo analysis was performed on fine needle aspiration (FNA) biopsy samples from four murine xenograft models of metastatic melanoma, as well as 12 FNA samples from patients with metastatic melanoma. Results Melanoma cell lines with known sensitivity to BRAF inhibitors displayed marked suppression of the MAPK pathway in this system, while most BRAF inhibitor-resistant cell lines showed intact MAPK pathway activity despite exposure to a BRAF inhibitor (PLX-4720). FNA samples from melanoma xenografts showed comparable ex vivo MAPK activity as their respective cell lines in this system. FNA samples from patients with metastatic melanoma successfully yielded three categories of functional profiles including: MAPK pathway suppression; MAPK pathway reactivation; MAPK pathway stimulation. These profiles correlated with the anticipated MAPK activity, based on the known BRAF mutation status, as well as observed clinical responses to BRAF inhibitor therapy. Conclusion Pharmacodynamic information regarding the ex vivo effect of BRAF inhibitors on the MAPK pathway in live human melanoma samples can be reproducibly determined using a novel automated platform. Such information may be useful in preclinical and clinical drug development, as well as predicting response to targeted therapy in individual patients

  1. Non-Uniform Sampling and J-UNIO Automation for Efficient Protein NMR Structure Determination.

    PubMed

    Didenko, Tatiana; Proudfoot, Andrew; Dutta, Samit Kumar; Serrano, Pedro; Wüthrich, Kurt

    2015-08-24

    High-resolution structure determination of small proteins in solution is one of the big assets of NMR spectroscopy in structural biology. Improvements in the efficiency of NMR structure determination by advances in NMR experiments and automation of data handling therefore attracts continued interest. Here, non-uniform sampling (NUS) of 3D heteronuclear-resolved [(1)H,(1)H]-NOESY data yielded two- to three-fold savings of instrument time for structure determinations of soluble proteins. With the 152-residue protein NP_372339.1 from Staphylococcus aureus and the 71-residue protein NP_346341.1 from Streptococcus pneumonia we show that high-quality structures can be obtained with NUS NMR data, which are equally well amenable to robust automated analysis as the corresponding uniformly sampled data. PMID:26227870

  2. Electrothermal Fluid Manipulation of High-Conductivity Samples for Laboratory Automation Applications

    PubMed Central

    Sin, Mandy L. Y.; Gau, Vincent; Liao, Joseph C.; Wong, Pak Kin

    2010-01-01

    Electrothermal flow is a promising technique in microfluidic manipulation toward laboratory automation applications, such as clinical diagnostics and high throughput drug screening. Despite the potential of electrothermal flow in biomedical applications, relative little is known about electrothermal manipulation of highly conductive samples, such as physiological fluids and buffer solutions. In this study, the characteristics and challenges of electrothermal manipulation of fluid samples with different conductivities were investigated systematically. Electrothermal flow was shown to create fluid motion for samples with a wide range of conductivity when the driving frequency was above 100 kHz. For samples with low conductivities (below 1 S/m), the characteristics of the electrothermal fluid motions were in quantitative agreement with the theory. For samples with high conductivities (above 1 S/m), the fluid motion appeared to deviate from the model as a result of potential electrochemical reactions and other electrothermal effects. These effects should be taken into consideration for electrothermal manipulation of biological samples with high conductivities. This study will provide insights in designing microfluidic devices for electrokinetic manipulation of biological samples toward laboratory automation applications in the future. PMID:21180401

  3. Development of automated preparation system for isotopocule analysis of N2O in various air samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toyoda, Sakae; Yoshida, Naohiro

    2016-05-01

    Nitrous oxide (N2O), an increasingly abundant greenhouse gas in the atmosphere, is the most important stratospheric ozone-depleting gas of this century. Natural abundance ratios of isotopocules of N2O, NNO molecules substituted with stable isotopes of nitrogen and oxygen, are a promising index of various sources or production pathways of N2O and of its sink or decomposition pathways. Several automated methods have been reported to improve the analytical precision for the isotopocule ratio of atmospheric N2O and to reduce the labor necessary for complicated sample preparation procedures related to mass spectrometric analysis. However, no method accommodates flask samples with limited volume or pressure. Here we present an automated preconcentration system which offers flexibility with respect to the available gas volume, pressure, and N2O concentration. The shortest processing time for a single analysis of typical atmospheric sample is 40 min. Precision values of isotopocule ratio analysis are < 0.1 ‰ for δ15Nbulk (average abundances of 14N15N16O and 15N14N16O relative to 14N14N16O), < 0.2 ‰ for δ18O (relative abundance of 14N14N18O), and < 0.5 ‰ for site preference (SP; difference between relative abundance of 14N15N16O and 15N14N16O). This precision is comparable to that of other automated systems, but better than that of our previously reported manual measurement system.

  4. Multiplexed NMR: An Automated CapNMR Dual-Sample Probe

    PubMed Central

    Norcross, James A.; Milling, Craig T.; Olson, Dean L.; Xu, Duanxiang; Audrieth, Anthony; Albrecht, Robert; Ruan, Ke; Likos, John; Jones, Claude; Peck, Timothy L.

    2010-01-01

    A new generation of micro-scale, nuclear magnetic resonance (CapNMR™) probe technology employs two independent detection elements to accommodate two samples simultaneously. Each detection element in the Dual-Sample CapNMR Probe (DSP) delivers the same spectral resolution and S/N as in a CapNMR probe configured to accommodate one sample at a time. A high degree of electrical isolation allows the DSP to be used in a variety of data acquisition modes. Both samples are shimmed simultaneously to achieve high spectral resolution for simultaneous data acquisition, or alternatively, a flowcell-specific shim set is readily called via spectrometer subroutines to enable acquisition from one sample while the other is being loaded. An automation system accommodates loading of two samples via dual injection ports on an autosampler and two completely independent flowpaths leading to dedicated flowcells in the DSP probe. PMID:20681560

  5. Automated Prediction of Catalytic Mechanism and Rate Law Using Graph-Based Reaction Path Sampling.

    PubMed

    Habershon, Scott

    2016-04-12

    In a recent article [ J. Chem. Phys. 2015 , 143 , 094106 ], we introduced a novel graph-based sampling scheme which can be used to generate chemical reaction paths in many-atom systems in an efficient and highly automated manner. The main goal of this work is to demonstrate how this approach, when combined with direct kinetic modeling, can be used to determine the mechanism and phenomenological rate law of a complex catalytic cycle, namely cobalt-catalyzed hydroformylation of ethene. Our graph-based sampling scheme generates 31 unique chemical products and 32 unique chemical reaction pathways; these sampled structures and reaction paths enable automated construction of a kinetic network model of the catalytic system when combined with density functional theory (DFT) calculations of free energies and resultant transition-state theory rate constants. Direct simulations of this kinetic network across a range of initial reactant concentrations enables determination of both the reaction mechanism and the associated rate law in an automated fashion, without the need for either presupposing a mechanism or making steady-state approximations in kinetic analysis. Most importantly, we find that the reaction mechanism which emerges from these simulations is exactly that originally proposed by Heck and Breslow; furthermore, the simulated rate law is also consistent with previous experimental and computational studies, exhibiting a complex dependence on carbon monoxide pressure. While the inherent errors of using DFT simulations to model chemical reactivity limit the quantitative accuracy of our calculated rates, this work confirms that our automated simulation strategy enables direct analysis of catalytic mechanisms from first principles. PMID:26938837

  6. RoboDiff: combining a sample changer and goniometer for highly automated macromolecular crystallography experiments.

    PubMed

    Nurizzo, Didier; Bowler, Matthew W; Caserotto, Hugo; Dobias, Fabien; Giraud, Thierry; Surr, John; Guichard, Nicolas; Papp, Gergely; Guijarro, Matias; Mueller-Dieckmann, Christoph; Flot, David; McSweeney, Sean; Cipriani, Florent; Theveneau, Pascal; Leonard, Gordon A

    2016-08-01

    Automation of the mounting of cryocooled samples is now a feature of the majority of beamlines dedicated to macromolecular crystallography (MX). Robotic sample changers have been developed over many years, with the latest designs increasing capacity, reliability and speed. Here, the development of a new sample changer deployed at the ESRF beamline MASSIF-1 (ID30A-1), based on an industrial six-axis robot, is described. The device, named RoboDiff, includes a high-capacity dewar, acts as both a sample changer and a high-accuracy goniometer, and has been designed for completely unattended sample mounting and diffraction data collection. This aim has been achieved using a high level of diagnostics at all steps of the process from mounting and characterization to data collection. The RoboDiff has been in service on the fully automated endstation MASSIF-1 at the ESRF since September 2014 and, at the time of writing, has processed more than 20 000 samples completely automatically. PMID:27487827

  7. Electrochemical pesticide detection with AutoDip--a portable platform for automation of crude sample analyses.

    PubMed

    Drechsel, Lisa; Schulz, Martin; von Stetten, Felix; Moldovan, Carmen; Zengerle, Roland; Paust, Nils

    2015-02-01

    Lab-on-a-chip devices hold promise for automation of complex workflows from sample to answer with minimal consumption of reagents in portable devices. However, complex, inhomogeneous samples as they occur in environmental or food analysis may block microchannels and thus often cause malfunction of the system. Here we present the novel AutoDip platform which is based on the movement of a solid phase through the reagents and sample instead of transporting a sequence of reagents through a fixed solid phase. A ball-pen mechanism operated by an external actuator automates unit operations such as incubation and washing by consecutively dipping the solid phase into the corresponding liquids. The platform is applied to electrochemical detection of organophosphorus pesticides in real food samples using an acetylcholinesterase (AChE) biosensor. Minimal sample preparation and an integrated reagent pre-storage module hold promise for easy handling of the assay. Detection of the pesticide chlorpyrifos-oxon (CPO) spiked into apple samples at concentrations of 10(-7) M has been demonstrated. This concentration is below the maximum residue level for chlorpyrifos in apples defined by the European Commission. PMID:25415182

  8. RoboDiff: combining a sample changer and goniometer for highly automated macromolecular crystallography experiments

    PubMed Central

    Nurizzo, Didier; Bowler, Matthew W.; Caserotto, Hugo; Dobias, Fabien; Giraud, Thierry; Surr, John; Guichard, Nicolas; Papp, Gergely; Guijarro, Matias; Mueller-Dieckmann, Christoph; Flot, David; McSweeney, Sean; Cipriani, Florent; Theveneau, Pascal; Leonard, Gordon A.

    2016-01-01

    Automation of the mounting of cryocooled samples is now a feature of the majority of beamlines dedicated to macromolecular crystallography (MX). Robotic sample changers have been developed over many years, with the latest designs increasing capacity, reliability and speed. Here, the development of a new sample changer deployed at the ESRF beamline MASSIF-1 (ID30A-1), based on an industrial six-axis robot, is described. The device, named RoboDiff, includes a high-capacity dewar, acts as both a sample changer and a high-accuracy goniometer, and has been designed for completely unattended sample mounting and diffraction data collection. This aim has been achieved using a high level of diagnostics at all steps of the process from mounting and characterization to data collection. The RoboDiff has been in service on the fully automated endstation MASSIF-1 at the ESRF since September 2014 and, at the time of writing, has processed more than 20 000 samples completely automatically. PMID:27487827

  9. Automated combustion accelerator mass spectrometry for the analysis of biomedical samples in the low attomole range.

    PubMed

    van Duijn, Esther; Sandman, Hugo; Grossouw, Dimitri; Mocking, Johannes A J; Coulier, Leon; Vaes, Wouter H J

    2014-08-01

    The increasing role of accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) in biomedical research necessitates modernization of the traditional sample handling process. AMS was originally developed and used for carbon dating, therefore focusing on a very high precision but with a comparably low sample throughput. Here, we describe the combination of automated sample combustion with an elemental analyzer (EA) online coupled to an AMS via a dedicated interface. This setup allows direct radiocarbon measurements for over 70 samples daily by AMS. No sample processing is required apart from the pipetting of the sample into a tin foil cup, which is placed in the carousel of the EA. In our system, up to 200 AMS analyses are performed automatically without the need for manual interventions. We present results on the direct total (14)C count measurements in <2 μL human plasma samples. The method shows linearity over a range of 0.65-821 mBq/mL, with a lower limit of quantification of 0.65 mBq/mL (corresponding to 0.67 amol for acetaminophen). At these extremely low levels of activity, it becomes important to quantify plasma specific carbon percentages. This carbon percentage is automatically generated upon combustion of a sample on the EA. Apparent advantages of the present approach include complete omission of sample preparation (reduced hands-on time) and fully automated sample analysis. These improvements clearly stimulate the standard incorporation of microtracer research in the drug development process. In combination with the particularly low sample volumes required and extreme sensitivity, AMS strongly improves its position as a bioanalysis method. PMID:25033319

  10. Situ soil sampling probe system with heated transfer line

    DOEpatents

    Robbat, Jr., Albert

    2002-01-01

    The present invention is directed both to an improved in situ penetrometer probe and to a heated, flexible transfer line. The line and probe may be implemented together in a penetrometer system in which the transfer line is used to connect the probe to a collector/analyzer at the surface. The probe comprises a heater that controls a temperature of a geologic medium surrounding the probe. At least one carrier gas port and vapor collection port are located on an external side wall of the probe. The carrier gas port provides a carrier gas into the geologic medium, and the collection port captures vapors from the geologic medium for analysis. In the transfer line, a flexible collection line that conveys a collected fluid, i.e., vapor, sample to a collector/analyzer. A flexible carrier gas line conveys a carrier gas to facilitate the collection of the sample. A system heating the collection line is also provided. Preferably the collection line is electrically conductive so that an electrical power source can generate a current through it so that the internal resistance generates heat.

  11. Automated AFM force curve analysis for determining elastic modulus of biomaterials and biological samples.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yow-Ren; Raghunathan, Vijay Krishna; Garland, Shaun P; Morgan, Joshua T; Russell, Paul; Murphy, Christopher J

    2014-09-01

    The analysis of atomic force microscopy (AFM) force data requires the selection of a contact point (CP) and is often time consuming and subjective due to influence from intermolecular forces and low signal-to-noise ratios (SNR). In this report, we present an automated algorithm for the selection of CPs in AFM force data and the evaluation of elastic moduli. We propose that CP may be algorithmically easier to detect by identifying a linear elastic indentation region of data (high SNR) rather than the contact point itself (low SNR). Utilizing Hertzian mechanics, the data are fitted for the CP. We first detail the algorithm and then evaluate it on sample polymeric and biological materials. As a demonstration of automation, 64 × 64 force maps were analyzed to yield spatially varying topographical and mechanical information of cells. Finally, we compared manually selected CPs to automatically identified CPs and demonstrated that our automated approach is both accurate (< 10nm difference between manual and automatic) and precise for non-interacting polymeric materials. Our data show that the algorithm is useful for analysis of both biomaterials and biological samples. PMID:24951927

  12. Development of an automated data processing method for sample to sample comparison of seized methamphetamines.

    PubMed

    Choe, Sanggil; Lee, Jaesin; Choi, Hyeyoung; Park, Yujin; Lee, Heesang; Pyo, Jaesung; Jo, Jiyeong; Park, Yonghoon; Choi, Hwakyung; Kim, Suncheun

    2012-11-30

    The information about the sources of supply, trafficking routes, distribution patterns and conspiracy links can be obtained from methamphetamine profiling. The precursor and synthetic method for the clandestine manufacture can be estimated from the analysis of minor impurities contained in methamphetamine. Also, the similarity between samples can be evaluated using the peaks that appear in chromatograms. In South Korea, methamphetamine was the most popular drug but the total seized amount of methamphetamine whole through the country was very small. Therefore, it would be more important to find the links between samples than the other uses of methamphetamine profiling. Many Asian countries including Japan and South Korea have been using the method developed by National Research Institute of Police Science of Japan. The method used gas chromatography-flame ionization detector (GC-FID), DB-5 column and four internal standards. It was developed to increase the amount of impurities and minimize the amount of methamphetamine. After GC-FID analysis, the raw data have to be processed. The data processing steps are very complex and require a lot of time and effort. In this study, Microsoft Visual Basic Application (VBA) modules were developed to handle these data processing steps. This module collected the results from the data into an Excel file and then corrected the retention time shift and response deviation generated from the sample preparation and instruments analysis. The developed modules were tested for their performance using 10 samples from 5 different cases. The processed results were analyzed with Pearson correlation coefficient for similarity assessment and the correlation coefficient of the two samples from the same case was more than 0.99. When the modules were applied to 131 seized methamphetamine samples, four samples from two different cases were found to have the common origin and the chromatograms of the four samples were appeared visually identical

  13. Modulation-transfer-function analysis for sampled image systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, S. K.; Kaczynski, M.-A.; Schowengerdt, R.

    1984-01-01

    Sampling generally causes the response of a digital imaging system to be locally shift-variant and not directly amenable to Modulation Transfer Function (MTF) analysis. However, this paper demonstrates that a meaningful system response can be calculated by averaging over an ensemble of point-source system inputs to yield an MTF which accounts for the combined effects of image formation, sampling, and image reconstruction. As an illustration, the MTF of the Landsat MSS system is analyzed to reveal an average effective instantaneous field of view which is significantly larger than the commonly accepted value, particularly in the along-track direction where undersampling contributes markedly to an MTF reduction and resultant increase in image blur.

  14. Detection of Orbital Debris Collision Risks for the Automated Transfer Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peret, L.; Legendre, P.; Delavault, S.; Martin, T.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we present a general collision risk assessment method, which has been applied through numerical simulations to the Automated Transfer Vehicle (ATV) case. During ATV ascent towards the International Space Station, close approaches between the ATV and objects of the USSTRACOM catalog will be monitored through collision rosk assessment. Usually, collision risk assessment relies on an exclusion volume or a probability threshold method. Probability methods are more effective than exclusion volumes but require accurate covariance data. In this work, we propose to use a criterion defined by an adaptive exclusion area. This criterion does not require any probability calculation but is more effective than exclusion volume methods as demonstrated by our numerical experiments. The results of these studies, when confirmed and finalized, will be used for the ATV operations.

  15. Mechanical Alteration And Contamination Issues In Automated Subsurface Sample Acquisition And Handling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glass, B. J.; Cannon, H.; Bonaccorsi, R.; Zacny, K.

    2006-12-01

    The Drilling Automation for Mars Exploration (DAME) project's purpose is to develop and field-test drilling automation and robotics technologies for projected use in missions in the 2011-15 period. DAME includes control of the drilling hardware, and state estimation of both the hardware and the lithography being drilled and the state of the hole. A sister drill was constructed for the Mars Analog Río Tinto Experiment (MARTE) project and demonstrated automated core handling and string changeout in 2005 drilling tests at Rio Tinto, Spain. DAME focused instead on the problem of drill control while actively drilling while not getting stuck. Together, the DAME and MARTE projects demonstrate a fully automated robotic drilling capability, including hands-off drilling, adjustment to different strata and downhole conditions, recovery from drilling faults (binding, choking, etc.), drill string changeouts, core acquisition and removal, and sample handling and conveyance to in-situ instruments. The 2006 top-level goal of DAME drilling in-situ tests was to verify and demonstrate a capability for hands-off automated drilling, at an Arctic Mars-analog site. There were three sets of 2006 test goals, all of which were exceeded during the July 2006 field season. The first was to demonstrate the recognition, while drilling, of at least three of the six known major fault modes for the DAME planetary-prototype drill, and to employ the correct recovery or safing procedure in response. The second set of 2006 goals was to operate for three or more hours autonomously, hands-off. And the third 2006 goal was to exceed 3m depth into the frozen breccia and permafrost with the DAME drill (it had not gone further than 2.2m previously). Five of six faults were detected and corrected, there were 43 hours of hands-off drilling (including a 4 hour sequence with no human presence nearby), and 3.2m was the total depth. And ground truth drilling used small commercial drilling equipment in parallel in

  16. SAMPL4 & DOCK3.7: Lessons for automated docking procedures

    PubMed Central

    Coleman, Ryan G.; Sterling, Teague; Weiss, Dahlia R.

    2014-01-01

    The SAMPL4 challenges were used to test current automated methods for solvation energy, virtual screening, pose and affinity prediction of the molecular docking pipeline DOCK 3.7. Additionally, first-order models of binding affinity were proposed as milestones for any method predicting binding affinity. Several important discoveries about the molecular docking software were made during the challenge: 1) Solvation energies of ligands were five-fold worse than any other method used in SAMPL4, including methods that were similarly fast, 2) HIV Integrase is a challenging target, but automated docking on the correct allosteric site performed well in terms of virtual screening and pose prediction (compared to other methods) but affinity prediction, as expected, was very poor, 3) Molecular docking grid sizes can be very important, serious errors were discovered with default settings that have been adjusted for all future work. Overall, lessons from SAMPL4 suggest many changes to molecular docking tools, not just DOCK 3.7, that could improve the state of the art. Future difficulties and projects will be discussed. PMID:24515818

  17. Automated processing of forensic casework samples using robotic workstations equipped with nondisposable tips: contamination prevention.

    PubMed

    Frégeau, Chantal J; Lett, C Marc; Elliott, Jim; Yensen, Craig; Fourney, Ron M

    2008-05-01

    An automated process has been developed for the analysis of forensic casework samples using TECAN Genesis RSP 150/8 or Freedom EVO liquid handling workstations equipped exclusively with nondisposable tips. Robot tip cleaning routines have been incorporated strategically within the DNA extraction process as well as at the end of each session. Alternative options were examined for cleaning the tips and different strategies were employed to verify cross-contamination. A 2% sodium hypochlorite wash (1/5th dilution of the 10.8% commercial bleach stock) proved to be the best overall approach for preventing cross-contamination of samples processed using our automated protocol. The bleach wash steps do not adversely impact the short tandem repeat (STR) profiles developed from DNA extracted robotically and allow for major cost savings through the implementation of fixed tips. We have demonstrated that robotic workstations equipped with fixed pipette tips can be used with confidence with properly designed tip washing routines to process casework samples using an adapted magnetic bead extraction protocol. PMID:18471209

  18. Automated CBED processing: sample thickness estimation based on analysis of zone-axis CBED pattern.

    PubMed

    Klinger, M; Němec, M; Polívka, L; Gärtnerová, V; Jäger, A

    2015-03-01

    An automated processing of convergent beam electron diffraction (CBED) patterns is presented. The proposed methods are used in an automated tool for estimating the thickness of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) samples by matching an experimental zone-axis CBED pattern with a series of patterns simulated for known thicknesses. The proposed tool detects CBED disks, localizes a pattern in detected disks and unifies the coordinate system of the experimental pattern with the simulated one. The experimental pattern is then compared disk-by-disk with a series of simulated patterns each corresponding to different known thicknesses. The thickness of the most similar simulated pattern is then taken as the thickness estimate. The tool was tested on [0 1 1] Si, [0 1 0] α-Ti and [0 1 1] α-Ti samples prepared using different techniques. Results of the presented approach were compared with thickness estimates based on analysis of CBED patterns in two beam conditions. The mean difference between these two methods was 4.1% for the FIB-prepared silicon samples, 5.2% for the electro-chemically polished titanium and 7.9% for Ar(+) ion-polished titanium. The proposed techniques can also be employed in other established CBED analyses. Apart from the thickness estimation, it can potentially be used to quantify lattice deformation, structure factors, symmetry, defects or extinction distance. PMID:25544679

  19. Control and Automation of Fluid Flow, Mass Transfer and Chemical Reactions in Microscale Segmented Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abolhasani, Milad

    Flowing trains of uniformly sized bubbles/droplets (i.e., segmented flows) and the associated mass transfer enhancement over their single-phase counterparts have been studied extensively during the past fifty years. Although the scaling behaviour of segmented flow formation is increasingly well understood, the predictive adjustment of the desired flow characteristics that influence the mixing and residence times, remains a challenge. Currently, a time consuming, slow and often inconsistent manual manipulation of experimental conditions is required to address this task. In my thesis, I have overcome the above-mentioned challenges and developed an experimental strategy that for the first time provided predictive control over segmented flows in a hands-off manner. A computer-controlled platform that consisted of a real-time image processing module within an integral controller, a silicon-based microreactor and automated fluid delivery technique was designed, implemented and validated. In a first part of my thesis I utilized this approach for the automated screening of physical mass transfer and solubility characteristics of carbon dioxide (CO2) in a physical solvent at a well-defined temperature and pressure and a throughput of 12 conditions per hour. Second, by applying the segmented flow approach to a recently discovered CO2 chemical absorbent, frustrated Lewis pairs (FLPs), I determined the thermodynamic characteristics of the CO2-FLP reaction. Finally, the segmented flow approach was employed for characterization and investigation of CO2-governed liquid-liquid phase separation process. The second part of my thesis utilized the segmented flow platform for the preparation and shape control of high quality colloidal nanomaterials (e.g., CdSe/CdS) via the automated control of residence times up to approximately 5 minutes. By introducing a novel oscillatory segmented flow concept, I was able to further extend the residence time limitation to 24 hours. A case study of a

  20. Development of a low-cost, modified resin transfer molding process using elastomeric tooling and automated preform fabrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doane, William J.; Hall, Ronald G.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes the design and process development of low-cost structural parts made by a modified resin transfer molding process. Innovative application of elastomeric tooling to increase laminate fiber volume and automated forming of fiber preforms are discussed, as applied to fabrication of a representative section of a cruise missile fuselage.

  1. Automation of high-frequency sampling of environmental waters for reactive species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, H.; Bishop, J. K.; Wood, T.; Fung, I.; Fong, M.

    2011-12-01

    Trace metals, particularly iron and manganese, play a critical role in some ecosystems as a limiting factor to determine primary productivity, in geochemistry, especially redox chemistry as important electron donors and acceptors, and in aquatic environments as carriers of contaminant transport. Dynamics of trace metals are closely related to various hydrologic events such as rainfall. Storm flow triggers dramatic changes of both dissolved and particulate trace metals concentrations and affects other important environmental parameters linked to trace metal behavior such as dissolved organic carbon (DOC). To improve our understanding of behaviors of trace metals and underlying processes, water chemistry information must be collected for an adequately long period of time at higher frequency than conventional manual sampling (e.g. weekly, biweekly). In this study, we developed an automated sampling system to document the dynamics of trace metals, focusing on Fe and Mn, and DOC for a multiple-year high-frequency geochemistry time series in a small catchment, called Rivendell located at Angelo Coast Range Reserve, California. We are sampling ground and streamwater using the automated sampling system in daily-frequency and the condition of the site is substantially variable from season to season. The ranges of pH of ground and streamwater are pH 5 - 7 and pH 7.8 - 8.3, respectively. DOC is usually sub-ppm, but during rain events, it increases by an order of magnitude. The automated sampling system focuses on two aspects- 1) a modified design of sampler to improve sample integrity for trace metals and DOC and 2) remote controlling system to update sampling volume and timing according to hydrological conditions. To maintain sample integrity, the developed method employed gravity filtering using large volume syringes (140mL) and syringe filters connected to a set of polypropylene bottles and a borosilicate bottle via Teflon tubing. Without filtration, in a few days, the

  2. Robowell: An automated process for monitoring ground water quality using established sampling protocols

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Granato, G.E.; Smith, K.P.

    1999-01-01

    Robowell is an automated process for monitoring selected ground water quality properties and constituents by pumping a well or multilevel sampler. Robowell was developed and tested to provide a cost-effective monitoring system that meets protocols expected for manual sampling. The process uses commercially available electronics, instrumentation, and hardware, so it can be configured to monitor ground water quality using the equipment, purge protocol, and monitoring well design most appropriate for the monitoring site and the contaminants of interest. A Robowell prototype was installed on a sewage treatment plant infiltration bed that overlies a well-studied unconfined sand and gravel aquifer at the Massachusetts Military Reservation, Cape Cod, Massachusetts, during a time when two distinct plumes of constituents were released. The prototype was operated from May 10 to November 13, 1996, and quality-assurance/quality-control measurements demonstrated that the data obtained by the automated method was equivalent to data obtained by manual sampling methods using the same sampling protocols. Water level, specific conductance, pH, water temperature, dissolved oxygen, and dissolved ammonium were monitored by the prototype as the wells were purged according to U.S Geological Survey (USGS) ground water sampling protocols. Remote access to the data record, via phone modem communications, indicated the arrival of each plume over a few days and the subsequent geochemical reactions over the following weeks. Real-time availability of the monitoring record provided the information needed to initiate manual sampling efforts in response to changes in measured ground water quality, which proved the method and characterized the screened portion of the plume in detail through time. The methods and the case study described are presented to document the process for future use.

  3. Design of an ultra-portable field transfer radiometer supporting automated vicarious calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Nikolaus; Thome, Kurtis; Czapla-Myers, Jeffrey; Biggar, Stuart

    2015-09-01

    The University of Arizona Remote Sensing Group (RSG) began outfitting the radiometric calibration test site (RadCaTS) at Railroad Valley Nevada in 2004 for automated vicarious calibration of Earth-observing sensors. RadCaTS was upgraded to use RSG custom 8-band ground viewing radiometers (GVRs) beginning in 2011 and currently four GVRs are deployed providing an average reflectance for the test site. This measurement of ground reflectance is the most critical component of vicarious calibration using the reflectance-based method. In order to ensure the quality of these measurements, RSG has been exploring more efficient and accurate methods of on-site calibration evaluation. This work describes the design of, and initial results from, a small portable transfer radiometer for the purpose of GVR calibration validation on site. Prior to deployment, RSG uses high accuracy laboratory calibration methods in order to provide radiance calibrations with low uncertainties for each GVR. After deployment, a solar radiation based calibration has typically been used. The method is highly dependent on a clear, stable atmosphere, requires at least two people to perform, is time consuming in post processing, and is dependent on several large pieces of equipment. In order to provide more regular and more accurate calibration monitoring, the small portable transfer radiometer is designed for quick, one-person operation and on-site field calibration comparison results. The radiometer is also suited for laboratory calibration use and thus could be used as a transfer radiometer calibration standard for ground viewing radiometers of a RadCalNet site.

  4. Automated high-throughput in vitro screening of the acetylcholine esterase inhibiting potential of environmental samples, mixtures and single compounds.

    PubMed

    Froment, Jean; Thomas, Kevin V; Tollefsen, Knut Erik

    2016-08-01

    A high-throughput and automated assay for testing the presence of acetylcholine esterase (AChE) inhibiting compounds was developed, validated and applied to screen different types of environmental samples. Automation involved using the assay in 96-well plates and adapting it for the use with an automated workstation. Validation was performed by comparing the results of the automated assay with that of a previously validated and standardised assay for two known AChE inhibitors (paraoxon and dichlorvos). The results show that the assay provides similar concentration-response curves (CRCs) when run according to the manual and automated protocol. Automation of the assay resulted in a reduction in assay run time as well as in intra- and inter-assay variations. High-quality CRCs were obtained for both of the model AChE inhibitors (dichlorvos IC50=120µM and paraoxon IC50=0.56µM) when tested alone. The effect of co-exposure of an equipotent binary mixture of the two chemicals were consistent with predictions of additivity and best described by the concentration addition model for combined toxicity. Extracts of different environmental samples (landfill leachate, wastewater treatment plant effluent, and road tunnel construction run-off) were then screened for AChE inhibiting activity using the automated bioassay, with only landfill leachate shown to contain potential AChE inhibitors. Potential uses and limitations of the assay were discussed based on the present results. PMID:27085000

  5. Fully Automated Laser Ablation Liquid Capture Sample Analysis using NanoElectrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Lorenz, Matthias; Ovchinnikova, Olga S; Van Berkel, Gary J

    2014-01-01

    RATIONALE: Laser ablation provides for the possibility of sampling a large variety of surfaces with high spatial resolution. This type of sampling when employed in conjunction with liquid capture followed by nanoelectrospray ionization provides the opportunity for sensitive and prolonged interrogation of samples by mass spectrometry as well as the ability to analyze surfaces not amenable to direct liquid extraction. METHODS: A fully automated, reflection geometry, laser ablation liquid capture spot sampling system was achieved by incorporating appropriate laser fiber optics and a focusing lens into a commercially available, liquid extraction surface analysis (LESA ) ready Advion TriVersa NanoMate system. RESULTS: Under optimized conditions about 10% of laser ablated material could be captured in a droplet positioned vertically over the ablation region using the NanoMate robot controlled pipette. The sampling spot size area with this laser ablation liquid capture surface analysis (LA/LCSA) mode of operation (typically about 120 m x 160 m) was approximately 50 times smaller than that achievable by direct liquid extraction using LESA (ca. 1 mm diameter liquid extraction spot). The set-up was successfully applied for the analysis of ink on glass and paper as well as the endogenous components in Alstroemeria Yellow King flower petals. In a second mode of operation with a comparable sampling spot size, termed laser ablation/LESA , the laser system was used to drill through, penetrate, or otherwise expose material beneath a solvent resistant surface. Once drilled, LESA was effective in sampling soluble material exposed at that location on the surface. CONCLUSIONS: Incorporating the capability for different laser ablation liquid capture spot sampling modes of operation into a LESA ready Advion TriVersa NanoMate enhanced the spot sampling spatial resolution of this device and broadened the surface types amenable to analysis to include absorbent and solvent resistant

  6. Microbiological monitoring and automated event sampling at karst springs using LEO-satellites.

    PubMed

    Stadler, H; Skritek, P; Sommer, R; Mach, R L; Zerobin, W; Farnleitner, A H

    2008-01-01

    Data communication via Low-Earth-Orbit (LEO) Satellites between portable hydrometeorological measuring stations is the backbone of our system. This networking allows automated event sampling with short time increments also for E. coli field analysis. All activities of the course of the event-sampling can be observed on an internet platform based on a Linux-Server. Conventionally taken samples compared with the auto-sampling procedure revealed corresponding results and were in agreement with the ISO 9308-1 reference method. E. coli concentrations were individually corrected by event specific inactivation coefficients (0.10-0.14 day(-1)), compensating losses due to sample storage at spring temperature in the auto sampler.Two large summer events in 2005/2006 at an important alpine karst spring (LKAS2) were monitored including detailed analysis of E. coli dynamics (n = 271) together with comprehensive hydrological characterisations. High-resolution time series demonstrated a sudden increase of E. coli concentrations in spring water (approximately 2 log10 units) with a specific time delay after the beginning of the event. Statistical analysis suggested the spectral absorption coefficient measured at 254 nm (SAC254) as an early warning surrogate for real time monitoring of faecal input. Together with the LEO-satellite based system it is a helpful tool for early-warning systems in the field of drinking water protection. PMID:18776628

  7. Automated MALDI matrix coating system for multiple tissue samples for imaging mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Mounfield, William P; Garrett, Timothy J

    2012-03-01

    Uniform matrix deposition on tissue samples for matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) is key for reproducible analyte ion signals. Current methods often result in nonhomogenous matrix deposition, and take time and effort to produce acceptable ion signals. Here we describe a fully-automated method for matrix deposition using an enclosed spray chamber and spray nozzle for matrix solution delivery. A commercial air-atomizing spray nozzle was modified and combined with solenoid controlled valves and a Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) to control and deliver the matrix solution. A spray chamber was employed to contain the nozzle, sample, and atomized matrix solution stream, and to prevent any interference from outside conditions as well as allow complete control of the sample environment. A gravity cup was filled with MALDI matrix solutions, including DHB in chloroform/methanol (50:50) at concentrations up to 60 mg/mL. Various samples (including rat brain tissue sections) were prepared using two deposition methods (spray chamber, inkjet). A linear ion trap equipped with an intermediate-pressure MALDI source was used for analyses. Optical microscopic examination showed a uniform coating of matrix crystals across the sample. Overall, the mass spectral images gathered from tissues coated using the spray chamber system were of better quality and more reproducible than from tissue specimens prepared by the inkjet deposition method. PMID:22234508

  8. MICROBIOLOGICAL MONITORING AND AUTOMATED EVENT SAMPLING AT KARST SPRINGS USING LEO-SATELLITES

    PubMed Central

    Stadler, Hermann; Skritek, Paul; Sommer, Regina; Mach, Robert L.; Zerobin, Wolfgang; Farnleitner, Andreas H.

    2010-01-01

    Data communication via Low-Earth-Orbit Satellites between portable hydro-meteorological measuring stations is the backbone of our system. This networking allows automated event sampling with short time increments also for E.coli field analysis. All activities of the course of the event-sampling can be observed on an internet platform based on a Linux-Server. Conventionally taken samples by hand compared with the auto-sampling procedure revealed corresponding results and were in agreement to the ISO 9308-1 reference method. E.coli concentrations were individually corrected by event specific die-off rates (0.10–0.14 day−1) compensating losses due to sample storage at spring temperature in the auto sampler. Two large summer events 2005/2006 at a large alpine karst spring (LKAS2) were monitored including detailed analysis of E.coli dynamics (n = 271) together with comprehensive hydrological characterisations. High resolution time series demonstrated a sudden increase of E.coli concentrations in spring water (approx. 2 log10 units) with a specific time delay after the beginning of the event. Statistical analysis suggested the spectral absorbent coefficient measured at 254nm (SAC254) as an early warning surrogate for real time monitoring of faecal input. Together with the LEO-Satellite based system it is a helpful tool for Early-Warning-Systems in the field of drinking water protection. PMID:18776628

  9. Automated MALDI Matrix Coating System for Multiple Tissue Samples for Imaging Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mounfield, William P.; Garrett, Timothy J.

    2012-03-01

    Uniform matrix deposition on tissue samples for matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) is key for reproducible analyte ion signals. Current methods often result in nonhomogenous matrix deposition, and take time and effort to produce acceptable ion signals. Here we describe a fully-automated method for matrix deposition using an enclosed spray chamber and spray nozzle for matrix solution delivery. A commercial air-atomizing spray nozzle was modified and combined with solenoid controlled valves and a Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) to control and deliver the matrix solution. A spray chamber was employed to contain the nozzle, sample, and atomized matrix solution stream, and to prevent any interference from outside conditions as well as allow complete control of the sample environment. A gravity cup was filled with MALDI matrix solutions, including DHB in chloroform/methanol (50:50) at concentrations up to 60 mg/mL. Various samples (including rat brain tissue sections) were prepared using two deposition methods (spray chamber, inkjet). A linear ion trap equipped with an intermediate-pressure MALDI source was used for analyses. Optical microscopic examination showed a uniform coating of matrix crystals across the sample. Overall, the mass spectral images gathered from tissues coated using the spray chamber system were of better quality and more reproducible than from tissue specimens prepared by the inkjet deposition method.

  10. Automated sample preparation in a microfluidic culture device for cellular metabolomics.

    PubMed

    Filla, Laura A; Sanders, Katherine L; Filla, Robert T; Edwards, James L

    2016-06-21

    Sample pretreatment in conventional cellular metabolomics entails rigorous lysis and extraction steps which increase the duration as well as limit the consistency of these experiments. We report a biomimetic cell culture microfluidic device (MFD) which is coupled with an automated system for rapid, reproducible cell lysis using a combination of electrical and chemical mechanisms. In-channel microelectrodes were created using facile fabrication methods, enabling the application of electric fields up to 1000 V cm(-1). Using this platform, average lysing times were 7.12 s and 3.03 s for chips with no electric fields and electric fields above 200 V cm(-1), respectively. Overall, the electroporation MFDs yielded a ∼10-fold improvement in lysing time over standard chemical approaches. Detection of multiple intracellular nucleotides and energy metabolites in MFD lysates was demonstrated using two different MS platforms. This work will allow for the integrated culture, automated lysis, and metabolic analysis of cells in an MFD which doubles as a biomimetic model of the vasculature. PMID:27118418

  11. Automated sample preparation and analysis using a sequential-injection-capillary electrophoresis (SI-CE) interface.

    PubMed

    Kulka, Stephan; Quintás, Guillermo; Lendl, Bernhard

    2006-06-01

    A fully automated sequential-injection-capillary electrophoresis (SI-CE) system was developed using commercially available components as the syringe pump, the selection and injection valves and the high voltage power supply. The interface connecting the SI with the CE unit consisted of two T-pieces, where the capillary was inserted in one T-piece and a Pt electrode in the other (grounded) T-piece. By pressurising the whole system using a syringe pump, hydrodynamic injection was feasible. For characterisation, the system was applied to a mixture of adenosine and adenosine monophosphate at different concentrations. The calibration curve obtained gave a detection limit of 0.5 microg g(-1) (correlation coefficient of 0.997). The reproducibility of the injection was also assessed, resulting in a RSD value (5 injections) of 5.4%. The total time of analysis, from injection, conditioning and separation to cleaning the capillary again was 15 minutes. In another application, employing the full power of the automated SIA-CE system, myoglobin was mixed directly using the flow system with different concentrations of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), a known denaturing agent. The different conformations obtained in this way were analysed with the CE system and a distinct shift in migration time and decreasing of the native peak of myoglobin (Mb) could be observed. The protein samples prepared were also analysed with off-line infrared spectroscopy (IR), confirming these results. PMID:16732362

  12. Martian Radiative Transfer Modeling Using the Optimal Spectral Sampling Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eluszkiewicz, J.; Cady-Pereira, K.; Uymin, G.; Moncet, J.-L.

    2005-01-01

    The large volume of existing and planned infrared observations of Mars have prompted the development of a new martian radiative transfer model that could be used in the retrievals of atmospheric and surface properties. The model is based on the Optimal Spectral Sampling (OSS) method [1]. The method is a fast and accurate monochromatic technique applicable to a wide range of remote sensing platforms (from microwave to UV) and was originally developed for the real-time processing of infrared and microwave data acquired by instruments aboard the satellites forming part of the next-generation global weather satellite system NPOESS (National Polarorbiting Operational Satellite System) [2]. As part of our on-going research related to the radiative properties of the martian polar caps, we have begun the development of a martian OSS model with the goal of using it to perform self-consistent atmospheric corrections necessary to retrieve caps emissivity from the Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) spectra. While the caps will provide the initial focus area for applying the new model, it is hoped that the model will be of interest to the wider Mars remote sensing community.

  13. An Automated Algorithm to Screen Massive Training Samples for a Global Impervious Surface Classification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tan, Bin; Brown de Colstoun, Eric; Wolfe, Robert E.; Tilton, James C.; Huang, Chengquan; Smith, Sarah E.

    2012-01-01

    An algorithm is developed to automatically screen the outliers from massive training samples for Global Land Survey - Imperviousness Mapping Project (GLS-IMP). GLS-IMP is to produce a global 30 m spatial resolution impervious cover data set for years 2000 and 2010 based on the Landsat Global Land Survey (GLS) data set. This unprecedented high resolution impervious cover data set is not only significant to the urbanization studies but also desired by the global carbon, hydrology, and energy balance researches. A supervised classification method, regression tree, is applied in this project. A set of accurate training samples is the key to the supervised classifications. Here we developed the global scale training samples from 1 m or so resolution fine resolution satellite data (Quickbird and Worldview2), and then aggregate the fine resolution impervious cover map to 30 m resolution. In order to improve the classification accuracy, the training samples should be screened before used to train the regression tree. It is impossible to manually screen 30 m resolution training samples collected globally. For example, in Europe only, there are 174 training sites. The size of the sites ranges from 4.5 km by 4.5 km to 8.1 km by 3.6 km. The amount training samples are over six millions. Therefore, we develop this automated statistic based algorithm to screen the training samples in two levels: site and scene level. At the site level, all the training samples are divided to 10 groups according to the percentage of the impervious surface within a sample pixel. The samples following in each 10% forms one group. For each group, both univariate and multivariate outliers are detected and removed. Then the screen process escalates to the scene level. A similar screen process but with a looser threshold is applied on the scene level considering the possible variance due to the site difference. We do not perform the screen process across the scenes because the scenes might vary due to

  14. Design and Development of a Robot-Based Automation System for Cryogenic Crystal Sample Mounting at the Advanced Photon Source

    SciTech Connect

    Shu, D.; Preissner, C.; Nocher, D.; Han, Y.; Barraza, J.; Lee, P.; Lee, W.-K.; Cai, Z.; Ginell, S.; Alkire, R.; Lazarski, K.; Schuessler, R.; Joachimiak, A.

    2004-05-12

    X-ray crystallography is the primary method to determine the 3D structures of complex macromolecules at high resolution. In the years to come, the Advanced Photon Source (APS) and similar 3rd-generation synchrotron sources elsewhere will become the most powerful tools for studying atomic structures of biological molecules. One of the major bottlenecks in the x-ray data collection process is the constant need to change and realign the crystal sample. This is a very time- and manpower-consuming task. An automated sample mounting system will help to solve this bottleneck problem. We have developed a novel robot-based automation system for cryogenic crystal sample mounting at the APS. Design of the robot-based automation system, as well as its on-line test results at the Argonne Structural Biology Center (SBC) 19-BM experimental station, are presented in this paper.

  15. Automated on-line liquid-liquid extraction system for temporal mass spectrometric analysis of dynamic samples.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Kai-Ta; Liu, Pei-Han; Urban, Pawel L

    2015-09-24

    Most real samples cannot directly be infused to mass spectrometers because they could contaminate delicate parts of ion source and guides, or cause ion suppression. Conventional sample preparation procedures limit temporal resolution of analysis. We have developed an automated liquid-liquid extraction system that enables unsupervised repetitive treatment of dynamic samples and instantaneous analysis by mass spectrometry (MS). It incorporates inexpensive open-source microcontroller boards (Arduino and Netduino) to guide the extraction and analysis process. Duration of every extraction cycle is 17 min. The system enables monitoring of dynamic processes over many hours. The extracts are automatically transferred to the ion source incorporating a Venturi pump. Operation of the device has been characterized (repeatability, RSD = 15%, n = 20; concentration range for ibuprofen, 0.053-2.000 mM; LOD for ibuprofen, ∼0.005 mM; including extraction and detection). To exemplify its usefulness in real-world applications, we implemented this device in chemical profiling of pharmaceutical formulation dissolution process. Temporal dissolution profiles of commercial ibuprofen and acetaminophen tablets were recorded during 10 h. The extraction-MS datasets were fitted with exponential functions to characterize the rates of release of the main and auxiliary ingredients (e.g. ibuprofen, k = 0.43 ± 0.01 h(-1)). The electronic control unit of this system interacts with the operator via touch screen, internet, voice, and short text messages sent to the mobile phone, which is helpful when launching long-term (e.g. overnight) measurements. Due to these interactive features, the platform brings the concept of the Internet-of-Things (IoT) to the chemistry laboratory environment. PMID:26423626

  16. Development and verification of an automated sample processing protocol for quantitation of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 RNA in plasma.

    PubMed

    Lee, Brenda G; Fiebelkorn, Kristin R; Caliendo, Angela M; Nolte, Frederick S

    2003-05-01

    We developed and verified an automated sample processing protocol for use with the AMPLICOR HIV-1 MONITOR test, version 1.5 (Roche Diagnostics, Indianapolis, Ind.). The automated method uses the MagNA Pure LC instrument and total nucleic acid reagents (Roche Applied Science, Indianapolis, Ind.) to extract human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) RNA from plasma specimens. We compared the HIV-1 load results for a dilution series (1 to 5 nominal log(10) copies/ml) and 175 clinical specimens processed by the automated method to those for the same samples processed by the manual methods specified by the manufacturer. The sensitivity, dynamic range, and precision of the viral load assay obtained by automated processing of specimens were similar to those obtained by an ultrasensitive manual processing method. The results were highly correlated (R(2), 0.95), and were in close agreement, with a mean difference of 0.09 log(10) (standard deviation, 0.292). The limits of agreement were +/-0.58 log(10) for results for samples processed by both the manual and the automated methods. These performance characteristics were achieved with a smaller sample volume (200 versus 500 microl) and without a high-speed centrifugation step and required only 15 min of labor for a batch of 32 samples. In conclusion, the automated sample preparation protocol can replace both the standard and the ultrasensitive manual methods used with the AMPLICOR HIV-1 MONITOR test and can substantially reduce the labor associated with this test. PMID:12734249

  17. Automated system for sampling, counting, and biological analysis of rotifer populations

    PubMed Central

    Stelzer, Claus-Peter

    2010-01-01

    Zooplankton organisms with short generation times, such as rotifers, are ideal models to study general ecological and evolutionary questions on the population level, because meaningful experiments can often be completed within a couple of weeks. Yet biological analysis of such populations is often extremely time consuming, owing to abundance estimation by counting, measuring body size, or determining the investment into sexual versus asexual reproduction. An automated system for sampling and analyzing experimental rotifer populations is described. It relies on image analysis of digital photographs taken from subsamples of the culture. The system works completely autonomously for up to several weeks and can sample up to 12 cultures at time intervals down to a few hours. It allows quantitative analysis of female population density at a precision equivalent to that of conventional methods (i.e., manual counts of samples fixed in Lugol solution), and it can also recognize males, which allows detecting temporal variation of sexual reproduction in such cultures. Another parameter that can be automatically measured with the image analysis system is female body size. This feature may be useful for studies of population productivity and/or in competition experiments with clones of different body size. In this article, I describe the basic setup of the system and tests on the efficiency of data collection, and show some example data sets on the population dynamics of different strains of the rotifer Brachionus calyciflorus. PMID:21151824

  18. Rapid and automated sample preparation for nucleic acid extraction on a microfluidic CD (compact disk)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jitae; Kido, Horacio; Zoval, Jim V.; Gagné, Dominic; Peytavi, Régis; Picard, François J.; Bastien, Martine; Boissinot, Maurice; Bergeron, Michel G.; Madou, Marc J.

    2006-01-01

    Rapid and automated preparation of PCR (polymerase chain reaction)-ready genomic DNA was demonstrated on a multiplexed CD (compact disk) platform by using hard-to-lyse bacterial spores. Cell disruption is carried out while beadcell suspensions are pushed back and forth in center-tapered lysing chambers by angular oscillation of the disk - keystone effect. During this lysis period, the cell suspensions are securely held within the lysing chambers by heatactivated wax valves. Upon application of a remote heat to the disk in motion, the wax valves release lysate solutions into centrifuge chambers where cell debris are separated by an elevated rotation of the disk. Only debris-free DNA extract is then transferred to collection chambers by capillary-assisted siphon and collected for heating that inactivates PCR inhibitors. Lysing capacity was evaluated using a real-time PCR assay to monitor the efficiency of Bacillus globigii spore lysis. PCR analysis showed that 5 minutes' CD lysis run gave spore lysis efficiency similar to that obtained with a popular commercial DNA extraction kit (i.e., IDI-lysis kit from GeneOhm Sciences Inc.) which is highly efficient for microbial cell and spore lysis. This work will contribute to the development of an integrated CD-based assay for rapid diagnosis of infectious diseases.

  19. An automated system to mount cryo-cooled protein crystals on a synchrotron beam line, using compact sample cassettes and a small-scale robot

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Aina E.; Ellis, Paul J.; Miller, Mitchell D.; Deacon, Ashley M.; Phizackerley, R. Paul

    2014-01-01

    An automated system for mounting and dismounting pre-frozen crystals has been implemented at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory (SSRL). It is based on a small industrial robot and compact cylindrical cassettes, each holding up to 96 crystals mounted on Hampton Research sample pins. For easy shipping and storage, the cassette fits inside several popular dry-shippers and long-term storage Dewars. A dispensing Dewar holds up to three cassettes in liquid nitrogen adjacent to the beam line goniometer. The robot uses a permanent magnet tool to extract samples from, and insert samples into a cassette, and a cryo-tong tool to transfer them to and from the beam line goniometer. The system is simple, with few moving parts, reliable in operation and convenient to use. PMID:24899734

  20. Renewable Microcolumns for Automated DNA Purification and Flow-through Amplification: From Sediment Samples through Polymerase Chain Reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Bruckner-Lea, Cindy J. ); Tsukuda, Toyoko ); Dockendorff, Brian P. ); Follansbee, James C. ); Kingsley, Mark T. ); Ocampo, Catherine O.; Stults, Jennie R.; Chandler, Darrell P.

    2001-12-01

    There is an increasing need for field-portable systems for the detection and characterization of microorganisms in the environment. Nucleic acids analysis is frequently the method of choice for discriminating between bacteria in complex systems, but standard protocols are difficult to automate and current microfluidic devices are not configured specifically for environmental sample analysis. In this report, we describe the development of an integrated DNA purification and PCR amplification system and demonstrate its use for the automated purification and amplification of Geobacter chapelli DNA (genomic DNA or plasmid targets) from sediments. The system includes renewable separation columns for the automated capture and release of microparticle purification matrices, and can be easily reprogrammed for new separation chemistries and sample types. The DNA extraction efficiency for the automated system ranged from 3 to 25 percent, depending on the length and concentration of the DNA target . The system was more efficient than batch capture methods for the recovery of dilute genomic DNA even though the reagen volumes were smaller than required for the batch procedure. The automated DNA concentration and purification module was coupled to a flow-through, Peltier-controlled DNA amplification chamber, and used to successfully purify and amplify genomic and plasmid DNA from sediment extracts. Cleaning protocols were also developed to allow reuse of the integrated sample preparation system, including the flow-through PCR tube.

  1. Erratum to: Automated Sample Preparation Method for Suspension Arrays using Renewable Surface Separations with Multiplexed Flow Cytometry Fluorescence Detection

    SciTech Connect

    Grate, Jay W.; Bruckner-Lea, Cindy J.; Jarrell, Ann E.; Chandler, Darrell P.

    2003-04-10

    In this paper we describe a new method of automated sample preparation for multiplexed biological analysis systems that use flow cytometry fluorescence detection. In this approach, color-encoded microspheres derivatized to capture particular biomolecules are temporarily trapped in a renewable surface separation column to enable perfusion with sample and reagents prior to delivery to the detector. This method provides for separation of the biomolecules of interest from other sample matrix components as well as from labeling solutions.

  2. Automated extraction of 11-nor-delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol carboxylic acid from urine samples using the ASPEC XL solid-phase extraction system.

    PubMed

    Langen, M C; de Bijl, G A; Egberts, A C

    2000-09-01

    The analysis of 11-nor-delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol-carboxylic acid (THCCOOH, the major metabolite of cannabis) in urine with gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and solid-phase extraction (SPE) sample preparation is well documented. Automated SPE sample preparation of THCCOOH in urine, although potentially advantageous, is to our knowledge poorly investigated. The objective of the present study was to develop and validate an automated SPE sample-preparation step using ASPEC XL suited for GC-MS confirmation analysis of THCCOOH in urine drug control. The recoveries showed that it was not possible to transfer the protocol for the manual SPE procedure with the vacuum manifold to the ASPEC XL without loss of recovery. Making the sample more lipophilic by adding 1 mL 2-propanol after hydrolysis to the urine sample in order to overcome the problem of surface adsorption of THCCOOH led to an extraction efficiency (77%) comparable to that reached with the vacuum manifold (84%). The reproducibility of the automated SPE procedure was better (coefficient of variation 5%) than that of the manual procedure (coefficient of variation 12%). The limit of detection was 1 ng/mL, and the limit of quantitation was 4 ng/mL. Precision at the 12.5-ng/mL level was as follows: mean, 12.4 and coefficient of variation, 3.0%. Potential carryover was evaluated, but a carryover effect could not be detected. It was concluded that the proposed method is suited for GC-MS confirmation urinalysis of THCCOOH for prisons and detoxification centers. PMID:10999349

  3. The Upgrade Programme for the Structural Biology beamlines at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility - High throughput sample evaluation and automation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theveneau, P.; Baker, R.; Barrett, R.; Beteva, A.; Bowler, M. W.; Carpentier, P.; Caserotto, H.; de Sanctis, D.; Dobias, F.; Flot, D.; Guijarro, M.; Giraud, T.; Lentini, M.; Leonard, G. A.; Mattenet, M.; McCarthy, A. A.; McSweeney, S. M.; Morawe, C.; Nanao, M.; Nurizzo, D.; Ohlsson, S.; Pernot, P.; Popov, A. N.; Round, A.; Royant, A.; Schmid, W.; Snigirev, A.; Surr, J.; Mueller-Dieckmann, C.

    2013-03-01

    Automation and advances in technology are the key elements in addressing the steadily increasing complexity of Macromolecular Crystallography (MX) experiments. Much of this complexity is due to the inter-and intra-crystal heterogeneity in diffraction quality often observed for crystals of multi-component macromolecular assemblies or membrane proteins. Such heterogeneity makes high-throughput sample evaluation an important and necessary tool for increasing the chances of a successful structure determination. The introduction at the ESRF of automatic sample changers in 2005 dramatically increased the number of samples that were tested for diffraction quality. This "first generation" of automation, coupled with advances in software aimed at optimising data collection strategies in MX, resulted in a three-fold increase in the number of crystal structures elucidated per year using data collected at the ESRF. In addition, sample evaluation can be further complemented using small angle scattering experiments on the newly constructed bioSAXS facility on BM29 and the micro-spectroscopy facility (ID29S). The construction of a second generation of automated facilities on the MASSIF (Massively Automated Sample Screening Integrated Facility) beam lines will build on these advances and should provide a paradigm shift in how MX experiments are carried out which will benefit the entire Structural Biology community.

  4. Automation and integration of multiplexed on-line sample preparation with capillary electrophoresis for DNA sequencing

    SciTech Connect

    Tan, H.

    1999-03-31

    The purpose of this research is to develop a multiplexed sample processing system in conjunction with multiplexed capillary electrophoresis for high-throughput DNA sequencing. The concept from DNA template to called bases was first demonstrated with a manually operated single capillary system. Later, an automated microfluidic system with 8 channels based on the same principle was successfully constructed. The instrument automatically processes 8 templates through reaction, purification, denaturation, pre-concentration, injection, separation and detection in a parallel fashion. A multiplexed freeze/thaw switching principle and a distribution network were implemented to manage flow direction and sample transportation. Dye-labeled terminator cycle-sequencing reactions are performed in an 8-capillary array in a hot air thermal cycler. Subsequently, the sequencing ladders are directly loaded into a corresponding size-exclusion chromatographic column operated at {approximately} 60 C for purification. On-line denaturation and stacking injection for capillary electrophoresis is simultaneously accomplished at a cross assembly set at {approximately} 70 C. Not only the separation capillary array but also the reaction capillary array and purification columns can be regenerated after every run. DNA sequencing data from this system allow base calling up to 460 bases with accuracy of 98%.

  5. Analysis of zearalenone in cereal and Swine feed samples using an automated flow-through immunosensor.

    PubMed

    Urraca, Javier L; Benito-Peña, Elena; Pérez-Conde, Concepción; Moreno-Bondi, María C; Pestka, James J

    2005-05-01

    The development of a sensitive flow-though immunosensor for the analysis of the mycotoxin zearalenone in cereal samples is described. The sensor was completely automated and was based on a direct competitive immunosorbent assay and fluorescence detection. The mycotoxin competes with a horseradish-peroxidase-labeled derivative for the binding sites of a rabbit polyclonal antibody. Control pore glass covalently bound to Prot A was used for the oriented immobilization of the antibody-antigen immunocomplexes. The immunosensor shows an IC(50) value of 0.087 ng mL(-1) (RSD = 2.8%, n = 6) and a dynamic range from 0.019 to 0.422 ng mL(-1). The limit of detection (90% of blank signal) of 0.007 ng mL(-1) (RSD = 3.9%, n = 3) is lower than previously published methods. Corn, wheat, and swine feed samples have been analyzed with the device after extraction of the analyte using accelerated solvent extraction (ASE). The immunosensor has been validated using a corn certificate reference material and HPLC with fluorescence detection. PMID:15853369

  6. Plasma cortisol and noradrenalin concentrations in pigs: automated sampling of freely moving pigs housed in PigTurn versus manually sampled and restrained pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Minimizing the effects of restraint and human interaction on the endocrine physiology of animals is essential for collection of accurate physiological measurements. Our objective was to compare stress-induced cortisol (CORT) and noradrenalin (NorA) responses in automated versus manual blood sampling...

  7. Plasma cortisol and norepinephrine concentrations in pigs: automated sampling of freely moving pigs housed in the PigTurn versus manually sampled and restrained pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Minimizing effects of restraint and human interaction on the endocrine physiology of animals is essential for collection of accurate physiological measurements. Our objective was to compare stress-induced cortisol (CORT) and norepinephrine (NE) responses in automated versus manual blood sampling. A ...

  8. COLUMBUS Orbital Facility and Automated Transfer Vehicle: a challenge for agency & industry.

    PubMed

    Michaelis, H; Luttmann, H

    1997-01-01

    Long term continuous operation of the COLUMBUS Orbital Facility (COF) flight- and ground segment requires continuous mission control and operations support capability to ensure proper operation and configuration of the COF systems in support of ongoing science and technology payloads. The ISS logistics scenario will be supported by the Automated Transfer Vehicle (ATV). These operational needs require the built-up of a new ground infrastructure in Europe and USA, enabling an efficient operations for preparation, planning and mission execution. The challenge for the European space community consists in the development and operation of a user friendly operational environment but keeping costs within budgetary constraints. Results of detailed definition studies performed by both agency and industry for the ground infrastructure indicate solutions to those technical and programmatic requirements by using of existing centers and facilities, re-use of C/D phase products (Hardware, Software) and COTS equipment to avoid costly new developments, using engineering expertise of the industrial personnel from flight element phase C/D. The concept for operations execution defines the task sharing between Operations Control Facilities (OCF), Operations Support Facilities and User Operations Sites. Operations support consists of on-line engineering support, off-line engineering support, payload integration, logistics support and crew training support performed by industry. DASA RI has made internal investments in organizational concepts for mission operations as well as in mission technologies and tools based on the standard COLUMBUS Ground Software (CGS) toolset and on knowledge based systems to enable an efficient industrial operations support. These tools are available as prototypes being evaluated in a simulated operational environment. PMID:11541146

  9. Transfer of nir calibration model for determining fiber content in flax; effects of transfer samples and standardization procedure

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The transfer of a calibration model for determining fiber content in flax stem was accomplished between two near-infrared spectrometers, which are the same brand but require a standardization. In this paper, three factors including: transfer sample set, spectral type, and standardization method wer...

  10. Rapid magnetic bead based sample preparation for automated and high throughput N-glycan analysis of therapeutic antibodies.

    PubMed

    Váradi, Csaba; Lew, Clarence; Guttman, András

    2014-06-17

    Full automation to enable high throughput N-glycosylation profiling and sequencing with good reproducibility is vital to fulfill the contemporary needs of the biopharmaceutical industry and requirements of national regulatory agencies. The most prevalently used glycoanalytical methods of capillary electrophoresis and hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography, while very efficient, both necessitate extensive sample preparation and cleanup, including glycoprotein capture, N-glycan release, fluorescent derivatization, purification, and preconcentration steps during the process. Currently used protocols to fulfill these tasks require multiple centrifugation and vacuum-centrifugation steps, making liquid handling robot mediated automated sample preparation difficult and expensive. In this paper we report on a rapid magnetic bead based sample preparation approach that enables full automation including all the process phases just in a couple of hours without requiring any centrifugation and/or vacuum centrifugation steps. This novel protocol has been compared to conventional glycan sample preparation strategies using standard glycoproteins (IgG, fetuin, and RNase B) and featured rapid processing time, high release and labeling efficiency, good reproducibility, and the potential of easy automation. PMID:24909945

  11. Orbital transfer vehicle launch operations study: Automated technology knowledge base, volume 4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    A simplified retrieval strategy for compiling automation-related bibliographies from NASA/RECON is presented. Two subsets of NASA Thesaurus subject terms were extracted: a primary list, which is used to obtain an initial set of citations; and a secondary list, which is used to limit or further specify a large initial set of citations. These subject term lists are presented in Appendix A as the Automated Technology Knowledge Base (ATKB) Thesaurus.

  12. Performance verification of the Maxwell 16 Instrument and DNA IQ Reference Sample Kit for automated DNA extraction of known reference samples.

    PubMed

    Krnajski, Z; Geering, S; Steadman, S

    2007-12-01

    Advances in automation have been made for a number of processes conducted in the forensic DNA laboratory. However, because most robotic systems are designed for high-throughput laboratories batching large numbers of samples, smaller laboratories are left with a limited number of cost-effective options for employing automation. The Maxwell 16 Instrument and DNA IQ Reference Sample Kit marketed by Promega are designed for rapid, automated purification of DNA extracts from sample sets consisting of sixteen or fewer samples. Because the system is based on DNA capture by paramagnetic particles with maximum binding capacity, it is designed to generate extracts with yield consistency. The studies herein enabled evaluation of STR profile concordance, consistency of yield, and cross-contamination performance for the Maxwell 16 Instrument. Results indicate that the system performs suitably for streamlining the process of extracting known reference samples generally used for forensic DNA analysis and has many advantages in a small or moderate-sized laboratory environment. PMID:25869266

  13. Automated, low-temperature dielectric relaxation apparatus for measurement of air-sensitive, corrosive, hygroscopic, powdered samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bessonette, Paul W. R.; White, Mary Anne

    1999-07-01

    An automated apparatus for dielectric determinations on solid samples was designed to allow cryogenic measurements on air-sensitive, corrosive, hygroscopic, powdered samples, without determination of sample thickness, provided that it is uniform. A three-terminal design enabled measurements that were not affected by errors due to dimensional changes of the sample or the electrodes with changes in temperature. Meaningful dielectric data could be taken over the frequency range from 20 Hz to 1 MHz and the temperature range from 12 to 360 K. Tests with Teflon and with powdered NH4Cl gave results that were accurate within a few percent when compared with literature values.

  14. Method and Apparatus for Automated Isolation of Nucleic Acids from Small Cell Samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sundaram, Shivshankar; Prabhakarpandian, Balabhaskar; Pant, Kapil; Wang, Yi

    2014-01-01

    RNA isolation is a ubiquitous need, driven by current emphasis on microarrays and miniaturization. With commercial systems requiring 100,000 to 1,000,000 cells for successful isolation, there is a growing need for a small-footprint, easy-to-use device that can harvest nucleic acids from much smaller cell samples (1,000 to 10,000 cells). The process of extraction of RNA from cell cultures is a complex, multi-step one, and requires timed, asynchronous operations with multiple reagents/buffers. An added complexity is the fragility of RNA (subject to degradation) and its reactivity to surface. A novel, microfluidics-based, integrated cartridge has been developed that can fully automate the complex process of RNA isolation (lyse, capture, and elute RNA) from small cell culture samples. On-cartridge cell lysis is achieved using either reagents or high-strength electric fields made possible by the miniaturized format. Traditionally, silica-based, porous-membrane formats have been used for RNA capture, requiring slow perfusion for effective capture. In this design, high efficiency capture/elution are achieved using a microsphere-based "microfluidized" format. Electrokinetic phenomena are harnessed to actively mix microspheres with the cell lysate and capture/elution buffer, providing important advantages in extraction efficiency, processing time, and operational flexibility. Successful RNA isolation was demonstrated using both suspension (HL-60) and adherent (BHK-21) cells. Novel features associated with this development are twofold. First, novel designs that execute needed processes with improved speed and efficiency were developed. These primarily encompass electric-field-driven lysis of cells. The configurations include electrode-containing constructs, or an "electrode-less" chip design, which is easy to fabricate and mitigates fouling at the electrode surface; and the "fluidized" extraction format based on electrokinetically assisted mixing and contacting of microbeads

  15. Automated delay measurement system for an Earth station for Two-Way Satellite Time and Frequency Transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dejong, Gerrit; Polderman, Michel C.

    1995-01-01

    The measurement of the difference of the transmit and receive delays of the signals in a Two-Way Satellite Time and Frequency Transfer (TWSTFT) Earth station is crucial for its nanosecond time transfer capability. Also, the monitoring of the change of this delay difference with time, temperature, humidity, or barometric pressure is important for improving the TWSTFT capabilities. An automated system for this purpose has been developed from the initial design at NMi-VSL. It calibrates separately the transmit and receive delays in cables, amplifiers, upconverters and downconverters, and antenna feeds. The obtained results can be applied as corrections to the TWSTFT measurement when, before and after a measurement session, a calibration session is performed. Preliminary results obtained at NMi-VSL will be shown. Also, if available, the results of a manual version of the system that is planned to be circulated in Sept. 1994 together with a USNO portable station on a calibration trip to European TWSTFT Earth stations.

  16. Smart Combinatorial Research Equipment (SmartCoRE) for Sample Environmental Control and Automated Analysis with Optical Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Church, Matthew; Ding, Xiaodong; Nantel, Norman

    2012-02-01

    Combinatorial research (CR) has revolutionized the way research is done in every major chemistry, physics and material science laboratory. We propose to bring the same success of automation and capabilities of CR to a widely used technique, small- and wide- angle x-ray scattering (SAXS/WAXS) through our development of a small, modular sample environmental chamber with embedded control electronics that can easily be used in large arrays. The device however is not restricted to a SAXS/WAXS techniques as it can easily be adapted to almost any kind of small volume sample prep or optical analysis technique requiring control of basic sample environmental parameters such as temperature, atmosphere, light and electromagnetic fields. The prototype has the following capabilities: 1. Automated switching of external electronic instrumentation between modules. 2. Thermoelectric temperature control from -50 to 200 C. 3. Ports for gas flow through or evacuation of sample environment. 4. Sealed sample environment using minimally scattering window material. 5. 90 degree field of view of both sides of sample. 6. Optional fiber-optic connections for UV-Vis spectroscopy. 7. Optional GISAXS mounting geometry. 8. Optional liquid sample flow cell.

  17. Umbrella sampling of proton transfer in a creatine-water system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivchenko, Olga; Bachert, Peter; Imhof, Petra

    2014-04-01

    Proton transfer reactions are among the most common processes in chemistry and biology. Proton transfer between creatine and surrounding solvent water is underlying the chemical exchange saturation transfer used as a contrast in magnetic resonance imaging. The free energy barrier, determined by first-principles umbrella sampling simulations (EaDFT 3 kcal/mol) is in the same order of magnitude as the experimentally obtained activation energy. The underlying mechanism is a first proton transfer from the guanidinium group to the water pool, followed by a second transition where a proton is "transferred back" from the nearest water molecule to the deprotonated nitrogen atom of creatine.

  18. Automated sample preparation for radiogenic and non-traditional metal isotope analysis by MC-ICP-MS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Field, M. P.; Romaniello, S. J.; Gordon, G. W.; Anbar, A. D.

    2012-12-01

    High throughput analysis is becoming increasingly important for many applications of radiogenic and non-traditional metal isotopes. While MC-ICP-MS instruments offer the potential for very high sample throughout, the requirement for labor-intensive sample preparation and purification procedures remains a substantial bottleneck. Current purification protocols require manually feeding gravity-driven separation columns, a process that is both costly and time consuming. This bottleneck is eliminated with the prepFAST-MC™, an automated, low-pressure ion exchange chromatography system that can process from 1 to 60 samples in unattended operation. The syringe-driven system allows sample loading, multiple acid washes, column conditioning and elution cycles necessary to isolate elements of interest and automatically collect up to 3 discrete eluent fractions at user-defined intervals (time, volume and flow rate). Newly developed protocols for automated purification of uranium illustrates high throughput (>30 per run), multiple samples processed per column (>30), complete (>99%) matrix removal, high recovery (> 98%, n=25), and excellent precision (2 sigma =0.03 permil, n=10). The prepFAST-MC™ maximizes sample throughput and minimizes costs associated with personnel and consumables providing an opportunity to greatly expand research horizons in fields where large isotopic data sets are required, including archeology, geochemistry, and climate/environmental science

  19. Determination of rare-earth elements in geological and environmental samples using an automated batch preconcentration/matrix elimination system

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, F.G.; Wiederin, D.R.; Mortlock, R.

    1994-12-31

    Determination of the rare earth elements is important in the study of sedimentary processes. Geological and environmental samples often contain very low levels of these elements, and detection by plasma spectroscopy (ICP-AES, ICP-MS) is difficult unless a preconcentration and/or matrix elimination procedure is performed prior to analysis.; An automated batch preconcentration/matrix elimination system offers rapid, off-line sample preparation for a variety of sample types. A chelating form of a solid suspended reagent is added to a pH-adjusted sample. The suspended reagent with any bound elements are trapped in a hollow fiber membrane filter while unbound matrix components are washed to waste. The reagent with bound analytes are then released in a small volume. The system works in concert with an autosampler for unattended operation. Application to a variety of geological and environmental samples will be described.

  20. Detection of Cytomegalovirus (CMV) DNA in EDTA Whole-Blood Samples: Evaluation of the Quantitative artus CMV LightCycler PCR Kit in Conjunction with Automated Sample Preparation▿

    PubMed Central

    Michelin, Birgit D. A.; Hadžisejdić, Ita; Bozic, Michael; Grahovac, Maja; Hess, Markus; Grahovac, Blaženka; Marth, Egon; Kessler, Harald H.

    2008-01-01

    Whole blood has been found to be a reliable matrix for the detection and quantitation of cytomegalovirus (CMV) DNA. In this study, the performance of the artus CMV LightCycler (LC) PCR kit in conjunction with automated sample preparation on a BioRobot EZ1 workstation was evaluated. The accuracy, linearity, analytical sensitivity, and inter- and intra-assay variations were determined. A total of 102 clinical EDTA whole-blood samples were investigated, and results were compared with those obtained with the in vitro diagnostics (IVD)/Conformité Européene (CE)-labeled CMV HHV6,7,8 R-gene quantification kit. When the accuracy of the new kit was tested, seven of eight results were found to be within ±0.5 log10 unit of the expected panel results. Determination of linearity resulted in a quasilinear curve over more than 5 log units. The lower limit of detection of the assay was determined to be 139 copies/ml in EDTA whole blood. The interassay variation ranged from 15 to 58%, and the intra-assay variation ranged from 7 to 35%. When clinical samples were tested and the results were compared with those of the routinely used IVD/CE-labeled assay, 53 samples tested positive and 13 samples tested negative by both of the assays. One sample was found to be positive with the artus CMV LC PCR kit only, and 35 samples tested positive with the routinely used assay only. The majority of discrepant results were found with low-titer samples. In conclusion, use of the artus CMV LC PCR kit in conjunction with automated sample preparation on the BioRobot EZ1 workstation may be suitable for the detection and quantitation of CMV DNA in EDTA whole blood in the routine low-throughput laboratory; however, low-positive results may be missed by this assay. PMID:18272703

  1. Automation impact study of Army training management 2: Extension of sampling and collection of installation resource data

    SciTech Connect

    Sanquist, T.F.; McCallum, M.C.; Hunt, P.S.; Slavich, A.L.; Underwood, J.A.; Toquam, J.L.; Seaver, D.A.

    1989-05-01

    This automation impact study of Army training management (TM) was performed for the Army Development and Employment Agency (ADEA) and the Combined Arms Training Activity (CATA) by the Battelle Human Affairs Research Centers and the Pacific Northwest Laboratory. The primary objective of the study was to provide the Army with information concerning the potential costs and savings associated with automating the TM process. This study expands the sample of units surveyed in Phase I of the automation impact effort (Sanquist et al., 1988), and presents data concerning installation resource management in relation to TM. The structured interview employed in Phase I was adapted to a self-administered survey. The data collected were compatible with that of Phase I, and both were combined for analysis. Three US sites, one reserve division, one National Guard division, and one unit in the active component outside the continental US (OCONUS) (referred to in this report as forward deployed) were surveyed. The total sample size was 459, of which 337 respondents contributed the most detailed data. 20 figs., 62 tabs.

  2. Automated sample-changing robot for solution scattering experiments at the EMBL Hamburg SAXS station X33.

    PubMed

    Round, A R; Franke, D; Moritz, S; Huchler, R; Fritsche, M; Malthan, D; Klaering, R; Svergun, D I; Roessle, M

    2008-10-01

    There is a rapidly increasing interest in the use of synchrotron small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) for large-scale studies of biological macromolecules in solution, and this requires an adequate means of automating the experiment. A prototype has been developed of an automated sample changer for solution SAXS, where the solutions are kept in thermostatically controlled well plates allowing for operation with up to 192 samples. The measuring protocol involves controlled loading of protein solutions and matching buffers, followed by cleaning and drying of the cell between measurements. The system was installed and tested at the X33 beamline of the EMBL, at the storage ring DORIS-III (DESY, Hamburg), where it was used by over 50 external groups during 2007. At X33, a throughput of approximately 12 samples per hour, with a failure rate of sample loading of less than 0.5%, was observed. The feedback from users indicates that the ease of use and reliability of the user operation at the beamline were greatly improved compared with the manual filling mode. The changer is controlled by a client-server-based network protocol, locally and remotely. During the testing phase, the changer was operated in an attended mode to assess its reliability and convenience. Full integration with the beamline control software, allowing for automated data collection of all samples loaded into the machine with remote control from the user, is presently being implemented. The approach reported is not limited to synchrotron-based SAXS but can also be used on laboratory and neutron sources. PMID:25484841

  3. Automated sample-changing robot for solution scattering experiments at the EMBL Hamburg SAXS station X33

    PubMed Central

    Round, A. R.; Franke, D.; Moritz, S.; Huchler, R.; Fritsche, M.; Malthan, D.; Klaering, R.; Svergun, D. I.; Roessle, M.

    2008-01-01

    There is a rapidly increasing interest in the use of synchrotron small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) for large-scale studies of biological macromolecules in solution, and this requires an adequate means of automating the experiment. A prototype has been developed of an automated sample changer for solution SAXS, where the solutions are kept in thermostatically controlled well plates allowing for operation with up to 192 samples. The measuring protocol involves controlled loading of protein solutions and matching buffers, followed by cleaning and drying of the cell between measurements. The system was installed and tested at the X33 beamline of the EMBL, at the storage ring DORIS-III (DESY, Hamburg), where it was used by over 50 external groups during 2007. At X33, a throughput of approximately 12 samples per hour, with a failure rate of sample loading of less than 0.5%, was observed. The feedback from users indicates that the ease of use and reliability of the user operation at the beamline were greatly improved compared with the manual filling mode. The changer is controlled by a client–server-based network protocol, locally and remotely. During the testing phase, the changer was operated in an attended mode to assess its reliability and convenience. Full integration with the beamline control software, allowing for automated data collection of all samples loaded into the machine with remote control from the user, is presently being implemented. The approach reported is not limited to synchrotron-based SAXS but can also be used on laboratory and neutron sources. PMID:25484841

  4. Automated Detection of Toxigenic Clostridium difficile in Clinical Samples: Isothermal tcdB Amplification Coupled to Array-Based Detection

    PubMed Central

    Pasko, Chris; Groves, Benjamin; Ager, Edward; Corpuz, Maylene; Frech, Georges; Munns, Denton; Smith, Wendy; Warcup, Ashley; Denys, Gerald; Ledeboer, Nathan A.; Lindsey, Wes; Owen, Charles; Rea, Larry; Jenison, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Clostridium difficile can carry a genetically variable pathogenicity locus (PaLoc), which encodes clostridial toxins A and B. In hospitals and in the community at large, this organism is increasingly identified as a pathogen. To develop a diagnostic test that combines the strengths of immunoassays (cost) and DNA amplification assays (sensitivity/specificity), we targeted a genetically stable PaLoc region, amplifying tcdB sequences and detecting them by hybridization capture. The assay employs a hot-start isothermal method coupled to a multiplexed chip-based readout, creating a manual assay that detects toxigenic C. difficile with high sensitivity and specificity within 1 h. Assay automation on an electromechanical instrument produced an analytical sensitivity of 10 CFU (95% probability of detection) of C. difficile in fecal samples, along with discrimination against other enteric bacteria. To verify automated assay function, 130 patient samples were tested: 31/32 positive samples (97% sensitive; 95% confidence interval [CI], 82 to 99%) and 98/98 negative samples (100% specific; 95% CI, 95 to 100%) were scored correctly. Large-scale clinical studies are now planned to determine clinical sensitivity and specificity. PMID:22675134

  5. Proton transfer pathways in an aspartate-water cluster sampled by a network of discrete states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reidelbach, Marco; Betz, Fridtjof; Mäusle, Raquel Maya; Imhof, Petra

    2016-08-01

    Proton transfer reactions are complex transitions due to the size and flexibility of the hydrogen-bonded networks along which the protons may "hop". The combination of molecular dynamics based sampling of water positions and orientations with direct sampling of proton positions is an efficient way to capture the interplay of these degrees of freedom in a transition network. The energetically most favourable pathway in the proton transfer network computed for an aspartate-water cluster shows the pre-orientation of water molecules and aspartate side chains to be a pre-requisite for the subsequent concerted proton transfer to the product state.

  6. Fully automated Liquid Extraction-Based Surface Sampling and Ionization Using a Chip-Based Robotic Nanoelectrospray Platform

    SciTech Connect

    Kertesz, Vilmos; Van Berkel, Gary J

    2010-01-01

    A fully automated liquid extraction-based surface sampling device utilizing an Advion NanoMate chip-based infusion nanoelectrospray ionization system is reported. Analyses were enabled for discrete spot sampling by using the Advanced User Interface of the current commercial control software. This software interface provided the parameter control necessary for the NanoMate robotic pipettor to both form and withdraw a liquid microjunction for sampling from a surface. The system was tested with three types of analytically important sample surface types, viz., spotted sample arrays on a MALDI plate, dried blood spots on paper, and whole-body thin tissue sections from drug dosed mice. The qualitative and quantitative data were consistent with previous studies employing other liquid extraction-based surface sampling techniques. The successful analyses performed here utilized the hardware and software elements already present in the NanoMate system developed to handle and analyze liquid samples. Implementation of an appropriate sample (surface) holder, a solvent reservoir, faster movement of the robotic arm, finer control over solvent flow rate when dispensing and retrieving the solution at the surface, and the ability to select any location on a surface to sample from would improve the analytical performance and utility of the platform.

  7. High-frequency, long-duration water sampling in acid mine drainage studies: a short review of current methods and recent advances in automated water samplers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chapin, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Hand-collected grab samples are the most common water sampling method but using grab sampling to monitor temporally variable aquatic processes such as diel metal cycling or episodic events is rarely feasible or cost-effective. Currently available automated samplers are a proven, widely used technology and typically collect up to 24 samples during a deployment. However, these automated samplers are not well suited for long-term sampling in remote areas or in freezing conditions. There is a critical need for low-cost, long-duration, high-frequency water sampling technology to improve our understanding of the geochemical response to temporally variable processes. This review article will examine recent developments in automated water sampler technology and utilize selected field data from acid mine drainage studies to illustrate the utility of high-frequency, long-duration water sampling.

  8. An automated procedure for the simultaneous determination of specific conductance and pH in natural water samples

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eradmann, D.E.; Taylor, H.E.

    1978-01-01

    An automated, continuous-flow system is utilized to determine specific conductance and pH simultaneously in natural waters. A direct electrometric procedure is used to determine values in the range pH 4-9. The specific conductance measurements are made with an electronically modified, commercially available conductivity meter interfaced to a separate module containing the readout control devices and printer. The system is designed to switch ranges automatically to accommodate optimum analysis of widely varying conductances ranging from a few ??mhos cm-1 to 15,000 ??mho cm-1. Thirty samples per hour can be analyzed. Comparison of manual and automated procedures for 40 samples showed that the average differences were 1.3% for specific conductance and 0.07 units for pH. The relative standard deviation for 25 replicate values for each of five samples was significantly less than 1% for the specific conductance determination; the standard deviation for the pH determination was ??? 0.06 pH units. ?? 1978.

  9. Image processing algorithm for automated monitoring of metal transfer in double-electrode GMAW

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhen Zhou; Zhang, Yu Ming

    2007-07-01

    Controlled metal transfer in gas metal arc welding (GMAW) implies controllable weld quality. To understand, analyse and control the metal transfer process, the droplet should be monitored and tracked. To process the metal transfer images in double-electrode GMAW (DE-GMAW), a novel modification of GMAW, a brightness-based algorithm is proposed to locate the droplet and compute the droplet size automatically. Although this algorithm can locate the droplet with adequate accuracy, its accuracy in droplet size computation needs improvements. To this end, the correlation among adjacent images due to the droplet development is taken advantage of to improve the algorithm. Experimental results verified that the improved algorithm can automatically locate the droplets and compute the droplet size with an adequate accuracy.

  10. Sample registration software for process automation in the Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) Facility in Malaysia nuclear agency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahman, Nur Aira Abd; Yussup, Nolida; Salim, Nazaratul Ashifa Bt. Abdullah; Ibrahim, Maslina Bt. Mohd; Mokhtar, Mukhlis B.; Soh@Shaari, Syirrazie Bin Che; Azman, Azraf B.; Ismail, Nadiah Binti

    2015-04-01

    Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) had been established in Nuclear Malaysia since 1980s. Most of the procedures established were done manually including sample registration. The samples were recorded manually in a logbook and given ID number. Then all samples, standards, SRM and blank were recorded on the irradiation vial and several forms prior to irradiation. These manual procedures carried out by the NAA laboratory personnel were time consuming and not efficient. Sample registration software is developed as part of IAEA/CRP project on `Development of Process Automation in the Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) Facility in Malaysia Nuclear Agency (RC17399)'. The objective of the project is to create a pc-based data entry software during sample preparation stage. This is an effective method to replace redundant manual data entries that needs to be completed by laboratory personnel. The software developed will automatically generate sample code for each sample in one batch, create printable registration forms for administration purpose, and store selected parameters that will be passed to sample analysis program. The software is developed by using National Instruments Labview 8.6.

  11. Sample registration software for process automation in the Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) Facility in Malaysia nuclear agency

    SciTech Connect

    Rahman, Nur Aira Abd Yussup, Nolida; Ibrahim, Maslina Bt. Mohd; Mokhtar, Mukhlis B.; Soh Shaari, Syirrazie Bin Che; Azman, Azraf B.; Salim, Nazaratul Ashifa Bt. Abdullah; Ismail, Nadiah Binti

    2015-04-29

    Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) had been established in Nuclear Malaysia since 1980s. Most of the procedures established were done manually including sample registration. The samples were recorded manually in a logbook and given ID number. Then all samples, standards, SRM and blank were recorded on the irradiation vial and several forms prior to irradiation. These manual procedures carried out by the NAA laboratory personnel were time consuming and not efficient. Sample registration software is developed as part of IAEA/CRP project on ‘Development of Process Automation in the Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) Facility in Malaysia Nuclear Agency (RC17399)’. The objective of the project is to create a pc-based data entry software during sample preparation stage. This is an effective method to replace redundant manual data entries that needs to be completed by laboratory personnel. The software developed will automatically generate sample code for each sample in one batch, create printable registration forms for administration purpose, and store selected parameters that will be passed to sample analysis program. The software is developed by using National Instruments Labview 8.6.

  12. Multiple automated headspace in-tube extraction for the accurate analysis of relevant wine aroma compounds and for the estimation of their relative liquid-gas transfer rates.

    PubMed

    Zapata, Julián; Lopez, Ricardo; Herrero, Paula; Ferreira, Vicente

    2012-11-30

    An automated headspace in-tube extraction (ITEX) method combined with multiple headspace extraction (MHE) has been developed to provide simultaneously information about the accurate wine content in 20 relevant aroma compounds and about their relative transfer rates to the headspace and hence about the relative strength of their interactions with the matrix. In the method, 5 μL (for alcohols, acetates and carbonyl alcohols) or 200 μL (for ethyl esters) of wine sample were introduced in a 2 mL vial, heated at 35°C and extracted with 32 (for alcohols, acetates and carbonyl alcohols) or 16 (for ethyl esters) 0.5 mL pumping strokes in four consecutive extraction and analysis cycles. The application of the classical theory of Multiple Extractions makes it possible to obtain a highly reliable estimate of the total amount of volatile compound present in the sample and a second parameter, β, which is simply the proportion of volatile not transferred to the trap in one extraction cycle, but that seems to be a reliable indicator of the actual volatility of the compound in that particular wine. A study with 20 wines of different types and 1 synthetic sample has revealed the existence of significant differences in the relative volatility of 15 out of 20 odorants. Differences are particularly intense for acetaldehyde and other carbonyls, but are also notable for alcohols and long chain fatty acid ethyl esters. It is expected that these differences, linked likely to sulphur dioxide and some unknown specific compositional aspects of the wine matrix, can be responsible for relevant sensory changes, and may even be the cause explaining why the same aroma composition can produce different aroma perceptions in two different wines. PMID:23102525

  13. Transferring automation for large-scale development and production of Invader SNP assays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neri, Bruce P.; Ganske, R.; Isaczyszyn, W.; Beaty, Edward L.

    2000-03-01

    The Human Genome Project has led to the discovery of hundreds of thousands of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). SNPs can act as genetic markers to create high- density maps of the human genome for large-scale genetic analysis for evaluating links between genetic mutations and human diseases and for performing association studies. To create those maps, assays capable of detecting many different SNPs must be developed rapidly, as additional SNPs are discovered. When both the design of and the technology used in the assays can be partially or fully automated, the development process and the time to results can be accomplished quickly and efficiently. InvaderTM technology offers a highly sensitive signal amplification system that detects and quantifies mutations and SNPs from unamplified human genomic DNA in two sequential steps.

  14. Non-destructive automated sampling of mycotoxins in bulk food and feed - A new tool for required harmonization.

    PubMed

    Spanjer, M; Stroka, J; Patel, S; Buechler, S; Pittet, A; Barel, S

    2001-06-01

    Mycotoxins contamination is highly non-uniformly distributed as is well recog-nized by the EC, by not only setting legal limits in a series of commodities, but also schedule a sampling plan that takes this heterogeneity into account. In practice however, it turns out that it is very difficult to carry out this sampling plan in a harmonised way. Applying the sampling plan to a container filled with pallets of bags (i.e. with nuts or coffee beans) varies from very laborious to almost impossible. The presented non-destructive automated method to sample bulk food could help to overcome these practical problems and to enforcing of EC directives. It is derived from a tested and approved technology for detection of illicit substances in security applications. It has capability to collect and iden-tify ultra trace contaminants, i.e. from a fingerprint of chemical substance in a bulk of goods, a cargo pallet load (~ 1000 kg) with boxes and commodities.The technology, patented for explosives detection, uses physical and chemistry processes for excitation and remote rapid enhanced release of contaminant residues, vapours and particulate, of the inner/outer surfaces of inspected bulk and collect them on selective probes. The process is automated, takes only 10 minutes, is non-destructive and the bulk itself remains unharmed. The system design is based on applicable international regulations for shipped cargo hand-ling and transportation by road, sea and air. After this process the pallet can be loaded on a truck, ship or plane. Analysis can be carried out before the cargo leaves the place of shipping. The potent application of this technology for myco-toxins detection, has been demonstrated by preliminary feasibility experiments. Aflatoxins were detected in pistachios and ochratoxin A in green coffee beans bulk. Both commodities were naturally contaminated, priory found and confirm-ed by common methods as used at routine inspections. Once the contaminants are extracted from a

  15. Automated method for simultaneous lead and strontium isotopic analysis applied to rainwater samples and airborne particulate filters (PM10).

    PubMed

    Beltrán, Blanca; Avivar, Jessica; Mola, Montserrat; Ferrer, Laura; Cerdà, Víctor; Leal, Luz O

    2013-09-01

    A new automated, sensitive, and fast system for the simultaneous online isolation and preconcentration of lead and strontium by sorption on a microcolumn packed with Sr-resin using an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) detector was developed, hyphenating lab-on-valve (LOV) and multisyringe flow injection analysis (MSFIA). Pb and Sr are directly retained on the sorbent column and eluted with a solution of 0.05 mol L(-1) ammonium oxalate. The detection limits achieved were 0.04 ng for lead and 0.03 ng for strontium. Mass calibration curves were used since the proposed system allows the use of different sample volumes for preconcentration. Mass linear working ranges were between 0.13 and 50 ng and 0.1 and 50 ng for lead and strontium, respectively. The repeatability of the method, expressed as RSD, was 2.1% and 2.7% for Pb and Sr, respectively. Environmental samples such as rainwater and airborne particulate (PM10) filters as well as a certified reference material SLRS-4 (river water) were satisfactorily analyzed obtaining recoveries between 90 and 110% for both elements. The main features of the LOV-MSFIA-ICP-MS system proposed are the capability to renew solid phase extraction at will in a fully automated way, the remarkable stability of the column which can be reused up to 160 times, and the potential to perform isotopic analysis. PMID:23883353

  16. Automated Ground-Water Sampling and Analysis of Hexavalent Chromium using a “Universal” Sampling/Analytical System

    PubMed Central

    Burge, Scott R.; Hoffman, Dave A.; Hartman, Mary J.; Venedam, Richard J.

    2005-01-01

    The capabilities of a “universal platform” for the deployment of analytical sensors in the field for long-term monitoring of environmental contaminants were expanded in this investigation. The platform was previously used to monitor trichloroethene in monitoring wells and at groundwater treatment systems (1,2). The platform was interfaced with chromium (VI) and conductivity analytical systems to monitor shallow wells installed adjacent to the Columbia River at the 100-D Area of the Hanford Site, Washington. A groundwater plume of hexavalent chromium is discharging into the Columbia River through the gravels beds used by spawning salmon. The sampling/analytical platform was deployed for the purpose of collecting data on subsurface hexavalent chromium concentrations at more frequent intervals than was possible with the previous sampling and analysis methods employed a the Site.

  17. Note: A simple sample transfer alignment for ultra-high vacuum systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamtögl, A.; Carter, E. A.; Ward, D. J.; Avidor, N.; Kole, P. R.; Jardine, A. P.; Allison, W.

    2016-06-01

    The alignment of ultra-high-vacuum sample transfer systems can be problematic when there is no direct line of sight to assist the user. We present the design of a simple and cheap system which greatly simplifies the alignment of sample transfer devices. Our method is based on the adaptation of a commercial digital camera which provides live views from within the vacuum chamber. The images of the camera are further processed using an image recognition and processing code which determines any misalignments and reports them to the user. Installation has proven to be extremely useful in order to align the sample with respect to the transfer mechanism. Furthermore, the alignment software can be easily adapted for other systems.

  18. Design and Practices for Use of Automated Drilling and Sample Handling in MARTE While Minimizing Terrestrial and Cross Contamination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, David P.; Bonaccorsi, Rosalba; Davis, Kiel

    2008-10-01

    Mars Astrobiology Research and Technology Experiment (MARTE) investigators used an automated drill and sample processing hardware to detect and categorize life-forms found in subsurface rock at Río Tinto, Spain. For the science to be successful, it was necessary for the biomass from other sources -- whether from previously processed samples (cross contamination) or the terrestrial environment (forward contamination) -- to be insignificant. The hardware and practices used in MARTE were designed around this problem. Here, we describe some of the design issues that were faced and classify them into problems that are unique to terrestrial tests versus problems that would also exist for a system that was flown to Mars. Assessment of the biomass at various stages in the sample handling process revealed mixed results; the instrument design seemed to minimize cross contamination, but contamination from the surrounding environment sometimes made its way onto the surface of samples. Techniques used during the MARTE Río Tinto project, such as facing the sample, appear to remove this environmental contamination without introducing significant cross contamination from previous samples.

  19. Design and practices for use of automated drilling and sample handling in MARTE while minimizing terrestrial and cross contamination.

    PubMed

    Miller, David P; Bonaccorsi, Rosalba; Davis, Kiel

    2008-10-01

    Mars Astrobiology Research and Technology Experiment (MARTE) investigators used an automated drill and sample processing hardware to detect and categorize life-forms found in subsurface rock at Río Tinto, Spain. For the science to be successful, it was necessary for the biomass from other sources--whether from previously processed samples (cross contamination) or the terrestrial environment (forward contamination)-to be insignificant. The hardware and practices used in MARTE were designed around this problem. Here, we describe some of the design issues that were faced and classify them into problems that are unique to terrestrial tests versus problems that would also exist for a system that was flown to Mars. Assessment of the biomass at various stages in the sample handling process revealed mixed results; the instrument design seemed to minimize cross contamination, but contamination from the surrounding environment sometimes made its way onto the surface of samples. Techniques used during the MARTE Río Tinto project, such as facing the sample, appear to remove this environmental contamination without introducing significant cross contamination from previous samples. PMID:19105753

  20. Sequential automated fusion/extraction chromatography methodology for the dissolution of uranium in environmental samples for mass spectrometric determination.

    PubMed

    Milliard, Alex; Durand-Jézéquel, Myriam; Larivière, Dominic

    2011-01-17

    An improved methodology has been developed, based on dissolution by automated fusion followed by extraction chromatography for the detection and quantification of uranium in environmental matrices by mass spectrometry. A rapid fusion protocol (<8 min) was investigated for the complete dissolution of various samples. It could be preceded, if required, by an effective ashing procedure using the M4 fluxer and a newly designed platinum lid. Complete dissolution of the sample was observed and measured using standard reference materials (SRMs) and experimental data show no evidence of cross-contamination of crucibles when LiBO(2)/LiBr melts were used. The use of a M4 fusion unit also improved repeatability in sample preparation over muffle furnace fusion. Instrumental issues originating from the presence of high salt concentrations in the digestate after lithium metaborate fusion was also mitigated using an extraction chromatography (EXC) protocol aimed at removing lithium and interfering matrix constituants prior to the elution of uranium. The sequential methodology, which can be performed simultaneously on three samples, requires less than 20 min per sample for fusion and separation. It was successfully coupled to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) achieving detection limits below 100 pg kg(-1) for 5-300 mg of sample. PMID:21167982

  1. Automated trace determination of earthy-musty odorous compounds in water samples by on-line purge-and-trap-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Salemi, Amir; Lacorte, Sílvia; Bagheri, Habib; Barceló, Damià

    2006-12-15

    An automated technique based on purge-and-trap coupled to gas chromatography with mass spectrometric detection has been developed and optimized for the trace determination of five of the most important water odorants; 2-isopropyl-3-methoxypyrazine, 2-isobutyl-3-methoxypyrazine, 2-methylisoborneol, 2,4,6-trichloroanisole and geosmin. The extraction method was absolutely solvent-free. Analytes were purged from 20 ml of water sample containing sodium chloride at room temperature by a flow of He and trapped on a Tenax sorbent. The desorption step was performed with helium and temperature programming and desorbed analytes were directly transferred to a gas chromatograph coupled to a mass spectrometer for separation and determination. The method was reproducible (RSD<8%) and linear over the calibration range (10-200 ngl(-1)). The relative recoveries of the analytes from ground water sample were calculated and were between 80 and 103% and limits of detection (LOD) below odor thresholds were achieved for most of the compounds. PMID:17055519

  2. Solid recovered fuels in the cement industry--semi-automated sample preparation unit as a means for facilitated practical application.

    PubMed

    Aldrian, Alexia; Sarc, Renato; Pomberger, Roland; Lorber, Karl E; Sipple, Ernst-Michael

    2016-03-01

    One of the challenges for the cement industry is the quality assurance of alternative fuel (e.g., solid recovered fuel, SRF) in co-incineration plants--especially for inhomogeneous alternative fuels with large particle sizes (d95⩾100 mm), which will gain even more importance in the substitution of conventional fuels due to low production costs. Existing standards for sampling and sample preparation do not cover the challenges resulting from these kinds of materials. A possible approach to ensure quality monitoring is shown in the present contribution. For this, a specially manufactured, automated comminution and sample divider device was installed at a cement plant in Rohožnik. In order to prove its practical suitability with methods according to current standards, the sampling and sample preparation process were validated for alternative fuel with a grain size >30 mm (i.e., d95=approximately 100 mm), so-called 'Hotdisc SRF'. Therefore, series of samples were taken and analysed. A comparison of the analysis results with the yearly average values obtained through a reference investigation route showed good accordance. Further investigations during the validation process also showed that segregation or enrichment of material throughout the comminution plant does not occur. The results also demonstrate that compliance with legal standards regarding the minimum sample amount is not sufficient for inhomogeneous and coarse particle size alternative fuels. Instead, higher sample amounts after the first particle size reduction step are strongly recommended in order to gain a representative laboratory sample. PMID:26759433

  3. Automation of ⁹⁹Tc extraction by LOV prior ICP-MS detection: application to environmental samples.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Rogelio; Leal, Luz; Miranda, Silvia; Ferrer, Laura; Avivar, Jessica; García, Ariel; Cerdà, Víctor

    2015-02-01

    A new, fast, automated and inexpensive sample pre-treatment method for (99)Tc determination by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) detection is presented. The miniaturized approach is based on a lab-on-valve (LOV) system, allowing automatic separation and preconcentration of (99)Tc. Selectivity is provided by the solid phase extraction system used (TEVA resin) which retains selectively pertechnetate ion in diluted nitric acid solution. The proposed system has some advantages such as minimization of sample handling, reduction of reagents volume, improvement of intermediate precision and sample throughput, offering a significant decrease of both time and cost per analysis in comparison to other flow techniques and batch methods. The proposed LOV system has been successfully applied to different samples of environmental interest (water and soil) with satisfactory recoveries, between 94% and 98%. The detection limit (LOD) of the developed method is 0.005 ng. The high durability of the resin and its low amount (32 mg), its good intermediate precision (RSD 3.8%) and repeatability (RSD 2%) and its high extraction frequency (up to 5 h(-1)) makes this method an inexpensive, high precision and fast tool for monitoring (99)Tc in environmental samples. PMID:25435232

  4. STATISTICAL EVALUATION OF SMALL SCALE MIXING DEMONSTRATION SAMPLING AND BATCH TRANSFER PERFORMANCE - 12093

    SciTech Connect

    GREER DA; THIEN MG

    2012-01-12

    The ability to effectively mix, sample, certify, and deliver consistent batches of High Level Waste (HLW) feed from the Hanford Double Shell Tanks (DST) to the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) presents a significant mission risk with potential to impact mission length and the quantity of HLW glass produced. DOE's Tank Operations Contractor, Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS) has previously presented the results of mixing performance in two different sizes of small scale DSTs to support scale up estimates of full scale DST mixing performance. Currently, sufficient sampling of DSTs is one of the largest programmatic risks that could prevent timely delivery of high level waste to the WTP. WRPS has performed small scale mixing and sampling demonstrations to study the ability to sufficiently sample the tanks. The statistical evaluation of the demonstration results which lead to the conclusion that the two scales of small DST are behaving similarly and that full scale performance is predictable will be presented. This work is essential to reduce the risk of requiring a new dedicated feed sampling facility and will guide future optimization work to ensure the waste feed delivery mission will be accomplished successfully. This paper will focus on the analytical data collected from mixing, sampling, and batch transfer testing from the small scale mixing demonstration tanks and how those data are being interpreted to begin to understand the relationship between samples taken prior to transfer and samples from the subsequent batches transferred. An overview of the types of data collected and examples of typical raw data will be provided. The paper will then discuss the processing and manipulation of the data which is necessary to begin evaluating sampling and batch transfer performance. This discussion will also include the evaluation of the analytical measurement capability with regard to the simulant material used in the demonstration tests. The

  5. Low-pressure, automated, sample packing unit for diffuse reflectance infrared spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christy, Alfred A.; Tvedt, Jan Erik; Karstang, Terje V.; Velapoldi, Rance A.

    1988-03-01

    An automatic, low-pressure packing unit has been designed with control of packing time and pressure to prepare powder samples for diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS). This unit also provides a polished packing surface that ensures constant measurement height of the sample in the spectrometer. Use of this unit coupled with sample rotation during measurement and control of particle size and size distribution, provides excellent precision in obtaining DRIFTS spectra. For example, repackings by a single person or by several untrained people gave coefficients of variation from 0.8% to 2.3% for each digital spectral value for a coal sample and from 1.3% to 3.7% for thymol blue, a sharp spectral featured organic, rather than the 15%-30% normally found for repackings of the same sample. Thus representative DRIFTS spectra can be obtained quickly and efficiently from a powder sample with a single spectrum using this low-pressure, mechanical packing device, control of particle parameters, and sample rotation as opposed to previous efforts requiring the repacking of several samples and averaging of the spectra.

  6. Automated Sample Preparation Platform for Mass Spectrometry-Based Plasma Proteomics and Biomarker Discovery

    PubMed Central

    Guryča, Vilém; Roeder, Daniel; Piraino, Paolo; Lamerz, Jens; Ducret, Axel; Langen, Hanno; Cutler, Paul

    2014-01-01

    The identification of novel biomarkers from human plasma remains a critical need in order to develop and monitor drug therapies for nearly all disease areas. The discovery of novel plasma biomarkers is, however, significantly hampered by the complexity and dynamic range of proteins within plasma, as well as the inherent variability in composition from patient to patient. In addition, it is widely accepted that most soluble plasma biomarkers for diseases such as cancer will be represented by tissue leakage products, circulating in plasma at low levels. It is therefore necessary to find approaches with the prerequisite level of sensitivity in such a complex biological matrix. Strategies for fractionating the plasma proteome have been suggested, but improvements in sensitivity are often negated by the resultant process variability. Here we describe an approach using multidimensional chromatography and on-line protein derivatization, which allows for higher sensitivity, whilst minimizing the process variability. In order to evaluate this automated process fully, we demonstrate three levels of processing and compare sensitivity, throughput and reproducibility. We demonstrate that high sensitivity analysis of the human plasma proteome is possible down to the low ng/mL or even high pg/mL level with a high degree of technical reproducibility. PMID:24833342

  7. Automated radioanalytical system incorporating microwave-assisted sample preparation, chemical separation, and online radiometric detection for the monitoring of total 99Tc in nuclear waste processing streams.

    PubMed

    Egorov, Oleg B; O'Hara, Matthew J; Grate, Jay W

    2012-04-01

    An automated fluidic instrument is described that rapidly determines the total (99)Tc content of aged nuclear waste samples, where the matrix is chemically and radiologically complex and the existing speciation of the (99)Tc is variable. The monitor links microwave-assisted sample preparation with an automated anion exchange column separation and detection using a flow-through solid scintillator detector. The sample preparation steps acidify the sample, decompose organics, and convert all Tc species to the pertechnetate anion. The column-based anion exchange procedure separates the pertechnetate from the complex sample matrix, so that radiometric detection can provide accurate measurement of (99)Tc. We developed a preprogrammed spike addition procedure to automatically determine matrix-matched calibration. The overall measurement efficiency that is determined simultaneously provides a self-diagnostic parameter for the radiochemical separation and overall instrument function. Continuous, automated operation was demonstrated over the course of 54 h, which resulted in the analysis of 215 samples plus 54 hly spike-addition samples, with consistent overall measurement efficiency for the operation of the monitor. A sample can be processed and measured automatically in just 12.5 min with a detection limit of 23.5 Bq/mL of (99)Tc in low activity waste (0.495 mL sample volume), with better than 10% RSD precision at concentrations above the quantification limit. This rapid automated analysis method was developed to support nuclear waste processing operations planned for the Hanford nuclear site. PMID:22440010

  8. Automated Radioanalytical System Incorporating Microwave-Assisted Sample Preparation, Chemical Separation, and Online Radiometric Detection for the Monitoring of Total 99Tc in Nuclear Waste Processing Streams

    SciTech Connect

    Egorov, Oleg; O'Hara, Matthew J.; Grate, Jay W.

    2012-04-03

    An automated fluidic instrument is described that rapidly determines the total 99Tc content of aged nuclear waste samples, where the matrix is chemically and radiologically complex and the existing speciation of the 99Tc is variable. The monitor links microwave-assisted sample preparation with an automated anion exchange column separation and detection using a flow-through solid scintillator detector. The sample preparation steps acidify the sample, decompose organics, and convert all Tc species to the pertechnetate anion. The column-based anion exchange procedure separates the pertechnetate from the complex sample matrix, so that radiometric detection can provide accurate measurement of 99Tc. We developed a preprogrammed spike addition procedure to automatically determine matrix-matched calibration. The overall measurement efficiency that is determined simultaneously provides a self-diagnostic parameter for the radiochemical separation and overall instrument function. Continuous, automated operation was demonstrated over the course of 54 h, which resulted in the analysis of 215 samples plus 54 hly spike-addition samples, with consistent overall measurement efficiency for the operation of the monitor. A sample can be processed and measured automatically in just 12.5 min with a detection limit of 23.5 Bq/mL of 99Tc in low activity waste (0.495 mL sample volume), with better than 10% RSD precision at concentrations above the quantification limit. This rapid automated analysis method was developed to support nuclear waste processing operations planned for the Hanford nuclear site.

  9. Operating parameters of liquid helium transfer lines used with continuous flow cryostats at low sample temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dittmar, N.; Welker, D.; Haberstroh, Ch; Hesse, U.; Krzyzowski, M.

    2015-12-01

    Continuous flow cryostats are used to cool samples to a variable temperature level by evaporating a cryogen, e.g. liquid helium (LHe). For this purpose LHe is usually stored outside the cryostat in a mobile dewar and supplied through a transfer line. In general, the complete setup has to be characterised by the lowest possible consumption of LHe. Additionally, a minimum sample temperature can be favourable from an experimental point of view. The achievement of both requirements is determined by the respective cryostat design as well as by the transfer line. In the presented work operating data, e.g. the LHe consumption during cooldown and steady state, the minimum sample temperature, and the outlet quality are analysed to characterise the performance of a reference transfer line. In addition, an experimental transfer line with built-in pressure sensors has been commissioned to examine the pressure drop along the transfer line, too. During the tests LHe impurities occurred which restricted a steady operation.

  10. Determination of actinides in environmental samples using an automated batch preconcentration/matrix elimination system

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, F.G.; Crain, J.S.

    1995-12-31

    The determination of thorium, uranium, and uranium progeny (e.g. {sup 226}Ra) in environmental samples is of considerable interest in terms of human health. Traditional radiochemical determinations of long-lived radioisotopes often require rigorous chemical separations and long duration measurements by techniques such as {alpha}-spectrometry. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) offers sub-ppt (1 ng/L) detection limits for the actinides with minimal sample preparation and high sample throughput. However, sample preconcentration and/or matrix elimination is required to achieve required detection limits below 1ppq (1 pg/L). This paper describes a batch preconcentration/matrix elimination system for off-line sample preparation. An aliquot of an actinide selective polymer beads is added to a sample and pumped through a filter. Unbound sample matrix components are washed to waste then the beads with bound actinides are released in a small volume. The preconcentrate is then introduced to the ICP-MS by pneumatic or ultrasonic nebulization. Data for a variety of natural water matrices (well, spring, lake, river, and tapwater) will be presented.

  11. Modulation transfer function cascade model for a sampled IR imaging system.

    PubMed

    de Luca, L; Cardone, G

    1991-05-01

    The performance of the infrared scanning radiometer (IRSR) is strongly stressed in convective heat transfer applications where high spatial frequencies in the signal that describes the thermal image are present. The need to characterize more deeply the system spatial resolution has led to the formulation of a cascade model for the evaluation of the actual modulation transfer function of a sampled IR imaging system. The model can yield both the aliasing band and the averaged modulation response for a general sampling subsystem. For a line scan imaging system, which is the case of a typical IRSR, a rule of thumb that states whether the combined sampling-imaging system is either imaging-dependent or sampling-dependent is proposed. The model is tested by comparing it with other noncascade models as well as by ad hoc measurements performed on a commercial digitized IRSR. PMID:20700340

  12. Small Scale Mixing Demonstration Batch Transfer and Sampling Performance of Simulated HLW - 12307

    SciTech Connect

    Jensen, Jesse; Townson, Paul; Vanatta, Matt

    2012-07-01

    The ability to effectively mix, sample, certify, and deliver consistent batches of High Level Waste (HLW) feed from the Hanford Double Shell Tanks (DST) to the Waste treatment Plant (WTP) has been recognized as a significant mission risk with potential to impact mission length and the quantity of HLW glass produced. At the end of 2009 DOE's Tank Operations Contractor, Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS), awarded a contract to EnergySolutions to design, fabricate and operate a demonstration platform called the Small Scale Mixing Demonstration (SSMD) to establish pre-transfer sampling capacity, and batch transfer performance data at two different scales. This data will be used to examine the baseline capacity for a tank mixed via rotational jet mixers to transfer consistent or bounding batches, and provide scale up information to predict full scale operational performance. This information will then in turn be used to define the baseline capacity of such a system to transfer and sample batches sent to WTP. The Small Scale Mixing Demonstration (SSMD) platform consists of 43'' and 120'' diameter clear acrylic test vessels, each equipped with two scaled jet mixer pump assemblies, and all supporting vessels, controls, services, and simulant make up facilities. All tank internals have been modeled including the air lift circulators (ALCs), the steam heating coil, and the radius between the wall and floor. The test vessels are set up to simulate the transfer of HLW out of a mixed tank, and collect a pre-transfer sample in a manner similar to the proposed baseline configuration. The collected material is submitted to an NQA-1 laboratory for chemical analysis. Previous work has been done to assess tank mixing performance at both scales. This work involved a combination of unique instruments to understand the three dimensional distribution of solids using a combination of Coriolis meter measurements, in situ chord length distribution measurements, and electro

  13. Another Look at the Mechanisms of Hydride Transfer Enzymes with Quantum and Classical Transition Path Sampling.

    PubMed

    Dzierlenga, Michael W; Antoniou, Dimitri; Schwartz, Steven D

    2015-04-01

    The mechanisms involved in enzymatic hydride transfer have been studied for years, but questions remain due, in part, to the difficulty of probing the effects of protein motion and hydrogen tunneling. In this study, we use transition path sampling (TPS) with normal mode centroid molecular dynamics (CMD) to calculate the barrier to hydride transfer in yeast alcohol dehydrogenase (YADH) and human heart lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). Calculation of the work applied to the hydride allowed for observation of the change in barrier height upon inclusion of quantum dynamics. Similar calculations were performed using deuterium as the transferring particle in order to approximate kinetic isotope effects (KIEs). The change in barrier height in YADH is indicative of a zero-point energy (ZPE) contribution and is evidence that catalysis occurs via a protein compression that mediates a near-barrierless hydride transfer. Calculation of the KIE using the difference in barrier height between the hydride and deuteride agreed well with experimental results. PMID:26262969

  14. Investigation of Mercury Wet Deposition Physicochemistry in the Ohio River Valley through Automated Sequential Sampling

    EPA Science Inventory

    Intra-storm variability and soluble fractionation was explored for summer-time rain events in Steubenville, Ohio to evaluate the physical processes controlling mercury (Hg) in wet deposition in this industrialized region. Comprehensive precipitation sample collection was conducte...

  15. Automated sample preparation station for studying self-diffusion in porous solids with NMR spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Hedin, Niklas; DeMartin, Gregory J.; Reyes, Sebastian C.

    2006-03-15

    In studies of gas diffusion in porous solids with nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy the sample preparation procedure becomes very important. An apparatus is presented here that pretreats the sample ex situ and accurately sets the desired pressure and temperature within the NMR tube prior to its introduction in the spectrometer. The gas manifold that supplies the NMR tube is also connected to a microbalance containing another portion of the same sample, which is kept at the same temperature as the sample in the NMR tube. This arrangement permits the simultaneous measurement of the adsorption loading on the sample, which is required for the interpretation of the NMR diffusion experiments. Furthermore, to ensure a good seal of the NMR tube, a hybrid valve design composed of titanium, a Teflon registered seat, and Kalrez registered O-rings is utilized. A computer controlled algorithm ensures the accuracy and reproducibility of all the procedures, enabling the NMR diffusion experiments to be performed at well controlled conditions of pressure, temperature, and amount of gas adsorbed on the porous sample.

  16. Development of a full automation solid phase microextraction method for investigating the partition coefficient of organic pollutant in complex sample.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Ruifen; Lin, Wei; Wen, Sijia; Zhu, Fang; Luan, Tiangang; Ouyang, Gangfeng

    2015-08-01

    A fully automated solid phase microextraction (SPME) depletion method was developed to study the partition coefficient of organic compound between complex matrix and water sample. The SPME depletion process was conducted by pre-loading the fiber with a specific amount of organic compounds from a proposed standard gas generation vial, and then desorbing the fiber into the targeted samples. Based on the proposed method, the partition coefficients (Kmatrix) of 4 polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) between humic acid (HA)/hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (β-HPCD) and aqueous sample were determined. The results showed that the logKmatrix of 4 PAHs with HA and β-HPCD ranged from 3.19 to 4.08, and 2.45 to 3.15, respectively. In addition, the logKmatrix values decreased about 0.12-0.27 log units for different PAHs for every 10°C increase in temperature. The effect of temperature on the partition coefficient followed van't Hoff plot, and the partition coefficient at any temperature can be predicted based on the plot. Furthermore, the proposed method was applied for the real biological fluid analysis. The partition coefficients of 6 PAHs between the complex matrices in the fetal bovine serum and water were determined, and compared to ones obtained from SPME extraction method. The result demonstrated that the proposed method can be applied to determine the sorption coefficients of hydrophobic compounds between complex matrix and water in a variety of samples. PMID:26118804

  17. Detection of motile micro-organisms in biological samples by means of a fully automated image processing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alanis, Elvio; Romero, Graciela; Alvarez, Liliana; Martinez, Carlos C.; Hoyos, Daniel; Basombrio, Miguel A.

    2001-08-01

    A fully automated image processing system for detection of motile microorganism is biological samples is presented. The system is specifically calibrated for determining the concentration of Trypanosoma Cruzi parasites in blood samples of mice infected with Chagas disease. The method can be adapted for use in other biological samples. A thin layer of blood infected by T. cruzi parasites is examined in a common microscope in which the images of the vision field are taken by a CCD camera and temporarily stored in the computer memory. In a typical field, a few motile parasites are observable surrounded by blood red cells. The parasites have low contrast. Thus, they are difficult to detect visually but their great motility betrays their presence by the movement of the nearest neighbor red cells. Several consecutive images of the same field are taken, decorrelated with each other where parasites are present, and digitally processed in order to measure the number of parasites present in the field. Several fields are sequentially processed in the same fashion, displacing the sample by means of step motors driven by the computer. A direct advantage of this system is that its results are more reliable and the process is less time consuming than the current subjective evaluations made visually by technicians.

  18. Automated total and radioactive strontium separation and preconcentration in samples of environmental interest exploiting a lab-on-valve system.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Rogelio; Avivar, Jessica; Ferrer, Laura; Leal, Luz O; Cerdà, Victor

    2012-07-15

    A novel lab-on-valve system has been developed for strontium determination in environmental samples. Miniaturized lab-on-valve system potentially offers facilities to allow any kind of chemical and physical processes, including fluidic and microcarrier bead control, homogenous reaction and liquid-solid interaction. A rapid, inexpensive and fully automated method for the separation and preconcentration of total and radioactive strontium, using a solid phase extraction material (Sr-Resin), has been developed. Total strontium concentrations are determined by ICP-OES and (90)Sr activities by a low background proportional counter. The method has been successfully applied to different water samples of environmental interest. The proposed system offers minimization of sample handling, drastic reduction of reagent volume, improvement of the reproducibility and sample throughput and attains a significant decrease of both time and cost per analysis. The LLD of the total Sr reached is 1.8ng and the minimum detectable activity for (90)Sr is 0.008Bq. The repeatability of the separation procedure is 1.2% (n=10). PMID:22817934

  19. Automated Broad-Range Molecular Detection of Bacteria in Clinical Samples.

    PubMed

    Budding, Andries E; Hoogewerf, Martine; Vandenbroucke-Grauls, Christina M J E; Savelkoul, Paul H M

    2016-04-01

    Molecular detection methods, such as quantitative PCR (qPCR), have found their way into clinical microbiology laboratories for the detection of an array of pathogens. Most routinely used methods, however, are directed at specific species. Thus, anything that is not explicitly searched for will be missed. This greatly limits the flexibility and universal application of these techniques. We investigated the application of a rapid universal bacterial molecular identification method, IS-pro, to routine patient samples received in a clinical microbiology laboratory. IS-pro is a eubacterial technique based on the detection and categorization of 16S-23S rRNA gene interspace regions with lengths that are specific for each microbial species. As this is an open technique, clinicians do not need to decide in advance what to look for. We compared routine culture to IS-pro using 66 samples sent in for routine bacterial diagnostic testing. The samples were obtained from patients with infections in normally sterile sites (without a resident microbiota). The results were identical in 20 (30%) samples, IS-pro detected more bacterial species than culture in 31 (47%) samples, and five of the 10 culture-negative samples were positive with IS-pro. The case histories of the five patients from whom these culture-negative/IS-pro-positive samples were obtained suggest that the IS-pro findings are highly clinically relevant. Our findings indicate that an open molecular approach, such as IS-pro, may have a high added value for clinical practice. PMID:26763956

  20. Low-Cost 3D Printers Enable High-Quality and Automated Sample Preparation and Molecular Detection

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Kamfai; Coen, Mauricio; Hardick, Justin; Gaydos, Charlotte A.; Wong, Kah-Yat; Smith, Clayton; Wilson, Scott A.; Vayugundla, Siva Praneeth; Wong, Season

    2016-01-01

    Most molecular diagnostic assays require upfront sample preparation steps to isolate the target’s nucleic acids, followed by its amplification and detection using various nucleic acid amplification techniques. Because molecular diagnostic methods are generally rather difficult to perform manually without highly trained users, automated and integrated systems are highly desirable but too costly for use at point-of-care or low-resource settings. Here, we showcase the development of a low-cost and rapid nucleic acid isolation and amplification platform by modifying entry-level 3D printers that cost between $400 and $750. Our modifications consisted of replacing the extruder with a tip-comb attachment that houses magnets to conduct magnetic particle-based nucleic acid extraction. We then programmed the 3D printer to conduct motions that can perform high-quality extraction protocols. Up to 12 samples can be processed simultaneously in under 13 minutes and the efficiency of nucleic acid isolation matches well against gold-standard spin-column-based extraction technology. Additionally, we used the 3D printer’s heated bed to supply heat to perform water bath-based polymerase chain reactions (PCRs). Using another attachment to hold PCR tubes, the 3D printer was programmed to automate the process of shuttling PCR tubes between water baths. By eliminating the temperature ramping needed in most commercial thermal cyclers, the run time of a 35-cycle PCR protocol was shortened by 33%. This article demonstrates that for applications in resource-limited settings, expensive nucleic acid extraction devices and thermal cyclers that are used in many central laboratories can be potentially replaced by a device modified from inexpensive entry-level 3D printers. PMID:27362424

  1. Low-Cost 3D Printers Enable High-Quality and Automated Sample Preparation and Molecular Detection.

    PubMed

    Chan, Kamfai; Coen, Mauricio; Hardick, Justin; Gaydos, Charlotte A; Wong, Kah-Yat; Smith, Clayton; Wilson, Scott A; Vayugundla, Siva Praneeth; Wong, Season

    2016-01-01

    Most molecular diagnostic assays require upfront sample preparation steps to isolate the target's nucleic acids, followed by its amplification and detection using various nucleic acid amplification techniques. Because molecular diagnostic methods are generally rather difficult to perform manually without highly trained users, automated and integrated systems are highly desirable but too costly for use at point-of-care or low-resource settings. Here, we showcase the development of a low-cost and rapid nucleic acid isolation and amplification platform by modifying entry-level 3D printers that cost between $400 and $750. Our modifications consisted of replacing the extruder with a tip-comb attachment that houses magnets to conduct magnetic particle-based nucleic acid extraction. We then programmed the 3D printer to conduct motions that can perform high-quality extraction protocols. Up to 12 samples can be processed simultaneously in under 13 minutes and the efficiency of nucleic acid isolation matches well against gold-standard spin-column-based extraction technology. Additionally, we used the 3D printer's heated bed to supply heat to perform water bath-based polymerase chain reactions (PCRs). Using another attachment to hold PCR tubes, the 3D printer was programmed to automate the process of shuttling PCR tubes between water baths. By eliminating the temperature ramping needed in most commercial thermal cyclers, the run time of a 35-cycle PCR protocol was shortened by 33%. This article demonstrates that for applications in resource-limited settings, expensive nucleic acid extraction devices and thermal cyclers that are used in many central laboratories can be potentially replaced by a device modified from inexpensive entry-level 3D printers. PMID:27362424

  2. Automation of preparation of nonmetallic samples for analysis by atomic absorption and inductively coupled plasma spectrometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wittmann, A.; Willay, G.

    1986-01-01

    For a rapid preparation of solutions intended for analysis by inductively coupled plasma emission spectrometry or atomic absorption spectrometry, an automatic device called Plasmasol was developed. This apparatus used the property of nonwettability of glassy C to fuse the sample in an appropriate flux. The sample-flux mixture is placed in a composite crucible, then heated at high temperature, swirled until full dissolution is achieved, and then poured into a water-filled beaker. After acid addition, dissolution of the melt, and filling to the mark, the solution is ready for analysis. The analytical results obtained, either for oxide samples or for prereduced iron ores show that the solutions prepared with this device are undistinguished from those obtained by manual dissolutions done by acid digestion or by high temperature fusion. Preparation reproducibility and analytical tests illustrate the performance of Plasmasol.

  3. Automated sample preparation for ICP analysis of active pharmaceutical ingredients and intermediates.

    PubMed

    Sims, Jonathan; Smith, Andrew; Patel, Dharmista; Batchelor, Richard; Carreira, Judith

    2011-10-01

    Routine testing of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) for metal residues is an expectation of regulatory bodies such as the FDA (U.S. Food and Drug Administration). Sample preparation techniques are the rate-limiting step in the testing process and can be variable depending on the specific characteristics of the API under test. Simplification and standardization of the routine preparation of inductively coupled plasma spectroscopy sample solutions of organic compounds has been developed using a commercially available robotic workstation. Contamination from the metal components of the instrument and from sample tubes used in the methodology has been studied using a Design of Experiments approach. The optimized method described can be used for the measurement of trace metals in Pharmaceuticals at levels compliant with European and U.S. regulatory requirements. PMID:21906564

  4. An automated real-time microscopy system for analysis of fluorescence resonance energy transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernardini, André; Wotzlaw, Christoph; Lipinski, Hans-Gerd; Fandrey, Joachim

    2010-05-01

    Molecular imaging based on Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) is widely used in cellular physiology both for protein-protein interaction analysis and detecting conformational changes of single proteins, e.g. during activation of signaling cascades. However, getting reliable results from FRET measurements is still hampered by methodological problems such as spectral bleed through, chromatic aberration, focal plane shifts and false positive FRET. Particularly false positive FRET signals caused by random interaction of the fluorescent dyes can easily lead to misinterpretation of the data. This work introduces a Nipkow Disc based FRET microscopy system, that is easy to operate without expert knowledge of FRET. The system automatically accounts for all relevant sources of errors and provides various result presentations of two, three and four dimensional FRET data. Two examples are given to demonstrate the scope of application. An interaction analysis of the two subunits of the hypoxia-inducible transcription factor 1 demonstrates the use of the system as a tool for protein-protein interaction analysis. As an example for time lapse observations, the conformational change of the fluorophore labeled heat shock protein 33 in the presence of oxidant stress is shown.

  5. Construction and calibration of a low cost and fully automated vibrating sample magnetometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Alaily, T. M.; El-Nimr, M. K.; Saafan, S. A.; Kamel, M. M.; Meaz, T. M.; Assar, S. T.

    2015-07-01

    A low cost vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) has been constructed by using an electromagnet and an audio loud speaker; where both are controlled by a data acquisition device. The constructed VSM records the magnetic hysteresis loop up to 8.3 KG at room temperature. The apparatus has been calibrated and tested by using magnetic hysteresis data of some ferrite samples measured by two scientifically calibrated magnetometers; model (Lake Shore 7410) and model (LDJ Electronics Inc. Troy, MI). Our VSM lab-built new design proved success and reliability.

  6. Automated Hydrogen/Deuterium Exchange Electron Transfer Dissociation High Resolution Mass Spectrometry Measured at Single-Amide Resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landgraf, Rachelle R.; Chalmers, Michael J.; Griffin, Patrick R.

    2012-02-01

    Hydrogen deuterium exchange mass spectrometry (HDX-MS) is a well established method for the measurement of solution-phase deuterium incorporation into proteins, which can provide insight into protein conformational mobility. However, most HDX measurements are constrained to regions of the protein where pepsin proteolysis allows detection at peptide resolution. Recently, single-amide resolution deuterium incorporation has been achieved by limiting gas-phase scrambling in the mass spectrometer. This was accomplished by employing a combination of soft ionization and desolvation conditions coupled with the radical-driven fragmentation technique electron transfer dissociation (ETD). Here, a hybrid LTQ-Orbitrap XL is systematically evaluated for its utility in providing single-amide deuterium incorporation for differential HDX analysis of a nuclear receptor upon binding small molecule ligands. We are able to show that instrumental parameters can be optimized to minimize scrambling and can be incorporated into an established and fully automated HDX platform making differential single-amide HDX possible for bottom-up analysis of complex systems. We have applied this system to determine differential single amide resolution HDX data for the peroxizome proliferator activated receptor bound with two ligands of interest.

  7. AUTOMATED SYSTEM FOR COLLECTING MULTIPLE, SEQUENTIAL SAMPLES FROM SOIL WATER SAMPLERS UNDER CONTINUOUS VACUUM

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Manually collecting a series of sequential, discrete water samples from soil water percolation samplers, or similar devices, that withdraw water from unsaturated porous media under continuous vacuum is a logistical challenge, though the resulting collection can provide valuable information on the dy...

  8. A self-contained polymeric cartridge for automated biological sample preparation.

    PubMed

    Xu, Guolin; Lee, Daniel Yoke San; Xie, Hong; Chiew, Deon; Hsieh, Tseng-Ming; Ali, Emril Mohamed; Lun Looi, Xing; Li, Mo-Huang; Ying, Jackie Y

    2011-09-01

    Sample preparation is one of the most crucial processes for nucleic acids based disease diagnosis. Several steps are required for nucleic acids extraction, impurity washes, and DNA/RNA elution. Careful sample preparation is vital to the obtaining of reliable diagnosis, especially with low copies of pathogens and cells. This paper describes a low-cost, disposable lab cartridge for automatic sample preparation, which is capable of handling flexible sample volumes of 10 μl to 1 ml. This plastic cartridge contains all the necessary reagents for pathogen and cell lysis, DNA/RNA extraction, impurity washes, DNA/RNA elution and waste processing in a completely sealed cartridge. The entire sample preparation processes are automatically conducted within the cartridge on a desktop unit using a pneumatic fluid manipulation approach. Reagents transportation is achieved with a combination of push and pull forces (with compressed air and vacuum, respectively), which are connected to the pneumatic inlets at the bottom of the cartridge. These pneumatic forces are regulated by pinch valve manifold and two pneumatic syringe pumps within the desktop unit. The performance of this pneumatic reagent delivery method was examined. We have demonstrated the capability of the on-cartridge RNA extraction and cancer-specific gene amplification from 10 copies of MCF-7 breast cancer cells. The on-cartridge DNA recovery efficiency was 54-63%, which was comparable to or better than the conventional manual approach using silica spin column. The lab cartridge would be suitable for integration with lab-chip real-time polymerase chain reaction devices in providing a portable system for decentralized disease diagnosis. PMID:22662036

  9. Development of an Automated and Sensitive Microfluidic Device for Capturing and Characterizing Circulating Tumor Cells (CTCs) from Clinical Blood Samples

    PubMed Central

    Gogoi, Priya; Sepehri, Saedeh; Zhou, Yi; Gorin, Michael A.; Paolillo, Carmela; Capoluongo, Ettore; Gleason, Kyle; Payne, Austin; Boniface, Brian; Cristofanilli, Massimo; Morgan, Todd M.; Fortina, Paolo; Pienta, Kenneth J.; Handique, Kalyan; Wang, Yixin

    2016-01-01

    Current analysis of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) is hindered by sub-optimal sensitivity and specificity of devices or assays as well as lack of capability of characterization of CTCs with clinical biomarkers. Here, we validate a novel technology to enrich and characterize CTCs from blood samples of patients with metastatic breast, prostate and colorectal cancers using a microfluidic chip which is processed by using an automated staining and scanning system from sample preparation to image processing. The Celsee system allowed for the detection of CTCs with apparent high sensitivity and specificity (94% sensitivity and 100% specificity). Moreover, the system facilitated rapid capture of CTCs from blood samples and also allowed for downstream characterization of the captured cells by immunohistochemistry, DNA and mRNA fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH). In a subset of patients with prostate cancer we compared the technology with a FDA-approved CTC device, CellSearch and found a higher degree of sensitivity with the Celsee instrument. In conclusion, the integrated Celsee system represents a promising CTC technology for enumeration and molecular characterization. PMID:26808060

  10. Development of an Automated and Sensitive Microfluidic Device for Capturing and Characterizing Circulating Tumor Cells (CTCs) from Clinical Blood Samples.

    PubMed

    Gogoi, Priya; Sepehri, Saedeh; Zhou, Yi; Gorin, Michael A; Paolillo, Carmela; Capoluongo, Ettore; Gleason, Kyle; Payne, Austin; Boniface, Brian; Cristofanilli, Massimo; Morgan, Todd M; Fortina, Paolo; Pienta, Kenneth J; Handique, Kalyan; Wang, Yixin

    2016-01-01

    Current analysis of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) is hindered by sub-optimal sensitivity and specificity of devices or assays as well as lack of capability of characterization of CTCs with clinical biomarkers. Here, we validate a novel technology to enrich and characterize CTCs from blood samples of patients with metastatic breast, prostate and colorectal cancers using a microfluidic chip which is processed by using an automated staining and scanning system from sample preparation to image processing. The Celsee system allowed for the detection of CTCs with apparent high sensitivity and specificity (94% sensitivity and 100% specificity). Moreover, the system facilitated rapid capture of CTCs from blood samples and also allowed for downstream characterization of the captured cells by immunohistochemistry, DNA and mRNA fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH). In a subset of patients with prostate cancer we compared the technology with a FDA-approved CTC device, CellSearch and found a higher degree of sensitivity with the Celsee instrument. In conclusion, the integrated Celsee system represents a promising CTC technology for enumeration and molecular characterization. PMID:26808060

  11. Automated flow-through amperometric immunosensor for highly sensitive and on-line detection of okadaic acid in mussel sample.

    PubMed

    Dominguez, Rocio B; Hayat, Akhtar; Sassolas, Audrey; Alonso, Gustavo A; Munoz, Roberto; Marty, Jean-Louis

    2012-09-15

    An electrochemical immunosensor for okadaic acid (OA) detection has been developed, and used in an indirect competitive immunoassay format under automated flow conditions. The biosensor was fabricated by injecting OA modified magnetic beads onto screen printed carbon electrode (SPCE) in the flow system. The OA present in the sample competed with the immobilized OA to bind with anti-okadaic acid monoclonal antibody (anti-OA-MAb). The secondary alkaline phosphatase labeled antibody was used to perform electrochemical detection. The current response obtained from the labeled alkaline phosphatase to 1-naphthyl phosphate decreased proportionally to the concentration of free OA in the sample. The calculated limit of detection (LOD) was 0.15 μg/L with a linear range of 0.19-25 μg/L. The good recoveries percentages validated the immunosensor application for real mussel samples. The developed system automatically controlled the incubation, washing and current measurement steps, showing its potential use for OA determination in field analysis. PMID:22967546

  12. Automated on-line preconcentration of palladium on different sorbents and its determination in environmental samples.

    PubMed

    Sánchez Rojas, Fuensanta; Bosch Ojeda, Catalina; Cano Pavón, José Manuel

    2007-01-01

    The determination of noble metals in environmental samples is of increasing importance. Palladium is often employed as a catalyst in chemical industry and is also used with platinum and rhodium in motor car catalytic converters which might cause environmental pollution problems. Two different sorbents for palladium preconcentration in different samples were investigated: silica gel functionalized with 1,5-bis(di-2-pyridyl)methylene tbiocarbohydrazide (DPTH-gel) and [1,5-Bis(2-pyridyl)-3-sulphophenyI methylene thiocarbonohydrazide (PSTH) immobilised on an anion-exchange resin (Dowex lx8-200)]. The sorbents were tested in a micro-column, placed in the auto-sampler arm, at the flow rate 2.8 mL min(-1). Elution was performed with 4 M HCl and 4 M HNO3, respectively. Satisfactory results were obtained for two sorbents. PMID:17822233

  13. Automated microextraction sample preparation coupled on-line to FT-ICR-MS: application to desalting and concentration of river and marine dissolved organic matter.

    PubMed

    Morales-Cid, Gabriel; Gebefugi, Istvan; Kanawati, Basem; Harir, Mourad; Hertkorn, Norbert; Rosselló-Mora, Ramón; Schmitt-Kopplin, Philippe

    2009-10-01

    Sample preparation procedures are in most cases sample- and time-consuming and commonly require the use of a large amount of solvents. Automation in this regard can optimize the minimal-needed injection volume and the solvent consumption will be efficiently reduced. A new fully automated sample desalting and pre-concentration technique employing microextraction by packed sorbents (MEPS) cartridges is implemented and coupled to an ion cyclotron resonance Fourier-transform mass spectrometer (ICR-FT/MS). The performance of non-target mass spectrometric analysis is compared for the automated versus off-line sample preparation for several samples of aqueous natural organic matter. This approach can be generalized for any metabolite profiling or metabolome analysis of biological materials but was optimized herein using a well characterized but highly complex organic mixture: a surface water and its well-characterized natural organic matter and a marine sample having a highly salt charge and enabling to validate the presented automatic system for salty samples. The analysis of Suwannee River water showed selective C18-MEPS enrichment of chemical signatures with average H/C and O/C elemental ratios and loss of both highly polar and highly aromatic structures from the original sample. Automated on-line application to marine samples showed desalting and different chemical signatures from surface to bottom water. Relative comparison of structural footprints with the C18-concentration/desalting procedure however enabled to demonstrate that the surface water film was more concentrated in surface-active components of natural (fatty acids) and anthropogenic origin (sulfur-containing surfactants). Overall, the relative standard deviation distribution in terms of peak intensity was improved by automating the proposed on-line method. PMID:19685041

  14. Steady-State Vacuum Ultraviolet Exposure Facility With Automated Lamp Calibration and Sample Positioning Fabricated

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sechkar, Edward A.; Steuber, Thomas J.; Banks, Bruce A.; Dever, Joyce A.

    2000-01-01

    The Next Generation Space Telescope (NGST) will be placed in an orbit that will subject it to constant solar radiation during its planned 10-year mission. A sunshield will be necessary to passively cool the telescope, protecting it from the Sun s energy and assuring proper operating temperatures for the telescope s instruments. This sunshield will be composed of metalized polymer multilayer insulation with an outer polymer membrane (12 to 25 mm in thickness) that will be metalized on the back to assure maximum reflectance of sunlight. The sunshield must maintain mechanical integrity and optical properties for the full 10 years. This durability requirement is most challenging for the outermost, constantly solar-facing polymer membrane of the sunshield. One of the potential threats to the membrane material s durability is from vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) radiation in wavelengths below 200 nm. Such radiation can be absorbed in the bulk of these thin polymer membrane materials and degrade the polymer s optical and mechanical properties. So that a suitable membrane material can be selected that demonstrates durability to solar VUV radiation, ground-based testing of candidate materials must be conducted to simulate the total 10- year VUV exposure expected during the Next Generation Space Telescope mission. The Steady State Vacuum Ultraviolet exposure facility was designed and fabricated at the NASA Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field to provide unattended 24-hr exposure of candidate materials to VUV radiation of 3 to 5 times the Sun s intensity in the wavelength range of 115 to 200 nm. The facility s chamber, which maintains a pressure of approximately 5 10(exp -6) torr, is divided into three individual exposure cells, each with a separate VUV source and sample-positioning mechanism. The three test cells are separated by a water-cooled copper shield plate assembly to minimize thermal effects from adjacent test cells. Part of the interior sample positioning mechanism of one

  15. A new multivariate time series data analysis technique: Automated detection of flux transfer events using Cluster data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karimabadi, H.; Sipes, T. B.; Wang, Y.; Lavraud, B.; Roberts, A.

    2009-06-01

    A new data mining technique called MineTool-TS is introduced which captures the time-lapse information in multivariate time series data through extraction of global features and metafeatures. This technique is developed into a JAVA-based data mining software which automates all the steps in the model building to make it more accessible to nonexperts. As its first application in space sciences, MineTool-TS is used to develop a model for automated detection of flux transfer events (FTEs) at Earth's magnetopause in the Cluster spacecraft time series data. The model classifies a given time series into one of three categories of non-FTE, magnetosheath FTE, or magnetospheric FTE. One important feature of MineTool-TS is the ability to explore the importance of each variable or combination of variables as indicators of FTEs. FTEs have traditionally been identified on the basis of their magnetic field signatures, but here we find that some plasma variables can also be effective indicators of FTEs. For example, the perpendicular ion temperature yields a model accuracy of ˜93%, while a model based solely on the normal magnetic field BN yields an accuracy of ˜95%. This opens up the possibility of searching for more unusual FTEs that may, for example, have no clear BN signature and create a more comprehensive and less biased list of FTEs for statistical studies. We also find that models using GSM coordinates yield comparable accuracy to those using boundary normal coordinates. This is useful since there are regions where magnetopause models are not accurate. Another surprising result is the finding that the algorithm can largely detect FTEs, and even distinguish between magnetosheath and magnetospheric FTEs, solely on the basis of models built from single parameters, something that experts may not do so straightforwardly on the basis of short time series intervals. The most accurate models use a combination of plasma and magnetic field variables and achieve a very high

  16. Automated detection of cracks on the faying surface within high-load transfer bolted speciments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wheatley, Gregory; Kollgaard, Jeffrey R.

    2003-07-01

    Boeing is currently conducting evaluation testing of the Comparative Vacuum Monitoring (CVMTM) system offered by Structural Monitoring Systems, Ltd (SMS). Initial testing has been conducted by SMS, with further test lab validations to be performed at Boeing in Seattle. Testing has been conducted on dog bone type specimens that have been cut at the center line. A notch was cut at one of the bolt holes and a CVM sensor installed on both sides of the plate. The doublers were added and a single line of 4 bolts along the longitudinal center line were used to attach the doubler plates to the dog bone type specimen. In this way, a high load transfer situation exists between the two halves of the dog bone specimen and the doubler plates. The CVM sensors are slightly over 0.004" (0.1mm) in thickness and are installed directly upon the faying surface of the dog bone specimen. Testing was conducted on an Instron 8501 Servohydraulic testing machine at the Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, University of Western Australia. The standard laboratory equipment offered by Structural Monitoring Systems, Ltd was used for crack detection. This equipment included the Kvac (vacuum supply) and the Sim8 (flow meter). The Sim8 was electrically connected to the Instron machine so that as soon as a crack was detected, fatigue loading was halted. The aim of the experiment was for CVM to detect a crack on the faying surface of the specimens at a length of 0.050" +/- 0.010". This was accomplished successfully. CVM has been developed on the principle that a small volume maintained at a low vacuum is extremely sensitive to any ingress of air. In addition to the load bearing sensors described above, self-adhesive, elastomeric sensors with fine channels on the adhesive face have been developed. When the sensors have been adhered to the structure under test, these fine channels, and the structure itself, form a manifold of galleries alternately at low vacuum and atmospheric pressure

  17. Improved automation of dissolved organic carbon sampling for organic-rich surface waters.

    PubMed

    Grayson, Richard P; Holden, Joseph

    2016-02-01

    In-situ UV-Vis spectrophotometers offer the potential for improved estimates of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) fluxes for organic-rich systems such as peatlands because they are able to sample and log DOC proxies automatically through time at low cost. In turn, this could enable improved total carbon budget estimates for peatlands. The ability of such instruments to accurately measure DOC depends on a number of factors, not least of which is how absorbance measurements relate to DOC and the environmental conditions. Here we test the ability of a S::can Spectro::lyser™ for measuring DOC in peatland streams with routinely high DOC concentrations. Through analysis of the spectral response data collected by the instrument we have been able to accurately measure DOC up to 66 mg L(-1), which is more than double the original upper calibration limit for this particular instrument. A linear regression modelling approach resulted in an accuracy >95%. The greatest accuracy was achieved when absorbance values for several different wavelengths were used at the same time in the model. However, an accuracy >90% was achieved using absorbance values for a single wavelength to predict DOC concentration. Our calculations indicated that, for organic-rich systems, in-situ measurement with a scanning spectrophotometer can improve fluvial DOC flux estimates by 6 to 8% compared with traditional sampling methods. Thus, our techniques pave the way for improved long-term carbon budget calculations from organic-rich systems such as peatlands. PMID:26580726

  18. Evaluation of the appropriate time period between sampling and analyzing for automated urinalysis

    PubMed Central

    Dolscheid-Pommerich, Ramona C.; Klarmann-Schulz, Ute; Conrad, Rupert; Stoffel-Wagner, Birgit; Zur, Berndt

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Preanalytical specifications for urinalysis must be strictly adhered to avoid false interpretations. Aim of the present study is to examine whether the preanalytical factor ‘time point of analysis’ significantly influences stability of urine samples for urine particle and dipstick analysis. Materials and methods In 321 pathological spontaneous urine samples, urine dipstick (Urisys™2400, Combur-10-Test™strips, Roche Diagnostics, Mannheim, Germany) and particle analysis (UF-1000 i™, Sysmex, Norderstedt, Germany) were performed within 90 min, 120 min and 240 min after urine collection. Results For urine particle analysis, a significant increase in conductivity (120 vs. 90 min: P < 0.001, 240 vs. 90 min: P < 0.001) and a significant decrease in WBC (120 vs. 90 min P < 0.001, 240 vs. 90 min P < 0.001), RBC (120 vs. 90 min P < 0.001, 240 vs. 90 min P < 0.001), casts (120 vs. 90 min P < 0.001, 240 vs. 90 min P < 0.001) and epithelial cells (120 vs. 90 min P = 0.610, 240 vs. 90 min P = 0.041) were found. There were no significant changes for bacteria. Regarding urine dipstick analysis, misclassification rates between measurements were significant for pH (120 vs. 90 min P < 0.001, 240 vs. 90 min P < 0.001), leukocytes (120 vs. 90 min P < 0.001, 240 vs. 90 min P < 0.001), nitrite (120 vs. 90 min P < 0.001, 240 vs. 90 min P < 0.001), protein (120 vs. 90 min P < 0.001, 240 vs. 90 min P<0.001), ketone (120 vs. 90 min P < 0.001, 240 vs. 90 min P < 0.001), blood (120 vs. 90 min P < 0.001, 240 vs. 90 min P < 0.001), specific gravity (120 vs. 90 min P < 0.001, 240 vs. 90 min P < 0.001) and urobilinogen (120 vs. 90 min, P = 0.031). Misclassification rates were not significant for glucose and bilirubin. Conclusion Most parameters critically depend on the time window between sampling and analysis. Our study stresses the importance of adherence to early time points in urinalysis (within 90 min). PMID:26981022

  19. Automated Large Scale Parameter Extraction of Road-Side Trees Sampled by a Laser Mobile Mapping System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindenbergh, R. C.; Berthold, D.; Sirmacek, B.; Herrero-Huerta, M.; Wang, J.; Ebersbach, D.

    2015-08-01

    In urbanized Western Europe trees are considered an important component of the built-up environment. This also means that there is an increasing demand for tree inventories. Laser mobile mapping systems provide an efficient and accurate way to sample the 3D road surrounding including notable roadside trees. Indeed, at, say, 50 km/h such systems collect point clouds consisting of half a million points per 100m. Method exists that extract tree parameters from relatively small patches of such data, but a remaining challenge is to operationally extract roadside tree parameters at regional level. For this purpose a workflow is presented as follows: The input point clouds are consecutively downsampled, retiled, classified, segmented into individual trees and upsampled to enable automated extraction of tree location, tree height, canopy diameter and trunk diameter at breast height (DBH). The workflow is implemented to work on a laser mobile mapping data set sampling 100 km of road in Sachsen, Germany and is tested on a stretch of road of 7km long. Along this road, the method detected 315 trees that were considered well detected and 56 clusters of tree points were no individual trees could be identified. Using voxels, the data volume could be reduced by about 97 % in a default scenario. Processing the results of this scenario took ~2500 seconds, corresponding to about 10 km/h, which is getting close to but is still below the acquisition rate which is estimated at 50 km/h.

  20. Dried Blood Spot Proteomics: Surface Extraction of Endogenous Proteins Coupled with Automated Sample Preparation and Mass Spectrometry Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Nicholas J.; Bunch, Josephine; Cooper, Helen J.

    2013-08-01

    Dried blood spots offer many advantages as a sample format including ease and safety of transport and handling. To date, the majority of mass spectrometry analyses of dried blood spots have focused on small molecules or hemoglobin. However, dried blood spots are a potentially rich source of protein biomarkers, an area that has been overlooked. To address this issue, we have applied an untargeted bottom-up proteomics approach to the analysis of dried blood spots. We present an automated and integrated method for extraction of endogenous proteins from the surface of dried blood spots and sample preparation via trypsin digestion by use of the Advion Biosciences Triversa Nanomate robotic platform. Liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry of the resulting digests enabled identification of 120 proteins from a single dried blood spot. The proteins identified cross a concentration range of four orders of magnitude. The method is evaluated and the results discussed in terms of the proteins identified and their potential use as biomarkers in screening programs.

  1. Adjustable virtual pore-size filter for automated sample preparation using acoustic radiation force

    SciTech Connect

    Jung, B; Fisher, K; Ness, K; Rose, K; Mariella, R

    2008-05-22

    We present a rapid and robust size-based separation method for high throughput microfluidic devices using acoustic radiation force. We developed a finite element modeling tool to predict the two-dimensional acoustic radiation force field perpendicular to the flow direction in microfluidic devices. Here we compare the results from this model with experimental parametric studies including variations of the PZT driving frequencies and voltages as well as various particle sizes and compressidensities. These experimental parametric studies also provide insight into the development of an adjustable 'virtual' pore-size filter as well as optimal operating conditions for various microparticle sizes. We demonstrated the separation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and MS2 bacteriophage using acoustic focusing. The acoustic radiation force did not affect the MS2 viruses, and their concentration profile remained unchanged. With optimized design of our microfluidic flow system we were able to achieve yields of > 90% for the MS2 with > 80% of the S. cerevisiae being removed in this continuous-flow sample preparation device.

  2. Development testing of the chemical analysis automation polychlorinated biphenyl standard analysis method during surface soils sampling at the David Witherspoon 1630 site

    SciTech Connect

    Hunt, M.A.; Klatt, L.N.; Thompson, D.H.

    1998-02-01

    The Chemical Analysis Automation (CAA) project is developing standardized, software-driven, site-deployable robotic laboratory systems with the objective of lowering the per-sample analysis cost, decreasing sample turnaround time, and minimizing human exposure to hazardous and radioactive materials associated with DOE remediation projects. The first integrated system developed by the CAA project is designed to determine polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) content in soil matrices. A demonstration and development testing of this system was conducted in conjuction with surface soil characterization activities at the David Witherspoon 1630 Site in Knoxville, Tennessee. The PCB system consists of five hardware standard laboratory modules (SLMs), one software SLM, the task sequence controller (TSC), and the human-computer interface (HCI). Four of the hardware SLMs included a four-channel Soxhlet extractor, a high-volume concentrator, a column cleanup, and a gas chromatograph. These SLMs performed the sample preparation and measurement steps within the total analysis protocol. The fifth hardware module was a robot that transports samples between the SLMs and the required consumable supplies to the SLMs. The software SLM is an automated data interpretation module that receives raw data from the gas chromatograph SLM and analyzes the data to yield the analyte information. The TSC is a software system that provides the scheduling, management of system resources, and the coordination of all SLM activities. The HCI is a graphical user interface that presents the automated laboratory to the analyst in terms of the analytical procedures and methods. Human control of the automated laboratory is accomplished via the HCI. Sample information required for processing by the automated laboratory is entered through the HCI. Information related to the sample and the system status is presented to the analyst via graphical icons.

  3. Re-Emergence of Under-Selected Stimuli, after the Extinction of Over-Selected Stimuli in an Automated Match to Samples Procedure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broomfield, Laura; McHugh, Louise; Reed, Phil

    2008-01-01

    Stimulus over-selectivity occurs when one of potentially many aspects of the environment comes to control behaviour. In two experiments, adults with no developmental disabilities, were trained and tested in an automated match to samples (MTS) paradigm. In Experiment 1, participants completed two conditions, in one of which the over-selected…

  4. Evaluation of automated direct sample introduction with comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry for the screening analysis of dioxins of fish oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An automated direct sample introduction technique coupled to comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography-time of flight mass spectrometry (DSI-GC×GC/TOF-MS) was applied for the development of a relatively fast and easy analytical screening method for 17 polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzo...

  5. An automated serial Grinding, Imaging and Reconstruction Instrument (GIRI) for digital modeling of samples with weak density contrasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maloof, A. C.; Samuels, B.; Mehra, A.; Spatzier, A.

    2013-12-01

    We present the first results from the new Princeton University Grinder Lab dedicated to the digital reconstruction of hidden objects through serial grinding and imaging. The purpose of a destructive technique like serial grinding is to facilitate the discovery of embedded objects with weak density contrasts outside the sensitivity limits of X-ray CT-scanning devices (Feature segmentation and object reconstruction are based on color and textural contrasts in the stack of images rather than density). The device we have developed is a retrofit imaging station designed for a precision CNC surface. The instrument is capable of processing a sample 20x25x40 cm in size at 1 micron resolution in x, y and z axes. Directly coupled to the vertical axis of the grinder is an 80 megapixel medium format camera and specialty macro lens capable of imaging a 4x5 cm surface at 5 micron resolution in full 16 bit color. The system is automated such that after each surface grind, the sample is cleaned, travels to the opposite end of the bed from the grinder wheel, is photographed, and then moved back to the grinding position. This process establishes a comprehensive archive of the specimen that is used for digital reconstruction and quantitative analysis. For example, in one night, a 7 cm thick sample can be imaged completely at 20 micron horizontal and vertical resolution without human supervision. Some of the initial results we present here include new digital reconstructions of early animal fossils, 3D sedimentary bedforms, the size and shape distribution of chondrules in chondritic meteorites, and the porosity structure of carbonate cemented reservoir rocks.

  6. Automated Fast Screening Method for Cocaine Identification in Seized Drug Samples Using a Portable Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) Instrument.

    PubMed

    Mainali, Dipak; Seelenbinder, John

    2016-05-01

    Quick and presumptive identification of seized drug samples without destroying evidence is necessary for law enforcement officials to control the trafficking and abuse of drugs. This work reports an automated screening method to detect the presence of cocaine in seized samples using portable Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectrometers. The method is based on the identification of well-defined characteristic vibrational frequencies related to the functional group of the cocaine molecule and is fully automated through the use of an expert system. Traditionally, analysts look for key functional group bands in the infrared spectra and characterization of the molecules present is dependent on user interpretation. This implies the need for user expertise, especially in samples that likely are mixtures. As such, this approach is biased and also not suitable for non-experts. The method proposed in this work uses the well-established "center of gravity" peak picking mathematical algorithm and combines it with the conditional reporting feature in MicroLab software to provide an automated method that can be successfully employed by users with varied experience levels. The method reports the confidence level of cocaine present only when a certain number of cocaine related peaks are identified by the automated method. Unlike library search and chemometric methods that are dependent on the library database or the training set samples used to build the calibration model, the proposed method is relatively independent of adulterants and diluents present in the seized mixture. This automated method in combination with a portable FT-IR spectrometer provides law enforcement officials, criminal investigators, or forensic experts a quick field-based prescreening capability for the presence of cocaine in seized drug samples. PMID:27006022

  7. Another Look at the Mechanisms of Hydride Transfer Enzymes from Quantum and Classical Transition Path Sampling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dzierlenga, Michael; Antoniou, Dimitri; Schwartz, Steven

    2015-03-01

    The mechanisms involved in enzymatic hydride transfer have been studies for years but questions remain, due to the difficulty in determining the participation of protein dynamics and quantum effects, especially hydrogen tunneling. In this study, we use transition path sampling (TPS) with normal mode centroid molecular dynamics (CMD) to calculate the barrier to hydride transfer in yeast alcohol dehydrogenase (YADH) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). Calculation of the work applied to the hydride during the reaction allows for observation of the change in barrier height due to inclusion of quantum effects. Additionally, the same calculations were performed using deuterium as the transferring particle to validate our methods with experimentally measured kinetic isotope effects. The change in barrier height in YADH upon inclusion of quantum effects is indicative of a zero-point energy contribution, and is evidence that the protein mediates a near-barrierless transfer of the rate-limiting hydride. Calculation of kinetic isotope effects using the average difference in barrier between hydride and deuteride agreed well with experimental results. The authors acknowledge the support of the National Institutes of Health Grants GM068036 and GM102226.

  8. Microwave-Assisted Sample Treatment in a Fully Automated Flow-Based Instrument: Oxidation of Reduced Technetium Species in the Analysis of Total Technetium-99 in Caustic Aged Nuclear Waste Samples

    SciTech Connect

    Egorov, Oleg B.; O'Hara, Matthew J.; Grate, Jay W.

    2004-07-15

    An automated flow-based instrument for microwave-assisted treatment of liquid samples has been developed and characterized. The instrument utilizes a flow-through reaction vessel design that facilitates the addition of multiple reagents during sample treatment, removal of the gaseous reaction products, and enables quantitative removal of liquids from the reaction vessel for carryover-free operations. Matrix modification and speciation control chemistries that are required for the radiochemical determination of total 99Tc in caustic aged nuclear waste samples have been investigated. A rapid and quantitative oxidation procedure using peroxydisulfate in acidic solution was developed to convert reduced technetium species to pertechnetate in samples with high content of reducing organics. The effectiveness of the automated sample treatment procedures has been validated in the radiochemical analysis of total 99Tc in caustic aged nuclear waste matrixes from the Hanford site.

  9. Final ROI Report - Technology Transfer of Waste-Reducing Groundwater Sampling Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Noyes, C; Howard, G; Bishop, D; Tuckfield, C; Hiergesell, R

    2002-09-30

    This report presents the findings of a U.S. DOE Environmental Management technology transfer initiative of waste-reducing ground water sampling systems between Savannah River Site (SRS) and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) which occurred during fiscal years 2001 and 2002. The report describes the collaboration between the two sites, the deployment of the Savannah River Site Purge Water Management System at LLNL, the changes made to that system for use at LLNL, and documents the return-on-investment derived from the system's use at LLNL as well as other benefits generated through this inter-laboratory collaboration. An evaluation of the deployment of the LLNL EasyPump sampling technology at SRS will be covered in a separate report from SRS.

  10. Influence of commonly used primer systems on automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis of bacterial communities in environmental samples.

    PubMed

    Purahong, Witoon; Stempfhuber, Barbara; Lentendu, Guillaume; Francioli, Davide; Reitz, Thomas; Buscot, François; Schloter, Michael; Krüger, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    Due to the high diversity of bacteria in many ecosystems, their slow generation times, specific but mostly unknown nutrient requirements and syntrophic interactions, isolation based approaches in microbial ecology mostly fail to describe microbial community structure. Thus, cultivation independent techniques, which rely on directly extracted nucleic acids from the environment, are a well-used alternative. For example, bacterial automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis (B-ARISA) is one of the widely used methods for fingerprinting bacterial communities after PCR-based amplification of selected regions of the operon coding for rRNA genes using community DNA. However, B-ARISA alone does not provide any taxonomic information and the results may be severely biased in relation to the primer set selection. Furthermore, amplified DNA stemming from mitochondrial or chloroplast templates might strongly bias the obtained fingerprints. In this study, we determined the applicability of three different B-ARISA primer sets to the study of bacterial communities. The results from in silico analysis harnessing publicly available sequence databases showed that all three primer sets tested are specific to bacteria but only two primers sets assure high bacterial taxa coverage (1406f/23Sr and ITSF/ITSReub). Considering the study of bacteria in a plant interface, the primer set ITSF/ITSReub was found to amplify (in silico) sequences of some important crop species such as Sorghum bicolor and Zea mays. Bacterial genera and plant species potentially amplified by different primer sets are given. These data were confirmed when DNA extracted from soil and plant samples were analyzed. The presented information could be useful when interpreting existing B-ARISA results and planning B-ARISA experiments, especially when plant DNA can be expected. PMID:25749323

  11. Automated mass spectrometer grows up

    SciTech Connect

    McInteer, B.B.; Montoya, J.G.; Stark, E.E.

    1984-01-01

    In 1980 we reported the development of an automated mass spectrometer for large scale batches of samples enriched in nitrogen-15 as ammonium salts. Since that time significant technical progress has been made in the instrument. Perhaps more significantly, administrative and institutional changes have permitted the entire effort to be transferred to the private sector from its original base at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. This has ensured the continuance of a needed service to the international scientific community as revealed by a development project at a national laboratory, and is an excellent example of beneficial technology transfer to private industry.

  12. Application of automated serial blood sampling and dried blood spot technique with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for pharmacokinetic studies in mice.

    PubMed

    Wong, Philip; Pham, Roger; Whitely, Carl; Soto, Marcus; Salyers, Kevin; James, Christopher; Bruenner, Bernd A

    2011-11-01

    The goal of this work was to obtain full pharmacokinetic profiles from individual mice with the use of an automated blood sampling system and dried blood spot (DBS) technique. AMG 517, a potent and selective vanilloid receptor (VR1) antagonist, was dosed to mice (n=3) intravenously and blood samples were collected using the automated blood sampling system with the "no blood waste" method. The collected blood samples were a mixture of 25 μL blood and 50 μL of heparinized saline solution. Two 15 μL aliquots were manually spotted onto a DBS card and dried at room temperature for at least 2h before being stored in zip bags with desiccant. The remaining samples (45 μL) were stored at -70°C until analysis. Both the DBS and the whole blood samples (diluted with saline (1:2, v/v)) were extracted and analyzed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The overall extraction recovery of the analyte from the dried blood spots was determined to be about 90%. The pharmacokinetic parameters calculated using the whole blood or the DBS concentration data were comparable, and were obtained from only 3 mice, whereas conventional sampling and analysis would have required up to 27 mice to achieve the same result. The analyte was shown to be stable in the diluted whole blood (blood:saline 1:2) at room temperature for at least 4h and in the DBS for at least 34 days when stored at room temperature. These results indicated that the automated blood sampling system and DBS collection are promising techniques to obtain full pharmacokinetic profiles from individual mice and reduce the use of animals. PMID:21784595

  13. Using the ARTMO toolbox for automated retrieval of biophysical parameters through radiative transfer model inversion: Optimizing LUT-based inversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verrelst, J.; Rivera, J. P.; Leonenko, G.; Alonso, L.; Moreno, J.

    2012-04-01

    Radiative transfer (RT) modeling plays a key role for earth observation (EO) because it is needed to design EO instruments and to develop and test inversion algorithms. The inversion of a RT model is considered as a successful approach for the retrieval of biophysical parameters because of being physically-based and generally applicable. However, to the broader community this approach is considered as laborious because of its many processing steps and expert knowledge is required to realize precise model parameterization. We have recently developed a radiative transfer toolbox ARTMO (Automated Radiative Transfer Models Operator) with the purpose of providing in a graphical user interface (GUI) essential models and tools required for terrestrial EO applications such as model inversion. In short, the toolbox allows the user: i) to choose between various plant leaf and canopy RT models (e.g. models from the PROSPECT and SAIL family, FLIGHT), ii) to choose between spectral band settings of various air- and space-borne sensors or defining own sensor settings, iii) to simulate a massive amount of spectra based on a look up table (LUT) approach and storing it in a relational database, iv) to plot spectra of multiple models and compare them with measured spectra, and finally, v) to run model inversion against optical imagery given several cost options and accuracy estimates. In this work ARTMO was used to tackle some well-known problems related to model inversion. According to Hadamard conditions, mathematical models of physical phenomena are mathematically invertible if the solution of the inverse problem to be solved exists, is unique and depends continuously on data. This assumption is not always met because of the large number of unknowns and different strategies have been proposed to overcome this problem. Several of these strategies have been implemented in ARTMO and were here analyzed to optimize the inversion performance. Data came from the SPARC-2003 dataset

  14. Automated Liquid Microjunction Surface Sampling-HPLC-MS/MS Analysis of Drugs and Metabolites in Whole-Body Thin Tissue Sections

    SciTech Connect

    Kertesz, Vilmos; Van Berkel, Gary J

    2013-01-01

    A fully automated liquid extraction-based surface sampling system utilizing a commercially available autosampler coupled to high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) detection is reported. Discrete spots selected for droplet-based sampling and automated sample queue generation for both the autosampler and MS were enabled by using in-house developed software. In addition, co-registration of spatially resolved sampling position and HPLC-MS information to generate heatmaps of compounds monitored for subsequent data analysis was also available in the software. The system was evaluated with whole-body thin tissue sections from propranolol dosed rat. The hands-free operation of the system was demonstrated by creating heatmaps of the parent drug and its hydroxypropranolol glucuronide metabolites with 1 mm resolution in the areas of interest. The sample throughput was approximately 5 min/sample defined by the time needed for chromatographic separation. The spatial distributions of both the drug and its metabolites were consistent with previous studies employing other liquid extraction-based surface sampling methodologies.

  15. Linear model correction: A method for transferring a near-infrared multivariate calibration model without standard samples.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yan; Cai, Wensheng; Shao, Xueguang

    2016-12-01

    Calibration transfer is essential for practical applications of near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy because the measurements of the spectra may be performed on different instruments and the difference between the instruments must be corrected. For most of calibration transfer methods, standard samples are necessary to construct the transfer model using the spectra of the samples measured on two instruments, named as master and slave instrument, respectively. In this work, a method named as linear model correction (LMC) is proposed for calibration transfer without standard samples. The method is based on the fact that, for the samples with similar physical and chemical properties, the spectra measured on different instruments are linearly correlated. The fact makes the coefficients of the linear models constructed by the spectra measured on different instruments are similar in profile. Therefore, by using the constrained optimization method, the coefficients of the master model can be transferred into that of the slave model with a few spectra measured on slave instrument. Two NIR datasets of corn and plant leaf samples measured with different instruments are used to test the performance of the method. The results show that, for both the datasets, the spectra can be correctly predicted using the transferred partial least squares (PLS) models. Because standard samples are not necessary in the method, it may be more useful in practical uses. PMID:27380302

  16. Tip-enhanced laser ablation sample transfer for biomolecule mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Ghorai, Suman; Seneviratne, Chinthaka A; Murray, Kermit K

    2015-01-01

    Atomic force microscope (AFM) tip-enhanced laser ablation was used to transfer molecules from thin films to a suspended silver wire for off-line mass spectrometry using laser desorption ionization (LDI) and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI). An AFM with a 30 nm radius gold-coated silicon tip was used to image the sample and to hold the tip 15 nm from the surface for material removal using a 355 nm Nd:YAG laser. The ablated material was captured on a silver wire that was held 300 μm vertically and 100 μm horizontally from the tip. For the small molecules anthracene and rhodamine 6G, the wire was cut and affixed to a metal target using double-sided conductive tape and analyzed by LDI using a commercial laser desorption time-of-flight mass spectrometer. Approximately 100 fg of material was ablated from each of the 1 μm ablation spots and transferred with approximately 3% efficiency. For larger polypeptide molecules angiotensin II and bovine insulin, the captured material was dissolved in saturated matrix solution and deposited on a target for MALDI analysis. PMID:25287125

  17. Tip-Enhanced Laser Ablation Sample Transfer for Biomolecule Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghorai, Suman; Seneviratne, Chinthaka A.; Murray, Kermit K.

    2015-01-01

    Atomic force microscope (AFM) tip-enhanced laser ablation was used to transfer molecules from thin films to a suspended silver wire for off-line mass spectrometry using laser desorption ionization (LDI) and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI). An AFM with a 30 nm radius gold-coated silicon tip was used to image the sample and to hold the tip 15 nm from the surface for material removal using a 355 nm Nd:YAG laser. The ablated material was captured on a silver wire that was held 300 μm vertically and 100 μm horizontally from the tip. For the small molecules anthracene and rhodamine 6G, the wire was cut and affixed to a metal target using double-sided conductive tape and analyzed by LDI using a commercial laser desorption time-of-flight mass spectrometer. Approximately 100 fg of material was ablated from each of the 1 μm ablation spots and transferred with approximately 3% efficiency. For larger polypeptide molecules angiotensin II and bovine insulin, the captured material was dissolved in saturated matrix solution and deposited on a target for MALDI analysis.

  18. AUTOMATED ANALYSIS OF AQUEOUS SAMPLES CONTAINING PESTICIDES, ACIDIC/BASIC/NEUTRAL SEMIVOLATILES AND VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS BY SOLID PHASE EXTRACTION COUPLED IN-LINE TO LARGE VOLUME INJECTION GC/MS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Data is presented on the development of a new automated system combining solid phase extraction (SPE) with GC/MS spectrometry for the single-run analysis of water samples containing a broad range of organic compounds. The system uses commercially available automated in-line 10-m...

  19. Modulation transfer function measurement of sampled imaging systems in field test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Le; Sun, Qiang; Wang, Jian; Zhang, Jianzhong

    2010-10-01

    A digital mirror device (DMD) based light projector was developed as the target generator in modulation transfer function (MTF) measurement. In order to overcome the sampling-scene phase effect in MTF measurement of sampled imaging systems, a method using random targets is introduced to yield a phase-averaged MTF. The main potential problem of implementing this method is the fact that the stationary assumption of the random targets may be vitiated in practical measurement, especially in field test due to the ill condition. We provide an efficient model-independent way of analyzing and isolating the spectral contents arising from these additional contributions to MTF measurement. Algorithms with adaptive parameter selection were also developed for spectral estimation of the test image in order to overcome the challenge brought by the size limit of the test matrices for one certain field of view derived from the isoplantic region. The MTF measurement of a CCD video imager is used to demonstrate the measurement technique and illustrate the benefits over other methods. In order to validate the results, comparisons have been made between MTF measurements of imager implemented using this method and bar target direct measurements.

  20. Verification of low frequency ac-dc transfer differences of thermal converters using sampling with sine-wave fit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Funck, Torsten; Spiegel, Thomas

    2015-09-01

    Thermal converters show significant ac-dc transfer differences at low frequencies due to nonlinearities of the heat transport mechanism and of the thermal-to-electric conversion. It is assumed that the ac-dc transfer differences at low frequencies are proportional to the input power. We have proved this assumption by an independent method with sampling techniques. A novel approach based on sine-wave fitting is used to calculate the RMS value of the sampled signal from the samples. It makes use of the low noise in a metrological environment. Expanded uncertainties in the order of 1.2 μV/V have been achieved.

  1. Assessing sample attenuation parameters for use in low-energy efficiency transfer in gamma-ray spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Bruggeman, M; Verheyen, L; Vidmar, T; Liu, B

    2016-03-01

    We present a numerical fitting method for transmission data that outputs an equivalent sample composition. This output is used as input to a generalised efficiency transfer model based on the EFFTRAN software integrated in a LIMS. The procedural concept allows choosing between efficiency transfer with a predefined sample composition or with an experimentally determined composition based on a transmission measurement. The method can be used for simultaneous quantification of low-energy gamma emitters like (210)Pb, (241)Am, (234)Th in typical environmental samples. PMID:26688363

  2. Automated determination of the stable carbon isotopic composition (δ13C) of total dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and total nonpurgeable dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in aqueous samples: RSIL lab codes 1851 and 1852

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Révész, Kinga M.; Doctor, Daniel H.

    2014-01-01

    The purposes of the Reston Stable Isotope Laboratory (RSIL) lab codes 1851 and 1852 are to determine the total carbon mass and the ratio of the stable isotopes of carbon (δ13C) for total dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC, lab code 1851) and total nonpurgeable dissolved organic carbon (DOC, lab code 1852) in aqueous samples. The analysis procedure is automated according to a method that utilizes a total carbon analyzer as a peripheral sample preparation device for analysis of carbon dioxide (CO2) gas by a continuous-flow isotope ratio mass spectrometer (CF-IRMS). The carbon analyzer produces CO2 and determines the carbon mass in parts per million (ppm) of DIC and DOC in each sample separately, and the CF-IRMS determines the carbon isotope ratio of the produced CO2. This configuration provides a fully automated analysis of total carbon mass and δ13C with no operator intervention, additional sample preparation, or other manual analysis. To determine the DIC, the carbon analyzer transfers a specified sample volume to a heated (70 °C) reaction vessel with a preprogrammed volume of 10% phosphoric acid (H3PO4), which allows the carbonate and bicarbonate species in the sample to dissociate to CO2. The CO2 from the reacted sample is subsequently purged with a flow of helium gas that sweeps the CO2 through an infrared CO2 detector and quantifies the CO2. The CO2 is then carried through a high-temperature (650 °C) scrubber reactor, a series of water traps, and ultimately to the inlet of the mass spectrometer. For the analysis of total dissolved organic carbon, the carbon analyzer performs a second step on the sample in the heated reaction vessel during which a preprogrammed volume of sodium persulfate (Na2S2O8) is added, and the hydroxyl radicals oxidize the organics to CO2. Samples containing 2 ppm to 30,000 ppm of carbon are analyzed. The precision of the carbon isotope analysis is within 0.3 per mill for DIC, and within 0.5 per mill for DOC.

  3. Design and Testing of an Automated System using Thermochromatic Liquid Crystals to Determine Local Heat Transfer Coefficients for an Impinging Jet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tan, Benjamin

    1995-01-01

    Using thermochromatic liquid crystal to measure surface temperature, an automated transient method with time-varying free-stream temperature is developed to determine local heat transfer coefficients. By allowing the free-stream temperature to vary with time, the need for complicated mechanical components to achieve a step temperature change is eliminated, and by using the thermochromatic liquid crystals as temperature indicators, the labor intensive task of installing many thermocouples is omitted. Bias associated with human perception of the transition of the thermochromatic liquid crystal is eliminated by using a high speed digital camera and a computer. The method is validated by comparisons with results obtained by the steady-state method for a circular Jet impinging on a flat plate. Several factors affecting the accuracy of the method are evaluated.

  4. RESULTS FOR THE MAY 19, 2010 INADVERTENT TRANSFER TO THE SALTSTONE DISPOSAL FACILITY SLURRY: SAMPLE ANALYTICAL RESULTS

    SciTech Connect

    Reigel, M.; Cozzi, A.

    2010-08-17

    This report details the chemical analysis results for the characterization of the May 19, 2010 inadvertent transfer from the Saltstone Production Facility (SPF) to the Saltstone Disposal Facility (SDF). On May 19, 2010, the Saltstone Processing Facility (SPF) inadvertently transferred approximately 1800 gallons of untreated low-level salt solution from the salt feed tank (SFT) to Cell F of Vault 4. The transfer was identified and during safe configuration shutdown, approximately 70 gallons of SFT material was left in the Saltstone hopper. After the shutdown, the material in the hopper was undisturbed, while the SFT has received approximately 1400 gallons of drain water from the Vault 4 bleed system. The drain water path from Vault 4 to the SFT does not include the hopper (Figure 1); therefore it was determined that the material remaining in the hopper was the most representative sample of the salt solution transferred to the vault. To complete item No.5 of Reference 1, Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was asked to analyze the liquid sample retrieved from the hopper for pH, and metals identified by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). SRNL prepared a report to complete item No.5 and determine the hazardous nature of the transfer. Waste Solidification Engineering then instructed SRNL to provide a more detailed analysis of the slurried sample to assist in the determination of the portion of Tank 50 waste in the hopper sample.

  5. Method and apparatus for automated processing and aliquoting of whole blood samples for analysis in a centrifugal fast analyzer

    DOEpatents

    Burtis, Carl A.; Johnson, Wayne F.; Walker, William A.

    1988-01-01

    A rotor and disc assembly for use in a centrifugal fast analyzer. The assembly is designed to process multiple samples of whole blood followed by aliquoting of the resultant serum into precisely measured samples for subsequent chemical analysis. The assembly requires minimal operator involvement with no mechanical pipetting. The system comprises (1) a whole blood sample disc, (2) a serum sample disc, (3) a sample preparation rotor, and (4) an analytical rotor. The blood sample disc and serum sample disc are designed with a plurality of precision bore capillary tubes arranged in a spoked array. Samples of blood are loaded into the blood sample disc in capillary tubes filled by capillary action and centrifugally discharged into cavities of the sample preparation rotor where separation of serum and solids is accomplished. The serum is loaded into the capillaries of the serum sample disc by capillary action and subsequently centrifugally expelled into cuvettes of the analytical rotor for analysis by conventional methods.

  6. Method and apparatus for automated processing and aliquoting of whole blood samples for analysis in a centrifugal fast analyzer

    DOEpatents

    Burtis, C.A.; Johnson, W.F.; Walker, W.A.

    1985-08-05

    A rotor and disc assembly for use in a centrifugal fast analyzer. The assembly is designed to process multiple samples of whole blood followed by aliquoting of the resultant serum into precisely measured samples for subsequent chemical analysis. The assembly requires minimal operator involvement with no mechanical pipetting. The system comprises: (1) a whole blood sample disc; (2) a serum sample disc; (3) a sample preparation rotor; and (4) an analytical rotor. The blood sample disc and serum sample disc are designed with a plurality of precision bore capillary tubes arranged in a spoked array. Samples of blood are loaded into the blood sample disc by capillary action and centrifugally discharged into cavities of the sample preparation rotor where separation of serum and solids is accomplished. The serum is loaded into the capillaries of the serum sample disc by capillary action and subsequently centrifugally expelled into cuvettes of the analyticaly rotor for conventional methods. 5 figs.

  7. Homogeneous sample preparation for automated high throughput analysis with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Onnerfjord, P; Ekström, S; Bergquist, J; Nilsson, J; Laurell, T; Marko-Varga, G

    1999-01-01

    This work presents a simple method for obtaining homogeneous sample surfaces in matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOFMS) for the automated analysis of peptides and proteins. The sample preparation method is based on applying the sample/matrix mixture onto a pre-deposited highly diluted matrix spot. The pre-deposited crystals act as seeds for the new sample containing crystals which become much smaller in size and more evenly distributed than with conventional methods. This 'seed-layer' method was developed, optimised and compared with the dried-droplet method using peptides and proteins in the 1000-20,000 Da range. The seed-layer method increases the surface homogeneity, spot to spot reproducibility and sample washability as compared with the commonly used dried-droplet method. This methodology is applicable to alpha-cyanohydroxycinnamic acid, sinapinic acid and ferulic acid, which all form homogeneous crystal surfaces. Within-spot variation and between-spot variation was investigated using statistics at a 95% confidence level (n = 36). The statistical values were generated from more than 5000 data points collected from 500 spectra. More than 90% of the sample locations results in high intensity spectra with relatively low standard deviations (RSDs). Typically obtained data showed an RSD of 19-35% within a sample spot as well as in-between spots for proteins, and an RSD of < or = 50% for peptides. Linear calibration curves were obtained within one order of magnitude using internal calibration with a point-RSD of 3% (n = 10). The sample homogeneity allows mass spectra (average of 16 laser shots) to be obtained on each individual sample within 15 sec, whereby a 100 spot target plate can be run in 25 min. High density target plates using the seed-layer method were prepared by spotting approximately 100 picoliter droplets onto the target, resulting in sample spots < or = 500 microns in diameter using a flow

  8. Automated DNA Sequencing System

    SciTech Connect

    Armstrong, G.A.; Ekkebus, C.P.; Hauser, L.J.; Kress, R.L.; Mural, R.J.

    1999-04-25

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is developing a core DNA sequencing facility to support biological research endeavors at ORNL and to conduct basic sequencing automation research. This facility is novel because its development is based on existing standard biology laboratory equipment; thus, the development process is of interest to the many small laboratories trying to use automation to control costs and increase throughput. Before automation, biology Laboratory personnel purified DNA, completed cycle sequencing, and prepared 96-well sample plates with commercially available hardware designed specifically for each step in the process. Following purification and thermal cycling, an automated sequencing machine was used for the sequencing. A technician handled all movement of the 96-well sample plates between machines. To automate the process, ORNL is adding a CRS Robotics A- 465 arm, ABI 377 sequencing machine, automated centrifuge, automated refrigerator, and possibly an automated SpeedVac. The entire system will be integrated with one central controller that will direct each machine and the robot. The goal of this system is to completely automate the sequencing procedure from bacterial cell samples through ready-to-be-sequenced DNA and ultimately to completed sequence. The system will be flexible and will accommodate different chemistries than existing automated sequencing lines. The system will be expanded in the future to include colony picking and/or actual sequencing. This discrete event, DNA sequencing system will demonstrate that smaller sequencing labs can achieve cost-effective the laboratory grow.

  9. Remedial/Developmental Education and the Cost of Community College Transfer: A Los Angeles County Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melguizo, Tatiana; Hagedorn, Linda Serra; Cypers, Scott

    2008-01-01

    This study calculates and explores the total costs of a community college education prior to transfer to a four-year college. Included are all courses both at and below the college level by 411 students who attended one of the nine community colleges in the Los Angeles Community College District (LACCD) and who successfully transferred to a…

  10. Experimental and simulation investigation of ion transfer in different sampling capillaries.

    PubMed

    Yu, Quan; Jiang, Tao; Ni, Kai; Qian, Xiang; Tang, Fei; Wang, Xiaohao

    2015-12-01

    Atmospheric pressure interfaces were a fundamental structure for transferring air generated ions into the vacuum manifold of a mass spectrometer. This work is devoted to the characterization of ion transfer in metal capillaries through both experimental and simulated investigations. The impact of capillary configurations on ion transmission efficiency was evaluated using an electrospray mass spectrometer with various bent capillaries as the transfer devices. In addition, a numerical model has been set up by coupling the SIMION 8.0 and the computational flow dynamics for simulation study of ion migration in the complex atmospheric system. The transfer efficiency was found to be highly affected by the variation in electric field and the capillary geometry, revealing that the hydrodynamic and electric force were both dominant and interactional during the transmission process. The consistency of the results from the experimental analysis and simulation modeling proved the validity of the model, which was helpful for understanding ion activity in transfer capillaries. PMID:26634970

  11. Revealed and stated preference valuation and transfer: A within-sample comparison of water quality improvement values

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrini, Silvia; Schaafsma, Marije; Bateman, Ian

    2014-06-01

    Benefit transfer (BT) methods are becoming increasingly important for environmental policy, but the empirical findings regarding transfer validity are mixed. A novel valuation survey was designed to obtain both stated preference (SP) and revealed preference (RP) data concerning river water quality values from a large sample of households. Both dichotomous choice and payment card contingent valuation (CV) and travel cost (TC) data were collected. Resulting valuations were directly compared and used for BT analyses using both unit value and function transfer approaches. WTP estimates are found to pass the convergence validity test. BT results show that the CV data produce lower transfer errors, below 20% for both unit value and function transfer, than TC data especially when using function transfer. Further, comparison of WTP estimates suggests that in all cases, differences between methods are larger than differences between study areas. Results show that when multiple studies are available, using welfare estimates from the same area but based on a different method consistently results in larger errors than transfers across space keeping the method constant.

  12. Method for the measurement of the modulation transfer function of sampled imaging systems from bar-target patterns

    SciTech Connect

    Sitter, D.N. Jr.; Goddard, J.S.; Ferrell, R.K. )

    1995-02-01

    A rigorous and simple method for the determination of the modulation transfer function (MTF) of a sampled imaging system is presented. One calculates the MTF by imaging bar patterns and calculating the reduction in amplitude of the fundamental frequency components. The optimal set of bar-pattern frequencies that reduce errors from aliased frequency components is derived. Theoretical and experimental data are presented.

  13. 16 CFR Appendix C to Part 436 - Sample Item 20(2) Table-Transfers of Franchised Outlets

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Sample Item 20(2) Table-Transfers of Franchised Outlets C Appendix C to Part 436 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION TRADE REGULATION RULES DISCLOSURE REQUIREMENTS AND PROHIBITIONS CONCERNING FRANCHISING Pt. 436, App. C Appendix C to...

  14. 16 CFR Appendix C to Part 436 - Sample Item 20(2) Table-Transfers of Franchised Outlets

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Sample Item 20(2) Table-Transfers of Franchised Outlets C Appendix C to Part 436 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION TRADE REGULATION RULES DISCLOSURE REQUIREMENTS AND PROHIBITIONS CONCERNING FRANCHISING Pt. 436, App. C Appendix C to...

  15. 16 CFR Appendix C to Part 436 - Sample Item 20(2) Table-Transfers of Franchised Outlets

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Sample Item 20(2) Table-Transfers of Franchised Outlets C Appendix C to Part 436 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION TRADE REGULATION RULES DISCLOSURE REQUIREMENTS AND PROHIBITIONS CONCERNING FRANCHISING Pt. 436, App. C Appendix C to...

  16. A timer inventory based upon manual and automated analysis of ERTS-1 and supporting aircraft data using multistage probability sampling. [Plumas National Forest, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nichols, J. D.; Gialdini, M.; Jaakkola, S.

    1974-01-01

    A quasi-operational study demonstrating that a timber inventory based on manual and automated analysis of ERTS-1, supporting aircraft data and ground data was made using multistage sampling techniques. The inventory proved to be a timely, cost effective alternative to conventional timber inventory techniques. The timber volume on the Quincy Ranger District of the Plumas National Forest was estimated to be 2.44 billion board feet with a sampling error of 8.2 percent. Costs per acre for the inventory procedure at 1.1 cent/acre compared favorably with the costs of a conventional inventory at 25 cents/acre. A point-by-point comparison of CALSCAN-classified ERTS data with human-interpreted low altitude photo plots indicated no significant differences in the overall classification accuracies.

  17. High-throughput, Automated Extraction of DNA and RNA from Clinical Samples using TruTip Technology on Common Liquid Handling Robots

    PubMed Central

    Holmberg, Rebecca C.; Gindlesperger, Alissa; Stokes, Tinsley; Brady, Dane; Thakore, Nitu; Belgrader, Philip; Cooney, Christopher G.; Chandler, Darrell P.

    2013-01-01

    TruTip is a simple nucleic acid extraction technology whereby a porous, monolithic binding matrix is inserted into a pipette tip. The geometry of the monolith can be adapted for specific pipette tips ranging in volume from 1.0 to 5.0 ml. The large porosity of the monolith enables viscous or complex samples to readily pass through it with minimal fluidic backpressure. Bi-directional flow maximizes residence time between the monolith and sample, and enables large sample volumes to be processed within a single TruTip. The fundamental steps, irrespective of sample volume or TruTip geometry, include cell lysis, nucleic acid binding to the inner pores of the TruTip monolith, washing away unbound sample components and lysis buffers, and eluting purified and concentrated nucleic acids into an appropriate buffer. The attributes and adaptability of TruTip are demonstrated in three automated clinical sample processing protocols using an Eppendorf epMotion 5070, Hamilton STAR and STARplus liquid handling robots, including RNA isolation from nasopharyngeal aspirate, genomic DNA isolation from whole blood, and fetal DNA extraction and enrichment from large volumes of maternal plasma (respectively). PMID:23793016

  18. Fast automated dual-syringe based dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for the determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in environmental water samples.

    PubMed

    Guo, Liang; Tan, Shufang; Li, Xiao; Lee, Hian Kee

    2016-03-18

    An automated procedure, combining low density solvent based solvent demulsification dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis, was developed for the determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in environmental water samples. Capitalizing on a two-rail commercial autosampler, fast solvent transfer using a large volume syringe dedicated to the DLLME process, and convenient extract collection using a small volume microsyringe for better GC performance were enabled. Extraction parameters including the type and volume of extraction solvent, the type and volume of dispersive solvent and demulsification solvent, extraction and demulsification time, and the speed of solvent injection were investigated and optimized. Under the optimized conditions, the linearity ranged from 0.1 to 50 μg/L, 0.2 to 50 μg/L, and 0.5 to 50 μg/L, depending on the analytes. Limits of detection were determined to be between 0.023 and 0.058 μg/L. The method was applied to determine PAHs in environmental water samples. PMID:26893021

  19. Influence of sample preparation and reliability of automated numerical refocusing in stain-free analysis of dissected tissues with quantitative phase digital holographic microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kemper, Björn; Lenz, Philipp; Bettenworth, Dominik; Krausewitz, Philipp; Domagk, Dirk; Ketelhut, Steffi

    2015-05-01

    Digital holographic microscopy (DHM) has been demonstrated to be a versatile tool for high resolution non-destructive quantitative phase imaging of surfaces and multi-modal minimally-invasive monitoring of living cell cultures in-vitro. DHM provides quantitative monitoring of physiological processes through functional imaging and structural analysis which, for example, gives new insight into signalling of cellular water permeability and cell morphology changes due to toxins and infections. Also the analysis of dissected tissues quantitative DHM phase contrast prospects application fields by stain-free imaging and the quantification of tissue density changes. We show that DHM allows imaging of different tissue layers with high contrast in unstained tissue sections. As the investigation of fixed samples represents a very important application field in pathology, we also analyzed the influence of the sample preparation. The retrieved data demonstrate that the quality of quantitative DHM phase images of dissected tissues depends strongly on the fixing method and common staining agents. As in DHM the reconstruction is performed numerically, multi-focus imaging is achieved from a single digital hologram. Thus, we evaluated the automated refocussing feature of DHM for application on different types of dissected tissues and revealed that on moderately stained samples highly reproducible holographic autofocussing can be achieved. Finally, it is demonstrated that alterations of the spatial refractive index distribution in murine and human tissue samples represent a reliable absolute parameter that is related of different degrees of inflammation in experimental colitis and Crohn's disease. This paves the way towards the usage of DHM in digital pathology for automated histological examinations and further studies to elucidate the translational potential of quantitative phase microscopy for the clinical management of patients, e.g., with inflammatory bowel disease.

  20. Hydride Transfer in DHFR by Transition Path Sampling, Kinetic Isotope Effects, and Heavy Enzyme Studies.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhen; Antoniou, Dimitri; Schwartz, Steven D; Schramm, Vern L

    2016-01-12

    Escherichia coli dihydrofolate reductase (ecDHFR) is used to study fundamental principles of enzyme catalysis. It remains controversial whether fast protein motions are coupled to the hydride transfer catalyzed by ecDHFR. Previous studies with heavy ecDHFR proteins labeled with (13)C, (15)N, and nonexchangeable (2)H reported enzyme mass-dependent hydride transfer kinetics for ecDHFR. Here, we report refined experimental and computational studies to establish that hydride transfer is independent of protein mass. Instead, we found the rate constant for substrate dissociation to be faster for heavy DHFR. Previously reported kinetic differences between light and heavy DHFRs likely arise from kinetic steps other than the chemical step. This study confirms that fast (femtosecond to picosecond) protein motions in ecDHFR are not coupled to hydride transfer and provides an integrative computational and experimental approach to resolve fast dynamics coupled to chemical steps in enzyme catalysis. PMID:26652185

  1. High-performance liquid chromatographic determination of ochratoxin A in artificially contaminated cocoa beans using automated sample clean-up.

    PubMed

    Hurst, W J; Martin, R A

    1998-06-12

    A HPLC method is described for the analysis of ochratoxin A at low-ppb levels in samples of artificially contaminated cocoa beans. The samples are extracted in a mixture of methanol-water containing ascorbic acid, adjusted to pH and evaporated to dryness. Samples in this state are then placed onto a Benchmate sample preparation workstation where C18 solid-phase extraction operations are performed. The resulting materials are evaporated to dryness and analyzed by reversed-phase HPLC with fluorescence detection. The method was evaluated for accuracy and precision with R.S.D.s for multiple injections of sample and standard calculated to 1.1% and 2.5% for sample and standard, respectively. Recoveries of ochratoxin A added to cocoa beans ranged from 87-106% over the range of the assay. PMID:9691293

  2. Energy transfer mechanism and Auger effect in Er{sup 3+} coupled silicon nanoparticle samples

    SciTech Connect

    Pitanti, A.; Navarro-Urrios, D.; Garrido, B.; Prtljaga, N.; Daldosso, N.; Pavesi, L.; Gourbilleau, F.; Rizk, R.

    2010-09-15

    We report a spectroscopic study about the energy transfer mechanism among silicon nanoparticles (Si-np), both amorphous and crystalline, and Er ions in a silicon dioxide matrix. From infrared spectroscopic analysis, we have determined that the physics of the transfer mechanism does not depend on the Si-np nature, finding a fast (<200 ns) energy transfer in both cases, while the amorphous nanoclusters reveal a larger transfer efficiency than the nanocrystals. Moreover, the detailed spectroscopic results in the visible range here reported are essential to understand the physics behind the sensitization effect, whose knowledge assumes a crucial role to enhance the transfer rate and possibly employing the material in optical amplifier devices. Joining the experimental data, performed with pulsed and continuous-wave excitation, we develop a model in which the internal intraband recombination within Si-np is competitive with the transfer process via an Auger electron-''recycling'' effect. Posing a different light on some detrimental mechanism such as Auger processes, our findings clearly recast the role of Si-np in the sensitization scheme, where they are able to excite very efficiently ions in close proximity to their surface.

  3. A portable automated system for trace gas sampling in the field and stable isotope analysis in the laboratory.

    PubMed

    Theis, Daniel E; Saurer, Matthias; Blum, Herbert; Frossard, Emmanuel; Siegwolf, Rolf T W

    2004-01-01

    A computer-controllable mobile system is presented which enables the automatic collection of 33 air samples in the field and the subsequent analysis for delta13C and delta18O stable isotope ratios of a carbon-containing trace gas in the laboratory, e.g. CO2, CO or CH4. The system includes a manifold gas source input for profile sampling and an infrared gas analyzer for in situ CO2 concentration measurements. Measurements of delta13C and delta18O of all 33 samples can run unattended and take less than six hours for CO2. Laboratory tests with three gases (compressed air with different pCO2 and stable isotope compositions) showed a measurement precision of 0.03 per thousand for delta13C and 0.02 per thousand for delta18O of CO2 (standard error (SE), n = 11). A field test of our system, in which 66 air samples were collected within a 24-hour period above grassland, showed a correlation of 0.99 (r2) between the inverse of pCO2 and delta13C of CO2. Storage of samples until analysis is possible for about 1 week; this can be an important factor for sampling in remote areas. A wider range of applications in the field is open with our system, since sampling and analysis of CO and CH4 for stable isotope composition is also possible. Samples of compressed air had a measurement precision (SE, n = 33) of 0.03 per thousand for delta13C and of 0.04 per thousand for delta18O on CO and of 0.07 per thousand for delta13C on CH4. Our system should therefore further facilitate research of trace gases in the context of the carbon cycle in the field, and opens many other possible applications with carbon- and possibly non-carbon-containing trace gases. PMID:15317047

  4. Simple semi-automated portable capillary electrophoresis instrument with contactless conductivity detection for the determination of β-agonists in pharmaceutical and pig-feed samples.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Thi Anh Huong; Pham, Thi Ngoc Mai; Doan, Thi Tuoi; Ta, Thi Thao; Sáiz, Jorge; Nguyen, Thi Quynh Hoa; Hauser, Peter C; Mai, Thanh Duc

    2014-09-19

    An inexpensive, robust and easy to use portable capillary electrophoresis instrument with miniaturized high-voltage capacitively coupled contactless conductivity detection was developed. The system utilizes pneumatic operation to manipulate the solutions for all flushing steps. The different operations, i.e. capillary flushing, interface rinsing, and electrophoretic separation, are easily activated by turning an electronic switch. To allow the analysis of samples with limited available volume, and to render the construction less complicated compared to a computer-controlled counterpart, sample injection is carried out hydrodynamically directly from the sample vial into the capillary by manual syphoning. The system is a well performing solution where the financial means for the highly expensive commercial instruments are not available and where the in-house construction of a sophisticated automated instrument is not possible due to limited mechanical and electronic workshop facilities and software programming expertise. For demonstration, the system was employed successfully for the determination of some β-agonists, namely salbutamol, metoprolol and ractopamine down to 0.7ppm in pharmaceutical and pig-feed sample matrices in Vietnam. PMID:25115456

  5. R-PLASMID TRANSFER TO AND FROM 'ESCHERICHIA COLI' STRAINS ISOLATED FROM HUMAN FECAL SAMPLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Strains of Escherichia coli recently isolated from human feces were examined for the frequency with which they accept and R factor (Ri) from a derepressed fi+ strain of E. coli K-12 and transfer it to fecal and laboratory strains. Colicins produced by some of the isolates rapidly...

  6. Simultaneous analysis of organochlorinated pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from marine samples using automated pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) and Power Prep™ clean-up.

    PubMed

    Helaleh, Murad I H; Al-Rashdan, Amal; Ibtisam, A

    2012-05-30

    An automated pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) method followed by Power Prep™ clean-up was developed for organochlorinated pesticide (OCP) and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) analysis in environmental marine samples of fish, squid, bivalves, shells, octopus and shrimp. OCPs and PCBs were simultaneously determined in a single chromatographic run using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-negative chemical ionization (GC-MS-NCI). About 5 g of each biological marine sample was mixed with anhydrous sodium sulphate and placed in the extraction cell of the PLE system. PLE is controlled by means of a PC using DMS 6000 software. Purification of the extract was accomplished using automated Power Prep™ clean-up with a pre-packed disposable silica column (6 g) supplied by Fluid Management Systems (FMS). All OCPs and PCBs were eluted from the silica column using two types of solvent: 80 mL of hexane and a 50 mL mixture of hexane and dichloromethane (1:1). A wide variety of fish and shellfish were collected from the fish market and analyzed using this method. The total PCB concentrations were 2.53, 0.25, 0.24, 0.24, 0.17 and 1.38 ng g(-1) (w/w) for fish, squid, bivalves, shells, octopus and shrimp, respectively, and the corresponding total OCP concentrations were 30.47, 2.86, 0.92, 10.72, 5.13 and 18.39 ng g(-1) (w/w). Lipids were removed using an SX-3 Bio-Beads gel permeation chromatography (GPC) column. Analytical criteria such as recovery, reproducibility and repeatability were evaluated through a range of biological matrices. PMID:22608412

  7. Method for the measurement of the modulation transfer function of sampled imaging systems from bar-target patterns.

    PubMed

    Sitter, D N; Goddard, J S; Ferrell, R K

    1995-02-01

    A rigorous and simple method for the determination of the modulation transfer function (MTF) of a sampled imaging system is presented. One calculates the MTF by imaging bar patterns and calculating the reduction in amplitude of the fundamental frequency components. The optimal set of bar-pattern frequencies that reduce errors from aliased frequency components is derived. Theoretical and experimental data are presented. PMID:20963180

  8. System and method for liquid extraction electrospray-assisted sample transfer to solution for chemical analysis

    DOEpatents

    Kertesz, Vilmos; Van Berkel, Gary J.

    2016-07-12

    A system for sampling a surface includes a surface sampling probe comprising a solvent liquid supply conduit and a distal end, and a sample collector for suspending a sample collection liquid adjacent to the distal end of the probe. A first electrode provides a first voltage to solvent liquid at the distal end of the probe. The first voltage produces a field sufficient to generate electrospray plume at the distal end of the probe. A second electrode provides a second voltage and is positioned to produce a plume-directing field sufficient to direct the electrospray droplets and ions to the suspended sample collection liquid. The second voltage is less than the first voltage in absolute value. A voltage supply system supplies the voltages to the first electrode and the second electrode. The first electrode can apply the first voltage directly to the solvent liquid. A method for sampling for a surface is also disclosed.

  9. Isotope Enrichment Detection by Laser Ablation - Laser Absorption Spectrometry: Automated Environmental Sampling and Laser-Based Analysis for HEU Detection

    SciTech Connect

    Anheier, Norman C.; Bushaw, Bruce A.

    2010-01-01

    The global expansion of nuclear power, and consequently the uranium enrichment industry, requires the development of new safeguards technology to mitigate proliferation risks. Current enrichment monitoring instruments exist that provide only yes/no detection of highly enriched uranium (HEU) production. More accurate accountancy measurements are typically restricted to gamma-ray and weight measurements taken in cylinder storage yards. Analysis of environmental and cylinder content samples have much higher effectiveness, but this approach requires onsite sampling, shipping, and time-consuming laboratory analysis and reporting. Given that large modern gaseous centrifuge enrichment plants (GCEPs) can quickly produce a significant quantity (SQ ) of HEU, these limitations in verification suggest the need for more timely detection of potential facility misuse. The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is developing an unattended safeguards instrument concept, combining continuous aerosol particulate collection with uranium isotope assay, to provide timely analysis of enrichment levels within low enriched uranium facilities. This approach is based on laser vaporization of aerosol particulate samples, followed by wavelength tuned laser diode spectroscopy to characterize the uranium isotopic ratio through subtle differences in atomic absorption wavelengths. Environmental sampling (ES) media from an integrated aerosol collector is introduced into a small, reduced pressure chamber, where a focused pulsed laser vaporizes material from a 10 to 20-µm diameter spot of the surface of the sampling media. The plume of ejected material begins as high-temperature plasma that yields ions and atoms, as well as molecules and molecular ions. We concentrate on the plume of atomic vapor that remains after the plasma has expanded and then cooled by the surrounding cover gas. Tunable diode lasers are directed through this plume and each isotope is detected by monitoring absorbance

  10. Verification of performance with the automated direct optical TIRF immunosensor (River Analyser) in single and multi-analyte assays with real water samples.

    PubMed

    Tschmelak, Jens; Proll, Guenther; Gauglitz, Guenter

    2004-11-01

    In order to verify the reproducibility, precision, and robustness of the optical immunosensor River Analyser (RIANA), we investigated two common statistical methods to evaluate the limit of detection (LOD) and the limit of quantification (LOQ). Therefore, we performed a simultaneous multi-analyte calibration with atrazine, bisphenol A, and estrone in Milli-Q water. Using an automated biosensor, it was possible for the first time to achieve a LOD below 0.020 microg L(-1) using a common statistically based method without sample pre-treatment and pre-concentration for each of the analytes in a simultaneous multi-analyte calibration. This biosensor setup shows values comparable to those obtained by more classical analytical methods. Based on this calibration, we measured spiked and un-spiked real water samples with complex matrices (samples from different water bodies, from ground water sources, and tap water samples). The comparison between our River Analyser and common analytical methods (like GC-MS and HPLC-DAD) shows overall comparable values for all three analytes. Furthermore, a calibration of isoproturon (IPU) (in single analyte mode) resulted in a LOD of 0.016 microg L(-1), and a LOQ of 0.091 microg L(-1). In compliance with guidelines of the Association of Analytical Communities International (AOAC), six out of nine recovery rates (recovery rate: measured concentration divided by real concentration in percent) for three surface water samples with different matrices (spiked and un-spiked) could be obtained between 70 and 120% (recovery rates between 70 and 120%, as demanded by the guidelines of the AOAC International). The reproducibility was checked by measuring replica of each sample within independent repetitions. Robustness could be demonstrated by long-term stability tests of the biosensor surface. These studies show that the biosensor used offers the necessary reproducibility, precision, and robustness required for an analytical method. PMID:15522589

  11. Automated determination of nitrate plus nitrite in aqueous samples with flow injection analysis using vanadium (III) chloride as reductant.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shu; Lin, Kunning; Chen, Nengwang; Yuan, Dongxing; Ma, Jian

    2016-01-01

    Determination of nitrate in aqueous samples is an important analytical objective for environmental monitoring and assessment. Here we report the first automatic flow injection analysis (FIA) of nitrate (plus nitrite) using VCl3 as reductant instead of the well-known but toxic cadmium column for reducing nitrate to nitrite. The reduced nitrate plus the nitrite originally present in the sample react with the Griess reagent (sulfanilamide and N-1-naphthylethylenediamine dihydrochloride) under acidic condition. The resulting pink azo dye can be detected at 540 nm. The Griess reagent and VCl3 are used as a single mixed reagent solution to simplify the system. The various parameters of the FIA procedure including reagent composition, temperature, volume of the injection loop, and flow rate were carefully investigated and optimized via univariate experimental design. Under the optimized conditions, the linear range and detection limit of this method are 0-100 µM (R(2)=0.9995) and 0.1 µM, respectively. The targeted analytical range can be easily extended to higher concentrations by selecting alternative detection wavelengths or increasing flow rate. The FIA system provides a sample throughput of 20 h(-1), which is much higher than that of previously reported manual methods based on the same chemistry. National reference solutions and different kinds of aqueous samples were analyzed with our method as well as the cadmium column reduction method. The results from our method agree well with both the certified value and the results from the cadmium column reduction method (no significant difference with P=0.95). The spiked recovery varies from 89% to 108% for samples with different matrices, showing insignificant matrix interference in this method. PMID:26695325

  12. Systems and methods for laser assisted sample transfer to solution for chemical analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Van Berkel, Gary J.; Kertesz, Vilmos; Ovchinnikova, Olga S.

    2014-06-03

    Systems and methods are described for laser ablation of an analyte from a specimen and capturing of the analyte in a dispensed solvent to form a testing solution. A solvent dispensing and extraction system can form a liquid microjunction with the specimen. The solvent dispensing and extraction system can include a surface sampling probe. The laser beam can be directed through the surface sampling probe. The surface sampling probe can also serve as an atomic force microscopy probe. The surface sampling probe can form a seal with the specimen. The testing solution including the analyte can then be analyzed using an analytical instrument or undergo further processing.

  13. Systems and methods for laser assisted sample transfer to solution for chemical analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Van Berkel, Gary J.; Kertesz, Vilmos; Ovchinnikova, Olga S.

    2015-09-29

    Systems and methods are described for laser ablation of an analyte from a specimen and capturing of the analyte in a dispensed solvent to form a testing solution. A solvent dispensing and extraction system can form a liquid microjunction with the specimen. The solvent dispensing and extraction system can include a surface sampling probe. The laser beam can be directed through the surface sampling probe. The surface sampling probe can also serve as an atomic force microscopy probe. The surface sampling probe can form a seal with the specimen. The testing solution including the analyte can then be analyzed using an analytical instrument or undergo further processing.

  14. Systems and methods for laser assisted sample transfer to solution for chemical analysis

    DOEpatents

    Van Berkel, Gary J; Kertesz, Vilmos; Ovchinnikova, Olga S

    2013-08-27

    Systems and methods are described for laser ablation of an analyte from a specimen and capturing of the analyte in a dispensed solvent to form a testing solution. A solvent dispensing and extraction system can form a liquid microjunction with the specimen. The solvent dispensing and extraction system can include a surface sampling probe. The laser beam can be directed through the surface sampling probe. The surface sampling probe can also serve as an atomic force microscopy probe. The surface sampling probe can form a seal with the specimen. The testing solution including the analyte can then be analyzed using an analytical instrument or undergo further processing.

  15. A fully automated effervescence assisted dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction based on a stepwise injection system. Determination of antipyrine in saliva samples.

    PubMed

    Medinskaia, Kseniia; Vakh, Christina; Aseeva, Darina; Andruch, Vasil; Moskvin, Leonid; Bulatov, Andrey

    2016-01-01

    A first attempt to automate the effervescence assisted dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (EA-DLLME) has been reported. The method is based on the aspiration of a sample and all required aqueous reagents into the stepwise injection analysis (SWIA) manifold, followed by simultaneous counterflow injection of the extraction solvent (dichloromethane), the mixture of the effervescence agent (0.5 mol L(-1) Na2CO3) and the proton donor solution (1 mol L(-1) CH3COOH). Formation of carbon dioxide microbubbles generated in situ leads to the dispersion of the extraction solvent in the whole aqueous sample and extraction of the analyte into organic phase. Unlike the conventional DLLME, in the case of EA-DLLME, the addition of dispersive solvent, as well as, time consuming centrifugation step for disruption of the cloudy state is avoided. The phase separation was achieved by gentle bubbling of nitrogen stream (2 mL min(-1) during 2 min). The performance of the suggested approach is demonstrated by determination of antipyrine in saliva samples. The procedure is based on the derivatization of antipyrine by nitrite-ion followed by EA-DLLME of 4-nitrosoantipyrine and subsequent UV-Vis detection using SWIA manifold. The absorbance of the yellow-colored extract at the wavelength of 345 nm obeys Beer's law in the range of 1.5-100 µmol L(-1) of antipyrine in saliva. The LOD, calculated from a blank test based on 3σ, was 0.5 µmol L(-1). PMID:26703262

  16. Versatile sample environments and automation for biological solution X-ray scattering experiments at the P12 beamline (PETRA III, DESY)

    PubMed Central

    Blanchet, Clement E.; Spilotros, Alessandro; Schwemmer, Frank; Graewert, Melissa A.; Kikhney, Alexey; Jeffries, Cy M.; Franke, Daniel; Mark, Daniel; Zengerle, Roland; Cipriani, Florent; Fiedler, Stefan; Roessle, Manfred; Svergun, Dmitri I.

    2015-01-01

    A high-brilliance synchrotron P12 beamline of the EMBL located at the PETRA III storage ring (DESY, Hamburg) is dedicated to biological small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and has been designed and optimized for scattering experiments on macromolecular solutions. Scatterless slits reduce the parasitic scattering, a custom-designed miniature active beamstop ensures accurate data normalization and the photon-counting PILATUS 2M detector enables the background-free detection of weak scattering signals. The high flux and small beam size allow for rapid experiments with exposure time down to 30–50 ms covering the resolution range from about 300 to 0.5 nm. P12 possesses a versatile and flexible sample environment system that caters for the diverse experimental needs required to study macromolecular solutions. These include an in-vacuum capillary mode for standard batch sample analyses with robotic sample delivery and for continuous-flow in-line sample purification and characterization, as well as an in-air capillary time-resolved stopped-flow setup. A novel microfluidic centrifugal mixing device (SAXS disc) is developed for a high-throughput screening mode using sub-microlitre sample volumes. Automation is a key feature of P12; it is controlled by a beamline meta server, which coordinates and schedules experiments from either standard or nonstandard operational setups. The integrated SASFLOW pipeline automatically checks for consistency, and processes and analyses the data, providing near real-time assessments of overall parameters and the generation of low-resolution models within minutes of data collection. These advances, combined with a remote access option, allow for rapid high-throughput analysis, as well as time-resolved and screening experiments for novice and expert biological SAXS users. PMID:25844078

  17. Shorter sampling periods and accurate estimates of milk volume and components are possible for pasture based dairy herds milked with automated milking systems.

    PubMed

    Kamphuis, Claudia; Burke, Jennie K; Taukiri, Sarah; Petch, Susan-Fay; Turner, Sally-Anne

    2016-08-01

    Dairy cows grazing pasture and milked using automated milking systems (AMS) have lower milking frequencies than indoor fed cows milked using AMS. Therefore, milk recording intervals used for herd testing indoor fed cows may not be suitable for cows on pasture based farms. We hypothesised that accurate standardised 24 h estimates could be determined for AMS herds with milk recording intervals of less than the Gold Standard (48 hs), but that the optimum milk recording interval would depend on the herd average for milking frequency. The Gold Standard protocol was applied on five commercial dairy farms with AMS, between December 2011 and February 2013. From 12 milk recording test periods, involving 2211 cow-test days and 8049 cow milkings, standardised 24 h estimates for milk volume and milk composition were calculated for the Gold Standard protocol and compared with those collected during nine alternative sampling scenarios, including six shorter sampling periods and three in which a fixed number of milk samples per cow were collected. Results infer a 48 h milk recording protocol is unnecessarily long for collecting accurate estimates during milk recording on pasture based AMS farms. Collection of two milk samples only per cow was optimal in terms of high concordance correlation coefficients for milk volume and components and a low proportion of missed cow-test days. Further research is required to determine the effects of diurnal variations in milk composition on standardised 24 h estimates for milk volume and components, before a protocol based on a fixed number of samples could be considered. Based on the results of this study New Zealand have adopted a split protocol for herd testing based on the average milking frequency for the herd (NZ Herd Test Standard 8100:2015). PMID:27600967

  18. Evaluation of the RapidHIT™ 200, an automated human identification system for STR analysis of single source samples.

    PubMed

    Holland, Mitchell; Wendt, Frank

    2015-01-01

    The RapidHIT™ 200 Human Identification System was evaluated to determine its suitability for STR analysis of single source buccal swabs. Overall, the RapidHIT™ 200 performed as well as our traditional capillary electrophoresis based method in producing useable profile information on a first-pass basis. General observations included 100% concordance with known profile information, consistent instrument performance after two weeks of buccal swab storage, and an absence of contamination in negative controls. When data analysis was performed by the instrument software, 95.3% of the 85 samples in the reproducibility study gave full profiles. Including the 81 full profiles, a total of 2682 alleles were correctly called by the instrument software, or 98.6% of 2720 possible alleles tested. Profile information was generated from as little as 10,000 nucleated cells, with swab collection technique being a major contributing factor to profile quality. The average peak-height-ratio for heterozygote profiles (81%) was comparable to conventional STR analysis, and while a high analytical threshold was required when offline profile analysis was performed (800 RFU), it was proportionally consistent with traditional methods. Stochastic sampling effects were evaluated, and a manageable approach to address limits of detection for homozygote profiles is provided. These results support consideration of the RapidHIT™ 200 as an acceptable alternative to conventional, laboratory based STR analysis for the testing of single source buccal samples, with review of profile information as a requirement until an expert software system is incorporated, and when proper developmental and internal validation studies have been completed. PMID:25286443

  19. Automated determination of urinary Na+, K+, chloride, inorganic phosphate, urea, and creatinine without sample dilution, with the "RA-XT".

    PubMed

    Fesus, P D; Pressac, M; Braconnier, F; Aymard, P

    1989-03-01

    We describe how concentrations of chloride, urea, inorganic phosphate, and creatinine in urine can be measured directly, without manual sample dilution, in a discrete analyzer (the Technicon "RA-XT"). These methods were accurate for concentrations of chloride up to 280 mmol/L, urea up to 500 mmol/L, inorganic phosphate up to 50 mmol/L, and creatinine up to 30 mmol/L. CVs are less than 3% nd results correlate well with those obtained by continuous-flow analysis (SMA-II). All these reagents are stable at room temperature for three weeks. Analyses are easy to perform and infrequent calibration is required. PMID:2920416

  20. Direct Sampling and Analysis from Solid Phase Extraction Cards using an Automated Liquid Extraction Surface Analysis Nanoelectrospray Mass Spectrometry System

    SciTech Connect

    Walworth, Matthew J; ElNaggar, Mariam S; Stankovich, Joseph J; WitkowskiII, Charles E.; Norris, Jeremy L; Van Berkel, Gary J

    2011-01-01

    Direct liquid extraction based surface sampling, a technique previously demonstrated with continuous flow and autonomous pipette liquid microjunction surface sampling probes, has recently been implemented as the Liquid Extraction Surface Analysis (LESA) mode on the commercially available Advion NanoMate chip-based infusion nanoelectrospray ionization system. In the present paper, the LESA mode was applied to the analysis of 96-well format custom solid phase extraction (SPE) cards, with each well consisting of either a 1 or 2 mm diameter monolithic hydrophobic stationary phase. These substrate wells were conditioned, loaded with either single or multi-component aqueous mixtures, and read out using the LESA mode of a TriVersa NanoMate or a Nanomate 100 coupled to an ABI/Sciex 4000QTRAPTM hybrid triple quadrupole/linear ion trap mass spectrometer and a Thermo LTQ XL linear ion trap mass spectrometer. Extraction conditions, including extraction/nanoESI solvent composition, volume, and dwell times, were optimized in the analysis of targeted compounds. Limit of detection and quantitation as well as analysis reproducibility figures of merit were measured. Calibration data was obtained for propranolol using a deuterated internal standard which demonstrated linearity and reproducibility. A 10x increase in signal and cleanup of micromolar Angiotensin II from a concentrated salt solution was demonstrated. Additionally, a multicomponent herbicide mixture at ppb concentration levels was analyzed using MS3 spectra for compound identification in the presence of isobaric interferences.

  1. Negative symptoms in schizophrenia: a study in a large clinical sample of patients using a novel automated method

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Rashmi; Jayatilleke, Nishamali; Broadbent, Matthew; Chang, Chin-Kuo; Foskett, Nadia; Gorrell, Genevieve; Hayes, Richard D; Jackson, Richard; Johnston, Caroline; Shetty, Hitesh; Roberts, Angus; McGuire, Philip; Stewart, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To identify negative symptoms in the clinical records of a large sample of patients with schizophrenia using natural language processing and assess their relationship with clinical outcomes. Design Observational study using an anonymised electronic health record case register. Setting South London and Maudsley NHS Trust (SLaM), a large provider of inpatient and community mental healthcare in the UK. Participants 7678 patients with schizophrenia receiving care during 2011. Main outcome measures Hospital admission, readmission and duration of admission. Results 10 different negative symptoms were ascertained with precision statistics above 0.80. 41% of patients had 2 or more negative symptoms. Negative symptoms were associated with younger age, male gender and single marital status, and with increased likelihood of hospital admission (OR 1.24, 95% CI 1.10 to 1.39), longer duration of admission (β-coefficient 20.5 days, 7.6–33.5), and increased likelihood of readmission following discharge (OR 1.58, 1.28 to 1.95). Conclusions Negative symptoms were common and associated with adverse clinical outcomes, consistent with evidence that these symptoms account for much of the disability associated with schizophrenia. Natural language processing provides a means of conducting research in large representative samples of patients, using data recorded during routine clinical practice. PMID:26346872

  2. Radiative transfer and spectroscopic databases: A line-sampling Monte Carlo approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galtier, Mathieu; Blanco, Stéphane; Dauchet, Jérémi; El Hafi, Mouna; Eymet, Vincent; Fournier, Richard; Roger, Maxime; Spiesser, Christophe; Terrée, Guillaume

    2016-03-01

    Dealing with molecular-state transitions for radiative transfer purposes involves two successive steps that both reach the complexity level at which physicists start thinking about statistical approaches: (1) constructing line-shaped absorption spectra as the result of very numerous state-transitions, (2) integrating over optical-path domains. For the first time, we show here how these steps can be addressed simultaneously using the null-collision concept. This opens the door to the design of Monte Carlo codes directly estimating radiative transfer observables from spectroscopic databases. The intermediate step of producing accurate high-resolution absorption spectra is no longer required. A Monte Carlo algorithm is proposed and applied to six one-dimensional test cases. It allows the computation of spectrally integrated intensities (over 25 cm-1 bands or the full IR range) in a few seconds, regardless of the retained database and line model. But free parameters need to be selected and they impact the convergence. A first possible selection is provided in full detail. We observe that this selection is highly satisfactory for quite distinct atmospheric and combustion configurations, but a more systematic exploration is still in progress.

  3. Automated solid-phase extraction and liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry for the determination of flunitrazepam and its metabolites in human urine and plasma samples.

    PubMed

    Jourdil, N; Bessard, J; Vincent, F; Eysseric, H; Bessard, G

    2003-05-25

    A sensitive and specific method using reversed-phase liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS) has been developed for the quantitative determination of flunitrazepam (F) and its metabolites 7-aminoflunitrazepam (7-AF), N-desmethylflunitrazepam (N-DMF) and 3-hydroxyflunitrazepam (3-OHF) in biological fluids. After the addition of deuterium labelled standards of F,7-AF and N-DMF, the drugs were isolated from urine or plasma by automated solid-phase extraction, then chromatographed in an isocratic elution mode with a salt-free eluent. The quantification was performed using selected ion monitoring of protonated molecular ions (M+H(+)). Experiments were carried out to improve the extraction recovery (81-100%) and the sensitivity (limit of detection 0.025 ng/ml for F and 7-AF, 0.040 ng/ml for N-DMF and 0.200 ng/ml for 3-OHF). The method was applied to the determination of F and metabolites in drug addicts including withdrawal urine samples and in one date-rape plasma and urine sample. PMID:12705961

  4. An automated headspace solid-phasemicroextraction followed by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry method to determine macrocyclic musk fragrances in wastewater samples.

    PubMed

    Vallecillos, Laura; Borrull, Francesc; Pocurull, Eva

    2013-11-01

    A fully automated method has been developed for determining eight macrocyclic musk fragrances in wastewater samples. The method is based on headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) followed by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Five different fibres (PDMS 7 μm, PDMS 30 μm, PDMS 100 μm, PDMS/DVB 65 μm and PA 85 μm) were tested. The best conditions were achieved when a PDMS/DVB 65 μm fibre was exposed for 45 min in the headspace of 10 mL water samples at 100 °C. Method detection limits were found in the low ng L−1 range between 0.75 and 5 ng L−1 depending on the target analytes. Moreover, under optimized conditions, the method gave good levels of intra-day and inter-day repeatabilities in wastewater samples with relative standard deviations (n =5, 1,000 ng L−1) less than 9 and 14 %, respectively. The applicability of the method was tested with influent and effluent urban wastewater samples from different wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). The analysis of influent urban wastewater revealed the presence of most of the target macrocyclic musks with, most notably, the maximum concentration of ambrettolide being obtained in WWTP A (4.36 μg L−1) and WWTP B (12.29 μg L−1), respectively. The analysis of effluent urban wastewater showed a decrease in target analyte concentrations, with exaltone and ambrettolide being the most abundant compounds with concentrations varying between below method quantification limit (

  5. Influence of possible disinfectant transfer on Staphylococcus aureus plate counts after agar contact sampling.

    PubMed Central

    Brummer, B

    1976-01-01

    Asbestos-vinyl tile floor panels were mopped with three types of chemical disinfectant product, as well as after contact, with the untreated control panel were prepared according to the manufacturer's label instructions. Similar floor panels were inoculated artificially with Staphylococcus aureus. RODAC (replicate organism detection and counting) surface sampling plates were pressed to the disinfectant-treated panels or to the untreated control panel and then immediately pressed to sampling sites on the artificially inoculated floor panels. Plate counts were determined after contact with panels treated with each type of disinfectant, product, as well as after contact with the untreated control panel. Results indicate that disinfectant residues on environmental surfaces do not alter the average plate counts obtained by RODAC samplings. PMID:788638

  6. Analysis of heat transfer in the water meniscus at the tip-sample contact in scanning thermal microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Assy, Ali; Lefèvre, Stéphane; Chapuis, Pierre-Olivier; Gomès, Séverine

    2014-11-01

    Quantitative measurements of local nanometer-scale thermal measurements are difficult to achieve because heat flux may be transferred from the heated sensor to the cold sample through various elusive mixed thermal channels. This paper addresses one of these channels, the water meniscus at the nano-contact between a heated atomic force microscopy probe and a hydrophilic sample. This heat transfer mechanism is found to depend strongly on the probe temperature. The analysis of the pull-off forces as a function of temperature indicates that the water film almost vanishes above a probe mean temperature between 120 and 150 ºC. In particular, a methodology that allows for correlating the thermal conductance of the water meniscus to the capillary forces is applied. In the case of the standard scanning thermal microscopy Wollaston probe, values of this thermal conductance show that the water meniscus mechanism is not dominant in the thermal interaction between the probe and the sample, regardless of probe temperature.

  7. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in human samples of mother-newborn pairs in South China and their placental transfer characteristics.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhuo-Jia; Liu, Han-Yan; Cheng, Zhang; Man, Yu-Bon; Zhang, Kun-Shui; Wei, Wei; Du, Jun; Wong, Ming-Hung; Wang, Hong-Sheng

    2014-12-01

    There are limited data concerning the placenta transfer characteristics and accumulation of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in infants. However, PBDEs received increasing health concerns due to their endocrine disrupt and neurodevelopment toxicity effects. The present study assessed the accumulation of PBDEs in 30 paired placenta, breast milk, fetal cord blood, and neonatal urine samples collected from five major cities of the South China. The age of mothers ranged from 21 to 39 (mean 27.6±4.56). The ∑PBDE concentrations were 15.8±9.88 ng g(-1) lipid in placenta, 13.2±7.64 ng g(-1) lipid in breast milk, 16.5±19.5 ng g(-1) lipid in fetal cord blood, and 1.80±1.99 ng ml(-1) in neonatal urine. BDE-47 was the predominant congener in all types of human sample. Octa-BDEs such as BDE-196/-197 were detected highly in placenta and cord blood while moderately in breast milk and neonatal urine. Significant (p<0.01) correlations were observed for both total and most individual PBDEs in cord blood-maternal placenta and breast milk-urine paired individual samples. The extent of placental transfer of higher brominated BDEs such as BDE-196/-197 was greater than that of BDE-47. The estimated daily intake (EDI) analysis for breast-fed infants revealed that newborns in these areas were exposed to relatively high levels of PBDEs via breast milk. Our study not only provided systematic fundamental data for PBDE distribution but also revealed the placenta transfer characteristics of PBDE congeners in South China. PMID:25090577

  8. Automated solvent concentrator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griffith, J. S.; Stuart, J. L.

    1976-01-01

    Designed for automated drug identification system (AUDRI), device increases concentration by 100. Sample is first filtered, removing particulate contaminants and reducing water content of sample. Sample is extracted from filtered residue by specific solvent. Concentrator provides input material to analysis subsystem.

  9. Implementation of conduct of operations at Paducah uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) sampling and transfer facility

    SciTech Connect

    Penrod, S.R.

    1991-12-31

    This paper describes the initial planning and actual field activities associated with the implementation of {open_quotes}Conduct of Operations{close_quotes}. Conduct of Operations is an operating philosophy that was developed through the Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (INPO). Conduct of Operations covers many operating practices and is intended to provide formality and discipline to all aspects of plant operation. The implementation of these operating principles at the UF{sub 6} Sampling and Transfer Facility resulted in significant improvements in facility operations.

  10. Implementation of conduct of operations at Paducah uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) sampling and transfer facility

    SciTech Connect

    Penrod, S.R.

    1991-12-31

    This paper describes the initial planning and actual field activities associated with the implementation of {open_quotes}Conduct of Operations{close_quotes}, Conduct of Operations is an operating philosophy that was developed through the Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (INPO). Conduct of Operations covers many operating practices and is intended to provide formality and discipline to all aspects of plant operation. The implementation of these operating principles at the UF{sub 6} Sampling and Transfer Facility resulted in significant improvements in facility operations.

  11. A METHOD FOR AUTOMATED ANALYSIS OF 10 ML WATER SAMPLES CONTAINING ACIDIC, BASIC, AND NEUTRAL SEMIVOLATILE COMPOUNDS LISTED IN USEPA METHOD 8270 BY SOLID PHASE EXTRACTION COUPLED IN-LINE TO LARGE VOLUME INJECTION GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY/MASS SPECTROMETRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Data is presented showing the progress made towards the development of a new automated system combining solid phase extraction (SPE) with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry for the single run analysis of water samples containing a broad range of acid, base and neutral compounds...

  12. Automation of the quantitative determination of elemental content in samples using neutron activation analysis on the IBR-2 reactor at the frank laboratory for neutron physics, joint institute for nuclear research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dmitriev, A. Yu.; Pavlov, S. S.

    2013-01-01

    Software for the automated quantitative determination of element concentrations in samples is described. This software is used in neutron activation analysis (NAA) at the IBR-2 reactor of the Frank Laboratory for Neutron Physics, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (FLNP JINR).

  13. System and method for laser assisted sample transfer to solution for chemical analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Van Berkel, Gary J; Kertesz, Vilmos

    2014-01-28

    A system and method for laser desorption of an analyte from a specimen and capturing of the analyte in a suspended solvent to form a testing solution are described. The method can include providing a specimen supported by a desorption region of a specimen stage and desorbing an analyte from a target site of the specimen with a laser beam centered at a radiation wavelength (.lamda.). The desorption region is transparent to the radiation wavelength (.lamda.) and the sampling probe and a laser source emitting the laser beam are on opposite sides of a primary surface of the specimen stage. The system can also be arranged where the laser source and the sampling probe are on the same side of a primary surface of the specimen stage. The testing solution can then be analyzed using an analytical instrument or undergo further processing.

  14. Does Automated Feedback Improve Writing Quality?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Joshua; Olinghouse, Natalie G.; Andrada, Gilbert N.

    2014-01-01

    The current study examines data from students in grades 4-8 who participated in a statewide computer-based benchmark writing assessment that featured automated essay scoring and automated feedback. We examined whether the use of automated feedback was associated with gains in writing quality across revisions to an essay, and with transfer effects…

  15. Automated mass spectrometer analysis system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuppermann, Aron (Inventor); Dreyer, William J. (Inventor); Giffin, Charles E. (Inventor); Boettger, Heinz G. (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    An automated mass spectrometer analysis system is disclosed, in which samples are automatically processed in a sample processor and converted into volatilizable samples, or their characteristic volatilizable derivatives. Each volatilizable sample is sequentially volatilized and analyzed in a double focusing mass spectrometer, whose output is in the form of separate ion beams all of which are simultaneously focused in a focal plane. Each ion beam is indicative of a different sample component or different fragments of one or more sample components and the beam intensity is related to the relative abundance of the sample component. The system includes an electro-optical ion detector which automatically and simultaneously converts the ion beams, first into electron beams which in turn produce a related image which is transferred to the target of a vilicon unit. The latter converts the images into electrical signals which are supplied to a data processor, whose output is a list of the components of the analyzed sample and their abundances. The system is under the control of a master control unit, which in addition to monitoring and controlling various power sources, controls the automatic operation of the system under expected and some unexpected conditions and further protects various critical parts of the system from damage due to particularly abnormal conditions.

  16. Automated mass spectrometer analysis system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boettger, Heinz G. (Inventor); Giffin, Charles E. (Inventor); Dreyer, William J. (Inventor); Kuppermann, Aron (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    An automated mass spectrometer analysis system is disclosed, in which samples are automatically processed in a sample processor and converted into volatilizable samples, or their characteristic volatilizable derivatives. Each volatizable sample is sequentially volatilized and analyzed in a double focusing mass spectrometer, whose output is in the form of separate ion beams all of which are simultaneously focused in a focal plane. Each ion beam is indicative of a different sample component or different fragments of one or more sample components and the beam intensity is related to the relative abundance of the sample component. The system includes an electro-optical ion detector which automatically and simultaneously converts the ion beams, first into electron beams which in turn produce a related image which is transferred to the target of a vidicon unit. The latter converts the images into electrical signals which are supplied to a data processor, whose output is a list of the components of the analyzed sample and their abundances. The system is under the control of a master control unit, which in addition to monitoring and controlling various power sources, controls the automatic operation of the system under expected and some unexpected conditions and further protects various critical parts of the system from damage due to particularly abnormal conditions.

  17. Calculating the free energy of transfer of small solutes into a model lipid membrane: Comparison between metadynamics and umbrella sampling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bochicchio, Davide; Panizon, Emanuele; Ferrando, Riccardo; Monticelli, Luca; Rossi, Giulia

    2015-10-01

    We compare the performance of two well-established computational algorithms for the calculation of free-energy landscapes of biomolecular systems, umbrella sampling and metadynamics. We look at benchmark systems composed of polyethylene and polypropylene oligomers interacting with lipid (phosphatidylcholine) membranes, aiming at the calculation of the oligomer water-membrane free energy of transfer. We model our test systems at two different levels of description, united-atom and coarse-grained. We provide optimized parameters for the two methods at both resolutions. We devote special attention to the analysis of statistical errors in the two different methods and propose a general procedure for the error estimation in metadynamics simulations. Metadynamics and umbrella sampling yield the same estimates for the water-membrane free energy profile, but metadynamics can be more efficient, providing lower statistical uncertainties within the same simulation time.

  18. Robotic Arm Manipulator Using Active Control for Sample Acquisition and Transfer, and Passive Mode for Surface Compliance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Jun; Underhill, Michael L.; Trease, Brian P.; Lindemann, Randel A.

    2010-01-01

    A robotic arm that consists of three joints with four degrees of freedom (DOF) has been developed. It can carry an end-effector to acquire and transfer samples by using active control and comply with surface topology in a passive mode during a brief surface contact. The three joints are arranged in such a way that one joint of two DOFs is located at the shoulder, one joint of one DOF is located at the elbow, and one joint of one DOF is located at the wrist. Operationally, three DOFs are moved in the same plane, and the remaining one on the shoulder is moved perpendicular to the other three for better compliance with ground surface and more flexibility of sample handling. Three out of four joints are backdriveable, making the mechanism less complex and more cost effective

  19. Calculating the free energy of transfer of small solutes into a model lipid membrane: Comparison between metadynamics and umbrella sampling

    SciTech Connect

    Bochicchio, Davide; Panizon, Emanuele; Ferrando, Riccardo; Rossi, Giulia; Monticelli, Luca

    2015-10-14

    We compare the performance of two well-established computational algorithms for the calculation of free-energy landscapes of biomolecular systems, umbrella sampling and metadynamics. We look at benchmark systems composed of polyethylene and polypropylene oligomers interacting with lipid (phosphatidylcholine) membranes, aiming at the calculation of the oligomer water-membrane free energy of transfer. We model our test systems at two different levels of description, united-atom and coarse-grained. We provide optimized parameters for the two methods at both resolutions. We devote special attention to the analysis of statistical errors in the two different methods and propose a general procedure for the error estimation in metadynamics simulations. Metadynamics and umbrella sampling yield the same estimates for the water-membrane free energy profile, but metadynamics can be more efficient, providing lower statistical uncertainties within the same simulation time.

  20. In situ derivatization combined to automated microextraction by packed sorbents for the determination of chlorophenols in soil samples by gas chromatography mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    González Paredes, Rosa María; García Pinto, Carmelo; Pérez Pavón, José Luis; Moreno Cordero, Bernardo

    2014-09-12

    A method based on the coupling of in situ extraction and derivatization of chlorophenols (CPs) (2-chlorophenol, 4-chloro-3-methylphenol, 2,4-dichlorophenol, and 2,4,6-trichlorophenol) from soils, accomplishing their preconcentration by means of automated microextraction by packed sorbent (MEPS), is proposed. After extraction and acylation of the chlorophenols in aqueous medium, the liquid phase obtained is subjected to the MEPS procedure. The QuEChERS (Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged and Safe) and MEPS techniques were compared and the results confirmed the preconcentration carried out with MEPS. The existence of a matrix effect was checked and the analytical characteristics of the method were determined in a soil sample. The method provided good linearity (from 1 to 12μgkg(-1)), together with good repeatability and reproducibility values (RSD equal to or less than 10%). The limits of detection were in the 0.118-0.894μgkg(-1) range. A certified reference material was applied to validate the proposed methodology. PMID:25113872

  1. A fully automated effervescence-assisted switchable solvent-based liquid phase microextraction procedure: Liquid chromatographic determination of ofloxacin in human urine samples.

    PubMed

    Vakh, Christina; Pochivalov, Aleksei; Andruch, Vasil; Moskvin, Leonid; Bulatov, Andrey

    2016-02-11

    A novel fully automated effervescence-assisted switchable solvent-based liquid phase microextraction procedure has been suggested. In this extraction method, medium-chain saturated fatty acids were investigated as switchable hydrophilicity solvents. The conversion of fatty acid into hydrophilic form was carried out in the presence of sodium carbonate. The injection of sulfuric acid into the solution decreased the pH value of the solution, thus, microdroplets of the fatty acid were generated. Carbon dioxide bubbles were generated in-situ, and promoted the extraction process and final phase separation. The performance of the suggested approach was demonstrated by the determination of ofloxacin in human urine samples using high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. This analytical task was used as a proof-of-concept example. Under the optimal conditions, the detector response of ofloxacin was linear in the concentration ranges of 3·10(-8)-3·10(-6) mol L(-1). The limit of detection, calculated from a blank test based on 3σ, was 1·10(-8) mol L(-1). The results demonstrated that the presented approach is highly cost-effective, simple, rapid and environmentally friendly. PMID:26803002

  2. Accurate and Precise in Situ Zircon U-Pb age Dating With High Sample Throughput by Automated LA-SF-ICP-MS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frei, D.; Gerdes, A.; Schersten, A.; Hollis, J. A.; Martina, F.; Knudsen, C.

    2006-12-01

    Zircon is an ubiquitous mineral in most crystalline rocks as well as clastic sediments. The high resistance to thermal resetting and physical erosion makes zircon an exceptionally useful mineral for precise and accurate dating of thermal geological events. For example, the analysis of the U-Pb ages of detrital zircon grains in clastic sediments is a powerful tool in sedimentary provenance studies. Accurate and precise U-Pb ages of > 100 zircon grains in a sample usually allow to detect all major sedimentary source age components with statistical confidence. U-Pb age dating of detrital zircons is generally the domain of high resolution ion microprobe techniques (high resolution SIMS), where relatively rapid in situ analysis can be achieved. The major limitations of these techniques are sample throughput (about 75 zircon age dates per 24 hours), the very high purchasing and operating costs of the equipment and the need for highly specialised personnel, resulting in high cost. These high costs usually impose uncomfortable restrictions on the number of samples that can be analysed in a provenance study. Here, we present a high sample throughput technique for highly accurate and precise U-Pb dating of zircons by laser ablation magnetic sectorfield inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-SF-ICP-MS). This technique takes advantage of recent progress in laser technology and the introduction of magnetic sectorfield ICP-MS instruments. Based on a ThermoFinnigan Element2 magnetic sctorfield ICP-MS and a New Wave UP 213 laser ablation system, this techniques allows U-Pb dating of zircon grains with precision, accuray and spatial resolution comparable to high resolution SIMS. Because an individual analysis is carried out in less than two minutes and all data is acquired automated in pre-set mode with only minimal operator presence, the sample throughput is an order of magnitude higher compared to high resolution SIMS. Furthermore, the purchasing and operating costs of

  3. Pneumatic sample-transfer system for use with the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory rotating target neutron source (RTNS-I)

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, R.E.

    1981-07-01

    A pneumatic sample-transfer system is needed to be able to rapidly retrieve samples irradiated with 14-MeV neutrons at the Rotating Target Neutron Source (RTNS-I). The rabbit system, already in place for many years, has been refurbished with modern system components controlled by an LSI-11 minicomputer. Samples can now be counted three seconds after an irradiation. There are many uses for this expanded 14-MeV neutron activation capability. Several fission products difficult to isolate from mixed fission fragments can be produced instead through (n,p) or (n,..cap alpha..) reactions with stable isotopes. Mass-separated samples of Nd, Mo, and Se, for example, can be irradiated to produce Pr, Nb, and As radionuclides sufficient for decay scheme studies. The system may also be used for multielement fast-neutron activation analysis because the neutron flux is greater than 2 x 10/sup 11/ n/cm/sup 2/-sec. Single element analyses of Si and O are also possible. Finally, measurements of fast-neutron cross sections producing short-lived activation products can be performed with this system. A description of the rabbit system and instructions for its use are presented in this report.

  4. Radiostrontium and radium analysis in low-level environmental samples following a multi-stage semi-automated chromatographic sequential separation.

    PubMed

    St-Amant, Nadereh; Whyte, Jeffrey C; Rousseau, Marie-Eve; Lariviere, Dominic; Ungar, R Kurt; Johnson, Sonia

    2011-01-01

    Strontium isotopes, (89)Sr and (90)Sr, and (226)Ra being radiotoxic when ingested, are routinely monitored in milk and drinking water samples collected from different regions in Canada. In order to monitor environmental levels of activity, a novel semi-automated sensitive method has been developed at the Radiation Protection Bureau of Health Canada (Ottawa, Canada). This method allows the separation and quantification of both (89)Sr and (90)Sr and has also been adapted to quantify (226)Ra during the same sample preparation procedure. The method uses a 2-stage purification process during which matrix constituents, such as magnesium and calcium that are rich in milk, are removed as well as the main beta-interferences (e.g., (40)K, (87)Rb, (134)Cs, (137)Cs, and (140)Ba). The first purification step uses strong cation exchange (SCX) chromatography with commercially available resins. In a second step, fractions containing the radiostrontium analytes are further purified using high-performance ion chromatography (HPIC). While (89)Sr is quantified by Cerenkov counting immediately after the second purification stage, the same vial is counted again after a latent period of 10-14 days to quantify the (90)Sr activity based on (90)Y ingrowth. Similarly, the activity of (226)Ra, which is separated by SCX only, is determined via the emanation of (222)Rn in a 2-phase aqueous/cocktail system using liquid scintillation counting. The minimum detectable concentration (MDC) for (89)Sr and (90)Sr for a 200 min count time at 95% confidence interval is 0.03 and 0.02 Bq/L, respectively. The MDC for (226)Ra for a 100 min count time is 0.002 Bq/L. Semi-annual intercomparison samples from the USA Department of Energy Mixed Analyte Performance Evaluation Program (MAPEP) were used to validate the method for (89)Sr and (90)Sr. Spiked water samples prepared in-house and from International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) were used to validate the (226)Ra assay. PMID:20846869

  5. Testing of an automated online EA-IRMS method for fast and simultaneous carbon content and stable isotope measurement of aerosol samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Major, István; Gyökös, Brigitta; Túri, Marianna; Futó, István; Filep, Ágnes; Hoffer, András; Molnár, Mihály

    2016-04-01

    Comprehensive atmospheric studies have demonstrated that carbonaceous aerosol is one of the main components of atmospheric particulate matter over Europe. Various methods, considering optical or thermal properties, have been developed for quantification of the accurate amount of both organic and elemental carbon constituents of atmospheric aerosol. The aim of our work was to develop an alternative fast and easy method for determination of the total carbon content of individual aerosol samples collected on prebaked quartz filters whereby the mass and surface concentration becomes simply computable. We applied the conventional "elemental analyzer (EA) coupled online with an isotope ratio mass spectrometer (IRMS)" technique which is ubiquitously used in mass spectrometry. Using this technique we are able to measure simultaneously the carbon stable isotope ratio of the samples, as well. During the developing process, we compared the EA-IRMS technique with an off-line catalytic combustion method worked out previously at Hertelendi Laboratory of Environmental Studies (HEKAL). We tested the combined online total carbon content and stable isotope ratio measurement both on standard materials and real aerosol samples. Regarding the test results the novel method assures, on the one hand, at least 95% of carbon recovery yield in a broad total carbon mass range (between 100 and 3000 ug) and, on the other hand, a good reproducibility of stable isotope measurements with an uncertainty of ± 0.2 per mill. Comparing the total carbon results obtained by the EA-IRMS and the off-line catalytic combustion method we found a very good correlation (R2=0.94) that proves the applicability of both preparation method. Advantages of the novel method are the fast and simplified sample preparation steps and the fully automated, simultaneous carbon stable isotope ratio measurement processes. Furthermore stable isotope ratio results can effectively be applied in the source apportionment

  6. Automated Methods for Multiplexed Pathogen Detection

    SciTech Connect

    Straub, Tim M.; Dockendorff, Brian P.; Quinonez-Diaz, Maria D.; Valdez, Catherine O.; Shutthanandan, Janani I.; Tarasevich, Barbara J.; Grate, Jay W.; Bruckner-Lea, Cindy J.

    2005-09-01

    Detection of pathogenic microorganisms in environmental samples is a difficult process. Concentration of the organisms of interest also co-concentrates inhibitors of many end-point detection methods, notably, nucleic acid methods. In addition, sensitive, highly multiplexed pathogen detection continues to be problematic. The primary function of the BEADS (Biodetection Enabling Analyte Delivery System) platform is the automated concentration and purification of target analytes from interfering substances, often present in these samples, via a renewable surface column. In one version of BEADS, automated immunomagnetic separation (IMS) is used to separate cells from their samples. Captured cells are transferred to a flow-through thermal cycler where PCR, using labeled primers, is performed. PCR products are then detected by hybridization to a DNA suspension array. In another version of BEADS, cell lysis is performed, and community RNA is purified and directly labeled. Multiplexed detection is accomplished by direct hybridization of the RNA to a planar microarray. The integrated IMS/PCR version of BEADS can successfully purify and amplify 10 E. coli O157:H7 cells from river water samples. Multiplexed PCR assays for the simultaneous detection of E. coli O157:H7, Salmonella, and Shigella on bead suspension arrays was demonstrated for the detection of as few as 100 cells for each organism. Results for the RNA version of BEADS are also showing promising results. Automation yields highly purified RNA, suitable for multiplexed detection on microarrays, with microarray detection specificity equivalent to PCR. Both versions of the BEADS platform show great promise for automated pathogen detection from environmental samples. Highly multiplexed pathogen detection using PCR continues to be problematic, but may be required for trace detection in large volume samples. The RNA approach solves the issues of highly multiplexed PCR and provides ''live vs. dead'' capabilities. However

  7. Transfer factors to Whitetail deer: comparison of stomach-content, plant-sample and soil-sample concentrations as the denominator.

    PubMed

    Sheppard, S C

    2013-12-01

    A recent study measured transfer factors for 49 elements in hunter-killed Whitetail deer (Odocoileus virginianus), using concentrations in the stomach content as the substrate/denominator to compute muscle/vegetation concentration ratios (CR(m-stomach)) and daily fractional transfer factors (Ff). Using the stomach content ensured an accurate representation of what the deer ate, except that it was limited in time to the vegetation selected by the animal just before it was killed. Here, two alternatives are considered, one where the feed is represented by samples of 21 different vegetation types that deer may have eaten in the area (CR(m-plant)), and the other is using soil concentration in the region as the denominator (CR(m-soil)). The latter is the formulation used in the ERICA tool, and other sources, for risk assessment to non-human biota. Across elements, (log) concentrations in all the media were highly correlated. The stomach contents had consistently higher ash and rare earth element concentrations than the sampled (and washed) vegetation and this was attributed to soil or dust ingestion. This lends credence to the use of soil-based CRm-soil values, despite (or more accurately because of) the inclusive yet gross simplicity of the approach. However, it was clear that variation of CR(m-soil) values was larger than for CR(m-stomach) or CR(m-plant), even if soil load on vegetation was included in the latter values. It was also noted that the variation in CR(m-soil) computed from the product of CR(m-plant) and CR(plant-soil) (where CR(plant-soil) is the plant/soil concentration ratio) was somewhat larger than the variation inherent in CR(m-soil) data. Thus it is reasonable to estimate CR(m-soil) from CR(m-plant) and CR(plant-soil) if observed CR(m-soil) values are not available, but this introduces further uncertainty. PMID:23287432

  8. Determination of aflatoxins in food samples by automated on-line in-tube solid-phase microextraction coupled with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Nonaka, Y; Saito, K; Hanioka, N; Narimatsu, S; Kataoka, H

    2009-05-15

    A simple and sensitive automated method for determination of aflatoxins (B1, B2, G1, and G2) in nuts, cereals, dried fruits, and spices was developed consisting of in-tube solid-phase microextraction (SPME) coupled with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Aflatoxins were separated within 8 min by high-performance liquid chromatography using a Zorbax Eclipse XDB-C8 column with methanol/acetonitrile (60/40, v/v): 5mM ammonium formate (45:55) as the mobile phase. Electrospray ionization conditions in the positive ion mode were optimized for MS detection of aflatoxins. The pseudo-molecular ions [M+H](+) were used to detect aflatoxins in selected ion monitoring (SIM) mode. The optimum in-tube SPME conditions were 25draw/eject cycles of 40 microL of sample using a Supel-Q PLOT capillary column as an extraction device. The extracted aflatoxins were readily desorbed from the capillary by passage of the mobile phase, and no carryover was observed. Using the in-tube SPME LC-MS with SIM method, good linearity of the calibration curve (r>0.9994) was obtained in the concentration range of 0.05-2.0 ng/mL using aflatoxin M1 as an internal standard, and the detection limits (S/N=3) of aflatoxins were 2.1-2.8 pg/mL. The in-tube SPME method showed >23-fold higher sensitivity than the direct injection method (10 microL injection volume). The within-day and between-day precision (relative standard deviations) at the concentration of 1 ng/mL aflatoxin mixture were below 3.3% and 7.7% (n=5), respectively. This method was applied successfully to analysis of food samples without interference peaks. The recoveries of aflatoxins spiked into nuts and cereals were >80%, and the relative standard deviations were <11.2%. Aflatoxins were detected at <10 ng/g in several commercial food samples. PMID:19328492

  9. Automated solid-phase extraction for the determination of polybrominated diphenyl ethers and polychlorinated biphenyls in serum--application on archived Norwegian samples from 1977 to 2003.

    PubMed

    Thomsen, Cathrine; Liane, Veronica Horpestad; Becher, Georg

    2007-02-01

    An analytical method comprised of automated solid-phase extraction and determination using gas chromatography mass spectrometry (single quadrupole) has been developed for the determination of 12 polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), 26 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), two organochlorine compounds (OCs) (hexachlorobenzene and octachlorostyrene) and two brominated phenols (pentabromophenol, and tetrabromobisphenol-A (TBBP-A)). The analytes were extracted using a sorbent of polystyrene-divinylbenzene and an additional clean-up was performed on a sulphuric acid-silica column to remove lipids. The method has been validated by spiking horse serum at five levels. The mean accuracy given as recovery relative to internal standards was 95%, 99%, 93% and 109% for the PBDEs PCBs, OCs and brominated phenols, respectively. The mean repeatability given as RSDs was respectively 6.9%, 8.7%, 7.5% and 15%. Estimated limits of detection (S/N=3) were in the range 0.2-1.8 pg/g serum for the PBDEs and phenols, and from 0.1 pg/g to 56 pg/g serum for the PCBs and OCs. The validated method has been used to investigate the levels of PBDEs and PCBs in 21 pooled serum samples from the general Norwegian population. In serum from men (age 40-50 years) the sum of seven PBDE congeners (IUPAC No. 28, 47, 99, 100, 153, 154 and 183) increased from 1977 (0.5 ng/g lipids) to 1998 (4.8 ng/g lipids). From 1999 to 2003 the concentration of PBDEs seems to have stabilised. On the other hand, the sum of five PCBs (IUPAC No. 101, 118, 138, 153 and 180) in these samples decreased steadily from 1977 (666 ng/g lipids) to 2003 (176 ng/g lipids). Tetrabromobisphenol-A and BDE-209 were detected in almost all samples, but no similar temporal trends to that seen for the PBDEs were observed for these compounds, which might be due to the short half-lives of these brominated flame retardants (FR) in humans. PMID:17023223

  10. 12 CFR 205.16 - Disclosures at automated teller machines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Disclosures at automated teller machines. 205... SYSTEM ELECTRONIC FUND TRANSFERS (REGULATION E) § 205.16 Disclosures at automated teller machines. (a) Definition. Automated teller machine operator means any person that operates an automated teller machine...

  11. 12 CFR 1005.16 - Disclosures at automated teller machines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Disclosures at automated teller machines. 1005... TRANSFERS (REGULATION E) General § 1005.16 Disclosures at automated teller machines. (a) Definition. “Automated teller machine operator” means any person that operates an automated teller machine at which...

  12. 12 CFR 1005.16 - Disclosures at automated teller machines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Disclosures at automated teller machines. 1005... TRANSFERS (REGULATION E) § 1005.16 Disclosures at automated teller machines. (a) Definition. “Automated teller machine operator” means any person that operates an automated teller machine at which a...

  13. 12 CFR 205.16 - Disclosures at automated teller machines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Disclosures at automated teller machines. 205... SYSTEM ELECTRONIC FUND TRANSFERS (REGULATION E) § 205.16 Disclosures at automated teller machines. (a) Definition. Automated teller machine operator means any person that operates an automated teller machine...

  14. 12 CFR 205.16 - Disclosures at automated teller machines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Disclosures at automated teller machines. 205... SYSTEM ELECTRONIC FUND TRANSFERS (REGULATION E) § 205.16 Disclosures at automated teller machines. (a) Definition. Automated teller machine operator means any person that operates an automated teller machine...

  15. 12 CFR 205.16 - Disclosures at automated teller machines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Disclosures at automated teller machines. 205... SYSTEM ELECTRONIC FUND TRANSFERS (REGULATION E) § 205.16 Disclosures at automated teller machines. (a) Definition. Automated teller machine operator means any person that operates an automated teller machine...

  16. 12 CFR 1005.16 - Disclosures at automated teller machines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Disclosures at automated teller machines. 1005... TRANSFERS (REGULATION E) General § 1005.16 Disclosures at automated teller machines. (a) Definition. “Automated teller machine operator” means any person that operates an automated teller machine at which...

  17. 12 CFR 205.16 - Disclosures at automated teller machines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Disclosures at automated teller machines. 205... SYSTEM ELECTRONIC FUND TRANSFERS (REGULATION E) § 205.16 Disclosures at automated teller machines. (a) Definition. Automated teller machine operator means any person that operates an automated teller machine...

  18. 21 CFR 864.5200 - Automated cell counter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Automated cell counter. 864.5200 Section 864.5200....5200 Automated cell counter. (a) Identification. An automated cell counter is a fully-automated or semi-automated device used to count red blood cells, white blood cells, or blood platelets using a sample of...

  19. 21 CFR 864.5200 - Automated cell counter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Automated cell counter. 864.5200 Section 864.5200....5200 Automated cell counter. (a) Identification. An automated cell counter is a fully-automated or semi-automated device used to count red blood cells, white blood cells, or blood platelets using a sample of...

  20. 21 CFR 864.5200 - Automated cell counter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Automated cell counter. 864.5200 Section 864.5200....5200 Automated cell counter. (a) Identification. An automated cell counter is a fully-automated or semi-automated device used to count red blood cells, white blood cells, or blood platelets using a sample of...

  1. 21 CFR 864.5200 - Automated cell counter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Automated cell counter. 864.5200 Section 864.5200....5200 Automated cell counter. (a) Identification. An automated cell counter is a fully-automated or semi-automated device used to count red blood cells, white blood cells, or blood platelets using a sample of...

  2. 21 CFR 864.5200 - Automated cell counter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Automated cell counter. 864.5200 Section 864.5200....5200 Automated cell counter. (a) Identification. An automated cell counter is a fully-automated or semi-automated device used to count red blood cells, white blood cells, or blood platelets using a sample of...

  3. Automation or De-automation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorlach, Igor; Wessel, Oliver

    2008-09-01

    In the global automotive industry, for decades, vehicle manufacturers have continually increased the level of automation of production systems in order to be competitive. However, there is a new trend to decrease the level of automation, especially in final car assembly, for reasons of economy and flexibility. In this research, the final car assembly lines at three production sites of Volkswagen are analysed in order to determine the best level of automation for each, in terms of manufacturing costs, productivity, quality and flexibility. The case study is based on the methodology proposed by the Fraunhofer Institute. The results of the analysis indicate that fully automated assembly systems are not necessarily the best option in terms of cost, productivity and quality combined, which is attributed to high complexity of final car assembly systems; some de-automation is therefore recommended. On the other hand, the analysis shows that low automation can result in poor product quality due to reasons related to plant location, such as inadequate workers' skills, motivation, etc. Hence, the automation strategy should be formulated on the basis of analysis of all relevant aspects of the manufacturing process, such as costs, quality, productivity and flexibility in relation to the local context. A more balanced combination of automated and manual assembly operations provides better utilisation of equipment, reduces production costs and improves throughput.

  4. Differential proteomic analysis of mouse macrophages exposed to adsorbate-loaded heavy fuel oil derived combustion particles using an automated sample-preparation workflow.

    PubMed

    Kanashova, Tamara; Popp, Oliver; Orasche, Jürgen; Karg, Erwin; Harndorf, Horst; Stengel, Benjamin; Sklorz, Martin; Streibel, Thorsten; Zimmermann, Ralf; Dittmar, Gunnar

    2015-08-01

    Ship diesel combustion particles are known to cause broad cytotoxic effects and thereby strongly impact human health. Particles from heavy fuel oil (HFO) operated ships are considered as particularly dangerous. However, little is known about the relevant components of the ship emission particles. In particular, it is interesting to know if the particle cores, consisting of soot and metal oxides, or the adsorbate layers, consisting of semi- and low-volatile organic compounds and salts, are more relevant. We therefore sought to relate the adsorbates and the core composition of HFO combustion particles to the early cellular responses, allowing for the development of measures that counteract their detrimental effects. Hence, the semi-volatile coating of HFO-operated ship diesel engine particles was removed by stepwise thermal stripping using different temperatures. RAW 264.7 macrophages were exposed to native and thermally stripped particles in submersed culture. Proteomic changes were monitored by two different quantitative mass spectrometry approaches, stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture (SILAC) and dimethyl labeling. Our data revealed that cells reacted differently to native or stripped HFO combustion particles. Cells exposed to thermally stripped particles showed a very differential reaction with respect to the composition of the individual chemical load of the particle. The cellular reactions of the HFO particles included reaction to oxidative stress, reorganization of the cytoskeleton and changes in endocytosis. Cells exposed to the 280 °C treated particles showed an induction of RNA-related processes, a number of mitochondria-associated processes as well as DNA damage response, while the exposure to 580 °C treated HFO particles mainly induced the regulation of intracellular transport. In summary, our analysis based on a highly reproducible automated proteomic sample-preparation procedure shows a diverse cellular response, depending on the

  5. Automated harvesting and processing of protein crystals through laser photoablation.

    PubMed

    Zander, Ulrich; Hoffmann, Guillaume; Cornaciu, Irina; Marquette, Jean-Pierre; Papp, Gergely; Landret, Christophe; Seroul, Gaël; Sinoir, Jérémy; Röwer, Martin; Felisaz, Frank; Rodriguez-Puente, Sonia; Mariaule, Vincent; Murphy, Peter; Mathieu, Magali; Cipriani, Florent; Márquez, José Antonio

    2016-04-01

    Currently, macromolecular crystallography projects often require the use of highly automated facilities for crystallization and X-ray data collection. However, crystal harvesting and processing largely depend on manual operations. Here, a series of new methods are presented based on the use of a low X-ray-background film as a crystallization support and a photoablation laser that enable the automation of major operations required for the preparation of crystals for X-ray diffraction experiments. In this approach, the controlled removal of the mother liquor before crystal mounting simplifies the cryocooling process, in many cases eliminating the use of cryoprotectant agents, while crystal-soaking experiments are performed through diffusion, precluding the need for repeated sample-recovery and transfer operations. Moreover, the high-precision laser enables new mounting strategies that are not accessible through other methods. This approach bridges an important gap in automation and can contribute to expanding the capabilities of modern macromolecular crystallography facilities. PMID:27050125

  6. Automated harvesting and processing of protein crystals through laser photoablation

    PubMed Central

    Zander, Ulrich; Hoffmann, Guillaume; Cornaciu, Irina; Marquette, Jean-Pierre; Papp, Gergely; Landret, Christophe; Seroul, Gaël; Sinoir, Jérémy; Röwer, Martin; Felisaz, Frank; Rodriguez-Puente, Sonia; Mariaule, Vincent; Murphy, Peter; Mathieu, Magali; Cipriani, Florent; Márquez, José Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Currently, macromolecular crystallography projects often require the use of highly automated facilities for crystallization and X-ray data collection. However, crystal harvesting and processing largely depend on manual operations. Here, a series of new methods are presented based on the use of a low X-ray-background film as a crystallization support and a photoablation laser that enable the automation of major operations required for the preparation of crystals for X-ray diffraction experiments. In this approach, the controlled removal of the mother liquor before crystal mounting simplifies the cryocooling process, in many cases eliminating the use of cryoprotectant agents, while crystal-soaking experiments are performed through diffusion, precluding the need for repeated sample-recovery and transfer operations. Moreover, the high-precision laser enables new mounting strategies that are not accessible through other methods. This approach bridges an important gap in automation and can contribute to expanding the capabilities of modern macromolecular crystallography facilities. PMID:27050125

  7. Process automation

    SciTech Connect

    Moser, D.R.

    1986-01-01

    Process automation technology has been pursued in the chemical processing industries and to a very limited extent in nuclear fuel reprocessing. Its effective use has been restricted in the past by the lack of diverse and reliable process instrumentation and the unavailability of sophisticated software designed for process control. The Integrated Equipment Test (IET) facility was developed by the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program (CFRP) in part to demonstrate new concepts for control of advanced nuclear fuel reprocessing plants. A demonstration of fuel reprocessing equipment automation using advanced instrumentation and a modern, microprocessor-based control system is nearing completion in the facility. This facility provides for the synergistic testing of all chemical process features of a prototypical fuel reprocessing plant that can be attained with unirradiated uranium-bearing feed materials. The unique equipment and mission of the IET facility make it an ideal test bed for automation studies. This effort will provide for the demonstration of the plant automation concept and for the development of techniques for similar applications in a full-scale plant. A set of preliminary recommendations for implementing process automation has been compiled. Some of these concepts are not generally recognized or accepted. The automation work now under way in the IET facility should be useful to others in helping avoid costly mistakes because of the underutilization or misapplication of process automation. 6 figs.

  8. Space station automation and autonomy

    SciTech Connect

    Carlisle, R.F.

    1984-08-01

    Mission definition and technology assessment studies support the necessity of incorporating increasing degrees of automation in a space station. As presently envisioned, a space station will evolve over 10-20 years. As the complexity of the space station grows, decision-making must be transferred from the crew to an on-board computer system in order to increase the productivity of the man/machine system. Thus, growth considerations require that provision be made for increasing degrees of automation as the space station evolves. Awareness by the planners and technologists of automated system interactions, of the functional role of automation and autonomy, and of design concepts that permit growth will significantly affect technology and system choices. The power system is an excellent case study for examining its possible evolution from manual to automated and continued evolution towards autonomous control. The purpose of this paper is to give an overview of the requirements for this evolution from the systems perspective.

  9. Optimizing Frozen Sample Preparation for Laser Microdissection: Assessment of CryoJane Tape-Transfer System®.

    PubMed

    Golubeva, Yelena G; Smith, Roberta M; Sternberg, Lawrence R

    2013-01-01

    Laser microdissection is an invaluable tool in medical research that facilitates collecting specific cell populations for molecular analysis. Diversity of research targets (e.g., cancerous and precancerous lesions in clinical and animal research, cell pellets, rodent embryos, etc.) and varied scientific objectives, however, present challenges toward establishing standard laser microdissection protocols. Sample preparation is crucial for quality RNA, DNA and protein retrieval, where it often determines the feasibility of a laser microdissection project. The majority of microdissection studies in clinical and animal model research are conducted on frozen tissues containing native nucleic acids, unmodified by fixation. However, the variable morphological quality of frozen sections from tissues containing fat, collagen or delicate cell structures can limit or prevent successful harvest of the desired cell population via laser dissection. The CryoJane Tape-Transfer System®, a commercial device that improves cryosectioning outcomes on glass slides has been reported superior for slide preparation and isolation of high quality osteocyte RNA (frozen bone) during laser dissection. Considering the reported advantages of CryoJane for laser dissection on glass slides, we asked whether the system could also work with the plastic membrane slides used by UV laser based microdissection instruments, as these are better suited for collection of larger target areas. In an attempt to optimize laser microdissection slide preparation for tissues of different RNA stability and cryosectioning difficulty, we evaluated the CryoJane system for use with both glass (laser capture microdissection) and membrane (laser cutting microdissection) slides. We have established a sample preparation protocol for glass and membrane slides including manual coating of membrane slides with CryoJane solutions, cryosectioning, slide staining and dissection procedure, lysis and RNA extraction that facilitated

  10. Aptasensor based on fluorescence resonance energy transfer for the analysis of adenosine in urine samples of lung cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Hashemian, Zahra; Khayamian, Taghi; Saraji, Mohammad; Shirani, Marziyeh Poshteh

    2016-05-15

    A new aptasensor was designed for the analysis of adenosine based on fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) between CdS quantum dot (QDs) as a donor and polypyrrole (Ppy) as an acceptor. The QDs were covalently bonded to anti-adenosine aptamer where its fluorescence was quenched by Ppy. When Ppy was replaced by adenosine, the fluorescence of QDs was restored and its intensity was proportional to the adenosine concentration. Under the optimized conditions, a linear range was found to be 23-146 nM with a detection limit of 9.3 nM. The method was used for analysis of adenosine in urine samples of lung cancer patients and its accuracy was evaluated by comparison of the results of the proposed method with the standard method of HPLC-UV. Furthermore, the interactions of adenosine molecules with the aptamer were investigated using molecular modeling, including molecular dynamic simulations (MDS). The results demonstrated that each G-quadruplex aptamer can capture two adenosine molecules. PMID:26722763

  11. Reduced temporal sampling effect on accuracy of time-domain fluorescence lifetime Förster resonance energy transfer

    PubMed Central

    Omer, Travis; Zhao, Lingling; Intes, Xavier; Hahn, Juergen

    2014-01-01

    Abstract. Fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIM) aims at quantifying the exponential decay rate of fluorophores to yield lifetime maps over the imaged sample. When combined with Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET), the technique can be used to indirectly sense interactions at the nanoscale such as protein–protein interactions, protein–DNA interactions, and protein conformational changes. In the case of FLIM-FRET, the fluorescence intensity decays are fitted to a biexponential model in order to estimate the lifetime and fractional amplitude coefficients of each component of the population of the donor fluorophore (quenched and nonquenched). Numerous time data points, also called temporal or time gates, are typically employed for accurately estimating the model parameters, leading to lengthy acquisition times and significant computational demands. This work investigates the effect of the number and location of time gates on model parameter estimation accuracy. A detailed model of a FLIM-FRET imaging system is used for the investigation, and the simulation outcomes are validated with in vitro and in vivo experimental data. In all cases investigated, it is found that 10 equally spaced time gates allow robust estimation of model-based parameters with accuracy similar to that of full temporal datasets (90 gates). PMID:25166472

  12. Influence of surface morphology, water flow rate, and sample thermal history on the boiling-water heat transfer during direct-chill casting of commercial aluminum alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wells, M. A.; Li, D.; Cockcroft, S. L.

    2001-10-01

    An experimental investigation has been conducted on as-cast samples from three commercially significant aluminum alloys (AA1050, AA3004, and AA5182) to quantify the influence of surface morphology, water flow rate, and sample thermal history on the boiling-water heat transfer under conditions similar to those experienced in the direct-chill (DC) casting process. The study involved characterization of the as-cast surface morphology using a laser profilometer and quantification of the sample surface temperature and heat extraction to the cooling water using a DC casting simulator in combination with an inverse heat-conduction (IHC) analysis. The results from the study indicate that alloy’s thermal conductivity, surface morphology, and sample initial temperature all dramatically influence the calculated “boiling curve.” The intensity of the heat extraction was found to be enhanced at high heat fluxes in the nucleate boiling regime as the thermal conductivity was increased and was also found to increase as the surface of the sample became rougher, presumably through promotion of nucleation, growth, and/or detachment of bubbles. The heat transfer was also found to increase with increasing sample starting temperature, resulting in a series of boiling curves dependent on initial sample temperature. Finally, the effect of the water flow rate on heat transfer was found to be comparatively moderate and was limited to the sample with the smooth (machined) surface.

  13. Automation pilot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    An important concept of the Action Information Management System (AIMS) approach is to evaluate office automation technology in the context of hands on use by technical program managers in the conduct of human acceptance difficulties which may accompany the transition to a significantly changing work environment. The improved productivity and communications which result from application of office automation technology are already well established for general office environments, but benefits unique to NASA are anticipated and these will be explored in detail.

  14. Automation of analytical isotachophoresis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thormann, Wolfgang

    1985-01-01

    The basic features of automation of analytical isotachophoresis (ITP) are reviewed. Experimental setups consisting of narrow bore tubes which are self-stabilized against thermal convection are considered. Sample detection in free solution is discussed, listing the detector systems presently used or expected to be of potential use in the near future. The combination of a universal detector measuring the evolution of ITP zone structures with detector systems specific to desired components is proposed as a concept of an automated chemical analyzer based on ITP. Possible miniaturization of such an instrument by means of microlithographic techniques is discussed.

  15. Habitat automation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swab, Rodney E.

    1992-01-01

    A habitat, on either the surface of the Moon or Mars, will be designed and built with the proven technologies of that day. These technologies will be mature and readily available to the habitat designer. We believe an acceleration of the normal pace of automation would allow a habitat to be safer and more easily maintained than would be the case otherwise. This document examines the operation of a habitat and describes elements of that operation which may benefit from an increased use of automation. Research topics within the automation realm are then defined and discussed with respect to the role they can have in the design of the habitat. Problems associated with the integration of advanced technologies into real-world projects at NASA are also addressed.

  16. Artificial intelligence for space station automation

    SciTech Connect

    Firschein, O.

    1986-01-01

    This book provides guidance on the state of the art of Al-based technology for space station automation. The contents include the following: Al-based Technology; Review; Concept Designs; Analysis of Al Technology Needs; Design for Automation; Teleoperation and Robotics; Sensors; Expert Systems; Planning Space Station Information System; Man-Machine Interface; and Appendix - Technology Transfer to Terrestrial Applications.

  17. Terminal automation system maintenance

    SciTech Connect

    Coffelt, D.; Hewitt, J.

    1997-01-01

    Nothing has improved petroleum product loading in recent years more than terminal automation systems. The presence of terminal automation systems (TAS) at loading racks has increased operational efficiency and safety and enhanced their accounting and management capabilities. However, like all finite systems, they occasionally malfunction or fail. Proper servicing and maintenance can minimize this. And in the unlikely event a TAS breakdown does occur, prompt and effective troubleshooting can reduce its impact on terminal productivity. To accommodate around-the-clock loading at racks, increasingly unattended by terminal personnel, TAS maintenance, servicing and troubleshooting has become increasingly demanding. It has also become increasingly important. After 15 years of trial and error at petroleum and petrochemical storage and transfer terminals, a number of successful troubleshooting programs have been developed. These include 24-hour {open_quotes}help hotlines,{close_quotes} internal (terminal company) and external (supplier) support staff, and {open_quotes}layered{close_quotes} support. These programs are described.

  18. A 1.5-4 K detachable cold-sample transfer system: Application to inertially confined fusion with spin-polarized hydrogen fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexander, N.; Barden, J.; Fan, Q.; Honig, A.

    1991-11-01

    A compact cold-transfer apparatus for engaging and retrieving samples at liquid-helium temperatures (1.5-4 K), maintaining the samples at such temperatures for periods of hours, and subsequently inserting them in diverse apparatuses followed by disengagement, is described. The properties of several thermal radiation-insulating shrouds, necessary for very low sample temperatures, are presented. The immediate intended application is transportable target shells containing highly spin-polarized deuterons in solid HD or D2 for inertially confined fusion experiments. The system is also valuable for unpolarized high-density fusion fuels, as well as for other applications which are discussed.

  19. A 1. 5--4 Kelvin detachable cold-sample transfer system: Application to inertially confined fusion with spin-polarized hydrogens fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Alexander, N.; Barden, J.; Fan, Q.; Honig, A.

    1990-01-01

    A compact cold-transfer apparatus for engaging and retrieving samples at liquid helium temperatures (1.5--4K), maintaining the samples at such temperatures for periods of hours, and subsequently inserting them in diverse apparatuses followed by disengagement, is described. The properties of several thermal radiation-insulating shrouds, necessary for very low sample temperatures, are presented. The immediate intended application is transportable target-shells containing highly spin-polarized deuterons in solid HD or D{sub 2} for inertially confined fusion (ICF) experiments. The system is also valuable for unpolarized high-density fusion fuels, as well as for other applications which are discussed. 9 refs., 6 figs.

  20. A 1.5 to 4 kelvin detachable cold-sample transfer system: Application to inertially confined fusion with spin-polarized hydrogens fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexander, N.; Barden, J.; Fan, Q.; Honig, A.

    A compact cold-transfer apparatus for engaging and retrieving samples at liquid helium temperatures (1.5 to 4 K), maintaining the samples at such temperatures for periods of hours, and subsequently inserting them in diverse apparatuses followed by disengagement, is described. The properties of several thermal radiation-insulating shrouds, necessary for very low sample temperatures, are presented. The immediate intended application is transportable target-shells containing highly spin-polarized deuterons in solid HD or D(2) for inertially confined fusion (ICF) experiments. The system is also valuable for unpolarized high-density fusion fuels, as well as for other applications which are discussed.

  1. A 1. 5--4 K detachable cold-sample transfer system: Application to inertially confined fusion with spin-polarized hydrogen fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Alexander, N.; Barden, J.; Fan, Q.; Honig, A. )

    1991-11-01

    A compact cold-transfer apparatus for engaging and retrieving samples at liquid-helium temperatures (1.5--4 K), maintaining the samples at such temperatures for periods of hours, and subsequently inserting them in diverse apparatuses followed by disengagement, is described. The properties of several thermal radiation-insulating shrouds, necessary for very low sample temperatures, are presented. The immediate intended application is transportable target shells containing highly spin-polarized deuterons in solid HD or D{sub 2} for inertially confined fusion experiments. The system is also valuable for unpolarized high-density fusion fuels, as well as for other applications which are discussed.

  2. Validation of heat transfer, thermal decomposition, and container pressurization of polyurethane foam using mean value and Latin hypercube sampling approaches

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, Sarah N.; Dodd, Amanda B.; Larsen, Marvin E.; Suo-Anttila, Jill M.; Erickson, Ken L.

    2014-12-09

    In this study, polymer foam encapsulants provide mechanical, electrical, and thermal isolation in engineered systems. It can be advantageous to surround objects of interest, such as electronics, with foams in a hermetically sealed container in order to protect them from hostile environments or from accidents such as fire. In fire environments, gas pressure from thermal decomposition of foams can cause mechanical failure of sealed systems. In this work, a detailed uncertainty quantification study of polymeric methylene diisocyanate (PMDI)-polyether-polyol based polyurethane foam is presented and compared to experimental results to assess the validity of a 3-D finite element model of the heat transfer and degradation processes. In this series of experiments, 320 kg/m3 PMDI foam in a 0.2 L sealed steel container is heated to 1,073 K at a rate of 150 K/min. The experiment ends when the can breaches due to the buildup of pressure. The temperature at key location is monitored as well as the internal pressure of the can. Both experimental uncertainty and computational uncertainty are examined and compared. The mean value method (MV) and Latin hypercube sampling (LHS) approach are used to propagate the uncertainty through the model. The results of the both the MV method and the LHS approach show that while the model generally can predict the temperature at given locations in the system, it is less successful at predicting the pressure response. Also, these two approaches for propagating uncertainty agree with each other, the importance of each input parameter on the simulation results is also investigated, showing that for the temperature response the conductivity of the steel container and the effective conductivity of the foam, are the most important parameters. For the pressure response, the activation energy, effective conductivity, and specific heat are most important. The comparison to experiments and the identification of the drivers of uncertainty allow

  3. Validation of heat transfer, thermal decomposition, and container pressurization of polyurethane foam using mean value and Latin hypercube sampling approaches

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Scott, Sarah N.; Dodd, Amanda B.; Larsen, Marvin E.; Suo-Anttila, Jill M.; Erickson, Ken L.

    2014-12-09

    In this study, polymer foam encapsulants provide mechanical, electrical, and thermal isolation in engineered systems. It can be advantageous to surround objects of interest, such as electronics, with foams in a hermetically sealed container in order to protect them from hostile environments or from accidents such as fire. In fire environments, gas pressure from thermal decomposition of foams can cause mechanical failure of sealed systems. In this work, a detailed uncertainty quantification study of polymeric methylene diisocyanate (PMDI)-polyether-polyol based polyurethane foam is presented and compared to experimental results to assess the validity of a 3-D finite element model of themore » heat transfer and degradation processes. In this series of experiments, 320 kg/m3 PMDI foam in a 0.2 L sealed steel container is heated to 1,073 K at a rate of 150 K/min. The experiment ends when the can breaches due to the buildup of pressure. The temperature at key location is monitored as well as the internal pressure of the can. Both experimental uncertainty and computational uncertainty are examined and compared. The mean value method (MV) and Latin hypercube sampling (LHS) approach are used to propagate the uncertainty through the model. The results of the both the MV method and the LHS approach show that while the model generally can predict the temperature at given locations in the system, it is less successful at predicting the pressure response. Also, these two approaches for propagating uncertainty agree with each other, the importance of each input parameter on the simulation results is also investigated, showing that for the temperature response the conductivity of the steel container and the effective conductivity of the foam, are the most important parameters. For the pressure response, the activation energy, effective conductivity, and specific heat are most important. The comparison to experiments and the identification of the drivers of uncertainty allow for

  4. Restricted access chiral stationary phase synthesized via reversible addition-fragmentation chain-transfer polymerization for direct analysis of biological samples by high performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Song, Wen-Jun; Wei, Ji-Ping; Wang, Su-Ying; Wang, Huai-Song

    2014-06-17

    Novel hydrophilic microparticles containing β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) were prepared via one-pot synthesis using reversible addition-fragmentation chain-transfer (RAFT) precipitation polymerization, a "controlled/living" radical polymerization technique. The polymerization was initiated by hydrophilic macromolecular chain-transfer agent [poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate), PHEMA]. The hydrophilic PHEMA on the surface of microparticles can well improve their surface hydrophilicity and lead to their biological compatibility. As chiral restricted access material (RAM), the hydrophilic microparticles can be used for determination of enantiomers in biological samples with direct injection via HPLC analysis. PMID:24890695

  5. Automating Finance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, John

    2007-01-01

    In past years, higher education's financial management side has been riddled with manual processes and aging mainframe applications. This article discusses schools which had taken advantage of an array of technologies that automate billing, payment processing, and refund processing in the case of overpayment. The investments are well worth it:…

  6. Automated dispenser

    SciTech Connect

    Hollen, R.M.; Stalnaker, N.D.

    1989-04-06

    An automated dispenser having a conventional pipette attached to an actuating cylinder through a flexible cable for delivering precise quantities of a liquid through commands from remotely located computer software. The travel of the flexible cable is controlled by adjustable stops and a locking shaft. The pipette can be positioned manually or by the hands of a robot. 1 fig.

  7. DRAFT - Design of Radiological Survey and Sampling to Support Title Transfer or Lease of Property on the Department of Energy Oak Ridge Reservation

    SciTech Connect

    Cusick L.T.

    2002-09-25

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) owns, operates, and manages the buildings and land areas on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. As land and buildings are declared excess or underutilized, it is the intent of DOE to either transfer the title of or lease suitable property to the Community Reuse Organization of East Tennessee (CROET) or other entities for public use. It is DOE's responsibility, in coordination with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Region 4, and the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC), to ensure that the land, facilities, and personal property that are to have the title transferred or are to be leased are suitable for public use. Release of personal property must also meet site requirements and be approved by the DOE contractor responsible for site radiological control. The terms title transfer and lease in this document have unique meanings. Title transfer will result in release of ownership without any restriction or further control by DOE. Under lease conditions, the government retains ownership of the property along with the responsibility to oversee property utilization. This includes involvement in the lessee's health, safety, and radiological control plans and conduct of site inspections. It may also entail lease restrictions, such as limiting access to certain areas or prohibiting digging, drilling, or disturbing material under surface coatings. Survey and sampling requirements are generally more rigorous for title transfer than for lease. Because of the accelerated clean up process, there is an increasing emphasis on title transfers of facilities and land. The purpose of this document is to describe the radiological survey and sampling protocols that are being used for assessing the radiological conditions and characteristics of building and land areas on the Oak Ridge Reservation that contain space potentially available for title transfer or lease. After necessary surveys and

  8. Automation; The New Industrial Revolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnstein, George E.

    Automation is a word that describes the workings of computers and the innovations of automatic transfer machines in the factory. As the hallmark of the new industrial revolution, computers displace workers and create a need for new skills and retraining programs. With improved communication between industry and the educational community to…

  9. Automating the analytical laboratory via the Chemical Analysis Automation paradigm

    SciTech Connect

    Hollen, R.; Rzeszutko, C.

    1997-10-01

    To address the need for standardization within the analytical chemistry laboratories of the nation, the Chemical Analysis Automation (CAA) program within the US Department of Energy, Office of Science and Technology`s Robotic Technology Development Program is developing laboratory sample analysis systems that will automate the environmental chemical laboratories. The current laboratory automation paradigm consists of islands-of-automation that do not integrate into a system architecture. Thus, today the chemist must perform most aspects of environmental analysis manually using instrumentation that generally cannot communicate with other devices in the laboratory. CAA is working towards a standardized and modular approach to laboratory automation based upon the Standard Analysis Method (SAM) architecture. Each SAM system automates a complete chemical method. The building block of a SAM is known as the Standard Laboratory Module (SLM). The SLM, either hardware or software, automates a subprotocol of an analysis method and can operate as a standalone or as a unit within a SAM. The CAA concept allows the chemist to easily assemble an automated analysis system, from sample extraction through data interpretation, using standardized SLMs without the worry of hardware or software incompatibility or the necessity of generating complicated control programs. A Task Sequence Controller (TSC) software program schedules and monitors the individual tasks to be performed by each SLM configured within a SAM. The chemist interfaces with the operation of the TSC through the Human Computer Interface (HCI), a logical, icon-driven graphical user interface. The CAA paradigm has successfully been applied in automating EPA SW-846 Methods 3541/3620/8081 for the analysis of PCBs in a soil matrix utilizing commercially available equipment in tandem with SLMs constructed by CAA.

  10. Automated Microbial Metabolism Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Development of the automated microbial metabolism laboratory (AMML) concept is reported. The focus of effort of AMML was on the advanced labeled release experiment. Labeled substrates, inhibitors, and temperatures were investigated to establish a comparative biochemical profile. Profiles at three time intervals on soil and pure cultures of bacteria isolated from soil were prepared to establish a complete library. The development of a strategy for the return of a soil sample from Mars is also reported.

  11. High-throughput method of dioxin analysis in aqueous samples using consecutive solid phase extraction steps with the new C18 Ultraflow™ pressurized liquid extraction and automated clean-up.

    PubMed

    Youn, Yeu-Young; Park, Deok Hie; Lee, Yeon Hwa; Lim, Young Hee; Cho, Hye Sung

    2015-01-01

    A high-throughput analytical method has been developed for the determination of seventeen 2,3,7,8-substituted congeners of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) in aqueous samples. A recently introduced octadecyl (C18) disk for semi-automated solid-phase extraction of PCDD/Fs in water samples with a high level of particulate material has been tested for the analysis of dioxins. A new type of C18 disk specially designed for the analysis of hexane extractable material (HEM), but never previously reported for use in PCDD/Fs analysis. This kind of disk allows a higher filtration flow, and therefore the time of analysis is reduced. The solid-phase extraction technique is used to change samples from liquid to solid, and therefore pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) can be used in the pre-treatment. In order to achieve efficient purification, extracts from the PLE are purified using an automated Power-prep system with disposable silica, alumina, and carbon columns. Quantitative analyses of PCDD/Fs were performed by GC-HRMS using multi-ion detection (MID) mode. The method was successfully applied to the analysis of water samples from the wastewater treatment system of a vinyl chloride monomer plant. The entire procedure is in agreement with EPA1613 recommendations regarding the blank control, MDLs (method detection limits), accuracy, and precision. The high-throughput method not only meets the requirements of international standards, but also shortens the required analysis time from 2 weeks to 3d. PMID:25112208

  12. Determination of nine benzotriazole UV stabilizers in environmental water samples by automated on-line solid phase extraction coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Liu, Runzeng; Ruan, Ting; Wang, Thanh; Song, Shanjun; Guo, Feng; Jiang, Guibin

    2014-03-01

    A method using automated on-line solid phase extraction coupled with a high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry system was developed for the determination of emerging benzotriazole UV stabilizers (BZTs) in different environmental water matrices including river water, sewage influent and effluent. Water sample was injected directly and the analytes were preconcentrated on a Polar Advantage II on-line SPE cartridge. After cleanup step the target BZTs were eluted in back flush mode and then separated on a liquid chromatography column. Experimental parameters such as sample loading flow rate, SPE cartridge, pH value and methanol ratio in the sample were optimized in detail. The method detection limits ranged from 0.21 to 2.17 ng/L. Recoveries of the target BZTs at 50 ng/L spiking level ranged from 76% to 114% and the inter-day RSDs ranged from 1% to 15%. The optimized method was successfully applied to analyze twelve water samples collected from different wastewater treatment plants and rivers, and five BZTs (UV-P, UV-329, UV-350, UV-234 and UV-328) were detected with concentrations up to 37.1 ng/L. The proposed method is simple, sensitive and suitable for simultaneous analysis and monitoring of BZTs in water samples. PMID:24468355

  13. Automated lithocell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Englisch, Andreas; Deuter, Armin

    1990-06-01

    Integration and automation have gained more and more ground in modern IC-manufacturing. It is difficult to make a direct calculation of the profit these investments yield. On the other hand, the demands to man, machine and technology have increased enormously of late; it is not difficult to see that only by means of integration and automation can these demands be coped with. Here are some salient points: U the complexity and costs incurred by the equipment and processes have got significantly higher . owing to the reduction of all dimensions, the tolerances within which the various process steps have to be carried out have got smaller and smaller and the adherence to these tolerances more and more difficult U the cycle time has become more and more important both for the development and control of new processes and, to a great extent, for a rapid and reliable supply to the customer. In order that the products be competitive under these conditions, all sort of costs have to be reduced and the yield has to be maximized. Therefore, the computer-aided control of the equipment and the process combined with an automatic data collection and a real-time SPC (statistical process control) has become absolutely necessary for successful IC-manufacturing. Human errors must be eliminated from the execution of the various process steps by automation. The work time set free in this way makes it possible for the human creativity to be employed on a larger scale in stabilizing the processes. Besides, a computer-aided equipment control can ensure the optimal utilization of the equipment round the clock.

  14. Heat transfer through the flat surface of Rutherford superconducting cable samples with novel pattern of electrical insulation immersed in He II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strychalski, M.; Chorowski, M.; Polinski, J.

    2014-05-01

    Future accelerator magnets will be exposed to heat loads that exceed even by an order of magnitude presently observed heat fluxes transferred to superconducting magnet coils. To avoid the resistive transition of the superconducting cables, the efficiency of heat transfer between the magnet structure and the helium must be significantly increased. This can be achieved through the use of novel concepts of the cable’s electrical insulation wrapping, characterized by an enhanced permeability to helium while retaining sufficient electrical resistivity. This paper presents measurement results of the heat transfer through Rutherford NbTi cable samples immersed in a He II bath and subjected to the pressure loads simulating the counteracting of the Lorentz forces observed in powered magnets. The Rutherford cable samples that were tested used different electrical insulation wrapping schemes, including the scheme that is presently used and the proposed scheme for future LHC magnets. A new porous polyimide cable insulation with enhanced helium permeability was proposed in order to improve the evacuation of heat form the NbTi coil to He II bath. These tests were performed in a dedicated Claudet-type cryostat in pressurized He II at 1.9 K and 1 bar.

  15. Automated macromolecular crystallization screening

    DOEpatents

    Segelke, Brent W.; Rupp, Bernhard; Krupka, Heike I.

    2005-03-01

    An automated macromolecular crystallization screening system wherein a multiplicity of reagent mixes are produced. A multiplicity of analysis plates is produced utilizing the reagent mixes combined with a sample. The analysis plates are incubated to promote growth of crystals. Images of the crystals are made. The images are analyzed with regard to suitability of the crystals for analysis by x-ray crystallography. A design of reagent mixes is produced based upon the expected suitability of the crystals for analysis by x-ray crystallography. A second multiplicity of mixes of the reagent components is produced utilizing the design and a second multiplicity of reagent mixes is used for a second round of automated macromolecular crystallization screening. In one embodiment the multiplicity of reagent mixes are produced by a random selection of reagent components.

  16. Application of plume analysis to build land use regression models from mobile sampling to improve model transferability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Yi; Dallmann, Timothy R.; Robinson, Allen L.; Presto, Albert A.

    2016-06-01

    Mobile monitoring of traffic-related air pollutants was conducted in Pittsburgh, PA. The data show substantial spatial variability of particle-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PB-PAH) and black carbon (BC). This variability is driven in large part by pollutant plumes from high emitting vehicles (HEVs). These plumes contribute a disproportionately large fraction of the near-road exposures of PB-PAH and BC. We developed novel statistical models to describe the spatial patterns of PB-PAH and BC exposures. The models consist of two layers: a plume layer to describe the contributions of high emitting vehicles using a near-roadway kernel, and an urban-background layer that predicts the spatial pattern of other sources using land use regression. This approach leverages unique information content of highly time resolved mobile monitoring data and provides insight into source contributions. The two-layer model describes 76% of observed PB-PAH variation and 61% of BC variation. On average, HEVs contribute at least 32% of outdoor PB-PAH and 14% of BC. The transferability of the models was examined using measurements from 36 hold-out validation sites. The plume layer performed well at validation sites, but the background layer showed little transferability due to the large difference in land use between the city and outer suburbs.

  17. Automated Desalting Apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spencer, Maegan K.; Liu, De-Ling; Kanik, Isik; Beegle, Luther

    2010-01-01

    Because salt and metals can mask the signature of a variety of organic molecules (like amino acids) in any given sample, an automated system to purify complex field samples has been created for the analytical techniques of electrospray ionization/ mass spectroscopy (ESI/MS), capillary electrophoresis (CE), and biological assays where unique identification requires at least some processing of complex samples. This development allows for automated sample preparation in the laboratory and analysis of complex samples in the field with multiple types of analytical instruments. Rather than using tedious, exacting protocols for desalting samples by hand, this innovation, called the Automated Sample Processing System (ASPS), takes analytes that have been extracted through high-temperature solvent extraction and introduces them into the desalting column. After 20 minutes, the eluent is produced. This clear liquid can then be directly analyzed by the techniques listed above. The current apparatus including the computer and power supplies is sturdy, has an approximate mass of 10 kg, and a volume of about 20 20 20 cm, and is undergoing further miniaturization. This system currently targets amino acids. For these molecules, a slurry of 1 g cation exchange resin in deionized water is packed into a column of the apparatus. Initial generation of the resin is done by flowing sequentially 2.3 bed volumes of 2N NaOH and 2N HCl (1 mL each) to rinse the resin, followed by .5 mL of deionized water. This makes the pH of the resin near neutral, and eliminates cross sample contamination. Afterward, 2.3 mL of extracted sample is then loaded into the column onto the top of the resin bed. Because the column is packed tightly, the sample can be applied without disturbing the resin bed. This is a vital step needed to ensure that the analytes adhere to the resin. After the sample is drained, oxalic acid (1 mL, pH 1.6-1.8, adjusted with NH4OH) is pumped into the column. Oxalic acid works as a

  18. Optimized Heart Sampling and Systematic Evaluation of Cardiac Therapies in Mouse Models of Ischemic Injury: Assessment of Cardiac Remodeling and Semi-Automated Quantification of Myocardial Infarct Size.

    PubMed

    Valente, Mariana; Araújo, Ana; Esteves, Tiago; Laundos, Tiago L; Freire, Ana G; Quelhas, Pedro; Pinto-do-Ó, Perpétua; Nascimento, Diana S

    2015-01-01

    Cardiac therapies are commonly tested preclinically in small-animal models of myocardial infarction. Following functional evaluation, post-mortem histological analysis is essential to assess morphological and molecular alterations underlying the effectiveness of treatment. However, non-methodical and inadequate sampling of the left ventricle often leads to misinterpretations and variability, making direct study comparisons unreliable. Protocols are provided for representative sampling of the ischemic mouse heart followed by morphometric analysis of the left ventricle. Extending the use of this sampling to other types of in situ analysis is also illustrated through the assessment of neovascularization and cellular engraftment in a cell-based therapy setting. This is of interest to the general cardiovascular research community as it details methods for standardization and simplification of histo-morphometric evaluation of emergent heart therapies. © 2015 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. PMID:26629776

  19. Enumeration of total aerobic bacteria and Escherichia coli in minced meat and on carcass surface samples with an automated most-probable-number method compared with colony count protocols.

    PubMed

    Paulsen, P; Schopf, E; Smulders, F J M

    2006-10-01

    An automated most-probable-number (MPN) system for the enumeration of total bacterial flora and Escherichia coli was compared with plate count agar and tryptone-bile-glucuronide (TBX) and ColiID (in-house method) agar methodology. The MPN partitioning of sample aliquots was done automatically on a disposable card containing 48 wells of 3 different volumes, i.e., 16 replicates per volume. Bacterial growth was detected by the formation of fluorescent 4-methylumbilliferone. After incubation, the number of fluorescent wells was read with a separate device, and the MPN was calculated automatically. A total of 180 naturally contaminated samples were tested (pig and cattle carcass surfaces, n = 63; frozen minced meat, n = 62; and refrigerated minced meat, n = 55). Plate count agar results and MPN were highly correlated (r = 0.99), with log MPN = -0.25 + 1.05 x log CFU (plate count agar) (n = 163; range, 2.2 to 7.5 log CFU/g or cm2). Only a few discrepancies were recorded. In two samples (1.1%), the differences were > or = 1.0 log; in three samples (1.7%), the differences were > or = 0.5 log. For E. coli, regression analysis was done for all three methods for 80 minced meat samples, which were above the limit of detection (1.0 log CFU/g): log MPN = 0.18 + 0.98 x log CFU (TBX), r = 0.96, and log MPN = -0.02 + 0.99 x log CFU (ColiID), r = 0.99 (range, 1.0 to 4.2 log CFU/g). Four discrepant results were recorded, with differences of > 0.5 but < 1.0 log unit. These results suggest that the automated MPN method described is a suitable and labor-saving alternative to colony count techniques for total bacterial flora and E. coli determination in minced meat or on carcass surfaces. PMID:17066934

  20. Pesticide Multiresidue Analysis in Cereal Grains Using Modified QuEChERS Method Combined with Automated Direct Sample Introduction GC-TOFMS and UPLC-MS/MS Techniques

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The QuEChERS (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe) sample preparation method was modified to accommodate various cereal grain matrices (corn, oat, rice and wheat) and provide good analytical results (recoveries in the range of 70-120% and RSDs <20%) for the majority of the target pestici...

  1. Determination of benzoylureas in ground water samples by fully automated on-line pre-concentration and liquid chromatography-fluorescence detection.

    PubMed

    Gil García, M D; Martínez Galera, M; Barranco Martínez, D; Gisbert Gallego, J

    2006-01-27

    An on-line pre-concentration method for the analysis of five benzoylureas (diflubenzuron, triflumuron, hexaflumuron, lufenuron and flufenoxuron) in ground water samples was evaluated using two C(18) columns, and fluorescence detection after photochemical induced fluorescence (PIF) post-column derivatization. The trace enrichment was carried out with 35 mL of ground water modified with 15 mL of MeOH on a 50 mm x 4.6 mm I.D. first enrichment column (C-1) packed with 5 microm Hypersil Elite C(18). Retention properties of pesticides and humic acids usually contained in ground water were studied on C-1 at concentration levels ranging between 0.04 and 14.00 microg/L in water samples. The results obtained in this study show that the pesticides are pre-concentrated in the first short column while the humic acids contained in the ground water samples are eluted to waste. Pesticides recoveries ranged between 92.3 and 109.5%. The methodology proposed was used to determine benzoylureas in ground water samples at levels lower than 0.1 microg/L (maximum levels established by the European Union). PMID:16337641

  2. ACCELERATED SOLVENT EXTRACTION COMBINED WITH AUTOMATED SOLID PHASE EXTRACTION-GC/MS FOR ANALYSIS OF SEMIVOLATILE COMPOUNDS IN HIGH MOISTURE CONTENT SOLID SAMPLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A research project was initiated to address a recurring problem of elevated detection limits above required risk-based concentrations for the determination of semivolatile organic compounds in high moisture content solid samples. This project was initiated, in cooperation with t...

  3. Automated In-Injector Derivatization Combined with High-Performance Liquid Chromatography-Fluorescence Detection for the Determination of Semicarbazide in Fish and Bread Samples.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yinan; Chan, Wan

    2016-04-01

    Semicarbazide (1) is a widespread genotoxic food contaminant originating as a metabolic byproduct of the antibiotic nitrofurazone used in fish farming or as a thermal degradation product of the common flour additive azodicarbonamide. The goal of this study is to develop a simple and sensitive high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with fluorescence detection (HPLC-FLD) method for the detection of compound 1 in food products. In comparison to existing methods for the determination of compound 1, the reported method combining online precolumn derivatization and HPLC-FLD is less labor-intensive, produces higher sample throughput, and does not require the use of expensive analytical instruments. After validation of accuracy and precision, this method was applied to determine the amount of compound 1 in fish and bread samples. Comparative studies using an established liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry method did not yield systematically different results, indicating that the developed HPLC-FLD method is accurate and suitable for the determination of compound 1 in fish and bread samples. PMID:26985968

  4. Automation in biological crystallization

    PubMed Central

    Shaw Stewart, Patrick; Mueller-Dieckmann, Jochen

    2014-01-01

    Crystallization remains the bottleneck in the crystallographic process leading from a gene to a three-dimensional model of the encoded protein or RNA. Automation of the individual steps of a crystallization experiment, from the preparation of crystallization cocktails for initial or optimization screens to the imaging of the experiments, has been the response to address this issue. Today, large high-throughput crystallization facilities, many of them open to the general user community, are capable of setting up thousands of crystallization trials per day. It is thus possible to test multiple constructs of each target for their ability to form crystals on a production-line basis. This has improved success rates and made crystallization much more convenient. High-throughput crystallization, however, cannot relieve users of the task of producing samples of high quality. Moreover, the time gained from eliminating manual preparations must now be invested in the careful evaluation of the increased number of experiments. The latter requires a sophisticated data and laboratory information-management system. A review of the current state of automation at the individual steps of crystallization with specific attention to the automation of optimization is given. PMID:24915074

  5. Determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in food samples by automated on-line in-tube solid-phase microextraction coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography-fluorescence detection.

    PubMed

    Ishizaki, A; Saito, K; Hanioka, N; Narimatsu, S; Kataoka, H

    2010-08-27

    A simple and sensitive automated method, consisting of in-tube solid-phase microextraction (SPME) coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography-fluorescence detection (HPLC-FLD), was developed for the determination of 15 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in food samples. PAHs were separated within 15 min by HPLC using a Zorbax Eclipse PAH column with a water/acetonitrile gradient elution program as the mobile phase. The optimum in-tube SPME conditions were 20 draw/eject cycles of 40 microL of sample using a CP-Sil 19CB capillary column as an extraction device. Low- and high-molecular weight PAHs were extracted effectively onto the capillary coating from 5% and 30% methanol solutions, respectively. The extracted PAHs were readily desorbed from the capillary by passage of the mobile phase, and no carryover was observed. Using the in-tube SPME HPLC-FLD method, good linearity of the calibration curve (r>0.9972) was obtained in the concentration range of 0.05-2.0 ng/mL, and the detection limits (S/N=3) of PAHs were 0.32-4.63 pg/mL. The in-tube SPME method showed 18-47 fold higher sensitivity than the direct injection method. The intra-day and inter-day precision (relative standard deviations) for a 1 ng/mL PAH mixture were below 5.1% and 7.6% (n=5), respectively. This method was applied successfully to the analysis of tea products and dried food samples without interference peaks, and the recoveries of PAHs spiked into the tea samples were >70%. Low-molecular weight PAHs such as naphthalene and pyrene were detected in many foods, and carcinogenic benzo[a]pyrene, at relatively high concentrations, was also detected in some black tea samples. This method was also utilized to assess the release of PAHs from tea leaves into the liquor. PMID:20637468

  6. Transfer factors and effective half-lives of (134)Cs and (137)Cs in different environmental sample types obtained from Northern Finland: case Fukushima accident.

    PubMed

    Koivurova, Matias; Leppänen, Ari-Pekka; Kallio, Antti

    2015-08-01

    The Fukushima NPP accident caused a small but detectable cesium fallout in northern Finland, of the order of 1 Bq/m(2). This fallout transferred further to soil, water, flora and fauna. By using modern HPGe detector systems traces of (134)Cs from the Fukushima fallout were observed in various samples of biota. In northern Finland different types of environmental samples such as reindeer meat, berries, fish, lichens and wolf were collected during 2011-2013. The observed (134)Cs concentrations varied from 0.1 Bq/kg to a few Bq/kg. By using the known (134)Cs/(137)Cs ratio observed in Fukushima fallout the increase of the Fukushima accident to the (137)Cs concentrations was found to vary from 0.06 % to 6.9 % depending on the sample type. The aggregated transfer factors (Tag) and effective half-lives (Teff) for (134)Cs and (137)Cs were also determined and then compared with known values found from earlier studies which are calculated based on the fallout from the Chernobyl accident. Generally, the Tag and Teff values determined in this study were found to agree with the values found in the earlier studies. The Teff values were sample-type specific and were found to vary from 0.91 to 2.1 years for (134)Cs and the estimates for (137)Cs ranged between 1.6 and 19 years. Interestingly, the ground lichens had the longest Teff whereas the beard lichen had the shortest. In fauna, highest Tag values were determined for wolf meat ranging between 1.0 and 2.2 m(2)/kg. In flora, the highest Tag values were determined for beard lichens, ranging from 1.9 m(2)/kg to 3.5 m(2)/kg. PMID:25935505

  7. Automated dynamic hollow fiber liquid-liquid-liquid microextraction combined with capillary electrophoresis for speciation of mercury in biological and environmental samples.

    PubMed

    Li, Pingjing; He, Man; Chen, Beibei; Hu, Bin

    2015-10-01

    A simple home-made automatic dynamic hollow fiber based liquid-liquid-liquid microextraction (AD-HF-LLLME) device was designed and constructed for the simultaneous extraction of organomercury and inorganic mercury species with the assistant of a programmable flow injection analyzer. With 18-crown-6 as the complexing reagent, mercury species including methyl-, ethyl-, phenyl- and inorganic mercury were extracted into the organic phase (chlorobenzene), and then back-extracted into the acceptor phase of 0.1% (m/v) 3-mercapto-1-propanesulfonic acid (MPS) aqueous solution. Compared with automatic static (AS)-HF-LLLME system, the extraction equilibrium of target mercury species was obtained in shorter time with higher extraction efficiency in AD-HF-LLLME system. Based on it, a new method of AD-HF-LLLME coupled with large volume sample stacking (LVSS)-capillary electrophoresis (CE)/UV detection was developed for the simultaneous analysis of methyl-, phenyl- and inorganic mercury species in biological samples and environmental water. Under the optimized conditions, AD-HF-LLLME provided high enrichment factors (EFs) of 149-253-fold within relatively short extraction equilibrium time (25min) and good precision with RSD between 3.8 and 8.1%. By combining AD-HF-LLLME with LVSS-CE/UV, EFs were magnified up to 2195-fold and the limits of detection (at S/N=3) for target mercury species were improved to be sub ppb level. PMID:26363947

  8. Revisiting mobilisation of skeletal lead during pregnancy based on monthly sampling and cord/maternal blood lead relationships confirm placental transfer of lead.

    PubMed

    Gulson, Brian; Mizon, Karen; Korsch, Michael; Taylor, Alan

    2016-04-01

    Lead (Pb) can be released from the maternal skeleton during pregnancy and lactation and transferred to the infant. Most support for this hypothesis comes from blood Pb (PbB) studies involving limited sampling during pregnancy, the maximum usually being five samplings, including at delivery. We provide longitudinal data for PbB concentrations and Pb isotopic ratios for three cohorts of pregnant females (n = 31), two of which are based on monthly sampling and the other on quarterly sampling. We also provide data for samples collected post-partum. The data are compared with changes observed in a matched, by country and age, non-pregnant control cohort (n = 5). The monthly data illustrate the variability between subjects, which is also apparent when the data are compared on a trimester basis. Mixed model analyses showed that, in the third trimester, the mean PbB level was significantly lower for women (n = 10) who took a calcium (Ca) supplement (PbB 1.6 µg/dL) than those whose Ca intake was low (low-Ca cohort; n = 15; PbB 2.5 µg/dL) because low Ca means more mobilisation is required for homoeostasis so that more Pb was mobilised from the skeleton. For women who took the supplement, post-partum PbB levels were significantly higher than those in the other periods (2.7 vs 1.4-1.6 µg/dL). For women in the low-Ca cohort, PbB levels were higher at post-partum than in pre-pregnancy and in the first and second trimesters (3.1 vs 1.8 µg/dL), while the levels in the third trimester were higher than those in the first and second trimesters. Importantly, the increase in PbB during gestation was delayed until the third trimester in the Ca-supplemented cohort compared with the low-Ca cohort. Regression analysis showed that the changes over trimester were very similar for PbB and the (206)Pb/(204)Pb ratio providing convincing evidence for extra mobilisation of Pb from the maternal skeleton during pregnancy and lactation. Isotopic ratios in the cord blood samples were

  9. Automated hollow-fiber liquid-phase microextraction followed by liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry for the determination of benzodiazepine drugs in biological samples.

    PubMed

    Nazaripour, Ali; Yamini, Yadollah; Ebrahimpour, Behnam; Fasihi, Javad

    2016-07-01

    In this study, two-phase hollow-fiber liquid-phase microextraction and three-phase hollow-fiber liquid-phase microextraction based on two immiscible organic solvents were compared for extraction of oxazepam and Lorazepam. Separations were performed on a liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry instrument. Under optimal conditions, three-phase hollow-fiber liquid-phase microextraction based on two immiscible organic solvents has a better extraction efficiency. In a urine sample, for three-phase hollow fiber liquid-phase microextraction based on two immiscible organic solvents, the calibration curves were found to be linear in the range of 0.6-200 and 0.9-200 μg L(-1) and the limits of detection were 0.2 and 0.3 μg L(-1) for oxazepam and lorazepam, respectively. For two-phase hollow fiber liquid-phase microextraction, the calibration curves were found to be linear in the range of 1-200 and 1.5-200 μg L(-1) and the limits of detection were 0.3 and 0.5 μg L(-1) for oxazepam and lorazepam, respectively. In a urine sample, for three-phase hollow-fiber-based liquid-phase microextraction based on two immiscible organic solvents, relative standard deviations in the range of 4.2-4.5% and preconcentration factors in the range of 70-180 were obtained for oxazepam and lorazepam, respectively. Also for the two-phase hollow-fiber liquid-phase microextraction, preconcentration factors in the range of 101-257 were obtained for oxazepam and lorazepam, respectively. PMID:27144369

  10. An Automated, Low Mass, Low Power Drill for Acquiring Subsurface Samples of Ground Ice for Astrobiology Studies on Earth and on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Briggs, G. A.; McKay, C.; George, J.; Derkowski, G.; Cooper, G.; Zacny, K.; Baker, R. Fincher; Pollard, W.; Clifford, S.

    2003-01-01

    As a project that is part of NASA s Astrobiology Technology & Instrument Development Program (ASTID), we are developing a low mass (approx.20kg) drill that will be operated without drilling fluids and at very low power levels (approx.60 watts electrical) to access and retrieve samples from permafrost regions of Earth and Mars. The drill, designed and built as a joint effort by NASA JSC and Baker-Hughes International, takes the form of a down-hole unit attached to a cable so that it can, in principle, be scaled easily to reach significant depths. A parallel laboratory effort is being carried out at UC Berkeley to characterize the physics of dry drilling under martian conditions of pressure, temperature and atmospheric composition. Data from the UCB and JSC laboratory experiments are being used as input to a drill simulation program which is under development to provide autonomous control of the drill. The first Arctic field test of the unit is planned for May 2004. A field expedition to Eureka on Ellesmere Island in Spring 2003 provided an introduction for several team members to the practical aspects of drilling under Arctic conditions. The field effort was organized by Wayne Pollard of McGill University and Christopher McKay of NASA ARC. A conventional science drill provided by New Zealand colleagues was used to recover ground ice cores for analysis of their microbial content and also to develop techniques using tracers to track the depth of penetration of contamination from the core surface into the interior of the samples.

  11. SHARP: Spacecraft Health Automated Reasoning Prototype

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atkinson, David J.

    1991-01-01

    The planetary spacecraft mission OPS as applied to SHARP is studied. Knowledge systems involved in this study are detailed. SHARP development task and Voyager telecom link analysis were examined. It was concluded that artificial intelligence has a proven capability to deliver useful functions in a real time space flight operations environment. SHARP has precipitated major change in acceptance of automation at JPL. The potential payoff from automation using AI is substantial. SHARP, and other AI technology is being transferred into systems in development including mission operations automation, science data systems, and infrastructure applications.

  12. Aviation Safety/Automation Program Conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morello, Samuel A. (Compiler)

    1990-01-01

    The Aviation Safety/Automation Program Conference - 1989 was sponsored by the NASA Langley Research Center on 11 to 12 October 1989. The conference, held at the Sheraton Beach Inn and Conference Center, Virginia Beach, Virginia, was chaired by Samuel A. Morello. The primary objective of the conference was to ensure effective communication and technology transfer by providing a forum for technical interchange of current operational problems and program results to date. The Aviation Safety/Automation Program has as its primary goal to improve the safety of the national airspace system through the development and integration of human-centered automation technologies for aircraft crews and air traffic controllers.

  13. Automated parking garage system model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, E. R., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    A one-twenty-fifth scale model of the key components of an automated parking garage system is described. The design of the model required transferring a vehicle from an entry level, vertically (+Z, -Z), to a storage location at any one of four storage positions (+X, -X, +Y, +Y, -Y) on the storage levels. There are three primary subsystems: (1) a screw jack to provide the vertical motion of the elevator, (2) a cam-driven track-switching device to provide X to Y motion, and (3) a transfer cart to provide horizontal travel and a small amount to vertical motion for transfer to the storage location. Motive power is provided by dc permanent magnet gear motors, one each for the elevator and track switching device and two for the transfer cart drive system (one driving the cart horizontally and the other providing the vertical transfer). The control system, through the use of a microprocessor, provides complete automation through a feedback system which utilizes sensing devices.

  14. Both Automation and Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purcell, Royal

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the concept of a paperless society and the current situation in library automation. Various applications of automation and telecommunications are addressed, and future library automation is considered. Automation at the Monroe County Public Library in Bloomington, Indiana, is described as an example. (MES)

  15. Automated attendance accounting system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chapman, C. P. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    An automated accounting system useful for applying data to a computer from any or all of a multiplicity of data terminals is disclosed. The system essentially includes a preselected number of data terminals which are each adapted to convert data words of decimal form to another form, i.e., binary, usable with the computer. Each data terminal may take the form of a keyboard unit having a number of depressable buttons or switches corresponding to selected data digits and/or function digits. A bank of data buffers, one of which is associated with each data terminal, is provided as a temporary storage. Data from the terminals is applied to the data buffers on a digit by digit basis for transfer via a multiplexer to the computer.

  16. Automating the multiprocessing environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arpasi, Dale J.

    1989-01-01

    An approach to automate the programming and operation of tree-structured networks of multiprocessor systems is discussed. A conceptual, knowledge-based operating environment is presented, and requirements for two major technology elements are identified as follows: (1) An intelligent information translator is proposed for implementating information transfer between dissimilar hardware and software, thereby enabling independent and modular development of future systems and promoting a language-independence of codes and information; (2) A resident system activity manager, which recognizes the systems capabilities and monitors the status of all systems within the environment, is proposed for integrating dissimilar systems into effective parallel processing resources to optimally meet user needs. Finally, key computational capabilities which must be provided before the environment can be realized are identified.

  17. Development of an automated sampling-analysis system for simultaneous measurement of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in gas and particle phases: GAC-ROS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Wei; Zhang, Yuanxun; Zhang, Yang; Zeng, Limin; Dong, Huabin; Huo, Peng; Fang, Dongqing; Schauer, James J.

    2016-06-01

    A novel online system, GAC-ROS, for simultaneous measurement of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in both gas and particle phases was developed based on 2‧,7‧-dichlorofluorescin (DCFH) assay to provide fast sampling and analysis of atmospheric ROS. The GAC-ROS, composed of a Gas and Aerosol Collector (GAC), a series of reaction and transportation systems, and a fluorescence detector, was tested for instrumental performance in laboratory. Results showed good performance with a favorable R2 value for the calibration curve (above 0.998), high penetration efficiencies of ROS (above 99.5%), and low detection limits (gas-phase ROS: 0.16 nmol H2O2 m-3; particle-phase ROS: 0.12 nmol H2O2 m-3). Laboratorial comparison between online and offline methods for particle-bound ROS showed significant loss of ROS due to the relatively long time off-line treatment. Field observations in Beijing found that concentrations of ROS in winter time were significantly higher than those observed in spring. Only a few weak positive correlations were found between ROS and some air pollutants, which reflects the complexities of ROS generation and transformation in atmosphere. This study was the first to simultaneously obtain concentrations of gas and particle-phase ROS using an online method. Consequently, it provides a powerful tool to characterize the oxidizing capacity of the atmosphere and the sources of the oxidizing capacity.

  18. Automated ac galvanomagnetic measurement system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Szofran, F. R.; Espy, P. N.

    1985-01-01

    An automated, ac galvanomagnetic measurement system is described. Hall or van der Pauw measurements in the temperature range 10-300 K can be made at a preselected magnetic field without operator attendance. Procedures to validate sample installation and correct operation of other system functions, such as magnetic field and thermometry, are included. Advantages of ac measurements are discussed.

  19. An Automated, High-Throughput System for GISAXS and GIWAXS Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaible, Eric; Jimenez, Jessica; Lim, Eun Hee; Church, Matthew; Yee, Christina; Stewart, Polite; MacDowell, Alastair; Parkinson, Dula; Domning, Ed; Yang, Lee; Alvarez, Steven; Hexemer, Alexander

    2014-03-01

    Grazing incidence small-angle X-ray scattering (GISAXS) and grazing incidence wide-angle X-ray scattering (GIWAXS) are important techniques for characterizing thin films. In order to meet rapidly increasing demand, the SAXSWAXS beamline at the Advanced Light Source (beamline 7.3.3) is implementing a fully automated, high-throughput system to conduct SAXS, GISAXS and GIWAXS measurements. An automated robot arm will transfer samples from a holding tray to a measurement stage. Intelligent software will align each sample in turn, and measure each according to user-defined specifications. Users will be able to mail in trays of samples, and will be able to monitor and control their experiments remotely. Data will be pipelined to the NERSC supercomputing facility, and will be available to users via a web portal that facilitates highly parallelized analysis. Support provided by the Joint Center for Artificial Photosynthesis (JCAP).

  20. An Automated, High-Throughput System for GISAXS and GIWAXS measurements of thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaible, Eric; Jimenez, Jessica; Church, Matthew; Lim, Eunhee; Stewart, Polite; Hexemer, Alexander

    Grazing incidence small-angle X-ray scattering (GISAXS) and grazing incidence wide-angle X-ray scattering (GIWAXS) are important techniques for characterizing thin films. In order to meet rapidly increasing demand, the SAXSWAXS beamline at the Advanced Light Source (beamline 7.3.3) has implemented a fully automated, high-throughput system to conduct SAXS, GISAXS and GIWAXS measurements. An automated robot arm transfers samples from a holding tray to a measurement stage. Intelligent software aligns each sample in turn, and measures each according to user-defined specifications. Users mail in trays of samples on individually barcoded pucks, and can download and view their data remotely. Data will be pipelined to the NERSC supercomputing facility, and will be available to users via a web portal that facilitates highly parallelized analysis. Support provided by the Joint Center for Artificial Photosynthesis (JCAP).

  1. The Automated Planetary Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ivie, C. V.; Friedman, L. D.

    1977-01-01

    Results are presented for a study on mission definition and design to determine broad technology directions and needs for advanced planetary spacecraft and future planetary missions. The discussion covers mission selection, system design, and technology assessment and review for a multicomponent spacecraft exploration facility provided with nuclear power propulsion. As an example, the Automated Planetary Space Station at Jupiter is examined as a generic concept which has the capability of conducting in-depth investigations of different aspects of the entire Jovian system. Mission planning is discussed relative to low-thrust trajectory control, automatic target identification and landing, roving vehicle operation, and automated sample analysis.

  2. A Sample Handling System for Mars Sample Return - Design and Status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allouis, E.; Renouf, I.; Deridder, M.; Vrancken, D.; Gelmi, R.; Re, E.

    2009-04-01

    A mission to return atmosphere and soil samples form the Mars is highly desired by planetary scientists from around the world and space agencies are starting preparation for the launch of a sample return mission in the 2020 timeframe. Such a mission would return approximately 500 grams of atmosphere, rock and soil samples to Earth by 2025. Development of a wide range of new technology will be critical to the successful implementation of such a challenging mission. Technical developments required to realise the mission include guided atmospheric entry, soft landing, sample handling robotics, biological sealing, Mars atmospheric ascent sample rendezvous & capture and Earth return. The European Space Agency has been performing system definition studies along with numerous technology development studies under the framework of the Aurora programme. Within the scope of these activities Astrium has been responsible for defining an overall sample handling architecture in collaboration with European partners (sample acquisition and sample capture, Galileo Avionica; sample containment and automated bio-sealing, Verhaert). Our work has focused on the definition and development of the robotic systems required to move the sample through the transfer chain. This paper presents the Astrium team's high level design for the surface transfer system and the orbiter transfer system. The surface transfer system is envisaged to use two robotic arms of different sizes to allow flexible operations and to enable sample transfer over relatively large distances (~2 to 3 metres): The first to deploy/retract the Drill Assembly used for sample collection, the second for the transfer of the Sample Container (the vessel containing all the collected samples) from the Drill Assembly to the Mars Ascent Vehicle (MAV). The sample transfer actuator also features a complex end-effector for handling the Sample Container. The orbiter transfer system will transfer the Sample Container from the capture

  3. Automated quantum Hall resistance standard

    SciTech Connect

    Schumacher, B.

    1994-12-31

    For precision quantized Hall resistance measurements quantum Hall effect samples have to be checked according to the CCE-guidelines. To perform these checks an automated measuring system is described, which is able to examine and characterize various samples. With these measurements a calibration of a precision 10 k{Omega} resistance standard is obtained with an uncertainty of better than 5 x 10{sup -8} (1 {sigma}) using a long-scale digital multimeter.

  4. A radiation-transfer analysis of the effects of dust on the surface photometry of a sample of nearby spiral galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pastrav, Bogdan Adrian; Rushton, Mark T.; Popescu, Cristina C.; Tuffs, Richard J.

    2015-08-01

    Intrinsic scale lengths, inclinations and bulge-to-disk ratios of galaxies are critical inputs for radiation-transfer modelling of the panchromatic (UV/optical-MIR/FIR/submm) broadband spectral energy distribution of spiral galaxies. Although these quantities can be derived from analysis of surface photometry of optical images of targets, the effect of the dust on the measured brightness distributions in the optical must be taken into account if a fully self-consistent analysis incorporating the panchromatic and surface photometry is to be achieved. Here we give results of a careful analysis of surface photometry for a benchmark sample ofwell resolved nearby spiral galaxies. We then show how the results can be used in conjunction with aradiation transfer analysis of the panchromatic output of the same objects and the library of morphological corrections for dust given by Pastrav et al.(2013a,b) to provide self-consistent corrections for the morphological and photometric parameters of the disk and bulge components of the target galaxies.

  5. Coring Sample Acquisition Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haddad, Nicolas E.; Murray, Saben D.; Walkemeyer, Phillip E.; Badescu, Mircea; Sherrit, Stewart; Bao, Xiaoqi; Kriechbaum, Kristopher L.; Richardson, Megan; Klein, Kerry J.

    2012-01-01

    A sample acquisition tool (SAT) has been developed that can be used autonomously to sample drill and capture rock cores. The tool is designed to accommodate core transfer using a sample tube to the IMSAH (integrated Mars sample acquisition and handling) SHEC (sample handling, encapsulation, and containerization) without ever touching the pristine core sample in the transfer process.

  6. Automated detection and interpretation of spectral information using cross-correlation, millilitre volumes, pneumatic nebulization sample introduction and inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry with photodiode array detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karanassios, V.; Drouin, P. J.; Spiers, G. A.

    1998-08-01

    A method for automated detection and interpretation of spectral information from ˜230 nm spectral windows, millilitre volume samples for 15 elements is presented. The basic approach involves cross-correlation of a spectral pattern obtained by running laboratory prepared multi-element `unknowns' with a reference spectral pattern obtained by running a single element standard. From the resultant cross-correlogram, it can be decided whether or not the sought-for reference spectral pattern (and the corresponding element) are present in the unknown. Spectral patterns were acquired using an inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) system equipped with a linear, 1024-element, photo-diode array (Leco, Plasmarray). Reference spectral patterns for Al, Au, Be, Cd, Cu, Ga, Mg, Mn, Ni, Pd, Si, Sc, Y, Sr and Zn were converted to noise-free and interference-free binary software masks and, subsequently, to analogue software masks. Cross-correlation of the analogue masks with spectral patterns acquired by running multi-element unknowns is discussed, an algorithm that does not rely on fast Fourier transforms (FFT) to calculate cross-correlations is presented and a context-sensitive, colour-coded and interrogatable periodic table graphical user-interface that presents the likely composition of an unknown on the computer screen is described in detail.

  7. Automated imatinib immunoassay

    PubMed Central

    Beumer, Jan H.; Kozo, Daniel; Harney, Rebecca L.; Baldasano, Caitlin N.; Jarrah, Justin; Christner, Susan M.; Parise, Robert; Baburina, Irina; Courtney, Jodi B.; Salamone, Salvatore J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Imatinib pharmacokinetic variability and the relationship of trough concentrations with clinical outcomes have been extensively reported. Though physical methods to quantitate imatinib exist, they are not widely available for routine use. An automated homogenous immunoassay for imatinib has been developed, facilitating routine imatinib testing. Methods Imatinib-selective monoclonal antibodies, without substantial cross-reactivity to the N-desmethyl metabolite or N-desmethyl conjugates, were produced. The antibodies were conjugated to 200 nm particles to develop immunoassay reagents on the Beckman Coulter AU480™ analyzer. These reagents were analytically validated using Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute protocols. Method comparison to LC-MS/MS was conducted using 77 plasma samples collected from subjects receiving imatinib. Results The assay requires 4 µL of sample without pre-treatment. The non-linear calibration curve ranges from 0 to 3,000 ng/mL. With automated sample dilution, concentrations of up to 9,000 ng/mL can be quantitated. The AU480 produces the first result in 10 minutes, and up to 400 tests per hour. Repeatability ranged from 2.0 to 6.0% coefficient of variation (CV), and within-laboratory reproducibility ranged from 2.9 to 7.4% CV. Standard curve stability was two weeks and on-board reagent stability was 6 weeks. For clinical samples with imatinib concentrations from 438 – 2,691 ng/mL, method comparison with LC-MS/MS gave a slope of 0.995 with a y-intercept of 24.3 and a correlation coefficient of 0.978. Conclusion The immunoassay is suitable for quantitating imatinib in human plasma, demonstrating good correlation with a physical method. Testing for optimal imatinib exposure can now be performed on routine clinical analyzers. PMID:25551407

  8. Specimen coordinate automated measuring machine/fiducial automated measuring machine

    SciTech Connect

    Hedglen, Robert E.; Jacket, Howard S.; Schwartz, Allan I.

    1991-01-01

    The Specimen coordinate Automated Measuring Machine (SCAMM) and the Fiducial Automated Measuring Machine (FAMM) is a computer controlled metrology system capable of measuring length, width, and thickness, and of locating fiducial marks. SCAMM and FAMM have many similarities in their designs, and they can be converted from one to the other without taking them out of the hot cell. Both have means for: supporting a plurality of samples and a standard; controlling the movement of the samples in the +/- X and Y directions; determining the coordinates of the sample; compensating for temperature effects; and verifying the accuracy of the measurements and repeating as necessary. SCAMM and FAMM are designed to be used in hot cells.

  9. Pharmacokinetic modelling of the placental transfer of nelfinavir and its M8 metabolite: a population study using 75 maternal-cord plasma samples

    PubMed Central

    Hirt, Déborah; Urien, Saïk; Jullien, Vincent; Firtion, Ghislaine; Chappuy, Hélène; Rey, Elisabeth; Pons, Gérard; Mandelbrot, Laurent; Treluyer, Jean-Marc

    2007-01-01

    What is already known about this subject Nelfinavir is an HIV protease inhibitor used in pregnant women, although no ex vivo and few in vivo data are available describing its transfer across the placenta. What this study adds A population pharmacokinetic study was performed on maternal, cord plasma and amniotic fluid samples to characterize the concentration–time courses of nelfinavir and its metabolite M8 in the three compartments and to study the influence of covariates, such as weight and duration of pregnancy, on placental transfer. The pharmacokinetics of nelfinavir and M8 were satisfactorily described by a three compartment model. The median nelfinavir fetus : maternal concentration ratio was 25% for maternal concentrations between 0.1 and 2.5 mg l−1, between the 31st and 41st week of gestation, irrespective of bodyweight. This ratio was significantly higher for M8 (a 55% increase). To our knowledge this is the first population pharmacokinetic integrated model to describe satisfactorily the maternal-foetal-amniotic fluid transfer of a drug. Aims A population pharmacokinetic model was developed to characterize the transfer of nelfinavir and its active metabolite M8 from maternal to cord plasma and amniotic fluid. Methods Concentration data were obtained from 75 women on the day of delivery and for whom maternal, umbilical plasma and amniotic fluid samples were collected. Data from 53 pregnant, 61 nonpregnant and seven consecutively pregnant and non pregnant women were then added to the database, the contents of which were analyzed using NONMEM. Results Nelfinavir and M8 concentrations in maternal plasma, umbilical plasma and amniotic fluid were described by six connected compartments. Mean (% intersubject variability) population estimates were: absorption rate 00.67 h−1, lag time 00.87 h, oral clearance and volume of distribution: 39.5 l h−1 (53%), and 557 l for non pregnant and pregnant women, respectively, and 115 l h−1 (132%) and 1626 l

  10. Water Sample Concentrator

    ScienceCinema

    Idaho National Laboratory

    2010-01-08

    Automated portable device that concentrates and packages a sample of suspected contaminated water for safe, efficient transport to a qualified analytical laboratory. This technology will help safeguard against pathogen contamination or chemical and biolog

  11. Water Sample Concentrator

    SciTech Connect

    Idaho National Laboratory

    2009-07-21

    Automated portable device that concentrates and packages a sample of suspected contaminated water for safe, efficient transport to a qualified analytical laboratory. This technology will help safeguard against pathogen contamination or chemical and biolog

  12. Automated Sampling Procedures Supported by High Persistence of Bacterial Fecal Indicators and Bacteroidetes Genetic Microbial Source Tracking Markers in Municipal Wastewater during Short-Term Storage at 5°C.

    PubMed

    Mayer, R E; Vierheilig, J; Egle, L; Reischer, G H; Saracevic, E; Mach, R L; Kirschner, A K T; Zessner, M; Sommer, R; Farnleitner, A H

    2015-08-01

    Because of high diurnal water quality fluctuations in raw municipal wastewater, the use of proportional autosampling over a period of 24 h at municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) to evaluate carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus removal has become a standard in many countries. Microbial removal or load estimation at municipal WWTPs, however, is still based on manually recovered grab samples. The goal of this study was to establish basic knowledge regarding the persistence of standard bacterial fecal indicators and Bacteroidetes genetic microbial source tracking markers in municipal wastewater in order to evaluate their suitability for automated sampling, as the potential lack of persistence is the main argument against such procedures. Raw and secondary treated wastewater of municipal origin from representative and well-characterized biological WWTPs without disinfection (organic carbon and nutrient removal) was investigated in microcosm experiments at 5 and 21°C with a total storage time of 32 h (including a 24-h autosampling component and an 8-h postsampling phase). Vegetative Escherichia coli and enterococci, as well as Clostridium perfringens spores, were selected as indicators for cultivation-based standard enumeration. Molecular analysis focused on total (AllBac) and human-associated genetic Bacteroidetes (BacHum-UCD, HF183 TaqMan) markers by using quantitative PCR, as well as 16S rRNA gene-based next-generation sequencing. The microbial parameters showed high persistence in both raw and treated wastewater at 5°C under the storage conditions used. Surprisingly, and in contrast to results obtained with treated wastewater, persistence of the microbial markers in raw wastewater was also high at 21°C. On the basis of our results, 24-h autosampling procedures with 5°C storage conditions can be recommended for the investigation of fecal indicators or Bacteroidetes genetic markers at municipal WWTPs. Such autosampling procedures will contribute to better

  13. Automated Sampling Procedures Supported by High Persistence of Bacterial Fecal Indicators and Bacteroidetes Genetic Microbial Source Tracking Markers in Municipal Wastewater during Short-Term Storage at 5°C

    PubMed Central

    Mayer, R. E.; Vierheilig, J.; Egle, L.; Reischer, G. H.; Saracevic, E.; Mach, R. L.; Kirschner, A. K. T.; Zessner, M.; Farnleitner, A. H.

    2015-01-01

    Because of high diurnal water quality fluctuations in raw municipal wastewater, the use of proportional autosampling over a period of 24 h at municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) to evaluate carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus removal has become a standard in many countries. Microbial removal or load estimation at municipal WWTPs, however, is still based on manually recovered grab samples. The goal of this study was to establish basic knowledge regarding the persistence of standard bacterial fecal indicators and Bacteroidetes genetic microbial source tracking markers in municipal wastewater in order to evaluate their suitability for automated sampling, as the potential lack of persistence is the main argument against such procedures. Raw and secondary treated wastewater of municipal origin from representative and well-characterized biological WWTPs without disinfection (organic carbon and nutrient removal) was investigated in microcosm experiments at 5 and 21°C with a total storage time of 32 h (including a 24-h autosampling component and an 8-h postsampling phase). Vegetative Escherichia coli and enterococci, as well as Clostridium perfringens spores, were selected as indicators for cultivation-based standard enumeration. Molecular analysis focused on total (AllBac) and human-associated genetic Bacteroidetes (BacHum-UCD, HF183 TaqMan) markers by using quantitative PCR, as well as 16S rRNA gene-based next-generation sequencing. The microbial parameters showed high persistence in both raw and treated wastewater at 5°C under the storage conditions used. Surprisingly, and in contrast to results obtained with treated wastewater, persistence of the microbial markers in raw wastewater was also high at 21°C. On the basis of our results, 24-h autosampling procedures with 5°C storage conditions can be recommended for the investigation of fecal indicators or Bacteroidetes genetic markers at municipal WWTPs. Such autosampling procedures will contribute to better

  14. Automated sample plan selection for OPC modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casati, Nathalie; Gabrani, Maria; Viswanathan, Ramya; Bayraktar, Zikri; Jaiswal, Om; DeMaris, David; Abdo, Amr Y.; Oberschmidt, James; Krause, Andreas

    2014-03-01

    It is desired to reduce the time required to produce metrology data for calibration of Optical Proximity Correction (OPC) models and also maintain or improve the quality of the data collected with regard to how well that data represents the types of patterns that occur in real circuit designs. Previous work based on clustering in geometry and/or image parameter space has shown some benefit over strictly manual or intuitive selection, but leads to arbitrary pattern exclusion or selection which may not be the best representation of the product. Forming the pattern selection as an optimization problem, which co-optimizes a number of objective functions reflecting modelers' insight and expertise, has shown to produce models with equivalent quality to the traditional plan of record (POR) set but in a less time.

  15. Autonomous Data Transfer Operations for Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Repaci, Max; Baker, Paul; Brosi, Fred

    2000-01-01

    Automating the data transfer operation can significantly reduce the cost of moving data from a spacecraft to a location on Earth. Automated data transfer methods have been developed for the terrestrial Internet. However, they often do not apply to the space environment, since in general they are based on assumptions about connectivity that are true on the Internet but not on space links. Automated file transfer protocols have been developed for use over space links that transfer data via store-and-forward of files or segments of files. This paper investigates some of the operational concepts made possible by these protocols.

  16. Dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction combined with semi-automated in-syringe back extraction as a new approach for the sample preparation of ionizable organic compounds prior to liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Melwanki, Mahaveer B; Fuh, Ming-Ren

    2008-07-11

    Dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) followed by a newly designed semi-automated in-syringe back extraction technique has been developed as an extraction methodology for the extraction of polar organic compounds prior to liquid chromatography (LC) measurement. The method is based on the formation of tiny droplets of the extractant in the sample solution using water-immiscible organic solvent (extractant) dissolved in a water-miscible organic dispersive solvent. Extraction of the analytes from aqueous sample into the dispersed organic droplets took place. The extracting organic phase was separated by centrifuging and the sedimented phase was withdrawn into a syringe. Then in-syringe back extraction was utilized to extract the analytes into an aqueous solution prior to LC analysis. Clenbuterol (CB), a basic organic compound used as a model, was extracted from a basified aqueous sample using 25 microL tetrachloroethylene (TCE, extraction solvent) dissolved in 500 microL acetone (as a dispersive solvent). After separation of the organic extracting phase by centrifuging, CB enriched in TCE phase was back extracted into 10 microL of 1% aqueous formic acid (FA) within the syringe. Back extraction was facilitated by repeatedly moving the plunger back and forth within the barrel of syringe, assisted by a syringe pump. Due to the plunger movement, a thin organic film is formed on the inner layer of the syringe that comes in contact with the acidic aqueous phase. Here, CB, a basic analyte, will be protonated and back extracted into FA. Various parameters affecting the extraction efficiency, viz., choice of extraction and dispersive solvent, salt effect, speed of syringe pump, back extraction time period, effect of concentration of base and acid, were evaluated. Under optimum conditions, precision, linearity (correlation coefficient, r(2)=0.9966 over the concentration range of 10-1000 ng mL(-1) CB), detection limit (4.9 ng mL(-1)), enrichment factor (175), relative

  17. Easing the Transition: How to Implement an Automated Succession Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrews, Jean P.

    1989-01-01

    An automated succession plan can create smooth transitions when employees transfer or leave the company. It can also boost productivity and employee morale. (Includes a basic nine-step implementation plan that makes the process easy and relatively painless.) (JOW)

  18. Automated External Defibrillator

    MedlinePlus

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is an Automated External Defibrillator? An automated external defibrillator (AED) is a portable device that ... Institutes of Health Department of Health and Human Services USA.gov

  19. Flow through electrode with automated calibration

    DOEpatents

    Szecsody, James E [Richland, WA; Williams, Mark D [Richland, WA; Vermeul, Vince R [Richland, WA

    2002-08-20

    The present invention is an improved automated flow through electrode liquid monitoring system. The automated system has a sample inlet to a sample pump, a sample outlet from the sample pump to at least one flow through electrode with a waste port. At least one computer controls the sample pump and records data from the at least one flow through electrode for a liquid sample. The improvement relies upon (a) at least one source of a calibration sample connected to (b) an injection valve connected to said sample outlet and connected to said source, said injection valve further connected to said at least one flow through electrode, wherein said injection valve is controlled by said computer to select between said liquid sample or said calibration sample. Advantages include improved accuracy because of more frequent calibrations, no additional labor for calibration, no need to remove the flow through electrode(s), and minimal interruption of sampling.

  20. Phase transfer hollow fiber liquid phase microextraction combined with electrothermal vaporization inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry for the determination of trace heavy metals in environmental and biological samples.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xueqin; He, Man; Chen, Beibei; Hu, Bin

    2012-11-15

    A new method of phase transfer hollow fiber liquid phase microextraction (PT-HF-LPME) combined with electrothermal vaporization inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ETV-ICP-MS) has been developed for the determination of trace Co, Pd, Cd and Bi in environmental and biological samples. In PT-HF-LPME, an intermediate solvent (1-butanol) was added into the sample solution to ensure the maximum contact area between the target metal ions and the chelating reagent (8-hydroxyquinoline, 8-HQ), which accelerated the formation of 8-HQ-metal complexes and their subsequent extraction by extraction solvent (toluene). The experimental parameters affecting the extraction efficiency of PT-HF-LPME for the target metals were studied by simplex optimization and orthogonal array design (OAD) experiments. Under the optimized conditions, the enrichment factors for Co, Pd, Cd and Bi were 110, 393, 121 and 111-fold, respectively, the limits of detection (LODs, 3σ) ranged from 3.7 to 8.3 ng L(-1). The relative standard deviations (RSDs, c=0.5 ng mL(-1), n=7) were 8.7, 6.2, 12.4 and 12.9% for Co, Pd, Cd and Bi, respectively. To validate the accuracy of the proposed method, two Certified Reference Materials of GSBZ50009-88 Environment Water and GBW09103 Human Urine were analyzed, and the results obtained for Cd were in good agreement with the certified values. Finally, the developed method was successfully applied to the analysis of Co, Pd, Cd and Bi in lake water and human urine samples. PMID:23158357

  1. Fluidic sampling

    SciTech Connect

    Houck, E.D.

    1992-04-20

    This paper covers the development of the fluidic sampler and its testing in a fluidic transfer system. The major findings of this paper are as follows. Fluidic jet samples can dependably produce unbiased samples of acceptable volume. The fluidic transfer system with a fluidic sampler in-line will transfer water to a net lift of 37.2--39.9 feet at an average ratio of 0.02--0.05 gpm (77--192 cc/min). The fluidic sample system circulation rate compares very favorably with the normal 0.016--0.026 gpm (60--100 cc/min) circulation rate that is commonly produced for this lift and solution with the jet-assisted airlift sample system that is normally used at ICPP. The volume of the sample taken with a fluidic sampler is dependant on the motive pressure to the fluidic sampler, the sample bottle size and on the fluidic sampler jet characteristics. The fluidic sampler should be supplied with fluid having the motive pressure of the 140--150 percent of the peak vacuum producing motive pressure for the jet in the sampler. Fluidic transfer systems should be operated by emptying a full pumping chamber to nearly empty or empty during the pumping cycle, this maximizes the solution transfer rate.

  2. Fluidic sampling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houck, E. D.

    1992-04-01

    This paper covers the development of the fluidic sampler and its testing in a fluidic transfer system. The major findings of this paper are as follows. Fluidic jet samples can dependably produce unbiased samples of acceptable volume. The fluidic transfer system with a fluidic sampler in-line will transfer water to a net lift of 37.2-39.9 feet at an average ratio of 0.02-0.05 gpm (77-192 cc/min). The fluidic sample system circulation rate compares very favorably with the normal 0.016-0.026 gpm (60-100 cc/min) circulation rate that is commonly produced for this lift and solution with the jet-assisted airlift sample system that is normally used at ICPP. The volume of the sample taken with a fluidic sampler is dependant on the motive pressure to the fluidic sampler, the sample bottle size and on the fluidic sampler jet characteristics. The fluidic sampler should be supplied with fluid having the motive pressure of the 140-150 percent of the peak vacuum producing motive pressure for the jet in the sampler. Fluidic transfer systems should be operated by emptying a full pumping chamber to nearly empty or empty during the pumping cycle, this maximizes the solution transfer rate.

  3. Workflow automation architecture standard

    SciTech Connect

    Moshofsky, R.P.; Rohen, W.T.

    1994-11-14

    This document presents an architectural standard for application of workflow automation technology. The standard includes a functional architecture, process for developing an automated workflow system for a work group, functional and collateral specifications for workflow automation, and results of a proof of concept prototype.

  4. Improving Laboratory Efficiency by Automation of Preanalytic Processing of ThinPrep Specimens for Real-Time PCR High-Risk HPV Testing.

    PubMed

    Barbieri, Daniela; Venturoli, Simona; Costa, Silvano; Landini, Maria Paola

    2016-06-01

    Cervical specimens collected in liquid-based cytology (LBC) media are the most common sample type used for high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) testing. Since preanalytic steps such as vortexing and decapping vials, liquid transfer to a sample input tube with matching unique identifier, and recapping the original vials are required for processing LBC samples prior to running the Abbott RealTime High Risk HPV assay (Abbott, Wiesbaden, Germany), a full manual execution can be complicated, especially in high-throughput diagnostic contexts. Here, a custom-configured worktable setup for the Tecan Freedom EVO (Tecan, Männedorf, Switzerland) designed to automate and control preanalytic steps for ThinPrep (Hologic, Marlborough, MA) samples was used to evaluate the impact of automated versus manual preanalytics. Archival results for manual processing of 226 samples were compared with those obtained with the Tecan protocol, observing a very good overall concordance for final assay interpretation (95.6%). High overall agreement (100%) resulted also from retesting 99 samples by both the preanalytical protocols. High reproducibility was observed analyzing 23 randomly selected samples by automated preprocessing in triplicate. Hence, the new configuration of the Tecan platform translates the manual steps required to process ThinPrep specimens into automated operations, controls sample identification, and allows for saving hands-on time, while maintaining assay reproducibility and ensuring reliability of results, making it suitable for screening settings. PMID:25673634

  5. Automated Analysis Workstation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Information from NASA Tech Briefs of work done at Langley Research Center and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory assisted DiaSys Corporation in manufacturing their first product, the R/S 2000. Since then, the R/S 2000 and R/S 2003 have followed. Recently, DiaSys released their fourth workstation, the FE-2, which automates the process of making and manipulating wet-mount preparation of fecal concentrates. The time needed to read the sample is decreased, permitting technologists to rapidly spot parasites, ova and cysts, sometimes carried in the lower intestinal tract of humans and animals. Employing the FE-2 is non-invasive, can be performed on an out-patient basis, and quickly provides confirmatory results.

  6. Automation in Clinical Microbiology

    PubMed Central

    Ledeboer, Nathan A.

    2013-01-01

    Historically, the trend toward automation in clinical pathology laboratories has largely bypassed the clinical microbiology laboratory. In this article, we review the historical impediments to automation in the microbiology laboratory and offer insight into the reasons why we believe that we are on the cusp of a dramatic change that will sweep a wave of automation into clinical microbiology laboratories. We review the currently available specimen-processing instruments as well as the total laboratory automation solutions. Lastly, we outline the types of studies that will need to be performed to fully assess the benefits of automation in microbiology laboratories. PMID:23515547

  7. Automation of industrial bioprocesses.

    PubMed

    Beyeler, W; DaPra, E; Schneider, K

    2000-01-01

    The dramatic development of new electronic devices within the last 25 years has had a substantial influence on the control and automation of industrial bioprocesses. Within this short period of time the method of controlling industrial bioprocesses has changed completely. In this paper, the authors will use a practical approach focusing on the industrial applications of automation systems. From the early attempts to use computers for the automation of biotechnological processes up to the modern process automation systems some milestones are highlighted. Special attention is given to the influence of Standards and Guidelines on the development of automation systems. PMID:11092132

  8. Automated nutrient analyses in seawater

    SciTech Connect

    Whitledge, T.E.; Malloy, S.C.; Patton, C.J.; Wirick, C.D.

    1981-02-01

    This manual was assembled for use as a guide for analyzing the nutrient content of seawater samples collected in the marine coastal zone of the Northeast United States and the Bering Sea. Some modifications (changes in dilution or sample pump tube sizes) may be necessary to achieve optimum measurements in very pronounced oligotrophic, eutrophic or brackish areas. Information is presented under the following section headings: theory and mechanics of automated analysis; continuous flow system description; operation of autoanalyzer system; cookbook of current nutrient methods; automated analyzer and data analysis software; computer interfacing and hardware modifications; and trouble shooting. The three appendixes are entitled: references and additional reading; manifold components and chemicals; and software listings. (JGB)

  9. Automated sirulated distillation using an articulated laboratory robot system.

    PubMed

    Berry, W F; Giarrocco, V

    1994-01-01

    An automated method, based on the Hewlett-Packard ORCA (Optimized Robot for Chemical Analysis) system, for sample preparation and analysis of petroleum samples by simulated distillation (SIMDIS) is described. Results obtained for the robotically prepared samples show excellent agreement with those obtained from the same samples prepared manually. The application, based on ASTM method D 2887, is the foundation for a more fully automated system that can perform a variety of SIMDIS samples and methods. PMID:18924992

  10. Automated Agitation-Assisted Demulsification Dispersive Liquid-Liquid Microextraction.

    PubMed

    Guo, Liang; Chia, Shao Hua; Lee, Hian Kee

    2016-03-01

    Dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) is an extremely fast and efficient sample preparation procedure. For its capability and applicability to be fully exploited, full automation of its operations seamlessly integrated with analysis is necessary. In this work, for the first time, fully automated agitation-assisted demulsification (AAD)-DLLME integrated with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry was developed for the convenient and efficient determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in environmental water samples. The use of a commercially available multipurpose autosampler equipped with two microsyringes of different capacities allowed elimination or significant reduction of manpower, labor, and time with the large-volume microsyringe used for liquid transfers and the small-volume microsyringe for extract collection and injection for analysis. Apart from enhancing accessibility of DLLME, the procedure was characterized by the application of agitation after extraction to break up the emulsion (that otherwise would need centrifugation or a demulsification solvent), further improving overall operational efficiency and flexibility. Additionally, the application of low-density solvent as extractant facilitated the easy collection of extract as the upper layer over water. Some parameters affecting the automated AAD-DDLME procedure were investigated. Under the optimized conditions, the procedure provided good linearity (ranging from a minimum of 0.1-0.5 μg/L to a maximum of 50 μg/L), low limits of detection (0.010-0.058 μg/L), and good repeatability of the extractions (relative standard deviations, below 5.3%, n = 6). The proposed method was applied to analyze PAHs in real river water samples. PMID:26818217

  11. Development of automated high throughput single molecular microfluidic detection platform for signal transduction analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Po-Jung; Baghbani Kordmahale, Sina; Chou, Chao-Kai; Yamaguchi, Hirohito; Hung, Mien-Chie; Kameoka, Jun

    2016-03-01

    Signal transductions including multiple protein post-translational modifications (PTM), protein-protein interactions (PPI), and protein-nucleic acid interaction (PNI) play critical roles for cell proliferation and differentiation that are directly related to the cancer biology. Traditional methods, like mass spectrometry, immunoprecipitation, fluorescence resonance energy transfer, and fluorescence correlation spectroscopy require a large amount of sample and long processing time. "microchannel for multiple-parameter analysis of proteins in single-complex (mMAPS)"we proposed can reduce the process time and sample volume because this system is composed by microfluidic channels, fluorescence microscopy, and computerized data analysis. In this paper, we will present an automated mMAPS including integrated microfluidic device, automated stage and electrical relay for high-throughput clinical screening. Based on this result, we estimated that this automated detection system will be able to screen approximately 150 patient samples in a 24-hour period, providing a practical application to analyze tissue samples in a clinical setting.

  12. Spacecraft automated operations. [for interplanetary missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bird, T. H.; Sharpe, B. L.

    1979-01-01

    Trends in automation of planetary spacecraft are examined using data from missions as far back as Mariner '67 and up to the highly sophisticated Galileo. Nine design considerations which influence the degree of automation such as protection against catastrophic failures, highly repetitive functions, loss of spacecraft communications, and the need for near-real-time adaptivity are discussed. Rapid growth of automation is shown in terms of on-board hardware by plots of number of processors on board, the average speed of processors, and total core memory. The number of commands transmitted from the ground has grown to 5 million bits in Voyager, so that increases in mission complexity have increased both in spacecraft automation and ground operations. Achieving greater automation by transferring ground operations to the spacecraft with the current means of controlling missions, are considered noting proposed changes. For the future, improved computer technology, more microprocessors and increased core storage will be used, and the number of automated functions and their complexity will grow. It is concluded that using the growing computational capability of spacecraft will achieve more autonomy thus reversing the trend of increased mission complexity and cost.

  13. Orbital Fluid Transfer System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, A. S., (Nick); Ryder, Mel; Tyler, Tony R.

    1998-01-01

    An automated fluid and power interface system needs to be developed for future space missions which require on orbit consumable replenishment. Current method of fluid transfer require manned vehicles and extravehicular activity. Currently the US does not have an automated capability for consumable transfer on-orbit. This technology would benefit both Space Station and long duration satellites. In order to provide this technology the Automated Fluid Interface System (AFIS) was developed. The AFIS project was an advanced development program aimed at developing a prototype satellite servicer for future space operations. This mechanism could transfer propellants, cryogens, fluids, gasses, electrical power, and communications from a tanker unit to the orbiting satellite. The development of this unit was a cooperative effort between Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama, and Moog, Inc. in East Aurora, New York. An engineering model was built and underwent substantial development testing at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). While the AFIS is not suitable for spaceflight, testing and evaluation of the AFIS provided significant experience which would be beneficial in building a flight unit. The lessons learned from testing the AFIS provided the foundation for the next generation fluid transfer mechanism, the Orbital Fluid Transfer System (OFTS). The OFTS project was a study contract with MSFC and Moog, Inc. The OFTS was designed for the International Space Station (ISS), but its flexible design could used for long duration satellite missions and other applications. The OFTS was designed to be used after docking. The primary function was to transfer bipropellants and high pressure gases. The other items addressed by this task included propellant storage, hardware integration, safety and control system issues. A new concept for high pressure couplings was also developed. The results of the AFIS testing provided an excellent basis for the OFTS design. The OFTS

  14. Making the transition to automation

    SciTech Connect

    Christenson, D.J. )

    1992-10-01

    By 1995, the Bureau of Reclamation's hydropower plant near Hungry Horse, Montana, will be remotely operated from Grand Coulee dam (about 300 miles away) in Washington State. Automation at Hungry Horse will eliminate the need for four full-time power plant operators. Between now and then, a transition plan that offers employees choices for retraining, transferring, or taking early retirement will smooth the transition in reducing from five operators to one. The transition plan also includes the use of temporary employees to offset risks of reducing staff too soon. When completed in 1953, the Hungry Horse structure was the world's fourth largest and fourth highest concrete dam. The arch-gravity structure has a crest length of 2,115 feet; it is 3,565 feet above sea level. The four turbine-generator units in the powerhouse total 284 MW, and supply approximately 1 billion kilowatt-hours of electricity annually to the federal power grid managed by the Bonneville Power Administration. In 1988, Reclamation began to automate operations at many of its hydro plants, and to establish centralized control points. The control center concept will increase efficiency. It also will coordinate water movements and power supply throughout the West. In the Pacific Northwest, the Grand Coulee and Black Canyon plants are automated control centers. Several Reclamation-owned facilities in the Columbia River Basin, including Hungry Horse, will be connected to these centers via microwave and telephone lines. When automation is complete, constant monitoring by computer will replace hourly manual readings and equipment checks. Computers also are expected to increase water use efficiency by 1 to 2 percent by ensuring operation for maximum turbine efficiency. Unit efficiency curves for various heads will be programmed into the system.

  15. Automated Platform Management System Scheduling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hull, Larry G.

    1990-01-01

    The Platform Management System was established to coordinate the operation of platform systems and instruments. The management functions are split between ground and space components. Since platforms are to be out of contact with the ground more than the manned base, the on-board functions are required to be more autonomous than those of the manned base. Under this concept, automated replanning and rescheduling, including on-board real-time schedule maintenance and schedule repair, are required to effectively and efficiently meet Space Station Freedom mission goals. In a FY88 study, we developed several promising alternatives for automated platform planning and scheduling. We recommended both a specific alternative and a phased approach to automated platform resource scheduling. Our recommended alternative was based upon use of exactly the same scheduling engine in both ground and space components of the platform management system. Our phased approach recommendation was based upon evolutionary development of the platform. In the past year, we developed platform scheduler requirements and implemented a rapid prototype of a baseline platform scheduler. Presently we are rehosting this platform scheduler rapid prototype and integrating the scheduler prototype into two Goddard Space Flight Center testbeds, as the ground scheduler in the Scheduling Concepts, Architectures, and Networks Testbed and as the on-board scheduler in the Platform Management System Testbed. Using these testbeds, we will investigate rescheduling issues, evaluate operational performance and enhance the platform scheduler prototype to demonstrate our evolutionary approach to automated platform scheduling. The work described in this paper was performed prior to Space Station Freedom rephasing, transfer of platform responsibility to Code E, and other recently discussed changes. We neither speculate on these changes nor attempt to predict the impact of the final decisions. As a consequence some of our

  16. Automated Microbial Metabolism Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The Automated Microbial Metabolism Laboratory (AMML) 1971-1972 program involved the investigation of three separate life detection schemes. The first was a continued further development of the labeled release experiment. The possibility of chamber reuse without inbetween sterilization, to provide comparative biochemical information was tested. Findings show that individual substrates or concentrations of antimetabolites may be sequentially added to a single test chamber. The second detection system which was investigated for possible inclusion in the AMML package of assays, was nitrogen fixation as detected by acetylene reduction. Thirdly, a series of preliminary steps were taken to investigate the feasibility of detecting biopolymers in soil. A strategy for the safe return to Earth of a Mars sample prior to manned landings on Mars is outlined. The program assumes that the probability of indigenous life on Mars is unity and then broadly presents the procedures for acquisition and analysis of the Mars sample in a manner to satisfy the scientific community and the public that adequate safeguards are being taken.

  17. Small Libraries Online: Automating Circulation and Public Access Catalogs. Participant Workbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia, C. Rebecca; Bridge, Frank R.

    This workbook, meant to be used in a workshop, presents information on and guidelines for automating small libraries: (1) planning for automation; (2) automated system procurement and evaluation; (3) data conversion issues; (4) sample configuration worksheets; (5) sample configuration costs; (6) site preparation; (7) training; and (8) acceptance…

  18. Laboratory Automation and Middleware.

    PubMed

    Riben, Michael

    2015-06-01

    The practice of surgical pathology is under constant pressure to deliver the highest quality of service, reduce errors, increase throughput, and decrease turnaround time while at the same time dealing with an aging workforce, increasing financial constraints, and economic uncertainty. Although not able to implement total laboratory automation, great progress continues to be made in workstation automation in all areas of the pathology laboratory. This report highlights the benefits and challenges of pathology automation, reviews middleware and its use to facilitate automation, and reviews the progress so far in the anatomic pathology laboratory. PMID:26065792

  19. Technical Note: A fully automated purge and trap GC-MS system for quantification of volatile organic compound (VOC) fluxes between the ocean and atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrews, S. J.; Hackenberg, S. C.; Carpenter, L. J.

    2015-04-01

    The oceans are a key source of a number of atmospherically important volatile gases. The accurate and robust determination of trace gases in seawater is a significant analytical challenge, requiring reproducible and ideally automated sample handling, a high efficiency of seawater-air transfer, removal of water vapour from the sample stream, and high sensitivity and selectivity of the analysis. Here we describe a system that was developed for the fully automated analysis of dissolved very short-lived halogenated species (VSLS) sampled from an under-way seawater supply. The system can also be used for semi-automated batch sampling from Niskin bottles filled during CTD (conductivity, temperature, depth) profiles. The essential components comprise a bespoke, automated purge and trap (AutoP & T) unit coupled to a commercial thermal desorption and gas chromatograph mass spectrometer (TD-GC-MS). The AutoP & T system has completed five research cruises, from the tropics to the poles, and collected over 2500 oceanic samples to date. It is able to quantify >25 species over a boiling point range of 34-180 °C with Henry's law coefficients of 0.018 and greater (CH22l, kHcc dimensionless gas/aqueous) and has been used to measure organic sulfurs, hydrocarbons, halocarbons and terpenes. In the eastern tropical Pacific, the high sensitivity and sampling frequency provided new information regarding the distribution of VSLS, including novel measurements of a photolytically driven diurnal cycle of CH22l within the surface ocean water.

  20. Management Planning for Workplace Automation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDole, Thomas L.

    Several factors must be considered when implementing office automation. Included among these are whether or not to automate at all, the effects of automation on employees, requirements imposed by automation on the physical environment, effects of automation on the total organization, and effects on clientele. The reasons behind the success or…

  1. Automated immunoassays for 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD): do plasticisers interfere?

    PubMed

    Carter, G D; Jones, J; Ketheeswaran, M; Shannon, J; Singh, B; Kearney, E; Berry, J L

    2015-04-01

    The international quality assessment scheme for vitamin D metabolites (DEQAS) was established in 1989. The scheme involves the quarterly distribution of 5 serum samples prepared from blood collected in plain plastic bags. Following transfer of the donors to a clinic using different bags, sera were found to contain a contaminant that interfered in both the local LC-MS/MS assay and the NIST reference measurement procedure for 25-OHD. It seemed likely that the contaminant was a substance, possibly a plasticiser, leached from the plastic bag. It was subsequently suggested that the unidentified contaminant might also cause interference in certain automated non-extraction assays for 25-OHD. This was investigated in 3 automated immunoassays by comparing serum 25-OHD results from blood collected simultaneously into plain glass tubes and plastic bags. There was no significant difference in results, indicating that the leached substance had no effect on any of the 3 immunoassays examined. PMID:25448742

  2. Sensors and Automated Analyzers for Radionuclides

    SciTech Connect

    Grate, Jay W.; Egorov, Oleg B.

    2003-03-27

    The production of nuclear weapons materials has generated large quantities of nuclear waste and significant environmental contamination. We have developed new, rapid, automated methods for determination of radionuclides using sequential injection methodologies to automate extraction chromatographic separations, with on-line flow-through scintillation counting for real time detection. This work has progressed in two main areas: radionuclide sensors for water monitoring and automated radiochemical analyzers for monitoring nuclear waste processing operations. Radionuclide sensors have been developed that collect and concentrate radionuclides in preconcentrating minicolumns with dual functionality: chemical selectivity for radionuclide capture and scintillation for signal output. These sensors can detect pertechnetate to below regulatory levels and have been engineered into a prototype for field testing. A fully automated process monitor has been developed for total technetium in nuclear waste streams. This instrument performs sample acidification, speciation adjustment, separation and detection in fifteen minutes or less.

  3. Laboratory automation in clinical bacteriology: what system to choose?

    PubMed

    Croxatto, A; Prod'hom, G; Faverjon, F; Rochais, Y; Greub, G

    2016-03-01

    Automation was introduced many years ago in several diagnostic disciplines such as chemistry, haematology and molecular biology. The first laboratory automation system for clinical bacteriology was released in 2006, and it rapidly proved its value by increasing productivity, allowing a continuous increase in sample volumes despite limited budgets and personnel shortages. Today, two major manufacturers, BD Kiestra and Copan, are commercializing partial or complete laboratory automation systems for bacteriology. The laboratory automation systems are rapidly evolving to provide improved hardware and software solutions to optimize laboratory efficiency. However, the complex parameters of the laboratory and automation systems must be considered to determine the best system for each given laboratory. We address several topics on laboratory automation that may help clinical bacteriologists to understand the particularities and operative modalities of the different systems. We present (a) a comparison of the engineering and technical features of the various elements composing the two different automated systems currently available, (b) the system workflows of partial and complete laboratory automation, which define the basis for laboratory reorganization required to optimize system efficiency, (c) the concept of digital imaging and telebacteriology, (d) the connectivity of laboratory automation to the laboratory information system, (e) the general advantages and disadvantages as well as the expected impacts provided by laboratory automation and (f) the laboratory data required to conduct a workflow assessment to determine the best configuration of an automated system for the laboratory activities and specificities. PMID:26806135

  4. Automating Initial Guess Generation for High Fidelity Trajectory Optimization Tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Villa, Benjamin; Lantoine, Gregory; Sims, Jon; Whiffen, Gregory

    2013-01-01

    Many academic studies in spaceflight dynamics rely on simplified dynamical models, such as restricted three-body models or averaged forms of the equations of motion of an orbiter. In practice, the end result of these preliminary orbit studies needs to be transformed into more realistic models, in particular to generate good initial guesses for high-fidelity trajectory optimization tools like Mystic. This paper reviews and extends some of the approaches used in the literature to perform such a task, and explores the inherent trade-offs of such a transformation with a view toward automating it for the case of ballistic arcs. Sample test cases in the libration point regimes and small body orbiter transfers are presented.

  5. Automated drilling draws interest

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-05-01

    Interest in subsea technology includes recent purchase of both a British yard and Subsea Technology, a Houston-based BOP manufacturer. In France, key personnel from the former Comex Industries have been acquired and a base reinstalled in Marseille. ACB is also investing heavily, with the Norwegians, in automated drilling programs. These automated drilling programs are discussed.

  6. Library Automation Style Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaylord Bros., Liverpool, NY.

    This library automation style guide lists specific terms and names often used in the library automation industry. The terms and/or acronyms are listed alphabetically and each is followed by a brief definition. The guide refers to the "Chicago Manual of Style" for general rules, and a notes section is included for the convenience of individual…

  7. Automation and Cataloging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furuta, Kenneth; And Others

    1990-01-01

    These three articles address issues in library cataloging that are affected by automation: (1) the impact of automation and bibliographic utilities on professional catalogers; (2) the effect of the LASS microcomputer software on the cost of authority work in cataloging at the University of Arizona; and (3) online subject heading and classification…

  8. Planning for Office Automation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherron, Gene T.

    1982-01-01

    The steps taken toward office automation by the University of Maryland are described. Office automation is defined and some types of word processing systems are described. Policies developed in the writing of a campus plan are listed, followed by a section on procedures adopted to implement the plan. (Author/MLW)

  9. The Automated Office.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naclerio, Nick

    1979-01-01

    Clerical personnel may be able to climb career ladders as a result of office automation and expanded job opportunities in the word processing area. Suggests opportunities in an automated office system and lists books and periodicals on word processing for counselors and teachers. (MF)

  10. Work and Programmable Automation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeVore, Paul W.

    A new industrial era based on electronics and the microprocessor has arrived, an era that is being called intelligent automation. Intelligent automation, in the form of robots, replaces workers, and the new products, using microelectronic devices, require significantly less labor to produce than the goods they replace. The microprocessor thus…

  11. Automation, Manpower, and Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenberg, Jerry M.

    Each group in our population will be affected by automation and other forms of technological advancement. This book seeks to identify the needs of these various groups, and to present ways in which educators can best meet them. The author corrects certain prevalent misconceptions concerning manpower utilization and automation. Based on the…

  12. Automation in Immunohematology

    PubMed Central

    Bajpai, Meenu; Kaur, Ravneet; Gupta, Ekta

    2012-01-01

    There have been rapid technological advances in blood banking in South Asian region over the past decade with an increasing emphasis on quality and safety of blood products. The conventional test tube technique has given way to newer techniques such as column agglutination technique, solid phase red cell adherence assay, and erythrocyte-magnetized technique. These new technologies are adaptable to automation and major manufacturers in this field have come up with semi and fully automated equipments for immunohematology tests in the blood bank. Automation improves the objectivity and reproducibility of tests. It reduces human errors in patient identification and transcription errors. Documentation and traceability of tests, reagents and processes and archiving of results is another major advantage of automation. Shifting from manual methods to automation is a major undertaking for any transfusion service to provide quality patient care with lesser turnaround time for their ever increasing workload. This article discusses the various issues involved in the process. PMID:22988378

  13. Advances in inspection automation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, Walter H.; Mair, H. Douglas; Jansen, Dion; Lombardi, Luciano

    2013-01-01

    This new session at QNDE reflects the growing interest in inspection automation. Our paper describes a newly developed platform that makes the complex NDE automation possible without the need for software programmers. Inspection tasks that are tedious, error-prone or impossible for humans to perform can now be automated using a form of drag and drop visual scripting. Our work attempts to rectify the problem that NDE is not keeping pace with the rest of factory automation. Outside of NDE, robots routinely and autonomously machine parts, assemble components, weld structures and report progress to corporate databases. By contrast, components arriving in the NDT department typically require manual part handling, calibrations and analysis. The automation examples in this paper cover the development of robotic thickness gauging and the use of adaptive contour following on the NRU reactor inspection at Chalk River.

  14. Automation of the particle dosimetry and the dose application for radiobiological experiments at a vertical proton beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mörtel, H.; Georgi, J.; Eyrich, W.; Fritsch, M.; Distel, L.

    2002-08-01

    A facility with a vertical beam for radiobiological experiments with low-energy protons has been setup at the Tandem accelerator at Erlangen. This energy region is optimal to investigate the biological effects of the linear energy transfer in the Bragg region under physiological conditions. A new automated data acquisition system for dosimetry and monitoring based on a personal computer was developed and optimized for this setup. A specially designed sample holder offers possibilities of cooling or changing of atmosphere during irradiation. First irradiations of biological samples have shown the functionality of the setup.

  15. Streamlining and automation of radioanalytical methods at a commercial laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Harvey, J.T.; Dillard, J.W.

    1993-12-31

    Through the careful planning and design of laboratory facilities and incorporation of modern instrumentation and robotics systems, properly trained and competent laboratory associates can efficiently and safely handle radioactive and mixed waste samples. This paper addresses the potential improvements radiochemistry and mixed waste laboratories can achieve utilizing robotics for automated sample analysis. Several examples of automated systems for sample preparation and analysis will be discussed.

  16. Automated fluid analysis apparatus and techniques

    DOEpatents

    Szecsody, James E.

    2004-03-16

    An automated device that couples a pair of differently sized sample loops with a syringe pump and a source of degassed water. A fluid sample is mounted at an inlet port and delivered to the sample loops. A selected sample from the sample loops is diluted in the syringe pump with the degassed water and fed to a flow through detector for analysis. The sample inlet is also directly connected to the syringe pump to selectively perform analysis without dilution. The device is airtight and used to detect oxygen-sensitive species, such as dithionite in groundwater following a remedial injection to treat soil contamination.

  17. Systematic review automation technologies

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Systematic reviews, a cornerstone of evidence-based medicine, are not produced quickly enough to support clinical practice. The cost of production, availability of the requisite expertise and timeliness are often quoted as major contributors for the delay. This detailed survey of the state of the art of information systems designed to support or automate individual tasks in the systematic review, and in particular systematic reviews of randomized controlled clinical trials, reveals trends that see the convergence of several parallel research projects. We surveyed literature describing informatics systems that support or automate the processes of systematic review or each of the tasks of the systematic review. Several projects focus on automating, simplifying and/or streamlining specific tasks of the systematic review. Some tasks are already fully automated while others are still largely manual. In this review, we describe each task and the effect that its automation would have on the entire systematic review process, summarize the existing information system support for each task, and highlight where further research is needed for realizing automation for the task. Integration of the systems that automate systematic review tasks may lead to a revised systematic review workflow. We envisage the optimized workflow will lead to system in which each systematic review is described as a computer program that automatically retrieves relevant trials, appraises them, extracts and synthesizes data, evaluates the risk of bias, performs meta-analysis calculations, and produces a report in real time. PMID:25005128

  18. Automating Energy Bandgap Measurements in Semiconductors Using LabVIEW

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garg, Amit; Sharma, Reena; Dhingra, Vishal

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we report the development of an automated system for energy bandgap and resistivity measurement of a semiconductor sample using Four-Probe method for use in the undergraduate laboratory of Physics and Electronics students. The automated data acquisition and analysis system has been developed using National Instruments USB-6008 DAQ…

  19. 49 CFR 213.333 - Automated vehicle inspection systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Automated vehicle inspection systems. 213.333... Higher § 213.333 Automated vehicle inspection systems. (a) For track Class 7, a qualifying Track Geometry... wheel; (2) Track geometry measurements shall be taken and recorded on a distance-based sampling...

  20. 49 CFR 213.333 - Automated vehicle inspection systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Automated vehicle inspection systems. 213.333... Higher § 213.333 Automated vehicle inspection systems. (a) For track Class 7, a qualifying Track Geometry... wheel; (2) Track geometry measurements shall be taken and recorded on a distance-based sampling...

  1. 49 CFR 213.333 - Automated vehicle inspection systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Automated vehicle inspection systems. 213.333... Higher § 213.333 Automated vehicle inspection systems. (a) For track Class 7, a qualifying Track Geometry... wheel; (2) Track geometry measurements shall be taken and recorded on a distance-based sampling...

  2. Testing of the Automated Fluid Interface System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, A. S.; Tyler, Tony R.

    1998-01-01

    The Automated Fluid Interface System (AFIS) is an advanced development prototype satellite servicer. The device was designed to transfer consumables from one spacecraft to another. An engineering model was built and underwent development testing at Marshall Space Flight Center. While the current AFIS is not suitable for spaceflight, testing and evaluation of the AFIS provided significant experience which would be beneficial in building a flight unit.

  3. Materials for Heated Head Automated Thermoplastic Tape Placement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jensen, Brian J.; Kinney, Megan C.; Cano, Roberto J.; Grimsley, Brian W.

    2012-01-01

    NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) is currently pursuing multiple paths to develop out of autoclave (OOA) polymeric composite materials and processes. Polymeric composite materials development includes the synthesis of new and/or modified thermosetting and thermoplastic matrix resins designed for specific OOA processes. OOA processes currently under investigation include vacuum bag only (VBO) prepreg/composite fabrication, resin transfer molding (RTM), vacuum assisted resin transfer molding (VARTM) and heated head automated thermoplastic tape placement (HHATP). This paper will discuss the NASA Langley HHATP facility and capabilities and recent work on characterizing thermoplastic tape quality and requirements for quality part production. Samples of three distinct versions of APC-2 (AS4/PEEK) thermoplastic dry tape were obtained from two materials vendors, TENCATE, Inc. and CYTEC Engineered Materials** (standard grade and an experimental batch). Random specimens were taken from each of these samples and subjected to photo-microscopy and surface profilometry. The CYTEC standard grade of APC-2 tape had the most voids and splits and the highest surface roughness and/or waviness. Since the APC-2 tape is composed of a thermoplastic matrix, it offers the flexibility of reprocessing to improve quality, and thereby improve final quality of HHATP laminates. Discussions will also include potential research areas and future work that is required to advance the state of the art in the HHATP process for composite fabrication.

  4. Automated Verification of Spatial Resolution in Remotely Sensed Imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Bruce; Ryan, Robert; Holekamp, Kara; Vaughn, Ronald

    2011-01-01

    Image spatial resolution characteristics can vary widely among sources. In the case of aerial-based imaging systems, the image spatial resolution characteristics can even vary between acquisitions. In these systems, aircraft altitude, speed, and sensor look angle all affect image spatial resolution. Image spatial resolution needs to be verified with estimators that include the ground sample distance (GSD), the modulation transfer function (MTF), and the relative edge response (RER), all of which are key components of image quality, along with signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and dynamic range. Knowledge of spatial resolution parameters is important to determine if features of interest are distinguishable in imagery or associated products, and to develop image restoration algorithms. An automated Spatial Resolution Verification Tool (SRVT) was developed to rapidly determine the spatial resolution characteristics of remotely sensed aerial and satellite imagery. Most current methods for assessing spatial resolution characteristics of imagery rely on pre-deployed engineered targets and are performed only at selected times within preselected scenes. The SRVT addresses these insufficiencies by finding uniform, high-contrast edges from urban scenes and then using these edges to determine standard estimators of spatial resolution, such as the MTF and the RER. The SRVT was developed using the MATLAB programming language and environment. This automated software algorithm assesses every image in an acquired data set, using edges found within each image, and in many cases eliminating the need for dedicated edge targets. The SRVT automatically identifies high-contrast, uniform edges and calculates the MTF and RER of each image, and when possible, within sections of an image, so that the variation of spatial resolution characteristics across the image can be analyzed. The automated algorithm is capable of quickly verifying the spatial resolution quality of all images within a data

  5. The contaminant analysis automation project: The implementation of a new automation strategy

    SciTech Connect

    Erkkila, T.H.; Hollen, R.M.

    1995-12-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy`s Contaminant Analysis Automation (CAA) Project is implementing a new automation strategy. The basis of this new strategy is a fully modular architecture, which provides a {open_quotes}plug-and-play{close_quotes} environment for the laboratory chemist to rapidly put together a functioning system for automating sample preparation, sample analysis, and data interpretation. The basic building block of this architecture is the Standard Laboratory Module (SLM). The CAA Project is currently implementing this new automation strategy in an environmental chemistry application. Two Environmental Protection Agency methods, EPA SW846 3540 and 3550, followed by method EPA 8080 as chromatography (GC) analysis, followed by computer assisted data interpretation are the objective of this implementation. Several SLMs perform automated sample preparation of soil samples, a commercially available GC analyzes the samples, and a suite of software modules assist the analyst in interpreting the data and making the determinations. In this paper, we present the progress of the project and some results generated by our system thus far.

  6. Automated cytopathic effect (CPE) assays.

    PubMed

    McAleer, W J; Miller, W J; Hurni, W M; Machlowitz, R A; Hilleman, M R

    1983-07-01

    An automated CPE procedure has been developed that increases the precision and ease of performing titrations of measles, mumps and rubella viruses in vaccine materials. By this procedure, additions of cell suspensions and reagents and the dilution of samples are performed automatically by a modified Dynatiter instrument, using 96-well microtitre plates. Cell monolayers are stained with carbolfuchsin dye to eliminate the need for microscopic examination. Finally, the trays are read in an optical scanner and the end points calculated automatically by a programmable calculator. The increased accuracy and precision attained by performing greater numbers of replicate assays at reasonable cost will be of particular value to vaccine manufacturers. PMID:6885830

  7. Automated Fabrication Technologies for High Performance Polymer Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shuart , M. J.; Johnston, N. J.; Dexter, H. B.; Marchello, J. M.; Grenoble, R. W.

    1998-01-01

    New fabrication technologies are being exploited for building high graphite-fiber-reinforced composite structure. Stitched fiber preforms and resin film infusion have been successfully demonstrated for large, composite wing structures. Other automatic processes being developed include automated placement of tacky, drapable epoxy towpreg, automated heated head placement of consolidated ribbon/tape, and vacuum-assisted resin transfer molding. These methods have the potential to yield low cost high performance structures by fabricating composite structures to net shape out-of-autoclave.

  8. Automated Classification and Stellar Parameterization .

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giridhar, S.; Muneer, S.; Goswami, A.

    2006-08-01

    Different approaches for automated spectral classification are critically reviewed. We also summarize ANN based methods which would be very efficient in quick handling of the large volumes of data generated by different surveys. We have obtained medium resolution spectra for a large sample of stars using 2.3m telescope at VBO, Kavalur, India. Our sample contains uniform distribution of stars in temperature range 4000 to 8000K, log g range of 2.0 to 5.0 and [Fe/H] range of 0 to -3. We have explored the application of artificial neural network for parameterization of these stars. We have used a set of stars with well determined atmospheric parameters for training the networks for temperature, gravity and metallicity estimations. We use these trained network to estimate metallicities for a sample of metal-poor candidate stars.

  9. Data distribution in the NBS Automated Manufacturing Research Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, M. J.; Barkmeyer, E. J.

    1984-01-01

    The Automated Manufacturing Research Facility (AMRF) at the National Bureau of Standards was constructed as a testbed for research in the automation of small batch maufacturing, in particular for systems producing machined parts in lots of 1000 or less. Potential standard interfaces between existing and future components of small batch of factory floor metrology in an automated environment, delivering proven measurement techniques and standard reference materails industry to are identified. Commercially available product are used to construct the facility to expedite transfer of research results into the private sector.

  10. Robotic automation of the environmental chemical laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Hollen, R.M.; Erkkila, T.H.

    1994-04-01

    To date, automation of the environmental chemical laboratory has been a slow and tedious affair. In many, of our domestic analytical laboratories, automation consists of no more than analytical instrumentation coupled to an autosampling device. When we look into the future environmental needs of our nation, and indeed the world, it is apparent that we will not be able to keep up with the drastically increasing sample load without automated analyses. Stricter regulatory requirements on the horizon will potentially mandate staggering changes in sampling and characterization requirements. The Contaminant Analysis Automation (CAA) Program was initiated in 1990 by the US government`s Department of Energy (DOE) to address these issues. By application of a new robotics paradigm, based on an integrated production chemistry foundation applied to analytical chemistry, the CAA will use standardized modular instruments called Standard Laboratory Modules (SLM) to provide flexible and standardized automation systems. By promoting the commercialization of this technology, CAA will provide the integrated robotics systems necessary to meet the coming remediation demands. This multilaboratory program is within the Robotics Technology Development Program (RTDP) of the Office of Technology Development (OTD).

  11. Planning for Office Automation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mick, Colin K.

    1983-01-01

    Outlines a practical approach to planning for office automation termed the "Focused Process Approach" (the "what" phase, "how" phase, "doing" phase) which is a synthesis of the problem-solving and participatory planning approaches. Thirteen references are provided. (EJS)

  12. Space station automation II

    SciTech Connect

    Chiou, W.C.

    1986-01-01

    This book contains the proceedings of a conference on space station automation. Topics include the following: distributed artificial intelligence for space station energy management systems and computer architecture for tolerobots in earth orbit.

  13. Automated Aflatoxin Analysis Using Inline Reusable Immunoaffinity Column Cleanup and LC-Fluorescence Detection.

    PubMed

    Rhemrev, Ria; Pazdanska, Monika; Marley, Elaine; Biselli, Scarlett; Staiger, Simone

    2015-01-01

    A novel reusable immunoaffinity cartridge containing monoclonal antibodies to aflatoxins coupled to a pressure resistant polymer has been developed. The cartridge is used in conjunction with a handling system inline to LC with fluorescence detection to provide fully automated aflatoxin analysis for routine monitoring of a variety of food matrixes. The handling system selects an immunoaffinity cartridge from a tray and automatically applies the sample extract. The cartridge is washed, then aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, and G2 are eluted and transferred inline to the LC system for quantitative analysis using fluorescence detection with postcolumn derivatization using a KOBRA® cell. Each immunoaffinity cartridge can be used up to 15 times without loss in performance, offering increased sample throughput and reduced costs compared to conventional manual sample preparation and cleanup. The system was validated in two independent laboratories using samples of peanuts and maize spiked at 2, 8, and 40 μg/kg total aflatoxins, and paprika, nutmeg, and dried figs spiked at 5, 20, and 100 μg/kg total aflatoxins. Recoveries exceeded 80% for both aflatoxin B1 and total aflatoxins. The between-day repeatability ranged from 2.1 to 9.6% for aflatoxin B1 for the six levels and five matrixes. Satisfactory Z-scores were obtained with this automated system when used for participation in proficiency testing (FAPAS®) for samples of chilli powder and hazelnut paste containing aflatoxins. PMID:26651571

  14. Automated data analysis.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teuber, D.

    Automated data analysis assists the astronomer in the decision making processes applied for extracting astronomical information from data. Automated data analysis is the step between image processing and model interpretation. Tools developed in AI are applied (classification, expert system). Programming languages and computers are chosen to fulfil the increasing requirements. Expert systems have begun in astronomy. Data banks permit the astronomical community to share the large body of resulting information.

  15. Automated Status Notification System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    NASA Lewis Research Center's Automated Status Notification System (ASNS) was born out of need. To prevent "hacker attacks," Lewis' telephone system needed to monitor communications activities 24 hr a day, 7 days a week. With decreasing staff resources, this continuous monitoring had to be automated. By utilizing existing communications hardware, a UNIX workstation, and NAWK (a pattern scanning and processing language), we implemented a continuous monitoring system.

  16. Automated Pilot Advisory System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parks, J. L., Jr.; Haidt, J. G.

    1981-01-01

    An Automated Pilot Advisory System (APAS) was developed and operationally tested to demonstrate the concept that low cost automated systems can provide air traffic and aviation weather advisory information at high density uncontrolled airports. The system was designed to enhance the see and be seen rule of flight, and pilots who used the system preferred it over the self announcement system presently used at uncontrolled airports.

  17. Automated Lattice Perturbation Theory

    SciTech Connect

    Monahan, Christopher

    2014-11-01

    I review recent developments in automated lattice perturbation theory. Starting with an overview of lattice perturbation theory, I focus on the three automation packages currently "on the market": HiPPy/HPsrc, Pastor and PhySyCAl. I highlight some recent applications of these methods, particularly in B physics. In the final section I briefly discuss the related, but distinct, approach of numerical stochastic perturbation theory.

  18. Automated Speech Rate Measurement in Dysarthria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martens, Heidi; Dekens, Tomas; Van Nuffelen, Gwen; Latacz, Lukas; Verhelst, Werner; De Bodt, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: In this study, a new algorithm for automated determination of speech rate (SR) in dysarthric speech is evaluated. We investigated how reliably the algorithm calculates the SR of dysarthric speech samples when compared with calculation performed by speech-language pathologists. Method: The new algorithm was trained and tested using Dutch…

  19. Automated imagery orthorectification pilot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slonecker, E. Terrence; Johnson, Brad; McMahon, Joe

    2009-10-01

    Automated orthorectification of raw image products is now possible based on the comprehensive metadata collected by Global Positioning Systems and Inertial Measurement Unit technology aboard aircraft and satellite digital imaging systems, and based on emerging pattern-matching and automated image-to-image and control point selection capabilities in many advanced image processing systems. Automated orthorectification of standard aerial photography is also possible if a camera calibration report and sufficient metadata is available. Orthorectification of historical imagery, for which only limited metadata was available, was also attempted and found to require some user input, creating a semi-automated process that still has significant potential to reduce processing time and expense for the conversion of archival historical imagery into geospatially enabled, digital formats, facilitating preservation and utilization of a vast archive of historical imagery. Over 90 percent of the frames of historical aerial photos used in this experiment were successfully orthorectified to the accuracy of the USGS 100K base map series utilized for the geospatial reference of the archive. The accuracy standard for the 100K series maps is approximately 167 feet (51 meters). The main problems associated with orthorectification failure were cloud cover, shadow and historical landscape change which confused automated image-to-image matching processes. Further research is recommended to optimize automated orthorectification methods and enable broad operational use, especially as related to historical imagery archives.

  20. Automated Groundwater Screening

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, Glenn A.; Collard, Leonard, B.

    2005-10-31

    The Automated Intruder Analysis has been extended to include an Automated Ground Water Screening option. This option screens 825 radionuclides while rigorously applying the National Council on Radiation Protection (NCRP) methodology. An extension to that methodology is presented to give a more realistic screening factor for those radionuclides which have significant daughters. The extension has the promise of reducing the number of radionuclides which must be tracked by the customer. By combining the Automated Intruder Analysis with the Automated Groundwater Screening a consistent set of assumptions and databases is used. A method is proposed to eliminate trigger values by performing rigorous calculation of the screening factor thereby reducing the number of radionuclides sent to further analysis. Using the same problem definitions as in previous groundwater screenings, the automated groundwater screening found one additional nuclide, Ge-68, which failed the screening. It also found that 18 of the 57 radionuclides contained in NCRP Table 3.1 failed the screening. This report describes the automated groundwater screening computer application.

  1. Radioanalytical Chemistry for Automated Nuclear Waste Process Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Jay W. Grate; Timothy A. DeVol

    2006-07-20

    The objectives of our research were to develop the first automated radiochemical process analyzer including sample pretreatment methodoology, and to initiate work on new detection approaches, especially using modified diode detectors.

  2. AN AUTOMATED MONITORING SYSTEM FOR FISH PHYSIOLOGY AND TOXICOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report describes a data acquisition and control (DAC) system that was constructed to manage selected physiological measurements and sample control for aquatic physiology and toxicology. Automated DAC was accomplished with a microcomputer running menu-driven software develope...

  3. Automated DNA extraction from pollen in honey.

    PubMed

    Guertler, Patrick; Eicheldinger, Adelina; Muschler, Paul; Goerlich, Ottmar; Busch, Ulrich

    2014-04-15

    In recent years, honey has become subject of DNA analysis due to potential risks evoked by microorganisms, allergens or genetically modified organisms. However, so far, only a few DNA extraction procedures are available, mostly time-consuming and laborious. Therefore, we developed an automated DNA extraction method from pollen in honey based on a CTAB buffer-based DNA extraction using the Maxwell 16 instrument and the Maxwell 16 FFS Nucleic Acid Extraction System, Custom-Kit. We altered several components and extraction parameters and compared the optimised method with a manual CTAB buffer-based DNA isolation method. The automated DNA extraction was faster and resulted in higher DNA yield and sufficient DNA purity. Real-time PCR results obtained after automated DNA extraction are comparable to results after manual DNA extraction. No PCR inhibition was observed. The applicability of this method was further successfully confirmed by analysis of different routine honey samples. PMID:24295710

  4. Fully Automated Centrifugal Microfluidic Device for Ultrasensitive Protein Detection from Whole Blood.

    PubMed

    Park, Yang-Seok; Sunkara, Vijaya; Kim, Yubin; Lee, Won Seok; Han, Ja-Ryoung; Cho, Yoon-Kyoung

    2016-01-01

    Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is a promising method to detect small amount of proteins in biological samples. The devices providing a platform for reduced sample volume and assay time as well as full automation are required for potential use in point-of-care-diagnostics. Recently, we have demonstrated ultrasensitive detection of serum proteins, C-reactive protein (CRP) and cardiac troponin I (cTnI), utilizing a lab-on-a-disc composed of TiO2 nanofibrous (NF) mats. It showed a large dynamic range with femto molar (fM) detection sensitivity, from a small volume of whole blood in 30 min. The device consists of several components for blood separation, metering, mixing, and washing that are automated for improved sensitivity from low sample volumes. Here, in the video demonstration, we show the experimental protocols and know-how for the fabrication of NFs as well as the disc, their integration and the operation in the following order: processes for preparing TiO2 NF mat; transfer-printing of TiO2 NF mat onto the disc; surface modification for immune-reactions, disc assembly and operation; on-disc detection and representative results for immunoassay. Use of this device enables multiplexed analysis with minimal consumption of samples and reagents. Given the advantages, the device should find use in a wide variety of applications, and prove beneficial in facilitating the analysis of low abundant proteins. PMID:27167836

  5. Robofurnace: A semi-automated laboratory chemical vapor deposition system for high-throughput nanomaterial synthesis and process discovery

    PubMed Central

    Oliver, C. Ryan; Westrick, William; Koehler, Jeremy; Brieland-Shoultz, Anna; Anagnostopoulos-Politis, Ilias; Cruz-Gonzalez, Tizoc; Hart, A. John

    2013-01-01

    Laboratory research and development on new materials, such as nanostructured thin films, often utilizes manual equipment such as tube furnaces due to its relatively low cost and ease of setup. However, these systems can be prone to inconsistent outcomes due to variations in standard operating procedures and limitations in performance such as heating and cooling rates restrict the parameter space that can be explored. Perhaps more importantly, maximization of research throughput and the successful and efficient translation of materials processing knowledge to production-scale systems, relies on the attainment of consistent outcomes. In response to this need, we present a semi-automated lab-scale chemical vapor deposition (CVD) furnace system, called “Robofurnace.” Robofurnace is an automated CVD system built around a standard tube furnace, which automates sample insertion and removal and uses motion of the furnace to achieve rapid heating and cooling. The system has a 10-sample magazine and motorized transfer arm, which isolates the samples from the lab atmosphere and enables highly repeatable placement of the sample within the tube. The system is designed to enable continuous operation of the CVD reactor, with asynchronous loading/unloading of samples. To demonstrate its performance, Robofurnace is used to develop a rapid CVD recipe for carbon nanotube (CNT) forest growth, achieving a 10-fold improvement in CNT forest mass density compared to a benchmark recipe using a manual tube furnace. In the long run, multiple systems like Robofurnace may be linked to share data among laboratories by methods such as Twitter. Our hope is Robofurnace and like automation will enable machine learning to optimize and discover relationships in complex material synthesis processes. PMID:24289435

  6. Robofurnace: A semi-automated laboratory chemical vapor deposition system for high-throughput nanomaterial synthesis and process discovery

    SciTech Connect

    Oliver, C. Ryan; Westrick, William; Koehler, Jeremy; Brieland-Shoultz, Anna; Anagnostopoulos-Politis, Ilias; Cruz-Gonzalez, Tizoc; Hart, A. John

    2013-11-15

    Laboratory research and development on new materials, such as nanostructured thin films, often utilizes manual equipment such as tube furnaces due to its relatively low cost and ease of setup. However, these systems can be prone to inconsistent outcomes due to variations in standard operating procedures and limitations in performance such as heating and cooling rates restrict the parameter space that can be explored. Perhaps more importantly, maximization of research throughput and the successful and efficient translation of materials processing knowledge to production-scale systems, relies on the attainment of consistent outcomes. In response to this need, we present a semi-automated lab-scale chemical vapor deposition (CVD) furnace system, called “Robofurnace.” Robofurnace is an automated CVD system built around a standard tube furnace, which automates sample insertion and removal and uses motion of the furnace to achieve rapid heating and cooling. The system has a 10-sample magazine and motorized transfer arm, which isolates the samples from the lab atmosphere and enables highly repeatable placement of the sample within the tube. The system is designed to enable continuous operation of the CVD reactor, with asynchronous loading/unloading of samples. To demonstrate its performance, Robofurnace is used to develop a rapid CVD recipe for carbon nanotube (CNT) forest growth, achieving a 10-fold improvement in CNT forest mass density compared to a benchmark recipe using a manual tube furnace. In the long run, multiple systems like Robofurnace may be linked to share data among laboratories by methods such as Twitter. Our hope is Robofurnace and like automation will enable machine learning to optimize and discover relationships in complex material synthesis processes.

  7. Robofurnace: a semi-automated laboratory chemical vapor deposition system for high-throughput nanomaterial synthesis and process discovery.

    PubMed

    Oliver, C Ryan; Westrick, William; Koehler, Jeremy; Brieland-Shoultz, Anna; Anagnostopoulos-Politis, Ilias; Cruz-Gonzalez, Tizoc; Hart, A John

    2013-11-01

    Laboratory research and development on new materials, such as nanostructured thin films, often utilizes manual equipment such as tube furnaces due to its relatively low cost and ease of setup. However, these systems can be prone to inconsistent outcomes due to variations in standard operating procedures and limitations in performance such as heating and cooling rates restrict the parameter space that can be explored. Perhaps more importantly, maximization of research throughput and the successful and efficient translation of materials processing knowledge to production-scale systems, relies on the attainment of consistent outcomes. In response to this need, we present a semi-automated lab-scale chemical vapor deposition (CVD) furnace system, called "Robofurnace." Robofurnace is an automated CVD system built around a standard tube furnace, which automates sample insertion and removal and uses motion of the furnace to achieve rapid heating and cooling. The system has a 10-sample magazine and motorized transfer arm, which isolates the samples from the lab atmosphere and enables highly repeatable placement of the sample within the tube. The system is designed to enable continuous operation of the CVD reactor, with asynchronous loading∕unloading of samples. To demonstrate its performance, Robofurnace is used to develop a rapid CVD recipe for carbon nanotube (CNT) forest growth, achieving a 10-fold improvement in CNT forest mass density compared to a benchmark recipe using a manual tube furnace. In the long run, multiple systems like Robofurnace may be linked to share data among laboratories by methods such as Twitter. Our hope is Robofurnace and like automation will enable machine learning to optimize and discover relationships in complex material synthesis processes. PMID:24289435

  8. Advancing automation and robotics technology for the Space Station and for the US economy, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    In response to Public Law 98-371, dated July 18, 1984, the NASA Advanced Technology Advisory Committee has studied automation and robotics for use in the Space Station. The Technical Report, Volume 2, provides background information on automation and robotics technologies and their potential and documents: the relevant aspects of Space Station design; representative examples of automation and robotics; applications; the state of the technology and advances needed; and considerations for technology transfer to U.S. industry and for space commercialization.

  9. A plug-and-play approach to automated data interpretation: the data interpretation module (DIM)

    SciTech Connect

    Hartog, B.K.D.; Elling, J.W.; Mniszewski, S.M.

    1995-12-31

    The Contaminant Analysis Automation (CAA) Project`s automated analysis laboratory provides a ``plug-and-play`` reusable infrastructure for many types of environmental assays. As a sample progresses through sample preparation to sample analysis and finally to data interpretation, increasing expertise and judgment are needed at each step. The Data Interpretation Module (DIM) echoes the automation`s plug-and-play philosophy as a reusable engine and architecture for handling both the uncertainty and knowledge required for interpreting contaminant sample data. This presentation describes the implementation and performance of the DIM in interpreting polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) gas chromatogram and shows the DIM architecture`s reusability for other applications.

  10. Analysis of the juice and water losses in salted and unsalted pork samples heated in water bath. Consequences for the prediction of weight loss by transfer models.

    PubMed

    Bombrun, Laure; Gatellier, Philippe; Portanguen, Stéphane; Kondjoyan, Alain

    2015-01-01

    This study has analyzed the effect of different factors on variation of meat weight due to juice loss, and variation of water content of pork samples heated in a water bath. The weight loss (WL) was influenced by initial water content of raw meat which can be connected to meat pH, muscle type, and by pre-salting. WL was also influenced by sample thickness and by nature of the surrounding fluid. These effects were significant at 50°C and in thinner samples but decreased as meat temperature and sample thickness increased. WL showed no significant difference in response to prior freezing, applying a surface constraint during heating or varying meat salt content from 0.8 to 2.0%. The results were interpreted from literature knowledge on protein denaturation, contraction and, transport phenomena. Reliably predicting WL from water content variation during heating hinges on taking into account the loss of dry matter and the possible effects of meat pH, sample size or surrounding fluid. PMID:25443971

  11. Detecting Glaucoma Using Automated Pupillography

    PubMed Central

    Tatham, Andrew J.; Meira-Freitas, Daniel; Weinreb, Robert N.; Zangwill, Linda M.; Medeiros, Felipe A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the ability of a binocular automated pupillograph to discriminate healthy subjects from those with glaucoma. Design Cross-sectional observational study. Participants Both eyes of 116 subjects, including 66 patients with glaucoma in at least 1 eye and 50 healthy subjects from the Diagnostic Innovations in Glaucoma Study. Eyes were classified as glaucomatous by repeatable abnormal standard automated perimetry (SAP) or progressive glaucomatous changes on stereophotographs. Methods All subjects underwent automated pupillography using the RAPDx pupillograph (Konan Medical USA, Inc., Irvine, CA). Main Outcome Measures Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were constructed to assess the diagnostic ability of pupil response parameters to white, red, green, yellow, and blue full-field and regional stimuli. A ROC regression model was used to investigate the influence of disease severity and asymmetry on diagnostic ability. Results The largest area under the ROC curve (AUC) for any single parameter was 0.75. Disease asymmetry (P < 0.001), but not disease severity (P = 0.058), had a significant effect on diagnostic ability. At the sample mean age (60.9 years), AUCs for arbitrary values of intereye difference in SAP mean deviation (MD) of 0, 5, 10, and 15 dB were 0.58, 0.71, 0.82, and 0.90, respectively. The mean intereye difference in MD was 2.2±3.1 dB. The best combination of parameters had an AUC of 0.85; however, the cross-validated bias-corrected AUC for these parameters was only 0.74. Conclusions Although the pupillograph had a good ability to detect glaucoma in the presence of asymmetric disease, it performed poorly in those with symmetric disease. PMID:24485921

  12. Automated Camera Calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Siqi; Cheng, Yang; Willson, Reg

    2006-01-01

    Automated Camera Calibration (ACAL) is a computer program that automates the generation of calibration data for camera models used in machine vision systems. Machine vision camera models describe the mapping between points in three-dimensional (3D) space in front of the camera and the corresponding points in two-dimensional (2D) space in the camera s image. Calibrating a camera model requires a set of calibration data containing known 3D-to-2D point correspondences for the given camera system. Generating calibration data typically involves taking images of a calibration target where the 3D locations of the target s fiducial marks are known, and then measuring the 2D locations of the fiducial marks in the images. ACAL automates the analysis of calibration target images and greatly speeds the overall calibration process.

  13. Automated telescope scheduling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, Mark D.

    1988-01-01

    With the ever increasing level of automation of astronomical telescopes the benefits and feasibility of automated planning and scheduling are becoming more apparent. Improved efficiency and increased overall telescope utilization are the most obvious goals. Automated scheduling at some level has been done for several satellite observatories, but the requirements on these systems were much less stringent than on modern ground or satellite observatories. The scheduling problem is particularly acute for Hubble Space Telescope: virtually all observations must be planned in excruciating detail weeks to months in advance. Space Telescope Science Institute has recently made significant progress on the scheduling problem by exploiting state-of-the-art artificial intelligence software technology. What is especially interesting is that this effort has already yielded software that is well suited to scheduling groundbased telescopes, including the problem of optimizing the coordinated scheduling of more than one telescope.

  14. Automated telescope scheduling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnston, Mark D.

    1988-08-01

    With the ever increasing level of automation of astronomical telescopes the benefits and feasibility of automated planning and scheduling are becoming more apparent. Improved efficiency and increased overall telescope utilization are the most obvious goals. Automated scheduling at some level has been done for several satellite observatories, but the requirements on these systems were much less stringent than on modern ground or satellite observatories. The scheduling problem is particularly acute for Hubble Space Telescope: virtually all observations must be planned in excruciating detail weeks to months in advance. Space Telescope Science Institute has recently made significant progress on the scheduling problem by exploiting state-of-the-art artificial intelligence software technology. What is especially interesting is that this effort has already yielded software that is well suited to scheduling groundbased telescopes, including the problem of optimizing the coordinated scheduling of more than one telescope.

  15. Power subsystem automation study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Imamura, M. S.; Moser, R. L.; Veatch, M.

    1983-01-01

    Generic power-system elements and their potential faults are identified. Automation functions and their resulting benefits are defined and automation functions between power subsystem, central spacecraft computer, and ground flight-support personnel are partitioned. All automation activities were categorized as data handling, monitoring, routine control, fault handling, planning and operations, or anomaly handling. Incorporation of all these classes of tasks, except for anomaly handling, in power subsystem hardware and software was concluded to be mandatory to meet the design and operational requirements of the space station. The key drivers are long mission lifetime, modular growth, high-performance flexibility, a need to accommodate different electrical user-load equipment, onorbit assembly/maintenance/servicing, and potentially large number of power subsystem components. A significant effort in algorithm development and validation is essential in meeting the 1987 technology readiness date for the space station.

  16. Scrape Loading/Dye Transfer Assay.

    PubMed

    Babica, Pavel; Sovadinová, Iva; Upham, Brad L

    2016-01-01

    The scrape loading/dye transfer (SL/DT) technique is a simple functional assay for the simultaneous assessment of gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC) in a large population of cells. The equipment needs are minimal and are typically met in standard cell biology labs, and SL/DT is the simplest and quickest of all the assays that measure GJIC. This assay has also been adapted for in vivo studies. The SL/DT assay is also conducive to a high-throughput setup with automated fluorescence microscopy imaging and analysis to elucidate more samples in shorter time, and hence can serve a broad range of in vitro pharmacological and toxicological needs. PMID:27207291

  17. A molecular scanner to automate proteomic research and to display proteome images.

    PubMed

    Binz, P A; Müller, M; Walther, D; Bienvenut, W V; Gras, R; Hoogland, C; Bouchet, G; Gasteiger, E; Fabbretti, R; Gay, S; Palagi, P; Wilkins, M R; Rouge, V; Tonella, L; Paesano, S; Rossellat, G; Karmime, A; Bairoch, A; Sanchez, J C; Appel, R D; Hochstrasser, D F

    1999-11-01

    Identification and characterization of all proteins expressed by a genome in biological samples represent major challenges in proteomics. Today's commonly used high-throughput approaches combine two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) with peptide mass fingerprinting (PMF) analysis. Although automation is often possible, a number of limitations still adversely affect the rate of protein identification and annotation in 2-DE databases: the sequential excision process of pieces of gel containing protein; the enzymatic digestion step; the interpretation of mass spectra (reliability of identifications); and the manual updating of 2-DE databases. We present a highly automated method that generates a fully annoated 2-DE map. Using a parallel process, all proteins of a 2-DE are first simultaneously digested proteolytically and electro-transferred onto a poly(vinylidene difluoride) membrane. The membrane is then directly scanned by MALDI-TOF MS. After automated protein identification from the obtained peptide mass fingerprints using PeptIdent software (http://www.expasy.ch/tools/peptident.html + ++), a fully annotated 2-D map is created on-line. It is a multidimensional representation of a proteome that contains interpreted PMF data in addition to protein identification results. This "MS-imaging" method represents a major step toward the development of a clinical molecular scanner. PMID:10565287

  18. Automated knowledge generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myler, Harley R.; Gonzalez, Avelino J.

    1988-01-01

    The general objectives of the NASA/UCF Automated Knowledge Generation Project were the development of an intelligent software system that could access CAD design data bases, interpret them, and generate a diagnostic knowledge base in the form of a system model. The initial area of concentration is in the diagnosis of the process control system using the Knowledge-based Autonomous Test Engineer (KATE) diagnostic system. A secondary objective was the study of general problems of automated knowledge generation. A prototype was developed, based on object-oriented language (Flavors).

  19. Automating the CMS DAQ

    SciTech Connect

    Bauer, G.; et al.

    2014-01-01

    We present the automation mechanisms that have been added to the Data Acquisition and Run Control systems of the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment during Run 1 of the LHC, ranging from the automation of routine tasks to automatic error recovery and context-sensitive guidance to the operator. These mechanisms helped CMS to maintain a data taking efficiency above 90% and to even improve it to 95% towards the end of Run 1, despite an increase in the occurrence of single-event upsets in sub-detector electronics at high LHC luminosity.

  20. Automated gas chromatography

    DOEpatents

    Mowry, Curtis D.; Blair, Dianna S.; Rodacy, Philip J.; Reber, Stephen D.

    1999-01-01

    An apparatus and process for the continuous, near real-time monitoring of low-level concentrations of organic compounds in a liquid, and, more particularly, a water stream. A small liquid volume of flow from a liquid process stream containing organic compounds is diverted by an automated process to a heated vaporization capillary where the liquid volume is vaporized to a gas that flows to an automated gas chromatograph separation column to chromatographically separate the organic compounds. Organic compounds are detected and the information transmitted to a control system for use in process control. Concentrations of organic compounds less than one part per million are detected in less than one minute.

  1. Automated software development workstation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    Engineering software development was automated using an expert system (rule-based) approach. The use of this technology offers benefits not available from current software development and maintenance methodologies. A workstation was built with a library or program data base with methods for browsing the designs stored; a system for graphical specification of designs including a capability for hierarchical refinement and definition in a graphical design system; and an automated code generation capability in FORTRAN. The workstation was then used in a demonstration with examples from an attitude control subsystem design for the space station. Documentation and recommendations are presented.

  2. Automated diagnostic kiosk for diagnosing diseases

    DOEpatents

    Regan, John Frederick; Birch, James Michael

    2014-02-11

    An automated and autonomous diagnostic apparatus that is capable of dispensing collection vials and collections kits to users interesting in collecting a biological sample and submitting their collected sample contained within a collection vial into the apparatus for automated diagnostic services. The user communicates with the apparatus through a touch-screen monitor. A user is able to enter personnel information into the apparatus including medical history, insurance information, co-payment, and answer a series of questions regarding their illness, which is used to determine the assay most likely to yield a positive result. Remotely-located physicians can communicate with users of the apparatus using video tele-medicine and request specific assays to be performed. The apparatus archives submitted samples for additional testing. Users may receive their assay results electronically. Users may allow the uploading of their diagnoses into a central databank for disease surveillance purposes.

  3. Automated quantitative cytological analysis using portable microfluidic microscopy.

    PubMed

    Jagannadh, Veerendra Kalyan; Murthy, Rashmi Sreeramachandra; Srinivasan, Rajesh; Gorthi, Sai Siva

    2016-06-01

    In this article, a portable microfluidic microscopy based approach for automated cytological investigations is presented. Inexpensive optical and electronic components have been used to construct a simple microfluidic microscopy system. In contrast to the conventional slide-based methods, the presented method employs microfluidics to enable automated sample handling and image acquisition. The approach involves the use of simple in-suspension staining and automated image acquisition to enable quantitative cytological analysis of samples. The applicability of the presented approach to research in cellular biology is shown by performing an automated cell viability assessment on a given population of yeast cells. Further, the relevance of the presented approach to clinical diagnosis and prognosis has been demonstrated by performing detection and differential assessment of malaria infection in a given sample. PMID:25990413

  4. Automated screening for biological weapons in homeland defense.

    PubMed

    Emanuel, Peter A; Fruchey, Isaac R; Bailey, Andrew M; Dang, Jessica L; Niyogi, Kakoli; Roos, Jason W; Cullin, David; Emanuel, Diana C

    2005-01-01

    Biological threat detection programs that collect air samples and monitor for large-scale release of biowarfare agents generate large numbers of samples that must be quickly and accurately screened for the presence of biological agents. An impediment to the rapid analysis of large numbers of environmental biological samples is that manual laboratory processes are time-consuming and require resources to maintain infrastructure, trained personnel, and adequate supplies of testing reagents. An ideal screening system would be capable of processing multiple samples rapidly, cost-effectively, and with minimal personnel. In the present study, we evaluated the Automated Biological Agent Testing System (ABATS) to explore the capability of automation to increase sample throughput, maximize system accuracy, and reduce the analysis costs associated with biological threat agent screening in environmental samples. This study demonstrates the utility of this concept and the potential of an automated system to address the growing environmental monitoring needs of the United States. PMID:15853454

  5. Human Factors In Aircraft Automation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Billings, Charles

    1995-01-01

    Report presents survey of state of art in human factors in automation of aircraft operation. Presents examination of aircraft automation and effects on flight crews in relation to human error and aircraft accidents.

  6. ATC automation concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erzberger, Heinz

    1990-01-01

    Information on the design of human-centered tools for terminal area air traffic control (ATC) is given in viewgraph form. Information is given on payoffs and products, guidelines, ATC as a team process, automation tools for ATF, and the traffic management advisor.

  7. Building Automation Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honeywell, Inc., Minneapolis, Minn.

    A number of different automation systems for use in monitoring and controlling building equipment are described in this brochure. The system functions include--(1) collection of information, (2) processing and display of data at a central panel, and (3) taking corrective action by sounding alarms, making adjustments, or automatically starting and…

  8. Automated Student Model Improvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koedinger, Kenneth R.; McLaughlin, Elizabeth A.; Stamper, John C.

    2012-01-01

    Student modeling plays a critical role in developing and improving instruction and instructional technologies. We present a technique for automated improvement of student models that leverages the DataShop repository, crowd sourcing, and a version of the Learning Factors Analysis algorithm. We demonstrate this method on eleven educational…

  9. Automated Management Of Documents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boy, Guy

    1995-01-01

    Report presents main technical issues involved in computer-integrated documentation. Problems associated with automation of management and maintenance of documents analyzed from perspectives of artificial intelligence and human factors. Technologies that may prove useful in computer-integrated documentation reviewed: these include conventional approaches to indexing and retrieval of information, use of hypertext, and knowledge-based artificial-intelligence systems.

  10. Automating Small Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swan, James

    1996-01-01

    Presents a four-phase plan for small libraries strategizing for automation: inventory and weeding, data conversion, implementation, and enhancements. Other topics include selecting a system, MARC records, compatibility, ease of use, industry standards, searching capabilities, support services, system security, screen displays, circulation modules,…

  11. Automated Essay Scoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dikli, Semire

    2006-01-01

    The impacts of computers on writing have been widely studied for three decades. Even basic computers functions, i.e. word processing, have been of great assistance to writers in modifying their essays. The research on Automated Essay Scoring (AES) has revealed that computers have the capacity to function as a more effective cognitive tool (Attali,…

  12. Automation in haemostasis.

    PubMed

    Huber, A R; Méndez, A; Brunner-Agten, S

    2013-01-01

    Automatia, an ancient Greece goddess of luck who makes things happen by themselves and on her own will without human engagement, is present in our daily life in the medical laboratory. Automation has been introduced and perfected by clinical chemistry and since then expanded into other fields such as haematology, immunology, molecular biology and also coagulation testing. The initial small and relatively simple standalone instruments have been replaced by more complex systems that allow for multitasking. Integration of automated coagulation testing into total laboratory automation has become possible in the most recent years. Automation has many strengths and opportunities if weaknesses and threats are respected. On the positive side, standardization, reduction of errors, reduction of cost and increase of throughput are clearly beneficial. Dependence on manufacturers, high initiation cost and somewhat expensive maintenance are less favourable factors. The modern lab and especially the todays lab technicians and academic personnel in the laboratory do not add value for the doctor and his patients by spending lots of time behind the machines. In the future the lab needs to contribute at the bedside suggesting laboratory testing and providing support and interpretation of the obtained results. The human factor will continue to play an important role in testing in haemostasis yet under different circumstances. PMID:23460141

  13. Automated conflict resolution issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wike, Jeffrey S.

    1991-01-01

    A discussion is presented of how conflicts for Space Network resources should be resolved in the ATDRSS era. The following topics are presented: a description of how resource conflicts are currently resolved; a description of issues associated with automated conflict resolution; present conflict resolution strategies; and topics for further discussion.

  14. Mining Your Automated System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larsen, Patricia M., Ed.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Four articles address issues of collecting, compiling, reporting, and interpreting statistics generated by automated library systems for administrative decision making. Topics include using a management information system to forecast growth and assess areas for downsizing; statistics for collection development and analysis; and online system…

  15. Automated galaxy recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rappaport, Barry; Anderson, Kurt

    Previous approaches to automated image processing have used both deterministic and nondeterministic techniques. These have not used any form of conceptual learning nor have they employed artificial intelligence techniques. Addition of such techniques to the task of image processing may significantly enhance the efficiencies and accuracies of the recognition and classification processes. In our application, the objects to be recognized and classified are galaxies.

  16. Automated Administrative Data Bases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marrie, M. D.; Jarrett, J. R.; Reising, S. A.; Hodge, J. E.

    1984-01-01

    Improved productivity and more effective response to information requirements for internal management, NASA Centers, and Headquarters resulted from using automated techniques. Modules developed to provide information on manpower, RTOPS, full time equivalency, and physical space reduced duplication, increased communication, and saved time. There is potential for greater savings by sharing and integrating with those who have the same requirements.

  17. Automating Food Service.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kavulla, Timothy A.

    1986-01-01

    The Wichita, Kansas, Public Schools' Food Service Department Project Reduction in Paperwork (RIP) is designed to automate certain paperwork functions, thus reducing cost and flow of paper. This article addresses how RIP manages free/reduced meal applications and meets the objectives of reducing paper and increasing accuracy, timeliness, and…

  18. Program automated documentation methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lanzano, B. C.

    1970-01-01

    The mission analysis and trajectory simulation program is summarized; it provides an understanding of the size and complexity of one simulation for which documentation is mandatory. Programs for automating documentation of subroutines, flow charts, and internal cross reference information are also included.

  19. Automated Geospatial Watershed Assessment

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Automated Geospatial Watershed Assessment (AGWA) tool is a Geographic Information Systems (GIS) interface jointly developed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) Agricultural Research Service, and the University of Arizona to a...

  20. Microcontroller for automation application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, H. W.

    1975-01-01

    The description of a microcontroller currently being developed for automation application was given. It is basically an 8-bit microcomputer with a 40K byte random access memory/read only memory, and can control a maximum of 12 devices through standard 15-line interface ports.