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Sample records for automatic synthesis bist

  1. Automatic Program Synthesis Reports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biermann, A. W.; And Others

    Some of the major results of future goals of an automatic program synthesis project are described in the two papers that comprise this document. The first paper gives a detailed algorithm for synthesizing a computer program from a trace of its behavior. Since the algorithm involves a search, the length of time required to do the synthesis of…

  2. Automatic Synthesis Imaging with Difmap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearson, T. J.; Shepherd, M. C.; Taylor, G. B.; Myers, S. T.

    1994-12-01

    Difmap is a new interactive program for synthesis imaging. It includes data display, data editing, self-calibration, imaging, deconvolution, and model-fitting. The program can handle continuum, spectral-line, and polarization data from connected-element and very-long-baseline interferometer arrays. The program is written in ANSI C and runs on UNIX workstations. We describe the operation of the program with example data sets from the Very Large Array, the global VLBI network, and the Owens Valley Millimeter Array. We have developed Difmap scripts for automatic mapping and self-calibration of both VLA and VLBI data. We describe the strategies adopted for choosing the imaging, deconvolution, and self-calibration parameters, and show how these automatic scripts have made possible the rapid imaging of several hundred sources in the Caltech--Jodrell Bank VLBI surveys (CJ1 and CJ2) and several thousand sources in a VLA search for gravitational lenses (CLASS). Other images made with automatic mapping in Difmap are presented at this meeting by Fassnacht et al., Myers et al., and Taylor et al.

  3. The Behavior Intervention Support Team (BIST) Program: Underlying Theories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boulden, Walter T.

    2010-01-01

    The Behavior Intervention Support Team (BIST) is a proactive school-wide behavior management plan for all students, emphasizing schools partnering with students and parents through caring relationships and high expectations. The BIST program is well-grounded in behavioral theory and combines strength-based and resiliency principles within the…

  4. Automatic Synthesis of Anthropomorphic Pulmonary CT Phantoms

    PubMed Central

    Jimenez-Carretero, Daniel; San Jose Estepar, Raul; Diaz Cacio, Mario; Ledesma-Carbayo, Maria J.

    2016-01-01

    The great density and structural complexity of pulmonary vessels and airways impose limitations on the generation of accurate reference standards, which are critical in training and in the validation of image processing methods for features such as pulmonary vessel segmentation or artery–vein (AV) separations. The design of synthetic computed tomography (CT) images of the lung could overcome these difficulties by providing a database of pseudorealistic cases in a constrained and controlled scenario where each part of the image is differentiated unequivocally. This work demonstrates a complete framework to generate computational anthropomorphic CT phantoms of the human lung automatically. Starting from biological and image-based knowledge about the topology and relationships between structures, the system is able to generate synthetic pulmonary arteries, veins, and airways using iterative growth methods that can be merged into a final simulated lung with realistic features. A dataset of 24 labeled anthropomorphic pulmonary CT phantoms were synthesized with the proposed system. Visual examination and quantitative measurements of intensity distributions, dispersion of structures and relationships between pulmonary air and blood flow systems show good correspondence between real and synthetic lungs (p > 0.05 with low Cohen’s d effect size and AUC values), supporting the potentiality of the tool and the usefulness of the generated phantoms in the biomedical image processing field. PMID:26731653

  5. Users manual for the Variable dimension Automatic Synthesis Program (VASP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, J. S.; Lee, H. Q.

    1971-01-01

    A dictionary and some problems for the Variable Automatic Synthesis Program VASP are submitted. The dictionary contains a description of each subroutine and instructions on its use. The example problems give the user a better perspective on the use of VASP for solving problems in modern control theory. These example problems include dynamic response, optimal control gain, solution of the sampled data matrix Ricatti equation, matrix decomposition, and pseudo inverse of a matrix. Listings of all subroutines are also included. The VASP program has been adapted to run in the conversational mode on the Ames 360/67 computer.

  6. Robust parameter design for automatically controlled systems and nanostructure synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dasgupta, Tirthankar

    2007-12-01

    This research focuses on developing comprehensive frameworks for developing robust parameter design methodology for dynamic systems with automatic control and for synthesis of nanostructures. In many automatically controlled dynamic processes, the optimal feedback control law depends on the parameter design solution and vice versa and therefore an integrated approach is necessary. A parameter design methodology in the presence of feedback control is developed for processes of long duration under the assumption that experimental noise factors are uncorrelated over time. Systems that follow a pure-gain dynamic model are considered and the best proportional-integral and minimum mean squared error control strategies are developed by using robust parameter design. The proposed method is illustrated using a simulated example and a case study in a urea packing plant. This idea is also extended to cases with on-line noise factors. The possibility of integrating feedforward control with a minimum mean squared error feedback control scheme is explored. To meet the needs of large scale synthesis of nanostructures, it is critical to systematically find experimental conditions under which the desired nanostructures are synthesized reproducibly, at large quantity and with controlled morphology. The first part of the research in this area focuses on modeling and optimization of existing experimental data. Through a rigorous statistical analysis of experimental data, models linking the probabilities of obtaining specific morphologies to the process variables are developed. A new iterative algorithm for fitting a Multinomial GLM is proposed and used. The optimum process conditions, which maximize the above probabilities and make the synthesis process less sensitive to variations of process variables around set values, are derived from the fitted models using Monte-Carlo simulations. The second part of the research deals with development of an experimental design methodology, tailor

  7. Evolutionary synthesis of automatic classification on astroinformatic big data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kojecky, Lumir; Zelinka, Ivan; Saloun, Petr

    2016-06-01

    This article describes the initial experiments using a new approach to automatic identification of Be and B[e] stars spectra in large archives. With enormous amount of these data it is no longer feasible to analyze it using classical approaches. We introduce an evolutionary synthesis of the classification by means of analytic programming, one of methods of symbolic regression. By this method, we synthesize the most suitable mathematical formulas that approximate chosen samples of the stellar spectra. As a result is then selected the category whose formula has the lowest difference compared to the particular spectrum. The results show us that classification of stellar spectra by means of analytic programming is able to identify different shapes of the spectra.

  8. Automatic Synthesis of CMOS Algorithmic Analog To-Digital Converter.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jusuf, Gani

    The steady decrease in technological feature size is allowing increasing levels of integration in analog/digital interface functions. These functions consist of analog as well as digital circuits. While the turn around time for an all digital IC chip is very short due to the maturity of digital IC computer-aided design (CAD) tools over the last ten years, most analog circuits have to be designed manually due to the lack of analog IC CAD tools. As a result, analog circuit design becomes the bottleneck in the design of mixed signal processing chips. One common analog function in a mixed signal processing chip is an analog-to-digital conversion (ADC) function. This function recurs frequently but with varying performance requirements. The objective of this research is to study the design methodology of a compilation program capable of synthesizing ADC's with a broad range of sampling rates and resolution, and silicon area and performance comparable with the manual approach. The automatic compilation of the ADC function is a difficult problem mainly because ADC techniques span such a wide spectrum of performance, with radically different implementations being optimum for different ranges of conversion range, resolution, and power dissipation. We will show that a proper choice of the ADC architectures and the incorporation of many analog circuit design techniques will simplify the synthesis procedure tremendously. Moreover, in order to speed up the device sizing, hierarchical optimization procedure and behavioral simulation are implemented into the ADC module generation steps. As a result of this study, a new improved algorithmic ADC without the need of high precision comparators has been developed. This type of ADC lends itself to automatic generation due to its modularity, simplicity, small area consumption, moderate speed, low power dissipation, and single parameter trim capability that can be added at high resolution. Furthermore, a performance-driven CMOS ADC module

  9. Spectral Signature Analysis - BIST for RF Front-Ends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lupea, D.; Pursche, U.; Jentschel, H.-J.

    2003-05-01

    In this paper, the Spectral Signature Analysis is presented as a concept for an integrable self-test system (Built-In Self-Test - BIST) for RF front-ends is presented. It is based on modelling the whole RF front-end (transmitter and receiver) on system level, on generating of a Spectral Signature and of evaluating of the Signature Response. Because of using multi-carrier signal as the test signature, the concept is especially useful for tests of linearity and frequency response of front-ends. Due to the presented method of signature response evaluation, this concept can be used for Built-In Self-Correction (BISC) at critical building blocks.

  10. Automatism

    PubMed Central

    McCaldon, R. J.

    1964-01-01

    Individuals can carry out complex activity while in a state of impaired consciousness, a condition termed “automatism”. Consciousness must be considered from both an organic and a psychological aspect, because impairment of consciousness may occur in both ways. Automatism may be classified as normal (hypnosis), organic (temporal lobe epilepsy), psychogenic (dissociative fugue) or feigned. Often painstaking clinical investigation is necessary to clarify the diagnosis. There is legal precedent for assuming that all crimes must embody both consciousness and will. Jurists are loath to apply this principle without reservation, as this would necessitate acquittal and release of potentially dangerous individuals. However, with the sole exception of the defence of insanity, there is at present no legislation to prohibit release without further investigation of anyone acquitted of a crime on the grounds of “automatism”. PMID:14199824

  11. Development of automatic combinatorial system for synthesis of nanoparticles using microreactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Kosuke; Orimoto, Yuuichi; Yamashita, Kenichi; Uehara, Masato; Nakamura, Hiroyuki; Furuya, Takeshi; Maeda, Hideaki

    2011-10-01

    In this study, automatic system for combinatorial synthesis of nanoparticles (NPs) was developed and optimization of reaction parameter for NPs synthesis was performed. Microreactor was employed for kinetic control constantly. Programmable equipments were employed for additional speed up and used a microreactor. Six reaction condition parameters were systematically combined to produce CdSe synthesis condition sets. Reaction conditions of 3404 experimental sets were synthesized and characterized in 1 month. As a result of some multivariate analyses using the numerous and complicated data, we found as follows: 1) neural network is an effective method to analyze data from combinatorial synthesis, 2) weighting evaluation method was effective to find the condition for balanced NP properties.

  12. Automatic Single-Flux-Quantum (SFQ) Logic Synthesis Method for Top-Down Circuit Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kameda, Yoshio; Yorozu, Shinichi; Hashimoto, Yoshihito

    2006-06-01

    Single-flux-quantum (SFQ) logic circuits provide faster operations with lower power consumption, using Josephson junctions as the switching devices. In the top-down flow of SFQ circuit design, we have already developed a place-and-route tool that covers backend circuit design. In this paper, we present an automatic SFQ logic synthesis method that covers front-end circuit design. The logic synthesis is a process that generates a gate-level logic circuit from a functional specification written in hardware description languages. In our SFQ synthesis method, after we generate an intermediate circuit with the help of a synthesis tool for semiconductor circuits, we convert it into a gate-level pipelined SFQ circuit. To do this, an automatic synthesis tool was implemented. To evaluate the effectiveness of the method and the tool, we synthesized arithmetic and logic units (ALUs). It took only two and half minutes to synthesize a 64-bit-width ALU that consisted of about 18, 000 gates.

  13. Automatic location of facial feature points and synthesis of facial sketches using direct combined model.

    PubMed

    Tu, Ching-Ting; Lien, Jenn-Jier James

    2010-08-01

    Automatically locating multiple feature points (i.e., the shape) in a facial image and then synthesizing the corresponding facial sketch are highly challenging since facial images typically exhibit a wide range of poses, expressions, and scales, and have differing degrees of illumination and/or occlusion. When the facial sketches are to be synthesized in the unique sketching style of a particular artist, the problem becomes even more complex. To resolve these problems, this paper develops an automatic facial sketch synthesis system based on a novel direct combined model (DCM) algorithm. The proposed system executes three cascaded procedures, namely, 1) synthesis of the facial shape from the input texture information (i.e., the facial image); 2) synthesis of the exaggerated facial shape from the synthesized facial shape; and 3) synthesis of a sketch from the original input image and the synthesized exaggerated shape. Previous proposals for reconstructing facial shapes and synthesizing the corresponding facial sketches are heavily reliant on the quality of the texture reconstruction results, which, in turn, are highly sensitive to occlusion and lighting effects in the input image. However, the DCM approach proposed in this paper accurately reconstructs the facial shape and then produces lifelike synthesized facial sketches without the need to recover occluded feature points or to restore the texture information lost as a result of unfavorable lighting conditions. Moreover, the DCM approach is capable of synthesizing facial sketches from input images with a wide variety of facial poses, gaze directions, and facial expressions even when such images are not included within the original training data set. PMID:19933007

  14. An Approach to Automatic Motion Synthesis Harmonized with Music for Multiple Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qi; Nakatani, Mie; Nishida, Shogo

    This paper proposed a research approach to automatic choreography synthesis based on SMF(Standard Midi File) for multiple animated figures. Based on the K.Hevner’s theory, 8 types of emotion in each beat can be extracted from music structure elements, such as tempo, key, rythm, melody, harmony, pitch, which can be computed from SMF. The time of one beat is limited to transmit the emotion to human. By the analysis of emotion, a music can be integrated to several time intervals, every which includes several continuous beats. The top value of synthetic emotion vector represents the emotion type of the interval. Based on the experiment result of C.Matsumoto, 14 motion factors can be mapped from the emotion of interval. According to the 14 motion factors, the macro-motions at the terminals of every interval, and the micromotions between every interval can be generated by mapping rules. We made a prototype system and did a subjective evaluation experiment. The result is fairly good at the congruity between generated motions and given emotion music. A successful research to solve these issues should lead to aid the designation of 3DCG animation.

  15. A new method for automatic synthesis of tolerances for complex assemblies based on polychromatic sets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yi; Li, Zongbin; Xu, Lida; Wang, Jikong

    2011-08-01

    In computer-aided tolerance design (CAT), integrated design of dimensional and geometric tolerances is still one of the research hotspots. Polychromatic sets theory (PST) is a new mathematic tool, which is especially suitable for formal hierarchical structure models. Based on PST, in this article, a new hierarchical representation model for tolerance synthesis is presented to realise integrated design of dimensional and geometric tolerances. According to the inference relations between unified and individual colours of PST, the synthesis matrices of variational geometric constraints (VGC) are established in the VGC tier of the model, and the synthesis matrices of tolerance types are established in the tolerance type tier of the model. On this basis, the synthesis processes from the feature tier to the VGC tier and from the VGC tier to the tolerance type tier can be realised. VGCs, which are achieved by the synthesis matrices of VGCs, can be combined together to establish a well-constrained VGC network (VGCN). Tolerance types, which are achieved by the synthesis matrices of tolerance types, can be added to the well-constrained VGCN to construct a well-constrained tolerance network. An application example is given in the article to illustrate the synthesis steps.

  16. Computer-assisted automatic synthesis II. Development of a fully automated apparatus for preparing substituted N–(carboxyalkyl)amino acids

    PubMed Central

    Hayashi, Nobuyoshi; Sugawara, Tohru; Shintani, Motoaki; Kato, Shinji

    1989-01-01

    A versatile automated apparatus, equipped with an artificial intelligence has been developed which may be used to prepare and isolate a wide variety of compounds. The prediction of the optimum reaction conditions and the reaction control in real time, are accomplished using novel kinetic equations and substituent effects in an artificial intelligence software which has already reported [1]. This paper deals with the design and construction of the fully automated system, and its application to the synthesis of a substituted N-(carboxyalkyl)amino acid. The apparatus is composed of units for perfoming various tasks, e.g. reagent supply, reaction, purification and separation, each linked to a control system. All synthetic processes including washing and drying of the apparatus after each synthetic run were automatically performed from the mixing of the reactants to the isolation of the products as powders with purities of greater than 98%. The automated apparatus has been able to run for 24 hours per day, and the average rate of synthesis of substituted N-(carboxyalkyl)amino acids has been three compounds daily. The apparatus is extremely valuable for synthesizing many derivatives of one particular compound structure. Even if the chemical yields are low under the optimum conditions, it is still possible to obtain a sufficient amount of the desired product by repetition of the reaction. Moreover it was possible to greatly reduce the manual involvement of the many syntheses which are a necessary part of pharmaceutical research. PMID:18924679

  17. Computer-assisted automatic synthesis II. Development of a fully automated apparatus for preparing substituted N-(carboxyalkyl)amino acids.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, N; Sugawara, T; Shintani, M; Kato, S

    1989-01-01

    A versatile automated apparatus, equipped with an artificial intelligence has been developed which may be used to prepare and isolate a wide variety of compounds. The prediction of the optimum reaction conditions and the reaction control in real time, are accomplished using novel kinetic equations and substituent effects in an artificial intelligence software which has already reported [1]. This paper deals with the design and construction of the fully automated system, and its application to the synthesis of a substituted N-(carboxyalkyl)amino acid. The apparatus is composed of units for perfoming various tasks, e.g. reagent supply, reaction, purification and separation, each linked to a control system. All synthetic processes including washing and drying of the apparatus after each synthetic run were automatically performed from the mixing of the reactants to the isolation of the products as powders with purities of greater than 98%. The automated apparatus has been able to run for 24 hours per day, and the average rate of synthesis of substituted N-(carboxyalkyl)amino acids has been three compounds daily. The apparatus is extremely valuable for synthesizing many derivatives of one particular compound structure. Even if the chemical yields are low under the optimum conditions, it is still possible to obtain a sufficient amount of the desired product by repetition of the reaction. Moreover it was possible to greatly reduce the manual involvement of the many syntheses which are a necessary part of pharmaceutical research. PMID:18924679

  18. Automatic synthesis of quantum circuits for point addition on ordinary binary elliptic curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budhathoki, Parshuram; Steinwandt, Rainer

    2015-01-01

    When designing quantum circuits for Shor's algorithm to solve the discrete logarithm problem, implementing the group arithmetic is a cost-critical task. We introduce a software tool for the automatic generation of addition circuits for ordinary binary elliptic curves, a prominent platform group for digital signatures. The resulting circuits reduce the number of -gates by a factor compared to the best previous construction, without increasing the number of qubits or -depth. The software also optimizes the (CNOT) depth for -linear operations by means of suitable graph colorings.

  19. Automatic Synthesis of Cost Effective FFT/IFFT Cores for VLSI OFDM Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    L'Insalata, Nicola E.; Saponara, Sergio; Fanucci, Luca; Terreni, Pierangelo

    This work presents an FFT/IFFT core compiler particularly suited for the VLSI implementation of OFDM communication systems. The tool employs an architecture template based on the pipelined cascade principle. The generated cores support run-time programmable length and transform type selection, enabling seamless integration into multiple mode and multiple standard terminals. A distinctive feature of the tool is its accuracy-driven configuration engine which automatically profiles the internal arithmetic and generates a core with minimum operands bit-width and thus minimum circuit complexity. The engine performs a closed-loop optimization over three different internal arithmetic models (fixed-point, block floating-point and convergent block floating-point) using the numerical accuracy budget given by the user as a reference point. The flexibility and re-usability of the proposed macrocell are illustrated through several case studies which encompass all current state-of-the-art OFDM communications standards (WLAN, WMAN, xDSL, DVB-T/H, DAB and UWB). Implementations results of the generated macrocells are presented for two deep sub-micron standard-cells libraries (65 and 90nm) and commercially available FPGA devices. When compared with other tools for automatic FFT core generation, the proposed environment produces macrocells with lower circuit complexity expressed as gate count and RAM/ROM bits, while keeping the same system level performance in terms of throughput, transform size and numerical accuracy.

  20. Optimisation of the synthesis of vancomycin-selective molecularly imprinted polymer nanoparticles using automatic photoreactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muzyka, Kateryna; Karim, Khalku; Guerreiro, Antonio; Poma, Alessandro; Piletsky, Sergey

    2014-03-01

    A novel optimized protocol for solid-state synthesis of molecularly imprinted polymer nanoparticles (nanoMIPs) with specificity for antibiotic vancomycin is described. The experimental objective was optimization of the synthesis parameters (factors) affecting the yield of obtained nanoparticles which have been synthesized using the first prototype of an automated solid-phase synthesizer. Applications of experimental design (or design of experiments) in optimization of nanoMIP yield were carried out using MODDE 9.0 software. The factors chosen in the model were the amount of functional monomers in the polymerization mixture, irradiation time, temperature during polymerization, and elution temperature. In general, it could be concluded that the irradiation time is the most important and the temperature was the least important factor which influences the yield of nanoparticles. Overall, the response surface methodology proved to be an effective tool in reducing time required for optimization of complex experimental conditions.

  1. Automatic Synthesis of Panoramic Radiographs from Dental Cone Beam Computed Tomography Data.

    PubMed

    Luo, Ting; Shi, Changrong; Zhao, Xing; Zhao, Yunsong; Xu, Jinqiu

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we propose an automatic method of synthesizing panoramic radiographs from dental cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) data for directly observing the whole dentition without the superimposition of other structures. This method consists of three major steps. First, the dental arch curve is generated from the maximum intensity projection (MIP) of 3D CBCT data. Then, based on this curve, the long axial curves of the upper and lower teeth are extracted to create a 3D panoramic curved surface describing the whole dentition. Finally, the panoramic radiograph is synthesized by developing this 3D surface. Both open-bite shaped and closed-bite shaped dental CBCT datasets were applied in this study, and the resulting images were analyzed to evaluate the effectiveness of this method. With the proposed method, a single-slice panoramic radiograph can clearly and completely show the whole dentition without the blur and superimposition of other dental structures. Moreover, thickened panoramic radiographs can also be synthesized with increased slice thickness to show more features, such as the mandibular nerve canal. One feature of the proposed method is that it is automatically performed without human intervention. Another feature of the proposed method is that it requires thinner panoramic radiographs to show the whole dentition than those produced by other existing methods, which contributes to the clarity of the anatomical structures, including the enamel, dentine and pulp. In addition, this method can rapidly process common dental CBCT data. The speed and image quality of this method make it an attractive option for observing the whole dentition in a clinical setting. PMID:27300554

  2. Automatic Synthesis of Panoramic Radiographs from Dental Cone Beam Computed Tomography Data

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Ting; Shi, Changrong; Zhao, Xing; Zhao, Yunsong; Xu, Jinqiu

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we propose an automatic method of synthesizing panoramic radiographs from dental cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) data for directly observing the whole dentition without the superimposition of other structures. This method consists of three major steps. First, the dental arch curve is generated from the maximum intensity projection (MIP) of 3D CBCT data. Then, based on this curve, the long axial curves of the upper and lower teeth are extracted to create a 3D panoramic curved surface describing the whole dentition. Finally, the panoramic radiograph is synthesized by developing this 3D surface. Both open-bite shaped and closed-bite shaped dental CBCT datasets were applied in this study, and the resulting images were analyzed to evaluate the effectiveness of this method. With the proposed method, a single-slice panoramic radiograph can clearly and completely show the whole dentition without the blur and superimposition of other dental structures. Moreover, thickened panoramic radiographs can also be synthesized with increased slice thickness to show more features, such as the mandibular nerve canal. One feature of the proposed method is that it is automatically performed without human intervention. Another feature of the proposed method is that it requires thinner panoramic radiographs to show the whole dentition than those produced by other existing methods, which contributes to the clarity of the anatomical structures, including the enamel, dentine and pulp. In addition, this method can rapidly process common dental CBCT data. The speed and image quality of this method make it an attractive option for observing the whole dentition in a clinical setting. PMID:27300554

  3. Example-Based Automatic Music-Driven Conventional Dance Motion Synthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Songhua; Fan, Rukun; Geng, Weidong

    2012-01-01

    We introduce a novel method for synthesizing dance motions that follow the emotions and contents of a piece of music. Our method employs a learning-based approach to model the music to motion mapping relationship embodied in example dance motions along with those motions' accompanying background music. A key step in our method is to train a music to motion matching quality rating function through learning the music to motion mapping relationship exhibited in synchronized music and dance motion data, which were captured from professional human dance performance. To generate an optimal sequence of dance motion segments to match with a piece of music, we introduce a constraint-based dynamic programming procedure. This procedure considers both music to motion matching quality and visual smoothness of a resultant dance motion sequence. We also introduce a two-way evaluation strategy, coupled with a GPU-based implementation, through which we can execute the dynamic programming process in parallel, resulting in significant speedup. To evaluate the effectiveness of our method, we quantitatively compare the dance motions synthesized by our method with motion synthesis results by several peer methods using the motions captured from professional human dancers' performance as the gold standard. We also conducted several medium-scale user studies to explore how perceptually our dance motion synthesis method can outperform existing methods in synthesizing dance motions to match with a piece of music. These user studies produced very positive results on our music-driven dance motion synthesis experiments for several Asian dance genres, confirming the advantages of our method.

  4. AutoBayes/CC: Combining Program Synthesis with Automatic Code Certification: System Description

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whalen, Michael; Schumann, Johann; Fischer, Bernd; Clancy, Daniel (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Code certification is a lightweight approach to formally demonstrate software quality. It concentrates on aspects of software quality that can be defined and formalized via properties, e.g., operator safety or memory safety. Its basic idea is to require code producers to provide formal proofs that their code satisfies these quality properties. The proofs serve as certificates which can be checked independently, by the code consumer or by certification authorities, e.g., the FAA. It is the idea underlying such approaches as proof-carrying code [6]. Code certification can be viewed as a more practical version of traditional Hoare-style program verification. The properties to be verified are fairly simple and regular so that it is often possible to use an automated theorem prover to automatically discharge all emerging proof obligations. Usually, however, the programmer must still splice auxiliary annotations (e.g., loop invariants) into the program to facilitate the proofs. For complex properties or larger programs this quickly becomes the limiting factor for the applicability of current certification approaches.

  5. Automatic Synthesis of UML Designs from Requirements in an Iterative Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schumann, Johann; Whittle, Jon; Clancy, Daniel (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The Unified Modeling Language (UML) is gaining wide popularity for the design of object-oriented systems. UML combines various object-oriented graphical design notations under one common framework. A major factor for the broad acceptance of UML is that it can be conveniently used in a highly iterative, Use Case (or scenario-based) process (although the process is not a part of UML). Here, the (pre-) requirements for the software are specified rather informally as Use Cases and a set of scenarios. A scenario can be seen as an individual trace of a software artifact. Besides first sketches of a class diagram to illustrate the static system breakdown, scenarios are a favorite way of communication with the customer, because scenarios describe concrete interactions between entities and are thus easy to understand. Scenarios with a high level of detail are often expressed as sequence diagrams. Later in the design and implementation stage (elaboration and implementation phases), a design of the system's behavior is often developed as a set of statecharts. From there (and the full-fledged class diagram), actual code development is started. Current commercial UML tools support this phase by providing code generators for class diagrams and statecharts. In practice, it can be observed that the transition from requirements to design to code is a highly iterative process. In this talk, a set of algorithms is presented which perform reasonable synthesis and transformations between different UML notations (sequence diagrams, Object Constraint Language (OCL) constraints, statecharts). More specifically, we will discuss the following transformations: Statechart synthesis, introduction of hierarchy, consistency of modifications, and "design-debugging".

  6. Automatic Imitation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heyes, Cecilia

    2011-01-01

    "Automatic imitation" is a type of stimulus-response compatibility effect in which the topographical features of task-irrelevant action stimuli facilitate similar, and interfere with dissimilar, responses. This article reviews behavioral, neurophysiological, and neuroimaging research on automatic imitation, asking in what sense it is "automatic"…

  7. Operating safety of automatic objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maiorov, Anatolii Vladimirovich; Moskatov, Genrikh Karlovich; Shibanov, Georgii Petrovich

    Operating-safety assurance for automatic objects (aircraft, spacecraft, and underwater vehicles) is considered in the framework of safety-automata theory and automatic-control considerations. The interaction between the operator and the safety-assurance facilities is considered. Methodological recommendations are presented on the specification of reliability requirements for the vehicles considered, as well as on automata synthesis and analysis considerations, test planning, and the analysis of test results.

  8. Automatic warranties.

    PubMed

    Decker, R

    1987-10-01

    In addition to express warranties (those specifically made by the supplier in the contract) and implied warranties (those resulting from circumstances of the sale), there is one other classification of warranties that needs to be understood by hospital materials managers. These are sometimes known as automatic warranties. In the following dialogue, Doctor Decker develops these legal concepts. PMID:10284977

  9. Automatic Stabilization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haus, FR

    1936-01-01

    This report lays more stress on the principles underlying automatic piloting than on the means of applications. Mechanical details of servomotors and the mechanical release device necessary to assure instantaneous return of the controls to the pilot in case of malfunction are not included. Descriptions are provided of various commercial systems.

  10. AUTOMATIC COUNTER

    DOEpatents

    Robinson, H.P.

    1960-06-01

    An automatic counter of alpha particle tracks recorded by a sensitive emulsion of a photographic plate is described. The counter includes a source of mcdulated dark-field illumination for developing light flashes from the recorded particle tracks as the photographic plate is automatically scanned in narrow strips. Photoelectric means convert the light flashes to proportional current pulses for application to an electronic counting circuit. Photoelectric means are further provided for developing a phase reference signal from the photographic plate in such a manner that signals arising from particle tracks not parallel to the edge of the plate are out of phase with the reference signal. The counting circuit includes provision for rejecting the out-of-phase signals resulting from unoriented tracks as well as signals resulting from spurious marks on the plate such as scratches, dust or grain clumpings, etc. The output of the circuit is hence indicative only of the tracks that would be counted by a human operator.

  11. Automatic stabilization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haus, FR

    1936-01-01

    This report concerns the study of automatic stabilizers and extends it to include the control of the three-control system of the airplane instead of just altitude control. Some of the topics discussed include lateral disturbed motion, static stability, the mathematical theory of lateral motion, and large angles of incidence. Various mechanisms and stabilizers are also discussed. The feeding of Diesel engines by injection pumps actuated by engine compression, achieves the required high speeds of injection readily and permits rigorous control of the combustible charge introduced into each cylinder and of the peak pressure in the resultant cycle.

  12. Automatic programming for critical applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loganantharaj, Raj L.

    1988-01-01

    The important phases of a software life cycle include verification and maintenance. Usually, the execution performance is an expected requirement in a software development process. Unfortunately, the verification and the maintenance of programs are the time consuming and the frustrating aspects of software engineering. The verification cannot be waived for the programs used for critical applications such as, military, space, and nuclear plants. As a consequence, synthesis of programs from specifications, an alternative way of developing correct programs, is becoming popular. The definition, or what is understood by automatic programming, has been changed with our expectations. At present, the goal of automatic programming is the automation of programming process. Specifically, it means the application of artificial intelligence to software engineering in order to define techniques and create environments that help in the creation of high level programs. The automatic programming process may be divided into two phases: the problem acquisition phase and the program synthesis phase. In the problem acquisition phase, an informal specification of the problem is transformed into an unambiguous specification while in the program synthesis phase such a specification is further transformed into a concrete, executable program.

  13. Automatic transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Miura, M.; Inuzuka, T.

    1986-08-26

    1. An automatic transmission with four forward speeds and one reverse position, is described which consists of: an input shaft; an output member; first and second planetary gear sets each having a sun gear, a ring gear and a carrier supporting a pinion in mesh with the sun gear and ring gear; the carrier of the first gear set, the ring gear of the second gear set and the output member all being connected; the ring gear of the first gear set connected to the carrier of the second gear set; a first clutch means for selectively connecting the input shaft to the sun gear of the first gear set, including friction elements, a piston selectively engaging the friction elements and a fluid servo in which hydraulic fluid is selectively supplied to the piston; a second clutch means for selectively connecting the input shaft to the sun gear of the second gear set a third clutch means for selectively connecting the input shaft to the carrier of the second gear set including friction elements, a piston selectively engaging the friction elements and a fluid servo in which hydraulic fluid is selectively supplied to the piston; a first drive-establishing means for selectively preventing rotation of the ring gear of the first gear set and the carrier of the second gear set in only one direction and, alternatively, in any direction; a second drive-establishing means for selectively preventing rotation of the sun gear of the second gear set; and a drum being open to the first planetary gear set, with a cylindrical intermediate wall, an inner peripheral wall and outer peripheral wall and forming the hydraulic servos of the first and third clutch means between the intermediate wall and the inner peripheral wall and between the intermediate wall and the outer peripheral wall respectively.

  14. Traceability Through Automatic Program Generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richardson, Julian; Green, Jeff

    2003-01-01

    Program synthesis is a technique for automatically deriving programs from specifications of their behavior. One of the arguments made in favour of program synthesis is that it allows one to trace from the specification to the program. One way in which traceability information can be derived is to augment the program synthesis system so that manipulations and calculations it carries out during the synthesis process are annotated with information on what the manipulations and calculations were and why they were made. This information is then accumulated throughout the synthesis process, at the end of which, every artifact produced by the synthesis is annotated with a complete history relating it to every other artifact (including the source specification) which influenced its construction. This approach requires modification of the entire synthesis system - which is labor-intensive and hard to do without influencing its behavior. In this paper, we introduce a novel, lightweight technique for deriving traceability from a program specification to the corresponding synthesized code. Once a program has been successfully synthesized from a specification, small changes are systematically made to the specification and the effects on the synthesized program observed. We have partially automated the technique and applied it in an experiment to one of our program synthesis systems, AUTOFILTER, and to the GNU C compiler, GCC. The results are promising: 1. Manual inspection of the results indicates that most of the connections derived from the source (a specification in the case of AUTOFILTER, C source code in the case of GCC) to its generated target (C source code in the case of AUTOFILTER, assembly language code in the case of GCC) are correct. 2. Around half of the lines in the target can be traced to at least one line of the source. 3. Small changes in the source often induce only small changes in the target.

  15. An anatomy of automatism.

    PubMed

    Mackay, R D

    2015-07-01

    The automatism defence has been described as a quagmire of law and as presenting an intractable problem. Why is this so? This paper will analyse and explore the current legal position on automatism. In so doing, it will identify the problems which the case law has created, including the distinction between sane and insane automatism and the status of the 'external factor doctrine', and comment briefly on recent reform proposals. PMID:26378105

  16. Automatic differentiation bibliography

    SciTech Connect

    Corliss, G.F.

    1992-07-01

    This is a bibliography of work related to automatic differentiation. Automatic differentiation is a technique for the fast, accurate propagation of derivative values using the chain rule. It is neither symbolic nor numeric. Automatic differentiation is a fundamental tool for scientific computation, with applications in optimization, nonlinear equations, nonlinear least squares approximation, stiff ordinary differential equation, partial differential equations, continuation methods, and sensitivity analysis. This report is an updated version of the bibliography which originally appeared in Automatic Differentiation of Algorithms: Theory, Implementation, and Application.

  17. Automatic crack propagation tracking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shephard, M. S.; Weidner, T. J.; Yehia, N. A. B.; Burd, G. S.

    1985-01-01

    A finite element based approach to fully automatic crack propagation tracking is presented. The procedure presented combines fully automatic mesh generation with linear fracture mechanics techniques in a geometrically based finite element code capable of automatically tracking cracks in two-dimensional domains. The automatic mesh generator employs the modified-quadtree technique. Crack propagation increment and direction are predicted using a modified maximum dilatational strain energy density criterion employing the numerical results obtained by meshes of quadratic displacement and singular crack tip finite elements. Example problems are included to demonstrate the procedure.

  18. Digital automatic gain control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Uzdy, Z.

    1980-01-01

    Performance analysis, used to evaluated fitness of several circuits to digital automatic gain control (AGC), indicates that digital integrator employing coherent amplitude detector (CAD) is best device suited for application. Circuit reduces gain error to half that of conventional analog AGC while making it possible to automatically modify response of receiver to match incoming signal conditions.

  19. Automatic Differentiation Package

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2007-03-01

    Sacado is an automatic differentiation package for C++ codes using operator overloading and C++ templating. Sacado provide forward, reverse, and Taylor polynomial automatic differentiation classes and utilities for incorporating these classes into C++ codes. Users can compute derivatives of computations arising in engineering and scientific applications, including nonlinear equation solving, time integration, sensitivity analysis, stability analysis, optimization and uncertainity quantification.

  20. Military applications of automatic speech recognition and future requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beek, Bruno; Cupples, Edward J.

    1977-01-01

    An updated summary of the state-of-the-art of automatic speech recognition and its relevance to military applications is provided. A number of potential systems for military applications are under development. These include: (1) digital narrowband communication systems; (2) automatic speech verification; (3) on-line cartographic processing unit; (4) word recognition for militarized tactical data system; and (5) voice recognition and synthesis for aircraft cockpit.

  1. Automatic reactor model synthesis with genetic programming.

    PubMed

    Dürrenmatt, David J; Gujer, Willi

    2012-01-01

    Successful modeling of wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) processes requires an accurate description of the plant hydraulics. Common methods such as tracer experiments are difficult and costly and thus have limited applicability in practice; engineers are often forced to rely on their experience only. An implementation of grammar-based genetic programming with an encoding to represent hydraulic reactor models as program trees should fill this gap: The encoding enables the algorithm to construct arbitrary reactor models compatible with common software used for WWTP modeling by linking building blocks, such as continuous stirred-tank reactors. Discharge measurements and influent and effluent concentrations are the only required inputs. As shown in a synthetic example, the technique can be used to identify a set of reactor models that perform equally well. Instead of being guided by experience, the most suitable model can now be chosen by the engineer from the set. In a second example, temperature measurements at the influent and effluent of a primary clarifier are used to generate a reactor model. A virtual tracer experiment performed on the reactor model has good agreement with a tracer experiment performed on-site. PMID:22277238

  2. Automatic amino acid analyzer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berdahl, B. J.; Carle, G. C.; Oyama, V. I.

    1971-01-01

    Analyzer operates unattended or up to 15 hours. It has an automatic sample injection system and can be programmed. All fluid-flow valve switching is accomplished pneumatically from miniature three-way solenoid pilot valves.

  3. Automatic Payroll Deposit System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidson, D. B.

    1979-01-01

    The Automatic Payroll Deposit System in Yakima, Washington's Public School District No. 7, directly transmits each employee's salary amount for each pay period to a bank or other financial institution. (Author/MLF)

  4. Automatic switching matrix

    DOEpatents

    Schlecht, Martin F.; Kassakian, John G.; Caloggero, Anthony J.; Rhodes, Bruce; Otten, David; Rasmussen, Neil

    1982-01-01

    An automatic switching matrix that includes an apertured matrix board containing a matrix of wires that can be interconnected at each aperture. Each aperture has associated therewith a conductive pin which, when fully inserted into the associated aperture, effects electrical connection between the wires within that particular aperture. Means is provided for automatically inserting the pins in a determined pattern and for removing all the pins to permit other interconnecting patterns.

  5. A new automatic synchronizer

    SciTech Connect

    Malm, C.F.

    1995-12-31

    A phase lock loop automatic synchronizer, PLLS, matches generator speed starting from dead stop to bus frequency, and then locks the phase difference at zero, thereby maintaining zero slip frequency while the generator breaker is being closed to the bus. The significant difference between the PLLS and a conventional automatic synchronizer is that there is no slip frequency difference between generator and bus. The PLL synchronizer is most advantageous when the penstock pressure fluctuates the grid frequency fluctuates, or both. The PLL synchronizer is relatively inexpensive. Hydroplants with multiple units can economically be equipped with a synchronizer for each unit.

  6. A semi-automatic multi-view depth estimation method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wildeboer, Meindert Onno; Fukushima, Norishige; Yendo, Tomohiro; Panahpour Tehrani, Mehrdad; Fujii, Toshiaki; Tanimoto, Masayuki

    2010-07-01

    In this paper, we propose a semi-automatic depth estimation algorithm whereby the user defines object depth boundaries and disparity initialization. Automatic depth estimation methods generally have difficulty to obtain good depth results around object edges and in areas with low texture. The goal of our method is to improve the depth in these areas and reduce view synthesis artifacts in Depth Image Based Rendering. Good view synthesis quality is very important in applications such as 3DTV and Free-viewpoint Television (FTV). In our proposed method, initial disparity values for smooth areas can be input through a so-called manual disparity map, and depth boundaries are defined by a manually created edge map which can be supplied for one or multiple frames. For evaluation we used MPEG multi-view videos and we demonstrate our algorithm can significantly improve the depth maps and reduce view synthesis artifacts.

  7. AUTOmatic Message PACKing Facility

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2004-07-01

    AUTOPACK is a library that provides several useful features for programs using the Message Passing Interface (MPI). Features included are: 1. automatic message packing facility 2. management of send and receive requests. 3. management of message buffer memory. 4. determination of the number of anticipated messages from a set of arbitrary sends, and 5. deterministic message delivery for testing purposes.

  8. Automatic finite element generators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, P. S.

    1984-01-01

    The design and implementation of a software system for generating finite elements and related computations are described. Exact symbolic computational techniques are employed to derive strain-displacement matrices and element stiffness matrices. Methods for dealing with the excessive growth of symbolic expressions are discussed. Automatic FORTRAN code generation is described with emphasis on improving the efficiency of the resultant code.

  9. Principles of Automatic Lemmatisation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hann, M. L.

    1974-01-01

    Introduces some algorithmic methods, for which no pre-editing is necessary, for automatically "lemmatising" raw text (changing raw text to an equivalent version in which all inflected words are artificially transformed to their dictionary look-up form). The results of a study of these methods, which used a German Text, are also given. (KM)

  10. Reactor component automatic grapple

    SciTech Connect

    Greenaway, P.R.

    1982-12-07

    A grapple for handling nuclear reactor components in a medium such as liquid sodium which, upon proper seating and alignment of the grapple with the component as sensed by a mechanical logic integral to the grapple, automatically seizes the component. The mechanical logic system also precludes seizure in the absence of proper seating and alignment.

  11. Reactor component automatic grapple

    DOEpatents

    Greenaway, Paul R.

    1982-01-01

    A grapple for handling nuclear reactor components in a medium such as liquid sodium which, upon proper seating and alignment of the grapple with the component as sensed by a mechanical logic integral to the grapple, automatically seizes the component. The mechanical logic system also precludes seizure in the absence of proper seating and alignment.

  12. Automaticity of Conceptual Magnitude.

    PubMed

    Gliksman, Yarden; Itamar, Shai; Leibovich, Tali; Melman, Yonatan; Henik, Avishai

    2016-01-01

    What is bigger, an elephant or a mouse? This question can be answered without seeing the two animals, since these objects elicit conceptual magnitude. How is an object's conceptual magnitude processed? It was suggested that conceptual magnitude is automatically processed; namely, irrelevant conceptual magnitude can affect performance when comparing physical magnitudes. The current study further examined this question and aimed to expand the understanding of automaticity of conceptual magnitude. Two different objects were presented and participants were asked to decide which object was larger on the screen (physical magnitude) or in the real world (conceptual magnitude), in separate blocks. By creating congruent (the conceptually larger object was physically larger) and incongruent (the conceptually larger object was physically smaller) pairs of stimuli it was possible to examine the automatic processing of each magnitude. A significant congruity effect was found for both magnitudes. Furthermore, quartile analysis revealed that the congruity was affected similarly by processing time for both magnitudes. These results suggest that the processing of conceptual and physical magnitudes is automatic to the same extent. The results support recent theories suggested that different types of magnitude processing and representation share the same core system. PMID:26879153

  13. Automaticity of Conceptual Magnitude

    PubMed Central

    Gliksman, Yarden; Itamar, Shai; Leibovich, Tali; Melman, Yonatan; Henik, Avishai

    2016-01-01

    What is bigger, an elephant or a mouse? This question can be answered without seeing the two animals, since these objects elicit conceptual magnitude. How is an object’s conceptual magnitude processed? It was suggested that conceptual magnitude is automatically processed; namely, irrelevant conceptual magnitude can affect performance when comparing physical magnitudes. The current study further examined this question and aimed to expand the understanding of automaticity of conceptual magnitude. Two different objects were presented and participants were asked to decide which object was larger on the screen (physical magnitude) or in the real world (conceptual magnitude), in separate blocks. By creating congruent (the conceptually larger object was physically larger) and incongruent (the conceptually larger object was physically smaller) pairs of stimuli it was possible to examine the automatic processing of each magnitude. A significant congruity effect was found for both magnitudes. Furthermore, quartile analysis revealed that the congruity was affected similarly by processing time for both magnitudes. These results suggest that the processing of conceptual and physical magnitudes is automatic to the same extent. The results support recent theories suggested that different types of magnitude processing and representation share the same core system. PMID:26879153

  14. Automatic Dance Lesson Generation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Yang; Leung, H.; Yue, Lihua; Deng, LiQun

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, an automatic lesson generation system is presented which is suitable in a learning-by-mimicking scenario where the learning objects can be represented as multiattribute time series data. The dance is used as an example in this paper to illustrate the idea. Given a dance motion sequence as the input, the proposed lesson generation…

  15. Automatic multiple applicator electrophoresis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grunbaum, B. W.

    1977-01-01

    Easy-to-use, economical device permits electrophoresis on all known supporting media. System includes automatic multiple-sample applicator, sample holder, and electrophoresis apparatus. System has potential applicability to fields of taxonomy, immunology, and genetics. Apparatus is also used for electrofocusing.

  16. Automatic sweep circuit

    DOEpatents

    Keefe, Donald J.

    1980-01-01

    An automatically sweeping circuit for searching for an evoked response in an output signal in time with respect to a trigger input. Digital counters are used to activate a detector at precise intervals, and monitoring is repeated for statistical accuracy. If the response is not found then a different time window is examined until the signal is found.

  17. Automatic Data Processing Glossary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of the Budget, Washington, DC.

    The technology of the automatic information processing field has progressed dramatically in the past few years and has created a problem in common term usage. As a solution, "Datamation" Magazine offers this glossary which was compiled by the U.S. Bureau of the Budget as an official reference. The terms appear in a single alphabetic sequence,…

  18. Fully automatic telemetry data processor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cox, F. B.; Keipert, F. A.; Lee, R. C.

    1968-01-01

    Satellite Telemetry Automatic Reduction System /STARS 2/, a fully automatic computer-controlled telemetry data processor, maximizes data recovery, reduces turnaround time, increases flexibility, and improves operational efficiency. The system incorporates a CDC 3200 computer as its central element.

  19. Automatic carrier acquisition system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bunce, R. C. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    An automatic carrier acquisition system for a phase locked loop (PLL) receiver is disclosed. It includes a local oscillator, which sweeps the receiver to tune across the carrier frequency uncertainty range until the carrier crosses the receiver IF reference. Such crossing is detected by an automatic acquisition detector. It receives the IF signal from the receiver as well as the IF reference. It includes a pair of multipliers which multiply the IF signal with the IF reference in phase and in quadrature. The outputs of the multipliers are filtered through bandpass filters and power detected. The output of the power detector has a signal dc component which is optimized with respect to the noise dc level by the selection of the time constants of the filters as a function of the sweep rate of the local oscillator.

  20. Automatism and driving offences.

    PubMed

    Rumbold, John

    2013-10-01

    Automatism is a rarely used defence, but it is particularly used for driving offences because many are strict liability offences. Medical evidence is almost always crucial to argue the defence, and it is important to understand the bars that limit the use of automatism so that the important medical issues can be identified. The issue of prior fault is an important public safeguard to ensure that reasonable precautions are taken to prevent accidents. The total loss of control definition is more problematic, especially with disorders of more gradual onset like hypoglycaemic episodes. In these cases the alternative of 'effective loss of control' would be fairer. This article explores several cases, how the criteria were applied to each, and the types of medical assessment required. PMID:24112330

  1. Automatic Abstraction in Planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christensen, J.

    1991-01-01

    Traditionally, abstraction in planning has been accomplished by either state abstraction or operator abstraction, neither of which has been fully automatic. We present a new method, predicate relaxation, for automatically performing state abstraction. PABLO, a nonlinear hierarchical planner, implements predicate relaxation. Theoretical, as well as empirical results are presented which demonstrate the potential advantages of using predicate relaxation in planning. We also present a new definition of hierarchical operators that allows us to guarantee a limited form of completeness. This new definition is shown to be, in some ways, more flexible than previous definitions of hierarchical operators. Finally, a Classical Truth Criterion is presented that is proven to be sound and complete for a planning formalism that is general enough to include most classical planning formalisms that are based on the STRIPS assumption.

  2. Automatic speech recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Espy-Wilson, Carol

    2005-04-01

    Great strides have been made in the development of automatic speech recognition (ASR) technology over the past thirty years. Most of this effort has been centered around the extension and improvement of Hidden Markov Model (HMM) approaches to ASR. Current commercially-available and industry systems based on HMMs can perform well for certain situational tasks that restrict variability such as phone dialing or limited voice commands. However, the holy grail of ASR systems is performance comparable to humans-in other words, the ability to automatically transcribe unrestricted conversational speech spoken by an infinite number of speakers under varying acoustic environments. This goal is far from being reached. Key to the success of ASR is effective modeling of variability in the speech signal. This tutorial will review the basics of ASR and the various ways in which our current knowledge of speech production, speech perception and prosody can be exploited to improve robustness at every level of the system.

  3. Adaptation is automatic.

    PubMed

    Samuel, A G; Kat, D

    1998-04-01

    Two experiments were used to test whether selective adaptation for speech occurs automatically or instead requires attentional resources. A control condition demonstrated the usual large identification shifts caused by repeatedly presenting an adapting sound (/wa/, with listeners identifying members of a /ba/-/wa/ test series). Two types of distractor tasks were used: (1) Subjects did a rapid series of arithmetic problems during the adaptation periods (Experiments 1 and 2), or (2) they made a series of rhyming judgments, requiring phonetic coding (Experiment 2). A control experiment (Experiment 3) demonstrated that these tasks normally impose a heavy attentional cost on phonetic processing. Despite this, for both experimental conditions, the observed adaptation effect was just as large as in the control condition. This result indicates that adaptation is automatic, operating at an early, preattentive level. The implications of these results for current models of speech perception are discussed. PMID:9599999

  4. Automatic eyeglasses removal from face images.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chenyu; Liu, Ce; Shum, Heung-Yueng; Xu, Ying-Qing; Zhang, Zhengyou

    2004-03-01

    In this paper, we present an intelligent image editing and face synthesis system that automatically removes eyeglasses from an input frontal face image. Although conventional image editing tools can be used to remove eyeglasses by pixel-level editing, filling in the deleted eyeglasses region with the right content is a difficult problem. Our approach works at the object level where the eyeglasses are automatically located, removed as one piece, and the void region filled. Our system consists of three parts: eyeglasses detection, eyeglasses localization, and eyeglasses removal. First, an eye region detector, trained offline, is used to approximately locate the region of eyes, thus the region of eyeglasses. A Markov-chain Monte Carlo method is then used to accurately locate key points on the eyeglasses frame by searching for the global optimum of the posterior. Subsequently, a novel sample-based approach is used to synthesize the face image without the eyeglasses. Specifically, we adopt a statistical analysis and synthesis approach to learn the mapping between pairs of face images with and without eyeglasses from a database. Extensive experiments demonstrate that our system effectively removes eyeglasses. PMID:15376880

  5. Automatic circuit interrupter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dwinell, W. S.

    1979-01-01

    In technique, voice circuits connecting crew's cabin to launch station through umbilical connector disconnect automatically unused, or deadened portion of circuits immediately after vehicle is launched, eliminating possibility that unused wiring interferes with voice communications inside vehicle or need for manual cutoff switch and its associated wiring. Technique is applied to other types of electrical actuation circuits, also launch of mapped vehicles, such as balloons, submarines, test sleds, and test chambers-all requiring assistance of ground crew.

  6. Automatic digital image registration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goshtasby, A.; Jain, A. K.; Enslin, W. R.

    1982-01-01

    This paper introduces a general procedure for automatic registration of two images which may have translational, rotational, and scaling differences. This procedure involves (1) segmentation of the images, (2) isolation of dominant objects from the images, (3) determination of corresponding objects in the two images, and (4) estimation of transformation parameters using the center of gravities of objects as control points. An example is given which uses this technique to register two images which have translational, rotational, and scaling differences.

  7. AUTOMATIC FREQUENCY CONTROL SYSTEM

    DOEpatents

    Hansen, C.F.; Salisbury, J.D.

    1961-01-10

    A control is described for automatically matching the frequency of a resonant cavity to that of a driving oscillator. The driving oscillator is disconnected from the cavity and a secondary oscillator is actuated in which the cavity is the frequency determining element. A low frequency is mixed with the output of the driving oscillator and the resultant lower and upper sidebands are separately derived. The frequencies of the sidebands are compared with the secondary oscillator frequency. deriving a servo control signal to adjust a tuning element in the cavity and matching the cavity frequency to that of the driving oscillator. The driving oscillator may then be connected to the cavity.

  8. Automatic range selector

    DOEpatents

    McNeilly, Clyde E.

    1977-01-04

    A device is provided for automatically selecting from a plurality of ranges of a scale of values to which a meter may be made responsive, that range which encompasses the value of an unknown parameter. A meter relay indicates whether the unknown is of greater or lesser value than the range to which the meter is then responsive. The rotatable part of a stepping relay is rotated in one direction or the other in response to the indication from the meter relay. Various positions of the rotatable part are associated with particular scales. Switching means are sensitive to the position of the rotatable part to couple the associated range to the meter.

  9. Automatic speaker recognition system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higgins, Alan; Naylor, Joe

    1984-07-01

    The Defense Communications Division of ITT (ITTDCD) has developed an automatic speaker recognition (ASR) system that meets the functional requirements defined in NRL's Statement of Work. This report is organized as follows. Chapter 2 is a short history of the development of the ASR system, both the algorithm and the implementation. Chapter 3 describes the methodology of system testing, and Chapter 4 summarizes test results. In Chapter 5, some additional testing performed using GFM test material is discussed. Conclusions derived from the contract work are given in Chapter 6.

  10. Automatic clutch control system

    SciTech Connect

    Kasai, H.; Ogawa, N.; Hattori, T.; Ishihara, M.; Uriuhara, M.

    1986-12-16

    This patent describes an automatic clutch control system, comprising: a clutch having a full clutch engagement point and a clutch contact point; a clutch actuator for controlling a clutch stroke; a plurality of solenoid valves for controlling the clutch actuator; clutch stroke sensor means for measuring the clutch stroke and for detecting the full clutch engagement point and the clutch contact point in the clutch stroke; control means, for feeding back a stroke signal detected by the clutch stroke sensor and for controlling the solenoid valves to control clutch engagement and disengagement.

  11. Automatic readout micrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Lauritzen, T.

    1982-03-23

    A measuring system is disclosed for surveying and very accurately positioning objects with respect to a reference line. A principal use of this surveying system is for accurately aligning the electromagnets which direct a particle beam emitted from a particle accelerator. Prior art surveying systems require highly skilled surveyors. Prior art systems include, for example, optical surveying systems which are susceptible to operator reading errors, and celestial navigation-type surveying systems, with their inherent complexities. The present invention provides an automatic readout micrometer which can very accurately measure distances. The invention has a simplicity of operation which practically eliminates the possibilities of operator optical reading error, owning to the elimination of traditional optical alignments for making measurements. The invention has an extendable arm which carries a laser surveying target. The extendable arm can be continuously positioned over its entire length of travel by either a coarse or fine adjustment without having the fine adjustment outrun the coarse adjustment until a reference laser beam is centered on the target as indicated by a digital readout. The length of the micrometer can then be accurately and automatically read by a computer and compared with a standardized set of alignment measurements. Due to its construction, the micrometer eliminates any errors due to temperature changes when the system is operated within a standard operating temperature range.

  12. Automatic engine control system

    SciTech Connect

    Geary, W.C.; Mirsaiidi, M.V.; Redfern, T.; Wolfe, D.W.

    1986-01-14

    This patent describes an automatic control circuit for an internal combustion engine and clutch assembly. One component of this circuit is a timer for determining the time the engine is allowed to run and the clutch is engaged and a second period of time when the clutch is automatically disengaged. Associated with the timer is a starter means to start the engine during the first time period and a clutch actuating mechanism for engaging the clutch near the first time period initiation after the starter starts the engine. An engine shut down and clutch disengagement mechanism is also responsive to the first timer. The patent then goes on to describe a supplemental timer mechanism for determining a third and fourth period of time within the second time period such that the third period being when the engine is shut off and the fourth period being when the engine runs with clutch disengaged. The starter mechanism is responsive to the supplemental timer to start the engine at the beginning of the fourth period. A shut down means stops the engine at the beginning of the third period in response to the timer.

  13. Automatic readout micrometer

    DOEpatents

    Lauritzen, T.

    A measuring system is described for surveying and very accurately positioning objects with respect to a reference line. A principle use of this surveying system is for accurately aligning the electromagnets which direct a particle beam emitted from a particle accelerator. Prior art surveying systems require highly skilled surveyors. Prior art systems include, for example, optical surveying systems which are susceptible to operator reading errors, and celestial navigation-type surveying systems, with their inherent complexities. The present invention provides an automatic readout micrometer which can very accurately measure distances. The invention has a simplicity of operation which practically eliminates the possibilities of operator optical reading error, owning to the elimination of traditional optical alignments for making measurements. The invention has an extendable arm which carries a laser surveying target. The extendable arm can be continuously positioned over its entire length of travel by either a coarse of fine adjustment without having the fine adjustment outrun the coarse adjustment until a reference laser beam is centered on the target as indicated by a digital readout. The length of the micrometer can then be accurately and automatically read by a computer and compared with a standardized set of alignment measurements. Due to its construction, the micrometer eliminates any errors due to temperature changes when the system is operated within a standard operating temperature range.

  14. Automatic readout micrometer

    DOEpatents

    Lauritzen, Ted

    1982-01-01

    A measuring system is disclosed for surveying and very accurately positioning objects with respect to a reference line. A principal use of this surveying system is for accurately aligning the electromagnets which direct a particle beam emitted from a particle accelerator. Prior art surveying systems require highly skilled surveyors. Prior art systems include, for example, optical surveying systems which are susceptible to operator reading errors, and celestial navigation-type surveying systems, with their inherent complexities. The present invention provides an automatic readout micrometer which can very accurately measure distances. The invention has a simplicity of operation which practically eliminates the possibilities of operator optical reading error, owning to the elimination of traditional optical alignments for making measurements. The invention has an extendable arm which carries a laser surveying target. The extendable arm can be continuously positioned over its entire length of travel by either a coarse or fine adjustment without having the fine adjustment outrun the coarse adjustment until a reference laser beam is centered on the target as indicated by a digital readout. The length of the micrometer can then be accurately and automatically read by a computer and compared with a standardized set of alignment measurements. Due to its construction, the micrometer eliminates any errors due to temperature changes when the system is operated within a standard operating temperature range.

  15. Comparison of automatic control systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oppelt, W

    1941-01-01

    This report deals with a reciprocal comparison of an automatic pressure control, an automatic rpm control, an automatic temperature control, and an automatic directional control. It shows the difference between the "faultproof" regulator and the actual regulator which is subject to faults, and develops this difference as far as possible in a parallel manner with regard to the control systems under consideration. Such as analysis affords, particularly in its extension to the faults of the actual regulator, a deep insight into the mechanism of the regulator process.

  16. Automatic Bayesian polarity determination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pugh, D. J.; White, R. S.; Christie, P. A. F.

    2016-04-01

    The polarity of the first motion of a seismic signal from an earthquake is an important constraint in earthquake source inversion. Microseismic events often have low signal-to-noise ratios, which may lead to difficulties estimating the correct first-motion polarities of the arrivals. This paper describes a probabilistic approach to polarity picking that can be both automated and combined with manual picking. This approach includes a quantitative estimate of the uncertainty of the polarity, improving calculation of the polarity probability density function for source inversion. It is sufficiently fast to be incorporated into an automatic processing workflow. When used in source inversion, the results are consistent with those from manual observations. In some cases, they produce a clearer constraint on the range of high-probability source mechanims, and are better constrained than source mechanisms determined using a uniform probability of an incorrect polarity pick.

  17. Automatic flowmeter calibration system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lisle, R. V.; Wilson, T. L. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    A system for automatically calibrating the accuracy of a flowmeter is described. The system includes a calculator capable of performing mathematical functions responsive to receiving data signals and function command signals. A prover cylinder is provided for measuring the temperature, pressure, and time required for accumulating a predetermined volume of fluid. Along with these signals, signals representing the temperature and pressure of the fluid going into the meter are fed to a plurality of data registers. Under control of a progress controller, the data registers are read out and the information is fed through a data select circuit to the calculator. Command signals are also produced by a function select circuit and are fed to the calculator set indicating the desired function to be performed. The reading is then compared with the reading produced by the flowmeter.

  18. Automatic beamline calibration procedures

    SciTech Connect

    Corbett, W.J.; Lee, M.J.; Zambre, Y.

    1992-03-01

    Recent experience with the SLC and SPEAR accelerators have led to a well-defined set of procedures for calibration of the beamline model using the orbit fitting program, RESOLVE. Difference orbit analysis is used to calibrate quadrupole strengths, BPM sensitivities, corrector strengths, focusing effects from insertion devices, and to determine the source of dispersion and coupling errors. Absolute orbit analysis is used to locate quadrupole misalignments, BPM offsets, or beam loss. For light source applications, the photon beam source coordinates can be found. The result is an accurate model of the accelerator which can be used for machine control. In this paper, automatable beamline calibration procedures are outlined and illustrated with recent examples. 5 refs.

  19. Automatic thermal switch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wing, L. D.; Cunningham, J. W. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    An automatic thermal switch to control heat flow includes a first thermally conductive plate, a second thermally conductive plate and a thermal transfer plate pivotally mounted between the first and second plates. A phase change power unit, including a plunger connected to the transfer plate, is in thermal contact with the first thermally conductive plate. A biasing element, connected to the transfer plate, biases the transfer plate in a predetermined position with respect to the first and second plates. When the phase change power unit is actuated by an increase in heat transmitted through the first plate, the plunger extends and pivots the transfer plate to vary the thermal conduction between the first and second plates through the transfer plate. The biasing element, transfer plate and piston can be arranged to provide either a normally closed or normally open thermally conductive path between the first and second plates.

  20. Automatic Bayesian polarity determination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pugh, D. J.; White, R. S.; Christie, P. A. F.

    2016-07-01

    The polarity of the first motion of a seismic signal from an earthquake is an important constraint in earthquake source inversion. Microseismic events often have low signal-to-noise ratios, which may lead to difficulties estimating the correct first-motion polarities of the arrivals. This paper describes a probabilistic approach to polarity picking that can be both automated and combined with manual picking. This approach includes a quantitative estimate of the uncertainty of the polarity, improving calculation of the polarity probability density function for source inversion. It is sufficiently fast to be incorporated into an automatic processing workflow. When used in source inversion, the results are consistent with those from manual observations. In some cases, they produce a clearer constraint on the range of high-probability source mechanisms, and are better constrained than source mechanisms determined using a uniform probability of an incorrect polarity pick.

  1. Automatic routing module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malin, Janice A.

    1987-01-01

    Automatic Routing Module (ARM) is a tool to partially automate Air Launched Cruise Missile (ALCM) routing. For any accessible launch point or target pair, ARM creates flyable routes that, within the fidelity of the models, are optimal in terms of threat avoidance, clobber avoidance, and adherence to vehicle and planning constraints. Although highly algorithmic, ARM is an expert system. Because of the heuristics applied, ARM generated routes closely resemble manually generated routes in routine cases. In more complex cases, ARM's ability to accumulate and assess threat danger in three dimensions and trade that danger off with the probability of ground clobber results in the safest path around or through difficult areas. The tools available prior to ARM did not provide the planner with enough information or present it in such a way that ensured he would select the safest path.

  2. AUTOMATIC HAND COUNTER

    DOEpatents

    Mann J.R.; Wainwright, A.E.

    1963-06-11

    An automatic, personnel-operated, alpha-particle hand monitor is described which functions as a qualitative instrument to indicate to the person using it whether his hands are cold'' or hot.'' The monitor is activated by a push button and includes several capacitor-triggered thyratron tubes. Upon release of the push button, the monitor starts the counting of the radiation present on the hands of the person. If the count of the radiation exceeds a predetermined level within a predetermined time, then a capacitor will trigger a first thyratron tube to light a hot'' lamp. If, however, the count is below such level during this time period, another capacitor will fire a second thyratron to light a safe'' lamp. (AEC)

  3. Automatic alkaloid removal system.

    PubMed

    Yahaya, Muhammad Rizuwan; Hj Razali, Mohd Hudzari; Abu Bakar, Che Abdullah; Ismail, Wan Ishak Wan; Muda, Wan Musa Wan; Mat, Nashriyah; Zakaria, Abd

    2014-01-01

    This alkaloid automated removal machine was developed at Instrumentation Laboratory, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin Malaysia that purposely for removing the alkaloid toxicity from Dioscorea hispida (DH) tuber. It is a poisonous plant where scientific study has shown that its tubers contain toxic alkaloid constituents, dioscorine. The tubers can only be consumed after it poisonous is removed. In this experiment, the tubers are needed to blend as powder form before inserting into machine basket. The user is need to push the START button on machine controller for switching the water pump ON by then creating turbulence wave of water in machine tank. The water will stop automatically by triggering the outlet solenoid valve. The powders of tubers are washed for 10 minutes while 1 liter of contaminated water due toxin mixture is flowing out. At this time, the controller will automatically triggered inlet solenoid valve and the new water will flow in machine tank until achieve the desire level that which determined by ultra sonic sensor. This process will repeated for 7 h and the positive result is achieved and shows it significant according to the several parameters of biological character ofpH, temperature, dissolve oxygen, turbidity, conductivity and fish survival rate or time. From that parameter, it also shows the positive result which is near or same with control water and assuming was made that the toxin is fully removed when the pH of DH powder is near with control water. For control water, the pH is about 5.3 while water from this experiment process is 6.0 and before run the machine the pH of contaminated water is about 3.8 which are too acid. This automated machine can save time for removing toxicity from DH compared with a traditional method while less observation of the user. PMID:24783795

  4. Semi-automatic transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Morscheck, T.J.; Davis, A.R.; Huggins, M.J.

    1987-06-30

    This patent describes a semi-automatic mechanical change gear transmission system of the type comprising: a mechanical change gear transmission of the type comprising a transmission housing, an input shaft rotatably supported in the housing and driven by an engine through a nonpositive coupling, an output shaft rotatably supported in the housing and a plurality of selectable ratio gears selectively engageable one at a time to a first transmission element by means of positive, nonsynchronized jaw clutch assemblies for providing a plurality of manually selectable drive ratios between the input and output shafts, each of the jaw clutch assemblies comprising a first jaw clutch member rotatably associated with the first transmission element and a second jaw clutch member rotatably associated with a second transmission element, each of the first jaw clutch members axially moveable relative to the first transmission element; manually operated means for engaging and disengaging the nonpositive coupling; manually operated shifting means for engaging selected ratio gears to and disengaging selected ratio gears from the first transmission element; selection for sensing the identity of the particular ratio gear selected for manual engagement or disengagement from the first transmission element and for providing a signal; first and second rotational speed sensors for sensing the rotational speed of the first and second transmission elements and providing signals; a power synchronizer assembly selectively actuable for selectively varying the rotational speed of the second transmission element and the second jaw clutch members rotatably associated therewith; and a central processing unit semi-automatic mechanical change gear transmission system.

  5. Automatic Coal-Mining System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, E. R., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    Coal cutting and removal done with minimal hazard to people. Automatic coal mine cutting, transport and roof-support movement all done by automatic machinery. Exposure of people to hazardous conditions reduced to inspection tours, maintenance, repair, and possibly entry mining.

  6. Automatic Command Sequence Generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, Forest; Gladded, Roy; Khanampompan, Teerapat

    2007-01-01

    Automatic Sequence Generator (Autogen) Version 3.0 software automatically generates command sequences for the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) and several other JPL spacecraft operated by the multi-mission support team. Autogen uses standard JPL sequencing tools like APGEN, ASP, SEQGEN, and the DOM database to automate the generation of uplink command products, Spacecraft Command Message Format (SCMF) files, and the corresponding ground command products, DSN Keywords Files (DKF). Autogen supports all the major multi-mission mission phases including the cruise, aerobraking, mapping/science, and relay mission phases. Autogen is a Perl script, which functions within the mission operations UNIX environment. It consists of two parts: a set of model files and the autogen Perl script. Autogen encodes the behaviors of the system into a model and encodes algorithms for context sensitive customizations of the modeled behaviors. The model includes knowledge of different mission phases and how the resultant command products must differ for these phases. The executable software portion of Autogen, automates the setup and use of APGEN for constructing a spacecraft activity sequence file (SASF). The setup includes file retrieval through the DOM (Distributed Object Manager), an object database used to store project files. This step retrieves all the needed input files for generating the command products. Depending on the mission phase, Autogen also uses the ASP (Automated Sequence Processor) and SEQGEN to generate the command product sent to the spacecraft. Autogen also provides the means for customizing sequences through the use of configuration files. By automating the majority of the sequencing generation process, Autogen eliminates many sequence generation errors commonly introduced by manually constructing spacecraft command sequences. Through the layering of commands into the sequence by a series of scheduling algorithms, users are able to rapidly and reliably construct the

  7. Automatic brain tumor segmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, Matthew C.; Hall, Lawrence O.; Goldgof, Dmitry B.; Velthuizen, Robert P.; Murtaugh, F. R.; Silbiger, Martin L.

    1998-06-01

    A system that automatically segments and labels complete glioblastoma-multiform tumor volumes in magnetic resonance images of the human brain is presented. The magnetic resonance images consist of three feature images (T1- weighted, proton density, T2-weighted) and are processed by a system which integrates knowledge-based techniques with multispectral analysis and is independent of a particular magnetic resonance scanning protocol. Initial segmentation is performed by an unsupervised clustering algorithm. The segmented image, along with cluster centers for each class are provided to a rule-based expert system which extracts the intra-cranial region. Multispectral histogram analysis separates suspected tumor from the rest of the intra-cranial region, with region analysis used in performing the final tumor labeling. This system has been trained on eleven volume data sets and tested on twenty-two unseen volume data sets acquired from a single magnetic resonance imaging system. The knowledge-based tumor segmentation was compared with radiologist-verified `ground truth' tumor volumes and results generated by a supervised fuzzy clustering algorithm. The results of this system generally correspond well to ground truth, both on a per slice basis and more importantly in tracking total tumor volume during treatment over time.

  8. Automatic battery analyzer

    SciTech Connect

    Dougherty, T.J.; Frailing, C.E.

    1980-03-11

    Apparatus for automatically testing automotive-type, lead acid storage batteries is disclosed in which three separate tests are made and the results thereof compared to predetermined standards in a specified order to maximize the information obtained about the battery. The three tests measure (1) whether the battery meets its cold cranking rating by drawing a predetermined load current therefrom for a predetermined period of time and determining whether the battery terminal voltage is above a specified level at the end of that period, (2) whether the battery terminal voltage is above another specified level at the end of a predetermined period of time following the completion of the first test, and (3) whether the internal resistance is acceptably low. If the battery passes the first test, it is known to be acceptable. If the battery fails the first test and passes the second test, it is known to be unacceptable. If the battery fails the first and second tests, the third test is performed. If the battery then passes the third test, it is known to be acceptable but to require a recharge, whereas if the battery then fails the third test the acceptability of the battery is then not yet determined and it must be recharged and retested.

  9. Electronically controlled automatic transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Ohkubo, M.; Shiba, H.; Nakamura, K.

    1989-03-28

    This patent describes an electronically controlled automatic transmission having a manual valve working in connection with a manual shift lever, shift valves operated by solenoid valves which are driven by an electronic control circuit previously memorizing shift patterns, and a hydraulic circuit controlled by these manual valve and shift valves for driving brakes and a clutch in order to change speed. Shift patterns of 2-range and L-range, in addition to a shift pattern of D-range, are memorized previously in the electronic control circuit, an operation switch is provided which changes the shift pattern of the electronic control circuit to any shift pattern among those of D-range, 2-range and L-range at time of the manual shift lever being in a D-range position, a releasable lock mechanism is provided which prevents the manual shift lever from entering 2-range and L-range positions, and the hydraulic circuit is set to a third speed mode when the manual shift lever is in the D-range position. The circuit is set to a second speed mode when it is in the 2-range position, and the circuit is set to a first speed mode when it is in the L-range position, respectively, in case where the shift valves are not working.

  10. Automatic imitation in dogs

    PubMed Central

    Range, Friederike; Huber, Ludwig; Heyes, Cecilia

    2011-01-01

    After preliminary training to open a sliding door using their head and their paw, dogs were given a discrimination task in which they were rewarded with food for opening the door using the same method (head or paw) as demonstrated by their owner (compatible group), or for opening the door using the alternative method (incompatible group). The incompatible group, which had to counterimitate to receive food reward, required more trials to reach a fixed criterion of discrimination performance (85% correct) than the compatible group. This suggests that, like humans, dogs are subject to ‘automatic imitation’; they cannot inhibit online the tendency to imitate head use and/or paw use. In a subsequent transfer test, where all dogs were required to imitate their owners' head and paw use for food reward, the incompatible group made a greater proportion of incorrect, counterimitative responses than the compatible group. These results are consistent with the associative sequence learning model, which suggests that the development of imitation depends on sensorimotor experience and phylogenetically general mechanisms of associative learning. More specifically, they suggest that the imitative behaviour of dogs is shaped more by their developmental interactions with humans than by their evolutionary history of domestication. PMID:20667875

  11. Automatic Welding System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Robotic welding has been of interest to industrial firms because it offers higher productivity at lower cost than manual welding. There are some systems with automated arc guidance available, but they have disadvantages, such as limitations on types of materials or types of seams that can be welded; susceptibility to stray electrical signals; restricted field of view; or tendency to contaminate the weld seam. Wanting to overcome these disadvantages, Marshall Space Flight Center, aided by Hayes International Corporation, developed system that uses closed-circuit TV signals for automatic guidance of the welding torch. NASA granted license to Combined Technologies, Inc. for commercial application of the technology. They developed a refined and improved arc guidance system. CTI in turn, licensed the Merrick Corporation, also of Nashville, for marketing and manufacturing of the new system, called the CT2 Optical Trucker. CT2 is a non-contracting system that offers adaptability to broader range of welding jobs and provides greater reliability in high speed operation. It is extremely accurate and can travel at high speed of up to 150 inches per minute.

  12. Attaining Automaticity in the Visual Numerosity Task is Not Automatic

    PubMed Central

    Speelman, Craig P.; Muller Townsend, Katrina L.

    2015-01-01

    This experiment is a replication of experiments reported by Lassaline and Logan (1993) using the visual numerosity task. The aim was to replicate the transition from controlled to automatic processing reported by Lassaline and Logan (1993), and to examine the extent to which this result, reported with average group results, can be observed in the results of individuals within a group. The group results in this experiment did replicate those reported by Lassaline and Logan (1993); however, one half of the sample did not attain automaticity with the task, and one-third did not exhibit a transition from controlled to automatic processing. These results raise questions about the pervasiveness of automaticity, and the interpretation of group means when examining cognitive processes. PMID:26635658

  13. Clothes Dryer Automatic Termination Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    TeGrotenhuis, Ward E.

    2014-10-01

    Volume 2: Improved Sensor and Control Designs Many residential clothes dryers on the market today provide automatic cycles that are intended to stop when the clothes are dry, as determined by the final remaining moisture content (RMC). However, testing of automatic termination cycles has shown that many dryers are susceptible to over-drying of loads, leading to excess energy consumption. In particular, tests performed using the DOE Test Procedure in Appendix D2 of 10 CFR 430 subpart B have shown that as much as 62% of the energy used in a cycle may be from over-drying. Volume 1 of this report shows an average of 20% excess energy from over-drying when running automatic cycles with various load compositions and dryer settings. Consequently, improving automatic termination sensors and algorithms has the potential for substantial energy savings in the U.S.

  14. Automatic programming of simulation models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schroer, Bernard J.; Tseng, Fan T.; Zhang, Shou X.; Dwan, Wen S.

    1988-01-01

    The objective of automatic programming is to improve the overall environment for describing the program. This improved environment is realized by a reduction in the amount of detail that the programmer needs to know and is exposed to. Furthermore, this improved environment is achieved by a specification language that is more natural to the user's problem domain and to the user's way of thinking and looking at the problem. The goal of this research is to apply the concepts of automatic programming (AP) to modeling discrete event simulation system. Specific emphasis is on the design and development of simulation tools to assist the modeler define or construct a model of the system and to then automatically write the corresponding simulation code in the target simulation language, GPSS/PC. A related goal is to evaluate the feasibility of various languages for constructing automatic programming simulation tools.

  15. Automatic safety rod for reactors

    DOEpatents

    Germer, John H.

    1988-01-01

    An automatic safety rod for a nuclear reactor containing neutron absorbing material and designed to be inserted into a reactor core after a loss-of-core flow. Actuation is based upon either a sudden decrease in core pressure drop or the pressure drop decreases below a predetermined minimum value. The automatic control rod includes a pressure regulating device whereby a controlled decrease in operating pressure due to reduced coolant flow does not cause the rod to drop into the core.

  16. Prospects for de-automatization.

    PubMed

    Kihlstrom, John F

    2011-06-01

    Research by Raz and his associates has repeatedly found that suggestions for hypnotic agnosia, administered to highly hypnotizable subjects, reduce or even eliminate Stroop interference. The present paper sought unsuccessfully to extend these findings to negative priming in the Stroop task. Nevertheless, the reduction of Stroop interference has broad theoretical implications, both for our understanding of automaticity and for the prospect of de-automatizing cognition in meditation and other altered states of consciousness. PMID:20356765

  17. Automatic Collision Avoidance Technology (ACAT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swihart, Donald E.; Skoog, Mark A.

    2007-01-01

    This document represents two views of the Automatic Collision Avoidance Technology (ACAT). One viewgraph presentation reviews the development and system design of Automatic Collision Avoidance Technology (ACAT). Two types of ACAT exist: Automatic Ground Collision Avoidance (AGCAS) and Automatic Air Collision Avoidance (AACAS). The AGCAS Uses Digital Terrain Elevation Data (DTED) for mapping functions, and uses Navigation data to place aircraft on map. It then scans DTED in front of and around aircraft and uses future aircraft trajectory (5g) to provide automatic flyup maneuver when required. The AACAS uses data link to determine position and closing rate. It contains several canned maneuvers to avoid collision. Automatic maneuvers can occur at last instant and both aircraft maneuver when using data link. The system can use sensor in place of data link. The second viewgraph presentation reviews the development of a flight test and an evaluation of the test. A review of the operation and comparison of the AGCAS and a pilot's performance are given. The same review is given for the AACAS is given.

  18. An Experiment in Linguistic Synthesis with a Fuzzy Logic Controller

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mamdani, E. H.; Assilian, S.

    1975-01-01

    This paper describes an experiment on the "linguistic" synthesis of a controller for a model industrial plant (a steam engine). Fuzzy logic is used to convert heuristic control rules stated by a human operator into an automatic control strategy. (Author)

  19. Automatic rapid attachable warhead section

    DOEpatents

    Trennel, A.J.

    1994-05-10

    Disclosed are a method and apparatus for automatically selecting warheads or reentry vehicles from a storage area containing a plurality of types of warheads or reentry vehicles, automatically selecting weapon carriers from a storage area containing at least one type of weapon carrier, manipulating and aligning the selected warheads or reentry vehicles and weapon carriers, and automatically coupling the warheads or reentry vehicles with the weapon carriers such that coupling of improperly selected warheads or reentry vehicles with weapon carriers is inhibited. Such inhibition enhances safety of operations and is achieved by a number of means including computer control of the process of selection and coupling and use of connectorless interfaces capable of assuring that improperly selected items will be rejected or rendered inoperable prior to coupling. Also disclosed are a method and apparatus wherein the stated principles pertaining to selection, coupling and inhibition are extended to apply to any item-to-be-carried and any carrying assembly. 10 figures.

  20. Automatic rapid attachable warhead section

    DOEpatents

    Trennel, Anthony J.

    1994-05-10

    Disclosed are a method and apparatus for (1) automatically selecting warheads or reentry vehicles from a storage area containing a plurality of types of warheads or reentry vehicles, (2) automatically selecting weapon carriers from a storage area containing at least one type of weapon carrier, (3) manipulating and aligning the selected warheads or reentry vehicles and weapon carriers, and (4) automatically coupling the warheads or reentry vehicles with the weapon carriers such that coupling of improperly selected warheads or reentry vehicles with weapon carriers is inhibited. Such inhibition enhances safety of operations and is achieved by a number of means including computer control of the process of selection and coupling and use of connectorless interfaces capable of assuring that improperly selected items will be rejected or rendered inoperable prior to coupling. Also disclosed are a method and apparatus wherein the stated principles pertaining to selection, coupling and inhibition are extended to apply to any item-to-be-carried and any carrying assembly.

  1. Automatic programming of simulation models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schroer, Bernard J.; Tseng, Fan T.; Zhang, Shou X.; Dwan, Wen S.

    1990-01-01

    The concepts of software engineering were used to improve the simulation modeling environment. Emphasis was placed on the application of an element of rapid prototyping, or automatic programming, to assist the modeler define the problem specification. Then, once the problem specification has been defined, an automatic code generator is used to write the simulation code. The following two domains were selected for evaluating the concepts of software engineering for discrete event simulation: manufacturing domain and a spacecraft countdown network sequence. The specific tasks were to: (1) define the software requirements for a graphical user interface to the Automatic Manufacturing Programming System (AMPS) system; (2) develop a graphical user interface for AMPS; and (3) compare the AMPS graphical interface with the AMPS interactive user interface.

  2. Algorithms for skiascopy measurement automatization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fomins, Sergejs; Trukša, Renārs; KrūmiĆa, Gunta

    2014-10-01

    Automatic dynamic infrared retinoscope was developed, which allows to run procedure at a much higher rate. Our system uses a USB image sensor with up to 180 Hz refresh rate equipped with a long focus objective and 850 nm infrared light emitting diode as light source. Two servo motors driven by microprocessor control the rotation of semitransparent mirror and motion of retinoscope chassis. Image of eye pupil reflex is captured via software and analyzed along the horizontal plane. Algorithm for automatic accommodative state analysis is developed based on the intensity changes of the fundus reflex.

  3. FAMA: Fast Automatic MOOG Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magrini, Laura; Randich, Sofia; Friel, Eileen; Spina, Lorenzo; Jacobson, Heather; Cantat-Gaudin, Tristan; Donati, Paolo; Baglioni, Roberto; Maiorca, Enrico; Bragaglia, Angela; Sordo, Rosanna; Vallenari, Antonella

    2014-02-01

    FAMA (Fast Automatic MOOG Analysis), written in Perl, computes the atmospheric parameters and abundances of a large number of stars using measurements of equivalent widths (EWs) automatically and independently of any subjective approach. Based on the widely-used MOOG code, it simultaneously searches for three equilibria, excitation equilibrium, ionization balance, and the relationship between logn(FeI) and the reduced EWs. FAMA also evaluates the statistical errors on individual element abundances and errors due to the uncertainties in the stellar parameters. Convergence criteria are not fixed "a priori" but instead are based on the quality of the spectra.

  4. Grinding Parts For Automatic Welding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burley, Richard K.; Hoult, William S.

    1989-01-01

    Rollers guide grinding tool along prospective welding path. Skatelike fixture holds rotary grinder or file for machining large-diameter rings or ring segments in preparation for welding. Operator grasps handles to push rolling fixture along part. Rollers maintain precise dimensional relationship so grinding wheel cuts precise depth. Fixture-mounted grinder machines surface to quality sufficient for automatic welding; manual welding with attendant variations and distortion not necessary. Developed to enable automatic welding of parts, manual welding of which resulted in weld bead permeated with microscopic fissures.

  5. Automatic diluter for bacteriological samples.

    PubMed

    Trinel, P A; Bleuze, P; Leroy, G; Moschetto, Y; Leclerc, H

    1983-02-01

    The described apparatus, carrying 190 tubes, allows automatic and aseptic dilution of liquid or suspended-solid samples. Serial 10-fold dilutions are programmable from 10(-1) to 10(-9) and are carried out in glass tubes with screw caps and split silicone septa. Dilution assays performed with strains of Escherichia coli and Bacillus stearothermophilus permitted efficient conditions for sterilization of the needle to be defined and showed that the automatic dilutions were as accurate and as reproducible as the most rigorous conventional dilutions. PMID:6338826

  6. Automatic diluter for bacteriological samples.

    PubMed Central

    Trinel, P A; Bleuze, P; Leroy, G; Moschetto, Y; Leclerc, H

    1983-01-01

    The described apparatus, carrying 190 tubes, allows automatic and aseptic dilution of liquid or suspended-solid samples. Serial 10-fold dilutions are programmable from 10(-1) to 10(-9) and are carried out in glass tubes with screw caps and split silicone septa. Dilution assays performed with strains of Escherichia coli and Bacillus stearothermophilus permitted efficient conditions for sterilization of the needle to be defined and showed that the automatic dilutions were as accurate and as reproducible as the most rigorous conventional dilutions. Images PMID:6338826

  7. Automatically Preparing Safe SQL Queries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bisht, Prithvi; Sistla, A. Prasad; Venkatakrishnan, V. N.

    We present the first sound program source transformation approach for automatically transforming the code of a legacy web application to employ PREPARE statements in place of unsafe SQL queries. Our approach therefore opens the way for eradicating the SQL injection threat vector from legacy web applications.

  8. Automatic 35 mm slide duplicator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seidel, H. F.; Texler, R. E.

    1980-01-01

    Automatic duplicator is readily assembled from conventional, inexpensive equipment and parts. Series of slides can be exposed without operator attention, eliminating considerable manual handling and processing ordinarily required. At end of programmed exposure sequence, unit shuts off and audible alarm signals completion of process.

  9. Bubble vector in automatic merging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pamidi, P. R.; Butler, T. G.

    1987-01-01

    It is shown that it is within the capability of the DMAP language to build a set of vectors that can grow incrementally to be applied automatically and economically within a DMAP loop that serves to append sub-matrices that are generated within a loop to a core matrix. The method of constructing such vectors is explained.

  10. Automatic Identification of Metaphoric Utterances

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunn, Jonathan Edwin

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation analyzes the problem of metaphor identification in linguistic and computational semantics, considering both manual and automatic approaches. It describes a manual approach to metaphor identification, the Metaphoricity Measurement Procedure (MMP), and compares this approach with other manual approaches. The dissertation then…

  11. Automatic Error Analysis Using Intervals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothwell, E. J.; Cloud, M. J.

    2012-01-01

    A technique for automatic error analysis using interval mathematics is introduced. A comparison to standard error propagation methods shows that in cases involving complicated formulas, the interval approach gives comparable error estimates with much less effort. Several examples are considered, and numerical errors are computed using the INTLAB…

  12. Automatic Association of News Items.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carrick, Christina; Watters, Carolyn

    1997-01-01

    Discussion of electronic news delivery systems and the automatic generation of electronic editions focuses on the association of related items of different media type, specifically photos and stories. The goal is to be able to determine to what degree any two news items refer to the same news event. (Author/LRW)

  13. Automatic agar tray inoculation device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkins, J. R.; Mills, S. M.

    1972-01-01

    Automatic agar tray inoculation device is simple in design and foolproof in operation. It employs either conventional inoculating loop or cotton swab for uniform inoculation of agar media, and it allows technician to carry on with other activities while tray is being inoculated.

  14. How automatic are crossmodal correspondences?

    PubMed

    Spence, Charles; Deroy, Ophelia

    2013-03-01

    The last couple of years have seen a rapid growth of interest (especially amongst cognitive psychologists, cognitive neuroscientists, and developmental researchers) in the study of crossmodal correspondences - the tendency for our brains (not to mention the brains of other species) to preferentially associate certain features or dimensions of stimuli across the senses. By now, robust empirical evidence supports the existence of numerous crossmodal correspondences, affecting people's performance across a wide range of psychological tasks - in everything from the redundant target effect paradigm through to studies of the Implicit Association Test, and from speeded discrimination/classification tasks through to unspeeded spatial localisation and temporal order judgment tasks. However, one question that has yet to receive a satisfactory answer is whether crossmodal correspondences automatically affect people's performance (in all, or at least in a subset of tasks), as opposed to reflecting more of a strategic, or top-down, phenomenon. Here, we review the latest research on the topic of crossmodal correspondences to have addressed this issue. We argue that answering the question will require researchers to be more precise in terms of defining what exactly automaticity entails. Furthermore, one's answer to the automaticity question may also hinge on the answer to a second question: Namely, whether crossmodal correspondences are all 'of a kind', or whether instead there may be several different kinds of crossmodal mapping (e.g., statistical, structural, and semantic). Different answers to the automaticity question may then be revealed depending on the type of correspondence under consideration. We make a number of suggestions for future research that might help to determine just how automatic crossmodal correspondences really are. PMID:23370382

  15. Automatic Visual Inspection Of Reed Switches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Daele, J.; Oosterlinck, A.; Van den Berghe, H.

    1980-04-01

    In many production chains visual inspection of products is an important manufacturing consideration with respect to quality control. Recent progress in image processing and pattern recognition led the way to economically justified applications; modern technology enables the construction of such auto mata featuring high reliability and constancy. This paper describes an automatic visual inspection machine performing intelligent control tasks in a very short time. The possible applications include dimension control of products; inspection of objects on shape, greyness, or texture; sorting of objects; positioning; etc. The design is based on a fast synthesis procedure of a TV image by profile extraction. The features to be controlled are extracted from these profiles and compared with upper/lower limits obtained from a learning process. The system performances are expressed by the elaboration of an industrial case, the real-time visual inspection of reed switches. More than 35 features are detected and controlled for each switch within 1 second. Several experiments with a prototype version have proven the feasible use as an industrial on-line controller.

  16. Image simulation for automatic license plate recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bala, Raja; Zhao, Yonghui; Burry, Aaron; Kozitsky, Vladimir; Fillion, Claude; Saunders, Craig; Rodríguez-Serrano, José

    2012-01-01

    Automatic license plate recognition (ALPR) is an important capability for traffic surveillance applications, including toll monitoring and detection of different types of traffic violations. ALPR is a multi-stage process comprising plate localization, character segmentation, optical character recognition (OCR), and identification of originating jurisdiction (i.e. state or province). Training of an ALPR system for a new jurisdiction typically involves gathering vast amounts of license plate images and associated ground truth data, followed by iterative tuning and optimization of the ALPR algorithms. The substantial time and effort required to train and optimize the ALPR system can result in excessive operational cost and overhead. In this paper we propose a framework to create an artificial set of license plate images for accelerated training and optimization of ALPR algorithms. The framework comprises two steps: the synthesis of license plate images according to the design and layout for a jurisdiction of interest; and the modeling of imaging transformations and distortions typically encountered in the image capture process. Distortion parameters are estimated by measurements of real plate images. The simulation methodology is successfully demonstrated for training of OCR.

  17. Auxiliary circuit enables automatic monitoring of EKG'S

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    Auxiliary circuits allow direct, automatic monitoring of electrocardiograms by digital computers. One noiseless square-wave output signal for each trigger pulse from an electrocardiogram preamplifier is produced. The circuit also permits automatic processing of cardiovascular data from analog tapes.

  18. Automatic Whistler Detector and Analyzer system: Automatic Whistler Detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lichtenberger, J.; Ferencz, C.; BodnáR, L.; Hamar, D.; Steinbach, P.

    2008-12-01

    A new, unique system has been developed for the automatic detection and analysis of whistlers. The Automatic Whistler Detector and Analyzer (AWDA) system has two purposes: (1) to automatically provide plasmaspheric electron densities extracted from whistlers and (2) to collect statistical data for the investigation of whistler generation and propagation. This paper presents the details of and the first results obtained by the automatic detector segment. The detector algorithm is based on image correlation where the target image is a preprocessed spectrogram of raw VLF signals and the pattern is a model whistler. The first AWDA system has been working in Tihany, Hungary (L = 1.8), and has collected 100,000 whistler traces per year. The overall detection efficiency using a parameter set optimized for purpose 2 is 90% for misdetection and 50-80% for false detection. The statistical analysis over the period February 2002 to February 2008 including 600,000 whistler traces shows high diurnal variations; whistler were mainly, but not only, detected when both the source and receiver regions were unlit. The seasonal occurrence is high during austral summer and low during austral winter. Comparison with Tarcsai et al.'s (1988) statistical study on Tihany whistlers shows differences in both diurnal and seasonal variations, but the latter study was made on 1388 manually identified whistlers only. The L value distributions of both data sets are similar. A global network of AWDA systems (AWDAnet) has been set up to overcome the time and space limitations of a single station; the network consists of 13 nodes, and another 6 are envisaged for the near future.

  19. Self-Compassion and Automatic Thoughts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akin, Ahmet

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this research is to examine the relationships between self-compassion and automatic thoughts. Participants were 299 university students. In this study, the Self-compassion Scale and the Automatic Thoughts Questionnaire were used. The relationships between self-compassion and automatic thoughts were examined using correlation analysis…

  20. Automatic registration of satellite imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fonseca, Leila M. G.; Costa, Max H. M.; Manjunath, B. S.; Kenney, C.

    1997-01-01

    Image registration is one of the basic image processing operations in remote sensing. With the increase in the number of images collected every day from different sensors, automated registration of multi-sensor/multi-spectral images has become an important issue. A wide range of registration techniques has been developed for many different types of applications and data. The objective of this paper is to present an automatic registration algorithm which uses a multiresolution analysis procedure based upon the wavelet transform. The procedure is completely automatic and relies on the grey level information content of the images and their local wavelet transform modulus maxima. The registration algorithm is very simple and easy to apply because it needs basically one parameter. We have obtained very encouraging results on test data sets from the TM and SPOT sensor images of forest, urban and agricultural areas.

  1. Automatic transmission for electric wheelchairs.

    PubMed

    Reswick, J B

    1985-07-01

    A new infinitely variable automatic transmission called the RESATRAN that automatically changes its speed ratio in response to load torque being transmitted is presented. A prototype has been built and tested on a conventional three-wheeled electric motor propelled wheelchair. It is shown theoretically that more than 50 percent reduction in power during hill climbing may be expected when a transmission-equipped wheelchair is compared to a direct-drive vehicle operating at the same voltage. It is suggested that with such a transmission, wheelchairs can use much smaller motors and associated electronic controls, while at the same time gaining in efficiency that results in longer operating distances for the same battery charge. Design details of the transmission and test results are presented. These results show a substantial reduction in operating current and increased distance of operation over a test course. PMID:3835264

  2. AUTO: Automatic script generation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Granacki, John; Hom, Ivan; Kazi, Tauseef

    1993-11-01

    This technical manual describes an automatic script generation system (Auto) for guiding the physical design of a printed circuit board. Auto accepts a printed circuit board design as specified in a netlist and partslist and returns a script to automatically provide all the necessary commands and file specifications required by Harris EDA's Finesse CAD system for placing and routing the printed circuit board. Auto insulates the designer from learning the details of commercial CAD systems, allows designers to modify the script for customized design entry, and performs format and completeness checking of the design files. This technical manual contains a complete tutorial/design example describing how to use the Auto system and also contains appendices describing the format of files required by the Finesse CAD system.

  3. Automatic design of magazine covers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jahanian, Ali; Liu, Jerry; Tretter, Daniel R.; Lin, Qian; Damera-Venkata, Niranjan; O'Brien-Strain, Eamonn; Lee, Seungyon; Fan, Jian; Allebach, Jan P.

    2012-03-01

    In this paper, we propose a system for automatic design of magazine covers that quantifies a number of concepts from art and aesthetics. Our solution to automatic design of this type of media has been shaped by input from professional designers, magazine art directors and editorial boards, and journalists. Consequently, a number of principles in design and rules in designing magazine covers are delineated. Several techniques are derived and employed in order to quantify and implement these principles and rules in the format of a software framework. At this stage, our framework divides the task of design into three main modules: layout of magazine cover elements, choice of color for masthead and cover lines, and typography of cover lines. Feedback from professional designers on our designs suggests that our results are congruent with their intuition.

  4. Automatic Home Nursing Activity Recommendation

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Gang; Tang, Chunqiang

    2009-01-01

    The rapid deployment of Web-based, consumer-centric electronic medical records (CEMRs) is an important trend in healthcare. In this paper, we incorporate nursing knowledge into CEMR so that it can automatically recommend home nursing activities (HNAs). Those more complex HNAs are made clickable for users to find detailed implementation procedures. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our techniques using USMLE medical exam cases. PMID:20351888

  5. Automatic computation of transfer functions

    DOEpatents

    Atcitty, Stanley; Watson, Luke Dale

    2015-04-14

    Technologies pertaining to the automatic computation of transfer functions for a physical system are described herein. The physical system is one of an electrical system, a mechanical system, an electromechanical system, an electrochemical system, or an electromagnetic system. A netlist in the form of a matrix comprises data that is indicative of elements in the physical system, values for the elements in the physical system, and structure of the physical system. Transfer functions for the physical system are computed based upon the netlist.

  6. Toward automatic finite element analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kela, Ajay; Perucchio, Renato; Voelcker, Herbert

    1987-01-01

    Two problems must be solved if the finite element method is to become a reliable and affordable blackbox engineering tool. Finite element meshes must be generated automatically from computer aided design databases and mesh analysis must be made self-adaptive. The experimental system described solves both problems in 2-D through spatial and analytical substructuring techniques that are now being extended into 3-D.

  7. Automatic translation among spoken languages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walter, Sharon M.; Costigan, Kelly

    1994-02-01

    The Machine Aided Voice Translation (MAVT) system was developed in response to the shortage of experienced military field interrogators with both foreign language proficiency and interrogation skills. Combining speech recognition, machine translation, and speech generation technologies, the MAVT accepts an interrogator's spoken English question and translates it into spoken Spanish. The spoken Spanish response of the potential informant can then be translated into spoken English. Potential military and civilian applications for automatic spoken language translation technology are discussed in this paper.

  8. Automatic translation among spoken languages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walter, Sharon M.; Costigan, Kelly

    1994-01-01

    The Machine Aided Voice Translation (MAVT) system was developed in response to the shortage of experienced military field interrogators with both foreign language proficiency and interrogation skills. Combining speech recognition, machine translation, and speech generation technologies, the MAVT accepts an interrogator's spoken English question and translates it into spoken Spanish. The spoken Spanish response of the potential informant can then be translated into spoken English. Potential military and civilian applications for automatic spoken language translation technology are discussed in this paper.

  9. Automatic segmentation of clinical texts.

    PubMed

    Apostolova, Emilia; Channin, David S; Demner-Fushman, Dina; Furst, Jacob; Lytinen, Steven; Raicu, Daniela

    2009-01-01

    Clinical narratives, such as radiology and pathology reports, are commonly available in electronic form. However, they are also commonly entered and stored as free text. Knowledge of the structure of clinical narratives is necessary for enhancing the productivity of healthcare departments and facilitating research. This study attempts to automatically segment medical reports into semantic sections. Our goal is to develop a robust and scalable medical report segmentation system requiring minimum user input for efficient retrieval and extraction of information from free-text clinical narratives. Hand-crafted rules were used to automatically identify a high-confidence training set. This automatically created training dataset was later used to develop metrics and an algorithm that determines the semantic structure of the medical reports. A word-vector cosine similarity metric combined with several heuristics was used to classify each report sentence into one of several pre-defined semantic sections. This baseline algorithm achieved 79% accuracy. A Support Vector Machine (SVM) classifier trained on additional formatting and contextual features was able to achieve 90% accuracy. Plans for future work include developing a configurable system that could accommodate various medical report formatting and content standards. PMID:19965054

  10. Automatic Contrail Detection and Segmentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weiss, John M.; Christopher, Sundar A.; Welch, Ronald M.

    1998-01-01

    Automatic contrail detection is of major importance in the study of the atmospheric effects of aviation. Due to the large volume of satellite imagery, selecting contrail images for study by hand is impractical and highly subject to human error. It is far better to have a system in place that will automatically evaluate an image to determine 1) whether it contains contrails and 2) where the contrails are located. Preliminary studies indicate that it is possible to automatically detect and locate contrails in Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) imagery with a high degree of confidence. Once contrails have been identified and localized in a satellite image, it is useful to segment the image into contrail versus noncontrail pixels. The ability to partition image pixels makes it possible to determine the optical properties of contrails, including optical thickness and particle size. In this paper, we describe a new technique for segmenting satellite images containing contrails. This method has good potential for creating a contrail climatology in an automated fashion. The majority of contrails are detected, rejecting clutter in the image, even cirrus streaks. Long, thin contrails are most easily detected. However, some contrails may be missed because they are curved, diffused over a large area, or present in short segments. Contrails average 2-3 km in width for the cases studied.

  11. On automatic synthesis of analog/digital circuits

    SciTech Connect

    Beiu, V.

    1998-12-31

    The paper builds on a recent explicit numerical algorithm for Kolmogorov`s superpositions, and will show that in order to synthesize minimum size (i.e., size-optimal) circuits for implementing any Boolean function, the nonlinear activation function of the gates has to be the identity function. Because classical and--or implementations, as well as threshold gate implementations require exponential size, it follows that size-optimal solutions for implementing arbitrary Boolean functions can be obtained using analog (or mixed analog/digital) circuits. Conclusions and several comments are ending the paper.

  12. Development of automatic hologram synthesizer for medical use II: hologram synthesizing machine and viewer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Masane; Saito, Takayuki

    1992-05-01

    Hologram synthesizing machine as a key component of the automatic hologram synthesizer is developed. Hologram synthesizing machine creates cylindrical multiplex holograms with 400 mm diameter from images displayed on liquid crystal SLM or images on 35 mm cine film. The machine consists of a main body, a controller, and a film processing machine, and performs synthesis and chemical processing of hologram automatically within 4 hours. A viewer which reconstructs original images from a synthesized hologram is also developed. In addition to reconstruction of images, the viewer also can point and measure images.

  13. Development of automatic hologram synthesizer for medical use I: general description

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsujiuchi, Jumpei

    1992-05-01

    An automatic hologram synthesizing system is developed for medical use. The purpose of this system is to synthesize cylindrical holographic stereograms of white light reconstruction for displaying various kinds of medical images such as X-ray, CT, MRI, etc.. To make the use of the system easy and processing rapid, a computer is employed to make the system automatic and to convert original medical images into images suited to hologram synthesis, compact size optical system is designed, and a liquid crystal spatial light modulator is employed as an interface between computer and hologram synthesizer.

  14. BACCHUS: Brussels Automatic Code for Characterizing High accUracy Spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masseron, Thomas; Merle, Thibault; Hawkins, Keith

    2016-05-01

    BACCHUS (Brussels Automatic Code for Characterizing High accUracy Spectra) derives stellar parameters (Teff, log g, metallicity, microturbulence velocity and rotational velocity), equivalent widths, and abundances. The code includes on the fly spectrum synthesis, local continuum normalization, estimation of local S/N, automatic line masking, four methods for abundance determinations, and a flagging system aiding line selection. BACCHUS relies on the grid of MARCS model atmospheres, Masseron's model atmosphere thermodynamic structure interpolator, and the radiative transfer code Turbospectrum (ascl:1205.004).

  15. Automatic hypermnesia and impaired recollection in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Linscott, R J; Knight, R G

    2001-10-01

    Evidence from studies of nonmnemonic automatic cognitive processes provides reason to expect that schizophrenia is associated with exaggerated automatic memory (implicit memory), or automatic hypermnesia. Participants with schizophrenia (n = 22) and control participants (n = 26) were compared on word stem completion (WSC) and list discrimination (LD) tasks administered using the process dissociation procedure. Unadjusted, extended measurement model and dual-process signal-detection methods were used to estimate recollection and automatic memory indices. Schizophrenia was associated with automatic hypermnesia on the WSC task and impaired recollection on both tasks. Thought disorder was associated with even greater automatic hypermnesia. The absence of automatic hypermnesia on the LD task was interpreted with reference to the neuropsychological bases of context and content memory. PMID:11761047

  16. Social influence effects on automatic racial prejudice.

    PubMed

    Lowery, B S; Hardin, C D; Sinclair, S

    2001-11-01

    Although most research on the control of automatic prejudice has focused on the efficacy of deliberate attempts to suppress or correct for stereotyping, the reported experiments tested the hypothesis that automatic racial prejudice is subject to common social influence. In experiments involving actual interethnic contact, both tacit and expressed social influence reduced the expression of automatic prejudice, as assessed by two different measures of automatic attitudes. Moreover, the automatic social tuning effect depended on participant ethnicity. European Americans (but not Asian Americans) exhibited less automatic prejudice in the presence of a Black experimenter than a White experimenter (Experiments 2 and 4), although both groups exhibited reduced automatic prejudice when instructed to avoid prejudice (Experiment 3). Results are consistent with shared reality theory, which postulates that social regulation is central to social cognition. PMID:11708561

  17. Unification of automatic target tracking and automatic target recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schachter, Bruce J.

    2014-06-01

    The subject being addressed is how an automatic target tracker (ATT) and an automatic target recognizer (ATR) can be fused together so tightly and so well that their distinctiveness becomes lost in the merger. This has historically not been the case outside of biology and a few academic papers. The biological model of ATT∪ATR arises from dynamic patterns of activity distributed across many neural circuits and structures (including retina). The information that the brain receives from the eyes is "old news" at the time that it receives it. The eyes and brain forecast a tracked object's future position, rather than relying on received retinal position. Anticipation of the next moment - building up a consistent perception - is accomplished under difficult conditions: motion (eyes, head, body, scene background, target) and processing limitations (neural noise, delays, eye jitter, distractions). Not only does the human vision system surmount these problems, but it has innate mechanisms to exploit motion in support of target detection and classification. Biological vision doesn't normally operate on snapshots. Feature extraction, detection and recognition are spatiotemporal. When vision is viewed as a spatiotemporal process, target detection, recognition, tracking, event detection and activity recognition, do not seem as distinct as they are in current ATT and ATR designs. They appear as similar mechanism taking place at varying time scales. A framework is provided for unifying ATT and ATR.

  18. Automatic assembly of space stations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, P. K. C.

    1985-01-01

    A problem in the automatic assembly of space stations is the determination of guidance laws for the terminal rendezvous and docking of two structural components or modules. The problem involves the feedback control of both the relative attitude and translational motion of the modules. A suitable mathematical model based on rigid body dynamics was used. The basic requirements, physical constraints and difficulties associated with the control problem are discussed. An approach which bypasses some of the difficulties is proposed. A nonlinear guidance law satisfying the basic requirements is derived. The implementation requirements is discussed. The performance of the resulting feedback control system with rigid and flexible structural components is studied by computer simulation.

  19. Commutated automatic gain control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yost, S. R.

    1982-01-01

    The commutated automatic gain control (AGC) system was designed and built for the prototype Loran-C receiver is discussed. The current version of the prototype receiver, the Mini L-80, was tested initially in 1980. The receiver uses a super jolt microcomputer to control a memory aided phase loop (MAPLL). The microcomputer also controls the input/output, latitude/longitude conversion, and the recently added AGC system. The AGC control adjusts the level of each station signal, such that the early portion of each envelope rise is about at the same amplitude in the receiver envelope detector.

  20. Commutated automatic gain control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yost, S. R.

    1982-01-01

    A commutated automatic gain control (AGC) system was designed and built for a prototype Loran C receiver. The receiver uses a microcomputer to control a memory aided phase-locked loop (MAPLL). The microcomputer also controls the input/output, latitude/longitude conversion, and the recently added AGC system. The circuit designed for the AGC is described, and bench and flight test results are presented. The AGC circuit described actually samples starting at a point 40 microseconds after a zero crossing determined by the software lock pulse ultimately generated by a 30 microsecond delay and add network in the receiver front end envelope detector.

  1. An automatic assembly planning system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Y. F.; Lee, C. S. G.

    An automatic assembly planning system which takes the CAD description of a product as input and automatically generates an assembly plan subject to the resource constraint of a given assembly cell is presented. The system improves the flexibility and productivity of flexible manufacturing systems and is composed of five modules: world database, simulated world model, knowledge acquisition mechanism, planning knowledge base, and assembly planner. The acquired knowledge forms the planning knowledge base. The simulated world model keeps track of the current state of the assembly world. In the initial state, all the components are separated, while in the final state, all the components are assembled. The assembly planner is made up of a set of production rules which models the effects of real assembly tasks. By repeatedly applying these production rules to the simulated world state, the planner transforms the initial state into the final state. The set of rules applied during this transformation process forms the assembly plan to actually assemble the product in the given assembly cell. Examples are given to illustrate the concepts in these five modules.

  2. Automatic control of visual selection.

    PubMed

    Theeuwes, Jan

    2012-01-01

    This paper seeks out to reduce the role of the homunculus, the 'little man in the head' that is still prominent in most psychological theories regarding the control our behaviour. We argue that once engaged in a task (which is a volitional act), visual selection run off more or less in an automatic fashion. We argue that the salience map that drives automatic selection is not only determined by raw physical salience of the objects in the environment but also by the way these objects appear to the person. We provide evidence that priming (feature priming, priming by working memory and reward priming) sharpens the cortical representation of these objects such that these objects appear to be more salient above and beyond their physical salience. We demonstrate that this type of priming is not under volitional control: it occurs even if observers try to volitionally prepare for something else. In other words, looking at red prepares our brain for things that are red even if we volitionally try to prepare for green. PMID:23437629

  3. Automatic Computer Mapping of Terrain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smedes, H. W.

    1971-01-01

    Computer processing of 17 wavelength bands of visible, reflective infrared, and thermal infrared scanner spectrometer data, and of three wavelength bands derived from color aerial film has resulted in successful automatic computer mapping of eight or more terrain classes in a Yellowstone National Park test site. The tests involved: (1) supervised and non-supervised computer programs; (2) special preprocessing of the scanner data to reduce computer processing time and cost, and improve the accuracy; and (3) studies of the effectiveness of the proposed Earth Resources Technology Satellite (ERTS) data channels in the automatic mapping of the same terrain, based on simulations, using the same set of scanner data. The following terrain classes have been mapped with greater than 80 percent accuracy in a 12-square-mile area with 1,800 feet of relief; (1) bedrock exposures, (2) vegetated rock rubble, (3) talus, (4) glacial kame meadow, (5) glacial till meadow, (6) forest, (7) bog, and (8) water. In addition, shadows of clouds and cliffs are depicted, but were greatly reduced by using preprocessing techniques.

  4. Scalability issues in evolutionary synthesis of electronic circuits: lessons learned and challenges ahead

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoica, A.; Keymeulen, D.; Zebulum, R. S.; Ferguson, M. I.

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes scalability issues of evolutionary-driven automatic synthesis of electronic circuits. The article begins by reviewing the concepts of circuit evolution and discussing the limitations of this technique when trying to achieve more complex systems.

  5. ANPS - AUTOMATIC NETWORK PROGRAMMING SYSTEM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schroer, B. J.

    1994-01-01

    Development of some of the space program's large simulation projects -- like the project which involves simulating the countdown sequence prior to spacecraft liftoff -- requires the support of automated tools and techniques. The number of preconditions which must be met for a successful spacecraft launch and the complexity of their interrelationship account for the difficulty of creating an accurate model of the countdown sequence. Researchers developed ANPS for the Nasa Marshall Space Flight Center to assist programmers attempting to model the pre-launch countdown sequence. Incorporating the elements of automatic programming as its foundation, ANPS aids the user in defining the problem and then automatically writes the appropriate simulation program in GPSS/PC code. The program's interactive user dialogue interface creates an internal problem specification file from user responses which includes the time line for the countdown sequence, the attributes for the individual activities which are part of a launch, and the dependent relationships between the activities. The program's automatic simulation code generator receives the file as input and selects appropriate macros from the library of software modules to generate the simulation code in the target language GPSS/PC. The user can recall the problem specification file for modification to effect any desired changes in the source code. ANPS is designed to write simulations for problems concerning the pre-launch activities of space vehicles and the operation of ground support equipment and has potential for use in developing network reliability models for hardware systems and subsystems. ANPS was developed in 1988 for use on IBM PC or compatible machines. The program requires at least 640 KB memory and one 360 KB disk drive, PC DOS Version 2.0 or above, and GPSS/PC System Version 2.0 from Minuteman Software. The program is written in Turbo Prolog Version 2.0. GPSS/PC is a trademark of Minuteman Software. Turbo Prolog

  6. The use of automatic programming techniques for fault tolerant computing systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wild, C.

    1985-01-01

    It is conjectured that the production of software for ultra-reliable computing systems such as required by Space Station, aircraft, nuclear power plants and the like will require a high degree of automation as well as fault tolerance. In this paper, the relationship between automatic programming techniques and fault tolerant computing systems is explored. Initial efforts in the automatic synthesis of code from assertions to be used for error detection as well as the automatic generation of assertions and test cases from abstract data type specifications is outlined. Speculation on the ability to generate truly diverse designs capable of recovery from errors by exploring alternate paths in the program synthesis tree is discussed. Some initial thoughts on the use of knowledge based systems for the global detection of abnormal behavior using expectations and the goal-directed reconfiguration of resources to meet critical mission objectives are given. One of the sources of information for these systems would be the knowledge captured during the automatic programming process.

  7. Automatic tools for system testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peccia, N. M.

    1993-01-01

    As spacecraft control and other space-related ground systems become increasingly complex, the effort required in testing and validation also increases. Implementation of a spacecraft control system normally involves a number of incremental deliveries. In addition kernel or general purpose software may also be involved, which must itself be considered in the integration and testing program. Tools can be used to assist this testing. These can reduce the effort required or alternatively they can ensure that for a given level of effort, a better job is done. Great benefit could be derived by automating certain types of testing (interactive software) which up to now has been performed manually at a terminal. This paper reports on an on-going study. The study examines means of automating spacecraft control system testing, evaluates relevant commercial tools and aims to prototype basic automatic testing functions.

  8. Automatic electronic fish tracking system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Osborne, P. W.; Hoffman, E.; Merriner, J. V.; Richards, C. E.; Lovelady, R. W.

    1976-01-01

    A newly developed electronic fish tracking system to automatically monitor the movements and migratory habits of fish is reported. The system is aimed particularly at studies of effects on fish life of industrial facilities which use rivers or lakes to dump their effluents. Location of fish is acquired by means of acoustic links from the fish to underwater Listening Stations, and by radio links which relay tracking information to a shore-based Data Base. Fish over 4 inches long may be tracked over a 5 x 5 mile area. The electronic fish tracking system provides the marine scientist with electronics which permit studies that were not practical in the past and which are cost-effective compared to manual methods.

  9. Automatic blocking of nested loops

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schreiber, Robert; Dongarra, Jack J.

    1990-01-01

    Blocked algorithms have much better properties of data locality and therefore can be much more efficient than ordinary algorithms when a memory hierarchy is involved. On the other hand, they are very difficult to write and to tune for particular machines. The reorganization is considered of nested loops through the use of known program transformations in order to create blocked algorithms automatically. The program transformations used are strip mining, loop interchange, and a variant of loop skewing in which invertible linear transformations (with integer coordinates) of the loop indices are allowed. Some problems are solved concerning the optimal application of these transformations. It is shown, in a very general setting, how to choose a nearly optimal set of transformed indices. It is then shown, in one particular but rather frequently occurring situation, how to choose an optimal set of block sizes.

  10. Autoclass: An automatic classification system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stutz, John; Cheeseman, Peter; Hanson, Robin

    1991-01-01

    The task of inferring a set of classes and class descriptions most likely to explain a given data set can be placed on a firm theoretical foundation using Bayesian statistics. Within this framework, and using various mathematical and algorithmic approximations, the AutoClass System searches for the most probable classifications, automatically choosing the number of classes and complexity of class descriptions. A simpler version of AutoClass has been applied to many large real data sets, has discovered new independently-verified phenomena, and has been released as a robust software package. Recent extensions allow attributes to be selectively correlated within particular classes, and allow classes to inherit, or share, model parameters through a class hierarchy. The mathematical foundations of AutoClass are summarized.

  11. Automatic Sequencing for Experimental Protocols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsieh, Paul F.; Stern, Ivan

    We present a paradigm and implementation of a system for the specification of the experimental protocols to be used for the calibration of AXAF mirrors. For the mirror calibration, several thousand individual measurements need to be defined. For each measurement, over one hundred parameters need to be tabulated for the facility test conductor and several hundred instrument parameters need to be set. We provide a high level protocol language which allows for a tractable representation of the measurement protocol. We present a procedure dispatcher which automatically sequences a protocol more accurately and more rapidly than is possible by an unassisted human operator. We also present back-end tools to generate printed procedure manuals and database tables required for review by the AXAF program. This paradigm has been tested and refined in the calibration of detectors to be used in mirror calibration.

  12. Automatic thermal switch. [spacecraft applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cunningham, J. W.; Wing, L. D. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    An automatic thermal switch to control heat flow includes two thermally conductive plates and a thermally conductive switch saddle pivotally mounted to the first plate. A flexible heat carrier is connected between the switch saddle and the second plate. A phase-change power unit, including a piston coupled to the switch saddle, is in thermal contact with the first thermally conductive plate. A biasing element biases the switch saddle in a predetermined position with respect to the first plate. When the phase-change power unit is actuated by an increase in heat transmitted through the first place, the piston extends and causes the switch saddle to pivot, thereby varying the thermal conduction between the two plates through the switch saddle and flexible heat carrier. The biasing element, switch saddle, and piston can be arranged to provide either a normally closed or normally opened thermally conductive path between the two plates.

  13. Techniques for automatic speech recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, R. K.

    1983-05-01

    A brief insight into some of the algorithms that lie behind current automatic speech recognition system is provided. Early phonetically based approaches were not particularly successful, due mainly to a lack of appreciation of the problems involved. These problems are summarized, and various recognition techniques are reviewed in the contect of the solutions that they provide. It is pointed out that the majority of currently available speech recognition equipments employ a "whole-word' pattern matching approach which, although relatively simple, has proved particularly successful in its ability to recognize speech. The concepts of time-normalizing plays a central role in this type of recognition process and a family of such algorithms is described in detail. The technique of dynamic time warping is not only capable of providing good performance for isolated word recognition, but how it is also extended to the recognition of connected speech (thereby removing one of the most severe limitations of early speech recognition equipment).

  14. Automatic Nanodesign Using Evolutionary Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Globus, Al; Saini, Subhash (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    Many problems associated with the development of nanotechnology require custom designed molecules. We use genetic graph software, a new development, to automatically evolve molecules of interest when only the requirements are known. Genetic graph software designs molecules, and potentially nanoelectronic circuits, given a fitness function that determines which of two molecules is better. A set of molecules, the first generation, is generated at random then tested with the fitness function, Subsequent generations are created by randomly choosing two parent molecules with a bias towards high scoring molecules, tearing each molecules in two at random, and mating parts from the mother and father to create two children. This procedure is repeated until a satisfactory molecule is found. An atom pair similarity test is currently used as the fitness function to evolve molecules similar to existing pharmaceuticals.

  15. Commutated automatic gain control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yost, S. R.

    1981-01-01

    A commutated automatic gain control system (AGC) was designed and constructed for the prototype Loran C receiver. The AGC is designed to improve the signal-to-signal ratio of the received Loran signals. The AGC design does not require any analog to digital conversion and it utilizes commonly available components. The AGC consists of: (1) a circuit which samples the peak of the envelope of the Loran signal to obtain an AGC voltage for each of three Loran stations, (2) a dc gain circuit to control the overall gain of the AGC system, and (3) an AGC amplification of the input RF signal. The performance of the AGC system was observed in bench and flight tests; it has improved the overall accuracy of the receiver. Improvements in the accuracy of the time difference calculations to within approx. + or - 1.5 microseconds of the observed time differnces for a given position are reported.

  16. Automatic insulation resistance testing apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Wyant, Francis J.; Nowlen, Steven P.; Luker, Spencer M.

    2005-06-14

    An apparatus and method for automatic measurement of insulation resistances of a multi-conductor cable. In one embodiment of the invention, the apparatus comprises a power supply source, an input measuring means, an output measuring means, a plurality of input relay controlled contacts, a plurality of output relay controlled contacts, a relay controller and a computer. In another embodiment of the invention the apparatus comprises a power supply source, an input measuring means, an output measuring means, an input switching unit, an output switching unit and a control unit/data logger. Embodiments of the apparatus of the invention may also incorporate cable fire testing means. The apparatus and methods of the present invention use either voltage or current for input and output measured variables.

  17. Automatic force balance calibration system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferris, Alice T. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    A system for automatically calibrating force balances is provided. The invention uses a reference balance aligned with the balance being calibrated to provide superior accuracy while minimizing the time required to complete the calibration. The reference balance and the test balance are rigidly attached together with closely aligned moment centers. Loads placed on the system equally effect each balance, and the differences in the readings of the two balances can be used to generate the calibration matrix for the test balance. Since the accuracy of the test calibration is determined by the accuracy of the reference balance and current technology allows for reference balances to be calibrated to within .+-.0.05%, the entire system has an accuracy of a .+-.0.2%. The entire apparatus is relatively small and can be mounted on a movable base for easy transport between test locations. The system can also accept a wide variety of reference balances, thus allowing calibration under diverse load and size requirements.

  18. Automatic force balance calibration system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferris, Alice T.

    1995-05-01

    A system for automatically calibrating force balances is provided. The invention uses a reference balance aligned with the balance being calibrated to provide superior accuracy while minimizing the time required to complete the calibration. The reference balance and the test balance are rigidly attached together with closely aligned moment centers. Loads placed on the system equally effect each balance, and the differences in the readings of the two balances can be used to generate the calibration matrix for the test balance. Since the accuracy of the test calibration is determined by the accuracy of the reference balance and current technology allows for reference balances to be calibrated to within +/-0.05% the entire system has an accuracy of +/-0.2%. The entire apparatus is relatively small and can be mounted on a movable base for easy transport between test locations. The system can also accept a wide variety of reference balances, thus allowing calibration under diverse load and size requirements.

  19. Automatic communication signal monitoring system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bernstein, A. J. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    A system is presented for automatic monitoring of a communication signal in the RF or IF spectrum utilizing a superheterodyne receiver technique with a VCO to select and sweep the frequency band of interest. A first memory is used to store one band sweep as a reference for continual comparison with subsequent band sweeps. Any deviation of a subsequent band sweep by more than a predetermined tolerance level produces an alarm signal which causes the band sweep data temporarily stored in one of two buffer memories to be transferred to long-term store while the other buffer memory is switched to its store mode to assume the task of temporarily storing subsequent band sweeps.

  20. Automatic Mechetronic Wheel Light Device

    DOEpatents

    Khan, Mohammed John Fitzgerald

    2004-09-14

    A wheel lighting device for illuminating a wheel of a vehicle to increase safety and enhance aesthetics. The device produces the appearance of a "ring of light" on a vehicle's wheels as the vehicle moves. The "ring of light" can automatically change in color and/or brightness according to a vehicle's speed, acceleration, jerk, selection of transmission gears, and/or engine speed. The device provides auxiliary indicator lights by producing light in conjunction with a vehicle's turn signals, hazard lights, alarm systems, and etc. The device comprises a combination of mechanical and electronic components and can be placed on the outer or inner surface of a wheel or made integral to a wheel or wheel cover. The device can be configured for all vehicle types, and is electrically powered by a vehicle's electrical system and/or battery.

  1. Automatic home medical product recommendation.

    PubMed

    Luo, Gang; Thomas, Selena B; Tang, Chunqiang

    2012-04-01

    Web-based personal health records (PHRs) are being widely deployed. To improve PHR's capability and usability, we proposed the concept of intelligent PHR (iPHR). In this paper, we use automatic home medical product recommendation as a concrete application to demonstrate the benefits of introducing intelligence into PHRs. In this new application domain, we develop several techniques to address the emerging challenges. Our approach uses treatment knowledge and nursing knowledge, and extends the language modeling method to (1) construct a topic-selection input interface for recommending home medical products, (2) produce a global ranking of Web pages retrieved by multiple queries, and (3) provide diverse search results. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our techniques using USMLE medical exam cases. PMID:20703712

  2. Automatic AVHRR image navigation software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baldwin, Dan; Emery, William

    1992-01-01

    This is the final report describing the work done on the project entitled Automatic AVHRR Image Navigation Software funded through NASA-Washington, award NAGW-3224, Account 153-7529. At the onset of this project, we had developed image navigation software capable of producing geo-registered images from AVHRR data. The registrations were highly accurate but required a priori knowledge of the spacecraft's axes alignment deviations, commonly known as attitude. The three angles needed to describe the attitude are called roll, pitch, and yaw, and are the components of the deviations in the along scan, along track and about center directions. The inclusion of the attitude corrections in the navigation software results in highly accurate georegistrations, however, the computation of the angles is very tedious and involves human interpretation for several steps. The technique also requires easily identifiable ground features which may not be available due to cloud cover or for ocean data. The current project was motivated by the need for a navigation system which was automatic and did not require human intervention or ground control points. The first step in creating such a system must be the ability to parameterize the spacecraft's attitude. The immediate goal of this project was to study the attitude fluctuations and determine if they displayed any systematic behavior which could be modeled or parameterized. We chose a period in 1991-1992 to study the attitude of the NOAA 11 spacecraft using data from the Tiros receiving station at the Colorado Center for Astrodynamic Research (CCAR) at the University of Colorado.

  3. Automatic toilet seat lowering apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Guerty, Harold G.

    1994-09-06

    A toilet seat lowering apparatus includes a housing defining an internal cavity for receiving water from the water supply line to the toilet holding tank. A descent delay assembly of the apparatus can include a stationary dam member and a rotating dam member for dividing the internal cavity into an inlet chamber and an outlet chamber and controlling the intake and evacuation of water in a delayed fashion. A descent initiator is activated when the internal cavity is filled with pressurized water and automatically begins the lowering of the toilet seat from its upright position, which lowering is also controlled by the descent delay assembly. In an alternative embodiment, the descent initiator and the descent delay assembly can be combined in a piston linked to the rotating dam member and provided with a water channel for creating a resisting pressure to the advancing piston and thereby slowing the associated descent of the toilet seat. A toilet seat lowering apparatus includes a housing defining an internal cavity for receiving water from the water supply line to the toilet holding tank. A descent delay assembly of the apparatus can include a stationary dam member and a rotating dam member for dividing the internal cavity into an inlet chamber and an outlet chamber and controlling the intake and evacuation of water in a delayed fashion. A descent initiator is activated when the internal cavity is filled with pressurized water and automatically begins the lowering of the toilet seat from its upright position, which lowering is also controlled by the descent delay assembly. In an alternative embodiment, the descent initiator and the descent delay assembly can be combined in a piston linked to the rotating dam member and provided with a water channel for creating a resisting pressure to the advancing piston and thereby slowing the associated descent of the toilet seat.

  4. Annual Report: Automatic Informative Abstracting and Extracting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Earl, L. L.; And Others

    The development of automatic indexing, abstracting, and extracting systems is investigated. Part I describes the development of tools for making syntactic and semantic distinctions of potential use in automatic indexing and extracting. One of these tools is a program for syntactic analysis (i.e., parsing) of English, the other is a dictionary of…

  5. ANNUAL REPORT-AUTOMATIC INDEXING AND ABSTRACTING.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lockheed Missiles and Space Co., Palo Alto, CA. Electronic Sciences Lab.

    THE INVESTIGATION IS CONCERNED WITH THE DEVELOPMENT OF AUTOMATIC INDEXING, ABSTRACTING, AND EXTRACTING SYSTEMS. BASIC INVESTIGATIONS IN ENGLISH MORPHOLOGY, PHONETICS, AND SYNTAX ARE PURSUED AS NECESSARY MEANS TO THIS END. IN THE FIRST SECTION THE THEORY AND DESIGN OF THE "SENTENCE DICTIONARY" EXPERIMENT IN AUTOMATIC EXTRACTION IS OUTLINED. SOME OF…

  6. Automatic Grading of Spreadsheet and Database Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kovacic, Zlatko J.; Green, John Steven

    2012-01-01

    Growing enrollment in distance education has increased student-to-lecturer ratios and, therefore, increased the workload of the lecturer. This growing enrollment has resulted in mounting efforts to develop automatic grading systems in an effort to reduce this workload. While research in the design and development of automatic grading systems has a…

  7. Automatic data editing: a brief introduction

    SciTech Connect

    Liepins, G.E.

    1982-01-01

    This paper briefly discusses the automatic data editing process: (1) check the data records for consistency, (2) analyze the inconsistent records to determine the inconsistent variables. It is stated that the application of automatic data editing is broad, and two specific examples are cited. One example, that of a vehicle maintenance data base is used to illustrate the process.

  8. Automatic Contour Tracking in Ultrasound Images

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Min; Kambhamettu, Chandra; Stone, Maureen

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, a new automatic contour tracking system, EdgeTrak, for the ultrasound image sequences of human tongue is presented. The images are produced by a head and transducer support system (HATS). The noise and unrelated high-contrast edges in ultrasound images make it very difficult to automatically detect the correct tongue surfaces. In…

  9. Automatic Item Generation of Probability Word Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holling, Heinz; Bertling, Jonas P.; Zeuch, Nina

    2009-01-01

    Mathematical word problems represent a common item format for assessing student competencies. Automatic item generation (AIG) is an effective way of constructing many items with predictable difficulties, based on a set of predefined task parameters. The current study presents a framework for the automatic generation of probability word problems…

  10. 32 CFR 2001.30 - Automatic declassification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Automatic declassification. 2001.30 Section 2001.30 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense INFORMATION SECURITY OVERSIGHT OFFICE, NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION CLASSIFIED NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION Declassification § 2001.30 Automatic declassification....

  11. 32 CFR 2001.30 - Automatic declassification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Automatic declassification. 2001.30 Section 2001.30 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense INFORMATION SECURITY OVERSIGHT OFFICE, NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION CLASSIFIED NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION Declassification § 2001.30 Automatic declassification....

  12. Automatic star-horizon angle measurement system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koerber, K.; Koso, D. A.; Nardella, P. C.

    1969-01-01

    Automatic star horizontal angle measuring aid for general navigational use incorporates an Apollo type sextant. The eyepiece of the sextant is replaced with two light detectors and appropriate circuitry. The device automatically determines the angle between a navigational star and a unique point on the earths horizon as seen on a spacecraft.

  13. The Automaticity of Visual Statistical Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turk-Browne, Nicholas B.; Junge, Justin; Scholl, Brian J.

    2005-01-01

    The visual environment contains massive amounts of information involving the relations between objects in space and time, and recent studies of visual statistical learning (VSL) have suggested that this information can be automatically extracted by the visual system. The experiments reported in this article explore the automaticity of VSL in…

  14. Selected military applications of automatic speech recognition technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodard, J. P.; Cupples, E. J.

    1983-12-01

    Voice input for command and control, message sorting by voice, and advanced low-bit-rate voice communications systems are discussed in relation to automatic speech recognition (ASR) technology applications. Several research efforts in the areas of ASR and speech synthesis technology, which forms the basis for voice input/output systems, are described for military airborne and ground-based applications. The success of the speech enhancement unit in noise reduction for both human and machine listeners is documented and shown to be indispensible for the ASR used in message sorting, and for many command-and-control applications in harsh environments. Two experimental low-bit-rate systems, one phonetically based, the other based on vector, or block quantization, are compared. ASR technology is shown to have the potential to increase the effectiveness of man-machine communications in a variety of military applications, such as equipment maintenance and computers. Further research is necessary to solve some basic problems.

  15. Automatic Structures — Recent Results and Open Questions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephan, Frank

    2015-06-01

    Regular languages are languages recognised by finite automata; automatic structures are a generalisation of regular languages where one also uses automatic relations (which are relations recognised by synchronous finite automata) and automatic functions (which are functions whose graph is an automatic relation). Functions and relations first-order definable from other automatic functions and relations are again automatic. Automatic functions coincide with the functions computed by position-faithful one-tape Turing machines in linear time. This survey addresses recent results and open questions on topics related to automatic structures: How difficult is the isomorphism problem for various types of automatic structures? Which groups are automatic? When are automatic groups Abelian or orderable? How can one overcome some of the limitations to represent rings and fields by weakening the automaticity requirements of a structure?

  16. Ekofisk automatic GPS subsidence measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Mes, M.J.; Landau, H.; Luttenberger, C.

    1996-10-01

    A fully automatic GPS satellite-based procedure for the reliable measurement of subsidence of several platforms in almost real time is described. Measurements are made continuously on platforms in the North Sea Ekofisk Field area. The procedure also yields rate measurements, which are also essential for confirming platform safety, planning of remedial work, and verification of subsidence models. GPS measurements are more attractive than seabed pressure-gauge-based platform subsidence measurements-they are much cheaper to install and maintain and not subject to gauge drift. GPS measurements were coupled to oceanographic quantities such as the platform deck clearance, which leads to less complex offshore survey procedures. Ekofisk is an oil and gas field in the southern portion of the Norwegian North Sea. Late in 1984, it was noticed that the Ekofisk platform decks were closer to the sea surface than when the platforms were installed-subsidence was the only logical explanation. After the subsidence phenomenon was recognized, an accurate measurement method was needed to measure progression of subsidence and the associated subsidence rate. One available system for which no further development was needed, was the NAVSTAR GPS-measurements started in March 1985.

  17. Automatic inspection of road surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rughooputh, Harry C. S.; Rughooputh, Soonil D. D. V.; Kinser, Jason M.

    2000-03-01

    Traditional inspections of road surfaces for the condition assessment and for locating cracks are time-consuming, expensive and can prove to be dangerous. What is ideally required would be a fully equipped automated inspecting vehicle capable of high precision location and characterization of road surface cracks over the width of the road (single pass). We propose an automatic crack monitoring system (akin to HARRIS - UK) with the video-based subsystem substituted by Global Positioning Systems for more accurate positioning. Besides, our technique avoids the storage of large volumes of scanned images of 'acceptable' road surface conditions. A pulse coupled neural network (PCNN) is used as a preprocessor for each scanned image to detect cracks while another PCNN segments this image to characterize identified defects. The latter image is then stored as binary image along with the GPS data. The type of cracks is later identified (offline) from the recorded binary images. This mode of data collection leads to a more accurate, less costly and faster automated system. Our results for road surface (concrete and bituminous) images reveal the suitability of this novel technique for a fully automated road inspection system for crack identification and characterization.

  18. Towards accurate and automatic morphing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhe; Sharkey, Paul M.

    2005-10-01

    Image morphing has proved to be a powerful tool for generating compelling and pleasing visual effects and has been widely used in entertainment industry. However, traditional image morphing methods suffer from a number of drawbacks: feature specification between images is tedious and the reliance on 2D information ignores the possible advantages to be gained from 3D knowledge. In this paper, we utilize recent advantages of computer vision technologies to diminish these drawbacks. By analyzing multi view geometry theories, we propose a processing pipeline based on three reference images. We first seek a few seed correspondences using robust methods and then recover multi view geometries using the seeds, through bundle adjustment. Guided by the recovered two and three view geometries, a novel line matching algorithm across three views is then deduced, through edge growth, line fitting and two and three view geometry constraints. Corresponding lines on a novel image is then obtained by an image transfer method and finally matched lines are fed into the traditional morphing methods and novel images are generated. Novel images generated by this pipeline have advantages over traditional morphing methods: they have an inherent 3D foundation and are therefore physically close to real scenes; not only images located between the baseline connecting two reference image centers, but also extrapolated images away from the baseline are possible; and the whole processing can be either wholly automatic, or at least the tedious task of feature specification in traditional morphing methods can be greatly relieved.

  19. Automatic locking orthotic knee device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weddendorf, Bruce C. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    An articulated tang in clevis joint for incorporation in newly manufactured conventional strap-on orthotic knee devices or for replacing such joints in conventional strap-on orthotic knee devices is discussed. The instant tang in clevis joint allows the user the freedom to extend and bend the knee normally when no load (weight) is applied to the knee and to automatically lock the knee when the user transfers weight to the knee, thus preventing a damaged knee from bending uncontrollably when weight is applied to the knee. The tang in clevis joint of the present invention includes first and second clevis plates, a tang assembly and a spacer plate secured between the clevis plates. Each clevis plate includes a bevelled serrated upper section. A bevelled shoe is secured to the tank in close proximity to the bevelled serrated upper section of the clevis plates. A coiled spring mounted within an oblong bore of the tang normally urges the shoes secured to the tang out of engagement with the serrated upper section of each clevic plate to allow rotation of the tang relative to the clevis plate. When weight is applied to the joint, the load compresses the coiled spring, the serrations on each clevis plate dig into the bevelled shoes secured to the tang to prevent relative movement between the tang and clevis plates. A shoulder is provided on the tang and the spacer plate to prevent overextension of the joint.

  20. Automatic interpretation of biological tests.

    PubMed

    Boufriche-Boufaïda, Z

    1998-03-01

    In this article, an approach for an Automatic Interpretation of Biological Tests (AIBT) is described. The developed system is much needed in Preventive Medicine Centers (PMCs). It is designed as a self-sufficient system that could be easily used by trained nurses during the routine visit. The results that the system provides are not only useful to provide the PMC physicians with a preliminary diagnosis, but also allows them more time to focus on the serious cases, making the clinical visit more qualitative. On the other hand, because the use of such a system has been planned for many years, its possibilities for future extensions must be seriously considered. The methodology adopted can be interpreted as a combination of the advantages of two main approaches adopted in current diagnostic systems: the production system approach and the object-oriented system approach. From the rules, the ability of these approaches to capture the deductive processes of the expert in domains where causal mechanisms are often understood are retained. The object-oriented approach guides the elicitation and the engineering of knowledge in such a way that abstractions, categorizations and classifications are encouraged whilst individual instances of objects of any type are recognized as separate, independent entities. PMID:9684093

  1. Automatic Ammunition Identification Technology Project

    SciTech Connect

    Weil, B.

    1993-01-01

    The Automatic Ammunition Identification Technology (AAIT) Project is an activity of the Robotics Process Systems Division at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) for the US Army's Project Manager-Ammunition Logistics (PM-AMMOLOG) at the Picatinny Arsenal in Picatinny, New Jersey. The project objective is to evaluate new two-dimensional bar code symbologies for potential use in ammunition logistics systems and automated reloading equipment. These new symbologies are a significant improvement over typical linear bar codes since machine-readable alphanumeric messages up to 2000 characters long are achievable. These compressed data symbologies are expected to significantly improve logistics and inventory management tasks and permit automated feeding and handling of ammunition to weapon systems. The results will be increased throughout capability, better inventory control, reduction of human error, lower operation and support costs, and a more timely re-supply of various weapon systems. This paper will describe the capabilities of existing compressed data symbologies and the symbol testing activities being conducted at ORNL for the AAIT Project.

  2. Automatic Weather Station (AWS) Lidar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rall, Jonathan A.R.; Abshire, James B.; Spinhirne, James D.; Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    An autonomous, low-power atmospheric lidar instrument is being developed at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. This compact, portable lidar will operate continuously in a temperature controlled enclosure, charge its own batteries through a combination of a small rugged wind generator and solar panels, and transmit its data from remote locations to ground stations via satellite. A network of these instruments will be established by co-locating them at remote Automatic Weather Station (AWS) sites in Antarctica under the auspices of the National Science Foundation (NSF). The NSF Office of Polar Programs provides support to place the weather stations in remote areas of Antarctica in support of meteorological research and operations. The AWS meteorological data will directly benefit the analysis of the lidar data while a network of ground based atmospheric lidar will provide knowledge regarding the temporal evolution and spatial extent of Type la polar stratospheric clouds (PSC). These clouds play a crucial role in the annual austral springtime destruction of stratospheric ozone over Antarctica, i.e. the ozone hole. In addition, the lidar will monitor and record the general atmospheric conditions (transmission and backscatter) of the overlying atmosphere which will benefit the Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS). Prototype lidar instruments have been deployed to the Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station (1995-96, 2000) and to an Automated Geophysical Observatory site (AGO 1) in January 1999. We report on data acquired with these instruments, instrument performance, and anticipated performance of the AWS Lidar.

  3. Automatic segmentation of psoriasis lesions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ning, Yang; Shi, Chenbo; Wang, Li; Shu, Chang

    2014-10-01

    The automatic segmentation of psoriatic lesions is widely researched these years. It is an important step in Computer-aid methods of calculating PASI for estimation of lesions. Currently those algorithms can only handle single erythema or only deal with scaling segmentation. In practice, scaling and erythema are often mixed together. In order to get the segmentation of lesions area - this paper proposes an algorithm based on Random forests with color and texture features. The algorithm has three steps. The first step, the polarized light is applied based on the skin's Tyndall-effect in the imaging to eliminate the reflection and Lab color space are used for fitting the human perception. The second step, sliding window and its sub windows are used to get textural feature and color feature. In this step, a feature of image roughness has been defined, so that scaling can be easily separated from normal skin. In the end, Random forests will be used to ensure the generalization ability of the algorithm. This algorithm can give reliable segmentation results even the image has different lighting conditions, skin types. In the data set offered by Union Hospital, more than 90% images can be segmented accurately.

  4. Automatic restart of complex irrigation systems

    SciTech Connect

    Werner, H.D.; Alcock, R.; DeBoer, D.W.; Olson, D.I. . Dept. of Agricultural Engineering)

    1992-05-01

    Automatic restart of irrigation systems under load management has the potential to maximize pumping time during off-peak hours. Existing automation technology ranges from time delay relays to more sophisticated control using computers together with weather data to optimize irrigation practices. Centrifugal pumps and water hammer concerns prevent automatic restart of common but often complex irrigation systems in South Dakota. The irrigator must manually prime the pump and control water hammer during pipeline pressurization. Methods to prime centrifugal pumps and control water hammer facilitate automatic restart after load management is released. Seven priming methods and three water hammer control methods were investigated. A sump pump and small vacuum pump were used to test two automatic prime and restart systems in the laboratory. A variable frequency phase converter was also used to automatically control water hammer during pipeline pressurization. Economical methods to safely prime and restart centrifugal pumps were discussed. The water hammer control methods safely pressurize the pipeline but require a higher initial investment. The automatic restart systems can be used to safely restart centrifugal pumps and control water hammer after load management is released. Based upon laboratory research and a technical review of available restart components, a computer software program was developed. The program assists customers in evaluating various restart options for automatic restarting of electric irrigation pumps. For further information on the software program, contact the South Dakota State University, Department of Agricultural Engineering.

  5. A neurocomputational model of automatic sequence production.

    PubMed

    Helie, Sebastien; Roeder, Jessica L; Vucovich, Lauren; Rünger, Dennis; Ashby, F Gregory

    2015-07-01

    Most behaviors unfold in time and include a sequence of submovements or cognitive activities. In addition, most behaviors are automatic and repeated daily throughout life. Yet, relatively little is known about the neurobiology of automatic sequence production. Past research suggests a gradual transfer from the associative striatum to the sensorimotor striatum, but a number of more recent studies challenge this role of the BG in automatic sequence production. In this article, we propose a new neurocomputational model of automatic sequence production in which the main role of the BG is to train cortical-cortical connections within the premotor areas that are responsible for automatic sequence production. The new model is used to simulate four different data sets from human and nonhuman animals, including (1) behavioral data (e.g., RTs), (2) electrophysiology data (e.g., single-neuron recordings), (3) macrostructure data (e.g., TMS), and (4) neurological circuit data (e.g., inactivation studies). We conclude with a comparison of the new model with existing models of automatic sequence production and discuss a possible new role for the BG in automaticity and its implication for Parkinson's disease. PMID:25671503

  6. On the implementation of automatic differentiation tools.

    SciTech Connect

    Bischof, C. H.; Hovland, P. D.; Norris, B.; Mathematics and Computer Science; Aachen Univ. of Technology

    2008-01-01

    Automatic differentiation is a semantic transformation that applies the rules of differential calculus to source code. It thus transforms a computer program that computes a mathematical function into a program that computes the function and its derivatives. Derivatives play an important role in a wide variety of scientific computing applications, including numerical optimization, solution of nonlinear equations, sensitivity analysis, and nonlinear inverse problems. We describe the forward and reverse modes of automatic differentiation and provide a survey of implementation strategies. We describe some of the challenges in the implementation of automatic differentiation tools, with a focus on tools based on source transformation. We conclude with an overview of current research and future opportunities.

  7. Automatic defensive control of asynchronous sequential machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammer, Jacob

    2016-01-01

    Control theoretic techniques are utilised to develop automatic controllers that counteract robotic adversarial interventions in the operation of asynchronous sequential machines. The scenario centres on automatic protection against pre-programmed adversarial agents that attempt to subvert the operation of an asynchronous computing system. Necessary and sufficient conditions for the existence of defensive controllers that automatically defeat such adversarial agents are derived. These conditions are stated in terms of skeleton matrices - matrices of zeros and ones obtained directly from the given description of the asynchronous sequential machine being protected. When defensive controllers exist, a procedure for their design is outlined.

  8. Automatic Behavior Pattern Classification for Social Robots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prieto, Abraham; Bellas, Francisco; Caamaño, Pilar; Duro, Richard J.

    In this paper, we focus our attention on providing robots with a system that allows them to automatically detect behavior patterns in other robots, as a first step to introducing social responsive robots. The system is called ANPAC (Automatic Neural-based Pattern Classification). Its main feature is that ANPAC automatically adjusts the optimal processing window size and obtains the appropriate features through a dimensional transformation process that allow for the classification of behavioral patterns of large groups of entities from perception datasets. Here we present the basic elements and operation of ANPAC, and illustrate its applicability through the detection of behavior patterns in the motion of flocks.

  9. Automatic tuning of myoelectric prostheses.

    PubMed

    Bonivento, C; Davalli, A; Fantuzzi, C; Sacchetti, R; Terenzi, S

    1998-07-01

    This paper is concerned with the development of a software package for the automatic tuning of myoelectric prostheses. The package core consists of Fuzzy Logic Expert Systems (FLES) that embody skilled operator heuristics in the tuning of prosthesis control parameters. The prosthesis system is an artificial arm-hand system developed at the National Institute of Accidents at Work (INAIL) laboratories. The prosthesis is powered by an electric motor that is controlled by a microprocessor using myoelectric signals acquired from skin-surface electrodes placed on a muscle in the residual limb of the subject. The software package, Microprocessor Controlled Arm (MCA) Auto Tuning, is a tool for aiding both INAIL expert operators and unskilled persons in the controller parameter tuning procedure. Prosthesis control parameter setup and subsequent recurrent adjustments are fundamental for the correct working of the prosthesis, especially when we consider that myoelectric parameters may vary greatly with environmental modifications. The parameter adjustment requires the end-user to go to the manufacturer's laboratory for the control parameters setup because, generally, he/she does not have the necessary knowledge and instruments to do this at home. However, this procedure is not very practical and involves a waste of time for the technicians and uneasiness for the clients. The idea behind the MCA Auto Tuning package consists in translating technician expertise into an FLES knowledge database. The software interacts through a user-friendly graphic interface with an unskilled user, who is guided through a step-by-step procedure in the prosthesis parameter tuning that emulates the traditional expert-aided procedure. The adoption of this program on a large scale may yield considerable economic benefits and improve the service quality supplied to the users of prostheses. In fact, the time required to set the prosthesis parameters are remarkably reduced, as is the technician

  10. Automatic Recognition of Road Signs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inoue, Yasuo; Kohashi, Yuuichirou; Ishikawa, Naoto; Nakajima, Masato

    2002-11-01

    The increase in traffic accidents is becoming a serious social problem with the recent rapid traffic increase. In many cases, the driver"s carelessness is the primary factor of traffic accidents, and the driver assistance system is demanded for supporting driver"s safety. In this research, we propose the new method of automatic detection and recognition of road signs by image processing. The purpose of this research is to prevent accidents caused by driver"s carelessness, and call attention to a driver when the driver violates traffic a regulation. In this research, high accuracy and the efficient sign detecting method are realized by removing unnecessary information except for a road sign from an image, and detect a road sign using shape features. At first, the color information that is not used in road signs is removed from an image. Next, edges except for circular and triangle ones are removed to choose sign shape. In the recognition process, normalized cross correlation operation is carried out to the two-dimensional differentiation pattern of a sign, and the accurate and efficient method for detecting the road sign is realized. Moreover, the real-time operation in a software base was realized by holding down calculation cost, maintaining highly precise sign detection and recognition. Specifically, it becomes specifically possible to process by 0.1 sec(s)/frame using a general-purpose PC (CPU: Pentium4 1.7GHz). As a result of in-vehicle experimentation, our system could process on real time and has confirmed that detection and recognition of a sign could be performed correctly.

  11. Automatic Layout Design for Power Module

    SciTech Connect

    Ning, Puqi; Wang, Fei; Ngo, Khai

    2010-01-01

    The layout of power modules is one of the most important elements in power module design, especially for high power densities, where couplings are increased. In this paper, an automatic design process using a genetic algorithm is presented. Some practical considerations are introduced in the optimization of the layout design of the module. This paper presents a process for automatic layout design for high power density modules. Detailed GA implementations are introduced both for outer loop and inner loop. As verified by a design example, the results of the automatic design process presented here are better than those from manual design and also better than the results from a popular design software. This automatic design procedure could be a major step toward improving the overall performance of future layout design.

  12. Automatic water inventory, collecting, and dispensing unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, J. B., Jr.; Williams, E. F.

    1972-01-01

    Two cylindrical tanks with piston bladders and associated components for automatic filling and emptying use liquid inventory readout devices in control of water flow. Unit provides for adaptive water collection, storage, and dispensation in weightlessness environment.

  13. Variable load automatically tests dc power supplies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burke, H. C., Jr.; Sullivan, R. M.

    1965-01-01

    Continuously variable load automatically tests dc power supplies over an extended current range. External meters monitor current and voltage, and multipliers at the outputs facilitate plotting the power curve of the unit.

  14. A Versatile, Automatic Chromatographic Column Packing Device

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barry, Eugene F.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    Describes an inexpensive apparatus for packing liquid and gas chromatographic columns of high efficiency. Consists of stainless steel support struts, an Automat Getriebmotor, and an associated three-pulley system capable of 10, 30, and 300 rpm. (MLH)

  15. Automatic program timing profiles with FTN4

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, R.

    1980-09-01

    Design of a scheme for producing execution timing profiles of FORTRAN programs automatically is proposed with a recommendation to implement it as an option to the compiler. An experimental implementation on the LBL 7600 is also described. 1 figure.

  16. Automatic mathematical modeling for space application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Caroline K.

    1987-01-01

    A methodology for automatic mathematical modeling is described. The major objective is to create a very friendly environment for engineers to design, maintain and verify their model and also automatically convert the mathematical model into FORTRAN code for conventional computation. A demonstration program was designed for modeling the Space Shuttle Main Engine simulation mathematical model called Propulsion System Automatic Modeling (PSAM). PSAM provides a very friendly and well organized environment for engineers to build a knowledge base for base equations and general information. PSAM contains an initial set of component process elements for the Space Shuttle Main Engine simulation and a questionnaire that allows the engineer to answer a set of questions to specify a particular model. PSAM is then able to automatically generate the model and the FORTRAN code. A future goal is to download the FORTRAN code to the VAX/VMS system for conventional computation.

  17. Automatic program debugging for intelligent tutoring systems

    SciTech Connect

    Murray, W.R.

    1986-01-01

    This thesis explores the process by which student programs can be automatically debugged in order to increase the instructional capabilities of these systems. This research presents a methodology and implementation for the diagnosis and correction of nontrivial recursive programs. In this approach, recursive programs are debugged by repairing induction proofs in the Boyer-Moore Logic. The potential of a program debugger to automatically debug widely varying novice programs in a nontrivial domain is proportional to its capabilities to reason about computational semantics. By increasing these reasoning capabilities a more powerful and robust system can result. This thesis supports these claims by examining related work in automated program debugging and by discussing the design, implementation, and evaluation of Talus, an automatic degugger for LISP programs. Talus relies on its abilities to reason about computational semantics to perform algorithm recognition, infer code teleology, and to automatically detect and correct nonsyntactic errors in student programs written in a restricted, but nontrivial, subset of LISP.

  18. Computer systems for automatic earthquake detection

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stewart, S.W.

    1974-01-01

    U.S Geological Survey seismologists in Menlo park, California, are utilizing the speed, reliability, and efficiency of minicomputers to monitor seismograph stations and to automatically detect earthquakes. An earthquake detection computer system, believed to be the only one of its kind in operation, automatically reports about 90 percent of all local earthquakes recorded by a network of over 100 central California seismograph stations. The system also monitors the stations for signs of malfunction or abnormal operation. Before the automatic system was put in operation, all of the earthquakes recorded had to be detected by manually searching the records, a time-consuming process. With the automatic detection system, the stations are efficiently monitored continuously. 

  19. Gear drive automatically indexes rotary table

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johns, M. F.

    1966-01-01

    Combination indexer and drive unit drills equally spaced circular hole patterns on rotary tables. It automatically rotates the table a distance exactly equal to one hole spacing for each revolution of a special idler gear.

  20. Automatic Evolution of Molecular Nanotechnology Designs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Globus, Al; Lawton, John; Wipke, Todd; Saini, Subhash (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes strategies for automatically generating designs for analog circuits at the molecular level. Software maps out the edges and vertices of potential nanotechnology systems on graphs, then selects appropriate ones through evolutionary or genetic paradigms.

  1. Automatic lexical classification: bridging research and practice.

    PubMed

    Korhonen, Anna

    2010-08-13

    Natural language processing (NLP)--the automatic analysis, understanding and generation of human language by computers--is vitally dependent on accurate knowledge about words. Because words change their behaviour between text types, domains and sub-languages, a fully accurate static lexical resource (e.g. a dictionary, word classification) is unattainable. Researchers are now developing techniques that could be used to automatically acquire or update lexical resources from textual data. If successful, the automatic approach could considerably enhance the accuracy and portability of language technologies, such as machine translation, text mining and summarization. This paper reviews the recent and on-going research in automatic lexical acquisition. Focusing on lexical classification, it discusses the many challenges that still need to be met before the approach can benefit NLP on a large scale. PMID:20603372

  2. LIMESTONE SCRUBBER SLURRY AUTOMATIC CONTROL SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report utilizes current understanding of limestone scrubbers for flue gas desulfurization (FGD) to develop an effort into the optimization of automatic control for the recirculating slurry processes. The acknowledged methods of mathematical modeling, computer simulation, and ...

  3. Automatic Target Recognizer Working Group Security Committee

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoch, Suzanne

    1987-09-01

    The ATRWG Security Committee participates in the development of Automatic Target Recognizers (ATRs) and image processing guidelines as related to TEMPEST requirements and policies set forth by the Department of Defense (DoD).

  4. Automatic calibration system for pressure transducers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1968-01-01

    Fifty-channel automatic pressure transducer calibration system increases quantity and accuracy for test evaluation calibration. The pressure transducers are installed in an environmental tests chamber and manifolded to connect them to a pressure balance which is uniform.

  5. Automatic program generation from specifications using Prolog

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pelin, Alex; Morrow, Paul

    1987-01-01

    An automatic program generator which creates Prolog programs from input/output specifications is presented. The generator takes as input descriptions of the input and output data types, a set of tests, a set of transformations and the input/out relation. Abstract data types are used as models. The tests, the transformations and the input/out relation are also specified by equations. The heuristics used by the automatic propram generator in building Prolog programs are discussed.

  6. Automatic safety rod for reactors. [LMFBR

    DOEpatents

    Germer, J.H.

    1982-03-23

    An automatic safety rod for a nuclear reactor containing neutron absorbing material and designed to be inserted into a reactor core after a loss-of-flow. Actuation is based upon either a sudden decrease in core pressure drop or the pressure drop decreases below a predetermined minimum value. The automatic control rod includes a pressure regulating device whereby a controlled decrease in operating pressure due to reduced coolant flow does not cause the rod to drop into the core.

  7. On the automatic differentiation of computer programs

    SciTech Connect

    Bischof, C.H.

    1995-06-01

    Automatic differentiation (AD) is a methodology for developing sensitivity-enhanced versions of arbitrary computer programs. In this paper, we provide some background information on AD and address some frequently asked questions. We introduce the ADIFOR and ADIC tools for the automatic differentiation of Fortran 77 and ANSI-C programs, respectively, and give an example of applying ADIFOR in the context of the optimization of multibody systems.

  8. Computer Music Synthesis and Composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayers, Lydia

    What is computer music composition? Composers are using the computer for everything from MIDI instruments communicating with computer sequencers, pitch trackers analyzing the sounds of acoustic instruments and converting them to pitch information, live performers with recorded music, performers with interactive computer programs, computer music produced by dancers using sensors, automatic music composition with the computer programs composing the music, composing with sounds or parts of sounds rather than notes, how to structure the use of time, composing with timbres, or the colors of sounds, and timbre morphing, such as a gong morphing to a voice, composing with textures and texture morphing, such as fluttertonguing morphing to pitch, granular synthesis, trills and convolution.

  9. 46 CFR 52.01-10 - Automatic controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Automatic controls. 52.01-10 Section 52.01-10 Shipping... Requirements § 52.01-10 Automatic controls. (a) Each main boiler must meet the special requirements for automatic safety controls in § 62.35-20(a)(1) of this chapter. (b) Each automatically controlled...

  10. 46 CFR 52.01-10 - Automatic controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Automatic controls. 52.01-10 Section 52.01-10 Shipping... Requirements § 52.01-10 Automatic controls. (a) Each main boiler must meet the special requirements for automatic safety controls in § 62.35-20(a)(1) of this chapter. (b) Each automatically controlled...

  11. 46 CFR 52.01-10 - Automatic controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Automatic controls. 52.01-10 Section 52.01-10 Shipping... Requirements § 52.01-10 Automatic controls. (a) Each main boiler must meet the special requirements for automatic safety controls in § 62.35-20(a)(1) of this chapter. (b) Each automatically controlled...

  12. 46 CFR 52.01-10 - Automatic controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Automatic controls. 52.01-10 Section 52.01-10 Shipping... Requirements § 52.01-10 Automatic controls. (a) Each main boiler must meet the special requirements for automatic safety controls in § 62.35-20(a)(1) of this chapter. (b) Each automatically controlled...

  13. 46 CFR 63.25-1 - Small automatic auxiliary boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Small automatic auxiliary boilers. 63.25-1 Section 63.25... AUXILIARY BOILERS Requirements for Specific Types of Automatic Auxiliary Boilers § 63.25-1 Small automatic auxiliary boilers. Small automatic auxiliary boilers defined as having heat-input ratings of 400,000...

  14. 46 CFR 63.25-1 - Small automatic auxiliary boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Small automatic auxiliary boilers. 63.25-1 Section 63.25... AUXILIARY BOILERS Requirements for Specific Types of Automatic Auxiliary Boilers § 63.25-1 Small automatic auxiliary boilers. Small automatic auxiliary boilers defined as having heat-input ratings of 400,000...

  15. 46 CFR 63.25-1 - Small automatic auxiliary boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Small automatic auxiliary boilers. 63.25-1 Section 63.25... AUXILIARY BOILERS Requirements for Specific Types of Automatic Auxiliary Boilers § 63.25-1 Small automatic auxiliary boilers. Small automatic auxiliary boilers defined as having heat-input ratings of 400,000...

  16. 46 CFR 63.25-1 - Small automatic auxiliary boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Small automatic auxiliary boilers. 63.25-1 Section 63.25... AUXILIARY BOILERS Requirements for Specific Types of Automatic Auxiliary Boilers § 63.25-1 Small automatic auxiliary boilers. Small automatic auxiliary boilers defined as having heat-input ratings of 400,000...

  17. 46 CFR 63.25-1 - Small automatic auxiliary boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Small automatic auxiliary boilers. 63.25-1 Section 63.25... AUXILIARY BOILERS Requirements for Specific Types of Automatic Auxiliary Boilers § 63.25-1 Small automatic auxiliary boilers. Small automatic auxiliary boilers defined as having heat-input ratings of 400,000...

  18. 30 CFR 27.23 - Automatic warning device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Automatic warning device. 27.23 Section 27.23... Automatic warning device. (a) An automatic warning device shall be suitably constructed for incorporation in... automatic warning device shall include an alarm signal (audible or colored light), which shall be made...

  19. 14 CFR 23.1329 - Automatic pilot system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Automatic pilot system. 23.1329 Section 23...: Installation § 23.1329 Automatic pilot system. If an automatic pilot system is installed, it must meet the following: (a) Each system must be designed so that the automatic pilot can— (1) Be quickly and...

  20. 14 CFR 23.1329 - Automatic pilot system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Automatic pilot system. 23.1329 Section 23...: Installation § 23.1329 Automatic pilot system. If an automatic pilot system is installed, it must meet the following: (a) Each system must be designed so that the automatic pilot can— (1) Be quickly and...

  1. Practical automatic Arabic license plate recognition system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammad, Khader; Agaian, Sos; Saleh, Hani

    2011-02-01

    Since 1970's, the need of an automatic license plate recognition system, sometimes referred as Automatic License Plate Recognition system, has been increasing. A license plate recognition system is an automatic system that is able to recognize a license plate number, extracted from image sensors. In specific, Automatic License Plate Recognition systems are being used in conjunction with various transportation systems in application areas such as law enforcement (e.g. speed limit enforcement) and commercial usages such as parking enforcement and automatic toll payment private and public entrances, border control, theft and vandalism control. Vehicle license plate recognition has been intensively studied in many countries. Due to the different types of license plates being used, the requirement of an automatic license plate recognition system is different for each country. [License plate detection using cluster run length smoothing algorithm ].Generally, an automatic license plate localization and recognition system is made up of three modules; license plate localization, character segmentation and optical character recognition modules. This paper presents an Arabic license plate recognition system that is insensitive to character size, font, shape and orientation with extremely high accuracy rate. The proposed system is based on a combination of enhancement, license plate localization, morphological processing, and feature vector extraction using the Haar transform. The performance of the system is fast due to classification of alphabet and numerals based on the license plate organization. Experimental results for license plates of two different Arab countries show an average of 99 % successful license plate localization and recognition in a total of more than 20 different images captured from a complex outdoor environment. The results run times takes less time compared to conventional and many states of art methods.

  2. A Step Response Based Mixed-Signal BIST Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, Alvernon

    2001-01-01

    A new Mixed-Signal Built-in Self-test approach that is based upon the step response of a reconfigurable (or multifunction) analog block is presented in this paper. The technique requires the overlapping step response of the Circuit Under Test (CUT) for two circuit configurations. Each configuration can be realized by changing the topology of the CUT or by sampling two CUT nodes with differing step responses. The technique can effectively detect both soft and hard faults and does not require an analog-to-digital converter (ADC) and/or digital-to-analog converter( DAC). It also does not require any precision voltage sources or comparators. The approach does not require any additional analog circuits to realize the test signal generator and a two input analog multiplexer for CUT test node sampling. The paper is concluded with the application of the proposed approach to a circuit found in the work of Epstein et a1 and two ITC 97 analog benchmark circuits.

  3. Attention to Automatic Movements in Parkinson's Disease: Modified Automatic Mode in the Striatum.

    PubMed

    Wu, Tao; Liu, Jun; Zhang, Hejia; Hallett, Mark; Zheng, Zheng; Chan, Piu

    2015-10-01

    We investigated neural correlates when attending to a movement that could be made automatically in healthy subjects and Parkinson's disease (PD) patients. Subjects practiced a visuomotor association task until they could perform it automatically, and then directed their attention back to the automated task. Functional MRI was obtained during the early-learning, automatic stage, and when re-attending. In controls, attention to automatic movement induced more activation in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), anterior cingulate cortex, and rostral supplementary motor area. The motor cortex received more influence from the cortical motor association regions. In contrast, the pattern of the activity and connectivity of the striatum remained at the level of the automatic stage. In PD patients, attention enhanced activity in the DLPFC, premotor cortex, and cerebellum, but the connectivity from the putamen to the motor cortex decreased. Our findings demonstrate that, in controls, when a movement achieves the automatic stage, attention can influence the attentional networks and cortical motor association areas, but has no apparent effect on the striatum. In PD patients, attention induces a shift from the automatic mode back to the controlled pattern within the striatum. The shifting between controlled and automatic behaviors relies in part on striatal function. PMID:24925772

  4. Automatic radioxenon analyzer for CTBT monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Bowyer, T.W.; Abel, K.H.; Hensley, W.K.

    1996-12-01

    Over the past 3 years, with support from US DOE`s NN-20 Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) R&D program, PNNL has developed and demonstrated a fully automatic analyzer for collecting and measuring the four Xe radionuclides, {sup 131m}Xe(11.9 d), {sup 133m}Xe(2.19 d), {sup 133}Xe (5.24 d), and {sup 135}Xe(9.10 h), in the atmosphere. These radionuclides are important signatures in monitoring for compliance to a CTBT. Activity ratios permit discriminating radioxenon from nuclear detonation and that from nuclear reactor operations, nuclear fuel reprocessing, or medical isotope production and usage. In the analyzer, Xe is continuously and automatically separated from the atmosphere at flow rates of about 7 m{sup 3}/h on sorption bed. Aliquots collected for 6-12 h are automatically analyzed by electron-photon coincidence spectrometry to produce sensitivities in the range of 20-100 {mu}Bq/m{sup 3} of air, about 100-fold better than with reported laboratory-based procedures for short time collection intervals. Spectral data are automatically analyzed and the calculated radioxenon concentrations and raw gamma- ray spectra automatically transmitted to data centers.

  5. Automatic Fastening Large Structures: a New Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lumley, D. F.

    1985-01-01

    The external tank (ET) intertank structure for the space shuttle, a 27.5 ft diameter 22.5 ft long externally stiffened mechanically fastened skin-stringer-frame structure, was a labor intensitive manual structure built on a modified Saturn tooling position. A new approach was developed based on half-section subassemblies. The heart of this manufacturing approach will be 33 ft high vertical automatic riveting system with a 28 ft rotary positioner coming on-line in mid 1985. The Automatic Riveting System incorporates many of the latest automatic riveting technologies. Key features include: vertical columns with two sets of independently operating CNC drill-riveting heads; capability of drill, insert and upset any one piece fastener up to 3/8 inch diameter including slugs without displacing the workpiece offset bucking ram with programmable rotation and deep retraction; vision system for automatic parts program re-synchronization and part edge margin control; and an automatic rivet selection/handling system.

  6. Automatic imitation is reduced in narcissists.

    PubMed

    Obhi, Sukhvinder S; Hogeveen, Jeremy; Giacomin, Miranda; Jordan, Christian H

    2014-06-01

    Narcissism is a personality trait that has been extensively studied in normal populations. Individuals high on subclinical narcissism tend to display an excessive self-focus and reduced concern for others. Does their disregard of others have roots in low-level processes of social perception? We investigated whether narcissism is related to the automatic imitation of observed actions. In the automatic imitation task, participants make cued actions in the presence of action videos displaying congruent or incongruent actions. The difference in response times and accuracy between congruent and incongruent trials (i.e., the interference effect) is a behavioral index of motor resonance in the brain-a process whereby observed actions activate matching motor representations in the observer. We found narcissism to be negatively related to interference in the automatic imitation task, such that high narcissism is associated with reduced imitation. Thus, levels of narcissism predict differences in the tendency to automatically resonate with others, and the pattern of data we observe suggests that a key difference is that high narcissists possess an improved ability to suppress automatic imitation when such imitation would be detrimental to task performance. To the extent that motor resonance is a product of a human mirror system, our data constitute evidence for a link between narcissistic tendencies and mirror system functioning. PMID:23957308

  7. Automatic query formulations in information retrieval.

    PubMed

    Salton, G; Buckley, C; Fox, E A

    1983-07-01

    Modern information retrieval systems are designed to supply relevant information in response to requests received from the user population. In most retrieval environments the search requests consist of keywords, or index terms, interrelated by appropriate Boolean operators. Since it is difficult for untrained users to generate effective Boolean search requests, trained search intermediaries are normally used to translate original statements of user need into useful Boolean search formulations. Methods are introduced in this study which reduce the role of the search intermediaries by making it possible to generate Boolean search formulations completely automatically from natural language statements provided by the system patrons. Frequency considerations are used automatically to generate appropriate term combinations as well as Boolean connectives relating the terms. Methods are covered to produce automatic query formulations both in a standard Boolean logic system, as well as in an extended Boolean system in which the strict interpretation of the connectives is relaxed. Experimental results are supplied to evaluate the effectiveness of the automatic query formulation process, and methods are described for applying the automatic query formulation process in practice. PMID:10299297

  8. On the malleability of automatic attitudes: combating automatic prejudice with images of admired and disliked individuals.

    PubMed

    Dasgupta, N; Greenwald, A G

    2001-11-01

    Two experiments examined whether exposure to pictures of admired and disliked exemplars can reduce automatic preference for White over Black Americans and younger over older people. In Experiment 1, participants were exposed to either admired Black and disliked White individuals, disliked Black and admired White individuals, or nonracial exemplars. Immediately after exemplar exposure and 24 hr later, they completed an Implicit Association Test that assessed automatic racial attitudes and 2 explicit attitude measures. Results revealed that exposure to admired Black and disliked White exemplars significantly weakened automatic pro-White attitudes for 24 hr beyond the treatment but did not affect explicit racial attitudes. Experiment 2 provided a replication using automatic age-related attitudes. Together, these studies provide a strategy that attempts to change the social context and, through it, to reduce automatic prejudice and preference. PMID:11708558

  9. Automatic contrast: evidence that automatic comparison with the social self affects evaluative responses.

    PubMed

    Ruys, Kirsten I; Spears, Russell; Gordijn, Ernestine H; de Vries, Nanne K

    2007-08-01

    The aim of the present research was to investigate whether unconsciously presented affective information may cause opposite evaluative responses depending on what social category the information originates from. We argue that automatic comparison processes between the self and the unconscious affective information produce this evaluative contrast effect. Consistent with research on automatic behaviour, we propose that when an intergroup context is activated, an automatic comparison to the social self may determine the automatic evaluative responses, at least for highly visible categories (e.g. sex, ethnicity). Contrary to previous research on evaluative priming, we predict automatic contrastive responses to affective information originating from an outgroup category such that the evaluative response to neutral targets is opposite to the valence of the suboptimal primes. Two studies using different intergroup contexts provide support for our hypotheses. PMID:17705936

  10. Film grain synthesis and its application to re-graining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schallauer, Peter; Mörzinger, Roland

    2006-01-01

    Digital film restoration and special effects compositing require more and more automatic procedures for movie regraining. Missing or inhomogeneous grain decreases perceived quality. For the purpose of grain synthesis an existing texture synthesis algorithm has been evaluated and optimized. We show that this algorithm can produce synthetic grain which is perceptually similar to a given grain template, which has high spatial and temporal variation and which can be applied to multi-spectral images. Furthermore a re-grain application framework is proposed, which synthesises based on an input grain template artificial grain and composites this together with the original image content. Due to its modular approach this framework supports manual as well as automatic re-graining applications. Two example applications are presented, one for re-graining an entire movie and one for fully automatic re-graining of image regions produced by restoration algorithms. Low computational cost of the proposed algorithms allows application in industrial grade software.

  11. Automatic discrimination of emotion from spoken Finnish.

    PubMed

    Toivanen, Juhani; Väyrynen, Eero; Seppänen, Tapio

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, experiments on the automatic discrimination of basic emotions from spoken Finnish are described. For the purpose of the study, a large emotional speech corpus of Finnish was collected; 14 professional actors acted as speakers, and simulated four primary emotions when reading out a semantically neutral text. More than 40 prosodic features were derived and automatically computed from the speech samples. Two application scenarios were tested: the first scenario was speaker-independent for a small domain of speakers while the second scenario was completely speaker-independent. Human listening experiments were conducted to assess the perceptual adequacy of the emotional speech samples. Statistical classification experiments indicated that, with the optimal combination of prosodic feature vectors, automatic emotion discrimination performance close to human emotion recognition ability was achievable. PMID:16038449

  12. Accuracy analysis of automatic distortion correction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolecki, Jakub; Rzonca, Antoni

    2015-06-01

    The paper addresses the problem of the automatic distortion removal from images acquired with non-metric SLR camera equipped with prime lenses. From the photogrammetric point of view the following question arises: is the accuracy of distortion control data provided by the manufacturer for a certain lens model (not item) sufficient in order to achieve demanded accuracy? In order to obtain the reliable answer to the aforementioned problem the two kinds of tests were carried out for three lens models. Firstly the multi-variant camera calibration was conducted using the software providing full accuracy analysis. Secondly the accuracy analysis using check points took place. The check points were measured in the images resampled based on estimated distortion model or in distortion-free images simply acquired in the automatic distortion removal mode. The extensive conclusions regarding application of each calibration approach in practice are given. Finally the rules of applying automatic distortion removal in photogrammetric measurements are suggested.

  13. Automatic Welding of Stainless Steel Tubing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clautice, W. E.

    1978-01-01

    To determine if the use of automatic welding would allow reduction of the radiographic inspection requirement, and thereby reduce fabrication costs, a series of welding tests were performed. In these tests an automatic welder was used on stainless steel tubing of 1/2, 3/4, and 1/2 inch diameter size. The optimum parameters were investigated to determine how much variation from optimum in machine settings could be tolerate and still result in a good quality weld. The process variables studied were the welding amperes, the revolutions per minute as a function of the circumferential weld travel speed, and the shielding gas flow. The investigation showed that the close control of process variables in conjunction with a thorough visual inspection of welds can be relied upon as an acceptable quality assurance procedure, thus permitting the radiographic inspection to be reduced by a large percentage when using the automatic process.

  14. Automatic Gain Control in Compact Spectrometers.

    PubMed

    Protopopov, Vladimir

    2016-03-01

    An image intensifier installed in the optical path of a compact spectrometer may act not only as a fast gating unit, which is widely used for time-resolved measurements, but also as a variable attenuator-amplifier in a continuous wave mode. This opens the possibility of an automatic gain control, a new feature in spectroscopy. With it, the user is relieved from the necessity to manually adjust signal level at a certain value that it is done automatically by means of an electronic feedback loop. It is even more important that automatic gain control is done without changing exposure time, which is an additional benefit in time-resolved experiments. The concept, algorithm, design considerations, and experimental results are presented. PMID:26810181

  15. Support vector machine for automatic pain recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monwar, Md Maruf; Rezaei, Siamak

    2009-02-01

    Facial expressions are a key index of emotion and the interpretation of such expressions of emotion is critical to everyday social functioning. In this paper, we present an efficient video analysis technique for recognition of a specific expression, pain, from human faces. We employ an automatic face detector which detects face from the stored video frame using skin color modeling technique. For pain recognition, location and shape features of the detected faces are computed. These features are then used as inputs to a support vector machine (SVM) for classification. We compare the results with neural network based and eigenimage based automatic pain recognition systems. The experiment results indicate that using support vector machine as classifier can certainly improve the performance of automatic pain recognition system.

  16. Automatically processed alpha-track radon monitor

    DOEpatents

    Langner, Jr., G. Harold

    1993-01-01

    An automatically processed alpha-track radon monitor is provided which includes a housing having an aperture allowing radon entry, and a filter that excludes the entry of radon daughters into the housing. A flexible track registration material is located within the housing that records alpha-particle emissions from the decay of radon and radon daughters inside the housing. The flexible track registration material is capable of being spliced such that the registration material from a plurality of monitors can be spliced into a single strip to facilitate automatic processing of the registration material from the plurality of monitors. A process for the automatic counting of radon registered by a radon monitor is also provided.

  17. Automatically processed alpha-track radon monitor

    DOEpatents

    Langner, G.H. Jr.

    1993-01-12

    An automatically processed alpha-track radon monitor is provided which includes a housing having an aperture allowing radon entry, and a filter that excludes the entry of radon daughters into the housing. A flexible track registration material is located within the housing that records alpha-particle emissions from the decay of radon and radon daughters inside the housing. The flexible track registration material is capable of being spliced such that the registration material from a plurality of monitors can be spliced into a single strip to facilitate automatic processing of the registration material from the plurality of monitors. A process for the automatic counting of radon registered by a radon monitor is also provided.

  18. Automatic welding of stainless steel tubing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clautice, W. E.

    1978-01-01

    The use of automatic welding for making girth welds in stainless steel tubing was investigated as well as the reduction in fabrication costs resulting from the elimination of radiographic inspection. Test methodology, materials, and techniques are discussed, and data sheets for individual tests are included. Process variables studied include welding amperes, revolutions per minute, and shielding gas flow. Strip chart recordings, as a definitive method of insuring weld quality, are studied. Test results, determined by both radiographic and visual inspection, are presented and indicate that once optimum welding procedures for specific sizes of tubing are established, and the welding machine operations are certified, then the automatic tube welding process produces good quality welds repeatedly, with a high degree of reliability. Revised specifications for welding tubing using the automatic process and weld visual inspection requirements at the Kennedy Space Center are enumerated.

  19. Automatic morphological classification of galaxy images

    PubMed Central

    Shamir, Lior

    2009-01-01

    We describe an image analysis supervised learning algorithm that can automatically classify galaxy images. The algorithm is first trained using a manually classified images of elliptical, spiral, and edge-on galaxies. A large set of image features is extracted from each image, and the most informative features are selected using Fisher scores. Test images can then be classified using a simple Weighted Nearest Neighbor rule such that the Fisher scores are used as the feature weights. Experimental results show that galaxy images from Galaxy Zoo can be classified automatically to spiral, elliptical and edge-on galaxies with accuracy of ~90% compared to classifications carried out by the author. Full compilable source code of the algorithm is available for free download, and its general-purpose nature makes it suitable for other uses that involve automatic image analysis of celestial objects. PMID:20161594

  20. Automatic exposure control for space sequential camera

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcatee, G. E., Jr.; Stoap, L. J.; Solheim, C. D.; Sharpsteen, J. T.

    1975-01-01

    The final report for the automatic exposure control study for space sequential cameras, for the NASA Johnson Space Center is presented. The material is shown in the same sequence that the work was performed. The purpose of the automatic exposure control is to automatically control the lens iris as well as the camera shutter so that the subject is properly exposed on the film. A study of design approaches is presented. Analysis of the light range of the spectrum covered indicates that the practical range would be from approximately 20 to 6,000 foot-lamberts, or about nine f-stops. Observation of film available from space flights shows that optimum scene illumination is apparently not present in vehicle interior photography as well as in vehicle-to-vehicle situations. The evaluation test procedure for a breadboard, and the results, which provided information for the design of a brassboard are given.

  1. Automatic CME Detection from Coronagraph Image Pairs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liewer, P. C.; Dejong, E. M.; Hall, J. R.; Lorre, J. J.

    2005-12-01

    We have developed a technique for the automatic detection of coronal mass ejections using two sequential coronagraph images. The technique is based on tracking arc-like features from one image to the next; the feature's velocity is also determined. The method has been developed and tested using LASCO C2 and C3 data. The goal of this work is to develop an automatic CME detection algorithm that can be used on board the STEREO spacecraft to preferentially downlink data containing CMEs from an onboard "rotating" data buffer. Results for this detection technique compare very favorably with CMEs identified in the LASCO CME catalog (http://cdaw.gsfc.nasa.gov/CME_list/). For the periods when results were compared, no time periods with significant CMEs were missed using the automatic technique.

  2. Automatic weld torch guidance control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smaith, H. E.; Wall, W. A.; Burns, M. R., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    A highly reliable, fully digital, closed circuit television optical, type automatic weld seam tracking control system was developed. This automatic tracking equipment is used to reduce weld tooling costs and increase overall automatic welding reliability. The system utilizes a charge injection device digital camera which as 60,512 inidividual pixels as the light sensing elements. Through conventional scanning means, each pixel in the focal plane is sequentially scanned, the light level signal digitized, and an 8-bit word transmitted to scratch pad memory. From memory, the microprocessor performs an analysis of the digital signal and computes the tracking error. Lastly, the corrective signal is transmitted to a cross seam actuator digital drive motor controller to complete the closed loop, feedback, tracking system. This weld seam tracking control system is capable of a tracking accuracy of + or - 0.2 mm, or better. As configured, the system is applicable to square butt, V-groove, and lap joint weldments.

  3. Automatic alignment method for calibration of hydrometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Y. J.; Chang, K. H.; Chon, J. C.; Oh, C. Y.

    2004-04-01

    This paper presents a new method to automatically align specific scale-marks for the calibration of hydrometers. A hydrometer calibration system adopting the new method consists of a vision system, a stepping motor, and software to control the system. The vision system is composed of a CCD camera and a frame grabber, and is used to acquire images. The stepping motor moves the camera, which is attached to the vessel containing a reference liquid, along the hydrometer. The operating program has two main functions: to process images from the camera to find the position of the horizontal plane and to control the stepping motor for the alignment of the horizontal plane with a particular scale-mark. Any system adopting this automatic alignment method is a convenient and precise means of calibrating a hydrometer. The performance of the proposed method is illustrated by comparing the calibration results using the automatic alignment method with those obtained using the manual method.

  4. Automatic gisting systems for voice communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maksymowicz, A. T.

    It is pointed out that the detection of a limited number of key words in voice communications, combined with nonlinguistic cues and situation knowledge, holds out the promise for automatic extraction of the general content or gist of the transmitted messages. A systems-level description of an end-to-end automatic gisting system for screening voice communications is presented. The emphasis is on identifying information which can usefully supplement the detected key words in the gisting process. Principal subsystems are identified, and their functions are discussed in the context of an overall system architecture. The example of automatic determination of aircraft takeoffs and landings at an airport, based on monitoring conversations between pilots and air traffic controllers, is used for illustrative purposes.

  5. An Automatic Speed Control for Wind Tunnels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zahm, A F

    1928-01-01

    Described here is an automatic control that has been used in several forms in wind tunnels at the Washington Navy Yard. The form now in use with the 8-foot tunnel at the Navy Yard is considered here. Details of the design and operation of the automatic control system are given. Leads from a Pitot tube are joined to an inverted cup manometer located above a rheostat. When the sliding weight of this instrument is set to a given notch, say for 40 m.p.h, the beam tip vibrates between two electric contacts that feed the little motor. Thus, when the wind is too strong or too weak, the motor automatically throws the rheostat slide forward and backward. If it failed to function well, the operator would notice the effect on his meniscus, and would operate the hand control by merely pressing the switch.

  6. Testing and Troubleshooting Automatically Generated Source Code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henry, Joel

    1998-01-01

    Tools allowing engineers to model the real-time behavior of systems that control many types of NASA systems have become widespread. These tools automatically generate source code that is compiled, linked, then downloaded into computers controlling everything from wind tunnels to space flight systems. These tools save hundreds of hours of software development time and allow engineers with thorough application area knowledge but little software development experience to generate software to control the systems they use daily. These systems are verified and validated by simulating the real-time models, and by other techniques that focus on the model or the hardware. The automatically generated source code is typically not subjected to rigorous testing using conventional software testing techniques. Given the criticality and safety issues surrounding these systems, the application of conventional and new software testing and troubleshooting techniques to the automatically generated will improve the reliability of the resulting systems.

  7. Semi-automatic knee cartilage segmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dam, Erik B.; Folkesson, Jenny; Pettersen, Paola C.; Christiansen, Claus

    2006-03-01

    Osteo-Arthritis (OA) is a very common age-related cause of pain and reduced range of motion. A central effect of OA is wear-down of the articular cartilage that otherwise ensures smooth joint motion. Quantification of the cartilage breakdown is central in monitoring disease progression and therefore cartilage segmentation is required. Recent advances allow automatic cartilage segmentation with high accuracy in most cases. However, the automatic methods still fail in some problematic cases. For clinical studies, even if a few failing cases will be averaged out in the overall results, this reduces the mean accuracy and precision and thereby necessitates larger/longer studies. Since the severe OA cases are often most problematic for the automatic methods, there is even a risk that the quantification will introduce a bias in the results. Therefore, interactive inspection and correction of these problematic cases is desirable. For diagnosis on individuals, this is even more crucial since the diagnosis will otherwise simply fail. We introduce and evaluate a semi-automatic cartilage segmentation method combining an automatic pre-segmentation with an interactive step that allows inspection and correction. The automatic step consists of voxel classification based on supervised learning. The interactive step combines a watershed transformation of the original scan with the posterior probability map from the classification step at sub-voxel precision. We evaluate the method for the task of segmenting the tibial cartilage sheet from low-field magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of knees. The evaluation shows that the combined method allows accurate and highly reproducible correction of the segmentation of even the worst cases in approximately ten minutes of interaction.

  8. Automatic emotional expression analysis from eye area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akkoç, Betül; Arslan, Ahmet

    2015-02-01

    Eyes play an important role in expressing emotions in nonverbal communication. In the present study, emotional expression classification was performed based on the features that were automatically extracted from the eye area. Fırst, the face area and the eye area were automatically extracted from the captured image. Afterwards, the parameters to be used for the analysis through discrete wavelet transformation were obtained from the eye area. Using these parameters, emotional expression analysis was performed through artificial intelligence techniques. As the result of the experimental studies, 6 universal emotions consisting of expressions of happiness, sadness, surprise, disgust, anger and fear were classified at a success rate of 84% using artificial neural networks.

  9. Study on Reactive Automatic Compensation System Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhe, Sun; Qingyang, Liang; Peiqing, Luo; Chenfei, Zhang

    At present, low-voltage side of transformer is public in urban distribution network, as inductive load of household appliances is increasing, the power factor decreased, this lead to a large loss of public transformer low voltage side, the supply voltage indicators can not meet user's requirements. Therefore, the design of reactive power compensation system has become another popular research. This paper introduces the principle of reactive power compensation, analyzes key technologies of reactive power compensation, design an overall program of reactive power automatic compensation system to conquer various deficiencies of reactive power automatic compensation equipment.

  10. Automatic estimation of the first subglottal resonance.

    PubMed

    Arsikere, Harish; Lulich, Steven M; Alwan, Abeer

    2011-05-01

    This letter focuses on the automatic estimation of the first subglottal resonance (Sg1). A database comprising speech and subglottal data of native American English speakers and bilingual Spanish/English speakers was used for the analysis. Data from 11 speakers (five males and six females) were used to derive an empirical relation among the first formant frequency, fundamental frequency, and Sg1. Using the derived relation, Sg1 was automatically estimated from voiced sounds in English and Spanish sentences spoken by 22 different speakers (11 males and 11 females). The error in estimating Sg1 was less than 50 Hz, on average. PMID:21568375