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Sample records for automatic rapid processing

  1. The Role of Phonological Awareness, Rapid Automatized Naming, and Orthographic Processing in Word Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holland, Jason; McIntosh, David; Huffman, Lisa

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship of three subskills associated with word decoding. The skills utilized for this study were phonological, rapid automatized naming (RAN), and orthographic processing. To do this, six separate models were utilized to define different ways that these three subskills (represented as factors)…

  2. Component Processes Subserving Rapid Automatized Naming in Dyslexic and Non-Dyslexic Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Araujo, Susana; Inacio, Filomena; Francisco, Ana; Faisca, Luis; Petersson, Karl Magnus; Reis, Alexandra

    2011-01-01

    The current study investigated which time components of rapid automatized naming (RAN) predict group differences between dyslexic and non-dyslexic readers (matched for age and reading level), and how these components relate to different reading measures. Subjects performed two RAN tasks (letters and objects), and data were analyzed through a…

  3. ARP: Automatic rapid processing for the generation of problem dependent SAS2H/ORIGEN-s cross section libraries

    SciTech Connect

    Leal, L.C.; Hermann, O.W.; Bowman, S.M.; Parks, C.V.

    1998-04-01

    In this report, a methodology is described which serves as an alternative to the SAS2H path of the SCALE system to generate cross sections for point-depletion calculations with the ORIGEN-S code. ARP, Automatic Rapid Processing, is an algorithm that allows the generation of cross-section libraries suitable to the ORIGEN-S code by interpolation over pregenerated SAS2H libraries. The interpolations are carried out on the following variables: burnup, enrichment, and water density. The adequacy of the methodology is evaluated by comparing measured and computed spent fuel isotopic compositions for PWR and BWR systems.

  4. Complementary roles of cortical oscillations in automatic and controlled processing during rapid serial tasks.

    PubMed

    Isabella, Silvia; Ferrari, Paul; Jobst, Cecilia; Cheyne, J Allan; Cheyne, Douglas

    2015-09-01

    Cognitive control may involve adjusting behaviour by inhibiting or altering habitual actions, requiring rapid communication between sensory, cognitive, and motor systems of the brain. Cognitive control may be achieved using top-down processing from frontal areas to inhibit prepared responses, likely mediated through frontal theta (4-8 Hz) oscillations. However there is conflicting evidence for mechanisms of response inhibition, where global and selective inhibition are either considered separate processes, or frontal areas maintain and execute goal-directed actions, including inhibition. In the current study we measured neuromagnetic oscillatory brain activity in twelve adults responding to rapidly presented visual cues. We used two tasks in the same subjects that required inhibition of a habitual "go" response. Presentation of infrequent "target" cues required subjects to completely inhibit responding (go/no-go task) or to perform an alternate response (go/switch task). Source analysis of oscillatory brain activity was compared for correct no-go and switch trials as well as error trials ("go" responses to targets). Frontal theta activity was similar in cortical location, amplitude and time course for correct no-go and switch responses reflecting an equivalent role in both global and selective response inhibition. Error-related frontal theta activity was also observed but was different in source location (errors vs correct, both tasks: p<0.005) and power (go/switch>go/no-go error, correct switch power, p=0.01). We additionally observed sensorimotor high gamma (60-90 Hz) activity accompanying motor responses, which was markedly stronger for correct switch and error responses compared with go responses, and was delayed for errors (p<0.01). These results suggest that gamma signals in the motor cortex may function to integrate inhibitory signals with sensorimotor processing, and may represent a mechanism for the overriding of habitual behaviours, as errors were

  5. Automatic rapid attachable warhead section

    DOEpatents

    Trennel, Anthony J.

    1994-05-10

    Disclosed are a method and apparatus for (1) automatically selecting warheads or reentry vehicles from a storage area containing a plurality of types of warheads or reentry vehicles, (2) automatically selecting weapon carriers from a storage area containing at least one type of weapon carrier, (3) manipulating and aligning the selected warheads or reentry vehicles and weapon carriers, and (4) automatically coupling the warheads or reentry vehicles with the weapon carriers such that coupling of improperly selected warheads or reentry vehicles with weapon carriers is inhibited. Such inhibition enhances safety of operations and is achieved by a number of means including computer control of the process of selection and coupling and use of connectorless interfaces capable of assuring that improperly selected items will be rejected or rendered inoperable prior to coupling. Also disclosed are a method and apparatus wherein the stated principles pertaining to selection, coupling and inhibition are extended to apply to any item-to-be-carried and any carrying assembly.

  6. Automatic rapid attachable warhead section

    DOEpatents

    Trennel, A.J.

    1994-05-10

    Disclosed are a method and apparatus for automatically selecting warheads or reentry vehicles from a storage area containing a plurality of types of warheads or reentry vehicles, automatically selecting weapon carriers from a storage area containing at least one type of weapon carrier, manipulating and aligning the selected warheads or reentry vehicles and weapon carriers, and automatically coupling the warheads or reentry vehicles with the weapon carriers such that coupling of improperly selected warheads or reentry vehicles with weapon carriers is inhibited. Such inhibition enhances safety of operations and is achieved by a number of means including computer control of the process of selection and coupling and use of connectorless interfaces capable of assuring that improperly selected items will be rejected or rendered inoperable prior to coupling. Also disclosed are a method and apparatus wherein the stated principles pertaining to selection, coupling and inhibition are extended to apply to any item-to-be-carried and any carrying assembly. 10 figures.

  7. Automatic Data Processing Glossary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of the Budget, Washington, DC.

    The technology of the automatic information processing field has progressed dramatically in the past few years and has created a problem in common term usage. As a solution, "Datamation" Magazine offers this glossary which was compiled by the U.S. Bureau of the Budget as an official reference. The terms appear in a single alphabetic sequence,…

  8. Why Is Rapid Automatized Naming Related to Reading?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Georgiou, George K.; Parrila, Rauno; Cui, Ying; Papadopoulos, Timothy C.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine why rapid automatized naming (RAN) is related to reading by manipulating processes involved at the input, processing, and output stages of its production. In total, 65 children in Grade 2 and 65 in Grade 6 were assessed on serial and discrete RAN (Digits and Objects), Cancellation, RAN Yes/No, and oral…

  9. Why is rapid automatized naming related to reading?

    PubMed

    Georgiou, George K; Parrila, Rauno; Cui, Ying; Papadopoulos, Timothy C

    2013-05-01

    The objective of this study was to examine why rapid automatized naming (RAN) is related to reading by manipulating processes involved at the input, processing, and output stages of its production. In total, 65 children in Grade 2 and 65 in Grade 6 were assessed on serial and discrete RAN (Digits and Objects), Cancellation, RAN Yes/No, and oral and silent reading fluency. The results of regression analyses indicated that RAN is related to reading because both involve serial processing and oral production of the names of the stimuli. PMID:23384823

  10. What automaticity deficit? Activation of lexical information by readers with dyslexia in a rapid automatized naming Stroop-switch task.

    PubMed

    Jones, Manon W; Snowling, Margaret J; Moll, Kristina

    2016-03-01

    Reading fluency is often predicted by rapid automatized naming (RAN) speed, which as the name implies, measures the automaticity with which familiar stimuli (e.g., letters) can be retrieved and named. Readers with dyslexia are considered to have less "automatized" access to lexical information, reflected in longer RAN times compared with nondyslexic readers. We combined the RAN task with a Stroop-switch manipulation to test the automaticity of dyslexic and nondyslexic readers' lexical access directly within a fluency task. Participants named letters in 10 × 4 arrays while eye movements and speech responses were recorded. Upon fixation, specific letter font colors changed from black to a different color, whereupon the participant was required to rapidly switch from naming the letter to naming the letter color. We could therefore measure reading group differences on "automatic" lexical processing, insofar as it was task-irrelevant. Readers with dyslexia showed obligatory lexical processing and a timeline for recognition that was overall similar to typical readers, but a delay emerged in the output (naming) phase. Further delay was caused by visual-orthographic competition between neighboring stimuli. Our findings outline the specific processes involved when researchers speak of "impaired automaticity" in dyslexic readers' fluency, and are discussed in the context of the broader literature in this field. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26414305

  11. Rapid Automatized Naming and Immediate Memory Functions in Chinese Mandarin-Speaking Elementary Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ding, Yi; Richman, Lynn C.; Yang, Ling-yan; Guo, Jian-peng

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate rapid automatized naming skills (RAN) and immediate memory processes in 243 Chinese Mandarin-speaking elementary readers (ranging from Grade 1 to Grade 5). For RAN subtests, the mean naming time decreased monotonically with grade level in good and average readers, and a similar trajectory was found in poor…

  12. Effective scheduling of looking and talking during rapid automatized naming.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Peter C; Hoedemaker, Renske S

    2016-05-01

    Rapid automatized naming (RAN) is strongly related to literacy gains in developing readers, reading disabilities, and reading ability in children and adults. Because successful RAN performance depends on the close coordination of a number of abilities, it is unclear what specific skills drive this RAN-reading relationship. The current study used concurrent recordings of young adult participants' vocalizations and eye movements during the RAN task to assess how individual variation in RAN performance depends on the coordination of visual and vocal processes. Results showed that fast RAN times are facilitated by having the eyes 1 or more items ahead of the current vocalization, as long as the eyes do not get so far ahead of the voice as to require a regressive eye movement to an earlier item. These data suggest that optimizing RAN performance is a problem of scheduling eye movements and vocalization given memory constraints and the efficiency of encoding and articulatory control. Both RAN completion time (conventionally used to indicate RAN performance) and eye-voice relations predicted some aspects of participants' eye movements on a separate sentence reading task. However, eye-voice relations predicted additional features of first-pass reading that were not predicted by RAN completion time. This shows that measurement of eye-voice patterns can identify important aspects of individual variation in reading that are not identified by the standard measure of RAN performance. We argue that RAN performance predicts reading ability because both tasks entail challenges of scheduling cognitive and linguistic processes that operate simultaneously on multiple linguistic inputs. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26689309

  13. What Automaticity Deficit? Activation of Lexical Information by Readers with Dyslexia in a Rapid Automatized Naming Stroop-Switch Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Manon W.; Snowling, Margaret J.; Moll, Kristina

    2016-01-01

    Reading fluency is often predicted by rapid automatized naming (RAN) speed, which as the name implies, measures the automaticity with which familiar stimuli (e.g., letters) can be retrieved and named. Readers with dyslexia are considered to have less "automatized" access to lexical information, reflected in longer RAN times compared with…

  14. Rapid automatic keyword extraction for information retrieval and analysis

    DOEpatents

    Rose, Stuart J; Cowley,; Wendy E; Crow, Vernon L; Cramer, Nicholas O

    2012-03-06

    Methods and systems for rapid automatic keyword extraction for information retrieval and analysis. Embodiments can include parsing words in an individual document by delimiters, stop words, or both in order to identify candidate keywords. Word scores for each word within the candidate keywords are then calculated based on a function of co-occurrence degree, co-occurrence frequency, or both. Based on a function of the word scores for words within the candidate keyword, a keyword score is calculated for each of the candidate keywords. A portion of the candidate keywords are then extracted as keywords based, at least in part, on the candidate keywords having the highest keyword scores.

  15. Automatically processed alpha-track radon monitor

    DOEpatents

    Langner, Jr., G. Harold

    1993-01-01

    An automatically processed alpha-track radon monitor is provided which includes a housing having an aperture allowing radon entry, and a filter that excludes the entry of radon daughters into the housing. A flexible track registration material is located within the housing that records alpha-particle emissions from the decay of radon and radon daughters inside the housing. The flexible track registration material is capable of being spliced such that the registration material from a plurality of monitors can be spliced into a single strip to facilitate automatic processing of the registration material from the plurality of monitors. A process for the automatic counting of radon registered by a radon monitor is also provided.

  16. Automatically processed alpha-track radon monitor

    DOEpatents

    Langner, G.H. Jr.

    1993-01-12

    An automatically processed alpha-track radon monitor is provided which includes a housing having an aperture allowing radon entry, and a filter that excludes the entry of radon daughters into the housing. A flexible track registration material is located within the housing that records alpha-particle emissions from the decay of radon and radon daughters inside the housing. The flexible track registration material is capable of being spliced such that the registration material from a plurality of monitors can be spliced into a single strip to facilitate automatic processing of the registration material from the plurality of monitors. A process for the automatic counting of radon registered by a radon monitor is also provided.

  17. Automatic Processing of Reactive Polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roylance, D.

    1985-01-01

    A series of process modeling computer codes were examined. The codes use finite element techniques to determine the time-dependent process parameters operative during nonisothermal reactive flows such as can occur in reaction injection molding or composites fabrication. The use of these analytical codes to perform experimental control functions is examined; since the models can determine the state of all variables everywhere in the system, they can be used in a manner similar to currently available experimental probes. A small but well instrumented reaction vessel in which fiber-reinforced plaques are cured using computer control and data acquisition was used. The finite element codes were also extended to treat this particular process.

  18. Automatic Processing of Current Affairs Queries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salton, G.

    1973-01-01

    The SMART system is used for the analysis, search and retrieval of news stories appearing in Time'' magazine. A comparison is made between the automatic text processing methods incorporated into the SMART system and a manual search using the classified index to Time.'' (14 references) (Author)

  19. Automatic transformations in the inference process

    SciTech Connect

    Veroff, R. L.

    1980-07-01

    A technique for incorporating automatic transformations into processes such as the application of inference rules, subsumption, and demodulation provides a mechanism for improving search strategies for theorem proving problems arising from the field of program verification. The incorporation of automatic transformations into the inference process can alter the search space for a given problem, and is particularly useful for problems having broad rather than deep proofs. The technique can also be used to permit the generation of inferences that might otherwise be blocked and to build some commutativity or associativity into the unification process. Appropriate choice of transformations, and new literal clashing and unification algorithms for applying them, showed significant improvement on several real problems according to several distinct criteria. 22 references, 1 figure.

  20. Rapid automatized naming (RAN) and reading fluency: implications for understanding and treatment of reading disabilities.

    PubMed

    Norton, Elizabeth S; Wolf, Maryanne

    2012-01-01

    Fluent reading depends on a complex set of cognitive processes that must work together in perfect concert. Rapid automatized naming (RAN) tasks provide insight into this system, acting as a microcosm of the processes involved in reading. In this review, we examine both RAN and reading fluency and how each has shaped our understanding of reading disabilities. We explore the research that led to our current understanding of the relationships between RAN and reading and what makes RAN unique as a cognitive measure. We explore how the automaticity that supports RAN affects reading across development, reading abilities, and languages, and the biological bases of these processes. Finally, we bring these converging areas of knowledge together by examining what the collective studies of RAN and reading fluency contribute to our goals of creating optimal assessments and interventions that help every child become a fluent, comprehending reader. PMID:21838545

  1. A Novel Automatic Rapid Diagnostic Test Reader Platform

    PubMed Central

    Ozkan, Haydar; Kayhan, Osman Semih

    2016-01-01

    A novel automatic Rapid Diagnostic Test (RDT) reader platform is designed to analyze and diagnose target disease by using existing consumer cameras of a laptop-computer or a tablet. The RDT reader is useable with numerous lateral immunochromatographic assays and similar biomedical tests. The system has two different components, which are 3D-printed, low-cost, tiny, and compact stand and a decision program named RDT-AutoReader 2.0. The program takes the image of RDT, crops the region of interest (ROI), and extracts the features from the control end test lines to classify the results as invalid, positive, or negative. All related patient's personal information, image of ROI, and the e-report are digitally saved and transferred to the related clinician. Condition of the patient and the progress of the disease can be monitored by using the saved data. The reader platform has been tested by taking image from used cassette RDTs of rotavirus (RtV)/adenovirus (AdV) and lateral flow strip RDTs of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) before discarding them. The created RDT reader can also supply real-time statistics of various illnesses by using databases and Internet. This can help to inhibit propagation of contagious diseases and to increase readiness against epidemic diseases worldwide. PMID:27190549

  2. Towards automatic planning for manufacturing generative processes

    SciTech Connect

    CALTON,TERRI L.

    2000-05-24

    Generative process planning describes methods process engineers use to modify manufacturing/process plans after designs are complete. A completed design may be the result from the introduction of a new product based on an old design, an assembly upgrade, or modified product designs used for a family of similar products. An engineer designs an assembly and then creates plans capturing manufacturing processes, including assembly sequences, component joining methods, part costs, labor costs, etc. When new products originate as a result of an upgrade, component geometry may change, and/or additional components and subassemblies may be added to or are omitted from the original design. As a result process engineers are forced to create new plans. This is further complicated by the fact that the process engineer is forced to manually generate these plans for each product upgrade. To generate new assembly plans for product upgrades, engineers must manually re-specify the manufacturing plan selection criteria and re-run the planners. To remedy this problem, special-purpose assembly planning algorithms have been developed to automatically recognize design modifications and automatically apply previously defined manufacturing plan selection criteria and constraints.

  3. Rapid Automatized Naming in Children with Dyslexia: Is Inhibitory Control Involved?

    PubMed

    Bexkens, Anika; van den Wildenberg, Wery P M; Tijms, Jurgen

    2015-08-01

    Rapid automatized naming (RAN) is widely seen as an important indicator of dyslexia. The nature of the cognitive processes involved in rapid naming is however still a topic of controversy. We hypothesized that in addition to the involvement of phonological processes and processing speed, RAN is a function of inhibition processes, in particular of interference control. A total 86 children with dyslexia and 31 normal readers were recruited. Our results revealed that in addition to phonological processing and processing speed, interference control predicts rapid naming in dyslexia, but in contrast to these other two cognitive processes, inhibition is not significantly associated with their reading and spelling skills. After variance in reading and spelling associated with processing speed, interference control and phonological processing was partialled out, naming speed was no longer consistently associated with the reading and spelling skills of children with dyslexia. Finally, dyslexic children differed from normal readers on naming speed, literacy skills, phonological processing and processing speed, but not on inhibition processes. Both theoretical and clinical interpretations of these results are discussed. PMID:25530120

  4. Rapid thermal processing by stamping

    DOEpatents

    Stradins, Pauls; Wang, Qi

    2013-03-05

    A rapid thermal processing device and methods are provided for thermal processing of samples such as semiconductor wafers. The device has components including a stamp (35) having a stamping surface and a heater or cooler (40) to bring it to a selected processing temperature, a sample holder (20) for holding a sample (10) in position for intimate contact with the stamping surface; and positioning components (25) for moving the stamping surface and the stamp (35) in and away from intimate, substantially non-pressured contact. Methods for using and making such devices are also provided. These devices and methods allow inexpensive, efficient, easily controllable thermal processing.

  5. Chemical etching for automatic processing of integrated circuits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kennedy, B. W.

    1981-01-01

    Chemical etching for automatic processing of integrated circuits is discussed. The wafer carrier and loading from a receiving air track into automatic furnaces and unloading onto a sending air track are included.

  6. Automatic processing, analysis, and recognition of images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abrukov, Victor S.; Smirnov, Evgeniy V.; Ivanov, Dmitriy G.

    2004-11-01

    New approaches and computer codes (A&CC) for automatic processing, analysis and recognition of images are offered. The A&CC are based on presentation of object image as a collection of pixels of various colours and consecutive automatic painting of distinguished itself parts of the image. The A&CC have technical objectives centred on such direction as: 1) image processing, 2) image feature extraction, 3) image analysis and some others in any consistency and combination. The A&CC allows to obtain various geometrical and statistical parameters of object image and its parts. Additional possibilities of the A&CC usage deal with a usage of artificial neural networks technologies. We believe that A&CC can be used at creation of the systems of testing and control in a various field of industry and military applications (airborne imaging systems, tracking of moving objects), in medical diagnostics, at creation of new software for CCD, at industrial vision and creation of decision-making system, etc. The opportunities of the A&CC are tested at image analysis of model fires and plumes of the sprayed fluid, ensembles of particles, at a decoding of interferometric images, for digitization of paper diagrams of electrical signals, for recognition of the text, for elimination of a noise of the images, for filtration of the image, for analysis of the astronomical images and air photography, at detection of objects.

  7. Efficient Word Reading: Automaticity of Print-Related Skills Indexed by Rapid Automatized Naming through Cusp-Catastrophe Modeling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sideridis, Georgios D.; Simos, Panagiotis; Mouzaki, Angeliki; Stamovlasis, Dimitrios

    2016-01-01

    The study explored the moderating role of rapid automatized naming (RAN) in reading achievement through a cusp-catastrophe model grounded on nonlinear dynamic systems theory. Data were obtained from a community sample of 496 second through fourth graders who were followed longitudinally over 2 years and split into 2 random subsamples (validation…

  8. Rapid and automatic 3D body measurement system based on a GPU-Steger line detector.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xingjian; Zhao, Hengshuang; Zhan, Guomin; Zhong, Kai; Li, Zhongwei; Chao, Yuhjin; Shi, Yusheng

    2016-07-20

    This paper proposes a rapid and automatic measurement system to acquire a 3D shape of a human body. A flexible calibration method was developed to decrease the complexity in system calibration. To reduce the computation cost, a GPU-Steger line detector was proposed to more rapidly detect the center of the laser pattern and at subpixel level. The processing time of line detection is significantly shortened by the GPU-Steger line detector, which can be over 110 times faster than that by CPU. The key technologies are introduced, and the experimental results are presented in this paper to illustrate the performance of the proposed system. The system can be used to measure human body surfaces with nonuniform reflectance such as hair, skin, and clothes with rich texture. PMID:27463902

  9. Automatic, Rapid Replanning of Satellite Operations for Space Situational Awareness (SSA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stottler, D.; Mahan, K.

    An important component of Space Situational Awareness (SSA) is knowledge of the status and tasking of blue forces (e.g. satellites and ground stations) and the rapid determination of the impacts of real or hypothetical changes and the ability to quickly replan based on those changes. For example, if an antenna goes down (either for benign reasons or from purposeful interference) determining which missions will be impacted is important. It is not simply the set of missions that were scheduled to utilize that antenna, because highly expert human schedulers will respond to the outage by intelligently replanning the real-time schedule. We have developed an automatic scheduling and deconfliction engine, called MIDAS (for Managed Intelligent Deconfliction And Scheduling) that interfaces to the current legacy system (ESD 2.7) which can perform this replanning function automatically. In addition to determining the impact of failed resources, MIDAS can also replan in response to a satellite under attack. In this situation, additional supports must be quickly scheduled and executed (while minimizing impacts to other missions). Because MIDAS is a fully automatic system, replacing a current human labor-intensive process, and provides very rapid turnaround (seconds) it can also be used by commanders to consider what-if questions and focus limited protection resources on the most critical resources. For example, the commander can determine the impact of a successful attack on one of two ground stations and place heavier emphasis on protecting the station whose loss would create the most severe impacts. The system is currently transitioning to operational use. The MIDAS system and its interface to the legacy ESD 2.7 system will be described along with the ConOps for different types of detailed operational scenarios.

  10. Rapid automatic detection and alignment of repeats in protein sequences.

    PubMed

    Heger, A; Holm, L

    2000-11-01

    Many large proteins have evolved by internal duplication and many internal sequence repeats correspond to functional and structural units. We have developed an automatic algorithm, RADAR, for segmenting a query sequence into repeats. The segmentation procedure has three steps: (i) repeat length is determined by the spacing between suboptimal self-alignment traces; (ii) repeat borders are optimized to yield a maximal integer number of repeats, and (iii) distant repeats are validated by iterative profile alignment. The method identifies short composition biased as well as gapped approximate repeats and complex repeat architectures involving many different types of repeats in the query sequence. No manual intervention and no prior assumptions on the number and length of repeats are required. Comparison to the Pfam-A database indicates good coverage, accurate alignments, and reasonable repeat borders. Screening the Swissprot database revealed 3,000 repeats not annotated in existing domain databases. A number of these repeats had been described in the literature but most were novel. This illustrates how in times when curated databases grapple with ever increasing backlogs, automatic (re)analysis of sequences provides an efficient way to capture this important information. PMID:10966575

  11. Mediating Effects of Working Memory in the Relation Between Rapid Automatized Naming and Chinese Reading Comprehension.

    PubMed

    Weng, Xiaoqian; Li, Guangze; Li, Rongbao

    2016-08-01

    This study examined the mediating role of working memory (WM) in the relation between rapid automatized naming (RAN) and Chinese reading comprehension. Three tasks assessing differentially visual and verbal components of WM were programmed by E-prime 2.0. Data collected from 55 Chinese college students were analyzed using correlations and hierarchical regression methods to determine the connection among RAN, reading comprehension, and WM components. Results showed that WM played a significant mediating role in the RAN-reading relation and that auditory WM made stronger contributions than visual WM. Taking into account of the multi-component nature of WM and the specificity of Chinese reading processing, this study discussed the mediating powers of the WM components, particularly auditory WM, further clarifying the possible components involved in the RAN-reading relation and thus providing some insight into the complicated Chinese reading process. PMID:26187379

  12. Distributed automatic control of technological processes in conditions of weightlessness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kukhtenko, A. I.; Merkulov, V. I.; Samoylenko, Y. I.; Ladikov-Royev, Y. P.

    1986-01-01

    Some problems associated with the automatic control of liquid metal and plasma systems under conditions of weightlessness are examined, with particular reference to the problem of stability of liquid equilibrium configurations. The theoretical fundamentals of automatic control of processes in electrically conducting continuous media are outlined, and means of using electromagnetic fields for simulating technological processes in a space environment are discussed.

  13. Automatic process control for the food industry: an introduction

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In order to ensure food security in food manufacturing operations automatic process control is desired. With the operation of the automatic process control systems the deviation of the controlled variables from the standards can be consistently perceived, adjusted, and minimized to improve the proce...

  14. The Interplay between Automatic and Control Processes in Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walczyk, Jeffrey J.

    2000-01-01

    Reviews prominent reading theories in light of their accounts of how automatic and control processes combine to produce successful text comprehension, and the trade-offs between the two. Presents the Compensatory-Encoding Model of reading, which explicates how, when, and why automatic and control processes interact. Notes important educational…

  15. Rapid Automatized Naming and Reading Performance: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Araújo, Susana; Reis, Alexandra; Petersson, Karl Magnus; Faísca, Luís

    2015-01-01

    Evidence that rapid naming skill is associated with reading ability has become increasingly prevalent in recent years. However, there is considerable variation in the literature concerning the magnitude of this relationship. The objective of the present study was to provide a comprehensive analysis of the evidence on the relationship between rapid…

  16. Modeling the relationship between rapid automatized naming and literacy skills across languages varying in orthographic consistency.

    PubMed

    Georgiou, George K; Aro, Mikko; Liao, Chen-Huei; Parrila, Rauno

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this study was twofold: (a) to contrast the prominent theoretical explanations of the rapid automatized naming (RAN)-reading relationship across languages varying in orthographic consistency (Chinese, English, and Finnish) and (b) to examine whether the same accounts can explain the RAN-spelling relationship. In total, 304 Grade 4 children (102 Chinese-speaking Taiwanese children, 117 English-speaking Canadian children, and 85 Finnish-speaking children) were assessed on measures of RAN, speed of processing, phonological processing, orthographic processing, reading fluency, and spelling. The results of path analysis indicated that RAN had a strong direct effect on reading fluency that was of the same size across languages and that only in English was a small proportion of its predictive variance mediated by orthographic processing. In contrast, RAN did not exert a significant direct effect on spelling, and a substantial proportion of its predictive variance was mediated by phonological processing (in Chinese and Finnish) and orthographic processing (in English). Given that RAN predicted reading fluency equally well across languages and that phonological/orthographic processing had very little to do with this relationship, we argue that the reason why RAN is related to reading fluency should be sought in domain-general factors such as serial processing and articulation. PMID:26615467

  17. a Multi-Sensor Micro Uav Based Automatic Rapid Mapping System for Damage Assessment in Disaster Areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeon, E.; Choi, K.; Lee, I.; Kim, H.

    2013-08-01

    Damage assessment is an important step toward the restoration of the severely affected areas due to natural disasters or accidents. For more accurate and rapid assessment, one should utilize geospatial data such as ortho-images acquired from the damaged areas. Change detection based on the geospatial data before and after the damage can make possible fast and automatic assessment with a reasonable accuracy. Accordingly, there have been significant demands on a rapid mapping system, which can provide the orthoimages of the damaged areas to the specialists and decision makers in disaster management agencies. In this study, we are developing a UAV based rapid mapping system that can acquire multi-sensory data in the air and generate ortho-images from the data on the ground in a rapid and automatic way. The proposed system consists of two main segments, aerial and ground segments. The aerial segment is to acquire sensory data through autonomous flight over the specified target area. It consists of a micro UAV platform, a mirror-less camera, a GPS, a MEMS IMU, and sensor integration and synchronization module. The ground segment is to receive and process the multi-sensory data to produce orthoimages in rapid and automatic ways. It consists of a computer with appropriate software for flight planning, data reception, georeferencing, and orthoimage generation. In the middle of this on-going project, we will introduce the overview of the project, describe the main components of each segment and provide intermediate results from preliminary test flights.

  18. Chemical vapor deposition for automatic processing of integrated circuits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kennedy, B. W.

    1980-01-01

    Chemical vapor deposition for automatic processing of integrated circuits including the wafer carrier and loading from a receiving air track into automatic furnaces and unloading on to a sending air track is discussed. Passivation using electron beam deposited quartz is also considered.

  19. Count Me In! on the Automaticity of Numerosity Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naparstek, Sharon; Henik, Avishai

    2010-01-01

    Extraction of numerosity (i.e., enumeration) is an essential component of mathematical abilities. The current study asked how automatic is the processing of numerosity and whether automatic activation is task dependent. Participants were presented with displays containing a variable number of digits and were asked to pay attention to the number of…

  20. Deficits in Orthographic Knowledge in Children Poor at Rapid Automatized Naming (RAN) Tasks?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Daisy; Stainthorp, Rhona; Stuart, Morag

    2014-01-01

    The degree to which orthographic knowledge accounts for the link between rapid automatized naming (RAN) and reading is contested, with mixed results reported. This longitudinal study compared two groups of 10- and 11-year-old children, a low RAN group (N = 69) and matched controls (N = 74), on various measures of orthographic knowledge. The low…

  1. Neural Systems for Rapid Automatized Naming in Skilled Readers: Unraveling the RAN-Reading Relationship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Misra, Maya; Katzir, Tamar; Wolf, Maryanne; Poldrack, Russell A.

    2004-01-01

    The majority of children and adults with reading disabilities exhibit pronounced difficulties on naming-speed measures such as tests of rapid automatized naming (RAN). RAN tasks require speeded naming of serially presented stimuli and share key characteristics with reading, but different versions of the RAN task vary in their sensitivity: The RAN…

  2. The Influence of Inattention on Rapid Automatized Naming and Reading Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pham, Andy V.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine how behavioral symptoms of inattention predict rapid automatized naming (RAN) performance and reading skills in typically developing children. Participants included 104 third- and fourth-grade children from different elementary schools in mid-Michigan. RAN performance was assessed using the four Rapid…

  3. What Does Rapid Automatized Naming Measure? A New RAN Task Compared to Naming and Lexical Decision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wile, Tammy L.; Borowsky, Ron

    2004-01-01

    The present research investigated the relationship between Rapid Automatized Naming (RAN) performance, letter-string reading measures of sight vocabulary (SV) and phonetic decoding (PD), and lexical decision. Criterion-based naming rates were obtained from three types of RAN tasks: digits, letters, and letter sounds. Latency measures were obtained…

  4. Rapid gas hydrate formation process

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Thomas D.; Taylor, Charles E.; Unione, Alfred J.

    2013-01-15

    The disclosure provides a method and apparatus for forming gas hydrates from a two-phase mixture of water and a hydrate forming gas. The two-phase mixture is created in a mixing zone which may be wholly included within the body of a spray nozzle. The two-phase mixture is subsequently sprayed into a reaction zone, where the reaction zone is under pressure and temperature conditions suitable for formation of the gas hydrate. The reaction zone pressure is less than the mixing zone pressure so that expansion of the hydrate-forming gas in the mixture provides a degree of cooling by the Joule-Thompson effect and provides more intimate mixing between the water and the hydrate-forming gas. The result of the process is the formation of gas hydrates continuously and with a greatly reduced induction time. An apparatus for conduct of the method is further provided.

  5. Automatic processing system for shadowgraph and interference patterns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vereninov, I. A.; Lazarev, V. D.; Popov, S. S.; Tarasov, V. S.

    1987-01-01

    The design and operation of an automatic system for the processing of shadowgraph and interference images are described. The system includes a two-coordinate processing table with an optical system for the projection of transparent images onto the photodetector, an image filter in the photodetector field, and a device for controlling the movement of the table and transmitting information to the minicomputer.

  6. Control of automatic processes: A parallel distributed-processing model of the stroop effect. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, J.D.; Dunbar, K.; McClelland, J.L.

    1988-06-16

    A growing body of evidence suggests that traditional views of automaticity are in need of revision. For example, automaticity has often been treated as an all-or-none phenomenon, and traditional theories have held that automatic processes are independent of attention. Yet recent empirial data suggests that automatic processes are continuous, and furthermore are subject to attentional control. In this paper we present a model of attention which addresses these issues. Using a parallel distributed processing framework we propose that the attributes of automaticity depend upon the strength of a process and that strength increases with training. Using the Stroop effect as an example, we show how automatic processes are continuous and emerge gradually with practice. Specifically, we present a computational model of the Stroop task which simulates the time course of processing as well as the effects of learning.

  7. An examination of the rapid automatized naming-reading relationship using functional magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Cummine, J; Chouinard, B; Szepesvari, E; Georgiou, G K

    2015-10-01

    Rapid automatized naming (RAN) has been established to be a strong predictor of reading. Yet, the neural correlates underlying the RAN-reading relationship remain unknown. Thus, the purpose of this study was to determine: (a) the extent to which RAN and reading activate similar brain regions (within subjects), (b) whether RAN and reading are directly related in the shared activity network outlined in (a), and (c) to what extent RAN neural activation predicts behavioral reading performance. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), university students (N=15; Mean age=20.6 years) were assessed on RAN (letters and digits) and single-word reading (words and non-words). The results revealed a common RAN-reading network that included regions associated with motor planning (cerebellum), semantic access (middle temporal gyrus), articulation (supplementary motor area, pre-motor), and grapheme-phoneme translation (supramarginal gyrus). We found differences between RAN and reading with respect to percent signal change (PSC) in phonological and orthographic regions, but not in articulatory regions. Significant correlations between the neural RAN and reading parameters were found primarily in motor/articulatory regions. Further, we found a unique relationship between in-scanner reading response time and RAN PSC in the left inferior frontal gyrus. Taken together, these findings support the notion that RAN and reading activate similar neural networks. However, the relationship between RAN and reading is primarily driven by commonalities in the motor-sequencing/articulatory processes. PMID:26235433

  8. Sensitometric and archival evaluation of Kodak RA films in dental automatic processing.

    PubMed

    Thunthy, K H; Yeadon, W R; Winberg, R

    1994-04-01

    The Kodak Rapid Access System is an extension of the T-grain technology (T-Mat film). Unlike the T-Mat film, the T-Mat/Rapid Access film is forehardened by the addition of more hardener to the film emulsion. It can thus be processed rapidly in a Kodak Rapid Access medical processor in only 45 seconds dry-to-dry cycle by using the Kodak X-Omat RA/30 developer that does not contain a hardener. The absence of the hardener, glutaraldehyde, in the developer also makes this solution environmentally safer. In medical radiography, the T-Mat film has been replaced by the T-Mat/Rapid Access film. However, in dental extraoral radiography the T-Mat film is still being used because the processing solutions and the comparatively low temperatures of dental automatic processors are different from those used in medical radiography. This report shows that, for panoramic and other dental extraoral radiography, T-Mat films can be replaced by T-Mat/RA films by processing them in conventional Kodak X-Omat RP solutions using a dental automatic processing cycle. The differences in the sensitometric properties of the T-Mat and T-Mat/rapid Access films were negligible and therefore clinically insignificant. All films tested well for archival quality. PMID:8015810

  9. The Caltech Tomography Database and Automatic Processing Pipeline.

    PubMed

    Ding, H Jane; Oikonomou, Catherine M; Jensen, Grant J

    2015-11-01

    Here we describe the Caltech Tomography Database and automatic image processing pipeline, designed to process, store, display, and distribute electron tomographic data including tilt-series, sample information, data collection parameters, 3D reconstructions, correlated light microscope images, snapshots, segmentations, movies, and other associated files. Tilt-series are typically uploaded automatically during collection to a user's "Inbox" and processed automatically, but can also be entered and processed in batches via scripts or file-by-file through an internet interface. As with the video website YouTube, each tilt-series is represented on the browsing page with a link to the full record, a thumbnail image and a video icon that delivers a movie of the tomogram in a pop-out window. Annotation tools allow users to add notes and snapshots. The database is fully searchable, and sets of tilt-series can be selected and re-processed, edited, or downloaded to a personal workstation. The results of further processing and snapshots of key results can be recorded in the database, automatically linked to the appropriate tilt-series. While the database is password-protected for local browsing and searching, datasets can be made public and individual files can be shared with collaborators over the Internet. Together these tools facilitate high-throughput tomography work by both individuals and groups. PMID:26087141

  10. Automatic memory processes in patients with multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Grafman, J; Rao, S; Bernardin, L; Leo, G J

    1991-10-01

    To better understand the nature of the memory deficit in patients with multiple sclerosis, we designed a study to compare automatic vs effortful memory processes. Forty-one patients with definite multiple sclerosis and 45 demographically matched normal control subjects were administered two tasks designed to assess both automatic (monitoring frequency and modality) and effortful (free and cued-recall) processing. Results indicated that patients with multiple sclerosis, as expected, were significantly impaired on memory measures requiring effort, but performed normally on automatic measures. Performance on the memory indexes did not correlate with self-reported depression. The implications of these findings for delineating the locus of the memory impairment in multiple sclerosis is discussed. PMID:1929900

  11. Document processing for automatic color form dropout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savakis, Andreas E.; Brown, Christopher R.

    2001-12-01

    Color dropout refers to the process of converting color form documents to black and white by removing the colors that are part of the blank form and maintaining only the information entered in the form. In this paper, no prior knowledge of the form type is assumed. Color dropout is performed by associating darker non-dropout colors with information that is entered in the form and needs to be preserved. The color dropout filter parameters include the color values of the non-dropout colors, e.g. black and blue, the distance metric, e.g. Euclidian, and the tolerances allowed around these colors. Color dropout is accomplished by converting pixels that have color within the tolerance sphere of the non-dropout colors to black and all others to white. This approach lends itself to high-speed hardware implementation with low memory requirements, such as an FPGA platform. Processing may be performed in RGB or a Luminance-Chrominance space, such as YCbCr. The color space transformation from RGB to YCbCr involves a matrix multiplication and the dropout filter implementation is similar in both cases. Results for color dropout processing in both RGB and YCbCr space are presented.

  12. Automatic generation of signal processing integrated circuits

    SciTech Connect

    Pope, S.P.

    1985-01-01

    A system for the automated design of signal processing integrated circuits is described in this thesis. The system is based on a library of circuit cells, and a software package that can configure the cells into complete integrated circuits. The architecture of the cell library is optimized for low and medium bandwidth digital signal processing applications. Circuits designed with the system use a multiprocessor architecture. Input to the system is a design file written in a specialized programming language. Software emulation from the design file is used to verify performance. A two-pass silicon compiler is used to translate the design file into a mask-level description of an integrated circuit. A major goal of the project is to make the system useable by those with little or no formal training in integrated circuits. A second goal is to reduce the time and cost associated with performing an integrated circuit design, while still producing designs which are reasonably efficient in their use of the technology. Development of the system was guided by basic research on appropriate architectures and circuit constructs for signal processors. As part of this research an integrated circuit was designed which performs speech analysis and synthesis. This vocoder circuit is intended for use in low-bit-rate digital speech transmission systems.

  13. High-productivity automatic GTAW process

    SciTech Connect

    Imaizumi, H.; Kato, T.; Murakami, Y.

    1994-12-31

    Gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) has, since developed by AIRCO, spread globally as a weld process which assures a quality weld. However, the only drawback with GTAW is low productivity and we have challenged the subject in how we could improve that. To that end, we set the target of 3 times deposition rate as compared to conventional TIG. With conventional TIG arc, arc spread angle ranges 130{degrees} to 140{degrees}; to improve energy density, we have employed double flux TIG of SAF, France to converge the arc down to 80{degrees}. Consequently, energy density was upped to 4 times of conventional TIG, thus penetration depth and filler wire feed rated increased up to 2 to 4 times. We have succeeded in controlling cool-down in the molten pool, enabling the utilization of highly-converged TIG arc and preventing deposited metals burn-through for cleaner weld process, high-productivity GTAW. We find that: (1) The TIG arc spread angle is convergeable from 140{degrees} down to 80{degrees}; heat energy to be 3.5 times of that obtainable conventionally. (2) 65{emdash}80 g/min attained with 500A and C.S. in flat position, and 35{emdash}40 g/min., with all-position pipe weld. (3) 2{emdash}3 times efficiency improvement, obtained with work in C.S., S.S., and Inconel. (4) Excellent impact value obtainable despite heat-input increase. (5) Fume-less, spatterless, gouging-less and grindingless weld is obtainable; we were successful in improving the operational environment.

  14. A conceptual study of automatic and semi-automatic quality assurance techniques for round image processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    This report summarizes the results of a study conducted by Engineering and Economics Research (EER), Inc. under NASA Contract Number NAS5-27513. The study involved the development of preliminary concepts for automatic and semiautomatic quality assurance (QA) techniques for ground image processing. A distinction is made between quality assessment and the more comprehensive quality assurance which includes decision making and system feedback control in response to quality assessment.

  15. A Simple Blueprint for Automatic Boolean Query Processing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salton, G.

    1988-01-01

    Describes a new Boolean retrieval environment in which an extended soft Boolean logic is used to automatically construct queries from original natural language formulations provided by users. Experimental results that compare the retrieval effectiveness of this method to conventional Boolean and vector processing are discussed. (27 references)…

  16. Automatic recognition of lactating sow behaviors through depth image processing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Manual observation and classification of animal behaviors is laborious, time-consuming, and of limited ability to process large amount of data. A computer vision-based system was developed that automatically recognizes sow behaviors (lying, sitting, standing, kneeling, feeding, drinking, and shiftin...

  17. Automatic process control in anaerobic digestion technology: A critical review.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Duc; Gadhamshetty, Venkataramana; Nitayavardhana, Saoharit; Khanal, Samir Kumar

    2015-10-01

    Anaerobic digestion (AD) is a mature technology that relies upon a synergistic effort of a diverse group of microbial communities for metabolizing diverse organic substrates. However, AD is highly sensitive to process disturbances, and thus it is advantageous to use online monitoring and process control techniques to efficiently operate AD process. A range of electrochemical, chromatographic and spectroscopic devices can be deployed for on-line monitoring and control of the AD process. While complexity of the control strategy ranges from a feedback control to advanced control systems, there are some debates on implementation of advanced instrumentations or advanced control strategies. Centralized AD plants could be the answer for the applications of progressive automatic control field. This article provides a critical overview of the available automatic control technologies that can be implemented in AD processes at different scales. PMID:26148991

  18. Rapid and quantitative determination of critical micelle concentration by automatic continuous mixing and static light scattering.

    PubMed

    Paillet, Sabrina; Grassl, Bruno; Desbrières, Jacques

    2009-03-23

    We present the rapid and quantitative characterization of ionic, non-ionic and zwitterionic surfactants based upon the combination of an automatic continuous mixing technique and static light scattering. Collection and subsequent analysis of data are both rapid and semiautomatic, which increases precision, sensitivity, and range of applicability while substantially decreasing the amount of manual intervention required by the investigator. By treating the continuous data, the entire data set may be rapidly analyzed in the context of the closed association model to determine the critical micelle concentration cmc and aggregation number Nag of a detergent; these technique are comparable in the scope and resolution currently obtainable from other conductimetric, fluorescence and surface tension techniques. PMID:19264174

  19. On the Control of Automatic Processes: A Parallel Distributed Processing Account of the Stroop Effect.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Jonathan D.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    It is proposed that attributes of automatization depend on the strength of a processing pathway, and that strength increases with training. With the Stroop effect as an example, automatic processes are shown through simulation to be continuous and to emerge gradually with practice. (SLD)

  20. Automatic Near-Real-Time Image Processing Chain for Very High Resolution Optical Satellite Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ostir, K.; Cotar, K.; Marsetic, A.; Pehani, P.; Perse, M.; Zaksek, K.; Zaletelj, J.; Rodic, T.

    2015-04-01

    In response to the increasing need for automatic and fast satellite image processing SPACE-SI has developed and implemented a fully automatic image processing chain STORM that performs all processing steps from sensor-corrected optical images (level 1) to web-delivered map-ready images and products without operator's intervention. Initial development was tailored to high resolution RapidEye images, and all crucial and most challenging parts of the planned full processing chain were developed: module for automatic image orthorectification based on a physical sensor model and supported by the algorithm for automatic detection of ground control points (GCPs); atmospheric correction module, topographic corrections module that combines physical approach with Minnaert method and utilizing anisotropic illumination model; and modules for high level products generation. Various parts of the chain were implemented also for WorldView-2, THEOS, Pleiades, SPOT 6, Landsat 5-8, and PROBA-V. Support of full-frame sensor currently in development by SPACE-SI is in plan. The proposed paper focuses on the adaptation of the STORM processing chain to very high resolution multispectral images. The development concentrated on the sub-module for automatic detection of GCPs. The initially implemented two-step algorithm that worked only with rasterized vector roads and delivered GCPs with sub-pixel accuracy for the RapidEye images, was improved with the introduction of a third step: super-fine positioning of each GCP based on a reference raster chip. The added step exploits the high spatial resolution of the reference raster to improve the final matching results and to achieve pixel accuracy also on very high resolution optical satellite data.

  1. Cast Process Simulation for the Rapid Tooling.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Renji; Jiang, Rui; Liu, Yuan; Yan, Yongnian

    1997-03-01

    A major use for RP (Rapid Prototyping) now is in the foundry industry. It is so called RT (Rapid Tooling). Models are used as patterns for sand and plaster casting or used as sacrificial models in investment casting in the RT. In order to improve casting quality, a cast process simulation program for the RT has been made. This simulation depends on analysis of size accuracy parameters. The result could be came back into the CAD forming program. After that a new CAD data have been adopted in RT process. Then the RT technology could have sufficient accuracy in fabrication. Work supported by the Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC).

  2. Rapid Business Process Discovery (R-BPD)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghose, Aditya; Koliadis, George; Chueng, Arthur

    Modeling is an important and time consuming part of the Business Process Management life-cycle. An analyst reviews existing documentation and queries relevant domain experts to construct both mental and concrete models of the domain. To aid this exercise, we propose the Rapid Business Process Discovery (R-BPD) framework and prototype tool that can query heterogeneous information resources (e.g. corporate documentation, web-content, code e.t.c.) and rapidly construct proto-models to be incrementally adjusted to correctness by an analyst. This constitutes a departure from building and constructing models toward just editing them. We believe this rapid mixed-initiative modeling will increase analyst productivity by significant orders of magnitude over traditional approaches. Furthermore, the possibility of using the approach in distributed and real-time settings seems appealing and may help in significantly improving the quality of the models being developed w.r.t. being consistent, complete, and concise.

  3. Verification and Validation in a Rapid Software Development Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callahan, John R.; Easterbrook, Steve M.

    1997-01-01

    The high cost of software production is driving development organizations to adopt more automated design and analysis methods such as rapid prototyping, computer-aided software engineering (CASE) tools, and high-level code generators. Even developers of safety-critical software system have adopted many of these new methods while striving to achieve high levels Of quality and reliability. While these new methods may enhance productivity and quality in many cases, we examine some of the risks involved in the use of new methods in safety-critical contexts. We examine a case study involving the use of a CASE tool that automatically generates code from high-level system designs. We show that while high-level testing on the system structure is highly desirable, significant risks exist in the automatically generated code and in re-validating releases of the generated code after subsequent design changes. We identify these risks and suggest process improvements that retain the advantages of rapid, automated development methods within the quality and reliability contexts of safety-critical projects.

  4. Phoenix: automatic science processing of ESO-VLT data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanuschik, Reinhard

    2014-08-01

    ESO has implemented a process to automatically create science-grade data products and offer them to the scientific community, ready for scientific analysis. This process, called 'phoenix', is built on two main concepts: 1. a certification procedure for pipelines which includes a code review and, if necessary, upgrade; and 2. a certification procedure for calibrations which are processed into master calibrations, scored and trended. These master calibrations contain all information about the intrinsic instrumental variations and instabilities inevitable for ground-based telescopes. The phoenix process then automatically processes all science data using the certified pipeline and the certified master calibrations. Phoenix currently focuses on spectroscopic data. The first phoenix project has been the processing of all science data from UVES, ESO's high-resolution Echelle spectrograph at the VLT. More than 100,000 Echelle spectra of point sources, from begin of operations (March 2000) until now, have been reduced and are available to the public from the ESO archive, http://archive.eso.org/cms/eso-data/eso-data-products.html. The phoenix process will also feed future UVES data into the archive. The second project has been X-SHOOTER slit spectroscopy which currently has more than 30,000 Echelle spectra from the UV to the infrared (up to 2.5μm). The phoenix process will be extended to other, mostly spectroscopic, instruments with certified pipelines, like FLAMES. Also, all future VLT instruments will be supported by phoenix.

  5. Control of automatic processes: A parallel distributed-processing account of the Stroop effect. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, J.D.; Dunbar, K.; McClelland, J.L.

    1989-11-22

    A growing body of evidence suggests that traditional views of automaticity are in need of revision. For example, automaticity has often been treated as an all-or-none phenomenon, and traditional theories have held that automatic processes are independent of attention. Yet recent empirical data suggest that automatic processes are continuous, and furthermore are subject to attentional control. In this paper we present a model of attention which addresses these issues. Using a parallel distributed processing framework we propose that the attributes of automaticity depend upon the strength of a processing pathway and that strength increases with training. Using the Stroop effect as an example, we show how automatic processes are continuous and emerge gradually with practice. Specifically, we present a computational model of the Stroop task which simulates the time course of processing as well as the effects of learning. This was accomplished by combining the cascade mechanism described by McClelland (1979) with the back propagation learning algorithm (Rumelhart, Hinton, Williams, 1986). The model is able to simulate performance in the standard Stroop task, as well as aspects of performance in variants of this task which manipulate SOA, response set, and degree of practice. In the discussion we contrast our model with other models, and indicate how it relates to many of the central issues in the literature on attention, automaticity, and interference.

  6. Rapid and automatic speech-specific learning mechanism in human neocortex.

    PubMed

    Kimppa, Lilli; Kujala, Teija; Leminen, Alina; Vainio, Martti; Shtyrov, Yury

    2015-09-01

    A unique feature of human communication system is our ability to rapidly acquire new words and build large vocabularies. However, its neurobiological foundations remain largely unknown. In an electrophysiological study optimally designed to probe this rapid formation of new word memory circuits, we employed acoustically controlled novel word-forms incorporating native and non-native speech sounds, while manipulating the subjects' attention on the input. We found a robust index of neurolexical memory-trace formation: a rapid enhancement of the brain's activation elicited by novel words during a short (~30min) perceptual exposure, underpinned by fronto-temporal cortical networks, and, importantly, correlated with behavioural learning outcomes. Crucially, this neural memory trace build-up took place regardless of focused attention on the input or any pre-existing or learnt semantics. Furthermore, it was found only for stimuli with native-language phonology, but not for acoustically closely matching non-native words. These findings demonstrate a specialised cortical mechanism for rapid, automatic and phonology-dependent formation of neural word memory circuits. PMID:26074199

  7. Rapid Automatized Naming and Immediate Memory Functions in Chinese Children Who Read English as a Second Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ding, Yi; Guo, Jian-Peng; Yang, Ling-Yan; Zhang, Dake; Ning, Huan; Richman, Lynn C.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined reading performance of 102 Chinese Mandarin-speaking 4th graders in their second language (L2, English) as a function of performance in their first language (L1, Chinese). The results revealed that for Rapid Automatized Naming (RAN) and Rapid Alternating Stimulus (RAS) measures, the mean naming time decreased monotonically in…

  8. Automatic and controlled processing and the Broad Autism Phenotype.

    PubMed

    Camodeca, Amy; Voelker, Sylvia

    2016-01-30

    Research related to verbal fluency in the Broad Autism Phenotype (BAP) is limited and dated, but generally suggests intact abilities in the context of weaknesses in other areas of executive function (Hughes et al., 1999; Wong et al., 2006; Delorme et al., 2007). Controlled processing, the generation of search strategies after initial, automated responses are exhausted (Spat, 2013), has yet to be investigated in the BAP, and may be evidenced in verbal fluency tasks. One hundred twenty-nine participants completed the Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System Verbal Fluency test (D-KEFS; Delis et al., 2001) and the Broad Autism Phenotype Questionnaire (BAPQ; Hurley et al., 2007). The BAP group (n=53) produced significantly fewer total words during the 2nd 15" interval compared to the Non-BAP (n=76) group. Partial correlations indicated similar relations between verbal fluency variables for each group. Regression analyses predicting 2nd 15" interval scores suggested differentiation between controlled and automatic processing skills in both groups. Results suggest adequate automatic processing, but slowed development of controlled processing strategies in the BAP, and provide evidence for similar underlying cognitive constructs for both groups. Controlled processing was predictive of Block Design score for Non-BAP participants, and was predictive of Pragmatic Language score on the BAPQ for BAP participants. These results are similar to past research related to strengths and weaknesses in the BAP, respectively, and suggest that controlled processing strategy use may be required in instances of weak lower-level skills. PMID:26652842

  9. A Rapid Tactile-Motor Reflex Automatically Guides Reaching toward Handheld Objects.

    PubMed

    Pruszynski, J Andrew; Johansson, Roland S; Flanagan, J Randall

    2016-03-21

    The ability to respond quickly and effectively when objects in the world suddenly change position is essential for skilled action, and previous work has documented how unexpected changes in the location of a visually presented target during reaching can elicit rapid reflexive (i.e., automatic) corrections of the hand's trajectory [1-12]. In object manipulation and tool use, the sense of touch can also provide information about changes in the location of reach targets. Consider the many tasks where we reach with one hand to part of an object grasped by the other hand: reaching to a berry while holding a branch, reaching for a cap while grasping a bottle, and reaching toward a dog's collar while holding the dog's leash. In such cases, changes in the position of the reach target, due to wind, slip, or an active agent, can be detected, in principle, through touch. Here, we show that when people reach with their right hand to a target attached to the far end of a rod contacted, at the near end, by their left hand, an unexpected change in target location caused by rod rotation rapidly evokes an effective reach correction. That is, spatial information about a change in target location provided by tactile inputs to one hand elicits a rapid correction of the other hand's trajectory. In addition to uncovering a tactile-motor reflex that can support manipulatory actions, our results demonstrate that automatic reach corrections to moving targets are not unique to visually registered changes in target location. PMID:26898466

  10. Iterative Strategies for Aftershock Classification in Automatic Seismic Processing Pipelines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibbons, Steven J.; Kværna, Tormod; Harris, David B.; Dodge, Douglas A.

    2016-04-01

    Aftershock sequences following very large earthquakes present enormous challenges to near-realtime generation of seismic bulletins. The increase in analyst resources needed to relocate an inflated number of events is compounded by failures of phase association algorithms and a significant deterioration in the quality of underlying fully automatic event bulletins. Current processing pipelines were designed a generation ago and, due to computational limitations of the time, are usually limited to single passes over the raw data. With current processing capability, multiple passes over the data are feasible. Processing the raw data at each station currently generates parametric data streams which are then scanned by a phase association algorithm to form event hypotheses. We consider the scenario where a large earthquake has occurred and propose to define a region of likely aftershock activity in which events are detected and accurately located using a separate specially targeted semi-automatic process. This effort may focus on so-called pattern detectors, but here we demonstrate a more general grid search algorithm which may cover wider source regions without requiring waveform similarity. Given many well-located aftershocks within our source region, we may remove all associated phases from the original detection lists prior to a new iteration of the phase association algorithm. We provide a proof-of-concept example for the 2015 Gorkha sequence, Nepal, recorded on seismic arrays of the International Monitoring System. Even with very conservative conditions for defining event hypotheses within the aftershock source region, we can automatically remove over half of the original detections which could have been generated by Nepal earthquakes and reduce the likelihood of false associations and spurious event hypotheses. Further reductions in the number of detections in the parametric data streams are likely using correlation and subspace detectors and/or empirical matched

  11. A new VLSI compatible rapid thermal processing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aitken, D.; Mehta, S.; Parisi, N.; Russo, C. J.; Schwartz, V.

    Rapid thermal processing (RTP) is increasingly becoming a significant tool to meet the challenge of fabricating miniaturized MOS and bipolar devices. The primary advantages of RTP over conventional furnace annealing include the shorter heat cycle, well-controlled soak times at peak temperatures and the capability to rapidly change anneal ambients, thereby enhancing its flexibility as a process tool. The major applications of RTP in VLSI technology that are presently being pursued include: (i) implant-damage annealing/dopant activation, (ii) silicide formation, (iii) glass reflow, (iv) thin film growth/deposition (oxides, nitrides, oxy-nitrides) and (v) contact alloying. This paper discusses a new rapid thermal processor, RTP-800/8000, recently introduced by Varian. The discussion will include mechanical and electrical design, software, heating process compatibility, process uniformity and repeatability, process setup and noncontact temperature measurement. The heating system consists of a tungsten lamp array surrounded by a highly reflective mirror system designed to provide good temperature uniformity for wafer sizes up to 200 mm. The RTP-8000 has a serial cassette-to-cassette automatic wafer handling system. The RTP-800 possesses a single wafer, operator-assisted wafer handling system. The RTP-800/8000 has an automated multiple gas flow control and also has the optional capability of processing wafers in vacuum. An infrared optical pyrometer measures the wafer temperature from the backside of the wafer. In the RTP-8000, touch screen operation of the menu-driven recipes is easy with user-friendly software. A separate electroluminescent flat panel display provides information for maintenance and servicing and reports the system status. Process information is provided on this display in the RTP-800.

  12. Automatic data processing and crustal modeling on Brazilian Seismograph Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreira, L. P.; Chimpliganond, C.; Peres Rocha, M.; Franca, G.; Marotta, G. S.; Von Huelsen, M. G.

    2014-12-01

    The Brazilian Seismograph Network (RSBR) is a joint project of four Brazilian research institutions with the support of Petrobras and its main goal is to monitor the seismic activities, generate alerts of seismic hazard and provide data for Brazilian tectonic and structure research. Each institution operates and maintain their seismic network, sharing their data in an virtual private network. These networks have seismic stations transmitting in real time (or near real time) raw data to their respective data centers, where the seismogram files are then shared with other institutions. Currently RSBR has 57 broadband stations, some of them operating since 1994, transmitting data through mobile phone data networks or satellite links. Station management, data acquisition and storage and earthquake data processing at the Seismological Observatory of the University of Brasilia is automatically performed by SeisComP3 (SC3). However, the SC3 data processing is limited to event detection, location and magnitude. An automatic crustal modeling system was designed process raw seismograms and generate 1D S-velocity profiles. This system automatically calculates receiver function (RF) traces, Vp/Vs ratio (h-k stack) and surface waves dispersion (SWD) curves. These traces and curves are then used to calibrate the lithosphere seismic velocity models using a joint inversion scheme The results can be reviewed by an analyst, change processing parameters and selecting/neglecting RF traces and SWD curves used in lithosphere model calibration. The results to be obtained from this system will be used to generate and update a quasi-3D crustal model of Brazil's territory.

  13. On the automaticity of semantic processing during task switching.

    PubMed

    Vachon, François; Jolicœur, Pierre

    2012-03-01

    There is growing evidence that processes formerly believed to be automatic are, in fact, strongly modulated by top-down influences. The purpose of the present work was to investigate how cognitive control can affect the purported automaticity of word processing by examining the impact of task switching on semantic processing using the ERP technique. In the context of the psychological refractory period dual-task paradigm, two experiments contrasted the context-sensitive N400 ERP elicited by the second of two target words under conditions that involved either a task switch or no-task switch. Although the N400 was not affected by SOA in the absence of switching, it was strongly attenuated at short SOAs when the psychological refractory period procedure involved a switch from a perceptual to a semantic task (Experiment 1) or a switch between two different semantic tasks (Experiment 2). These findings suggest that semantic processing cannot be performed in parallel with task switching and illustrate limitations in the ability of the cognitive system to adapt flexibly to the dynamically changing challenges of the environment according to task demands and behavioral goals. PMID:21981671

  14. Rotor assembly and method for automatically processing liquids

    DOEpatents

    Burtis, Carl A.; Johnson, Wayne F.; Walker, William A.

    1992-01-01

    A rotor assembly for performing a relatively large number of processing steps upon a sample, such as a whole blood sample, and a diluent, such as water, includes a rotor body for rotation about an axis and including a network of chambers within which various processing steps are performed upon the sample and diluent and passageways through which the sample and diluent are transferred. A transfer mechanism is movable through the rotor body by the influence of a magnetic field generated adjacent the transfer mechanism and movable along the rotor body, and the assembly utilizes centrifugal force, a transfer of momentum and capillary action to perform any of a number of processing steps such as separation, aliquoting, transference, washing, reagent addition and mixing of the sample and diluent within the rotor body. The rotor body is particularly suitable for automatic immunoassay analyses.

  15. Rotor assembly and method for automatically processing liquids

    DOEpatents

    Burtis, C.A.; Johnson, W.F.; Walker, W.A.

    1992-12-22

    A rotor assembly is described for performing a relatively large number of processing steps upon a sample, such as a whole blood sample, and a diluent, such as water. It includes a rotor body for rotation about an axis and includes a network of chambers within which various processing steps are performed upon the sample and diluent and passageways through which the sample and diluent are transferred. A transfer mechanism is movable through the rotor body by the influence of a magnetic field generated adjacent the transfer mechanism and movable along the rotor body, and the assembly utilizes centrifugal force, a transfer of momentum and capillary action to perform any of a number of processing steps such as separation, aliquoting, transference, washing, reagent addition and mixing of the sample and diluent within the rotor body. The rotor body is particularly suitable for automatic immunoassay analyses. 34 figs.

  16. Using Dual-Task Methodology to Dissociate Automatic from Nonautomatic Processes Involved in Artificial Grammar Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendricks, Michelle A.; Conway, Christopher M.; Kellogg, Ronald T.

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that both automatic and intentional processes contribute to the learning of grammar and fragment knowledge in artificial grammar learning (AGL) tasks. To explore the relative contribution of automatic and intentional processes to knowledge gained in AGL, we utilized dual-task methodology to dissociate automatic and…

  17. Automatism

    PubMed Central

    McCaldon, R. J.

    1964-01-01

    Individuals can carry out complex activity while in a state of impaired consciousness, a condition termed “automatism”. Consciousness must be considered from both an organic and a psychological aspect, because impairment of consciousness may occur in both ways. Automatism may be classified as normal (hypnosis), organic (temporal lobe epilepsy), psychogenic (dissociative fugue) or feigned. Often painstaking clinical investigation is necessary to clarify the diagnosis. There is legal precedent for assuming that all crimes must embody both consciousness and will. Jurists are loath to apply this principle without reservation, as this would necessitate acquittal and release of potentially dangerous individuals. However, with the sole exception of the defence of insanity, there is at present no legislation to prohibit release without further investigation of anyone acquitted of a crime on the grounds of “automatism”. PMID:14199824

  18. Automatic Data Processing to Achieve a Safe Telemedical Artificial Pancreas

    PubMed Central

    Hernando, M. Elena; García-Sáez, Gema; Martínez-Sarriegui, Iñaki; Rodríguez-Herrero, Agustín; Pérez-Gandía, Carmen; Rigla, Mercedes; de Leiva, Alberto; Capel, Ismael; Pons, Belén; Gómez, Enrique J.

    2009-01-01

    Background The use of telemedicine for diabetes care has evolved over time, proving that it contributes to patient self-monitoring, improves glycemic control, and provides analysis tools for decision support. The timely development of a safe and robust ambulatory artificial pancreas should rely on a telemedicine architecture complemented with automatic data analysis tools able to manage all the possible high-risk situations and to guarantee the patient's safety. Methods The Intelligent Control Assistant system (INCA) telemedical artificial pancreas architecture is based on a mobile personal assistant integrated into a telemedicine system. The INCA supports four control strategies and implements an automatic data processing system for risk management (ADP-RM) providing short-term and medium-term risk analyses. The system validation comprises data from 10 type 1 pump-treated diabetic patients who participated in two randomized crossover studies, and it also includes in silico simulation and retrospective data analysis. Results The ADP-RM short-term risk analysis prevents hypoglycemic events by interrupting insulin infusion. The pump interruption has been implemented in silico and tested for a closed-loop simulation over 30 hours. For medium-term risk management, analysis of capillary blood glucose notified the physician with a total of 62 alarms during a clinical experiment (56% for hyperglycemic events). The ADP-RM system is able to filter anomalous continuous glucose records and to detect abnormal administration of insulin doses with the pump. Conclusions Automatic data analysis procedures have been tested as an essential tool to achieve a safe ambulatory telemedical artificial pancreas, showing their ability to manage short-term and medium-term risk situations. PMID:20144417

  19. Digital signal processing algorithms for automatic voice recognition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Botros, Nazeih M.

    1987-01-01

    The current digital signal analysis algorithms are investigated that are implemented in automatic voice recognition algorithms. Automatic voice recognition means, the capability of a computer to recognize and interact with verbal commands. The digital signal is focused on, rather than the linguistic, analysis of speech signal. Several digital signal processing algorithms are available for voice recognition. Some of these algorithms are: Linear Predictive Coding (LPC), Short-time Fourier Analysis, and Cepstrum Analysis. Among these algorithms, the LPC is the most widely used. This algorithm has short execution time and do not require large memory storage. However, it has several limitations due to the assumptions used to develop it. The other 2 algorithms are frequency domain algorithms with not many assumptions, but they are not widely implemented or investigated. However, with the recent advances in the digital technology, namely signal processors, these 2 frequency domain algorithms may be investigated in order to implement them in voice recognition. This research is concerned with real time, microprocessor based recognition algorithms.

  20. Automatic Record of IGO Game by Image Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukuyama, Tadao; Ogisu, Takahiro; Kim, Jim Woo; Kozo, Okazaki

    Although an IGO record is a valuable work, it takes a lot of human laborious work. In this paper, we propose an automatic record system by image processing. First, we control a camera shutter by judging the time of brightness change which is caused by the action of the player's hand, capture the n-th image in order. The contrast among white stone, black stone and board depend on the brightness, which are affected by shadows , etc. To cope with the situation, we use a subtraction image between the board and n-th image. The stones are not always put on the centers of the intersection points and are often drifted when they are touched with another stones or the hand. Light reflects on the surface. The brightness of the image often changes. Therefore, we estimate the intersection points of highlighted and distorted board. The stones recognition are based on template matching using RMS errors and correlations. The results are classified automatically by the application of K-means clustering algorithm. We show the proposed algorithm's effectiveness by experiments.

  1. Processing the in the parafovea: are articles skipped automatically?

    PubMed

    Angele, Bernhard; Rayner, Keith

    2013-03-01

    One of the words that readers of English skip most often is the definite article the. Most accounts of reading assume that in order for a reader to skip a word, it must have received some lexical processing. The definite article is skipped so regularly, however, that the oculomotor system might have learned to skip the letter string t-h-e automatically. We tested whether skipping of articles in English is sensitive to context information or whether it is truly automatic in the sense that any occurrence of the letter string the will trigger a skip. This was done using the gaze-contingent boundary paradigm (Rayner, 1975) to provide readers with false parafoveal previews of the article the. All experimental sentences contained a short target verb, the preview of which could be correct (i.e., identical to the actual subsequent word in the sentence; e.g., ace), a nonword (tda), or an infelicitous article preview (the). Our results indicated that readers tended to skip the infelicitous the previews frequently, suggesting that, in many cases, they seemed to be unable to detect the syntactic anomaly in the preview and based their skipping decision solely on the orthographic properties of the article. However, there was some evidence that readers sometimes detected the anomaly, as they also showed increased skipping of the pretarget word in the the preview condition. PMID:22799285

  2. How well Do Phonological Awareness and Rapid Automatized Naming Correlate with Chinese Reading Accuracy and Fluency? A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Song, Shuang; Georgiou, George K.; Su, Mengmeng; Hua, Shu

    2016-01-01

    Previous meta-analyses on the relationship between phonological awareness, rapid automatized naming (RAN), and reading have been conducted primarily in English, an atypical alphabetic orthography. Here, we aimed to examine the association between phonological awareness, RAN, and word reading in a nonalphabetic language (Chinese). A random-effects…

  3. The Impact of Rapid Automatized Naming and Phonological Awareness on the Reading Fluency of a Minority Student Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taub, Gordon E.; Szente, Judit

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between phonological awareness (PA) and rapid automatized naming (RAN) on the reading fluency (RF) of students from traditionally underrepresented groups. The study included 86 participants attending 1st through 4th grade within an inner-city charter school located in a high-poverty, urban…

  4. Examining the Importance of Assessing Rapid Automatized Naming (RAN) for the Identification of Children with Reading Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Georgiou, George K.; Parrila, Rauno; Manolitsis, George; Kirby, John R.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the diagnostic value of rapid automatized naming (RAN) in the identification of poor readers in two alphabetic orthographies: English and Greek. Ninety-seven English-speaking Canadian (mean age = 66.70 months) and 70 Greek children (mean age = 67.60 months) were followed from Kindergarten until Grade 3. In…

  5. Eye-Voice Span during Rapid Automatized Naming of Digits and Dice in Chinese Normal and Dyslexic Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pan, Jinger; Yan, Ming; Laubrock, Jochen; Shu, Hua; Kliegl, Reinhold

    2013-01-01

    We measured Chinese dyslexic and control children's eye movements during rapid automatized naming (RAN) with alphanumeric (digits) and symbolic (dice surfaces) stimuli. Both types of stimuli required identical oral responses, controlling for effects associated with speech production. Results showed that naming dice was much slower than naming…

  6. Growth in Rapid Automatized Naming from Grades K to 8 in Children with Math or Reading Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazzocco, Michèle M. M.; Grimm, Kevin J.

    2013-01-01

    Rapid automatized naming (RAN) is widely used to identify reading disabilities (RD) and has recently been considered a potential predictor of risk for mathematics learning disabilities (MLD). Here we longitudinally examine RAN performance from Grades K to 8, to view how growth on RAN response time differs for children with RD versus MLD. Across…

  7. A Web-Based Assessment for Phonological Awareness, Rapid Automatized Naming (RAN) and Learning to Read Chinese

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liao, Chen-Huei; Kuo, Bor-Chen

    2011-01-01

    The present study examined the equivalency of conventional and web-based tests in reading Chinese. Phonological awareness, rapid automatized naming (RAN), reading accuracy, and reading fluency tests were administered to 93 grade 6 children in Taiwan with both test versions (paper-pencil and web-based). The results suggest that conventional and…

  8. Exploring Automaticity in Text Processing: Syntactic Ambiguity as a Test Case

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rawson, Katherine A.

    2004-01-01

    A prevalent assumption in text comprehension research is that many aspects of text processing are automatic, with automaticity typically defined in terms of properties (e.g., speed and effort). The present research advocates conceptualization of automaticity in terms of underlying mechanisms and evaluates two such accounts, a…

  9. Automatic endpoint detection to support the systematic review process.

    PubMed

    Blake, Catherine; Lucic, Ana

    2015-08-01

    Preparing a systematic review can take hundreds of hours to complete, but the process of reconciling different results from multiple studies is the bedrock of evidence-based medicine. We introduce a two-step approach to automatically extract three facets - two entities (the agent and object) and the way in which the entities are compared (the endpoint) - from direct comparative sentences in full-text articles. The system does not require a user to predefine entities in advance and thus can be used in domains where entity recognition is difficult or unavailable. As with a systematic review, the tabular summary produced using the automatically extracted facets shows how experimental results differ between studies. Experiments were conducted using a collection of more than 2million sentences from three journals Diabetes, Carcinogenesis and Endocrinology and two machine learning algorithms, support vector machines (SVM) and a general linear model (GLM). F1 and accuracy measures for the SVM and GLM differed by only 0.01 across all three comparison facets in a randomly selected set of test sentences. The system achieved the best performance of 92% for objects, whereas the accuracy for both agent and endpoints was 73%. F1 scores were higher for objects (0.77) than for endpoints (0.51) or agents (0.47). A situated evaluation of Metformin, a drug to treat diabetes, showed system accuracy of 95%, 83% and 79% for the object, endpoint and agent respectively. The situated evaluation had higher F1 scores of 0.88, 0.64 and 0.62 for object, endpoint, and agent respectively. On average, only 5.31% of the sentences in a full-text article are direct comparisons, but the tabular summaries suggest that these sentences provide a rich source of currently underutilized information that can be used to accelerate the systematic review process and identify gaps where future research should be focused. PMID:26003938

  10. Feasibility study on rapid thermal processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karle, S. C.; Shaligram, A. D.

    2009-09-01

    The rapid thermal processing is widely used for heating of substrates in microelectronics. The use of radiation (UV/Visible/IR) as source of energy provides several advantages. Apart from thermal effects, photonic effects play a significant role in the RTP. Using array of tungsten halogen lamps as a continuous source of radiation, RTP covers a wide range of processing steps such as annealing, dielectric fabrication, metal alloying, diffusion and chemical vapor deposition. This paper reports an attempt made to use RTP in the field of thick film processing. Firing of thick films is an important high temperature step. The desirable physical and chemical properties of the films can be obtained through firing. A paste consisting of active chemicals, solvent, binder, glass powder is transferred on the substrate by means of screen-printing techniques. Further heating the substrates to about 600 °C fires this patterned thick film. This paper reports a novel technique for firing the paste in RTP system. The parameters viz. temperature and time were optimized for resistive paste of Cd-Cu-Cl. The thick films thus obtained were studied for their photosensitivity, I- V characteristics and microscopic structures.

  11. Automatic and Rapid Discrimination of Cotton Genotypes by Near Infrared Spectroscopy and Chemometrics

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Hai-Feng; Ye, Zi-Hong; Xu, Lu; Fu, Xian-Shu; Fan, Cui-Wen; Yu, Xiao-Ping

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports the application of near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy and pattern recognition methods to rapid and automatic discrimination of the genotypes (parent, transgenic, and parent-transgenic hybrid) of cotton plants. Diffuse reflectance NIR spectra of representative cotton seeds (n = 120) and leaves (n = 123) were measured in the range of 4000–12000 cm−1. A practical problem when developing classification models is the degradation and even breakdown of models caused by outliers. Considering the high-dimensional nature and uncertainty of potential spectral outliers, robust principal component analysis (rPCA) was applied to each separate sample group to detect and exclude outliers. The influence of different data preprocessing methods on model prediction performance was also investigated. The results demonstrate that rPCA can effectively detect outliers and maintain the efficiency of discriminant analysis. Moreover, the classification accuracy can be significantly improved by second-order derivative and standard normal variate (SNV). The best partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLSDA) models obtained total classification accuracy of 100% and 97.6% for seeds and leaves, respectively. PMID:22666635

  12. Prosody's Contribution to Fluency: An Examination of the Theory of Automatic Information Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schrauben, Julie E.

    2010-01-01

    LaBerge and Samuels' (1974) theory of automatic information processing in reading offers a model that explains how and where the processing of information occurs and the degree to which processing of information occurs. These processes are dependent upon two criteria: accurate word decoding and automatic word recognition. However, LaBerge and…

  13. Childhood trauma exposure disrupts the automatic regulation of emotional processing.

    PubMed

    Marusak, Hilary A; Martin, Kayla R; Etkin, Amit; Thomason, Moriah E

    2015-04-01

    Early-life trauma is one of the strongest risk factors for later emotional psychopathology. Although research in adults highlights that childhood trauma predicts deficits in emotion regulation that persist decades later, it is unknown whether neural and behavioral changes that may precipitate illness are evident during formative, developmental years. This study examined whether automatic regulation of emotional conflict is perturbed in a high-risk urban sample of trauma-exposed children and adolescents. A total of 14 trauma-exposed and 16 age-, sex-, and IQ-matched comparison youth underwent functional MRI while performing an emotional conflict task that involved categorizing facial affect while ignoring an overlying emotion word. Engagement of the conflict regulation system was evaluated at neural and behavioral levels. Results showed that trauma-exposed youth failed to dampen dorsolateral prefrontal cortex activity and engage amygdala-pregenual cingulate inhibitory circuitry during the regulation of emotional conflict, and were less able to regulate emotional conflict. In addition, trauma-exposed youth showed greater conflict-related amygdala reactivity that was associated with diminished levels of trait reward sensitivity. These data point to a trauma-related deficit in automatic regulation of emotional processing, and increase in sensitivity to emotional conflict in neural systems implicated in threat detection. Aberrant amygdala response to emotional conflict was related to diminished reward sensitivity that is emerging as a critical stress-susceptibility trait that may contribute to the emergence of mental illness during adolescence. These results suggest that deficits in conflict regulation for emotional material may underlie heightened risk for psychopathology in individuals that endure early-life trauma. PMID:25413183

  14. Childhood Trauma Exposure Disrupts the Automatic Regulation of Emotional Processing

    PubMed Central

    Marusak, Hilary A; Martin, Kayla R; Etkin, Amit; Thomason, Moriah E

    2015-01-01

    Early-life trauma is one of the strongest risk factors for later emotional psychopathology. Although research in adults highlights that childhood trauma predicts deficits in emotion regulation that persist decades later, it is unknown whether neural and behavioral changes that may precipitate illness are evident during formative, developmental years. This study examined whether automatic regulation of emotional conflict is perturbed in a high-risk urban sample of trauma-exposed children and adolescents. A total of 14 trauma-exposed and 16 age-, sex-, and IQ-matched comparison youth underwent functional MRI while performing an emotional conflict task that involved categorizing facial affect while ignoring an overlying emotion word. Engagement of the conflict regulation system was evaluated at neural and behavioral levels. Results showed that trauma-exposed youth failed to dampen dorsolateral prefrontal cortex activity and engage amygdala–pregenual cingulate inhibitory circuitry during the regulation of emotional conflict, and were less able to regulate emotional conflict. In addition, trauma-exposed youth showed greater conflict-related amygdala reactivity that was associated with diminished levels of trait reward sensitivity. These data point to a trauma-related deficit in automatic regulation of emotional processing, and increase in sensitivity to emotional conflict in neural systems implicated in threat detection. Aberrant amygdala response to emotional conflict was related to diminished reward sensitivity that is emerging as a critical stress-susceptibility trait that may contribute to the emergence of mental illness during adolescence. These results suggest that deficits in conflict regulation for emotional material may underlie heightened risk for psychopathology in individuals that endure early-life trauma. PMID:25413183

  15. Automatic Evaluation of Welded Joints Using Image Processing on Radiographs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwartz, Ch.

    2003-03-01

    Radiography is frequently used to detect discontinuities in welded joints (porosity, cracks, lack of penetration). Perfect knowledge of the geometry of these defects is an important step which is essential to appreciate the quality of the weld. Because of this, an action improving the interpretation of radiographs by image processing has been undertaken. The principle consists in making a radiograph of the welded joint and of a depth step wedge penetrameter in the material. The radiograph is then finely digitized and an automatic processing of the radiograph of the penetrameter image allows the establishment of a correspondence between grey levels and material thickness. An algorithm based on image processing is used to localize defects in the welded joints and to isolate them from the original image. First, defects detected by this method are characterized in terms of dimension and equivalent thickness. Then, from the image of the healthy welded joint (that is to say without the detected defects), characteristic values of the weld are evaluated (thickness reduction, width).

  16. Electrophysiological evidence for automatic processing of erroneous stimuli.

    PubMed

    Mesika, David; Tzur, Gabriel; Berger, Andrea

    2014-07-01

    In a paradigm combining color-word Stroop and misspelled words processing, spelling mistakes were placed in half the Stroop stimuli. Participants were presented with words written in different ink colors and asked to identify the color of the ink while ignoring the word meaning. Importantly, whether the word was correctly spelled or not was completely irrelevant to the task. The spelling manipulation did not change the phonology or semantic meaning of the words. Congruency and spelling correctness were manipulated orthogonally and interacted at the behavioral level. Event-related potentials showed a very early processing of misspelled words. The present findings are in line with the idea of anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) involvement in cognitive monitoring, expressed mainly in the theta frequency band. The present study demonstrates that this monitoring mechanism is elicited automatically, in other words, this mechanism perceives erroneous stimuli even when they are absolutely irrelevant to the participant׳s task. At later processing stages, the same central monitoring mechanism is also involved in the detection/resolution of conflict. PMID:24751991

  17. Guidelines for Automatic Data Processing Physical Security and Risk Management. Federal Information Processing Standards Publication 31.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Bureau of Standards (DOC), Washington, DC.

    These guidelines provide a handbook for use by federal organizations in structuring physical security and risk management programs for their automatic data processing facilities. This publication discusses security analysis, natural disasters, supporting utilities, system reliability, procedural measures and controls, off-site facilities,…

  18. Multispectral (IR and MMW) processing for automatic target detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corbett, Francis J.; Swistak, Joseph E.

    1990-10-01

    Automatic Target Recognition algorithms have been developed with limited success over the last few years. The processing to extract military targets from background clutter has difficulty under noisy, real-world conditions. Fusion of data from different wavelength sensors has been one approach to improve performance. The underlying theory is that signature data from different areas of the electro-magnetic spectrum will be complementary and clutter is frequency dependent. Recent work based on both statistical classification, and feature analysis in the thermal infrared and millimeter wave spectra, has shown interesting trends. We will provide a description of the IR/MMW target classification algorithms, the fusion architecture we employed, and processes used to search for the optimum features. Two distinct search and detect schemes were tested with different results. Data acquisition and reduction issues which affect algorithm experiments will also be discussed. A software based algorithm development test-bed was built at Textron to implement the multispectral targeting experiments. The effect of a modular, programmable test-bed on such experiments is to increase productivity and allow multivariate evaluatio ns.

  19. A Rapid Process for Fabricating Gas Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Hsiao, Chun-Ching; Luo, Li-Siang

    2014-01-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) is a low-toxicity and environmentally-friendly material applied on devices, sensors or actuators for “green” usage. A porous ZnO film deposited by a rapid process of aerosol deposition (AD) was employed as the gas-sensitive material in a CO gas sensor to reduce both manufacturing cost and time, and to further extend the AD application for a large-scale production. The relative resistance change (ΔR/R) of the ZnO gas sensor was used for gas measurement. The fabricated ZnO gas sensors were measured with operating temperatures ranging from 110 °C to 180 °C, and CO concentrations ranging from 100 ppm to 1000 ppm. The sensitivity and the response time presented good performance at increasing operating temperatures and CO concentrations. AD was successfully for applied for making ZnO gas sensors with great potential for achieving high deposition rates at low deposition temperatures, large-scale production and low cost. PMID:25010696

  20. 10 CFR 95.49 - Security of automatic data processing (ADP) systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Security of automatic data processing (ADP) systems. 95.49 Section 95.49 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) FACILITY SECURITY CLEARANCE AND... automatic data processing (ADP) systems. Classified data or information may not be processed or produced...

  1. 10 CFR 95.49 - Security of automatic data processing (ADP) systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Security of automatic data processing (ADP) systems. 95.49 Section 95.49 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) FACILITY SECURITY CLEARANCE AND... automatic data processing (ADP) systems. Classified data or information may not be processed or produced...

  2. 10 CFR 95.49 - Security of automatic data processing (ADP) systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Security of automatic data processing (ADP) systems. 95.49 Section 95.49 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) FACILITY SECURITY CLEARANCE AND... automatic data processing (ADP) systems. Classified data or information may not be processed or produced...

  3. 10 CFR 95.49 - Security of automatic data processing (ADP) systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Security of automatic data processing (ADP) systems. 95.49 Section 95.49 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) FACILITY SECURITY CLEARANCE AND... automatic data processing (ADP) systems. Classified data or information may not be processed or produced...

  4. Automatic processing of macromolecular crystallography X-ray diffraction data at the ESRF.

    PubMed

    Monaco, Stéphanie; Gordon, Elspeth; Bowler, Matthew W; Delagenière, Solange; Guijarro, Matias; Spruce, Darren; Svensson, Olof; McSweeney, Sean M; McCarthy, Andrew A; Leonard, Gordon; Nanao, Max H

    2013-06-01

    The development of automated high-intensity macromolecular crystallography (MX) beamlines at synchrotron facilities has resulted in a remarkable increase in sample throughput. Developments in X-ray detector technology now mean that complete X-ray diffraction datasets can be collected in less than one minute. Such high-speed collection, and the volumes of data that it produces, often make it difficult for even the most experienced users to cope with the deluge. However, the careful reduction of data during experimental sessions is often necessary for the success of a particular project or as an aid in decision making for subsequent experiments. Automated data reduction pipelines provide a fast and reliable alternative to user-initiated processing at the beamline. In order to provide such a pipeline for the MX user community of the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF), a system for the rapid automatic processing of MX diffraction data from single and multiple positions on a single or multiple crystals has been developed. Standard integration and data analysis programs have been incorporated into the ESRF data collection, storage and computing environment, with the final results stored and displayed in an intuitive manner in the ISPyB (information system for protein crystallography beamlines) database, from which they are also available for download. In some cases, experimental phase information can be automatically determined from the processed data. Here, the system is described in detail. PMID:23682196

  5. Automatic processing of macromolecular crystallography X-ray diffraction data at the ESRF

    PubMed Central

    Monaco, Stéphanie; Gordon, Elspeth; Bowler, Matthew W.; Delagenière, Solange; Guijarro, Matias; Spruce, Darren; Svensson, Olof; McSweeney, Sean M.; McCarthy, Andrew A.; Leonard, Gordon; Nanao, Max H.

    2013-01-01

    The development of automated high-intensity macromolecular crystallography (MX) beamlines at synchrotron facilities has resulted in a remarkable increase in sample throughput. Developments in X-ray detector technology now mean that complete X-ray diffraction datasets can be collected in less than one minute. Such high-speed collection, and the volumes of data that it produces, often make it difficult for even the most experienced users to cope with the deluge. However, the careful reduction of data during experimental sessions is often necessary for the success of a particular project or as an aid in decision making for subsequent experiments. Automated data reduction pipelines provide a fast and reliable alternative to user-initiated processing at the beamline. In order to provide such a pipeline for the MX user community of the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF), a system for the rapid automatic processing of MX diffraction data from single and multiple positions on a single or multiple crystals has been developed. Standard integration and data analysis programs have been incorporated into the ESRF data collection, storage and computing environment, with the final results stored and displayed in an intuitive manner in the ISPyB (information system for protein crystallography beamlines) database, from which they are also available for download. In some cases, experimental phase information can be automatically determined from the processed data. Here, the system is described in detail. PMID:23682196

  6. Automatic retrieval of bone fracture knowledge using natural language processing.

    PubMed

    Do, Bao H; Wu, Andrew S; Maley, Joan; Biswal, Sandip

    2013-08-01

    Natural language processing (NLP) techniques to extract data from unstructured text into formal computer representations are valuable for creating robust, scalable methods to mine data in medical documents and radiology reports. As voice recognition (VR) becomes more prevalent in radiology practice, there is opportunity for implementing NLP in real time for decision-support applications such as context-aware information retrieval. For example, as the radiologist dictates a report, an NLP algorithm can extract concepts from the text and retrieve relevant classification or diagnosis criteria or calculate disease probability. NLP can work in parallel with VR to potentially facilitate evidence-based reporting (for example, automatically retrieving the Bosniak classification when the radiologist describes a kidney cyst). For these reasons, we developed and validated an NLP system which extracts fracture and anatomy concepts from unstructured text and retrieves relevant bone fracture knowledge. We implement our NLP in an HTML5 web application to demonstrate a proof-of-concept feedback NLP system which retrieves bone fracture knowledge in real time. PMID:23053906

  7. Automatic Control of Arc Process for Making Carbon Nanotubes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, Carl D.; Pulumbarit, Robert B.; Victor, Joe

    2004-01-01

    An automatic-control system has been devised for a process in which carbon nanotubes are produced in an arc between a catalyst-filled carbon anode and a graphite cathode. The control system includes a motor-driven screw that adjusts the distance between the electrodes. The system also includes a bridge circuit that puts out a voltage proportional to the difference between (1) the actual value of potential drop across the arc and (2) a reference value between 38 and 40 V (corresponding to a current of about 100 A) at which the yield of carbon nanotubes is maximized. Utilizing the fact that the potential drop across the arc increases with the interelectrode gap, the output of the bridge circuit is fed to a motor-control circuit that causes the motor to move the anode toward or away from the cathode if the actual potential drop is more or less, respectively, than the reference potential. Thus, the system regulates the interelectrode gap to maintain the optimum potential drop. The system also includes circuitry that records the potential drop across the arc and the relative position of the anode holder as function of time.

  8. 41 CFR 109-45.309-54 - Automatic Data Processing Equipment (ADPE).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Personal Property § 109-45.309-54 Automatic Data Processing Equipment (ADPE). ADPE shall be made available... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Automatic Data Processing Equipment (ADPE). 109-45.309-54 Section 109-45.309-54 Public Contracts and Property...

  9. 41 CFR 109-45.309-54 - Automatic Data Processing Equipment (ADPE).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Personal Property § 109-45.309-54 Automatic Data Processing Equipment (ADPE). ADPE shall be made available... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Automatic Data Processing Equipment (ADPE). 109-45.309-54 Section 109-45.309-54 Public Contracts and Property...

  10. 41 CFR 109-45.309-54 - Automatic Data Processing Equipment (ADPE).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Personal Property § 109-45.309-54 Automatic Data Processing Equipment (ADPE). ADPE shall be made available... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Automatic Data Processing Equipment (ADPE). 109-45.309-54 Section 109-45.309-54 Public Contracts and Property...

  11. 41 CFR 109-45.309-54 - Automatic Data Processing Equipment (ADPE).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Personal Property § 109-45.309-54 Automatic Data Processing Equipment (ADPE). ADPE shall be made available... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Automatic Data Processing Equipment (ADPE). 109-45.309-54 Section 109-45.309-54 Public Contracts and Property...

  12. 10 CFR 95.49 - Security of automatic data processing (ADP) systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Security of automatic data processing (ADP) systems. 95.49 Section 95.49 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) FACILITY SECURITY CLEARANCE AND SAFEGUARDING OF NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION AND RESTRICTED DATA Control of Information § 95.49 Security of automatic data processing (ADP)...

  13. 41 CFR 109-43.307-53 - Automatic data processing equipment (ADPE).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ....307-53 Automatic data processing equipment (ADPE). All ADPE shall be sanitized before being... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Automatic data processing equipment (ADPE). 109-43.307-53 Section 109-43.307-53 Public Contracts and Property...

  14. 41 CFR 109-45.309-54 - Automatic Data Processing Equipment (ADPE).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Personal Property § 109-45.309-54 Automatic Data Processing Equipment (ADPE). ADPE shall be made available... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Automatic Data Processing Equipment (ADPE). 109-45.309-54 Section 109-45.309-54 Public Contracts and Property...

  15. Development of the Interplay between Automatic Processes and Cognitive Resources in Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walczyk, Jeffrey J.; Wei, Min; Grifith-Ross, Diana A.; Goubert, Sarah E.; Cooper, Alison L.; Zha, Peijia

    2007-01-01

    An account was tested of the development of the interplay between automatic processes and cognitive resources in reading. According to compensatory-encoding theory, with advancing skill, readers increasingly keep automatic processes from faltering and provide timely, accurate data to working memory by pausing, looking back, rereading, and…

  16. An automatic placement tool for rapid prototyping of printed circuit boards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Granacki, John; Kazi, Tauseef

    1993-11-01

    This report describes a fully automatic placement tool for PCB's (printed circuit boards), nap (nonhierarchical automatic placement) that combines approaches from different placement heuristics developed both for PCB and VLSI chip placement. Although the problem of placement for a PCB can be abstractly cast into the same formalism as the problem of VLSI cell placement, a practical tool must incorporate many additional features. In this report we describe the impact of incorporating these PCB-specific features as well as other constraints imposed by the CAD environment (that is, the schematic capture system and the automatic routing tools) into an automatic placement tool. Next we discuss the selected heuristics and their associated data structures in detail. Following this discussion, we present the results of using the placement tool on two test cases along with an analysis of the tools performance. Finally, we identify the limitations of the current implementation and we propose some possible solutions and future work.

  17. Controlled versus Automatic Processes: Which Is Dominant to Safety? The Moderating Effect of Inhibitory Control

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Yaoshan; Li, Yongjuan; Ding, Weidong; Lu, Fan

    2014-01-01

    This study explores the precursors of employees' safety behaviors based on a dual-process model, which suggests that human behaviors are determined by both controlled and automatic cognitive processes. Employees' responses to a self-reported survey on safety attitudes capture their controlled cognitive process, while the automatic association concerning safety measured by an Implicit Association Test (IAT) reflects employees' automatic cognitive processes about safety. In addition, this study investigates the moderating effects of inhibition on the relationship between self-reported safety attitude and safety behavior, and that between automatic associations towards safety and safety behavior. The results suggest significant main effects of self-reported safety attitude and automatic association on safety behaviors. Further, the interaction between self-reported safety attitude and inhibition and that between automatic association and inhibition each predict unique variances in safety behavior. Specifically, the safety behaviors of employees with lower level of inhibitory control are influenced more by automatic association, whereas those of employees with higher level of inhibitory control are guided more by self-reported safety attitudes. These results suggest that safety behavior is the joint outcome of both controlled and automatic cognitive processes, and the relative importance of these cognitive processes depends on employees' individual differences in inhibitory control. The implications of these findings for theoretical and practical issues are discussed at the end. PMID:24520338

  18. Uav Data Processing for Rapid Mapping Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tampubolon, W.; Reinhardt, W.

    2015-08-01

    During disaster and emergency situations, geospatial data plays an important role to serve as a framework for decision support system. As one component of basic geospatial data, large scale topographical maps are mandatory in order to enable geospatial analysis within quite a number of societal challenges. The increasing role of geo-information in disaster management nowadays consequently needs to include geospatial aspects on its analysis. Therefore different geospatial datasets can be combined in order to produce reliable geospatial analysis especially in the context of disaster preparedness and emergency response. A very well-known issue in this context is the fast delivery of geospatial relevant data which is expressed by the term "Rapid Mapping". Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) is the rising geospatial data platform nowadays that can be attractive for modelling and monitoring the disaster area with a low cost and timely acquisition in such critical period of time. Disaster-related object extraction is of special interest for many applications. In this paper, UAV-borne data has been used for supporting rapid mapping activities in combination with high resolution airborne Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (IFSAR) data. A real disaster instance from 2013 in conjunction with Mount Sinabung eruption, Northern Sumatra, Indonesia, is used as the benchmark test for the rapid mapping activities presented in this paper. On this context, the reliable IFSAR dataset from airborne data acquisition in 2011 has been used as a comparable dataset for accuracy investigation and assessment purpose in 3 D reconstructions. After all, this paper presents a proper geo-referencing and feature extraction method of UAV data to support rapid mapping activities.

  19. Automatic Neural Processing of Disorder-Related Stimuli in Social Anxiety Disorder: Faces and More

    PubMed Central

    Schulz, Claudia; Mothes-Lasch, Martin; Straube, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    It has been proposed that social anxiety disorder (SAD) is associated with automatic information processing biases resulting in hypersensitivity to signals of social threat such as negative facial expressions. However, the nature and extent of automatic processes in SAD on the behavioral and neural level is not entirely clear yet. The present review summarizes neuroscientific findings on automatic processing of facial threat but also other disorder-related stimuli such as emotional prosody or negative words in SAD. We review initial evidence for automatic activation of the amygdala, insula, and sensory cortices as well as for automatic early electrophysiological components. However, findings vary depending on tasks, stimuli, and neuroscientific methods. Only few studies set out to examine automatic neural processes directly and systematic attempts are as yet lacking. We suggest that future studies should: (1) use different stimulus modalities, (2) examine different emotional expressions, (3) compare findings in SAD with other anxiety disorders, (4) use more sophisticated experimental designs to investigate features of automaticity systematically, and (5) combine different neuroscientific methods (such as functional neuroimaging and electrophysiology). Finally, the understanding of neural automatic processes could also provide hints for therapeutic approaches. PMID:23745116

  20. Are Automatic Imitation and Spatial Compatibility Mediated by Different Processes?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Richard P.; Catmur, Caroline; Heyes, Cecilia

    2013-01-01

    Automatic imitation or "imitative compatibility" is thought to be mediated by the mirror neuron system and to be a laboratory model of the motor mimicry that occurs spontaneously in naturalistic social interaction. Imitative compatibility and spatial compatibility effects are known to depend on different stimulus dimensions--body…

  1. Automatic Processing of Psychological Distance: Evidence from a Stroop Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bar-Anan, Yoav; Liberman, Nira; Trope, Yaacov; Algom, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    A picture-word version of the Stroop task was used to test the automatic activation of psychological distance by words carrying various senses of psychological distance: temporal (tomorrow, in a year), social (friend, enemy), and hypotheticality (sure, maybe). The pictures implied depth, with the words appearing relatively close to or distant from…

  2. The Masked Semantic Priming Effect Is Task Dependent: Reconsidering the Automatic Spreading Activation Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Wit, Bianca; Kinoshita, Sachiko

    2015-01-01

    Semantic priming effects are popularly explained in terms of an automatic spreading activation process, according to which the activation of a node in a semantic network spreads automatically to interconnected nodes, preactivating a semantically related word. It is expected from this account that semantic priming effects should be routinely…

  3. Is rapid automatized naming related to reading and mathematics for the same reason(s)? A follow-up study from kindergarten to Grade 1.

    PubMed

    Georgiou, George K; Tziraki, Niki; Manolitsis, George; Fella, Argyro

    2013-07-01

    We examined (a) what rapid automatized naming (RAN) components (articulation time and/or pause time) predict reading and mathematics ability and (b) what processing skills involved in RAN (speed of processing, response inhibition, working memory, and/or phonological awareness) may explain its relationship with reading and mathematics. A sample of 72 children were followed from the beginning of kindergarten until the end of Grade 1 and were assessed on measures of RAN, general cognitive ability, speed of processing, attention, working memory, phonological awareness, reading, and mathematics. The results indicated that pause time was the critical component in both the RAN-reading and RAN-mathematics relationships and that it shared most of its predictive variance in reading and mathematics with speed of processing and working memory. Our findings further suggested that, unlike the relationship between RAN and reading fluency in Grade 1, there is nothing in the RAN task that is uniquely related to math. PMID:23506806

  4. Automatic Processing of Psychological Distance: Evidence from a Stroop Task

    PubMed Central

    Bar-Anan, Yoav; Trope, Yaacov; Liberman, Nira; Algom, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    A picture-word version of the Stroop task was used to test the automatic activation of words carrying various senses of psychological distance: temporal (tomorrow, in a year), social (friend, enemy), and hypotheticality (sure, maybe). The pictures implied depth with the words appearing relatively close or distant from the observer. The participants classified the spatial distance of words faster when the word’s implicit psychological distance matched their spatial distance (e.g., a geographically close word was classified faster when it was ‘friend’ than when it was ‘enemy’). The findings are consistent with the notion that psychological distance is accessed automatically, even when it is not directly related to people’s current goals, and suggest that psychological distance is an important dimension of meaning, common to spatial distance, temporal distance, social distance, and hypotheticality. PMID:17999574

  5. Top-down modulation of unconscious 'automatic' processes: A gating framework

    PubMed Central

    Kiefer, Markus

    2008-01-01

    In classical theories of automaticity, automatic processes are usually thought to occur autonomously and independently of higher level top-down factors (e.g., Posner & Snyder, 1975). However, already Neumann (1984) pointed out that the cognitive system has to be configured in a certain way for automatic processes to occur. In extension of his work, I propose a gating framework to account for the influence of top-down factors such as attention, intention and task set on automatic processes such as masked response or semantic priming. It is assumed that task representations held in prefrontal cortex regulate the gain of neurons in visual and sematic association cortex thereby modulating the effects of unconsciously perceived masked stimuli on further ‘automatic’ information processing steps. In support of the postulated gating framework, recent studies demonstrated a top-down modulation of automatic processes. Behavioral and electrophysiological studies with the masked response priming and semantic priming paradigms show that masked priming effects crucially depend (i) on temporal attention to the masked prime, (ii) on intentions or action plans and (iii) on the task set active immediately before masked prime presentation. For instance, masked semantic priming was only observed when the preceding task set required the orientation to semantic word features, but not when it required orientation to perceptual word features. These results support the view that unconscious automatic processes are modulated by top-down factors. They are suggestive of a gating mechanism which orchestrates the conscious and unconscious information processing streams. PMID:20517515

  6. Cell Processing Engineering for Regenerative Medicine : Noninvasive Cell Quality Estimation and Automatic Cell Processing.

    PubMed

    Takagi, Mutsumi

    2016-01-01

    The cell processing engineering including automatic cell processing and noninvasive cell quality estimation of adherent mammalian cells for regenerative medicine was reviewed. Automatic cell processing necessary for the industrialization of regenerative medicine was introduced. The cell quality such as cell heterogeneity should be noninvasively estimated before transplantation to patient, because cultured cells are usually not homogeneous but heterogeneous and most protocols of regenerative medicine are autologous system. The differentiation level could be estimated by two-dimensional cell morphology analysis using a conventional phase-contrast microscope. The phase-shifting laser microscope (PLM) could determine laser phase shift at all pixel in a view, which is caused by the transmitted laser through cell, and might be more noninvasive and more useful than the atomic force microscope and digital holographic microscope. The noninvasive determination of the laser phase shift of a cell using a PLM was carried out to determine the three-dimensional cell morphology and estimate the cell cycle phase of each adhesive cell and the mean proliferation activity of a cell population. The noninvasive discrimination of cancer cells from normal cells by measuring the phase shift was performed based on the difference in cytoskeleton density. Chemical analysis of the culture supernatant was also useful to estimate the differentiation level of a cell population. A probe beam, an infrared beam, and Raman spectroscopy are useful for diagnosing the viability, apoptosis, and differentiation of each adhesive cell. PMID:25373455

  7. TARGET: Rapid Capture of Process Knowledge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ortiz, C. J.; Ly, H. V.; Saito, T.; Loftin, R. B.

    1993-01-01

    TARGET (Task Analysis/Rule Generation Tool) represents a new breed of tool that blends graphical process flow modeling capabilities with the function of a top-down reporting facility. Since NASA personnel frequently perform tasks that are primarily procedural in nature, TARGET models mission or task procedures and generates hierarchical reports as part of the process capture and analysis effort. Historically, capturing knowledge has proven to be one of the greatest barriers to the development of intelligent systems. Current practice generally requires lengthy interactions between the expert whose knowledge is to be captured and the knowledge engineer whose responsibility is to acquire and represent the expert's knowledge in a useful form. Although much research has been devoted to the development of methodologies and computer software to aid in the capture and representation of some types of knowledge, procedural knowledge has received relatively little attention. In essence, TARGET is one of the first tools of its kind, commercial or institutional, that is designed to support this type of knowledge capture undertaking. This paper will describe the design and development of TARGET for the acquisition and representation of procedural knowledge. The strategies employed by TARGET to support use by knowledge engineers, subject matter experts, programmers and managers will be discussed. This discussion includes the method by which the tool employs its graphical user interface to generate a task hierarchy report. Next, the approach to generate production rules for incorporation in and development of a CLIPS based expert system will be elaborated. TARGET also permits experts to visually describe procedural tasks as a common medium for knowledge refinement by the expert community and knowledge engineer making knowledge consensus possible. The paper briefly touches on the verification and validation issues facing the CLIPS rule generation aspects of TARGET. A description of

  8. Implications of number-space synesthesia on the automaticity of numerical processing

    PubMed Central

    Gertner, Limor; Henik, Avishai; Reznik, Daniel; Cohen Kadosh, Roi

    2013-01-01

    Number-space synesthetes visualize numbers in specific spatial configurations. Their spatial-numerical perceptions are assumed to be automatic in nature and have been found to affect performance in various numerical tasks. The current study tested whether synesthetic number-space associations can modulate the well-established Size Congruency Effect (SiCE), which is considered to be an indication for the automaticity of numerical processing. Two groups, number-space synesthetes and matched controls, were tested on a numerical Stroop task (Henik and Tzelgov, 1982). In separate blocks, participants were presented with two digits and asked to make comparative judgments regarding either numerical values (numerical comparison) or physical size (physical comparison). Both dimensions were manipulated orthogonally, creating three congruency levels: congruent (e.g., 2 7), incongruent (e.g., 2 7) and neutral (e.g., 2 2 and 2 7 for physical and numerical blocks, respectively). For the numerical block, both synesthetes and controls showed the classic SiCE, indicating similar automatic processing of physical magnitude. However, in the physical block, synesthetes showed a lack of automatic numerical magnitude processing when the numbers to be compared were presented incompatibly with their relative position on the synesthetic number-form. This finding strongly suggests that synesthetes’ number-space perceptions affect their ability to automatically process the semantic meaning of numerals. The involvement of space in automatic magnitude processing for number-space synesthetes and non-synesthetes is discussed. PMID:22578710

  9. Development of an Automatic Processing Program for BOES Data. II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Dong-Ii; Park, Hong-Suh; Han, In-Woo; Valyavin, G.; Lee, Byeong-Cheol; Kim, Kang-Min

    2006-12-01

    We developed a new program for automatic continuum normalization of Echelle spectrographic data. Using this algorithm, we have determined spectral continuum of almost BOES data. The first advantage of this algorithm is that we can save much time for continuum determination and normalization. The second advantage is that the result of this algorithm is very reliable for almost spectral type of spectrum. But this algorithm cannot be applied directly to the spectrum which has very strong and broad emission lines, for example Wolf-Rayet type spectrum. We implanted this algorithm to the program which was developed in the previous study [2005PKAS...20...97K]. And we introduced more upgraded BOES data reduction program. This program has more convenient graphical user interface environment, so users can easily reduce BOES data. Lastly, we presented the result of study on line profile variation of magnetic Ap/Bp stars analyzed using this program.

  10. Gaussian process classification using automatic relevance determination for SAR target recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiangrong; Gou, Limin; Hou, Biao; Jiao, Licheng

    2010-10-01

    In this paper, a Synthetic Aperture Radar Automatic Target Recognition approach based on Gaussian process (GP) classification is proposed. It adopts kernel principal component analysis to extract sample features and implements target recognition by using GP classification with automatic relevance determination (ARD) function. Compared with k-Nearest Neighbor, Naïve Bayes classifier and Support Vector Machine, GP with ARD has the advantage of automatic model selection and hyper-parameter optimization. The experiments on UCI datasets and MSTAR database show that our algorithm is self-tuning and has better recognition accuracy as well.

  11. Racial bias in pain perception and response: experimental examination of automatic and deliberate processes

    PubMed Central

    Mathur, Vani A.; Richeson, Jennifer A.; Paice, Judith A.; Muzyka, Michael; Chiao, Joan Y.

    2014-01-01

    Racial disparities in pain treatment pose a significant public health and scientific problem. Prior studies demonstrate clinicians and non-clinicians are less perceptive, and suggest less treatment for, the pain of African Americans, relative to European Americans. Here we investigate the effects of explicit/implicit patient race presentation, patient race, and perceiver race on pain perception and response. African American and European American participants rated pain perception, empathy, helping motivation, and treatment suggestion in response to vignettes about patients’ pain. Vignettes were accompanied by a rapid (implicit), or static (explicit) presentation of an African or European American patient’s face. Participants perceived and responded more to European American patients in the implicit prime condition, when the effect of patient race was below the level of conscious regulation. This effect was reversed when patient race was presented explicitly. Additionally, female participants perceived and responded more to the pain of all patients, relative to male participants, and in the implicit prime condition, African American participants were more perceptive and responsive than European Americans to the pain of all patients. Taken together, these results suggest that known disparities in pain treatment may be largely due to automatic (below the level of conscious regulation), rather than deliberate (subject to conscious regulation) biases. These biases were not associated with traditional implicit measures of racial attitudes, suggesting that biases in pain perception and response may be independent of general prejudice. Perspective Results suggest racial biases in pain perception and treatment are at least partially due to automatic processes. When the relevance of patient race is made explicit, however, biases are attenuated and even reversed. We also find preliminary evidence that African Americans may be more sensitive to the pain of others than

  12. A comparison of conscious and automatic memory processes for picture and word stimuli: a process dissociation analysis.

    PubMed

    McBride, Dawn M; Anne Dosher, Barbara

    2002-09-01

    Four experiments were conducted to evaluate explanations of picture superiority effects previously found for several tasks. In a process dissociation procedure (Jacoby, 1991) with word stem completion, picture fragment completion, and category production tasks, conscious and automatic memory processes were compared for studied pictures and words with an independent retrieval model and a generate-source model. The predictions of a transfer appropriate processing account of picture superiority were tested and validated in "process pure" latent measures of conscious and unconscious, or automatic and source, memory processes. Results from both model fits verified that pictures had a conceptual (conscious/source) processing advantage over words for all tasks. The effects of perceptual (automatic/word generation) compatibility depended on task type, with pictorial tasks favoring pictures and linguistic tasks favoring words. Results show support for an explanation of the picture superiority effect that involves an interaction of encoding and retrieval processes. PMID:12435377

  13. Methodology and Implications of Reconstruction and Automatic Processing of Natural Language of the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marlin, Marjorie; Barron, Nancy

    This paper discusses in some detail the procedural areas of reconstruction and automatic processing used by the Classroom Interaction Project of the University of Missouri's Center for Research in Social Behavior in the analysis of classroom language. First discussed is the process of reconstruction, here defined as the "process of adding to…

  14. Syntax as a Reflex: Neurophysiological Evidence for Early Automaticity of Grammatical Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pulvermuller, Friedemann; Shtyrov, Yury; Hasting, Anna S.; Carlyon, Robert P.

    2008-01-01

    It has been a matter of debate whether the specifically human capacity to process syntactic information draws on attentional resources or is automatic. To address this issue, we recorded neurophysiological indicators of syntactic processing to spoken sentences while subjects were distracted to different degrees from language processing. Subjects…

  15. A new quantitative automatic method for the measurement of non-rapid eye movement sleep electroencephalographic amplitude variability.

    PubMed

    Ferri, Raffaele; Rundo, Francesco; Novelli, Luana; Terzano, Mario G; Parrino, Liborio; Bruni, Oliviero

    2012-04-01

    The aim of this study was to arrange an automatic quantitative measure of the electroencephalographic (EEG) signal amplitude variability during non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep, correlated with the visually extracted cyclic alternating pattern (CAP) parameters. Ninety-eight polysomnographic EEG recordings of normal controls were used. A new algorithm based on the analysis of the EEG amplitude variability during NREM sleep was designed and applied to all recordings, which were also scored visually for CAP. All measurements obtained with the new algorithm correlated positively with corresponding CAP parameters. In particular, total CAP time correlated with total NREM variability time (r = 0.596; P < 1E-07), light sleep CAP time with light sleep variability time (r = 0.597; P < 1E-07) and slow wave sleep CAP time with slow wave sleep variability time (r = 0.809; P < 1E-07). Only the duration of CAP A phases showed a low correlation with the duration of variability events. Finally, the age-related modifications of CAP time and of NREM variability time were found to be very similar. The new method for the automatic analysis of NREM sleep amplitude variability presented here correlates significantly with visual CAP parameters; its application requires a minimum work time, compared to CAP analysis, and might be used in large studies involving numerous recordings in which NREM sleep EEG amplitude variability needs to be assessed. PMID:22084833

  16. Development of a rapid method for the automatic classification of biological agents' fluorescence spectral signatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carestia, Mariachiara; Pizzoferrato, Roberto; Gelfusa, Michela; Cenciarelli, Orlando; Ludovici, Gian Marco; Gabriele, Jessica; Malizia, Andrea; Murari, Andrea; Vega, Jesus; Gaudio, Pasquale

    2015-11-01

    Biosecurity and biosafety are key concerns of modern society. Although nanomaterials are improving the capacities of point detectors, standoff detection still appears to be an open issue. Laser-induced fluorescence of biological agents (BAs) has proved to be one of the most promising optical techniques to achieve early standoff detection, but its strengths and weaknesses are still to be fully investigated. In particular, different BAs tend to have similar fluorescence spectra due to the ubiquity of biological endogenous fluorophores producing a signal in the UV range, making data analysis extremely challenging. The Universal Multi Event Locator (UMEL), a general method based on support vector regression, is commonly used to identify characteristic structures in arrays of data. In the first part of this work, we investigate fluorescence emission spectra of different simulants of BAs and apply UMEL for their automatic classification. In the second part of this work, we elaborate a strategy for the application of UMEL to the discrimination of different BAs' simulants spectra. Through this strategy, it has been possible to discriminate between these BAs' simulants despite the high similarity of their fluorescence spectra. These preliminary results support the use of SVR methods to classify BAs' spectral signatures.

  17. Thermally grown oxide and diffusions for automatic processing of integrated circuits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kennedy, B. W.

    1979-01-01

    A totally automated facility for semiconductor oxidation and diffusion was developed using a state-of-the-art diffusion furnace and high temperature grown oxides. Major innovations include: (1) a process controller specifically for semiconductor processing; (2) an automatic loading system to accept wafers from an air track, insert them into a quartz carrier and then place the carrier on a paddle for insertion into the furnace; (3) automatic unloading of the wafers back onto the air track, and (4) boron diffusion using diborane with plus or minus 5 percent uniformity. Processes demonstrated include Wet and dry oxidation for general use and for gate oxide, boron diffusion, phosphorous diffusion, and sintering.

  18. ASAP (Automatic Software for ASL Processing): A toolbox for processing Arterial Spin Labeling images.

    PubMed

    Mato Abad, Virginia; García-Polo, Pablo; O'Daly, Owen; Hernández-Tamames, Juan Antonio; Zelaya, Fernando

    2016-04-01

    The method of Arterial Spin Labeling (ASL) has experienced a significant rise in its application to functional imaging, since it is the only technique capable of measuring blood perfusion in a truly non-invasive manner. Currently, there are no commercial packages for processing ASL data and there is no recognized standard for normalizing ASL data to a common frame of reference. This work describes a new Automated Software for ASL Processing (ASAP) that can automatically process several ASL datasets. ASAP includes functions for all stages of image pre-processing: quantification, skull-stripping, co-registration, partial volume correction and normalization. To assess the applicability and validity of the toolbox, this work shows its application in the study of hypoperfusion in a sample of healthy subjects at risk of progressing to Alzheimer's disease. ASAP requires limited user intervention, minimizing the possibility of random and systematic errors, and produces cerebral blood flow maps that are ready for statistical group analysis. The software is easy to operate and results in excellent quality of spatial normalization. The results found in this evaluation study are consistent with previous studies that find decreased perfusion in Alzheimer's patients in similar regions and demonstrate the applicability of ASAP. PMID:26612079

  19. Rapid Thermal Processing (RTP) of semiconductors in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, T. J.; Jones, K. S.

    1993-01-01

    The progress achieved on the project entitled 'Rapid Thermal Processing of Semiconductors in Space' for a 12 month period of activity ending March 31, 1993 is summarized. The activity of this group is being performed under the direct auspices of the ROMPS program. The main objective of this program is to develop and demonstrate the use of advanced robotics in space with rapid thermal process (RTP) of semiconductors providing the test technology. Rapid thermal processing is an ideal processing step for demonstration purposes since it encompasses many of the characteristics of other processes used in solid state device manufacturing. Furthermore, a low thermal budget is becoming more important in existing manufacturing practice, while a low thermal budget is critical to successful processing in space. A secondary objective of this project is to determine the influence of microgravity on the rapid thermal process for a variety of operating modes. In many instances, this involves one or more fluid phases. The advancement of microgravity processing science is an important ancillary objective.

  20. Using Automatic Code Generation in the Attitude Control Flight Software Engineering Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McComas, David; O'Donnell, James R., Jr.; Andrews, Stephen F.

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the attitude control subsystem flight software development process, identifies how the process has changed due to automatic code generation, analyzes each software development phase in detail, and concludes with a summary of our lessons learned.

  1. Exploring the Developmental Changes in Automatic Two-Digit Number Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Winnie Wai Lan; Au, Terry K.; Tang, Joey

    2011-01-01

    Even when two-digit numbers are irrelevant to the task at hand, adults process them. Do children process numbers automatically, and if so, what kind of information is activated? In a novel dot-number Stroop task, children (Grades 1-5) and adults were shown two different two-digit numbers made up of dots. Participants were asked to select the…

  2. Formal Specification and Automatic Analysis of Business Processes under Authorization Constraints: An Action-Based Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armando, Alessandro; Giunchiglia, Enrico; Ponta, Serena Elisa

    We present an approach to the formal specification and automatic analysis of business processes under authorization constraints based on the action language \\cal{C}. The use of \\cal{C} allows for a natural and concise modeling of the business process and the associated security policy and for the automatic analysis of the resulting specification by using the Causal Calculator (CCALC). Our approach improves upon previous work by greatly simplifying the specification step while retaining the ability to perform a fully automatic analysis. To illustrate the effectiveness of the approach we describe its application to a version of a business process taken from the banking domain and use CCALC to determine resource allocation plans complying with the security policy.

  3. Spatio-temporal dynamics of automatic processing of phonological information in visual words.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao-Dong; Wu, Yin-Yuan; A-Ping Liu; Wang, Peng

    2013-01-01

    Sensory-specific cortices appear to be sensitive to information from another modality. Here we investigate whether the human brain automatically extracts the phonological information in visual words in early visual processing. We continuously presented native Chinese speakers peripherally with Chinese homophone characters in an oddball paradigm, while they performed a visual detection task presented in the centre of the visual field. We found the lexical tone phonology embedded in the characters is processed automatically by the brain of native speakers, as revealed by whole-head electrical recordings of the mismatch negativity (MMN). Source solution further revealed the MMN involved the neural activations from the visual cortex to the auditory cortex (130-460 ms). The spatial-temporal dynamics indicate a visual-auditory interaction in the early, automatic processing of phonological information in visual words. PMID:24336606

  4. Densitometric evaluation of four rapid dental film processing solutions.

    PubMed

    Matthee, M J; Seeliger, J E

    1991-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate densitometrically four rapid processing solutions for dental films; also to identify those combinations of film, solution and temperature which produced the best results in terms of radiographic contrast and relative film speed at a given temperature. The film types used were Agfa Dentus M2, Flow X-ray and Kodak Ultra-speed while the rapid processing solutions tested were Kolchem Rapid Dev 1, Kolchem Rapid Dev 2, MEMS Ultra-Neg and Siemens Insta-Neg. An aluminium step-wedge was radiographed under standardized conditions. Processing was done manually at 18, 20, 22, 25, 27, 29 and 32 degrees C, the temperatures being controlled with the aid of two Julabo thermostatically controlled immersion circulators, to ensure constant temperatures. Unexposed films were processed at each temperature setting to determine base plus fog values. Densitometric readings were taken using a digital densitometer, and base plus fog values were subtracted from each reading. Radiographic contrast and relative film speed were calculated and the data obtained subjected to statistical analysis using Duncan's Multiple Range Test. It was concluded that Agfa Dentus M2 film processed with Kolchem Rapid Dev 2 at 18 degrees C gave the highest radiographic contrast of 0.44 and relative film speed of 4.36. All base plus fog values were within the acceptable limit of 0.25. PMID:1820681

  5. Rapid visuomotor processing of phobic images in spider- and snake-fearful participants.

    PubMed

    Haberkamp, Anke; Schmidt, Filipp; Schmidt, Thomas

    2013-10-01

    This study investigates enhanced visuomotor processing of phobic compared to fear-relevant and neutral stimuli. We used a response priming design to measure rapid, automatic motor activation by natural images (spiders, snakes, mushrooms, and flowers) in spider-fearful, snake-fearful, and control participants. We found strong priming effects in all tasks and conditions; however, results showed marked differences between groups. Most importantly, in the group of spider-fearful individuals, spider pictures had a strong and specific influence on even the fastest motor responses: Phobic primes entailed the largest priming effects, and phobic targets accelerated responses, both effects indicating speeded response activation by phobic images. In snake-fearful participants, this processing enhancement for phobic material was less pronounced and extended to both snake and spider images. We conclude that spider phobia leads to enhanced processing capacity for phobic images. We argue that this is enabled by long-term perceptual learning processes. PMID:23920405

  6. Portable automatic bioaerosol sampling system for rapid on-site detection of targeted airborne microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Usachev, Evgeny V; Pankova, Anna V; Rafailova, Elina A; Pyankov, Oleg V; Agranovski, Igor E

    2012-10-26

    Bioaerosols could cause various severe human and animal diseases and their opportune and qualitative precise detection and control is becoming a significant scientific and technological topic for consideration. Over the last few decades bioaerosol detection has become an important bio-defense related issue. Many types of portable and stationary bioaerosol samplers have been developed and, in some cases, integrated into automated detection systems utilizing various microbiological techniques for analysis of collected microbes. This paper describes a personal sampler used in conjunction with a portable real-time PCR technique. It was found that a single fluorescent dye could be successfully used in multiplex format for qualitative detection of numerous targeted bioaerosols in one PCR tube making the suggested technology a reliable "first alert" device. This approach has been specifically developed and successfully verified for rapid detection of targeted microorganisms by portable PCR devices, which is especially important under field conditions, where the number of microorganisms of interest usually exceeds the number of available PCR reaction tubes. The approach allows detecting targeted microorganisms and triggering some corresponding sanitary and quarantine procedures to localize possible spread of dangerous infections. Following detailed analysis of the sample under controlled laboratory conditions could be used to exactly identify which particular microorganism out of a targeted group has been rapidly detected in the field. It was also found that the personal sampler has a collection efficiency higher than 90% even for small-sized viruses (>20 nm) and stable performance over extended operating periods. In addition, it was found that for microorganisms used in this project (bacteriophages MS2 and T4) elimination of nucleic acids isolation and purification steps during sample preparation does not lead to the system sensitivity reduction, which is extremely

  7. Automatic optimization of metrology sampling scheme for advanced process control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chue, Chuei-Fu; Huang, Chun-Yen; Shih, Chiang-Lin

    2011-03-01

    In order to ensure long-term profitability, driving the operational costs down and improving the yield of a DRAM manufacturing process are continuous efforts. This includes optimal utilization of the capital equipment. The costs of metrology needed to ensure yield are contributing to the overall costs. As the shrinking of device dimensions continues, the costs of metrology are increasing because of the associated tightening of the on-product specifications requiring more metrology effort. The cost-of-ownership reduction is tackled by increasing the throughput and availability of metrology systems. However, this is not the only way to reduce metrology effort. In this paper, we discuss how the costs of metrology can be improved by optimizing the recipes in terms of the sampling layout, thereby eliminating metrology that does not contribute to yield. We discuss results of sampling scheme optimization for on-product overlay control of two DRAM manufacturing processes at Nanya Technology Corporation. For a 6x DRAM production process, we show that the reduction of metrology waste can be as high as 27% and overlay can be improved by 36%, comparing with a baseline sampling scheme. For a 4x DRAM process, having tighter overlay specs, a gain of ca. 0.5nm on-product overlay could be achieved, without increasing the metrology effort relative to the original sampling plan.

  8. The Development from Effortful to Automatic Processing in Mathematical Cognition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaye, Daniel B.; And Others

    This investigation capitalizes upon the information processing models that depend upon measurement of latency of response to a mathematical problem and the decomposition of reaction time (RT). Simple two term addition problems were presented with possible solutions for true-false verification, and accuracy and RT to response were recorded. Total…

  9. Processing "the" in the Parafovea: Are Articles Skipped Automatically?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Angele, Bernhard; Rayner, Keith

    2013-01-01

    One of the words that readers of English skip most often is the definite article "the". Most accounts of reading assume that in order for a reader to skip a word, it must have received some lexical processing. The definite article is skipped so regularly, however, that the oculomotor system might have learned to skip the letter string "t-h-e"…

  10. Rapid automatized naming and immediate memory functions in Chinese children who read English as a second language.

    PubMed

    Ding, Yi; Guo, Jian-Peng; Yang, Ling-Yan; Zhang, Dake; Ning, Huan; Richman, Lynn C

    2013-01-01

    This study examined reading performance of 102 Chinese Mandarin-speaking 4th graders in their second language (L2, English) as a function of performance in their first language (L1, Chinese). The results revealed that for Rapid Automatized Naming (RAN) and Rapid Alternating Stimulus (RAS) measures, the mean naming time decreased monotonically in high-achieving, average, and low-achieving readers. RAN and RAS differentiated poor readers from good and average readers but failed to differentiate between good and average readers. RAN deficits occurred in poor readers in both languages. Comparison of memory profiles revealed that patterns varied depending on the mode of stimulus presentation or response. Low-achieving readers performed poorly on a subtest involving visual components only and did relatively better on a subtest involving verbal components only. Poor readers in Chinese also encountered difficulties in learning English as a L2. RAN-character accounted for unique variance in two Chinese reading measures. RAN-letter explained unique variance in English mid-term reading grade. The unique variance captured by the Color Span Subtest 1 (visual-visual) was found in Chinese reading comprehension but not in English reading comprehension. Reading performance in L1 was predictive of reading performance in L2 and vice versa. PMID:22034524

  11. A new tool for rapid and automatic estimation of earthquake source parameters and generation of seismic bulletins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zollo, Aldo

    2016-04-01

    RISS S.r.l. is a Spin-off company recently born from the initiative of the research group constituting the Seismology Laboratory of the Department of Physics of the University of Naples Federico II. RISS is an innovative start-up, based on the decade-long experience in earthquake monitoring systems and seismic data analysis of its members and has the major goal to transform the most recent innovations of the scientific research into technological products and prototypes. With this aim, RISS has recently started the development of a new software, which is an elegant solution to manage and analyse seismic data and to create automatic earthquake bulletins. The software has been initially developed to manage data recorded at the ISNet network (Irpinia Seismic Network), which is a network of seismic stations deployed in Southern Apennines along the active fault system responsible for the 1980, November 23, MS 6.9 Irpinia earthquake. The software, however, is fully exportable and can be used to manage data from different networks, with any kind of station geometry or network configuration and is able to provide reliable estimates of earthquake source parameters, whichever is the background seismicity level of the area of interest. Here we present the real-time automated procedures and the analyses performed by the software package, which is essentially a chain of different modules, each of them aimed at the automatic computation of a specific source parameter. The P-wave arrival times are first detected on the real-time streaming of data and then the software performs the phase association and earthquake binding. As soon as an event is automatically detected by the binder, the earthquake location coordinates and the origin time are rapidly estimated, using a probabilistic, non-linear, exploration algorithm. Then, the software is able to automatically provide three different magnitude estimates. First, the local magnitude (Ml) is computed, using the peak-to-peak amplitude

  12. Dyslexia and fluency: parafoveal and foveal influences on rapid automatized naming.

    PubMed

    Jones, Manon W; Ashby, Jane; Branigan, Holly P

    2013-04-01

    The ability to coordinate serial processing of multiple items is crucial for fluent reading but is known to be impaired in dyslexia. To investigate this impairment, we manipulated the orthographic and phonological similarity of adjacent letters online as dyslexic and nondyslexic readers named letters in a serial naming (RAN) task. Eye movements and voice onsets were recorded. Letter arrays contained target item pairs in which the second letter was orthographically or phonologically similar to the first letter when viewed either parafoveally (Experiment 1a) or foveally (Experiment 1b). Relative to normal readers, dyslexic readers were more affected by orthographic confusability in Experiment 1a and phonological confusability in Experiment 1b. Normal readers were slower to process orthographically similar letters in Experiment 1b. Findings indicate that the phonological and orthographic processing problems of dyslexic readers manifest differently during parafoveal and foveal processing, with each contributing to slower RAN performance and impaired reading fluency. PMID:22924951

  13. Automatic processing of ultrasound images for nondestructive testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodfriend, Leon

    1993-12-01

    Ultrasonic non-destructive testing of carbon fiber composite (CFC) aircraft panels has, in the past, been a time-consuming and laborious process. Data acquisition (using C-scan techniques) takes of order 1 hour per m2, and the decision as to whether the panel meets the testing standard (technically known as sentencing) is an unexciting and repetitive visual task for a human operator. This paper introduces a new system for automated sentencing of CFC panels of solid or matrix (honeycomb) construction. It begins with a brief description of a new parallel-scanning ultrasound rig which greatly reduces the time required for data acquisition. A detailed description is then given of the design and implementation of a computer vision system which processes the resulting ultrasound images.

  14. Automatic and controlled processing of acoustic and phonetic contrasts.

    PubMed

    Sussman, Elyse; Kujala, Teija; Halmetoja, Jaana; Lyytinen, Heikki; Alku, Paavo; Näätänen, Risto

    2004-04-01

    Changes in the temporal properties of the speech signal provide important cues for phoneme identification. An impairment or inability to detect such changes may adversely affect one's ability to understand spoken speech. The difference in meaning between the Finnish words tuli (fire) and tuuli (wind), for example, lies in the difference between the duration of the vowel /u/. Detecting changes in the temporal properties of the speech signal, therefore, is critical for distinguishing between phonemes and identifying words. In the current study, we tested whether detection of changes in speech sounds, in native Finnish speakers, would vary as a function of the position within the word that the informational changes occurred (beginning, middle, or end) by evaluating how length contrasts in segments of three-syllable Finnish pseudo-words and their acoustic correlates were discriminated. We recorded a combination of cortical components of event-related brain potentials (MMN, N2b, P3b) along with behavioral measures of the perception of the same sounds. It was found that speech sounds were not processed differently than non-speech sounds in the early stages of auditory processing indexed by MMN. Differences occurred only in later stages associated with controlled processes. The effects of position and attention on speech and non-speech stimuli are discussed. PMID:15051135

  15. Investigation of registration algorithms for the automatic tile processing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tamir, Dan E.

    1995-01-01

    The Robotic Tile Inspection System (RTPS), under development in NASA-KSC, is expected to automate the processes of post-flight re-water-proofing and the process of inspection of the Shuttle heat absorbing tiles. An important task of the robot vision sub-system is to register the 'real-world' coordinates with the coordinates of the robot model of the Shuttle tiles. The model coordinates relate to a tile data-base and pre-flight tile-images. In the registration process, current (post-flight) images are aligned with pre-flight images to detect the rotation and translation displacement required for the coordinate systems rectification. The research activities performed this summer included study and evaluation of the registration algorithm that is currently implemented by the RTPS, as well as, investigation of the utility of other registration algorithms. It has been found that the current algorithm is not robust enough. This algorithm has a success rate of less than 80% and is, therefore, not suitable for complying with the requirements of the RTPS. Modifications to the current algorithm has been developed and tested. These modifications can improve the performance of the registration algorithm in a significant way. However, this improvement is not sufficient to satisfy system requirements. A new algorithm for registration has been developed and tested. This algorithm presented very high degree of robustness with success rate of 96%.

  16. Dyslexia and Fluency: Parafoveal and Foveal Influences on Rapid Automatized Naming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Manon W.; Ashby, Jane; Branigan, Holly P.

    2013-01-01

    The ability to coordinate serial processing of multiple items is crucial for fluent reading but is known to be impaired in dyslexia. To investigate this impairment, we manipulated the orthographic and phonological similarity of adjacent letters online as dyslexic and nondyslexic readers named letters in a serial naming (RAN) task. Eye movements…

  17. Fast Implementation of Matched Filter Based Automatic Alignment Image Processing

    SciTech Connect

    Awwal, A S; Rice, K; Taha, T

    2008-04-02

    Video images of laser beams imprinted with distinguishable features are used for alignment of 192 laser beams at the National Ignition Facility (NIF). Algorithms designed to determine the position of these beams enable the control system to perform the task of alignment. Centroiding is a common approach used for determining the position of beams. However, real world beam images suffer from intensity fluctuation or other distortions which make such an approach susceptible to higher position measurement variability. Matched filtering used for identifying the beam position results in greater stability of position measurement compared to that obtained using the centroiding technique. However, this gain is achieved at the expense of extra processing time required for each beam image. In this work we explore the possibility of using a field programmable logic array (FPGA) to speed up these computations. The results indicate a performance improvement of 20 using the FPGA relative to a 3 GHz Pentium 4 processor.

  18. Native language shapes automatic neural processing of speech.

    PubMed

    Intartaglia, Bastien; White-Schwoch, Travis; Meunier, Christine; Roman, Stéphane; Kraus, Nina; Schön, Daniele

    2016-08-01

    The development of the phoneme inventory is driven by the acoustic-phonetic properties of one's native language. Neural representation of speech is known to be shaped by language experience, as indexed by cortical responses, and recent studies suggest that subcortical processing also exhibits this attunement to native language. However, most work to date has focused on the differences between tonal and non-tonal languages that use pitch variations to convey phonemic categories. The aim of this cross-language study is to determine whether subcortical encoding of speech sounds is sensitive to language experience by comparing native speakers of two non-tonal languages (French and English). We hypothesized that neural representations would be more robust and fine-grained for speech sounds that belong to the native phonemic inventory of the listener, and especially for the dimensions that are phonetically relevant to the listener such as high frequency components. We recorded neural responses of American English and French native speakers, listening to natural syllables of both languages. Results showed that, independently of the stimulus, American participants exhibited greater neural representation of the fundamental frequency compared to French participants, consistent with the importance of the fundamental frequency to convey stress patterns in English. Furthermore, participants showed more robust encoding and more precise spectral representations of the first formant when listening to the syllable of their native language as compared to non-native language. These results align with the hypothesis that language experience shapes sensory processing of speech and that this plasticity occurs as a function of what is meaningful to a listener. PMID:27263123

  19. A new tool for rapid and automatic estimation of earthquake source parameters and generation of seismic bulletins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zollo, Aldo

    2016-04-01

    RISS S.r.l. is a Spin-off company recently born from the initiative of the research group constituting the Seismology Laboratory of the Department of Physics of the University of Naples Federico II. RISS is an innovative start-up, based on the decade-long experience in earthquake monitoring systems and seismic data analysis of its members and has the major goal to transform the most recent innovations of the scientific research into technological products and prototypes. With this aim, RISS has recently started the development of a new software, which is an elegant solution to manage and analyse seismic data and to create automatic earthquake bulletins. The software has been initially developed to manage data recorded at the ISNet network (Irpinia Seismic Network), which is a network of seismic stations deployed in Southern Apennines along the active fault system responsible for the 1980, November 23, MS 6.9 Irpinia earthquake. The software, however, is fully exportable and can be used to manage data from different networks, with any kind of station geometry or network configuration and is able to provide reliable estimates of earthquake source parameters, whichever is the background seismicity level of the area of interest. Here we present the real-time automated procedures and the analyses performed by the software package, which is essentially a chain of different modules, each of them aimed at the automatic computation of a specific source parameter. The P-wave arrival times are first detected on the real-time streaming of data and then the software performs the phase association and earthquake binding. As soon as an event is automatically detected by the binder, the earthquake location coordinates and the origin time are rapidly estimated, using a probabilistic, non-linear, exploration algorithm. Then, the software is able to automatically provide three different magnitude estimates. First, the local magnitude (Ml) is computed, using the peak-to-peak amplitude

  20. Towards fully automated processing of VLBI sessions - results from ultra-rapid UT1 experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hobiger, T.; Sekido, M.; Koyama, Y.; Kondo, T.; Takiguchi, H.; Kurihara, S.; Kokado, K.; Nozawa, K.; Haas, R.; Otsubo, T.; Gotoh, T.; Kubo-Oka, T.

    2010-12-01

    Like other space geodetic techniques, data processing and analysis of VLBI data requires some human interactions before the target parameters are available to the scientific community. If the processing chain can be completely automated, results would be available independent from time-zones, holidays or illness of the analyst. In VLBI, a lot of effort is put into near real-time monitoring of Earth orientation parameters, especially UT1. Since VLBI is the only space-geodetic technique which gives direct access to the Earth's phase of rotation, i.e. universal time UT1, a low latency product is desirable. Beside multi-baseline sessions, regular single-baseline VLBI experiments are scheduled in order to provide estimates of UT1 for the international science community. Although the turn-around time of such sessions is usually much shorter and results are available within one day after the data were recorded, lower latency of UT1 results is still requested. Based on the experience gained over the last three years, an automated processing chain was established. In July 2010, we started to provide automatically processed results to IERS rapid service, and thus fully unattended operation and robust estimation of UT1 has become routine operation. A new analysis software ensures that all post-processing stages run smoothly and a variety of scripts guarantee that the data-flow to and through the correlator takes full advantage of the available resources. The concept of ultra-rapid VLBI sessions can be extended further to include additional, geometrical well distributed stations, in order to derive also polar motion components with the same latency as UT1 and to provide an up-to-date complete set of Earth orientation parameters for navigation of space and satellite missions. Moreover, our work demonstrates how future VLBI networks can be processed automatically in order to provide near real-time information about the instantaneous Earth orientation in the framework of GGOS.

  1. Neural correlates of rapid spectrotemporal processing in musicians and nonmusicians.

    PubMed

    Gaab, N; Tallal, P; Kim, H; Lakshminarayanan, K; Archie, J J; Glover, G H; Gabrieli, J D E

    2005-12-01

    Our results suggest that musical training alters the functional anatomy of rapid spectrotemporal processing, resulting in improved behavioral performance along with a more efficient functional network primarily involving traditional language regions. This finding may have important implications for improving language/reading skills, especially in children struggling with dyslexia. PMID:16597753

  2. The Worm Process for the Ising Model is Rapidly Mixing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collevecchio, Andrea; Garoni, Timothy M.; Hyndman, Timothy; Tokarev, Daniel

    2016-07-01

    We prove rapid mixing of the worm process for the zero-field ferromagnetic Ising model, on all finite connected graphs, and at all temperatures. As a corollary, we obtain a fully-polynomial randomized approximation scheme for the Ising susceptibility, and for a certain restriction of the two-point correlation function.

  3. The Worm Process for the Ising Model is Rapidly Mixing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collevecchio, Andrea; Garoni, Timothy M.; Hyndman, Timothy; Tokarev, Daniel

    2016-09-01

    We prove rapid mixing of the worm process for the zero-field ferromagnetic Ising model, on all finite connected graphs, and at all temperatures. As a corollary, we obtain a fully-polynomial randomized approximation scheme for the Ising susceptibility, and for a certain restriction of the two-point correlation function.

  4. 41 CFR 109-43.307-53 - Automatic data processing equipment (ADPE).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Automatic data processing equipment (ADPE). 109-43.307-53 Section 109-43.307-53 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY PROPERTY MANAGEMENT REGULATIONS UTILIZATION AND DISPOSAL...

  5. Semi-Automatic Post-Processing for Improved Usability of Electure Podcasts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurst, Wolfgang; Welte, Martina

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Playing back recorded lectures on handheld devices offers interesting perspectives for learning, but suffers from small screen sizes. The purpose of this paper is to propose several semi-automatic post-processing steps in order to improve usability by providing a better readability and additional navigation functionality.…

  6. Automatic Processing of Emotional Faces in High-Functioning Pervasive Developmental Disorders: An Affective Priming Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamio, Yoko; Wolf, Julie; Fein, Deborah

    2006-01-01

    This study examined automatic processing of emotional faces in individuals with high-functioning Pervasive Developmental Disorders (HFPDD) using an affective priming paradigm. Sixteen participants (HFPDD and matched controls) were presented with happy faces, fearful faces or objects in both subliminal and supraliminal exposure conditions, followed…

  7. The Development of Automatic Numerosity Processing in Preschoolers: Evidence for Numerosity-Perceptual Interference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rousselle, Laurence; Noel, Marie-Pascale

    2008-01-01

    Three experiments examined developmental changes in the automatic processing of numerosity and perceptual information using a nonsymbolic numerical Stroop paradigm. In Experiments 1 and 2 (E1 and E2), 4-, 5-, and 6-year-olds had to compare the numerosities or the total filled areas of collections of dots (E1) or bars (E2) varying along both…

  8. Relatedness Proportion Effects in Semantic Categorization: Reconsidering the Automatic Spreading Activation Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Wit, Bianca; Kinoshita, Sachiko

    2014-01-01

    Semantic priming effects at a short prime-target stimulus onset asynchrony are commonly explained in terms of an automatic spreading activation process. According to this view, the proportion of related trials should have no impact on the size of the semantic priming effect. Using a semantic categorization task ("Is this a living…

  9. Automatic Processing of Metallurgical Abstracts for the Purpose of Information Retrieval. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melton, Jessica S.

    Objectives of this project were to develop and test a method for automatically processing the text of abstracts for a document retrieval system. The test corpus consisted of 768 abstracts from the metallurgical section of Chemical Abstracts (CA). The system, based on a subject indexing rational, had two components: (1) a stored dictionary of words…

  10. The Development of Automatic and Controlled Inhibitory Retrieval Processes in True and False Recall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knott, Lauren M.; Howe, Mark L.; Wimmer, Marina C.; Dewhurst, Stephen A.

    2011-01-01

    In three experiments, we investigated the role of automatic and controlled inhibitory retrieval processes in true and false memory development in children and adults. Experiment 1 incorporated a directed forgetting task to examine controlled retrieval inhibition. Experiments 2 and 3 used a part-set cue and retrieval practice task to examine…

  11. Decimals Are Not Processed Automatically, Not Even as Being Smaller than One

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kallai, Arava Y.; Tzelgov, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Common fractions have been found to be processed intentionally but not automatically, which led to the conclusion that they are not represented holistically in long-term memory. However, decimals are more similar to natural numbers in their form and thus might be better candidates to be holistically represented by educated adults. To test this…

  12. Automatic Data Processing, 4-1. Military Curriculum Materials for Vocational and Technical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Army Ordnance Center and School, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD.

    These two texts and student workbook for a secondary/postsecondary-level correspondence course in automatic data processing comprise one of a number of military-developed curriculum packages selected for adaptation to vocational instruction and curriculum development in a civilian setting. The purpose stated for the individualized, self-paced…

  13. Understanding and shifting drug-related decisions: Contributions of automatic decision-making processes

    PubMed Central

    Carpenter, Kenneth M.; Bedi, Gillinder; Vadhan, Nehal P.

    2015-01-01

    While substance use is common, only a minority of individuals who use drugs or alcohol develop problematic use. An understanding of the factors underlying the transition from substance use to misuse may improve prevention and intervention efforts. A key feature of substance misuse is ongoing decisions to use drugs or alcohol despite escalating negative consequences. Research findings highlight the importance of both relatively automatic, associative cognitive processes and relatively controlled, deliberative, and rational-analytic cognitive processes, for understanding situational decisions to use drugs. In this review, we discuss several cognitive component processes that may contribute to decision-making that promotes substance use and misuse, with a focus on more automatic processes. A growing body of evidence indicates that relative differences in the strength of these component processes can account for individual differences in the transition from substance use to misuse, and may offer important avenues for developing novel intervention strategies. PMID:26084667

  14. Phoneme Awareness, Visual-Verbal Paired-Associate Learning, and Rapid Automatized Naming as Predictors of Individual Differences in Reading Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warmington, Meesha; Hulme, Charles

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the concurrent relationships between phoneme awareness, visual-verbal paired-associate learning, rapid automatized naming (RAN), and reading skills in 7- to 11-year-old children. Path analyses showed that visual-verbal paired-associate learning and RAN, but not phoneme awareness, were unique predictors of word recognition,…

  15. Rapid Automatized Naming, Word-Level Reading, and Oral Reading Fluency in First-Grade Korean Readers at Risk for Reading Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Dongil; Park, Yujeong; Lombardino, Linda J.

    2015-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate potential reading differences between low-achieving and typically achieving first-grade Korean-speaking children by (1) comparing their speed of lexical access on alphanumeric and non-alphanumeric tests of rapid automatized naming and (2) comparing relationships between the two groups' performance on…

  16. Acute Alcohol Consumption Impairs Controlled but Not Automatic Processes in a Psychophysical Pointing Paradigm

    PubMed Central

    Johnston, Kevin; Timney, Brian; Goodale, Melvyn A.

    2013-01-01

    Numerous studies have investigated the effects of alcohol consumption on controlled and automatic cognitive processes. Such studies have shown that alcohol impairs performance on tasks requiring conscious, intentional control, while leaving automatic performance relatively intact. Here, we sought to extend these findings to aspects of visuomotor control by investigating the effects of alcohol in a visuomotor pointing paradigm that allowed us to separate the influence of controlled and automatic processes. Six male participants were assigned to an experimental “correction” condition in which they were instructed to point at a visual target as quickly and accurately as possible. On a small percentage of trials, the target “jumped” to a new location. On these trials, the participants’ task was to amend their movement such that they pointed to the new target location. A second group of 6 participants were assigned to a “countermanding” condition, in which they were instructed to terminate their movements upon detection of target “jumps”. In both the correction and countermanding conditions, participants served as their own controls, taking part in alcohol and no-alcohol conditions on separate days. Alcohol had no effect on participants’ ability to correct movements “in flight”, but impaired the ability to withhold such automatic corrections. Our data support the notion that alcohol selectively impairs controlled processes in the visuomotor domain. PMID:23861934

  17. Intentional and automatic numerical processing as predictors of mathematical abilities in primary school children

    PubMed Central

    Pina, Violeta; Castillo, Alejandro; Cohen Kadosh, Roi; Fuentes, Luis J.

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that numerical processing relates to mathematical performance, but it seems that such relationship is more evident for intentional than for automatic numerical processing. In the present study we assessed the relationship between the two types of numerical processing and specific mathematical abilities in a sample of 109 children in grades 1–6. Participants were tested in an ample range of mathematical tests and also performed both a numerical and a size comparison task. The results showed that numerical processing related to mathematical performance only when inhibitory control was involved in the comparison tasks. Concretely, we found that intentional numerical processing, as indexed by the numerical distance effect in the numerical comparison task, was related to mathematical reasoning skills only when the task-irrelevant dimension (the physical size) was incongruent; whereas automatic numerical processing, indexed by the congruency effect in the size comparison task, was related to mathematical calculation skills only when digits were separated by small distance. The observed double dissociation highlights the relevance of both intentional and automatic numerical processing in mathematical skills, but when inhibitory control is also involved. PMID:25873909

  18. Growth in rapid automatized naming from grades K to 8 in children with math or reading disabilities.

    PubMed

    Mazzocco, Michèle M M; Grimm, Kevin J

    2013-01-01

    Rapid automatized naming (RAN) is widely used to identify reading disabilities (RD) and has recently been considered a potential predictor of risk for mathematics learning disabilities (MLD). Here we longitudinally examine RAN performance from Grades K to 8, to view how growth on RAN response time differs for children with RD versus MLD. Across all participants, there was significant stability of RAN performance for all three subtests. For all three subtests, there was significant between-child variability in response times (RTs) at kindergarten and Grade 8; for select combinations of subtests, there was also between-child variability in difference scores over time. Relative to typically achieving peers, children with MLD or RD were slower on all three subtests at kindergarten, but these deficits were most pronounced for children with MLD versus RD at kindergarten and more persistent through Grade 8 for children with RD. RAN numbers and letters performance was closely related in the RD group, more so than in the MLD group, despite deficits on both subtests across groups. Our findings indicate that empirically guided modifications of RAN are needed for extending its use for evaluating risk for MLD. PMID:23449728

  19. Automatic humidification system to support the assessment of food drying processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortiz Hernández, B. D.; Carreño Olejua, A. R.; Castellanos Olarte, J. M.

    2016-07-01

    This work shows the main features of an automatic humidification system to provide drying air that match environmental conditions of different climate zones. This conditioned air is then used to assess the drying process of different agro-industrial products at the Automation and Control for Agro-industrial Processes Laboratory of the Pontifical Bolivarian University of Bucaramanga, Colombia. The automatic system allows creating and improving control strategies to supply drying air under specified conditions of temperature and humidity. The development of automatic routines to control and acquire real time data was made possible by the use of robust control systems and suitable instrumentation. The signals are read and directed to a controller memory where they are scaled and transferred to a memory unit. Using the IP address is possible to access data to perform supervision tasks. One important characteristic of this automatic system is the Dynamic Data Exchange Server (DDE) to allow direct communication between the control unit and the computer used to build experimental curves.

  20. Prejudice and perception: the role of automatic and controlled processes in misperceiving a weapon.

    PubMed

    Payne, B K

    2001-08-01

    Two experiments used a priming paradigm to investigate the influence of racial cues on the perceptual identification of weapons. In Experiment 1, participants identified guns faster when primed with Black faces compared with White faces. In Experiment 2, participants were required to respond quickly, causing the racial bias to shift from reaction time to accuracy. Participants misidentified tools as guns more often when primed with a Black face than with a White face. L. L. Jacoby's (1991) process dissociation procedure was applied to demonstrate that racial primes influenced automatic (A) processing, but not controlled (C) processing. The response deadline reduced the C estimate but not the A estimate. The motivation to control prejudice moderated the relationship between explicit prejudice and automatic bias. Implications are discussed on applied and theoretical levels. PMID:11519925

  1. Electron Beam Freeform Fabrication: A Rapid Metal Deposition Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taminger, Karen M. B.; Hafley, Robert A.

    2003-01-01

    Manufacturing of structural metal parts directly from computer aided design (CAD) data has been investigated by numerous researchers over the past decade. Researchers at NASA Langley REsearch Center are developing a new solid freeform fabrication process, electron beam freeform fabrication (EBF), as a rapid metal deposition process that works efficiently with a variety of weldable alloys. The EBF process introduces metal wire feedstock into a molten pool that is created and sustained using a focused electron beam in a vacuum environment. Thus far, this technique has been demonstrated on aluminum and titanium alloys of interest for aerospace structural applications nickel and ferrous based alloys are also planned. Deposits resulting from 2219 aluminum demonstrations have exhibited a range of grain morphologies depending upon the deposition parameters. These materials ave exhibited excellent tensile properties comparable to typical handbook data for wrought plate product after post-processing heat treatments. The EBF process is capable of bulk metal deposition at deposition rated in excess of 2500 cubic centimeters per hour (150 cubic inches per our) or finer detail at lower deposition rates, depending upon the desired application. This process offers the potential for rapidly adding structural details to simpler cast or forged structures rather than the conventional approach of machining large volumes of chips to produce a monolithic metallic structure. Selective addition of metal onto simpler blanks of material can have a significant effect on lead time reduction and lower material and machining costs.

  2. Automatic data processing and analysis system for monitoring region around a planned nuclear power plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiira, Timo; Kaisko, Outi; Kortström, Jari; Vuorinen, Tommi; Uski, Marja; Korja, Annakaisa

    2015-04-01

    The site of a new planned nuclear power plant is located in Pyhäjoki, eastern coast of the Bay of Bothnia. The area is characterized by low-active intraplate seismicity, with earthquake magnitudes rarely exceeding 4.0. IAEA guidelines state that when a nuclear power plant site is evaluated a network of sensitive seismographs having a recording capability for micro-earthquakes should be installed to acquire more detailed information on potential seismic sources. The operation period of the network should be long enough to obtain a comprehensive earthquake catalogue for seismotectonic interpretation. A near optimal configuration of ten seismograph stations will be installed around the site. A central station, including 3-C high-frequency and strong motion seismographs, is located in the site area. In addition, the network comprises nine high-frequency 3-C stations within a distance of 50 km from the central station. The network is dense enough to fulfil the requirements of azimuthal coverage better than 180o and automatic event location capability down to ~ ML -0.1 within a radius of 25 km from the site. Automatic processing and analysis of the planned seismic network is presented. Following the IAEA guidelines, real-time monitoring of the site area is integrated with the automatic detection and location process operated by the Institute of Seismology, University of Helsinki. In addition interactive data analysis is needed. At the end of year 2013 5 stations have been installed. The automatic analysis utilizes also 7 near by stations of national seismic networks of Finland and Sweden. During this preliminary phase several small earthquakes have been detected. The detection capability and location accuracy of the automatic analysis is estimated using chemical explosions at 15 known sites.

  3. Event-related potential evidence of dysfunction in automatic processing in abstinent alcoholics.

    PubMed

    Realmuto, G; Begleiter, H; Odencrantz, J; Porjesz, B

    The preattentive automatic processing of 63 alcoholics and 27 controls was evaluated with an auditory inattentive event-related oddball paradigm. We examined the mismatch negativity and the N2-P3 complex. Results showed significantly greater amplitude for N2, P3 and the N2-P3 complex for controls but no individual lead (Fz, Cz, Pz) differences by group. A group-by-lead interaction was found for N2 and for the N2-P3 complex. There were no significant latency differences between groups; however, a significant age-by-group interaction effect on latency was greatest at the Cz electrode. Results reflect a possible aberration of automatic processing in alcoholics because of a defect in the mnemonic template necessary to match with an infrequent deviant stimuli. We also found suggestive evidence of a relative weakness of frontal cortical organization in alcoholics. Future studies are suggested that would help clarify these differences in alcoholics. PMID:8329490

  4. Differences in automatic social information processing between nondepressed and subclinically depressed individuals.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Cecilia; Chiu, Chi-Yue

    2002-04-01

    The present research examined individual differences in automatic social information processing. We hypothesized that because nondepressed and subclinically depressed persons have different interpersonal experiences, they may process social information in different ways. In this experiment, participants were asked to make judgments about social relationships after being reminded of a target person. They had to make these judgments under either a light or a heavy memory load. Results showed that when nondepressed participants were reminded of people with whom they had frequent pleasant interactions, they made a greater number of positive judgments about their social relationships than did subclinically depressed participants. When subclinically depressed participants were reminded of people with whom they had had frequent unpleasant interactions, they made a greater number of negative judgments about their social relationships than did their nondepressed counterparts. Moreover, performance in these experimental conditions was unaffected by memory load, suggesting that automatic thoughts about their social relationships had been evoked. PMID:11908844

  5. Neural mechanisms of the automatic processing of emotional information from faces and voices.

    PubMed

    Straube, Thomas; Mothes-Lasch, Martin; Miltner, Wolfgang H R

    2011-11-01

    Theoretical accounts suggest an increased and automatic neural processing of emotional, especially threat-related, facial expressions and emotional prosody. In line with this assumption, several functional imaging studies showed activation to threat-related faces and voices in subcortical and cortical brain areas during attentional distraction or unconscious stimulus processing. Furthermore, electrophysiological studies provided evidence for automatic early brain responses to emotional facial expressions and emotional prosody. However, there is increasing evidence that available cognitive resources modulate brain responses to emotional signals from faces and voices, even though conflicting findings may occur depending on contextual factors, specific emotions, sensory modality, and neuroscientific methods used. The current review summarizes these findings and suggests that further studies should combine information from different sensory modalities and neuroscientific methods such as functional neuroimaging and electrophysiology. Furthermore, it is concluded that the variable saliency and relevance of emotional social signals on the one hand and available cognitive resources on the other hand interact in a dynamic manner, making absolute boundaries of the automatic processing of emotional information from faces and voices unlikely. PMID:21988387

  6. Using AI Planning Techniques to Automatically Generate Image Processing Procedures: A Preliminary Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chien, S.

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes work on the Multimission VICAR Planner (MVP) system to automatically construct executable image processing procedures for custom image processing requests for the JPL Multimission Image Processing Lab (MIPL). This paper focuses on two issues. First, large search spaces caused by complex plans required the use of hand encoded control information. In order to address this in a manner similar to that used by human experts, MVP uses a decomposition-based planner to implement hierarchical/skeletal planning at the higher level and then uses a classical operator based planner to solve subproblems in contexts defined by the high-level decomposition.

  7. On the Automaticity of Emotion Processing in Words and Faces: Event-Related Brain Potentials Evidence from a Superficial Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rellecke, Julian; Palazova, Marina; Sommer, Werner; Schacht, Annekathrin

    2011-01-01

    The degree to which emotional aspects of stimuli are processed automatically is controversial. Here, we assessed the automatic elicitation of emotion-related brain potentials (ERPs) to positive, negative, and neutral words and facial expressions in an easy and superficial face-word discrimination task, for which the emotional valence was…

  8. A dual-task investigation of automaticity in visual word processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCann, R. S.; Remington, R. W.; Van Selst, M.

    2000-01-01

    An analysis of activation models of visual word processing suggests that frequency-sensitive forms of lexical processing should proceed normally while unattended. This hypothesis was tested by having participants perform a speeded pitch discrimination task followed by lexical decisions or word naming. As the stimulus onset asynchrony between the tasks was reduced, lexical-decision and naming latencies increased dramatically. Word-frequency effects were additive with the increase, indicating that frequency-sensitive processing was subject to postponement while attention was devoted to the other task. Either (a) the same neural hardware shares responsibility for lexical processing and central stages of choice reaction time task processing and cannot perform both computations simultaneously, or (b) lexical processing is blocked in order to optimize performance on the pitch discrimination task. Either way, word processing is not as automatic as activation models suggest.

  9. Onboard Radar Processing Development for Rapid Response Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lou, Yunling; Chien, Steve; Clark, Duane; Doubleday, Josh; Muellerschoen, Ron; Wang, Charles C.

    2011-01-01

    We are developing onboard processor (OBP) technology to streamline data acquisition on-demand and explore the potential of the L-band SAR instrument onboard the proposed DESDynI mission and UAVSAR for rapid response applications. The technology would enable the observation and use of surface change data over rapidly evolving natural hazards, both as an aid to scientific understanding and to provide timely data to agencies responsible for the management and mitigation of natural disasters. We are adapting complex science algorithms for surface water extent to detect flooding, snow/water/ice classification to assist in transportation/ shipping forecasts, and repeat-pass change detection to detect disturbances. We are near completion of the development of a custom FPGA board to meet the specific memory and processing needs of L-band SAR processor algorithms and high speed interfaces to reformat and route raw radar data to/from the FPGA processor board. We have also developed a high fidelity Matlab model of the SAR processor that is modularized and parameterized for ease to prototype various SAR processor algorithms targeted for the FPGA. We will be testing the OBP and rapid response algorithms with UAVSAR data to determine the fidelity of the products.

  10. Rapidly rotating spacetimes and collisional super-Penrose process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaslavskii, O. B.

    2016-05-01

    We consider generic axially symmetric rotating spacetimes and examine particle collisions in the ergoregion. The results are generic and agree with those obtained in the particular case of the rotating Teo wormhole in Tsukamoto and Bambi, Phys Rev D 91:104040, 2015. It is shown that for sufficiently rapid rotation, the energy of a particle escaping to infinity can become arbitrary large (so-called super-Penrose process). Moreover, this energy is typically much larger than the center-of mass energy of colliding particles. In this sense the situation differs radically from that for collisions near black holes.

  11. The Automatic Conservative: Ideology-Based Attentional Asymmetries in the Processing of Valenced Information

    PubMed Central

    Carraro, Luciana; Castelli, Luigi; Macchiella, Claudia

    2011-01-01

    Research has widely explored the differences between conservatives and liberals, and it has been also recently demonstrated that conservatives display different reactions toward valenced stimuli. However, previous studies have not yet fully illuminated the cognitive underpinnings of these differences. In the current work, we argued that political ideology is related to selective attention processes, so that negative stimuli are more likely to automatically grab the attention of conservatives as compared to liberals. In Experiment 1, we demonstrated that negative (vs. positive) information impaired the performance of conservatives, more than liberals, in an Emotional Stroop Task. This finding was confirmed in Experiment 2 and in Experiment 3 employing a Dot-Probe Task, demonstrating that threatening stimuli were more likely to attract the attention of conservatives. Overall, results support the conclusion that people embracing conservative views of the world display an automatic selective attention for negative stimuli. PMID:22096486

  12. Automatic Processing Of Doppler Laser Interferometry Records Using Image Processing Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernandez, Alain; Jesne, Pascal; Nicolaizeau, Marc; Beullier, Jacques

    1985-02-01

    The more and more intensive use of Fabry-Perot velocimeters to study impact phenomena is leading to more and more films to be processed. Thus, engineers having to deal with this increasing plenty were asking for automatic tools in order to analyse optical records. A software package named ARIDEL has been written so as to fulfil this requirement. When looking at the DLI films, one can notice several points : a) Traces are very bright and large at the beginning of the film, and become less and less bright and therefore less and less large when time is going on. b) Traces vanish, most of the time on one side of the fringes and sometimes on both sides ; they may appear again later on. c) There are artifacts from place to place, leading to false detections. d) Optical density of the background may not be constant, especially at the beginning of the film. e) Velocity variations can make a new fringe appear or a previous one disappear. f) At the very beginning of the dynamic part of the record, it is impossible to know the exact jump of fringes without any outcoming information. Analysing computational errors due to discrete data (round-off noise), one can find out a sampling criterion allowing to get the maximum information from the film at the lowest computer memory allocation. After the film has been digitized and the image stored in the computer memory, ARIDEL software computes a new but binary image using a self adaptative threshold. The ring widths on this new image are too large and have to be skeletonized, assuming that for each side of every fringes the luminous flux is symmetrical. The static part of the record (reference rings) is detected, the axis of symmetry computed and the diameter of the reference rings measured. At this point, the program can find out the origin of the dynamic part of the record or allow the user to fix it by himself. Estimation of the initial velocity value has to be given. Most of the time, the program is working with the two innermost

  13. Rapid Odor Processing in the Honeybee Antennal Lobe Network

    PubMed Central

    Krofczik, Sabine; Menzel, Randolf; Nawrot, Martin P.

    2008-01-01

    In their natural environment, many insects need to identify and evaluate behaviorally relevant odorants on a rich and dynamic olfactory background. Behavioral studies have demonstrated that bees recognize learned odors within <200 ms, indicating a rapid processing of olfactory input in the sensory pathway. We studied the role of the honeybee antennal lobe network in constructing a fast and reliable code of odor identity using in vivo intracellular recordings of individual projection neurons (PNs) and local interneurons (LNs). We found a complementary ensemble code where odor identity is encoded in the spatio-temporal pattern of response latencies as well as in the pattern of activated and inactivated PN firing. This coding scheme rapidly reaches a stable representation within 50–150 ms after stimulus onset. Testing an odor mixture versus its individual compounds revealed different representations in the two morphologically distinct types of lateral- and median PNs (l- and m-PNs). Individual m-PNs mixture responses were dominated by the most effective compound (elemental representation) whereas l-PNs showed suppressed responses to the mixture but not to its individual compounds (synthetic representation). The onset of inhibition in the membrane potential of l-PNs coincided with the responses of putative inhibitory interneurons that responded significantly faster than PNs. Taken together, our results suggest that processing within the LN network of the AL is an essential component of constructing the antennal lobe population code. PMID:19221584

  14. Rapid loss of glacial ice reveals stream community assembly processes

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Lee E; Milner, Alexander M

    2012-01-01

    Glacial retreat creates new habitat which is colonized and developed by plants and animals during the process of primary succession. While there has been much debate about the relative role of deterministic and stochastic processes during terrestrial succession, evidence from freshwater ecosystems remains minimal and a general consensus is lacking. Using a unique 27 years record of community assembly following glacial recession in southeast Alaska, we demonstrate significant change in the trait composition of stream invertebrate communities as catchment glacial cover decreased from ∼70% to zero. Functional diversity increased significantly as glacier cover decreased and taxonomic richness increased. Null modelling approaches led to a key finding that niche filtering processes were dominant when glacial cover was extensive, reflecting water temperature and dispersal constraints. Thereafter the community shifted towards co-occurrence of stochastic and deterministic assembly processes. A further novel discovery was that intrinsic functional redundancy developed throughout the study, particularly because new colonizers possessed similar traits to taxa already present. Rapid glacial retreat is occurring in Arctic and alpine environments worldwide and the assembly processes observed in this study provide new fundamental insights into how glacially influenced stream ecosystems will respond. The findings support tolerance as a key primary successional mechanism in this system, and have broader value for developing our understanding of how biological communities in river ecosystems assemble or restructure in response to environmental change.

  15. The Neural Signatures of Processing Semantic End Values in Automatic Number Comparisons

    PubMed Central

    Pinhas, Michal; Buchman, Chananel; Lavro, Dmitri; Mesika, David; Tzelgov, Joseph; Berger, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    The brain activity associated with processing numerical end values has received limited research attention. The present study explored the neural correlates associated with processing semantic end values under conditions of automatic number processing. Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded while participants performed the numerical Stroop task, in which they were asked to compare the physical size of pairs of numbers, while ignoring their numerical values. The smallest end value in the set, which is a task irrelevant factor, was manipulated between participant groups. We focused on the processing of the lower end values of 0 and 1 because these numbers were found to be automatically tagged as the “smallest.” Behavioral results showed that the size congruity effect was modulated by the presence of the smallest end value in the pair. ERP data revealed a spatially extended centro-parieto-occipital P3 that was enhanced for congruent versus incongruent trials. Importantly, over centro-parietal sites, the P3 congruity effect (congruent minus incongruent) was larger for pairs containing the smallest end value than for pairs containing non-smallest values. These differences in the congruency effect were localized to the precuneus. The presence of an end value within the pair also modulated P3 latency. Our results provide the first neural evidence for the encoding of numerical end values. They further demonstrate that the use of end values as anchors is a primary aspect of processing symbolic numerical information. PMID:26640436

  16. Automatic Mapping Of Large Signal Processing Systems To A Parallel Machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Printz, Harry; Kung, H. T.; Mummert, Todd; Scherer, Paul M.

    1989-12-01

    Since the spring of 1988, Carnegie Mellon University and the Naval Air Development Center have been working together to implement several large signal processing systems on the Warp parallel computer. In the course of this work, we have developed a prototype of a software tool that can automatically and efficiently map signal processing systems to distributed-memory parallel machines, such as Warp. We have used this tool to produce Warp implementations of small test systems. The automatically generated programs compare favorably with hand-crafted code. We believe this tool will be a significant aid in the creation of high speed signal processing systems. We assume that signal processing systems have the following characteristics: •They can be described by directed graphs of computational tasks; these graphs may contain thousands of task vertices. • Some tasks can be parallelized in a systolic or data-partitioned manner, while others cannot be parallelized at all. • The side effects of each task, if any, are limited to changes in local variables. • Each task has a data-independent execution time bound, which may be expressed as a function of the way it is parallelized, and the number of processors it is mapped to. In this paper we describe techniques to automatically map such systems to Warp-like parallel machines. We identify and address key issues in gracefully combining different parallel programming styles, in allocating processor, memory and communication bandwidth, and in generating and scheduling efficient parallel code. When iWarp, the VLSI version of the Warp machine, becomes available in 1990, we will extend this tool to generate efficient code for very large applications, which may require as many as 3000 iWarp processors, with an aggregate peak performance of 60 gigaflops.

  17. Automatic Processing of Chinese GF-1 Wide Field of View Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Y.; Wan, Y.; Wang, B.; Kang, Y.; Xiong, J.

    2015-04-01

    The wide field of view (WFV) imaging instrument carried on the Chinese GF-1 satellite includes four cameras. Each camera has 200km swath-width that can acquire earth image at the same time and the observation can be repeated within only 4 days. This enables the applications of remote sensing imagery to advance from non-scheduled land-observation to periodically land-monitoring in the areas that use the images in such resolutions. This paper introduces an automatic data analysing and processing technique for the wide-swath images acquired by GF-1 satellite. Firstly, the images are validated by a self-adaptive Gaussian mixture model based cloud detection method to confirm whether they are qualified and suitable to be involved into the automatic processing workflow. Then the ground control points (GCPs) are quickly and automatically matched from the public geo-information products such as the rectified panchromatic images of Landsat-8. Before the geometric correction, the cloud detection results are also used to eliminate the invalid GCPs distributed in the cloud covered areas, which obviously reduces the ratio of blunders of GCPs. The geometric correction module not only rectifies the rational function models (RFMs), but also provides the self-calibration model and parameters for the non-linear distortion, and it is iteratively processed to detect blunders. The maximum geometric distortion in WFV image decreases from about 10-15 pixels to 1-2 pixels when compensated by self-calibration model. The processing experiments involve hundreds of WFV images of GF-1 satellite acquired from June to September 2013, which covers the whole mainland of China. All the processing work can be finished by one operator within 2 days on a desktop computer made up by a second-generation Intel Core-i7 CPU and a 4-solid-State-Disk array. The digital ortho maps (DOM) are automatically generated with 3 arc second Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). The geometric accuracies of the

  18. Automatic processing of induced events in the geothermal reservoirs Landau and Insheim, Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olbert, Kai; Küperkoch, Ludger; Meier, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    Induced events can be a risk to local infrastructure that need to be understood and evaluated. They represent also a chance to learn more about the reservoir behavior and characteristics. Prior to the analysis, the waveform data must be processed consistently and accurately to avoid erroneous interpretations. In the framework of the MAGS2 project an automatic off-line event detection and a phase onset time determination algorithm are applied to induced seismic events in geothermal systems in Landau and Insheim, Germany. The off-line detection algorithm works based on a cross-correlation of continuous data taken from the local seismic network with master events. It distinguishes events between different reservoirs and within the individual reservoirs. Furthermore, it provides a location and magnitude estimation. Data from 2007 to 2014 are processed and compared with other detections using the SeisComp3 cross correlation detector and a STA/LTA detector. The detected events are analyzed concerning spatial or temporal clustering. Furthermore the number of events are compared to the existing detection lists. The automatic phase picking algorithm combines an AR-AIC approach with a cost function to find precise P1- and S1-phase onset times which can be used for localization and tomography studies. 800 induced events are processed, determining 5000 P1- and 6000 S1-picks. The phase onset times show a high precision with mean residuals to manual phase picks of 0s (P1) to 0.04s (S1) and standard deviations below ±0.05s. The received automatic picks are applied to relocate a selected number of events to evaluate influences on the location precision.

  19. Fluid Intelligence and Automatic Neural Processes in Facial Expression Perception: An Event-Related Potential Study.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tongran; Xiao, Tong; Li, Xiaoyan; Shi, Jiannong

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between human fluid intelligence and social-emotional abilities has been a topic of considerable interest. The current study investigated whether adolescents with different intellectual levels had different automatic neural processing of facial expressions. Two groups of adolescent males were enrolled: a high IQ group and an average IQ group. Age and parental socioeconomic status were matched between the two groups. Participants counted the numbers of the central cross changes while paired facial expressions were presented bilaterally in an oddball paradigm. There were two experimental conditions: a happy condition, in which neutral expressions were standard stimuli (p = 0.8) and happy expressions were deviant stimuli (p = 0.2), and a fearful condition, in which neutral expressions were standard stimuli (p = 0.8) and fearful expressions were deviant stimuli (p = 0.2). Participants were required to concentrate on the primary task of counting the central cross changes and to ignore the expressions to ensure that facial expression processing was automatic. Event-related potentials (ERPs) were obtained during the tasks. The visual mismatch negativity (vMMN) components were analyzed to index the automatic neural processing of facial expressions. For the early vMMN (50-130 ms), the high IQ group showed more negative vMMN amplitudes than the average IQ group in the happy condition. For the late vMMN (320-450 ms), the high IQ group had greater vMMN responses than the average IQ group over frontal and occipito-temporal areas in the fearful condition, and the average IQ group evoked larger vMMN amplitudes than the high IQ group over occipito-temporal areas in the happy condition. The present study elucidated the close relationships between fluid intelligence and pre-attentive change detection on social-emotional information. PMID:26375031

  20. Fluid Intelligence and Automatic Neural Processes in Facial Expression Perception: An Event-Related Potential Study

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Tongran; Xiao, Tong; Li, Xiaoyan; Shi, Jiannong

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between human fluid intelligence and social-emotional abilities has been a topic of considerable interest. The current study investigated whether adolescents with different intellectual levels had different automatic neural processing of facial expressions. Two groups of adolescent males were enrolled: a high IQ group and an average IQ group. Age and parental socioeconomic status were matched between the two groups. Participants counted the numbers of the central cross changes while paired facial expressions were presented bilaterally in an oddball paradigm. There were two experimental conditions: a happy condition, in which neutral expressions were standard stimuli (p = 0.8) and happy expressions were deviant stimuli (p = 0.2), and a fearful condition, in which neutral expressions were standard stimuli (p = 0.8) and fearful expressions were deviant stimuli (p = 0.2). Participants were required to concentrate on the primary task of counting the central cross changes and to ignore the expressions to ensure that facial expression processing was automatic. Event-related potentials (ERPs) were obtained during the tasks. The visual mismatch negativity (vMMN) components were analyzed to index the automatic neural processing of facial expressions. For the early vMMN (50–130 ms), the high IQ group showed more negative vMMN amplitudes than the average IQ group in the happy condition. For the late vMMN (320–450 ms), the high IQ group had greater vMMN responses than the average IQ group over frontal and occipito-temporal areas in the fearful condition, and the average IQ group evoked larger vMMN amplitudes than the high IQ group over occipito-temporal areas in the happy condition. The present study elucidated the close relationships between fluid intelligence and pre-attentive change detection on social-emotional information. PMID:26375031

  1. Information processing requirements for on-board monitoring of automatic landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sorensen, J. A.; Karmarkar, J. S.

    1977-01-01

    A systematic procedure is presented for determining the information processing requirements for on-board monitoring of automatic landing systems. The monitoring system detects landing anomalies through use of appropriate statistical tests. The time-to-correct aircraft perturbations is determined from covariance analyses using a sequence of suitable aircraft/autoland/pilot models. The covariance results are used to establish landing safety and a fault recovery operating envelope via an event outcome tree. This procedure is demonstrated with examples using the NASA Terminal Configured Vehicle (B-737 aircraft). The procedure can also be used to define decision height, assess monitoring implementation requirements, and evaluate alternate autoland configurations.

  2. Superior metallic alloys through rapid solidification processing (RSP) by design

    SciTech Connect

    Flinn, J.E.

    1995-05-01

    Rapid solidification processing using powder atomization methods and the control of minor elements such as oxygen, nitrogen, and carbon can provide metallic alloys with superior properties and performance compared to conventionally processing alloys. Previous studies on nickel- and iron-base superalloys have provided the baseline information to properly couple RSP with alloy composition, and, therefore, enable alloys to be designed for performance improvements. The RSP approach produces powders, which need to be consolidated into suitable monolithic forms. This normally involves canning, consolidation, and decanning of the powders. Canning/decanning is expensive and raises the fabrication cost significantly above that of conventional, ingot metallurgy production methods. The cost differential can be offset by the superior performance of the RSP metallic alloys. However, without the performance database, it is difficult to convince potential users to adopt the RSP approach. Spray casting of the atomized molten droplets into suitable preforms for subsequent fabrication can be cost competitive with conventional processing. If the fine and stable microstructural features observed for the RSP approach are preserved during spray casing, a cost competitive product can be obtained that has superior properties and performance that cannot be obtained by conventional methods.

  3. Methods and automatic procedures for processing images based on blind evaluation of noise type and characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lukin, Vladimir V.; Abramov, Sergey K.; Ponomarenko, Nikolay N.; Uss, Mikhail L.; Zriakhov, Mikhail; Vozel, Benoit; Chehdi, Kacem; Astola, Jaakko T.

    2011-01-01

    In many modern applications, methods and algorithms used for image processing require a priori knowledge or estimates of noise type and its characteristics. Noise type and basic parameters can be sometimes known in advance or determined in an interactive manner. However, it occurs more and more often that they should be estimated in a blind manner. The results of noise-type blind determination can be false, and the estimates of noise parameters are characterized by certain accuracy. Such false decisions and estimation errors have an impact on performance of image-processing techniques that is based on the obtained information. We address some issues of such a negative influence. Possible structures of automatic procedures are presented and discussed for several typical applications of image processing as remote sensing data preprocessing and compression.

  4. Automatic processing and modeling of GPR data for pavement thickness and properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olhoeft, Gary R.; Smith, Stanley S., III

    2000-04-01

    A GSSI SIR-8 with 1 GHz air-launched horn antennas has been modified to acquire data from a moving vehicle. Algorithms have been developed to acquire the data, and to automatically calibrate, position, process, and full waveform model it without operator intervention. Vehicle suspension system bounce is automatically compensated (for varying antenna height). Multiple scans are modeled by full waveform inversion that is remarkably robust and relatively insensitive to noise. Statistical parameters and histograms are generated for the thickness and dielectric permittivity of concrete or asphalt pavements. The statistical uncertainty with which the thickness is determined is given with each thickness measurement, along with the dielectric permittivity of the pavement material and of the subgrade material at each location. Permittivities are then converted into equivalent density and water content. Typical statistical uncertainties in thickness are better than 0.4 cm in 20 cm thick pavement. On a Pentium laptop computer, the data may be processed and modeled to have cross-sectional images and computed pavement thickness displayed in real time at highway speeds.

  5. Automatic rice crop height measurement using a field server and digital image processing.

    PubMed

    Sritarapipat, Tanakorn; Rakwatin, Preesan; Kasetkasem, Teerasit

    2014-01-01

    Rice crop height is an important agronomic trait linked to plant type and yield potential. This research developed an automatic image processing technique to detect rice crop height based on images taken by a digital camera attached to a field server. The camera acquires rice paddy images daily at a consistent time of day. The images include the rice plants and a marker bar used to provide a height reference. The rice crop height can be indirectly measured from the images by measuring the height of the marker bar compared to the height of the initial marker bar. Four digital image processing steps are employed to automatically measure the rice crop height: band selection, filtering, thresholding, and height measurement. Band selection is used to remove redundant features. Filtering extracts significant features of the marker bar. The thresholding method is applied to separate objects and boundaries of the marker bar versus other areas. The marker bar is detected and compared with the initial marker bar to measure the rice crop height. Our experiment used a field server with a digital camera to continuously monitor a rice field located in Suphanburi Province, Thailand. The experimental results show that the proposed method measures rice crop height effectively, with no human intervention required. PMID:24451465

  6. Automatic Rice Crop Height Measurement Using a Field Server and Digital Image Processing

    PubMed Central

    Sritarapipat, Tanakorn; Rakwatin, Preesan; Kasetkasem, Teerasit

    2014-01-01

    Rice crop height is an important agronomic trait linked to plant type and yield potential. This research developed an automatic image processing technique to detect rice crop height based on images taken by a digital camera attached to a field server. The camera acquires rice paddy images daily at a consistent time of day. The images include the rice plants and a marker bar used to provide a height reference. The rice crop height can be indirectly measured from the images by measuring the height of the marker bar compared to the height of the initial marker bar. Four digital image processing steps are employed to automatically measure the rice crop height: band selection, filtering, thresholding, and height measurement. Band selection is used to remove redundant features. Filtering extracts significant features of the marker bar. The thresholding method is applied to separate objects and boundaries of the marker bar versus other areas. The marker bar is detected and compared with the initial marker bar to measure the rice crop height. Our experiment used a field server with a digital camera to continuously monitor a rice field located in Suphanburi Province, Thailand. The experimental results show that the proposed method measures rice crop height effectively, with no human intervention required. PMID:24451465

  7. Abnormalities in Automatic Processing of Illness-Related Stimuli in Self-Rated Alexithymia

    PubMed Central

    Brandt, Laura; Pintzinger, Nina M.; Tran, Ulrich S.

    2015-01-01

    Aim To investigate abnormalities in automatic information processing related to self- and observer-rated alexithymia, especially with regard to somatization, controlling for confounding variables such as depression and affect. Sample 89 healthy subjects (60% female), aged 19–71 years (M = 32.1). 58 subjects were additionally rated by an observer. Measures Alexithymia (self-rating: TAS-20, observer rating: OAS); automatic information processing (priming task including verbal [illness-related, negative, positive, neutral] and facial [negative, positive, neutral] stimuli); somatoform symptoms (SOMS-7T); confounders: depression (BDI), affect (PANAS). Results Higher self-reported alexithymia scores were associated with lower reaction times for negative (r = .19, p < .10) and positive (r = .26, p < .05) verbal primes when the target was illness-related. Self-reported alexithymia was correlated with number (r = .42, p < .01) and intensity of current somatoform symptoms (r = .36, p < .01), but unrelated to observer-rated alexithymia (r = .11, p = .42). Discussion Results indicate a faster allocation of attentional resources away from task-irrelevant information towards illness-related stimuli in alexithymia. Considering the close relationship between alexithymia and somatization, these findings are compatible with the theoretical view that alexithymics focus strongly on bodily sensations of emotional arousal. A single observer rating (OAS) does not seem to be an adequate alexithymia-measure in community samples. PMID:26090893

  8. Materials processing by use of a Ti:Sapphire laser with automatically-adjustable pulse duration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamata, M.; Imahoko, T.; Ozono, K.; Obara, M.

    We have developed an automatic pulsewidth-adjustable femtosecond Ti:Sapphire laser system that can generate an output of 50 fs-1 ps in duration, and sub-mJ/pulse at a repetition rate of 1 kpps. The automatic pulse compressor enables one to control the pulsewidth in the range of 50 fs-1 ps by use of a personal computer (PC). The compressor can change the distance in-between and the tilt angle of the grating pairs by use of two stepping motors and two piezo-electric transducer(PZT) driven actuators, respectively. Both are controlled by a PC. Therefore, not only control of the pulsewidth, but also of the optical chirp becomes easy. By use of this femtosecond laser system, we fabricated a waveguide in fused quartz. The numerical aperture is chosen to 0.007 to loosely focus the femtosecond laser. The fabricated waveguides are well controllable by the incident laser pulsewidth. We also demonstrated the ablation processing of hydroxyapatite (Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2), which is a key component of human tooth and human bone for orthopedics and dentistry. With pulsewidth tunable output from 50 fs through 2 ps at 1 kpps, the chemical content of calcium and phosphorus is kept unchanged before and after 50-fs-2-ps laser ablation. We also demonstrated the precise ablation processing of human tooth enamel with 2 ps Ti:Sapphire laser.

  9. Are scalar implicatures automatically processed and different for each individual? A mismatch negativity (MMN) study.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ming; Liu, Tao; Chen, Gang; Chen, Feiyan

    2015-03-01

    Scalar implicatures are ordinarily activated in human communication when the speaker uses a weak expression (e.g., some) from a set of stronger alternatives (e.g., many, all). It has been debated whether scalar inferences are generated by default. To clarify this issue and examine whether individual pragmatic ability will affect the mechanism of scalar inference processing, we performed experiment with an MMN paradigm to capture the neurophysiological indicators of automatic processing of spoken sentences and divided participants into high and low pragmatic ability groups. Experimental results showed that compared with the condition that an informative sentence ("Some animals have tails") is the deviant stimuli, when an underinformative sentence ("Some tigers have tails") is the deviant stimuli, the high pragmatic ability group induced mismatch negativity (MMN) and sustained negativity, while the low pragmatic ability group had no ERP effects. These results indicated that at least some people can automatically activate the scalar implicatures when encountering scalar trigger words, even in the inattentive status. PMID:25542387

  10. Linking automatic evaluation to mood and information processing style: consequences for experienced affect, impression formation, and stereotyping.

    PubMed

    Chartrand, Tanya L; van Baaren, Rick B; Bargh, John A

    2006-02-01

    According to the feelings-as-information account, a person's mood state signals to him or her the valence of the current environment (N. Schwarz & G. Clore, 1983). However, the ways in which the environment automatically influences mood in the first place remain to be explored. The authors propose that one mechanism by which the environment influences affect is automatic evaluation, the nonconscious evaluation of environmental stimuli as good or bad. A first experiment demonstrated that repeated brief exposure to positive or negative stimuli (which leads to automatic evaluation) induces a corresponding mood in participants. In 3 additional studies, the authors showed that automatic evaluation affects information processing style. Experiment 4 showed that participants' mood mediates the effect of valenced brief primes on information processing. PMID:16478316

  11. Automatic two- and three-dimensional mesh generation based on fuzzy knowledge processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yagawa, G.; Yoshimura, S.; Soneda, N.; Nakao, K.

    1992-09-01

    This paper describes the development of a novel automatic FEM mesh generation algorithm based on the fuzzy knowledge processing technique. A number of local nodal patterns are stored in a nodal pattern database of the mesh generation system. These nodal patterns are determined a priori based on certain theories or past experience of experts of FEM analyses. For example, such human experts can determine certain nodal patterns suitable for stress concentration analyses of cracks, corners, holes and so on. Each nodal pattern possesses a membership function and a procedure of node placement according to this function. In the cases of the nodal patterns for stress concentration regions, the membership function which is utilized in the fuzzy knowledge processing has two meanings, i.e. the “closeness” of nodal location to each stress concentration field as well as “nodal density”. This is attributed to the fact that a denser nodal pattern is required near a stress concentration field. What a user has to do in a practical mesh generation process are to choose several local nodal patterns properly and to designate the maximum nodal density of each pattern. After those simple operations by the user, the system places the chosen nodal patterns automatically in an analysis domain and on its boundary, and connects them smoothly by the fuzzy knowledge processing technique. Then triangular or tetrahedral elements are generated by means of the advancing front method. The key issue of the present algorithm is an easy control of complex two- or three-dimensional nodal density distribution by means of the fuzzy knowledge processing technique. To demonstrate fundamental performances of the present algorithm, a prototype system was constructed with one of object-oriented languages, Smalltalk-80 on a 32-bit microcomputer, Macintosh II. The mesh generation of several two- and three-dimensional domains with cracks, holes and junctions was presented as examples.

  12. Automatic DNA Diagnosis for 1D Gel Electrophoresis Images using Bio-image Processing Technique

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background DNA gel electrophoresis is a molecular biology technique for separating different sizes of DNA fragments. Applications of DNA gel electrophoresis include DNA fingerprinting (genetic diagnosis), size estimation of DNA, and DNA separation for Southern blotting. Accurate interpretation of DNA banding patterns from electrophoretic images can be laborious and error prone when a large number of bands are interrogated manually. Although many bio-imaging techniques have been proposed, none of them can fully automate the typing of DNA owing to the complexities of migration patterns typically obtained. Results We developed an image-processing tool that automatically calls genotypes from DNA gel electrophoresis images. The image processing workflow comprises three main steps: 1) lane segmentation, 2) extraction of DNA bands and 3) band genotyping classification. The tool was originally intended to facilitate large-scale genotyping analysis of sugarcane cultivars. We tested the proposed tool on 10 gel images (433 cultivars) obtained from polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) of PCR amplicons for detecting intron length polymorphisms (ILP) on one locus of the sugarcanes. These gel images demonstrated many challenges in automated lane/band segmentation in image processing including lane distortion, band deformity, high degree of noise in the background, and bands that are very close together (doublets). Using the proposed bio-imaging workflow, lanes and DNA bands contained within are properly segmented, even for adjacent bands with aberrant migration that cannot be separated by conventional techniques. The software, called GELect, automatically performs genotype calling on each lane by comparing with an all-banding reference, which was created by clustering the existing bands into the non-redundant set of reference bands. The automated genotype calling results were verified by independent manual typing by molecular biologists. Conclusions This work presents an

  13. Automatic ultrasonic imaging system with adaptive-learning-network signal-processing techniques

    SciTech Connect

    O'Brien, L.J.; Aravanis, N.A.; Gouge, J.R. Jr.; Mucciardi, A.N.; Lemon, D.K.; Skorpik, J.R.

    1982-04-01

    A conventional pulse-echo imaging system has been modified to operate with a linear ultrasonic array and associated digital electronics to collect data from a series of defects fabricated in aircraft quality steel blocks. A thorough analysis of the defect responses recorded with this modified system has shown that considerable improvements over conventional imaging approaches can be obtained in the crucial areas of defect detection and characterization. A combination of advanced signal processing concepts with the Adaptive Learning Network (ALN) methodology forms the basis for these improvements. Use of established signal processing algorithms such as temporal and spatial beam-forming in concert with a sophisticated detector has provided a reliable defect detection scheme which can be implemented in a microprocessor-based system to operate in an automatic mode.

  14. Automatic detection of health changes using statistical process control techniques on measured transfer times of elderly.

    PubMed

    Baldewijns, Greet; Luca, Stijn; Nagels, William; Vanrumste, Bart; Croonenborghs, Tom

    2015-01-01

    It has been shown that gait speed and transfer times are good measures of functional ability in elderly. However, data currently acquired by systems that measure either gait speed or transfer times in the homes of elderly people require manual reviewing by healthcare workers. This reviewing process is time-consuming. To alleviate this burden, this paper proposes the use of statistical process control methods to automatically detect both positive and negative changes in transfer times. Three SPC techniques: tabular CUSUM, standardized CUSUM and EWMA, known for their ability to detect small shifts in the data, are evaluated on simulated transfer times. This analysis shows that EWMA is the best-suited method with a detection accuracy of 82% and an average detection time of 9.64 days. PMID:26737425

  15. ERPs Differentially Reflect Automatic and Deliberate Processing of the Functional Manipulability of Objects.

    PubMed

    Madan, Christopher R; Chen, Yvonne Y; Singhal, Anthony

    2016-01-01

    It is known that the functional properties of an object can interact with perceptual, cognitive, and motor processes. Previously we have found that a between-subjects manipulation of judgment instructions resulted in different manipulability-related memory biases in an incidental memory test. To better understand this effect we recorded electroencephalography (EEG) while participants made judgments about images of objects that were either high or low in functional manipulability (e.g., hammer vs. ladder). Using a between-subjects design, participants judged whether they had seen the object recently (Personal Experience), or could manipulate the object using their hand (Functionality). We focused on the P300 and slow-wave event-related potentials (ERPs) as reflections of attentional allocation. In both groups, we observed higher P300 and slow wave amplitudes for high-manipulability objects at electrodes Pz and C3. As P300 is thought to reflect bottom-up attentional processes, this may suggest that the processing of high-manipulability objects recruited more attentional resources. Additionally, the P300 effect was greater in the Functionality group. A more complex pattern was observed at electrode C3 during slow wave: processing the high-manipulability objects in the Functionality instruction evoked a more positive slow wave than in the other three conditions, likely related to motor simulation processes. These data provide neural evidence that effects of manipulability on stimulus processing are further mediated by automatic vs. deliberate motor-related processing. PMID:27536224

  16. ERPs Differentially Reflect Automatic and Deliberate Processing of the Functional Manipulability of Objects

    PubMed Central

    Madan, Christopher R.; Chen, Yvonne Y.; Singhal, Anthony

    2016-01-01

    It is known that the functional properties of an object can interact with perceptual, cognitive, and motor processes. Previously we have found that a between-subjects manipulation of judgment instructions resulted in different manipulability-related memory biases in an incidental memory test. To better understand this effect we recorded electroencephalography (EEG) while participants made judgments about images of objects that were either high or low in functional manipulability (e.g., hammer vs. ladder). Using a between-subjects design, participants judged whether they had seen the object recently (Personal Experience), or could manipulate the object using their hand (Functionality). We focused on the P300 and slow-wave event-related potentials (ERPs) as reflections of attentional allocation. In both groups, we observed higher P300 and slow wave amplitudes for high-manipulability objects at electrodes Pz and C3. As P300 is thought to reflect bottom-up attentional processes, this may suggest that the processing of high-manipulability objects recruited more attentional resources. Additionally, the P300 effect was greater in the Functionality group. A more complex pattern was observed at electrode C3 during slow wave: processing the high-manipulability objects in the Functionality instruction evoked a more positive slow wave than in the other three conditions, likely related to motor simulation processes. These data provide neural evidence that effects of manipulability on stimulus processing are further mediated by automatic vs. deliberate motor-related processing. PMID:27536224

  17. Automatically Detecting Failures in Natural Language Processing Tools for Online Community Text

    PubMed Central

    Hartzler, Andrea L; Huh, Jina; McDonald, David W; Pratt, Wanda

    2015-01-01

    Background The prevalence and value of patient-generated health text are increasing, but processing such text remains problematic. Although existing biomedical natural language processing (NLP) tools are appealing, most were developed to process clinician- or researcher-generated text, such as clinical notes or journal articles. In addition to being constructed for different types of text, other challenges of using existing NLP include constantly changing technologies, source vocabularies, and characteristics of text. These continuously evolving challenges warrant the need for applying low-cost systematic assessment. However, the primarily accepted evaluation method in NLP, manual annotation, requires tremendous effort and time. Objective The primary objective of this study is to explore an alternative approach—using low-cost, automated methods to detect failures (eg, incorrect boundaries, missed terms, mismapped concepts) when processing patient-generated text with existing biomedical NLP tools. We first characterize common failures that NLP tools can make in processing online community text. We then demonstrate the feasibility of our automated approach in detecting these common failures using one of the most popular biomedical NLP tools, MetaMap. Methods Using 9657 posts from an online cancer community, we explored our automated failure detection approach in two steps: (1) to characterize the failure types, we first manually reviewed MetaMap’s commonly occurring failures, grouped the inaccurate mappings into failure types, and then identified causes of the failures through iterative rounds of manual review using open coding, and (2) to automatically detect these failure types, we then explored combinations of existing NLP techniques and dictionary-based matching for each failure cause. Finally, we manually evaluated the automatically detected failures. Results From our manual review, we characterized three types of failure: (1) boundary failures, (2) missed

  18. Rapid and Effective Construction of Science Data Archives and Repositories using the OODT Process Control System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mattmann, C. A.

    2011-12-01

    The Apache OODT Process Control System, or PCS, is a suite of tailorable software components leveraged on NASA Earth and planetary science archives; on distributed information systems at the National Cancer Institute, in radio astronomy and astrophysics to prototype the next generation radio telescope, and in the collection of datasets relevant to regional climate modeling, snow hydrology and more broadly, climate change. The components provide flexible file management, workflow management, resource management, and associated client toolkits for automatically downloading remote content, identifying that content (based on MIME type identification, language identification, XML schema, etc.), ingesting it into an archive, and then integrating off-the-shelf science algorithms for processing the data for later dissemination. Recent developments within the PCS components include the inception of a JAX-RS based suite of REST web services providing health monitoring, pedigree and provenance tracking, and metadata transformation via known URL formats and schemas. Much of the information provided by the PCS is being used to rapidly construct science data archive user interfaces, command line tools, and other advanced services (data subsetting; regridding, etc.) In this talk, we will discuss the current state of the PCS components; their relevance on several recent Earth, planetary and astronomy projects, and the movement of the components into the open source Apache Software Foundation, where they are part of the larger OODT top level project.

  19. Lab experiments on the innovative rapid thick strip casting process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagy, Richard; Senk, Dieter

    2012-05-01

    Rapid thick strip casting (RTSC) by Anton Hulek, Inventmetall®, is an innovative concept for the production of hot strips with a final as-cast thickness of about 25 mm before rolling. The innovation of the mechanism consists in a vertical mould performing a caterpillar motion. This moving mould has an unconventional parallelogram-shaped cross-section. The conventional rectangular shape is formed in the shaping machine, which is placed straight below the mould. Further elements of the technology are state-of-the-art. For the investigation of this new casting system theoretical calculations were complemented with practical experiments. The investigation focused mainly on two key aspects: the characteristics of the mould and the shaping process. For the practical analysis a static mould with three pairs of elements in laboratory scale was developed and commissioned by the Dept. of Ferrous Metallurgy @ RWTH Aachen University. The shaping experiments were carried out in model scale with two different materials and in variable boundary conditions. The results of these experiments delivered important mechanical as well as thermal informations about the casting system.

  20. Rapid prototyping and the human factors engineering process.

    PubMed

    Beevis, D; Denis, G S

    1992-06-01

    Rapid prototyping or 'virtual prototyping' of human-machine interfaces offers the possibility of putting the human operator 'in the loop' without the effort and cost associated with conventional man-in-the-loop simulation. Advocates suggest that rapid prototyping is compatible with conventional systems development techniques. It is not clear, however, exactly how rapid prototyping could be used in relation to conventional human factors engineering analyses. Therefore, an investigation of the use of the VAPS virtual prototyping system was carried out in five organizations. The results show that a variety of task analysis approaches can be used to initiate rapid prototyping. Overall, it appears that rapid prototyping facilitates an iterative approach to the development of the human-machine interface, and that is most applicable to the early stages of systems development, rather than to detailed design. PMID:15676861

  1. Automatic simulation of a sequence of hot-former forging processes by a rigid-thermoviscoplastic finite element method

    SciTech Connect

    Joun, M.S.; Moon, H.K.; Shivpuri, R.

    1998-10-01

    A fully automatic forging simulation technique in hot-former forging is presented in this paper. A rigid-thermoviscoplastic finite element method is employed together with automatic simulation techniques. A realistic analysis model of the hot-former forging processes is given with emphasis on thermal analysis and simulation automation. The whole processes including forming, dwelling, ejecting, and transferring are considered in the analysis model and various cooling conditions are embedded in the analysis model. The approach is applied to a sequence of three-stage hot former forging process. Nonisothermal analysis results are compared with isothermal ones and the effect of heat transfer on predicted metal flows is discussed.

  2. Rapid Prototyping of High Performance Signal Processing Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sane, Nimish

    Advances in embedded systems for digital signal processing (DSP) are enabling many scientific projects and commercial applications. At the same time, these applications are key to driving advances in many important kinds of computing platforms. In this region of high performance DSP, rapid prototyping is critical for faster time-to-market (e.g., in the wireless communications industry) or time-to-science (e.g., in radio astronomy). DSP system architectures have evolved from being based on application specific integrated circuits (ASICs) to incorporate reconfigurable off-the-shelf field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs), the latest multiprocessors such as graphics processing units (GPUs), or heterogeneous combinations of such devices. We, thus, have a vast design space to explore based on performance trade-offs, and expanded by the multitude of possibilities for target platforms. In order to allow systematic design space exploration, and develop scalable and portable prototypes, model based design tools are increasingly used in design and implementation of embedded systems. These tools allow scalable high-level representations, model based semantics for analysis and optimization, and portable implementations that can be verified at higher levels of abstractions and targeted toward multiple platforms for implementation. The designer can experiment using such tools at an early stage in the design cycle, and employ the latest hardware at later stages. In this thesis, we have focused on dataflow-based approaches for rapid DSP system prototyping. This thesis contributes to various aspects of dataflow-based design flows and tools as follows: 1. We have introduced the concept of topological patterns, which exploits commonly found repetitive patterns in DSP algorithms to allow scalable, concise, and parameterizable representations of large scale dataflow graphs in high-level languages. We have shown how an underlying design tool can systematically exploit a high

  3. An automatic detection method to the field wheat based on image processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yu; Cao, Zhiguo; Bai, Xiaodong; Yu, Zhenghong; Li, Yanan

    2013-10-01

    The automatic observation of the field crop attracts more and more attention recently. The use of image processing technology instead of the existing manual observation method can observe timely and manage consistently. It is the basis that extracting the wheat from the field wheat images. In order to improve accuracy of the wheat segmentation, a novel two-stage wheat image segmentation method is proposed. Training stage adjusts several key thresholds which will be used in segmentation stage to achieve the best segmentation results, and counts these thresholds. Segmentation stage compares the different values of color index to determine which class of each pixel is. To verify the superiority of the proposed algorithm, we compared our method with other crop segmentation methods. Experiment results shows that the proposed method has the best performance.

  4. Mapping forest vegetation with ERTS-1 MSS data and automatic data processing techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Messmore, J.; Copeland, G. E.; Levy, G. F.

    1975-01-01

    This study was undertaken with the intent of elucidating the forest mapping capabilities of ERTS-1 MSS data when analyzed with the aid of LARS' automatic data processing techniques. The site for this investigation was the Great Dismal Swamp, a 210,000 acre wilderness area located on the Middle Atlantic coastal plain. Due to inadequate ground truth information on the distribution of vegetation within the swamp, an unsupervised classification scheme was utilized. Initially pictureprints, resembling low resolution photographs, were generated in each of the four ERTS-1 channels. Data found within rectangular training fields was then clustered into 13 spectral groups and defined statistically. Using a maximum likelihood classification scheme, the unknown data points were subsequently classified into one of the designated training classes. Training field data was classified with a high degree of accuracy (greater than 95%), and progress is being made towards identifying the mapped spectral classes.

  5. Mapping forest vegetation with ERTS-1 MSS data and automatic data processing techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Messmore, J.; Copeland, G. E.; Levy, G. F.

    1975-01-01

    This study was undertaken with the intent of elucidating the forest mapping capabilities of ERTS-1 MSS data when analyzed with the aid of LARS' automatic data processing techniques. The site for this investigation was the Great Dismal Swamp, a 210,000 acre wilderness area located on the Middle Atlantic coastal plain. Due to inadequate ground truth information on the distribution of vegetation within the swamp, an unsupervised classification scheme was utilized. Initially pictureprints, resembling low resolution photographs, were generated in each of the four ERTS-1 channels. Data found within rectangular training fields was then clustered into 13 spectral groups and defined statistically. Using a maximum likelihood classification scheme, the unknown data points were subsequently classified into one of the designated training classes. Training field data was classified with a high degree of accuracy (greater than 95 percent), and progress is being made towards identifying the mapped spectral classes.

  6. Formation of niobium nitride by rapid thermal processing.

    PubMed

    Angelkort, C; Lewalter, H; Warbichler, P; Hofer, F; Bock, W; Kolbesen, B O

    2001-09-01

    The formation of group V transition metal nitride films by means of rapid thermal processing (RTP) has been investigated. Here we focus on the nitridation of niobium films of 200-500 nm thickness in the temperature range from 500 to 1,100 degrees C under laminar flow of molecular nitrogen or ammonia. The nitride phases formed were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD). Secondary neutral mass spectrometry (SNMS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) in combination with electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) were carried out on samples of selected experiments to provide more detailed information about the initial stages of nitride formation and the microstructure of the films. A classical formation sequence of nitride phases was observed with increasing nitrogen content in the order: alpha-Nb(N) --> beta-Nb2N --> gamma-Nb4N3 --> delta'-NbN --> Nb5N6. Furthermore, oxide enriched regions were discovered inside the metal films. These turned out to be formed mainly in the nitride sequence between the a-alphaNb(N) and beta-Nb2N-phases at the Nb/SiO2 interface due to a reaction of the Nb with the SiO2 layer of the silicon substrates on which the films had been deposited. The SiO2 layer acts as diffusion barrier for nitrogen but also as source for oxygen, according to SNMS and TEM/EELS studies, resulting in the formation of Nb-oxides and/or oxynitrides at the Nb/SiO2 interface. PMID:11666087

  7. Formation of niobium nitride by rapid thermal processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angelkort, C.; Lewalter, H.; Warbichler, P.; Hofer, F.; Bock, W.; Kolbesen, B. O.

    2001-09-01

    The formation of group V transition metal nitride films by means of rapid thermal processing (RTP) has been investigated. Here we focus on the nitridation of niobium films of 200-500 nm thickness in the temperature range from 500 to 1100°C under laminar flow of molecular nitrogen or ammonia. The nitride phases formed were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD). Secondary neutral mass spectrometry (SNMS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) in combination with electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) were carried out on samples of selected experiments to provide more detailed information about the initial stages of nitride formation and the microstructure of the films. A classical formation sequence of nitride phases was observed with increasing nitrogen content in the order: α-Nb(N)→β-Nb 2N→γ-Nb 4N 3→δ'-NbN→Nb 5N 6. Furthermore, oxide enriched regions were discovered inside the metal films. These turned out to be formed mainly in the nitride sequence between the a-αNb(N) and β-Nb 2N-phases at the Nb/SiO 2 interface due to a reaction of the Nb with the SiO 2 layer of the silicon substrates on which the films had been deposited. The SiO 2 layer acts as diffusion barrier for nitrogen but also as source for oxygen, according to SNMS and TEM/EELS studies, resulting in the formation of Nb-oxides and/or oxynitrides at the Nb/SiO 2 interface.

  8. Individual Differences in Children's Mathematical Competence Are Related to the Intentional but Not Automatic Processing of Arabic Numerals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bugden, Stephanie; Ansari, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, there has been an increasing focus on the role played by basic numerical magnitude processing in the typical and atypical development of mathematical skills. In this context, tasks measuring both the intentional and automatic processing of numerical magnitude have been employed to characterize how children's representation and…

  9. Inviting the Unconscious to Manifest: Process as a Product? Authentic Movement and Automatic Drawing Performed/Exhibited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pesonen, Inari

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines two improvisational processes, Authentic Movement (AM) and automatic drawing (AD), the possibility of their presentation to the viewer and the meanings such presentation may bring to the work presented. Improvisation has traditionally been used in the process of creating a finished work of art rather than in the finished art…

  10. Electronic manufacturing process improvement (EMPI) for automatic winding of quadrupole fiber optic gyro sensor coils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safonov, Gregory S.

    1994-09-01

    The purpose of this EMPI program was to design an Automatic Coil Winding Station (ACWS) for winding Fiber Optic Gyro (FOG) sensor coils through the use of TQM, QFD, etc., followed by use of Taguchi an other statistical techniques to optimize the coil winding process. Four phases were involved: Process Definition, Critical Factor Identification, Variability Reduction, and SPC Implementation. Winding FOG coils is both difficult and fragile in that it is a quadrupole wind - as apposed to the conventional thread wind - compounded by the requirement for low tension precision, high-fiber packing density, and always risk of damage to the delicate fiber itself. The critical factor identification in the quadrupole winding process was reduced to fiber crossover - a significant detrimental influence on gyro performance - which, in turn, was closely identified with fiber gap control. The station was completed and deployed to the field where production coils are currently being wound. The ACWS not only lowered the required labor skill but succeeded in reducing the winding cycle time to 1 hour (from 24 hours) and touch labor time to 0.3 hours (from 24 hours) while improving the yield and performance through improved process control.

  11. Rapid Process to Generate Beam Envelopes for Optical System Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, Joseph; Seals, Lenward

    2012-01-01

    The task of evaluating obstructions in the optical throughput of an optical system requires the use of two disciplines, and hence, two models: optical models for the details of optical propagation, and mechanical models for determining the actual structure that exists in the optical system. Previous analysis methods for creating beam envelopes (or cones of light) for use in this obstruction analysis were found to be cumbersome to calculate and take significant time and resources to complete. A new process was developed that takes less time to complete beam envelope analysis, is more accurate and less dependent upon manual node tracking to create the beam envelopes, and eases the burden on the mechanical CAD (computer-aided design) designers to form the beam solids. This algorithm allows rapid generation of beam envelopes for optical system obstruction analysis. Ray trace information is taken from optical design software and used to generate CAD objects that represent the boundary of the beam envelopes for detailed analysis in mechanical CAD software. Matlab is used to call ray trace data from the optical model for all fields and entrance pupil points of interest. These are chosen to be the edge of each space, so that these rays produce the bounding volume for the beam. The x and y global coordinate data is collected on the surface planes of interest, typically an image of the field and entrance pupil internal of the optical system. This x and y coordinate data is then evaluated using a convex hull algorithm, which removes any internal points, which are unnecessary to produce the bounding volume of interest. At this point, tolerances can be applied to expand the size of either the field or aperture, depending on the allocations. Once this minimum set of coordinates on the pupil and field is obtained, a new set of rays is generated between the field plane and aperture plane (or vice-versa). These rays are then evaluated at planes between the aperture and field, at a

  12. Rapid gas hydrate formation processes: Will they work?

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Brown, Thomas D.; Taylor, Charles E.; Bernardo, Mark P.

    2010-06-07

    Researchers at DOE’s National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) have been investigating the formation of synthetic gas hydrates, with an emphasis on rapid and continuous hydrate formation techniques. The investigations focused on unconventional methods to reduce dissolution, induction, nucleation and crystallization times associated with natural and synthetic hydrates studies conducted in the laboratory. Numerous experiments were conducted with various high-pressure cells equipped with instrumentation to study rapid and continuous hydrate formation. The cells ranged in size from 100 mL for screening studies to proof-of-concept studies with NETL’s 15-Liter Hydrate Cell. The results from this work demonstrate that the rapid and continuousmore » formation of methane hydrate is possible at predetermined temperatures and pressures within the stability zone of a Methane Hydrate Stability Curve.« less

  13. Rapid gas hydrate formation processes: Will they work?

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Thomas D.; Taylor, Charles E.; Bernardo, Mark P.

    2010-06-07

    Researchers at DOE’s National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) have been investigating the formation of synthetic gas hydrates, with an emphasis on rapid and continuous hydrate formation techniques. The investigations focused on unconventional methods to reduce dissolution, induction, nucleation and crystallization times associated with natural and synthetic hydrates studies conducted in the laboratory. Numerous experiments were conducted with various high-pressure cells equipped with instrumentation to study rapid and continuous hydrate formation. The cells ranged in size from 100 mL for screening studies to proof-of-concept studies with NETL’s 15-Liter Hydrate Cell. The results from this work demonstrate that the rapid and continuous formation of methane hydrate is possible at predetermined temperatures and pressures within the stability zone of a Methane Hydrate Stability Curve.

  14. Examining the influence of psychopathy, hostility biases, and automatic processing on criminal offenders' Theory of Mind.

    PubMed

    Nentjes, Lieke; Bernstein, David; Arntz, Arnoud; van Breukelen, Gerard; Slaats, Mariëtte

    2015-01-01

    Theory of Mind (ToM) is a social perceptual skill that refers to the ability to take someone else's perspective and infer what others think. The current study examined the effect of potential hostility biases, as well as controlled (slow) versus automatic (fast) processing on ToM performance in psychopathy. ToM abilities (as assessed with the Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test; RMET; Baron-Cohen, Wheelwright, Hill, Raste, & Plumb, 2001), was compared between 39 PCL-R diagnosed psychopathic offenders, 37 non-psychopathic offenders, and 26 nonoffender controls. Contrary to our hypothesis, psychopathic individuals presented with intact overall RMET performance when restrictions were imposed on how long task stimuli could be processed. In addition, psychopaths did not over-ascribe hostility to task stimuli (i.e., lack of hostility bias). However, there was a significant three-way interaction between hostility, processing speed, and psychopathy: when there was no time limit on stimulus presentation, psychopathic offenders made fewer errors in identifying more hostile eye stimuli compared to nonoffender controls, who seemed to be less accurate in detecting hostility. Psychopaths' more realistic appraisal of others' malevolent mental states is discussed in the light of theories that stress its potential adaptive function. PMID:25655653

  15. The role of automaticity and attention in neural processes underlying empathy for happiness, sadness, and anxiety.

    PubMed

    Morelli, Sylvia A; Lieberman, Matthew D

    2013-01-01

    Although many studies have examined the neural basis of empathy, relatively little is known about how empathic processes are affected by different attentional conditions. Thus, we examined whether instructions to empathize might amplify responses in empathy-related regions and whether cognitive load would diminish the involvement of these regions. Thirty-two participants completed a functional magnetic resonance imaging session assessing empathic responses to individuals experiencing happy, sad, and anxious events. Stimuli were presented under three conditions: watching naturally, actively empathizing, and under cognitive load. Across analyses, we found evidence for a core set of neural regions that support empathic processes (dorsomedial prefrontal cortex, DMPFC; medial prefrontal cortex, MPFC; temporoparietal junction, TPJ; amygdala; ventral anterior insula, AI; and septal area, SA). Two key regions-the ventral AI and SA-were consistently active across all attentional conditions, suggesting that they are automatically engaged during empathy. In addition, watching vs. empathizing with targets was not markedly different and instead led to similar subjective and neural responses to others' emotional experiences. In contrast, cognitive load reduced the subjective experience of empathy and diminished neural responses in several regions related to empathy and social cognition (DMPFC, MPFC, TPJ, and amygdala). The results reveal how attention impacts empathic processes and provides insight into how empathy may unfold in everyday interactions. PMID:23658538

  16. The role of automaticity and attention in neural processes underlying empathy for happiness, sadness, and anxiety

    PubMed Central

    Morelli, Sylvia A.; Lieberman, Matthew D.

    2013-01-01

    Although many studies have examined the neural basis of empathy, relatively little is known about how empathic processes are affected by different attentional conditions. Thus, we examined whether instructions to empathize might amplify responses in empathy-related regions and whether cognitive load would diminish the involvement of these regions. Thirty-two participants completed a functional magnetic resonance imaging session assessing empathic responses to individuals experiencing happy, sad, and anxious events. Stimuli were presented under three conditions: watching naturally, actively empathizing, and under cognitive load. Across analyses, we found evidence for a core set of neural regions that support empathic processes (dorsomedial prefrontal cortex, DMPFC; medial prefrontal cortex, MPFC; temporoparietal junction, TPJ; amygdala; ventral anterior insula, AI; and septal area, SA). Two key regions—the ventral AI and SA—were consistently active across all attentional conditions, suggesting that they are automatically engaged during empathy. In addition, watching vs. empathizing with targets was not markedly different and instead led to similar subjective and neural responses to others' emotional experiences. In contrast, cognitive load reduced the subjective experience of empathy and diminished neural responses in several regions related to empathy and social cognition (DMPFC, MPFC, TPJ, and amygdala). The results reveal how attention impacts empathic processes and provides insight into how empathy may unfold in everyday interactions. PMID:23658538

  17. A marked point process of rectangles and segments for automatic analysis of digital elevation models.

    PubMed

    Ortner, Mathias; Descombe, Xavier; Zerubia, Josiane

    2008-01-01

    This work presents a framework for automatic feature extraction from images using stochastic geometry. Features in images are modeled as realizations of a spatial point process of geometrical shapes. This framework allows the incorporation of a priori knowledge on the spatial repartition of features. More specifically, we present a model based on the superposition of a process of segments and a process of rectangles. The former is dedicated to the detection of linear networks of discontinuities, while the latter aims at segmenting homogeneous areas. An energy is defined, favoring connections of segments, alignments of rectangles, as well as a relevant interaction between both types of objects. The estimation is performed by minimizing the energy using a simulated annealing algorithm. The proposed model is applied to the analysis of Digital Elevation Models (DEMs). These images are raster data representing the altimetry of a dense urban area. We present results on real data provided by the IGN (French National Geographic Institute) consisting in low quality DEMs of various types. PMID:18000328

  18. Grid infrastructure for automatic processing of SAR data for flood applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kussul, Natalia; Skakun, Serhiy; Shelestov, Andrii

    2010-05-01

    More and more geosciences applications are being put on to the Grids. Due to the complexity of geosciences applications that is caused by complex workflow, the use of computationally intensive environmental models, the need of management and integration of heterogeneous data sets, Grid offers solutions to tackle these problems. Many geosciences applications, especially those related to the disaster management and mitigations require the geospatial services to be delivered in proper time. For example, information on flooded areas should be provided to corresponding organizations (local authorities, civil protection agencies, UN agencies etc.) no more than in 24 h to be able to effectively allocate resources required to mitigate the disaster. Therefore, providing infrastructure and services that will enable automatic generation of products based on the integration of heterogeneous data represents the tasks of great importance. In this paper we present Grid infrastructure for automatic processing of synthetic-aperture radar (SAR) satellite images to derive flood products. In particular, we use SAR data acquired by ESA's ENVSAT satellite, and neural networks to derive flood extent. The data are provided in operational mode from ESA rolling archive (within ESA Category-1 grant). We developed a portal that is based on OpenLayers frameworks and provides access point to the developed services. Through the portal the user can define geographical region and search for the required data. Upon selection of data sets a workflow is automatically generated and executed on the resources of Grid infrastructure. For workflow execution and management we use Karajan language. The workflow of SAR data processing consists of the following steps: image calibration, image orthorectification, image processing with neural networks, topographic effects removal, geocoding and transformation to lat/long projection, and visualisation. These steps are executed by different software, and can be

  19. Rapidly solidified ceramics: Processing, structure, and magnetic properties

    SciTech Connect

    Kalonji, G.M.; O'Handley, R.C.

    1985-01-01

    Since its initiation in September 1984, work under this contract has progressed in two areas: construction of a gas atomizer for rapid solidification of ceramics; and characterization of rapidly solidified materials in the SrO-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, BaO-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, MnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}-SiO{sub 2}, and CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}-SiO{sub 2} systems. This report summarize this work.

  20. 48 CFR 245.608-72 - Screening excess automatic data processing equipment (ADPE).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Screening excess automatic... Reporting, Redistribution, and Disposal of Contractor Inventory 245.608-72 Screening excess automatic data... screening, including General Services Administration screening, for ADPE. (See the Defense...

  1. Rapid Word Recognition as a Measure of Word-Level Automaticity and Its Relation to Other Measures of Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frye, Elizabeth M.; Gosky, Ross

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigated the relationship between rapid recognition of individual words (Word Recognition Test) and two measures of contextual reading: (1) grade-level Passage Reading Test (IRI passage) and (2) performance on standardized STAR Reading Test. To establish if time of presentation on the word recognition test was a factor in…

  2. The N400 and Late Positive Complex (LPC) Effects Reflect Controlled Rather than Automatic Mechanisms of Sentence Processing

    PubMed Central

    Daltrozzo, Jérôme; Wioland, Norma; Kotchoubey, Boris

    2012-01-01

    This study compared automatic and controlled cognitive processes that underlie event-related potentials (ERPs) effects during speech perception. Sentences were presented to French native speakers, and the final word could be congruent or incongruent, and presented at one of four levels of degradation (using a modulation with pink noise): no degradation, mild degradation (2 levels), or strong degradation. We assumed that degradation impairs controlled more than automatic processes. The N400 and Late Positive Complex (LPC) effects were defined as the differences between the corresponding wave amplitudes to incongruent words minus congruent words. Under mild degradation, where controlled sentence-level processing could still occur (as indicated by behavioral data), both N400 and LPC effects were delayed and the latter effect was reduced. Under strong degradation, where sentence processing was rather automatic (as indicated by behavioral data), no ERP effect remained. These results suggest that ERP effects elicited in complex contexts, such as sentences, reflect controlled rather than automatic mechanisms of speech processing. These results differ from the results of experiments that used word-pair or word-list paradigms. PMID:24961195

  3. Large-scale automatic reconstruction of neuronal processes from electron microscopy images.

    PubMed

    Kaynig, Verena; Vazquez-Reina, Amelio; Knowles-Barley, Seymour; Roberts, Mike; Jones, Thouis R; Kasthuri, Narayanan; Miller, Eric; Lichtman, Jeff; Pfister, Hanspeter

    2015-05-01

    Automated sample preparation and electron microscopy enables acquisition of very large image data sets. These technical advances are of special importance to the field of neuroanatomy, as 3D reconstructions of neuronal processes at the nm scale can provide new insight into the fine grained structure of the brain. Segmentation of large-scale electron microscopy data is the main bottleneck in the analysis of these data sets. In this paper we present a pipeline that provides state-of-the art reconstruction performance while scaling to data sets in the GB-TB range. First, we train a random forest classifier on interactive sparse user annotations. The classifier output is combined with an anisotropic smoothing prior in a Conditional Random Field framework to generate multiple segmentation hypotheses per image. These segmentations are then combined into geometrically consistent 3D objects by segmentation fusion. We provide qualitative and quantitative evaluation of the automatic segmentation and demonstrate large-scale 3D reconstructions of neuronal processes from a 27,000 μm(3) volume of brain tissue over a cube of 30 μm in each dimension corresponding to 1000 consecutive image sections. We also introduce Mojo, a proofreading tool including semi-automated correction of merge errors based on sparse user scribbles. PMID:25791436

  4. Modality effects in rhythm processing: Auditory encoding of visual rhythms is neither obligatory nor automatic.

    PubMed

    McAuley, J Devin; Henry, Molly J

    2010-07-01

    Modality effects in rhythm processing were examined using a tempo judgment paradigm, in which participants made speeding-up or slowing-down judgments for auditory and visual sequences. A key element of stimulus construction was that the expected pattern of tempo judgments for critical test stimuli depended on a beat-based encoding of the sequence. A model-based measure of degree of beat-based encoding computed from the pattern of tempo judgments revealed greater beat sensitivity for auditory rhythms than for visual rhythms. Visual rhythms with prior auditory exposure were more likely to show a pattern of tempo judgments similar to that for auditory rhythms than were visual rhythms without prior auditory exposure, but only for a beat period of 600 msec. Slowing down the rhythms eliminated the effect of prior auditory exposure on visual rhythm processing. Taken together, the findings in this study support the view that auditory rhythms demonstrate an advantage over visual rhythms in beat-based encoding and that the auditory encoding of visual rhythms can be facilitated with prior auditory exposure, but only within a limited temporal range. The broad conclusion from this research is that "hearing visual rhythms" is neither obligatory nor automatic, as was previously claimed by Guttman, Gilroy, and Blake (2005). PMID:20601718

  5. Automatic domain-general processing of sound source identity in the left posterior middle frontal gyrus.

    PubMed

    Giordano, Bruno L; Pernet, Cyril; Charest, Ian; Belizaire, Guylaine; Zatorre, Robert J; Belin, Pascal

    2014-09-01

    Identifying sound sources is fundamental to developing a stable representation of the environment in the face of variable auditory information. The cortical processes underlying this ability have received little attention. In two fMRI experiments, we investigated passive adaptation to (Exp. 1) and explicit discrimination of (Exp. 2) source identities for different categories of auditory objects (voices, musical instruments, environmental sounds). All cortical effects of source identity were independent of high-level category information, and were accounted for by sound-to-sound differences in low-level structure (e.g., loudness). A conjunction analysis revealed that the left posterior middle frontal gyrus (pMFG) adapted to identity repetitions during both passive listening and active discrimination tasks. These results indicate that the comparison of sound source identities in a stream of auditory stimulation recruits the pMFG in a domain-general way, i.e., independent of the sound category, based on information contained in the low-level acoustical structure. pMFG recruitment during both passive listening and explicit identity comparison tasks also suggests its automatic engagement in sound source identity processing. PMID:25038309

  6. Automatic Analysis for the Chemical Testing of Urine Examination Using Digital Image Processing Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vilardy, Juan M.; Peña, Jose C.; Daza, Miller F.; Torres, Cesar O.; Mattos, Lorenzo

    2008-04-01

    For to make the chemical testing of urine examination a dipstick is used, which contains pads that have incorporated within them the reagents for chemical reactions for the detection of a number from substances in the urine. Urine is added to the pads for reaction by dipping the dipstick into the urine and then slowly withdrawing it. The subsequent colorimetric reactions are timed to an endpoint; the extent of colors formation is directly related to the level of the urine constituent. The colors can be read manually by comparison with color charts or with the use of automated reflectance meters. The aim of the System described in this paper is to analyze and to determine automatically the changes of the colors in the dipstick when this is retired of the urine sample and to compare the results with color charts for the diagnosis of many common diseases such as diabetes. The system consists of: (a) a USB camera. (b) Computer. (c) Software Matlab v7.4. Image analysis begins with a digital capturing of the image as data. Once the image is acquired in digital format, the data can be manipulated through digital image processing. Our objective was to develop a computerised image processing system and an interactive software package for the backing of clinicians, medical research and medical students.

  7. Path selection process utilizing rapid estimation scheme. [for Martian rover

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ring, H.; Shen, C. N.

    1978-01-01

    The paper describes the use of a rapid estimation scheme for path selection by a roving vehicle. Essentially, the evaluation procedure simulates movement of the rover over each of several corridors lying radially outward from the scanning position. Two levels of corridors are used, and the path selection scheme selects the optimal primary corridor according to a dynamic programming algorithm. In the present version, the length of the corridors is variable. The rapid estimation scheme provides information to define corridor dimensions. This corridor structure, which varies as a function of the terrain, eliminates the need for backtracking, except in certain extreme cases. Computer results are promising in that obstacles were avoided while corridor lengths were kept to a maximum where safety permitted.

  8. On the Automatic Generation of Plans for Life Cycle Assembly Processes

    SciTech Connect

    CALTON,TERRI L.

    2000-01-01

    Designing products for easy assembly and disassembly during their entire life cycles for purposes including product assembly, product upgrade, product servicing and repair, and product disposal is a process that involves many disciplines. In addition, finding the best solution often involves considering the design as a whole and by considering its intended life cycle. Different goals and manufacturing plan selection criteria, as compared to initial assembly, require re-visiting significant fundamental assumptions and methods that underlie current assembly planning techniques. Previous work in this area has been limited to either academic studies of issues in assembly planning or to applied studies of life cycle assembly processes that give no attention to automatic planning. It is believed that merging these two areas will result in a much greater ability to design for, optimize, and analyze the cycle assembly processes. The study of assembly planning is at the very heart of manufacturing research facilities and academic engineering institutions; and, in recent years a number of significant advances in the field of assembly planning have been made. These advances have ranged from the development of automated assembly planning systems, such as Sandia's Automated Assembly Analysis System Archimedes 3.0{copyright}, to the startling revolution in microprocessors and computer-controlled production tools such as computer-aided design (CAD), computer-aided manufacturing (CAM), flexible manufacturing systems (EMS), and computer-integrated manufacturing (CIM). These results have kindled considerable interest in the study of algorithms for life cycle related assembly processes and have blossomed into a field of intense interest. The intent of this manuscript is to bring together the fundamental results in this area, so that the unifying principles and underlying concepts of algorithm design may more easily be implemented in practice.

  9. Children's and Adults' Automatic Processing of Proportion in a Stroop-Like Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Ying; Hu, Qingfen; Wu, Di; Yang, Shuqi

    2015-01-01

    This current study examined human children's and adults' automatic processing of proportion using a Stroop-like paradigm. Preschool children and university students compared the areas of two sectors that varied not only in absolute areas but also in the proportions they occupied in their original rounds. A congruity effect was found in…

  10. An Investigation of the Stroop Effect among Deaf Signers in English and Japanese: Automatic Processing or Memory Retrieval?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flaherty, Mary; Moran, Aidan

    2007-01-01

    Most studies on the Stroop effect (unintentional automatic word processing) have been restricted to English speakers using vocal responses. Little is known about this effect with deaf signers. The study compared Stroop task responses among four different samples: deaf participants from a Japanese-language environment and from an English-language…

  11. Automatic analysis (aa): efficient neuroimaging workflows and parallel processing using Matlab and XML.

    PubMed

    Cusack, Rhodri; Vicente-Grabovetsky, Alejandro; Mitchell, Daniel J; Wild, Conor J; Auer, Tibor; Linke, Annika C; Peelle, Jonathan E

    2014-01-01

    Recent years have seen neuroimaging data sets becoming richer, with larger cohorts of participants, a greater variety of acquisition techniques, and increasingly complex analyses. These advances have made data analysis pipelines complicated to set up and run (increasing the risk of human error) and time consuming to execute (restricting what analyses are attempted). Here we present an open-source framework, automatic analysis (aa), to address these concerns. Human efficiency is increased by making code modular and reusable, and managing its execution with a processing engine that tracks what has been completed and what needs to be (re)done. Analysis is accelerated by optional parallel processing of independent tasks on cluster or cloud computing resources. A pipeline comprises a series of modules that each perform a specific task. The processing engine keeps track of the data, calculating a map of upstream and downstream dependencies for each module. Existing modules are available for many analysis tasks, such as SPM-based fMRI preprocessing, individual and group level statistics, voxel-based morphometry, tractography, and multi-voxel pattern analyses (MVPA). However, aa also allows for full customization, and encourages efficient management of code: new modules may be written with only a small code overhead. aa has been used by more than 50 researchers in hundreds of neuroimaging studies comprising thousands of subjects. It has been found to be robust, fast, and efficient, for simple-single subject studies up to multimodal pipelines on hundreds of subjects. It is attractive to both novice and experienced users. aa can reduce the amount of time neuroimaging laboratories spend performing analyses and reduce errors, expanding the range of scientific questions it is practical to address. PMID:25642185

  12. SNPflow: A Lightweight Application for the Processing, Storing and Automatic Quality Checking of Genotyping Assays

    PubMed Central

    Schönherr, Sebastian; Neuner, Mathias; Forer, Lukas; Specht, Günther; Kloss-Brandstätter, Anita; Kronenberg, Florian; Coassin, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) play a prominent role in modern genetics. Current genotyping technologies such as Sequenom iPLEX, ABI TaqMan and KBioscience KASPar made the genotyping of huge SNP sets in large populations straightforward and allow the generation of hundreds of thousands of genotypes even in medium sized labs. While data generation is straightforward, the subsequent data conversion, storage and quality control steps are time-consuming, error-prone and require extensive bioinformatic support. In order to ease this tedious process, we developed SNPflow. SNPflow is a lightweight, intuitive and easily deployable application, which processes genotype data from Sequenom MassARRAY (iPLEX) and ABI 7900HT (TaqMan, KASPar) systems and is extendible to other genotyping methods as well. SNPflow automatically converts the raw output files to ready-to-use genotype lists, calculates all standard quality control values such as call rate, expected and real amount of replicates, minor allele frequency, absolute number of discordant replicates, discordance rate and the p-value of the HWE test, checks the plausibility of the observed genotype frequencies by comparing them to HapMap/1000-Genomes, provides a module for the processing of SNPs, which allow sex determination for DNA quality control purposes and, finally, stores all data in a relational database. SNPflow runs on all common operating systems and comes as both stand-alone version and multi-user version for laboratory-wide use. The software, a user manual, screenshots and a screencast illustrating the main features are available at http://genepi-snpflow.i-med.ac.at. PMID:23527209

  13. Automatic analysis (aa): efficient neuroimaging workflows and parallel processing using Matlab and XML

    PubMed Central

    Cusack, Rhodri; Vicente-Grabovetsky, Alejandro; Mitchell, Daniel J.; Wild, Conor J.; Auer, Tibor; Linke, Annika C.; Peelle, Jonathan E.

    2015-01-01

    Recent years have seen neuroimaging data sets becoming richer, with larger cohorts of participants, a greater variety of acquisition techniques, and increasingly complex analyses. These advances have made data analysis pipelines complicated to set up and run (increasing the risk of human error) and time consuming to execute (restricting what analyses are attempted). Here we present an open-source framework, automatic analysis (aa), to address these concerns. Human efficiency is increased by making code modular and reusable, and managing its execution with a processing engine that tracks what has been completed and what needs to be (re)done. Analysis is accelerated by optional parallel processing of independent tasks on cluster or cloud computing resources. A pipeline comprises a series of modules that each perform a specific task. The processing engine keeps track of the data, calculating a map of upstream and downstream dependencies for each module. Existing modules are available for many analysis tasks, such as SPM-based fMRI preprocessing, individual and group level statistics, voxel-based morphometry, tractography, and multi-voxel pattern analyses (MVPA). However, aa also allows for full customization, and encourages efficient management of code: new modules may be written with only a small code overhead. aa has been used by more than 50 researchers in hundreds of neuroimaging studies comprising thousands of subjects. It has been found to be robust, fast, and efficient, for simple-single subject studies up to multimodal pipelines on hundreds of subjects. It is attractive to both novice and experienced users. aa can reduce the amount of time neuroimaging laboratories spend performing analyses and reduce errors, expanding the range of scientific questions it is practical to address. PMID:25642185

  14. Rapid process for producing transparent, monolithic porous glass

    DOEpatents

    Coronado, Paul R.

    2006-02-14

    A process for making transparent porous glass monoliths from gels. The glass is produced much faster and in much larger sizes than present technology for making porous glass. The process reduces the cost of making large porous glass monoliths because: 1) the process does not require solvent exchange nor additives to the gel to increase the drying rates, 2) only moderate temperatures and pressures are used so relatively inexpensive equipment is needed, an 3) net-shape glass monoliths are possible using this process. The process depends on the use of temperature to control the partial pressure of the gel solvent in a closed vessel, resulting in controlled shrinking during drying.

  15. Rapid Sterilization of Escherichia coli by Solution Plasma Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreeva, Nina; Ishizaki, Takahiro; Baroch, Pavel; Saito, Nagahiro

    2012-12-01

    Solution plasma (SP), which is a discharge in the liquid phase, has the potential for rapid sterilization of water without chemical agents. The discharge showed a strong sterilization performance against Escherichia coli bacteria. The decimal value (D value) of the reduction time for E. coli by this system with an electrode distance of 1.0 mm was estimated to be approximately 1.0 min. Our discharge system in the liquid phase caused no physical damage to the E. coli and only a small increase in the temperature of the aqueous solution. The UV light generated by the discharge was an important factor in the sterilization of E. coli.

  16. Extended morphological processing: a practical method for automatic spot detection of biological markers from microscopic images

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background A reliable extraction technique for resolving multiple spots in light or electron microscopic images is essential in investigations of the spatial distribution and dynamics of specific proteins inside cells and tissues. Currently, automatic spot extraction and characterization in complex microscopic images poses many challenges to conventional image processing methods. Results A new method to extract closely located, small target spots from biological images is proposed. This method starts with a simple but practical operation based on the extended morphological top-hat transformation to subtract an uneven background. The core of our novel approach is the following: first, the original image is rotated in an arbitrary direction and each rotated image is opened with a single straight line-segment structuring element. Second, the opened images are unified and then subtracted from the original image. To evaluate these procedures, model images of simulated spots with closely located targets were created and the efficacy of our method was compared to that of conventional morphological filtering methods. The results showed the better performance of our method. The spots of real microscope images can be quantified to confirm that the method is applicable in a given practice. Conclusions Our method achieved effective spot extraction under various image conditions, including aggregated target spots, poor signal-to-noise ratio, and large variations in the background intensity. Furthermore, it has no restrictions with respect to the shape of the extracted spots. The features of our method allow its broad application in biological and biomedical image information analysis. PMID:20615231

  17. Automatic processing of wh- and NP-movement in agrammatic aphasia: Evidence from eyetracking

    PubMed Central

    Dickey, Michael Walsh; Thompson, Cynthia K.

    2009-01-01

    Individuals with agrammatic Broca’s aphasia show deficits in comprehension of non-canonical wh-movement and NP-movement sentences. Previous work using eyetracking has found that agrammatic and unimpaired listeners show very similar patterns of automatic processing for wh-movement sentences. The current study attempts to replicate this finding for sentences with wh-movement (in object relatives in the current study) and to extend it to sentences with NP movement (passives). For wh-movement sentences, aphasic and control participants’ eye-movements differed most dramatically in late regions of the sentence and post-offset, with aphasic participants exhibiting lingering attention to a salient but grammatically impermissible competitor. The eye-movement differences between correct and incorrect trials for wh-movement sentences were similar, with incorrect trials also exhibiting competition from an impermissible interpretation late in the sentence. Furthermore, the two groups exhibited similar eye-movement patterns in response to passive NP-movement sentences, but showed little evidence of gap-filling for passives. The results suggest that aphasic and unimpaired individuals may generate similar representations during comprehension, but that aphasics are highly vulnerable to interference from alternative interpretations (Ferreira, 2003). PMID:20161014

  18. Fidelity of Automatic Speech Processing for Adult and Child Talker Classifications

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Automatic speech processing (ASP) has recently been applied to very large datasets of naturalistically collected, daylong recordings of child speech via an audio recorder worn by young children. The system developed by the LENA Research Foundation analyzes children's speech for research and clinical purposes, with special focus on of identifying and tagging family speech dynamics and the at-home acoustic environment from the auditory perspective of the child. A primary issue for researchers, clinicians, and families using the Language ENvironment Analysis (LENA) system is to what degree the segment labels are valid. This classification study evaluates the performance of the computer ASP output against 23 trained human judges who made about 53,000 judgements of classification of segments tagged by the LENA ASP. Results indicate performance consistent with modern ASP such as those using HMM methods, with acoustic characteristics of fundamental frequency and segment duration most important for both human and machine classifications. Results are likely to be important for interpreting and improving ASP output. PMID:27529813

  19. Fidelity of Automatic Speech Processing for Adult and Child Talker Classifications.

    PubMed

    VanDam, Mark; Silbert, Noah H

    2016-01-01

    Automatic speech processing (ASP) has recently been applied to very large datasets of naturalistically collected, daylong recordings of child speech via an audio recorder worn by young children. The system developed by the LENA Research Foundation analyzes children's speech for research and clinical purposes, with special focus on of identifying and tagging family speech dynamics and the at-home acoustic environment from the auditory perspective of the child. A primary issue for researchers, clinicians, and families using the Language ENvironment Analysis (LENA) system is to what degree the segment labels are valid. This classification study evaluates the performance of the computer ASP output against 23 trained human judges who made about 53,000 judgements of classification of segments tagged by the LENA ASP. Results indicate performance consistent with modern ASP such as those using HMM methods, with acoustic characteristics of fundamental frequency and segment duration most important for both human and machine classifications. Results are likely to be important for interpreting and improving ASP output. PMID:27529813

  20. Explodet Project:. Methods of Automatic Data Processing and Analysis for the Detection of Hidden Explosive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lecca, Paola

    2003-12-01

    The research of the INFN Gruppo Collegato di Trento in the ambit of EXPLODET project for the humanitarian demining, is devoted to the development of a software procedure for the automatization of data analysis and decision taking about the presence of hidden explosive. Innovative algorithms of likely background calculation, a system based on neural networks for energy calibration and simple statistical methods for the qualitative consistency check of the signals are the main parts of the software performing the automatic data elaboration.

  1. Processing IMS data automatically: A case study of the Chelyabinsk bolide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arrowsmith, S.; Marcillo, O. E.; Blom, P. S.; Whitaker, R. W.; Randall, G. E.

    2013-12-01

    We present automatic algorithms for detection, association, and location of infrasound events using the International Monitoring System (IMS) infrasound network. Each algorithm is based on probabilistic considerations that formally account for uncertainties at both the station and network levels. Our method is applied to two days of data that include infrasound signals from the Chelyabinsk bolide. We summarize the automatic detections, global association and localization of the bolide and discuss steps we are taking to improve the methodology based on these results.

  2. Adaptation is automatic.

    PubMed

    Samuel, A G; Kat, D

    1998-04-01

    Two experiments were used to test whether selective adaptation for speech occurs automatically or instead requires attentional resources. A control condition demonstrated the usual large identification shifts caused by repeatedly presenting an adapting sound (/wa/, with listeners identifying members of a /ba/-/wa/ test series). Two types of distractor tasks were used: (1) Subjects did a rapid series of arithmetic problems during the adaptation periods (Experiments 1 and 2), or (2) they made a series of rhyming judgments, requiring phonetic coding (Experiment 2). A control experiment (Experiment 3) demonstrated that these tasks normally impose a heavy attentional cost on phonetic processing. Despite this, for both experimental conditions, the observed adaptation effect was just as large as in the control condition. This result indicates that adaptation is automatic, operating at an early, preattentive level. The implications of these results for current models of speech perception are discussed. PMID:9599999

  3. VACTIV: A graphical dialog based program for an automatic processing of line and band spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zlokazov, V. B.

    2013-05-01

    The program VACTIV-Visual ACTIV-has been developed for an automatic analysis of spectrum-like distributions, in particular gamma-ray spectra or alpha-spectra and is a standard graphical dialog based Windows XX application, driven by a menu, mouse and keyboard. On the one hand, it was a conversion of an existing Fortran program ACTIV [1] to the DELPHI language; on the other hand, it is a transformation of the sequential syntax of Fortran programming to a new object-oriented style, based on the organization of event interactions. New features implemented in the algorithms of both the versions consisted in the following as peak model both an analytical function and a graphical curve could be used; the peak search algorithm was able to recognize not only Gauss peaks but also peaks with an irregular form; both narrow peaks (2-4 channels) and broad ones (50-100 channels); the regularization technique in the fitting guaranteed a stable solution in the most complicated cases of strongly overlapping or weak peaks. The graphical dialog interface of VACTIV is much more convenient than the batch mode of ACTIV. [1] V.B. Zlokazov, Computer Physics Communications, 28 (1982) 27-37. NEW VERSION PROGRAM SUMMARYProgram Title: VACTIV Catalogue identifier: ABAC_v2_0 Licensing provisions: no Programming language: DELPHI 5-7 Pascal. Computer: IBM PC series. Operating system: Windows XX. RAM: 1 MB Keywords: Nuclear physics, spectrum decomposition, least squares analysis, graphical dialog, object-oriented programming. Classification: 17.6. Catalogue identifier of previous version: ABAC_v1_0 Journal reference of previous version: Comput. Phys. Commun. 28 (1982) 27 Does the new version supersede the previous version?: Yes. Nature of problem: Program VACTIV is intended for precise analysis of arbitrary spectrum-like distributions, e.g. gamma-ray and X-ray spectra and allows the user to carry out the full cycle of automatic processing of such spectra, i.e. calibration, automatic peak search

  4. VACTIV: A graphical dialog based program for an automatic processing of line and band spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zlokazov, V. B.

    2013-05-01

    The program VACTIV-Visual ACTIV-has been developed for an automatic analysis of spectrum-like distributions, in particular gamma-ray spectra or alpha-spectra and is a standard graphical dialog based Windows XX application, driven by a menu, mouse and keyboard. On the one hand, it was a conversion of an existing Fortran program ACTIV [1] to the DELPHI language; on the other hand, it is a transformation of the sequential syntax of Fortran programming to a new object-oriented style, based on the organization of event interactions. New features implemented in the algorithms of both the versions consisted in the following as peak model both an analytical function and a graphical curve could be used; the peak search algorithm was able to recognize not only Gauss peaks but also peaks with an irregular form; both narrow peaks (2-4 channels) and broad ones (50-100 channels); the regularization technique in the fitting guaranteed a stable solution in the most complicated cases of strongly overlapping or weak peaks. The graphical dialog interface of VACTIV is much more convenient than the batch mode of ACTIV. [1] V.B. Zlokazov, Computer Physics Communications, 28 (1982) 27-37. NEW VERSION PROGRAM SUMMARYProgram Title: VACTIV Catalogue identifier: ABAC_v2_0 Licensing provisions: no Programming language: DELPHI 5-7 Pascal. Computer: IBM PC series. Operating system: Windows XX. RAM: 1 MB Keywords: Nuclear physics, spectrum decomposition, least squares analysis, graphical dialog, object-oriented programming. Classification: 17.6. Catalogue identifier of previous version: ABAC_v1_0 Journal reference of previous version: Comput. Phys. Commun. 28 (1982) 27 Does the new version supersede the previous version?: Yes. Nature of problem: Program VACTIV is intended for precise analysis of arbitrary spectrum-like distributions, e.g. gamma-ray and X-ray spectra and allows the user to carry out the full cycle of automatic processing of such spectra, i.e. calibration, automatic peak search

  5. Methods for automatized detection of rapid changes in lateral boundary condition fields for NWP limited area models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tudor, M.

    2015-08-01

    Three-hourly temporal resolution of lateral boundary data for limited area models (LAMs) can be too infrequent to resolve rapidly moving storms. This problem is expected to be worse with increasing horizontal resolution. In order to detect intensive disturbances in surface pressure moving rapidly through the model domain, a filtered surface pressure field (MCUF) is computed operationally in the ARPEGE global model of Météo France. The field is distributed in the coupling files along with conventional meteorological fields used for lateral boundary conditions (LBCs) for the operational forecast using limited area model ALADIN (Aire Limitée Adaptation dynamique Développement InterNational) in the Meteorological and Hydrological Service of Croatia (DHMZ). Here an analysis is performed of the MCUF field for the LACE coupling domain for the period from 23 January 2006, when it became available, until 15 November 2014. The MCUF field is a good indicator of rapidly moving pressure disturbances (RMPDs). Its spatial and temporal distribution can be associated with the usual cyclone tracks and areas known to be supporting cyclogenesis. An alternative set of coupling files from the IFS operational run in the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) is also available operationally in DHMZ with 3-hourly temporal resolution, but the MCUF field is not available. Here, several methods are tested that detect RMPDs in surface pressure a posteriori from the IFS model fields provided in the coupling files. MCUF is computed by running ALADIN on the coupling files from IFS. The error function is computed using one-time-step integration of ALADIN on the coupling files without initialization, initialized with digital filter initialization (DFI) or scale-selective DFI (SSDFI). Finally, the amplitude of changes in the mean sea level pressure is computed from the fields in the coupling files. The results are compared to the MCUF field of ARPEGE and the results of same

  6. Rapid Prototyping Enters Mainstream Manufacturing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winek, Gary

    1996-01-01

    Explains rapid prototyping, a process that uses computer-assisted design files to create a three-dimensional object automatically, speeding the industrial design process. Five commercially available systems and two emerging types--the 3-D printing process and repetitive masking and depositing--are described. (SK)

  7. A simple method for rapidly processing HEU from weapons returns

    SciTech Connect

    McLean, W. II; Miller, P.E.

    1994-01-01

    A method based on the use of a high temperature fluidized bed for rapidly oxidizing, homogenizing and down-blending Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU) from dismantled nuclear weapons is presented. This technology directly addresses many of the most important issues that inhibit progress in international commerce in HEU; viz., transaction verification, materials accountability, transportation and environmental safety. The equipment used to carry out the oxidation and blending is simple, inexpensive and highly portable. Mobile facilities to be used for point-of-sale blending and analysis of the product material are presented along with a phased implementation plan that addresses the conversion of HEU derived from domestic weapons and related waste streams as well as material from possible foreign sources such as South Africa or the former Soviet Union.

  8. Thermodynamic properties of pulverized coal during rapid heating devolatilization processes

    SciTech Connect

    Proscia, W.M.; Freihaut, J.D.; Rastogi, S.; Klinzing, G.E.

    1994-07-01

    The thermodynamic properties of coal under conditions of rapid heating have been determined using a combination of UTRC facilities including a proprietary rapid heating rate differential thermal analyzer (RHR-DTA), a microbomb calorimeter (MBC), an entrained flow reactor (EFR), an elemental analyzer (EA), and a FT-IR. The total heat of devolatilization, was measured for a HVA bituminous coal (PSOC 1451D, Pittsburgh No. 8) and a LV bituminous coal (PSOC 1516D, Lower Kittaning). For the HVA coal, the contributions of each of the following components to the overall heat of devolatilization were measured: the specific heat of coal/char during devolatilization, the heat of thermal decomposition of the coal, the specific heat capacity of tars, and the heat of vaporization of tars. Morphological characterization of coal and char samples was performed at the University of Pittsburgh using a PC-based image analysis system, BET apparatus, helium pcynometer, and mercury porosimeter. The bulk density, true density, CO{sub 2} surface area, pore volume distribution, and particle size distribution as a function of extent of reaction are reported for both the HVA and LV coal. Analyses of the data were performed to obtain the fractal dimension of the particles as well as estimates for the external surface area. The morphological data together with the thermodynamic data obtained in this investigation provides a complete database for a set of common, well characterized coal and char samples. This database can be used to improve the prediction of particle temperatures in coal devolatilization models. Such models are used both to obtain kinetic rates from fundamental studies and in predicting furnace performance with comprehensive coal combustion codes. Recommendations for heat capacity functions and heats of devolatilization for the HVA and LV coals are given. Results of sample particle temperature calculations using the recommended thermodynamic properties are provided.

  9. Evaluating the Potential of Rtk-Uav for Automatic Point Cloud Generation in 3d Rapid Mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fazeli, H.; Samadzadegan, F.; Dadrasjavan, F.

    2016-06-01

    During disaster and emergency situations, 3D geospatial data can provide essential information for decision support systems. The utilization of geospatial data using digital surface models as a basic reference is mandatory to provide accurate quick emergency response in so called rapid mapping activities. The recipe between accuracy requirements and time restriction is considered critical in this situations. UAVs as alternative platforms for 3D point cloud acquisition offer potentials because of their flexibility and practicability combined with low cost implementations. Moreover, the high resolution data collected from UAV platforms have the capabilities to provide a quick overview of the disaster area. The target of this paper is to experiment and to evaluate a low-cost system for generation of point clouds using imagery collected from a low altitude small autonomous UAV equipped with customized single frequency RTK module. The customized multi-rotor platform is used in this study. Moreover, electronic hardware is used to simplify user interaction with the UAV as RTK-GPS/Camera synchronization, and beside the synchronization, lever arm calibration is done. The platform is equipped with a Sony NEX-5N, 16.1-megapixel camera as imaging sensor. The lens attached to camera is ZEISS optics, prime lens with F1.8 maximum aperture and 24 mm focal length to deliver outstanding images. All necessary calibrations are performed and flight is implemented over the area of interest at flight height of 120 m above the ground level resulted in 2.38 cm GSD. Earlier to image acquisition, 12 signalized GCPs and 20 check points were distributed in the study area and measured with dualfrequency GPS via RTK technique with horizontal accuracy of σ = 1.5 cm and vertical accuracy of σ = 2.3 cm. results of direct georeferencing are compared to these points and experimental results show that decimeter accuracy level for 3D points cloud with proposed system is achievable, that is suitable

  10. THE UBIQUITY OF THE RAPID NEUTRON-CAPTURE PROCESS

    SciTech Connect

    Roederer, Ian U.; Sneden, Christopher; Cowan, John J.; Karakas, Amanda I.; Kratz, Karl-Ludwig; Lugaro, Maria; Simmerer, Jennifer; Farouqi, Khalil

    2010-12-01

    To better characterize the abundance patterns produced by the r-process, we have derived new abundances or upper limits for the heavy elements zinc (Zn, Z= 30), yttrium (Y, Z= 39), lanthanum (La, Z= 57), europium (Eu, Z= 63), and lead (Pb, Z= 82). Our sample of 161 metal-poor stars includes new measurements from 88 high-resolution and high signal-to-noise spectra obtained with the Tull Spectrograph on the 2.7 m Smith Telescope at the McDonald Observatory, and other abundances are adopted from the literature. We use models of the s-process in asymptotic giant branch stars to characterize the high Pb/Eu ratios produced in the s-process at low metallicity, and our new observations then allow us to identify a sample of stars with no detectable s-process material. In these stars, we find no significant increase in the Pb/Eu ratios with increasing metallicity. This suggests that s-process material was not widely dispersed until the overall Galactic metallicity grew considerably, perhaps even as high as [Fe/H] =-1.4, in contrast with earlier studies that suggested a much lower mean metallicity. We identify a dispersion of at least 0.5 dex in [La/Eu] in metal-poor stars with [Eu/Fe] <+0.6 attributable to the r-process, suggesting that there is no unique 'pure' r-process elemental ratio among pairs of rare earth elements. We confirm earlier detections of an anti-correlation between Y/Eu and Eu/Fe bookended by stars strongly enriched in the r-process (e.g., CS 22892-052) and those with deficiencies of the heavy elements (e.g., HD 122563). We can reproduce the range of Y/Eu ratios using simulations of high-entropy neutrino winds of core-collapse supernovae that include charged-particle and neutron-capture components of r-process nucleosynthesis. The heavy element abundance patterns in most metal-poor stars do not resemble that of CS 22892-052, but the presence of heavy elements such as Ba in nearly all metal-poor stars without s-process enrichment suggests that the r-process

  11. Maturation of Rapid Auditory Temporal Processing and Subsequent Nonword Repetition Performance in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Allison M.; Reid, Corinne L.; Anderson, Mike; Richardson, Cassandra; Bishop, Dorothy V. M.

    2012-01-01

    According to the rapid auditory processing theory, the ability to parse incoming auditory information underpins learning of oral and written language. There is wide variation in this low-level perceptual ability, which appears to follow a protracted developmental course. We studied the development of rapid auditory processing using event-related…

  12. Adult attachment orientation and automatic processing of emotional information on a semantic level: A masked affective priming study.

    PubMed

    Donges, Uta-Susan; Zeitschel, Frank; Kersting, Anette; Suslow, Thomas

    2015-09-30

    Early adverse social experiences leading to attachment insecurity could cause heightened sensitivity to emotional information. Automatic processing of emotional stimuli conveys information about positive-negative differentiation and the so-called possessor vs. other-relevance of valence. The aim of the present study was to examine automatic processing of emotional and relevance type information on a semantic level as a function of adult attachment avoidance and anxiety. A masked affective priming task, varying valence and relevance of prime and target adjectives, was presented to a sample of 153 healthy adults. The Experiences in Close Relationships scale was administered to assess attachment orientation. Significant priming effects for valence and relevance were observed. Attachment avoidance, but not attachment anxiety, was significantly related to affective priming independently of trait anxiety and depression. Specifically, attachment avoidance was found to be related to affective priming effects based on other-relevant words. It can be concluded that automatic processing of emotional adjectives used to characterize safe or risky social environments is heightened in avoidant individuals. The avoidantly attached processing style has similarities with repressive coping, which is characterized by an enhanced early response to emotion stimuli followed by avoidant biases at a controlled processing level. PMID:26235477

  13. Sentinel-1 automatic processing chain for volcanic and seismic areas monitoring within the Geohazards Exploitation Platform (GEP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Luca, Claudio; Zinno, Ivana; Manunta, Michele; Lanari, Riccardo; Casu, Francesco

    2016-04-01

    The microwave remote sensing scenario is rapidly evolving through development of new sensor technology for Earth Observation (EO). In particular, Sentinel-1A (S1A) is the first of a sensors' constellation designed to provide a satellite data stream for the Copernicus European program. Sentinel-1A has been specifically designed to provide, over land, Differential Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (DInSAR) products to analyze and investigate Earth's surface displacements. S1A peculiarities include wide ground coverage (250 km of swath), C-band operational frequency and short revisit time (that will reduce from 12 to 6 days when the twin system Sentinel-1B will be placed in orbit during 2016). Such characteristics, together with the global coverage acquisition policy, make the Sentinel-1 constellation to be extremely suitable for volcanic and seismic areas studying and monitoring worldwide, thus allowing the generation of both ground displacement information with increasing rapidity and new geological understanding. The main acquisition mode over land is the so called Interferometric Wide Swath (IWS) that is based on the Terrain Observation by Progressive Scans (TOPS) technique and that guarantees the mentioned S1A large coverage characteristics at expense of a not trivial interferometric processing. Moreover, the satellite spatial coverage and the reduced revisit time will lead to an exponential increase of the data archives that, after the launch of Sentine-1B, will reach about 3TB per day. Therefore, the EO scientific community needs from the one hand automated and effective DInSAR tools able to address the S1A processing complexity, and from the other hand the computing and storage capacities to face out the expected large amount of data. Then, it is becoming more crucial to move processors and tools close to the satellite archives, being not efficient anymore the approach of downloading and processing data with in-house computing facilities. To address

  14. Rapid olfactory processing implicates subcortical control of an olfactomotor system.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Bradley N; Mainland, Joel D; Sobel, Noam

    2003-08-01

    Sniffs are modulated in response to odor content. Higher concentrations of odor induce lesser-volume sniffs. This phenomenon implicates a neural feedback mechanism that measures sensory input (odor concentration) and modulates motor output (sniffing) accordingly. Here we used air-dilution olfactometry to probe the time course of this olfactomotor mechanism. A stainless-steel computer-controlled olfactometer, equipped with mass flow controllers, temperature and humidity control, and on-line photo-ionization detection, was coupled to a highly sensitive pneumatotachograph that measured nasal flow. The olfactometer was used to generate four ascending concentrations of the odorants propionic acid and phenethyl alcohol. Sniff volume was inversely related to odor concentration (P > 0.0001). Sniffs were uniform and concentration independent for the initial 150 ms but acquired a concentration-dependent flowrate as early as 160 ms following sniff onset for propionic acid (P > 0.05) and 260 ms for phenethyl alcohol (P > 0.05). Considering that odorant transduction takes around 150 ms and odorant-induced cortical evoked potentials have latencies of around 300 ms, the rapid motor adjustments measured here suggest that olfactomotor sniff feedback control is subcortical and may rely on neural mechanisms similar to those that modulate eye movements to accommodate vision and ear movements to accommodate audition. PMID:12711718

  15. Rapid, potentially automatable, method extract biomarkers for HPLC/ESI/MS/MS to detect and identify BW agents

    SciTech Connect

    White, D.C. |; Burkhalter, R.S.; Smith, C.; Whitaker, K.W.

    1997-12-31

    The program proposes to concentrate on the rapid recovery of signature biomarkers based on automated high-pressure, high-temperature solvent extraction (ASE) and/or supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) to produce lipids, nucleic acids and proteins sequentially concentrated and purified in minutes with yields especially from microeukaryotes, Gram-positive bacteria and spores. Lipids are extracted in higher proportions greater than classical one-phase, room temperature solvent extraction without major changes in lipid composition. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with or without derivatization, electrospray ionization (ESI) and highly specific detection by mass spectrometry (MS) particularly with (MS){sup n} provides the detection, identification and because the signature lipid biomarkers are both phenotypic as well as genotypic biomarkers, insights into potential infectivity of BW agents. Feasibility has been demonstrated with detection, identification, and determination of infectious potential of Cryptosporidium parvum at the sensitivity of a single oocyst (which is unculturable in vitro) and accurate identification and prediction, pathogenicity, and drug-resistance of Mycobacteria spp.

  16. Rapid Parallel Semantic Processing of Numbers without Awareness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Opstal, Filip; de Lange, Floris P.; Dehaene, Stanislas

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we investigate whether multiple digits can be processed at a semantic level without awareness, either serially or in parallel. In two experiments, we presented participants with two successive sets of four simultaneous Arabic digits. The first set was masked and served as a subliminal prime for the second, visible target set.…

  17. A CityGML extension for traffic-sign objects that guides the automatic processing of data collected using Mobile Mapping technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varela-González, M.; Riveiro, B.; Arias-Sánchez, P.; González-Jorge, H.; Martínez-Sánchez, J.

    2014-11-01

    The rapid evolution of integral schemes, accounting for geometric and semantic data, has been importantly motivated by the advances in the last decade in mobile laser scanning technology; automation in data processing has also recently influenced the expansion of the new model concepts. This paper reviews some important issues involved in the new paradigms of city 3D modelling: an interoperable schema for city 3D modelling (cityGML) and mobile mapping technology to provide the features that composing the city model. This paper focuses in traffic signs, discussing their characterization using cityGML in order to ease the implementation of LiDAR technology in road management software, as well as analysing some limitations of the current technology in the labour of automatic detection and classification.

  18. Automatic instrument for chemical processing to detect microorganism in biological samples by measuring light reactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelbaugh, B. N.; Picciolo, G. L.; Chappelle, E. W.; Colburn, M. E. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    An automated apparatus is reported for sequentially assaying urine samples for the presence of bacterial adenosine triphosphate (ATP) that comprises a rotary table which carries a plurality of sample containing vials and automatically dispenses fluid reagents into the vials preparatory to injecting a light producing luciferase-luciferin mixture into the samples. The device automatically measures the light produced in each urine sample by a bioluminescence reaction of the free bacterial adenosine triphosphate with the luciferase-luciferin mixture. The light measured is proportional to the concentration of bacterial adenosine triphosphate which, in turn, is proportional to the number of bacteria present in the respective urine sample.

  19. Rapid feedback processing in human nucleus accumbens and motor thalamus.

    PubMed

    Schüller, Thomas; Gruendler, Theo O J; Jocham, Gerhard; Klein, Tilmann A; Timmermann, Lars; Visser-Vandewalle, Veerle; Kuhn, Jens; Ullsperger, Markus

    2015-04-01

    The nucleus accumbens (NAcc) and thalamus are integral parts in models of feedback processing. Deep brain stimulation (DBS) has been successfully employed to alleviate symptoms of psychiatric conditions including obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and Tourette's syndrome (TS). Common target structures are the NAcc and the ventral anterior and ventro-lateral nuclei (VA/VL) of the thalamus, for OCD and TS, respectively. The feedback related negativity (FRN) is an event-related potential associated with feedback processing reflecting posterior medial frontal cortex (pMFC) activity. Here we report on three cases where we recorded scalp EEG and local field potentials (LFP) from externalized electrodes located in the NAcc or thalamus (VA/VL) while patients engaged in a modified time estimation task, known to engage feedback processing and elicit the FRN. Additionally, scalp EEG were recorded from 29 healthy participants (HP) engaged in the same task. The signal in all structures (pMFC, NAcc, and thalamus) was differently modulated by positive and negative feedback. LFP activity in the NAcc showed a biphasic time course after positive feedback during the FRN time interval. Negative feedback elicited a much weaker and later response. In the thalamus a monophasic modulation was recorded during the FRN time interval. Again, this modulation was more pronounced after positive performance feedback compared to negative feedback. In channels outside the target area no modulation was observed. The surface-FRN was reliably elicited on a group level in HP and showed no significant difference following negative feedback between patients and HP. German Clinical Trial Register: Neurocognitive specification of dysfunctions within basal ganglia-cortex loops and their therapeutic modulation by deep brain stimulation in patients with obsessive compulsive disorder and Tourette syndrome, http://www.drks.de/DRKS00005316. PMID:25726897

  20. Operational SAR Data Processing in GIS Environments for Rapid Disaster Mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahr, Thomas

    2014-05-01

    DEM without the need of ground control points. This step includes radiometric calibration. (3) A subsequent change detection analysis generates the final map showing the extent of the flash flood on Nov. 5th 2010. The underlying algorithms are provided by three different sources: Geocoding & radiometric calibration (2) is a standard functionality from the commercial SARscape Toolbox for ArcGIS. This toolbox is extended by the filter tool (1), which is called from the SARscape modules in ENVI. The change detection analysis (3) is based on ENVI processing routines and scripted with IDL. (2) and (3) are integrated with ArcGIS using a predefined Python interface. These 3 processing steps are combined using the ArcGIS ModelBuilder to create a new model for rapid disaster mapping in ArcGIS, based on SAR data. Moreover, this model can be dissolved from its desktop environment and published to users across the ArcGIS Server enterprise. Thus disaster zones, e.g. after severe flooding, can be automatically identified and mapped to support local task forces - using an operational workflow for SAR image analysis, which can be executed by the responsible operators without SAR expert knowledge.

  1. Automatic data processing and analysis system for monitoring region around a planned nuclear power plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kortström, Jari; Tiira, Timo; Kaisko, Outi

    2016-03-01

    The Institute of Seismology of University of Helsinki is building a new local seismic network, called OBF network, around planned nuclear power plant in Northern Ostrobothnia, Finland. The network will consist of nine new stations and one existing station. The network should be dense enough to provide azimuthal coverage better than 180° and automatic detection capability down to ML -0.1 within a radius of 25 km from the site.The network construction work began in 2012 and the first four stations started operation at the end of May 2013. We applied an automatic seismic signal detection and event location system to a network of 13 stations consisting of the four new stations and the nearest stations of Finnish and Swedish national seismic networks. Between the end of May and December 2013 the network detected 214 events inside the predefined area of 50 km radius surrounding the planned nuclear power plant site. Of those detections, 120 were identified as spurious events. A total of 74 events were associated with known quarries and mining areas. The average location error, calculated as a difference between the announced location from environment authorities and companies and the automatic location, was 2.9 km. During the same time period eight earthquakes between magnitude range 0.1-1.0 occurred within the area. Of these seven could be automatically detected. The results from the phase 1 stations of the OBF network indicates that the planned network can achieve its goals.

  2. Concept Recognition in an Automatic Text-Processing System for the Life Sciences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vleduts-Stokolov, Natasha

    1987-01-01

    Describes a system developed for the automatic recognition of biological concepts in titles of scientific articles; reports results of several pilot experiments which tested the system's performance; analyzes typical ambiguity problems encountered by the system; describes a disambiguation technique that was developed; and discusses future plans…

  3. Using Automatic Speech Processing for Foreign Language Pronunciation Tutor: Some Issues and a Prototype.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eskenazi, Maxine

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the possible use of automatic speech recognition (ASR) for training students to improve their accents in a foreign language. Principles of good language training as well as the limits of the use of ASR and how to deal with them are discussed, and an example from the Carnegie Mellon FLUENCY system is used to show how such a system may…

  4. Reading Aloud Is Not Automatic: Processing Capacity Is Required to Generate a Phonological Code from Print

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Michael; Besner, Derek

    2006-01-01

    The present experiments tested the claim that phonological recoding occurs "automatically" by assessing whether it uses central attention in the context of the psychological refractory period paradigm. Task 1 was a tone discrimination task and Task 2 was reading aloud. The joint effects of long-lag word repetition priming and stimulus onset…

  5. Automatic Weed Control System For Transplanted Processing Tomatoes Using X-ray Stem Sensing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A stem detection system was developed for automatic weed control in transplanted tomato fields. A portable x-ray source projected an x-ray beam perpendicular to the crop row and parallel to the soil surface. The plant’s main stem absorbs x-ray energy, decreasing the detected signal and allowing ste...

  6. Rapid parallel semantic processing of numbers without awareness.

    PubMed

    Van Opstal, Filip; de Lange, Floris P; Dehaene, Stanislas

    2011-07-01

    In this study, we investigate whether multiple digits can be processed at a semantic level without awareness, either serially or in parallel. In two experiments, we presented participants with two successive sets of four simultaneous Arabic digits. The first set was masked and served as a subliminal prime for the second, visible target set. According to the instructions, participants had to extract from the target set either the mean or the sum of the digits, and to compare it with a reference value. Results showed that participants applied the requested instruction to the entire set of digits that was presented below the threshold of conscious perception, because their magnitudes jointly affected the participant's decision. Indeed, response decision could be accurately modeled as a sigmoid logistic function that pooled together the evidence provided by the four targets and, with lower weights, the four primes. In less than 800ms, participants successfully approximated the addition and mean tasks, although they tended to overweight the large numbers, particularly in the sum task. These findings extend previous observations on ensemble coding by showing that set statistics can be extracted from abstract symbolic stimuli rather than low-level perceptual stimuli, and that an ensemble code can be represented without awareness. PMID:21489415

  7. Concept of using a benchmark part to evaluate rapid prototype processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cariapa, Vikram

    1994-01-01

    A conceptual benchmark part for guiding manufacturers and users of rapid prototyping technologies is proposed. This is based on a need to have some tool to evaluate the development of this technology and to assist the user in judiciously selecting a process. The benchmark part is designed to have unique product details and features. The extent to which a rapid prototyping process can reproduce these features becomes a measure of the capability of the process. Since rapid prototyping is a dynamic technology, this benchmark part should be used to continuously monitor process capability of existing and developing technologies. Development of this benchmark part is, therefore, based on an understanding of the properties required from prototypes and characteristics of various rapid prototyping processes and measuring equipment that is used for evaluation.

  8. Rapid e-Learning Tools Selection Process for Cognitive and Psychomotor Learning Objectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ku, David Tawei; Huang, Yung-Hsin

    2012-01-01

    This study developed a decision making process for the selection of rapid e-learning tools that could match different learning domains. With the development of the Internet, the speed of information updates has become faster than ever. E-learning has rapidly become the mainstream for corporate training and academic instruction. In order to reduce…

  9. On the meaning of meaning when being mean: commentary on Berkowitz's "on the consideration of automatic as well as controlled psychological processes in aggression".

    PubMed

    Dodge, Kenneth A

    2008-01-01

    Berkowitz (this issue) makes a cogent case for his cognitive neo-associationist (CNA) model that some aggressive behaviors occur automatically, emotionally, and through conditioned association with other stimuli. He also proposes that they can occur without "processing," that is, without meaning. He contrasts his position with that of social information processing (SIP) models, which he casts as positing only controlled processing mechanisms for aggressive behavior. However, both CNA and SIP models posit automatic as well as controlled processes in aggressive behavior. Most aggressive behaviors occur through automatic processes, which are nonetheless rule governed. SIP models differ from the CNA model in asserting the essential role of meaning (often through nonconscious, automatic, and emotional processes) in mediating the link between a stimulus and an angry aggressive behavioral response. PMID:18203196

  10. Development of Automatic Live Linux Rebuilding System with Flexibility in Science and Engineering Education and Applying to Information Processing Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sonoda, Jun; Yamaki, Kota

    We develop an automatic Live Linux rebuilding system for science and engineering education, such as information processing education, numerical analysis and so on. Our system is enable to easily and automatically rebuild a customized Live Linux from a ISO image of Ubuntu, which is one of the Linux distribution. Also, it is easily possible to install/uninstall packages and to enable/disable init daemons. When we rebuild a Live Linux CD using our system, we show number of the operations is 8, and the rebuilding time is about 33 minutes on CD version and about 50 minutes on DVD version. Moreover, we have applied the rebuilded Live Linux CD in a class of information processing education in our college. As the results of a questionnaires survey from our 43 students who used the Live Linux CD, we obtain that the our Live Linux is useful for about 80 percents of students. From these results, we conclude that our system is able to easily and automatically rebuild a useful Live Linux in short time.

  11. Photon-counting passive 3D image sensing and processing for automatic target recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeom, Seokwon; Javidi, Bahram; Watson, Edward

    2008-04-01

    In this paper we overview the nonlinear matched filtering for photon counting recognition with 3D passive sensing. The first and second order statistical properties of the nonlinear matched filtering can improve the recognition performance compared to the linear matched filtering. Automatic target reconstruction and recognition are addressed for partially occluded objects. The recognition performance is shown to be improved significantly in the reconstruction space. The discrimination capability is analyzed in terms of Fisher ratio (FR) and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves.

  12. Development of automatic movement analysis system for a small laboratory animal using image processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagatomo, Satoshi; Kawasue, Kikuhito; Koshimoto, Chihiro

    2013-03-01

    Activity analysis in a small laboratory animal is an effective procedure for various bioscience fields. The simplest way to obtain animal activity data is just observation and recording manually, even though this is labor intensive and rather subjective. In order to analyze animal movement automatically and objectivity, expensive equipment is usually needed. In the present study, we develop animal activity analysis system by means of a template matching method with video recorded movements in laboratory animal at a low cost.

  13. Rapid Naming and Phonemic Awareness in Children with Reading Disabilities and/or Specific Language Impairment: Differentiating Processes?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Groot, Bartholomeus J. A.; Van den Bos, Kees P.; Van der Meulen, Bieuwe F.; Minnaert, Alexander E. M. G.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The objective of this study was to assess and compare the predictive values of group membership for rapid automatized naming (RAN) and phonemic awareness (PA) in Dutch school children with and without reading disabilities (RD) or specific language impairment (SLI). Method: A composite word reading index and a formal SLI diagnosis were…

  14. Automatic detection of ionospheric Alfvén resonances using signal and image processing techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beggan, C. D.

    2014-08-01

    Induction coils permit the measurement of small and very rapid changes of the magnetic field. A new set of induction coils in the UK (at L = 3.2) record magnetic field changes over an effective frequency range of 0.1-40 Hz, encompassing phenomena such as the Schumann resonances, magnetospheric pulsations and ionospheric Alfvén resonances (IARs). The IARs typically manifest themselves as a series of spectral resonance structures (SRSs) within the 1-10 Hz frequency range, usually appearing as fine bands or fringes in spectrogram plots and occurring almost daily during local night-time, disappearing during the daylight hours. The behaviour of the occurrence in frequency (f) and the difference in frequency between fringes (Δf) varies throughout the year. In order to quantify the daily, seasonal and annual changes of the SRSs, we developed a new method based on signal and image processing techniques to identify the fringes and to quantify the values of f, Δf and other relevant parameters in the data set. The technique is relatively robust to noise though requires tuning of threshold parameters. We analyse 18 months of induction coil data to demonstrate the utility of the method.

  15. Key issues in automatic classification of defects in post-inspection review process of photomasks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, Mark; Maji, Manabendra; Pai, Ravi R.; B. V. R., Samir; Seshadri, R.; Patil, Pradeepkumar

    2012-11-01

    The mask inspection and defect classification is a crucial part of mask preparation technology and consumes a significant amount of mask preparation time. As the patterns on a mask become smaller and more complex, the need for a highly precise mask inspection system with high detection sensitivity becomes greater. However, due to the high sensitivity, in addition to the detection of smaller defects on finer geometries, the inspection machine could report large number of false defects. The total number of defects becomes significantly high and the manual classification of these defects, where the operator should review each of the defects and classify them, may take huge amount of time. Apart from false defects, many of the very small real defects may not print on the wafer and user needs to spend time on classifying them as well. Also, sometimes, manual classification done by different operators may not be consistent. So, need for an automatic, consistent and fast classification tool becomes more acute in more advanced nodes. Automatic Defect Classification tool (NxADC) which is in advanced stage of development as part of NxDAT1, can automatically classify defects accurately and consistently in very less amount of time, compared to a human operator. Amongst the prospective defects as detected by the Mask Inspection System, NxADC identifies several types of false defects such as false defects due to registration error, false defects due to problems with CCD, noise, etc. It is also able to automatically classify real defects such as, pin-dot, pin-hole, clear extension, multiple-edges opaque, missing chrome, chrome-over-MoSi, etc. We faced a large set of algorithmic challenges during the course of the development of our NxADC tool. These include selecting the appropriate image alignment algorithm to detect registration errors (especially when there are sub-pixel registration errors or misalignment in repetitive patterns such as line space), differentiating noise from

  16. Characteristics of products generated by selective sintering and stereolithography rapid prototyping processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cariapa, Vikram

    1993-01-01

    The trend in the modern global economy towards free market policies has motivated companies to use rapid prototyping technologies to not only reduce product development cycle time but also to maintain their competitive edge. A rapid prototyping technology is one which combines computer aided design with computer controlled tracking of focussed high energy source (eg. lasers, heat) on modern ceramic powders, metallic powders, plastics or photosensitive liquid resins in order to produce prototypes or models. At present, except for the process of shape melting, most rapid prototyping processes generate products that are only dimensionally similar to those of the desired end product. There is an urgent need, therefore, to enhance the understanding of the characteristics of these processes in order to realize their potential for production. Currently, the commercial market is dominated by four rapid prototyping processes, namely selective laser sintering, stereolithography, fused deposition modelling and laminated object manufacturing. This phase of the research has focussed on the selective laser sintering and stereolithography rapid prototyping processes. A theoretical model for these processes is under development. Different rapid prototyping sites supplied test specimens (based on ASTM 638-84, Type I) that have been measured and tested to provide a data base on surface finish, dimensional variation and ultimate tensile strength. Further plans call for developing and verifying the theoretical models by carefully designed experiments. This will be a joint effort between NASA and other prototyping centers to generate a larger database, thus encouraging more widespread usage by product designers.

  17. Seeing race: N170 responses to race and their relation to automatic racial attitudes and controlled processing.

    PubMed

    Ofan, Renana H; Rubin, Nava; Amodio, David M

    2011-10-01

    We examined the relation between neural activity reflecting early face perception processes and automatic and controlled responses to race. Participants completed a sequential evaluative priming task, in which two-tone images of Black faces, White faces, and cars appeared as primes, followed by target words categorized as pleasant or unpleasant, while encephalography was recorded. Half of these participants were alerted that the task assessed racial prejudice and could reveal their personal bias ("alerted" condition). To assess face perception processes, the N170 component of the ERP was examined. For all participants, stronger automatic pro-White bias was associated with larger N170 amplitudes to Black than White faces. For participants in the alerted condition only, larger N170 amplitudes to Black versus White faces were also associated with less controlled processing on the word categorization task. These findings suggest that preexisting racial attitudes affect early face processing and that situational factors moderate the link between early face processing and behavior. PMID:21452950

  18. Development of Open source-based automatic shooting and processing UAV imagery for Orthoimage Using Smart Camera UAV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, J. W.; Jeong, H. H.; Kim, J. S.; Choi, C. U.

    2016-06-01

    Recently, aerial photography with unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) system uses UAV and remote controls through connections of ground control system using bandwidth of about 430 MHz radio Frequency (RF) modem. However, as mentioned earlier, existing method of using RF modem has limitations in long distance communication. The Smart Camera equipments's LTE (long-term evolution), Bluetooth, and Wi-Fi to implement UAV that uses developed UAV communication module system carried out the close aerial photogrammetry with the automatic shooting. Automatic shooting system is an image capturing device for the drones in the area's that needs image capturing and software for loading a smart camera and managing it. This system is composed of automatic shooting using the sensor of smart camera and shooting catalog management which manages filmed images and information. Processing UAV imagery module used Open Drone Map. This study examined the feasibility of using the Smart Camera as the payload for a photogrammetric UAV system. The open soure tools used for generating Android, OpenCV (Open Computer Vision), RTKLIB, Open Drone Map.

  19. A Review of Automatic Methods Based on Image Processing Techniques for Tuberculosis Detection from Microscopic Sputum Smear Images.

    PubMed

    Panicker, Rani Oomman; Soman, Biju; Saini, Gagan; Rajan, Jeny

    2016-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease caused by the bacteria Mycobacterium tuberculosis. It primarily affects the lungs, but it can also affect other parts of the body. TB remains one of the leading causes of death in developing countries, and its recent resurgences in both developed and developing countries warrant global attention. The number of deaths due to TB is very high (as per the WHO report, 1.5 million died in 2013), although most are preventable if diagnosed early and treated. There are many tools for TB detection, but the most widely used one is sputum smear microscopy. It is done manually and is often time consuming; a laboratory technician is expected to spend at least 15 min per slide, limiting the number of slides that can be screened. Many countries, including India, have a dearth of properly trained technicians, and they often fail to detect TB cases due to the stress of a heavy workload. Automatic methods are generally considered as a solution to this problem. Attempts have been made to develop automatic approaches to identify TB bacteria from microscopic sputum smear images. In this paper, we provide a review of automatic methods based on image processing techniques published between 1998 and 2014. The review shows that the accuracy of algorithms for the automatic detection of TB increased significantly over the years and gladly acknowledges that commercial products based on published works also started appearing in the market. This review could be useful to researchers and practitioners working in the field of TB automation, providing a comprehensive and accessible overview of methods of this field of research. PMID:26573654

  20. Reflection on the Process of Open Sourcing Software Based on Ten Years of Development of RAPID

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    David, C. H.; Famiglietti, J. S.; Yang, Z. L.; Habets, F.; Maidment, D.

    2015-12-01

    As the number and size of geoscience datasets persist in their constant rise, geoscientists increasingly express their yearning for further sharing of their data and software, and for facilitation of the associated academic credits. We present here our experience based on the open source development of an Earth System Model focusing on the propagation of water flow waves in large river networks: the Routing Application for Parallel computatIon of Discharge (RAPID). Since inception of RAPID ten years ago in January 2006, the community of its users has grown slowly but steadily, and now includes researchers in industry, academia, and government organizations. This growth of the RAPID users community can be explained - at least in part - by its open availability. However, despite an increasing support for open science (software and data), the mechanics of sharing still remain mysterious to many geoscientists… as they were for the authors. The purpose of this presentation is therefore to shed light on the steps involved in opening software and data based on a decade of experience related to the development and release of an Earth System Model. Three distinct steps of open sourcing are highlighted here: opening, exposing, and automatic testing. Each one of these steps is presented as an independent and tractable increment at various stages of development that is justified based on the size of the users community. Topics covered include software and data licenses, code and data repositories, unit testing, and continuous integration.

  1. Age effects shrink when motor learning is predominantly supported by nondeclarative, automatic memory processes: evidence from golf putting.

    PubMed

    Chauvel, Guillaume; Maquestiaux, François; Hartley, Alan A; Joubert, Sven; Didierjean, André; Masters, Rich S W

    2012-01-01

    Can motor learning be equivalent in younger and older adults? To address this question, 48 younger (M = 23.5 years) and 48 older (M = 65.0 years) participants learned to perform a golf-putting task in two different motor learning situations: one that resulted in infrequent errors or one that resulted in frequent errors. The results demonstrated that infrequent-error learning predominantly relied on nondeclarative, automatic memory processes whereas frequent-error learning predominantly relied on declarative, effortful memory processes: After learning, infrequent-error learners verbalized fewer strategies than frequent-error learners; at transfer, a concurrent, attention-demanding secondary task (tone counting) left motor performance of infrequent-error learners unaffected but impaired that of frequent-error learners. The results showed age-equivalent motor performance in infrequent-error learning but age deficits in frequent-error learning. Motor performance of frequent-error learners required more attention with age, as evidenced by an age deficit on the attention-demanding secondary task. The disappearance of age effects when nondeclarative, automatic memory processes predominated suggests that these processes are preserved with age and are available even early in motor learning. PMID:21736434

  2. The contribution of discrete-trial naming and visual recognition to rapid automatized naming deficits of dyslexic children with and without a history of language delay

    PubMed Central

    Gasperini, Filippo; Brizzolara, Daniela; Cristofani, Paola; Casalini, Claudia; Chilosi, Anna Maria

    2014-01-01

    Children with Developmental Dyslexia (DD) are impaired in Rapid Automatized Naming (RAN) tasks, where subjects are asked to name arrays of high frequency items as quickly as possible. However the reasons why RAN speed discriminates DD from typical readers are not yet fully understood. Our study was aimed to identify some of the cognitive mechanisms underlying RAN-reading relationship by comparing one group of 32 children with DD with an age-matched control group of typical readers on a naming and a visual recognition task both using a discrete-trial methodology, in addition to a serial RAN task, all using the same stimuli (digits and colors). Results showed a significant slowness of DD children in both serial and discrete-trial naming (DN) tasks regardless of type of stimulus, but no difference between the two groups on the discrete-trial recognition task. Significant differences between DD and control participants in the RAN task disappeared when performance in the DN task was partialled out by covariance analysis for colors, but not for digits. The same pattern held in a subgroup of DD subjects with a history of early language delay (LD). By contrast, in a subsample of DD children without LD the RAN deficit was specific for digits and disappeared after slowness in DN was partialled out. Slowness in DN was more evident for LD than for noLD DD children. Overall, our results confirm previous evidence indicating a name-retrieval deficit as a cognitive impairment underlying RAN slowness in DD children. This deficit seems to be more marked in DD children with previous LD. Moreover, additional cognitive deficits specifically associated with serial RAN tasks have to be taken into account when explaining deficient RAN speed of these latter children. We suggest that partially different cognitive dysfunctions underpin superficially similar RAN impairments in different subgroups of DD subjects. PMID:25237301

  3. Visualization of a newborn's hip joint using 3D ultrasound and automatic image processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Overhoff, Heinrich M.; Lazovic, Djordje; von Jan, Ute

    1999-05-01

    Graf's method is a successful procedure for the diagnostic screening of developmental dysplasia of the hip. In a defined 2-D ultrasound (US) scan, which virtually cuts the hip joint, landmarks are interactively identified to derive congruence indicators. As the indicators do not reflect the spatial joint structure, and the femoral head is not clearly visible in the US scan, here 3-D US is used to gain insight to the hip joint in its spatial form. Hip joints of newborns were free-hand scanned using a conventional ultrasound transducer and a localizer system fixed on the scanhead. To overcome examiner- dependent findings the landmarks were detected by automatic segmentation of the image volume. The landmark image volumes and an automatically determined virtual sphere approximating the femoral head were visualized color-coded on a computer screen. The visualization was found to be intuitive and to simplify the diagnostic substantially. By the visualization of the 3-D relations between acetabulum and femoral head the reliability of diagnostics is improved by finding the entire joint geometry.

  4. Electrophysiological Correlates of Rapid Auditory and Linguistic Processing in Adolescents with Specific Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber-Fox, Christine; Leonard, Laurence B.; Wray, Amanda Hampton; Tomblin, J. Bruce

    2010-01-01

    Brief tonal stimuli and spoken sentences were utilized to examine whether adolescents (aged 14;3-18;1) with specific language impairments (SLI) exhibit atypical neural activity for rapid auditory processing of non-linguistic stimuli and linguistic processing of verb-agreement and semantic constraints. Further, we examined whether the behavioral…

  5. Automatic processing of an orientation map into a finite element mesh that conforms to grain boundaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dancette, S.; Browet, A.; Martin, G.; Willemet, M.; Delannay, L.

    2016-06-01

    A new procedure for microstructure-based finite element modeling of polycrystalline aggregates is presented. The proposed method relies (i) on an efficient graph-based community detection algorithm for crystallographic data segmentation and feature contour extraction and (ii) on the generation of selectively refined meshes conforming to grain boundaries. It constitutes a versatile and close to automatic environment for meshing complex microstructures. The procedure is illustrated with polycrystal microstructures characterized by orientation imaging microscopy. Hot deformation of a Duplex stainless steel is investigated based on ex-situ EBSD measurements performed on the same region of interest before and after deformation. A finite element mesh representing the initial microstructure is generated and then used in a crystal plasticity simulation of the plane strain compression. Simulation results and experiments are in relatively good agreement, confirming a large potential for such directly coupled experimental and modeling analyses, which is facilitated by the present image-based meshing procedure.

  6. Improved phase-shifting method for automatic processing of moiré deflectograms.

    PubMed

    Canabal, H; Quiroga, J A; Bernabeu, E

    1998-09-10

    An improved moiré deflectometry phase-shifting technique is presented. A squared grating is used to multiplex the information of the deflections in two orthogonal directions in one image. This procedure avoids the need to rotate the gratings to obtain complete deflection information. However, the use of these gratings makes impossible the application of standard phase-shifting algorithms. Specifically, the problems associated with the nonsinusoidal profile of the moiré fringes and the low-modulation areas produced by the square gratings are solved. A modified moiré deflectometry phase-shifting method is designed to deal with these problems. In addition, a method to obtain the zero order of the prismatic effect is developed. The technique configures a complete and automatic method of mapping ray deflections. From them the refractive power maps can be derived. Experimental results obtained with a progressive-addition lens are shown. PMID:18286121

  7. Obtaining optic disc center and pixel region by automatic thresholding methods on morphologically processed fundus images.

    PubMed

    Marin, Diego; Gegundez-Arias, Manuel E; Suero, Angel; Bravo, Jose M

    2015-02-01

    Development of automatic retinal disease diagnosis systems based on retinal image computer analysis can provide remarkably quicker screening programs for early detection. Such systems are mainly focused on the detection of the earliest ophthalmic signs of illness and require previous identification of fundal landmark features such as optic disc (OD), fovea or blood vessels. A methodology for accurate center-position location and OD retinal region segmentation on digital fundus images is presented in this paper. The methodology performs a set of iterative opening-closing morphological operations on the original retinography intensity channel to produce a bright region-enhanced image. Taking blood vessel confluence at the OD into account, a 2-step automatic thresholding procedure is then applied to obtain a reduced region of interest, where the center and the OD pixel region are finally obtained by performing the circular Hough transform on a set of OD boundary candidates generated through the application of the Prewitt edge detector. The methodology was evaluated on 1200 and 1748 fundus images from the publicly available MESSIDOR and MESSIDOR-2 databases, acquired from diabetic patients and thus being clinical cases of interest within the framework of automated diagnosis of retinal diseases associated to diabetes mellitus. This methodology proved highly accurate in OD-center location: average Euclidean distance between the methodology-provided and actual OD-center position was 6.08, 9.22 and 9.72 pixels for retinas of 910, 1380 and 1455 pixels in size, respectively. On the other hand, OD segmentation evaluation was performed in terms of Jaccard and Dice coefficients, as well as the mean average distance between estimated and actual OD boundaries. Comparison with the results reported by other reviewed OD segmentation methodologies shows our proposal renders better overall performance. Its effectiveness and robustness make this proposed automated OD location and

  8. Electrophysiological Correlates of Rapid Auditory and Linguistic Processing in Adolescents with Specific Language Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Weber-Fox, Christine; Leonard, Laurence B.; Wray, Amanda Hampton; Tomblin, J. Bruce

    2010-01-01

    Brief tonal stimuli and spoken sentences were utilized to examine whether adolescents (aged 14;3-18;1) with specific language impairments (SLI) exhibit atypical neural activity for rapid auditory processing of non-linguistic stimuli and linguistic processing of verb-agreement and semantic constraints. Further, we examined whether the behavioral and electrophysiological indices for rapid auditory processing were correlated with those for linguistic processing. Fifteen adolescents with SLI and 15 adolescents with normal language met strict criteria for displaying consistent diagnoses from kindergarten through the eighth grade. The findings provide evidence that auditory processing for non-linguistic stimuli is atypical in a significant number of adolescents with SLI compared to peers with normal language and indicate that reduced efficiency in auditory processing in SLI is more vulnerable to rapid rates (200 ms ISI) of stimuli presentation (indexed by reduced accuracy, a tendency for longer RTs, reduced N100 over right anterior sites, and reduced amplitude P300). Many adolescents with SLI displayed reduced behavioral accuracy for detecting verb-agreement violations and semantic anomalies, along with less robust P600s elicited by verb-agreement violations. The results indicate that ERPs elicited by morphosyntactic aspects of language processing are atypical in many adolescents with SLI. Additionally, correlational analyses between behavioral and electrophysiological indices of processing non-linguistic stimuli and verb-agreement violations suggest that the integrity of neural functions for auditory processing may only account for a small proportion of the variance in morphosyntactic processing in some adolescents. PMID:20889197

  9. A Telesurveillance System With Automatic Electrocardiogram Interpretation Based on Support Vector Machine and Rule-Based Processing

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Ching-Miao; Lai, Feipei; Ho, Yi-Lwun; Hung, Chi-Sheng

    2015-01-01

    Background Telehealth care is a global trend affecting clinical practice around the world. To mitigate the workload of health professionals and provide ubiquitous health care, a comprehensive surveillance system with value-added services based on information technologies must be established. Objective We conducted this study to describe our proposed telesurveillance system designed for monitoring and classifying electrocardiogram (ECG) signals and to evaluate the performance of ECG classification. Methods We established a telesurveillance system with an automatic ECG interpretation mechanism. The system included: (1) automatic ECG signal transmission via telecommunication, (2) ECG signal processing, including noise elimination, peak estimation, and feature extraction, (3) automatic ECG interpretation based on the support vector machine (SVM) classifier and rule-based processing, and (4) display of ECG signals and their analyzed results. We analyzed 213,420 ECG signals that were diagnosed by cardiologists as the gold standard to verify the classification performance. Results In the clinical ECG database from the Telehealth Center of the National Taiwan University Hospital (NTUH), the experimental results showed that the ECG classifier yielded a specificity value of 96.66% for normal rhythm detection, a sensitivity value of 98.50% for disease recognition, and an accuracy value of 81.17% for noise detection. For the detection performance of specific diseases, the recognition model mainly generated sensitivity values of 92.70% for atrial fibrillation, 89.10% for pacemaker rhythm, 88.60% for atrial premature contraction, 72.98% for T-wave inversion, 62.21% for atrial flutter, and 62.57% for first-degree atrioventricular block. Conclusions Through connected telehealth care devices, the telesurveillance system, and the automatic ECG interpretation system, this mechanism was intentionally designed for continuous decision-making support and is reliable enough to reduce the

  10. Automatic disease screening method using image processing for dried blood microfluidic drop stain pattern recognition.

    PubMed

    Sikarwar, Basant S; Roy, Mukesh; Ranjan, Priya; Goyal, Ayush

    2016-07-01

    This paper examines programmed automatic recognition of infection from samples of dried stains of micro-scale drops of patient blood. This technique has the upside of being low-cost and less-intrusive and not requiring puncturing the patient with a needle for drawing blood, which is especially critical for infants and the matured. It also does not require expensive pathological blood test laboratory equipment. The method is shown in this work to be successful for ailment identification in patients suffering from tuberculosis and anaemia. Illness affects the physical properties of blood, which thus influence the samples of dried micro-scale blood drop stains. For instance, if a patient has a severe drop in platelet count, which is often the case of dengue or malaria patients, the blood's physical property of viscosity drops substantially, i.e. the blood is thinner. Thus, the blood micro-scale drop stain samples can be utilised for diagnosing maladies. This paper presents programmed automatic examination of the dried micro-scale drop blood stain designs utilising an algorithm based on pattern recognition. The samples of micro-scale blood drop stains of ordinary non-infected people are clearly recognisable as well as the samples of micro-scale blood drop stains of sick people, due to key distinguishing features. As a contextual analysis, the micro-scale blood drop stains of patients infected with tuberculosis have been contrasted with the micro-scale blood drop stains of typical normal healthy people. The paper dives into the fundamental flow mechanics behind how the samples of the dried micro-scale blood drop stain is shaped. What has been found is a thick ring like feature in the dried micro-scale blood drop stains of non-ailing people and thin shape like lines in the dried micro-scale blood drop stains of patients with anaemia or tuberculosis disease. The ring like feature at the periphery is caused by an outward stream conveying suspended particles to the edge

  11. Rapid thermal processing of ion implanted silicon as a viable solar cell technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rozgonyi, G. A.

    1986-01-01

    The main objective of the past quarter was to find the optimal pre-process heat treatment for enhancing minority carrier lifetime. The silicon substrates were both n- and p-type and had varied oxygen concentration and process induced defects. Pre-process heat treatments include traditional furnace thermal cycling and low thermal budget rapid thermal process (RTP). The rapid thermal process was performed in Ar, while furnace annealing had either N2 or O2 ambients. Chemical etch-pit delineation, x-ray topography and FTIR techniques were used to determine the bulk gettering and oxygen precipitation for the heat-treated Si substrates. Minority carrier generation lifetime and the change of oxygen content were measured before and after heat treatment.

  12. Rapid fingerprinting of milk thermal processing history by intact protein mass spectrometry with nondenaturing chromatography.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Phil; Philo, Mark; Watson, Andrew; Mills, E N Clare

    2011-12-14

    Thermal processing of foods results in proteins undergoing conformational changes, aggregation, and chemical modification notably with sugars via the Maillard reaction. This can impact their functional, nutritional, and allergenic properties. Native size-exclusion chromatography with online electrospray mass spectrometry (SEC-ESI-MS) was used to characterize processing-induced changes in milk proteins in a range of milk products. Milk products could be readily grouped into either pasteurized liquid milks, heavily processed milks, or milk powders by SEC behavior, particularly by aggregation of whey proteins by thermal processing. Maillard modification of all major milk proteins by lactose was observed by MS and was primarily present in milk powders. The method developed is a rapid tool for fingerprinting the processing history of milk and has potential as a quality control method for food ingredient manufacture. The method described here can profile milk protein oligomeric state, aggregation, and Maillard modification in a single shot, rapid analysis. PMID:22007861

  13. [The development of the multifunctional automatic rotating bed with process-monitoring].

    PubMed

    Geng, Hongzhu; Hu, Monong; Cheng, Ping; Dong, Kejiang; Zhang, Jiaxia; Sun, Juefei

    2013-04-01

    We have developed a new rotating bed for the old and the paralised people. This rotating bed is composed of two bed heads at front and at end, bed boards, guardrails, an electric motor, a reducer, an induction locator and a set of electronic controls. With the preestablished program, the angle between the left/right bed board and the middle board is changed by rotating the left/right board around the rotation axis, and the gravity direction between the human body and the ground is changed by the rotation of the middle board as a whole, so that the middle bed board and the left and right ones will act respectively as supporters of weight of the person who is lying on his back or on his side. In this way, a person can turn over automatically, comfortably and naturally when he/she is asleep. This rotating bed meets the physiological needs of a sleeping person, and people with turning over problems can turn over in a comfortable and natural way by means of biotechnology. It can also improve the quality of sleep and help avoid decubitus. In addition, it can be used to promote the rehabilitation of those who are paralysed by reason of its passive exercising function. PMID:23858752

  14. Modulating rest-break length induces differential recruitment of automatic and controlled attentional processes upon task reengagement.

    PubMed

    Lim, Julian; Teng, James; Wong, Kian Foong; Chee, Michael W L

    2016-07-01

    Rest breaks are commonly administered as a countermeasure to reduce on-the-job fatigue, both physical and mental. However, this practice makes the assumption that recovery from fatigue, as measured by the reversal of performance declines, is the sole effect of taking a break on behavior. Here, through administering rest breaks of differing lengths in between blocks of a mentally demanding symbol decoding task, we show that this assumption may not be strictly true. First, we replicate previous work by showing that taking a longer break leads to two correlated effects: greater immediate rebound in performance, and greater subsequent time-on-task decline. Using fMRI, we reveal that time-on-task in this paradigm is associated with increasing recruitment of fronto-parietal areas associated with top-down control, and decreasing deactivation in the default-mode network. Finally, by analyzing individual differences, we reveal a potential neural basis for our behavioral observation: greater recovery following long breaks is associated with greater activity in the putamen, an area associated with the automatic generation of motor responses, followed by greater activity in left middle frontal gyrus by the end of those task periods. Taken together, this suggests a shift in the implicit engagement of automatic and controlled attentional processing following longer breaks. This shift may be undesirable or detrimental in real-world situations where maintaining a stable level of attention over time is necessary. PMID:27039697

  15. Etna_NETVIS: A dedicated tool for automatically pre-processing high frequency data useful to extract geometrical parameters and track the evolution of the lava field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marsella, Maria; Junior Valentino D'Aranno, Peppe; De Bonis, Roberto; Nardinocchi, Carla; Scifoni, Silvia; Scutti, Marianna; Sonnessa, Alberico; Wahbeh, Wissam; Biale, Emilio; Coltelli, Mauro; Pecora, Emilio; Prestifilippo, Michele; Proietti, Cristina

    2016-04-01

    In volcanic areas, where it could be difficult to gain access to the most critical zones for carrying out direct surveys, digital photogrammetry techniques are rarely experimented, although in many cases they proved to have remarkable potentialities, as the possibility to follow the evolution of volcanic (fracturing, vent positions, lava fields, lava front positions) and deformation processes (inflation/deflation and instability phenomena induced by volcanic activity). These results can be obtained, in the framework of standard surveillance activities, by acquiring multi-temporal datasets including Digital Orthophotos (DO) and Digital Elevation Models (DEM) to be used for implementing a quantitative and comparative analysis. The frequency of the surveys can be intensified during emergency phases to implement a quasi real-time monitoring for supporting civil protection actions. The high level of accuracy and the short time required for image processing make digital photogrammetry a suitable tool for controlling the evolution of volcanic processes which are usually characterized by large and rapid mass displacements. In order to optimize and extend the existing permanent ground NEtwork of Thermal and VIsible Sensors located on Mt. Etna (Etna_NETVIS) and to improve the observation of the most active areas, an approach for monitoring surface sin-eruptive processes was implemented. A dedicated tool for automatically pre-processing high frequency data, useful to extract geometrical parameters as well as to track the evolution of the lava field, was developed and tested both in simulated and real scenarios. The tool allows to extract a coherent multi-temporal dataset of orthophotos useful to evaluate active flow area and to estimate effusion rates. Furthermore, Etna_NETVIS data were used to downscale the information derived from satellite data and/or to integrate the satellite datasets in case of incomplete coverage or missing acquisitions. This work was developed in the

  16. Directional Effects between Rapid Auditory Processing and Phonological Awareness in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Erin Phinney; Pennington, Bruce F.; Lee, Nancy Raitano; Boada, Richard

    2009-01-01

    Background: Deficient rapid auditory processing (RAP) has been associated with early language impairment and dyslexia. Using an auditory masking paradigm, children with language disabilities perform selectively worse than controls at detecting a tone in a backward masking (BM) condition (tone followed by white noise) compared to a forward masking…

  17. The Data-to-Action Framework: A Rapid Program Improvement Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zakocs, Ronda; Hill, Jessica A.; Brown, Pamela; Wheaton, Jocelyn; Freire, Kimberley E.

    2015-01-01

    Although health education programs may benefit from quality improvement methods, scant resources exist to help practitioners apply these methods for program improvement. The purpose of this article is to describe the Data-to-Action framework, a process that guides practitioners through rapid-feedback cycles in order to generate actionable data to…

  18. ERP and Adaptive Autoregressive identification with spectral power decomposition to study rapid auditory processing in infants.

    PubMed

    Piazza, C; Cantiani, C; Tacchino, G; Molteni, M; Reni, G; Bianchi, A M

    2014-01-01

    The ability to process rapidly-occurring auditory stimuli plays an important role in the mechanisms of language acquisition. For this reason, the research community has begun to investigate infant auditory processing, particularly using the Event Related Potentials (ERP) technique. In this paper we approach this issue by means of time domain and time-frequency domain analysis. For the latter, we propose the use of Adaptive Autoregressive (AAR) identification with spectral power decomposition. Results show EEG delta-theta oscillation enhancement related to the processing of acoustic frequency and duration changes, suggesting that, as expected, power modulation encodes rapid auditory processing (RAP) in infants and that the time-frequency analysis method proposed is able to identify this modulation. PMID:25571014

  19. Rapid thermal processing of Czochralski silicon substrates: Defects, denuded zones, and minority carrier lifetime

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rozgonyi, G. S.; Yang, D. K.; Cao, Y. H.; Radzimski, Z.

    1986-01-01

    Rapid thermal processing (RTP) of Czochralski (Cz) silicon substrates is discussed with its attendant effects on defects, denuded zones, and minority carrier lifetime. Preferential chemical etching and X-ray topography was used to delineate defects which were subsequently correlated with minority carrier lifetime; determined by a pulse metallo-organic decompositon (MOD) test device. The X-ray delineation of grown-in defects was enhanced by a lithium decoration procedure. Results, thus far, show excellent correlation between process-induced defects.

  20. The role of rapid solidification processing in the fabrication of fiber reinforced metal matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Locci, Ivan E.; Noebe, Ronald D.

    1989-01-01

    Advanced composite processing techniques for fiber reinforced metal matrix composites require the flexibility to meet several widespread objectives. The development of uniquely desired matrix microstructures and uniformly arrayed fiber spacing with sufficient bonding between fiber and matrix to transmit load between them without degradation to the fiber or matrix are the minimum requirements necessary of any fabrication process. For most applications these criteria can be met by fabricating composite monotapes which are then consolidated into composite panels or more complicated components such as fiber reinforced turbine blades. Regardless of the end component, composite monotapes are the building blocks from which near net shape composite structures can be formed. The most common methods for forming composite monotapes are the powder cloth, foil/fiber, plasma spray, and arc spray processes. These practices, however, employ rapid solidification techniques in processing of the composite matrix phase. Consequently, rapid solidification processes play a vital and yet generally overlooked role in composite fabrication. The future potential of rapid solidification processing is discussed.

  1. An investigation of the Stroop effect among deaf signers in English and Japanese: automatic processing or memory retrieval?

    PubMed

    Flaherty, Mary; Moran, Aidan

    2007-01-01

    Most studies on the Stroop effect (unintentional automatic word processing) have been restricted to English speakers using vocal responses. Little is known about this effect with deaf signers. The study compared Stroop task responses among four different samples: deaf participants from a Japanese-language environment and from an English-language environment; and hearing individuals from Japan and from Australia. Color words were prepared in both English and Japanese and were presented in three conditions: congruent (e.g., the word red printed in red), incongruent (e.g., red printed in blue), and neutral. The magnitude of the effect was greater with the deaf participants than with the hearing participants. The deaf individuals experienced more interference in English than in Japanese. PMID:18018670

  2. Automatic Imitation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heyes, Cecilia

    2011-01-01

    "Automatic imitation" is a type of stimulus-response compatibility effect in which the topographical features of task-irrelevant action stimuli facilitate similar, and interfere with dissimilar, responses. This article reviews behavioral, neurophysiological, and neuroimaging research on automatic imitation, asking in what sense it is "automatic"…

  3. Operational SAR Data Processing in GIS Environments for Rapid Disaster Mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meroni, A.; Bahr, T.

    2013-05-01

    Having access to SAR data can be highly important and critical especially for disaster mapping. Updating a GIS with contemporary information from SAR data allows to deliver a reliable set of geospatial information to advance civilian operations, e.g. search and rescue missions. Therefore, we present in this paper the operational processing of SAR data within a GIS environment for rapid disaster mapping. This is exemplified by the November 2010 flash flood in the Veneto region, Italy. A series of COSMO-SkyMed acquisitions was processed in ArcGIS® using a single-sensor, multi-mode, multi-temporal approach. The relevant processing steps were combined using the ArcGIS ModelBuilder to create a new model for rapid disaster mapping in ArcGIS, which can be accessed both via a desktop and a server environment.

  4. Reduction of chromium in Ni-base superalloys through element substitution and rapid solidification processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fraser, H. D.; Muddl, B. C.

    1982-01-01

    The reduction in the use of Cr in Ni base superalloys by the combined approaches of both elemental substitution and rapid solidification processing is studied. The elements Si, Zr, Y and Hf were chosen as potential partial substitutes for Cr in Waspaloy and IN 713LC sine their separate addition to other alloys has previously resulted in enhanced oxidation resistance. The roles of Cr and these replacement elements in determining the microstructure and properties are evaluated. The elements Si, Zr, and Y and Hf are used as partial replacements for Cr in the base superalloys and these resultant alloys are processed using rapid solidification techniques. The mechanical properties and oxidation resistance of the processed materials are evaluated. The microstructure is characterized using state of the art techniques (e.g. analytical transmission electron microscopy), and the mechanism by which these structures are produced is determined.

  5. [Application of ultraviolet spectroscopy for rapid analysis in extraction process of danhong injection].

    PubMed

    Yan, Bin-Jun; Liu, Shuang-Yue; Guo, Zheng-Tai; Huang, Shi-Chao; Qu, Hai-Bin

    2013-06-01

    In this work, a rapid analysis method basing on ultraviolet spectroscopy was established for the determination of danshensu, protocatechuic aldehyde, rosmarinci acid, lithospermic acid and salvianolic acid B in the extraction process of Danhong injection. In the extraction process of Danshen and Honghua crude drugs, 44 extraction solution samples were collected and the contents of the five components were determined by HPLC analysis. The ultraviolet spectra of the samples were collected. Partial least square regression was used to establish the multivariate calibration models between the ultraviolet spectra and the contents of the five components. The results showed that the established models could predict the contents of the five components in the extraction solution accurately. The ultraviolet spectroscopy method established in this work can be used for rapid analysis of the intermediates of Danhong injection, which may be applied for the quality control in the manufacturing process. PMID:24010275

  6. Rapid prototyping of biodegradable microneedle arrays by integrating CO2 laser processing and polymer molding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tu, K. T.; Chung, C. K.

    2016-06-01

    An integrated technology of CO2 laser processing and polymer molding has been demonstrated for the rapid prototyping of biodegradable poly-lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) microneedle arrays. Rapid and low-cost CO2 laser processing was used for the fabrication of a high-aspect-ratio microneedle master mold instead of conventional time-consuming and expensive photolithography and etching processes. It is crucial to use flexible polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) to detach PLGA. However, the direct CO2 laser-ablated PDMS could generate poor surfaces with bulges, scorches, re-solidification and shrinkage. Here, we have combined the polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) ablation and two-step PDMS casting process to form a PDMS female microneedle mold to eliminate the problem of direct ablation. A self-assembled monolayer polyethylene glycol was coated to prevent stiction between the two PDMS layers during the peeling-off step in the PDMS-to-PDMS replication. Then the PLGA microneedle array was successfully released by bending the second-cast PDMS mold with flexibility and hydrophobic property. The depth of the polymer microneedles can range from hundreds of micrometers to millimeters. It is linked to the PMMA pattern profile and can be adjusted by CO2 laser power and scanning speed. The proposed integration process is maskless, simple and low-cost for rapid prototyping with a reusable mold.

  7. A Five-Year Plan for Meeting the Automatic Data Processing and Telecommunications Needs of the Federal Government. Volume l: Planning Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Commerce, Washington, DC.

    The first of two volumes, this document describes the planning process of a 5-year plan for meeting the telecommunications and automatic data processing (ADP) needs of the federal government, examines the planning efforts of several typical agencies, and explores issues involved in managing new technology as it evolves. For each agency,…

  8. A fully automatic processing chain to produce Burn Scar Mapping products, using the full Landsat archive over Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kontoes, Charalampos; Papoutsis, Ioannis; Herekakis, Themistoklis; Michail, Dimitrios; Ieronymidi, Emmanuela

    2013-04-01

    Remote sensing tools for the accurate, robust and timely assessment of the damages inflicted by forest wildfires provide information that is of paramount importance to public environmental agencies and related stakeholders before, during and after the crisis. The Institute for Astronomy, Astrophysics, Space Applications and Remote Sensing of the National Observatory of Athens (IAASARS/NOA) has developed a fully automatic single and/or multi date processing chain that takes as input archived Landsat 4, 5 or 7 raw images and produces precise diachronic burnt area polygons and damage assessments over the Greek territory. The methodology consists of three fully automatic stages: 1) the pre-processing stage where the metadata of the raw images are extracted, followed by the application of the LEDAPS software platform for calibration and mask production and the Automated Precise Orthorectification Package, developed by NASA, for image geo-registration and orthorectification, 2) the core-BSM (Burn Scar Mapping) processing stage which incorporates a published classification algorithm based on a series of physical indexes, the application of two filters for noise removal using graph-based techniques and the grouping of pixels classified as burnt to form the appropriate pixels clusters before proceeding to conversion from raster to vector, and 3) the post-processing stage where the products are thematically refined and enriched using auxiliary GIS layers (underlying land cover/use, administrative boundaries, etc.) and human logic/evidence to suppress false alarms and omission errors. The established processing chain has been successfully applied to the entire archive of Landsat imagery over Greece spanning from 1984 to 2012, which has been collected and managed in IAASARS/NOA. The number of full Landsat frames that were subject of process in the framework of the study was 415. These burn scar mapping products are generated for the first time to such a temporal and spatial

  9. Computer-aided designing of automatic process control systems for thermal power stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trofimov, A. V.

    2009-10-01

    The structure of modern microprocessor systems for automated control of technological processes at cogeneration stations is considered. Methods for computer-aided designing of the lower (sensors and actuators) and upper (cabinets of computerized automation equipment) levels of an automated process control system are proposed. The composition of project documents, the structures of a project database and database of a computer-aided design system, and the way they interact with one another in the course of developing the project of an automated process control system are described. Elements of the interface between a design engineer and computer program are shown.

  10. Automatic processing of taxonomic and thematic relations in semantic priming - Differentiation by early N400 and late frontal negativity.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qingfei; Ye, Chun; Liang, Xiuling; Cao, Bihua; Lei, Yi; Li, Hong

    2014-09-16

    Most current models of knowledge organization are based on hierarchical (plant-pine) or taxonomic categories (animal-plant). Another important organizational pattern is thematic categories, which performs external or complementary roles in the same scenario or event (bee-honey). The goal of this study was to explore the processing of hierarchical categories and thematic categories under automatic processing conditions that minimize strategic influences. The Evoked response potential (ERP) procedure was used to examine the time course of semantic priming for category members with a short stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA) of 300ms as participants performed a lexical decision task. Six experimental conditions were compared: hierarchical relations (offspring-grandson), internal features (gold-golden), productive relations (bee-honey), script relations (room-tenant), unrelated (star-spoon), and non-word trials (star-derf). We found faster reaction times for related prime-target pairs than unrelated pairs except for productive relations. The ERP data showed that an early N400 effect (200-400ms) was more negative for unrelated words than for all related words. Furthermore, a frontal negativity (400-550ms) elicited by productive relations was smaller (more positive) than other related words. We suggest that the smaller frontal negativity in the processing of productive relations indicates their increased salience in knowledge structure compared to less prominent hierarchical relations. Indeed, the allocation of attentional resources and subsequent recruitment of additional memory processing might be two of the hallmarks of thematic relations. PMID:25234647

  11. Development of automatic hologram synthesizer for medical use III: image processing for original medical images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Toshifumi; Misaki, Toshikazu; Kato, Tsutomu

    1992-05-01

    An image processing system for providing original images for synthesizing multiplex holograms is developed. This system reconstructs 3D surface rendering images of internal organs and/or bones of a patient from a series of tomograms such as computed tomography. Image processing includes interpolation, enhancement, extraction of diseased parts, selection of axis of projection, and compensation of distortions. This paper presents the features of this system, along with problems and resolutions encountered in actual test operation at hospitals.

  12. Automatic Data Processing Equipment (ADPE) acquisition plan for the medical sciences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    An effective mechanism for meeting the SLSD/MSD data handling/processing requirements for Shuttle is discussed. The ability to meet these requirements depends upon the availability of a general purpose high speed digital computer system. This system is expected to implement those data base management and processing functions required across all SLSD/MSD programs during training, laboratory operations/analysis, simulations, mission operations, and post mission analysis/reporting.

  13. RapidSeis: Enabling User-Defined Seismological Waveform Data Processing over the Grid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spinuso, Alessandro; Heath, Andy; Koestjer, Jos; Trani, Luca

    2010-05-01

    The objective of this JISC-funded pilot project was to remove perceived barriers to uptake of an application that performs analysis of seismic waveform data. The aim was to provide the seismological community with a simplified system that overcame important barriers such as installation and understanding of the analysis package, location and transfer of large amounts of input data and visualisation of results. The project combined the expertise of three distinct teams. The Orfeus Data Centre provided discovery services and access management to distributed earthquake waveform data and metadata, supported by technologies such as webservices, SPARQL/RDF and a JSR-168 portal framework based on the WSRP portlet architecture. Analysis and visualisation of the waveform data were performed by SDX (Seismic Data eXplorer) developed at the University of Liverpool. SDX formed the core processing engine - this application's functionality can be extended via user-defined algorithms coded as plugins. The processing engine was supported by several webservice-enabled modules used for data and plugin exchange. The user, data and processing infrastructure were connected using the Rapid framework created by the UK National e-Science Centre. Rapid generates intuitive interfaces to the processing core in the form of two self-contained JSR-168 remote portlets. One portlet facilitated plugin creation, whilst the other allowed execution of plugin code within the processing core running on a campus or national Grid infrastructure. The RapidSeis system was deployed within a community gateway: the NERIES web portal. Although RapidSeis originated within the seismological community we suggest it forms a framework which could be exploited in different domains or scientific gateways where users can discover data, store data within a cart and wish to apply specialised processing algorithms remotely through a web browser. Processing performed on Grid infrastructure is completely transparent: the

  14. Rapid Fabrication of Lightweight SiC Optics using Reactive Atom Plasma (RAP) Processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fiske, Peter S.

    2006-01-01

    Reactive Atom Plasma (RAP) processing is a non-contact, plasma-based processing technology that can be used to generate damage-free optical surfaces. We have developed tools and processes using RAP that allow us to shape extremely lightweight mirror Surfaces made from extremely hard-to-machine materials (e.g. SiC). We will describe our latest results using RAP in combination with other technologies to produce finished lightweight SiC mirrors and also discuss applications for RAP in the rapid fabrication of mirror segments for reflective and grazing incidence telescopes.

  15. A cell-free expression and purification process for rapid production of protein biologics.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Challise J; Pendleton, Erik D; Sasmor, Henri H; Hicks, William L; Farnum, John B; Muto, Machiko; Amendt, Eric M; Schoborg, Jennifer A; Martin, Rey W; Clark, Lauren G; Anderson, Mark J; Choudhury, Alaksh; Fior, Raffaella; Lo, Yu-Hwa; Griffey, Richard H; Chappell, Stephen A; Jewett, Michael C; Mauro, Vincent P; Dresios, John

    2016-02-01

    Cell-free protein synthesis has emerged as a powerful technology for rapid and efficient protein production. Cell-free methods are also amenable to automation and such systems have been extensively used for high-throughput protein production and screening; however, current fluidic systems are not adequate for manufacturing protein biopharmaceuticals. In this work, we report on the initial development of a fluidic process for rapid end-to-end production of recombinant protein biologics. This process incorporates a bioreactor module that can be used with eukaryotic or prokaryotic lysates that are programmed for combined transcription/translation of an engineered DNA template encoding for specific protein targets. Purification of the cell-free expressed product occurs through a series of protein separation modules that are configurable for process-specific isolation of different proteins. Using this approach, we demonstrate production of two bioactive human protein therapeutics, erythropoietin and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, in yeast and bacterial extracts, respectively, each within 24 hours. This process is flexible, scalable and amenable to automation for rapid production at the point-of-need of proteins with significant pharmaceutical, medical, or biotechnological value. PMID:26427345

  16. Rapid solidification processing of iron-base alloys for structural applications

    SciTech Connect

    Flinn, J.E.

    1991-09-01

    The response of iron-base alloys to rapid solidification is reviewed with an emphasis on the effects of processing on the microstructure and mechanical property behavior. The processing topics addressed are powder atomization, powder consolidation, joining, and thermal-mechanical exposure. The value of rapid solidification processing (RSP) lies in the ability to promote compositional homogeneity and retention of fine and stable (to high temperatures) microstructures. Achieving the maximum benefit from RSP requires proper application of the basic principles of composition control and rapid crystallization. This investigation has disclosed two very important facets of the RSP approach that can be applied using current technologies. Dissociated oxygen appears to play a significant role in stabilizing microstructural features. In conjunction with oxygen, vacancies trapped during crystallization provide a very stable matrix dispersion for enhanced strengthening. With a fundamental understanding of the response of iron-base alloys to RSP, alloys can be designed that will have substantially better properties and performance than their conventionally processed counterparts. 77 refs., 94 figs., 14 tabs.

  17. Automatic Number Processing Independent of Language and Notation in Bilingual Speakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Todorova, Alexandra

    2013-01-01

    Numbers are ubiquitous in life. At the same time, the symbols for numbers are highly abstract and their visual appearance does not carry any direct relation to their magnitude. This poses an important question for researchers interested in how numbers are mentally processed. Whereas research on numeric cognition suggests that culturally based…

  18. Knowledge-based visual image processing IDE model for algorithm and system rapid prototyping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Biyin; Chen, Wei; Wang, Yuanbin

    2009-10-01

    A novel intelligent model for Image Processing (IP) research integrated development environment (IDE) is presented for rapid converting conceptual model of IP algorithm into computational model and program implementation. Considering psychology of IP and computer programming, this model presents a cycle model of IP research process and establishes an improved expert system prototype. Visualization approaches are introduced into visualizing three phases of IP development. An intelligent methodology is applied to reuse algorithms, graphical user interfaces (GUI) and data visualizing tools. Thus, researchers are allowed to fix more attention only on their own interest algorithm models. Experimental results show that the development based the new model enhances rapid algorithm prototype modeling with great efficiency and speed.

  19. Effect of Back Contact and Rapid Thermal Processing Conditions on Flexible CdTe Device Performance

    SciTech Connect

    Mahabaduge, Hasitha; Meysing, D. M.; Rance, Will L.; Burst, James M.; Reese, Matthew O.; Wolden, C. A.; Gessert, Timothy A.; Metzger, Wyatt K.; Garner, S.; Barnes, Teresa M.

    2015-06-14

    Flexible CdTe solar cells on ultra-thin glass substrates can enable new applications that require high specific power, unique form-factors, and low manufacturing costs. To be successful, these cells must be cost competitive, have high efficiency, and have high reliability. Here we present back contact processing conditions that enabled us to achieve over 16% efficiency on flexible Corning (R) Willow (R) Glass substrates. We used co-evaporated ZnTe:Cu and Au as our back contact and used rapid thermal processing (RTP) to activate the back contact. Both the ZnTe to Cu ratio and the RTP activation temperature provide independent control over the device performance. We have investigated the influence of various RTP conditions to Cu activation and distribution. Current density-voltage, capacitance-voltage measurements along with device simulations were used to examine the device performance in terms of ZnTe to Cu ratio and rapid thermal activation temperature.

  20. Development of Rapid Temporal Processing and Its Impact on Literacy Skills in Primary School Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinbrink, Claudia; Zimmer, Karin; Lachmann, Thomas; Dirichs, Martin; Kammer, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    In a longitudinal study, auditory and visual temporal order thresholds (TOTs) were investigated in primary school children (N = 236; mean age at first data point = 6;7) at the beginning of Grade 1 and the end of Grade 2 to test whether rapid temporal processing abilities predict reading and spelling at the end of Grades 1 and 2. Auditory and…

  1. Rapid thermal process-induced recombination centers in ion implanted silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eichhammer, W.; Hage-Ali, M.; Stuck, R.; Siffert, P.

    1990-04-01

    This work presents direct evidence for a correlation between rapid thermal process-induced recombination centers and co-implanted metallic impurities in ion implanted silicon. Experimental evidence includes the dose dependence of the minority carrier diffusion length measured by the SPV technique, SIMS and RBS analysis of high-dose implantations which show the presence of heavy metals, the dependence of the final diffusion lengths on the mass of the implanted ions, as well as the successful modification of an implantation equipment.

  2. Process monitoring using automatic physical measurement based on electrical and physical variability analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shauly, Eitan N.; Levi, Shimon; Schwarzband, Ishai; Adan, Ofer; Latinsky, Sergey

    2015-04-01

    A fully automated silicon-based methodology for systematic analysis of electrical features is shown. The system was developed for process monitoring and electrical variability reduction. A mapping step was created by dedicated structures such as static-random-access-memory (SRAM) array or standard cell library, or by using a simple design rule checking run-set. The resulting database was then used as an input for choosing locations for critical dimension scanning electron microscope images and for specific layout parameter extraction then was input to SPICE compact modeling simulation. Based on the experimental data, we identified two items that must be checked and monitored using the method described here: transistor's sensitivity to the distance between the poly end cap and edge of active area (AA) due to AA rounding, and SRAM leakage due to a too close N-well to P-well. Based on this example, for process monitoring and variability analyses, we extensively used this method to analyze transistor gates having different shapes. In addition, analysis for a large area of high density standard cell library was done. Another set of monitoring focused on a high density SRAM array is also presented. These examples provided information on the poly and AA layers, using transistor parameters such as leakage current and drive current. We successfully define "robust" and "less-robust" transistor configurations included in the library and identified unsymmetrical transistors in the SRAM bit-cells. These data were compared to data extracted from the same devices at the end of the line. Another set of analyses was done to samples after Cu M1 etch. Process monitoring information on M1 enclosed contact was extracted based on contact resistance as a feedback. Guidelines for the optimal M1 space for different layout configurations were also extracted. All these data showed the successful in-field implementation of our methodology as a useful process monitoring method.

  3. Automatic defect detection for TFT-LCD array process using quasiconformal kernel support vector data description.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yi-Hung; Chen, Yan-Jen

    2011-01-01

    Defect detection has been considered an efficient way to increase the yield rate of panels in thin film transistor liquid crystal display (TFT-LCD) manufacturing. In this study we focus on the array process since it is the first and key process in TFT-LCD manufacturing. Various defects occur in the array process, and some of them could cause great damage to the LCD panels. Thus, how to design a method that can robustly detect defects from the images captured from the surface of LCD panels has become crucial. Previously, support vector data description (SVDD) has been successfully applied to LCD defect detection. However, its generalization performance is limited. In this paper, we propose a novel one-class machine learning method, called quasiconformal kernel SVDD (QK-SVDD) to address this issue. The QK-SVDD can significantly improve generalization performance of the traditional SVDD by introducing the quasiconformal transformation into a predefined kernel. Experimental results, carried out on real LCD images provided by an LCD manufacturer in Taiwan, indicate that the proposed QK-SVDD not only obtains a high defect detection rate of 96%, but also greatly improves generalization performance of SVDD. The improvement has shown to be over 30%. In addition, results also show that the QK-SVDD defect detector is able to accomplish the task of defect detection on an LCD image within 60 ms. PMID:22016625

  4. Automatic processing of grammar in the human brain as revealed by the mismatch negativity.

    PubMed

    Pulvermüller, Friedemann; Shtyrov, Yury

    2003-09-01

    The Mismatch Negativity (MMN), a neurophysiological indicator of cognitive processing, was used to investigate grammatical processes in the absence of focused attention to language. Subjects instructed to watch a silent video film and to ignore speech stimuli heard grammatical and ungrammatical spoken word strings that were physically identical up to a divergence point where they differed between each other by a minimal acoustic event, the presence or the absence of a final -s sound. The sentence we come was presented as a rare deviant stimulus against the background of frequently occurring ungrammatical strings, and, in a different experiment, the ungrammatical string *we comes was the deviant in the reverse design. To control for effects related to differences between the critical words, come and comes, control conditions were used in which the same words were presented out of linguistic context. At 100-150 ms after the divergence point, the ungrammatical deviant stimulus elicited a larger MMN than the correct sentence at left-anterior recording sites. This difference was not seen under the out-of-context conditions. In the time range 100-400 ms after stimulus divergence, a spatiotemporal pattern of grammatically related effects was documented by statistically significant interactions of the word and context variables. Minimum-Norm Current Estimates of the cortical sources of the grammaticality effects revealed a main source in the left frontal cortex. We use a neurobiological model of serial order processing to provide a tentative explanation for the data. PMID:14527578

  5. Novel developments in rapid thermal processing (RTP) temperature measurement and control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, B. E.; Hunter, A. M.

    2013-09-01

    Since the development of integrated circuits in the 1960's, the semiconductor industry has continued to see the reduction of transistor size in accordance with Moore's law. Rapid thermal processing (RTP) has been an enabling technology for the continued evolution of these ultra-small devices. As thermal budgets have progressively dropped, equipment manufacturers have greatly increased the thermal ramp rates and reduced temperatures for many key processes. Lamp heated technology has developed sub-second dwell times and laser based systems have reduced processing time to milliseconds and shorter. This paper will highlight the key development in RTP temperature measurement and control for two distinct applications. The first is the development of temperature measurements of laser heated substrates. The work will discuss the unique challenges and requirements in this rapidly expanding processing space. These challenges arise from the very high background radiation from the laser sources, the extremely short dwell times, and the high processing temperatures. The second area under discussion is a solution to very low temperature silicon processes-primarily driven by Ni and NiPt silicides that have constrained thermal budgets, thus requiring high ramp rates and short dwell times, but in temperatures below the fundamental limits of standard radiation pyrometry. In particular, this work describes a novel system capable of measuring temperature down to room temperature in a state of the art RTP system.

  6. Reduced Sensory Oscillatory Activity during Rapid Auditory Processing as a Correlate of Language-Learning Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Heim, Sabine; Friedman, Jennifer Thomas; Keil, Andreas; Benasich, April A.

    2010-01-01

    Successful language acquisition has been hypothesized to involve the ability to integrate rapidly presented, brief acoustic cues in sensory cortex. A body of work has suggested that this ability is compromised in language-learning impairment (LLI). The present research aimed to examine sensory integration during rapid auditory processing by means of electrophysiological measures of oscillatory brain activity using data from a larger longitudinal study. Twenty-nine children with LLI and control participants with typical language development (n=18) listened to tone doublets presented at a temporal interval that is essential for accurate speech processing (70-ms interstimulus interval). The children performed a deviant (pitch change of second tone) detection task, or listened passively. The electroencephalogram was recorded from 64 electrodes. Data were source-projected to the auditory cortices and submitted to wavelet analysis, resulting in time-frequency representations of electrocortical activity. Results show significantly reduced amplitude and phase-locking of early (45–75 ms) oscillations in the gamma-band range (29–52 Hz), specifically in the LLI group, for the second stimulus of the tone doublet. This suggests altered temporal organization of sensory oscillatory activity in LLI when processing rapid sequences. PMID:21822356

  7. Automatic Short Essay Scoring Using Natural Language Processing to Extract Semantic Information in the Form of Propositions. CRESST Report 831

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerr, Deirdre; Mousavi, Hamid; Iseli, Markus R.

    2013-01-01

    The Common Core assessments emphasize short essay constructed-response items over multiple-choice items because they are more precise measures of understanding. However, such items are too costly and time consuming to be used in national assessments unless a way to score them automatically can be found. Current automatic essay-scoring techniques…

  8. Automatic Synthesis of UML Designs from Requirements in an Iterative Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schumann, Johann; Whittle, Jon; Clancy, Daniel (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The Unified Modeling Language (UML) is gaining wide popularity for the design of object-oriented systems. UML combines various object-oriented graphical design notations under one common framework. A major factor for the broad acceptance of UML is that it can be conveniently used in a highly iterative, Use Case (or scenario-based) process (although the process is not a part of UML). Here, the (pre-) requirements for the software are specified rather informally as Use Cases and a set of scenarios. A scenario can be seen as an individual trace of a software artifact. Besides first sketches of a class diagram to illustrate the static system breakdown, scenarios are a favorite way of communication with the customer, because scenarios describe concrete interactions between entities and are thus easy to understand. Scenarios with a high level of detail are often expressed as sequence diagrams. Later in the design and implementation stage (elaboration and implementation phases), a design of the system's behavior is often developed as a set of statecharts. From there (and the full-fledged class diagram), actual code development is started. Current commercial UML tools support this phase by providing code generators for class diagrams and statecharts. In practice, it can be observed that the transition from requirements to design to code is a highly iterative process. In this talk, a set of algorithms is presented which perform reasonable synthesis and transformations between different UML notations (sequence diagrams, Object Constraint Language (OCL) constraints, statecharts). More specifically, we will discuss the following transformations: Statechart synthesis, introduction of hierarchy, consistency of modifications, and "design-debugging".

  9. Overview of the SOFIA Data Processing System: A generalized system for manual and automatic data processing at the SOFIA Science Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shuping, Ralph; Krzaczek, Robert; Vacca, William D.; Charcos-Llorens, Miguel; Reach, William T.; Alles, Rosemary; Clarke, Melanie; Melchiorri, Riccardo; Radomski, James T.; Shenoy, Sachindev S.; Sandel, David; Omelian, Eric

    2015-01-01

    The Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) is an airborne astronomical observatory comprised of a 2.5-meter telescope mounted in the aft section of a Boeing 747SP aircraft. SOFIA is designed to execute observations at altitudes between 37,000 and 45,00 feet, above 99% of atmospheric water vapor. During routine operations, several instruments will be available to the astronomical community including cameras and spectrographs in the near- to far-IR. Raw data obtained in-flight require a significant amount of processing to correct for background emission (from both the telescope and atmosphere), remove instrumental artifacts, correct for atmospheric absorption, and apply both wavelength and flux calibration. In general, this processing is highly specific to the instrument and telescope. Once this post-processing is complete, the data can be used in scientific analysis and publications. In order to maximize the scientific output of the observatory, the SOFIA Science Center must provide these post-processed data sets to Guest Investigators in a timely manner. To meet this requirement, we have designed and built the SOFIA Data Processing System (DPS): an in-house set of tools and services that can be used in both automatic ("pipeline") and manual modes to process data from a variety of instruments. In this poster paper, we present an overview of the DPS concepts and architecture, as well as operational results from the first two SOFIA observing cycles (2013--2014).

  10. Thin film poly-crystalline silicon fabrication based on Rapid Thermal Annealing (RTA) process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Jun; Li, Jirong; Liao, Yang; Shi, Weimin; Kuang, Huahui; Ming, Xiuchun; Liu, Jin; Jin, Jing; Qin, Juan

    2013-12-01

    Rapid Thermal Annealing (RTA) process was introduced to the experiment of Aluminum-induced crystallization of a-Si, based on sputtering method, on low cost glass substrate. A stack of glass/Al (150 nm)/Si (220 nm) was deposited by sputtering sequentially. Samples were annealed under RTA process, then annealed in the tube annealing furnace at 400 °C for 5 h. The grain crystallization was inspected by optical microscopy (OM), ,Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD),and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). The preferential orientation (111) was observed, with a Raman Peak at 520.8cm-1, Different annealing periods were discussed.

  11. The application of computational simulation to design optimization of an axisymmetric rapid thermal processing system

    SciTech Connect

    Spence, P.A.; Winters, W.S.; Kee, R.J.; Kermani, A.

    1994-08-01

    We are developing and applying computational models to guide the development of a rapid-thermal-processing system. This work concentrates on scale-up and commercialization of the axisymmetric, multiple-lamp-ring approach that was pioneered by Texas Instruments in the Microelectronics Manufacturing Science and Technology program. CVC Products intends to incorporate the tool into their open-architecture MESC compatible cluster environment. Integration of modeling into the product development process can reduce time-to-market and development costs, as well as improve tool performance.

  12. Rapid evolution of redox processes in a petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated aquifer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chapelle, F.H.; Bradley, P.M.; Lovley, D.R.; O'Neill, K.; Landmeyer, J.E.

    2002-01-01

    Ground water chemistry data collected over a six-year period show that the distribution of contaminants and redox processes in a shallow petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated aquifer has changed rapidly over time. Shortly after a gasoline release occurred in 1990, high concentrations of benzene were present near the contaminant source area. In this contaminated zone, dissolved oxygen in ground water was depleted, and by 1994 Fe(III) reduction and sulfate reduction were the predominant terminal electron accepting processes. Significantly, dissolved methane was below measurable levels in 1994, indicating the absence of significant methanogenesis. By 1996, however, depletion of solid-phase Fe(III)-oxyhydroxides in aquifer sediments and depletion of dissolved sulfate in ground water resulted in the onset of methanogenesis. Between 1996 and 2000, water-chemistry data indicated that methanogenic metabolism became increasingly prevalent. Molecular analysis of 16S-rDNA extracted from sediments shows the presence of a more diverse methanogenic community inside as opposed to outside the plume core, and is consistent with water-chemistry data indicating a shift toward methanogenesis over time. This rapid evolution of redox processes reflects several factors including the large amounts of contaminants, relatively rapid ground water flow (???0.3 m/day [???1 foot/day]), and low concentrations of microbially reducible Fe(III) oxyhydroxides (???1 ??mol/g) initially present in aquifer sediments. These results illustrate that, under certain hydrologic conditions, redox conditions in petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated aquifers can change rapidly in time and space, and that the availability of solid-phase Fe(III)-oxyhydroxides affects this rate of change.

  13. Manufacture of Mould with a High Energy Efficiency Using Rapid Manufacturing Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, Dong-Gyu; Kim, Hyun-Woo; Park, Seung-Hwa; Kim, Hyong-Soo

    2010-06-01

    The aim of this paper is to investigate into the manufacturing technology of injection mould with a high energy efficiency using rapid manufacturing (RM) process. Two types of injection moulds, including thermally conductive mould with volumetric heat sink and uniform cooling mould with conformal cooling channels, were manufactured from hybrid RM process combining direct metal rapid tooling process with machining process to reduce the cooling time and the used energy in moulding of the plastic parts as well as to improve the product quality. Through the injection moulding experiments using the manufactured moulds, it was shown that the designed moulds can highly reduce the cycle and cooling times in comparison to conventional moulds with only injection tool steel and linear cooling channels. In addition, it was noted that the designed moulds can improve the qualities of the moulded product induced by uniform heat transfer from the mould surface to cooling channels. From these results, it was considered that the two types of injection mould can remarkably improve the energy efficiency and the environmental impact of the injection moulding process.

  14. Rapid Intelligent Inspection Process Definition for dimensional measurement in advanced manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, C.W.

    1993-03-01

    The Rapid Intelligent Inspection Process Definition (RIIPD) project is an industry-led effort to advance computer integrated manufacturing (CIM) systems for the creation and modification of inspection process definitions. The RIIPD project will define, design, develop, and demonstrate an automated tool (i.e., software) to generate inspection process plans and coordinate measuring machine (CMM) inspection programs, as well as produce support information for the dimensional measurement of piece parts. The goal of this project is to make the inspection and part verification function, specifically CMM measurements, a more effective production support tool by reducing inspection process definition flowtime, creating consistent and standard inspections, increasing confidence of measurement results, and capturing inspection expertise. This objective is accomplished through importing STEP geometry definitions, applying solid modeling, incorporating explicit tolerance representations, establishing dimensional inspection,techniques, embedding artificial intelligence techniques, and adhering to the Dimensional Measuring Interface Standard (DMIS) national standard.

  15. Overview of the SOFIA Data Processing System: A Generalized System for Manual and Automatic Data Processing at the SOFIA Science Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shuping, R. Y.; Krzaczek, R.; Vacca, W. D.; Charcos-Llorens, M.; Reach, W. T.; Alles, R.; Clarke, M.; Melchiorri, R.; Radomski, J.; Shenoy, S.; Sandel, D.; Omelian, E. B.

    2015-09-01

    The Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) is an airborne astronomical observatory comprised of a 2.5-meter telescope mounted in the aft section of a Boeing 747SP aircraft. During routine operations, several instruments will be available to the astronomical community including cameras and spectrographs in the near- to far-IR. Raw data obtained in-flight require a significant amount of processing to correct for background emission (from both the telescope and atmosphere), remove instrumental artifacts, correct for atmospheric absorption, and apply both wavelength and flux calibration. In general, this processing is highly specific to the instrument and telescope. In order to maximize the scientific output of the observatory, the SOFIA Science Center must provide these post-processed data sets to Guest Investigators in a timely manner. To meet this requirement, we have designed and built the SOFIA Data Processing System (DPS): an in-house set of tools and services that can be used in both automatic (“pipeline”) and manual modes to process data from a variety of instruments. Here we present an overview of the DPS concepts and architecture, as well as operational results from the first two SOFIA observing cycles (2013-2014).

  16. Fabrication of large area silicon solar cells by rapid thermal processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sivoththaman, S.; Laureys, W.; Nijs, J.; Mertens, R.

    1995-10-01

    Large area n+pp+ solar cells have been fabricated on 10 cm×10 cm pseudo-quasi-square CZ silicon wafers (1 Ω cm, p-type) predominantly used by the photovoltaic (PV) industry. All the high-temperature steps have been performed by rapid thermal processing (RTP). Emitter formation, back surface field (BSF) formation, and surface oxidation have been performed in just two RTP steps each lasting 50 s. Solar cells of 15% efficiency have been fabricated this way, demonstrating the applicability of this low thermal budget technology to large area, modulable size, industrial quality Si wafers. Furthermore, the rapid thermal oxidation (RTO) is shown to result in good quality thin oxides with Si/SiO2 interface trap densities (Dit)<1011 cm-3 eV-1 near-midgap.

  17. Aging Chart: a community resource for rapid exploratory pathway analysis of age-related processes

    PubMed Central

    Moskalev, Alexey; Zhikrivetskaya, Svetlana; Shaposhnikov, Mikhail; Dobrovolskaya, Evgenia; Gurinovich, Roman; Kuryan, Oleg; Pashuk, Aleksandr; Jellen, Leslie C.; Aliper, Alex; Peregudov, Alex; Zhavoronkov, Alex

    2016-01-01

    Aging research is a multi-disciplinary field encompassing knowledge from many areas of basic, applied and clinical research. Age-related processes occur on molecular, cellular, tissue, organ, system, organismal and even psychological levels, trigger the onset of multiple debilitating diseases and lead to a loss of function, and there is a need for a unified knowledge repository designed to track, analyze and visualize the cause and effect relationships and interactions between the many elements and processes on all levels. Aging Chart (http://agingchart.org/) is a new, community-curated collection of aging pathways and knowledge that provides a platform for rapid exploratory analysis. Building on an initial content base constructed by a team of experts from peer-reviewed literature, users can integrate new data into biological pathway diagrams for a visible, intuitive, top-down framework of aging processes that fosters knowledge-building and collaboration. As the body of knowledge in aging research is rapidly increasing, an open visual encyclopedia of aging processes will be useful to both the new entrants and experts in the field. PMID:26602690

  18. Aging Chart: a community resource for rapid exploratory pathway analysis of age-related processes.

    PubMed

    Moskalev, Alexey; Zhikrivetskaya, Svetlana; Shaposhnikov, Mikhail; Dobrovolskaya, Evgenia; Gurinovich, Roman; Kuryan, Oleg; Pashuk, Aleksandr; Jellen, Leslie C; Aliper, Alex; Peregudov, Alex; Zhavoronkov, Alex

    2016-01-01

    Aging research is a multi-disciplinary field encompassing knowledge from many areas of basic, applied and clinical research. Age-related processes occur on molecular, cellular, tissue, organ, system, organismal and even psychological levels, trigger the onset of multiple debilitating diseases and lead to a loss of function, and there is a need for a unified knowledge repository designed to track, analyze and visualize the cause and effect relationships and interactions between the many elements and processes on all levels. Aging Chart (http://agingchart.org/) is a new, community-curated collection of aging pathways and knowledge that provides a platform for rapid exploratory analysis. Building on an initial content base constructed by a team of experts from peer-reviewed literature, users can integrate new data into biological pathway diagrams for a visible, intuitive, top-down framework of aging processes that fosters knowledge-building and collaboration. As the body of knowledge in aging research is rapidly increasing, an open visual encyclopedia of aging processes will be useful to both the new entrants and experts in the field. PMID:26602690

  19. Rapid Automated Dissolution and Analysis Techniques for Radionuclides in Recycle Process Streams

    SciTech Connect

    Sudowe, Ralf; Roman, Audrey; Dailey, Ashlee; Go, Elaine

    2013-07-18

    The analysis of process samples for radionuclide content is an important part of current procedures for material balance and accountancy in the different process streams of a recycling plant. The destructive sample analysis techniques currently available necessitate a significant amount of time. It is therefore desirable to develop new sample analysis procedures that allow for a quick turnaround time and increased sample throughput with a minimum of deviation between samples. In particular, new capabilities for rapid sample dissolution and radiochemical separation are required. Most of the radioanalytical techniques currently employed for sample analysis are based on manual laboratory procedures. Such procedures are time- and labor-intensive, and not well suited for situations in which a rapid sample analysis is required and/or large number of samples need to be analyzed. To address this issue we are currently investigating radiochemical separation methods based on extraction chromatography that have been specifically optimized for the analysis of process stream samples. The influence of potential interferences present in the process samples as well as mass loading, flow rate and resin performance is being studied. In addition, the potential to automate these procedures utilizing a robotic platform is evaluated. Initial studies have been carried out using the commercially available DGA resin. This resin shows an affinity for Am, Pu, U, and Th and is also exhibiting signs of a possible synergistic effects in the presence of iron.

  20. Is VIRTU4L larger than VIR7UAL? Automatic processing of number quantity and lexical representations in leet words.

    PubMed

    García-Orza, Javier; Comesaña, Montserrat; Piñeiro, Ana; Soares, Ana Paula; Perea, Manuel

    2016-06-01

    Recent research has shown that leet words (i.e., words in which some of the letters are replaced by visually similar digits; e.g., VIRTU4L) can be processed as their base words without much cost. However, it remains unclear whether the digits inserted in leet words are simply processed as letters or whether they are simultaneously processed as numbers (i.e., in terms of access to their quantity representation). To address this question, we conducted 2 experiments that examined the size congruity effect (i.e., when comparisons of the physical size of numbers are affected by their numerical magnitudes) in a physical-size judgment task. Participants were presented with pairs of leet words that were nominally identical except for the embedded digit (e.g., VIR7UAL-VIRTU4L) and were asked to decide as quickly and accurately as possible which word in the pair appeared in a bigger font. In Experiment 1, we examined the congruity effect (congruent: VIRTU4L-VIR7UAL vs. incongruent: VIR7UAL-VIRTU4L vs. neutral: VIR7UAL-VIR7UAL) and the numerical distance effect (distance 1: PAN3L-P4NEL vs. distance 3: VIRTU4L-VIR7UAL). To examine whether the meaning of these words was accessed, we also manipulated word frequency (i.e., a marker of lexical access) in Experiment 2. Results revealed effects of congruity, distance, and word frequency, thus suggesting automatic access to both number quantity and word representations for leet words. These findings favor multidimensional accounts of number/word recognition. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26641447

  1. Image processing based automatic diagnosis of glaucoma using wavelet features of segmented optic disc from fundus image.

    PubMed

    Singh, Anushikha; Dutta, Malay Kishore; ParthaSarathi, M; Uher, Vaclav; Burget, Radim

    2016-02-01

    Glaucoma is a disease of the retina which is one of the most common causes of permanent blindness worldwide. This paper presents an automatic image processing based method for glaucoma diagnosis from the digital fundus image. In this paper wavelet feature extraction has been followed by optimized genetic feature selection combined with several learning algorithms and various parameter settings. Unlike the existing research works where the features are considered from the complete fundus or a sub image of the fundus, this work is based on feature extraction from the segmented and blood vessel removed optic disc to improve the accuracy of identification. The experimental results presented in this paper indicate that the wavelet features of the segmented optic disc image are clinically more significant in comparison to features of the whole or sub fundus image in the detection of glaucoma from fundus image. Accuracy of glaucoma identification achieved in this work is 94.7% and a comparison with existing methods of glaucoma detection from fundus image indicates that the proposed approach has improved accuracy of classification. PMID:26574297

  2. High-temperature microstructural stability in iron- and nickel-base alloys from rapid solidification processing

    SciTech Connect

    Flinn, J.E. ); Bae, J.C.; Kelly, T.F. )

    1991-08-01

    The properties and performance of metallic alloys for heat resistant applications depend on the fineness, homogeneity, and stability of their microstructures, particularly after high temperature exposures. Potential advantages of rapid solidification processing (RSP) of alloys for such applications are the homogeneity in composition and fine microstructural features derived from the nature of the RSP process. The main RSP product form is powder, is which obtained by atomizing a narrow melt stream into fine molten droplets. Rapid cooling of the droplets is typically achieved through convective cooling with noble gases such as argon or helium. Consolidation of RSP powder, either using near-net-shape methods or into forms that can be converted to final product shapes, requires exposures to fairly high temperatures, usually 900 to 1200{degrees}C for iron- and nickel-base alloys. Full consolidation, i.e., complete densification with accompanying particle bonding, usually requires pressure or stress assistance. Consolidation, as well as any subsequent thermal-mechanical processing, may affect the chemical homogeneity and fine microstructures. A study has been performed on a series of RSP iron- and nickel-base alloys. The results of microstructure examinations and mechanical properties tests of the consolidated powders, and their correlation, will be covered in this paper. 14 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Investigation of rapidly solidified aluminum by using diamond turning and a magnetorheological finishing process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Yuan-Chieh; Hsu, Wei-Yao; Kuo, Ching-Hsiang; Abou-El-Hossein, Khaled; Otieno, Timothy

    2015-08-01

    The metal mirror has been widely used in optical application for a longtime. Especially the aluminum 6061 is often considered the preferred material for manufacturing optical components for ground-based astronomical applications. One reason for using this material is its high specific stiffness and excellent thermal properties. However, a large amount of data exists for this material and commercially available aluminum 6061 using single point diamond turning (SPDT) and polishing process can achieve surface roughness values of approximately 2 to 4 nm, which is adequate for applications that involve the infrared spectral range, but not for the shorter spectral range. A novel aluminum material, fabricated using a rapid solidification process that is equivalent to the conventional aluminum 6061 alloy grade has been used in optical applications in recent years because of its smaller grain size. In this study, the surface quality of the rapid solidification aluminum after single point diamond turning and followed by magnetorheological finish (MRF) process is investigated and compared with conventional aluminum 6061. Both the surface roughness Ra was evaluated using white light interferometers. Finally, indicators such as optimal fabrication parameter combination and optical performance are discussed.

  4. Rapid tooling for functional prototyping of metal mold processes: Literature review on cast tooling

    SciTech Connect

    Baldwin, M.D.; Hochanadel, P.W.

    1995-11-01

    This report is a literature review on cast tooling with the general focus on AISI H13 tool steel. The review includes processing of both wrought and cast H13 steel along with the accompanying microstructures. Also included is the incorporation of new rapid prototyping technologies, such as Stereolithography and Selective Laser Sintering, into the investment casting of tool steel. The limiting property of using wrought or cast tool steel for die casting is heat checking. Heat checking is addressed in terms of testing procedures, theories regarding the mechanism, and microstructural aspects related to the cracking.

  5. The mathematical modeling of rapid solidification processing. Ph.D. Thesis. Final Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gutierrez-Miravete, E.

    1986-01-01

    The detailed formulation of and the results obtained from a continuum mechanics-based mathematical model of the planar flow melt spinning (PFMS) rapid solidification system are presented and discussed. The numerical algorithm proposed is capable of computing the cooling and freezing rates as well as the fluid flow and capillary phenomena which take place inside the molten puddle formed in the PFMS process. The FORTRAN listings of some of the most useful computer programs and a collection of appendices describing the basic equations used for the modeling are included.

  6. Use of a programmable calculator for rapid, low-cost processing of echocardiographic records.

    PubMed

    Lust, R M; Boyer, B B; Lutherer, L O; Calvert, J E; Cooper, M W

    1984-01-01

    A comparative study was performed to determine the accuracy of a programmable calculator with supplemental digitizer in echocardiographic analysis. Twenty separate measurements were collected per heart beat from five different dogs, taking five heart beats from each dog. The measurements were made by an echocardiographic technician (ET), echocomputer (EC), and by a programmable calculator (HP). In a triple comparison (ET-HP, ET-EC, HP-EC) there were no significant differences in the values obtained, suggesting that the programmable calculator can provide a highly accurate and rapid means of processing echocardiographic measurements, thereby providing the advantages of the echocomputer without the cost of such a device. PMID:6509943

  7. Automatically designing an image processing pipeline for a five-band camera prototype using the local, linear, learned (L3) method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Qiyuan; Blasinski, Henryk; Lansel, Steven; Jiang, Haomiao; Fukunishi, Munenori; Farrell, Joyce E.; Wandell, Brian A.

    2015-02-01

    The development of an image processing pipeline for each new camera design can be time-consuming. To speed camera development, we developed a method named L3 (Local, Linear, Learned) that automatically creates an image processing pipeline for any design. In this paper, we describe how we used the L3 method to design and implement an image processing pipeline for a prototype camera with five color channels. The process includes calibrating and simulating the prototype, learning local linear transforms and accelerating the pipeline using graphics processing units (GPUs).

  8. Cognitive Predictors of Rapid Picture Naming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Decker, Scott L.; Roberts, Alycia M.; Englund, Julia A.

    2013-01-01

    Deficits in rapid automatized naming (RAN) have been found to be a sensitive cognitive marker for children with dyslexia. However, there is a lack of consensus regarding the construct validity and theoretical neuro-cognitive processes involved in RAN. Additionally, most studies investigating RAN include a narrow range of cognitive measures. The…

  9. Straightforward rapid spectrophotometric quantification of total cyanogenic glycosides in fresh and processed cassava products.

    PubMed

    Tivana, Lucas Daniel; Da Cruz Francisco, Jose; Zelder, Felix; Bergenståhl, Bjorn; Dejmek, Petr

    2014-09-01

    In this study, we extend pioneering studies and demonstrate straightforward applicability of the corrin-based chemosensor, aquacyanocobyrinic acid (ACCA), for the instantaneous detection and rapid quantification of endogenous cyanide in fresh and processed cassava roots. Hydrolytically liberated endogenous cyanide from cyanogenic glycosides (CNp) reacts with ACCA to form dicyanocobyrinic acid (DCCA), accompanied by a change of colour from orange to violet. The method was successfully tested on various cassava samples containing between 6 and 200 mg equiv. HCN/kg as verified with isonicotinate/1,3-dimethylbarbiturate as an independent method. The affinity of ACCA sensor to cyanide is high, coordination occurs fast and the colorimetric response can therefore be instantaneously monitored with spectrophotometric methods. Direct applications of the sensor without need of extensive and laborious extraction processes are demonstrated in water-extracted samples, in acid-extracted samples, and directly on juice drops. ACCA showed high precision with a standard deviation (STDV) between 0.03 and 0.06 and high accuracy (93-96%). Overall, the ACCA procedure is straightforward, safe and easily performed. In a proof-of-concept study, rapid screening of ten samples within 20 min has been tested. PMID:24731309

  10. Emotional Noun Processing: An ERP Study with Rapid Serial Visual Presentation

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Shengnan; He, Weiqi; Zhan, Lei; Qi, Zhengyang; Zhu, Chuanlin; Luo, Wenbo; Li, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Reading is an important part of our daily life, and rapid responses to emotional words have received a great deal of research interest. Our study employed rapid serial visual presentation to detect the time course of emotional noun processing using event-related potentials. We performed a dual-task experiment, where subjects were required to judge whether a given number was odd or even, and the category into which each emotional noun fit. In terms of P1, we found that there was no negativity bias for emotional nouns. However, emotional nouns elicited larger amplitudes in the N170 component in the left hemisphere than did neutral nouns. This finding indicated that in later processing stages, emotional words can be discriminated from neutral words. Furthermore, positive, negative, and neutral words were different from each other in the late positive complex, indicating that in the third stage, even different emotions can be discerned. Thus, our results indicate that in a three-stage model the latter two stages are more stable and universal. PMID:25738633

  11. Rapid and accurate processing of multiple objects in briefly presented scenes.

    PubMed

    Railo, Henry; Karhu, Veli-Matti; Mast, Jeremy; Pesonen, Henri; Koivisto, Mika

    2016-01-01

    Humans can detect multiple objects in briefly presented natural visual scenes, but the mechanisms through which the objects are segmented from the background and consciously accessed remain open. By asking participants to report how many humans natural photos presented for 50 ms contain, we show that up to three items can be rapidly enumerated from natural scenes without compromising speed or accuracy. In contrast to standard parallel and serial models of object selection, our results revealed that the participants were fastest in enumerating two objects; even enumerating one single item required additional processing time. Also enumeration accuracy slightly increased in the subitizing range as number increased. Our results suggest that the visual system is tuned to process multiple items, which may underlie spatial and numerical cognition, and be beneficial in real-world situations that often require dealing with more than one object at a time. PMID:26849070

  12. Rapid Sample Processing For LC-MS Based Quantitative Proteomics Using High Intensity Focused Ultrasounds

    SciTech Connect

    Lopez-Ferrer, Daniel; Heibeck, Tyler H.; Petritis, Konstantinos; Hixson, Kim K.; Qian, Weijun; Monroe, Matthew E.; Mayampurath, Anoop M.; Moore, Ronald J.; Belov, Mikhail E.; Camp, David G.; Smith, Richard D.

    2008-09-01

    A new sample processing workflow that uses high intensity focused ultrasound to rapidly reduce and alkylate cysteines, digest proteins and then label peptides with 18O was developed for quantitative proteomics applications. Each step was individually refined to minimize reaction times, peptide loses and undesired by-products or modifications. By using this novel workflow, mouse plasma proteins were successfully denatured, alkylated, in-solution digested, and 18O labelled in < 10 min for subsequent analysis by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization high resolution mass spectrometry. Performance was evaluated in terms of the number of mouse plasma peptides and proteins identified in a shotgun approach and the quantitative dynamic range. The results were compared with previously published results obtained using conventional sample preparation methods and were found to be similar. Advantages of the new method include greatly simplified and accelerated sample processing, as well as being readily amenable to automation.

  13. Rapid Sample Processing For LC-MS Based Quantitative Proteomics Using High Intensity Focused Ultrasounds

    PubMed Central

    López-Ferrer, Daniel; Heibeck, Tyler H.; Petritis, Konstantinos; Hixson, Kim K.; Qian, Weijun; Monroe, Matthew E.; Mayampurath, Anoop; Moore, Ronald J.; Belov, Mikhail E.; Camp, David G.; Smith, Richard D.

    2009-01-01

    A new sample processing workflow that uses high intensity focused ultrasound to rapidly reduce and alkylate cysteines, digest proteins and then label peptides with 18O was developed for quantitative proteomics applications. Each step was individually refined to minimize reaction times, peptide loses and undesired by-products or modifications. By using this novel workflow, mouse plasma proteins were successfully denatured, alkylated, in-solution digested, and 18O labelled in < 10 min for subsequent analysis by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization high resolution mass spectrometry. Performance was evaluated in terms of the number of mouse plasma peptides and proteins identified in a shotgun approach and the quantitative dynamic range. The results were compared with previously published results obtained using conventional sample preparation methods and were found to be similar. Advantages of the new method include greatly simplified and accelerated sample processing, as well as being readily amenable to automation. PMID:18686986

  14. Triggering HIV polyprotein processing by light using rapid photodegradation of a tight-binding protease inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    Schimer, Jiří; Pávová, Marcela; Anders, Maria; Pachl, Petr; Šácha, Pavel; Cígler, Petr; Weber, Jan; Majer, Pavel; Řezáčová, Pavlína; Kräusslich, Hans-Georg; Müller, Barbara; Konvalinka, Jan

    2015-01-01

    HIV protease (PR) is required for proteolytic maturation in the late phase of HIV replication and represents a prime therapeutic target. The regulation and kinetics of viral polyprotein processing and maturation are currently not understood in detail. Here we design, synthesize, validate and apply a potent, photodegradable HIV PR inhibitor to achieve synchronized induction of proteolysis. The compound exhibits subnanomolar inhibition in vitro. Its photolabile moiety is released on light irradiation, reducing the inhibitory potential by 4 orders of magnitude. We determine the structure of the PR-inhibitor complex, analyze its photolytic products, and show that the enzymatic activity of inhibited PR can be fully restored on inhibitor photolysis. We also demonstrate that proteolysis of immature HIV particles produced in the presence of the inhibitor can be rapidly triggered by light enabling thus to analyze the timing, regulation and spatial requirements of viral processing in real time. PMID:25751579

  15. Superplastic forming of rapid solidification processed Al-4Li-0. 2Zr

    SciTech Connect

    Meschter, P.J.; Lederich, R.J.; Sastry, S.M.L.

    1987-07-01

    Aluminum-4 wt pct lithium alloys are attractive as structural materials because they are 13 to 14 pct less dense and have 25 pct larger elastic moduli than high-strength 2XXX-and 7XXX-series aluminum alloys. These low-density alloys can be produced only by rapid solidification processing (RSP). Successful RSP of Al-4Li-0.2Zr, Al-4Li-1Mg-0.2Zr, and Al-4Li-1Cu-0.2Zr alloys with strengths similar to that of 7075-T76 has recently been demonstrated. Net-shaped processing techniques such as superplastic forming are capable of producing complex structural elements while minimizing usage of expensive material; thus, these techniques are particularly applicable to Al-Li alloys. The purpose of this study was to determine the conditions of strain rate and temperature under which RSP Al-4Li alloys could be superplastically formed.

  16. Triggering HIV polyprotein processing by light using rapid photodegradation of a tight-binding protease inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Schimer, Jiří; Pávová, Marcela; Anders, Maria; Pachl, Petr; Šácha, Pavel; Cígler, Petr; Weber, Jan; Majer, Pavel; Řezáčová, Pavlína; Kräusslich, Hans-Georg; Müller, Barbara; Konvalinka, Jan

    2015-01-01

    HIV protease (PR) is required for proteolytic maturation in the late phase of HIV replication and represents a prime therapeutic target. The regulation and kinetics of viral polyprotein processing and maturation are currently not understood in detail. Here we design, synthesize, validate and apply a potent, photodegradable HIV PR inhibitor to achieve synchronized induction of proteolysis. The compound exhibits subnanomolar inhibition in vitro. Its photolabile moiety is released on light irradiation, reducing the inhibitory potential by 4 orders of magnitude. We determine the structure of the PR-inhibitor complex, analyze its photolytic products, and show that the enzymatic activity of inhibited PR can be fully restored on inhibitor photolysis. We also demonstrate that proteolysis of immature HIV particles produced in the presence of the inhibitor can be rapidly triggered by light enabling thus to analyze the timing, regulation and spatial requirements of viral processing in real time. PMID:25751579

  17. Simple, low-cost planar flow casting machine for rapid solidification processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, M. T.; Saletore, M.

    1986-08-01

    The design, fabrication, and operation of a relatively simple low-cost planar flow casting (PFC) machine optimized for small-batch processing were investigated by the Bureau of Mines. Several design features found beneficial to PFC process operation include: a ground nozzle stopper to retain the alloy charge during melting; a remote, large-volume pressure vessel connected to the crucible gas system to reduce temperature-induced pressure fluctuations; and the use of a nested induction coil that allows both the melt charge and the crucible reservoir to be located close to the cooling wheel. The results of several PFC process runs are provided showing typical values of the cooling wheel surface velocity, crucible ejection pressure, and crucible nozzle clearance gap. Examination of the rapidly solidified, Fe-based ribbons for thickness, dimensional uniformity, and atomic structure indicated that good quality glassy ribbon could be produced with proper selection of the controllable process variables. In addition, single-variable linear regression analysis was used to determined the effect of each process variable on the resulting ribbon thickness.

  18. Efficient composite fabrication using electron-beam rapidly cured polymers engineered for several manufacturing processes

    SciTech Connect

    Walton, T.C.; Crivello, J.V.

    1995-10-01

    Low cost, efficiently processed ultra high specific strength and stiffness graphite fiber reinforced polymeric composite materials are of great interest to commercial transportation, construction and aerospace industries for use in various components with enhanced degrees of weight reduction, corrosion/erosion resistance and fatigue resistance. 10 MeV Electron Beam cure processing has been found to increase the cure rate by an order of magnitude over thermally cured systems yet provide less molded in stresses and high T{sub g}s. However, a limited range of resins are available which are easily processed with low shrinkage and with performance properties equal or exceeding those of state of the art toughened epoxies and BMI`s. The technology, introduced by an academia-industry partnership sparked by Langley Research Center utilizes a cost effective, rapid curing polymeric composite processing technique which effectively reduces the need for expensive tooling and energy inefficient autoclave processing and can cure the laminate in seconds (compared to hours for thermal curing) in ambient or sub-ambient conditions. The process is based on electron beam (E-Beam) curing of a new series of (65 to 1,000,000 cPs.) specially formulated resins that have been shown to exhibit excellent mechanical and physical properties once cured. Fabrication processes utilizing these specially formulated and newly commercialized resins, (e.g. including Vacuum Assist Resin Transfer molding (VARTM), vacuum bag prepreg layup, pultrusion and filament winding grades) are engineered to cure with low shrinkage, provide excellent mechanical properties, be processed solventless (environmentally friendly) and are inherently non toxic.

  19. Rapid processing of PET list-mode data for efficient uncertainty estimation and data analysis.

    PubMed

    Markiewicz, P J; Thielemans, K; Schott, J M; Atkinson, D; Arridge, S R; Hutton, B F; Ourselin, S

    2016-07-01

    In this technical note we propose a rapid and scalable software solution for the processing of PET list-mode data, which allows the efficient integration of list mode data processing into the workflow of image reconstruction and analysis. All processing is performed on the graphics processing unit (GPU), making use of streamed and concurrent kernel execution together with data transfers between disk and CPU memory as well as CPU and GPU memory. This approach leads to fast generation of multiple bootstrap realisations, and when combined with fast image reconstruction and analysis, it enables assessment of uncertainties of any image statistic and of any component of the image generation process (e.g. random correction, image processing) within reasonable time frames (e.g. within five minutes per realisation). This is of particular value when handling complex chains of image generation and processing. The software outputs the following: (1) estimate of expected random event data for noise reduction; (2) dynamic prompt and random sinograms of span-1 and span-11 and (3) variance estimates based on multiple bootstrap realisations of (1) and (2) assuming reasonable count levels for acceptable accuracy. In addition, the software produces statistics and visualisations for immediate quality control and crude motion detection, such as: (1) count rate curves; (2) centre of mass plots of the radiodistribution for motion detection; (3) video of dynamic projection views for fast visual list-mode skimming and inspection; (4) full normalisation factor sinograms. To demonstrate the software, we present an example of the above processing for fast uncertainty estimation of regional SUVR (standard uptake value ratio) calculation for a single PET scan of (18)F-florbetapir using the Siemens Biograph mMR scanner. PMID:27280456

  20. Rapid processing of PET list-mode data for efficient uncertainty estimation and data analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markiewicz, P. J.; Thielemans, K.; Schott, J. M.; Atkinson, D.; Arridge, S. R.; Hutton, B. F.; Ourselin, S.

    2016-07-01

    In this technical note we propose a rapid and scalable software solution for the processing of PET list-mode data, which allows the efficient integration of list mode data processing into the workflow of image reconstruction and analysis. All processing is performed on the graphics processing unit (GPU), making use of streamed and concurrent kernel execution together with data transfers between disk and CPU memory as well as CPU and GPU memory. This approach leads to fast generation of multiple bootstrap realisations, and when combined with fast image reconstruction and analysis, it enables assessment of uncertainties of any image statistic and of any component of the image generation process (e.g. random correction, image processing) within reasonable time frames (e.g. within five minutes per realisation). This is of particular value when handling complex chains of image generation and processing. The software outputs the following: (1) estimate of expected random event data for noise reduction; (2) dynamic prompt and random sinograms of span-1 and span-11 and (3) variance estimates based on multiple bootstrap realisations of (1) and (2) assuming reasonable count levels for acceptable accuracy. In addition, the software produces statistics and visualisations for immediate quality control and crude motion detection, such as: (1) count rate curves; (2) centre of mass plots of the radiodistribution for motion detection; (3) video of dynamic projection views for fast visual list-mode skimming and inspection; (4) full normalisation factor sinograms. To demonstrate the software, we present an example of the above processing for fast uncertainty estimation of regional SUVR (standard uptake value ratio) calculation for a single PET scan of 18F-florbetapir using the Siemens Biograph mMR scanner.

  1. Sensor-based atomic layer deposition for rapid process learning and enhanced manufacturability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Wei

    sensing results confirm the proposed surface reaction path and once again reveal the complexity of ALD processes. The impact of this work includes: (1) It explores new ALD reactor designs which enable the implementation of in-situ process sensors for rapid process learning and enhanced manufacturability; (2) It demonstrates in the first time that in-situ QMS can reveal detailed process dynamics and film growth kinetics in wafer-scale ALD process, and thus can be used for ALD film thickness metrology. (3) Based on results from two different processes carried out in two different reactors, it is clear that ALD is a more complicated process than normally believed or advertised, but real-time observation of the operational chemistries in ALD by in-situ sensors provides critical insight to the process and the basis for more effective process control for ALD applications.

  2. Graphics Processing Unit-Based Bioheat Simulation to Facilitate Rapid Decision Making Associated with Cryosurgery Training.

    PubMed

    Keelan, Robert; Zhang, Hong; Shimada, Kenji; Rabin, Yoed

    2016-04-01

    This study focuses on the implementation of an efficient numerical technique for cryosurgery simulations on a graphics processing unit as an alternative means to accelerate runtime. This study is part of an ongoing effort to develop computerized training tools for cryosurgery, with prostate cryosurgery as a developmental model. The ability to perform rapid simulations of various test cases is critical to facilitate sound decision making associated with medical training. Consistent with clinical practice, the training tool aims at correlating the frozen region contour and the corresponding temperature field with the target region shape. The current study focuses on the feasibility of graphics processing unit-based computation using C++ accelerated massive parallelism, as one possible implementation. Benchmark results on a variety of computation platforms display between 3-fold acceleration (laptop) and 13-fold acceleration (gaming computer) of cryosurgery simulation, in comparison with the more common implementation on a multicore central processing unit. While the general concept of graphics processing unit-based simulations is not new, its application to phase-change problems, combined with the unique requirements for cryosurgery optimization, represents the core contribution of the current study. PMID:25941162

  3. Electric Field Measurements During the Genesis and Rapid Intensification Processes (GRIP) Field Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bateman, Monte G.; Blakeslee, Richard J.; Mach, Douglas M.

    2010-01-01

    During the Genesis and Rapid Intensification Processes (GRIP) field program, a system of 6 electric field mills was flown on one of NASA's Global Hawk aircraft. We placed several mills on the aircraft to enable us to measure the vector electric field. We created a distributed, ethernet-connected system so that each sensor has its own embedded Linux system, complete with web server. This makes our current generation system fully "sensor web enabled." The Global Hawk has several unique qualities, but relevant to quality storm electric field measurements are high altitude (20 km) and long duration (20-30 hours) flights. There are several aircraft participating in the GRIP program, and coordinated measurements are happening. Lightning and electric field measurements will be used to study the relationships between lightning and other storm characteristics. It has been long understood that lightning can be used as a marker for strong convective activity. Past research and field programs suggest that lightning flash rate may serve as an indicator and precursor for rapid intensification change in tropical cyclones and hurricanes. We have the opportunity to sample hurricanes for many hours at a time and observe intensification (or de-intensification) periods. The electrical properties of hurricanes during such periods are not well known. American

  4. Intel's AMT enables rapid processing and info-turn for Intel's DFM test chip vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hajj, Hazem

    2007-10-01

    Transistor dimensions are quickly approaching atomic levels. Metrology is already a challenge. Several technologies have evolved to keep pace such as scatterometry and bare wafer inspection. Lithography critical dimensions, registration and pitch are the forefront of dimensional scaling challenges. Variability at these dimensions can limit function, performance, yield and profitability with design for manufacturing (DFM) challenges. Intel's integrated device manufacturing (IDM) model has enabled many technologies and disciplines to come together to provide the most cost effective and optimal solutions to Moore's law scaling challenges. Intel's Automated Manufacturing Technology (AMT) capabilities play a significant role in enabling optimal Moore's law scaling solutions. The information turn cycle starts with the definition of the technology Test Chip and ends with the analysis of results from end of line (EOL) metrology. We will discuss the relevant DFM elements of AMT to enable: test-chip setup, computational lithography and validation, product & process modeling and setup, intelligence and control to minimize variability, rapid yield learning, and rapid product design learning.

  5. Rapid-response process reduces mortality, facilitates speedy treatment for patients with sepsis.

    PubMed

    2013-08-01

    To reduce mortality and improve the care of patients with sepsis, Wake Forest Baptist Medical Center in Winston-Salem, NC, created a new rapid-response protocol aimed at facilitating earlier diagnosis and treatment. In this approach, clinicians who suspect a patient may have sepsis can call a Code Sepsis, which will fast-track the series of tests and evaluations that are needed to confirm the diagnosis and get appropriate patients on IV antibiotics quickly. Administrators say the approach fits in with the culture of the ED, and it has quickly slashed time-to-treatment in this environment. In just one year, the hospital has been able to reduce its risk-adjusted mortality index from 1.8 to less than 1.25. In the ED, where a modified version of the approach has been in place since April 1 of this year, the percentage of patients with sepsis receiving antibiotics within one hour of diagnosis has increased from 25% to 85%. Key to the success of the approach are specially trained rapid-response nurses who are called in on a case whenever a diagnosis of sepsis is suspected and a series of policy changes designed to facilitate needed diagnostic tests to confirm a diagnosis. A mandated online education module helped to bring all clinicians and staff up to speed on the new process quickly. PMID:23923521

  6. The snooze of lose: Rapid reaching reveals that losses are processed more slowly than gains.

    PubMed

    Chapman, Craig S; Gallivan, Jason P; Wong, Jeremy D; Wispinski, Nathan J; Enns, James T

    2015-08-01

    Decision making revolves around weighing potential gains and losses. Research in economic decision making has emphasized that humans exercise disproportionate caution when making explicit choices involving loss. By comparison, research in perceptual decision making has revealed a processing advantage for targets associated with potential gain, though the effects of loss have been explored less systematically. Here, we use a rapid reaching task to measure the relative sensitivity (Experiment 1) and the time course (Experiments 2 and 3) of rapid actions with regard to the reward valence and probability of targets. We show that targets linked to a high probability of gain influence actions about 100 ms earlier than targets associated with equivalent probability and value of loss. These findings are well accounted for by a model of stimulus response in which reward modulates the late, postpeak phase of the activity. We interpret our results within a neural framework of biased competition that is resolved in spatial maps of behavioral relevance. As implied by our model, all visual stimuli initially receive positive activation. Gain stimuli can build off of this initial activation when selected as a target, whereas loss stimuli have to overcome this initial activation in order to be avoided, accounting for the observed delay between valences. Our results bring clarity to the perceptual effects of losses versus gains and highlight the importance of considering the timeline of different biasing factors that influence decisions. PMID:26097977

  7. Rapid emotional processing in relation to trauma-related symptoms as revealed by magnetic source imaging

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Traumatic stress leads to functional reorganization in the brain and may trigger an alarm response. However, when the traumatic event produces severe helplessness, the predominant peri-traumatic response may instead be marked by a dissociative shutdown reaction. The neural correlates of this dissociative shutdown were investigated by presenting rapidly presented affective pictures to female participants with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and comparing responses to a Non-PTSD control group. Methods Event-related-magnetic-fields were recorded during rapid visual serial presentation of emotionally arousing stimuli (unpleasant or pleasant), which alternated with pictures with low affective content (neutral). Neural sources, based on the L2-surface-minimum-norm, correlated with the severity of the symptom clusters: PTSD, depression and shutdown dissociation. Results For the early cortical response (60 to 110 ms), dissociation and PTSD symptom severity show similar spatial distributions of correlates for unpleasant stimuli. Cortical networks that could be involved in the relationships seem to be widespread. Conclusion We conclude that shutdown dissociation, PTSD and depression all have distinct effects on early processing of emotional stimuli. PMID:24997778

  8. High-density Bi-Pb-Sr-Ca-Cu-O superconductor prepared by rapid thermal melt processing

    SciTech Connect

    Moon, B.M.; Lalevic, B. ); Kear, B.H.; McCandlish, L.E.; Safari, A.; Meskoob, M.

    1989-10-02

    A high quality, dense Bi-Pb-Sr-Ca-Cu-O superconductor has been successfully synthesized by rapid thermal melt processing. Conventionally sintered pellets were melted at 1200 {degree}C, cooled rapidly, and then annealed. As-melted samples exhibited semiconductor behavior, which upon annealing became superconducting at 115 K ({ital T}{sub {ital c}}(zero)=105 K). A detailed study of various processing techniques has been carried out.

  9. Rapid thermal annealing of ion implanted 6H-SiC by microwave processing

    SciTech Connect

    Gardner, J.A.; Rao, M.V.; Tian, Y.L.; Holland, O.W.; Roth, E.G.; Chi, P.H.; Ahmad, I.

    1997-03-01

    Rapid thermal processing utilizing microwave energy has been used to anneal N, P, and Al ion-implanted 6H-SiC. The microwaves raise the temperature of the sample at a rate of 200{degree}C/min vs 10{degree}C/min for conventional ceramic furnace annealing. Samples were annealed in the temperature range of 1400-1700{degree}C for 2-10 min. The implanted/annealed samples were characterized using van der Pauw Hall, Rutherford backscattering, and secondary ion mass spectrometry. For a given annealing temperature, the characteristics of the microwave-annealed material are similar to those of conventional furnace anneals despite the difference in cycle time. 19 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  10. Altered Automatic Face Processing in Individuals with High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders: Evidence from Visual Evoked Potentials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fujita, Takako; Kamio, Yoko; Yamasaki, Takao; Yasumoto, Sawa; Hirose, Shinichi; Tobimatsu, Shozo

    2013-01-01

    Individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) have different automatic responses to faces than typically developing (TD) individuals. We recorded visual evoked potentials (VEPs) in 10 individuals with high-functioning ASD (HFASD) and 10 TD individuals. Visual stimuli consisted of upright and inverted faces (fearful and neutral) and objects…

  11. Processing of short auditory stimuli: the rapid audio sequential presentation paradigm (RASP).

    PubMed

    Suied, Clara; Agus, Trevor R; Thorpe, Simon J; Pressnitzer, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Human listeners seem to be remarkably able to recognise acoustic sound sources based on timbre cues. Here we describe a psychophysical paradigm to estimate the time it takes to recognise a set of complex sounds differing only in timbre cues: both in terms of the minimum duration of the sounds and the inferred neural processing time. Listeners had to respond to the human voice while ignoring a set of distractors. All sounds were recorded from natural sources over the same pitch range and equalised to the same duration and power. In a first experiment, stimuli were gated in time with a raised-cosine window of variable duration and random onset time. A voice/non-voice (yes/no) task was used. Performance, as measured by d', remained above chance for the shortest sounds tested (2 ms); d's above 1 were observed for durations longer than or equal to 8 ms. Then, we constructed sequences of short sounds presented in rapid succession. Listeners were asked to report the presence of a single voice token that could occur at a random position within the sequence. This method is analogous to the "rapid sequential visual presentation" paradigm (RSVP), which has been used to evaluate neural processing time for images. For 500-ms sequences made of 32-ms and 16-ms sounds, d' remained above chance for presentation rates of up to 30 sounds per second. There was no effect of the pitch relation between successive sounds: identical for all sounds in the sequence or random for each sound. This implies that the task was not determined by streaming or forward masking, as both phenomena would predict better performance for the random pitch condition. Overall, the recognition of familiar sound categories such as the voice seems to be surprisingly fast, both in terms of the acoustic duration required and of the underlying neural time constants. PMID:23716251

  12. Rapid thermal processing chamber for in-situ x-ray diffraction.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Md Imteyaz; Van Campen, Douglas G; Fields, Jeremy D; Yu, Jiafan; Pool, Vanessa L; Parilla, Philip A; Ginley, David S; Van Hest, Maikel F A M; Toney, Michael F

    2015-01-01

    Rapid thermal processing (RTP) is widely used for processing a variety of materials, including electronics and photovoltaics. Presently, optimization of RTP is done primarily based on ex-situ studies. As a consequence, the precise reaction pathways and phase progression during the RTP remain unclear. More awareness of the reaction pathways would better enable process optimization and foster increased adoption of RTP, which offers numerous advantages for synthesis of a broad range of materials systems. To achieve this, we have designed and developed a RTP instrument that enables real-time collection of X-ray diffraction data with intervals as short as 100 ms, while heating with ramp rates up to 100 °Cs(-1), and with a maximum operating temperature of 1200 °C. The system is portable and can be installed on a synchrotron beamline. The unique capabilities of this instrument are demonstrated with in-situ characterization of a Bi2O3-SiO2 glass frit obtained during heating with ramp rates 5 °C s(-1) and 100 °C s(-1), revealing numerous phase changes. PMID:25638092

  13. Rapid thermal processing chamber for in-situ x-ray diffraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, Md. Imteyaz; Van Campen, Douglas G.; Fields, Jeremy D.; Yu, Jiafan; Pool, Vanessa L.; Parilla, Philip A.; Ginley, David S.; Van Hest, Maikel F. A. M.; Toney, Michael F.

    2015-01-01

    Rapid thermal processing (RTP) is widely used for processing a variety of materials, including electronics and photovoltaics. Presently, optimization of RTP is done primarily based on ex-situ studies. As a consequence, the precise reaction pathways and phase progression during the RTP remain unclear. More awareness of the reaction pathways would better enable process optimization and foster increased adoption of RTP, which offers numerous advantages for synthesis of a broad range of materials systems. To achieve this, we have designed and developed a RTP instrument that enables real-time collection of X-ray diffraction data with intervals as short as 100 ms, while heating with ramp rates up to 100 °Cs-1, and with a maximum operating temperature of 1200 °C. The system is portable and can be installed on a synchrotron beamline. The unique capabilities of this instrument are demonstrated with in-situ characterization of a Bi2O3-SiO2 glass frit obtained during heating with ramp rates 5 °C s-1 and 100 °C s-1, revealing numerous phase changes.

  14. Rapid three-dimensional passive rotation micromixer using the breakup process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Sung-Jin; Kim, Jung Kyung; Park, Junha; Chung, Seok; Chung, Chanil; Chang, Jun Keun

    2004-01-01

    Stretching and folding, diffusion, and breakup are three basic processes that occur while mixing fluids. Although stretching and folding the interface of two fluids by rotation enables the mixing at microscale level in both low and high Reynolds number flows, rotation is not as effective at a low Reynolds number as at a high Reynolds number. Therefore, developing a rapid micromixer for microfluidic systems that can be used at a low Reynolds number is a challenging task, because it can demonstrate the full potential of microfluidic systems in commercial markets. Here, to enhance the mixing efficiency of a micromixer based on passive rotation, we present a breakup method. The breakup method not only generates interface actively but also enhances the diffusion process at the interface. With our novel design, over 70% mixing can be achieved only after passing through a 4 mm long microchannel. In this work, the mixer was easily fabricated with polydimethylsiloxane by soft lithography and a self-aligned bonding method with methanol. We analyzed the flow in the micromixer using the computational fluid dynamics method. Also, we conducted quantitative analyses using a confocal scanning microscope and image processing.

  15. Accessing thermoplastic processing windows in metallic glasses using rapid capacitive discharge.

    PubMed

    Kaltenboeck, Georg; Harris, Thomas; Sun, Kerry; Tran, Thomas; Chang, Gregory; Schramm, Joseph P; Demetriou, Marios D; Johnson, William L

    2014-01-01

    The ability of the rapid-capacitive discharge approach to access optimal viscosity ranges in metallic glasses for thermoplastic processing is explored. Using high-speed thermal imaging, the heating uniformity and stability against crystallization of Zr35Ti30Cu7.5Be27.5 metallic glass heated deeply into the supercooled region is investigated. The method enables homogeneous volumetric heating of bulk samples throughout the entire supercooled liquid region at high rates (~10(5) K/s) sufficient to bypass crystallization throughout. The crystallization onsets at temperatures in the vicinity of the "crystallization nose" were identified and a Time-Temperature-Transformation diagram is constructed, revealing a "critical heating rate" for the metallic glass of ~1000 K/s. Thermoplastic process windows in the optimal viscosity range of 10(0)-10(4) Pa · s are identified, being confined between the glass relaxation and the eutectic crystallization transition. Within this process window, near-net forging of a fine precision metallic glass part is demonstrated. PMID:25269892

  16. Rapid processing method for solution deposited YBa 2Cu 3O 7- δ thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dawley, J. T.; Clem, P. G.; Boyle, T. J.; Ottley, L. M.; Overmyer, D. L.; Siegal, M. P.

    2004-02-01

    YBa 2Cu 3O 7- δ (YBCO) films, deposited on buffered metal substrates, are the primary candidate for second-generation superconducting (SC) wires, with applications including expanded power grid transmission capability, compact motors, and enhanced sensitivity magnetic resonance imaging. Feasibility of manufacturing such superconducting wires is dependent on high processing speed, often a limitation of vapor and solution-based YBCO deposition processes. In this work, YBCO films were fabricated via a new diethanolamine-modified trifluoroacetic film solution deposition method. Modifying the copper chemistry of the YBCO precursor solution with diethanolamine enables a hundredfold decrease in the organic pyrolysis time required for MA/cm 2 current density ( Jc) YBCO films, from multiple hours to ∼20 s in atmospheric pressure air. High quality, ∼0.2 μm thick YBCO films with Jc (77 K) values ⩾2 MA/cm 2 at 77 K are routinely crystallized from these rapidly pyrolyzed films deposited on LaAlO 3. This process has also enabled Jc (77 K)=1.1 MA/cm 2 YBCO films via 90 m/h dip-coating on Oak Ridge National Laboratory RABiTS™ textured metal tape substrates. This new YBCO solution deposition method suggests a route toward inexpensive and commercializable ∼$10/kA m solution deposited YBCO coated conductor wires.

  17. Accessing thermoplastic processing windows in metallic glasses using rapid capacitive discharge

    PubMed Central

    Kaltenboeck, Georg; Harris, Thomas; Sun, Kerry; Tran, Thomas; Chang, Gregory; Schramm, Joseph P.; Demetriou, Marios D.; Johnson, William L.

    2014-01-01

    The ability of the rapid-capacitive discharge approach to access optimal viscosity ranges in metallic glasses for thermoplastic processing is explored. Using high-speed thermal imaging, the heating uniformity and stability against crystallization of Zr35Ti30Cu7.5Be27.5 metallic glass heated deeply into the supercooled region is investigated. The method enables homogeneous volumetric heating of bulk samples throughout the entire supercooled liquid region at high rates (~105 K/s) sufficient to bypass crystallization throughout. The crystallization onsets at temperatures in the vicinity of the “crystallization nose” were identified and a Time-Temperature-Transformation diagram is constructed, revealing a “critical heating rate” for the metallic glass of ~1000 K/s. Thermoplastic process windows in the optimal viscosity range of 100–104 Pa·s are identified, being confined between the glass relaxation and the eutectic crystallization transition. Within this process window, near-net forging of a fine precision metallic glass part is demonstrated. PMID:25269892

  18. The Frequency of Rapid Pupil Dilations as a Measure of Linguistic Processing Difficulty

    PubMed Central

    Demberg, Vera; Sayeed, Asad

    2016-01-01

    While it has long been known that the pupil reacts to cognitive load, pupil size has received little attention in cognitive research because of its long latency and the difficulty of separating effects of cognitive load from the light reflex or effects due to eye movements. A novel measure, the Index of Cognitive Activity (ICA), relates cognitive effort to the frequency of small rapid dilations of the pupil. We report here on a total of seven experiments which test whether the ICA reliably indexes linguistically induced cognitive load: three experiments in reading (a manipulation of grammatical gender match / mismatch, an experiment of semantic fit, and an experiment comparing locally ambiguous subject versus object relative clauses, all in German), three dual-task experiments with simultaneous driving and spoken language comprehension (using the same manipulations as in the single-task reading experiments), and a visual world experiment comparing the processing of causal versus concessive discourse markers. These experiments are the first to investigate the effect and time course of the ICA in language processing. All of our experiments support the idea that the ICA indexes linguistic processing difficulty. The effects of our linguistic manipulations on the ICA are consistent for reading and auditory presentation. Furthermore, our experiments show that the ICA allows for usage within a multi-task paradigm. Its robustness with respect to eye movements means that it is a valid measure of processing difficulty for usage within the visual world paradigm, which will allow researchers to assess both visual attention and processing difficulty at the same time, using an eye-tracker. We argue that the ICA is indicative of activity in the locus caeruleus area of the brain stem, which has recently also been linked to P600 effects observed in psycholinguistic EEG experiments. PMID:26799065

  19. The Frequency of Rapid Pupil Dilations as a Measure of Linguistic Processing Difficulty.

    PubMed

    Demberg, Vera; Sayeed, Asad

    2016-01-01

    While it has long been known that the pupil reacts to cognitive load, pupil size has received little attention in cognitive research because of its long latency and the difficulty of separating effects of cognitive load from the light reflex or effects due to eye movements. A novel measure, the Index of Cognitive Activity (ICA), relates cognitive effort to the frequency of small rapid dilations of the pupil. We report here on a total of seven experiments which test whether the ICA reliably indexes linguistically induced cognitive load: three experiments in reading (a manipulation of grammatical gender match/mismatch, an experiment of semantic fit, and an experiment comparing locally ambiguous subject versus object relative clauses, all in German), three dual-task experiments with simultaneous driving and spoken language comprehension (using the same manipulations as in the single-task reading experiments), and a visual world experiment comparing the processing of causal versus concessive discourse markers. These experiments are the first to investigate the effect and time course of the ICA in language processing. All of our experiments support the idea that the ICA indexes linguistic processing difficulty. The effects of our linguistic manipulations on the ICA are consistent for reading and auditory presentation. Furthermore, our experiments show that the ICA allows for usage within a multi-task paradigm. Its robustness with respect to eye movements means that it is a valid measure of processing difficulty for usage within the visual world paradigm, which will allow researchers to assess both visual attention and processing difficulty at the same time, using an eye-tracker. We argue that the ICA is indicative of activity in the locus caeruleus area of the brain stem, which has recently also been linked to P600 effects observed in psycholinguistic EEG experiments. PMID:26799065

  20. Rapid and economical indicator for evaluating arsenic removal with minimum aluminum residual during coagulation process.

    PubMed

    Kang, Meea; Chen, Hong; Sato, Yuko; Kamei, Tasuku; Magara, Yasumoto

    2003-11-01

    Detection of various types of contaminants in water treatment plant by sophisticated analytical methods such as inductively coupled plasma/mass spectrometry and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry requires hours to days to provide the results. Because naturally occurring ultraviolet (UV) active compounds are commonly present in almost all source waters and can be rapidly monitored by UV absorbance at 260 nm (E260), the extent of correlation between the removal efficiency of E260 and the removal efficiency of As(V) with minimum soluble residual Al by coagulation process was investigated. Percentage removals for E260 were well correlated to those of As(V). When sufficient alum or polyaluminum chloride (PACl) was added for 60-65% removal of E260, 90-95% removal of As(V) was achieved with minimum soluble residual Al regardless of the initial level of turbidity, E260, and As(V). As E260 analysis is precisely available even by an unskilled plant operator in a few minutes, E260 removal efficiency appears to be the promising economical indicator for monitoring the effectiveness of the coagulation process for the removal of contaminants with minimum residual Al. PMID:14568045

  1. A basic experimental study of ultrasonic assisted hot embossing process for rapid fabrication of microlens arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Chih-Yuan; Yu, Che-Hao

    2015-02-01

    This paper reports a highly effective technique for rapid fabrication of microlens arrays based on an ultrasonic assisted hot embossing process. In this method, a thin stainless steel mold with micro-holes array is fabricated by a photolithography and wet etching process. Then, the thin stainless steel mold with micro-holes array is placed on top of a plastic substrate (PMMA plate) and the stack is placed in an ultrasonic vibration embossing machine. During ultrasonic assisted hot embossing operation, the surface of the stainless steel mold with micro-holes array presses against the thermoplastic PMMA substrate. Under proper ultrasonic vibration time, embossing pressure and hold time, the softened polymer will just partially fill the circular holes and due to surface tension, form a convex lens surface. After the stainless steel mold is removed, the microlens array patterns on the surface of plastic substrate can be obtained. The total cycle time is less than 10 s. Finally, geometrical and optical properties of the fabricated plastic microlens arrays were measured and proved satisfactory. This technique shows great potential for fabricating microlens array on plastic substrates with high productivity and low cost.

  2. Rapid thermal processing of high-efficiency silicon solar cells with controlled in-situ annealing

    SciTech Connect

    Doshi, P.; Rohatgi, A.; Ropp, M.; Chen, Z.; Ruby, D.; Meier, D.L.

    1995-01-01

    Silicon solar cell efficiencies of 17.1%, 16.4%, 14.8%, and 14.9% have been achieved on FZ, Cz, multicrystalline (mc-Si), and dendritic web (DW) silicon, respectively, using simplified, cost-effective rapid thermal processing (RTP). These represent the highest reported efficiencies for solar cells processed with simultaneous front and back diffusion with no conventional high-temperature furnace steps. Appropriate diffusion temperature coupled with the added in-situ anneal resulted in suitable minority-carrier lifetime and diffusion profiles for high-efficiency cells. The cooling rate associated with the in-situ anneal can improve the lifetime and lower the reverse saturation current density (J{sub 0}), however, this effect is material and base resistivity specific. PECVD antireflection (AR) coatings provided low reflectance and efficient front surface and bulk defect passivation. Conventional cells fabricated on FZ silicon by furnace diffusions and oxidations gave an efficiency of 18.8% due to greater short wavelength response and lower J{sub 0}.

  3. Containerless processing and rapid solidification of Nb-Si alloys of hypereutectic composition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hofmeister, W. H.; Bayuzick, R. J.; Robinson, M. B.; Bertero, G. A.

    1991-01-01

    A combination of bulk undercooling in an electromagnetic levitation apparatus and splat quenching between two copper plates is used to process Nb-Si alloys in order to maximize rapid solidification conditions and minimize the effects of recalescence, with emphasis on the solidification of characteristics of alloys in the 21 to 27 at. pct Si range of composition. SEM and TEM as well as X-ray diffraction are used to characterize the microstructures of the processed samples. In the range of compositions studied, the splat-quenched drops always formed the tetragonal Nb3Si phase directly from the liquid. Drops solidified in the coil were characterized by the presence of the primary intermetallic Nb5Si3 and the absence of both peritectic Nb3Si and the equilibrium eutectic. In these cases, a metastable alpha-Nb + beta-Nb5Si3 eutectic formed. The results are discussed in terms of possible metastable configurations of the Nb-Si phase diagram as well as concepts of nucleation and growth kinetics applied to the Nb3Si and Nb5Si3 intermetallics.

  4. A graphically oriented specification language for automatic code generation. GRASP/Ada: A Graphical Representation of Algorithms, Structure, and Processes for Ada, phase 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cross, James H., II; Morrison, Kelly I.; May, Charles H., Jr.; Waddel, Kathryn C.

    1989-01-01

    The first phase of a three-phase effort to develop a new graphically oriented specification language which will facilitate the reverse engineering of Ada source code into graphical representations (GRs) as well as the automatic generation of Ada source code is described. A simplified view of the three phases of Graphical Representations for Algorithms, Structure, and Processes for Ada (GRASP/Ada) with respect to three basic classes of GRs is presented. Phase 1 concentrated on the derivation of an algorithmic diagram, the control structure diagram (CSD) (CRO88a) from Ada source code or Ada PDL. Phase 2 includes the generation of architectural and system level diagrams such as structure charts and data flow diagrams and should result in a requirements specification for a graphically oriented language able to support automatic code generation. Phase 3 will concentrate on the development of a prototype to demonstrate the feasibility of this new specification language.

  5. A single-rate context-dependent learning process underlies rapid adaptation to familiar object dynamics.

    PubMed

    Ingram, James N; Howard, Ian S; Flanagan, J Randall; Wolpert, Daniel M

    2011-09-01

    Motor learning has been extensively studied using dynamic (force-field) perturbations. These induce movement errors that result in adaptive changes to the motor commands. Several state-space models have been developed to explain how trial-by-trial errors drive the progressive adaptation observed in such studies. These models have been applied to adaptation involving novel dynamics, which typically occurs over tens to hundreds of trials, and which appears to be mediated by a dual-rate adaptation process. In contrast, when manipulating objects with familiar dynamics, subjects adapt rapidly within a few trials. Here, we apply state-space models to familiar dynamics, asking whether adaptation is mediated by a single-rate or dual-rate process. Previously, we reported a task in which subjects rotate an object with known dynamics. By presenting the object at different visual orientations, adaptation was shown to be context-specific, with limited generalization to novel orientations. Here we show that a multiple-context state-space model, with a generalization function tuned to visual object orientation, can reproduce the time-course of adaptation and de-adaptation as well as the observed context-dependent behavior. In contrast to the dual-rate process associated with novel dynamics, we show that a single-rate process mediates adaptation to familiar object dynamics. The model predicts that during exposure to the object across multiple orientations, there will be a degree of independence for adaptation and de-adaptation within each context, and that the states associated with all contexts will slowly de-adapt during exposure in one particular context. We confirm these predictions in two new experiments. Results of the current study thus highlight similarities and differences in the processes engaged during exposure to novel versus familiar dynamics. In both cases, adaptation is mediated by multiple context-specific representations. In the case of familiar object dynamics

  6. Who is in charge of patient safety? Work practice, work processes and utopian views of automatic drug dispensing systems.

    PubMed

    Balka, Ellen; Kahnamoui, Nicki; Nutland, Kelsey

    2007-06-01

    In June 2003, a large, Canadian tertiary care facility introduced automatic drug dispensing machines on all units when it opened up a new building. In this paper, we provide an overview of the automatic drug dispensing system (ADS) implementation at the hospital. Our findings, based on daily field observations and interviews during and after implementation, with regular follow-up visits to the field site illustrate how the introduction of the ADS brought to light work practices that sometimes compromised patient safety. We suggest that utopian views of automatic drug dispensing machines obfuscate the challenges inherent to implementing such systems, and deter stakeholders from performing rigorous evaluation of the costs (both social and economic) and benefits of investing in such systems. Our work contributes to debates about the socio-technical efficacy of automating medication dispensing and delivery, and suggests that the balance of power in the patient safety equation lies in the work context and implementation issues, and not just the technology. For technology implementations to be successful considering that technologies frequently cross over jurisdictional boundaries, planning and implementation have to be conducted at a system wide level. PMID:16997621

  7. Rapid tooling for functional prototyping of metal mold processes. CRADA final report

    SciTech Connect

    Zacharia, T.; Ludtka, G.M.; Bjerke, M.A.; Gray, W.H.

    1997-12-01

    The overall scope of this endeavor was to develop an integrated computer system, running on a network of heterogeneous computers, that would allow the rapid development of tool designs, and then use process models to determine whether the initial tooling would have characteristics which produce the prototype parts. The major thrust of this program for ORNL was the definition of the requirements for the development of the integrated die design system with the functional purpose to link part design, tool design, and component fabrication through a seamless software environment. The principal product would be a system control program that would coordinate the various application programs and implement the data transfer so that any networked workstation would be useable. The overall system control architecture was to be required to easily facilitate any changes, upgrades, or replacements of the model from either the manufacturing end or the design criteria standpoint. The initial design of such a program is described in the section labeled ``Control Program Design``. A critical aspect of this research was the design of the system flow chart showing the exact system components and the data to be transferred. All of the major system components would have been configured to ensure data file compatibility and transferability across the Internet. The intent was to use commercially available packages to model the various manufacturing processes for creating the die and die inserts in addition to modeling the processes for which these parts were to be used. In order to meet all of these requirements, investigative research was conducted to determine the system flow features and software components within the various organizations contributing to this project. This research is summarized.

  8. Automatic Command Sequence Generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, Forest; Gladded, Roy; Khanampompan, Teerapat

    2007-01-01

    Automatic Sequence Generator (Autogen) Version 3.0 software automatically generates command sequences for the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) and several other JPL spacecraft operated by the multi-mission support team. Autogen uses standard JPL sequencing tools like APGEN, ASP, SEQGEN, and the DOM database to automate the generation of uplink command products, Spacecraft Command Message Format (SCMF) files, and the corresponding ground command products, DSN Keywords Files (DKF). Autogen supports all the major multi-mission mission phases including the cruise, aerobraking, mapping/science, and relay mission phases. Autogen is a Perl script, which functions within the mission operations UNIX environment. It consists of two parts: a set of model files and the autogen Perl script. Autogen encodes the behaviors of the system into a model and encodes algorithms for context sensitive customizations of the modeled behaviors. The model includes knowledge of different mission phases and how the resultant command products must differ for these phases. The executable software portion of Autogen, automates the setup and use of APGEN for constructing a spacecraft activity sequence file (SASF). The setup includes file retrieval through the DOM (Distributed Object Manager), an object database used to store project files. This step retrieves all the needed input files for generating the command products. Depending on the mission phase, Autogen also uses the ASP (Automated Sequence Processor) and SEQGEN to generate the command product sent to the spacecraft. Autogen also provides the means for customizing sequences through the use of configuration files. By automating the majority of the sequencing generation process, Autogen eliminates many sequence generation errors commonly introduced by manually constructing spacecraft command sequences. Through the layering of commands into the sequence by a series of scheduling algorithms, users are able to rapidly and reliably construct the

  9. A RAPID Method for Blood Processing to Increase the Yield of Plasma Peptide Levels in Human Blood.

    PubMed

    Teuffel, Pauline; Goebel-Stengel, Miriam; Hofmann, Tobias; Prinz, Philip; Scharner, Sophie; Körner, Jan L; Grötzinger, Carsten; Rose, Matthias; Klapp, Burghard F; Stengel, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Research in the field of food intake regulation is gaining importance. This often includes the measurement of peptides regulating food intake. For the correct determination of a peptide's concentration, it should be stable during blood processing. However, this is not the case for several peptides which are quickly degraded by endogenous peptidases. Recently, we developed a blood processing method employing Reduced temperatures, Acidification, Protease inhibition, Isotopic exogenous controls and Dilution (RAPID) for the use in rats. Here, we have established this technique for the use in humans and investigated recovery, molecular form and circulating concentration of food intake regulatory hormones. The RAPID method significantly improved the recovery for (125)I-labeled somatostatin-28 (+39%), glucagon-like peptide-1 (+35%), acyl ghrelin and glucagon (+32%), insulin and kisspeptin (+29%), nesfatin-1 (+28%), leptin (+21%) and peptide YY3-36 (+19%) compared to standard processing (EDTA blood on ice, p <0.001). High performance liquid chromatography showed the elution of endogenous acyl ghrelin at the expected position after RAPID processing, while after standard processing 62% of acyl ghrelin were degraded resulting in an earlier peak likely representing desacyl ghrelin. After RAPID processing the acyl/desacyl ghrelin ratio in blood of normal weight subjects was 1:3 compared to 1:23 following standard processing (p = 0.03). Also endogenous kisspeptin levels were higher after RAPID compared to standard processing (+99%, p = 0.02). The RAPID blood processing method can be used in humans, yields higher peptide levels and allows for assessment of the correct molecular form. PMID:27166969

  10. Mechanisms for Rapid Adaptive Control of Motion Processing in Macaque Visual Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Pamela M.; Ahmed, Bashir; Kohn, Adam; Bair, Wyeth

    2015-01-01

    A key feature of neural networks is their ability to rapidly adjust their function, including signal gain and temporal dynamics, in response to changes in sensory inputs. These adjustments are thought to be important for optimizing the sensitivity of the system, yet their mechanisms remain poorly understood. We studied adaptive changes in temporal integration in direction-selective cells in macaque primary visual cortex, where specific hypotheses have been proposed to account for rapid adaptation. By independently stimulating direction-specific channels, we found that the control of temporal integration of motion at one direction was independent of motion signals driven at the orthogonal direction. We also found that individual neurons can simultaneously support two different profiles of temporal integration for motion in orthogonal directions. These findings rule out a broad range of adaptive mechanisms as being key to the control of temporal integration, including untuned normalization and nonlinearities of spike generation and somatic adaptation in the recorded direction-selective cells. Such mechanisms are too broadly tuned, or occur too far downstream, to explain the channel-specific and multiplexed temporal integration that we observe in single neurons. Instead, we are compelled to conclude that parallel processing pathways are involved, and we demonstrate one such circuit using a computer model. This solution allows processing in different direction/orientation channels to be separately optimized and is sensible given that, under typical motion conditions (e.g., translation or looming), speed on the retina is a function of the orientation of image components. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Many neurons in visual cortex are understood in terms of their spatial and temporal receptive fields. It is now known that the spatiotemporal integration underlying visual responses is not fixed but depends on the visual input. For example, neurons that respond selectively to

  11. Automaticity of Conceptual Magnitude.

    PubMed

    Gliksman, Yarden; Itamar, Shai; Leibovich, Tali; Melman, Yonatan; Henik, Avishai

    2016-01-01

    What is bigger, an elephant or a mouse? This question can be answered without seeing the two animals, since these objects elicit conceptual magnitude. How is an object's conceptual magnitude processed? It was suggested that conceptual magnitude is automatically processed; namely, irrelevant conceptual magnitude can affect performance when comparing physical magnitudes. The current study further examined this question and aimed to expand the understanding of automaticity of conceptual magnitude. Two different objects were presented and participants were asked to decide which object was larger on the screen (physical magnitude) or in the real world (conceptual magnitude), in separate blocks. By creating congruent (the conceptually larger object was physically larger) and incongruent (the conceptually larger object was physically smaller) pairs of stimuli it was possible to examine the automatic processing of each magnitude. A significant congruity effect was found for both magnitudes. Furthermore, quartile analysis revealed that the congruity was affected similarly by processing time for both magnitudes. These results suggest that the processing of conceptual and physical magnitudes is automatic to the same extent. The results support recent theories suggested that different types of magnitude processing and representation share the same core system. PMID:26879153

  12. Automaticity of Conceptual Magnitude

    PubMed Central

    Gliksman, Yarden; Itamar, Shai; Leibovich, Tali; Melman, Yonatan; Henik, Avishai

    2016-01-01

    What is bigger, an elephant or a mouse? This question can be answered without seeing the two animals, since these objects elicit conceptual magnitude. How is an object’s conceptual magnitude processed? It was suggested that conceptual magnitude is automatically processed; namely, irrelevant conceptual magnitude can affect performance when comparing physical magnitudes. The current study further examined this question and aimed to expand the understanding of automaticity of conceptual magnitude. Two different objects were presented and participants were asked to decide which object was larger on the screen (physical magnitude) or in the real world (conceptual magnitude), in separate blocks. By creating congruent (the conceptually larger object was physically larger) and incongruent (the conceptually larger object was physically smaller) pairs of stimuli it was possible to examine the automatic processing of each magnitude. A significant congruity effect was found for both magnitudes. Furthermore, quartile analysis revealed that the congruity was affected similarly by processing time for both magnitudes. These results suggest that the processing of conceptual and physical magnitudes is automatic to the same extent. The results support recent theories suggested that different types of magnitude processing and representation share the same core system. PMID:26879153

  13. Automatic Stabilization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haus, FR

    1936-01-01

    This report lays more stress on the principles underlying automatic piloting than on the means of applications. Mechanical details of servomotors and the mechanical release device necessary to assure instantaneous return of the controls to the pilot in case of malfunction are not included. Descriptions are provided of various commercial systems.

  14. Automatic warranties.

    PubMed

    Decker, R

    1987-10-01

    In addition to express warranties (those specifically made by the supplier in the contract) and implied warranties (those resulting from circumstances of the sale), there is one other classification of warranties that needs to be understood by hospital materials managers. These are sometimes known as automatic warranties. In the following dialogue, Doctor Decker develops these legal concepts. PMID:10284977

  15. Does a Sensory Processing Deficit Explain Counting Accuracy on Rapid Visual Sequencing Tasks in Adults with and without Dyslexia?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conlon, Elizabeth G.; Wright, Craig M.; Norris, Karla; Chekaluk, Eugene

    2011-01-01

    The experiments conducted aimed to investigate whether reduced accuracy when counting stimuli presented in rapid temporal sequence in adults with dyslexia could be explained by a sensory processing deficit, a general slowing in processing speed or difficulties shifting attention between stimuli. To achieve these aims, the influence of the…

  16. An automatic sleep-stage analysis system with off-line high-speed processing using a super mini-computer.

    PubMed

    Kuwahara, H; Tanaka, M; Mizuki, Y; Suetsugi, M

    1996-01-01

    An automatic sleep analysis system using a super mini-computer was developed. The system improved and expanded the data processed by the mini-computer. It had the following features: 1) wave-forms were collected and analyzed at a high speed (reproduced at 10 or 20 times the speed of a data recorder) by an off-line procedure to utilize the computer resources more efficiently; 2) all information and the original wave-forms were output to a laser printer because of the lower cost and more efficient arrangement of the data; 3) various wave-form parameters were measured by wave-form analysis; 4) the application program was based on general-purpose language; and 5) wave-form reanalysis and reconstruction of the logic was easily implemented for automatic evaluation of the sleep stages. Automatic analysis of the sleep stages was impossible for 15 of 1484 periods (20 sec per period) with one of the cases analyzed, and 142 of 1484 periods had to be corrected because of erroneous identification. PMID:8942145

  17. Ligand-free Ni nanocluster formation at atmospheric pressure via rapid quenching in a microplasma process.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Ajay; Kang, Seungkoo; Larriba-Andaluz, Carlos; Ouyang, Hui; Hogan, Christopher J; Sankaran, R Mohan

    2014-09-26

    The production of metal nanoclusters composed of less than 10(3) atoms is important for applications in energy conversion and medicine, and for fundamental studies of nanomaterial nucleation and growth. Unfortunately, existing synthesis methods do not enable adequate control of cluster formation, particularly at atmospheric pressure wherein formation typically occurs on sub-millisecond timescales. Here, we demonstrate that ligand-free, unagglomerated nickel nanoclusters can be continuously synthesized at atmospheric pressure via the decomposition of bis(cyclopentadienyl)nickel(II) (nickelocene) in a spatially-confined microplasma process that rapidly quenches particle growth and agglomeration. The clusters were measured on line by ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) and further analyzed by atomic force microscopy (AFM). Our results reveal that stable clusters with spherical equivalent mean diameters below 10 Åare produced, and by controlling the nickelocene concentration, the mean diameter can be tuned up to ∼50 Å. Although diameter is often the sole metric used in nanocluster and nanoparticle characterization, to infer the number of atoms in AFM and IMS detected clusters, we compare measured AFM heights and IMS inferred collision cross sections to theoretical predictions based on both bulk matter approximations and density functional theory and Hartree-Fock calculated Ni nanocluster structures (composed of 2-15 atoms for the latter). The calculations suggest that Ni nanoclusters composed of less than 10(2) atoms can be produced repeatably with simple microplasma reactors. PMID:25180756

  18. Ligand-free Ni nanocluster formation at atmospheric pressure via rapid quenching in a microplasma process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Ajay; Kang, Seungkoo; Larriba-Andaluz, Carlos; Ouyang, Hui; Hogan, Christopher J.; Mohan Sankaran, R.

    2014-09-01

    The production of metal nanoclusters composed of less than 103 atoms is important for applications in energy conversion and medicine, and for fundamental studies of nanomaterial nucleation and growth. Unfortunately, existing synthesis methods do not enable adequate control of cluster formation, particularly at atmospheric pressure wherein formation typically occurs on sub-millisecond timescales. Here, we demonstrate that ligand-free, unagglomerated nickel nanoclusters can be continuously synthesized at atmospheric pressure via the decomposition of bis(cyclopentadienyl)nickel(II) (nickelocene) in a spatially-confined microplasma process that rapidly quenches particle growth and agglomeration. The clusters were measured on line by ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) and further analyzed by atomic force microscopy (AFM). Our results reveal that stable clusters with spherical equivalent mean diameters below 10 \\dot{A} are produced, and by controlling the nickelocene concentration, the mean diameter can be tuned up to ˜50 \\dot{A}. Although diameter is often the sole metric used in nanocluster and nanoparticle characterization, to infer the number of atoms in AFM and IMS detected clusters, we compare measured AFM heights and IMS inferred collision cross sections to theoretical predictions based on both bulk matter approximations and density functional theory and Hartree-Fock calculated Ni nanocluster structures (composed of 2-15 atoms for the latter). The calculations suggest that Ni nanoclusters composed of less than 102 atoms can be produced repeatably with simple microplasma reactors.

  19. Rapid-thermal-processing-based internal gettering for heavily boron-doped Czochralski silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Liming; Yang, Deren; Ma, Xiangyang; Tian, Daxi; Que, Duanlin

    2006-11-01

    The effect of rapid-thermal processing (RTP) ambients on the formation of oxygen precipitates and denuded zone (DZ) in heavily boron-doped (HB) Czochralski (Cz) silicon by a low-high (L-H) two-step annealing (800°C/4h+1000°C/16h) has been investigated. It was found that after the L-H two-step annealing, there was a high density of bulk microdefects (BMDs) and no observable DZ was formed near the surface in HB Cz silicon wafers preannealed by the RTP in Ar ambient, while the BMD density was quite low in HB Cz silicon wafers preannealed by the RTP in O2 ambient. However, applying the preannealing of RTP sequentially in Ar and O2 ambients allowed us to obtain a high density of BMDs in combination with a sufficient DZ by the subsequent L-H two-step annealing. This approach offers a pathway to optimize internal gettering for HB Cz silicon.

  20. Rapid techniques for DNA extraction from routinely processed archival tissue for use in PCR.

    PubMed Central

    Sepp, R; Szabó, I; Uda, H; Sakamoto, H

    1994-01-01

    AIMS--To evaluate the ability of four rapid DNA extraction methods to provide DNA for the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) from routinely fixed, paraffin wax embedded archival tissues. METHODS--Eighteen blocks of various tissues, 18 blocks of cervical cancer specimens, and nine blocks of B cell lymphomas were investigated. Both normal and biopsy specimen sized tissues were studied. DNA was extracted using four methods: boiling for 20 minutes in distilled water; boiling for 20 minutes in 5% Chelex-100 resin solution; 3-hour proteinase K digestion; and 3-hour proteinase K digestion, followed by boiling in 5% Chelex-100. Different exons of the p53 gene, human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV 16) sequence, and immunoglobulin heavy chain (IgH) gene rearrangement were amplified from the extracts. RESULTS--The Chelex boiling, proteinase K digestion, and proteinase K digestion-Chelex boiling methods produced DNA suitable for amplification in all of the 45 samples. Boiling in water yielded insufficient template for the PCR in three of the 45 cases (7%), and in six of 42 positive cases (14%) much fainter bands were observed, mostly when the processed material was either biopsy specimen sized or a B cell lymphoma sample. Fragments of the p53 gene were successfully amplified up to 408 base pairs in water boiled extracts, up to 647 in Chelex boiled preparates, and up to 984 in proteinase K digested and proteinase K digested-Chelex boiled samples, although with decreased sensitivity in the last case. All of the templates were reusable after 3 months of storage at -20 degrees C. CONCLUSIONS--Chelex boiling, proteinase K digestion, and proteinase K digestion followed by Chelex boiling produce suitable templates for the PCR from a large variety of paraffin wax embedded tissues. As the simple 20 minute boiling method in 5% Chelex-100 solution requires minimal manipulation and time, it could be useful, especially in the routine processing of large amounts of material. Images PMID:8027368

  1. Age, dyslexia subtype and comorbidity modulate rapid auditory processing in developmental dyslexia

    PubMed Central

    Lorusso, Maria Luisa; Cantiani, Chiara; Molteni, Massimo

    2014-01-01

    The nature of Rapid Auditory Processing (RAP) deficits in dyslexia remains debated, together with the specificity of the problem to certain types of stimuli and/or restricted subgroups of individuals. Following the hypothesis that the heterogeneity of the dyslexic population may have led to contrasting results, the aim of the study was to define the effect of age, dyslexia subtype and comorbidity on the discrimination and reproduction of non-verbal tone sequences. Participants were 46 children aged 8–14 (26 with dyslexia, subdivided according to age, presence of a previous language delay, and type of dyslexia). Experimental tasks were a Temporal Order Judgment (TOJ) (manipulating tone length, ISI and sequence length), and a Pattern Discrimination Task. Dyslexic children showed general RAP deficits. Tone length and ISI influenced dyslexic and control children's performance in a similar way, but dyslexic children were more affected by an increase from 2 to 5 sounds. As to age, older dyslexic children's difficulty in reproducing sequences of 4 and 5 tones was similar to that of normally reading younger (but not older) children. In the analysis of subgroup profiles, the crucial variable appears to be the advantage, or lack thereof, in processing long vs. short sounds. Dyslexic children with a previous language delay obtained the lowest scores in RAP measures, but they performed worse with shorter stimuli, similar to control children, while dyslexic-only children showed no advantage for longer stimuli. As to dyslexia subtype, only surface dyslexics improved their performance with longer stimuli, while phonological dyslexics did not. Differential scores for short vs. long tones and for long vs. short ISIs predict non-word and word reading, respectively, and the former correlate with phonemic awareness. In conclusion, the relationship between non-verbal RAP, phonemic skills and reading abilities appears to be characterized by complex interactions with subgroup

  2. Automatic analysis of microscopic images of red blood cell aggregates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menichini, Pablo A.; Larese, Mónica G.; Riquelme, Bibiana D.

    2015-06-01

    Red blood cell aggregation is one of the most important factors in blood viscosity at stasis or at very low rates of flow. The basic structure of aggregates is a linear array of cell commonly termed as rouleaux. Enhanced or abnormal aggregation is seen in clinical conditions, such as diabetes and hypertension, producing alterations in the microcirculation, some of which can be analyzed through the characterization of aggregated cells. Frequently, image processing and analysis for the characterization of RBC aggregation were done manually or semi-automatically using interactive tools. We propose a system that processes images of RBC aggregation and automatically obtains the characterization and quantification of the different types of RBC aggregates. Present technique could be interesting to perform the adaptation as a routine used in hemorheological and Clinical Biochemistry Laboratories because this automatic method is rapid, efficient and economical, and at the same time independent of the user performing the analysis (repeatability of the analysis).

  3. Comparison of automatic control systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oppelt, W

    1941-01-01

    This report deals with a reciprocal comparison of an automatic pressure control, an automatic rpm control, an automatic temperature control, and an automatic directional control. It shows the difference between the "faultproof" regulator and the actual regulator which is subject to faults, and develops this difference as far as possible in a parallel manner with regard to the control systems under consideration. Such as analysis affords, particularly in its extension to the faults of the actual regulator, a deep insight into the mechanism of the regulator process.

  4. Preliminary results of processing of Pulkovo series of photographic observations of double star 61 Cygni measured by automatic machine "Fantasy"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorshanov, D. L.; Shakht, N. A.; Kisselev, A. A.; Polyakov, E. V.; Bronnikova, A. A.; Kanaev, I. I.

    2003-11-01

    Two long-term series of photographic observations of one of the nearest double star 61 Cygni have been obtained at Pulkovo by means of normal astrograph in 1895-2000 (I) and by means of 26'' refractor in 1958-2000 (II). All these observations have been measured by means automatic machine "Fantasy" with mean error of yearly positions 0.016'' and 0.008'' for I and II series correspondly. The periodic deviations with period 6.4 +/- 0.5 yr in the residuals in relative distances between components are noticed for series II.

  5. Auxiliary circuit enables automatic monitoring of EKG'S

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    Auxiliary circuits allow direct, automatic monitoring of electrocardiograms by digital computers. One noiseless square-wave output signal for each trigger pulse from an electrocardiogram preamplifier is produced. The circuit also permits automatic processing of cardiovascular data from analog tapes.

  6. Rate-limiting processes during rapid deglaciation of marine ice sheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaughan, D. G.

    2009-04-01

    The debate concerning the stability of marine ice sheets has continued for many years. Recent contributions have advanced the debate substantially, and shown that under specific conditions, marine ice sheet margins could be unstable. This insight has reinforced widely held concerns that marine ice-sheet collapse could substantially add to sea-level rise in coming centuries. However, determination of the stability-condition of marine ice sheet margins is only one step towards evaluating the risk inherent in such ice sheets. This risk crucially depends on the rate at which collapse could occur. For example; if collapse occurred over several millennia then the additional rate of sea-level rise would be comparable to that arising from other sources, and would probably be considered manageable by many coastal defence planners; conversely, collapse of a major marine ice sheet in less than one millennia, would have profound and costly implications. In this paper, I will consider the most rapidly changing, and probably the most vulnerable marine ice sheet remaining on the planet; the Amundsen Sea Embayment of West Antarctica. And in particular, ask what would be required to deglaciate this ice sheet within a period of around 500 years. This rate of collapse implies a loss of ice from the ice sheet, at roughly 10-times the current balance flux. To maintain such a retreat, would require that the extra ice-loss would either have to be melted in situ, or exported from the continental shelf as icebergs. I will argue that it is highly unlikely that ice-loss at this rate could be achieved while maintaining an ice-sheet configuration comparable to what we see today, and in particular, that the maintenance of ice shelves is unlikely. With this constraint in mind, I discuss two possible configurations that could maintain ice-loss at this rate, and discuss the rate-limiting processes that might govern the retreat rates that could be achieved. I conclude that the critical processes

  7. Processing of Mn-Al nanostructured magnets by spark plasma sintering and subsequent rapid thermal annealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saravanan, P.; Vinod, V. T. P.; Černík, Miroslav; Selvapriya, A.; Chakravarty, Dibyendu; Kamat, S. V.

    2015-01-01

    The potential of spark plasma sintering (SPS) in combination with rapid thermal annealing (RTA) for the processing of Mn-Al nanostructured magnets is explored in this study. Ferromagnetic α-Mn alloy powders were processed by high-energy ball milling using Mn (56 at%) and Al (44 at%) as constituent metal elements. The alloying action between Mn and Al due to intensive milling was studied by X-ray diffraction and field-emission scanning electron microscope; while the phase transformation kinetics was investigated using differential scanning calorimetry. The evolution of ferromagnetic properties in the as-milled powders was studied by superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID). Among the Mn-Al alloy powders collected at various milling intervals, the 25 h milled Mn-Al powders showed a good combination of coercivity, Hc (11.3 kA/m) and saturation magnetization, Ms (5.0 A/m2/kg); accordingly, these powders were chosen for SPS. The SPS experiments were conducted at different temperatures: 773, 873 and 973 K and its effect on the density, phase composition and magnetic properties of the Mn-Al bulk samples were investigated. Upon increasing the SPS temperature from 773 to 973 K, the bulk density was found to increase from 3.6 to 4.0 g/cm3. The occurrence of equilibrium β-phase with significant amount of γ2-phase was obvious at all the SPS temperatures; however, crystallization of some amount of τ-phase was evident at 973 K. Irrespective of the SPS temperatures, all the samples demonstrated soft magnetic behavior with Hc and Ms values similar to those obtained for the 25 h milled powders. The magnetic properties of the SPSed samples were significantly improved upon subjecting them to RTA at 1100 K. Through the RTA process, Hc values of 75, 174 and 194 kA/m and Ms values of 19, 21 and 28 A/m2/kg were achieved for the samples SPSed at 773, 873 and 973 K, respectively. The possible reasons for the observed improvement in the magnetic properties of the SPSed

  8. AUTOMATIC COUNTER

    DOEpatents

    Robinson, H.P.

    1960-06-01

    An automatic counter of alpha particle tracks recorded by a sensitive emulsion of a photographic plate is described. The counter includes a source of mcdulated dark-field illumination for developing light flashes from the recorded particle tracks as the photographic plate is automatically scanned in narrow strips. Photoelectric means convert the light flashes to proportional current pulses for application to an electronic counting circuit. Photoelectric means are further provided for developing a phase reference signal from the photographic plate in such a manner that signals arising from particle tracks not parallel to the edge of the plate are out of phase with the reference signal. The counting circuit includes provision for rejecting the out-of-phase signals resulting from unoriented tracks as well as signals resulting from spurious marks on the plate such as scratches, dust or grain clumpings, etc. The output of the circuit is hence indicative only of the tracks that would be counted by a human operator.

  9. Nursing and Medical Perceptions of a Hospital Rapid Response System: New Process But Same Old Game?

    PubMed

    Douglas, Clint; Osborne, Sonya; Windsor, Carol; Fox, Robyn; Booker, Catriona; Jones, Lee; Gardner, Glenn

    2016-01-01

    Perhaps no other patient safety intervention depends so acutely on effective interprofessional teamwork for patient survival than the hospital rapid response system. Yet, little is known about nurse-physician relationships when rescuing at-risk patients. This study compared nursing and medical staff perceptions of a mature rapid response system at a large tertiary hospital. Findings indicate that the rapid response system may be failing to address a hierarchical culture and systems-level barriers to early recognition and response to patient deterioration. PMID:26132845

  10. An automatic method for detection and classification of Ionospheric Alfvén Resonances using signal and image processing techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beggan, Ciaran

    2014-05-01

    Induction coils permit us to measure the very rapid changes of the magnetic field. In June 2012, the British Geological Survey Geomagnetism team installed two high frequency (100 Hz) induction coil magnetometers at the Eskdalemuir Observatory (55.3° N, 3.2° W, L~3), in the Scottish Borders of the United Kingdom. The Eskdalemuir Observatory is one of the longest running geophysical sites in the UK (beginning operation in 1908) and is located in a rural valley with a quiet magnetic environment. The coils record magnetic field changes over an effective frequency range of about 0.1-40Hz, and encompass phenomena such as the Schumann resonances, magnetospheric pulsations and Ionospheric Alfvén Resonances (IAR). In this study we focus on the IAR, which are related to the vibration of magnetic field lines passing through the ionosphere, believed to be mainly excited by lower atmospheric electrical discharges. The IAR typically manifest as a series of spectral resonances structures (SRS) within the 1-6Hz frequency range, usually appearing a fine bands or fringes in spectrogram plots. The SRS tend to occur daily between 18.00-06.00UT at the Eskdalemuir site, disappearing during the daylight hours. They usually start as a single low frequency before bifurcating into 5-10 separate fringes, increasing in frequency until around midnight. The fringes also widen in frequency before fading around 06.00UT. Occasionally, the fringes decrease in frequency slightly around 03.00UT before fading. In order to quantify the daily, seasonal and annual changes of the SRS, we developed a new method to identify the fringes and to quantify their occurrence in frequency (f) and the change in frequency (Δf). The method uses short time-series of 100 seconds to produce an FFT spectral plot from which the non-stationary peaks are identified using the residuals from a best-fit six order spline. This is repeated for an entire day of data. The peaks from each time-slice are placed into a matrix

  11. Text Mining and Natural Language Processing Approaches for Automatic Categorization of Lay Requests to Web-Based Expert Forums

    PubMed Central

    Reincke, Ulrich; Michelmann, Hans Wilhelm

    2009-01-01

    Background Both healthy and sick people increasingly use electronic media to obtain medical information and advice. For example, Internet users may send requests to Web-based expert forums, or so-called “ask the doctor” services. Objective To automatically classify lay requests to an Internet medical expert forum using a combination of different text-mining strategies. Methods We first manually classified a sample of 988 requests directed to a involuntary childlessness forum on the German website “Rund ums Baby” (“Everything about Babies”) into one or more of 38 categories belonging to two dimensions (“subject matter” and “expectations”). After creating start and synonym lists, we calculated the average Cramer’s V statistic for the association of each word with each category. We also used principle component analysis and singular value decomposition as further text-mining strategies. With these measures we trained regression models and determined, on the basis of best regression models, for any request the probability of belonging to each of the 38 different categories, with a cutoff of 50%. Recall and precision of a test sample were calculated as a measure of quality for the automatic classification. Results According to the manual classification of 988 documents, 102 (10%) documents fell into the category “in vitro fertilization (IVF),” 81 (8%) into the category “ovulation,” 79 (8%) into “cycle,” and 57 (6%) into “semen analysis.” These were the four most frequent categories in the subject matter dimension (consisting of 32 categories). The expectation dimension comprised six categories; we classified 533 documents (54%) as “general information” and 351 (36%) as a wish for “treatment recommendations.” The generation of indicator variables based on the chi-square analysis and Cramer’s V proved to be the best approach for automatic classification in about half of the categories. In combination with the two other

  12. Affective Flattening in Patients with Schizophrenia: Differential Association with Amygdala Response to Threat-Related Facial Expression under Automatic and Controlled Processing Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Lindner, Christian; Dannlowski, Udo; Bauer, Jochen; Ohrmann, Patricia; Lencer, Rebekka; Zwitserlood, Pienie; Kugel, Harald

    2016-01-01

    Objective Early neuroimaging studies have demonstrated amygdala hypoactivation in schizophrenia but more recent research based on paradigms with minimal cognitive loads or examining automatic processing has observed amygdala hyperactivation. Hyperactivation was found to be related to affective flattening. In this study, amygdala responsivity to threat-related facial expression was investigated in patients as a function of automatic versus controlled processing and patients' flat affect. Methods Functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to measure amygdala activation in 36 patients with schizophrenia and 42 healthy controls. During scanning, a viewing task with masked and unmasked fearful and neutral faces was presented. Results Patients exhibited increased amygdala response to unmasked fearful faces. With respect to masked fearful faces, no between-group differences emerged for the sample as a whole but a subsample of patients with flat affect showed heightened amygdala activation. The amygdala response to masked fearful faces was positively correlated with the degree of flat affect. Conversely, amygdala response to unmasked fearful faces was negatively correlated to the severity of affective flattening. In patients, amygdala responses to masked and unmasked fearful faces showed an inverse correlation. Conclusion Our findings suggest that amygdala hyperresponsivity to unmasked fearful faces might be a functional characteristic of schizophrenia. Amygdala hyperresponsivity to masked fearful faces might be a specific characteristic of patients with affective flattening. A model of flat affect as a response mechanism to emotional overload is proposed. PMID:26766952

  13. Automatic stabilization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haus, FR

    1936-01-01

    This report concerns the study of automatic stabilizers and extends it to include the control of the three-control system of the airplane instead of just altitude control. Some of the topics discussed include lateral disturbed motion, static stability, the mathematical theory of lateral motion, and large angles of incidence. Various mechanisms and stabilizers are also discussed. The feeding of Diesel engines by injection pumps actuated by engine compression, achieves the required high speeds of injection readily and permits rigorous control of the combustible charge introduced into each cylinder and of the peak pressure in the resultant cycle.

  14. Insight into the Physical and Dynamical Processes that Control Rapid Increases in Total Flash Rate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schultz, Christopher J.; Carey, Lawrence D.; Schultz, Elise V.; Blakeslee, Richard J.; Goodman, Steven J.

    2015-01-01

    Rapid increases in total lightning (also termed "lightning jumps") have been observed for many decades. Lightning jumps have been well correlated to severe and hazardous weather occurrence. The main focus of lightning jump work has been on the development of lightning algorithms to be used in real-time assessment of storm intensity. However, in these studies it is typically assumed that the updraft "increases" without direct measurements of the vertical motion, or specification of which updraft characteristic actually increases (e.g., average speed, maximum speed, or convective updraft volume). Therefore, an end-to-end physical and dynamical basis for coupling rapid increases in total flash rate to increases in updraft speed and volume must be understood in order to ultimately relate lightning occurrence to severe storm metrics. Herein, we use polarimetric, multi-Doppler, and lightning mapping array measurements to provide physical context as to why rapid increases in total lightning are closely tied to severe and hazardous weather.

  15. Rapidly solidified ceramics: Processing, structure, and magnetic properties. Progress report, September 1984--January 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Kalonji, G.M.; O`Handley, R.C.

    1985-12-31

    Since its initiation in September 1984, work under this contract has progressed in two areas: construction of a gas atomizer for rapid solidification of ceramics; and characterization of rapidly solidified materials in the SrO-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, BaO-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, MnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}-SiO{sub 2}, and CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}-SiO{sub 2} systems. This report summarize this work.

  16. We really need to talk: adapting FDA processes to rapid change.

    PubMed

    Lykken, Sara

    2013-01-01

    The rapidly evolving realm of modern commerce strains traditional regulatory paradigms. This paper traces the historical evolution of FDA crisis-response regulation and provides examples of ways in which the definitions and procedures resulting from that past continue to be challenged by new products as market entrants, some in good faith and others not, take actions that create disconnects between actual product and marketing controls and those that consumers might expect. The paper then explores some of the techniques used by other federal agencies that have faced similar challenges in environments characterized by rapid innovation, and draws from this analysis suggestions for improvement of the FDA's warning letter system. PMID:24552079

  17. Automatic dilution gaging of rapidly varying flow

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Duerk, M.D.

    1983-01-01

    The analysis showed that the discharges measured by dye-dilution techniques were generally within ± 10 percent of the discharges determined from ratings established by current-meter measurements. Larger differences were noted at the start of and on the rising limb of four hydrographs. Of the 20 storms monitored, dilution measurements on 17 were of acceptable accuracy. Peak discharges from the open-channel site ranged from 0 to 12 percent departures from the existing rating whereas the comparison of peak discharge at the storm sewer site ranged from 0 to 5 percent departures from the existing rating.

  18. The microstructure and electrical properties of contacts formed in the Ni/Al/Si system due to rapid thermal processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katz, A.; Komem, Y.

    1988-06-01

    The microstructure and electrical properties of the contacts formed in the Ni(30 nm)/Al(10 nm)/100-line n-Si system due to rapid thermal processing were studied at temperatures between 300 and 900 C. A melting at the intermediate Al layer was observed already at about 580 C after 2-s heat treatments. This rapid eutectic melting, assumed to initiate at the Al-Si interface, resulted in the formation of a unique contact composed of the Ni(Al/0.5/Si/0.5/)/Al3Ni/Ni(x)Si(y)/n-Si structure with fairly smooth interfaces between the layers. The sheet resistance of the layers and the Schottky barrier height of the contact were measured as a function of the rapid thermal processing temperatures. As a result of the eutectic melting reaction at 580 C, the sheet resistance of the formed layers decreased from 3.2 to 2.6 ohm/unit area, the Schottky barrier height between the layers and Si increased from 0.61-0.76 eV, and the effective electrically active area of the contact increased. These electrical properties are discussed in correlation with the microstructure formed in the Ni/Al/Si system due to the rapid thermal processing.

  19. Ion implantation and rapid thermal processing of III-V nitrides

    SciTech Connect

    Zolper, J.C.; Crawford, M.H.; Pearton, S.J.; Abernathy, C.R.; Vartuli, C.B.; Yuan, C.; Stall, R.A.

    1996-05-01

    Ion implantation doping and isolation coupled with rapid thermal annealing has played a critical role in the realization of high performance photonic and electronic devices in all mature semiconductor material systems. This is also expected to be the case for the binary III-V nitrides (InN, GaN, and AlN) and their alloys as the epitaxial material quality improves and more advanced device structures are fabricated. In this article, we review the recent developments in implant doping and isolation along with rapid thermal annealing of GaN and the In-containing ternary alloys InGaN and InAlN. In particular, the successful n- and p-type doping of GaN by ion implantation of Si and Mg+P, respectively, and subsequent high temperature rapid thermal anneals in excess of 1000{degree}C is reviewed. In the area of implant isolation, N-implantation has been shown to compensate both n- and p-type GaN, N-, and O-implantation effectively compensates InAlN, and InGaN shows limited compensation with either N- or F-implantation. The effects of rapid thermal annealing on unimplanted material are also presented. 29 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. The potential for early and rapid pathogen detection within poultry processing through hyperspectral microscopy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The acquisition of hyperspectral microscopic images containing both spatial and spectral data has shown potential for the early and rapid optical classification of foodborne pathogens. A hyperspectral microscope with a metal halide light source and acousto-optical tunable filter (AOTF) collects 89 ...

  1. Optimization of process parameters for the rapid biosynthesis of hematite nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Rajendran, Kumar; Sen, Shampa

    2016-06-01

    Hematite (α-Fe2O3) nanoparticles are widely used in various applications including gas sensors, pigments owing to its low cost, environmental friendliness, non-toxicity and high resistance to corrosion. These nanoparticles were generally synthesized by different chemical methods. In the present study, nanoparticles were synthesized rapidly without heat treatment by biosynthesis approach using culture supernatant of Bacillus cereus SVK1. The physiochemical parameters for rapid synthesis were optimized by using UV-visible spectroscopy. The time taken for hematite nanoparticle synthesis was found to increase with the increasing concentration of the precursor. This might be due to the inadequate proportion of quantity of biomolecules present in the culture supernatant to the precursor which led to delayed bioreduction. Greater quantities of culture supernatant with respect to precursor lead to rapid synthesis of hematite nanoparticles. The nucleation of the hematite nucleus happens more easily when the solution pH was less than 10. The optimum parameters identified for the rapid biosynthesis of hematite nanoparticles were pH9, 37°C (temperature) and 1mM ferric chloride as precursor. The particles were well crystallized hexagonal structured hematite nanoparticles and are predominantly (110)-oriented. The synthesized nanoparticles were found to contain predominantly iron (73.47%) and oxygen (22.58%) as evidenced by Energy Dispersive X-ray analysis. Hematite nanoparticles of 15-40nm diameters were biosynthesized in 48h under optimized conditions, compared to 21days before optimization. PMID:27045277

  2. Ion implantation and rapid thermal processing of Ill-V nitrides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zolper, J. C.; Hagerott Crawford, M.; Pearton, S. J.; Abernathy, C. R.; Vartuli, C. B.; Yuan, C.; Stall, R. A.

    1996-05-01

    Ion implantation doping and isolation coupled with rapid thermal annealing has played a critical role in the realization of high performance photonic and electronic devices in all mature semiconductor material systems. This is also expected to be the case for the binary III-V nitrides (InN, GaN, and A1N) and their alloys as the epitaxial material quality improves and more advanced device structures are fabricated. In this article, we review the recent developments in implant doping and isolation along with rapid thermal annealing of GaN and the In-containing ternary alloys InGaN and InAlN. In particular, the successful n- and p-type doping of GaN by ion implantation of Si and Mg+P, respectively, and subsequent high temperature rapid thermal anneals in excess of 1000°C is reviewed. In the area of implant isolation, N-implantation has been shown to compensate both n- and p-type GaN, N-, and O-implantation effectively compensates InAlN, and InGaN shows limited compensation with either N- or F-implantation. The effects of rapid thermal annealing on unimplanted material are also presented.

  3. Speech perception, rapid temporal processing, and the left hemisphere: a case study of unilateral pure word deafness.

    PubMed

    Slevc, L Robert; Martin, Randi C; Hamilton, A Cris; Joanisse, Marc F

    2011-01-01

    The mechanisms and functional anatomy underlying the early stages of speech perception are still not well understood. One way to investigate the cognitive and neural underpinnings of speech perception is by investigating patients with speech perception deficits but with preserved ability in other domains of language. One such case is reported here: patient NL shows highly impaired speech perception despite normal hearing ability and preserved semantic knowledge, speaking, and reading ability, and is thus classified as a case of pure word deafness (PWD). NL has a left temporoparietal lesion without right hemisphere damage and DTI imaging suggests that he has preserved cross-hemispheric connectivity, arguing against an account of PWD as a disconnection of left lateralized language areas from auditory input. Two experiments investigated whether NL's speech perception deficit could instead result from an underlying problem with rapid temporal processing. Experiment 1 showed that NL has particular difficulty discriminating sounds that differ in terms of rapid temporal changes, be they speech or non-speech sounds. Experiment 2 employed an intensive training program designed to improve rapid temporal processing in language impaired children (Fast ForWord; Scientific Learning Corporation, Oakland, CA) and found that NL was able to improve his ability to discriminate rapid temporal differences in non-speech sounds, but not in speech sounds. Overall, these data suggest that patients with unilateral PWD may, in fact, have a deficit in (left lateralized) temporal processing ability, however they also show that a rapid temporal processing deficit is, by itself, unable to account for this patient's speech perception deficit. PMID:21093464

  4. Containerless processing and rapid solidification of Nb-Si alloys in the niobium-rich eutectic range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hofmeister, W. H.; Bayuzick, R. J.; Robinson, M. B.; Bertero, G. A.

    1991-01-01

    Containerless processing and rapid solidification techniques were used to process Nb-Si alloys in the Nb-rich eutectic range. Electromagnetically levitated drops were melted and subsequently splat-quenched from different temperatures. A variety of eutectic morphologies was obtained as a function of the degree of superheating or undercooling of the drops prior to splatting. Metallic glass was observed only in drops quenched from above the melting temperature. Microstructures of splats deeply undercooled prior to quenching were very fine and uniform. These results are discussed in terms of classic nucleation theory concepts and the expected heat evolution at different regions of the splat during the rapid quenching process. The locations of the coupled-zone boundaries for the alpha-Nb + Nb3Si eutectic are also suggested.

  5. Optimizing the real-time automatic location of the events produced in Romania using an advanced processing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neagoe, Cristian; Grecu, Bogdan; Manea, Liviu

    2016-04-01

    National Institute for Earth Physics (NIEP) operates a real time seismic network which is designed to monitor the seismic activity on the Romanian territory, which is dominated by the intermediate earthquakes (60-200 km) from Vrancea area. The ability to reduce the impact of earthquakes on society depends on the existence of a large number of high-quality observational data. The development of the network in recent years and an advanced seismic acquisition are crucial to achieving this objective. The software package used to perform the automatic real-time locations is Seiscomp3. An accurate choice of the Seiscomp3 setting parameters is necessary to ensure the best performance of the real-time system i.e., the most accurate location for the earthquakes and avoiding any false events. The aim of this study is to optimize the algorithms of the real-time system that detect and locate the earthquakes in the monitored area. This goal is pursued by testing different parameters (e.g., STA/LTA, filters applied to the waveforms) on a data set of representative earthquakes of the local seismicity. The results are compared with the locations from the Romanian Catalogue ROMPLUS.

  6. A novel GIS-based tool for estimating present-day ocean reference depth using automatically processed gridded bathymetry data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jurecka, Mirosława; Niedzielski, Tomasz; Migoń, Piotr

    2016-05-01

    This paper presents a new method for computing the present-day value of the reference depth (dr) which is an essential input information for assessment of past sea-level changes. The method applies a novel automatic geoprocessing tool developed using Python script and ArcGIS, and uses recent data about ocean floor depth, sediment thickness, and age of oceanic crust. The procedure is multi-step and involves creation of a bathymetric dataset corrected for sediment loading and isostasy, delineation of subduction zones, computation of perpendicular sea-floor profiles, and statistical analysis of these profiles versus crust age. The analysis of site-specific situations near the subduction zones all around the world shows a number of instances where the depth of the oceanic crust stabilizes at a certain level before reaching the subduction zone, and this occurs at depths much lower than proposed in previous approaches to the reference depth issue. An analysis of Jurassic and Cretaceous oceanic lithosphere shows that the most probable interval at which the reference depth occurs is 5300-5800 m. This interval is broadly consistent with dr estimates determined using the Global Depth-Heatflow model (GDH1), but is significantly lower than dr estimates calculated on a basis of the Parsons-Sclater Model (PSM).

  7. Attaining Automaticity in the Visual Numerosity Task is Not Automatic

    PubMed Central

    Speelman, Craig P.; Muller Townsend, Katrina L.

    2015-01-01

    This experiment is a replication of experiments reported by Lassaline and Logan (1993) using the visual numerosity task. The aim was to replicate the transition from controlled to automatic processing reported by Lassaline and Logan (1993), and to examine the extent to which this result, reported with average group results, can be observed in the results of individuals within a group. The group results in this experiment did replicate those reported by Lassaline and Logan (1993); however, one half of the sample did not attain automaticity with the task, and one-third did not exhibit a transition from controlled to automatic processing. These results raise questions about the pervasiveness of automaticity, and the interpretation of group means when examining cognitive processes. PMID:26635658

  8. Comparison of a semi-automatic annotation tool and a natural language processing application for the generation of clinical statement entries

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Ching-Heng; Wu, Nai-Yuan; Lai, Wei-Shao; Liou, Der-Ming

    2015-01-01

    Background and objective Electronic medical records with encoded entries should enhance the semantic interoperability of document exchange. However, it remains a challenge to encode the narrative concept and to transform the coded concepts into a standard entry-level document. This study aimed to use a novel approach for the generation of entry-level interoperable clinical documents. Methods Using HL7 clinical document architecture (CDA) as the example, we developed three pipelines to generate entry-level CDA documents. The first approach was a semi-automatic annotation pipeline (SAAP), the second was a natural language processing (NLP) pipeline, and the third merged the above two pipelines. We randomly selected 50 test documents from the i2b2 corpora to evaluate the performance of the three pipelines. Results The 50 randomly selected test documents contained 9365 words, including 588 Observation terms and 123 Procedure terms. For the Observation terms, the merged pipeline had a significantly higher F-measure than the NLP pipeline (0.89 vs 0.80, p<0.0001), but a similar F-measure to that of the SAAP (0.89 vs 0.87). For the Procedure terms, the F-measure was not significantly different among the three pipelines. Conclusions The combination of a semi-automatic annotation approach and the NLP application seems to be a solution for generating entry-level interoperable clinical documents. PMID:25332357

  9. Is VIRTU4L Larger than VIR7UAL? Automatic Processing of Number Quantity and Lexical Representations in Leet Words

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    García-Orza, Javier; Comesaña, Montserrat; Piñeiro, Ana; Soares, Ana Paula; Perea, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Recent research has shown that leet words (i.e., words in which some of the letters are replaced by visually similar digits; e.g., VIRTU4L) can be processed as their base words without much cost. However, it remains unclear whether the digits inserted in leet words are simply processed as letters or whether they are simultaneously processed as…

  10. Contributions to a neurophysiology of meaning: the interpretation of written messages could be an automatic stimulus-reaction mechanism before becoming conscious processing of information

    PubMed Central

    Convertini, Livia S.; Quatraro, Sabrina; Ressa, Stefania; Velasco, Annalisa

    2015-01-01

    Background. Even though the interpretation of natural language messages is generally conceived as the result of a conscious processing of the message content, the influence of unconscious factors is also well known. What is still insufficiently known is the way such factors work. We have tackled interpretation assuming it is a process, whose basic features are the same for the whole humankind, and employing a naturalistic approach (careful observation of phenomena in conditions the closest to “natural” ones, and precise description before and independently of data statistical analysis). Methodology. Our field research involved a random sample of 102 adults. We presented them with a complete real world-like case of written communication using unabridged message texts. We collected data (participants’ written reports on their interpretations) in controlled conditions through a specially designed questionnaire (closed and opened answers); then, we treated it through qualitative and quantitative methods. Principal Findings. We gathered some evidence that, in written message interpretation, between reading and the attribution of conscious meaning, an intermediate step could exist (we named it “disassembling”) which looks like an automatic reaction to the text words/expressions. Thus, the process of interpretation would be a discontinuous sequence of three steps having different natures: the initial “decoding” step (i.e., reading, which requires technical abilities), disassembling (the automatic reaction, an unconscious passage) and the final conscious attribution of meaning. If this is true, words and expressions would firstly function like physical stimuli, before being taken into account as symbols. Such hypothesis, once confirmed, could help explaining some links between the cultural (human communication) and the biological (stimulus-reaction mechanisms as the basis for meanings) dimension of humankind. PMID:26528419

  11. Contributions to a neurophysiology of meaning: the interpretation of written messages could be an automatic stimulus-reaction mechanism before becoming conscious processing of information.

    PubMed

    Maffei, Roberto; Convertini, Livia S; Quatraro, Sabrina; Ressa, Stefania; Velasco, Annalisa

    2015-01-01

    Background. Even though the interpretation of natural language messages is generally conceived as the result of a conscious processing of the message content, the influence of unconscious factors is also well known. What is still insufficiently known is the way such factors work. We have tackled interpretation assuming it is a process, whose basic features are the same for the whole humankind, and employing a naturalistic approach (careful observation of phenomena in conditions the closest to "natural" ones, and precise description before and independently of data statistical analysis). Methodology. Our field research involved a random sample of 102 adults. We presented them with a complete real world-like case of written communication using unabridged message texts. We collected data (participants' written reports on their interpretations) in controlled conditions through a specially designed questionnaire (closed and opened answers); then, we treated it through qualitative and quantitative methods. Principal Findings. We gathered some evidence that, in written message interpretation, between reading and the attribution of conscious meaning, an intermediate step could exist (we named it "disassembling") which looks like an automatic reaction to the text words/expressions. Thus, the process of interpretation would be a discontinuous sequence of three steps having different natures: the initial "decoding" step (i.e., reading, which requires technical abilities), disassembling (the automatic reaction, an unconscious passage) and the final conscious attribution of meaning. If this is true, words and expressions would firstly function like physical stimuli, before being taken into account as symbols. Such hypothesis, once confirmed, could help explaining some links between the cultural (human communication) and the biological (stimulus-reaction mechanisms as the basis for meanings) dimension of humankind. PMID:26528419

  12. Internally- and externally-driven network transitions as a basis for automatic and strategic processes in semantic priming: theory and experimental validation.

    PubMed

    Lerner, Itamar; Shriki, Oren

    2014-01-01

    For the last four decades, semantic priming-the facilitation in recognition of a target word when it follows the presentation of a semantically related prime word-has been a central topic in research of human cognitive processing. Studies have drawn a complex picture of findings which demonstrated the sensitivity of this priming effect to a unique combination of variables, including, but not limited to, the type of relatedness between primes and targets, the prime-target Stimulus Onset Asynchrony (SOA), the relatedness proportion (RP) in the stimuli list and the specific task subjects are required to perform. Automatic processes depending on the activation patterns of semantic representations in memory and controlled strategies adapted by individuals when attempting to maximize their recognition performance have both been implicated in contributing to the results. Lately, we have published a new model of semantic priming that addresses the majority of these findings within one conceptual framework. In our model, semantic memory is depicted as an attractor neural network in which stochastic transitions from one stored pattern to another are continually taking place due to synaptic depression mechanisms. We have shown how such transitions, in combination with a reinforcement-learning rule that adjusts their pace, resemble the classic automatic and controlled processes involved in semantic priming and account for a great number of the findings in the literature. Here, we review the core findings of our model and present new simulations that show how similar principles of parameter-adjustments could account for additional data not addressed in our previous studies, such as the relation between expectancy and inhibition in priming, target frequency and target degradation effects. Finally, we describe two human experiments that validate several key predictions of the model. PMID:24795670

  13. Automatic hypermnesia and impaired recollection in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Linscott, R J; Knight, R G

    2001-10-01

    Evidence from studies of nonmnemonic automatic cognitive processes provides reason to expect that schizophrenia is associated with exaggerated automatic memory (implicit memory), or automatic hypermnesia. Participants with schizophrenia (n = 22) and control participants (n = 26) were compared on word stem completion (WSC) and list discrimination (LD) tasks administered using the process dissociation procedure. Unadjusted, extended measurement model and dual-process signal-detection methods were used to estimate recollection and automatic memory indices. Schizophrenia was associated with automatic hypermnesia on the WSC task and impaired recollection on both tasks. Thought disorder was associated with even greater automatic hypermnesia. The absence of automatic hypermnesia on the LD task was interpreted with reference to the neuropsychological bases of context and content memory. PMID:11761047

  14. Nearly Monodispersion CoSm Alloy Nanoparticles Formed by an In-situ Rapid Cooling and Passivating Microfluidic Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Yujun; Henry, Laurence L.

    2009-10-01

    An in situ rapid cooling and passivating microfluidic process has been developed for the synthesis of nearly monodispersed cobalt samarium nanoparticles (NPs) with tunable crystal structures and surface properties. This process involves promoting the nucleation and growth of NPs at an elevated temperature and rapidly quenching the NP colloids in a solution containing a passivating reagent at a reduced temperature. We have shown that Cobalt samarium NPs having amorphous crystal structures and a thin passivating layer can be synthesized with uniform nonspherical shapes and size of about 4.8 nm. The amorphous CoSm NPs in our study have blocking temperature near 40 K and average coercivity of 225 Oe at 10 K. The NPs also exhibit high anisotropic magnetic properties with a wasp-waist hysteresis loop and a bias shift of coercivity due to the shape anisotropy and the exchange coupling between the core and the thin oxidized surface layer.

  15. Sensory processing within cockroach antenna enables rapid implementation of feedback control for high-speed running maneuvers.

    PubMed

    Mongeau, Jean-Michel; Sponberg, Simon N; Miller, John P; Full, Robert J

    2015-08-01

    Animals are remarkably stable during high-speed maneuvers. As the speed of locomotion increases, neural bandwidth and processing delays can limit the ability to achieve and maintain stable control. Processing the information of sensory stimuli into a control signal within the sensor itself could enable rapid implementation of whole-body feedback control during high-speed locomotion. Here, we show that processing in antennal afferents is sufficient to act as the control signal for a fast sensorimotor loop. American cockroaches Periplaneta americana use their antennae to mediate escape running by tracking vertical surfaces such as walls. A control theoretic model of wall following predicts that stable control is possible if the animal can compute wall position (P) and velocity, its derivative (D). Previous whole-nerve recordings from the antenna during simulated turning experiments demonstrated a population response consistent with P and D encoding, and suggested that the response was synchronized with the timing of a turn executed while wall following. Here, we record extracellularly from individual mechanoreceptors distributed along the antenna and show that these receptors encode D and have distinct latencies and filtering properties. The summed output of these receptors can be used as a control signal for rapid steering maneuvers. The D encoding within the antenna in addition to the temporal filtering properties and P dependence of the population of afferents support a sensory-encoding notion from control theory. Our findings support the notion that peripheral sensory processing can enable rapid implementation of whole-body feedback control during rapid running maneuvers. PMID:26026042

  16. Attention in natural scenes: contrast affects rapid visual processing and fixations alike.

    PubMed

    't Hart, Bernard Marius; Schmidt, Hannah Claudia Elfriede Fanny; Klein-Harmeyer, Ingo; Einhäuser, Wolfgang

    2013-10-19

    For natural scenes, attention is frequently quantified either by performance during rapid presentation or by gaze allocation during prolonged viewing. Both paradigms operate on different time scales, and tap into covert and overt attention, respectively. To compare these, we ask some observers to detect targets (animals/vehicles) in rapid sequences, and others to freely view the same target images for 3 s, while their gaze is tracked. In some stimuli, the target's contrast is modified (increased/decreased) and its background modified either in the same or in the opposite way. We find that increasing target contrast relative to the background increases fixations and detection alike, whereas decreasing target contrast and simultaneously increasing background contrast has little effect. Contrast increase for the whole image (target + background) improves detection, decrease worsens detection, whereas fixation probability remains unaffected by whole-image modifications. Object-unrelated local increase or decrease of contrast attracts gaze, but less than actual objects, supporting a precedence of objects over low-level features. Detection and fixation probability are correlated: the more likely a target is detected in one paradigm, the more likely it is fixated in the other. Hence, the link between overt and covert attention, which has been established in simple stimuli, transfers to more naturalistic scenarios. PMID:24018728

  17. Development and implementation of an automatic integration system for fibre optic sensors in the braiding process with the objective of online-monitoring of composite structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hufenbach, W.; Gude, M.; Czulak, A.; Kretschmann, Martin

    2014-04-01

    Increasing economic, political and ecological pressure leads to steadily rising percentage of modern processing and manufacturing processes for fibre reinforced polymers in industrial batch production. Component weights beneath a level achievable by classic construction materials, which lead to a reduced energy and cost balance during product lifetime, justify the higher fabrication costs. However, complex quality control and failure prediction slow down the substitution by composite materials. High-resolution fibre-optic sensors (FOS), due their low diameter, high measuring point density and simple handling, show a high applicability potential for an automated sensor-integration in manufacturing processes, and therefore the online monitoring of composite products manufactured in industrial scale. Integrated sensors can be used to monitor manufacturing processes, part tests as well as the component structure during product life cycle, which simplifies allows quality control during production and the optimization of single manufacturing processes.[1;2] Furthermore, detailed failure analyses lead to a enhanced understanding of failure processes appearing in composite materials. This leads to a lower wastrel number and products of a higher value and longer product life cycle, whereby costs, material and energy are saved. This work shows an automation approach for FOS-integration in the braiding process. For that purpose a braiding wheel has been supplemented with an appliance for automatic sensor application, which has been used to manufacture preforms of high-pressure composite vessels with FOS-networks integrated between the fibre layers. All following manufacturing processes (vacuum infiltration, curing) and component tests (quasi-static pressure test, programmed delamination) were monitored with the help of the integrated sensor networks. Keywords: SHM, high-pressure composite vessel, braiding, automated sensor integration, pressure test, quality control, optic

  18. Automatic pitch decomposition for improved process window when printing dense features at k Ieff<0.20

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huckabay, Judy; Staud, Wolf; Naber, Robert; Dusa, Mircea; Flagello, Donis; Socha, Robert

    2006-05-01

    In conventional IC processes, the smallest size of any features that can be created on a wafer is severely limited by the pitch of the processing system. This approach is a key enabler of printing mask features on wafers without requiring new manufacturing equipment and with minor changes to existing manufacturing processes. The approach also does not require restrictions on the design of the chip. This paper will discuss the method and full-chip decomposition tool used to determine locations to split the layout. It will demonstrate examples of over-constrained layouts and how these configurations are mitigated. It will also show the reticle enhancement techniques used to process the split layouts and the Lithographic Checking used to verify the lithographic results.

  19. Rapid thermal processing to improve the epitaxy of (100) silicon on (11¯02) sapphire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfeiffer, Loren; Phillips, Julia M.; Luther, K. E.; West, K. W.; Batstone, J. L.; Stevie, F. A.; Maurits, J. E. A.

    1987-02-01

    The heteroepitaxial quality of (100) Si films on (11¯02) sapphire substrates (SOS) as measured by Rutherford backscattering (RBS) and x-ray pole figure analysis is improved by a rapid thermal anneal (RTA) after deposition which brings the Si temperature above 1350 °C for at least several seconds. For a 6000-Å (100) SOS film the (100) aligned to random RBS yield improves from 10% and 54% at the front and back interfaces, to as low as 3.2% and 13% after the RTA. The microtwin volume shows a corresponding decrease to under 1% from the as-grown value of 2.7%. A model based on isothermal solid phase epitaxial regrowth from the untwinned material near the front surface is proposed to account for these results.

  20. Simultaneous and rapid determination of multiple component concentrations in a Kraft liquor process stream

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Jian; Chai, Xin Sheng; Zhu, Junyoung

    2008-06-24

    The present invention is a rapid method of determining the concentration of the major components in a chemical stream. The present invention is also a simple, low cost, device of determining the in-situ concentration of the major components in a chemical stream. In particular, the present invention provides a useful method for simultaneously determining the concentrations of sodium hydroxide, sodium sulfide and sodium carbonate in aqueous kraft pulping liquors through use of an attenuated total reflectance (ATR) tunnel flow cell or optical probe capable of producing a ultraviolet absorbency spectrum over a wavelength of 190 to 300 nm. In addition, the present invention eliminates the need for manual sampling and dilution previously required to generate analyzable samples. The inventive method can be used in Kraft pulping operations to control white liquor causticizing efficiency, sulfate reduction efficiency in green liquor, oxidation efficiency for oxidized white liquor and the active and effective alkali charge to kraft pulping operations.

  1. SoilJ - An ImageJ plugin for semi-automatized image-processing of 3-D X-ray images of soil columns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koestel, John

    2016-04-01

    3-D X-ray imaging is a formidable tool for quantifying soil structural properties which are known to be extremely diverse. This diversity necessitates the collection of large sample sizes for adequately representing the spatial variability of soil structure at a specific sampling site. One important bottleneck of using X-ray imaging is however the large amount of time required by a trained specialist to process the image data which makes it difficult to process larger amounts of samples. The software SoilJ aims at removing this bottleneck by automatizing most of the required image processing steps needed to analyze image data of cylindrical soil columns. SoilJ is a plugin of the free Java-based image-processing software ImageJ. The plugin is designed to automatically process all images located with a designated folder. In a first step, SoilJ recognizes the outlines of the soil column upon which the column is rotated to an upright position and placed in the center of the canvas. Excess canvas is removed from the images. Then, SoilJ samples the grey values of the column material as well as the surrounding air in Z-direction. Assuming that the column material (mostly PVC of aluminium) exhibits a spatially constant density, these grey values serve as a proxy for the image illumination at a specific Z-coordinate. Together with the grey values of the air they are used to correct image illumination fluctuations which often occur along the axis of rotation during image acquisition. SoilJ includes also an algorithm for beam-hardening artefact removal and extended image segmentation options. Finally, SoilJ integrates the morphology analyses plugins of BoneJ (Doube et al., 2006, BoneJ Free and extensible bone image analysis in ImageJ. Bone 47: 1076-1079) and provides an ASCII file summarizing these measures for each investigated soil column, respectively. In the future it is planned to integrate SoilJ into FIJI, the maintained and updated edition of ImageJ with selected

  2. Rapid processing of chemosensor transients in a neuromorphic implementation of the insect macroglomerular complex

    PubMed Central

    Pearce, Timothy C.; Karout, Salah; Rácz, Zoltán; Capurro, Alberto; Gardner, Julian W.; Cole, Marina

    2012-01-01

    We present a biologically-constrained neuromorphic spiking model of the insect antennal lobe macroglomerular complex that encodes concentration ratios of chemical components existing within a blend, implemented using a set of programmable logic neuronal modeling cores. Depending upon the level of inhibition and symmetry in its inhibitory connections, the model exhibits two dynamical regimes: fixed point attractor (winner-takes-all type), and limit cycle attractor (winnerless competition type) dynamics. We show that, when driven by chemosensor input in real-time, the dynamical trajectories of the model's projection neuron population activity accurately encode the concentration ratios of binary odor mixtures in both dynamical regimes. By deploying spike timing-dependent plasticity in a subset of the synapses in the model, we demonstrate that a Hebbian-like associative learning rule is able to organize weights into a stable configuration after exposure to a randomized training set comprising a variety of input ratios. Examining the resulting local interneuron weights in the model shows that each inhibitory neuron competes to represent possible ratios across the population, forming a ratiometric representation via mutual inhibition. After training the resulting dynamical trajectories of the projection neuron population activity show amplification and better separation in their response to inputs of different ratios. Finally, we demonstrate that by using limit cycle attractor dynamics, it is possible to recover and classify blend ratio information from the early transient phases of chemosensor responses in real-time more rapidly and accurately compared to a nearest-neighbor classifier applied to the normalized chemosensor data. Our results demonstrate the potential of biologically-constrained neuromorphic spiking models in achieving rapid and efficient classification of early phase chemosensor array transients with execution times well beyond biological timescales. PMID

  3. A three-dimensional image processing program for accurate, rapid, and semi-automated segmentation of neuronal somata with dense neurite outgrowth

    PubMed Central

    Ross, James D.; Cullen, D. Kacy; Harris, James P.; LaPlaca, Michelle C.; DeWeerth, Stephen P.

    2015-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3-D) image analysis techniques provide a powerful means to rapidly and accurately assess complex morphological and functional interactions between neural cells. Current software-based identification methods of neural cells generally fall into two applications: (1) segmentation of cell nuclei in high-density constructs or (2) tracing of cell neurites in single cell investigations. We have developed novel methodologies to permit the systematic identification of populations of neuronal somata possessing rich morphological detail and dense neurite arborization throughout thick tissue or 3-D in vitro constructs. The image analysis incorporates several novel automated features for the discrimination of neurites and somata by initially classifying features in 2-D and merging these classifications into 3-D objects; the 3-D reconstructions automatically identify and adjust for over and under segmentation errors. Additionally, the platform provides for software-assisted error corrections to further minimize error. These features attain very accurate cell boundary identifications to handle a wide range of morphological complexities. We validated these tools using confocal z-stacks from thick 3-D neural constructs where neuronal somata had varying degrees of neurite arborization and complexity, achieving an accuracy of ≥95%. We demonstrated the robustness of these algorithms in a more complex arena through the automated segmentation of neural cells in ex vivo brain slices. These novel methods surpass previous techniques by improving the robustness and accuracy by: (1) the ability to process neurites and somata, (2) bidirectional segmentation correction, and (3) validation via software-assisted user input. This 3-D image analysis platform provides valuable tools for the unbiased analysis of neural tissue or tissue surrogates within a 3-D context, appropriate for the study of multi-dimensional cell-cell and cell-extracellular matrix interactions. PMID

  4. The search for the site of the r-process. [rapid neutron capture in stellar nucleosynthesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cowan, John J.; Cameron, A. G. W.; Truran, J. W.; Sneden, Christopher

    1986-01-01

    A number of sites have been suggested for the r-process, including neutronized cores of exploding supernovae, jets of neutronized matter ejected from the collapse of rotating magnetized stellar cores, the helium and carbon zones of stars undergoing supernova explosions, and helium core flashes in low-mass stars. Despite much work and many advances in nuclear physics, the site or sites of the r-process is still unknown. Observations of metal-poor stars in the halo of the Galaxy indicate r-process production early in the history of the Galaxy and provide important constraints on galactic nucleosynthesis. Further observations of metal-poor stars, along with advances in understanding the nuclear properties of neutron-rich nuclei and improved astrophysical models of stars in the late stages of evolution, should help to identify the site of the r-process.

  5. Automatic transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Miura, M.; Inuzuka, T.

    1986-08-26

    1. An automatic transmission with four forward speeds and one reverse position, is described which consists of: an input shaft; an output member; first and second planetary gear sets each having a sun gear, a ring gear and a carrier supporting a pinion in mesh with the sun gear and ring gear; the carrier of the first gear set, the ring gear of the second gear set and the output member all being connected; the ring gear of the first gear set connected to the carrier of the second gear set; a first clutch means for selectively connecting the input shaft to the sun gear of the first gear set, including friction elements, a piston selectively engaging the friction elements and a fluid servo in which hydraulic fluid is selectively supplied to the piston; a second clutch means for selectively connecting the input shaft to the sun gear of the second gear set a third clutch means for selectively connecting the input shaft to the carrier of the second gear set including friction elements, a piston selectively engaging the friction elements and a fluid servo in which hydraulic fluid is selectively supplied to the piston; a first drive-establishing means for selectively preventing rotation of the ring gear of the first gear set and the carrier of the second gear set in only one direction and, alternatively, in any direction; a second drive-establishing means for selectively preventing rotation of the sun gear of the second gear set; and a drum being open to the first planetary gear set, with a cylindrical intermediate wall, an inner peripheral wall and outer peripheral wall and forming the hydraulic servos of the first and third clutch means between the intermediate wall and the inner peripheral wall and between the intermediate wall and the outer peripheral wall respectively.

  6. Rapid Processing of Net-Shape Thermoplastic Planar-Random Composite Preforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jespersen, S. T.; Baudry, F.; Schmäh, D.; Wakeman, M. D.; Michaud, V.; Blanchard, P.; Norris, R. E.; Månson, J.-A. E.

    2009-02-01

    A novel thermoplastic composite preforming and moulding process is investigated to target cost issues in textile composite processing associated with trim waste, and the limited mechanical properties of current bulk flow-moulding composites. The thermoplastic programmable powdered preforming process (TP-P4) uses commingled glass and polypropylene yarns, which are cut to length before air assisted deposition onto a vacuum screen, enabling local preform areal weight tailoring. The as-placed fibres are heat-set for improved handling before an optional preconsolidation stage. The preforms are then preheated and press formed to obtain the final part. The process stages are examined to optimize part quality and throughput versus processing parameters. A viable processing route is proposed with typical cycle times below 40 s (for a plate 0.5 × 0.5 m2, weighing 2 kg), enabling high production capacity from one line. The mechanical performance is shown to surpass that of 40 wt.% GMT and has properties equivalent to those of 40 wt.% GMTex at both 20°C and 80°C.

  7. Expedited Site Characterization: A rapid, cost-effective process for preremedial site characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Burton, J.C.; Walker, J.L.; Jennings, T.V.; Aggarwal, P.K.; Hastings, B.; Meyer, W.T.; Rose, C.M.; Rosignolo, C.L.

    1993-11-01

    Argonne National Laboratory has developed a unique, cost- and time-effective, technically innovative process for preremedial site characterization, referred to as Expedited Site Characterization (ESC). The cost of the ESC field sampling process ranges from 1/10 to 1/5 of the cost of traditional site characterization. The time required for this ESC field activity is approximately 1/30 of that for current methods. Argonne`s preremedial site investigations based on this approach have been accepted by the appropriate regulatory agencies. The ESC process is flexible and neither site nor contaminant dependent. The process has been successfully tested and applied in site investigations of multiple contaminated landfills in New Mexico (for the US Department of the Interior`s Bureau of Land Management [BLM]) and at former grain storage facilities in Nebraska and Kansas, contaminated with carbon tetrachloride (for the Department of Agriculture`s Commodity Credit Corporation [CCC/USDA]). A working demonstration of this process was sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Technology Development as a model of the methodology needed to accelerate site characterizations at DOE facilities. This report describes the application of the process in New Mexico, Nebraska and Kansas.

  8. Authentication of processed meat products by peptidomic analysis using rapid ambient mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Montowska, Magdalena; Alexander, Morgan R; Tucker, Gregory A; Barrett, David A

    2015-11-15

    We present the application of a novel ambient LESA-MS method for the authentication of processed meat products. A set of 25 species and protein-specific heat stable peptide markers has been detected in processed samples manufactured from beef, pork, horse, chicken and turkey meat. We demonstrate that several peptides derived from myofibrillar and sarcoplasmic proteins are sufficiently resistant to processing to serve as specific markers of processed products. The LESA-MS technique required minimal sample preparation without fractionation and enabled the unambiguous and simultaneous identification of skeletal muscle proteins and peptides as well as other components of animal origin, including the milk protein such as casein alpha-S1, in whole meat product digests. We have identified, for the first time, six fast type II and five slow/cardiac type I MHC peptide markers in various processed meat products. The study demonstrates that complex mixtures of processed proteins/peptides can be examined effectively using this approach. PMID:25977030

  9. Development of a rapid cure polydimethylsiloxane replication process with near-zero shrinkage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badshah, Mohsin Ali; Jang, Hyungjun; Kim, Young Kyu; Kim, Tae-Hyoung; Kim, Seok-min

    2014-07-01

    Replicated polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) micro/nanostructures are widely used in various research fields due to their inexpensiveness, flexibility, low surface energy, good optical properties, biocompatibility, chemical inertness, high durability, and easy fabrication process. However, the application of PDMS micro/nanostructures is limited when an accurate pattern shape or position is required because of the shrinkage that occurs during the PDMS curing process. In this study, we analyzed the effects of processing parameters in the PDMS replication process on the shrinkage of the final structure. Although the shrinkage can be decreased by decreasing the curing temperature, this reduction also increases the unnecessary curing time. To minimize the inherent shrinkage in the PDMS replica without an accompanying curing time increase, we propose a PDMS replication process on a high modulus substrate (glass and polymer films) with compression pressure, in which the adhesion force between the substrate and the PDMS, and the compression pressure prevent shrinkage during the curing process. Using the proposed method, a PDMS replica with less than 0.1% in-plane and vertical shrinkage was obtained at a curing temperature of 150°C and a curing time of 10 min.

  10. Analyzing Collaborative Learning Processes Automatically: Exploiting the Advances of Computational Linguistics in Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, Carolyn; Wang, Yi-Chia; Cui, Yue; Arguello, Jaime; Stegmann, Karsten; Weinberger, Armin; Fischer, Frank

    2008-01-01

    In this article we describe the emerging area of text classification research focused on the problem of collaborative learning process analysis both from a broad perspective and more specifically in terms of a publicly available tool set called TagHelper tools. Analyzing the variety of pedagogically valuable facets of learners' interactions is a…

  11. Embodiment and second-language: automatic activation of motor responses during processing spatially associated L2 words and emotion L2 words in a vertical Stroop paradigm.

    PubMed

    Dudschig, Carolin; de la Vega, Irmgard; Kaup, Barbara

    2014-05-01

    Converging evidence suggests that understanding our first-language (L1) results in reactivation of experiential sensorimotor traces in the brain. Surprisingly, little is known regarding the involvement of these processes during second-language (L2) processing. Participants saw L1 or L2 words referring to entities with a typical location (e.g., star, mole) (Experiment 1 & 2) or to an emotion (e.g., happy, sad) (Experiment 3). Participants responded to the words' ink color with an upward or downward arm movement. Despite word meaning being fully task-irrelevant, L2 automatically activated motor responses similar to L1 even when L2 was acquired rather late in life (age >11). Specifically, words such as star facilitated upward, and words such as root facilitated downward responses. Additionally, words referring to positive emotions facilitated upward, and words referring to negative emotions facilitated downward responses. In summary our study suggests that reactivation of experiential traces is not limited to L1 processing. PMID:24681402

  12. Automatic programming of simulation models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schroer, Bernard J.; Tseng, Fan T.; Zhang, Shou X.; Dwan, Wen S.

    1990-01-01

    The concepts of software engineering were used to improve the simulation modeling environment. Emphasis was placed on the application of an element of rapid prototyping, or automatic programming, to assist the modeler define the problem specification. Then, once the problem specification has been defined, an automatic code generator is used to write the simulation code. The following two domains were selected for evaluating the concepts of software engineering for discrete event simulation: manufacturing domain and a spacecraft countdown network sequence. The specific tasks were to: (1) define the software requirements for a graphical user interface to the Automatic Manufacturing Programming System (AMPS) system; (2) develop a graphical user interface for AMPS; and (3) compare the AMPS graphical interface with the AMPS interactive user interface.

  13. A Rapid Turn-around, Scalable Big Data Processing Capability for the JPL Airborne Snow Observatory (ASO) Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mattmann, C. A.

    2014-12-01

    The JPL Airborne Snow Observatory (ASO) is an integrated LIDAR and Spectrometer measuring snow depth and rate of snow melt in the Sierra Nevadas, specifically, the Tuolumne River Basin, Sierra Nevada, California above the O'Shaughnessy Dam of the Hetch Hetchy reservoir, and the Uncompahgre Basin, Colorado, amongst other sites. The ASO data was delivered to water resource managers from the California Department of Water Resources in under 24 hours from the time that the Twin Otter aircraft landed in Mammoth Lakes, CA to the time disks were plugged in to the ASO Mobile Compute System (MCS) deployed at the Sierra Nevada Aquatic Research Laboratory (SNARL) near the airport. ASO performed weekly flights and each flight took between 500GB to 1 Terabyte of raw data, which was then processed from level 0 data products all the way to full level 4 maps of Snow Water Equivalent, albedo mosaics, and snow depth from LIDAR. These data were produced by Interactive Data analysis Language (IDL) algorithms which were then unobtrusively and automatically integrated into an Apache OODT and Apache Tika based Big Data processing system. Data movement was both electronic and physical including novel uses of LaCie 1 and 2 TeraByte (TB) data bricks and deployment in rugged terrain. The MCS was controlled remotely from the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology (JPL) in Pasadena, California on behalf of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). Communication was aided through the use of novel Internet Relay Chat (IRC) command and control mechanisms and through the use of the Notifico open source communication tools. This talk will describe the high powered, and light-weight Big Data processing system that we developed for ASO and its implications more broadly for airborne missions at NASA and throughout the government. The lessons learned from ASO show the potential to have a large impact in the development of Big Data processing systems in the years

  14. Physical characterization of ultrathin silicon oxynitrides grown by Rapid Thermal Processing aiming to MOS tunnel devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christiano, V.; dos Santos Filho, S. G.

    2015-03-01

    Oxynitrides were grown in a homemade Rapid Thermal Processor (RTP) using a low mass quartz carrier, to obtain thin oxynitrides over large areas of 3 inches silicon p-type wafers. Layers with thickness varying from 0.97 to 2.39 nm with uniformity better than 0.4%, were obtained at 700 and 850°C, in a mixed ambient of nitrogen and oxygen (4N2:3O2 in volume). The nitrogen concentration was obtained with the aid of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and was 0.6 at%. On the other hand, the Si/O ratio in the oxynitride was approximately 1.9, indicating an almost stoichiometric SiO2 with a small amount of nitrogen. In addition, using the 16O(α, α) elastic-scattering signal at 3.039MeV, the planar concentration of oxygen was 5.5×1015cm2 for the oxynitride grown at 850°C during 40s.

  15. Rapid Sample Processing for Detection of Food-Borne Pathogens via Cross-Flow Microfiltration

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xuan; Ximenes, Eduardo; Amalaradjou, Mary Anne Roshni; Vibbert, Hunter B.; Foster, Kirk; Jones, Jim; Liu, Xingya; Bhunia, Arun K.

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports an approach to enable rapid concentration and recovery of bacterial cells from aqueous chicken homogenates as a preanalytical step of detection. This approach includes biochemical pretreatment and prefiltration of food samples and development of an automated cell concentration instrument based on cross-flow microfiltration. A polysulfone hollow-fiber membrane module having a nominal pore size of 0.2 μm constitutes the core of the cell concentration instrument. The aqueous chicken homogenate samples were circulated within the cross-flow system achieving 500- to 1,000-fold concentration of inoculated Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis and naturally occurring microbiota with 70% recovery of viable cells as determined by plate counting and quantitative PCR (qPCR) within 35 to 45 min. These steps enabled 10 CFU/ml microorganisms in chicken homogenates or 102 CFU/g chicken to be quantified. Cleaning and sterilizing the instrument and membrane module by stepwise hydraulic and chemical cleaning (sodium hydroxide and ethanol) enabled reuse of the membrane 15 times before replacement. This approach begins to address the critical need for the food industry for detecting food pathogens within 6 h or less. PMID:24014538

  16. Rapid fabrication of graphene on dielectric substrates via solid-phase processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, W.; Zhou, Y. S.; Hou, W. J.; Lu, Y. F.

    2015-03-01

    To unleash the full potential of graphene in functional devices, high-quality graphene sheets and patterns are frequently required to be deposited on dielectric substrates. However, it generally calls for post-growth catalyst etching and graphene transfer steps in currently existing approaches, which are very time consuming and costly for fabricating functional graphene devices. We developed a rapid and cost-effective growth method to achieve the graphene formation directly on various kinds of dielectric substrates via a novel solid-phase transformation mechanism based on Ni/C thin films. High-quality graphene was obtained uniformly on whole surface of wafers with a controlled number of graphene layers. The monolayer graphene, as obtained, exhibits a low sheet resistance of about 50 Ω/sq and a high optical transmittance of 95.8% at 550 nm. Graphene patterns were successfully fabricated simply by either conventional photolithography or laser direct writing techniques. Various graphene patterns, including texts, spirals, line arrays, and even large-scale integrated circuit patterns, with a feature line width of 800 nm and a low sheet resistance of 205 ohm/sq, were achieved. The developed method provides a facile and cost-effective way to fabricate complex and high-quality graphene patterns directly on target substrates, which opens a door for fabricating various advanced optoelectronic devices.

  17. Towards excimer-laser-based stereolithography: a rapid process to fabricate rigid biodegradable photopolymer scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Beke, S; Anjum, F; Tsushima, H; Ceseracciu, L; Chieregatti, E; Diaspro, A; Athanassiou, A; Brandi, F

    2012-11-01

    We demonstrate high-resolution photocross-linking of biodegradable poly(propylene fumarate) (PPF) and diethyl fumarate (DEF) using UV excimer laser photocuring at 308 nm. The curing depth can be tuned in a micrometre range by adjusting the total energy dose (total fluence). Young's moduli of the scaffolds are found to be a few gigapascal, high enough to support bone formation. The results presented here demonstrate that the proposed technique is an excellent tool for the fabrication of stiff and biocompatible structures on a micrometre scale with defined patterns of high resolution in all three spatial dimensions. Using UV laser photocuring at 308 nm will significantly improve the speed of rapid prototyping of biocompatible and biodegradable polymer scaffolds and enables its production in a few seconds, providing high lateral and horizontal resolution. This short timescale is indeed a tremendous asset that will enable a more efficient translation of technology to clinical applications. Preliminary cell tests proved that PPF : DEF scaffolds produced by excimer laser photocuring are biocompatible and, therefore, are promising candidates to be applied in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. PMID:22696484

  18. Rapid damage-free shaping of silicon carbide using reactive atom plasma (RAP) processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verma, Yogesh; Chang, Andrew K.; Berrett, John W.; Futtere, Kenneth; Gardopee, George J.; Kelley, Jude; Kyler, Thomas; Lee, Jeonghwa; Lyford, Nick; Proscia, David; Sommer, Phillip R.

    2006-06-01

    Mechanical grinding and shaping of optical materials imparts damage that manifests itself as defects and cracks that can propagate well below the surface of the optic. Mitigation of damage is necessary to preserve the integrity of the optic and relieve residual stress that can be detrimental to its performance. Typically, a sequence of subsequent polishing steps with finer and finer grit sizes is used to remove damage, but the process can be painfully slow especially for hard materials such as silicon carbide and often fails to remove all the damage. Reactive Atom Plasma (RAP TM) processing, a non-contact, atmospheric pressure plasma-based process, has been shown to reveal and mitigate sub-surface damage in optical materials. Twyman stress tests on thin glass and SiC substrates demonstrate RAP's ability to relieve the stress while at the same time improving surface form.

  19. Machine platform and software environment for rapid optics assembly process development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sauer, Sebastian; Müller, Tobias; Haag, Sebastian; Zontar, Daniel

    2016-03-01

    The assembly of optical components for laser systems is proprietary knowledge and typically done by well-trained personnel in clean room environment as it has major impact on the overall laser performance. Rising numbers of laser systems drives laser production to industrial-level automation solutions allowing for high volumes by simultaneously ensuring stable quality, lots of variants and low cost. Therefore, an easy programmable, expandable and reconfigurable machine with intuitive and flexible software environment for process configuration is required. With Fraunhofer IPT's expertise on optical assembly processes, the next step towards industrializing the production of optical systems is made.

  20. A Unique Role of Endogenous Visual-Spatial Attention in Rapid Processing of Multiple Targets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guzman-Martinez, Emmanuel; Grabowecky, Marcia; Palafox, German; Suzuki, Satoru

    2011-01-01

    Visual spatial attention can be exogenously captured by a salient stimulus or can be endogenously allocated by voluntary effort. Whether these two attention modes serve distinctive functions is debated, but for processing of single targets the literature suggests superiority of exogenous attention (it is faster acting and serves more functions).…

  1. A real-time imaging system for rapid processing of radioactive DNA samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGann, W. J.; McConchie, L.; Entine, G.

    1990-12-01

    A new, high-resolution nuclear-imaging detector system is described which substantially improves the speed of detection of radioactively labeled DNA samples. Ultimately this system will be made compatible with a fully automated DNA processing system to aid in the isolation and harvesting of DNA clones in the human genome.

  2. Rapid low-temperature epitaxial growth using a hot-element assisted chemical vapor deposition process

    DOEpatents

    Iwancizko, Eugene; Jones, Kim M.; Crandall, Richard S.; Nelson, Brent P.; Mahan, Archie Harvin

    2001-01-01

    The invention provides a process for depositing an epitaxial layer on a crystalline substrate, comprising the steps of providing a chamber having an element capable of heating, introducing the substrate into the chamber, heating the element at a temperature sufficient to decompose a source gas, passing the source gas in contact with the element; and forming an epitaxial layer on the substrate.

  3. Development of rapid continuous dyeing process for heavy-weight nylon 6,6 carpet

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An improved continuous dyeing process for coloration of heavy-weight (60-70 oz/yd2), residential nylon 6,6 carpet is reported. By inserting a slot steam applicator after the dye pad and before the box steamer to preheat the carpet to around 180°F (greater than the nylon wet glass transition temperat...

  4. Real-time image processing for rapid contaminant detection on broiler carcasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Bosoon; Lawrence, Kurt C.; Windham, William R.; Snead, M. Preston

    2004-11-01

    Recently, the imaging research group at Russell Research Center, ARS in Athens, Georgia has developed a real-time multispectral imaging system for fecal and ingesta contaminant detection on broiler carcasses. The prototype system includes a common aperture camera with three optical trim filters (515.4, 566.4 and 631-nm wavelength), which were selected by visible/NIR spectroscopy and validated by a hyperspectral imaging system. The preliminary results showed that the multispectral imaging technique can be used effectively for detecting feces (from duodenum, ceca, and colon) and ingesta on the surface of poultry carcasses with a processing speed of 140 birds per minute. The accuracy for the detection of fecal and ingesta contaminates was 96%. However, the system contains many false positives including scabs, feathers, and boundaries. This paper demonstrates calibration of common aperture multispectral imaging hardware and real-time multispectral image processing software. The software design, especially the Unified Modeling Language (UML) design approach was used to develop real-time image processing software for on-line application. The UML models including class, object, activity, sequence, and collaboration diagram were discussed. Both hardware and software for a real-time fecal and ingesta contaminant detection were tested at the pilot-scale poultry processing line.

  5. Rapid thermal processing of self-assembling block copolymer thin films on flat surfaces and topographically defined patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perego, Michele; Ferrarese Lupi, Federico; Giammaria, Tommaso J.; Seguini, Gabriele; Gianotti, Valentina; Antonioli, Diego; Sparnacci, Katia; Laus, Michele; Enrico, Emanuele; de Leo, Natascia; Boarino, Luca; Ober, Christopher K.

    2014-03-01

    Self-assembling block copolymers generate nanostructured patterns, which are potentially useful for a wide range of applications. However, their technological implementation is prevented by the very long time required to drive the process. In this contribution, we demonstrate the capability to control the morphology of the self-assembling process of cylinder forming PS-b-PMMA diblock copolymer (DBC) thin films deposited on un-patterned and topographically patterned surfaces by means of a Rapid Thermal Processing (RTP) machine. Highly ordered patterns were obtained on flat surfaces for perpendicular-oriented cylindrical PS-b-PMMA block copolymers in less than 60 s. The BCs morphology evolution within topographically defined structures was systematically investigated as well. Irrespective of the surface neutralization, an irreversible orientational flipping of the BCP microdomains inside the trenches was observed. This effect was attributed to de-swelling of the polymeric film as a consequence of a progressive desorption of the solvent retained inside the film.

  6. [Study on rapid analysis method of pesticide contamination in processed foods by GC-MS and GC-FPD].

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Maki; Otsuka, Kenji; Tamura, Yasuhiro; Tomizawa, Sanae; Kamijo, Kyoko; Iwakoshi, Keiko; Sato, Chizuko; Nagayama, Toshihiro; Takano, Ichiro

    2011-01-01

    A simple and rapid method using GC-MS and GC-FPD for the determination of pesticide contamination in processed food has been developed. Pesticides were extracted from a sample with ethyl acetate in the presence of anhydrous sodium sulfate, then cleaned up with a combination of mini-columns, such as macroporous diatomaceous earth, C18, GCB (graphite carbon black) and PSA. Recovery tests of 57 pesticides (known to be toxic or harmful) from ten kinds of processed foods (butter, cheese, corned beef, dried shrimp, frozen Chinese dumplings, grilled eels, instant noodles, kimchi, retort-packed curry and wine) were performed, and the recovery rates were mostly between 70% and 120%. This method can be used to judge whether or not processed foods are contaminated with pesticides at potentially harmful levels. PMID:21873813

  7. Development of Rapid Pipe Moulding Process for Carbon Fiber Reinforced Thermoplastics by Direct Resistance Heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Kazuto; Harada, Ryuki; Uemura, Toshiki; Katayama, Tsutao; Kuwahara, Hideyuki

    To deal with environmental issues, the gasoline mileage of passenger cars can be improved by reduction of the car weight. The use of car components made of Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastics (CFRP) is increasing because of its superior mechanical properties and relatively low density. Many vehicle structural parts are pipe-shaped, such as suspension arms, torsion beams, door guard bars and impact beams. A reduction of the car weight is expected by using CFRP for these parts. Especially, when considering the recyclability and ease of production, Carbon Fiber Reinforced Thermoplastics are a prime candidate. On the other hand, the moulding process of CFRTP pipes for mass production has not been well established yet. For this pipe moulding process an induction heating method has been investigated already, however, this method requires a complicated coil system. To reduce the production cost, another system without such complicated equipment is to be developed. In this study, the pipe moulding process of CFRTP using direct resistance heating was developed. This heating method heats up the mould by Joule heating using skin effect of high-frequency current. The direct resistance heating method is desirable from a cost perspective, because this method can heat the mould directly without using any coils. Formerly developed Non-woven Stitched Multi-axial Cloth (NSMC) was used as semi-product material. NSMC is very suitable for the lamination process due to the fact that non-crimp stitched carbon fiber of [0°/+45°/90°/-45°] and polyamide 6 non-woven fabric are stitched to one sheet, resulting in a short production cycle time. The use of the pipe moulding process with the direct resistance heating method in combination with the NSMC, has resulted in the successful moulding of a CFRTP pipe of 300 mm in length, 40 mm in diameter and 2 mm in thickness.

  8. Slope depositional processes along western Great Bahama Bank: A rapidly prograding carbonate platform

    SciTech Connect

    Wilber, R.J. ); Halley, R.B. ); Milliman, J.D. )

    1991-03-01

    The western margin of Great Bahama Bank has prograded rapidly into the Santaren Channel throughout Quaternary time. Platform growth is accomplished mainly by vigorous outbuilding of the slope - up to 500 m in the last 6-10 ka. Seismic stratigraphy and sediment and rock analysis reveal sharp contrasts in depositional facies and mechanisms of growth between the upper slope (50-160 m) and lower slope (160-600 m). The upper slope is steep (30-60{degree}) and rock with a thin (< 1 m) layer of coarse Halimeda sand. In situ sediment production, in combination with cementation by magnesium clacite, allows this interval to grow as a slowly accreting (meters/1,000 yr), lithified surface. Because of cementation, slope failure is rare but, in some areas, large blocks calved off the upper slope are found on the lower slope (mega-breccia). The lower slope is gentle (10-30{degree}) and consists of thick (up to 90 m) accumulations of fine bank-top sediment. Deposition occurs episodically via settling of sediment plumes swept off the bank during large storms. Lower slope deposits are absent where off-bank transport is barred by shelf-edge islands. In addition, hyperpycnal flows which cascade over the margin both sweep the upper slope and erode lower slope deposits near the depth of onlap. Slope failure in the uncemented lower slope deposits is primarily via slumping and possibly gravity flows. Lower slope deposition occurs only during sea level high stands when the rates of growth may be an order of magnitude higher than those of the upper slope which apparently experiences slow growth throughout most of a sea level cycle.

  9. Competition for cognitive resources during rapid serial processing: changes across childhood.

    PubMed

    Heim, Sabine; Wirth, Nadine; Keil, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    The ability to direct cognitive resources to target objects despite distraction by competing information plays an important role for the development of mental aptitudes and skills. We examined developmental changes of this ability in a cross-sectional design, using the "attentional blink" (AB) paradigm. The AB is a pronounced impairment of T2 report, which occurs when a first (T1) and second target (T2) embedded in a rapid stimulus sequence are separated by at least one distractor and occur within 500 ms of each other. Two groups of children (6- to 7-year-olds and 10- to 11-year-olds; ns = 21 and 24, respectively) were asked to identify green targets in two AB tasks: one using non-linguistic symbols and the other letters or words. The temporal distance or stimulus-onset asynchrony (SOA) between T1 and T2 varied between no intervening distractor (Lag 1, 116-ms SOA) and up to 7 intervening distractors (Lag 8, 928-ms SOA). In the symbol task, younger children linearly increased T2 identification with increasing lag. Older children, however, displayed a hook-shaped pattern as typically seen in adults, with lowest identification reports in T2 symbols at the critical blink interval (Lag 2, 232-ms SOA), and a slight performance gain for the Lag 1 condition. In the verbal task, the older group again exhibited a prominent drop in T2 identification at Lag 2, whereas the younger group showed a more alleviated and temporally diffuse AB impairment. Taken together, this pattern of results suggests that the control of attention allocation and/or working memory consolidation of targets among distractors represents a cognitive skill that emerges during primary school age. PMID:21713183

  10. Do I have my attention? Speed of processing advantages for the self-face are not driven by automatic attention capture.

    PubMed

    Keyes, Helen; Dlugokencka, Aleksandra

    2014-01-01

    We respond more quickly to our own face than to other faces, but there is debate over whether this is connected to attention-grabbing properties of the self-face. In two experiments, we investigate whether the self-face selectively captures attention, and the attentional conditions under which this might occur. In both experiments, we examined whether different types of face (self, friend, stranger) provide differential levels of distraction when processing self, friend and stranger names. In Experiment 1, an image of a distractor face appeared centrally - inside the focus of attention - behind a target name, with the faces either upright or inverted. In Experiment 2, distractor faces appeared peripherally - outside the focus of attention - in the left or right visual field, or bilaterally. In both experiments, self-name recognition was faster than other name recognition, suggesting a self-referential processing advantage. The presence of the self-face did not cause more distraction in the naming task compared to other types of face, either when presented inside (Experiment 1) or outside (Experiment 2) the focus of attention. Distractor faces had different effects across the two experiments: when presented inside the focus of attention (Experiment 1), self and friend images facilitated self and friend naming, respectively. This was not true for stranger stimuli, suggesting that faces must be robustly represented to facilitate name recognition. When presented outside the focus of attention (Experiment 2), no facilitation occurred. Instead, we report an interesting distraction effect caused by friend faces when processing strangers' names. We interpret this as a "social importance" effect, whereby we may be tuned to pick out and pay attention to familiar friend faces in a crowd. We conclude that any speed of processing advantages observed in the self-face processing literature are not driven by automatic attention capture. PMID:25338170

  11. Novel ultra-rapid freezing particle engineering process for enhancement of dissolution rates of poorly water-soluble drugs.

    PubMed

    Overhoff, Kirk A; Engstrom, Josh D; Chen, Bo; Scherzer, Brian D; Milner, Thomas E; Johnston, Keith P; Williams, Robert O

    2007-01-01

    An ultra-rapid freezing (URF) technology has been developed to produce high surface area powders composed of solid solutions of an active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) and a polymer stabilizer. A solution of API and polymer excipient(s) is spread on a cold solid surface to form a thin film that freezes in 50 ms to 1s. This study provides an understanding of how the solvent's physical properties and the thin film geometry influence the freezing rate and consequently the final physico-chemical properties of URF-processed powders. Theoretical calculations of heat transfer rates are shown to be in agreement with infrared images with 10ms resolution. Danazol (DAN)/polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) powders, produced from both acetonitrile (ACN) and tert-butanol (T-BUT) as the solvent, were amorphous with high surface areas (approximately 28-30 m2/g) and enhanced dissolution rates. However, differences in surface morphology were observed and attributed to the cooling rate (film thickness) as predicted by the model. Relative to spray-freezing processes that use liquid nitrogen, URF also offers fast heat transfer rates as a result of the intimate contact between the solution and cold solid surface, but without the complexity of cryogen evaporation (Leidenfrost effect). The ability to produce amorphous high surface area powders with submicron primary particles with a simple ultra-rapid freezing process is of practical interest in particle engineering to increase dissolution rates, and ultimately bioavailability. PMID:16987642

  12. Definition of the fundamentals for the automatic generation of digitalization processes with a 3D laser sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davillerd, Stephane; Sidot, Benoit; Bernard, Alain; Ris, Gabriel

    1998-12-01

    This paper introduces the first results of a research work carried out on the automation of digitizing process of complex part using a precision 3D laser senor. Indeed, most of the operations are generally still manual to perform digitization. In fact, redundancies, lacks or forgettings in point acquisition are possible. Moreover, digitalization time of a part, i.e. immobilization of the machine, is thus not optimized overall. After introducing the context in which evolves the reverse engineering, we quickly present non-contact sensors and machines usable to digitalize a part. Considered environment of digitization is also modeled, but in a general way in order to preserve an upgrading capability to the system. Machine and sensor actually used are then presented and their integration exposed. Current process of digitization is then detailed, after what a critical analysis from the considered point of view is carried out and some solutions are suggested. The paper concludes on the laid down prospects and the next projected developments.

  13. Process inhomogeneity leads to rapid side product turnover in cultivation of Corynebacterium glutamicum

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Corynebacterium glutamicum has large scale industrial applications in the production of amino acids and the potential to serve as a platform organism for new products. This means the demand for industrial process development is likely to increase. However, large scale cultivation conditions differ from laboratory bioreactors, mostly due to the formation of concentration gradients at the industrial scale. This leads to an oscillating supply of oxygen and nutrients for microorganisms with uncertain impact on metabolism. Scale-down bioreactors can be applied to study robustness and physiological reactions to oscillating conditions at a laboratory scale. Results In this study, C. glutamicum ATCC13032 was cultivated by glucose limited fed-batch cultivation in a two-compartment bioreactor consisting of an aerobic stirred tank and a connected non-aerated plug flow reactor with optional feeding. Continuous flow through both compartments generated oscillating profiles with estimated residence times of 45 and 87 seconds in the non-aerated plug flow compartment. Oscillation of oxygen supply conditions at substrate excess and oscillation of both substrate and dissolved oxygen concentration were compared to homogeneous reference cultivations. The dynamic metabolic response of cells within the anaerobic plug flow compartment was monitored throughout the processes, detecting high turnover of substrate into metabolic side products and acidification within oxygen depleted zones. It was shown that anaerobic secretion of lactate into the extracellular culture broth, with subsequent reabsorption in the aerobic glucose-limited environment, leads to mixed-substrate growth in fed-batch processes. Apart from this, the oscillations had only a minor impact on growth and intracellular metabolite characteristics. Conclusions Carbon metabolism of C. glutamicum changes at oscillating oxygen supply conditions, leading to a futile cycle over extracellular side products and back into

  14. Terrane daylight mapping on large dip-slope terrain based on high-resolution DTM and semi-automatic geoprocessing processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeh, Chih-Hsiang; Lin, Ming-Lang; Chan, Yu-Chang; Chang, Kuo-Jen; Hsieh, Yu-Chung

    2015-04-01

    "Daylight" in slope engineering means a lineament appearing on the ground surface casued by a internal weak plane of a rock slope. The morphology of the daylight implies the free surface condition of the rock mass upper the weak plane, directly affecting the slope stability and safety. Traditionally, the reconnaissance of daylight employs field investigation and drillings in local dip slope area, but when mapping in large area, it would be subjected to vegetation cover and budget limitation to get a simply result not used for engineering applications. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to develop a rapid and reliable mapping program based on high-resolution DTM, and to generate a large-scale daylight map for large dip slope area. The methodology can be divided into two phases: the first is re-mapping terrane boundary lineaments using LiDAR data and 3D GIS mapping technology; the second is automatically mapping daylight tracks by trend surface analysis and python scripts based on above terrane boundary lineaments. This study takes the area of Keelung River north bank, which is mainly cuesta topography, for an example. Recently, in the area, the frequency of dip slope landslide occurrence becomes more higher because of human development. One major reason to cause the daylight appearing on downslope is the slope toe cutting or river incision. Hereby, according to the final results of the daylight map, we can assess where the potential landsides dip slops are, and further differentiate three different risks of dip slope from the daylight's morphology, expecting to provide more detail engineering and geological information for furture engineering site selection and the design and application of disaster prevention.

  15. Rapid-solidification processing and powder metallurgy of al alloys. Final technical report, 15 April 1982-15 April 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Fraser, H.L.

    1986-10-29

    Regarding work on the development of microstructure during rapid solidification, three areas were addressed. The first of these involved a determination of the mechanism of formation of the so-called zones A and B in hypereutectic Al-transition metal alloys. The second area of work involving the development of microstructure concerns submerged phase transformations. In a study of Al-Be hypereutectic alloys, it was determined that solidification proceeded by a set of phase transformations that may be described by a monotectic reaction. The third area of study concerning microstructural development involves quasi-crystalline Al alloys. In fact, work done in this program has concentrated on the potentially beneficial aspects of quasi-crystalline phases in the microstructure of Al alloys. Work on the consolidation of particulate was concentrated on the use of conventional techniques (.e. extrusion) and novel processes (i.e. dynamic compaction). An estimate of the mechanical properties of rapidly solidified Al alloys was obtained. As explained above, the effect of extrusion is to cause decomposition of the rapidly solidified microstructure. A comparison was made, using the alloy Al-8Fe-2Mo, between the tensile properties of the decomposed microstructure (.e. extruded) and subscale test specimens produced by laser surface melting, consisting entirely of zone A.

  16. SeqTrace: A Graphical Tool for Rapidly Processing DNA Sequencing Chromatograms

    PubMed Central

    Stucky, Brian J.

    2012-01-01

    Modern applications of Sanger DNA sequencing often require converting a large number of chromatogram trace files into high-quality DNA sequences for downstream analyses. Relatively few nonproprietary software tools are available to assist with this process. SeqTrace is a new, free, and open-source software application that is designed to automate the entire workflow by facilitating easy batch processing of large numbers of trace files. SeqTrace can identify, align, and compute consensus sequences from matching forward and reverse traces, filter low-quality base calls, and end-trim finished sequences. The software features a graphical interface that includes a full-featured chromatogram viewer and sequence editor. SeqTrace runs on most popular operating systems and is freely available, along with supporting documentation, at http://seqtrace.googlecode.com/. PMID:22942788

  17. Low resistive p-type GaN using two-step rapid thermal annealing processes

    SciTech Connect

    Scherer, M.; Schwegler, V.; Seyboth, M.; Kirchner, C.; Kamp, M.; Pelzmann, A.; Drechsler, M.

    2001-06-15

    Two-step thermal annealing processes were investigated for electrical activation of magnesium- doped galliumnitride layers. The samples were studied by room-temperature Hall measurements and photoluminescence spectroscopy at 16 K. After an annealing process consisting of a short-term step at 960{degree}C followed by a 600{degree}C dwell step for 5 min a resistivity as low as 0.84 {Omega}cm is achieved for the activated sample, which improves the results achieved by standard annealing (800{degree}C for 10 min) by 25% in resistivity and 100% in free hole concentration. Photoluminescence shows a peak centered at 3.0 eV, which is typical for Mg-doped samples with high free hole concentrations.{copyright} 2001 American Institute of Physics.

  18. Application of the rapid thermal process: Sintering the sputtered aluminum/silicon contact in silicon detector fabrication

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Wei; Li, Zheng; Kraner, H.W.

    1991-11-01

    Rapid thermal process (RTP) sintering has been used in p{sup +}{minus}n junction detector fabrication. For the same thickness of aluminum film and at the same RTP sintering condition, the leakage current of the p{sup +}{minus}n junction detector with sputtered Al gate showed at least a 50% improvement and no spiking phenomena were observed. RTP sintering in 4% H{sub 2}/N{sub 2} ambient passivates the defects introduced by sputtering and the damage caused by the {sup 60}Co irradiation.

  19. Rapid detection of Listeria monocytogenes by real-time PCR in processed meat and dairy products.

    PubMed

    Heo, Eun Jeong; Song, Bo Ra; Park, Hyun Jung; Kim, Young Jo; Moon, Jin San; Wee, Sung Hwan; Kim, Jin-Seok; Yoon, Yohan

    2014-03-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the detection of Listeria monocytogenes in different ready-to-eat foods using real-time PCR (RT-PCR). Various concentrations (10(0) to 10(5) CFU/ml) of L. monocytogenes ATCC 19115 were inoculated into ham, sausage, ground meat, processed milk, cheese, and infant formula. L. monocytogenes ATCC 19115 in the samples was then enumerated on Oxford agar, and DNA was extracted from the samples before and after incubation at 36°C for 4 h. A set of primers and hybridization probe designed in this study was then used to detect the pathogen. The standard curve was then prepared by plotting cycle threshold values for each dilution versus L. monocytogenes cell counts (log CFU). The specificity of the set of primers and hybridization probe was appropriate. A 4-h incubation at 36°C before DNA extraction produced optimum standard curves in comparison to the results for a 0-h incubation. Thus, a 4-h incubation at 36°C was applied for monitoring L. monocytogenes in collected food samples. To monitor L. monocytogenes in foods, 533 samples (ham, 129; sausage, 226; ground meat, 72; processed cheese, 54; processed milk, 42; and infant formula, 10) were collected from retail markets and from the step before pasteurization in plants. Of all 533 samples, 4 samples (0.8%) showed positive signals in RT-PCR. Two samples from hams (1.6%) and two samples from sausages (0.9%) were determined to be positive for L. monocytogenes at < 100 CFU/g. The results indicate that the RT-PCR detection method with the set of primers and hybridization probe designed in this study should be useful in monitoring for L. monocytogenes in processed meat and milk products. PMID:24674437

  20. Elastic properties of silica aerogels from a new rapid supercritical extraction process

    SciTech Connect

    Gross, J.; Coronado, P.R.; Hair, L.M.; Hrubesh, L.W.

    1997-08-11

    Silica aerogels were produced by a new process from Tetramethoxysilane (TMOS) with ammonia as base catalyst. the process involves pouring the liquid sol in a stainless steel mold and immediately heating it to supercritical conditions. Gelation and aging occurs during heating and reaction rates are high die to high average temperatures. the gel fills the container completely, which enables relatively fast venting of the supercritical fluid by providing a constraint for swelling and failure of the gel monolith. The whole process can be completed in 6 h or less. Longitudinal and shear moduli were measured in the dried aerogels by ultrasonic velocity measurements both as a function of chemical composition of the original sol and of position in the aerogel. It was found that the sound velocity exhibits marked maxima on the surface of the cylindrical specimens and specifically close to the ends, where the fluid left during venting. Specimens with high catalyst concentration and high water:TMOS ratio exhibited higher average moduli.