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Sample records for automatic target recognizer

  1. Automatic Target Recognizer Working Group Security Committee

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoch, Suzanne

    1987-09-01

    The ATRWG Security Committee participates in the development of Automatic Target Recognizers (ATRs) and image processing guidelines as related to TEMPEST requirements and policies set forth by the Department of Defense (DoD).

  2. A human factors engineering approach to biomedical decision making: A new role for automatic target recognizer technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Sobel, A.L.; Stalker, K.T.; Yee, A.

    1995-01-01

    This report identifies the key features noted as requirements in the diagnostic decision-making process of Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) cardiac imaging. The report discusses the critical issues that create the basic system framework for design of an automatic target recognizer (ATR) algorithm prototype to support diagnosis of coronary artery disease. Candidate feature discovery algorithms that may form the basis of future work include Adaptive Resonance Theory and Bayesian Decision Network. A framework for the practitioner-Human-System-Interface would include baseline patient history and demographic data; reference cardiac imagery history; and current overlay imagery to provide complementary information (i.e., coronary angiography, echocardiography, and SPECT images). The goal is to design a prototype that would represent a fused present and historical {open_quotes}whole{close_quotes} functional, structural, and physiologic cardiac patient model. This framework decision-assisting platform would be available to practitioner and student alike, with no {open_quotes}real-world{close_quotes} consequences.

  3. Unification of automatic target tracking and automatic target recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schachter, Bruce J.

    2014-06-01

    The subject being addressed is how an automatic target tracker (ATT) and an automatic target recognizer (ATR) can be fused together so tightly and so well that their distinctiveness becomes lost in the merger. This has historically not been the case outside of biology and a few academic papers. The biological model of ATT∪ATR arises from dynamic patterns of activity distributed across many neural circuits and structures (including retina). The information that the brain receives from the eyes is "old news" at the time that it receives it. The eyes and brain forecast a tracked object's future position, rather than relying on received retinal position. Anticipation of the next moment - building up a consistent perception - is accomplished under difficult conditions: motion (eyes, head, body, scene background, target) and processing limitations (neural noise, delays, eye jitter, distractions). Not only does the human vision system surmount these problems, but it has innate mechanisms to exploit motion in support of target detection and classification. Biological vision doesn't normally operate on snapshots. Feature extraction, detection and recognition are spatiotemporal. When vision is viewed as a spatiotemporal process, target detection, recognition, tracking, event detection and activity recognition, do not seem as distinct as they are in current ATT and ATR designs. They appear as similar mechanism taking place at varying time scales. A framework is provided for unifying ATT and ATR.

  4. Digital-Electronic/Optical Apparatus Would Recognize Targets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scholl, Marija S.

    1994-01-01

    Proposed automatic target-recognition apparatus consists mostly of digital-electronic/optical cross-correlator that processes infrared images of targets. Infrared images of unknown targets correlated quickly with images of known targets. Apparatus incorporates some features of correlator described in "Prototype Optical Correlator for Robotic Vision System" (NPO-18451), and some of correlator described in "Compact Optical Correlator" (NPO-18473). Useful in robotic system; to recognize and track infrared-emitting, moving objects as variously shaped hot workpieces on conveyor belt.

  5. Automatic grunt detector and recognizer for Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua).

    PubMed

    Urazghildiiev, Ildar R; Van Parijs, Sofie M

    2016-05-01

    Northwest Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) have been heavily overfished in recent years and have not yet recovered. Passive acoustic technology offers a new approach to identify the spatial location of spawning fish, as well as their seasonal and long term persistence in an area. To date, the lack of a species-specific detector has made searching for Atlantic cod grunts in large amounts of passive acoustic data cumbersome. To address this problem, an automatic grunt detection and recognition algorithm that processes yearlong passive acoustic data recordings was designed. The proposed technique is a two-stage hypothesis testing algorithm that includes detecting and recognizing all grunt-like sounds. Test results demonstrated that the algorithm provided a detection probability of 0.93 for grunts with a signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) higher than 10 dB, and a detection probability of 0.8 for grunts with the SNR ranging from 3 to 10 dB. This detector is being used to identify cod in current and historical data from U.S. waters. Its use has significantly reduced the time required to find and validate the presence of cod grunts. PMID:27250148

  6. Automatic recognizing of vocal fold disorders from glottis images.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chang-Chiun; Leu, Yi-Shing; Kuo, Chung-Feng Jeffrey; Chu, Wen-Lin; Chu, Yueng-Hsiang; Wu, Han-Cheng

    2014-09-01

    The laryngeal video stroboscope is an important instrument to test glottal diseases and read vocal fold images and voice quality for physician clinical diagnosis. This study is aimed to develop a medical system with functionality of automatic intelligent recognition of dynamic images. The static images of glottis opening to the largest extent and closing to the smallest extent were screened automatically using color space transformation and image preprocessing. The glottal area was also quantized. As the tongue base movements affected the position of laryngoscope and saliva would result in unclear images, this study used the gray scale adaptive entropy value to set the threshold in order to establish an elimination system. The proposed system can improve the effect of automatically captured images of glottis and achieve an accuracy rate of 96%. In addition, the glottal area and area segmentation threshold were calculated effectively. The glottis area segmentation was corrected, and the glottal area waveform pattern was drawn automatically to assist in vocal fold diagnosis. When developing the intelligent recognition system for vocal fold disorders, this study analyzed the characteristic values of four vocal fold patterns, namely, normal vocal fold, vocal fold paralysis, vocal fold polyp, and vocal fold cyst. It also used the support vector machine classifier to identify vocal fold disorders and achieved an identification accuracy rate of 98.75%. The results can serve as a very valuable reference for diagnosis. PMID:25313026

  7. Automatic target recognition apparatus and method

    DOEpatents

    Baumgart, Chris W.; Ciarcia, Christopher A.

    2000-01-01

    An automatic target recognition apparatus (10) is provided, having a video camera/digitizer (12) for producing a digitized image signal (20) representing an image containing therein objects which objects are to be recognized if they meet predefined criteria. The digitized image signal (20) is processed within a video analysis subroutine (22) residing in a computer (14) in a plurality of parallel analysis chains such that the objects are presumed to be lighter in shading than the background in the image in three of the chains and further such that the objects are presumed to be darker than the background in the other three chains. In two of the chains the objects are defined by surface texture analysis using texture filter operations. In another two of the chains the objects are defined by background subtraction operations. In yet another two of the chains the objects are defined by edge enhancement processes. In each of the analysis chains a calculation operation independently determines an error factor relating to the probability that the objects are of the type which should be recognized, and a probability calculation operation combines the results of the analysis chains.

  8. Self-assessing target with automatic feedback

    SciTech Connect

    Larkin, Stephen W.; Kramer, Robert L.

    2004-03-02

    A self assessing target with four quadrants and a method of use thereof. Each quadrant containing possible causes for why shots are going into that particular quadrant rather than the center mass of the target. Each possible cause is followed by a solution intended to help the marksman correct the problem causing the marksman to shoot in that particular area. In addition, the self assessing target contains possible causes for general shooting errors and solutions to the causes of the general shooting error. The automatic feedback with instant suggestions and corrections enables the shooter to improve their marksmanship.

  9. Automatic target tracking in FLIR image sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bal, Abdullah; Alam, Mohammad S.

    2004-09-01

    Moving target tracking is a challenging task and is increasingly becoming important for various applications. In this paper, we have presented target detection and tracking algorithm based on target intensity feature relative to surrounding background, and shape information of target. Proposed automatic target tracking algorithm includes two techniques: intensity variation function (IVF) and template modeling (TM). The intensity variation function is formulated by using target intensity feature while template modeling is based on target shape information. The IVF technique produces the maximum peak value whereas the reference target intensity variation is similar to the candidate target intensity variation. When IVF technique fails, due to background clutter, non-target object or other artifacts, the second technique, template modeling, is triggered by control module. By evaluating the outputs from the IVF and TM techniques, the tracker determines the real coordinates of the target. Performance of the proposed ATT is tested using real life forward-looking infrared (FLIR) image sequences taken from an airborne, moving platform.

  10. Automatic target recognition on the connection machine

    SciTech Connect

    Buchanan, J.R. )

    1989-09-01

    Automatic target recognition (ATR) is a computationally intensive problem that benefits from the abilities of the Connection Machine (CM), a massively parallel computer used for data-level parallel computing. The large computational resources of the CM can efficiently handle an approach to ATR that uses parallel stereo-matching and neural-network algorithms. Such an approach shows promise as an ATR system of satisfactory performance. 13 refs.

  11. Giardia mitosomal protein import machinery differentially recognizes mitochondrial targeting signals.

    PubMed

    Nyindodo-Ogari, Lilian; Schwartzbach, Steven D; Estraño, Carlos E

    2014-01-01

    Giardia lamblia mitosomes are believed to be vestigial mitochondria which lack a genome. Similar to higher eukaryotes, mitosomal proteins possess either N-terminal or internal mitosomal targeting sequences. To date, some components of the higher eukaryote archetypal mitochondrial protein import apparatus have been identified and characterized in Giardia mitosomes; therefore, it is expected that mitochondrial signals will be recognized by the mitosomal protein import system. To further determine the level of conservation of the Giardia mitosome protein import apparatus, we expressed mitochondrial proteins from higher eukaryotes in Giardia. These recombinant proteins include Tom20 and Tom22; two components of the mitochondrial protein import machinery. Our results indicate that N-terminal mitochondrial targeting sequence is recognized by the mitosomal protein import machinery; however, interestingly the internal mitochondrial targeting sequences of higher eukaryotes are not recognized by the mitosome. Our results indicate that Giardia mitosome protein transport machinery shows differential recognition of higher eukaryotic mitochondria transfer signals, suggesting a divergence of the transport system in G. lamblia. Therefore, our data support the hypothesis that the protein import machinery in Giardia lamblia mitosome is an incomplete vestigial derivative of mitochondria components. PMID:25159305

  12. Robust automatic target recognition in FLIR imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soyman, Yusuf

    2012-05-01

    In this paper, a robust automatic target recognition algorithm in FLIR imagery is proposed. Target is first segmented out from the background using wavelet transform. Segmentation process is accomplished by parametric Gabor wavelet transformation. Invariant features that belong to the target, which is segmented out from the background, are then extracted via moments. Higher-order moments, while providing better quality for identifying the image, are more sensitive to noise. A trade-off study is then performed on a few moments that provide effective performance. Bayes method is used for classification, using Mahalanobis distance as the Bayes' classifier. Results are assessed based on false alarm rates. The proposed method is shown to be robust against rotations, translations and scale effects. Moreover, it is shown to effectively perform under low-contrast objects in FLIR images. Performance comparisons are also performed on both GPU and CPU. Results indicate that GPU has superior performance over CPU.

  13. Image understanding research for automatic target recognition

    SciTech Connect

    Bhanu, B. ); Jones, T.L. )

    1993-10-01

    Automatic Target Recognition (ATR) is an extremely important capability for defense applications. Many aspects of Image Understanding (IU) research are traditionally used to solve ATR problems. In this paper, the authors discuss ATR applications and problems in developing real-world ATR systems, and present the status of technology for these systems. They identify several IU problems that need to be resolved in order to enhance the effectiveness of ATR-based weapon systems. Finally, they conclude that technological gains in developing robust ATR systems will also lead to significant advances in many other areas of applications of image understanding.

  14. Automatic target recognition via sparse representations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Estabridis, Katia

    2010-04-01

    Automatic target recognition (ATR) based on the emerging technology of Compressed Sensing (CS) can considerably improve accuracy, speed and cost associated with these types of systems. An image based ATR algorithm has been built upon this new theory, which can perform target detection and recognition in a low dimensional space. Compressed dictionaries (A) are formed to include rotational information for a scale of interest. The algorithm seeks to identify y(test sample) as a linear combination of the dictionary elements : y=Ax, where A ∈ Rnxm(n<target. The algorithm can reject clutter and background, which are part of the input image. The detection and recognition problems are solved by finding the sparse-solution to the undetermined system y=Ax via Orthogonal Matching Pursuit (OMP) and l1 minimization techniques. Visible and MWIR imagery collected by the Army Night Vision and Electronic Sensors Directorate (NVESD) was utilized to test the algorithm. Results show an average detection and recognition rates above 95% for targets at ranges up to 3Km for both image modalities.

  15. Application of wavelets to automatic target recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stirman, Charles

    1995-03-01

    'Application of Wavelets to Automatic Target Recognition,' is the second phase of multiphase project to insert compactly supported wavelets into an existing or near-term Department of Defense system such as the Longbow fire control radar for the Apache Attack Helicopter. In this contract, we have concentrated mainly on the classifier function. During the first phase of the program ('Application of Wavelets to Radar Data Processing'), the feasibility of using wavelets to process high range resolution profile (HRRP) amplitude returns from a wide bandwidth radar system was demonstrated. This phase obtained fully polarized wide bandwidth radar HRRP amplitude returns and processed, them with wavelet and wavelet packet or (best basis) transforms. Then, by mathematically defined nonlinear feature selection, we showed that significant improvements in the probability of correct classification are possible, up to 14 percentage points maximum (4 percentage points average) improvement when compared to the current classifier performance. In addition, we addressed the feasibility of using wavelet packets' best basis to address target registration, man made object rejection, clutter discriminations, and synthetic aperture radar scene speckle removal and object registration.

  16. Remote weapon station for automatic target recognition system demand analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Zhang; Li, Sheng-cai; Shi, Cai

    2015-08-01

    Introduces a remote weapon station basic composition and the main advantage, analysis of target based on image automatic recognition system for remote weapon station of practical significance, the system elaborated the image based automatic target recognition system in the photoelectric stabilized technology, multi-sensor image fusion technology, integrated control target image enhancement, target behavior risk analysis technology, intelligent based on the character of the image automatic target recognition algorithm research, micro sensor technology as the key technology of the development in the field of demand.

  17. Automatic target extraction in complicated background for camera calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Xichao; Wang, Cheng; Wen, Chenglu; Cheng, Ming

    2016-03-01

    In order to perform high precise calibration of camera in complex background, a novel design of planar composite target and the corresponding automatic extraction algorithm are presented. Unlike other commonly used target designs, the proposed target contains the information of feature point coordinate and feature point serial number simultaneously. Then based on the original target, templates are prepared by three geometric transformations and used as the input of template matching based on shape context. Finally, parity check and region growing methods are used to extract the target as final result. The experimental results show that the proposed method for automatic extraction and recognition of the proposed target is effective, accurate and reliable.

  18. Automatic speech recognizer based on the Spanish spoken in Valdivia, Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez, Maria L.; Poblete, Victor H.; Sommerhoff, Jorge

    2001-05-01

    The performance of an automatic speech recognizer is affected by training process (dependent on or independent of the speaker) and the size of the vocabulary. The language used in this study was the Spanish spoken in the city of Valdivia, Chile. A representative sample of 14 students and six professionals all natives of Valdivia (ten women and ten men) were used to complete the study. The sample ranged in age between 20 and 30 years old. Two systems were programmed based on the classical principles: digitalizing, end point detection, linear prediction coding, cepstral coefficients, dynamic time warping, and a final decision stage with a previous step of training: (i) one dependent speaker (15 words: five colors and ten numbers), (ii) one independent speaker (30 words: ten verbs, ten nouns, and ten adjectives). A simple didactical application, with options to choose colors, numbers and drawings of the verbs, nouns and adjectives, was designed to be used with a personal computer. In both programs, the tests carried out showed a tendency towards errors in short words with monosyllables like ``flor,'' and ``sol.'' The best results were obtained in words with three syllables like ``disparar'' and ``mojado.'' [Work supported by Proyecto DID UACh N S-200278.

  19. Automatic targeting of plasma spray gun

    DOEpatents

    Abbatiello, Leonard A.; Neal, Richard E.

    1978-01-01

    A means for monitoring the material portion in the flame of a plasma spray gun during spraying operations is provided. A collimated detector, sensitive to certain wavelengths of light emission, is used to locate the centroid of the material with each pass of the gun. The response from the detector is then relayed to the gun controller to be used to automatically realign the gun.

  20. Testing Saliency Parameters for Automatic Target Recognition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pandya, Sagar

    2012-01-01

    A bottom-up visual attention model (the saliency model) is tested to enhance the performance of Automated Target Recognition (ATR). JPL has developed an ATR system that identifies regions of interest (ROI) using a trained OT-MACH filter, and then classifies potential targets as true- or false-positives using machine-learning techniques. In this project, saliency is used as a pre-processing step to reduce the space for performing OT-MACH filtering. Saliency parameters, such as output level and orientation weight, are tuned to detect known target features. Preliminary results are promising and future work entails a rigrous and parameter-based search to gain maximum insight about this method.

  1. Found and Missed: Failing to Recognize a Search Target despite Moving It

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solman, Grayden J. F.; Cheyne, J. Allan; Smilek, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    We present results from five search experiments using a novel "unpacking" paradigm in which participants use a mouse to sort through random heaps of distractors to locate the target. We report that during this task participants often fail to recognize the target despite moving it, and despite having looked at the item. Additionally, the missed…

  2. Complete automatic target cuer/recognition system for tactical forward-looking infrared images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ernisse, Brian E.; Rogers, Steven K.; DeSimio, Martin P.; Raines, Richard A.

    1997-09-01

    A complete forward-looking IR (FLIR) automatic target cuer/recognizer (ATC/R) is presented. The data used for development and testing of this ATC/R are first generation FLIR images collected using a F-15E. The database contains thousands of images with various mission profiles and target arrangements. The specific target of interest is a mobile missile launcher, the primary target. The goal is to locate all vehicles (secondary targets) within a scene and identify the primary targets. The system developed and tested includes an image segmenter, region cluster algorithm, feature extractor, and classifier. Conventional image processing algorithms in conjunction with neural network techniques are used to form a complete ATC/R system. The conventional techniques include hit/miss filtering, difference of Gaussian filtering, and region clustering. A neural network (multilayer perceptron) is used for classification. These algorithms are developed, tested and then combined into a functional ATC/R system. Overall primary target detection rate (cuer) is 84% with a 69% primary target identification (recognizer) rate at ranges relevant to munitions release. Furthermore, the false alarm rate (a nontarget cued as a target) in only 2.3 per scene. The research is being completed with a 10 flight test profile using third generation FLIR images.

  3. Advanced automatic target recognition for police helicopter missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stahl, Christoph; Schoppmann, Paul

    2000-08-01

    The results of a case study about the application of an advanced method for automatic target recognition to infrared imagery taken from police helicopter missions are presented. The method consists of the following steps: preprocessing, classification, fusion, postprocessing and tracking, and combines the three paradigms image pyramids, neural networks and bayesian nets. The technology has been developed using a variety of different scenes typical for military aircraft missions. Infrared cameras have been in use for several years at the Bavarian police helicopter forces and are highly valuable for night missions. Several object classes like 'persons' or 'vehicles' are tested and the possible discrimination between persons and animals is shown. The analysis of complex scenes with hidden objects and clutter shows the potentials and limitations of automatic target recognition for real-world tasks. Several display concepts illustrate the achievable improvement of the situation awareness. The similarities and differences between various mission types concerning object variability, time constraints, consequences of false alarms, etc. are discussed. Typical police actions like searching for missing persons or runaway criminals illustrate the advantages of automatic target recognition. The results demonstrate the possible operational benefits for the helicopter crew. Future work will include performance evaluation issues and a system integration concept for the target platform.

  4. Exploiting vibration-based spectral signatures for automatic target recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crider, Lauren; Kangas, Scott

    2014-06-01

    Feature extraction algorithms for vehicle classification techniques represent a large branch of Automatic Target Recognition (ATR) efforts. Traditionally, vehicle ATR techniques have assumed time series vibration data collected from multiple accelerometers are a function of direct path, engine driven signal energy. If data, however, is highly dependent on measurement location these pre-established feature extraction algorithms are ineffective. In this paper, we examine the consequences of analyzing vibration data potentially contingent upon transfer path effects by exploring the sensitivity of sensor location. We summarize our analysis of spectral signatures from each accelerometer and investigate similarities within the data.

  5. MRI-Guided Target Motion Assessment using Dynamic Automatic Segmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saenz, Daniel L.

    Motion significantly impacts the radiotherapy process and represents one of the persisting problems in treatment delivery. In order to improve motion management techniques and implement future image guided radiotherapy tools such as MRI-guidance, automatic segmentation algorithms hold great promise. Such algorithms are attractive due to their direct measurement accuracy, speed, and ability to assess motion trajectories for daily treatment plan modifications. We developed and optimized an automatic segmentation technique to enable target tracking using MR cines, 4D-MRI, and 4D-CT. This algorithm overcomes weaknesses in automatic contouring such as lack of image contrast, subjectivity, slow speed, and lack of differentiating feature vectors by the use of morphological processing. The software is enhanced with predictive parameter capabilities and dynamic processing. The 4D-MRI images are acquired by applying a retrospective phase binning approach to radially-acquired MR image projections. The quantification of motion is validated with a motor phantom undergoing a known trajectory in 4D-CT, 4D-MRI, and in MR cines from the ViewRay MR-Guided RT system. In addition, a clinical case study demonstrates wide-reaching implications of the software to segment lesions in the brain and lung as well as critical structures such as the liver. Auto-segmentation results from MR cines of canines correlate well with manually drawn contours, both in terms of Dice similarity coefficient and agreement of extracted motion trajectories.

  6. Automatic target validation based on neuroscientific literature mining for tractography

    PubMed Central

    Vasques, Xavier; Richardet, Renaud; Hill, Sean L.; Slater, David; Chappelier, Jean-Cedric; Pralong, Etienne; Bloch, Jocelyne; Draganski, Bogdan; Cif, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Target identification for tractography studies requires solid anatomical knowledge validated by an extensive literature review across species for each seed structure to be studied. Manual literature review to identify targets for a given seed region is tedious and potentially subjective. Therefore, complementary approaches would be useful. We propose to use text-mining models to automatically suggest potential targets from the neuroscientific literature, full-text articles and abstracts, so that they can be used for anatomical connection studies and more specifically for tractography. We applied text-mining models to three structures: two well-studied structures, since validated deep brain stimulation targets, the internal globus pallidus and the subthalamic nucleus and, the nucleus accumbens, an exploratory target for treating psychiatric disorders. We performed a systematic review of the literature to document the projections of the three selected structures and compared it with the targets proposed by text-mining models, both in rat and primate (including human). We ran probabilistic tractography on the nucleus accumbens and compared the output with the results of the text-mining models and literature review. Overall, text-mining the literature could find three times as many targets as two man-weeks of curation could. The overall efficiency of the text-mining against literature review in our study was 98% recall (at 36% precision), meaning that over all the targets for the three selected seeds, only one target has been missed by text-mining. We demonstrate that connectivity for a structure of interest can be extracted from a very large amount of publications and abstracts. We believe this tool will be useful in helping the neuroscience community to facilitate connectivity studies of particular brain regions. The text mining tools used for the study are part of the HBP Neuroinformatics Platform, publicly available at http://connectivity-brainer.rhcloud.com/. PMID

  7. Real-time automatic target recognition using Zernike moments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlosser, Wolfgang; von der Fecht, Arno

    2005-10-01

    Automatic target recognition (ATR) and classification is a computationally demanding task, but with the recent increase in the computing power for industry standard FPGAs and DSPs it has become a feasible and very useful application in military sensing equipment. The ATR method presented here uses Zernike moments of binary representations of infra-red targets for the classification process. Zernike moments are known for their good image representation capabilities based on their orthogonality property. They are often used because the magnitude of the moments provides rotation and scale invariance. For the detection of the target candidates, a given region of interest (ROI) is searched for possible target signatures using a simple threshold segmentation. From the resulting binary objects, the biggest or center-most object can be selected. For this target, the minimum enclosing circle is determined using the bounding box found during the segmentation process. This minimum enclosing circle is scaled to the complex unit disk, where Zernike moments are defined. The moments up to order five are then computed directly from the binary image using a fast recursive algorithm. The resulting twelve-dimensional moment magnitude vector is then classified with a 1-NN algorithm, where a set of class templates has been pre-computed off-line for each class using a simulated annealing approach for cluster analysis.

  8. Multispectral (IR and MMW) processing for automatic target detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corbett, Francis J.; Swistak, Joseph E.

    1990-10-01

    Automatic Target Recognition algorithms have been developed with limited success over the last few years. The processing to extract military targets from background clutter has difficulty under noisy, real-world conditions. Fusion of data from different wavelength sensors has been one approach to improve performance. The underlying theory is that signature data from different areas of the electro-magnetic spectrum will be complementary and clutter is frequency dependent. Recent work based on both statistical classification, and feature analysis in the thermal infrared and millimeter wave spectra, has shown interesting trends. We will provide a description of the IR/MMW target classification algorithms, the fusion architecture we employed, and processes used to search for the optimum features. Two distinct search and detect schemes were tested with different results. Data acquisition and reduction issues which affect algorithm experiments will also be discussed. A software based algorithm development test-bed was built at Textron to implement the multispectral targeting experiments. The effect of a modular, programmable test-bed on such experiments is to increase productivity and allow multivariate evaluatio ns.

  9. Automatic detection of sea-sky horizon line and small targets in maritime infrared imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Xiangyu; Liu, Lei; Qian, Yunsheng; Cui, Minjie

    2016-05-01

    It is usually difficult but important to extract distant targets from sea clutters and clouds since the targets are small compared to the pixel field of view. In this paper, an algorithm based on wavelet transformation is proposed for automatic detection of small targets under the maritime background. We recognize that the distant small targets generally appear near the sea-sky horizon line and noises lie along the direction of sea-sky horizon line. So the sea-sky horizon is located firstly by examining the approximate image of a Haar wavelet decomposition of the original image. And the equation of the sea-sky horizon is set up, no matter whether the sea-sky horizon is horizontal or not. Since the sea-sky horizon is located, not only the potential area but also the strip direction of noise is got. Then the modified mutual wavelet energy combination algorithm is applied to extract targets with targets being marked by red windows. Computer simulations are shown to validate the great adaptability of the sea-sky horizon line detection and the accuracy of the small targets detection. The algorithm should be useful to engineers and scientists to design precise guidance or maritime monitoring system.

  10. Deep transfer learning for automatic target classification: MWIR to LWIR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Zhengming; Nasrabadi, Nasser; Fu, Yun

    2016-05-01

    Publisher's Note: This paper, originally published on 5/12/2016, was replaced with a corrected/revised version on 5/18/2016. If you downloaded the original PDF but are unable to access the revision, please contact SPIE Digital Library Customer Service for assistance. When dealing with sparse or no labeled data in the target domain, transfer learning shows its appealing performance by borrowing the supervised knowledge from external domains. Recently deep structure learning has been exploited in transfer learning due to its attractive power in extracting effective knowledge through multi-layer strategy, so that deep transfer learning is promising to address the cross-domain mismatch. In general, cross-domain disparity can be resulted from the difference between source and target distributions or different modalities, e.g., Midwave IR (MWIR) and Longwave IR (LWIR). In this paper, we propose a Weighted Deep Transfer Learning framework for automatic target classification through a task-driven fashion. Specifically, deep features and classifier parameters are obtained simultaneously for optimal classification performance. In this way, the proposed deep structures can extract more effective features with the guidance of the classifier performance; on the other hand, the classifier performance is further improved since it is optimized on more discriminative features. Furthermore, we build a weighted scheme to couple source and target output by assigning pseudo labels to target data, therefore we can transfer knowledge from source (i.e., MWIR) to target (i.e., LWIR). Experimental results on real databases demonstrate the superiority of the proposed algorithm by comparing with others.

  11. Automatic air-to-ground target recognition using LWIR FPAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amadieu, Jean-Louis; Fraysse, Vincent

    1996-06-01

    The theoretical potential of optical sensors in terms of geometrical resolution makes them the ideal solution for achieving the terminal precision guidance of today's missiles. This paper describes such a sensor, working in the 8 to 12 micrometer spectral domain by using a 64 by 64 IRCCD focal plane array, and whose main mission is to recognize various types of armored vehicles within complex scenes that possibly include other vehicles of similar nature. The target recognition process is based upon a Bayesian approach and can be briefly described as follows: after a classical processing stage that performs the filtering and the multi- thresholding, the target recognition algorithm evaluates a similarity level between the objects, including the target, seen in the IR scene and the 'theoretical' target whose some mean, generic features have been implemented in a database. The surroundings of the target and its orientation in the IR scene are 'a priori' unknown. The similarity level is based on calculation of the Mahalanobis distance between the object features vector and the mean features vector of the model; this calculation involves a covariance matrix which is significant of the errors affecting the measured features and that in particular stem form the limited spatial resolution of the sensor, the detector noise and the sensor- to-target range estimation error. With respect to the sensor hardware, its main opto-mechanical characteristics as well as some electro-optics data are indicates; some examples of target acquisition in complex scenes involving different kinds of IR counter measures are also presented.

  12. Synthetic aperture radar automatic target recognition using adaptive boosting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yijun; Liu, Zhipeng; Todorovic, Sinisa; Li, Jian

    2005-05-01

    We propose a novel automatic target recognition (ATR) system for classification of three types of ground vehicles in the MSTAR public release database. First, each image chip is pre-processed by extracting fine and raw feature sets, where raw features compensate for the target pose estimation error that corrupts fine image features. Then, the chips are classified by using the adaptive boosting (AdaBoost) algorithm with the radial basis function (RBF) net as the base learner. Since the RBF net is a binary classifier, we decompose our multiclass problem into a set of binary ones through the error-correcting output codes (ECOC) method, specifying a dictionary of code words for the set of three possible classes. AdaBoost combines the classification results of the RBF net for each binary problem into a code word, which is then "decoded" as one of the code words (i.e., ground-vehicle classes) in the specified dictionary. Along with classification, within the AdaBoost framework, we also conduct efficient fusion of the fine and raw image-feature vectors. The results of large-scale experiments demonstrate that our ATR scheme outperforms the state-of-the-art systems reported in the literature.

  13. Recognizing targets from infrared intensity scan patterns using artificial neural networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aytaç, Tayfun; Barshan, Billur

    2009-01-01

    This study investigates the use of simple, low-cost infrared sensors for the recognition of geometry and surface type of commonly encountered features or targets in indoor environments, such as planes, corners, and edges. The intensity measurements obtained from such sensors are highly dependent on the location, geometry, and surface properties of the reflecting target in a way that cannot be represented by a simple analytical relationship, therefore complicating the localization and recognition process. We employ artificial neural networks to determine the geometry and the surface type of targets and provide experimental verification with three different geometries and three different surface types. The networks are trained with the Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm and pruned with the optimal brain surgeon technique. The geometry and the surface type of targets can be correctly classified with rates of 99 and 78.4%, respectively. An average correct classification rate of 78% is achieved when both geometry and surface type are differentiated. This indicates that the geometrical properties of the targets are more distinctive than their surface properties, and surface determination is the limiting factor in recognizing the patterns. The results demonstrate that processing the data from simple infrared sensors through suitable techniques can help us exploit their full potential and extend their usage beyond well-known applications.

  14. Restriction endonuclease MvaI is a monomer that recognizes its target sequence asymmetrically

    PubMed Central

    Kaus-Drobek, Magdalena; Czapinska, Honorata; Sokołowska, Monika; Tamulaitis, Gintautas; Szczepanowski, Roman H.; Urbanke, Claus; Bochtler, Matthias

    2007-01-01

    Restriction endonuclease MvaI recognizes the sequence CC/WGG (W stands for A or T, ‘/’ designates the cleavage site) and generates products with single nucleotide 5′-overhangs. The enzyme has been noted for its tolerance towards DNA modifications. Here, we report a biochemical characterization and crystal structures of MvaI in an apo-form and in a complex with target DNA at 1.5 Å resolution. Our results show that MvaI is a monomer and recognizes its pseudosymmetric target sequence asymmetrically. The enzyme consists of two lobes. The catalytic lobe anchors the active site residues Glu36, Asp50, Glu55 and Lys57 and contacts the bases from the minor grove side. The recognition lobe mediates all major grove interactions with the bases. The enzyme in the crystal is bound to the strand with T at the center of the recognition sequence. The crystal structure with calcium ions and DNA mimics the prereactive state. MvaI shows structural similarities to BcnI, which cleaves the related sequence CC/SGG and to MutH enzyme, which is a component of the DNA repair machinery, and nicks one DNA strand instead of making a double-strand break. PMID:17344322

  15. Real-time automatic target identification system for air-to-ground targeting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicholas, Mike; Wood, Jonathan; Nothard, Jo

    2005-10-01

    Future targeting systems, for manned or unmanned combat aircraft, aim to provide increased mission success and platform survivability by successfully detecting and identifying even difficult targets at very long ranges. One of the key enabling technologies for such systems is robust automatic target identification (ATI), operating on high resolution electro-optic sensor imagery. QinetiQ have developed a real time ATI processor which will be demonstrated with infrared imagery from the Wescam MX15 in airborne trials in summer 2005. This paper describes some of the novel ATI algorithms, the challenges overcome to port the ATI from the laboratory onto a real time system and offers an assessment of likely airborne performance based on analysis of synthetic image sequences.

  16. Recognizing subsurface target responses in ground penetrating radar data using convolutional neural networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakaguchi, Rayn T.; Morton, Kenneth D.; Collins, Leslie M.; Torrione, Peter A.

    2015-05-01

    Improved performance in the discrimination of buried threats using Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) data has recently been achieved using features developed for applications in computer vision. These features, designed to characterize local shape information in images, have been utilized to recognize patches that contain a target signature in two-dimensional slices of GPR data. While these adapted features perform very well in this GPR application, they were not designed to specifically differentiate between target responses and background GPR data. One option for developing a feature specifically designed for target differentiation is to manually design a feature extractor based on the physics of GPR image formation. However, as seen in the historical progression of computer vision features, this is not a trivial task. Instead, this research evaluates the use of convolutional neural networks (CNNs) applied to two-dimensional GPR data. The benefit of using a CNN is that features extracted from the data are a learned parameter of the system. This has allowed CNN implementations to achieve state of the art performance across a variety of data types, including visual images, without the need for expert designed features. However, the implementation of a CNN must be done carefully for each application as network parameters can cause performance to vary widely. This paper presents results from using CNNs for object detection in GPR data and discusses proper parameter settings and other considerations.

  17. Gaussian process classification using automatic relevance determination for SAR target recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiangrong; Gou, Limin; Hou, Biao; Jiao, Licheng

    2010-10-01

    In this paper, a Synthetic Aperture Radar Automatic Target Recognition approach based on Gaussian process (GP) classification is proposed. It adopts kernel principal component analysis to extract sample features and implements target recognition by using GP classification with automatic relevance determination (ARD) function. Compared with k-Nearest Neighbor, Naïve Bayes classifier and Support Vector Machine, GP with ARD has the advantage of automatic model selection and hyper-parameter optimization. The experiments on UCI datasets and MSTAR database show that our algorithm is self-tuning and has better recognition accuracy as well.

  18. Rendezvous terminal phase automatic braking sequencing and targeting. [for space shuttle orbiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kachmar, P. M.

    1973-01-01

    The purpose of the rendezvous terminal phase braking program is to provide the means of automatically bringing the primary orbiter within desired station keeping boundaries relative to the target satellite. A detailed discussion is presented on the braking program and its navigation, targeting, and guidance functions.

  19. Automatically Recognizing Medication and Adverse Event Information From Food and Drug Administration’s Adverse Event Reporting System Narratives

    PubMed Central

    Polepalli Ramesh, Balaji; Belknap, Steven M; Li, Zuofeng; Frid, Nadya; West, Dennis P

    2014-01-01

    Background The Food and Drug Administration’s (FDA) Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS) is a repository of spontaneously-reported adverse drug events (ADEs) for FDA-approved prescription drugs. FAERS reports include both structured reports and unstructured narratives. The narratives often include essential information for evaluation of the severity, causality, and description of ADEs that are not present in the structured data. The timely identification of unknown toxicities of prescription drugs is an important, unsolved problem. Objective The objective of this study was to develop an annotated corpus of FAERS narratives and biomedical named entity tagger to automatically identify ADE related information in the FAERS narratives. Methods We developed an annotation guideline and annotate medication information and adverse event related entities on 122 FAERS narratives comprising approximately 23,000 word tokens. A named entity tagger using supervised machine learning approaches was built for detecting medication information and adverse event entities using various categories of features. Results The annotated corpus had an agreement of over .9 Cohen’s kappa for medication and adverse event entities. The best performing tagger achieves an overall performance of 0.73 F1 score for detection of medication, adverse event and other named entities. Conclusions In this study, we developed an annotated corpus of FAERS narratives and machine learning based models for automatically extracting medication and adverse event information from the FAERS narratives. Our study is an important step towards enriching the FAERS data for postmarketing pharmacovigilance. PMID:25600332

  20. Automatic adjustments toward unseen visual targets during grasping movements.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhongting; Saunders, Jeffrey A

    2016-07-01

    We investigated whether control of hand movements can be driven by visual information that is not consciously perceived. Subjects performed reach-to-grasp movements toward 2D virtual objects that were projected onto a rigid surface. On perturbed trials, the target object was briefly presented at a different orientation (±20° rotation) or different size (±20 % scaling) during movement. The perturbed objects were presented for 33 ms, followed by a 200-ms mask and reappearance of the original target object. Subjects perceived only the mask and were not aware of the preceding perturbed stimuli. Unperturbed trials were identical except that there was no change in the target object before the mask. Despite being unaware of the brief perturbed stimuli, subjects showed corrective adjustments to their movements: rotation of the grip axis in response to orientation perturbations, and scaling of grip aperture in response to size perturbations. Responses were detectable 250-300 ms after the perturbation onset and began to reduce 250-300 ms after the reappearance of the original target. Our results demonstrate that the visuomotor system can utilize visual information for control of grasping even when this information is not available for conscious perception. We suggest that this dissociation is due to different temporal resolution of visual processing mechanisms underlying conscious perception and control of actions. PMID:26979436

  1. Multi-Stage System for Automatic Target Recognition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chao, Tien-Hsin; Lu, Thomas T.; Ye, David; Edens, Weston; Johnson, Oliver

    2010-01-01

    A multi-stage automated target recognition (ATR) system has been designed to perform computer vision tasks with adequate proficiency in mimicking human vision. The system is able to detect, identify, and track targets of interest. Potential regions of interest (ROIs) are first identified by the detection stage using an Optimum Trade-off Maximum Average Correlation Height (OT-MACH) filter combined with a wavelet transform. False positives are then eliminated by the verification stage using feature extraction methods in conjunction with neural networks. Feature extraction transforms the ROIs using filtering and binning algorithms to create feature vectors. A feedforward back-propagation neural network (NN) is then trained to classify each feature vector and to remove false positives. The system parameter optimizations process has been developed to adapt to various targets and datasets. The objective was to design an efficient computer vision system that can learn to detect multiple targets in large images with unknown backgrounds. Because the target size is small relative to the image size in this problem, there are many regions of the image that could potentially contain the target. A cursory analysis of every region can be computationally efficient, but may yield too many false positives. On the other hand, a detailed analysis of every region can yield better results, but may be computationally inefficient. The multi-stage ATR system was designed to achieve an optimal balance between accuracy and computational efficiency by incorporating both models. The detection stage first identifies potential ROIs where the target may be present by performing a fast Fourier domain OT-MACH filter-based correlation. Because threshold for this stage is chosen with the goal of detecting all true positives, a number of false positives are also detected as ROIs. The verification stage then transforms the regions of interest into feature space, and eliminates false positives using an

  2. System for Automatic Detection and Analysis of Targets in FMICW Radar Signal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rejfek, Luboš; Mošna, Zbyšek; Urbář, Jaroslav; Koucká Knížová, Petra

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the automatic system for the processing of the signals from the frequency modulated interrupted continuous wave (FMICW) radar and describes methods for the primary signal processing. Further, we present methods for the detection of the targets in strong noise. These methods are tested both on the real and simulated signals. The real signals were measured using the developed at the IAP CAS experimental prototype of FMICW radar with operational frequency 35.4 GHz. The measurement campaign took place at the TU Delft, the Netherlands. The obtained results were used for development of the system for the automatic detection and analysis of the targets measured by the FMICW radar.

  3. Factors affecting performance on a target monitoring task employing an automatic tracker.

    PubMed

    McFadden, Sharon M; Vimalachandran, Abhirami; Blackmore, Elizabeth

    2004-02-26

    The experiments in this paper examined the extent to which performance on a task employing an automatic tracker was similar to performance on tasks employing other types of automation that have been studied more extensively. Automated target tracking is being used in many sensor and navigation systems to improve performance and help the operator cope with increased data loads. With many automated systems these goals are not met. In particular, the operator often misses errors made by the automated system and may report no decrease in workload. Several hypotheses have been offered for the operator's failure to monitor an automated system adequately. These include lack of experience with the manual task, a vigilance decrement, complacency, and inappropriate level of automation. The relevance of each of these hypotheses to failure to monitor an automatic tracker adequately was examined. Performance and perceived workload on a target tracking task employing an automatic tracker, in which participants had to detect and then update the position of several targets (e.g. ships) at regular intervals, were measured as a function of number of targets, training with the manual task, experience, and time on task. The results suggested that failure to detect errors made by the automated system was due largely to the lack of visibility of the automation errors relative to other errors. However, complacency could not be ruled out entirely. Unlike some other tasks, the availability of a reliable automatic tracker did lead to a substantial reduction in perceived workload. PMID:14668161

  4. Kernel sparse coding method for automatic target recognition in infrared imagery using covariance descriptor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Chunwei; Yao, Junping; Sun, Dawei; Wang, Shicheng; Liu, Huaping

    2016-05-01

    Automatic target recognition in infrared imagery is a challenging problem. In this paper, a kernel sparse coding method for infrared target recognition using covariance descriptor is proposed. First, covariance descriptor combining gray intensity and gradient information of the infrared target is extracted as a feature representation. Then, due to the reason that covariance descriptor lies in non-Euclidean manifold, kernel sparse coding theory is used to solve this problem. We verify the efficacy of the proposed algorithm in terms of the confusion matrices on the real images consisting of seven categories of infrared vehicle targets.

  5. Target azimuth estimation for automatic tracking in range-gated imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Yinan; Wang, Xinwei; Zhou, Yan

    2012-11-01

    Target tracking is of great importance in imaging system, which can be applied in surveillance, as well as salvage and rescue where 3D spatial coordinates are used to locate the target. Range-gated imaging system is capable of acquiring range information of targets. However, azimuth is also necessary to provide the spatial coordinates to achieve target tracking. This paper presents a target azimuth estimation method for range-gated imaging system, aiming at obtaining essential information for vision-based automatic tracking. Due to the noise and low contrast of range-gated image, median filter and histogram equalization are used. Then the Otsu method is performed to make the segmentation of target and background. After segmentation, morphologic transformation methods will be taken in order to delete false targets. With pixels of target extracted from the image, the centoid will be derived. Next the pinhole camera model is applied to work out the azimuth coordinate. Since the focus length of camera is needed in the formula, an NC (Numerical Control) zoom module is developed. In this module, a sliding potentiometer is connected to the focus motor in camera, which serves as a feedback of the focus. To read the focus length and control the focus motor, an MCU (with AD converter) is used. Once the target azimuth information is obtained, the pan-tilt control unit can track the target bit by bit automatically.

  6. An integrated approach toward recognizing, locating and combating targets from a modern interceptor aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyhoff, E. G.; Kloeckner, H. W.

    1985-08-01

    Interceptor aircraft of the future will find themselves in an environment which will not only be significantly more hostile than today but also far more difficult to assess. On the one hand the requirement will be to reduce the detectability of the own aircraft and on the other to enhance the capability of destroying enemy targets. Reduction of detectability can be achieved through a variety of measures such as lowering the radar cross section, the IR emission or the RF emission. Enhancement of the capability to destroy enemy target requires, next to better weapons, longer detection and identification ranges as well as quicker reaction times. Faster reaction times are not only required to gain advantages in combating the designated enemy targets but also to respond to threat situations which may emanate from sources other than the targets. The requirement will exist for an avionic system capable of correlating all relevant data and either reaching decisions itself or presenting the pilot with information in such a way that they support his own making process. This paper describes a typical set of aircraft equipments which would be involved in the data acquisition and decision making processes; it quantifies data volumes and rates and, based on these figures, attempts to define processing and correlation requirements. It then proposes a system architecture which might be suitable for the tasks at hand. The emphasis of the paper will be on assessing the impact of LSI/VHSIC technology on those portions of the avionics system which are utilized in the processes described above.

  7. Recognizing drug targets using evolutionary information: implications for repurposing FDA-approved drugs against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv.

    PubMed

    Ramakrishnan, Gayatri; Chandra, Nagasuma R; Srinivasan, Narayanaswamy

    2015-12-01

    Drug repurposing to explore target space has been gaining pace over the past decade with the upsurge in the use of systematic approaches for computational drug discovery. Such a cost and time-saving approach gains immense importance for pathogens of special interest, such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv. We report a comprehensive approach to repurpose drugs, based on the exploration of evolutionary relationships inferred from the comparative sequence and structural analyses between targets of FDA-approved drugs and the proteins of M. tuberculosis. This approach has facilitated the identification of several polypharmacological drugs that could potentially target unexploited M. tuberculosis proteins. A total of 130 FDA-approved drugs, originally intended against other diseases, could be repurposed against 78 potential targets in M. tuberculosis. Additionally, we have also made an attempt to augment the chemical space by recognizing compounds structurally similar to FDA-approved drugs. For three of the attractive cases we have investigated the probable binding modes of the drugs in their corresponding M. tuberculosis targets by means of structural modelling. Such prospective targets and small molecules could be prioritized for experimental endeavours, and could significantly influence drug-discovery and drug-development programmes for tuberculosis. PMID:26429199

  8. Automatism

    PubMed Central

    McCaldon, R. J.

    1964-01-01

    Individuals can carry out complex activity while in a state of impaired consciousness, a condition termed “automatism”. Consciousness must be considered from both an organic and a psychological aspect, because impairment of consciousness may occur in both ways. Automatism may be classified as normal (hypnosis), organic (temporal lobe epilepsy), psychogenic (dissociative fugue) or feigned. Often painstaking clinical investigation is necessary to clarify the diagnosis. There is legal precedent for assuming that all crimes must embody both consciousness and will. Jurists are loath to apply this principle without reservation, as this would necessitate acquittal and release of potentially dangerous individuals. However, with the sole exception of the defence of insanity, there is at present no legislation to prohibit release without further investigation of anyone acquitted of a crime on the grounds of “automatism”. PMID:14199824

  9. Automatic target detection in forward-looking infrared imagery via probabilistic neural networks.

    PubMed

    Khan, Jesmin F; Alam, Mohammad S; Bhuiyan, Sharif M A

    2009-01-20

    This paper presents a technique for automatic detection of the targets in forward-looking infrared (FLIR) imagery. Mathematical morphology is applied for the preliminary selection of possible regions of interest (ROI). An efficient clutter rejecter module based on probabilistic neural network is proposed, which is trained by using both target and background features to ensure excellent classification performance by moving the ROI in several directions with respect to the center of the detected target patch. Experimental results using real-life FLIR imagery confirm the excellent performance of the detector and the effectiveness of the proposed clutter rejecter module. PMID:19151815

  10. Real-time imaging systems' combination of methods to achieve automatic target recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maraviglia, Carlos G.; Williams, Elmer F.; Pezzulich, Alan Z.

    1998-03-01

    Using a combination of strategies real time imaging weapons systems are achieving their goals of detecting their intended targets. The demands of acquiring a target in a cluttered environment in a timely manner with a high degree of confidence demands compromise be made as to having a truly automatic system. A combination of techniques such as dedicated image processing hardware, real time operating systems, mixes of algorithmic methods, and multi-sensor detectors are a forbearance of the unleashed potential of future weapons system and their incorporation in truly autonomous target acquisition. Elements such as position information, sensor gain controls, way marks for mid course correction, and augmentation with different imaging spectrums as well as future capabilities such as neural net expert systems and decision processors over seeing a fusion matrix architecture may be considered tools for a weapon system's achievement of its ultimate goal. Currently, acquiring a target in a cluttered environment in a timely manner with a high degree of confidence demands compromises be made as to having a truly automatic system. It is now necessary to include a human in the track decision loop, a system feature that may be long lived. Automatic Track Recognition will still be the desired goal in future systems due to the variability of military missions and desirability of an expendable asset. Furthermore, with the increasing incorporation of multi-sensor information into the track decision the human element's real time contribution must be carefully engineered.

  11. A fast automatic target detection method for detecting ships in infrared scenes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Özertem, Kemal Arda

    2016-05-01

    Automatic target detection in infrared scenes is a vital task for many application areas like defense, security and border surveillance. For anti-ship missiles, having a fast and robust ship detection algorithm is crucial for overall system performance. In this paper, a straight-forward yet effective ship detection method for infrared scenes is introduced. First, morphological grayscale reconstruction is applied to the input image, followed by an automatic thresholding onto the suppressed image. For the segmentation step, connected component analysis is employed to obtain target candidate regions. At this point, it can be realized that the detection is defenseless to outliers like small objects with relatively high intensity values or the clouds. To deal with this drawback, a post-processing stage is introduced. For the post-processing stage, two different methods are used. First, noisy detection results are rejected with respect to target size. Second, the waterline is detected by using Hough transform and the detection results that are located above the waterline with a small margin are rejected. After post-processing stage, there are still undesired holes remaining, which cause to detect one object as multi objects or not to detect an object as a whole. To improve the detection performance, another automatic thresholding is implemented only to target candidate regions. Finally, two detection results are fused and post-processing stage is repeated to obtain final detection result. The performance of overall methodology is tested with real world infrared test data.

  12. Using land to mitigate climate change: hitting the target, recognizing the trade-offs.

    PubMed

    Reilly, John; Melillo, Jerry; Cai, Yongxia; Kicklighter, David; Gurgel, Angelo; Paltsev, Sergey; Cronin, Timothy; Sokolov, Andrei; Schlosser, Adam

    2012-06-01

    Land can be used in several ways to mitigate climate change, but especially under changing environmental conditions there may be implications for food prices. Using an integrated global system model, we explore the roles that these land-use options can play in a global mitigation strategy to stabilize Earth's average temperature within 2 °C of the preindustrial level and their impacts on agriculture. We show that an ambitious global Energy-Only climate policy that includes biofuels would likely not achieve the 2 °C target. A thought-experiment where the world ideally prices land carbon fluxes combined with biofuels (Energy+Land policy) gets the world much closer. Land could become a large net carbon sink of about 178 Pg C over the 21st century with price incentives in the Energy+Land scenario. With land carbon pricing but without biofuels (a No-Biofuel scenario) the carbon sink is nearly identical to the case with biofuels, but emissions from energy are somewhat higher, thereby results in more warming. Absent such incentives, land is either a much smaller net carbon sink (+37 Pg C - Energy-Only policy) or a net source (-21 Pg C - No-Policy). The significant trade-off with this integrated land-use approach is that prices for agricultural products rise substantially because of mitigation costs borne by the sector and higher land prices. Share of income spent on food for wealthier regions continues to fall, but for the poorest regions, higher food prices lead to a rising share of income spent on food. PMID:22533690

  13. Photon-counting passive 3D image sensing and processing for automatic target recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeom, Seokwon; Javidi, Bahram; Watson, Edward

    2008-04-01

    In this paper we overview the nonlinear matched filtering for photon counting recognition with 3D passive sensing. The first and second order statistical properties of the nonlinear matched filtering can improve the recognition performance compared to the linear matched filtering. Automatic target reconstruction and recognition are addressed for partially occluded objects. The recognition performance is shown to be improved significantly in the reconstruction space. The discrimination capability is analyzed in terms of Fisher ratio (FR) and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves.

  14. Automatic target recognition performance losses in the presence of atmospheric and camera effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xiaohan; Schmid, Natalia A.

    2010-04-01

    The importance of networked automatic target recognition systems for surveillance applications is continuously increasing. Because of the requirement of a low cost and limited payload, these networks are traditionally equipped with lightweight, low-cost sensors such as electro-optical (EO) or infrared sensors. The quality of imagery acquired by these sensors critically depends on the environmental conditions, type and characteristics of sensors, and absence of occluding or concealing objects. In the past, a large number of efficient detection, tracking, and recognition algorithms have been designed to operate on imagery of good quality. However, detection and recognition limits under nonideal environmental and/or sensor-based distortions have not been carefully evaluated. We introduce a fully automatic target recognition system that involves a Haar-based detector to select potential regions of interest within images, performs adjustment of detected regions, segments potential targets using a region-based approach, identifies targets using Bessel K form-based encoding, and performs clutter rejection. We investigate the effects of environmental and camera conditions on target detection and recognition performance. Two databases are involved. One is a simulated database generated using a 3-D tool. The other database is formed by imaging 10 die-cast models of military vehicles from different elevation and orientation angles. The database contains imagery acquired both indoors and outdoors. The indoors data set is composed of clear and distorted images. The distortions include defocus blur, sided illumination, low contrast, shadows, and occlusions. All images in this database, however, have a uniform (blue) background. The indoors database is applied to evaluate the degradations of recognition performance due to camera and illumination effects. The database collected outdoors includes a real background and is much more complex to process. The numerical results

  15. Dual Receptor Recognizing Cell Penetrating Peptide for Selective Targeting, Efficient Intratumoral Diffusion and Synthesized Anti-Glioma Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yayuan; Mei, Ling; Xu, Chaoqun; Yu, Qianwen; Shi, Kairong; Zhang, Li; Wang, Yang; Zhang, Qianyu; Gao, Huile; Zhang, Zhirong; He, Qin

    2016-01-01

    Cell penetrating peptides (CPPs) were widely used for drug delivery to tumor. However, the nonselective in vivo penetration greatly limited the application of CPPs-mediated drug delivery systems. And the treatment of malignant tumors is usually followed by poor prognosis and relapse due to the existence of extravascular core regions of tumor. Thus it is important to endue selective targeting and stronger intratumoral diffusion abilities to CPPs. In this study, an RGD reverse sequence dGR was conjugated to a CPP octa-arginine to form a CendR (R/KXXR/K) motif contained tandem peptide R8-dGR (RRRRRRRRdGR) which could bind to both integrin αvβ3 and neuropilin-1 receptors. The dual receptor recognizing peptide R8-dGR displayed increased cellular uptake and efficient penetration ability into glioma spheroids in vitro. The following in vivo studies indicated the active targeting and intratumoral diffusion capabilities of R8-dGR modified liposomes. When paclitaxel was loaded in the liposomes, PTX-R8-dGR-Lip induced the strongest anti-proliferation effect on both tumor cells and cancer stem cells, and inhibited the formation of vasculogenic mimicry channels in vitro. Finally, the R8-dGR liposomal drug delivery system prolonged the medium survival time of intracranial C6 bearing mice by 2.1-fold compared to the untreated group, and achieved an exhaustive anti-glioma therapy including anti-tumor cells, anti-vasculogenic mimicry and anti-brain cancer stem cells. To sum up, all the results demonstrated that R8-dGR was an ideal dual receptor recognizing CPP with selective glioma targeting and efficient intratumoral diffusion, which could be further used to equip drug delivery system for effective glioma therapy. PMID:26877777

  16. Truncated feature representation for automatic target detection using transformed data-based decomposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riasati, Vahid R.

    2016-05-01

    In this work, the data covariance matrix is diagonalized to provide an orthogonal bases set using the eigen vectors of the data. The eigen-vector decomposition of the data is transformed and filtered in the transform domain to truncate the data for robust features related to a specified set of targets. These truncated eigen features are then combined and reconstructed to utilize in a composite filter and consequently utilized for the automatic target detection of the same class of targets. The results associated with the testing of the current technique are evaluated using the peak-correlation and peak-correlation energy metrics and are presented in this work. The inverse transformed eigen-bases of the current technique may be thought of as an injected sparsity to minimize data in representing the skeletal data structure information associated with the set of targets under consideration.

  17. Extracting contextual information in digital imagery: applications to automatic target recognition and mammography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spence, Clay D.; Sajda, Paul; Pearson, John C.

    1996-02-01

    An important problem in image analysis is finding small objects in large images. The problem is challenging because (1) searching a large image is computationally expensive, and (2) small targets (on the order of a few pixels in size) have relatively few distinctive features which enable them to be distinguished from non-targets. To overcome these challenges we have developed a hierarchical neural network (HNN) architecture which combines multi-resolution pyramid processing with neural networks. The advantages of the architecture are: (1) both neural network training and testing can be done efficiently through coarse-to-fine techniques, and (2) such a system is capable of learning low-resolution contextual information to facilitate the detection of small target objects. We have applied this neural network architecture to two problems in which contextual information appears to be important for detecting small targets. The first problem is one of automatic target recognition (ATR), specifically the problem of detecting buildings in aerial photographs. The second problem focuses on a medical application, namely searching mammograms for microcalcifications, which are cues for breast cancer. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis suggests that the hierarchical architecture improves the detection accuracy for both the ATR and microcalcification detection problems, reducing false positive rates by a significant factor. In addition, we have examined the hidden units at various levels of the processing hierarchy and found what appears to be representations of road location (for the ATR example) and ductal/vasculature location (for mammography), both of which are in agreement with the contextual information used by humans to find these classes of targets. We conclude that this hierarchical neural network architecture is able to automatically extract contextual information in imagery and utilize it for target detection.

  18. Automatic geolocation of targets tracked by aerial imaging platforms using satellite imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shukla, P. K.; Goel, S.; Singh, P.; Lohani, B.

    2014-11-01

    Tracking of targets from aerial platforms is an important activity in several applications, especially surveillance. Knowled ge of geolocation of these targets adds additional significant and useful information to the application. This paper determines the geolocation of a target being tracked from an aerial platform using the technique of image registration. Current approaches utilize a POS to determine the location of the aerial platform and then use the same for geolocation of the targets using the principle of photogrammetry. The constraints of cost and low-payload restrict the applicability of this approach using UAV platforms. This paper proposes a methodology for determining the geolocation of a target tracked from an aerial platform in a partially GPS devoid environment. The method utilises automatic feature based registration technique of a georeferenced satellite image with an ae rial image which is already stored in UAV's database to retrieve the geolocation of the target. Since it is easier to register subsequent aerial images due to similar viewing parameters, the subsequent overlapping images are registered together sequentially thus resulting in the registration of each of the images with georeferenced satellite image thus leading to geolocation of the target under interest. Using the proposed approach, the target can be tracked in all the frames in which it is visible. The proposed concept is verified experimentally and the results are found satisfactory. Using the proposed method, a user can obtain location of target of interest as well features on ground without requiring any POS on-board the aerial platform. The proposed approach has applications in surveillance for target tracking, target geolocation as well as in disaster management projects like search and rescue operations.

  19. Automatic Extraction of Closed Pixel Clusters for Target Cueing in Hyperspectral Images

    SciTech Connect

    Paglieroni, D W; Perkins, D E

    2001-06-05

    Traditional algorithms for automatic target cueing (ATC) in hyperspectral images, such as the RX algorithm, treat anomaly detection as a simple hypothesis testing problem. Each decision threshold gives rise to a different set of anomalous pixels. The clustered Rx algorithm generates target cues by grouping anomalous pixels into spatial clusters, and retaining only those clusters that satisfy target specific spatial constraints. It produces one set of target cues for each of several decision thresholds, and conservatively requires {Omicron}(K{sup 2}) operations per pixel, where K is the number of spectral bands (which varies from hundreds to thousands in hyperspectral images). A novel ATC algorithm, known as ''Pixel Cluster Cueing'' (PCC), is discussed. PCC groups pixels into clusters based on spectral similarity and spatial proximity, and then selects only those clusters that satisfy target-specific spatial constraints as target cues. PCC requires only {Omicron}(K) operations per pixel, and it produces only one set of target cues because it is not an anomaly detection algorithm, i.e., it does not use a decision threshold to classify individual pixels as anomalies. PCC is compared both computationally and statistically to the RX algorithm.

  20. Automatic detection of pulsed radio frequency (RF) targets using sparse representations in undercomplete learned dictionaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moody, Daniela I.; Smith, David A.; Brumby, Steven P.

    2014-06-01

    Automatic classification of transitory or pulsed radio frequency (RF) signals is of particular interest in persistent surveillance and remote sensing applications. Such transients are often acquired in noisy, cluttered environments, and may be characterized by complex or unknown analytical models. Conventional representations using orthogonal bases, e.g., Short Time Fourier and Wavelet Transforms, can be suboptimal for classification of transients, as they provide a rigid tiling of the time-frequency space, and are not specifically designed for a particular target signal. They do not usually lead to sparse decompositions, and require separate feature selection algorithms, creating additional computational overhead. We propose a fast, adaptive classification approach based on non-analytical dictionaries learned from data. Our goal is to detect chirped pulses from a model target emitter in poor signal-to-noise and varying levels of simulated background clutter conditions. This paper builds on our previous RF classification work, and extends it to more complex target and background scenarios. We use a Hebbian rule to learn discriminative RF dictionaries directly from data, without relying on analytical constraints or additional knowledge about the signal characteristics. A pursuit search is used over the learned dictionaries to generate sparse classification features in order to identify time windows containing a target pulse. We demonstrate that learned dictionary techniques are highly suitable for pulsed RF analysis and present results with varying background clutter and noise levels. The target detection decision is obtained in almost real-time via a parallel, vectorized implementation.

  1. Automatic determination of the number of targets present when using the time reversal operator.

    PubMed

    Quinlan, Angela; Barbot, Jean-Pierre; Larzabal, Pascal

    2006-04-01

    Acoustical time reversal mirrors have been shown to provide a highly accurate means of studying and focusing on acoustical sources. The DORT method is a derivation of the time reversal process, which allows for focusing on multiple targets. An important step in this process is the determination of the number of targets or sources present. This is achieved by examining the eigenvalues of the time reversal operator (TRO). The number of significant eigenvalues is then chosen as the number of sources present. However, as mentioned in [N. Mordant, C. Prada, and M. Fink, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 105, 2634-2642 (1999) and C. Prada, M. Tanter, and M. Fink, in Proceedings of the IEEE Symposium, 1997, pp. 679-683], factors such as low signal to noise ratio (SNR), small data sample, array configuration and the target location may result in the eigenvalues corresponding to the targets no longer being distinguishable from the background noise eigenvalues. This paper proposes a robust method of automatically determining the number of targets even in the presence of a small number of snapshots. For white Gaussian noise, the profile of the ordered eigenvalues is seen to fit an exponential law. The observed eigenvalues are then compared to this model and a mismatch is detected between the observed profile and the noise-only model. The index of the mismatch gives the number of scatterers present. PMID:16642836

  2. An algorithm for automatic target recognition using passive radar and an EKF for estimating aircraft orientation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehrman, Lisa M.

    2005-07-01

    Rather than emitting pulses, passive radar systems rely on "illuminators of opportunity," such as TV and FM radio, to illuminate potential targets. These systems are attractive since they allow receivers to operate without emitting energy, rendering them covert. Until recently, most of the research regarding passive radar has focused on detecting and tracking targets. This dissertation focuses on extending the capabilities of passive radar systems to include automatic target recognition. The target recognition algorithm described in this dissertation uses the radar cross section (RCS) of potential targets, collected over a short period of time, as the key information for target recognition. To make the simulated RCS as accurate as possible, the received signal model accounts for aircraft position and orientation, propagation losses, and antenna gain patterns. An extended Kalman filter (EKF) estimates the target's orientation (and uncertainty in the estimate) from velocity measurements obtained from the passive radar tracker. Coupling the aircraft orientation and state with the known antenna locations permits computation of the incident and observed azimuth and elevation angles. The Fast Illinois Solver Code (FISC) simulates the RCS of potential target classes as a function of these angles. Thus, the approximated incident and observed angles allow the appropriate RCS to be extracted from a database of FISC results. Using this process, the RCS of each aircraft in the target class is simulated as though each is executing the same maneuver as the target detected by the system. Two additional scaling processes are required to transform the RCS into a power profile (magnitude only) simulating the signal in the receiver. First, the RCS is scaled by the Advanced Refractive Effects Prediction System (AREPS) code to account for propagation losses that occur as functions of altitude and range. Then, the Numerical Electromagnetic Code (NEC2) computes the antenna gain pattern

  3. Real-time automatic small infrared target detection using local spectral filtering in the frequency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hao; Zhang, Hong; Li, Jiafeng; Yuan, Ding; Sun, Mingui

    2014-11-01

    Accurate and fast detection of small infrared target has very important meaning for infrared precise guidance, early warning, video surveillance, etc. Based on human visual attention mechanism, an automatic detection algorithm for small infrared target is presented. In this paper, instead of searching for infrared targets, we model regular patches that do not attract much attention by our visual system. This is inspired by the property that the regular patches in spatial domain turn out to correspond to the spikes in the amplitude spectrum. Unlike recent approaches using global spectral filtering, we define the concept of local maxima suppression using local spectral filtering to smooth the spikes in the amplitude spectrum, thereby producing the pop-out of the infrared targets. In the proposed method, we firstly compute the amplitude spectrum of an input infrared image. Second, we find the local maxima of the amplitude spectrum using cubic facet model. Third, we suppress the local maxima using the convolution of the local spectrum with a low-pass Gaussian kernel of an appropriate scale. At last, the detection result in spatial domain is obtained by reconstructing the 2D signal using the original phase and the log amplitude spectrum by suppressing local maxima. The experiments are performed for some real-life IR images, and the results prove that the proposed method has satisfying detection effectiveness and robustness. Meanwhile, it has high detection efficiency and can be further used for real-time detection and tracking.

  4. Automatic registration of laser point cloud using precisely located sphere targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yanmin; Shi, Hongbin; Zhang, Yanyan; Zhang, Dongmei

    2014-01-01

    Sphere targets are used extensively in terrestrial laser scanning registration; however, in practice, it is still a time-consuming and labor-intensive task. This paper proposes an automatic registration method for laser point clouds based on sphere targets' detection. First, a modified eight-neighbors check method is applied to mark occluding edge points. Then, for the sphere targets in the raster structure, occluding edge points are clustered, and circle and sphere detections are sequentially implemented in the cluster node and circular area, respectively. The sphere models that pass through multilevel constraints are considered the final results. Next, triangles constructed using three arbitrary noncollinear sphere centers in each scan station are selected as registration primitives and the area and interior angles of each are selected as similarity measures. Finally, the congruent sphere centers between two scan stations are matched in an iterative manner and used to calculate the transformation matrix. The results of experiments in which a lab was scanned from two locations indicate that our method can effectively detect four sphere targets in more than 10 million point clouds within ˜1.5 min, with the largest position error between congruent points <2 mm.

  5. Minimum average correlation energy (MACE) prefilter networks for automatic target recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hobson, Gregory L.; Sims, S. Richard F.; Gader, Paul D.; Keller, James M.

    1994-07-01

    Minimum average correlation energy (MACE) filters have been shown to be an effective generalization of the synthetic discriminant function (SDF) approach to automatic target recognition. The MACE filter has the advantage of having a very low false alarm rate, but suffers from a diminished probability of detection. Several generalizations have recently been proposed to maintain the low false alarm rate while increasing the probability of detection. The mathematical formulation of the MACE filter can be decomposed into a linear `prefilter' followed by an SDF-like operation. It is the prefiltering portion of the MACE which accounts for the low false alarm rate. In this paper, we insert a nonlinearity in this process by replacing the SDF portion of the operation by a neural network and show that we can increase the probability of detection without sacrificing low false alarm rates. This approach is demonstrated on a standard multiaspect image set and compared to the MACE and its generalizations.

  6. User acceptance of intelligent avionics: A study of automatic-aided target recognition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Becker, Curtis A.; Hayes, Brian C.; Gorman, Patrick C.

    1991-01-01

    User acceptance of new support systems typically was evaluated after the systems were specified, designed, and built. The current study attempts to assess user acceptance of an Automatic-Aided Target Recognition (ATR) system using an emulation of such a proposed system. The detection accuracy and false alarm level of the ATR system were varied systematically, and subjects rated the tactical value of systems exhibiting different performance levels. Both detection accuracy and false alarm level affected the subjects' ratings. The data from two experiments suggest a cut-off point in ATR performance below which the subjects saw little tactical value in the system. An ATR system seems to have obvious tactical value only if it functions at a correct detection rate of 0.7 or better with a false alarm level of 0.167 false alarms per square degree or fewer.

  7. Three-dimensional transformation for automatic target recognition using lidar data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nieves, Ruben D.; Reynolds, William D., Jr.

    2010-04-01

    The three-dimensional (3-D) nature and the unorganized structure of topographic LIDAR data pose several challenges for target recognition tasks. In the past, several approaches have applied two-dimensional transformations such as spinimages or Digital Elevation Maps (DEMs) as an intermediate step for analyzing the 3-D data with two-dimensional (2-D) methods. However, these techniques are computationally intensive and often sacrifice some of the overall geometrical relationship of the target points. In this paper, we present a simple and efficient 3-D spatial transformation that preserves the geometrical attributes of the LIDAR data in all its dimensions. This transformation permits the utilization of well established statistical and shapebased descriptors for the implementation of an automatic target recognition algorithm. We evaluate our transformation and analysis technique on a set of simulated LIDAR point clouds of ground vehicles with varied obstructions and noise levels. Classification results demonstrate that our approach is efficient, tolerant to scale, rotation, and robust to noise and other degradations.

  8. Automatic target detection algorithm for foliage-penetrating ultrawideband SAR data using split spectral analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damarla, Thyagaraju; Kapoor, Ravinder; Ressler, Marc A.

    1999-07-01

    We present an automatic target detection (ATD) algorithm for foliage penetrating (FOPEN) ultra-wideband (UWB) synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data using split spectral analysis. Split spectral analysis is commonly used in the ultrasonic, non-destructive evaluation of materials using wide band pulses for flaw detection. In this paper, we show the application of split spectral analysis for detecting obscured targets in foliage using UWB pulse returns to discriminate targets from foliage, the data spectrum is split into several bands, namely, 20 to 75, 75 to 150, ..., 825 to 900 MHz. An ATD algorithm is developed based on the relative energy levels in various bands, the number of bands containing significant energy (spread of energy), and chip size (number of crossrange and range bins). The algorithm is tested on the (FOPEN UWB SAR) data of foliage and vehicles obscured by foliage collected at Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD. The paper presents various split spectral parameters used in the algorithm and discusses the rationale for their use.

  9. Dynamic Data Driven Applications Systems (DDDAS) modeling for automatic target recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blasch, Erik; Seetharaman, Guna; Darema, Frederica

    2013-05-01

    The Dynamic Data Driven Applications System (DDDAS) concept uses applications modeling, mathematical algorithms, and measurement systems to work with dynamic systems. A dynamic systems such as Automatic Target Recognition (ATR) is subject to sensor, target, and the environment variations over space and time. We use the DDDAS concept to develop an ATR methodology for multiscale-multimodal analysis that seeks to integrated sensing, processing, and exploitation. In the analysis, we use computer vision techniques to explore the capabilities and analogies that DDDAS has with information fusion. The key attribute of coordination is the use of sensor management as a data driven techniques to improve performance. In addition, DDDAS supports the need for modeling from which uncertainty and variations are used within the dynamic models for advanced performance. As an example, we use a Wide-Area Motion Imagery (WAMI) application to draw parallels and contrasts between ATR and DDDAS systems that warrants an integrated perspective. This elementary work is aimed at triggering a sequence of deeper insightful research towards exploiting sparsely sampled piecewise dense WAMI measurements - an application where the challenges of big-data with regards to mathematical fusion relationships and high-performance computations remain significant and will persist. Dynamic data-driven adaptive computations are required to effectively handle the challenges with exponentially increasing data volume for advanced information fusion systems solutions such as simultaneous target tracking and ATR.

  10. General Metropolis-Hastings jump diffusions for automatic target recognition in infrared scenes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanterman, Aaron D.; Miller, Michael I.; Snyder, Donald L.

    1997-04-01

    To locate and recognize ground-based targets in forward- looking IR (FLIR) images, 3D faceted models with associated pose parameters are formulated to accommodate the variability found in FLIR imagery. Taking a Bayesian approach, scenes are simulated from the emissive characteristics of the CAD models and compared with the collected data by a likelihood function based on sensor statistics. This likelihood is combined with a prior distribution defined over the set of possible scenes to form a posterior distribution. To accommodate scenes with variable numbers of targets, the posterior distribution is defined over parameter vectors of varying dimension. An inference algorithm based on Metropolis-Hastings jump- diffusion processes empirically samples from the posterior distribution, generating configurations of templates and transformations that match the collected sensor data with high probability. The jumps accommodate the addition and deletion of targets and the estimation of target identities; diffusions refine the hypotheses by drifting along the gradient of the posterior distribution with respect to the orientation and position parameters. Previous results on jumps strategies analogous to the Metropolis acceptance/rejection algorithm, with proposals drawn from the prior and accepted based on the likelihood, are extended to encompass general Metropolis-Hastings proposal densities. In particular, the algorithm proposes moves by drawing from the posterior distribution over computationally tractible subsets of the parameter space. The algorithm is illustrated by an implementation on a Silicon Graphics Onyx/Reality Engine.

  11. Localization accuracy from automatic and semi-automatic rigid registration of locally-advanced lung cancer targets during image-guided radiation therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Robertson, Scott P.; Weiss, Elisabeth; Hugo, Geoffrey D.

    2012-01-15

    Purpose: To evaluate localization accuracy resulting from rigid registration of locally-advanced lung cancer targets using fully automatic and semi-automatic protocols for image-guided radiation therapy. Methods: Seventeen lung cancer patients, fourteen also presenting with involved lymph nodes, received computed tomography (CT) scans once per week throughout treatment under active breathing control. A physician contoured both lung and lymph node targets for all weekly scans. Various automatic and semi-automatic rigid registration techniques were then performed for both individual and simultaneous alignments of the primary gross tumor volume (GTV{sub P}) and involved lymph nodes (GTV{sub LN}) to simulate the localization process in image-guided radiation therapy. Techniques included ''standard'' (direct registration of weekly images to a planning CT), ''seeded'' (manual prealignment of targets to guide standard registration), ''transitive-based'' (alignment of pretreatment and planning CTs through one or more intermediate images), and ''rereferenced'' (designation of a new reference image for registration). Localization error (LE) was assessed as the residual centroid and border distances between targets from planning and weekly CTs after registration. Results: Initial bony alignment resulted in centroid LE of 7.3 {+-} 5.4 mm and 5.4 {+-} 3.4 mm for the GTV{sub P} and GTV{sub LN}, respectively. Compared to bony alignment, transitive-based and seeded registrations significantly reduced GTV{sub P} centroid LE to 4.7 {+-} 3.7 mm (p = 0.011) and 4.3 {+-} 2.5 mm (p < 1 x 10{sup -3}), respectively, but the smallest GTV{sub P} LE of 2.4 {+-} 2.1 mm was provided by rereferenced registration (p < 1 x 10{sup -6}). Standard registration significantly reduced GTV{sub LN} centroid LE to 3.2 {+-} 2.5 mm (p < 1 x 10{sup -3}) compared to bony alignment, with little additional gain offered by the other registration techniques. For simultaneous target alignment, centroid LE as low

  12. Automatic target classification of man-made objects in synthetic aperture radar images using Gabor wavelet and neural network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasuki, Perumal; Roomi, S. Mohamed Mansoor

    2013-01-01

    Processing of synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images has led to the development of automatic target classification approaches. These approaches help to classify individual and mass military ground vehicles. This work aims to develop an automatic target classification technique to classify military targets like truck/tank/armored car/cannon/bulldozer. The proposed method consists of three stages via preprocessing, feature extraction, and neural network (NN). The first stage removes speckle noise in a SAR image by the identified frost filter and enhances the image by histogram equalization. The second stage uses a Gabor wavelet to extract the image features. The third stage classifies the target by an NN classifier using image features. The proposed work performs better than its counterparts, like K-nearest neighbor (KNN). The proposed work performs better on databases like moving and stationary target acquisition and recognition against the earlier methods by KNN.

  13. Development of automatic target recognition for infrared sensor-based close-range land mine detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ngan, Peter; Garcia, Sigberto A.; Cloud, Eugene L.; Duvoisin, Herbert A., III; Long, Daniel T.; Hackett, Jay K.

    1995-06-01

    Infrared imagery scenes change continuously with environmental conditions. Strategic targets embedded in them are often difficult to be identified with the naked eye. An IR sensor-based mine detector must include Automatic Target Recognition (ATR) to detect and extract land mines from IR scenes. In the course of the ATR development process, mine signature data were collected using a commercial 8-12 (mu) spectral range FLIR, model Inframetrics 445L, and a commercial 3-5 (mu) starting focal planar array FLIR, model Infracam. These sensors were customized to the required field-of-view for short range operation. These baseline data were then input into a specialized parallel processor on which the mine detection algorithm is developed and trained. The ATR is feature-based and consists of several subprocesses to progress from raw input IR imagery to a neural network classifier for final nomination of the targets. Initially, image enhancement is used to remove noise and sensor artifact. Three preprocessing techniques, namely model-based segmentation, multi-element prescreener, and geon detector are then applied to extract specific features of the targets and to reject all objects that do not resemble mines. Finally, to further reduce the false alarm rate, the extracted features are presented to the neural network classifier. Depending on the operational circumstances, one of three neural network techniques will be adopted; back propagation, supervised real-time learning, or unsupervised real-time learning. The Close Range IR Mine Detection System is an Army program currently being experimentally developed to be demonstrated in the Army's Advanced Technology Demonstration in FY95. The ATR resulting from this program will be integrated in the 21st Century Land Warrior program in which the mine avoidance capability is its primary interest.

  14. A comparative study of automatic image segmentation algorithms for target tracking in MR-IGRT.

    PubMed

    Feng, Yuan; Kawrakow, Iwan; Olsen, Jeff; Parikh, Parag J; Noel, Camille; Wooten, Omar; Du, Dongsu; Mutic, Sasa; Hu, Yanle

    2016-01-01

    On-board magnetic resonance (MR) image guidance during radiation therapy offers the potential for more accurate treatment delivery. To utilize the real-time image information, a crucial prerequisite is the ability to successfully segment and track regions of interest (ROI). The purpose of this work is to evaluate the performance of different segmentation algorithms using motion images (4 frames per second) acquired using a MR image-guided radiotherapy (MR-IGRT) system. Manual con-tours of the kidney, bladder, duodenum, and a liver tumor by an experienced radiation oncologist were used as the ground truth for performance evaluation. Besides the manual segmentation, images were automatically segmented using thresholding, fuzzy k-means (FKM), k-harmonic means (KHM), and reaction-diffusion level set evolution (RD-LSE) algorithms, as well as the tissue tracking algorithm provided by the ViewRay treatment planning and delivery system (VR-TPDS). The performance of the five algorithms was evaluated quantitatively by comparing with the manual segmentation using the Dice coefficient and target registration error (TRE) measured as the distance between the centroid of the manual ROI and the centroid of the automatically segmented ROI. All methods were able to successfully segment the bladder and the kidney, but only FKM, KHM, and VR-TPDS were able to segment the liver tumor and the duodenum. The performance of the thresholding, FKM, KHM, and RD-LSE algorithms degraded as the local image contrast decreased, whereas the performance of the VP-TPDS method was nearly independent of local image contrast due to the reference registration algorithm. For segmenting high-contrast images (i.e., kidney), the thresholding method provided the best speed (< 1 ms) with a satisfying accuracy (Dice = 0.95). When the image contrast was low, the VR-TPDS method had the best automatic contour. Results suggest an image quality determination procedure before segmentation and a combination of

  15. Assisting People with Multiple Disabilities by Improving Their Computer Pointing Efficiency with an Automatic Target Acquisition Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shih, Ching-Hsiang; Shih, Ching-Tien; Peng, Chin-Ling

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluated whether two people with multiple disabilities would be able to improve their pointing performance through an Automatic Target Acquisition Program (ATAP) and a newly developed mouse driver (i.e. a new mouse driver replaces standard mouse driver, and is able to monitor mouse movement and intercept click action). Initially, both…

  16. Automatic identification of bird targets with radar via patterns produced by wing flapping.

    PubMed

    Zaugg, Serge; Saporta, Gilbert; van Loon, Emiel; Schmaljohann, Heiko; Liechti, Felix

    2008-09-01

    Bird identification with radar is important for bird migration research, environmental impact assessments (e.g. wind farms), aircraft security and radar meteorology. In a study on bird migration, radar signals from birds, insects and ground clutter were recorded. Signals from birds show a typical pattern due to wing flapping. The data were labelled by experts into the four classes BIRD, INSECT, CLUTTER and UFO (unidentifiable signals). We present a classification algorithm aimed at automatic recognition of bird targets. Variables related to signal intensity and wing flapping pattern were extracted (via continuous wavelet transform). We used support vector classifiers to build predictive models. We estimated classification performance via cross validation on four datasets. When data from the same dataset were used for training and testing the classifier, the classification performance was extremely to moderately high. When data from one dataset were used for training and the three remaining datasets were used as test sets, the performance was lower but still extremely to moderately high. This shows that the method generalizes well across different locations or times. Our method provides a substantial gain of time when birds must be identified in large collections of radar signals and it represents the first substantial step in developing a real time bird identification radar system. We provide some guidelines and ideas for future research. PMID:18331979

  17. A Compact Methodology to Understand, Evaluate, and Predict the Performance of Automatic Target Recognition

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yanpeng; Li, Xiang; Wang, Hongqiang; Chen, Yiping; Zhuang, Zhaowen; Cheng, Yongqiang; Deng, Bin; Wang, Liandong; Zeng, Yonghu; Gao, Lei

    2014-01-01

    This paper offers a compacted mechanism to carry out the performance evaluation work for an automatic target recognition (ATR) system: (a) a standard description of the ATR system's output is suggested, a quantity to indicate the operating condition is presented based on the principle of feature extraction in pattern recognition, and a series of indexes to assess the output in different aspects are developed with the application of statistics; (b) performance of the ATR system is interpreted by a quality factor based on knowledge of engineering mathematics; (c) through a novel utility called “context-probability” estimation proposed based on probability, performance prediction for an ATR system is realized. The simulation result shows that the performance of an ATR system can be accounted for and forecasted by the above-mentioned measures. Compared to existing technologies, the novel method can offer more objective performance conclusions for an ATR system. These conclusions may be helpful in knowing the practical capability of the tested ATR system. At the same time, the generalization performance of the proposed method is good. PMID:24967605

  18. Investigation of measureable parameters that correlate with automatic target recognition performance in synthetic aperture sonar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gazagnaire, Julia; Cobb, J. T.; Isaacs, Jason

    2015-05-01

    There is a desire in the Mine Counter Measure community to develop a systematic method to predict and/or estimate the performance of Automatic Target Recognition (ATR) algorithms that are detecting and classifying mine-like objects within sonar data. Ideally, parameters exist that can be measured directly from the sonar data that correlate with ATR performance. In this effort, two metrics were analyzed for their predictive potential using high frequency synthetic aperture sonar (SAS) images. The first parameter is a measure of contrast. It is essentially the variance in pixel intensity over a fixed partition of relatively small size. An analysis was performed to determine the optimum block size for this contrast calculation. These blocks were then overlapped in the horizontal and vertical direction over the entire image. The second parameter is the one-dimensional K-shape parameter. The K-distribution is commonly used to describe sonar backscatter return from range cells that contain a finite number of scatterers. An Ada-Boosted Decision Tree classifier was used to calculate the probability of classification (Pc) and false alarm rate (FAR) for several types of targets in SAS images from three different data sets. ROC curves as a function of the measured parameters were generated and the correlation between the measured parameters in the vicinity of each of the contacts and the ATR performance was investigated. The contrast and K-shape parameters were considered separately. Additionally, the contrast and K-shape parameter were associated with background texture types using previously labeled high frequency SAS images.

  19. Comparative analysis of different implementations of a parallel algorithm for automatic target detection and classification of hyperspectral images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paz, Abel; Plaza, Antonio; Plaza, Javier

    2009-08-01

    Automatic target detection in hyperspectral images is a task that has attracted a lot of attention recently. In the last few years, several algoritms have been developed for this purpose, including the well-known RX algorithm for anomaly detection, or the automatic target detection and classification algorithm (ATDCA), which uses an orthogonal subspace projection (OSP) approach to extract a set of spectrally distinct targets automatically from the input hyperspectral data. Depending on the complexity and dimensionality of the analyzed image scene, the target/anomaly detection process may be computationally very expensive, a fact that limits the possibility of utilizing this process in time-critical applications. In this paper, we develop computationally efficient parallel versions of both the RX and ATDCA algorithms for near real-time exploitation of these algorithms. In the case of ATGP, we use several distance metrics in addition to the OSP approach. The parallel versions are quantitatively compared in terms of target detection accuracy, using hyperspectral data collected by NASA's Airborne Visible Infra-Red Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) over the World Trade Center in New York, five days after the terrorist attack of September 11th, 2001, and also in terms of parallel performance, using a massively Beowulf cluster available at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in Maryland.

  20. Automatic gas-levitation system for vacuum deposition of laser-fusion targets

    SciTech Connect

    Jordan, C.W.; Cameron, G.R.; Krenik, R.M.; Crane, J.K.

    1981-09-08

    An improved simple system has been developed to gas-levitate microspheres during vacuum-deposition processes. The automatic operation relies on two effects: a lateral stabilizing force provided by a centering-ring; and an automatically incremented gas metering system to offset weight increases during coating.

  1. Texture, shape and context for automatic target detection and classification in spectral imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hazel, Geoffrey Glenn

    This dissertation addresses the detection and classification of man-made objects, or targets, in spectral imagery. The exploitation of spectral texture, object shape, spatial context, and temporal context for detection and classification are examined. Several data collection and demonstration programs are described. The Dark HORSE 1 (DH1) hyperspectral detection experiment is detailed. DH1 represents the first demonstration of real-time autonomous target detection and cuing from hyperspectral imagery. The Daedalus and SEBASS sensors, whose data are used throughout the dissertation, are discussed. The use of multivariate Gauss-Markov random fields (MGMRFs) to model spectral texture is studied. New parameter estimation, spectral texture segmentation and anomaly detection algorithms are developed based on an unrestricted first-order isotropic MGMRF. The first demonstration of this model for spectral texture segmentation and anomaly detection in spectral imagery is described. The new algorithms yield segmentation and anomaly detection results superior to the previously available Gaussian spectral clustering (GSC). The influence of parameter estimation method and the number of segments is quantified. Stochastic boundary unmixing, a novel detection approach utilizing scene segmentation, spatial context, and linear spectral mixing is developed. A novel automatic target classifier that exploits shape and spectral characteristics is demonstrated. The classifier uses GSC and competitive region growing to extract spatial and spectral object features that are classified by an artificial neural network (ANN). Discrimination between multiple object classes including excellent discrimination between natural and man-made objects is demonstrated. The first reported demonstration of object level change detection (OLCD) in spectral imagery is discussed. This method uses anomaly detection, segmentation and competitive region growth to find anomalous objects in multiple images of a

  2. Recognizing Cataracts

    MedlinePlus

    ... link, please review our exit disclaimer . Subscribe Recognizing Cataracts Watch for Vision Changes as You Age As ... cause of impaired eyesight later in life is cataracts. A cataract is a clouding of the lens ...

  3. Using locality-constrained linear coding in automatic target detection of HRS images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rezaee, M.; Mirikharaji, Z.; Zhang, Y.

    2016-04-01

    Automatic target detection with complicated shapes in high spatial resolution images is an ongoing challenge in remote sensing image processing. This is because most methods use spectral or texture information, which are not sufficient for detecting complex shapes. In this paper, a new detection framework, based on Spatial Pyramid Matching (SPM) and Locality- constraint Linear Coding (LLC), is proposed to solve this problem, and exemplified using airplane shapes. The process starts with partitioning the image into sub-regions and generating a unique histogram for local features of each sub-region. Then, linear Support Vector Machines (SVMs) are used to detect objects based on a pyramid-matching kernel, which analyses the descriptors inside patches in different resolution. In order to generate the histogram, first a point feature detector (e.g. SIFT) is applied on the patches, and then a quantization process is used to select local features. In this step, the k-mean method is used in conjunction with the locality-constrained linear coding method. The LLC forces the coefficient matrix in the quantization process to be local and sparse as well. As a result, the speed of the method improves around 24 times in comparison to using sparse coding for quantization. Quantitative analysis also shows improvement in comparison to just using k-mean, but the accuracy in comparison to using sparse coding is similar. Rotation and shift of the desired object has no effect on the obtained results. The speed and accuracy of this algorithm for high spatial resolution images make it capable for use in real-world applications.

  4. Targeting B-cell neoplasia with T-cell receptors recognizing a CD20-derived peptide on patient-specific HLA.

    PubMed

    Mensali, Nadia; Ying, Fan; Sheng, Vincent Oei Yi; Yang, Weiwen; Walseng, Even; Kumari, Shraddha; Fallang, Lars-Egil; Kolstad, Arne; Uckert, Wolfgang; Malmberg, Karl Johan; Wälchli, Sébastien; Olweus, Johanna

    2016-05-01

    T cells engineered to express chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) targeted to CD19 are effective in treatment of B-lymphoid malignancies. However, CARs recognize all CD19 positive (pos) cells, and durable responses are linked to profound depletion of normal B cells. Here, we designed a strategy to specifically target patient B cells by utilizing the fact that T-cell receptors (TCRs), in contrast to CARs, are restricted by HLA. Two TCRs recognizing a peptide from CD20 (SLFLGILSV) in the context of foreign HLA-A*02:01 (CD20p/HLA-A2) were expressed as 2A-bicistronic constructs. T cells re-directed with the A23 and A94 TCR constructs efficiently recognized malignant HLA-A2(pos) B cells endogenously expressing CD20, including patient-derived follicular lymphoma and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) cells. In contrast, a wide range of HLA-A2(pos)CD20(neg) cells representing different tissue origins, and HLA-A2(neg)CD20(pos) cells, were not recognized. Cytotoxic T cells re-directed with CD20p/HLA-A2-specific TCRs or CD19 CARs responded with similar potencies to cells endogenously expressing comparable levels of CD20 and CD19. The CD20p/HLA-A2-specific TCRs recognized CD20p bound to HLA-A2 with high functional avidity. The results show that T cells expressing CD20p/HLA-A2-specific TCRs efficiently and specifically target B cells. When used in context of an HLA-haploidentical allogeneic stem cell transplantation where the donor is HLA-A2(neg) and the patient HLA-A2(pos), these T cells would selectively kill patient-derived B cells and allow reconstitution of the B-cell compartment with HLA-A2(neg) donor cells. These results should pave the way for clinical testing of T cells genetically engineered to target malignant B cells without permanent depletion of normal B cells. PMID:27467957

  5. Robust method for the matching of attributed scattering centers with application to synthetic aperture radar automatic target recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Baiyuan; Wen, Gongjian; Zhong, Jinrong; Ma, Conghui; Yang, Xiaoliang

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes a robust method for the matching of attributed scattering centers (ASCs) with application to synthetic aperture radar automatic target recognition (ATR). For the testing image to be classified, ASCs are extracted to match with the ones predicted by templates. First, Hungarian algorithm is employed to match those two ASC sets initially. Then, a precise matching is carried out through a threshold method. Point similarity and structure similarity are calculated, which are fused to evaluate the overall similarity of the two ASC sets based on the Dempster-Shafer theory of evidence. Finally, the target type is determined by such similarities between the testing image and various types of targets. Experiments on the moving and stationary target acquisition and recognition data verify the validity of the proposed method.

  6. Advances in image compression and automatic target recognition; Proceedings of the Meeting, Orlando, FL, Mar. 30, 31, 1989

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tescher, Andrew G. (Editor)

    1989-01-01

    Various papers on image compression and automatic target recognition are presented. Individual topics addressed include: target cluster detection in cluttered SAR imagery, model-based target recognition using laser radar imagery, Smart Sensor front-end processor for feature extraction of images, object attitude estimation and tracking from a single video sensor, symmetry detection in human vision, analysis of high resolution aerial images for object detection, obscured object recognition for an ATR application, neural networks for adaptive shape tracking, statistical mechanics and pattern recognition, detection of cylinders in aerial range images, moving object tracking using local windows, new transform method for image data compression, quad-tree product vector quantization of images, predictive trellis encoding of imagery, reduced generalized chain code for contour description, compact architecture for a real-time vision system, use of human visibility functions in segmentation coding, color texture analysis and synthesis using Gibbs random fields.

  7. Dolphin: a tool for automatic targeted metabolite profiling using 1D and 2D (1)H-NMR data.

    PubMed

    Gómez, Josep; Brezmes, Jesús; Mallol, Roger; Rodríguez, Miguel A; Vinaixa, Maria; Salek, Reza M; Correig, Xavier; Cañellas, Nicolau

    2014-12-01

    One of the main challenges in nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) metabolomics is to obtain valuable metabolic information from large datasets of raw NMR spectra in a high throughput, automatic, and reproducible way. To date, established software packages used to match and quantify metabolites in NMR spectra remain mostly manually operated, leading to low resolution results and subject to inconsistencies not attributable to the NMR technique itself. Here, we introduce a new software package, called Dolphin, able to automatically quantify a set of target metabolites in multiple sample measurements using an approach based on 1D and 2D NMR techniques to overcome the inherent limitations of 1D (1)H-NMR spectra in metabolomics. Dolphin takes advantage of the 2D J-resolved NMR spectroscopy signal dispersion to avoid inconsistencies in signal position detection, enhancing the reliability and confidence in metabolite matching. Furthermore, in order to improve accuracy in quantification, Dolphin uses 2D NMR spectra to obtain additional information on all neighboring signals surrounding the target metabolite. We have compared the targeted profiling results of Dolphin, recorded from standard biological mixtures, with those of two well established approaches in NMR metabolomics. Overall, Dolphin produced more accurate results with the added advantage of being a fully automated and high throughput processing package. PMID:25370160

  8. Automatic localization of target vertebrae in spine surgery using fast CT-to-fluoroscopy (3D-2D) image registration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otake, Y.; Schafer, S.; Stayman, J. W.; Zbijewski, W.; Kleinszig, G.; Graumann, R.; Khanna, A. J.; Siewerdsen, J. H.

    2012-02-01

    Localization of target vertebrae is an essential step in minimally invasive spine surgery, with conventional methods relying on "level counting" - i.e., manual counting of vertebrae under fluoroscopy starting from readily identifiable anatomy (e.g., the sacrum). The approach requires an undesirable level of radiation, time, and is prone to counting errors due to the similar appearance of vertebrae in projection images; wrong-level surgery occurs in 1 of every ~3000 cases. This paper proposes a method to automatically localize target vertebrae in x-ray projections using 3D-2D registration between preoperative CT (in which vertebrae are preoperatively labeled) and intraoperative fluoroscopy. The registration uses an intensity-based approach with a gradient-based similarity metric and the CMA-ES algorithm for optimization. Digitally reconstructed radiographs (DRRs) and a robust similarity metric are computed on GPU to accelerate the process. Evaluation in clinical CT data included 5,000 PA and LAT projections randomly perturbed to simulate human variability in setup of mobile intraoperative C-arm. The method demonstrated 100% success for PA view (projection error: 0.42mm) and 99.8% success for LAT view (projection error: 0.37mm). Initial implementation on GPU provided automatic target localization within about 3 sec, with further improvement underway via multi-GPU. The ability to automatically label vertebrae in fluoroscopy promises to streamline surgical workflow, improve patient safety, and reduce wrong-site surgeries, especially in large patients for whom manual methods are time consuming and error prone.

  9. Automatic Focusing for a 675 GHz Imaging Radar with Target Standoff Distances from 14 to 34 Meters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tang, Adrian; Cooper, Ken B.; Dengler, Robert J.; Llombart, Nuria; Siegel, Peter H.

    2013-01-01

    This paper dicusses the issue of limited focal depth for high-resolution imaging radar operating over a wide range of standoff distances. We describe a technique for automatically focusing a THz imaging radar system using translational optics combined with range estimation based on a reduced chirp bandwidth setting. The demonstarted focusing algorithm estimates the correct focal depth for desired targets in the field of view at unknown standoffs and in the presence of clutter to provide good imagery at 14 to 30 meters of standoff.

  10. Automatic Shape-Based Target Extraction for Close-Range Photogrammetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, X.; Chen, Y.; Wang, C.; Cheng, M.; Wen, C.; Yu, J.

    2016-06-01

    In order to perform precise identification and location of artificial coded targets in natural scenes, a novel design of circle-based coded target and the corresponding coarse-fine extraction algorithm are presented. The designed target separates the target box and coding box totally and owns an advantage of rotation invariance. Based on the original target, templates are prepared by three geometric transformations and are used as the input of shape-based template matching. Finally, region growing and parity check methods are used to extract the coded targets as final results. No human involvement is required except for the preparation of templates and adjustment of thresholds in the beginning, which is conducive to the automation of close-range photogrammetry. The experimental results show that the proposed recognition method for the designed coded target is robust and accurate.

  11. Specificity of antinuclear autoantibodies recognizing the dense fine speckled nuclear pattern: Preferential targeting of DFS70/LEDGFp75 over its interacting partner MeCP2.

    PubMed

    Basu, Anamika; Woods-Burnham, Leanne; Ortiz, Greisha; Rios-Colon, Leslimar; Figueroa, Johnny; Albesa, Roger; Andrade, Luis E; Mahler, Michael; Casiano, Carlos A

    2015-12-01

    Human antinuclear autoantibodies (ANAs) targeting the dense fine speckled (DFS) nuclear protein DFS70, commonly known as lens epithelium derived growth factor p75 (LEDGFp75), present a clinical puzzle since their significance remains elusive. While their frequencies are low in ANA-positive autoimmune rheumatic diseases, they are relatively elevated in clinical laboratory referrals, diverse inflammatory conditions, and 'apparently' healthy individuals. We reported previously that DFS70/LEDGFp75 is an autoantigen in prostate cancer that closely interacts with another 70kD DFS nuclear protein, methyl CpG binding protein 2 (MeCP2). This led us to investigate if anti-DFS sera exclusively target DFS70/LEDGFp75 or also recognize MeCP2. Using several complementary autoantibody detection platforms and cellular/molecular approaches we evaluated 65 human sera producing anti-DFS autoantibodies. Our results show that these antibodies are highly specific for DFS70/LEDGFp75 and do not target MeCP2. Establishing the specificity of anti-DFS autoantibodies has implications for increasing our understanding of their biological significance and clinical utility. PMID:26235378

  12. Automatic target tracking in forward-looking infrared video sequences using tuned basis functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bal, Abdullah; Alam, Mohammad S.

    2016-07-01

    Tuned basis function (TBF) is a powerful technique for classification of two classes by transforming them into a new space, where both classes will have complementary eigenvectors. A target discrimination technique can be described based on these complementary eigenvector analyses under two classes: (1) target and (2) background clutter, where basis functions that best represent the desired targets form one class while the complementary basis functions form the second class. Since the TBF does not require pixel-based preprocessing, it provides significant advantages for target tracking applications. Furthermore, efficient eigenvector selection and subframe segmentation significantly reduce the computation burden of the target tracking algorithm. The performance of the proposed TBF-based target tracking algorithm has been tested using real-world forward looking infrared video sequences.

  13. Recognizing Facial Expressions Automatically from Video

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shan, Caifeng; Braspenning, Ralph

    Facial expressions, resulting from movements of the facial muscles, are the face changes in response to a person's internal emotional states, intentions, or social communications. There is a considerable history associated with the study on facial expressions. Darwin [22] was the first to describe in details the specific facial expressions associated with emotions in animals and humans, who argued that all mammals show emotions reliably in their faces. Since that, facial expression analysis has been a area of great research interest for behavioral scientists [27]. Psychological studies [48, 3] suggest that facial expressions, as the main mode for nonverbal communication, play a vital role in human face-to-face communication. For illustration, we show some examples of facial expressions in Fig. 1.

  14. Automatic optimal input command for linearization of cMUT output by a temporal target.

    PubMed

    Ménigot, Sébastien; Certon, Dominique; Gross, Dominique; Girault, Jean-Marc

    2014-10-01

    Capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducers (cMUTs) are a promising alternative to the piezoelectric transducer. However, their native nonlinear behavior is a limitation for their use in medical ultrasound applications. Several methods based on the pre-compensation of a preselected input voltage have been proposed to cancel out the harmonic components generated. Unfortunately, these existing pre-compensation methods have two major flaws. The first is that the pre-compensation procedure is not generally automatic, and the second is that they can only reduce the second harmonic component. This can, therefore, limit their use for some imaging methods, which require a broader bandwidth, e.g., to receive the third harmonic component. In this study, we generalized the presetting methods to reduce all nonlinearities in the cMUT output. Our automatic pre-compensation method can work whatever the excitation waveform. The precompensation method is based on the nonlinear modeling of harmonic components from a Volterra decomposition in which the parameters are evaluated by using a Nelder-Mead algorithm. To validate the feasibility of this approach, the method was applied to an element of a linear array with several types of excitation often encountered in encoded ultrasound imaging. The results showed that the nonlinear components were reduced by up to 21.2 dB. PMID:25265182

  15. Large-scale automatic extraction of side effects associated with targeted anticancer drugs from full-text oncological articles.

    PubMed

    Xu, Rong; Wang, QuanQiu

    2015-06-01

    Targeted anticancer drugs such as imatinib, trastuzumab and erlotinib dramatically improved treatment outcomes in cancer patients, however, these innovative agents are often associated with unexpected side effects. The pathophysiological mechanisms underlying these side effects are not well understood. The availability of a comprehensive knowledge base of side effects associated with targeted anticancer drugs has the potential to illuminate complex pathways underlying toxicities induced by these innovative drugs. While side effect association knowledge for targeted drugs exists in multiple heterogeneous data sources, published full-text oncological articles represent an important source of pivotal, investigational, and even failed trials in a variety of patient populations. In this study, we present an automatic process to extract targeted anticancer drug-associated side effects (drug-SE pairs) from a large number of high profile full-text oncological articles. We downloaded 13,855 full-text articles from the Journal of Oncology (JCO) published between 1983 and 2013. We developed text classification, relationship extraction, signaling filtering, and signal prioritization algorithms to extract drug-SE pairs from downloaded articles. We extracted a total of 26,264 drug-SE pairs with an average precision of 0.405, a recall of 0.899, and an F1 score of 0.465. We show that side effect knowledge from JCO articles is largely complementary to that from the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) drug labels. Through integrative correlation analysis, we show that targeted drug-associated side effects positively correlate with their gene targets and disease indications. In conclusion, this unique database that we built from a large number of high-profile oncological articles could facilitate the development of computational models to understand toxic effects associated with targeted anticancer drugs. PMID:25817969

  16. Logical implementation of the Automatic Target Recognition Working Group (ATRWG) 9-track tape format image storage format

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolodzy, P. J.; Baum, J. E.

    1991-04-01

    Over the past two years, the Opto-Radar Systems Group has spearheaded the effort to select and incorporate a standard file format for raw sensor imagery. The goal is to use only one format for the multiple computing facilities and thus eliminate the problem of individual users creating custom software. Such a format must include all the header information that existed on the original data tapes, so all the available sensor information is retained. The format selected, called the NATO format within the Opto-Radar Systems Group, is a subset of the NATO data format developed by the Automatic Target Recognition Working Group (ATRWG). This format is apparently widely used in the ATR community. Thus, an additional benefit to such a format is the ability to transport data to and from other ATR facilities.

  17. Experimental new automatic tools for robotic stereotactic neurosurgery: towards "no hands" procedure of leads implantation into a brain target.

    PubMed

    Mazzone, P; Arena, P; Cantelli, L; Spampinato, G; Sposato, S; Cozzolino, S; Demarinis, P; Muscato, G

    2016-07-01

    The use of robotics in neurosurgery and, particularly, in stereotactic neurosurgery, is becoming more and more adopted because of the great advantages that it offers. Robotic manipulators easily allow to achieve great precision, reliability, and rapidity in the positioning of surgical instruments or devices in the brain. The aim of this work was to experimentally verify a fully automatic "no hands" surgical procedure. The integration of neuroimaging to data for planning the surgery, followed by application of new specific surgical tools, permitted the realization of a fully automated robotic implantation of leads in brain targets. An anthropomorphic commercial manipulator was utilized. In a preliminary phase, a software to plan surgery was developed, and the surgical tools were tested first during a simulation and then on a skull mock-up. In such a way, several tools were developed and tested, and the basis for an innovative surgical procedure arose. The final experimentation was carried out on anesthetized "large white" pigs. The determination of stereotactic parameters for the correct planning to reach the intended target was performed with the same technique currently employed in human stereotactic neurosurgery, and the robotic system revealed to be reliable and precise in reaching the target. The results of this work strengthen the possibility that a neurosurgeon may be substituted by a machine, and may represent the beginning of a new approach in the current clinical practice. Moreover, this possibility may have a great impact not only on stereotactic functional procedures but also on the entire domain of neurosurgery. PMID:27194228

  18. Stereographic Targeting in Prostate Radiotherapy: Speed and Precision by Daily Automatic Positioning Corrections Using Kilovoltage/Megavoltage Image Pairs

    SciTech Connect

    Mutanga, Theodore F. Boer, Hans C.J. de; Wielen, Gerard J. van der; Wentzler, Davy; Barnhoorn, Jaco; Incrocci, Luca; Heijmen, Ben J.M.

    2008-07-15

    Purpose: A fully automated, fast, on-line prostate repositioning scheme using implanted markers, kilovoltage/megavoltage imaging, and remote couch movements has been developed and clinically applied. The initial clinical results of this stereographic targeting (SGT) method, as well as phantom evaluations, are presented. Methods and Materials: Using the SGT method, portal megavoltage images are acquired with the first two to six monitor units of a treatment beam, immediately followed by acquisition of an orthogonal kilovoltage image without gantry motion. The image pair is automatically analyzed to obtain the marker positions and three-dimensional prostate displacement and rotation. Remote control couch shifts are applied to correct for the displacement. The SGT performance was measured using both phantom images and images from 10 prostate cancer patients treated using SGT. Results: With phantom measurements, the accuracy of SGT was 0.5, 0.2, and 0.3 mm (standard deviation [SD]) for the left-right, craniocaudal, and anteroposterior directions, respectively, for translations and 0.5{sup o} (SD) for the rotations around all axes. Clinically, the success rate for automatic marker detection was 99.5%, and the accuracy was 0.3, 0.5 and 0.8 mm (SD) in the left-right, craniocaudal, and anteroposterior axes. The SDs of the systematic center-of-mass positioning errors ({sigma}) were reduced from 4.0 mm to <0.5 mm for all axes. The corresponding SD of the random ({sigma}) errors was reduced from 3.0 to <0.8 mm. These small residual errors were achieved with a treatment time extension of <1 min. Conclusion: Stereographic targeting yields systematic and random prostate positioning errors of <1 mm with <1 min of added treatment time.

  19. Portable automatic bioaerosol sampling system for rapid on-site detection of targeted airborne microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Usachev, Evgeny V; Pankova, Anna V; Rafailova, Elina A; Pyankov, Oleg V; Agranovski, Igor E

    2012-10-26

    Bioaerosols could cause various severe human and animal diseases and their opportune and qualitative precise detection and control is becoming a significant scientific and technological topic for consideration. Over the last few decades bioaerosol detection has become an important bio-defense related issue. Many types of portable and stationary bioaerosol samplers have been developed and, in some cases, integrated into automated detection systems utilizing various microbiological techniques for analysis of collected microbes. This paper describes a personal sampler used in conjunction with a portable real-time PCR technique. It was found that a single fluorescent dye could be successfully used in multiplex format for qualitative detection of numerous targeted bioaerosols in one PCR tube making the suggested technology a reliable "first alert" device. This approach has been specifically developed and successfully verified for rapid detection of targeted microorganisms by portable PCR devices, which is especially important under field conditions, where the number of microorganisms of interest usually exceeds the number of available PCR reaction tubes. The approach allows detecting targeted microorganisms and triggering some corresponding sanitary and quarantine procedures to localize possible spread of dangerous infections. Following detailed analysis of the sample under controlled laboratory conditions could be used to exactly identify which particular microorganism out of a targeted group has been rapidly detected in the field. It was also found that the personal sampler has a collection efficiency higher than 90% even for small-sized viruses (>20 nm) and stable performance over extended operating periods. In addition, it was found that for microorganisms used in this project (bacteriophages MS2 and T4) elimination of nucleic acids isolation and purification steps during sample preparation does not lead to the system sensitivity reduction, which is extremely

  20. Optical implementation of a feature-based neural network with application to automatic target recognition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chao, Tien-Hsin; Stoner, William W.

    1993-01-01

    An optical neural network based on the neocognitron paradigm is introduced. A novel aspect of the architecture design is shift-invariant multichannel Fourier optical correlation within each processing layer. Multilayer processing is achieved by feeding back the ouput of the feature correlator interatively to the input spatial light modulator and by updating the Fourier filters. By training the neural net with characteristic features extracted from the target images, successful pattern recognition with intraclass fault tolerance and interclass discrimination is achieved. A detailed system description is provided. Experimental demonstrations of a two-layer neural network for space-object discrimination is also presented.

  1. Automatic target recognition using a feature-based optical neural network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chao, Tien-Hsin

    1992-01-01

    An optical neural network based upon the Neocognitron paradigm (K. Fukushima et al. 1983) is introduced. A novel aspect of the architectural design is shift-invariant multichannel Fourier optical correlation within each processing layer. Multilayer processing is achieved by iteratively feeding back the output of the feature correlator to the input spatial light modulator and updating the Fourier filters. By training the neural net with characteristic features extracted from the target images, successful pattern recognition with intra-class fault tolerance and inter-class discrimination is achieved. A detailed system description is provided. Experimental demonstration of a two-layer neural network for space objects discrimination is also presented.

  2. Transgenic antigen-specific, HLA-A*02:01-allo-restricted cytotoxic T cells recognize tumor-associated target antigen STEAP1 with high specificity.

    PubMed

    Schirmer, David; Grünewald, Thomas G P; Klar, Richard; Schmidt, Oxana; Wohlleber, Dirk; Rubío, Rebeca Alba; Uckert, Wolfgang; Thiel, Uwe; Bohne, Felix; Busch, Dirk H; Krackhardt, Angela M; Burdach, Stefan; Richter, Günther H S

    2016-06-01

    Pediatric cancers, including Ewing sarcoma (ES), are only weakly immunogenic and the tumor-patients' immune system often is devoid of effector T cells for tumor elimination. Based on expression profiling technology, targetable tumor-associated antigens (TAA) are identified and exploited for engineered T-cell therapy. Here, the specific recognition and lytic potential of transgenic allo-restricted CD8(+) T cells, directed against the ES-associated antigen 6-transmembrane epithelial antigen of the prostate 1 (STEAP1), was examined. Following repetitive STEAP1(130) peptide-driven stimulations with HLA-A*02:01(+) dendritic cells (DC), allo-restricted HLA-A*02:01(-) CD8(+) T cells were sorted with HLA-A*02:01/peptide multimers and expanded by limiting dilution. After functional analysis of suitable T cell clones via ELISpot, flow cytometry and xCELLigence assay, T cell receptors' (TCR) α- and β-chains were identified, cloned into retroviral vectors, codon optimized, transfected into HLA-A*02:01(-) primary T cell populations and tested again for specificity and lytic capacity in vitro and in a Rag2(-/-)γc(-/-) mouse model. Initially generated transgenic T cells specifically recognized STEAP1(130)-pulsed or transfected cells in the context of HLA-A*02:01 with minimal cross-reactivity as determined by specific interferon-γ (IFNγ) release, lysed cells and inhibited growth of HLA-A*02:01(+) ES lines more effectively than HLA-A*02:01(-) ES lines. In vivo tumor growth was inhibited more effectively with transgenic STEAP1(130)-specific T cells than with unspecific T cells. Our results identify TCRs capable of recognizing and inhibiting growth of STEAP1-expressing HLA-A*02:01(+) ES cells in vitro and in vivo in a highly restricted manner. As STEAP1 is overexpressed in a wide variety of cancers, we anticipate these STEAP1-specific TCRs to be potentially useful for immunotherapy of other STEAP1-expressing tumors. PMID:27471654

  3. Automatic Localization of Target Vertebrae in Spine Surgery: Clinical Evaluation of the LevelCheck Registration Algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Lo, Sheng-fu L.; Otake, Yoshito; Puvanesarajah, Varun; Wang, Adam S.; Uneri, Ali; De Silva, Tharindu; Vogt, Sebastian; Kleinszig, Gerhard; Elder, Benjamin D; Goodwin, C. Rory; Kosztowski, Thomas A.; Liauw, Jason A.; Groves, Mari; Bydon, Ali; Sciubba, Daniel M.; Witham, Timothy F.; Wolinsky, Jean-Paul; Aygun, Nafi; Gokaslan, Ziya L.; Siewerdsen, Jeffrey H.

    2015-01-01

    Study Design A 3D-2D image registration algorithm, “LevelCheck,” was used to automatically label vertebrae in intraoperative mobile radiographs obtained during spine surgery. Accuracy, computation time, and potential failure modes were evaluated in a retrospective study of 20 patients. Objective To measurethe performance of the LevelCheck algorithm using clinical images acquired during spine surgery. Summary of Background Data In spine surgery, the potential for wrong level surgery is significant due to the difficulty of localizing target vertebrae based solely on visual impression, palpation, and fluoroscopy. To remedy this difficulty and reduce the risk of wrong-level surgery, our team introduced a program (dubbed LevelCheck) to automatically localize target vertebrae in mobile radiographs using robust 3D-2D image registration to preoperative CT. Methods Twenty consecutive patients undergoing thoracolumbar spine surgery, for whom both a preoperative CT scan and an intraoperative mobile radiograph were available, were retrospectively analyzed. A board-certified neuroradiologist determined the “true” vertebra levels in each radiograph. Registration of the preoperative CT to the intraoperative radiographwere calculated via LevelCheck, and projection distance errors were analyzed. Five hundred random initializations were performed for eachpatient, andalgorithm settings (viz., the number of robust multi-starts, ranging 50 to 200) were varied to evaluate the tradeoff between registration error and computation time. Failure mode analysis was performed by individually analyzing unsuccessful registrations (>5 mm distance error) observed with 50 multi-starts. Results At 200 robust multi-starts (computation time of ∼26 seconds), the registration accuracy was 100% across all 10,000 trials. As the number of multi-starts (and computation time) decreased, the registration remained fairly robust, down to 99.3% registration accuracy at 50 multi-starts (computation time

  4. A multispectral automatic target recognition application for maritime surveillance, search, and rescue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoonmaker, Jon; Reed, Scott; Podobna, Yuliya; Vazquez, Jose; Boucher, Cynthia

    2010-04-01

    Due to increased security concerns, the commitment to monitor and maintain security in the maritime environment is increasingly a priority. A country's coast is the most vulnerable area for the incursion of illegal immigrants, terrorists and contraband. This work illustrates the ability of a low-cost, light-weight, multi-spectral, multi-channel imaging system to handle the environment and see under difficult marine conditions. The system and its implemented detecting and tracking technologies should be organic to the maritime homeland security community for search and rescue, fisheries, defense, and law enforcement. It is tailored for airborne and ship based platforms to detect, track and monitor suspected objects (such as semi-submerged targets like marine mammals, vessels in distress, and drug smugglers). In this system, automated detection and tracking technology is used to detect, classify and localize potential threats or objects of interest within the imagery provided by the multi-spectral system. These algorithms process the sensor data in real time, thereby providing immediate feedback when features of interest have been detected. A supervised detection system based on Haar features and Cascade Classifiers is presented and results are provided on real data. The system is shown to be extendable and reusable for a variety of different applications.

  5. Performance portability study of an automatic target detection and classification algorithm for hyperspectral image analysis using OpenCL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernabe, Sergio; Igual, Francisco D.; Botella, Guillermo; Garcia, Carlos; Prieto-Matias, Manuel; Plaza, Antonio

    2015-10-01

    Recent advances in heterogeneous high performance computing (HPC) have opened new avenues for demanding remote sensing applications. Perhaps one of the most popular algorithm in target detection and identification is the automatic target detection and classification algorithm (ATDCA) widely used in the hyperspectral image analysis community. Previous research has already investigated the mapping of ATDCA on graphics processing units (GPUs) and field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs), showing impressive speedup factors that allow its exploitation in time-critical scenarios. Based on these studies, our work explores the performance portability of a tuned OpenCL implementation across a range of processing devices including multicore processors, GPUs and other accelerators. This approach differs from previous papers, which focused on achieving the optimal performance on each platform. Here, we are more interested in the following issues: (1) evaluating if a single code written in OpenCL allows us to achieve acceptable performance across all of them, and (2) assessing the gap between our portable OpenCL code and those hand-tuned versions previously investigated. Our study includes the analysis of different tuning techniques that expose data parallelism as well as enable an efficient exploitation of the complex memory hierarchies found in these new heterogeneous devices. Experiments have been conducted using hyperspectral data sets collected by NASA's Airborne Visible Infra- red Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) and the Hyperspectral Digital Imagery Collection Experiment (HYDICE) sensors. To the best of our knowledge, this kind of analysis has not been previously conducted in the hyperspectral imaging processing literature, and in our opinion it is very important in order to really calibrate the possibility of using heterogeneous platforms for efficient hyperspectral imaging processing in real remote sensing missions.

  6. A semantic approach to the efficient integration of interactive and automatic target recognition systems for the analysis of complex infrastructure from aerial imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, A.; Peinsipp-Byma, E.

    2008-04-01

    The analysis of complex infrastructure from aerial imagery, for instance a detailed analysis of an airfield, requires the interpreter, besides to be familiar with the sensor's imaging characteristics, to have a detailed understanding of the infrastructure domain. The required domain knowledge includes knowledge about the processes and functions involved in the operation of the infrastructure, the potential objects used to provide those functions and their spatial and functional interrelations. Since it is not possible yet to provide reliable automatic object recognition (AOR) for the analysis of such complex scenes, we developed systems to support a human interpreter with either interactive approaches, able to assist the interpreter with previously acquired expert knowledge about the domain in question, or AOR methods, capable of detecting, recognizing or analyzing certain classes of objects for certain sensors. We believe, to achieve an optimal result at the end of an interpretation process in terms of efficiency and effectivity, it is essential to integrate both interactive and automatic approaches to image interpretation. In this paper we present an approach inspired by the advancing semantic web technology to represent domain knowledge, the capabilities of available AOR modules and the image parameters in an explicit way. This enables us to seamlessly extend an interactive image interpretation environment with AOR modules in a way that we can automatically select suitable AOR methods for the current subtask, focus them on an appropriate area of interest and reintegrate their results into the environment.

  7. The transcriptional activator Opaque2 recognizes two different target sequences in the 22-kD-like alpha-prolamin genes.

    PubMed Central

    Yunes, J A; Cord Neto, G; da Silva, M J; Leite, A; Ottoboni, L M; Arruda, P

    1994-01-01

    The maize Opaque2 (O2) protein is a "leucine zipper" DNA binding factor that interacts with the sequence TCCACGTAGA in the promoters of the 22-kD alpha-zein genes and activates its transcription. A completely different consensus sequence (GATGAPyPuTGPu) identified in b-32, a gene that encodes an abundant albumin that is also under control of the O2 locus, can also be bound by the O2 protein. We showed that the gene encoding the 22-kD-like alpha-coixin, the alpha-prolamin of the maize-related grass Coix, can also be transactivated by the O2 protein. A binding assay in vitro and footprint analysis demonstrated that the GACATGTC sequence of the alpha-coixin promoter can be recognized and protected by the maize O2 protein. Employing transient expression experiments in immature maize endosperm and tobacco mesophyll protoplasts, we demonstrated that the O2 protein can activate expression of the beta-glucuronidase reporter gene placed under the control of the 22-kD-like alpha-coixin promoter. We also demonstrated that a 22-kD-like alpha-coixin pseudogene promoter is transactivated by the maize O2 protein. PMID:8148647

  8. Monitoring targeted therapy using dual-energy CT: semi-automatic RECIST plus supplementary functional information by quantifying iodine uptake of melanoma metastases

    PubMed Central

    Sedlmair, M.; Schlemmer, H.P.; Hassel, J.C.; Ganten, M.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Aim: Supplementary functional information can contribute to assess response in targeted therapies. The aim of this study was to evaluate semi-automatic RECIST plus iodine uptake (IU) determination in melanoma metastases under BRAF inhibitor (vemurafenib) therapy using dual-energy computed tomography (DECT). Methods: Nine patients with stage IV melanoma treated with a BRAF inhibitor were included. Contrast-enhanced DECT was performed before and twice after treatment onset. Changes in tumor size were assessed according to RECIST. Quantification of IU (absolute value for total IU (mg) and volume-normalized IU (mg/ml)) was based on semi-automatic tumor volume segmentation. The decrease compared with baseline was calculated. Results: The mean change of RECIST diameter sum per patient was −47% at the first follow-up (FU), −56% at the second FU (P < 0.01). The mean normalized IU per patient was −21% at the first FU (P < 0.2) and −45% at the second FU (P < 0.01). Total IU per patient, combining both normalized IU and volume, showed the most pronounced decrease: −89% at the first FU and −90% at the second FU (P < 0.01). Conclusion: Semi-automatic RECIST plus IU quantification in DECT enables objective, easy and fast parameterization of tumor size and contrast medium uptake, thus providing 2 complementary pieces of information for response monitoring applicable in daily routine. PMID:23876444

  9. Core sequence in the RNA motif recognized by the ErmE methyltransferase revealed by relaxing the fidelity of the enzyme for its target.

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, L H; Vester, B; Douthwaite, S

    1999-01-01

    Under physiological conditions, the ErmE methyltransferase specifically modifies a single adenosine within ribosomal RNA (rRNA), and thereby confers resistance to multiple antibiotics. The adenosine (A2058 in Escherichia coli 23S rRNA) lies within a highly conserved structure, and is methylated efficiently, and with equally high fidelity, in rRNAs from phylogenetically diverse bacteria. However, the fidelity of ErmE is reduced when magnesium is removed, and over twenty new sites of ErmE methylation appear in E. coli 16S and 23S rRNAs. These sites show widely different degrees of reactivity to ErmE. The canonical A2058 site is largely unaffected by magnesium depletion and remains the most reactive site in the rRNA. This suggests that methylation at the new sites results from changes in the RNA substrate rather than the methyltransferase. Chemical probing confirms that the rRNA structure opens upon magnesium depletion, exposing potential new interaction sites to the enzyme. The new ErmE sites show homology with the canonical A2058 site, and have the consensus sequence aNNNcgGAHAg (ErmE methylation occurs exclusively at adenosines (underlined); these are preceded by a guanosine, equivalent to G2057; there is a high preference for the adenosine equivalent to A2060; H is any nucleotide except G; N is any nucleotide; and there are slight preferences for the nucleotides shown in lower case). This consensus is believed to represent the core of the motif that Erm methyltransferases recognize at their canonical A2058 site. The data also reveal constraints on the higher order structure of the motif that affect methyltransferase recognition. PMID:9917069

  10. How Should a Speech Recognizer Work?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scharenborg, Odette; Norris, Dennis; ten Bosch, Louis; McQueen, James M.

    2005-01-01

    Although researchers studying human speech recognition (HSR) and automatic speech recognition (ASR) share a common interest in how information processing systems (human or machine) recognize spoken language, there is little communication between the two disciplines. We suggest that this lack of communication follows largely from the fact that…

  11. Three-dimensional electromagnetic model-based scattering center matching method for synthetic aperture radar automatic target recognition by combining spatial and attributed information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Conghui; Wen, Gongjian; Ding, Boyuan; Zhong, JinRong; Yang, Xiaoliang

    2016-01-01

    A three-dimensional electromagnetic model (3-D EM-model)-based scattering center matching method is developed for synthetic aperture radar automatic target recognition (ATR). 3-D EM-model provides a concise and physically relevant description of the target's electromagnetic scattering phenomenon through its scattering centers which makes it an ideal candidate for ATR. In our method, scatters of the 3-D EM-model are projected to the two-dimensional measurement plane to predict scatters' location and scattering intensity properties. Then the identical information is extracted for scatters in measured data. A two-stage iterative operation is applied to match the model-predicted scatters and the measured data-extracted scatters by combining spatial and attributed information. Based on the two scatter sets' matching information, a similarity measurement between model and measured data is obtained and recognition conclusion is made. Meanwhile, the target's configuration is reasoned with 3-D EM-model serving as a reference. In the end, data simulated by electromagnetic computation verified this method's validity.

  12. ROBIN: a platform for evaluating automatic target recognition algorithms: I. Overview of the project and presentation of the SAGEM DS competition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duclos, D.; Lonnoy, J.; Guillerm, Q.; Jurie, F.; Herbin, S.; D'Angelo, E.

    2008-04-01

    The last five years have seen a renewal of Automatic Target Recognition applications, mainly because of the latest advances in machine learning techniques. In this context, large collections of image datasets are essential for training algorithms as well as for their evaluation. Indeed, the recent proliferation of recognition algorithms, generally applied to slightly different problems, make their comparisons through clean evaluation campaigns necessary. The ROBIN project tries to fulfil these two needs by putting unclassified datasets, ground truths, competitions and metrics for the evaluation of ATR algorithms at the disposition of the scientific community. The scope of this project includes single and multi-class generic target detection and generic target recognition, in military and security contexts. From our knowledge, it is the first time that a database of this importance (several hundred thousands of visible and infrared hand annotated images) has been publicly released. Funded by the French Ministry of Defence (DGA) and by the French Ministry of Research, ROBIN is one of the ten Techno-vision projects. Techno-vision is a large and ambitious government initiative for building evaluation means for computer vision technologies, for various application contexts. ROBIN's consortium includes major companies and research centres involved in Computer Vision R&D in the field of defence: Bertin Technologies, CNES, ECA, DGA, EADS, INRIA, ONERA, MBDA, SAGEM, THALES. This paper, which first gives an overview of the whole project, is focused on one of ROBIN's key competitions, the SAGEM Defence Security database. This dataset contains more than eight hundred ground and aerial infrared images of six different vehicles in cluttered scenes including distracters. Two different sets of data are available for each target. The first set includes different views of each vehicle at close range in a "simple" background, and can be used to train algorithms. The second set

  13. Automatic Imitation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heyes, Cecilia

    2011-01-01

    "Automatic imitation" is a type of stimulus-response compatibility effect in which the topographical features of task-irrelevant action stimuli facilitate similar, and interfere with dissimilar, responses. This article reviews behavioral, neurophysiological, and neuroimaging research on automatic imitation, asking in what sense it is "automatic"…

  14. A Statistical Approach to Automatic Speech Summarization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hori, Chiori; Furui, Sadaoki; Malkin, Rob; Yu, Hua; Waibel, Alex

    2003-12-01

    This paper proposes a statistical approach to automatic speech summarization. In our method, a set of words maximizing a summarization score indicating the appropriateness of summarization is extracted from automatically transcribed speech and then concatenated to create a summary. The extraction process is performed using a dynamic programming (DP) technique based on a target compression ratio. In this paper, we demonstrate how an English news broadcast transcribed by a speech recognizer is automatically summarized. We adapted our method, which was originally proposed for Japanese, to English by modifying the model for estimating word concatenation probabilities based on a dependency structure in the original speech given by a stochastic dependency context free grammar (SDCFG). We also propose a method of summarizing multiple utterances using a two-level DP technique. The automatically summarized sentences are evaluated by summarization accuracy based on a comparison with a manual summary of speech that has been correctly transcribed by human subjects. Our experimental results indicate that the method we propose can effectively extract relatively important information and remove redundant and irrelevant information from English news broadcasts.

  15. Recognizing Computational Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bland-Hawthorn, J.

    2006-08-01

    There are prestigious international awards that recognize the role of theory and experiment in science and mathematics, but there are no awards of a similar stature that explicitly recognize the role of computational science in a scientific field. In 1945, John von Neumann noted that "many branches of both pure and applied mathematics are in great need of computing instruments to break the present stalemate created by the failure of the purely analytical approach to nonlinear problems." In the past few decades, great strides in mathematics and in the applied sciences can be linked to computational science.

  16. Conformation-specific antibodies targeting the trimer-of-hairpins motif of the human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 transmembrane glycoprotein recognize the viral envelope but fail to neutralize viral entry.

    PubMed

    Mirsaliotis, Antonis; Nurkiyanova, Kulpash; Lamb, Daniel; Woof, Jenny M; Brighty, David W

    2007-06-01

    Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) entry into cells is dependent upon the viral envelope glycoprotein-catalyzed fusion of the viral and cellular membranes. Following receptor activation of the envelope, the transmembrane glycoprotein (TM) is thought to undergo a series of fusogenic conformational transitions through a rod-like prehairpin intermediate to a compact trimer-of-hairpins structure. Importantly, synthetic peptides that interfere with the conformational changes of TM are potent inhibitors of membrane fusion and HTLV-1 entry, suggesting that TM is a valid target for antiviral therapy. To assess the utility of TM as a vaccine target and to explore further the function of TM in HTLV-1 pathogenesis, we have begun to examine the immunological properties of TM. Here we demonstrate that a recombinant trimer-of-hairpins form of the TM ectodomain is strongly immunogenic. Monoclonal antibodies raised against the TM immunogen specifically bind to trimeric forms of TM, including structures thought to be important for membrane fusion. Importantly, these antibodies recognize the envelope on virally infected cells but, surprisingly, fail to neutralize envelope-mediated membrane fusion or infection by pseudotyped viral particles. Our data imply that, even in the absence of overt membrane fusion, there are multiple forms of TM on virally infected cells and that some of these display fusion-associated structures. Finally, we demonstrate that many of the antibodies possess the ability to recruit complement to TM, suggesting that envelope-derived immunogens capable of eliciting a combination of neutralizing and complement-fixing antibodies would be of value as subunit vaccines for intervention in HTLV infections. PMID:17376912

  17. On recognizing ignorance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greene, Richard J.

    1988-01-01

    How an expert system reasons about its own ability to deal with a particular problem is studied. Ideally, an expert system ought to rapidly recognize that a particular problem is beyond its abilities and defer to another, perhaps human, expert. This capability is extremely important in domains where expert systems may control life critical processes such as air traffic control, medicine, strategic defense, and manned space exploration. The methods used by knowledge engineers to infuse an expert system with knowledge of its own limitations is surveyed. A computability theory is employed to analyze the general problem of meta-knowledge and to give insight into the efficacy of specific solutions.

  18. Preventing and Recognizing Embezzlement.

    PubMed

    Phairas, Debra

    2016-01-01

    It is estimated that approximately one in six physicians will be the victim of embezzlement at least once during his or her lifetime. This may be due to the trusting nature of physicians, a lack of business training about separating duties in transactions involving money, or employees' feeling overworked, underpaid, or underappreciated. The best protection against embezzlement is prevention. This article informs the reader of the steps to take to prevent stealing in the medical office, how to recognize if it is occurring, and how to obtain restitution or prosecution. PMID:27039633

  19. Recognizing musical text

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clarke, Alastair T.; Brown, B. M.; Thorne, M. P.

    1993-08-01

    This paper reports on some recent developments in a software product that recognizes printed music notation. There are a number of computer systems available which assist in the task of printing music; however the full potential of these systems cannot be realized until the musical text has been entered into the computer. It is this problem that we address in this paper. The software we describe, which uses computationally inexpensive methods, is designed to analyze a music score, previously read by a flat bed scanner, and to extract the musical information that it contains. The paper discusses the methods used to recognize the musical text: these involve sampling the image at strategic points and using this information to estimate the musical symbol. It then discusses some hard problems that have been encountered during the course of the research; for example the recognition of chords and note clusters. It also reports on the progress that has been made in solving these problems and concludes with a discussion of work that needs to be undertaken over the next five years in order to transform this research prototype into a commercial product.

  20. Integrated approach to bandwidth reduction and mine detection in shallow water with reduced-dimension image compression and automatic target recognition algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Frances B.; Kil, David H.; Dobeck, Gerald J.

    1997-07-01

    In distributed underwater signal processing for area surveillance and sanitization during regional conflicts, it is often necessary to transmit raw imagery data to a remote processing station for detection-report confirmation and more sophisticated automatic target recognition (ATR) processing. Because of he limited bandwidth available for transmission, image compression is of paramount importance. At the same time, preservation of useful information that contains essential signal attributes is crucial for effective mine detection and classification in shallow water. In this paper, we present an integrated processing strategy that combines image compression and ATR algorithms for superior detection performance while achieving maximal bandwidth reduction. Our reduced-dimension image compression algorithm comprises image-content classification for the subimage-specific transformation, principal component analysis for further dimension reduction, and vector quantization to obtain minimal information state. Next, using an integrated pattern recognition paradigm, our ATR algorithm optimally combines low-dimensional features and an appropriate classifier topology to extract maximum recognition performance from reconstructed images. Instead of assessing performance of the image compression algorithm in terms of commonly used peak signal-to-noise ratio or normalized mean-squared error criteria, we quantify our algorithm performance using a metric that reflects human and operational factors - ATR performance. Our preliminary analysis based on high-frequency sonar real data indicates that we can achieve a compression ratio of up to 57:1 with minimal sacrifice in PD and PFA. Furthermore, we discuss the concept of the classification Cramer-Rao bound in terms of data compression, sufficient statistics, and class separability to quantify the extent to which a classifier approximates the Bayes classifier.

  1. Recognizing the Trends

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marley, Mark Scott

    2016-01-01

    Solar system planetary science has traditionally focused on understanding in depth individual planets. While there have been some efforts at synergy, most studies have focused on understanding the details of individual planets. Now that we are in the era of exoplanet science, with thousands of known planets and hundreds that have been characterized to varying degrees, the systematics of planetary science are becoming apparent. This also means that, for the first time, what had previously been seen as individual quirks of solar system planets are instead being recognized as part of the normal range of planetary behavior. In my talk I will consider a number of such characteristics and explain how we are now starting to understand their true context. In particular I will discuss the atmospheric composition, clouds, hazes, and winds of giant planets, trace gasses in the atmosphere of Venus, and the presence and absence of atmospheres on various terrestrial worlds.

  2. Recognizing People in Motion.

    PubMed

    Yovel, Galit; O'Toole, Alice J

    2016-05-01

    Natural movements of the face and body, as well as voice, provide converging cues to a person's identity. To date, person recognition has been studied primarily with static images of faces. Face recognition, however, is part of a larger system, whose preeminent goal is to efficiently recognize dynamic familiar people in unconstrained environments. We present a comprehensive framework for understanding person recognition as it happens in the real world. In this framework, dynamic information plays the central role in binding multi-modal information from the face, body, and the voice to achieve robust and highly accurate recognition. The superior temporal sulcus (STS) integrates multisensory, dynamic information from the whole person for recognition, thereby complementing its role in social cognition. PMID:27016844

  3. Recognizing outstanding achievements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Speiss, Fred

    One function of any professional society is to provide an objective, informed means for recognizing outstanding achievements in its field. In AGU's Ocean Sciences section we have a variety of means for carrying out this duty. They include recognition of outstanding student presentations at our meetings, dedication of special sessions, nomination of individuals to be fellows of the Union, invitations to present Sverdrup lectures, and recommendations for Macelwane Medals, the Ocean Sciences Award, and the Ewing Medal.Since the decision to bestow these awards requires initiative and judgement by members of our section in addition to a deserving individual, it seems appropriate to review the selection process for each and to urge you to identify those deserving of recognition.

  4. Neural networks: Alternatives to conventional techniques for automatic docking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vinz, Bradley L.

    1994-01-01

    Automatic docking of orbiting spacecraft is a crucial operation involving the identification of vehicle orientation as well as complex approach dynamics. The chaser spacecraft must be able to recognize the target spacecraft within a scene and achieve accurate closing maneuvers. In a video-based system, a target scene must be captured and transformed into a pattern of pixels. Successful recognition lies in the interpretation of this pattern. Due to their powerful pattern recognition capabilities, artificial neural networks offer a potential role in interpretation and automatic docking processes. Neural networks can reduce the computational time required by existing image processing and control software. In addition, neural networks are capable of recognizing and adapting to changes in their dynamic environment, enabling enhanced performance, redundancy, and fault tolerance. Most neural networks are robust to failure, capable of continued operation with a slight degradation in performance after minor failures. This paper discusses the particular automatic docking tasks neural networks can perform as viable alternatives to conventional techniques.

  5. Automatic Parallelization Using OpenMP Based on STL Semantics

    SciTech Connect

    Liao, C; Quinlan, D J; Willcock, J J; Panas, T

    2008-06-03

    Automatic parallelization of sequential applications using OpenMP as a target has been attracting significant attention recently because of the popularity of multicore processors and the simplicity of using OpenMP to express parallelism for shared-memory systems. However, most previous research has only focused on C and Fortran applications operating on primitive data types. C++ applications using high level abstractions such as STL containers are largely ignored due to the lack of research compilers that are readily able to recognize high level object-oriented abstractions of STL. In this paper, we use ROSE, a multiple-language source-to-source compiler infrastructure, to build a parallelizer that can recognize such high level semantics and parallelize C++ applications using certain STL containers. The idea of our work is to automatically insert OpenMP constructs using extended conventional dependence analysis and the known domain-specific semantics of high-level abstractions with optional assistance from source code annotations. In addition, the parallelizer is followed by an OpenMP translator to translate the generated OpenMP programs into multi-threaded code targeted to a popular OpenMP runtime library. Our work extends the applicability of automatic parallelization and provides another way to take advantage of multicore processors.

  6. How legumes recognize rhizobia

    PubMed Central

    Via, Virginia Dalla; Zanetti, María Eugenia; Blanco, Flavio

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Legume plants have developed the capacity to establish symbiotic interactions with soil bacteria (known as rhizobia) that can convert N2 to molecular forms that are incorporated into the plant metabolism. The first step of this relationship is the recognition of bacteria by the plant, which allows to distinguish potentially harmful species from symbiotic partners. The main molecular determinant of this symbiotic interaction is the Nod Factor, a diffusible lipochitooligosaccharide molecule produced by rhizobia and perceived by LysM receptor kinases; however, other important molecules involved in the specific recognition have emerged over the years. Secreted exopolysaccharides and the lipopolysaccharides present in the bacterial cell wall have been proposed to act as signaling molecules, triggering the expression of specific genes related to the symbiotic process. In this review we will briefly discuss how transcriptomic analysis are helping to understand how multiple signaling pathways, triggered by the perception of different molecules produced by rhizobia, control the genetic programs of root nodule organogenesis and bacterial infection. This knowledge can help to understand how legumes have evolved to recognize and establish complex ecological relationships with particular species and strains of rhizobia, adjusting gene expression in response to identity determinants of bacteria. PMID:26636731

  7. 38 CFR 51.31 - Automatic recognition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) PER DIEM FOR NURSING HOME CARE OF VETERANS IN STATE HOMES Obtaining Per Diem for Nursing Home Care in... that already is recognized by VA as a State home for nursing home care at the time this part becomes effective, automatically will continue to be recognized as a State home for nursing home care but will...

  8. 38 CFR 51.31 - Automatic recognition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) PER DIEM FOR NURSING HOME CARE OF VETERANS IN STATE HOMES Obtaining Per Diem for Nursing Home Care in... that already is recognized by VA as a State home for nursing home care at the time this part becomes effective, automatically will continue to be recognized as a State home for nursing home care but will...

  9. 38 CFR 51.31 - Automatic recognition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) PER DIEM FOR NURSING HOME CARE OF VETERANS IN STATE HOMES Obtaining Per Diem for Nursing Home Care in... that already is recognized by VA as a State home for nursing home care at the time this part becomes effective, automatically will continue to be recognized as a State home for nursing home care but will...

  10. 38 CFR 51.31 - Automatic recognition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) PER DIEM FOR NURSING HOME CARE OF VETERANS IN STATE HOMES Obtaining Per Diem for Nursing Home Care in... that already is recognized by VA as a State home for nursing home care at the time this part becomes effective, automatically will continue to be recognized as a State home for nursing home care but will...

  11. 38 CFR 51.31 - Automatic recognition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) PER DIEM FOR NURSING HOME CARE OF VETERANS IN STATE HOMES Obtaining Per Diem for Nursing Home Care in... that already is recognized by VA as a State home for nursing home care at the time this part becomes effective, automatically will continue to be recognized as a State home for nursing home care but will...

  12. Recognizing one's own face.

    PubMed

    Kircher, T T; Senior, C; Phillips, M L; Rabe-Hesketh, S; Benson, P J; Bullmore, E T; Brammer, M; Simmons, A; Bartels, M; David, A S

    2001-01-01

    We report two studies of facial self-perception using individually tailored, standardized facial photographs of a group of volunteers and their partners. A computerized morphing procedure was used to merge each target face with an unknown control face. In the first set of experiments, a discrimination task revealed a delayed response time for the more extensively morphed self-face stimuli. In a second set of experiments, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to measure brain activation while subjects viewed morphed versions of either their own or their partner's face, alternating in blocks with presentation of an unknown face. When subjects viewed themselves (minus activation for viewing an unknown face), increased blood oxygenation was detected in right limbic (hippocampal formation, insula, anterior cingulate), left prefrontal cortex and superior temporal cortex. In the partner (versus unknown) experiment, only the right insula was activated. We suggest that a neural network involving the right hemisphere in conjunction with left-sided associative and executive regions underlies the process of visual self-recognition. Together, this combination produces the unique experience of self-awareness. PMID:11062324

  13. Using an Extended Automatic Target Acquisition Program with Dual Cursor Technology to Assist People with Developmental Disabilities Improve Their Pointing Efficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shih, Ching-Hsiang; Shih, Ching-Tien; Chiu, Hsin-Chin

    2010-01-01

    The latest research adopting software technology to improve pointing performance is through an Extended Automatic Pointing Assistive Program (EAPAP). However, EAPAP has some limitations. This study evaluated whether two children with developmental disabilities would be able to improve their pointing performance through an Extended Dual Cursor…

  14. Automatic warranties.

    PubMed

    Decker, R

    1987-10-01

    In addition to express warranties (those specifically made by the supplier in the contract) and implied warranties (those resulting from circumstances of the sale), there is one other classification of warranties that needs to be understood by hospital materials managers. These are sometimes known as automatic warranties. In the following dialogue, Doctor Decker develops these legal concepts. PMID:10284977

  15. Automatic Stabilization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haus, FR

    1936-01-01

    This report lays more stress on the principles underlying automatic piloting than on the means of applications. Mechanical details of servomotors and the mechanical release device necessary to assure instantaneous return of the controls to the pilot in case of malfunction are not included. Descriptions are provided of various commercial systems.

  16. Position, rotation, and intensity invariant recognizing method

    DOEpatents

    Ochoa, Ellen; Schils, George F.; Sweeney, Donald W.

    1989-01-01

    A method for recognizing the presence of a particular target in a field of view which is target position, rotation, and intensity invariant includes the preparing of a target-specific invariant filter from a combination of all eigen-modes of a pattern of the particular target. Coherent radiation from the field of view is then imaged into an optical correlator in which the invariant filter is located. The invariant filter is rotated in the frequency plane of the optical correlator in order to produce a constant-amplitude rotational response in a correlation output plane when the particular target is present in the field of view. Any constant response is thus detected in the output The U.S. Government has rights in this invention pursuant to Contract No. DE-AC04-76DP00789 between the U.S. Department of Energy and AT&T Technologies, Inc.

  17. Targeting Cognitive-Affective Risk Mechanisms in Stress-Precipitated Alcohol Dependence: An Integrated, Biopsychosocial Model of Automaticity, Allostasis, and Addiction

    PubMed Central

    Garland, Eric L.; Boettiger, Charlotte A.; Howard, Matthew O.

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel hypothetical model integrating formerly discrete theories of stress appraisal, neurobiological allostasis, automatic cognitive processing, and addictive behavior to elucidate how alcohol misuse and dependence are maintained and re-activated by stress. We outline a risk chain in which psychosocial stress initiates physiological arousal, perseverative cognition, and negative affect that, in turn, triggers automatized schema to compel alcohol consumption. This implicit cognitive process then leads to attentional biases toward alcohol, subjective experiences of craving, paradoxical increases in arousal and alcohol-related cognitions due to urge suppression, and palliative coping through drinking. When palliative coping relieves distress, it results in negative reinforcement conditioning that perpetuates the cycle by further sensitizing the system to future stressful encounters. This model has implications for development and implementation of innovative behavioral interventions (such as mindfulness training) that disrupt cognitive-affective mechanisms underpinning stress-precipitated dependence on alcohol. PMID:21354711

  18. AUTOMATIC COUNTER

    DOEpatents

    Robinson, H.P.

    1960-06-01

    An automatic counter of alpha particle tracks recorded by a sensitive emulsion of a photographic plate is described. The counter includes a source of mcdulated dark-field illumination for developing light flashes from the recorded particle tracks as the photographic plate is automatically scanned in narrow strips. Photoelectric means convert the light flashes to proportional current pulses for application to an electronic counting circuit. Photoelectric means are further provided for developing a phase reference signal from the photographic plate in such a manner that signals arising from particle tracks not parallel to the edge of the plate are out of phase with the reference signal. The counting circuit includes provision for rejecting the out-of-phase signals resulting from unoriented tracks as well as signals resulting from spurious marks on the plate such as scratches, dust or grain clumpings, etc. The output of the circuit is hence indicative only of the tracks that would be counted by a human operator.

  19. Semantic Priming from Letter-Searched Primes Occurs for Low- but Not High-Frequency Targets: Automatic Semantic Access May Not Be a Myth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tse, Chi-Shing; Neely, James H.

    2007-01-01

    Letter-search (LS) within a prime often eliminates semantic priming. In 2 lexical decision experiments, the authors found that priming from LS primes occurred for low-frequency (LF) but not high-frequency (HF) targets whether the target's word frequency was manipulated between or within participants and whether the prime-target pairs were…

  20. Automatic stabilization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haus, FR

    1936-01-01

    This report concerns the study of automatic stabilizers and extends it to include the control of the three-control system of the airplane instead of just altitude control. Some of the topics discussed include lateral disturbed motion, static stability, the mathematical theory of lateral motion, and large angles of incidence. Various mechanisms and stabilizers are also discussed. The feeding of Diesel engines by injection pumps actuated by engine compression, achieves the required high speeds of injection readily and permits rigorous control of the combustible charge introduced into each cylinder and of the peak pressure in the resultant cycle.

  1. Automatic integration of social information in emotion recognition.

    PubMed

    Mumenthaler, Christian; Sander, David

    2015-04-01

    This study investigated the automaticity of the influence of social inference on emotion recognition. Participants were asked to recognize dynamic facial expressions of emotion (fear or anger in Experiment 1 and blends of fear and surprise or of anger and disgust in Experiment 2) in a target face presented at the center of a screen while a subliminal contextual face appearing in the periphery expressed an emotion (fear or anger) or not (neutral) and either looked at the target face or not. Results of Experiment 1 revealed that recognition of the target emotion of fear was improved when a subliminal angry contextual face gazed toward-rather than away from-the fearful face. We replicated this effect in Experiment 2, in which facial expression blends of fear and surprise were more often and more rapidly categorized as expressing fear when the subliminal contextual face expressed anger and gazed toward-rather than away from-the target face. With the contextual face appearing for 30 ms in total, including only 10 ms of emotion expression, and being immediately masked, our data provide the first evidence that social influence on emotion recognition can occur automatically. PMID:25688908

  2. Recognizing connotative meaning in military chat communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budlong, Emily R.; Walter, Sharon M.; Yilmazel, Ozgur

    2009-05-01

    Over the last five to seven years the use of chat in military contexts has expanded quite significantly, in some cases becoming a primary means of communicating time-sensitive data to decision makers and operators. For example, during humanitarian operations with Joint Task Force-Katrina, chat was used extensively to plan, task, and coordinate predeployment and ongoing operations. The informal nature of chat communications allows the relay of far more information than the technical content of messages. Unlike formal documents such as newspapers, chat is often emotive. "Reading between the lines" to understand the connotative meaning of communication exchanges is now feasible, and often important. Understanding the connotative meaning of text is necessary to enable more useful automatic intelligence exploitation. The research project described in this paper was directed at recognizing user connotations of uncertainty and urgency. The project built a matrix of speech features indicative of these categories of meaning, developed data mining software to recognize them, and evaluated the results.

  3. Recognizing apathy in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Lerner, Alan J; Strauss, Milton; Sami, Susie A

    2007-11-01

    Apathy has been increasingly recognized as a neuropsychiatric symptom in many neurologic disorders. In this paper, we review the clinical features of apathy in Alzheimer's disease. We also review screening, the differential diagnosis including depression, medical illnesses, and mild cognitive impairment, and treating modalities and issues. It must also be recognized that apathy per se almost never occurs as an isolated syndrome, so it must be viewed in the context of an individual's entire behavioral and cognitive status. PMID:17999565

  4. Infrared Targeting System (IRTS) demonstration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohair, Mark A.; Eucker, Shelly S.; Eucker, Brad A.; Lewis, Tim

    1992-02-01

    The objective of the Infrared Targeting System (IRTS) is to successfully demonstrate the mission performance that can be achieved in manned air-to-ground targeting applications utilizing a synergistic combination of state of the art active/passive infrared sensor and automatic target recognizer (ATR) technologies. The IRTS program is centered around a demonstration FLIR/Laser Radar/ATR (FLASHER). The FLASHER consists of a dual field of view (2 x 2 degree and 6 x 6 degree) second generation FLIR pixel mapped to a CO2 laser radar, with a FLIR ATR processor, a laser radar ATR processor, and a sensor fusion ATR processor. Following construction and laboratory testing of the IRTS, the system will be installed on a test aircraft and demonstrated in flight against realistic tactical, strategic, and special operations scenarios.

  5. Using automatic programming for simulating reliability network models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tseng, Fan T.; Schroer, Bernard J.; Zhang, S. X.; Wolfsberger, John W.

    1988-01-01

    This paper presents the development of an automatic programming system for assisting modelers of reliability networks to define problems and then automatically generate the corresponding code in the target simulation language GPSS/PC.

  6. Recognizing Young Readers' Spoken Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Wei; Mostow, Jack; Aist, Gregory

    2013-01-01

    Free-form spoken input would be the easiest and most natural way for young children to communicate to an intelligent tutoring system. However, achieving such a capability poses a challenge both to instruction design and to automatic speech recognition. To address the difficulties of accepting such input, we adopt the framework of predictable…

  7. Automatic programming of simulation models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schroer, Bernard J.; Tseng, Fan T.; Zhang, Shou X.; Dwan, Wen S.

    1988-01-01

    The objective of automatic programming is to improve the overall environment for describing the program. This improved environment is realized by a reduction in the amount of detail that the programmer needs to know and is exposed to. Furthermore, this improved environment is achieved by a specification language that is more natural to the user's problem domain and to the user's way of thinking and looking at the problem. The goal of this research is to apply the concepts of automatic programming (AP) to modeling discrete event simulation system. Specific emphasis is on the design and development of simulation tools to assist the modeler define or construct a model of the system and to then automatically write the corresponding simulation code in the target simulation language, GPSS/PC. A related goal is to evaluate the feasibility of various languages for constructing automatic programming simulation tools.

  8. Position, rotation, and intensity invariant recognizing method

    DOEpatents

    Ochoa, E.; Schils, G.F.; Sweeney, D.W.

    1987-09-15

    A method for recognizing the presence of a particular target in a field of view which is target position, rotation, and intensity invariant includes the preparing of a target-specific invariant filter from a combination of all eigen-modes of a pattern of the particular target. Coherent radiation from the field of view is then imaged into an optical correlator in which the invariant filter is located. The invariant filter is rotated in the frequency plane of the optical correlator in order to produce a constant-amplitude rotational response in a correlation output plane when the particular target is present in the field of view. Any constant response is thus detected in the output plane to determine whether a particular target is present in the field of view. Preferably, a temporal pattern is imaged in the output plane with a optical detector having a plurality of pixels and a correlation coefficient for each pixel is determined by accumulating the intensity and intensity-square of each pixel. The orbiting of the constant response caused by the filter rotation is also preferably eliminated either by the use of two orthogonal mirrors pivoted correspondingly to the rotation of the filter or the attaching of a refracting wedge to the filter to remove the offset angle. Detection is preferably performed of the temporal pattern in the output plane at a plurality of different angles with angular separation sufficient to decorrelate successive frames. 1 fig.

  9. Recognizing Prefixes in Scientific Quantities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sokolowski, Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    Although recognizing prefixes in physical quantities is inherent for practitioners, it might not be inherent for students, who do not use prefixes in their everyday life experiences. This deficiency surfaces in AP Physics exams. For example, readers of an AP Physics exam reported "a common mistake of incorrectly converting nanometers to…

  10. Recognizing and Managing Interpersonal Conflict.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deane, Nancy; Hovland, Michael

    1993-01-01

    Practical advice is offered, to managers and supervisors at any level, on recognizing and analyzing interpersonal conflicts, managing such conflicts and making them productive, and ensuring that performance reviews result in progress for both supervisor and employee. Conflict is seen as inevitable, an opportunity to take action, and manageable.…

  11. Do You Recognize This Parent?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, Edna

    1997-01-01

    Suggests effective ways to work with parents who may be permissive, busy, detached, overprotective, or negative. Recommends that child care professionals be sensitive and understanding, recognize other demands on parents' time and communicate competitively with them, use terms parents understand, accept various levels of parental involvement, be…

  12. Automatic readout micrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Lauritzen, T.

    1982-03-23

    A measuring system is disclosed for surveying and very accurately positioning objects with respect to a reference line. A principal use of this surveying system is for accurately aligning the electromagnets which direct a particle beam emitted from a particle accelerator. Prior art surveying systems require highly skilled surveyors. Prior art systems include, for example, optical surveying systems which are susceptible to operator reading errors, and celestial navigation-type surveying systems, with their inherent complexities. The present invention provides an automatic readout micrometer which can very accurately measure distances. The invention has a simplicity of operation which practically eliminates the possibilities of operator optical reading error, owning to the elimination of traditional optical alignments for making measurements. The invention has an extendable arm which carries a laser surveying target. The extendable arm can be continuously positioned over its entire length of travel by either a coarse or fine adjustment without having the fine adjustment outrun the coarse adjustment until a reference laser beam is centered on the target as indicated by a digital readout. The length of the micrometer can then be accurately and automatically read by a computer and compared with a standardized set of alignment measurements. Due to its construction, the micrometer eliminates any errors due to temperature changes when the system is operated within a standard operating temperature range.

  13. Automatic readout micrometer

    DOEpatents

    Lauritzen, T.

    A measuring system is described for surveying and very accurately positioning objects with respect to a reference line. A principle use of this surveying system is for accurately aligning the electromagnets which direct a particle beam emitted from a particle accelerator. Prior art surveying systems require highly skilled surveyors. Prior art systems include, for example, optical surveying systems which are susceptible to operator reading errors, and celestial navigation-type surveying systems, with their inherent complexities. The present invention provides an automatic readout micrometer which can very accurately measure distances. The invention has a simplicity of operation which practically eliminates the possibilities of operator optical reading error, owning to the elimination of traditional optical alignments for making measurements. The invention has an extendable arm which carries a laser surveying target. The extendable arm can be continuously positioned over its entire length of travel by either a coarse of fine adjustment without having the fine adjustment outrun the coarse adjustment until a reference laser beam is centered on the target as indicated by a digital readout. The length of the micrometer can then be accurately and automatically read by a computer and compared with a standardized set of alignment measurements. Due to its construction, the micrometer eliminates any errors due to temperature changes when the system is operated within a standard operating temperature range.

  14. Automatic readout micrometer

    DOEpatents

    Lauritzen, Ted

    1982-01-01

    A measuring system is disclosed for surveying and very accurately positioning objects with respect to a reference line. A principal use of this surveying system is for accurately aligning the electromagnets which direct a particle beam emitted from a particle accelerator. Prior art surveying systems require highly skilled surveyors. Prior art systems include, for example, optical surveying systems which are susceptible to operator reading errors, and celestial navigation-type surveying systems, with their inherent complexities. The present invention provides an automatic readout micrometer which can very accurately measure distances. The invention has a simplicity of operation which practically eliminates the possibilities of operator optical reading error, owning to the elimination of traditional optical alignments for making measurements. The invention has an extendable arm which carries a laser surveying target. The extendable arm can be continuously positioned over its entire length of travel by either a coarse or fine adjustment without having the fine adjustment outrun the coarse adjustment until a reference laser beam is centered on the target as indicated by a digital readout. The length of the micrometer can then be accurately and automatically read by a computer and compared with a standardized set of alignment measurements. Due to its construction, the micrometer eliminates any errors due to temperature changes when the system is operated within a standard operating temperature range.

  15. Automatic transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Miura, M.; Inuzuka, T.

    1986-08-26

    1. An automatic transmission with four forward speeds and one reverse position, is described which consists of: an input shaft; an output member; first and second planetary gear sets each having a sun gear, a ring gear and a carrier supporting a pinion in mesh with the sun gear and ring gear; the carrier of the first gear set, the ring gear of the second gear set and the output member all being connected; the ring gear of the first gear set connected to the carrier of the second gear set; a first clutch means for selectively connecting the input shaft to the sun gear of the first gear set, including friction elements, a piston selectively engaging the friction elements and a fluid servo in which hydraulic fluid is selectively supplied to the piston; a second clutch means for selectively connecting the input shaft to the sun gear of the second gear set a third clutch means for selectively connecting the input shaft to the carrier of the second gear set including friction elements, a piston selectively engaging the friction elements and a fluid servo in which hydraulic fluid is selectively supplied to the piston; a first drive-establishing means for selectively preventing rotation of the ring gear of the first gear set and the carrier of the second gear set in only one direction and, alternatively, in any direction; a second drive-establishing means for selectively preventing rotation of the sun gear of the second gear set; and a drum being open to the first planetary gear set, with a cylindrical intermediate wall, an inner peripheral wall and outer peripheral wall and forming the hydraulic servos of the first and third clutch means between the intermediate wall and the inner peripheral wall and between the intermediate wall and the outer peripheral wall respectively.

  16. Recognizing Body Dysmorphic Disorder (Dysmorphophobia)

    PubMed Central

    Varma, Anukriti; Rastogi, Rajesh

    2015-01-01

    Dysmorphophobia is a psychiatric condition which frequently presents in the clinics of dermatologists and plastic surgeons. This disorder (also called body dysmorphic disorder) is troublesome to the patient whilst being confusing for the doctor. This commonly undiagnosed condition can be detected by a few simple steps. Timely referral to a psychiatrist benefits most patients suffering from it. This article describes with a case vignette, how to recognize body dysmorphic disorder presenting in the dermatological or aesthetic surgery set up. Diagnostic criteria, eitiology, approach to patient, management strategy and when to refer are important learning points. The importance of recognizing this disorder timely and referring the patient to the psychiatrist for appropriate treatment is crucial. This article covers all aspects of body dysmorphic disorder relevant to dermatologists and plastic surgeons and hopes to be useful in a better understanding of this disorder. PMID:26644741

  17. Recognizing Body Dysmorphic Disorder (Dysmorphophobia).

    PubMed

    Varma, Anukriti; Rastogi, Rajesh

    2015-01-01

    Dysmorphophobia is a psychiatric condition which frequently presents in the clinics of dermatologists and plastic surgeons. This disorder (also called body dysmorphic disorder) is troublesome to the patient whilst being confusing for the doctor. This commonly undiagnosed condition can be detected by a few simple steps. Timely referral to a psychiatrist benefits most patients suffering from it. This article describes with a case vignette, how to recognize body dysmorphic disorder presenting in the dermatological or aesthetic surgery set up. Diagnostic criteria, eitiology, approach to patient, management strategy and when to refer are important learning points. The importance of recognizing this disorder timely and referring the patient to the psychiatrist for appropriate treatment is crucial. This article covers all aspects of body dysmorphic disorder relevant to dermatologists and plastic surgeons and hopes to be useful in a better understanding of this disorder. PMID:26644741

  18. Recognizing Prefixes in Scientific Quantities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokolowski, Andrzej

    2015-09-01

    Although recognizing prefixes in physical quantities is inherent for practitioners, it might not be inherent for students, who do not use prefixes in their everyday life experiences. This deficiency surfaces in AP Physics exams. For example, readers of an AP Physics exam reported "a common mistake of incorrectly converting nanometers to meters." Similar students' mistakes were reported also by AP Chemistry readers "as in previous years, students still had difficulty converting kJ to J." While traditional teaching focuses on memorizing the symbols of prefixes, little attention is given to helping learners recognize a prefix in a given quantity. I noticed in my teaching practice that by making the processes of identifying prefixes more explicit, students make fewer mistakes on unit conversion. Thus, this paper presents an outline of a lesson that focuses on prefix recognition. It is designed for a first-year college physics class; however, its key points can be addressed to any group of physics students.

  19. Recognizing Disguised Faces: Human and Machine Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Dhamecha, Tejas Indulal; Singh, Richa; Vatsa, Mayank; Kumar, Ajay

    2014-01-01

    Face verification, though an easy task for humans, is a long-standing open research area. This is largely due to the challenging covariates, such as disguise and aging, which make it very hard to accurately verify the identity of a person. This paper investigates human and machine performance for recognizing/verifying disguised faces. Performance is also evaluated under familiarity and match/mismatch with the ethnicity of observers. The findings of this study are used to develop an automated algorithm to verify the faces presented under disguise variations. We use automatically localized feature descriptors which can identify disguised face patches and account for this information to achieve improved matching accuracy. The performance of the proposed algorithm is evaluated on the IIIT-Delhi Disguise database that contains images pertaining to 75 subjects with different kinds of disguise variations. The experiments suggest that the proposed algorithm can outperform a popular commercial system and evaluates them against humans in matching disguised face images. PMID:25029188

  20. Automatic TLI recognition system, user`s guide

    SciTech Connect

    Lassahn, G.D.

    1997-02-01

    This report describes how to use an automatic target recognition system (version 14). In separate volumes are a general description of the ATR system, Automatic TLI Recognition System, General Description, and a programmer`s manual, Automatic TLI Recognition System, Programmer`s Guide.

  1. Preventing and Recognizing Prescription Drug Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... Abuse » Preventing and recognizing prescription drug abuse Prescription Drug Abuse Email Facebook Twitter Preventing and recognizing prescription drug abuse To ensure proper medical care, patients should discuss ...

  2. Brandon RHA recognized for energy efficiency.

    PubMed

    Waddington, Kent; Neal, Gordon

    2002-01-01

    In a recent national competition recognizing leadership in energy efficiency and greenhouse gas education, Brandon Regional Health Authority was recognized for conscientious use of resources. PMID:12357581

  3. Recognizing Patterns in Debris Disks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuchner, Marc

    2009-01-01

    An extrasolar planet sculpts the famous debris dish around Fomalhaut; probably many other debris disks contain planets that we could locate if only we could better recognize their signatures in the dust that surrounds them. I will describe the latest 3-D models of debris dish dynamics / models that include planets, grain-grain collisions and even ISM-disk interactions. I will show why all these ingredients are needed to explain disk images--and what the images are telling us about planet formation.

  4. Recognizing new medical knowledge computationally.

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, S. J.; Cole, W. G.; Tuttle, M. S.; Olson, N. E.; Sherertz, D. D.

    1993-01-01

    Can new medical knowledge be recognized computationally? We know knowledge is changing, and our knowledge-based systems will need to accommodate that change in knowledge on a regular basis if they are to stay successful. Computational recognition of these changes seems desirable. It is unlikely that low level objects in the computational universe, bits and characters, will change much over time, higher level objects of language, where meaning begins to emerge, may show change. An analysis of ten arbitrarily selected paragraphs from the Medical Knowledge Self-Assessment Program of the American College of Physicians was used as a test bed for nominal phrase recognition. While there were words not known to Meta-1.2, only 8 of the 32 concepts new to the primary author were pointed to by new words. Use of a barrier word method was successful in identifying 23 of the 32 new concepts. Use of co-occurrence (in sentences) of putative nominal phrases may reduce the amount of human effort involved in recognizing the emergence of new relationships. PMID:8130505

  5. Antarctic skuas recognize individual humans.

    PubMed

    Lee, Won Young; Han, Yeong-Deok; Lee, Sang-Im; Jablonski, Piotr G; Jung, Jin-Woo; Kim, Jeong-Hoon

    2016-07-01

    Recent findings report that wild animals can recognize individual humans. To explain how the animals distinguish humans, two hypotheses are proposed. The high cognitive abilities hypothesis implies that pre-existing high intelligence enabled animals to acquire such abilities. The pre-exposure to stimuli hypothesis suggests that frequent encounters with humans promote the acquisition of discriminatory abilities in these species. Here, we examine individual human recognition abilities in a wild Antarctic species, the brown skua (Stercorarius antarcticus), which lives away from typical human settlements and was only recently exposed to humans due to activities at Antarctic stations. We found that, as nest visits were repeated, the skua parents responded at further distances and were more likely to attack the nest intruder. Also, we demonstrated that seven out of seven breeding pairs of skuas selectively responded to a human nest intruder with aggression and ignored a neutral human who had not previously approached the nest. The results indicate that Antarctic skuas, a species that typically inhabited in human-free areas, are able to recognize individual humans who disturbed their nests. Our findings generally support the high cognitive abilities hypothesis, but this ability can be acquired during a relatively short period in the life of an individual as a result of interactions between individual birds and humans. PMID:26939544

  6. Automatic routing module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malin, Janice A.

    1987-01-01

    Automatic Routing Module (ARM) is a tool to partially automate Air Launched Cruise Missile (ALCM) routing. For any accessible launch point or target pair, ARM creates flyable routes that, within the fidelity of the models, are optimal in terms of threat avoidance, clobber avoidance, and adherence to vehicle and planning constraints. Although highly algorithmic, ARM is an expert system. Because of the heuristics applied, ARM generated routes closely resemble manually generated routes in routine cases. In more complex cases, ARM's ability to accumulate and assess threat danger in three dimensions and trade that danger off with the probability of ground clobber results in the safest path around or through difficult areas. The tools available prior to ARM did not provide the planner with enough information or present it in such a way that ensured he would select the safest path.

  7. Young Children's Automatic Encoding of Social Categories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weisman, Kara; Johnson, Marissa V.; Shutts, Kristin

    2015-01-01

    The present research investigated young children's automatic encoding of two social categories that are highly relevant to adults: gender and race. Three- to 6-year-old participants learned facts about unfamiliar target children who varied in either gender or race and were asked to remember which facts went with which targets. When participants…

  8. Automatic TLI recognition system beta prototype testing

    SciTech Connect

    Lassahn, G.D.

    1996-06-01

    This report describes the beta prototype automatic target recognition system ATR3, and some performance tests done with this system. This is a fully operational system, with a high computational speed. It is useful for findings any kind of target in digitized image data, and as a general purpose image analysis tool.

  9. The effect of object-valence relations on automatic evaluation.

    PubMed

    Moran, Tal; Bar-Anan, Yoav

    2013-01-01

    Two experiments tested the effect of co-occurrence of a target object with affective stimuli on automatic evaluation of the target when the relation between the target and the affective stimuli suggests that they have opposite valence. Participants learned about targets that ended an unpleasant noise or a pleasant music. The valence of such targets is opposite to the valence of the affective stimuli that co-occur with them. Participants reported preference for targets that ended noise over targets that ended music, but automatic evaluation measures revealed the opposite preference. This suggests that automatic evaluation is sensitive to co-occurrence between stimuli more than to the relation between the stimuli, and that relational information has a stronger influence on deliberate evaluation than on automatic evaluation. These conclusions support the associative-propositional evaluation model (Gawronski & Bodenhausen, 2006), and add evidence regarding the sensitivity of the evaluative-conditioning effect to relational information. PMID:23072334

  10. Recognizing child maltreatment in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Khan, N Z; Lynch, M A

    1997-08-01

    Concern is increasing in Bangladesh over child abuse, neglect, and exploitation. Children from all walks of life are being treated at the Child Development Center (CDC) Dhaka Shishu Hospital for neurodevelopmental problems resulting from abuse and neglect. Efforts to protect children from sexual harassment result in girls being isolated at home or married at an early age. Some young brides are eventually abandoned and forced into prostitution. Early marriage reflects the lack of acknowledgement of a period of adolescence and the belief that puberty is a marker of adulthood. Many girls aged 8-16 are employed as live-in domestic servants, and many suffer sexual as well as emotional abuse. Garment factories, on the other hand, offer girls an escape from extreme poverty, domestic service, and early marriage but are threatened by forces that condemn child labor. Rather than ending such opportunities, employers should be encouraged to provide employees with educational and welfare facilities. The CDC seeks to explore the extent and depth of the problem of child abuse while recognizing the special circumstances at work in Bangladesh. It is also necessary to raise awareness of these issues and of the discrepancies between the law and cultural practices. For example, the legal marriage age of 18 years for a woman and 21 years for a man is often ignored. Additional forms of abuse receiving the attention of women's organizations and human rights groups include the trafficking of children. A network of concerned organizations should be created to work against the child abuse, neglect, and exploitation that Bangladesh has pledged to overcome by signing the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child. PMID:9280385

  11. Producing and recognizing analogical relations.

    PubMed

    Lipkens, Regina; Hayes, Steven C

    2009-01-01

    Analogical reasoning is an important component of intelligent behavior, and a key test of any approach to human language and cognition. Only a limited amount of empirical work has been conducted from a behavior analytic point of view, most of that within Relational Frame Theory (RFT), which views analogy as a matter of deriving relations among relations. The present series of four studies expands previous work by exploring the applicability of this model of analogy to topography-based rather than merely selection-based responses and by extending the work into additional relations, including nonsymmetrical ones. In each of the four studies participants pretrained in contextual control over nonarbitrary stimulus relations of sameness and opposition, or of sameness, smaller than, and larger than, learned arbitrary stimulus relations in the presence of these relational cues and derived analogies involving directly trained relations and derived relations of mutual and combinatorial entailment, measured using a variety of productive and selection-based measures. In Experiment 1 participants successfully recognized analogies among stimulus networks containing same and opposite relations; in Experiment 2 analogy was successfully used to extend derived relations to pairs of novel stimuli; in Experiment 3 the procedure used in Experiment 1 was extended to nonsymmetrical comparative relations; in Experiment 4 the procedure used in Experiment 2 was extended to nonsymmetrical comparative relations. Although not every participant showed the effects predicted, overall the procedures occasioned relational responses consistent with an RFT account that have not yet been demonstrated in a behavior-analytic laboratory setting, including productive responding on the basis of analogies. PMID:19230515

  12. Cascaded automatic target recognition (Cascaded ATR)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walls, Bradley

    2010-04-01

    The global war on terror has plunged US and coalition forces into a battle space requiring the continuous adaptation of tactics and technologies to cope with an elusive enemy. As a result, technologies that enhance the intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance (ISR) mission making the warfighter more effective are experiencing increased interest. In this paper we show how a new generation of smart cameras built around foveated sensing makes possible a powerful ISR technique termed Cascaded ATR. Foveated sensing is an innovative optical concept in which a single aperture captures two distinct fields of view. In Cascaded ATR, foveated sensing is used to provide a coarse resolution, persistent surveillance, wide field of view (WFOV) detector to accomplish detection level perception. At the same time, within the foveated sensor, these detection locations are passed as a cue to a steerable, high fidelity, narrow field of view (NFOV) detector to perform recognition level perception. Two new ISR mission scenarios, utilizing Cascaded ATR, are proposed.

  13. Distributed image processing for automatic target recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cozien, Roger F.

    2001-02-01

    Our purpose is, in medium term, to detect in air images, characteristic shapes and objects such as airports, industrial plants, planes, tanks, trucks, . with great accuracy and low rate of mistakes. However, we also want to value whether the link between neural networks and multi-agents systems is relevant and effective. If it appears to be really effective, we hope to use this kind of technology in other fields. That would be an easy and convenient way to depict and to use the agents' knowledge which is distributed and fragmented. After a first phase of preliminary tests to know if agents are able to give relevant information to a neural network, we verify that only a few agents running on an image are enough to inform the network and let it generalize the agents' distributed and fragmented knowledge. In a second phase, we developed a distributed architecture allowing several multi-agents systems running at the same time on different computers with different images. All those agents send information to a "multi neural networks system" whose job is to identify the shapes detected by the agents. The name we gave to our project is Jarod.

  14. Recognizing foreground-background interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenkins, Jeffrey; Szu, Harold

    2010-04-01

    Can the background affect a foreground target in distant, low-quality imagery? If it does, it might occur in our mind, or perhaps it may represent a snapshot of our early vision. An affirmative answer, one way or another, may affect our current understanding of this phenomena and potentially for related applications. How can we be sure about this in the psycho-physical sense? We begin with the physiology of our brain's homeostasis, of which an isothermal equilibrium is characterized by the minimum of Helmholtz isothermal Free Energy: A = U - T0S >= 0, where T0 = 37°C, the Boltzmann Entropy S = KB1n(W), and U is the unknown internal energy to be computed.

  15. How automatic are crossmodal correspondences?

    PubMed

    Spence, Charles; Deroy, Ophelia

    2013-03-01

    The last couple of years have seen a rapid growth of interest (especially amongst cognitive psychologists, cognitive neuroscientists, and developmental researchers) in the study of crossmodal correspondences - the tendency for our brains (not to mention the brains of other species) to preferentially associate certain features or dimensions of stimuli across the senses. By now, robust empirical evidence supports the existence of numerous crossmodal correspondences, affecting people's performance across a wide range of psychological tasks - in everything from the redundant target effect paradigm through to studies of the Implicit Association Test, and from speeded discrimination/classification tasks through to unspeeded spatial localisation and temporal order judgment tasks. However, one question that has yet to receive a satisfactory answer is whether crossmodal correspondences automatically affect people's performance (in all, or at least in a subset of tasks), as opposed to reflecting more of a strategic, or top-down, phenomenon. Here, we review the latest research on the topic of crossmodal correspondences to have addressed this issue. We argue that answering the question will require researchers to be more precise in terms of defining what exactly automaticity entails. Furthermore, one's answer to the automaticity question may also hinge on the answer to a second question: Namely, whether crossmodal correspondences are all 'of a kind', or whether instead there may be several different kinds of crossmodal mapping (e.g., statistical, structural, and semantic). Different answers to the automaticity question may then be revealed depending on the type of correspondence under consideration. We make a number of suggestions for future research that might help to determine just how automatic crossmodal correspondences really are. PMID:23370382

  16. An anatomy of automatism.

    PubMed

    Mackay, R D

    2015-07-01

    The automatism defence has been described as a quagmire of law and as presenting an intractable problem. Why is this so? This paper will analyse and explore the current legal position on automatism. In so doing, it will identify the problems which the case law has created, including the distinction between sane and insane automatism and the status of the 'external factor doctrine', and comment briefly on recent reform proposals. PMID:26378105

  17. Arabic word recognizer for mobile applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khanna, Nitin; Abdollahian, Golnaz; Brame, Ben; Boutin, Mireille; Delp, Edward J.

    2011-03-01

    When traveling in a region where the local language is not written using a "Roman alphabet," translating written text (e.g., documents, road signs, or placards) is a particularly difficult problem since the text cannot be easily entered into a translation device or searched using a dictionary. To address this problem, we are developing the "Rosetta Phone," a handheld device (e.g., PDA or mobile telephone) capable of acquiring an image of the text, locating the region (word) of interest within the image, and producing both an audio and a visual English interpretation of the text. This paper presents a system targeted for interpreting words written in Arabic script. The goal of this work is to develop an autonomous, segmentation-free Arabic phrase recognizer, with computational complexity low enough to deploy on a mobile device. A prototype of the proposed system has been deployed on an iPhone with a suitable user interface. The system was tested on a number of noisy images, in addition to the images acquired from the iPhone's camera. It identifies Arabic words or phrases by extracting appropriate features and assigning "codewords" to each word or phrase. On a dictionary of 5,000 words, the system uniquely mapped (word-image to codeword) 99.9% of the words. The system has a 82% recognition accuracy on images of words captured using the iPhone's built-in camera.

  18. Automatic differentiation bibliography

    SciTech Connect

    Corliss, G.F.

    1992-07-01

    This is a bibliography of work related to automatic differentiation. Automatic differentiation is a technique for the fast, accurate propagation of derivative values using the chain rule. It is neither symbolic nor numeric. Automatic differentiation is a fundamental tool for scientific computation, with applications in optimization, nonlinear equations, nonlinear least squares approximation, stiff ordinary differential equation, partial differential equations, continuation methods, and sensitivity analysis. This report is an updated version of the bibliography which originally appeared in Automatic Differentiation of Algorithms: Theory, Implementation, and Application.

  19. Automatic crack propagation tracking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shephard, M. S.; Weidner, T. J.; Yehia, N. A. B.; Burd, G. S.

    1985-01-01

    A finite element based approach to fully automatic crack propagation tracking is presented. The procedure presented combines fully automatic mesh generation with linear fracture mechanics techniques in a geometrically based finite element code capable of automatically tracking cracks in two-dimensional domains. The automatic mesh generator employs the modified-quadtree technique. Crack propagation increment and direction are predicted using a modified maximum dilatational strain energy density criterion employing the numerical results obtained by meshes of quadratic displacement and singular crack tip finite elements. Example problems are included to demonstrate the procedure.

  20. Automatic contrast: evidence that automatic comparison with the social self affects evaluative responses.

    PubMed

    Ruys, Kirsten I; Spears, Russell; Gordijn, Ernestine H; de Vries, Nanne K

    2007-08-01

    The aim of the present research was to investigate whether unconsciously presented affective information may cause opposite evaluative responses depending on what social category the information originates from. We argue that automatic comparison processes between the self and the unconscious affective information produce this evaluative contrast effect. Consistent with research on automatic behaviour, we propose that when an intergroup context is activated, an automatic comparison to the social self may determine the automatic evaluative responses, at least for highly visible categories (e.g. sex, ethnicity). Contrary to previous research on evaluative priming, we predict automatic contrastive responses to affective information originating from an outgroup category such that the evaluative response to neutral targets is opposite to the valence of the suboptimal primes. Two studies using different intergroup contexts provide support for our hypotheses. PMID:17705936

  1. Techniques for automatic speech recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, R. K.

    1983-05-01

    A brief insight into some of the algorithms that lie behind current automatic speech recognition system is provided. Early phonetically based approaches were not particularly successful, due mainly to a lack of appreciation of the problems involved. These problems are summarized, and various recognition techniques are reviewed in the contect of the solutions that they provide. It is pointed out that the majority of currently available speech recognition equipments employ a "whole-word' pattern matching approach which, although relatively simple, has proved particularly successful in its ability to recognize speech. The concepts of time-normalizing plays a central role in this type of recognition process and a family of such algorithms is described in detail. The technique of dynamic time warping is not only capable of providing good performance for isolated word recognition, but how it is also extended to the recognition of connected speech (thereby removing one of the most severe limitations of early speech recognition equipment).

  2. Automatic TLI recognition system, programmer`s guide

    SciTech Connect

    Lassahn, G.D.

    1997-02-01

    This report describes the software of an automatic target recognition system (version 14), from a programmer`s point of view. The intent is to provide information that will help people who wish to modify the software. In separate volumes are a general description of the ATR system, Automatic TLI Recognition System, General Description, and a user`s manual, Automatic TLI Recognition System, User`s Guide. 2 refs.

  3. Automatic Whistler Detector and Analyzer system: Automatic Whistler Detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lichtenberger, J.; Ferencz, C.; BodnáR, L.; Hamar, D.; Steinbach, P.

    2008-12-01

    A new, unique system has been developed for the automatic detection and analysis of whistlers. The Automatic Whistler Detector and Analyzer (AWDA) system has two purposes: (1) to automatically provide plasmaspheric electron densities extracted from whistlers and (2) to collect statistical data for the investigation of whistler generation and propagation. This paper presents the details of and the first results obtained by the automatic detector segment. The detector algorithm is based on image correlation where the target image is a preprocessed spectrogram of raw VLF signals and the pattern is a model whistler. The first AWDA system has been working in Tihany, Hungary (L = 1.8), and has collected 100,000 whistler traces per year. The overall detection efficiency using a parameter set optimized for purpose 2 is 90% for misdetection and 50-80% for false detection. The statistical analysis over the period February 2002 to February 2008 including 600,000 whistler traces shows high diurnal variations; whistler were mainly, but not only, detected when both the source and receiver regions were unlit. The seasonal occurrence is high during austral summer and low during austral winter. Comparison with Tarcsai et al.'s (1988) statistical study on Tihany whistlers shows differences in both diurnal and seasonal variations, but the latter study was made on 1388 manually identified whistlers only. The L value distributions of both data sets are similar. A global network of AWDA systems (AWDAnet) has been set up to overcome the time and space limitations of a single station; the network consists of 13 nodes, and another 6 are envisaged for the near future.

  4. Using nanoinformatics methods for automatically identifying relevant nanotoxicology entities from the literature.

    PubMed

    García-Remesal, Miguel; García-Ruiz, Alejandro; Pérez-Rey, David; de la Iglesia, Diana; Maojo, Víctor

    2013-01-01

    Nanoinformatics is an emerging research field that uses informatics techniques to collect, process, store, and retrieve data, information, and knowledge on nanoparticles, nanomaterials, and nanodevices and their potential applications in health care. In this paper, we have focused on the solutions that nanoinformatics can provide to facilitate nanotoxicology research. For this, we have taken a computational approach to automatically recognize and extract nanotoxicology-related entities from the scientific literature. The desired entities belong to four different categories: nanoparticles, routes of exposure, toxic effects, and targets. The entity recognizer was trained using a corpus that we specifically created for this purpose and was validated by two nanomedicine/nanotoxicology experts. We evaluated the performance of our entity recognizer using 10-fold cross-validation. The precisions range from 87.6% (targets) to 93.0% (routes of exposure), while recall values range from 82.6% (routes of exposure) to 87.4% (toxic effects). These results prove the feasibility of using computational approaches to reliably perform different named entity recognition (NER)-dependent tasks, such as for instance augmented reading or semantic searches. This research is a "proof of concept" that can be expanded to stimulate further developments that could assist researchers in managing data, information, and knowledge at the nanolevel, thus accelerating research in nanomedicine. PMID:23509721

  5. Using Nanoinformatics Methods for Automatically Identifying Relevant Nanotoxicology Entities from the Literature

    PubMed Central

    García-Remesal, Miguel; García-Ruiz, Alejandro; Pérez-Rey, David; de la Iglesia, Diana; Maojo, Víctor

    2013-01-01

    Nanoinformatics is an emerging research field that uses informatics techniques to collect, process, store, and retrieve data, information, and knowledge on nanoparticles, nanomaterials, and nanodevices and their potential applications in health care. In this paper, we have focused on the solutions that nanoinformatics can provide to facilitate nanotoxicology research. For this, we have taken a computational approach to automatically recognize and extract nanotoxicology-related entities from the scientific literature. The desired entities belong to four different categories: nanoparticles, routes of exposure, toxic effects, and targets. The entity recognizer was trained using a corpus that we specifically created for this purpose and was validated by two nanomedicine/nanotoxicology experts. We evaluated the performance of our entity recognizer using 10-fold cross-validation. The precisions range from 87.6% (targets) to 93.0% (routes of exposure), while recall values range from 82.6% (routes of exposure) to 87.4% (toxic effects). These results prove the feasibility of using computational approaches to reliably perform different named entity recognition (NER)-dependent tasks, such as for instance augmented reading or semantic searches. This research is a “proof of concept” that can be expanded to stimulate further developments that could assist researchers in managing data, information, and knowledge at the nanolevel, thus accelerating research in nanomedicine. PMID:23509721

  6. Digital automatic gain control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Uzdy, Z.

    1980-01-01

    Performance analysis, used to evaluated fitness of several circuits to digital automatic gain control (AGC), indicates that digital integrator employing coherent amplitude detector (CAD) is best device suited for application. Circuit reduces gain error to half that of conventional analog AGC while making it possible to automatically modify response of receiver to match incoming signal conditions.

  7. Automatic Differentiation Package

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2007-03-01

    Sacado is an automatic differentiation package for C++ codes using operator overloading and C++ templating. Sacado provide forward, reverse, and Taylor polynomial automatic differentiation classes and utilities for incorporating these classes into C++ codes. Users can compute derivatives of computations arising in engineering and scientific applications, including nonlinear equation solving, time integration, sensitivity analysis, stability analysis, optimization and uncertainity quantification.

  8. Practical automatic Arabic license plate recognition system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammad, Khader; Agaian, Sos; Saleh, Hani

    2011-02-01

    Since 1970's, the need of an automatic license plate recognition system, sometimes referred as Automatic License Plate Recognition system, has been increasing. A license plate recognition system is an automatic system that is able to recognize a license plate number, extracted from image sensors. In specific, Automatic License Plate Recognition systems are being used in conjunction with various transportation systems in application areas such as law enforcement (e.g. speed limit enforcement) and commercial usages such as parking enforcement and automatic toll payment private and public entrances, border control, theft and vandalism control. Vehicle license plate recognition has been intensively studied in many countries. Due to the different types of license plates being used, the requirement of an automatic license plate recognition system is different for each country. [License plate detection using cluster run length smoothing algorithm ].Generally, an automatic license plate localization and recognition system is made up of three modules; license plate localization, character segmentation and optical character recognition modules. This paper presents an Arabic license plate recognition system that is insensitive to character size, font, shape and orientation with extremely high accuracy rate. The proposed system is based on a combination of enhancement, license plate localization, morphological processing, and feature vector extraction using the Haar transform. The performance of the system is fast due to classification of alphabet and numerals based on the license plate organization. Experimental results for license plates of two different Arab countries show an average of 99 % successful license plate localization and recognition in a total of more than 20 different images captured from a complex outdoor environment. The results run times takes less time compared to conventional and many states of art methods.

  9. The Developmental Dimensions of Recognizing Racist Thoughts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torres, Vasti

    2009-01-01

    This study focuses on understanding the developmental process that occurs when racist ideas are recognized as a part of college students' thought processes. Longitudinal data were collected from 29 Latino/a college students in order to illustrate how these students made meaning of racist thoughts when they began to recognize it. The framework of…

  10. Higher-Order Neural Networks Recognize Patterns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, Max B.; Spirkovska, Lilly; Ochoa, Ellen

    1996-01-01

    Networks of higher order have enhanced capabilities to distinguish between different two-dimensional patterns and to recognize those patterns. Also enhanced capabilities to "learn" patterns to be recognized: "trained" with far fewer examples and, therefore, in less time than necessary to train comparable first-order neural networks.

  11. Vitrification: Machines learn to recognize glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceriotti, Michele; Vitelli, Vincenzo

    2016-05-01

    The dynamics of a viscous liquid undergo a dramatic slowdown when it is cooled to form a solid glass. Recognizing the structural changes across such a transition remains a major challenge. Machine-learning methods, similar to those Facebook uses to recognize groups of friends, have now been applied to this problem.

  12. Teaching Students to Recognize Irony

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milner, Joseph O.; Hawkins, Robin H.; Milner, Lucy M.

    2014-01-01

    This article exposes the problem of using declarative rather than procedural knowledge to help K--12 students recognize irony in stories. It offers commonplace procedures drawn from students' everyday language experience together with more abstract irony clues to help students recognize irony in stories and increase their story comprehension.…

  13. Laser tracking system with automatic reacquisition capability.

    PubMed

    Johnson, R E; Weiss, P F

    1968-06-01

    A laser based tracking system is described that has the capability of automatically performing an acquisition search to locate the target. This work is intended for precision launch phase tracking of the Saturn V launch vehicle. System tracking accuracies limited only by the atmosphere have been demonstrated, as has acquisition over a 1 degrees x 1 degrees field of view. PMID:20068746

  14. A long-term target detection approach in infrared image sequence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hang; Zhang, Qi; Li, Yuanyuan; Wang, Liqiang

    2015-12-01

    An automatic target detection method used in long term infrared (IR) image sequence from a moving platform is proposed. Firstly, based on non-linear histogram equalization, target candidates are coarse-to-fine segmented by using two self-adapt thresholds generated in the intensity space. Then the real target is captured via two different selection approaches. At the beginning of image sequence, the genuine target with litter texture is discriminated from other candidates by using contrast-based confidence measure. On the other hand, when the target becomes larger, we apply online EM method to iteratively estimate and update the distributions of target's size and position based on the prior detection results, and then recognize the genuine one which satisfies both the constraints of size and position. Experimental results demonstrate that the presented method is accurate, robust and efficient.

  15. Automatic recognition and analysis of synapses. [in brain tissue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ungerleider, J. A.; Ledley, R. S.; Bloom, F. E.

    1976-01-01

    An automatic system for recognizing synaptic junctions would allow analysis of large samples of tissue for the possible classification of specific well-defined sets of synapses based upon structural morphometric indices. In this paper the three steps of our system are described: (1) cytochemical tissue preparation to allow easy recognition of the synaptic junctions; (2) transmitting the tissue information to a computer; and (3) analyzing each field to recognize the synapses and make measurements on them.

  16. The Fragile X Mental Retardation Protein, FMRP, Recognizes G-Quartets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darnell, Jennifer C.; Warren, Stephen T.; Darnell, Robert B.

    2004-01-01

    Fragile X mental retardation is a disease caused by the loss of function of a single RNA-binding protein, FMRP. Identifying the RNA targets recognized by FMRP is likely to reveal much about its functions in controlling some aspects of memory and behavior. Recent evidence suggests that one of the predominant RNA motifs recognized by the FMRP…

  17. Automatic amino acid analyzer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berdahl, B. J.; Carle, G. C.; Oyama, V. I.

    1971-01-01

    Analyzer operates unattended or up to 15 hours. It has an automatic sample injection system and can be programmed. All fluid-flow valve switching is accomplished pneumatically from miniature three-way solenoid pilot valves.

  18. Automatic Payroll Deposit System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidson, D. B.

    1979-01-01

    The Automatic Payroll Deposit System in Yakima, Washington's Public School District No. 7, directly transmits each employee's salary amount for each pay period to a bank or other financial institution. (Author/MLF)

  19. Automatic switching matrix

    DOEpatents

    Schlecht, Martin F.; Kassakian, John G.; Caloggero, Anthony J.; Rhodes, Bruce; Otten, David; Rasmussen, Neil

    1982-01-01

    An automatic switching matrix that includes an apertured matrix board containing a matrix of wires that can be interconnected at each aperture. Each aperture has associated therewith a conductive pin which, when fully inserted into the associated aperture, effects electrical connection between the wires within that particular aperture. Means is provided for automatically inserting the pins in a determined pattern and for removing all the pins to permit other interconnecting patterns.

  20. Immune Cells in Blood Recognize Tumors

    Cancer.gov

    NCI scientists have developed a novel strategy for identifying immune cells circulating in the blood that recognize specific proteins on tumor cells, a finding they believe may have potential implications for immune-based therapies.

  1. Automatic TLI recognition system, general description

    SciTech Connect

    Lassahn, G.D.

    1997-02-01

    This report is a general description of an automatic target recognition system developed at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for the Department of Energy. A user`s manual is a separate volume, Automatic TLI Recognition System, User`s Guide, and a programmer`s manual is Automatic TLI Recognition System, Programmer`s Guide. This system was designed as an automatic target recognition system for fast screening of large amounts of multi-sensor image data, based on low-cost parallel processors. This system naturally incorporates image data fusion, and it gives uncertainty estimates. It is relatively low cost, compact, and transportable. The software is easily enhanced to expand the system`s capabilities, and the hardware is easily expandable to increase the system`s speed. In addition to its primary function as a trainable target recognition system, this is also a versatile, general-purpose tool for image manipulation and analysis, which can be either keyboard-driven or script-driven. This report includes descriptions of three variants of the computer hardware, a description of the mathematical basis if the training process, and a description with examples of the system capabilities.

  2. Toward automatic recognition of high quality clinical evidence.

    PubMed

    Kilicoglu, Halil; Demner-Fushman, Dina; Rindflesch, Thomas C; Wilczynski, Nancy L; Haynes, R Brian

    2008-01-01

    Automatic methods for recognizing topically relevant documents supported by high quality research can assist clinicians in practicing evidence-based medicine. We approach the challenge of identifying articles with high quality clinical evidence as a binary classification problem. Combining predictions from supervised machine learning methods and using deep semantic features, we achieve 73.5% precision and 67% recall. PMID:18998881

  3. 76 FR 62644 - Request To Consider Automatic Termination Controls

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-11

    ... energy efficiency of clothes washers. (76 FR 50145, Aug. 12, 2011). The petition also served as a... represents a significant savings opportunity. \\7\\ 75 FR 37618. We recognize that there are significant... effectiveness of automatic termination controls such as moisture and temperature sensor controls. Public...

  4. Automatic recognition of lactating sow behaviors through depth image processing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Manual observation and classification of animal behaviors is laborious, time-consuming, and of limited ability to process large amount of data. A computer vision-based system was developed that automatically recognizes sow behaviors (lying, sitting, standing, kneeling, feeding, drinking, and shiftin...

  5. A knowledge engineering approach to recognizing and extracting sequences of nucleic acids from scientific literature.

    PubMed

    García-Remesal, Miguel; Maojo, Victor; Crespo, José

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we present a knowledge engineering approach to automatically recognize and extract genetic sequences from scientific articles. To carry out this task, we use a preliminary recognizer based on a finite state machine to extract all candidate DNA/RNA sequences. The latter are then fed into a knowledge-based system that automatically discards false positives and refines noisy and incorrectly merged sequences. We created the knowledge base by manually analyzing different manuscripts containing genetic sequences. Our approach was evaluated using a test set of 211 full-text articles in PDF format containing 3134 genetic sequences. For such set, we achieved 87.76% precision and 97.70% recall respectively. This method can facilitate different research tasks. These include text mining, information extraction, and information retrieval research dealing with large collections of documents containing genetic sequences. PMID:21096556

  6. Automatic calibration method for plenoptic camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luan, Yinsen; He, Xing; Xu, Bing; Yang, Ping; Tang, Guomao

    2016-04-01

    An automatic calibration method is proposed for a microlens-based plenoptic camera. First, all microlens images on the white image are searched and recognized automatically based on digital morphology. Then, the center points of microlens images are rearranged according to their relative position relationships. Consequently, the microlens images are located, i.e., the plenoptic camera is calibrated without the prior knowledge of camera parameters. Furthermore, this method is appropriate for all types of microlens-based plenoptic cameras, even the multifocus plenoptic camera, the plenoptic camera with arbitrarily arranged microlenses, or the plenoptic camera with different sizes of microlenses. Finally, we verify our method by the raw data of Lytro. The experiments show that our method has higher intelligence than the methods published before.

  7. Automatic recognition of malicious intent indicators.

    SciTech Connect

    Drescher, D. J.; Yee, Mark L.; Giron, Casey; Fogler, Robert Joseph; Nguyen, Hung D.; Koch, Mark William

    2010-09-01

    A major goal of next-generation physical protection systems is to extend defenses far beyond the usual outer-perimeter-fence boundaries surrounding protected facilities. Mitigation of nuisance alarms is among the highest priorities. A solution to this problem is to create a robust capability to Automatically Recognize Malicious Indicators of intruders. In extended defense applications, it is not enough to distinguish humans from all other potential alarm sources as human activity can be a common occurrence outside perimeter boundaries. Our approach is unique in that it employs a stimulus to determine a malicious intent indicator for the intruder. The intruder's response to the stimulus can be used in an automatic reasoning system to decide the intruder's intent.

  8. Survey of evaluation methods in image complexity of target and background

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Bo; Duan, Jin; Zhu, Yong; Chen, Yanqin; Li, Guangming

    2015-10-01

    In the domain of target recognition, the image complexity of target and background is used to describe the difficult degree of extracting and recognizing target from complex background, which has important guiding significance and widely application prospect in a lot of domains such as biological medical, information encrypt, image compression, meteorological analysis, automatic target recognition. This paper comprehensively took the innate characteristics of target and the target local background characteristic into consideration, which affected the algorithm performance of target extraction and recognition, then made generalizations of three classes of evaluation methods: methods based on the target characteristic, including the target shape characteristic, the gray standard deviation of target pixels, the target Local background entropy difference, etc; methods based on the target similitude, including the edge profile and structural characteristic similitude between target and phony target; methods based on the background characteristic, including texture characteristic edge ratio, etc. And on this basis, we made research on the relationship of structural features and evaluation parameters, and analyzed the foundation and properties of each method by contrast. Thoughts and foresights of this field are given at the end of this paper.

  9. Infants recognize the subtle happiness expression.

    PubMed

    Ichikawa, Hiroko; Kanazawa, So; Yamaguchi, Masami K

    2014-01-01

    Facial movement facilitates the recognition of facial expressions. While an intense expression is expressive enough to be recognized in a still image, a subtle expression can be recognized only in motion (Ambadar, Schooler, & Cohn, 2005, Psychological Science, 16, 403-410). The present study investigated whether infants recognize a subtle expression, and whether facial movement facilitates infants' recognition of a subtle expression. In experiment 1 4- to 7-month-old infants were tested for their spontaneous preference for a happy subtle expression rather than a neutral face, but they did not show a spontaneous preference. To confirm that infants did not recognize the static subtle expression, we conducted experiment 2 using the familiarization-novelty procedure. Infants were first familiarized with a static subtle happy expression. Following familiarization, they were presented with a pair of peak expressions of happiness and anger, but showed no significant novelty preference. In experiment 3 we presented the subtle expression dynamically. Infants were familiarized with a dynamic subtle expression and were tested for their novelty preference. The 6- to 7-month-olds showed a significant novelty preference, while 4- to 5-month-olds did not. These results suggest that infants can recognize the subtle expression only in dynamic presentation and that facial movement facilitates infants' recognition of facial expression. PMID:25109015

  10. Recognizing, Confronting, and Eliminating Workplace Bullying.

    PubMed

    Berry, Peggy Ann; Gillespie, Gordon L; Fisher, Bonnie S; Gormley, Denise K

    2016-07-01

    Workplace bullying (WPB) behaviors negatively affect nurse productivity, satisfaction, and retention, and hinder safe patient care. The purpose of this article is to define WPB, differentiate between incivility and WPB, and recommend actions to prevent WPB behaviors. Informed occupational and environmental health nurses and nurse leaders must recognize, confront, and eliminate WPB in their facilities and organizations. Recognizing, confronting, and eliminating WPB behaviors in health care is a crucial first step toward sustained improvements in patient care quality and the health and safety of health care employees. PMID:27053288

  11. Equipping African American Clergy to Recognize Depression.

    PubMed

    Anthony, Jean Spann; Morris, Edith; Collins, Charles W; Watson, Albert; Williams, Jennifer E; Ferguson, Bʼnai; Ruhlman, Deborah L

    2016-01-01

    Many African Americans (AAs) use clergy as their primary source of help for depression, with few being referred to mental health providers. This study used face-to-face workshops to train AA clergy to recognize the symptoms and levels of severity of depression. A pretest/posttest format was used to test knowledge (N = 42) about depression symptoms. Results showed that the participation improved the clergy's ability to recognize depression symptoms. Faith community nurses can develop workshops for clergy to improve recognition and treatment of depression. PMID:27610907

  12. A new automatic synchronizer

    SciTech Connect

    Malm, C.F.

    1995-12-31

    A phase lock loop automatic synchronizer, PLLS, matches generator speed starting from dead stop to bus frequency, and then locks the phase difference at zero, thereby maintaining zero slip frequency while the generator breaker is being closed to the bus. The significant difference between the PLLS and a conventional automatic synchronizer is that there is no slip frequency difference between generator and bus. The PLL synchronizer is most advantageous when the penstock pressure fluctuates the grid frequency fluctuates, or both. The PLL synchronizer is relatively inexpensive. Hydroplants with multiple units can economically be equipped with a synchronizer for each unit.

  13. Great Apes' Capacities to Recognize Relational Similarity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haun, Daniel B. M.; Call, Josep

    2009-01-01

    Recognizing relational similarity relies on the ability to understand that defining object properties might not lie in the objects individually, but in the relations of the properties of various object to each other. This aptitude is highly relevant for many important human skills such as language, reasoning, categorization and understanding…

  14. Ekofisk automatic GPS subsidence measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Mes, M.J.; Landau, H.; Luttenberger, C.

    1996-10-01

    A fully automatic GPS satellite-based procedure for the reliable measurement of subsidence of several platforms in almost real time is described. Measurements are made continuously on platforms in the North Sea Ekofisk Field area. The procedure also yields rate measurements, which are also essential for confirming platform safety, planning of remedial work, and verification of subsidence models. GPS measurements are more attractive than seabed pressure-gauge-based platform subsidence measurements-they are much cheaper to install and maintain and not subject to gauge drift. GPS measurements were coupled to oceanographic quantities such as the platform deck clearance, which leads to less complex offshore survey procedures. Ekofisk is an oil and gas field in the southern portion of the Norwegian North Sea. Late in 1984, it was noticed that the Ekofisk platform decks were closer to the sea surface than when the platforms were installed-subsidence was the only logical explanation. After the subsidence phenomenon was recognized, an accurate measurement method was needed to measure progression of subsidence and the associated subsidence rate. One available system for which no further development was needed, was the NAVSTAR GPS-measurements started in March 1985.

  15. Automatic interpretation of biological tests.

    PubMed

    Boufriche-Boufaïda, Z

    1998-03-01

    In this article, an approach for an Automatic Interpretation of Biological Tests (AIBT) is described. The developed system is much needed in Preventive Medicine Centers (PMCs). It is designed as a self-sufficient system that could be easily used by trained nurses during the routine visit. The results that the system provides are not only useful to provide the PMC physicians with a preliminary diagnosis, but also allows them more time to focus on the serious cases, making the clinical visit more qualitative. On the other hand, because the use of such a system has been planned for many years, its possibilities for future extensions must be seriously considered. The methodology adopted can be interpreted as a combination of the advantages of two main approaches adopted in current diagnostic systems: the production system approach and the object-oriented system approach. From the rules, the ability of these approaches to capture the deductive processes of the expert in domains where causal mechanisms are often understood are retained. The object-oriented approach guides the elicitation and the engineering of knowledge in such a way that abstractions, categorizations and classifications are encouraged whilst individual instances of objects of any type are recognized as separate, independent entities. PMID:9684093

  16. Autotract: Automatic cleaning and tracking of fibers

    PubMed Central

    Prieto, Juan C.; Yang, Jean Y.; Budin, François; Styner, Martin

    2016-01-01

    We propose a new tool named Autotract to automate fiber tracking in diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Autotract uses prior knowledge from a source DTI and a set of corresponding fiber bundles to extract new fibers for a target DTI. Autotract starts by aligning both DTIs and uses the source fibers as seed points to initialize a tractography algorithm. We enforce similarity between the propagated source fibers and automatically traced fibers by computing metrics such as fiber length and fiber distance between the bundles. By analyzing these metrics, individual fiber tracts can be pruned. As a result, we show that both bundles have similar characteristics. Additionally, we compare the automatically traced fibers against bundles previously generated and validated in the target DTI by an expert. This work is motivated by medical applications in which known bundles of fiber tracts in the human brain need to be analyzed for multiple datasets. PMID:27065227

  17. Autotract: automatic cleaning and tracking of fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prieto, Juan C.; Yang, Jean Y.; Budin, François; Styner, Martin

    2016-03-01

    We propose a new tool named Autotract to automate fiber tracking in diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Autotract uses prior knowledge from a source DTI and a set of corresponding fiber bundles to extract new fibers for a target DTI. Autotract starts by aligning both DTIs and uses the source fibers as seed points to initialize a tractography algorithm. We enforce similarity between the propagated source fibers and automatically traced fibers by computing metrics such as fiber length and fiber distance between the bundles. By analyzing these metrics, individual fiber tracts can be pruned. As a result, we show that both bundles have similar characteristics. Additionally, we compare the automatically traced fibers against bundles previously generated and validated in the target DTI by an expert. This work is motivated by medical applications in which known bundles of fiber tracts in the human brain need to be analyzed for multiple datasets.

  18. AUTOmatic Message PACKing Facility

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2004-07-01

    AUTOPACK is a library that provides several useful features for programs using the Message Passing Interface (MPI). Features included are: 1. automatic message packing facility 2. management of send and receive requests. 3. management of message buffer memory. 4. determination of the number of anticipated messages from a set of arbitrary sends, and 5. deterministic message delivery for testing purposes.

  19. Automatic finite element generators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, P. S.

    1984-01-01

    The design and implementation of a software system for generating finite elements and related computations are described. Exact symbolic computational techniques are employed to derive strain-displacement matrices and element stiffness matrices. Methods for dealing with the excessive growth of symbolic expressions are discussed. Automatic FORTRAN code generation is described with emphasis on improving the efficiency of the resultant code.

  20. Principles of Automatic Lemmatisation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hann, M. L.

    1974-01-01

    Introduces some algorithmic methods, for which no pre-editing is necessary, for automatically "lemmatising" raw text (changing raw text to an equivalent version in which all inflected words are artificially transformed to their dictionary look-up form). The results of a study of these methods, which used a German Text, are also given. (KM)

  1. Reactor component automatic grapple

    SciTech Connect

    Greenaway, P.R.

    1982-12-07

    A grapple for handling nuclear reactor components in a medium such as liquid sodium which, upon proper seating and alignment of the grapple with the component as sensed by a mechanical logic integral to the grapple, automatically seizes the component. The mechanical logic system also precludes seizure in the absence of proper seating and alignment.

  2. Reactor component automatic grapple

    DOEpatents

    Greenaway, Paul R.

    1982-01-01

    A grapple for handling nuclear reactor components in a medium such as liquid sodium which, upon proper seating and alignment of the grapple with the component as sensed by a mechanical logic integral to the grapple, automatically seizes the component. The mechanical logic system also precludes seizure in the absence of proper seating and alignment.

  3. Automatic Program Synthesis Reports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biermann, A. W.; And Others

    Some of the major results of future goals of an automatic program synthesis project are described in the two papers that comprise this document. The first paper gives a detailed algorithm for synthesizing a computer program from a trace of its behavior. Since the algorithm involves a search, the length of time required to do the synthesis of…

  4. Automaticity of Conceptual Magnitude.

    PubMed

    Gliksman, Yarden; Itamar, Shai; Leibovich, Tali; Melman, Yonatan; Henik, Avishai

    2016-01-01

    What is bigger, an elephant or a mouse? This question can be answered without seeing the two animals, since these objects elicit conceptual magnitude. How is an object's conceptual magnitude processed? It was suggested that conceptual magnitude is automatically processed; namely, irrelevant conceptual magnitude can affect performance when comparing physical magnitudes. The current study further examined this question and aimed to expand the understanding of automaticity of conceptual magnitude. Two different objects were presented and participants were asked to decide which object was larger on the screen (physical magnitude) or in the real world (conceptual magnitude), in separate blocks. By creating congruent (the conceptually larger object was physically larger) and incongruent (the conceptually larger object was physically smaller) pairs of stimuli it was possible to examine the automatic processing of each magnitude. A significant congruity effect was found for both magnitudes. Furthermore, quartile analysis revealed that the congruity was affected similarly by processing time for both magnitudes. These results suggest that the processing of conceptual and physical magnitudes is automatic to the same extent. The results support recent theories suggested that different types of magnitude processing and representation share the same core system. PMID:26879153

  5. Automaticity of Conceptual Magnitude

    PubMed Central

    Gliksman, Yarden; Itamar, Shai; Leibovich, Tali; Melman, Yonatan; Henik, Avishai

    2016-01-01

    What is bigger, an elephant or a mouse? This question can be answered without seeing the two animals, since these objects elicit conceptual magnitude. How is an object’s conceptual magnitude processed? It was suggested that conceptual magnitude is automatically processed; namely, irrelevant conceptual magnitude can affect performance when comparing physical magnitudes. The current study further examined this question and aimed to expand the understanding of automaticity of conceptual magnitude. Two different objects were presented and participants were asked to decide which object was larger on the screen (physical magnitude) or in the real world (conceptual magnitude), in separate blocks. By creating congruent (the conceptually larger object was physically larger) and incongruent (the conceptually larger object was physically smaller) pairs of stimuli it was possible to examine the automatic processing of each magnitude. A significant congruity effect was found for both magnitudes. Furthermore, quartile analysis revealed that the congruity was affected similarly by processing time for both magnitudes. These results suggest that the processing of conceptual and physical magnitudes is automatic to the same extent. The results support recent theories suggested that different types of magnitude processing and representation share the same core system. PMID:26879153

  6. Automatic Dance Lesson Generation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Yang; Leung, H.; Yue, Lihua; Deng, LiQun

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, an automatic lesson generation system is presented which is suitable in a learning-by-mimicking scenario where the learning objects can be represented as multiattribute time series data. The dance is used as an example in this paper to illustrate the idea. Given a dance motion sequence as the input, the proposed lesson generation…

  7. Automatic multiple applicator electrophoresis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grunbaum, B. W.

    1977-01-01

    Easy-to-use, economical device permits electrophoresis on all known supporting media. System includes automatic multiple-sample applicator, sample holder, and electrophoresis apparatus. System has potential applicability to fields of taxonomy, immunology, and genetics. Apparatus is also used for electrofocusing.

  8. Automatic sweep circuit

    DOEpatents

    Keefe, Donald J.

    1980-01-01

    An automatically sweeping circuit for searching for an evoked response in an output signal in time with respect to a trigger input. Digital counters are used to activate a detector at precise intervals, and monitoring is repeated for statistical accuracy. If the response is not found then a different time window is examined until the signal is found.

  9. Automatic Data Processing Glossary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of the Budget, Washington, DC.

    The technology of the automatic information processing field has progressed dramatically in the past few years and has created a problem in common term usage. As a solution, "Datamation" Magazine offers this glossary which was compiled by the U.S. Bureau of the Budget as an official reference. The terms appear in a single alphabetic sequence,…

  10. Automatic detection of sweep-meshable volumes

    DOEpatents

    Tautges; Timothy J. , White; David R.

    2006-05-23

    A method of and software for automatically determining whether a mesh can be generated by sweeping for a representation of a geometric solid comprising: classifying surface mesh schemes for surfaces of the representation locally using surface vertex types; grouping mappable and submappable surfaces of the representation into chains; computing volume edge types for the representation; recursively traversing surfaces of the representation and grouping the surfaces into source, target, and linking surface lists; and checking traversal direction when traversing onto linking surfaces.

  11. Fully automatic telemetry data processor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cox, F. B.; Keipert, F. A.; Lee, R. C.

    1968-01-01

    Satellite Telemetry Automatic Reduction System /STARS 2/, a fully automatic computer-controlled telemetry data processor, maximizes data recovery, reduces turnaround time, increases flexibility, and improves operational efficiency. The system incorporates a CDC 3200 computer as its central element.

  12. Recognizing Dynamic Faces in Malaysian Chinese Participants.

    PubMed

    Tan, Chrystalle B Y; Sheppard, Elizabeth; Stephen, Ian D

    2016-03-01

    High performance level in face recognition studies does not seem to be replicable in real-life situations possibly because of the artificial nature of laboratory studies. Recognizing faces in natural social situations may be a more challenging task, as it involves constant examination of dynamic facial motions that may alter facial structure vital to the recognition of unfamiliar faces. Because of the incongruences of recognition performance, the current study developed stimuli that closely represent natural social situations to yield results that more accurately reflect observers' performance in real-life settings. Naturalistic stimuli of African, East Asian, and Western Caucasian actors introducing themselves were presented to investigate Malaysian Chinese participants' recognition sensitivity and looking strategies when performing a face recognition task. When perceiving dynamic facial stimuli, participants fixated most on the nose, followed by the mouth then the eyes. Focusing on the nose may have enabled participants to gain a more holistic view of actors' facial and head movements, which proved to be beneficial in recognizing identities. Participants recognized all three races of faces equally well. The current results, which differed from a previous static face recognition study, may be a more accurate reflection of observers' recognition abilities and looking strategies. PMID:26562869

  13. Recognizing Materials using Perceptually Inspired Features

    PubMed Central

    Sharan, Lavanya; Liu, Ce; Rosenholtz, Ruth; Adelson, Edward H.

    2013-01-01

    Our world consists not only of objects and scenes but also of materials of various kinds. Being able to recognize the materials that surround us (e.g., plastic, glass, concrete) is important for humans as well as for computer vision systems. Unfortunately, materials have received little attention in the visual recognition literature, and very few computer vision systems have been designed specifically to recognize materials. In this paper, we present a system for recognizing material categories from single images. We propose a set of low and mid-level image features that are based on studies of human material recognition, and we combine these features using an SVM classifier. Our system outperforms a state-of-the-art system [Varma and Zisserman, 2009] on a challenging database of real-world material categories [Sharan et al., 2009]. When the performance of our system is compared directly to that of human observers, humans outperform our system quite easily. However, when we account for the local nature of our image features and the surface properties they measure (e.g., color, texture, local shape), our system rivals human performance. We suggest that future progress in material recognition will come from: (1) a deeper understanding of the role of non-local surface properties (e.g., extended highlights, object identity); and (2) efforts to model such non-local surface properties in images. PMID:23914070

  14. Automatic carrier acquisition system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bunce, R. C. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    An automatic carrier acquisition system for a phase locked loop (PLL) receiver is disclosed. It includes a local oscillator, which sweeps the receiver to tune across the carrier frequency uncertainty range until the carrier crosses the receiver IF reference. Such crossing is detected by an automatic acquisition detector. It receives the IF signal from the receiver as well as the IF reference. It includes a pair of multipliers which multiply the IF signal with the IF reference in phase and in quadrature. The outputs of the multipliers are filtered through bandpass filters and power detected. The output of the power detector has a signal dc component which is optimized with respect to the noise dc level by the selection of the time constants of the filters as a function of the sweep rate of the local oscillator.

  15. Automatism and driving offences.

    PubMed

    Rumbold, John

    2013-10-01

    Automatism is a rarely used defence, but it is particularly used for driving offences because many are strict liability offences. Medical evidence is almost always crucial to argue the defence, and it is important to understand the bars that limit the use of automatism so that the important medical issues can be identified. The issue of prior fault is an important public safeguard to ensure that reasonable precautions are taken to prevent accidents. The total loss of control definition is more problematic, especially with disorders of more gradual onset like hypoglycaemic episodes. In these cases the alternative of 'effective loss of control' would be fairer. This article explores several cases, how the criteria were applied to each, and the types of medical assessment required. PMID:24112330

  16. Automatic Abstraction in Planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christensen, J.

    1991-01-01

    Traditionally, abstraction in planning has been accomplished by either state abstraction or operator abstraction, neither of which has been fully automatic. We present a new method, predicate relaxation, for automatically performing state abstraction. PABLO, a nonlinear hierarchical planner, implements predicate relaxation. Theoretical, as well as empirical results are presented which demonstrate the potential advantages of using predicate relaxation in planning. We also present a new definition of hierarchical operators that allows us to guarantee a limited form of completeness. This new definition is shown to be, in some ways, more flexible than previous definitions of hierarchical operators. Finally, a Classical Truth Criterion is presented that is proven to be sound and complete for a planning formalism that is general enough to include most classical planning formalisms that are based on the STRIPS assumption.

  17. Automatic speech recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Espy-Wilson, Carol

    2005-04-01

    Great strides have been made in the development of automatic speech recognition (ASR) technology over the past thirty years. Most of this effort has been centered around the extension and improvement of Hidden Markov Model (HMM) approaches to ASR. Current commercially-available and industry systems based on HMMs can perform well for certain situational tasks that restrict variability such as phone dialing or limited voice commands. However, the holy grail of ASR systems is performance comparable to humans-in other words, the ability to automatically transcribe unrestricted conversational speech spoken by an infinite number of speakers under varying acoustic environments. This goal is far from being reached. Key to the success of ASR is effective modeling of variability in the speech signal. This tutorial will review the basics of ASR and the various ways in which our current knowledge of speech production, speech perception and prosody can be exploited to improve robustness at every level of the system.

  18. Adaptation is automatic.

    PubMed

    Samuel, A G; Kat, D

    1998-04-01

    Two experiments were used to test whether selective adaptation for speech occurs automatically or instead requires attentional resources. A control condition demonstrated the usual large identification shifts caused by repeatedly presenting an adapting sound (/wa/, with listeners identifying members of a /ba/-/wa/ test series). Two types of distractor tasks were used: (1) Subjects did a rapid series of arithmetic problems during the adaptation periods (Experiments 1 and 2), or (2) they made a series of rhyming judgments, requiring phonetic coding (Experiment 2). A control experiment (Experiment 3) demonstrated that these tasks normally impose a heavy attentional cost on phonetic processing. Despite this, for both experimental conditions, the observed adaptation effect was just as large as in the control condition. This result indicates that adaptation is automatic, operating at an early, preattentive level. The implications of these results for current models of speech perception are discussed. PMID:9599999

  19. Recognizing blurred, nonfrontal, illumination, and expression variant partially occluded faces.

    PubMed

    Punnappurath, Abhijith; Rajagopalan, Ambasamudram Narayanan

    2016-09-01

    The focus of this paper is on the problem of recognizing faces across space-varying motion blur, changes in pose, illumination, and expression, as well as partial occlusion, when only a single image per subject is available in the gallery. We show how the blur, incurred due to relative motion between the camera and the subject during exposure, can be estimated from the alpha matte of pixels that straddle the boundary between the face and the background. We also devise a strategy to automatically generate the trimap required for matte estimation. Having computed the motion via the matte of the probe, we account for pose variations by synthesizing from the intensity image of the frontal gallery a face image that matches the pose of the probe. To handle illumination, expression variations, and partial occlusion, we model the probe as a linear combination of nine blurred illumination basis images in the synthesized nonfrontal pose, plus a sparse occlusion. We also advocate a recognition metric that capitalizes on the sparsity of the occluded pixels. The performance of our method is extensively validated on synthetic as well as real face data. PMID:27607514

  20. Recognizing genes and other components of genomic structure

    SciTech Connect

    Burks, C. ); Myers, E. . Dept. of Computer Science); Stormo, G.D. . Dept. of Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology)

    1991-01-01

    The Aspen Center for Physics (ACP) sponsored a three-week workshop, with 26 scientists participating, from 28 May to 15 June, 1990. The workshop, entitled Recognizing Genes and Other Components of Genomic Structure, focussed on discussion of current needs and future strategies for developing the ability to identify and predict the presence of complex functional units on sequenced, but otherwise uncharacterized, genomic DNA. We addressed the need for computationally-based, automatic tools for synthesizing available data about individual consensus sequences and local compositional patterns into the composite objects (e.g., genes) that are -- as composite entities -- the true object of interest when scanning DNA sequences. The workshop was structured to promote sustained informal contact and exchange of expertise between molecular biologists, computer scientists, and mathematicians. No participant stayed for less than one week, and most attended for two or three weeks. Computers, software, and databases were available for use as electronic blackboards'' and as the basis for collaborative exploration of ideas being discussed and developed at the workshop. 23 refs., 2 tabs.

  1. Automatic Certification of Kalman Filters for Reliable Code Generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Denney, Ewen; Fischer, Bernd; Schumann, Johann; Richardson, Julian

    2005-01-01

    AUTOFILTER is a tool for automatically deriving Kalman filter code from high-level declarative specifications of state estimation problems. It can generate code with a range of algorithmic characteristics and for several target platforms. The tool has been designed with reliability of the generated code in mind and is able to automatically certify that the code it generates is free from various error classes. Since documentation is an important part of software assurance, AUTOFILTER can also automatically generate various human-readable documents, containing both design and safety related information. We discuss how these features address software assurance standards such as DO-178B.

  2. Automatic circuit interrupter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dwinell, W. S.

    1979-01-01

    In technique, voice circuits connecting crew's cabin to launch station through umbilical connector disconnect automatically unused, or deadened portion of circuits immediately after vehicle is launched, eliminating possibility that unused wiring interferes with voice communications inside vehicle or need for manual cutoff switch and its associated wiring. Technique is applied to other types of electrical actuation circuits, also launch of mapped vehicles, such as balloons, submarines, test sleds, and test chambers-all requiring assistance of ground crew.

  3. Automatic digital image registration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goshtasby, A.; Jain, A. K.; Enslin, W. R.

    1982-01-01

    This paper introduces a general procedure for automatic registration of two images which may have translational, rotational, and scaling differences. This procedure involves (1) segmentation of the images, (2) isolation of dominant objects from the images, (3) determination of corresponding objects in the two images, and (4) estimation of transformation parameters using the center of gravities of objects as control points. An example is given which uses this technique to register two images which have translational, rotational, and scaling differences.

  4. Recognition of voice commands using adaptation of foreign language speech recognizer via selection of phonetic transcriptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maskeliunas, Rytis; Rudzionis, Vytautas

    2011-06-01

    In recent years various commercial speech recognizers have become available. These recognizers provide the possibility to develop applications incorporating various speech recognition techniques easily and quickly. All of these commercial recognizers are typically targeted to widely spoken languages having large market potential; however, it may be possible to adapt available commercial recognizers for use in environments where less widely spoken languages are used. Since most commercial recognition engines are closed systems the single avenue for the adaptation is to try set ways for the selection of proper phonetic transcription methods between the two languages. This paper deals with the methods to find the phonetic transcriptions for Lithuanian voice commands to be recognized using English speech engines. The experimental evaluation showed that it is possible to find phonetic transcriptions that will enable the recognition of Lithuanian voice commands with recognition accuracy of over 90%.

  5. Real-time automatic registration in optical surgical navigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Qinyong; Yang, Rongqian; Cai, Ken; Si, Xuan; Chen, Xiuwen; Wu, Xiaoming

    2016-05-01

    An image-guided surgical navigation system requires the improvement of the patient-to-image registration time to enhance the convenience of the registration procedure. A critical step in achieving this aim is performing a fully automatic patient-to-image registration. This study reports on a design of custom fiducial markers and the performance of a real-time automatic patient-to-image registration method using these markers on the basis of an optical tracking system for rigid anatomy. The custom fiducial markers are designed to be automatically localized in both patient and image spaces. An automatic localization method is performed by registering a point cloud sampled from the three dimensional (3D) pedestal model surface of a fiducial marker to each pedestal of fiducial markers searched in image space. A head phantom is constructed to estimate the performance of the real-time automatic registration method under four fiducial configurations. The head phantom experimental results demonstrate that the real-time automatic registration method is more convenient, rapid, and accurate than the manual method. The time required for each registration is approximately 0.1 s. The automatic localization method precisely localizes the fiducial markers in image space. The averaged target registration error for the four configurations is approximately 0.7 mm. The automatic registration performance is independent of the positions relative to the tracking system and the movement of the patient during the operation.

  6. Shape-and-motion-fused multiple flying target recognition and tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovács, Levente; Utasi, Ákos

    2010-04-01

    This paper presents an automatic approach for camera/image based detection, recognition and tracking of flying objects (planes, missiles, etc.). The method detects appearing objects, and recognizes re-appearing targets. It uses a feature-based statistical modeling approach (e.g. HMM) for motion-based recognition, and an image feature (e.g. shape) based indexed database of pre-trained object classes, suitable for recognition on known and alerting on unknown objects. The method can be used for detection of flying objects, recognition of the same object category through multiple views/cameras and signal on unusual motions and shape appearances.

  7. ANPS - AUTOMATIC NETWORK PROGRAMMING SYSTEM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schroer, B. J.

    1994-01-01

    Development of some of the space program's large simulation projects -- like the project which involves simulating the countdown sequence prior to spacecraft liftoff -- requires the support of automated tools and techniques. The number of preconditions which must be met for a successful spacecraft launch and the complexity of their interrelationship account for the difficulty of creating an accurate model of the countdown sequence. Researchers developed ANPS for the Nasa Marshall Space Flight Center to assist programmers attempting to model the pre-launch countdown sequence. Incorporating the elements of automatic programming as its foundation, ANPS aids the user in defining the problem and then automatically writes the appropriate simulation program in GPSS/PC code. The program's interactive user dialogue interface creates an internal problem specification file from user responses which includes the time line for the countdown sequence, the attributes for the individual activities which are part of a launch, and the dependent relationships between the activities. The program's automatic simulation code generator receives the file as input and selects appropriate macros from the library of software modules to generate the simulation code in the target language GPSS/PC. The user can recall the problem specification file for modification to effect any desired changes in the source code. ANPS is designed to write simulations for problems concerning the pre-launch activities of space vehicles and the operation of ground support equipment and has potential for use in developing network reliability models for hardware systems and subsystems. ANPS was developed in 1988 for use on IBM PC or compatible machines. The program requires at least 640 KB memory and one 360 KB disk drive, PC DOS Version 2.0 or above, and GPSS/PC System Version 2.0 from Minuteman Software. The program is written in Turbo Prolog Version 2.0. GPSS/PC is a trademark of Minuteman Software. Turbo Prolog

  8. Automatic landslides detection on Stromboli volcanic Island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silengo, Maria Cristina; Delle Donne, Dario; Ulivieri, Giacomo; Cigolini, Corrado; Ripepe, Maurizio

    2016-04-01

    Landslides occurring in active volcanic islands play a key role in triggering tsunami and other related risks. Therefore, it becomes vital for a correct and prompt risk assessment to monitor landslides activity and to have an automatic system for a robust early-warning. We then developed a system based on a multi-frequency analysis of seismic signals for automatic landslides detection occurring at Stromboli volcano. We used a network of 4 seismic 3 components stations located along the unstable flank of the Sciara del Fuoco. Our method is able to recognize and separate the different sources of seismic signals related to volcanic and tectonic activity (e.g. tremor, explosions, earthquake) from landslides. This is done using a multi-frequency analysis combined with a waveform patter recognition. We applied the method to one year of seismic activity of Stromboli volcano centered during the last 2007 effusive eruption. This eruption was characterized by a pre-eruptive landslide activity reflecting the slow deformation of the volcano edifice. The algorithm is at the moment running off-line but has proved to be robust and efficient in picking automatically landslide. The method provides also real-time statistics on the landslide occurrence, which could be used as a proxy for the volcano deformation during the pre-eruptive phases. This method is very promising since the number of false detections is quite small (<5%) and is reducing when the size of the landslide increases. The final aim will be to apply this method on-line and for a real-time automatic detection as an improving tool for early warnings of tsunami-genic landslide activity. We suggest that a similar approach could be also applied to other unstable non-volcanic also slopes.

  9. On automatic bioacoustic detection of pests: the cases of Rhynchophorus ferrugineus and Sitophilus oryzae.

    PubMed

    Potamitis, Ilyas; Ganchev, Todor; Kontodimas, Dimitris

    2009-08-01

    The present work reports research efforts toward development and evaluation of a unified framework for automatic bioacoustic recognition of specific insect pests. Our approach is based on capturing and automatically recognizing the acoustic emission resulting from typical behaviors, e.g., locomotion and feeding, of the target pests. After acquisition the signals are amplified, filtered, parameterized, and classified by advanced machine learning methods on a portable computer. Specifically, we investigate an advanced signal parameterization scheme that relies on variable size signal segmentation. The feature vector computed for each segment of the signal is composed of the dominant harmonic, which carry information about the periodicity of the signal, and the cepstral coefficients, which carry information about the relative distribution of energy among the different spectral sub-bands. This parameterization offers a reliable representation of both the acoustic emissions of the pests of interest and the interferences from the environment. We illustrate the practical significance of our methodology on two specific cases: 1) a devastating pest for palm plantations, namely, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus Olivier and 2) a pest that attacks warehouse stored rice (Oryza sativa L.), the rice weevil, Sitophilus oryzae (L.) (both Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Dryophorinae). These pests are known in many countries around the world and contribute for significant economical loss. The proposed approach led to detection results in real field trials, reaching 99.1% on real-field recordings of R. ferrugineus and 100% for S. oryzae. PMID:19736784

  10. Automatic registration of laser-scanned point clouds based on planar features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Minglei; Gao, Xinyuan; Wang, Li; Li, Guangyun

    2016-03-01

    Automatic multistation registration of laser-scanned point clouds is a research hotspot in laser-scanned point clouds registration. Some targets such as common buildings have plenty of planar features, and using these features as constraints properly can bring about high accuracy registration results. Starting from this, a new automatic multistation registration method using homologous planar features of two scan stations was proposed. In order to recognize planes from different scan stations and get plane equations in corresponding scan station coordinate systems, k-means dynamic clustering method was improved to be adaptive and robust. And to match the homologous planes of the two scan stations, two different procedures were proposed, respectively, one of which was based on the "common" relationship between planes and the other referenced RANSAC algorithm. And the transformation parameters of the two scan station coordinate systems were calculated after homologous plane matching. Finally, the transformation parameters based on the optimal match of planes was adopted as the final registration result. Comparing with ICP algorithm in experiment, the method is proved to be effective.