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1

Automatic Text Summarization from Multiple Sources for Time Evolving Events  

E-print Network

Automatic Text Summarization from Multiple Sources for Time Evolving Events Stergos D. Afantenos multiple sources. After a discussion concerning the nature of evolving events we introduce a distinction be, that someone wants to keep track of an event that is being described on various news sources, over the Internet

Kouroupetroglou, Georgios

2

SUMMAC: a text summarization evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The TIPSTER Text Summarization Evaluation (SUMMAC) has developed several new extrinsic and intrinsic methods for evaluating summaries. It has established definitively that automatic text summarization is very effective in relevance assessment tasks on news articles. Summaries as short as 17% of full text length sped up decision-making by almost a factor of 2 with no statistically significant degradation in accuracy.

INDERJEET MANI; GARY KLEIN; DAVID HOUSE; THERESE FIRMIN; BETH SUNDHEIM

2002-01-01

3

A Survey on Automatic Text Summarization Dipanjan Das Andre F.T. Martins  

E-print Network

in the 1 #12;summarization dialect: extraction is the procedure of identifying important sections of the text and producing them verbatim; abstraction aims to produce important material in a new way; fusion created sets of training material and have estab- lished baselines for performance levels. However

Smith, Noah

4

Figure-associated text summarization and evaluation.  

PubMed

Biomedical literature incorporates millions of figures, which are a rich and important knowledge resource for biomedical researchers. Scientists need access to the figures and the knowledge they represent in order to validate research findings and to generate new hypotheses. By themselves, these figures are nearly always incomprehensible to both humans and machines and their associated texts are therefore essential for full comprehension. The associated text of a figure, however, is scattered throughout its full-text article and contains redundant information content. In this paper, we report the continued development and evaluation of several figure summarization systems, the FigSum+ systems, that automatically identify associated texts, remove redundant information, and generate a text summary for every figure in an article. Using a set of 94 annotated figures selected from 19 different journals, we conducted an intrinsic evaluation of FigSum+. We evaluate the performance by precision, recall, F1, and ROUGE scores. The best FigSum+ system is based on an unsupervised method, achieving F1 score of 0.66 and ROUGE-1 score of 0.97. The annotated data is available at figshare.com (http://figshare.com/articles/Figure_Associated_Text_Summarization_and_Evaluation/858903). PMID:25643357

Polepalli Ramesh, Balaji; Sethi, Ricky J; Yu, Hong

2015-01-01

5

Figure-Associated Text Summarization and Evaluation  

PubMed Central

Biomedical literature incorporates millions of figures, which are a rich and important knowledge resource for biomedical researchers. Scientists need access to the figures and the knowledge they represent in order to validate research findings and to generate new hypotheses. By themselves, these figures are nearly always incomprehensible to both humans and machines and their associated texts are therefore essential for full comprehension. The associated text of a figure, however, is scattered throughout its full-text article and contains redundant information content. In this paper, we report the continued development and evaluation of several figure summarization systems, the FigSum+ systems, that automatically identify associated texts, remove redundant information, and generate a text summary for every figure in an article. Using a set of 94 annotated figures selected from 19 different journals, we conducted an intrinsic evaluation of FigSum+. We evaluate the performance by precision, recall, F1, and ROUGE scores. The best FigSum+ system is based on an unsupervised method, achieving F1 score of 0.66 and ROUGE-1 score of 0.97. The annotated data is available at figshare.com (http://figshare.com/articles/Figure_Associated_Text_Summarization_and_Evaluation/858903). PMID:25643357

Polepalli Ramesh, Balaji; Sethi, Ricky J.; Yu, Hong

2015-01-01

6

Statistical Automatic Summarization in Organic Chemistry  

E-print Network

We present an oriented numerical summarizer algorithm, applied to producing automatic summaries of scientific documents in Organic Chemistry. We present its implementation named Yachs (Yet Another Chemistry Summarizer) that combines a specific document pre-processing with a sentence scoring method relying on the statistical properties of documents. We show that Yachs achieves the best results among several other summarizers on a corpus of Organic Chemistry articles.

Boudin, Florian; Torres-Moreno, Juan-Manuel

2009-01-01

7

Automatic soccer video analysis and summarization  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a fully automatic and computationally ecient framework for analysis and summariza-tion of soccer videos using cinematic and object-based features. The proposed framework includes somenovel low-level soccer video processing algorithms, such as dominant color region detection, robust shotboundary detection, and shot classification, as well as some higher-level algorithms for goal detection,referee detection, and penalty-box detection. The system can output

Ahmet Ekin; A. Murat Tekalp; Rajiv Mehrotra

2003-01-01

8

Task-Driven Dynamic Text Summarization  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The objective of this work is to examine the efficacy of natural language processing (NLP) in summarizing bibliographic text for multiple purposes. Researchers have noted the accelerating growth of bibliographic databases. Information seekers using traditional information retrieval techniques when searching large bibliographic databases are often…

Workman, Terri Elizabeth

2011-01-01

9

News to go: hierarchical text summarization for mobile devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present an evaluation of a novel hierarchical text sum- marization method that allows users to view summaries of Web documents from small, mobile devices. Unlike previ- ous approaches, ours does not require the documents to be in HTML since it infers a hierarchical structure automat- ically. Currently, the method is used to summarize news articles sent to a Web

Jahna Otterbacher; Dragomir R. Radev; Omer Kareem

2006-01-01

10

An Efficient Statistical Approach for Automatic Organic Chemistry Summarization  

E-print Network

An Efficient Statistical Approach for Automatic Organic Chemistry Summarization Florian Boudin1 for summa- rizing scientific documents in Organic Chemistry that concentrates on numerical treatments. We of Organic Chemistry articles. 1 Introduction Over 1.7 million new Chemistry articles were published in 20071

Avignon et des Pays de Vaucluse, Université de

11

Automatic summarization of rushes video using bipartite graphs  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we present a new approach for automatic summarization of rushes, or unstructured video. Our approach is composed\\u000a of three major steps. First, based on shot and sub-shot segmentations, we filter sub-shots with low information content not\\u000a likely to be useful in a summary. Second, a method using maximal matching in a bipartite graph is adapted to measure

Liang Bai; Yanli Hu; Songyang Lao; Alan F. Smeaton; Noel E. O’Connor

2010-01-01

12

Using Speech-Specific Characteristics for Automatic Speech Summarization  

E-print Network

) and the Department of Linguistics and English Language at the University of Edinburgh, for stimulating conversations as text summarization with a noisy transcript. We begin by investigating which term-weighting metrics are effective for summarization of meeting speech, with the inclusion of two novel metrics designed specifically

Murray, Gabriel

13

CS297 Report Text Summarization Using Lanczos Algorithm  

E-print Network

the major search engines (Google, Yahoo, etc.) use automated text summarization and present condensed and operations, eigenvalues and eigenvectors, determinants, the Newton-Raphson method, and the calculation of SVD Calculating SVD in the brute force approach The main objective of Deliverable 1 was to understand SVD

Pollett, Chris

14

MEAD - a platform for multidocument multilingual text summarization  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the functionality of MEAD, a comprehensive, public domain, open source, multidocument multilingual summariza- tion environment that has been thus far downloaded by more than 500 organizations. MEAD has been used in a variety of summarization applications ranging from summarization for mobile devices to Web page summarization within a search engine and to novelty detection.

Dragomir Radev; Timothy Allison; Sasha Blair-Goldensohn; John Blitzer; Arda Celebi; Stanko Dimitrov; Elliott Drabek; Ali Hakim; Wai Lam; Danyu Liu; Jahna Otterbacher; Hong Qi; Horacio Saggion; Simone Teufel; Michael Topper; Adam Winkel; Zhu Zhang

15

Automatic summarization of mouse gene information by clustering and sentence extraction from MEDLINE abstracts.  

PubMed

Tools to automatically summarize gene information from the literature have the potential to help genomics researchers better interpret gene expression data and investigate biological pathways. The task of finding information on sets of genes is common for genomic researchers, and PubMed is still the first choice because the most recent and original information can only be found in the unstructured, free text biomedical literature. However, finding information on a set of genes by manually searching and scanning the literature is a time-consuming and daunting task for scientists. We built and evaluated a query-based automatic summarizer of information on mouse genes studied in microarray experiments. The system clusters a set of genes by MeSH, GO and free text features and presents summaries for each gene by ranked sentences extracted from MEDLINE abstracts. Evaluation showed that the system seems to provide meaningful clusters and informative sentences are ranked higher by the algorithm. PMID:18693953

Yang, Jianji; Cohen, Aaron M; Hersh, William

2007-01-01

16

Explorations in Automatic Book Summarization Rada Mihalcea and Hakan Ceylan  

E-print Network

research car- ried out to date has been concerned with the summarization of short documents (e.g., news, in projects such as Gutenberg (http://www.gutenberg.org), Google Book Search (http://books.google

Mihalcea, Rada

17

Towards an Automatic Forum Summarization to Support Tutoring  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The process of summarizing information is becoming increasingly important in the light of recent advances in resource creation and distribution and the resulting influx of large numbers of information in everyday life. These advances are also challenging educational institutions to adopt the opportunities of distributed knowledge sharing and communication. Among the most recent trends, the availability of social communication networks, knowledge representation and of activate learning gives rise for a new landscape of learning as a networked, situated, contextual and life-long activities. In this scenario, new perspectives on learning and teaching processes must be developed and supported, relating learning models, content-based tools, social organization and knowledge sharing.

Carbonaro, Antonella

18

Automatic Summarization of MEDLINE Citations for Evidence–Based Medical Treatment: A Topic-Oriented Evaluation  

PubMed Central

As the number of electronic biomedical textual resources increases, it becomes harder for physicians to find useful answers at the point of care. Information retrieval applications provide access to databases; however, little research has been done on using automatic summarization to help navigate the documents returned by these systems. After presenting a semantic abstraction automatic summarization system for MEDLINE citations, we concentrate on evaluating its ability to identify useful drug interventions for fifty-three diseases. The evaluation methodology uses existing sources of evidence-based medicine as surrogates for a physician-annotated reference standard. Mean average precision (MAP) and a clinical usefulness score developed for this study were computed as performance metrics. The automatic summarization system significantly outperformed the baseline in both metrics. The MAP gain was 0.17 (p < 0.01) and the increase in the overall score of clinical usefulness was 0.39 (p < 0.05). PMID:19022398

Fiszman, Marcelo; Demner-Fushman, Dina; Kilicoglu, Halil; Rindflesch, Thomas C.

2009-01-01

19

Studying the correlation between different word sense disambiguation methods and summarization effectiveness in biomedical texts  

PubMed Central

Background Word sense disambiguation (WSD) attempts to solve lexical ambiguities by identifying the correct meaning of a word based on its context. WSD has been demonstrated to be an important step in knowledge-based approaches to automatic summarization. However, the correlation between the accuracy of the WSD methods and the summarization performance has never been studied. Results We present three existing knowledge-based WSD approaches and a graph-based summarizer. Both the WSD approaches and the summarizer employ the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) Metathesaurus as the knowledge source. We first evaluate WSD directly, by comparing the prediction of the WSD methods to two reference sets: the NLM WSD dataset and the MSH WSD collection. We next apply the different WSD methods as part of the summarizer, to map documents onto concepts in the UMLS Metathesaurus, and evaluate the summaries that are generated. The results obtained by the different methods in both evaluations are studied and compared. Conclusions It has been found that the use of WSD techniques has a positive impact on the results of our graph-based summarizer, and that, when both the WSD and summarization tasks are assessed over large and homogeneous evaluation collections, there exists a correlation between the overall results of the WSD and summarization tasks. Furthermore, the best WSD algorithm in the first task tends to be also the best one in the second. However, we also found that the improvement achieved by the summarizer is not directly correlated with the WSD performance. The most likely reason is that the errors in disambiguation are not equally important but depend on the relative salience of the different concepts in the document to be summarized. PMID:21871110

2011-01-01

20

Automatic knowledge acquisition from medical texts.  

PubMed Central

An approach to knowledge-based understanding of realistic texts from the medical domain (viz. findings of gastro-intestinal diseases) is presented. We survey major methodological features of an object-oriented, fully lexicalized, dependency-based grammar model which is tightly linked to domain knowledge representations based on description logics. The parser adheres to the principles of robustness, incrementality and concurrency. The substrate of automatic knowledge acquisition are text knowledge bases generated by the parser from medical narratives, which represent major portions of the content of these documents. PMID:8947693

Hahn, U.; Schnattinger, K.; Romacker, M.

1996-01-01

21

A Comparison of Two Strategies for Teaching Third Graders to Summarize Information Text  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Summarizing text is one of the most effective comprehension strategies (National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, 2000) and an effective way to learn from information text (Dole, Duffy, Roehler, & Pearson, 1991; Pressley & Woloshyn, 1995). In addition, much research supports the explicit instruction of such strategies as…

Dromsky, Ann Marie

2011-01-01

22

Presentation video retrieval using automatically recovered slide and spoken text  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Video is becoming a prevalent medium for e-learning. Lecture videos contain text information in both the presentation slides and lecturer's speech. This paper examines the relative utility of automatically recovered text from these sources for lecture video retrieval. To extract the visual information, we automatically detect slides within the videos and apply optical character recognition to obtain their text. Automatic speech recognition is used similarly to extract spoken text from the recorded audio. We perform controlled experiments with manually created ground truth for both the slide and spoken text from more than 60 hours of lecture video. We compare the automatically extracted slide and spoken text in terms of accuracy relative to ground truth, overlap with one another, and utility for video retrieval. Results reveal that automatically recovered slide text and spoken text contain different content with varying error profiles. Experiments demonstrate that automatically extracted slide text enables higher precision video retrieval than automatically recovered spoken text.

Cooper, Matthew

2013-03-01

23

Stemming Malay Text and Its Application in Automatic Text Categorization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In Malay language, there are no conjugations and declensions and affixes have important grammatical functions. In Malay, the same word may function as a noun, an adjective, an adverb, or, a verb, depending on its position in the sentence. Although extensively simple root words are used in informal conversations, it is essential to use the precise words in formal speech or written texts. In Malay, to make sentences clear, derivative words are used. Derivation is achieved mainly by the use of affixes. There are approximately a hundred possible derivative forms of a root word in written language of the educated Malay. Therefore, the composition of Malay words may be complicated. Although there are several types of stemming algorithms available for text processing in English and some other languages, they cannot be used to overcome the difficulties in Malay word stemming. Stemming is the process of reducing various words to their root forms in order to improve the effectiveness of text processing in information systems. It is essential to avoid both over-stemming and under-stemming errors. We have developed a new Malay stemmer (stemming algorithm) for removing inflectional and derivational affixes. Our stemmer uses a set of affix rules and two types of dictionaries: a root-word dictionary and a derivative-word dictionary. The use of set of rules is aimed at reducing the occurrence of under-stemming errors, while that of the dictionaries is believed to reduce the occurrence of over-stemming errors. We performed an experiment to evaluate the application of our stemmer in text mining software. For the experiment, text data used were actual web pages collected from the World Wide Web to demonstrate the effectiveness of our Malay stemming algorithm. The experimental results showed that our stemmer can effectively increase the precision of the extracted Boolean expressions for text categorization.

Yasukawa, Michiko; Lim, Hui Tian; Yokoo, Hidetoshi

24

Automatic writer identification from text line images  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present article, new techniques have been introduced for revealing the individual features of a person’s handwriting\\u000a pattern from the scanned images of handwritten text lines to facilitate text-independent writer identification. These techniques\\u000a are aimed at designing a dynamic model which can be formalized according to any handwritten text line. Various combinations\\u000a of the extracted features are applied to

Önder K?rl?

25

Automatic text location in images and video frames  

Microsoft Academic Search

Textual data is very important in a number of applications such as image database indexing and document understanding. The goal of automatic text location without character recognition capabilities is to extract image regions that contain only text. These regions can then be either fed to an optical character recognition module or highlighted for a user. Text location is a very

Anil K. Jain; Bin Yu

1998-01-01

26

Automatic Quality Assessment of SRS Text by Means of a Decision-Tree-Based Text Classifier  

E-print Network

requirements. Interview Client Elicit Information Problem Text NLP: Assess Text Quality Ambiguous? ImprovedAutomatic Quality Assessment of SRS Text by Means of a Decision-Tree- Based Text Classifier Ishrar of a software project is largely dependent upon the quality of the Software Requirements Specification (SRS

Kosseim, Leila

27

The Impact of OCR Accuracy on Automatic Text Classification  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Current general digitization approach of paper media is converting them into the digital images by a scanner, and then reading\\u000a them by an OCR to generate ASCII text for full-text retrieval. However, it is impossible to recognize all characters with\\u000a 100% accuracy by the present OCR technology. Therefore, it is important to know the impact of OCR accuracy on automatic

Guowei Zu; Mayo Murata; Wataru Ohyama; Tetsushi Wakabayashi; Fumitaka Kimura

2004-01-01

28

Automatic annotation of multilingual text collections with a conceptual thesaurus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Automatic annotation of documents,with controlled vocabulary terms (descriptors) from a conceptual ,thesaurus is not only useful for document ,indexing ,and ,re- trieval. The mapping ,of texts ,onto the same thesaurus furthermore allows to es- tablish links between ,similar documents. This is also a substantial requirement of the Semantic Web. This paper presents analmost,language-independent system that maps,documents,written in different languages,onto

Bruno Pouliquen; Ralf Steinberger; Camelia Ignat

2006-01-01

29

Movie review mining and summarization  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the ?ourish of the Web, online review is becoming a more and more useful and important information resource for people. As a result, automatic review mining and sum- marizing has become a hot research topic recently. Difier- ent from traditional text summarization, review mining and summarizing aims at extracting the features on which the re- viewers express their opinions

Li Zhuang; Feng Jing; Xiao-Yan Zhu

2006-01-01

30

Automatic extraction of microorganisms and their habitats from free text using text mining workflows.  

PubMed

In this paper we illustrate the usage of text mining workflows to automatically extract instances of microorganisms and their habitats from free text; these entries can then be curated and added to different databases. To this end, we use a Conditional Random Field (CRF) based classifier, as part of the workflows, to extract the mention of microorganisms, habitats and the inter-relation between organisms and their habitats. Results indicate a good performance for extraction of microorganisms and the relation extraction aspects of the task (with a precision of over 80%), while habitat recognition is only moderate (a precision of about 65%). We also conjecture that pdf-to-text conversion can be quite noisy and this implicitly affects any sentence-based relation extraction algorithms. PMID:21987583

Kolluru, Balakrishna; Nakjang, Sirintra; Hirt, Robert P; Wipat, Anil; Ananiadou, Sophia

2011-01-01

31

Memory-Based Processing as a Mechanism of Automaticity in Text Comprehension  

Microsoft Academic Search

A widespread theoretical assumption is that many processes involved in text comprehension are automatic, with automaticity typically defined in terms of properties (e.g., speed, effort). In contrast, the authors advocate for conceptualization of automaticity in terms of underlying cognitive mechanisms and evaluate one prominent account, the memory-based processing account, which states that one mechanism underlying automatization involves a shift from

Katherine A. Rawson; Erica L. Middleton

2009-01-01

32

Toward a multi-sensor-based approach to automatic text classification  

SciTech Connect

Many automatic text indexing and retrieval methods use a term-document matrix that is automatically derived from the text in question. Latent Semantic Indexing is a method, recently proposed in the Information Retrieval (IR) literature, for approximating a large and sparse term-document matrix with a relatively small number of factors, and is based on a solid mathematical foundation. LSI appears to be quite useful in the problem of text information retrieval, rather than text classification. In this report, we outline a method that attempts to combine the strength of the LSI method with that of neural networks, in addressing the problem of text classification. In doing so, we also indicate ways to improve performance by adding additional {open_quotes}logical sensors{close_quotes} to the neural network, something that is hard to do with the LSI method when employed by itself. The various programs that can be used in testing the system with TIPSTER data set are described. Preliminary results are summarized, but much work remains to be done.

Dasigi, V.R. [Sacred Heart Univ., Fairfield, CT (United States); Mann, R.C. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

1995-10-01

33

Automatic text detection and tracking in digital video  

Microsoft Academic Search

Text which appears in a scene or is graphically added to video can provide an important supplementalsource of index information as well as clues for decoding the video's structure and for classification. In thispaper we present algorithms for detecting and tracking text in digital video. Our system implements a scalespacefeature extractor that feeds an artificial neural processor to detect text

Huiping Li; David S. Doermann; Omid E. Kia

2000-01-01

34

Automatic text detection for mobile augmented reality translation Marc Petter1  

E-print Network

augmented reality using cell phones for computa- tion and display. The capabilities of mobile devices (withAutomatic text detection for mobile augmented reality translation Marc Petter1 Victor Fragoso2 automatic text detection algorithm de- vised for a mobile augmented reality (AR) translation sys- tem

California at Santa Barbara, University of

35

CUCS00400 Automatic Classification of Text Databases Through Query Probing  

E-print Network

Web 1 and SearchEngine Guide 2 classify various search engines into a hierarchical classification scheme accessible through querying. Search engines typically ignore the contents of such search­only databases the classification of search­only text databases. Our technique starts by training a rule­based document classifier

36

Automatic vs. manual curation of a multi-source chemical dictionary: the impact on text mining  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Previously, we developed a combined dictionary dubbed Chemlist for the identification of small molecules and drugs in text based on a number of publicly available databases and tested it on an annotated corpus. To achieve an acceptable recall and precision we used a number of automatic and semi-automatic processing steps together with disambiguation rules. However, it remained to

Kristina M Hettne; Antony J Williams; Erik M van Mulligen; Jos Kleinjans; Valery Tkachenko; Jan A Kors

2010-01-01

37

Text independent speaker identification using automatic acoustic segmentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

An acoustic-class-dependent technique for text-independent speaker identification on very short utterances is described. The technique is based on maximum-likelihood estimation of a Gaussian mixture model representation of speaker identity. Gaussian mixtures are noted for their robustness as a parametric model and their ability to form smooth estimates of rather arbitrary underlying densities. Speaker model parameters are estimated using a special

Richard C. Rose; Douglas A. Reynolds

1990-01-01

38

Automatic theory generation from analyst text files using coherence networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes a three-phase process of extracting knowledge from analyst textual reports. Phase 1 involves performing natural language processing on the source text to extract subject-predicate-object triples. In phase 2, these triples are then fed into a coherence network analysis process, using a genetic algorithm optimization. Finally, the highest-value sub networks are processed into a semantic network graph for display. Initial work on a well- known data set (a Wikipedia article on Abraham Lincoln) has shown excellent results without any specific tuning. Next, we ran the process on the SYNthetic Counter-INsurgency (SYNCOIN) data set, developed at Penn State, yielding interesting and potentially useful results.

Shaffer, Steven C.

2014-05-01

39

Combining MEDLINE and publisher data to create parallel corpora for the automatic translation of biomedical text  

PubMed Central

Background Most of the institutional and research information in the biomedical domain is available in the form of English text. Even in countries where English is an official language, such as the United States, language can be a barrier for accessing biomedical information for non-native speakers. Recent progress in machine translation suggests that this technique could help make English texts accessible to speakers of other languages. However, the lack of adequate specialized corpora needed to train statistical models currently limits the quality of automatic translations in the biomedical domain. Results We show how a large-sized parallel corpus can automatically be obtained for the biomedical domain, using the MEDLINE database. The corpus generated in this work comprises article titles obtained from MEDLINE and abstract text automatically retrieved from journal websites, which substantially extends the corpora used in previous work. After assessing the quality of the corpus for two language pairs (English/French and English/Spanish) we use the Moses package to train a statistical machine translation model that outperforms previous models for automatic translation of biomedical text. Conclusions We have built translation data sets in the biomedical domain that can easily be extended to other languages available in MEDLINE. These sets can successfully be applied to train statistical machine translation models. While further progress should be made by incorporating out-of-domain corpora and domain-specific lexicons, we believe that this work improves the automatic translation of biomedical texts. PMID:23631733

2013-01-01

40

Automatic Evaluation of Search Ontologies in the Entertainment Domain using Text  

E-print Network

Automatic Evaluation of Search Ontologies in the Entertainment Domain using Text Classification relation can help the search engine support exploratory search in the form of effective facets. We test ad- dressing the information need of exploratory search. where the searcher may be unfamiliar

Elhadad, Michael

41

Experimentation of an automatic resolution method for protein abbreviations in full-text papers  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report and comment the experimental results of the PRAISED system, which implements an automatic method for discovering and resolving a wide range of protein name abbreviations from the full-text versions of scientific articles. This system has been recently proposed as part of a framework for creating and maintaining a publicly-accessible abbreviation repository. The testing phase was carried out against

Paolo Atzeni; Fabio Polticelli; Daniele Toti

2011-01-01

42

Automatic Cataloguing and Searching for Retrospective Data by Use of OCR Text.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes efforts in supporting information retrieval from OCR (optical character recognition) degraded text. Reports on approaches used in an automatic cataloging and searching contest for books in multiple languages, including a vector space retrieval model, an n-gram indexing method, and a weighting scheme; and discusses problems of Asian…

Tseng, Yuen-Hsien

2001-01-01

43

Automatic Case Acquisition From Texts for Process-Oriented Case-Based Reasoning  

E-print Network

Automatic Case Acquisition From Texts for Process-Oriented Case-Based Reasoning Valmi Dufour for process-oriented case-based reasoning. Case engineering is among the most complicated and costly tasks in implementing a case-based reasoning system. This is especially so for process-oriented case-based reasoning

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

44

Text Document Topical Recursive Clustering and Automatic Labeling of a Hierarchy of  

E-print Network

borrows Community Mining from Social Net- work Analysis to discover different topical coherent document gives overall good labels for document clusters. 2 Related Work 2.1 Attempts in improving the rankedText Document Topical Recursive Clustering and Automatic Labeling of a Hierarchy of Document

Zaiane, Osmar R.

45

Evaluation of Extractive Voicemail Summarization  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interesting paper outlines a framework for automatic summarization of voicemail messages and delivery as compact text messages. The proposed system, developed at the University of Sheffield, incorporates speech recognition technology and summary word extraction. An overview of the feature selection process is especially interesting, as it briefly describes how pitch, word duration, and pauses in the voicemail message are used to obtain a compressed subset of the most important features. A number of experiments were performed to determine the system's accuracy and usability, and the results are presented in the paper.

Koumpis, Konstantinos

46

Implementation of Automatic Process of Edge Rotation Diagnostic System on J-TEXT Tokamak  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A spectral diagnostic control system (SDCS) is developed to implement automatic process of the edge rotation diagnostic system on the J-TEXT tokamak. The SDCS contains a control module, data operation module, data analysis module, and data upload module. The core of this system is a newly developed software “Spectra Assist”, which completes the whole process by coupling all related subroutines and servers. The results of data correction and calculated rotation are presented. In the daily discharge of J-TEXT, SDCS is proved to have a stable performance and high efficiency in completing the process of data acquisition, operation and results output.

Zhang, Zepin; Cheng, Zhifeng; Luo, Jian; Wang, Zhijiang; Zhang, Xiaolong; Hou, Saiying; Cheng, Cheng

2014-08-01

47

An automatic system to detect and extract texts in medical images for de-identification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, there is an increasing need to share medical images for research purpose. In order to respect and preserve patient privacy, most of the medical images are de-identified with protected health information (PHI) before research sharing. Since manual de-identification is time-consuming and tedious, so an automatic de-identification system is necessary and helpful for the doctors to remove text from medical images. A lot of papers have been written about algorithms of text detection and extraction, however, little has been applied to de-identification of medical images. Since the de-identification system is designed for end-users, it should be effective, accurate and fast. This paper proposes an automatic system to detect and extract text from medical images for de-identification purposes, while keeping the anatomic structures intact. First, considering the text have a remarkable contrast with the background, a region variance based algorithm is used to detect the text regions. In post processing, geometric constraints are applied to the detected text regions to eliminate over-segmentation, e.g., lines and anatomic structures. After that, a region based level set method is used to extract text from the detected text regions. A GUI for the prototype application of the text detection and extraction system is implemented, which shows that our method can detect most of the text in the images. Experimental results validate that our method can detect and extract text in medical images with a 99% recall rate. Future research of this system includes algorithm improvement, performance evaluation, and computation optimization.

Zhu, Yingxuan; Singh, P. D.; Siddiqui, Khan; Gillam, Michael

2010-03-01

48

Extractive summarization using complex networks and syntactic dependency  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The realization that statistical physics methods can be applied to analyze written texts represented as complex networks has led to several developments in natural language processing, including automatic summarization and evaluation of machine translation. Most importantly, so far only a few metrics of complex networks have been used and therefore there is ample opportunity to enhance the statistics-based methods as new measures of network topology and dynamics are created. In this paper, we employ for the first time the metrics betweenness, vulnerability and diversity to analyze written texts in Brazilian Portuguese. Using strategies based on diversity metrics, a better performance in automatic summarization is achieved in comparison to previous work employing complex networks. With an optimized method the Rouge score (an automatic evaluation method used in summarization) was 0.5089, which is the best value ever achieved for an extractive summarizer with statistical methods based on complex networks for Brazilian Portuguese. Furthermore, the diversity metric can detect keywords with high precision, which is why we believe it is suitable to produce good summaries. It is also shown that incorporating linguistic knowledge through a syntactic parser does enhance the performance of the automatic summarizers, as expected, but the increase in the Rouge score is only minor. These results reinforce the suitability of complex network methods for improving automatic summarizers in particular, and treating text in general.

Amancio, Diego R.; Nunes, Maria G. V.; Oliveira, Osvaldo N.; Costa, Luciano da F.

2012-02-01

49

Towards Holistic Summarization-Selecting Summaries, Not Sentences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract In this paper we present a novel method for automatic text summarization through text extraction, using computational semantics. The new idea is to view all the extracted text as a whole and compute a score for the total impact of the summary, instead of ranking for instance individual sentences. A greedy search strategy is used to search through the

Martin Hassel; Jonas Sj; KTH CSC

50

Automatic correction of grammatical errors in non-native English text  

E-print Network

Learning a foreign language requires much practice outside of the classroom. Computer-assisted language learning systems can help fill this need, and one desirable capability of such systems is the automatic correction of ...

Lee, John Sie Yuen, 1977-

2009-01-01

51

Experimenting with Automatic Text-to-Diagram Conversion: A Novel Teaching Aid for the Blind People  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Diagram describing texts are integral part of science and engineering subjects including geometry, physics, engineering drawing, etc. In order to understand such text, one, at first, tries to draw or perceive the underlying diagram. For perception of the blind students such diagrams need to be drawn in some non-visual accessible form like tactile…

Mukherjee, Anirban; Garain, Utpal; Biswas, Arindam

2014-01-01

52

Summarizing Lecture 1 Summarizing Lecture 2  

E-print Network

Units and Dimensions Significant Figures Orders of magnitude and Estimation Scaling Math stuff! Akarsh Units and Dimensions Significant Figures Orders of magnitude and Estimation Scaling Math stuff! Akarsh Summarizing Lecture 2 Units and Dimensions Significant Figures Orders of magnitude and Estimation Scaling Math

Raizen, Mark G.

53

CUCS-004-00 Automatic Classification of Text Databases Through Query Probing  

E-print Network

Web1 and SearchEngine Guide2 classify various search engines into a hierarchical classification scheme accessible through querying. Search engines typically ignore the contents of such search-only databases the classification of search-only text databases. Our technique starts by training a rule-based document classifier

54

BROWSER: An Automatic Indexing On-Line Text Retrieval System. Annual Progress Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The development and testing of the Browsing On-line With Selective Retrieval (BROWSER) text retrieval system allowing a natural language query statement and providing on-line browsing capabilities through an IBM 2260 display terminal is described. The prototype system contains data bases of 25,000 German language patent abstracts, 9,000 English…

Williams, J. H., Jr.

55

The Automatic Assessment of Free Text Answers Using a Modified BLEU Algorithm  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

e-Learning plays an undoubtedly important role in today's education and assessment is one of the most essential parts of any instruction-based learning process. Assessment is a common way to evaluate a student's knowledge regarding the concepts related to learning objectives. In this paper, a new method for assessing the free text answers of…

Noorbehbahani, F.; Kardan, A. A.

2011-01-01

56

Generalizability and Comparison of Automatic Clinical Text De-Identification Methods and Resources  

PubMed Central

In this paper, we present an evaluation of the hybrid best-of-breed automated VHA (Veteran’s Health Administration) clinical text de-identification system, nicknamed BoB, developed within the VHA Consortium for Healthcare Informatics Research. We also evaluate two available machine learning-based text de-identifications systems: MIST and HIDE. Two different clinical corpora were used for this evaluation: a manually annotated VHA corpus, and the 2006 i2b2 de-identification challenge corpus. These experiments focus on the generalizability and portability of the classification models across different document sources. BoB demonstrated good recall (92.6%), satisfactorily prioritizing patient privacy, and also achieved competitive precision (83.6%) for preserving subsequent document interpretability. MIST and HIDE reached very competitive results, in most cases with high precision (92.6% and 93.6%), although recall was sometimes lower than desired for the most sensitive PHI categories. PMID:23304289

Ferrández, Óscar; South, Brett R.; Shen, Shuying; Friedlin, F. Jeff; Samore, Matthew H.; Meystre, Stéphane M.

2012-01-01

57

Video Summarization via Crowdsourcing  

E-print Network

Video Summarization via Crowdsourcing Abstract Although video summarization has been studied extensively, existing schemes are neither lightweight nor generalizable to all types of video content. To generate accurate abstractions of all types of video, we propose a framework called Click2SMRY, which

Chen, Sheng-Wei

58

The trecvid 2008 BBC rushes summarization evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes an evaluation of automatic video summarization systems run on rushes from several BBC dramatic series. It was carried out under the auspices of the TREC Video Retrieval Evaluation (TRECVid) as a followup to the 2007 video sum- marization workshop held at ACM Multimedia 2007. 31 research teams submitted video summaries of 40 individual rushes video files, aiming

Paul Over; Alan F. Smeaton; George Awad

2008-01-01

59

Echocardiogram video summarization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work aims at developing innovative algorithms and tools for summarizing echocardiogram videos. Specifically, we summarize the digital echocardiogram videos by temporally segmenting them into the constituent views and representing each view by the most informative frame. For the segmentation we take advantage of the well-defined spatio- temporal structure of the echocardiogram videos. Two different criteria are used: presence/absence of color and the shape of the region of interest (ROI) in each frame of the video. The change in the ROI is due to different modes of echocardiograms present in one study. The representative frame is defined to be the frame corresponding to the end- diastole of the heart cycle. To locate the end-diastole we track the ECG of each frame to find the exact time the time- marker on the ECG crosses the peak of the end-diastole we track the ECG of each frame to find the exact time the time- marker on the ECG crosses the peak of the R-wave. The corresponding frame is chosen to be the key-frame. The entire echocardiogram video can be summarized into either a static summary, which is a storyboard type of summary and a dynamic summary, which is a concatenation of the selected segments of the echocardiogram video. To the best of our knowledge, this if the first automated system for summarizing the echocardiogram videos base don visual content.

Ebadollahi, Shahram; Chang, Shih-Fu; Wu, Henry D.; Takoma, Shin

2001-05-01

60

Digital Learning for Summarizing Arabic Documents  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a We present in this paper an automatic summarization method of Arabic documents. This method is based on a numerical approach\\u000a which uses a semi-supervised learning technique. The proposed method consists of two phases. The first one is the learning\\u000a phase and the second is the use phase. The learning phase is based on the Support Vector Machine (SVM) algorithm. In

Mohamed Mahdi Boudabous; Mohamed Hédi Maaloul; Lamia Hadrich Belguith

2010-01-01

61

Automatic Condensation of Electronic Publications by Sentence Selection  

Microsoft Academic Search

As electronic information access becomes the norm, and the variety of retrievable material increases, automatic methods of summarizing or condensing text will become critical. This paper describes a system that performs domain-independent automatic condensation of news from a large commercial news service encompassing 41 different publications. This system was evaluated against a system that condensed the same articles using only

Ronald Brandow; Karl Mitze; Lisa F. Rau

1995-01-01

62

Ranking, Labeling, and Summarizing Short Text in Social Media  

E-print Network

KL- divergence means more discriminative power. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105 5.14 Compare PageRank with available graph based methods (Mead and LexRank). Higher NDCG is more desirable. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106 5.15 Compare the tf -idf...

Khabiri, Elham

2013-04-18

63

Music summarization using key phrases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Systems to automatically provide a representative summary or `key phrase' of a piece of music are described. For a `rock' song with `verse' and `chorus' sections, we aim to return the chorus or in any case the most repeated and hence most memorable section. The techniques are less applicable to music with more complicated structure although possibly our general framework

Beth Logan; Stephen Chu

2000-01-01

64

Generating Descriptions that Summarize Geospatial and Temporal Data Martin Molina  

E-print Network

Generating Descriptions that Summarize Geospatial and Temporal Data Martin Molina Department a knowledge-based method for automatically generating summaries of geospatial and temporal data, i.e. data of components to perform data abstraction and natural language generation. We also discuss evaluation results

Molina, Martín

65

Automatic summarization of voicemail messages using lexical and prosodic features  

E-print Network

of lexical and prosodic features. We use an ROC­based algorithm, Parcel, to select input features (and classifiers). We have performed a series of objective and subjective evaluations using unseen data from two subset selection, receiver operating characteristic, short message service, wireless application protocol

Edinburgh, University of

66

Multimodal Summarization of Complex Sentences Naushad UzZaman  

E-print Network

illustration, sentence compression, pictorial representation, AAC, augmentative and alternative communication [1]. Including alternative, supportive representations of text might help people with reading the problem by allowing text to augment pictorial and structural information. Automatic Illustration

Bigham, Jeffrey P.

67

Algorithm for Video Summarization of Bronchoscopy Procedures  

PubMed Central

Background The duration of bronchoscopy examinations varies considerably depending on the diagnostic and therapeutic procedures used. It can last more than 20 minutes if a complex diagnostic work-up is included. With wide access to videobronchoscopy, the whole procedure can be recorded as a video sequence. Common practice relies on an active attitude of the bronchoscopist who initiates the recording process and usually chooses to archive only selected views and sequences. However, it may be important to record the full bronchoscopy procedure as documentation when liability issues are at stake. Furthermore, an automatic recording of the whole procedure enables the bronchoscopist to focus solely on the performed procedures. Video recordings registered during bronchoscopies include a considerable number of frames of poor quality due to blurry or unfocused images. It seems that such frames are unavoidable due to the relatively tight endobronchial space, rapid movements of the respiratory tract due to breathing or coughing, and secretions which occur commonly in the bronchi, especially in patients suffering from pulmonary disorders. Methods The use of recorded bronchoscopy video sequences for diagnostic, reference and educational purposes could be considerably extended with efficient, flexible summarization algorithms. Thus, the authors developed a prototype system to create shortcuts (called summaries or abstracts) of bronchoscopy video recordings. Such a system, based on models described in previously published papers, employs image analysis methods to exclude frames or sequences of limited diagnostic or education value. Results The algorithm for the selection or exclusion of specific frames or shots from video sequences recorded during bronchoscopy procedures is based on several criteria, including automatic detection of "non-informative", frames showing the branching of the airways and frames including pathological lesions. Conclusions The paper focuses on the challenge of generating summaries of bronchoscopy video recordings. PMID:22185344

2011-01-01

68

Semantic keyword extraction via adaptive text binarization of unstructured unsourced video  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a fully automatic method for summarizing and indexing unstructured presentation videos based on text extracted from the projected slides. We use changes of text in the slides as a means to segment the video into semantic shots. Unlike precedent approaches, our method does not depend on availability of the electronic source of the slides, but rather extracts and

Michele Merler; John R. Kender

2009-01-01

69

Summarizing Social Disparities in Health  

PubMed Central

Context Reporting on health disparities is fundamental for meeting the goal of reducing health disparities. One often overlooked challenge is determining the best way to report those disparities associated with multiple attributes such as income, education, sex, and race/ethnicity. This article proposes an analytical approach to summarizing social disparities in health, and we demonstrate its empirical application by comparing the degrees and patterns of health disparities in all fifty states and the District of Columbia (DC). Methods We used the 2009 American Community Survey, and our measure of health was functional limitation. For each state and DC, we calculated the overall disparity and attribute-specific disparities for income, education, sex, and race/ethnicity in functional limitation. Along with the state rankings of these health disparities, we developed health disparity profiles according to the attribute making the largest contribution to overall disparity in each state. Findings Our results show a general lack of consistency in the rankings of overall and attribute-specific disparities in functional limitation across the states. Wyoming has the smallest overall disparity and West Virginia the largest. In each of the four attribute-specific health disparity rankings, however, most of the best- and worst-performing states in regard to overall health disparity are not consistently good or bad. Our analysis suggests the following three disparity profiles across states: (1) the largest contribution from race/ethnicity (thirty-four states), (2) roughly equal contributions of race/ethnicity and socioeconomic factor(s) (ten states), and (3) the largest contribution from socioeconomic factor(s) (seven states). Conclusions Our proposed approach offers policy-relevant health disparity information in a comparable and interpretable manner, and currently publicly available data support its application. We hope this approach will spark discussion regarding how best to systematically track health disparities across communities or within a community over time in relation to the health disparity goal of Healthy People 2020. PMID:23488710

Asada, Yukiko; Yoshida, Yoko; Whipp, Alyce M

2013-01-01

70

Event-centric Twitter photo summarization  

E-print Network

We develop a novel algorithm based on spectral geometry that summarize a photo collection into a small subset that represents the collection well. While the definition for a good summarization might not be unique, we focus ...

Wen, Chung-Lin, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2014-01-01

71

Evolutionary Document Summarization for Disaster Management  

E-print Network

Evolutionary Document Summarization for Disaster Management Dingding Wang Li Zheng Tao Li Yi Deng. In addition, it is also very challenging to extract the changes of the event at different phases for disaster management. In this paper, we develop a novel evolutionary summarization system to summarize the changes

Li, Tao

72

On the Application of Generic Summarization Algorithms to Music  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several generic summarization algorithms were developed in the past and successfully applied in fields such as text and speech summarization. In this paper, we review and apply these algorithms to music. To evaluate this summarization's performance, we adopt an extrinsic approach: we compare a Fado Genre Classifier's performance using truncated contiguous clips against the summaries extracted with those algorithms on 2 different datasets. We show that Maximal Marginal Relevance (MMR), LexRank and Latent Semantic Analysis (LSA) all improve classification performance in both datasets used for testing.

Raposo, Francisco; Ribeiro, Ricardo; de Matos, David Martins

2015-01-01

73

Highlight summarization in golf videos using audio signals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we present an automatic summarization of highlights in golf videos based on audio information alone without video information. The proposed highlight summarization system is carried out based on semantic audio segmentation and detection on action units from audio signals. Studio speech, field speech, music, and applause are segmented by means of sound classification. Swing is detected by the methods of impulse onset detection. Sounds like swing and applause form a complete action unit, while studio speech and music parts are used to anchor the program structure. With the advantage of highly precise detection of applause, highlights are extracted effectively. Our experimental results obtain high classification precision on 18 golf games. It proves that the proposed system is very effective and computationally efficient to apply the technology to embedded consumer electronic devices.

Kim, Hyoung-Gook; Kim, Jin Young

2008-01-01

74

MPEG content summarization based on compressed domain feature analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper addresses automatic summarization of MPEG audiovisual content on compressed domain. By analyzing semantically important low-level and mid-level audiovisual features, our method universally summarizes the MPEG-1/-2 contents in the form of digest or highlight. The former is a shortened version of an original, while the latter is an aggregation of important or interesting events. In our proposal, first, the incoming MPEG stream is segmented into shots and the above features are derived from each shot. Then the features are adaptively evaluated in an integrated manner, and finally the qualified shots are aggregated into a summary. Since all the processes are performed completely on compressed domain, summarization is achieved at very low computational cost. The experimental results show that news highlights and sports highlights in TV baseball games can be successfully extracted according to simple shot transition models. As for digest extraction, subjective evaluation proves that meaningful shots are extracted from content without a priori knowledge, even if it contains multiple genres of programs. Our method also has the advantage of generating an MPEG-7 based description such as summary and audiovisual segments in the course of summarization.

Sugano, Masaru; Nakajima, Yasuyuki; Yanagihara, Hiromasa

2003-11-01

75

Selective text utilization and text traversal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many large collections of full-text documents are currently stored in machine-readable form and processed automatically in various ways. These collections may include different types of documents, such as messages, research articles, and books, and the subject matter may vary widely. To process such collections, robust text analysis methods must be used, capable of handling materials in arbitrary subject areas, and

Gerard Salton; James Allan

1995-01-01

76

Contextual Text Mining  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With the dramatic growth of text information, there is an increasing need for powerful text mining systems that can automatically discover useful knowledge from text. Text is generally associated with all kinds of contextual information. Those contexts can be explicit, such as the time and the location where a blog article is written, and the…

Mei, Qiaozhu

2009-01-01

77

Personal Photo Album Summarization Pinaki Sinha  

E-print Network

Personal Photo Album Summarization Pinaki Sinha Department of Computer Science University of California Irvine, CA jain@ics.uci.edu ABSTRACT Photo album summarization is the process of selecting a sub- set of photos from a larger collection which best preserves the information in the entire set

Reif, Rafael

78

Comparative Document Summarization via Discriminative Sentence Selection  

E-print Network

generated by our method. 2. RELATED WORK Traditional document summarization aims to generate a summaryComparative Document Summarization via Discriminative Sentence Selection Dingding Wang Shenghuo Zhu {zsh,ygong}@sv.nec-labs.com ABSTRACT Given a collection of document groups, a quick question is what

Li, Tao

79

Adaptive detection of missed text areas in OCR outputs: application to the automatic assessment of OCR quality in mass digitization projects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The French National Library (BnF*) has launched many mass digitization projects in order to give access to its collection. The indexation of digital documents on Gallica (digital library of the BnF) is done through their textual content obtained thanks to service providers that use Optical Character Recognition softwares (OCR). OCR softwares have become increasingly complex systems composed of several subsystems dedicated to the analysis and the recognition of the elements in a page. However, the reliability of these systems is always an issue at stake. Indeed, in some cases, we can find errors in OCR outputs that occur because of an accumulation of several errors at different levels in the OCR process. One of the frequent errors in OCR outputs is the missed text components. The presence of such errors may lead to severe defects in digital libraries. In this paper, we investigate the detection of missed text components to control the OCR results from the collections of the French National Library. Our verification approach uses local information inside the pages based on Radon transform descriptors and Local Binary Patterns descriptors (LBP) coupled with OCR results to control their consistency. The experimental results show that our method detects 84.15% of the missed textual components, by comparing the OCR ALTO files outputs (produced by the service providers) to the images of the document.

Ben Salah, Ahmed; Ragot, Nicolas; Paquet, Thierry

2013-01-01

80

Power Mean Pyramid Scores for Summarization Evaluation  

E-print Network

We present Power Mean Pyramid Scores (PMP), an evaluation metric that extends the Pyramid evaluation scheme for summarization by combining Sentence Content Units (SCU) scores using Power Mean. The Pyramid method generates a summarization score by linearly combining component SCU scores. We find that by combining SCU scores using Power Mean, we can optimize a single parameter, ?, leading to significantly improved correlation with human judgements. We demonstrate this result through an empirical study based on TAC-08 evaluation. 1.

Sameer Maskey; Andrew Rosenberg

81

Untangling Text Data Mining  

Microsoft Academic Search

The possibilities for data mining from large text collections are virtually untapped. Text expresses a vast, rich range of information, but encodes this information in a form that is difficult to decipher automatically. Perhaps for this reason, there has been little work in text data mining to date, and most people who have talked about it have either conflated it

Marti A. Hearst

1999-01-01

82

Automatic Text Categorization and Its Application to Text Retrieval  

E-print Network

content identifiers. Categories may be ex- pressed numerically or as phrases and individual words found in machine learning problems. Since a document may be assigned to more than one category, the scheme also requires the assignment of multiple categories. There is a growing body of research

Ruiz, Miguel E.

83

Summarization - Compressing Data into an Informative Representation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we formulate the problem of summariza- tion of a dataset of transactions with categorical attribut es as an optimization problem involving two objective func- tions - compaction gain and information loss. We propose metrics to characterize the output of any summarization al- gorithm. We investigate two approaches to address this problem. The first approach is an adaptation

Varun Chandola; Vipin Kumar

2005-01-01

84

Summarizing X-ray Stellar Spectra  

Microsoft Academic Search

XAtlas is a spectrum database made with the High Resolution Transmission Grating on the Chandra X-ray Observatory, after painstaking detailed emission measure analysis to extract quantified information. Here, we explore the possibility of summarizing this spectral information into relatively convenient measurable quantities via dimension reduction methods. Principal component analysis, simple component analysis, projection pursuit, independent component analysis, and parallel coordinates

Hyunsook Lee; V. Kashyap

2008-01-01

85

PRINCIPAL COMPONENTS ANALYSIS TO SUMMARIZE MICROARRAY EXPERIMENTS  

E-print Network

PRINCIPAL COMPONENTS ANALYSIS TO SUMMARIZE MICROARRAY EXPERIMENTS: APPLICATION TO SPORULATION TIME.stanford.edu A series of microarray experiments produces observations of differential expression for thousands of genes across multiple conditions. It is often not clear whether a set of experiments are measuring

Stuart, Josh

86

Summarization and Indexing of Human Activity Sequences  

E-print Network

SA model Use a combination of "ELL statistic" & Tracking Error ELL detects "gradual deviations" from Feature Motion ... Gradual activity change: replace Tracking Error by "ELL statistic" [Vaswani,ACC'04] #121 Summarization and Indexing of Human Activity Sequences Bi Song*, Namrata Vaswani**, Amit K. Roy

Vaswani, Namrata

87

Saliency Guided Summarization of Molecular Dynamics Simulations  

E-print Network

Saliency Guided Summarization of Molecular Dynamics Simulations Robert Patro1 , Cheuk Yiu Ip1,ipcy,varshney}@cs.umd.edu Abstract We present a novel method to measure saliency in molecular dynamics simulation data. This saliency exceedingly long timescale molecular dynamics simulations, does not necessarily mean that we are better

Varshney, Amitabh

88

MeSH indexing based on automatically generated summaries  

PubMed Central

Background MEDLINE citations are manually indexed at the U.S. National Library of Medicine (NLM) using as reference the Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) controlled vocabulary. For this task, the human indexers read the full text of the article. Due to the growth of MEDLINE, the NLM Indexing Initiative explores indexing methodologies that can support the task of the indexers. Medical Text Indexer (MTI) is a tool developed by the NLM Indexing Initiative to provide MeSH indexing recommendations to indexers. Currently, the input to MTI is MEDLINE citations, title and abstract only. Previous work has shown that using full text as input to MTI increases recall, but decreases precision sharply. We propose using summaries generated automatically from the full text for the input to MTI to use in the task of suggesting MeSH headings to indexers. Summaries distill the most salient information from the full text, which might increase the coverage of automatic indexing approaches based on MEDLINE. We hypothesize that if the results were good enough, manual indexers could possibly use automatic summaries instead of the full texts, along with the recommendations of MTI, to speed up the process while maintaining high quality of indexing results. Results We have generated summaries of different lengths using two different summarizers, and evaluated the MTI indexing on the summaries using different algorithms: MTI, individual MTI components, and machine learning. The results are compared to those of full text articles and MEDLINE citations. Our results show that automatically generated summaries achieve similar recall but higher precision compared to full text articles. Compared to MEDLINE citations, summaries achieve higher recall but lower precision. Conclusions Our results show that automatic summaries produce better indexing than full text articles. Summaries produce similar recall to full text but much better precision, which seems to indicate that automatic summaries can efficiently capture the most important contents within the original articles. The combination of MEDLINE citations and automatically generated summaries could improve the recommendations suggested by MTI. On the other hand, indexing performance might be dependent on the MeSH heading being indexed. Summarization techniques could thus be considered as a feature selection algorithm that might have to be tuned individually for each MeSH heading. PMID:23802936

2013-01-01

89

Summarizing and Synthesizing: What's the Difference?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

For teachers in K-Grade 5 classrooms, the author of this article reviews the reading comprehension strategies known as Summarizing and Synthesizing. She provides links to web sites and to a book that will provide more background information and lessons. The article appears in the free, online magazine Beyond Weather and the Water Cycle, which focuses on the seven essential principles of climate science.

Jessica Fries-Gaither

90

Get the Gist: A Summarizing Strategy for Any Content Area  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this series of lessons, students read newspaper articles obtained from newspaper websites. Students then identify journalism's "5 Ws and 1 H" (who, what, when, where, why, and how) and complete a template with the corresponding information they have found in the article. Finally, students use their notes to write a 20-word summary called a gist. Once students have mastered writing a gist using newspaper articles, the strategy is then applied to content area texts to support comprehension and summarizing skills.

Gray, Che-Mai

2012-01-01

91

Automatic Imitation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Automatic imitation" is a type of stimulus-response compatibility effect in which the topographical features of task-irrelevant action stimuli facilitate similar, and interfere with dissimilar, responses. This article reviews behavioral, neurophysiological, and neuroimaging research on automatic imitation, asking in what sense it is "automatic"…

Heyes, Cecilia

2011-01-01

92

Method for gathering and summarizing internet information  

DOEpatents

A computer method of gathering and summarizing large amounts of information comprises collecting information from a plurality of information sources (14, 51) according to respective maps (52) of the information sources (14), converting the collected information from a storage format to XML-language documents (26, 53) and storing the XML-language documents in a storage medium, searching for documents (55) according to a search query (13) having at least one term and identifying the documents (26) found in the search, and displaying the documents as nodes (33) of a tree structure (32) having links (34) and nodes (33) so as to indicate similarity of the documents to each other.

Potok, Thomas E. (Oak Ridge, TN); Elmore, Mark Thomas (Oak Ridge, TN); Reed, Joel Wesley (Knoxville, TN); Treadwell, Jim N. (Louisville, TN); Samatova, Nagiza Faridovna (Oak Ridge, TN)

2008-01-01

93

The Night I Followed the Dog: Sequencing, Summarizing and Main Idea  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this series of three lessons, students will listen to The Night I Followed the Dog by Nina Laden and work to summarize the story by writing a sequence of events from the beginning, middle, and end of the story. Then, with teacher guidance, students will summarize the text through determining the main idea and key details of the text.

Wikispaces

2012-08-02

94

Acquiring Disambiguation Rules from Text  

Microsoft Academic Search

An effective procedure for automatically acquiring a new set of disambiguation rules for an existing deterministic parser on the basis of tagged text is presented. Performance of the automatically acquired rules is much better than the existing hand-written disambiguation rules. The success of the acquired rules depends on using the linguistic information encoded in the parser; enhancements to various components

Donald Hindle

1989-01-01

95

Effective Replays and Summarization of Virtual Experiences  

PubMed Central

Direct replays of the experience of a user in a virtual environment are difficult for others to watch due to unnatural camera motions. We present methods for replaying and summarizing these egocentric experiences that effectively communicate the users observations while reducing unwanted camera movements. Our approach summarizes the viewpoint path as a concise sequence of viewpoints that cover the same parts of the scene. The core of our approach is a novel content dependent metric that can be used to identify similarities between viewpoints. This enables viewpoints to be grouped by similar contextual view information and provides a means to generate novel viewpoints that can encapsulate a series of views. These resulting encapsulated viewpoints are used to synthesize new camera paths that convey the content of the original viewers experience. Projecting the initial movement of the user back on the scene can be used to convey the details of their observations, and the extracted viewpoints can serve as bookmarks for control or analysis. Finally we present performance analysis along with two forms of validation to test whether the extracted viewpoints are representative of the viewers original observations and to test for the overall effectiveness of the presented replay methods. PMID:22402688

Ponto, Kevin; Kohlmann, Joe; Gleicher, Michael

2012-01-01

96

Summarizing X-ray Stellar Spectra  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

XAtlas is a spectrum database made with the High Resolution Transmission Grating on the Chandra X-ray Observatory, after painstaking detailed emission measure analysis to extract quantified information. Here, we explore the possibility of summarizing this spectral information into relatively convenient measurable quantities via dimension reduction methods. Principal component analysis, simple component analysis, projection pursuit, independent component analysis, and parallel coordinates are employed to enhance any patterned structures embedded in the high dimensional space. We discuss pros and cons of each dimension reduction method as a part of developing clustering algorithms for XAtlas. The biggest challenge from analyzing XAtlas was handling missing values that pertain astrophysical importance. This research was supported by NASA/AISRP grant NNG06GF17G and NASA contract NAS8-39073.

Lee, Hyunsook; Kashyap, V.; XAtlas Collaboration

2008-05-01

97

Summarizing cellular responses as biological process networks  

PubMed Central

Background Microarray experiments can simultaneously identify thousands of genes that show significant perturbation in expression between two experimental conditions. Response networks, computed through the integration of gene interaction networks with expression perturbation data, may themselves contain tens of thousands of interactions. Gene set enrichment has become standard for summarizing the results of these analyses in terms functionally coherent collections of genes such as biological processes. However, even these methods can yield hundreds of enriched functions that may overlap considerably. Results We describe a new technique called Markov chain Monte Carlo Biological Process Networks (MCMC-BPN) capable of reporting a highly non-redundant set of links between processes that describe the molecular interactions that are perturbed under a specific biological context. Each link in the BPN represents the perturbed interactions that serve as the interfaces between the two processes connected by the link. We apply MCMC-BPN to publicly available liver-related datasets to demonstrate that the networks formed by the most probable inter-process links reported by MCMC-BPN show high relevance to each biological condition. We show that MCMC-BPN’s ability to discern the few key links from in a very large solution space by comparing results from two other methods for detecting inter-process links. Conclusions MCMC-BPN is successful in using few inter-process links to explain as many of the perturbed gene-gene interactions as possible. Thereby, BPNs summarize the important biological trends within a response network by reporting a digestible number of inter-process links that can be explored in greater detail. PMID:23895181

2013-01-01

98

Micropumps: summarizing the first two decades  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Among the large number of microfluidic components realized up to now, micropumps clearly represent the case of a 'long runner' in science. A brief literature review reveals, that one of the first scientific papers on a micropump dates from 1978, which is more than two decades ago. An increasing number of publications is found from that time on representing widespread research activities, and there seems to be no change of this trend. An astonishing diversity of micropump concepts and devices has emerged until today, reaching from peristaltic micropumps to a large number of micro diaphragm pumps to recent high-pressure devices without any moving parts. Electrohydrodynamic, electroosmotic, electrostatic, electromagnetic, magnetohydrodynamic, SMA, piezoelectric, thermopneumatic, hydraulic or pneumatic - almost every MEMS-based or mesoscopic actuation principle has been combined with micropumps. An outstanding diversity is also found in the fabrication technology - the span reaches from silicon-based devices over precision machining to injection moulding. This altogether makes it worth to summarize and also take a look into the future of micropumps - after the first two decades.

Woias, Peter

2001-09-01

99

Corpus-Based Problem Selection for EHR Note Summarization.  

PubMed

Physicians have access to patient notes in volumes far greater than what is practical to read within the context of a standard clinical scenario. As a preliminary step toward being able to provide a longitudinal summary of patient history, methods are examined for the automated extraction of relevant patient problems from existing clinical notes. We explore a grounded approach to identifying important patient problems from patient history. Methods build on existing NLP and text-summarization methodologies and leverage features observed in a relevant corpus. PMID:21347092

Van Vleck, Tielman T; Elhadad, Noémie

2010-01-01

100

Corpus-Based Problem Selection for EHR Note Summarization  

PubMed Central

Physicians have access to patient notes in volumes far greater than what is practical to read within the context of a standard clinical scenario. As a preliminary step toward being able to provide a longitudinal summary of patient history, methods are examined for the automated extraction of relevant patient problems from existing clinical notes. We explore a grounded approach to identifying important patient problems from patient history. Methods build on existing NLP and text-summarization methodologies and leverage features observed in a relevant corpus. PMID:21347092

Van Vleck, Tielman T.; Elhadad, Noémie

2010-01-01

101

Summarizing Answers for Complicated Questions Liang Zhou, Chin-Yew Lin and Eduard Hovy  

E-print Network

}@isi.edu Abstract This paper describes the multi-document summarization system designed by the Webclopedia team from ISI for DUC 2005. In contrast to the past DUCs and previous designs, this version of our summarizer, and longer units of a text, which can be built up compositionally. An important aspect is that they can

Hovy, Eduard

102

Text Structure  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This web page defines and describes text structure, or how the information within a written text is organized. It explains the benefits of teaching students to identify and analyze text structures within text and describes an instructional sequence in which students read examples of different text structures and then write paragraphs that follow a specific text structure. The site includes definitions and examples of five common text structures, and graphic organizers that can be used with each type of text. Links to additional resources and research citations are included.

2012-01-01

103

Dirichlet Mixtures in Text Modeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Word rates in text vary according to global factors such as genre, topic, author, and expected readership (Church and Gale 1995). Models that summarize such global factors in text or at the document level, are called 'text models.' A finite mixture of Dirichlet distribution (Dirichlet Mixture or DM for short) was investigated as a new text model. When parameters of

Mikio Yamamoto; Kugatsu Sadamitsu

104

Automatic imitation.  

PubMed

"Automatic imitation" is a type of stimulus-response compatibility effect in which the topographical features of task-irrelevant action stimuli facilitate similar, and interfere with dissimilar, responses. This article reviews behavioral, neurophysiological, and neuroimaging research on automatic imitation, asking in what sense it is "automatic" and whether it is "imitation." This body of research reveals that automatic imitation is a covert form of imitation, distinct from spatial compatibility. It also indicates that, although automatic imitation is subject to input modulation by attentional processes, and output modulation by inhibitory processes, it is mediated by learned, long-term sensorimotor associations that cannot be altered directly by intentional processes. Automatic imitation provides an important tool for the investigation of the mirror neuron system, motor mimicry, and complex forms of imitation. It is a new behavioral phenomenon, comparable with the Stroop and Simon effects, providing strong evidence that even healthy adult humans are prone, in an unwilled and unreasoned way, to copy the actions of others. PMID:21280938

Heyes, Cecilia

2011-05-01

105

Fetch Text  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Looking for a new way to share articles in your emails? Fetch Text can lend a hand. By simply forwarding a link to the email address provided on the site, visitors will receive a response email of just the main text pulled from the link. ItâÂÂs easy to use and is compatible with all operating systems.

Jiang, Andy

106

Text Sets.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents annotations of approximately 30 titles grouped in text sets. Defines a text set as five to ten books on a particular topic or theme. Discusses books on the following topics: living creatures; pirates; physical appearance; natural disasters; and the Irish potato famine. (SG)

Giorgis, Cyndi; Johnson, Nancy J.

2002-01-01

107

Text Retrieval on a Microcomputer.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents description of the Generalized Automatic Text Organization and Retrieval system (GATOR), a database system that indexes and retrieves information from machine-readable texts such as interviews and case histories. Qualitative and quantitative analyses are discussed, and integrating GATOR with standard statistical packages is described.…

Giordano, Richard; And Others

1988-01-01

108

Text mining.  

PubMed

One of the fastest-growing fields in bioinformatics is text mining: the application of natural language processing techniques to problems of knowledge management and discovery, using large collections of biological or biomedical text such as MEDLINE. The techniques used in text mining range from the very simple (e.g., the inference of relationships between genes from frequent proximity in documents) to the complex and computationally intensive (e.g., the analysis of sentence structures with parsers in order to extract facts about protein-protein interactions from statements in the text). This chapter presents a general introduction to some of the key principles and challenges of natural language processing, and introduces some of the tools available to end-users and developers. A case study describes the construction and testing of a simple tool designed to tackle a task that is crucial to almost any application of text mining in bioinformatics--identifying gene/protein names in text and mapping them onto records in an external database. PMID:18712320

Clegg, Andrew B; Shepherd, Adrian J

2008-01-01

109

Recent progress in automatically extracting information from the pharmacogenomic literature  

PubMed Central

The biomedical literature holds our understanding of pharmacogenomics, but it is dispersed across many journals. In order to integrate our knowledge, connect important facts across publications and generate new hypotheses we must organize and encode the contents of the literature. By creating databases of structured pharmocogenomic knowledge, we can make the value of the literature much greater than the sum of the individual reports. We can, for example, generate candidate gene lists or interpret surprising hits in genome-wide association studies. Text mining automatically adds structure to the unstructured knowledge embedded in millions of publications, and recent years have seen a surge in work on biomedical text mining, some specific to pharmacogenomics literature. These methods enable extraction of specific types of information and can also provide answers to general, systemic queries. In this article, we describe the main tasks of text mining in the context of pharmacogenomics, summarize recent applications and anticipate the next phase of text mining applications. PMID:21047206

Garten, Yael; Coulet, Adrien; Altman, Russ B

2011-01-01

110

Abstractive Meeting Summarization with Entailment and Fusion Yashar Mehdad  

E-print Network

Abstractive Meeting Summarization with Entailment and Fusion Yashar Mehdad Giuseppe Carenini Frank for abstractive meeting summariza- tion. We cluster sentences in the in- put into communities and build an entail, it has been observed in the context of meeting summarization that concise abstracts are generally

Carenini, Giuseppe

111

Feature Fusion and Redundancy Pruning for Rush Video Summarization  

E-print Network

high-level feature fusion of con- cFeature Fusion and Redundancy Pruning for Rush Video Summarization Jim Kleban, Anindya Sarkar,anindya,emoxley,smangiat,sjoshi,thekuo,manj@ece.ucsb.edu ABSTRACT This paper presents a video summarization technique for rushes that employs high-level feature

California at Santa Barbara, University of

112

VIDEO SUMMARIZATION BY VIDEO STRUCTURE ANALYSIS AND GRAPH OPTIMIZATION  

E-print Network

VIDEO SUMMARIZATION BY VIDEO STRUCTURE ANALYSIS AND GRAPH OPTIMIZATION Shi Lu, Irwin King video summarization method that combines video structure analysis and graph optimiza- tion. First, we analyze the structure of the video, find the boundaries of video scenes, then we calculate each scene

King, Kuo Chin Irwin

113

Latent Dirichlet Allocation Based Multi-Document Summarization  

E-print Network

in the documents. Let Permission to make digital or hard copies of all or part of this work for personalLatent Dirichlet Allocation Based Multi-Document Summarization Rachit Arora Department of Computer Chennai - 600 036, India. ravi@cse.iitm.ernet.in ABSTRACT Extraction based Multi-Document Summarization

Ravindran, Balaraman

114

An innovative algorithm for key frame extraction in video summarization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Video summarization, aimed at reducing the amount of data that must be examined in order to retrieve the information desired from information in a video, is an essential task in video analysis and indexing applications. We propose an innovative approach for the selection of representative (key) frames of a video sequence for video summarization. By analyzing the differences between two

Ciocca Gianluigi; Schettini Raimondo

2006-01-01

115

Politeness and Bias in Dialogue Summarization: Two Exploratory Studies  

E-print Network

Chapter X Politeness and Bias in Dialogue Summarization: Two Exploratory Studies Norton Trevisan Albert Einstein 1251 Cx. Postal 6176 CEP 13084-971,Campinas, SP, Brazil Email: norton@ic.unicamp.br Paul of the literature

Piwek, Paul

116

Investigating and Annotating the Role of Citation in Biomedical Full-Text Articles.  

PubMed

Citations are ubiquitous in scientific articles and play important roles for representing the semantic content of a full-text biomedical article. In this work, we manually examined full-text biomedical articles to analyze the semantic content of citations in full-text biomedical articles. After developing a citation relation schema and annotation guideline, our pilot annotation results show an overall agreement of 0.71, and here we report on the research challenges and the lessons we've learned while trying to overcome them. Our work is a first step toward automatic citation classification in full-text biomedical articles, which may contribute to many text mining tasks, including information retrieval, extraction, summarization, and question answering. PMID:21170175

Yu, Hong; Agarwal, Shashank; Frid, Nadya

2009-11-01

117

Maximizing text-mining performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the advent of centralized data warehouses, where\\u000a data might be stored as electronic documents or as text\\u000a fields in databases, text mining has increased in\\u000a importance and economic value. One important goal in text\\u000a mining is automatic classification of electronic\\u000a documents. Computer programs scan text in a document and\\u000a apply a model that assigns the document to one or

Sholom M. Weiss; Chidanand Apte; Fred J. Damerau; David E. Johnson; Frank J. Oles; Thilo Goetz; Thomas Hampp

1999-01-01

118

Optical automatic gain channel  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Automatic Gain Control /AGC/ channel automatically compensates for gain changes in the azimuth error channel due to time varying optical sight degrading effects. This system is useful in remote television monitors, automatic navigation systems, and surveying and mapping instrumentation.

Mrus, G.; Zukowsky, W.

1966-01-01

119

Cognitive Analysis of the Summarization of Longitudinal Patient Records  

PubMed Central

Electronic health records contain an abundance of valuable information that can be used to guide patient care. However, the large volume of information embodied in these records also renders access to relevant information a time-consuming and inefficient process. Our ultimate objective is to develop an automated summarizer that succinctly captures all relevant information in the patient record. In this paper, we present a cognitive study of 8 clinicians who were asked to create summaries based on data contained in the patients’ electronic health record. The study characterized the primary sources of information that were prioritized by clinicians, the temporal strategies used to develop a summary and the cognitive operations used to guide the summarization process. Although we would not expect the automated summarizer to emulate human performance, we anticipate that this study will inform its development in instrumental ways. PMID:21347062

Reichert, Daniel; Kaufman, David; Bloxham, Benjamin; Chase, Herbert; Elhadad, Noémie

2010-01-01

120

Meta Comments for Summarizing Meeting Speech Gabriel Murray1  

E-print Network

a compelling setting for spoken language processing, since they feature considerable interaction (up to 30-party perspec- tive, we aim to automatically create extracts with similar attributes, harnessing the self- referential quality of meeting speech. Using an expanded feature set, we report results on the AMI corpus

Edinburgh, University of

121

Summarizing local context to personalize global web search  

Microsoft Academic Search

The PC Desktop is a very rich repository of personal information, efficiently capturing user's interests. In this paper we propose a new approach towards an automatic personalization of web search in which the user specific information is extracted from such local desktops, thus allowing for an increased quality of user profiling, while sharing less private information with the search engine.

Paul-alexandru Chirita; Claudiu S. Firan; Wolfgang Nejdl

2006-01-01

122

Video Analytics for Indexing, Summarization and Searching of Video Archives  

SciTech Connect

This paper will be submitted to the proceedings The Eleventh IASTED International Conference on. Signal and Image Processing. Given a video or video archive how does one effectively and quickly summarize, classify, and search the information contained within the data? This paper addresses these issues by describing a process for the automated generation of a table-of-contents and keyword, topic-based index tables that can be used to catalogue, summarize, and search large amounts of video data. Having the ability to index and search the information contained within the videos, beyond just metadata tags, provides a mechanism to extract and identify "useful" content from image and video data.

Trease, Harold E.; Trease, Lynn L.

2009-08-01

123

PRISM: Concept-preserving Social Image Search Results Summarization  

E-print Network

, insects, birds, and even the act of jumping. Image search results are typically presented as a ranked listPRISM: Concept-preserving Social Image Search Results Summarization Boon-Siew Seah seah0097@ntu Technological University, Singapore ABSTRACT Most existing tag-based social image search engines present search

Aixin, Sun

124

Investigation of Learners' Perceptions for Video Summarization and Recommendation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recently, multimedia-based learning is widespread in educational settings. A number of studies investigate how to develop effective techniques to manage a huge volume of video sources, such as summarization and recommendation. However, few studies examine how these techniques affect learners' perceptions in multimedia learning systems. This…

Yang, Jie Chi; Chen, Sherry Y.

2012-01-01

125

Video Summarization Based on User Interaction Dan R. Olsen Jr.  

E-print Network

information about each play. In contrast with previous video summarization work this paper describes how that a viewer can switch to any point in a video stream in a very few seconds. The painful "video buffering confined Permission to make digital or hard copies of all or part of this work for personal or classroom

Olsen Jr., Dan R.

126

Efficacious Data Cube Exploration by Semantic Summarization and Compression  

E-print Network

Efficacious Data Cube Exploration by Semantic Summarization and Compression Laks V.S. Lakshmanan of New York at Buffalo, USA. jianpei@cse.buffalo.edu Abstract Data cube is the core operator in data ware of the data cube limits its applicability as a means for semantic exploration by the user. Recently, we have

Pei, Jian

127

Power Mean Pyramid Scores for Summarization Evaluation Sameer Maskey  

E-print Network

Power Mean Pyramid Scores for Summarization Evaluation Sameer Maskey , Andrew Rosenberg+ IBM@cs.qc.cuny.edu Abstract We present Power Mean Pyramid Scores (PMP), an evaluation metric that extends the Pyramid- mid Scoring. Power Mean Pyramid Scoring (PMP) uses the original Pyramid method to assign scores

Maskey, Sameer R.

128

Exploiting Duality in Summarization with Deterministic Panagiotis Karras  

E-print Network

Pokfulam Road, Hong Kong, China nikos@cs.hku.hk ABSTRACT Summarization is an important task in data mining these deficiencies, thanks to a fruitful application of the solution to the dual problem: given a maximum allowed er Management]: Systems--Query processing General Terms Algorithms, Experimentation, Theory, Performance

Mamoulis, Nikos

129

Methodological Challenges Encountered in Summarizing Evidence-Based Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper details the challenges encountered by authors summarizing evidence from a primary study to describe a treatment's effectiveness using an effect size (ES) estimate. Dilemmas that are encountered, including how to calculate and interpret the pertinent standardized mean difference ES for results from studies of various research designs,…

Beretvas, S. Natasha

2005-01-01

130

Video summarization and scene detection by graph modeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we propose a unified approach for video summarization based on the analysis of video structures and video highlights. Two major components in our approach are scene mod- eling and highlight detection. Scene modeling is achieved by nor- malized cut algorithm and temporal graph analysis, while high- light detection is accomplished by motion attention modeling. In our proposed

Chong-wah Ngo; Yu-fei Ma; Hong-Jiang Zhang

2005-01-01

131

Ontology-enriched Multi-Document Summarization in Disaster Management  

E-print Network

Ontology-enriched Multi-Document Summarization in Disaster Management Lei Li, Dingding Wang, Chao of the extracted sentences. We apply OMS to disaster management for evaluation. For natural calamities for broadcasting and recording events. Experimental results on such disaster management demonstrate the effi- cacy

Li, Tao

132

Evaluation Methods of The Text Entities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The paper highlights some evaluation methods to assess the quality characteristics of the text entities. The main concepts used in building and evaluation processes of the text entities are presented. Also, some aggregated metrics for orthogonality measurements are presented. The evaluation process for automatic evaluation of the text entities is…

Popa, Marius

2006-01-01

133

Ergito: Virtual Text  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Ergito's Virtual Text, started in 2000, was created to provide a more timely and interactive alternative to printed scientific textbooks at the undergraduate and graduate level. This still-developing Web site covers life science writ large, including molecular biology, cell biology, genetics, biochemistry, immunology, and so on. However, only a small number of features are available free of charge. The first chapter of the molecular biology module -- Genes are DNA -- is available for free, as is Great Experiments, a collection of essays written by authors who conducted original research that has contributed greatly to our understanding of molecular and cellular biology. Great Experiments has a recently added essay by 2001 Nobel Prize winner Paul Nurse, titled "The Discovery of cdc2 as the Key Regulator of the Cell Cycle." These essays are formatted just as the Virtual Text pages are, with downloadable figures, a glossary, an online note-taking feature (notes are automatically compiled with a summary of the essay), glossary, and more. Ergito will soon make available Techniques, another free feature offering descriptions of widely used experimental protocols. Even without free access to the larger body of material in this Web site, Ergito is a fantastic resource for learning about molecular and cellular biology. Users must complete a free registration process to access this Web site.

134

Automatic generation of personalized music sports video  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we propose a novel automatic approach for personalized music sports video generation. Two research challenges, semantic sports video content selection and automatic video composition, are addressed. For the first challenge, we propose to use multi-modal (audio, video and text) feature analysis and alignment to detect the semantic of events in sports video. For the second challenge, we

Jinjun Wang; Changsheng Xu; Engsiong Chng; Ling-Yu Duan; Kongwah Wan; Qi Tian

2005-01-01

135

Text Mining for Neuroscience  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Text mining, sometimes alternately referred to as text analytics, refers to the process of extracting high-quality knowledge from the analysis of textual data. Text mining has wide variety of applications in areas such as biomedical science, news analysis, and homeland security. In this paper, we describe an approach and some relatively small-scale experiments which apply text mining to neuroscience research literature to find novel associations among a diverse set of entities. Neuroscience is a discipline which encompasses an exceptionally wide range of experimental approaches and rapidly growing interest. This combination results in an overwhelmingly large and often diffuse literature which makes a comprehensive synthesis difficult. Understanding the relations or associations among the entities appearing in the literature not only improves the researchers current understanding of recent advances in their field, but also provides an important computational tool to formulate novel hypotheses and thereby assist in scientific discoveries. We describe a methodology to automatically mine the literature and form novel associations through direct analysis of published texts. The method first retrieves a set of documents from databases such as PubMed using a set of relevant domain terms. In the current study these terms yielded a set of documents ranging from 160,909 to 367,214 documents. Each document is then represented in a numerical vector form from which an Association Graph is computed which represents relationships between all pairs of domain terms, based on co-occurrence. Association graphs can then be subjected to various graph theoretic algorithms such as transitive closure and cycle (circuit) detection to derive additional information, and can also be visually presented to a human researcher for understanding. In this paper, we present three relatively small-scale problem-specific case studies to demonstrate that such an approach is very successful in replicating a neuroscience expert's mental model of object-object associations entirely by means of text mining. These preliminary results provide the confidence that this type of text mining based research approach provides an extremely powerful tool to better understand the literature and drive novel discovery for the neuroscience community.

Tirupattur, Naveen; Lapish, Christopher C.; Mukhopadhyay, Snehasis

2011-06-01

136

Video summarization and personalization for pervasive mobile devices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have designed and implemented a video semantic summarization system, which includes an MPEG-7 compliant annotation interface, a semantic summarization middleware, a real-time MPEG-1/2 video transcoder on PCs, and an application interface on color/black-and-white Palm-OS PDAs. We designed a video annotation tool, VideoAnn, to annotate semantic labels associated with video shots. Videos are first segmentated into shots based on their visual-audio characteristics. They are played back using an interactive interface, which facilitate and fasten the annotation process. Users can annotate the video content with the units of temporal shots or spatial regions. The annotated results are stored in the MPEG-7 XML format. We also designed and implemented a video transmission system, Universal Tuner, for wireless video streaming. This system transcodes MPEG-1/2 videos or live TV broadcasting videos to the BW or indexed color Palm OS devices. In our system, the complexity of multimedia compression and decompression algorithms is adaptively partitioned between the encoder and decoder. In the client end, users can access the summarized video based on their preferences, time, keywords, as well as the transmission bandwidth and the remaining battery power on the pervasive devices.

Tseng, Belle L.; Lin, Ching-Yung; Smith, John R.

2001-12-01

137

Astro-Venture Geology Unit Conclusion: Summarizing Learning  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

in this concluding lesson, learners review astronomy and atmosphere systems and draw connections to geological processes and structures. They then summarize their learning from this unit in a final project. The lesson models scientific inquiry using the 5E instructional model and includes teacher notes, prerequisite concepts, common misconceptions, student journal and reading. This is lesson eight in the Astro-Venture Geology Training Unit that were developed to increase students' awareness of and interest in astrobiology and the many career opportunities that utilize science, math and technology skills. The lessons are designed for educators to use with the Astro-Venture multimedia modules.

138

Applying a sunburst visualization to summarize user navigation sequences.  

PubMed

For many Web-based applications, it's important to be able to analyze the paths users have taken through a site--for example, to understand how they're discovering engaging content. These paths are difficult to summarize visually because of the underlying data's complexity. A Google researcher applied a sunburst visualization to this problem, after simplifying the data into a hierarchical format. The resulting visualization was successful in YouTube and is widely referenced and accessed. The code for the visualization is available as open source. PMID:25248198

Rodden, Kerry

2014-01-01

139

Automatic fluid dispenser  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Fluid automatically flows to individual dispensing units at predetermined times from a fluid supply and is available only for a predetermined interval of time after which an automatic control causes the fluid to drain from the individual dispensing units. Fluid deprivation continues until the beginning of a new cycle when the fluid is once again automatically made available at the individual dispensing units.

Sakellaris, P. C. (inventor)

1977-01-01

140

A Graph Summarization Algorithm Based on RFID Logistics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) applications are set to play an essential role in object tracking and supply chain management systems. The volume of data generated by a typical RFID application will be enormous as each item will generate a complete history of all the individual locations that it occupied at every point in time. The movement trails of such RFID data form gigantic commodity flowgraph representing the locations and durations of the path stages traversed by each item. In this paper, we use graph to construct a warehouse of RFID commodity flows, and introduce a database-style operation to summarize graphs, which produces a summary graph by grouping nodes based on user-selected node attributes, further allows users to control the hierarchy of summaries. It can cut down the size of graphs, and provide convenience for users to study just on the shrunk graph which they interested. Through extensive experiments, we demonstrate the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed method.

Sun, Yan; Hu, Kongfa; Lu, Zhipeng; Zhao, Li; Chen, Ling

141

Summarizing with Drawings: A Reading-Comprehension Strategy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The development of literacy skills is essential for student success. According to the National Science Education Standards , "Scientific literacy entails being able to read with understanding articles about science in the popular press and to engage in social conversation about the validity of conclusions" (NRC 1996). Teachers can help students develop these skills by finding methods that not only motivate but also engage students in the reading process. One such method is described in this article wherein students draw after reading science content. When students summarize by drawing they must form a visual representation of the information they're trying to convey. This provides an opportunity for students to elaborate and encode the information in a personally meaningful way. In addition, drawing after reading encourages students to reflect on what they have read and allows time to process the information.

Elliott, Janine

2007-01-01

142

Autoclass: An automatic classification system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The task of inferring a set of classes and class descriptions most likely to explain a given data set can be placed on a firm theoretical foundation using Bayesian statistics. Within this framework, and using various mathematical and algorithmic approximations, the AutoClass System searches for the most probable classifications, automatically choosing the number of classes and complexity of class descriptions. A simpler version of AutoClass has been applied to many large real data sets, has discovered new independently-verified phenomena, and has been released as a robust software package. Recent extensions allow attributes to be selectively correlated within particular classes, and allow classes to inherit, or share, model parameters through a class hierarchy. The mathematical foundations of AutoClass are summarized.

Stutz, John; Cheeseman, Peter; Hanson, Robin

1991-01-01

143

AUTOMATICITY III: POLYNOMIAL AUTOMATICITY AND CONTEXTFREE  

E-print Network

, automaticity has proved useful in obtaining nontrivial lower bounds. For example, in Dwork & Stockmeyer (1989) , Dwork & Stockmeyer (1990), and Kaneps & Freivalds (1991) the measure was used to obtain lower bounds

Shallit, Jeffrey O.

144

Figure Text Extraction in Biomedical Literature  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundFigures are ubiquitous in biomedical full-text articles, and they represent important biomedical knowledge. However, the sheer volume of biomedical publications has made it necessary to develop computational approaches for accessing figures. Therefore, we are developing the Biomedical Figure Search engine (http:\\/\\/figuresearch.askHERMES.org) to allow bioscientists to access figures efficiently. Since text frequently appears in figures, automatically extracting such text may assist

Daehyun Kim; Hong Yu; Vladimir N. Uversky

2011-01-01

145

Effects of Teacher-Directed and Student-Interactive Summarization Instruction on Reading Comprehension and Written Summarization of Korean Fourth Graders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to investigate how Korean fourth graders' performance on reading comprehension and written summarization changes as a function of instruction in summarization across test times. Seventy five Korean fourth graders from three classes were randomly assigned to the collaborative summarization, direct instruction, and…

Jeong, Jongseong

2009-01-01

146

Automatic Detection of Microcalcification in Mammograms- A Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this review paper, it is intended to summarize and compare the methods of automatic detection of microcalcifications in digitized mammograms used in various stages of the Computer Aided Detection systems (CAD). In particular, the pre processing and enhancement, bilateral subtraction techniques, segmentation algorithms, feature extraction, selection and classification, classifiers, Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC); Free-response Receiver Operating Characteristic (FROC) analysis

K. Thangavel; M. Karnan; R. Sivakumar; A. Kaja Mohideen

2005-01-01

147

Text mining: applied for bomb blast detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Text Mining is the discovery by computer of new, previously unknown information, by automatically extracting information from different written resources. A key element is the linking together of the extracted information together to form new facts or new hypotheses to be explored further by more conventional means of experimentation.

S. Rathi; S. Shirgaonkar; C. A. Dhote

2010-01-01

148

Text on tap: the ACL\\/DCI  

Microsoft Academic Search

There has been a recent upsurge of interest in computational studies of large bodies of text. The aim of such studies varies widely, from lexicography and studies of language change to automatic indexing methods and statistical models for improving the performance of speech recognition systems and optical character readers. In general, corpus-based studies are critical for the development of adequate

Mark Liberman

1989-01-01

149

Abstracting Digital Movies Automatically  

Microsoft Academic Search

ing Digital Movies AutomaticallyS. Pfeioeer, R. Lienhart, S. Fischer und W. EoeelsbergUniversit#t MannheimPraktische Informatik IVL 15, 16D-68131 MannheimAbstracting Digital Movies AutomaticallySilvia Pfeioeer, Rainer Lienhart, Stephan Fischer andWolfgang EoeelsbergPraktische Informatik IVUniversity of MannheimD-68131 Mannheimpfeiffer@pi4.informatik.uni-mannheim.deAbstractLarge video on demand databases consisting of thousands of digital moviesare not easy to handle: the...

Reihe Informatik S. Pfeioeer; R. Lienhart; S. Fischer Und W. Eoeelsberg

1996-01-01

150

Automatic differentiation bibliography  

SciTech Connect

This is a bibliography of work related to automatic differentiation. Automatic differentiation is a technique for the fast, accurate propagation of derivative values using the chain rule. It is neither symbolic nor numeric. Automatic differentiation is a fundamental tool for scientific computation, with applications in optimization, nonlinear equations, nonlinear least squares approximation, stiff ordinary differential equation, partial differential equations, continuation methods, and sensitivity analysis. This report is an updated version of the bibliography which originally appeared in Automatic Differentiation of Algorithms: Theory, Implementation, and Application.

Corliss, G.F. [comp.

1992-07-01

151

A hybrid learning algorithm for text classification  

E-print Network

Text classification is the process of classifying documents into predefined categories based on their content. Existing supervised learning algorithms to automatically classify text need sufficient documents to learn accurately. This paper presents a new algorithm for text classification that requires fewer documents for training. Instead of using words, word relation i.e association rules from these words is used to derive feature set from preclassified text documents. The concept of Naive Bayes classifier is then used on derived features and finally only a single concept of Genetic Algorithm has been added for final classification. Experimental results show that the classifier build this way is more accurate than the existing text classification systems.

Kamruzzaman, S M

2010-01-01

152

Applying Semantics in Dataset Summarization for Solar Data Ingest Pipelines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One goal in studying phenomena of the solar corona (e.g., flares, coronal mass ejections) is to create and refine predictive models of space weather - which have broad implications for terrestrial activity (e.g., communication grid reliability). The High Altitude Observatory (HAO) [1] presently maintains an infrastructure for generating time-series visualizations of the solar corona. Through raw data gathered at the Mauna Loa Solar Observatory (MLSO) in Hawaii, HAO performs follow-up processing and quality control steps to derive visualization sets consumable by scientists. Individual visualizations will acquire several properties during their derivation, including: (i) the source instrument at MLSO used to obtain the raw data, (ii) the time the data was gathered, (iii) processing steps applied by HAO to generate the visualization, and (iv) quality metrics applied over both the raw and processed data. In parallel to MLSO's standard data gathering, time stamped observation logs are maintained by MLSO staff, which covers content of potential relevance to data gathered (such as local weather and instrument conditions). In this setting, while a significant amount of solar data is gathered, only small sections will typically be of interest to consuming parties. Additionally, direct presentation of solar data collections could overwhelm consumers (particularly those with limited background in the data structuring). This work explores how multidimensional analysis based navigation can be used to generate summary views of data collections, based on two operations: (i) grouping visualization entries based on similarity metrics (e.g., data gathered between 23:15-23:30 6-21-2012), or (ii) filtering entries (e.g., data with a quality score of UGLY, on a scale of GOOD, BAD, or UGLY). Here, semantic encodings of solar visualization collections (based on the Resource Description Framework (RDF) Datacube vocabulary [2]) are being utilized, based on the flexibility of the RDF model for supporting the following use cases: (i) Temporal alignment of time-stamped MLSO observations with raw data gathered at MLSO. (ii) Linking of multiple visualization entries to common (and structurally complex) workflow structures - designed to capture the visualization generation process. To provide real-world use cases for the described approach, a semantic summarization system is being developed for data gathered from HAO's Coronal Multi-channel Polarimeter (CoMP) and Chromospheric Helium-I Imaging Photometer (CHIP) pipelines. Web Links: [1] http://mlso.hao.ucar.edu/ [2] http://www.w3.org/TR/vocab-data-cube/

Michaelis, J.; McGuinness, D. L.; Zednik, S.; West, P.; Fox, P. A.

2012-12-01

153

A novel tool for assessing and summarizing the built environment  

PubMed Central

Background A growing corpus of research focuses on assessing the quality of the local built environment and also examining the relationship between the built environment and health outcomes and indicators in communities. However, there is a lack of research presenting a highly resolved, systematic, and comprehensive spatial approach to assessing the built environment over a large geographic extent. In this paper, we contribute to the built environment literature by describing a tool used to assess the residential built environment at the tax parcel-level, as well as a methodology for summarizing the data into meaningful indices for linkages with health data. Methods A database containing residential built environment variables was constructed using the existing body of literature, as well as input from local community partners. During the summer of 2008, a team of trained assessors conducted an on-foot, curb-side assessment of approximately 17,000 tax parcels in Durham, North Carolina, evaluating the built environment on over 80 variables using handheld Global Positioning System (GPS) devices. The exercise was repeated again in the summer of 2011 over a larger geographic area that included roughly 30,700 tax parcels; summary data presented here are from the 2008 assessment. Results Built environment data were combined with Durham crime data and tax assessor data in order to construct seven built environment indices. These indices were aggregated to US Census blocks, as well as to primary adjacency communities (PACs) and secondary adjacency communities (SACs) which better described the larger neighborhood context experienced by local residents. Results were disseminated to community members, public health professionals, and government officials. Conclusions The assessment tool described is both easily-replicable and comprehensive in design. Furthermore, our construction of PACs and SACs introduces a novel concept to approximate varying scales of community and describe the built environment at those scales. Our collaboration with community partners at all stages of the tool development, data collection, and dissemination of results provides a model for engaging the community in an active research program. PMID:23075269

2012-01-01

154

AMETHYST: automatic alarm assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the AMETHYST (AutoMatic Event auTHentication sYSTem) project is to encourage the development of a high-performance, perimeter-alarm verification system that, using computer-vision, automatically rejects false alarms. AMETHYST will pass to an operator only those alarms that are caused by an intruder.

S. Mockler; N. Clarke

2002-01-01

155

AIAA 960409 Automatic Aerodynamic  

E-print Network

AIAA 96­0409 Automatic Aerodynamic Optimization on Distributed Memory Architectures Antony Jameson­0409 Automatic Aerodynamic Optimization on Distributed Memory Architectures Antony Jameson and Juan J. Alonso. The Euler equations and the resulting adjoint equations necessary to calculate the Frechet derivatives

Jameson, Antony

156

A comparison of automatic and manual zoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thedate ofreceipt andacceptance will be inserted bythe editor Abstract. In this paper, we study the efiects of auto- maticzoningonretrievalandrankingvariability.Wewill show that OCR generated text from automatic zoning, followed by post processing, produces retrieval results equivalent to OCR generated text from manual zoning. Wefurthershowthatthereisastronglinearassociation between the ranked query results obtained from these two methods of zoning.

Kazem Taghva; Julie Borsack; Steven E. Lumos; Allen Condit

2003-01-01

157

Automated de-identification of free-text medical records  

E-print Network

This paper presents a de-identification study at the Harvard-MIT Division of Health Science and Technology (HST) to automatically de-identify confidential patient information from text medical records used in intensive ...

Neamatullah, Ishna

2006-01-01

158

Text / Document Visualization  

E-print Network

1 Text / Document Visualization 1 Slides Adopted from: Dr. Shixia Liu, Microsoft Research Text++ Document Visualization Pipeline Preprocessing Feature Extraction Feature Evaluation Visual Design Visual Encoding Original document Text Mining Visualization User Interaction Interaction #12;5 Text/Document

Fang, Shiaofen

159

A Platform to Automatically Generate and Incorporate Documents into an Ontology-Based Content Repository  

E-print Network

Preparation General Terms Documentation Keywords Software Documentation, Text Generation, Semantic Anno for content creation and automatic content an- notation. The software documentation domain is utilizedA Platform to Automatically Generate and Incorporate Documents into an Ontology-Based Content

Baader, Franz

160

A Cosine Maximization-Minimization approach for User-Oriented Multi-Document Update Summarization  

E-print Network

and examines possible futher work. 2 Background and related work Interest in multi-document summarizationA Cosine Maximization-Minimization approach for User-Oriented Multi-Document Update Summarization´eal (Qu´ebec), Canada. Abstract This paper presents a User-Oriented Multi- Document Update Summarization

Avignon et des Pays de Vaucluse, Université de

161

NEO-CORTEX: a performant user-oriented multi-document summarization system  

E-print Network

-oriented multi-document summariza- tion (MDS). Builds on previous work in single-document summarization (SDSNEO-CORTEX: a performant user-oriented multi-document summarization system Florian Boudin and Juan- document summarization. It investigates the effectiveness of using addi- tional information about

Avignon et des Pays de Vaucluse, Université de

162

Automatic amino acid analyzer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Analyzer operates unattended or up to 15 hours. It has an automatic sample injection system and can be programmed. All fluid-flow valve switching is accomplished pneumatically from miniature three-way solenoid pilot valves.

Berdahl, B. J.; Carle, G. C.; Oyama, V. I.

1971-01-01

163

A hierarchical structure for automatic meshing and adaptive FEM analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new algorithm for generating automatically, from solid models of mechanical parts, finite element meshes that are organized as spatially addressable quaternary trees (for 2-D work) or octal trees (for 3-D work) is discussed. Because such meshes are inherently hierarchical as well as spatially addressable, they permit efficient substructuring techniques to be used for both global analysis and incremental remeshing and reanalysis. The global and incremental techniques are summarized and some results from an experimental closed loop 2-D system in which meshing, analysis, error evaluation, and remeshing and reanalysis are done automatically and adaptively are presented. The implementation of 3-D work is briefly discussed.

Kela, Ajay; Saxena, Mukul; Perucchio, Renato

1987-01-01

164

Text localization from photos  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper a new text extraction algorithm is proposed. In real scenes the text is usually overlapped or is part of the background. To identify the text regions, in complex conditions, a method exploiting a ldquomulti-resolution feature based methodrdquo for extracting text with undefined dimension has been developed. Once identified, the multi-resolution information are merged and skimmed through a

Mirko Guarnera; Giuseppe Messina; Edoardo Ardizzone; Leonardo Agró

2009-01-01

165

Machine Reading of Handwritten Text Information in Field Technician's Maps  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we describe an approach for automatic reading of text information from field technician's maps as used in the telecom industry. Given three anchor points as specified by a human operator, the technique isolates the object (cable, or street etc.), identifies all text blocks associated with that object, and converts all information in these text blocks into field

Amlan Kundu; Richard J. Beach

1998-01-01

166

Recognition of Bangla text from scene images through perspective correction  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article proposes a scheme for automatic extraction and recognition of Bangla text from natural scene images. An image, when captured by a digital camera may have perspective distortion. Before extracting text symbols, this distortion is corrected using Homography transform. For text extraction, headlines are detected using morphology. First, the components attached or close to the detected headlines, are separated.

Ranjit Ghoshal; Anandarup Roy; Swapan Kr. Parui

2011-01-01

167

Automatic Video Shot Detection from MPEG Stream  

E-print Network

Automatic Video Shot Detection from MPEG Stream Jianping Fan Department of Computer Science;Why we need video shots? a. Text Retrieval: Keyword Extraction Indexing Document Storage Reverse File Indexing #12;Why we need video shots? b. Database Query: Entity Extraction sid name login age gpa 53666

Fan, Jianping

168

Automatic Query Expansion Using SMART: TREC 3  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Smart information retrieval project emphasizes completely automatic approaches to the understandingand retrieval of large quantities of text. We continue our work in TREC 3, performing runs in the routing,ad-hoc, and foreign language environments. Our major focus is massive query expansion: adding from 300 to530 terms to each query. These terms come from known relevant documents in the case of

Chris Buckley; Gerard Salton; James Allan; Amit Singhal

1994-01-01

169

Is Automatic Fitting Automatic in Model Optimization?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The development of Total Maximum Daily Loads (TMDLs) relies on the application of mathematical models, both empirical and mechanistic. The Hydrologic Simulation Program-FORTRAN (HSPF) is the most comprehensive and most frequently applied model in the development of TMDLs involving nonpoint sources. While the calibration of HSPF is generally a subjective process, criteria are not well defined, and the fitting of parameters is often not systematic or reproducible. The estimation of HSPF parameters is based on average values obtained from soil databases, results from past studies or by subjective fitting, and the accuracy of the subjective calibration depends on the skill and qualifications of the modeler. With advancements in computer capabilities, subjective fitting is being replaced by objective calibration using model-independent parameter estimators, based on the theory of non-linear parameter estimation and inverse modeling. Better and more extensive data analyses are possible with objective calibration, but this does not eliminate the need to understand the model structure, sensitivity, and comparison of alternative fitting criteria. Automatic fitting methodologies can help the user to understand the system and to infer the model parameters in a more consistent way than subjective optimization. The Parameter Estimator (PEST), a model-independent parameter optimizer was used to calibrate an HSPF application. Prior to the optimization, sensitivity analyses were performed on the HSPF hydrologic parameters to determine which parameters should be optimized. To set the PEST objective function, it is required to use a predefined criteria: (1) linearity between the actual and model-predicted discharges, (2) monthly volumes, and (3) frequency or exceedance of discharge. Weights for each of these three criteria, which provided similar contributions to the optimization function, were selected by trial and error. The subjective and automatic calibrations were evaluated using the relative bias and relative standard error for peak flows, base flows, and all flows. Results indicated that although the "automatic" optimization still carries a lot of subjectivity, the efficiency of the calibration process was increased. The proper use of automatic fitting requires an understanding of the objective functions, the model sensitivity for the watershed being studied, and the quantity and quality of the data. Failure to consider these factors during the optimization process, can lead to truly non-optimal solutions, even solutions that are less accurate than subjectively calibrated parameters.

GUTIERREZ-M, A. L.; McCuen, R. H.

2002-05-01

170

Text-Translation Alignment  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present an algorithm for aligning texts with their translations that is based only on internal evidence. The relaxation process rests on a notion of which word in one text corresponds to which word in the other text that is essentially based on the similarity of their distributions. It exploits a partial alignment of the word level to induce a

Martin Kay; Martin Röscheisen

1993-01-01

171

[The effect of reading tasks on learning from multiple texts].  

PubMed

This study examined the effect of reading tasks on the integration of content and source information from multiple texts. Undergraduate students (N = 102) read five newspaper articles about a fictitious incident in either a summarization task condition or an evaluation task condition. Then, they performed an integration test and a source choice test, which assessed their understanding of a situation described in the texts and memory for the sources of text information. The results indicated that the summarization and evaluation task groups were not significantly different in situational understanding. However, the summarization task group significantly surpassed the evaluation task group for source memory. No significant correlation between the situational understanding and the source memory was found for the summarization group, whereas a significant positive correlation was found for the evaluation group. The results are discussed in terms of the documents model framework. PMID:25016841

Kobayashi, Keiichi

2014-06-01

172

Oxford Text Archive  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The well-established Oxford Text Archive can now be accessed via its new web site, a redesign intended to improve navigation, functionality, and to utilize the SGML metadata available for all texts. Users can also now conduct full text searches. Founded in 1976 and based in the Humanities Computing Unit of Oxford University Computing Services, the Oxford Text Archive houses selected academic submissions for the purpose of preserving "high-quality electronic texts for research and teaching." Scholars and other interested users have access to more than 2500 resources in over 25 different languages. The OTA encourages new submissions of quality, scholarly electronic resources.

173

Automatic plate measurement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A working model of an automatic device for measuring astronomical plates has been developed and built which performs the functions of photometry and image diameter and coordinate determination. The model consists of a system for obtaining an accurate position, a scanner and a small computer, and is capable of operating in the automatic and semiautomatic modes. The image coordinates for a point object may be determined with an rms error of less than 1 micron, with an average time for object search and measurement of 20-30 sec. Measurements of the phases of the asteroid 39 Laetitia have demonstrated that the instrument is capable of measurements with precisions exceeding those in present star catalogs. The instrument is thus suitable for the automatic preparation of photographic reference star catalogs.

Rizvanov, N. G.; Sergeev, A. V.

1981-02-01

174

Text formatting by demonstration  

Microsoft Academic Search

In text formatters such as troff, Scribe, and TEX, users write macro procedures to specify the desired visual appearance. In What-You-See-Is-What-You-Get text formatters, such as MacWrite and Microsoft Word, the formatting is specified by directly manipulating the text. However, some important functionality is lost in these systems since they are not programmable, For example, if the user wants to change

Brad A. Myers

1991-01-01

175

TextImages  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Those persons who do their own website design will find TextImages most useful. Developed by Stefan Trost, this helpful tool allows users to integrate text written on images into their websites. Visitors can create single text images with this application, along with a wide range of pictures. Visitors also have the ability to precisely adjust the writing, design, format, style, colors, fonts, margins, and spacing as they see fit. The tool is particularly useful for those who want headings or other recurring text to look the same regardless of browser or available fonts. This version is compatible with Windows 7, XP, and Vista.

Trost, Stefan

2012-03-30

176

FIASCO: Filtering the Internet by Automatic Subtree Classification, Osnabruck  

E-print Network

. Fortunately, algorithms for filtering out such pages have been developed by the search engine and text miningFIASCO: Filtering the Internet by Automatic Subtree Classification, Osnabr¨uck Daniel Bauer, Judith

DeAngelis, Gregory

177

Bringing Order to the Web: Automatically Categorizing Search Results  

E-print Network

that organizes Web search results hierarchical categories. Text classification algorithms were used automatically Web, Search, User Study, Categorization, Classification, Support Vector Machine INTRODUCTION it impossible have broad coverage search engines, apply structure intranet files without additional manual

Chen, Hao

178

Text File Comparator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

File Comparator program IFCOMP, is text file comparator for IBM OS/VScompatable systems. IFCOMP accepts as input two text files and produces listing of differences in pseudo-update form. IFCOMP is very useful in monitoring changes made to software at the source code level.

Kotler, R. S.

1983-01-01

179

Teaching Expository Text Structures  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many students enter high school unskilled in the art of reading to learn from science textbooks. Even students who can read full-length novels often find science books difficult to read because students have relatively little practice with the various types of expository text structures used by such textbooks (Armbruster, 1991). Expository text

Montelongo, Jose; Berber-Jimenez, Lola; Hernandez, Anita C.; Hosking, David

2006-01-01

180

Automatic multiple applicator electrophoresis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Easy-to-use, economical device permits electrophoresis on all known supporting media. System includes automatic multiple-sample applicator, sample holder, and electrophoresis apparatus. System has potential applicability to fields of taxonomy, immunology, and genetics. Apparatus is also used for electrofocusing.

Grunbaum, B. W.

1977-01-01

181

Reactor component automatic grapple  

DOEpatents

A grapple for handling nuclear reactor components in a medium such as liquid sodium which, upon proper seating and alignment of the grapple with the component as sensed by a mechanical logic integral to the grapple, automatically seizes the component. The mechanical logic system also precludes seizure in the absence of proper seating and alignment.

Greenaway, Paul R. (Bethel Park, PA)

1982-01-01

182

Abstracting Digital Movies Automatically  

Microsoft Academic Search

Large video-on-demand databases consisting of thousands of digital movies are not easy to handle: the user must have an attractive means of retrieving his movie of choice. For analog video, movie trailers are produced to allow a quick preview and perhaps stimulate possible buyers. This paper presents techniques for automatically producing such movie abstracts of digital videos.

Silvia Pfeiffer; Rainer Lienhart; Stephan Fischer; Wolfgang Effelsberg

1996-01-01

183

Automatic water heater systems  

SciTech Connect

A heat trap is described which can be connected to the flue exhaust outlet of an automatic gas water heating system in which heat can be entrapped that would otherwise be lost via hot flue gases passing up through the flue exhaust and out of a chimney. The heat trap comprises a tank containing therein vertically extending serpentine heat tubes. The lower ends of the heat tubes are connected to a common exhaust inlet which is directly fastened to the exhaust outlet of the automatic gas water heating system. The upper end of the heat tubes are connected to an exhaust outlet of the heat trap which is connected to the chimney. The heat trap also comprises a cold water inlet and a heated water outlet which connects to the cold water inlet of the automatic gas water heating system. The heat trap maintains a separate water supply in the heat trap tank to be delivered through the cold water inlet of the automatic gas water heating system as water is required to replenish water supply of the system.

Wilhelm, R.O. Jr.

1987-03-31

184

Automatic water heater systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

A heat trap is described which can be connected to the flue exhaust outlet of an automatic gas water heating system in which heat can be entrapped that would otherwise be lost via hot flue gases passing up through the flue exhaust and out of a chimney. The heat trap comprises a tank containing therein vertically extending serpentine heat tubes.

R. O. Jr

1987-01-01

185

Automatic complexity analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

One way to analyse programs is to to derive expressions for their computational behaviour. A time bound function (or worst-cae complexity) gives an upper bound for the computation time as a function of the size of input. We describe a system to derive such time bounds automatically using abstract interpretation. The semantics-based setting makes it possible to prove the correctness

Mads Rosendahl

1989-01-01

186

Automatic Diagrams Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents fully automatic approach analysis for information extraction from digitized grey level images of scanned diagrams in the field of graphics recognition. The proposed algorithms were tested on Telecom Egypt diagrams and some randomly selected diagrams. The analysis involves three distinct stages: the location of starting pixels in the diagrams; followed by a model based line-following to separate

M. A. Berbar

2006-01-01

187

Automatic finite element generators  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The design and implementation of a software system for generating finite elements and related computations are described. Exact symbolic computational techniques are employed to derive strain-displacement matrices and element stiffness matrices. Methods for dealing with the excessive growth of symbolic expressions are discussed. Automatic FORTRAN code generation is described with emphasis on improving the efficiency of the resultant code.

Wang, P. S.

1984-01-01

188

Automatic Electronic Oxygen Supply  

PubMed Central

An automatic electronic oxygen system has been devised to supply an intensive care unit with a “fail-safe” supply of continuous oxygen. All parts of the system are fitted with alarms, as the oxygen powers gas-driven ventilators. Since the system is cheap it can be installed in hospitals where finance is limited. PMID:5278618

Ford, Patricia; Hoodless, D. J.

1971-01-01

189

Preparation and exploitation of bilingual texts Dusko Vitas  

E-print Network

the versions of the same text, generally sentence by sentence. In general, the bitext construction proceeds, that automatically aligns or matches the versions of the same text, generally sentence by sentence. A multilingual, or translation memories production. The current methods of construction and exploitation of multilingual aligned

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

190

Measuring Readability of Polish Texts: Baseline Experiments Bartosz Broda1  

E-print Network

Measuring Readability of Polish Texts: Baseline Experiments Bartosz Broda1 , Maciej Ogrodniczuk1/31, Warsaw, Poland Abstract Measuring readability of a text is the first sensible step to its simplification. In this paper we present an overview of the most common approaches to automatic measuring of readability

191

Constructing Biological Knowledge Bases by Extracting Information from Text Sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, there has been much eort in making databases for molecular biology more accessible and interoperable. However, information in text form, such as MEDLINE records, remains a greatly underutilized source of biological information. We have begun a re- search eort aimed at automatically mapping infor- mation from text sources into structured representa- tions, such as knowledge bases. Our approach to

Mark Craven; Johan Kumlien

1999-01-01

192

Habitual Virtuous Actions and Automaticity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dual process theorists in psychology maintain that the mind’s workings can be explained in terms of conscious or controlled processes and automatic processes. Automatic processes are largely nonconscious, that is, triggered by environmental stimuli without the agent’s conscious awareness or deliberation. Automaticity researchers contend that even higher level habitual social behaviors can be nonconsciously primed. This article brings work on

Nancy E. Snow

2006-01-01

193

Video summarization based on camera motion and a subjective evaluation method  

E-print Network

Video summarization based on camera motion and a subjective evaluation method M. Guironnet a , D of video summarization based on camera motion. It consists in selecting frames according to the succession summaries more generally. Subjects were asked to watch a video and to create a summary manually. From

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

194

VIDEO SUMMARIZATION USING A VISUALATTENTION MODEL Sophie MARAT, Mickel GUIRONNET, and Denis PELLERIN  

E-print Network

VIDEO SUMMARIZATION USING A VISUALATTENTION MODEL Sophie MARAT, Mickäel GUIRONNET, and Denis.gipsa-lab.inpg.fr ABSTRACT This paper presents a method of video summarization based on a visual attention model. The visual variation curve" which highlights changes on frames content during the video is introduced. Keyframes

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

195

PERSIVAL, a System for Personalized Search and Summarization over Multimedia Healthcare Information.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reports on the ongoing development of PERSIVAL (Personalized Retrieval and Summarization of Image, Video, and Language), a system designed to provide personalized access to a distributed digital library of medical literature and consumer health information. The goal for PERSIVAL is to tailor search, presentation, and summarization of…

McKeown, Kathleen R.; Chang, Shih-Fu; Cimino, James; Feiner, Steven K.; Friedman, Carol; Gravano, Luis; Hatzivassiloglou, Vasileios; Johnson, Steven; Jordan, Desmond A.; Klavans, Judith L.; Kushniruk, Andre; Patel, Vimla; Teufel, Simone

196

Sentiment Regression: Using Real-Valued Scores to Summarize Overall Document Sentiment  

E-print Network

Sentiment Regression: Using Real-Valued Scores to Summarize Overall Document Sentiment Adam Drake Provo, UT 84602-6576 Abstract In this paper, we consider a sentiment regression prob- lem: summarizing the overall sentiment of a review with a real-valued score. Empirical results on a set of labeled re- views

Martinez, Tony R.

197

Red-Tide Research Summarized to 1964 Including an Annotated Bibliography  

E-print Network

535^ Red-Tide Research Summarized to 1964 Including an Annotated Bibliography By George A, Harold E. Crowther, Acting Director Red-Tide Research Summarized to 1964 Including an Annotated Historical 2 General conditions during red-tide outbreaks 3 Temperature 3 Salinity 3 Rainfall 4 Wind 4 Light

198

An Introduction to the Summarization of Evolving Events: Linear and Non-linear Evolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the summarization of events that evolve through time. It discusses different types of evolution taking into account the time in which the incidents of an event are happening and the dif- ferent sources reporting on the specific event. It proposes an approach for multi-document summarization which employs \\

Stergos D. Afantenos; Konstantina Liontou; Maria Salapata; Vangelis Karkaletsis

2005-01-01

199

From single to multi-document summarization: A prototype system and its evaluation  

E-print Network

NeATS is a multi-document summarization system that attempts to extract relevant or interesting portions from a set of documents about some topic and present them in coherent order. NeATS is among the best performers in the large scale summarization evaluation DUC 2001. 1

Chin-yew Lin; Eduard Hovy

2002-01-01

200

Texting on the Move  

MedlinePLUS

... than the road. In fact, driving while texting (DWT) can be more dangerous than driving under the ... drivers. Many more states are trying to put DWT regulations into action. Even in states without specific ...

201

Teaching Expository Text Structures  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Many students enter high school unskilled in the art of reading to learn from science textbooks. Even students who can read full-length novels often find science books difficult to read because students have relatively little practice with the various types of expository text structures used by such textbooks. In this article, the authors present an activity using a modified form of the sentence completion or "fill-in-the-blanks" worksheet that reinforces students' fluency with expository text structure and context.

Hernandez, Anita C.; Hosking, David; Montelongo, Jose'; Berber-Jimenez, Lola

2006-02-01

202

Robust Text Detection in Natural Scene Images.  

PubMed

Text detection in natural scene images is an important prerequisite for many content-based image analysis tasks. In this paper, we propose an accurate and robust method for detecting texts in natural scene images. A fast and effective pruning algorithm is designed to extract Maximally Stable Extremal Regions (MSERs) as character candidates using the strategy of minimizing regularized variations. Character candidates are grouped into text candidates by the single-link clustering algorithm, where distance weights and clustering threshold are learned automatically by a novel self-training distance metric learning algorithm. The posterior probabilities of text candidates corresponding to non-text are estimated with a character classifier; text candidates with high non-text probabilities are eliminated and texts are identified with a text classifier. The proposed system is evaluated on the ICDAR 2011 Robust Reading Competition database; the f measure is over 76%, much better than the state-of-the-art performance of 71%. Experiments on multilingual, street view, multi-orientation and even born-digital databases also demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method. Finally, an online demo of our proposed scene text detection system has been set up at http://kems.ustb.edu.cn/learning/yin/dtext. PMID:24080709

Yin, Xu-Cheng; Yin, Xuwang; Huang, Kaizhu; Hao, Hong-Wei

2013-09-26

203

The earliest medical texts.  

PubMed

The first civilization known to have had an extensive study of medicine and to leave written records of its practices and procedures was that of ancient Egypt. The oldest extant Egyptian medical texts are six papyri from the period between 2000 B.C. and 1500 B.C.: the Kahun Medical Papyrus, the Ramesseum IV and Ramesseum V Papyri, the Edwin Smith Surgical Papyrus, The Ebers Medical Papyrus and the Hearst Medical Papyrus. These texts, most of them based on older texts dating possibly from 3000 B.C., are comparatively free of the magician's approach to treating illness. Egyptian medicine influenced the medicine of neighboring cultures, including the culture of ancient Greece. From Greece, its influence spread onward, thereby affecting Western civilization significantly. PMID:2463895

Frey, E F

204

Text Retrieval Conference (TREC)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Text REtrieval Conference (TREC) is an annual event that supports "research within the information retrieval community by providing the infrastructure necessary for large-scale evaluation of text retrieval methodologies." Proceedings of the conference covering all twelve years of its history are available on the TREC homepage. As TREC has evolved, it has added several focus areas that span new and different topics in information retrieval. These tracks mainly examine methods of searching and filtering different types of data, including genomic records, digital video, and data that is given in multiple languages.

2001-01-01

205

Utah Culture Text  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Research one of Utah's many cultural festivals and send a text message explaining what you've learned! Step One: Research Select one of the following ethnic festivals in Utah to research. Navigate the webiste to find out what the festival is about and what one can do if they go to the festival. Look at available photos and videos to help learn about the festival. Asian Festival Festival of Colors Greek Festival India Fest Living Traditional Festival Scottish Festival St. Patrick s Day Parade Swiss Days Step Two: Text Message Pretend ...

Mrs. Wheeler

2011-03-02

206

Automatism and driving offences.  

PubMed

Automatism is a rarely used defence, but it is particularly used for driving offences because many are strict liability offences. Medical evidence is almost always crucial to argue the defence, and it is important to understand the bars that limit the use of automatism so that the important medical issues can be identified. The issue of prior fault is an important public safeguard to ensure that reasonable precautions are taken to prevent accidents. The total loss of control definition is more problematic, especially with disorders of more gradual onset like hypoglycaemic episodes. In these cases the alternative of 'effective loss of control' would be fairer. This article explores several cases, how the criteria were applied to each, and the types of medical assessment required. PMID:24112330

Rumbold, John

2013-10-01

207

Automatic Abstraction in Planning  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Traditionally, abstraction in planning has been accomplished by either state abstraction or operator abstraction, neither of which has been fully automatic. We present a new method, predicate relaxation, for automatically performing state abstraction. PABLO, a nonlinear hierarchical planner, implements predicate relaxation. Theoretical, as well as empirical results are presented which demonstrate the potential advantages of using predicate relaxation in planning. We also present a new definition of hierarchical operators that allows us to guarantee a limited form of completeness. This new definition is shown to be, in some ways, more flexible than previous definitions of hierarchical operators. Finally, a Classical Truth Criterion is presented that is proven to be sound and complete for a planning formalism that is general enough to include most classical planning formalisms that are based on the STRIPS assumption.

Christensen, J.

1991-01-01

208

Dimensional Automatic Target Classification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High resolution electro-optical sensors are emerging from technology, offering a capability to remotely determine geometric shape of objects. In terms of military reconnaissance and surveilance needs, this capability enhances the potential to detect, classify, and identify enemy targets automatically, and record or report only their type and location. The objective of this paper is to outline the general nature of an automatic classifier for processing high resolution, active electro-optical sensor data on the basis of target dimensional features. A simple geometric analysis is used to demonstrate the predominant features of the data, and to suggest approaches for cueing potential targets by masking out extraneous background data. The goal is to provide an early data reduction so that potential target subframes can be processed in the classification processor at lower data rates. Both line-scan and raster-scan data formats are considered, in forward- and down-looking configurations.

Rose, Harold W.; Rachal, James C.

1981-11-01

209

Adaptation is automatic.  

PubMed

Two experiments were used to test whether selective adaptation for speech occurs automatically or instead requires attentional resources. A control condition demonstrated the usual large identification shifts caused by repeatedly presenting an adapting sound (/wa/, with listeners identifying members of a /ba/-/wa/ test series). Two types of distractor tasks were used: (1) Subjects did a rapid series of arithmetic problems during the adaptation periods (Experiments 1 and 2), or (2) they made a series of rhyming judgments, requiring phonetic coding (Experiment 2). A control experiment (Experiment 3) demonstrated that these tasks normally impose a heavy attentional cost on phonetic processing. Despite this, for both experimental conditions, the observed adaptation effect was just as large as in the control condition. This result indicates that adaptation is automatic, operating at an early, preattentive level. The implications of these results for current models of speech perception are discussed. PMID:9599999

Samuel, A G; Kat, D

1998-04-01

210

Automatic thermal switches  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two automatic switches control heat flow from one thermally conductive plate to another. One switch permits heat flow to outside; other limits heat flow. In one switch, heat on conductive plate activates piston that forces saddle against plate. Heat carriers then conduct heat to second plate that radiates it away. After temperature is first plate drops, piston contracts and spring breaks thermal contact with plate. In second switch, action is reversed.

Cunningham, J. W.; Wing, L. D.

1980-01-01

211

Towards automatic program partitioning  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a trend towards using accelerators to increase per- formance and energy eciency of general-purpose proces- sors. Adoption of accelerators, however, depends on the availability of tools to facilitate programming these devices. In this paper, we present techniques for automatically par- titioning programs for execution on accelerators. We call the o-loaded code regions sub-algorithms, which are parts of the

Sean Rul; Hans Vandierendonck; Koen De Bosschere

2009-01-01

212

Criterra automatic location planning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Criterra is a software suite that automatically determines optimum locations and heights in seconds\\/minutes for security system sensors, and locations for infrastructure and response forces based on dominant mosaic, line-of-sight, time-and-space, Doppler, propagation and other algorithms, executed on a terabyte size 3D geospatial and object database. Inputs include specifications of sensor systems, barriers, and response forces. Criterra is based on

Lawrence Cassenti; P. E. Peter Leed

2011-01-01

213

Polymorphous Perversity in Texts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Here's the tricky part: If we teach ourselves and our students that texts are made to be broken apart, remixed, remade, do we lose the polymorphous perversity that brought us pleasure in the first place? Does the pleasure of transgression evaporate when the borders are opened?

Johnson-Eilola, Johndan

2012-01-01

214

STEM Careers Cursive Text  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This brief video from WPSU compares technologies from yesterday with today. Yesterday a middle school girl writes in cursive while today a girl the same age texts on her cell. The video suggests that science will bring us technologies of tomorrow.

Wpsu

2009-11-10

215

Visualizing Informational Text  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Visualizing is a reading comprehension strategy that can be applied to science-themed texts, according to this article from Beyond Weather and the Water Cycle, a magazine that integrates literacy and science skills instruction. The author identifies six online resources that have activities, lesson plans, and more information.

Fries-Gaither, Jessica

2011-03-01

216

Automatic payload deployment system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ability to precisely emplace stand-alone payloads in hostile territory has long been on the wish list of US warfighters. This type of activity is one of the main functions of special operation forces, often conducted at great danger. Such risk can be mitigated by transitioning the manual placement of payloads over to an automated placement mechanism by the use of the Automatic Payload Deployment System (APDS). Based on the Automatically Deployed Communication Relays (ADCR) system, which provides non-line-of-sight operation for unmanned ground vehicles by automatically dropping radio relays when needed, the APDS takes this concept a step further and allows for the delivery of a mixed variety of payloads. For example, payloads equipped with a camera and gas sensor in addition to a radio repeater, can be deployed in support of rescue operations of trapped miners. Battlefield applications may include delivering food, ammunition, and medical supplies to the warfighter. Covert operations may require the unmanned emplacement of a network of sensors for human-presence detection, before undertaking the mission. The APDS is well suited for these tasks. Demonstrations have been conducted using an iRobot PackBot EOD in delivering a variety of payloads, for which the performance and results will be discussed in this paper.

Pezeshkian, Narek; Nguyen, Hoa G.; Burmeister, Aaron; Holz, Kevin; Hart, Abraham

2010-04-01

217

Use of SI Metric Units Misrepresented in College Physics Texts.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Summarizes results of a survey that examined 13 textbooks claiming to use SI units. Tables present data concerning the SI and non-SI units actually used in each text in discussion of fluid pressure and thermal energy, and data concerning which texts do and do not use SI as claimed. (CS)

Hooper, William

1980-01-01

218

Nonverbatim Captioning in Dutch Television Programs: A Text Linguistic Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the Netherlands, as in most other European countries, closed captions for the deaf summarize texts rather than render them verbatim. Caption editors argue that in this way television viewers have enough time to both read the text and watch the program. They also claim that the meaning of the original message is properly conveyed. However, many…

Schilperoord, Joost; de Groot, Vanja; van Son, Nic

2005-01-01

219

Making a Splash: Comparing Two Informational Texts through Read Alouds  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, students will learn to compare and contrast two informational texts through read alouds and use of a Venn diagram graphic organizer. The lesson uses Swimming by JoAnn Macken and Let's Swim by Carol Lindeen. Students will also write to summarize what they have learned about the similarities and differences between the two texts.

Judah, Heather

2012-09-20

220

Clandestine E-Texts  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Edited and maintained by Gianluca Mori of the University of Turin-Vercelli, this site currently hosts the full texts (in French) of seventeen French clandestine manuscripts from the early enlightenment. As Mori notes, the treatises share an anti-Christian attitude, but beyond that their philosophical inspiration varies, "leading sometimes either to a deist (Examen de la religion) or to an atheist position (Meslier's Memoire, Freret's Lettre de Thrasybule a Leucippe)." The treatises are offered in HTML format, some with related links. Links are also provided to several texts on other servers and to related resources. Users may register for email notification of updates to the site, which is also available in French and Italian.

221

Nuclear structure. [Text book  

Microsoft Academic Search

The text is divided into eight chapters and four appendices. Nucleon-nucleon forces is the subject of the first chapter, and a background in relevant portions of elementary particle physics is included. The following chapters deal with specific aspects of nuclear structure theory: nuclear shape and moments, nuclear matter characteristics, single-particle shell model, individual-particle model, collective nuclear effects, electromagnetic interactions with

Hornyak

1975-01-01

222

Automatic Long Audio Alignment and Confidence Scoring for Conversational Arabic Speech  

E-print Network

Automatic Long Audio Alignment and Confidence Scoring for Conversational Arabic Speech Mohamed In this paper, a framework for long audio alignment for conversational Arabic speech is proposed. Accurate) training, audio summarizing and retrieving, etc. We have collected more than 1,400 hours of conversational

Hasegawa-Johnson, Mark

223

Summarizing Traces as Signals in Time Adrian Kuhn and Orla Greevy  

E-print Network

University of Bern, Switzerland {akuhn, greevy}@iam.unibe.ch Abstract One of the key challenges of dynamic views. The main challenge of trace summarization is to re- duce the volume of data without loss

Nierstrasz, Oscar

224

This handbook summarizes the Biochemistry & Cell Biology Graduate Program policies and procedures and is updated annually.  

E-print Network

#12;This handbook summarizes the Biochemistry & Cell Biology Graduate Program policies, Biochemistry & Cell Biology graduate students must also be in agreement with the General Announcements and Code with suggestions for additions or clarifications. #12;Faculty Committees BIOCHEMISTRY & CELL BIOLOGY GRADUATE

225

Reception of Texts Database  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created by the Reception of Texts Project at the Open University, this pilot database is designed to help practitioners of reception studies "address issues of performance with the same degree of rigour and attention to evidence which is expected in textual studies and to develop ways of documenting performance which recognise its cross disciplinary and creative dimensions." To that end, academics and students in classical studies, literature, theater studies, and related fields can use this database to search for information on the performances of Greek plays in the original and in adaptations, versions and translations in English from c.1970 to the present, and in the future, poetry in English which draws on Greek texts, myths, and images. The database offers nine search categories, each with a slightly different search format, some offering only a simple keyword search, others with multiple modifiers, and others with pull-down menus for browsing. With the exception of the Critical Works category, searches ultimately return a Production Details page which generally includes modern and original title, year, theater, dates of performance, company, and music, design, and general notes. A useful feature throughout the database is a Missing Information form, which allows users to submit additional or missing information about specific entries.

226

Internet Sacred Text Archive  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The world's philosophical and religious traditions have found a fine home at the Internet Sacred Text Archive, which, as the homepage notes, is "a quiet place in cyberspace devoted to religious tolerance and scholarship." Working together with a number of colleagues and volunteers, JB Hare has compiled this vast archive of sacred and philosophical texts from a number of public-domain sources and placed them on the site. What makes the site so intriguing is that Hare has placed detailed information about the sources and standards that have been deployed for each separate project, which will be of great interest to scholars. While the entire site can be searched, there is much to be learned by looking through the topics listed on the main page, which range from Atlantis to Zoroastrianism. Each separate topic contains a number of accurately transcribed (and some times, translated) primary and secondary documents, such as first-hand collections of oral traditions. For persons looking for their own copy of the material contained on the site, a CD-ROM is available for purchase as well.

1997-01-01

227

Automatic level control circuit  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An automatic level control circuit for an operational amplifier for minimizing spikes or instantaneous gain of the amplifier at a low period wherein no signal is received on the input is provided. The apparatus includes a multibranch circuit which is connected between an output terminal and a feedback terminal. A pair of zener diodes are connected back to back in series with a capacitor provided in one of the branches. A pair of voltage dividing resistors are connected in another of the branches and a second capacitor is provided in the remaining branch of controlling the high frequency oscillations of the operational amplifier.

Toole, P. C.; Mccarthy, D. M. (inventors)

1983-01-01

228

Magnetic Resonance Online Texts  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This well-organized and very thorough website was developed by the physicist Stanislav Sykora with the aim of providing free online texts, theses, and course materials on the subjects of magnetic resonance (MR), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), nuclear-magnetic resonance (NMR) and other related topics. The amount of material on the site is impressive. At the top of the page are links to an "MR Blog", as well as to "MR Links" and the "Site Plan & SEARCH". The NMR/MRI Extras section on the right side of the page is particularly useful for visitors interested in all things about MR. Its links to "Events" provides an up-to-date list of symposia, conferences, and meetings, along with links to the events' sites. The "Societies" link offers at least 50 groups about MR, some of which are country-based, and others that are region- or application-based.

S�½kora, Stanislav

229

Overlay Text Retrieval From Video Scene  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The rapid growth of video data leads to an urgent demand for efficient and true contentbased browsing and retrieving systems. In response to such needs, various video content analysis schemes using one or a combination of image, audio, and text information in videos have been proposed to parse, index, or abstract massive amount of data text in video is a very compact and accurate clue for video indexing and summarization. Most video text detection and extraction methods hold assumptions on text color, background contrast, and font style. Moreover, few methods can handle multilingual text well since different languages may have quite different appearances. In this paper, an efficient overlay text detection and extraction method is implemented which deals with complex backgrounds. Based on our observation that there exist transient colors between inserted text and its adjacent background. It is robust with respect to font size, style text, color, orientation and noise and can be used in a large variety of application fields such as mobile robot navigation vehicle license detection and recognition, object identification , document retrieving, etc.

Manohar, K.; Irfan, S.; Sravani, K.

2013-03-01

230

Automatic Evidence Retrieval for Systematic Reviews  

PubMed Central

Background Snowballing involves recursively pursuing relevant references cited in the retrieved literature and adding them to the search results. Snowballing is an alternative approach to discover additional evidence that was not retrieved through conventional search. Snowballing’s effectiveness makes it best practice in systematic reviews despite being time-consuming and tedious. Objective Our goal was to evaluate an automatic method for citation snowballing’s capacity to identify and retrieve the full text and/or abstracts of cited articles. Methods Using 20 review articles that contained 949 citations to journal or conference articles, we manually searched Microsoft Academic Search (MAS) and identified 78.0% (740/949) of the cited articles that were present in the database. We compared the performance of the automatic citation snowballing method against the results of this manual search, measuring precision, recall, and F1 score. Results The automatic method was able to correctly identify 633 (as proportion of included citations: recall=66.7%, F1 score=79.3%; as proportion of citations in MAS: recall=85.5%, F1 score=91.2%) of citations with high precision (97.7%), and retrieved the full text or abstract for 490 (recall=82.9%, precision=92.1%, F1 score=87.3%) of the 633 correctly retrieved citations. Conclusions The proposed method for automatic citation snowballing is accurate and is capable of obtaining the full texts or abstracts for a substantial proportion of the scholarly citations in review articles. By automating the process of citation snowballing, it may be possible to reduce the time and effort of common evidence surveillance tasks such as keeping trial registries up to date and conducting systematic reviews. PMID:25274020

Choong, Miew Keen; Galgani, Filippo; Dunn, Adam G

2014-01-01

231

Practical vision based degraded text recognition system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rapid growth and progress in the medical, industrial, security and technology fields means more and more consideration for the use of camera based optical character recognition (OCR) Applying OCR to scanned documents is quite mature, and there are many commercial and research products available on this topic. These products achieve acceptable recognition accuracy and reasonable processing times especially with trained software, and constrained text characteristics. Even though the application space for OCR is huge, it is quite challenging to design a single system that is capable of performing automatic OCR for text embedded in an image irrespective of the application. Challenges for OCR systems include; images are taken under natural real world conditions, Surface curvature, text orientation, font, size, lighting conditions, and noise. These and many other conditions make it extremely difficult to achieve reasonable character recognition. Performance for conventional OCR systems drops dramatically as the degradation level of the text image quality increases. In this paper, a new recognition method is proposed to recognize solid or dotted line degraded characters. The degraded text string is localized and segmented using a new algorithm. The new method was implemented and tested using a development framework system that is capable of performing OCR on camera captured images. The framework allows parameter tuning of the image-processing algorithm based on a training set of camera-captured text images. Novel methods were used for enhancement, text localization and the segmentation algorithm which enables building a custom system that is capable of performing automatic OCR which can be used for different applications. The developed framework system includes: new image enhancement, filtering, and segmentation techniques which enabled higher recognition accuracies, faster processing time, and lower energy consumption, compared with the best state of the art published techniques. The system successfully produced impressive OCR accuracies (90% -to- 93%) using customized systems generated by our development framework in two industrial OCR applications: water bottle label text recognition and concrete slab plate text recognition. The system was also trained for the Arabic language alphabet, and demonstrated extremely high recognition accuracy (99%) for Arabic license name plate text recognition with processing times of 10 seconds. The accuracy and run times of the system were compared to conventional and many states of art methods, the proposed system shows excellent results.

Mohammad, Khader; Agaian, Sos; Saleh, Hani

2011-02-01

232

Automatic Neural Processing of Disorder-Related Stimuli in Social Anxiety Disorder: Faces and More  

PubMed Central

It has been proposed that social anxiety disorder (SAD) is associated with automatic information processing biases resulting in hypersensitivity to signals of social threat such as negative facial expressions. However, the nature and extent of automatic processes in SAD on the behavioral and neural level is not entirely clear yet. The present review summarizes neuroscientific findings on automatic processing of facial threat but also other disorder-related stimuli such as emotional prosody or negative words in SAD. We review initial evidence for automatic activation of the amygdala, insula, and sensory cortices as well as for automatic early electrophysiological components. However, findings vary depending on tasks, stimuli, and neuroscientific methods. Only few studies set out to examine automatic neural processes directly and systematic attempts are as yet lacking. We suggest that future studies should: (1) use different stimulus modalities, (2) examine different emotional expressions, (3) compare findings in SAD with other anxiety disorders, (4) use more sophisticated experimental designs to investigate features of automaticity systematically, and (5) combine different neuroscientific methods (such as functional neuroimaging and electrophysiology). Finally, the understanding of neural automatic processes could also provide hints for therapeutic approaches. PMID:23745116

Schulz, Claudia; Mothes-Lasch, Martin; Straube, Thomas

2013-01-01

233

Reducing Information Variation in Text  

Microsoft Academic Search

We discuss the nature and the scope of linguistic (morphological,syntactic and semantic) variation of terms and its impact on twoinformation retrieval tasks: term acquisition and automatic indexing. Areview of natural language processing techniques existing in these twoareas is done, along with an in-depth presentation of FASTR, a corpusprocessor for the recognition, normalization, and acquisition of multi-word terms.

Agata Savary; Christian Jacquemin

2000-01-01

234

Automatic readout micrometer  

DOEpatents

A measuring system is disclosed for surveying and very accurately positioning objects with respect to a reference line. A principal use of this surveying system is for accurately aligning the electromagnets which direct a particle beam emitted from a particle accelerator. Prior art surveying systems require highly skilled surveyors. Prior art systems include, for example, optical surveying systems which are susceptible to operator reading errors, and celestial navigation-type surveying systems, with their inherent complexities. The present invention provides an automatic readout micrometer which can very accurately measure distances. The invention has a simplicity of operation which practically eliminates the possibilities of operator optical reading error, owning to the elimination of traditional optical alignments for making measurements. The invention has an extendable arm which carries a laser surveying target. The extendable arm can be continuously positioned over its entire length of travel by either a coarse or fine adjustment without having the fine adjustment outrun the coarse adjustment until a reference laser beam is centered on the target as indicated by a digital readout. The length of the micrometer can then be accurately and automatically read by a computer and compared with a standardized set of alignment measurements. Due to its construction, the micrometer eliminates any errors due to temperature changes when the system is operated within a standard operating temperature range.

Lauritzen, Ted (Lafayette, CA)

1982-01-01

235

Publishing Historical Texts on the Semantic Web --A Case Study  

E-print Network

materials haven't been commonly adapted for publication in semantic web portals for cultural heritage [4 names. As is stated in [5], the research of automatic text processing tends to focus on contemporary't necessarily exist in contemporary knowledge sources [5]. In this paper, these issues are addressed by a case

Hyvönen, Eero

236

Text-to-Animation: Aective, Intelligent and Multimodal Visualisation of Natural Language Scripts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Performing plays or creating lms and animations is a complex creative, and thus expensive process, involving various professionals and media. This paper re- views articial intelligence text-to-animation systems and tools to augment this process by automatically interpreting lm and play scripts and automatically generating an- imated scenes. Special attention is given to emotional aspects and their reection in the execution

Eva Hanser; Paul Mc; Tom Lunney; Joan Condell

237

Berkovsky, Shlomo, Timothy Baldwin and Ingrid Zukerman (2008) Aspect-Based Personalized Text Summarization, In Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Adaptive  

E-print Network

The blue whale is a marine mammal belonging to the family of baleen whales. This family also includes contains a life-size model of a blue whale. Living whales may be encountered in Saint Lawrence Gulf is focused on personaliza- tion in museums. For example, consider the following document d about blue whales

Baldwin, Timothy

238

Automatic Meteorological Data Collecting System  

Microsoft Academic Search

The automatic data collecting system, as designed, permits automatic sensing and logging of 64 meteorological parameters measured on a 220-foot tower. The design permits simultaneous measurements of all parameters at all levels, with response of the instruments on the order of a few seconds. There is a resultant increase in data accuracy and acquisition, flexibility of observation periods, ease of

R. Thomas; M. McLardie

1960-01-01

239

Automatic Coal-Mining System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Coal cutting and removal done with minimal hazard to people. Automatic coal mine cutting, transport and roof-support movement all done by automatic machinery. Exposure of people to hazardous conditions reduced to inspection tours, maintenance, repair, and possibly entry mining.

Collins, E. R., Jr.

1985-01-01

240

Smart PM automatic control system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper focus on the tool preventive maintenance (PM) control automatically. We develop a system called Smart PM automatic control system. This system will help us to forecast PM exactly and arrange PM schedule in advance. It can also control suitable Queue-time WIP before PM, and then auto check tools before tools recovery. The system has implemented in our 300mm

Cheng-Sheng Chang; Hsi-Lo Lo; Cheng-Chung Pan; De-Lung Wu

2010-01-01

241

Automatic identification of class stereotypes  

Microsoft Academic Search

An approach is presented to automatically determine a class's stereotype. The stereotype is based on the frequency and distribution of method stereotypes in the class. Method stereotypes are automatically determined using a defined taxonomy given in previous work. The stereotypes, boundary, control and entity are used as a basis but refined based on an empirical investigation of 21 systems. A

Natalia Dragan; Michael L. Collard; Jonathan I. Maletic

2010-01-01

242

Device for the Automatic Control of Airplanes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report provides a description of an automatic control mechanism that consists of an automatic elevator control, aileron control, and a rudder control. Each automatic control can be independently switched on or off.

Gradenwitz, Alfred

1929-01-01

243

Spacecraft automatic umbilical system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A conceptual definition of an appropriate berthing technique and a prototype design of an automatic umbilical system suitable for use with payloads carried by the Space Shuttle are presented. A four-element berthing system is described. This concept consists of a set of four remote manipulator system (RMS)-type end-effector capture/tie-down devices on the power system and corresponding RMS-type grapple fittings on the payload. In operation, the RMS maneuvers the payload to a position where the four grapple fittings can be snared within the end-effectors and then secured to the power system. The concept takes advantage of mechanisms and operating techniques developed for attaching the RMS to a payload. Although the umbilical installation is attached to the docking interface structure, its operation is independent and it must comply with a set of primary requirements specified by Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), which is presented.

Rudy, G. C.

1982-01-01

244

Automatic alkaloid removal system.  

PubMed

This alkaloid automated removal machine was developed at Instrumentation Laboratory, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin Malaysia that purposely for removing the alkaloid toxicity from Dioscorea hispida (DH) tuber. It is a poisonous plant where scientific study has shown that its tubers contain toxic alkaloid constituents, dioscorine. The tubers can only be consumed after it poisonous is removed. In this experiment, the tubers are needed to blend as powder form before inserting into machine basket. The user is need to push the START button on machine controller for switching the water pump ON by then creating turbulence wave of water in machine tank. The water will stop automatically by triggering the outlet solenoid valve. The powders of tubers are washed for 10 minutes while 1 liter of contaminated water due toxin mixture is flowing out. At this time, the controller will automatically triggered inlet solenoid valve and the new water will flow in machine tank until achieve the desire level that which determined by ultra sonic sensor. This process will repeated for 7 h and the positive result is achieved and shows it significant according to the several parameters of biological character ofpH, temperature, dissolve oxygen, turbidity, conductivity and fish survival rate or time. From that parameter, it also shows the positive result which is near or same with control water and assuming was made that the toxin is fully removed when the pH of DH powder is near with control water. For control water, the pH is about 5.3 while water from this experiment process is 6.0 and before run the machine the pH of contaminated water is about 3.8 which are too acid. This automated machine can save time for removing toxicity from DH compared with a traditional method while less observation of the user. PMID:24783795

Yahaya, Muhammad Rizuwan; Hj Razali, Mohd Hudzari; Abu Bakar, Che Abdullah; Ismail, Wan Ishak Wan; Muda, Wan Musa Wan; Mat, Nashriyah; Zakaria, Abd

2014-01-01

245

Exploiting vibration-based spectral signatures for automatic target recognition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Feature extraction algorithms for vehicle classification techniques represent a large branch of Automatic Target Recognition (ATR) efforts. Traditionally, vehicle ATR techniques have assumed time series vibration data collected from multiple accelerometers are a function of direct path, engine driven signal energy. If data, however, is highly dependent on measurement location these pre-established feature extraction algorithms are ineffective. In this paper, we examine the consequences of analyzing vibration data potentially contingent upon transfer path effects by exploring the sensitivity of sensor location. We summarize our analysis of spectral signatures from each accelerometer and investigate similarities within the data.

Crider, Lauren; Kangas, Scott

2014-06-01

246

Benchmarking infrastructure for mutation text mining  

PubMed Central

Background Experimental research on the automatic extraction of information about mutations from texts is greatly hindered by the lack of consensus evaluation infrastructure for the testing and benchmarking of mutation text mining systems. Results We propose a community-oriented annotation and benchmarking infrastructure to support development, testing, benchmarking, and comparison of mutation text mining systems. The design is based on semantic standards, where RDF is used to represent annotations, an OWL ontology provides an extensible schema for the data and SPARQL is used to compute various performance metrics, so that in many cases no programming is needed to analyze results from a text mining system. While large benchmark corpora for biological entity and relation extraction are focused mostly on genes, proteins, diseases, and species, our benchmarking infrastructure fills the gap for mutation information. The core infrastructure comprises (1) an ontology for modelling annotations, (2) SPARQL queries for computing performance metrics, and (3) a sizeable collection of manually curated documents, that can support mutation grounding and mutation impact extraction experiments. Conclusion We have developed the principal infrastructure for the benchmarking of mutation text mining tasks. The use of RDF and OWL as the representation for corpora ensures extensibility. The infrastructure is suitable for out-of-the-box use in several important scenarios and is ready, in its current state, for initial community adoption. PMID:24568600

2014-01-01

247

A Novel Video Summarization Framework for Document Preparation and Archival Applications  

E-print Network

A Novel Video Summarization Framework for Document Preparation and Archival Applications Shi Lu of network bandwidth and high-capacity storage devices, videos have become an im- portant way of communication in the aerospace industry and many other entities. However, browsing and managing huge video

Lyu, Michael R.

248

VIDEO SUMMARIZATION BY SPATIAL-TEMPORAL GRAPH OPTIMIZATION Shi Lu, Michael R. Lyu, Irwin King  

E-print Network

VIDEO SUMMARIZATION BY SPATIAL-TEMPORAL GRAPH OPTIMIZATION Shi Lu, Michael R. Lyu, Irwin King SAR {slu, lyu, king}@cse.cuhk.edu.hk ABSTRACT In this paper we present a novel approach for video sum-temporal content cov- erage and visual coherence of the video summary. The ap- proach has three stages. First

King, Kuo Chin Irwin

249

CLASSIFICATION OF SUMMARIZED VIDEOS USING HIDDEN MARKOV MODELS ON COMPRESSED CHROMATICITY  

E-print Network

1 CLASSIFICATION OF SUMMARIZED VIDEOS USING HIDDEN MARKOV MODELS ON COMPRESSED CHROMATICITY Science Simon Fraser University Vancouver, B.C., CANADA ABSTRACT As digital libraries and video databases grow, we need methods to assist us in the synthesis and analysis of digital video. Since

Drew, Mark S.

250

tAble of Contents This document is a report summarizing the  

E-print Network

of the R.J. Dunlap Marine Conservation Program (RJD) is to advance STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering summarizing the achievements and progress of the R.J. Dunlap Marine Conservation Program at the University of Miami in 2011. The RJ Dunlap Marine Conservation Program (RJD) is a joint initiative of the Rosenstiel

Miami, University of

251

Information Navigation on the Web by Clustering and Summarizing Query Results.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports an approach to interactive information seeking that is grounded in the idea of summarizing query results through automated document clustering. The authors' prototype acted as an intermediate layer between the user and a commercial Internet search engine. Data was processed from 36 users and it was concluded that the prototype improved…

Roussinov, Dmitri G.; Chen, Hsinchun

2001-01-01

252

iBIOMES Lite: summarizing biomolecular simulation data in limited settings.  

PubMed

As the amount of data generated by biomolecular simulations dramatically increases, new tools need to be developed to help manage this data at the individual investigator or small research group level. In this paper, we introduce iBIOMES Lite, a lightweight tool for biomolecular simulation data indexing and summarization. The main goal of iBIOMES Lite is to provide a simple interface to summarize computational experiments in a setting where the user might have limited privileges and limited access to IT resources. A command-line interface allows the user to summarize, publish, and search local simulation data sets. Published data sets are accessible via static hypertext markup language (HTML) pages that summarize the simulation protocols and also display data analysis graphically. The publication process is customized via extensible markup language (XML) descriptors while the HTML summary template is customized through extensible stylesheet language (XSL). iBIOMES Lite was tested on different platforms and at several national computing centers using various data sets generated through classical and quantum molecular dynamics, quantum chemistry, and QM/MM. The associated parsers currently support AMBER, GROMACS, Gaussian, and NWChem data set publication. The code is available at https://github.com/jcvthibault/ibiomes . PMID:24830957

Thibault, Julien C; Cheatham, Thomas E; Facelli, Julio C

2014-06-23

253

Multi-document Summarization of Dissertation Abstracts Using a Variable-Based Framework.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Proposes a variable-based framework for multi-document summarization of dissertation abstracts in the fields of sociology and psychology that makes use of the macro- and micro-level discourse structure of dissertation abstracts as well as cross-document structure. Provides a list of indicator phrases that denote different aspects of the problem…

Ou, Shiyan; Khoo, Christopher S. G.; Goh, Dion H.

2003-01-01

254

Aspect Summarization from Blogsphere for Social Study Chia-Hui Chang and Kun-Chang Tsai  

E-print Network

, they nowadays harvest the data free from the WWW, especially on blogs. For example, we can collect public. For example, Ohno et al. [7], proposed a social summarization method for online auction feedback comments from product reviews, like movies and hotels. For example, Hu and Liu [3] proposed the idea

Chang, Chia-Hui

255

Assessment Summary This report summarizes the efforts of NOAA Fisheries to provide stock assessment  

E-print Network

Assessment Summary This report summarizes the efforts of NOAA Fisheries to provide stock assessment of sustainable fisheries. NOAA Fisheries tracks the number of Fish Stock Sustainability Index (FSSI) stocks began in October 2010 with 132 out of the 230 FSSI stocks having adequate stock assessments. The target

256

Assessment Summary This report summarizes the efforts of NOAA Fisheries to provide stock assessment  

E-print Network

Assessment Summary This report summarizes the efforts of NOAA Fisheries to provide stock assessment advice needed to determine the status of fish stocks and to guide the setting of annual catch limits that will prevent overfishing and attain optimum yield. NOAA Fisheries tracks the number of Fish Stock

257

Assessment Summary This report summarizes the efforts of NOAA Fisheries to provide stock assessment  

E-print Network

Assessment Summary This report summarizes the efforts of NOAA Fisheries to provide stock assessment of sustainable fisheries. NOAA Fisheries tracks the number of Fish Stock Sustainability Index (FSSI) stocks years. The fiscal year began in October 2010 with 132 out of the 230 FSSI stocks having adequate stock

258

Simplification of Patent Claim Sentences for their Multilingual Paraphrasing and Summarization  

E-print Network

Simplification of Patent Claim Sentences for their Multilingual Paraphrasing and Summarization Joe patent writing regula- tions, patent claims must be rendered in a single sen- tence. As a result, sentences with more than 250 words are not uncommon. In order to achieve an easier com- prehension of patent

259

Summarized proceedings of a conference on solid state physics - Melbourne, August 1959  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Australian Branch of The Institute of Physics held a conference on solid state physics in Melbourne from 17-21 August, 1959. This conference was the first of its kind to be held in Australia and attracted an attendance of about one hundred and thirty. In all, 46 papers, ranging over a wide field, were presented and these are summarized; they

J F Nicholas

1960-01-01

260

A new hybrid summarizer based on Vector Space model Statistical Physics and Linguistics  

E-print Network

A new hybrid summarizer based on Vector Space model Statistical Physics and Linguistics Iria da TorresMoreno Institute for Applied Linguistics, Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona, España. {iria or linguistics, but only a few of them combining both techniques. Our idea is that to reach a good sum- mary we

Avignon et des Pays de Vaucluse, Université de

261

SOCQET: Semantic OLAP with Compressed Cube and Summarization Laks V.S. Lakshmanan  

E-print Network

SOCQET: Semantic OLAP with Compressed Cube and Summarization Laks V.S. Lakshmanan Jian Pei Yan Zhao cube, which can be viewed as a multi-level, multi-dimensional database with aggregate data at multiple granularity. In a data cube, two basic semantic relations among cells are roll up and drill down. A cell c1

Pei, Jian

262

Wearable Hand Activity Recognition for Event Summarization W.W. Mayol D.W. Murray  

E-print Network

Wearable Hand Activity Recognition for Event Summarization W.W. Mayol D.W. Murray Department develop a first step towards the recogni- tion of hand activity by detecting objects subject to manip from hand activity without requiring that the wearer is explicit as in gesture-based interaction. Our

Oxford, University of

263

iDVS: An Interactive Multi-document Visual Summarization System  

E-print Network

iDVS: An Interactive Multi-document Visual Summarization System Yi Zhang, Dingding Wang, and Tao Li limitations, in this paper, we develop iDVS, a visualization-enabled multi-document sum- marization system in document understanding using visualization techniques. In particular, iDVS uses a new semi-supervised docu

Li, Tao

264

Protein Folding Trajectories Analysis: Summarization, Event Detection and Consensus Partial Folding Pathway  

E-print Network

Protein Folding Trajectories Analysis: Summarization, Event Detection and Consensus Partial Folding in protein folding trajectories. We pro- pose an approach that employs the simplicity of contact maps and po- tentially cure diseases caused by misfolding. The protein folding problem is therefore one

Yang, Hui

265

Effects on Science Summarization of a Reading Comprehension Intervention for Adolescents with Behavior and Attention Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Sixty-three adolescent boys with behavioral disorders (BD), 31 of whom had comorbid attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), participated in a self-regulated strategy development intervention called Think Before Reading, Think While Reading, Think After Reading, With Written Summarization (TWA-WS). TWA-WS adapted Linda Mason's TWA…

Rogevich, Mary E.; Perin, Dolores

2008-01-01

266

Multiple Cue Indexing and Summarization of Surveillance Video Ruben Heras Evangelio, Ivo Keller, Thomas Sikora  

E-print Network

- tained in the video to be summarized, and to properly rep- resent it in order to allow the user can be done by means of low-level features, objects or events of interest. Low-level feature based, cars or boats, as in, e.g., [1]. Finally, event based approaches look for prede- fined events

Wichmann, Felix

267

Rewriting and Paraphrasing Source Texts in Second Language Writing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study is based on interviews with 48 students and 27 instructors in a North American university and explores whether students and professors across faculties share the same views on the use of paraphrased, summarized, and translated texts in four examples of L2 student writing. Participants' comments centered on whether the paraphrases…

Shi, Ling

2012-01-01

268

A comprehensive method for multilingual video text detection, localization, and extraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Text in video is a very compact and accurate clue for video indexing and summarization. Most video text detection and extraction methods hold assumptions on text color, background contrast, and font style. Moreover, few methods can handle multilingual text well since different languages may have quite different appearances. This paper performs a detailed analysis of multilingual text characteristics, including English

Michael R. Lyu; Jiqiang Song; Min Cai

2005-01-01

269

A System for Query-Specific Document Summarization* There has been a great amount of work on query-independent  

E-print Network

A System for Query-Specific Document Summarization* ABSTRACT There has been a great amount of work on query-independent summarization of documents. However, due to the success of Web search engines query-specific document summarization (query result snippets) has become an important problem, which has received little

Hristidis, Vagelis

270

Texts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lithuania Law on the Nuclear Power Plant (2007) People’s Republic of China Official Reply of the State Council to Questions on the Liabilities of Compensation for Damages Resulting from Nuclear Accidents (2007) Turkey Unofficial Translation of the Turkish Law No. 5710 Concerning the Construction and Operation of Nuclear Power Plants and the Sale of Energy Generated from Those Plants (2007)

2007-01-01

271

BaffleText: a Human Interactive Proof  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Internet services designed for human use are being abused by programs. We present a defense against such attacks in the form of a CAPTCHA (Completely Automatic Public Turing test to tell Computers and Humans Apart) that exploits the difference in ability between humans and machines in reading images of text. CAPTCHAs are a special case of 'human interactive proofs,' a broad class of security protocols that allow people to identify themselves over networks as members of given groups. We point out vulnerabilities of reading-based CAPTCHAs to dictionary and computer-vision attacks. We also draw on the literature on the psychophysics of human reading, which suggests fresh defenses available to CAPTCHAs. Motivated by these considerations, we propose BaffleText, a CAPTCHA which uses non-English pronounceable words to defend against dictionary attacks, and Gestalt-motivated image-masking degradations to defend against image restoration attacks. Experiments on human subjects confirm the human legibility and user acceptance of BaffleText images. We have found an image-complexity measure that correlates well with user acceptance and assists in engineering the generation of challenges to fit the ability gap. Recent computer-vision attacks, run independently by Mori and Jitendra, suggest that BaffleText is stronger than two existing CAPTCHAs.

Chew, Monica; Baird, Henry S.

2003-01-01

272

Automatic drilling control system  

SciTech Connect

An automatic drilling control system is described for a drilling apparatus having a rig with a crown block and a traveling block. A draw works include an engine, a drum powered by the engine, clutches, and controls, a drilling line wound on the drum and rolled up or fed out during drilling by the engine. The drilling line extends through the crown block and the traveling block and connects to a fixed point. The line portion from the crown block to the fixed point is the dead line. The crown block and traveling block form a pulley system for supporting a drill pipe to raise or lower the same during drilling. A hydraulic pressure sensor connects to the dead line to measure the tension. A weight indicator gauge adjacent to the controls connects to the pressure sensor by a hydraulic line. A brake, having a brake handle, controls the rate of feed out of the drilling line to determine the tension on the dead line.

Ball, J.W.

1987-05-05

273

PressureText: Pressure Input for Mobile Phone Text Entry  

E-print Network

PressureText: Pressure Input for Mobile Phone Text Entry Abstract Pressure sensitive buttons presses are currently necessary to record an action. We present PressureText, a text-entry technique for a pressure augmented mobile phone. In a study comparing PressureText to MultiTap, we found that despite

274

Automatic programming of simulation models  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objective of automatic programming is to improve the overall environment for describing the program. This improved environment is realized by a reduction in the amount of detail that the programmer needs to know and is exposed to. Furthermore, this improved environment is achieved by a specification language that is more natural to the user's problem domain and to the user's way of thinking and looking at the problem. The goal of this research is to apply the concepts of automatic programming (AP) to modeling discrete event simulation system. Specific emphasis is on the design and development of simulation tools to assist the modeler define or construct a model of the system and to then automatically write the corresponding simulation code in the target simulation language, GPSS/PC. A related goal is to evaluate the feasibility of various languages for constructing automatic programming simulation tools.

Schroer, Bernard J.; Tseng, Fan T.; Zhang, Shou X.; Dwan, Wen S.

1988-01-01

275

Clothes Dryer Automatic Termination Evaluation  

SciTech Connect

Volume 2: Improved Sensor and Control Designs Many residential clothes dryers on the market today provide automatic cycles that are intended to stop when the clothes are dry, as determined by the final remaining moisture content (RMC). However, testing of automatic termination cycles has shown that many dryers are susceptible to over-drying of loads, leading to excess energy consumption. In particular, tests performed using the DOE Test Procedure in Appendix D2 of 10 CFR 430 subpart B have shown that as much as 62% of the energy used in a cycle may be from over-drying. Volume 1 of this report shows an average of 20% excess energy from over-drying when running automatic cycles with various load compositions and dryer settings. Consequently, improving automatic termination sensors and algorithms has the potential for substantial energy savings in the U.S.

TeGrotenhuis, Ward E.

2014-10-01

276

Automatic presentations and semigroup constructions  

E-print Network

Automatic presentations and semigroup constructions Alan J. Cain1 , Graham Oliver2 , Nik Ruskuc3 , Richard M. Thomas4 1,3 School of Mathematics and Statistics, University of St Andrews, North Haugh, St

St Andrews, University of

277

Automatic Semigroups: Constructions and Subsemigroups  

E-print Network

of St Andrews September 19, 2002 #12; to Margarida i #12; Contents Declarations iv Abstract vi of padded languages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 4 Rees matrix semigroups 41 1 The Rees matrix construction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 2 Automaticity of a Rees matrix semigroup

St Andrews, University of

278

Automatic safety rod for reactors  

DOEpatents

An automatic safety rod for a nuclear reactor containing neutron absorbing material and designed to be inserted into a reactor core after a loss-of-core flow. Actuation is based upon either a sudden decrease in core pressure drop or the pressure drop decreases below a predetermined minimum value. The automatic control rod includes a pressure regulating device whereby a controlled decrease in operating pressure due to reduced coolant flow does not cause the rod to drop into the core.

Germer, John H. (San Jose, CA)

1988-01-01

279

Automatic system for computer program documentation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Work done on a project to design an automatic system for computer program documentation aids was made to determine what existing programs could be used effectively to document computer programs. Results of the study are included in the form of an extensive bibliography and working papers on appropriate operating systems, text editors, program editors, data structures, standards, decision tables, flowchart systems, and proprietary documentation aids. The preliminary design for an automated documentation system is also included. An actual program has been documented in detail to demonstrate the types of output that can be produced by the proposed system.

Simmons, D. B.; Elliott, R. W.; Arseven, S.; Colunga, D.

1972-01-01

280

Automatic Collision Avoidance Technology (ACAT)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This document represents two views of the Automatic Collision Avoidance Technology (ACAT). One viewgraph presentation reviews the development and system design of Automatic Collision Avoidance Technology (ACAT). Two types of ACAT exist: Automatic Ground Collision Avoidance (AGCAS) and Automatic Air Collision Avoidance (AACAS). The AGCAS Uses Digital Terrain Elevation Data (DTED) for mapping functions, and uses Navigation data to place aircraft on map. It then scans DTED in front of and around aircraft and uses future aircraft trajectory (5g) to provide automatic flyup maneuver when required. The AACAS uses data link to determine position and closing rate. It contains several canned maneuvers to avoid collision. Automatic maneuvers can occur at last instant and both aircraft maneuver when using data link. The system can use sensor in place of data link. The second viewgraph presentation reviews the development of a flight test and an evaluation of the test. A review of the operation and comparison of the AGCAS and a pilot's performance are given. The same review is given for the AACAS is given.

Swihart, Donald E.; Skoog, Mark A.

2007-01-01

281

Imitating Human Literature Review Writing: An Approach to Multi-document Summarization  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This paper gives an overview of a project to generate literature reviews from a set of research papers, based on techniques\\u000a drawn from human summarization behavior. For this study, we identify the key features of natural literature reviews through\\u000a a macro-level and clause-level discourse analysis; we also identify human information selection strategies by mapping referenced\\u000a information to source documents. Our

Kokil Jaidka; Christopher S. G. Khoo; Jin-Cheon Na

2010-01-01

282

Problem of Automatic Thesaurus Construction (K Voprosu Ob Avtomaticheskom Postroenii Tezarusa). Subject Country: USSR.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With respect to automatic indexing and information retrieval, statistical analysis of word usages in written texts is finding broad application in the solution of a number of problems. One of these problems is compiling a thesaurus on a digital computer. Using two methods, a comparative experiment in automatic thesaurus construction is presented.…

Ivanova, I. S.

283

Automatic audio and manual transcripts alignment, time-code transfer and selection of exact transcripts  

E-print Network

Automatic audio and manual transcripts alignment, time-code transfer and selection of exact focuses on automatic processing of sibling resources of audio and written documents, such as available in audio archives or for parliament debates: written texts are close but not exact audio transcripts

Boula de Mareüil, Philippe

284

Guiding Students through Expository Text with Text Feature Walks  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Text Feature Walk is a structure created and employed by the authors that guides students in the reading of text features in order to access prior knowledge, make connections, and set a purpose for reading expository text. Results from a pilot study are described in order to illustrate the benefits of using the Text Feature Walk over…

Kelley, Michelle J.; Clausen-Grace, Nicki

2010-01-01

285

Text analysis methods, text analysis apparatuses, and articles of manufacture  

DOEpatents

Text analysis methods, text analysis apparatuses, and articles of manufacture are described according to some aspects. In one aspect, a text analysis method includes accessing information indicative of data content of a collection of text comprising a plurality of different topics, using a computing device, analyzing the information indicative of the data content, and using results of the analysis, identifying a presence of a new topic in the collection of text.

Whitney, Paul D; Willse, Alan R; Lopresti, Charles A; White, Amanda M

2014-10-28

286

Inductive learning algorithms and representations for text categorization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Text categorization - the assignment of natural language\\u000a texts to one or more predefined categories based on their\\u000a content - is an important component in many information\\u000a organization and management tasks. We compare the\\u000a effectiveness of five different automatic learning\\u000a algorithms for text categorization in terms of learning\\u000a speed, real-time classification speed, and classification\\u000a accuracy. We also examine training set

Susan T. Dumais; John C. Platt; David Heckerman; Mehran Sahami

1998-01-01

287

A multiple agent architecture for handwritten text recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates the automatic reading of unconstrained omni-writer handwritten texts. It shows how to endow the reading system with learning faculties necessary to adapt the recognition to each writer's handwriting. In the 2rst part of this paper, we explain how the recognition system can be adapted to a current handwriting by exploiting the graphical context de2ned by the writer's

Laurent Heutte; Ali Nosary; Thierry Paquet

2004-01-01

288

MindNet: Acquiring and Structuring Semantic Information from Text  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a lexical knowledge base constructed automatically from the definitions and example sentences in two machine-readable dictionaries (MRDs), MindNet embodies several features that distinguish it from prior work with MRDs. It is, however, more than this static resource alone. MindNet represents a general methodology for acquiring, structuring, accessing, and exploiting semantic information from natural language text. This paper provides an

Stephen D. Richardson; William B. Dolan; Lucy Vanderwende

1998-01-01

289

Linguistic Steganography Using Automatically Generated Paraphrases Ching-Yun Chang  

E-print Network

Linguistic Steganography Using Automatically Generated Paraphrases Ching-Yun Chang University of our work is to integrate text paraphrasing into a Linguistic Steganography system, by using and use- ful source of transformations for Linguistic Steganography, and show that our method for checking

Koehn, Philipp

290

Sentence Similarity Analysis with Applications in Automatic Short Answer Grading  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this dissertation, I explore unsupervised techniques for the task of automatic short answer grading. I compare a number of knowledge-based and corpus-based measures of text similarity, evaluate the effect of domain and size on the corpus-based measures, and also introduce a novel technique to improve the performance of the system by integrating…

Mohler, Michael A. G.

2012-01-01

291

MULTIPLE LYRICS ALIGNMENT: AUTOMATIC RETRIEVAL OF SONG LYRICS  

E-print Network

. Scott and Matwin (1998) use two sets of more than 400 folk songs for text categorization experimentsMULTIPLE LYRICS ALIGNMENT: AUTOMATIC RETRIEVAL OF SONG LYRICS Peter Knees 1 peter retrieve and ex­ tract lyrics of arbitrary songs from the Internet. It is in­ tended to provide easy

Widmer, Gerhard

292

MULTIPLE LYRICS ALIGNMENT: AUTOMATIC RETRIEVAL OF SONG LYRICS  

E-print Network

. Scott and Matwin (1998) use two sets of more than 400 folk songs for text categorization experimentsMULTIPLE LYRICS ALIGNMENT: AUTOMATIC RETRIEVAL OF SONG LYRICS Peter Knees 1 peter retrieve and ex- tract lyrics of arbitrary songs from the Internet. It is in- tended to provide easy

Widmer, Gerhard

293

Automatically clustering similar units for unit selection in speech synthesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a new method for synthesiz- ing speech by concatenating sub-word units from a database of labelled speech. A large unit inventory is created by automatically clustering units of the same phone class based on their phonetic and prosodic con- text. The appropriate cluster is then selected for a target unit offering a small set of candidate units.

Alan W. Black; Paul Taylor

1997-01-01

294

Functional Semantic Categories for Art History Text: Human Labeling and Preliminary Machine Learning ?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The CLiMB project investigates semi-automatic methods to extract descriptive metadata from texts for indexing digital image collections. We devel- oped a set of functional semantic categories to classify text extracts that describe images. Each semantic category names a functional relation between an image depicting a work of art historical significance, and expository text associated with the image. This includes description

Rebecca J. Passonneau; Tae Yano; Tom Lippincott; Judith Klavans

295

Text analysis devices, articles of manufacture, and text analysis methods  

DOEpatents

Text analysis devices, articles of manufacture, and text analysis methods are described according to some aspects. In one aspect, a text analysis device includes processing circuitry configured to analyze initial text to generate a measurement basis usable in analysis of subsequent text, wherein the measurement basis comprises a plurality of measurement features from the initial text, a plurality of dimension anchors from the initial text and a plurality of associations of the measurement features with the dimension anchors, and wherein the processing circuitry is configured to access a viewpoint indicative of a perspective of interest of a user with respect to the analysis of the subsequent text, and wherein the processing circuitry is configured to use the viewpoint to generate the measurement basis.

Turner, Alan E; Hetzler, Elizabeth G; Nakamura, Grant C

2013-05-28

296

Systematic Characterizations of Text Similarity in Full Text Biomedical Publications  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundComputational methods have been used to find duplicate biomedical publications in MEDLINE. Full text articles are becoming increasingly available, yet the similarities among them have not been systematically studied. Here, we quantitatively investigated the full text similarity of biomedical publications in PubMed Central.Methodology\\/Principal Findings72,011 full text articles from PubMed Central (PMC) were parsed to generate three different datasets: full texts,

Zhaohui Sun; Mounir Errami; Tara Long; Chris Renard; Nishant Choradia; Harold Garner; Walter H. Curioso

2010-01-01

297

Supported eText: Assistive Technology through Text Transformations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To gain meaningful access to the curriculum, students with reading difficulties must overcome substantial barriers imposed by the printed materials they are asked to read. Technology can assist students to overcome these challenges by enabling a shift from printed text to electronic text. By electronic text it means textual material read using a…

Anderson-Inman, Lynne; Horney, Mark A.

2007-01-01

298

Compare and Contrast Electronic Text with Traditionally Printed Text.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The electronic text program described in this lesson plan guides students to compare and contrast the characteristics of electronic text with the characteristics of traditionally printed text, gaining a deeper understanding of how to navigate and comprehend information found on the Internet. During a 30 minute and a 45 minutes lesson, students…

Karchmer, Rachel

299

Research on the automatic laser navigation system of the tunnel boring machine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

By establishing relevant coordinates of the Automatic Laser Navigation System, the basic principle of the system which accesses the TBM three-dimensional reference point and yawing angle by mathematical transformation between TBM, target prism and earth coordinate systems is discussed deeply in details. According to the way of rigid body descriptions of its posture, TBM attitude parameters measurement and data acquisition methods are proposed, and measures to improve the accuracy of the Laser Navigation System are summarized.

Liu, Yake; Li, Yueqiang

2011-12-01

300

Automatic rapid attachable warhead section  

DOEpatents

Disclosed are a method and apparatus for (1) automatically selecting warheads or reentry vehicles from a storage area containing a plurality of types of warheads or reentry vehicles, (2) automatically selecting weapon carriers from a storage area containing at least one type of weapon carrier, (3) manipulating and aligning the selected warheads or reentry vehicles and weapon carriers, and (4) automatically coupling the warheads or reentry vehicles with the weapon carriers such that coupling of improperly selected warheads or reentry vehicles with weapon carriers is inhibited. Such inhibition enhances safety of operations and is achieved by a number of means including computer control of the process of selection and coupling and use of connectorless interfaces capable of assuring that improperly selected items will be rejected or rendered inoperable prior to coupling. Also disclosed are a method and apparatus wherein the stated principles pertaining to selection, coupling and inhibition are extended to apply to any item-to-be-carried and any carrying assembly.

Trennel, Anthony J. (Albuquerque, NM)

1994-05-10

301

Automatic programming of simulation models  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The concepts of software engineering were used to improve the simulation modeling environment. Emphasis was placed on the application of an element of rapid prototyping, or automatic programming, to assist the modeler define the problem specification. Then, once the problem specification has been defined, an automatic code generator is used to write the simulation code. The following two domains were selected for evaluating the concepts of software engineering for discrete event simulation: manufacturing domain and a spacecraft countdown network sequence. The specific tasks were to: (1) define the software requirements for a graphical user interface to the Automatic Manufacturing Programming System (AMPS) system; (2) develop a graphical user interface for AMPS; and (3) compare the AMPS graphical interface with the AMPS interactive user interface.

Schroer, Bernard J.; Tseng, Fan T.; Zhang, Shou X.; Dwan, Wen S.

1990-01-01

302

Semi-Automatic Aligning of Swedish Forensic Phonetic Phone Speech in Praat using Viterbi Recognition and HMM  

Microsoft Academic Search

Automatic alignment of text and sound is of great help and saves a lot of time labelling speech databases, either for research or for developing speech technology tools such as automatic speech recognition or text to speech systems. It is also a very useful tool in forensic speaker identification as one often receives a tapped recording together with an orthographic

Jonas Lindh

2007-01-01

303

[Automatic segmentation and annotation in radiology].  

PubMed

The technical progress and broader indications for cross-sectional imaging continuously increase the number of radiological images to be assessed. However, as the amount of image information and available resources (radiologists) do not increase at the same pace and the standards of radiological interpretation and reporting remain consistently high, radiologists have to rely on computer-based support systems. Novel semantic technologies and software relying on structured ontological knowledge are able to "understand" text and image information and interconnect both. This allows complex database queries with both the input of text and image information to be accomplished. Furthermore, semantic software in combination with automatic detection and segmentation of organs and body regions facilitates personalized supportive information in topographical accordance and generates additional information, such as organ volumes. These technologies promise improvements in workflow; however, great efforts and close cooperation between developers and users still lie ahead. PMID:24522625

Dankerl, P; Cavallaro, A; Uder, M; Hammon, M

2014-03-01

304

Grinding Parts For Automatic Welding  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Rollers guide grinding tool along prospective welding path. Skatelike fixture holds rotary grinder or file for machining large-diameter rings or ring segments in preparation for welding. Operator grasps handles to push rolling fixture along part. Rollers maintain precise dimensional relationship so grinding wheel cuts precise depth. Fixture-mounted grinder machines surface to quality sufficient for automatic welding; manual welding with attendant variations and distortion not necessary. Developed to enable automatic welding of parts, manual welding of which resulted in weld bead permeated with microscopic fissures.

Burley, Richard K.; Hoult, William S.

1989-01-01

305

Text structure-aware classification  

E-print Network

Bag-of-words representations are used in many NLP applications, such as text classification and sentiment analysis. These representations ignore relations across different sentences in a text and disregard the underlying ...

Dzunic, Zoran, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2009-01-01

306

Prioritized text spotting using SLAM  

E-print Network

We show how to exploit temporal and spatial coherence of image observations to achieve efficient and effective text detection and decoding for a sensor suite moving through an environment rich in text at a variety of scales ...

Landa, Yafim

2013-01-01

307

Proceedings of Student/Faculty Research Day, CSIS, Pace University, May 7th, 2004 Language Identification from Text  

E-print Network

for customer service. For example, automatic detection of a shift from one language to another in written text]. Thus, when a TTS system is turned on in English mode and it encounters a German word, if the system can detect that the next word is German, it can then automatically switch to German lexica and pronounce

Tappert, Charles

308

An Enterprise Ontology Building the Bases for Automatic Metadata Generation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

'Information Overload' or 'Document Deluge' is a problem enterprises and Public Administrations alike are still dealing with. Although commercial products for Enterprise Content or Records Management are available since more than two decades, especially in Small and Medium Enterprises and Public Administrations they didn't get through. Because of the wide range of document types and formats full-text indexing is not sufficient, but assigning metadata manually is not possible. Thus, automatic, format-independent generation of metadata for (public) enterprise documents is needed. Using context to infer metadata automatically has been researched for example for web-documents or learning objects. If (public) enterprise objects were modelled 'machine understandable' they could be build the context for automatic metadata generation. The approach introduced in this paper is to model context (the (public) enterprise objects) in an ontology and using that ontology to infer content-related metadata.

Thönssen, Barbara

309

Intermediate leak protection/automatic shutdown for B and W helical coil steam generator  

SciTech Connect

The report summarizes a follow-on study to the multi-tiered Intermediate Leak/Automatic Shutdown System report. It makes the automatic shutdown system specific to the Babcock and Wilcox (B and W) helical coil steam generator and to the Large Development LMFBR Plant. Threshold leak criteria specific to this steam generator design are developed, and performance predictions are presented for a multi-tier intermediate leak, automatic shutdown system applied to this unit. Preliminary performance predictions for application to the helical coil steam generator were given in the referenced report; for the most part, these predictions have been confirmed. The importance of including a cover gas hydrogen meter in this unit is demonstrated by calculation of a response time one-fifth that of an in-sodium meter at hot standby and refueling conditions.

Not Available

1981-01-01

310

Unapparent Information Revelation: Text Mining for Counterterrorism  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Unapparent information revelation (UIR) is a special case of text mining that focuses on detecting possible links between concepts across multiple text documents by generating an evidence trail explaining the connection. A traditional search involving, for example, two or more person names will attempt to find documents mentioning both these individuals. This research focuses on a different interpretation of such a query: what is the best evidence trail across documents that explains a connection between these individuals? For example, all may be good golfers. A generalization of this task involves query terms representing general concepts (e.g. indictment, foreign policy). Previous approaches to this problem have focused on graph mining involving hyperlinked documents, and link analysis exploiting named entities. A new robust framework is presented, based on (i) generating concept chain graphs, a hybrid content representation, (ii) performing graph matching to select candidate subgraphs, and (iii) subsequently using graphical models to validate hypotheses using ranked evidence trails. We adapt the DUC data set for cross-document summarization to evaluate evidence trails generated by this approach

Srihari, Rohini K.

311

Too Dumb for Complex Texts?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

High school students' lack of experience and practice with reading complex texts is a primary cause of their difficulties with college-level reading. Filling the syllabus with digital texts does little to address this deficiency. Complex texts demand three dispositions from readers: a willingness to probe works characterized by dense meanings, the…

Bauerlein, Mark

2011-01-01

312

Automatic Word Sense Disambiguation of Acronyms and Abbreviations in Clinical Texts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The use of acronyms and abbreviations is increasing profoundly in the clinical domain in large part due to the greater adoption of electronic health record (EHR) systems and increased electronic documentation within healthcare. A single acronym or abbreviation may have multiple different meanings or senses. Comprehending the proper meaning of an…

Moon, Sungrim

2012-01-01

313

Automatic Extraction of Data Points and Text Blocks from 2-Dimensional Plots in Digital Documents  

E-print Network

. Algorithms to extract data from the deep web and also from tables on web docu- ments have been proposed that this important source of data on the web can be searched (and eventually queried) using search en- gines. Cur- rent search engines do not index information contained in the plots and make searching

Giles, C. Lee

314

Use of a New Set of Linguistic Features to Improve Automatic Assessment of Text Readability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present paper proposes and evaluates a readability assessment method designed for Japanese learners of EFL (English as a foreign language). The proposed readability assessment method is constructed by a regression algorithm using a new set of linguistic features that were employed separately in previous studies. The results showed that the…

Yoshimi, Takehiko; Kotani, Katsunori; Isahara, Hitoshi

2012-01-01

315

A Semi-Automatic Approach to Construct Vietnamese Ontology from Online Text  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An ontology is an effective formal representation of knowledge used commonly in artificial intelligence, semantic web, software engineering, and information retrieval. In open and distance learning, ontologies are used as knowledge bases for e-learning supplements, educational recommenders, and question answering systems that support students with…

Nguyen, Bao-An; Yang, Don-Lin

2012-01-01

316

ParaText : scalable text analysis and visualization.  

SciTech Connect

Automated analysis of unstructured text documents (e.g., web pages, newswire articles, research publications, business reports) is a key capability for solving important problems in areas including decision making, risk assessment, social network analysis, intelligence analysis, scholarly research and others. However, as data sizes continue to grow in these areas, scalable processing, modeling, and semantic analysis of text collections becomes essential. In this paper, we present the ParaText text analysis engine, a distributed memory software framework for processing, modeling, and analyzing collections of unstructured text documents. Results on several document collections using hundreds of processors are presented to illustrate the exibility, extensibility, and scalability of the the entire process of text modeling from raw data ingestion to application analysis.

Dunlavy, Daniel M.; Stanton, Eric T.; Shead, Timothy M.

2010-07-01

317

Semi-Supervised Data Summarization: Using Spectral Libraries to Improve Hyperspectral Clustering  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Hyperspectral imagers produce very large images, with each pixel recorded at hundreds or thousands of different wavelengths. The ability to automatically generate summaries of these data sets enables several important applications, such as quickly browsing through a large image repository or determining the best use of a limited bandwidth link (e.g., determining which images are most critical for full transmission). Clustering algorithms can be used to generate these summaries, but traditional clustering methods make decisions based only on the information contained in the data set. In contrast, we present a new method that additionally leverages existing spectral libraries to identify materials that are likely to be present in the image target area. We find that this approach simultaneously reduces runtime and produces summaries that are more relevant to science goals.

Wagstaff, K. L.; Shu, H. P.; Mazzoni, D.; Castano, R.

2005-01-01

318

Multilingual Text Analysis for Text-to-Speech Synthesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a model of text analysis for text-to-speech (TTS) syn- thesis based on weighted finite-state transducers, which serves as the text-analysis module of the multilingual Bell Labs TTS system. The transducers are constructed using a lexical toolkit that allows declarative descriptions of lexicons, morphological rules, numeral- expansion rules, and phonological rules, inter alia. To date, the model has been

Richard Sproat

1996-01-01

319

Development, implementation and testing of a discourse model for newspaper texts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Texts of a particular type evidence a discernible, predictable schema. These schemata can be delineated, and as such provide models of their respective text-types which are of use in automatically structuring texts. We have developed a Text Structurer module which recognizes text-level structure for use within a larger information retrieval system to delineate the discourse-level organization of each document's contents.

Elizabeth D. Liddy; Kenneth A. Mcvearry; Woojin Paik; Edmund Yu; Mary Mckenna

1993-01-01

320

ParaText : scalable text modeling and analysis.  

SciTech Connect

Automated processing, modeling, and analysis of unstructured text (news documents, web content, journal articles, etc.) is a key task in many data analysis and decision making applications. As data sizes grow, scalability is essential for deep analysis. In many cases, documents are modeled as term or feature vectors and latent semantic analysis (LSA) is used to model latent, or hidden, relationships between documents and terms appearing in those documents. LSA supplies conceptual organization and analysis of document collections by modeling high-dimension feature vectors in many fewer dimensions. While past work on the scalability of LSA modeling has focused on the SVD, the goal of our work is to investigate the use of distributed memory architectures for the entire text analysis process, from data ingestion to semantic modeling and analysis. ParaText is a set of software components for distributed processing, modeling, and analysis of unstructured text. The ParaText source code is available under a BSD license, as an integral part of the Titan toolkit. ParaText components are chained-together into data-parallel pipelines that are replicated across processes on distributed-memory architectures. Individual components can be replaced or rewired to explore different computational strategies and implement new functionality. ParaText functionality can be embedded in applications on any platform using the native C++ API, Python, or Java. The ParaText MPI Process provides a 'generic' text analysis pipeline in a command-line executable that can be used for many serial and parallel analysis tasks. ParaText can also be deployed as a web service accessible via a RESTful (HTTP) API. In the web service configuration, any client can access the functionality provided by ParaText using commodity protocols ... from standard web browsers to custom clients written in any language.

Dunlavy, Daniel M.; Stanton, Eric T.; Shead, Timothy M.

2010-06-01

321

Automatic Abstraction for Intervals Using Boolean Formulae  

E-print Network

elimination algorithms, and provides a systematic way of handling wrap-arounds (integer over- flows automatic way. 1.1 The Drive for Automatic Abstraction One reason for automation stems from operations

Kent, University of

322

Text classification using ESC-based stochastic decision lists  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a new method of text classification using\\u000a stochastic decision lists. A stochastic decision list is\\u000a an ordered sequence of IF-THEN-ELSE rules, and our method\\u000a can be viewed as a rule-based method for text\\u000a classification having advantages of readability and\\u000a refinability of acquired knowledge. Our method is unique\\u000a in that decision lists are automatically constructed on\\u000a the basis of

Hang Li; Kenji Yamanishi

2002-01-01

323

Feature analysis for automatic speechreading  

Microsoft Academic Search

Audio-visual automatic speech recognition systems use visual information to enhance ASR systems in clean and noisy environments. This paper investigates a number of different visual feature extraction methods. It was observed that when performing visual speech recognition the visual feature vector requires a base level of detail for improved recognition. Geometric feature extraction provides lower recognition than pixel based methods

P. Scanlon; R. Reilly

2001-01-01

324

John Lygeros Automatic Control Laboratory  

E-print Network

International, Menlo Park, California Research Engineer (part time), Applied Physical Sciences Laboratory May Research Laboratories June 1988 - July 1988: Hellenic Aspropyrgos Refinery, Greece Intern Honors and AwardsJohn Lygeros ETH Zurich Automatic Control Laboratory ETL I 22, Physikstrasse 3 CH-8092 Zurich

Lygeros, John

325

Automatic Classification of Breast Tissue  

Microsoft Academic Search

A recent trend in digital mammography are CAD systems, which are computerized tools designed to help radiologists. Most of these systems are used for the automatic detection of abnormalities. However, recent studies have shown that their sensitivity is significantly decreased as the density of the breast is increased. In addition, the suitability of abnormality segmentation approaches tends to depend on

Arnau Oliver; Jordi Freixenet; Anna Bosch; David Raba; Reyer Zwiggelaar

2005-01-01

326

ICAR: Identity Card Automatic Reader  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the ICAR system, an application for automatic reading of identity cards and passports. The system acquires the image of the document by a flatbed scanner and recognizes the type of the document among a set of predefined models using color information. Textual fields are located in the image by a connected component analysis and identified in terms

Josep Lladós; Felipe Lumbreras; Vicente Chapaprieta; Joan Queralt

2001-01-01

327

Automatic scaling of digital ionograms  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new system has been devised to automatically scale digital ordinary-ray ionograms. The system has been developed for use at midlatitudes and has been trained on a full set of ionograms that are typical of the region. This paper describes the stages adopted in forming, recognizing, and scaling traces from the various ionospheric layers. Examples of the output available with

Matthew W. Fox; Craig Blundell

1989-01-01

328

Automatic transmission for a vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

An automatic transmission is described for a vehicle, comprising: a coupling means having an input shaft and an output shaft; a belt type continuously-variable speed transmission system having an input pulley mounted coaxially on a first shaft, an output pulley mounted coaxially on a second shaft and a belt extending between the first and second pulleys to transfer power, each

S. Moroto; S. Sakakibara

1986-01-01

329

Automatic Invention of Integer Sequences  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report on the application of the HR program (Colton, Bundy, & Walsh 1999) to the problem of automatically in- venting integer sequences. Seventeen sequences invented by HR are interesting enough to have been accepted into the En- cyclopedia of Integer Sequences (Sloane 2000) and all were supplied with interesting conjectures about their nature, also discovered by HR. By extending

Simon Colton; Alan Bundy; Toby Walsh

2000-01-01

330

Automatic identification of sound recordings  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have designed an automatic song identification component of a digital rights management (DRM) system for music, called MusicDNA. The details of MusicDNA are presented and the process by which we arrived at the final system configuration is outlined. This paper documents our experiences so that it can serve as a reference to those seeking to build a complete DRM

V. Venkatachalam; L. Cazzanti; N. Dhillon; M. Wells

2004-01-01

331

An automatic adiabatic bomb calorimeter  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper details the conversion of an existing isothermal bomb calorimeter to an adiabatic calorimeter with automatic control. Thermistors in the inner and outer vessels are included in two arms of an a.c. Wheatstone bridge: any rise in temperature of the inner vessel above that of the outer vessel results in phase reversal of the output voltage from the bridge,

W F Raymond; R J Canaway; C E Harris

1957-01-01

332

Graphonomics, Automaticity and Handwriting Assessment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A recent review of handwriting research in "Literacy" concluded that current curricula of handwriting education focus too much on writing style and neatness and neglect the aspect of handwriting automaticity. This conclusion is supported by evidence in the field of graphonomic research, where a range of experiments have been used to investigate…

Tucha, Oliver; Tucha, Lara; Lange, Klaus W.

2008-01-01

333

Automatic wood burning heating stove  

Microsoft Academic Search

An automatic wood burning heating stove has a fire chamber, a fuel feeding opening, closeably by an airtight door which is removable to convert the heater to an open fireplace. The door has a reflective ceramic surface on its inner face to direct heat toward preheating tubes having outlets directed above the fire zone. The door also reflects heat toward

K. H. McIntire; J. E. McIntire

1978-01-01

334

Automatic Error Analysis Using Intervals  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A technique for automatic error analysis using interval mathematics is introduced. A comparison to standard error propagation methods shows that in cases involving complicated formulas, the interval approach gives comparable error estimates with much less effort. Several examples are considered, and numerical errors are computed using the INTLAB…

Rothwell, E. J.; Cloud, M. J.

2012-01-01

335

SUPPLE: automatically generating user interfaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to give people ubiquitous access to software applications, device controllers, and Internet services, it will be necessary to automatically adapt user interfaces to the computational devices at hand (eg, cell phones, PDAs, touch panels, etc.). While previous researchers have proposed solutions to this problem, each has limitations. This paper proposes a novel solution based on treating interface adaptation

Krzysztof Gajos; Daniel S. Weld

2004-01-01

336

Automatic recognition of film genres  

Microsoft Academic Search

Film genres in digital video can be detected automatically. In a three-step approach we analyze first the syntactic properties of digital films: color statistics, cut detection, camera motion, object motion and audio. In a second step we use these statistics to derive at a more abstract level film style attributes such as camera panning and zooming, speech and music. These

Stephan Fischer; Rainer Lienhart; Wolfgang Effelsberg

1995-01-01

337

Evidence Summarized in Attorneys' Closing Arguments Predicts Acquittals in Criminal Trials of Child Sexual Abuse.  

PubMed

Evidence summarized in attorney's closing arguments of criminal child sexual abuse cases (N = 189) was coded to predict acquittal rates. Ten variables were significant bivariate predictors; five variables significant at p < .01 were entered into a multivariate model. Cases were likely to result in an acquittal when the defendant was not charged with force, the child maintained contact with the defendant after the abuse occurred, or the defense presented a hearsay witness regarding the victim's statements, a witness regarding the victim's character, or a witness regarding another witnesses' character (usually the mother). The findings suggest that jurors might believe that child molestation is akin to a stereotype of violent rape and that they may be swayed by defense challenges to the victim's credibility and the credibility of those close to the victim. PMID:24920247

Stolzenberg, Stacia N; Lyon, Thomas D

2014-06-11

338

A spatio-temporal mining approach towards summarizing and analyzing protein folding trajectories.  

PubMed

Understanding the protein folding mechanism remains a grand challenge in structural biology. In the past several years, computational theories in molecular dynamics have been employed to shed light on the folding process. Coupled with high computing power and large scale storage, researchers now can computationally simulate the protein folding process in atomistic details at femtosecond temporal resolution. Such simulation often produces a large number of folding trajectories, each consisting of a series of 3D conformations of the protein under study. As a result, effectively managing and analyzing such trajectories is becoming increasingly important. In this article, we present a spatio-temporal mining approach to analyze protein folding trajectories. It exploits the simplicity of contact maps, while also integrating 3D structural information in the analysis. It characterizes the dynamic folding process by first identifying spatio-temporal association patterns in contact maps, then studying how such patterns evolve along a folding trajectory. We demonstrate that such patterns can be leveraged to summarize folding trajectories, and to facilitate the detection and ordering of important folding events along a folding path. We also show that such patterns can be used to identify a consensus partial folding pathway across multiple folding trajectories. Furthermore, we argue that such patterns can capture both local and global structural topology in a 3D protein conformation, thereby facilitating effective structural comparison amongst conformations. We apply this approach to analyze the folding trajectories of two small synthetic proteins-BBA5 and GSGS (or Beta3S). We show that this approach is promising towards addressing the above issues, namely, folding trajectory summarization, folding events detection and ordering, and consensus partial folding pathway identification across trajectories. PMID:17407611

Yang, Hui; Parthasarathy, Srinivasan; Ucar, Duygu

2007-01-01

339

Texting while driving: is speech-based text entry less risky than handheld text entry?  

PubMed

Research indicates that using a cell phone to talk or text while maneuvering a vehicle impairs driving performance. However, few published studies directly compare the distracting effects of texting using a hands-free (i.e., speech-based interface) versus handheld cell phone, which is an important issue for legislation, automotive interface design and driving safety training. This study compared the effect of speech-based versus handheld text entries on simulated driving performance by asking participants to perform a car following task while controlling the duration of a secondary text-entry task. Results showed that both speech-based and handheld text entries impaired driving performance relative to the drive-only condition by causing more variation in speed and lane position. Handheld text entry also increased the brake response time and increased variation in headway distance. Text entry using a speech-based cell phone was less detrimental to driving performance than handheld text entry. Nevertheless, the speech-based text entry task still significantly impaired driving compared to the drive-only condition. These results suggest that speech-based text entry disrupts driving, but reduces the level of performance interference compared to text entry with a handheld device. In addition, the difference in the distraction effect caused by speech-based and handheld text entry is not simply due to the difference in task duration. PMID:25089769

He, J; Chaparro, A; Nguyen, B; Burge, R J; Crandall, J; Chaparro, B; Ni, R; Cao, S

2014-11-01

340

How automatic are crossmodal correspondences?  

PubMed

The last couple of years have seen a rapid growth of interest (especially amongst cognitive psychologists, cognitive neuroscientists, and developmental researchers) in the study of crossmodal correspondences - the tendency for our brains (not to mention the brains of other species) to preferentially associate certain features or dimensions of stimuli across the senses. By now, robust empirical evidence supports the existence of numerous crossmodal correspondences, affecting people's performance across a wide range of psychological tasks - in everything from the redundant target effect paradigm through to studies of the Implicit Association Test, and from speeded discrimination/classification tasks through to unspeeded spatial localisation and temporal order judgment tasks. However, one question that has yet to receive a satisfactory answer is whether crossmodal correspondences automatically affect people's performance (in all, or at least in a subset of tasks), as opposed to reflecting more of a strategic, or top-down, phenomenon. Here, we review the latest research on the topic of crossmodal correspondences to have addressed this issue. We argue that answering the question will require researchers to be more precise in terms of defining what exactly automaticity entails. Furthermore, one's answer to the automaticity question may also hinge on the answer to a second question: Namely, whether crossmodal correspondences are all 'of a kind', or whether instead there may be several different kinds of crossmodal mapping (e.g., statistical, structural, and semantic). Different answers to the automaticity question may then be revealed depending on the type of correspondence under consideration. We make a number of suggestions for future research that might help to determine just how automatic crossmodal correspondences really are. PMID:23370382

Spence, Charles; Deroy, Ophelia

2013-03-01

341

Automatic processing, analysis, and recognition of images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

New approaches and computer codes (A&CC) for automatic processing, analysis and recognition of images are offered. The A&CC are based on presentation of object image as a collection of pixels of various colours and consecutive automatic painting of distinguished itself parts of the image. The A&CC have technical objectives centred on such direction as: 1) image processing, 2) image feature extraction, 3) image analysis and some others in any consistency and combination. The A&CC allows to obtain various geometrical and statistical parameters of object image and its parts. Additional possibilities of the A&CC usage deal with a usage of artificial neural networks technologies. We believe that A&CC can be used at creation of the systems of testing and control in a various field of industry and military applications (airborne imaging systems, tracking of moving objects), in medical diagnostics, at creation of new software for CCD, at industrial vision and creation of decision-making system, etc. The opportunities of the A&CC are tested at image analysis of model fires and plumes of the sprayed fluid, ensembles of particles, at a decoding of interferometric images, for digitization of paper diagrams of electrical signals, for recognition of the text, for elimination of a noise of the images, for filtration of the image, for analysis of the astronomical images and air photography, at detection of objects.

Abrukov, Victor S.; Smirnov, Evgeniy V.; Ivanov, Dmitriy G.

2004-11-01

342

Semantic Annotation of Complex Text Structures in Problem Reports  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Text analysis is important for effective information retrieval from databases where the critical information is embedded in text fields. Aerospace safety depends on effective retrieval of relevant and related problem reports for the purpose of trend analysis. The complex text syntax in problem descriptions has limited statistical text mining of problem reports. The presentation describes an intelligent tagging approach that applies syntactic and then semantic analysis to overcome this problem. The tags identify types of problems and equipment that are embedded in the text descriptions. The power of these tags is illustrated in a faceted searching and browsing interface for problem report trending that combines automatically generated tags with database code fields and temporal information.

Malin, Jane T.; Throop, David R.; Fleming, Land D.

2011-01-01

343

46 CFR 63.25-1 - Small automatic auxiliary boilers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false Small automatic auxiliary boilers. 63.25-1 Section 63.25-1...MARINE ENGINEERING AUTOMATIC AUXILIARY BOILERS Requirements for Specific Types of Automatic Auxiliary Boilers § 63.25-1 Small automatic...

2012-10-01

344

46 CFR 63.25-1 - Small automatic auxiliary boilers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false Small automatic auxiliary boilers. 63.25-1 Section 63.25-1...MARINE ENGINEERING AUTOMATIC AUXILIARY BOILERS Requirements for Specific Types of Automatic Auxiliary Boilers § 63.25-1 Small automatic...

2011-10-01

345

46 CFR 63.25-1 - Small automatic auxiliary boilers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false Small automatic auxiliary boilers. 63.25-1 Section 63.25-1...MARINE ENGINEERING AUTOMATIC AUXILIARY BOILERS Requirements for Specific Types of Automatic Auxiliary Boilers § 63.25-1 Small automatic...

2013-10-01

346

Machine aided indexing from natural language text  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA Lexical Dictionary (NLD) Machine Aided Indexing (MAI) system was designed to (1) reuse the indexing of the Defense Technical Information Center (DTIC); (2) reuse the indexing of the Department of Energy (DOE); and (3) reduce the time required for original indexing. This was done by automatically generating appropriate NASA thesaurus terms from either the other agency's index terms, or, for original indexing, from document titles and abstracts. The NASA STI Program staff devised two different ways to generate thesaurus terms from text. The first group of programs identified noun phrases by a parsing method that allowed for conjunctions and certain prepositions, on the assumption that indexable concepts are found in such phrases. Results were not always satisfactory, and it was noted that indexable concepts often occurred outside of noun phrases. The first method also proved to be too slow for the ultimate goal of interactive (online) MAI. The second group of programs used the knowledge base (KB), word proximity, and frequency of word and phrase occurrence to identify indexable concepts. Both methods are described and illustrated. Online MAI has been achieved, as well as several spinoff benefits, which are also described.

Silvester, June P.; Genuardi, Michael T.; Klingbiel, Paul H.

1993-01-01

347

Automatic Control Flow Generation from Software Architectures  

E-print Network

-time automatically. To achieve this we take a different approach to system construction. We take control out.-K. Lau and V. Ukis generic connectors, and generate control flow of the system automatically at run in different systems with different control flows. Our automatic runtime control flow generation not only

Lau, Kung-Kiu

348

PROPERTIES OF AGEBASED AUTOMATIC MEMORY RECLAMATION ALGORITHMS  

E-print Network

PROPERTIES OF AGE­BASED AUTOMATIC MEMORY RECLAMATION ALGORITHMS A Dissertation Presented by DARKO­BASED AUTOMATIC MEMORY RECLAMATION ALGORITHMS A Dissertation Presented by DARKO STEFANOVI â?? C Approved as to style­BASED AUTOMATIC MEMORY RECLAMATION ALGORITHMS FEBRUARY 1999 DARKO STEFANOVI â?? C Dipl.Ing., UNIVERSITY OF BELGRADE

Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

349

SemiAutomatic Image Segmentation: A Bimodal  

E-print Network

Semi­Automatic Image Segmentation: A Bimodal Thresholding Approach Hanwei Shen Christopher R­automatic image segmentation tool which combines con­ ventional manual segmentation utilities with a novel automatic image segmentation algorithm. Manual segmentation is achieved by dropping control points

Utah, University of

350

Robot calibration using an automatic theodolite  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Vision Based Automatic Theodolite (VBAT) is an automatic partial pose measurement system for robot calibration. It uses low resolution rotation stages and resolution enhancement from a vision system to determine the line-of-sight to a spherical illuminated target. Automatic tracking, focusing, and centring provide the calibration system with speed, reliability, and repeatability. A kinematic model of the VBAT is described

Morris R. Driels; Uday S. Pathre

1994-01-01

351

Combining text clustering and retrieval for corpus adaptation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The application-relevant text data are very useful in various natural language applications. Using them can achieve significantly better performance for vocabulary selection, language modeling, which are widely employed in automatic speech recognition, intelligent input method etc. In some situations, however, the relevant data is hard to collect. Thus, the scarcity of application-relevant training text brings difficulty upon these natural language processing. In this paper, only using a small set of application specific text, by combining unsupervised text clustering and text retrieval techniques, the proposed approach can find the relevant text from unorganized large scale corpus, thereby, adapt training corpus towards the application area of interest. We use the performance of n-gram statistical language model, which is trained from the text retrieved and test on the application-specific text, to evaluate the relevance of the text acquired, accordingly, to validate the effectiveness of our corpus adaptation approach. The language models trained from the ranked text bundles present well discriminated perplexities on the application-specific text. The preliminary experiments on short message text and unorganized large corpus demonstrate the performance of the proposed methods.

He, Feng; Ding, Xiaoqing

2007-01-01

352

TextArc: An Alternate Way to View a Text  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Textarc is an unconventional tool that gives readers the opportunity to discover patterns and concepts in texts. Still in a developmental stage, the site offers readers the opportunity to utilize human visual processing by allowing intuition to help extract meaning from a text. By exposing every word at once, the eye is able to make connections and decipher meaning otherwise overlooked by normal reading, thereby exposing the essence of a text. The site currently has Hamlet available as a full textarc text, and is in the process of exposing more literary works. Not only of value for avid readers and literary critics, the site offers librarians and archivists new approaches to cataloguing. On the whole, this new and innovative creation is at a minimum intriguing, and the site is definitely worth a visit.

2002-01-01

353

Lightweight Natural Language Text Compression  

Microsoft Academic Search

Variants of Hufiman codes where words are taken as the source symbols are currently the most attractive choices to compress natural language text databases. In particular, Tagged Hufiman Code by Moura et al. ofiers fast direct searching on the compressed text and random access capabilities, in exchange for producing around 11% larger compressed flles. This work describes End-Tagged Dense Code

Nieves R. Brisaboa; Antonio Fari; Gonzalo Navarro; Jose R. Parama

354

Lightweight natural language text compression  

Microsoft Academic Search

Variants of Huffman codes where words are taken as the source symbols are currently the most attractive choices to compress natural language text databases. In particular, Tagged Huffman Code by Moura et al. offers fast direct searching on the compressed text and random access capabilities, in exchange for producing around 11% larger compressed files. This work describes End-Tagged Dense Code

Nieves R. Brisaboa; Antonio Fariña; Gonzalo Navarro; Jose R. Parama

2007-01-01

355

Understanding and Teaching Complex Texts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Teachers in today's classrooms struggle every day to design instructional interventions that would build students' reading skills and strategies in order to ensure their comprehension of complex texts. Text complexity can be determined in both qualitative and quantitative ways. In this article, the authors describe various innovative…

Fisher, Douglas; Frey, Nancy

2014-01-01

356

Text Mining Using Linear Models  

E-print Network

) or something else. Wiki example Jim bought 300 shares of Acme Corp in 2006. Customized systems build Statistical Models for Text Markov chains Hidden Markov models have been successfully used in text mining, particularly speech tagging Hidden Markov model (HMM) Transition probabilities for observed words ! P(wt|wt-1

Stine, Robert A.

357

Toward integrated scene text reading.  

PubMed

The growth in digital camera usage combined with a worldly abundance of text has translated to a rich new era for a classic problem of pattern recognition, reading. While traditional document processing often faces challenges such as unusual fonts, noise, and unconstrained lexicons, scene text reading amplifies these challenges and introduces new ones such as motion blur, curved layouts, perspective projection, and occlusion among others. Reading scene text is a complex problem involving many details that must be handled effectively for robust, accurate results. In this work, we describe and evaluate a reading system that combines several pieces, using probabilistic methods for coarsely binarizing a given text region, identifying baselines, and jointly performing word and character segmentation during the recognition process. By using scene context to recognize several words together in a line of text, our system gives state-of-the-art performance on three difficult benchmark data sets. PMID:24356356

Weinman, Jerod J; Butler, Zachary; Knoll, Dugan; Feild, Jacqueline

2014-02-01

358

Automatic Flight Guidance Using the Portable Automatic Calibration Tracker Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

The problem of guiding an instrumented aircraft to follow a pre-assigned trajectory using the Portable Automatic Calibration Tracker (PACT) data is considered in this paper. Guidance control is formulated as an optimal linear state regulator problem for a discrete time-delayed system. Responses to some flight courses of interest have, been achieved through computer system simulation. Post-flight test data obtained from

Ching-Tai Lin

1975-01-01

359

Counting OCR errors in typeset text  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Frequently object recognition accuracy is a key component in the performance analysis of pattern matching systems. In the past three years, the results of numerous excellent and rigorous studies of OCR system typeset-character accuracy (henceforth OCR accuracy) have been published, encouraging performance comparisons between a variety of OCR products and technologies. These published figures are important; OCR vendor advertisements in the popular trade magazines lead readers to believe that published OCR accuracy figures effect market share in the lucrative OCR market. Curiously, a detailed review of many of these OCR error occurrence counting results reveals that they are not reproducible as published and they are not strictly comparable due to larger variances in the counts than would be expected by the sampling variance. Naturally, since OCR accuracy is based on a ratio of the number of OCR errors over the size of the text searched for errors, imprecise OCR error accounting leads to similar imprecision in OCR accuracy. Some published papers use informal, non-automatic, or intuitively correct OCR error accounting. Still other published results present OCR error accounting methods based on string matching algorithms such as dynamic programming using Levenshtein (edit) distance but omit critical implementation details (such as the existence of suspect markers in the OCR generated output or the weights used in the dynamic programming minimization procedure). The problem with not specifically revealing the accounting method is that the number of errors found by different methods are significantly different. This paper identifies the basic accounting methods used to measure OCR errors in typeset text and offers an evaluation and comparison of the various accounting methods.

Sandberg, Jonathan S.

1995-03-01

360

Recognition-based Segmentation of Nom Characters from Body Text Regions of Stele  

E-print Network

development. Automatic processing of stele images composes of three sub-problems: extraction of body textRecognition-based Segmentation of Nom Characters from Body Text Regions of Stele Images Using Area Voronoi Diagram Thai V. Hoang 1,2 , Salvatore Tabbone2 , and Ngoc-Yen Pham1 1 MICA Research Center, Hanoi

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

361

Text Detection from Natural Scene Images: Towards a System for Visually Impaired Persons  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a system that reads the text encountered in natural scenes with the aim to provide assistance to the visually impaired persons. This paper describes the sys- tem design and evaluates several character extraction meth- ods. Automatic text recognition from natural images re- ceives a growing attention because of potential applications in image retrieval, robotics and intelligent transport system.

Nobuo Ezaki; Marius Bulacu; Lambert Schomaker

2004-01-01

362

An impact of linguistic features on automated classification of OCR texts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Optical Character reader (OCR) systems can be used in digitizing print documents. OCR texts are generated in the process of digitizing print documents. Usually these texts need to be indexed and organized to simplify their access and retrieval. This can be done by the use of automatic classification techniques. However it is currently impossible for OCR technology to recognize all

Gudila Paul Moshi; Lazaro S. P. Busagala; Wataru Ohyama; Tetsushi Wakabayashi; Fumitaka Kimura

2010-01-01

363

Differences in Text Structure and Its Implications for Assessment of Struggling Readers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One source of potential difficulty for struggling readers is the variability of texts across grade levels. This article explores the use of automatic natural language processing techniques to identify dimensions of variation within a corpus of school-appropriate texts. Specifically, we asked: Are there identifiable dimensions of lexical and…

Deane, Paul; Sheehan, Kathleen M.; Sabatini, John; Futagi, Yoko; Kostin, Irene

2006-01-01

364

MUSIC GENRES CLASSIFICATION USING TEXT CATEGORIZATION METHOD Kai Chen, Sheng Gao, Yongwei Zhu, Qibin Sun  

E-print Network

MUSIC GENRES CLASSIFICATION USING TEXT CATEGORIZATION METHOD Kai Chen, Sheng Gao, Yongwei Zhu.a-star.edu.sg ABSTRACT Automatic music genre classification is one of the most challenging problems in music information retrieval and management of digital music database. In this paper, we propose a new framework using text

Sun, Qibin

365

Bootstrapping Biomedical Ontologies for Scientific Text using NELL Dana Movshovitz-Attias  

E-print Network

an open information extraction system for biomedical text based on NELL (the Never-Ending Language Learner-supervised bootstrapping approach to learn new facts from text, given an initial ontology and a small number of "seeds ontology and seeds are automatically de- rived from existing resources. We show that NELL's bootstrapping

Cohen, William W.

366

Temporal reasoning over clinical text: the state of the art  

PubMed Central

Objectives To provide an overview of the problem of temporal reasoning over clinical text and to summarize the state of the art in clinical natural language processing for this task. Target audience This overview targets medical informatics researchers who are unfamiliar with the problems and applications of temporal reasoning over clinical text. Scope We review the major applications of text-based temporal reasoning, describe the challenges for software systems handling temporal information in clinical text, and give an overview of the state of the art. Finally, we present some perspectives on future research directions that emerged during the recent community-wide challenge on text-based temporal reasoning in the clinical domain. PMID:23676245

Sun, Weiyi; Rumshisky, Anna; Uzuner, Ozlem

2013-01-01

367

Model Considerations for Memory-based Automatic Music Transcription  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The problem of automatic music description is considered. The recorded music is modeled as a superposition of known sounds from a library weighted by unknown weights. Similar observation models are commonly used in statistics and machine learning. Many methods for estimation of the weights are available. These methods differ in the assumptions imposed on the weights. In Bayesian paradigm, these assumptions are typically expressed in the form of prior probability density function (pdf) on the weights. In this paper, commonly used assumptions about music signal are summarized and complemented by a new assumption. These assumptions are translated into pdfs and combined into a single prior density using combination of pdfs. Validity of the model is tested in simulation using synthetic data.

Albrecht, Št?pán; Šmídl, Václav

2009-12-01

368

Why is Light Text Harder to Read Than Dark Text?  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Scharff and Ahumada (2002, 2003) measured text legibility for light text and dark text. For paragraph readability and letter identification, responses to light text were slower and less accurate for a given contrast. Was this polarity effect (1) an artifact of our apparatus, (2) a physiological difference in the separate pathways for positive and negative contrast or (3) the result of increased experience with dark text on light backgrounds? To rule out the apparatus-artifact hypothesis, all data were collected on one monitor. Its luminance was measured at all levels used, and the spatial effects of the monitor were reduced by pixel doubling and quadrupling (increasing the viewing distance to maintain constant angular size). Luminances of vertical and horizontal square-wave gratings were compared to assess display speed effects. They existed, even for 4-pixel-wide bars. Tests for polarity asymmetries in display speed were negative. Increased experience might develop full letter templates for dark text, while recognition of light letters is based on component features. Earlier, an observer ran all conditions at one polarity and then switched. If dark and light letters were intermixed, the observer might use component features on all trials and do worse on the dark letters, reducing the polarity effect. We varied polarity blocking (completely blocked, alternating smaller blocks, and intermixed blocks). Letter identification responses times showed polarity effects at all contrasts and display resolution levels. Observers were also more accurate with higher contrasts and more pixels per degree. Intermixed blocks increased the polarity effect by reducing performance on the light letters, but only if the randomized block occurred prior to the nonrandomized block. Perhaps observers tried to use poorly developed templates, or they did not work as hard on the more difficult items. The experience hypothesis and the physiological gain hypothesis remain viable explanations.

Scharff, Lauren V.; Ahumada, Albert J.

2005-01-01

369

Toward automatic finite element analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two problems must be solved if the finite element method is to become a reliable and affordable blackbox engineering tool. Finite element meshes must be generated automatically from computer aided design databases and mesh analysis must be made self-adaptive. The experimental system described solves both problems in 2-D through spatial and analytical substructuring techniques that are now being extended into 3-D.

Kela, Ajay; Perucchio, Renato; Voelcker, Herbert

1987-01-01

370

AUTOMATIC SPEECHREADING OF IMPAIRED SPEECH  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigate the use of visual, mouth-region information in improving automatic speech recognition (ASR) of the speech impaired. Given the video of an utterance by such a subject, we first extract appearance-based visual features from the mouth region-of-interest, and we use a feature fu- sion method to combine them with the subject's audio fea- tures into bimodal observations. Subsequently, we

Gerasimos Potamianos; Chalapathy Neti

371

Automatic home nursing activity recommendation.  

PubMed

The rapid deployment of Web-based, consumer-centric electronic medical records (CEMRs) is an important trend in healthcare. In this paper, we incorporate nursing knowledge into CEMR so that it can automatically recommend home nursing activities (HNAs). Those more complex HNAs are made clickable for users to find detailed implementation procedures. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our techniques using USMLE medical exam cases. PMID:20351888

Luo, Gang; Tang, Chunqiang

2009-01-01

372

Automatic photo pop-up  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a fully automatic method for creating a 3D model from a single photograph. The model is made up of several texture-mapped planar billboards and has the complexity of a typical children's pop-up book illustration. Our main insight is that instead of attempting to recover precise geometry, we statistically model defined by their orientations in the scene. Our

Derek Hoiem; Alexei A. Efros; Martial Hebert

2005-01-01

373

Computers in Automatic Control Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modern automatic feedback-control systems are making increasing use of electronic computers as active controllers. The trend from the use of simple electric circuits and elementary analog devices toward high-speed digital computers (or computers employing both digital and analog devices) is accelerated by 1) the rapidly growing complexity of modern control systems; 2) the increasing importance of self-adaptive control; and 3)

JOHN G. TRUXALt

1961-01-01

374

Automatic translation among spoken languages  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Machine Aided Voice Translation (MAVT) system was developed in response to the shortage of experienced military field interrogators with both foreign language proficiency and interrogation skills. Combining speech recognition, machine translation, and speech generation technologies, the MAVT accepts an interrogator's spoken English question and translates it into spoken Spanish. The spoken Spanish response of the potential informant can then be translated into spoken English. Potential military and civilian applications for automatic spoken language translation technology are discussed in this paper.

Walter, Sharon M.; Costigan, Kelly

1994-01-01

375

Robust Automatic Multibeam Bathymetric Processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a new methodology for automatically processing high-resolution, high-rate bathymetric data, typically from multi-beam echo sounders. Based on a generic grid of estimation nodes, this method incorporates data from multiple surveys, multiple instruments or multiple passes of the same instrument, and models and maintains depth uncertainty estimates with the data. Consequently, we can extract, at any time, a current

B R Calder; L A Mayer

376

Hierarchical Concept Indexing of Full-Text Documents in the Unified Medical Language System Information Sources Map.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes methods for applying natural-language processing for automatic concept-based indexing of full text and methods for exploiting the structure and hierarchy of full-text documents to a large collection of full-text documents drawn from the Health Services/Technology Assessment Text database at the National Library of Medicine. Examines how…

Wright, Lawrence W.; Nardini, Holly K. Grossetta; Aronson, Alan R.; Rindflesch, Thomas C.

1999-01-01

377

Supporting the education evidence portal via text mining  

PubMed Central

The UK Education Evidence Portal (eep) provides a single, searchable, point of access to the contents of the websites of 33 organizations relating to education, with the aim of revolutionizing work practices for the education community. Use of the portal alleviates the need to spend time searching multiple resources to find relevant information. However, the combined content of the websites of interest is still very large (over 500?000 documents and growing). This means that searches using the portal can produce very large numbers of hits. As users often have limited time, they would benefit from enhanced methods of performing searches and viewing results, allowing them to drill down to information of interest more efficiently, without having to sift through potentially long lists of irrelevant documents. The Joint Information Systems Committee (JISC)-funded ASSIST project has produced a prototype web interface to demonstrate the applicability of integrating a number of text-mining tools and methods into the eep, to facilitate an enhanced searching, browsing and document-viewing experience. New features include automatic classification of documents according to a taxonomy, automatic clustering of search results according to similar document content, and automatic identification and highlighting of key terms within documents. PMID:20643679

Ananiadou, Sophia; Thompson, Paul; Thomas, James; Mu, Tingting; Oliver, Sandy; Rickinson, Mark; Sasaki, Yutaka; Weissenbacher, Davy; McNaught, John

2010-01-01

378

Automatic Contrail Detection and Segmentation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Automatic contrail detection is of major importance in the study of the atmospheric effects of aviation. Due to the large volume of satellite imagery, selecting contrail images for study by hand is impractical and highly subject to human error. It is far better to have a system in place that will automatically evaluate an image to determine 1) whether it contains contrails and 2) where the contrails are located. Preliminary studies indicate that it is possible to automatically detect and locate contrails in Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) imagery with a high degree of confidence. Once contrails have been identified and localized in a satellite image, it is useful to segment the image into contrail versus noncontrail pixels. The ability to partition image pixels makes it possible to determine the optical properties of contrails, including optical thickness and particle size. In this paper, we describe a new technique for segmenting satellite images containing contrails. This method has good potential for creating a contrail climatology in an automated fashion. The majority of contrails are detected, rejecting clutter in the image, even cirrus streaks. Long, thin contrails are most easily detected. However, some contrails may be missed because they are curved, diffused over a large area, or present in short segments. Contrails average 2-3 km in width for the cases studied.

Weiss, John M.; Christopher, Sundar A.; Welch, Ronald M.

1998-01-01

379

Text Format, Text Comprehension, and Related Reader Variables  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This investigation explored relationships between format of text (electronic or print-based) and reading comprehension of adolescent readers. Also in question were potential influences on comprehension from related measures including academic placement of participants, gender, prior knowledge of the content, and overall reading ability. Influences…

Nichols, Jodi L.

2009-01-01

380

US Patent Full Text Database  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The US Patent and Trademark Office has recently added a new full-text database of all US patents issued from January 1, 1976 to the most recent weekly issue date to its Web Patent Databases page (described in the January 10, 1997 Scout Report). Users may conduct fielded and boolean searches or search by patent number. The full-text returns include the Summary, Claims, Description, and References. Drawings and images are not available online. Search tips and help are provided at the site.

381

Enriching text with images and colored light  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present an unsupervised method to enrich textual applications with relevant images and colors. The images are collected by querying large image repositories and subsequently the colors are computed using image processing. A prototype system based on this method is presented where the method is applied to song lyrics. In combination with a lyrics synchronization algorithm the system produces a rich multimedia experience. In order to identify terms within the text that may be associated with images and colors, we select noun phrases using a part of speech tagger. Large image repositories are queried with these terms. Per term representative colors are extracted using the collected images. Hereto, we either use a histogram-based or a mean shift-based algorithm. The representative color extraction uses the non-uniform distribution of the colors found in the large repositories. The images that are ranked best by the search engine are displayed on a screen, while the extracted representative colors are rendered on controllable lighting devices in the living room. We evaluate our method by comparing the computed colors to standard color representations of a set of English color terms. A second evaluation focuses on the distance in color between a queried term in English and its translation in a foreign language. Based on results from three sets of terms, a measure of suitability of a term for color extraction based on KL Divergence is proposed. Finally, we compare the performance of the algorithm using either the automatically indexed repository of Google Images and the manually annotated Flickr.com. Based on the results of these experiments, we conclude that using the presented method we can compute the relevant color for a term using a large image repository and image processing.

Sekulovski, Dragan; Geleijnse, Gijs; Kater, Bram; Korst, Jan; Pauws, Steffen; Clout, Ramon

2008-01-01

382

Automated learning of decision rules for text categorization  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe the results of extensive experiments using\\u000a optimized rule-based induction methods on large document\\u000a collections. The goal of these methods is to discover\\u000a automatically classification patterns that can be used for\\u000a general document categorization or personalized filtering\\u000a of free text. Previous reports indicate that\\u000a human-engineered rule-based systems, requiring many\\u000a man-years of developmental efforts, have been successfully\\u000a built to ``read''

Chidanand Apte; Fred J. Damerau; Sholom M. Weiss

1994-01-01

383

Tobermorite group of silicates (Text)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This document is part of Subvolume I4 'Inosilicates' of Volume 27 'Magnetic properties of non-metallic inorganic compounds based on transition elements' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group III Condensed Matter. It contains the data of the tobermorite group of silicates (Text)

Burzo, E.

384

Bornholm Text analysis rup Nielsen  

E-print Network

Bornholm Text analysis Finn A Ã? rup Nielsen Informatics and Mathematical Modelling Technical A Ã? rup Nielsen, IMM, DTU April 7, 2002 OVERVIEW #15; Analysis types #15; Vector space model #15 in chat room. #15; Usage analysis 2 #12; Finn A Ã? rup Nielsen, IMM, DTU April 7, 2002 ANALYSIS TYPES #15

Nielsen, Finn Ã?rup

385

A Hypertext Observational Astronomy Text  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Internet, World Wide Web, and Mosaic inspire new and innovative approaches to organizing textual materials for educational purposes and for providing access to these materials. We have taken a textbook under construction and converted it into electronic form for use with other class materials in an upper level undergraduate observational astronomy course at the University of Virginia. There are many advantages to this approach for a text. These include relative ease and speed of preparation compared with formal publication, much superior results compared with photocopying, and low cost to the student. Color photographs may easily be integrated with text. The text is easy to revise and keep current, and it would be a straightforward matter to include user contributions and interaction. Of special value is the structure that can be built in the documents with hypertext anchors. We established links between the class syllabus and the main text, to the illustrated operating manuals for the instrumentation used in the course, to more detailed or difficult material, and to other World Wide Web servers.

Miller, G. E.; Ianna, P. A.

1994-12-01

386

Data compression using text encryption  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary form only given. We discuss the use of a new algorithm to preprocess text in order to improve the compression ratio of textual documents, in particular online documents such as web pages on the World Wide Web. The algorithm was first introduced in an earlier paper, and in this paper we discuss the applicability of our algorithm in Internet

H. Kruse; A. Mukherjee

1997-01-01

387

Basic Chad Arabic: Comprehension Texts.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This text, principally designed for use in a three-volume course on Chad Arabic, complements the pre-speech and active phases of the course in that it provides the answers to comprehension exercises students are required to complete during the course. The comprehension exercises require that students listen to an instructor or tape and write…

Absi, Samir Abu; Sinaud, Andre

388

Reader-Focused Text Evaluation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a review of the literature on reader-focused text evaluation. Gives an account of the document characteristics that can be evaluated and considers the possible functions of evaluations making a distinction between verifying, troubleshooting, and choice-supporting research. Presents an overview of methods appropriate for the various…

DeJong, Menno; Jan Schellens, Peter

1997-01-01

389

Disfluencies in Comprehending Argumentative Texts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In two experiments, we examine university students' ability to comprehend authentic argumentative texts and factors that influence their application of this skill. Participants read several relatively lengthy arguments and identified the main claim and reasons. Experiment 1 shows that participants are not skilled at identifying key elements from…

Larson, Meredith; Britt, M. Anne; Larson, Aaron A.

2004-01-01

390

The otibetpackage Writing tibetan text  

E-print Network

­capable descendent of T E X. This package makes heavy use of\\Omega translation process, known as\\Omega TP. Included in the package there are the necessary \\Omega TP­øles to type tibetan text in a certain transcription and after characters by stacking them one above the other. 2 Input Encoding, Transcription Two transcriptions

Preining, Norbert

391

MedSynDiKATe--design considerations for an ontology-based medical text understanding system.  

PubMed Central

MedSynDiKATe is a natural language processor for automatically acquiring knowledge from medical finding reports. The content of these documents is transferred to formal representation structures which constitute a corresponding text knowledge base. The general system architecture we present integrates requirements from the analysis of single sentences, as well as those of referentially linked sentences forming cohesive texts. The strong demands MedSynDiKATe poses to the availability of expressive knowledge sources are accounted for by two alternative approaches to (semi)automatic ontology engineering. PMID:11079899

Hahn, U.; Romacker, M.; Schulz, S.

2000-01-01

392

A general graphical user interface for automatic reliability modeling  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Reported here is a general Graphical User Interface (GUI) for automatic reliability modeling of Processor Memory Switch (PMS) structures using a Markov model. This GUI is based on a hierarchy of windows. One window has graphical editing capabilities for specifying the system's communication structure, hierarchy, reconfiguration capabilities, and requirements. Other windows have field texts, popup menus, and buttons for specifying parameters and selecting actions. An example application of the GUI is given.

Liceaga, Carlos A.; Siewiorek, Daniel P.

1991-01-01

393

Unsupervised mining of frequent tags for clinical eligibility text indexing.  

PubMed

Clinical text, such as clinical trial eligibility criteria, is largely underused in state-of-the-art medical search engines due to difficulties of accurate parsing. This paper proposes a novel methodology to derive a semantic index for clinical eligibility documents based on a controlled vocabulary of frequent tags, which are automatically mined from the text. We applied this method to eligibility criteria on ClinicalTrials.gov and report that frequent tags (1) define an effective and efficient index of clinical trials and (2) are unlikely to grow radically when the repository increases. We proposed to apply the semantic index to filter clinical trial search results and we concluded that frequent tags reduce the result space more efficiently than an uncontrolled set of UMLS concepts. Overall, unsupervised mining of frequent tags from clinical text leads to an effective semantic index for the clinical eligibility documents and promotes their computational reuse. PMID:24036004

Miotto, Riccardo; Weng, Chunhua

2013-12-01

394

Multilingual Authoring Using Feedback Texts  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are obvious reasons for trying to automate the production of multilingual documentation, especially for routine subject-matter in restricted domains (e.g. technical instructions). Two approaches have been adopted: Machine Translation (MT) of a source text, and Multilingual Natural Language Generation (M-NLG) from a knowledge base. For MT, information extraction is a major difficulty, since the meaning must be derived by

Richard Power; Donia Scott

1998-01-01

395

Humans in Space: Summarizing the Medico-Biological Results of the Space Shuttle Program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As we celebrate the 50th anniversary of Gagarin's flight that opened the era of Humans in Space we also commemorate the 30th anniversary of the Space Shuttle Program (SSP) which was triumphantly completed by the flight of STS-135 on July 21, 2011. These were great milestones in the history of Human Space Exploration. Many important questions regarding the ability of humans to adapt and function in space were answered for the past 50 years and many lessons have been learned. Significant contribution to answering these questions was made by the SSP. To ensure the availability of the Shuttle Program experiences to the international space community NASA has made a decision to summarize the medico-biological results of the SSP in a fundamental edition that is scheduled to be completed by the end of 2011 beginning 2012. The goal of this edition is to define the normal responses of the major physiological systems to short-duration space flights and provide a comprehensive source of information for planning, ensuring successful operational activities and for management of potential medical problems that might arise during future long-term space missions. The book includes the following sections: 1. History of Shuttle Biomedical Research and Operations; 2. Medical Operations Overview Systems, Monitoring, and Care; 3. Biomedical Research Overview; 4. System-specific Adaptations/Responses, Issues, and Countermeasures; 5. Multisystem Issues and Countermeasures. In addition, selected operational documents will be presented in the appendices. The chapters are written by well-recognized experts in appropriate fields, peer reviewed, and edited by physicians and scientists with extensive expertise in space medical operations and space-related biomedical research. As Space Exploration continues the major question whether humans are capable of adapting to long term presence and adequate functioning in space habitats remains to be answered We expect that the comprehensive review of the medico-biological results of the SSP along with the data collected during the missions on the space stations (Mir and ISS) provides a good starting point in seeking the answer to this question.

Risin, Diana; Stepaniak, P. C.; Grounds, D. J.

2011-01-01

396

[On two antique medical texts].  

PubMed

The two texts presented here--Regimento proueytoso contra ha pestenença [literally, "useful regime against pestilence"] and Modus curandi cum balsamo ["curing method using balm"]--represent the extent of Portugal's known medical library until circa 1530, produced in gothic letters by foreign printers: Germany's Valentim Fernandes, perhaps the era's most important printer, who worked in Lisbon between 1495 and 1518, and Germdo Galharde, a Frenchman who practiced his trade in Lisbon and Coimbra between 1519 and 1560. Modus curandi, which came to light in 1974 thanks to bibliophile José de Pina Martins, is anonymous. Johannes Jacobi is believed to be the author of Regimento proueytoso, which was translated into Latin (Regimen contra pestilentiam), French, and English. Both texts are presented here in facsimile and in modern Portuguese, while the first has also been reproduced in archaic Portuguese using modern typographical characters. This philological venture into sixteenth-century medicine is supplemented by a scholarly glossary which serves as a valuable tool in interpreting not only Regimento proueytoso but also other texts from the era. Two articles place these documents in historical perspective. PMID:17500134

Rosa, Maria Carlota

2005-01-01

397

Automatic melting point determination of fats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Mettler FP3 automatic dropping point apparatus was used for the determination of melting points of a variety of edible\\u000a fat products. The instrument was particularly suitable for this purpose because of the availability-of different heating rates.\\u000a Advantages were the fully automatic heating, the automatic and objective endpoint determination, the application for melted\\u000a as well as solidified samples (shortening, margarine,

W. G. Mertens; J. M. DeMan

1972-01-01

398

Commutated automatic gain control system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The commutated automatic gain control (AGC) system was designed and built for the prototype Loran-C receiver is discussed. The current version of the prototype receiver, the Mini L-80, was tested initially in 1980. The receiver uses a super jolt microcomputer to control a memory aided phase loop (MAPLL). The microcomputer also controls the input/output, latitude/longitude conversion, and the recently added AGC system. The AGC control adjusts the level of each station signal, such that the early portion of each envelope rise is about at the same amplitude in the receiver envelope detector.

Yost, S. R.

1982-01-01

399

Text-mining and information-retrieval services for molecular biology  

PubMed Central

Text-mining in molecular biology - defined as the automatic extraction of information about genes, proteins and their functional relationships from text documents - has emerged as a hybrid discipline on the edges of the fields of information science, bioinformatics and computational linguistics. A range of text-mining applications have been developed recently that will improve access to knowledge for biologists and database annotators. PMID:15998455

Krallinger, Martin; Valencia, Alfonso

2005-01-01

400

Identifying issue frames in text.  

PubMed

Framing, the effect of context on cognitive processes, is a prominent topic of research in psychology and public opinion research. Research on framing has traditionally relied on controlled experiments and manually annotated document collections. In this paper we present a method that allows for quantifying the relative strengths of competing linguistic frames based on corpus analysis. This method requires little human intervention and can therefore be efficiently applied to large bodies of text. We demonstrate its effectiveness by tracking changes in the framing of terror over time and comparing the framing of abortion by Democrats and Republicans in the U.S. PMID:23874909

Sagi, Eyal; Diermeier, Daniel; Kaufmann, Stefan

2013-01-01

401

CELT: Corpus of Electronic Texts  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

CELT, an "online database of contemporary and historical topics from many areas, including literature and the other arts," is aimed at the greatest possible range of readers, from academic scholars to the general public. Texts at the site can be searched, read on-screen, or downloaded. Other works available at CELT include essays by Michael Collins, the Dail debates on the 1921 Anglo-Irish Treaty, works by James Connolly and Padraic Pearse, and almost the whole corpus of Hiberno-Norman French poetry.

1997-01-01

402

Text Classification by Labeling Words  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traditionally, text classifiers are built from labeled training\\u000a examples. Labeling is usually done manually by human experts\\u000a (or the users), which is a labor intensive and time consuming process.\\u000a In the past few years, researchers investigated various forms of\\u000a semi-supervised learning to reduce the burden of manual labeling.\\u000a In this paper, we propose a different approach. Instead of labeling\\u000a a

Bing Liu; Xiaoli Li; Wee Sun Lee; Philip S. Yu

2005-01-01

403

Door Placard for No Automatic Fire Alarm with Automatic Fire Sprinkler Protection System  

E-print Network

Door Placard for No Automatic Fire Alarm with Automatic Fire Sprinkler Protection System Fire Code: ______________________ _____________________________ Fire Alarm System Monitored by: _____________________________ Fire and Life Safety Systems Your facility is equipped with functional Fire Smoke Detection and an Automatic Fire Sprinkler System Annual

Pawlowski, Wojtek

404

Automatic control of visual selection.  

PubMed

This paper seeks out to reduce the role of the homunculus, the 'little man in the head' that is still prominent in most psychological theories regarding the control our behaviour. We argue that once engaged in a task (which is a volitional act), visual selection run off more or less in an automatic fashion. We argue that the salience map that drives automatic selection is not only determined by raw physical salience of the objects in the environment but also by the way these objects appear to the person. We provide evidence that priming (feature priming, priming by working memory and reward priming) sharpens the cortical representation of these objects such that these objects appear to be more salient above and beyond their physical salience. We demonstrate that this type of priming is not under volitional control: it occurs even if observers try to volitionally prepare for something else. In other words, looking at red prepares our brain for things that are red even if we volitionally try to prepare for green. PMID:23437629

Theeuwes, Jan

2012-01-01

405

Automatic temperature controlled retinal photocoagulation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Laser coagulation is a treatment method for many retinal diseases. Due to variations in fundus pigmentation and light scattering inside the eye globe, different lesion strengths are often achieved. The aim of this work is to realize an automatic feedback algorithm to generate desired lesion strengths by controlling the retinal temperature increase with the irradiation time. Optoacoustics afford non-invasive retinal temperature monitoring during laser treatment. A 75 ns/523 nm Q-switched Nd:YLF laser was used to excite the temperature-dependent pressure amplitudes, which were detected at the cornea by an ultrasonic transducer embedded in a contact lens. A 532 nm continuous wave Nd:YAG laser served for photocoagulation. The ED50 temperatures, for which the probability of ophthalmoscopically visible lesions after one hour in vivo in rabbits was 50%, varied from 63°C for 20 ms to 49°C for 400 ms. Arrhenius parameters were extracted as ?E=273 J mol-1 and A=3.1044 s-1. Control algorithms for mild and strong lesions were developed, which led to average lesion diameters of 162+/-34 ?m and 189+/-34 ?m, respectively. It could be demonstrated that the sizes of the automatically controlled lesions were widely independent of the treatment laser power and the retinal pigmentation.

Schlott, Kerstin; Koinzer, Stefan; Ptaszynski, Lars; Bever, Marco; Baade, Alex; Roider, Johann; Birngruber, Reginald; Brinkmann, Ralf

2012-06-01

406

Automatic Inspection In Industry Today  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With increasing competition in the manufacturing industries product quality is becoming even more important. The shortcomings of human inspectors in many applications are well know, however, the eye/brain combination is very powerful and difficult to replace. At best, any system only simulates a small subset of the human's operations. The economic justification for installing automatic inspection is often difficult without previous applications experience. It therefore calls for confidence and long-term vision by those making the decisions. Over the last ten years the use of such systems has increased as the technology involved has matured and the risks have diminished. There is now a complete spectrum of industrial applications from simple, low-cost systems using standard sensors and computer hardware to the higher cost, custom-designed systems using novel sensors and processing hardware. The underlying growth in enabling technology has been in many areas; sensors and sensing techniques, signal processing and data processing have all moved forward rapidly. This paper will examine the currrent state of automatic inspection and look to the future. The use of expert systems is an obvious candidate. Parallel processing, giving massive increases in the speed of data reduction, is also likely to play a major role in future systems.

Brook, Richard A.

1989-02-01

407

Automatic Inspection In Industry Today  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With increasing competition in the manufacturing industries product quality is becoming even more important. The shortcomings of human inspectors in many applications are well know, however, the eye/brain combination is very powerful and difficult to replace. At best, any system only simulates a small subset of the human's operations. The economic justification for installing automatic inspection is often difficult without previous applications experience. It therefore calls for confidence and long-term vision by those making the decisions. Over the last ten years the use of such systems has increased as the technology involved has matured and the risks have diminished. There is now a complete spectrum of industrial applications from simple, low-cost systems using standard sensors and computer hardware to the higher cost, custom-designed systems using novel sensors and processing hardware. The underlying growth in enabling technology has been in many areas; sensors and sensing techniques, signal processing and data processing have all moved forward rapidly. This paper will examine the currrent state of automatic inspection and look to the future. The use of expert systems is an obvious candidate. Parallel processing, giving massive increases in the speed of data reduction, is also likely to play a major role in future systems.

Brook, Richard A.

1989-03-01

408

Kenneth R. Fleischmann, Clay Templeton, Jordan Boyd-Graber, An-Shou Cheng, Douglas W. Oard, Emi Ishita, Jes A. Koepfler, and William A. Wallace. Explaining Sentiment Polarity: Automatic Detection of Human Values in  

E-print Network

Ishita, Jes A. Koepfler, and William A. Wallace. Explaining Sentiment Polarity: Automatic Detection and Douglas W. Oar Year = {In Preparation}, Title = {Explaining Sentiment Polarity: Automatic Detection Sentiment Polarity Automatic Detection of Human Values in Texts Kenneth R. Fleischmann · Clay Templeton

Boyd-Graber, Jordan

409

Corpus of Electronic Texts (CELT)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Developed at University College Cork, the Corpus of Electronic Texts project is intended "to bring the wealth of Irish literary and historical culture (in Irish, Latin, Anglo-Norman French, and English) to the Internet in a rigorously scholarly project." Additionally, the project is designed to be utilized by a wide group of interested parties, including students, academics, and the general public. Visitors may peruse the documents by language of original publication, or by viewing a complete list of all the works currently available (many in HTML or pdf format) from the project's website. Some of the rather compelling works available here include the complete works of Oscar Wilde, the political writings of Michael Collins, and various historical documents regarding the struggle for Irish independence. [KMG

410

A unified framework for multioriented text detection and recognition.  

PubMed

High level semantics embodied in scene texts are both rich and clear and thus can serve as important cues for a wide range of vision applications, for instance, image understanding, image indexing, video search, geolocation, and automatic navigation. In this paper, we present a unified framework for text detection and recognition in natural images. The contributions of this paper are threefold: 1) text detection and recognition are accomplished concurrently using exactly the same features and classification scheme; 2) in contrast to methods in the literature, which mainly focus on horizontal or near-horizontal texts, the proposed system is capable of localizing and reading texts of varying orientations; and 3) a new dictionary search method is proposed, to correct the recognition errors usually caused by confusions among similar yet different characters. As an additional contribution, a novel image database with texts of different scales, colors, fonts, and orientations in diverse real-world scenarios, is generated and released. Extensive experiments on standard benchmarks as well as the proposed database demonstrate that the proposed system achieves highly competitive performance, especially on multioriented texts. PMID:25203989

Yao, Cong; Bai, Xiang; Liu, Wenyu

2014-11-01

411

Automatic Business Card Scanning with a Camera  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we present a system to automatically extract, rectify and enhance business card images. First the business card image patch is automatically segmented by minimizing a novel local-global variational energy. Second a quadrangle is fitted to the segmented image patch. With the four corner points of the quadrangle, we then estimate the physical as- pect ratio of the

Gang Hua; Zicheng Liu; Zhengyou Zhang; Ying Wu

2006-01-01

412

Generalized Automatic and Augmented Manual Flight Control  

E-print Network

Colloquium May 19, 2006 #12;Overview · Automatic Flight Controls - State of the Art · automation issues #12;Typical Transport Airplane Flight Guidance & Control System as many as 8 LRUs Triple FMS · MissionGeneralized Automatic and Augmented Manual Flight Control Anthony A. Lambregts FAA Chief Scientist

Berlin,Technische Universität

413

Automatic Integrity Checks for Remote Web Resources  

Microsoft Academic Search

Existing tools for automatically detecting Web site defacement compare monitored Web resources with uncorrupted copies of the content kept in a safe place. This can be an expensive and difficult task, especially when working with dynamic resources. In contrast, the Goldrake tool uses sensors and alarms to automatically monitor remote Web resources' integrity. Such a framework could help designers build

Alberto Bartoli; Eric Medvet

2006-01-01

414

Automatic star-horizon angle measurement system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Automatic star horizontal angle measuring aid for general navigational use incorporates an Apollo type sextant. The eyepiece of the sextant is replaced with two light detectors and appropriate circuitry. The device automatically determines the angle between a navigational star and a unique point on the earths horizon as seen on a spacecraft.

Koerber, K.; Koso, D. A.; Nardella, P. C.

1969-01-01

415

Retrotrapezoid nucleus, respiratory chemosensitivity and breathing automaticity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Breathing automaticity and CO2 regulation are inseparable neural processes. The retrotrapezoid nucleus (RTN), a group of glutamatergic neurons that express the transcription factor Phox2b, may be a crucial nodal point through which breathing automaticity is regulated to maintain CO2 constant. This review updates the analysis presented in prior publications. Additional evidence that RTN neurons have central respiratory chemoreceptor properties is

Patrice G. Guyenet; Douglas A. Bayliss; Ruth L. Stornetta; Michal G. Fortuna; Stephen B. G. Abbott; Seth D. DePuy

2009-01-01

416

Department of Automatics, Biocybernetics and Robotics,  

E-print Network

J. Babic Department of Automatics, Biocybernetics and Robotics, Jozef Stefan Institute, Ljubljana-742, Korea D. Omrcen J. Lenarcic Department of Automatics, Biocybernetics and Robotics, Jozef Stefan University, Seoul 151-742, Korea e-mail: fcp@snu.ac.kr A Biarticulated Robotic Leg for Jumping Movements

Babic, Jan

417

Ergonomic study of automatic teller machine operability  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, the most favorable interaction between information systems and people has drawn deep interest. An experimental study was conducted on the adaptation of computer?based communication to people at the automatic teller machines (ATMs) that are used by the general public. Forty?two subjects (24 young people, 6 housewives, and 12 elderly people) operated an automatic teller machine in the

Kazutoshi Hatta; Yuji Liyama

1991-01-01

418

Automatic prosodic clustering of humpback whales song  

E-print Network

Automatic prosodic clustering of humpback whales song G. Picot1 , O. Adam2 , M. Bergounioux1 , H Abstract- We automatically segmented a humpback whale song using the Roger Payne's principle of sound unit patterns of intonation. Intonation could be related to information's transmission between humpback whales

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

419

About automatic fire alarm systems research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fires continue to occur in modern architecture, the people's lives and property has brought huge losses. In order to reduce the fire in the building automatic fire alarm equipment placed into a necessity. This paper discusses the automatic fire alarm system, the composition and working principle. The system will be collected through the fire alarm detector to the fire, fault

Huide Liu; Lili Gao; Suwei Li; Tao Wu

2010-01-01

420

AMETHYST: automatic alarm assessment: becoming a reality  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the AMETHYST (AutoMatic Event auTHentication SYSTems) project is to encourage the development of a high performance perimeter detection system which combines Video Motion Detection (VMD) technology with another type of Perimeter Intrusion Detection System (PIDS). AMETHYST will automatically assess the cause of all PIDS alarms and pass to an operator only those alarms which are likely to

M. Horner; K. Sage; G. Leach

1997-01-01

421

AMETHYST: automatic alarm assessment becoming a reality  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the AMETHYST (AutoMatic Event auTHentication SYSTems) project is to encourage the development of a high performance perimeter detection system which combines Video Motion Detection (VMD) technology with another type of Perimeter Intrusion Detection System (PIDS). AMETHYST will automatically assess the cause of PIDS alarms and pass to an operator those alarms likely to be caused by an

M. Horner; H. Sage; G. Leach

1998-01-01

422

AMETHYST: automatic alarm assessment: operational experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the AMETHYST (Automatic Event Authentication Systems) project is to encourage the development of a high-performance perimeter detection system by using video assessment to enhance the Perimeter Intrusion Detection System (PIDS). AMETHYST will automatically assess the cause of all PIDS alarms and pass to an operator only those alarms that are likely to be caused by an intruder.

Michael Horner; Graham Leach; T. O'Dwyer

2000-01-01

423

Automatically scoring ladar detectors using target descriptors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The volume of data that must be processed to characterize the performance of target detection algorithms over a complex parameter space requires automated analysis. This paper discusses a methodology for automatically scoring the results from a diversity of detectors producing several different forms of detected regions. The ability to automatically score detector outputs without using full target templates or models

Annette Bergman; David H. DeKruger

2001-01-01

424

ANNUAL REPORT-AUTOMATIC INDEXING AND ABSTRACTING.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THE INVESTIGATION IS CONCERNED WITH THE DEVELOPMENT OF AUTOMATIC INDEXING, ABSTRACTING, AND EXTRACTING SYSTEMS. BASIC INVESTIGATIONS IN ENGLISH MORPHOLOGY, PHONETICS, AND SYNTAX ARE PURSUED AS NECESSARY MEANS TO THIS END. IN THE FIRST SECTION THE THEORY AND DESIGN OF THE "SENTENCE DICTIONARY" EXPERIMENT IN AUTOMATIC EXTRACTION IS OUTLINED. SOME OF…

Lockheed Missiles and Space Co., Palo Alto, CA. Electronic Sciences Lab.

425

Automatic Contour Tracking in Ultrasound Images  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper, a new automatic contour tracking system, EdgeTrak, for the ultrasound image sequences of human tongue is presented. The images are produced by a head and transducer support system (HATS). The noise and unrelated high-contrast edges in ultrasound images make it very difficult to automatically detect the correct tongue surfaces. In…

Li, Min; Kambhamettu, Chandra; Stone, Maureen

2005-01-01

426

Architectural Support for Automatic Service Composition  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider architectural properties required for sup- porting automatic service composition. After defining com- posable service architecture, we proceed to examine the role of trust and reputation systems in such environment. Based on the proposed infrastructure we give several op- tions for achieving automatic service composition, under the assumption that previously defined requirements are ar- chitecturally supported. Finally we discuss

Nikola Milanovic; Miroslaw Malek

2005-01-01

427

Automatic adverse drug events detection using letters to the editor.  

PubMed

We present and test the intuition that letters to the editor in journals carry early signals of adverse drug events (ADEs). Surprisingly these letters have not yet been exploited for automatic ADE detection unlike for example, clinical records and PubMed. Part of the challenge is that it is not easy to access the full-text of letters (for the most part these do not appear in PubMed). Also letters are likely underrated in comparison with full articles. Besides demonstrating that this intuition holds we contribute techniques for post market drug surveillance. Specifically, we test an automatic approach for ADE detection from letters using off-the-shelf machine learning tools. We also involve natural language processing for feature definitions. Overall we achieve high accuracy in our experiments and our method also works well on a second new test set. Our results encourage us to further pursue this line of research. PMID:23304379

Yang, Chao; Srinivasan, Padmini; Polgreen, Philip M

2012-01-01

428

Inferring Group Processes from Computer-Mediated Affective Text Analysis  

SciTech Connect

Political communications in the form of unstructured text convey rich connotative meaning that can reveal underlying group social processes. Previous research has focused on sentiment analysis at the document level, but we extend this analysis to sub-document levels through a detailed analysis of affective relationships between entities extracted from a document. Instead of pure sentiment analysis, which is just positive or negative, we explore nuances of affective meaning in 22 affect categories. Our affect propagation algorithm automatically calculates and displays extracted affective relationships among entities in graphical form in our prototype (TEAMSTER), starting with seed lists of affect terms. Several useful metrics are defined to infer underlying group processes by aggregating affective relationships discovered in a text. Our approach has been validated with annotated documents from the MPQA corpus, achieving a performance gain of 74% over comparable random guessers.

Schryver, Jack C [ORNL; Begoli, Edmon [ORNL; Jose, Ajith [Missouri University of Science and Technology; Griffin, Christopher [Pennsylvania State University

2011-02-01

429

30 CFR 77.314 - Automatic temperature control instruments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-07-01 false Automatic temperature control instruments. 77.314 Section...Thermal Dryers § 77.314 Automatic temperature control instruments. (a) Automatic temperature control instruments for thermal...

2011-07-01

430

30 CFR 77.314 - Automatic temperature control instruments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-07-01 false Automatic temperature control instruments. 77.314 Section...Thermal Dryers § 77.314 Automatic temperature control instruments. (a) Automatic temperature control instruments for thermal...

2013-07-01

431

30 CFR 77.314 - Automatic temperature control instruments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... 2014-07-01 false Automatic temperature control instruments. 77.314 Section...Thermal Dryers § 77.314 Automatic temperature control instruments. (a) Automatic temperature control instruments for thermal...

2014-07-01

432

30 CFR 77.314 - Automatic temperature control instruments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-07-01 false Automatic temperature control instruments. 77.314 Section...Thermal Dryers § 77.314 Automatic temperature control instruments. (a) Automatic temperature control instruments for thermal...

2012-07-01

433

30 CFR 77.314 - Automatic temperature control instruments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-07-01 false Automatic temperature control instruments. 77.314 Section...Thermal Dryers § 77.314 Automatic temperature control instruments. (a) Automatic temperature control instruments for thermal...

2010-07-01

434

14 CFR 27.1329 - Automatic pilot system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... (a) Each automatic pilot system must be designed so that the automatic pilot can...pilot to allow control of the rotorcraft...interfering with control of the rotorcraft...Unless there is automatic synchronization, each system must...

2013-01-01

435

14 CFR 29.1329 - Automatic pilot system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... (a) Each automatic pilot system must be designed so that the automatic pilot can...pilot to allow control of the rotorcraft...interfering with the control of the rotorcraft...Unless there is automatic synchronization, each system must...

2013-01-01

436

14 CFR 29.1329 - Automatic pilot system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... (a) Each automatic pilot system must be designed so that the automatic pilot can...pilot to allow control of the rotorcraft...interfering with the control of the rotorcraft...Unless there is automatic synchronization, each system must...

2014-01-01

437

14 CFR 29.1329 - Automatic pilot system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... (a) Each automatic pilot system must be designed so that the automatic pilot can...pilot to allow control of the rotorcraft...interfering with the control of the rotorcraft...Unless there is automatic synchronization, each system must...

2011-01-01

438

14 CFR 27.1329 - Automatic pilot system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... (a) Each automatic pilot system must be designed so that the automatic pilot can...pilot to allow control of the rotorcraft...interfering with control of the rotorcraft...Unless there is automatic synchronization, each system must...

2012-01-01

439

14 CFR 27.1329 - Automatic pilot system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... (a) Each automatic pilot system must be designed so that the automatic pilot can...pilot to allow control of the rotorcraft...interfering with control of the rotorcraft...Unless there is automatic synchronization, each system must...

2014-01-01

440

14 CFR 27.1329 - Automatic pilot system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... (a) Each automatic pilot system must be designed so that the automatic pilot can...pilot to allow control of the rotorcraft...interfering with control of the rotorcraft...Unless there is automatic synchronization, each system must...

2011-01-01

441

14 CFR 29.1329 - Automatic pilot system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... (a) Each automatic pilot system must be designed so that the automatic pilot can...pilot to allow control of the rotorcraft...interfering with the control of the rotorcraft...Unless there is automatic synchronization, each system must...

2012-01-01

442

46 CFR 15.816 - Automatic radar plotting aids (ARPAs).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Automatic radar plotting aids (ARPAs). 15.816 ...Computations § 15.816 Automatic radar plotting aids (ARPAs). Every person...seagoing vessels equipped with automatic radar plotting aids (ARPAs), except...

2014-10-01

443

Evaluating the effectiveness of automatic PVR management  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A model for evaluating the effectiveness of automatic recording of television programs by digital personal video recorders (PVRs) is presented. The model is used to evaluate the tradeoff between manual management of recording programs to a PVR archive and automatic management of recording. We show that a tradeoff exists between manual management in which the utility of a program is perfectly known but user awareness of available programs is limited versus automatic management in which utility estimates contain error but awareness is perfect. Experiments with the model show that the shape of this tradeoff is most governed by the shape of the distribution of user utility. As the percentage of programs with high user utility decreases relative to the average, the more effective automatic recording is likely to be despite errors in utility estimation. The shape of this tradeoff, however, is highly inelastic. Thus, improving utility estimates will not make automatic recording more effective if user awareness is sufficiently high.

Mayer-Patel, Ketan; Miaw, Wesley

2003-12-01

444

Medical-Image Retrieval Based on Knowledge-Assisted Text and Image Indexing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Voluminous medical images are generated daily. They are critical assets for medical diagnosis, research, and teaching. To facilitate automatic indexing and retrieval of large medical-image databases, both images and associated texts are indexed using med- ical concepts from the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) meta-thesaurus. We propose a structured learning framework based on support vector machines to facilitate modular design

Caroline Lacoste; Joo-hwee Lim; Jean-pierre Chevallet; Diem Thi Hoang Le

2007-01-01

445

Relating Translation Quality Barriers to Source-Text Properties Federico Gaspari*  

E-print Network

), and improving automatic translation quality estimation. The project involves key research and industrial and developers. The main motivation behind the research is to systematically tackle quality barriers in MTRelating Translation Quality Barriers to Source-Text Properties Federico Gaspari* , Antonio Toral

Way, Andy

446

Animated Movie Genre Detection using Symbolic Fusion of Text and Image Descriptors  

E-print Network

Animated Movie Genre Detection using Symbolic Fusion of Text and Image Descriptors Gregory Pa¨is(1@alpha.imag.pub.ro Abstract This paper addresses the automatic movie genre classifi- cation in the specific case of animated movies. Two types of information are used. The first one are movie synopsis. For each genre, a symbolic

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

447

Emotion recognition from text using semantic labels and separable mixture models  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study presents a novel approach to automatic emotion recognition from text. First, emotion generation rules (EGRs) are manually deduced from psychology to represent the conditions for generating emotion. Based on the EGRs, the emotional state of each sentence can be represented as a sequence of semantic labels (SLs) and attributes (ATTs); SLs are defined as the domain-independent features, while

Chung-hsien Wu; Ze-jing Chuang; Yu-chung Lin

2006-01-01

448

A Prediction Model of Foreign Language Reading Proficiency Based on Reading Time and Text Complexity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In textbooks, foreign (second) language reading proficiency is often evaluated through comprehension questions. In case, authentic texts are used as reading material, such questions should be prepared by teachers. However, preparing appropriate questions may be a very demanding task for teachers. This paper introduces a method for automatically

Kotani, Katsunori; Yoshimi, Takehiko; Isahara, Hitoshi

2010-01-01

449

Learning anchor verbs for biological interaction patterns from published text articles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Much of knowledge modeling in the molecular biology domain involves interactions between proteins, genes, various forms of RNA, small molecules, etc. Interactions between these substances are typically extracted and codified manually, increasing the cost and time for modeling and substantially limiting the coverage of the resulting knowledge base. In this paper, we describe an automatic system that learns from text

Vasileios Hatzivassiloglou; Wubin Weng

2002-01-01

450

Using text and acoustic features to diagnose progressive aphasia and its Kathleen C. Fraser1  

E-print Network

Using text and acoustic features to diagnose progressive aphasia and its subtypes Kathleen C.Rochon@utoronto.ca Abstract This paper presents experiments in automatically diagnosing primary progressive aphasia (PPA) and two of its subtypes, semantic dementia (SD) and progressive nonfluent aphasia (PNFA), from

Penn, Gerald

451

Modeling and Solving Term Mismatch for Full-Text August 24, 2012  

E-print Network

Modeling and Solving Term Mismatch for Full-Text Retrieval Le Zhao August 24, 2012 Language and conclusions are the author's, and do not necessarily reflect those of the sponsor. #12;Keywords: Term mismatch, automatic prediction, efficiency, probabilistic retrieval models, query diagnosis, term weighting, query

452

Modeling and Solving Term Mismatch for Full-Text CMU-LTI-13-002  

E-print Network

Modeling and Solving Term Mismatch for Full-Text Retrieval Le Zhao CMU-LTI-13-002 Language not necessarily reflect those of the sponsor. #12;Keywords: Term mismatch, automatic prediction, efficiency, probabilistic retrieval models, query diagnosis, term weighting, query expansion, term expansion, conjunctive

Eskenazi, Maxine

453

Creating Enriched YouTube Media Fragments With NERD Using Timed-Text  

E-print Network

Creating Enriched YouTube Media Fragments With NERD Using Timed-Text Yunjia Li1 , Giuseppe Rizzo2.troncy@eurecom.fr Abstract. This demo enables the automatic creation of semantically annotated YouTube media fragments application with 60 videos from 3 YouTube channels. Keywords: Media fragment, media annotation, NERD 1

Quartly, Graham

454

BaffleText: a Human Interactive Proof Monica Chewa and Henry S. Bairdb  

E-print Network

present a defense against such at- tacks in the form of a CAPTCHA (completely automatic public Turing test in reading images of text. CAPTCHAs are a special case of `human interactive proofs,' a broad class point out vulnerabilities of reading-based CAPTCHAs to dictionary and computer-vision attacks. We also

Baird, Henry S.

455

Feature Selection for Ordinal Text Classification Stefano Baccianella, Andrea Esuli, and Fabrizio Sebastiani  

E-print Network

1 Feature Selection for Ordinal Text Classification Stefano Baccianella, Andrea Esuli, and Fabrizio Sebastiani Abstract--Ordinal classification (also known as ordinal regression) is a supervised learning task that consists of automatically determining the implied rating of a data item on a fixed, discrete rating scale

Sebastiani, Fabrizio

456

Topic and Trend Detection in Text Collections Using Latent Dirichlet Allocation  

E-print Network

Topic and Trend Detection in Text Collections Using Latent Dirichlet Allocation Levent Bolelli1 , S. Algorithms that enable the process of automatically mining distinct topics in document collections have in an iterative fashion. The document collection is divided into time segments where the discovered topics in each

Giles, C. Lee

457

Snowball: A Prototype System for Extracting Relations from Large Text Collections  

E-print Network

in detail in [2] and [1]. Generate Extraction Patterns Seed Tuples Generate New Seed Tuples Tag EntitiesSnowball: A Prototype System for Extracting Relations from Large Text Collections Eugene Agichtein document collection. One could view the extraction process as automatically building a material- ized view

Agichtein, Eugene

458

Automatic spatial association for luminance.  

PubMed

In the present study, we investigated whether luminance and the side of response execution are associated, showing a SNARC-like effect (faster responses with the left hand for dark stimuli, and vice versa for light stimuli). A total of 30 participants were tested in two experiments. In Experiment 1, the association between space and the luminance of chromatic stimuli was directly tested (brightness discrimination). In Experiment 2, the same spatial association was tested indirectly (hue discrimination). The results showed that participants responded faster with their left hand to hues with lower luminance, and with their right hand to hues with higher luminance, in either the direct or the indirect task. The consistency of this association in both tasks demonstrates the automaticity of the SNARC-like effect for luminance. PMID:24402699

Fumarola, Antonia; Prpic, Valter; Da Pos, Osvaldo; Murgia, Mauro; Umiltà, Carlo; Agostini, Tiziano

2014-04-01

459

Automatic Nanodesign Using Evolutionary Techniques  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Many problems associated with the development of nanotechnology require custom designed molecules. We use genetic graph software, a new development, to automatically evolve molecules of interest when only the requirements are known. Genetic graph software designs molecules, and potentially nanoelectronic circuits, given a fitness function that determines which of two molecules is better. A set of molecules, the first generation, is generated at random then tested with the fitness function, Subsequent generations are created by randomly choosing two parent molecules with a bias towards high scoring molecules, tearing each molecules in two at random, and mating parts from the mother and father to create two children. This procedure is repeated until a satisfactory molecule is found. An atom pair similarity test is currently used as the fitness function to evolve molecules similar to existing pharmaceuticals.

Globus, Al; Saini, Subhash (Technical Monitor)

1998-01-01

460

Automatic Mechetronic Wheel Light Device  

DOEpatents

A wheel lighting device for illuminating a wheel of a vehicle to increase safety and enhance aesthetics. The device produces the appearance of a "ring of light" on a vehicle's wheels as the vehicle moves. The "ring of light" can automatically change in color and/or brightness according to a vehicle's speed, acceleration, jerk, selection of transmission gears, and/or engine speed. The device provides auxiliary indicator lights by producing light in conjunction with a vehicle's turn signals, hazard lights, alarm systems, and etc. The device comprises a combination of mechanical and electronic components and can be placed on the outer or inner surface of a wheel or made integral to a wheel or wheel cover. The device can be configured for all vehicle types, and is electrically powered by a vehicle's electrical system and/or battery.

Khan, Mohammed John Fitzgerald (Silver Spring, MD)

2004-09-14

461

Automatic force balance calibration system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A system for automatically calibrating force balances is provided. The invention uses a reference balance aligned with the balance being calibrated to provide superior accuracy while minimizing the time required to complete the calibration. The reference balance and the test balance are rigidly attached together with closely aligned moment centers. Loads placed on the system equally effect each balance, and the differences in the readings of the two balances can be used to generate the calibration matrix for the test balance. Since the accuracy of the test calibration is determined by the accuracy of the reference balance and current technology allows for reference balances to be calibrated to within .+-.0.05%, the entire system has an accuracy of a .+-.0.2%. The entire apparatus is relatively small and can be mounted on a movable base for easy transport between test locations. The system can also accept a wide variety of reference balances, thus allowing calibration under diverse load and size requirements.

Ferris, Alice T. (Inventor)

1996-01-01

462

Automatic home medical product recommendation.  

PubMed

Web-based personal health records (PHRs) are being widely deployed. To improve PHR's capability and usability, we proposed the concept of intelligent PHR (iPHR). In this paper, we use automatic home medical product recommendation as a concrete application to demonstrate the benefits of introducing intelligence into PHRs. In this new application domain, we develop several techniques to address the emerging challenges. Our approach uses treatment knowledge and nursing knowledge, and extends the language modeling method to (1) construct a topic-selection input interface for recommending home medical products, (2) produce a global ranking of Web pages retrieved by multiple queries, and (3) provide diverse search results. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our techniques using USMLE medical exam cases. PMID:20703712

Luo, Gang; Thomas, Selena B; Tang, Chunqiang

2012-04-01

463

Automatic communication signal monitoring system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A system is presented for automatic monitoring of a communication signal in the RF or IF spectrum utilizing a superheterodyne receiver technique with a VCO to select and sweep the frequency band of interest. A first memory is used to store one band sweep as a reference for continual comparison with subsequent band sweeps. Any deviation of a subsequent band sweep by more than a predetermined tolerance level produces an alarm signal which causes the band sweep data temporarily stored in one of two buffer memories to be transferred to long-term store while the other buffer memory is switched to its store mode to assume the task of temporarily storing subsequent band sweeps.

Bernstein, A. J. (inventor)

1978-01-01

464

Automatic electronic fish tracking system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A newly developed electronic fish tracking system to automatically monitor the movements and migratory habits of fish is reported. The system is aimed particularly at studies of effects on fish life of industrial facilities which use rivers or lakes to dump their effluents. Location of fish is acquired by means of acoustic links from the fish to underwater Listening Stations, and by radio links which relay tracking information to a shore-based Data Base. Fish over 4 inches long may be tracked over a 5 x 5 mile area. The electronic fish tracking system provides the marine scientist with electronics which permit studies that were not practical in the past and which are cost-effective compared to manual methods.

Osborne, P. W.; Hoffman, E.; Merriner, J. V.; Richards, C. E.; Lovelady, R. W.

1976-01-01

465

Automatic transmission for a vehicle  

SciTech Connect

An automatic transmission is described for a vehicle, comprising: a coupling means having an input shaft and an output shaft; a belt type continuously-variable speed transmission system having an input pulley mounted coaxially on a first shaft, an output pulley mounted coaxially on a second shaft and a belt extending between the first and second pulleys to transfer power, each of the first and second pulleys having a fixed sheave and a movable sheave. The first shaft is disposed coaxially with and rotatably coupled with the output shaft of the coupling means, the second shaft being disposed side by side and in parallel with the first shaft; a planetary gear mechanism; a forward-reverse changeover mechanism and a low-high speed changeover mechanism.

Moroto, S.; Sakakibara, S.

1986-12-09

466

Automatic blocking of nested loops  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Blocked algorithms have much better properties of data locality and therefore can be much more efficient than ordinary algorithms when a memory hierarchy is involved. On the other hand, they are very difficult to write and to tune for particular machines. The reorganization is considered of nested loops through the use of known program transformations in order to create blocked algorithms automatically. The program transformations used are strip mining, loop interchange, and a variant of loop skewing in which invertible linear transformations (with integer coordinates) of the loop indices are allowed. Some problems are solved concerning the optimal application of these transformations. It is shown, in a very general setting, how to choose a nearly optimal set of transformed indices. It is then shown, in one particular but rather frequently occurring situation, how to choose an optimal set of block sizes.

Schreiber, Robert; Dongarra, Jack J.

1990-01-01

467

Statement Summarizing Research Findings on the Issue of the Relationship Between Food-Additive-Free Diets and Hyperkinesis in Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The National Advisory Committee on Hyperkinesis and Food Additives paper summarized some research findings on the issue of the relationship between food-additive-free diets and hyperkinesis in children. Based on several challenge studies, it is concluded that the evidence generally refutes Dr. B. F. Feingold's claim that artificial colorings in…

Lipton, Morris; Wender, Esther

468

Pavement Smoothness for Illinois DOT -Doug Dirks 1. Briefly summarize your current pavement smoothness requirements. See below.  

E-print Network

Pavement Smoothness for Illinois DOT - Doug Dirks 1. Briefly summarize your current pavement? N/A Illinois has both standard specifications and a special provision for pavement smoothness-Depth HMA pavements, and PCC Pavements are all included in this special provision. http

469

Efficient Summarization of URLs using CRC32 for Implementing URL Switching1 Zornitza Genova and Ken Christensen  

E-print Network

Efficient Summarization of URLs using CRC32 for Implementing URL Switching1 * Zornitza Genova for compressing Web URL strings and sharing of URL lists between servers, caches, and URL switches. Using trace (Figure 1). In such systems, URL switching is used to forward HTTP requests. Sharing of URL lists enables

Prodanoff, Zornitza Genova

470

Proceedings of Imagina 2000 Conference, Monaco, January 31-February 2, 2000 1 Informedia Search and Summarization in the Video Medium  

E-print Network

video delivery ·= incorporate micro-charging for access control and commerce Figure 1 illustrates and Summarization in the Video Medium Howard D. Wactlar Computer Science Department Carnegie Mellon University for rapid retrieval of individual "video paragraphs" which satisfy an arbitrary spoken or typed subject area

Wactlar, Howard D.

471

Diversity in Geoscience Degrees and Academic Careers, U.S.A. 2004 Summarized by T. Jordan, Earth & Atmospheric Sciences  

E-print Network

Diversity in Geoscience Degrees and Academic Careers, U.S.A. 2004 Summarized by T. Jordan, Earth in the US earn undergraduate degrees in geosciences (inclusive of earth, atmospheric, and ocean sciences). In 2001, the % of BS/BA degrees among 3968 total graduates included: Group in Geosciences Percent of total

Mahowald, Natalie

472

Automatic toilet seat lowering apparatus  

DOEpatents

A toilet seat lowering apparatus includes a housing defining an internal cavity for receiving water from the water supply line to the toilet holding tank. A descent delay assembly of the apparatus can include a stationary dam member and a rotating dam member for dividing the internal cavity into an inlet chamber and an outlet chamber and controlling the intake and evacuation of water in a delayed fashion. A descent initiator is activated when the internal cavity is filled with pressurized water and automatically begins the lowering of the toilet seat from its upright position, which lowering is also controlled by the descent delay assembly. In an alternative embodiment, the descent initiator and the descent delay assembly can be combined in a piston linked to the rotating dam member and provided with a water channel for creating a resisting pressure to the advancing piston and thereby slowing the associated descent of the toilet seat. A toilet seat lowering apparatus includes a housing defining an internal cavity for receiving water from the water supply line to the toilet holding tank. A descent delay assembly of the apparatus can include a stationary dam member and a rotating dam member for dividing the internal cavity into an inlet chamber and an outlet chamber and controlling the intake and evacuation of water in a delayed fashion. A descent initiator is activated when the internal cavity is filled with pressurized water and automatically begins the lowering of the toilet seat from its upright position, which lowering is also controlled by the descent delay assembly. In an alternative embodiment, the descent initiator and the descent delay assembly can be combined in a piston linked to the rotating dam member and provided with a water channel for creating a resisting pressure to the advancing piston and thereby slowing the associated descent of the toilet seat.

Guerty, Harold G. (Palm Beach Gardens, FL)

1994-09-06

473

Prototype geothermal power plant summary of operation for automatic-run test phase  

SciTech Connect

The Prototype Power Plant was built to demonstrate and learn the operation of a binary power cycle, and then serve as a test bed for pilot scale components, systems, and/or concepts that have the potential for enhancing the feasibility of power generation from a moderate temperature geothermal fluid resource. The operation to date of the prototype plant is summarized with primary emphasis on the automatic-run phase, during which the plant was operated over a five-month period with minimal operator surveillance.

Mines, G.L.

1981-02-01

474

AUTOMATIC ANATOMY RECOGNITION VIA FUZZY OBJECT Jayaram K. Udupaa  

E-print Network

AUTOMATIC ANATOMY RECOGNITION VIA FUZZY OBJECT MODELS Jayaram K. Udupaa , Dewey Odhnera , Alexandre radiological practice, computerized automatic anatomy recognition (AAR) during radiological image reading

Ciesielski, Krzysztof Chris

475

Text-mining-assisted biocuration workflows in Argo.  

PubMed

Biocuration activities have been broadly categorized into the selection of relevant documents, the annotation of biological concepts of interest and identification of interactions between the concepts. Text mining has been shown to have a potential to significantly reduce the effort of biocurators in all the three activities, and various semi-automatic methodologies have been integrated into curation pipelines to support them. We investigate the suitability of Argo, a workbench for building text-mining solutions with the use of a rich graphical user interface, for the process of biocuration. Central to Argo are customizable workflows that users compose by arranging available elementary analytics to form task-specific processing units. A built-in manual annotation editor is the single most used biocuration tool of the workbench, as it allows users to create annotations directly in text, as well as modify or delete annotations created by automatic processing components. Apart from syntactic and semantic analytics, the ever-growing library of components includes several data readers and consumers that support well-established as well as emerging data interchange formats such as XMI, RDF and BioC, which facilitate the interoperability of Argo with other platforms or resources. To validate the suitability of Argo for curation activities, we participated in the BioCreative IV challenge whose purpose was to evaluate Web-based systems addressing user-defined biocuration tasks. Argo proved to have the edge over other systems in terms of flexibility of defining biocuration tasks. As expected, the versatility of the workbench inevitably lengthened the time the curators spent on learning the system before taking on the task, which may have affected the usability of Argo. The participation in the challenge gave us an opportunity to gather valuable feedback and identify areas of improvement, some of which have already been introduced. Database URL: http://argo.nactem.ac.uk. PMID:25037308

Rak, Rafal; Batista-Navarro, Riza Theresa; Rowley, Andrew; Carter, Jacob; Ananiadou, Sophia

2014-01-01

476

Text-mining-assisted biocuration workflows in Argo  

PubMed Central

Biocuration activities have been broadly categorized into the selection of relevant documents, the annotation of biological concepts of interest and identification of interactions between the concepts. Text mining has been shown to have a potential to significantly reduce the effort of biocurators in all the three activities, and various semi-automatic methodologies have been integrated into curation pipelines to support them. We investigate the suitability of Argo, a workbench for building text-mining solutions with the use of a rich graphical user interface, for the process of biocuration. Central to Argo are customizable workflows that users compose by arranging available elementary analytics to form task-specific processing units. A built-in manual annotation editor is the single most used biocuration tool of the workbench, as it allows users to create annotations directly in text, as well as modify or delete annotations created by automatic processing components. Apart from syntactic and semantic analytics, the ever-growing library of components includes several data readers and consumers that support well-established as well as emerging data interchange formats such as XMI, RDF and BioC, which facilitate the interoperability of Argo with other platforms or resources. To validate the suitability of Argo for curation activities, we participated in the BioCreative IV challenge whose purpose was to evaluate Web-based systems addressing user-defined biocuration tasks. Argo proved to have the edge over other systems in terms of flexibility of defining biocuration tasks. As expected, the versatility of the workbench inevitably lengthened the time the curators spent on learning the system before taking on the task, which may have affected the usability of Argo. The participation in the challenge gave us an opportunity to gather valuable feedback and identify areas of improvement, some of which have already been introduced. Database URL: http://argo.nactem.ac.uk PMID:25037308

Rak, Rafal; Batista-Navarro, Riza Theresa; Rowley, Andrew; Carter, Jacob; Ananiadou, Sophia

2014-01-01

477

Fast and effective text mining using linear-time document clustering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Clustering is a powerful technique for large-scale topic discovery from text. It involves two phases: first, feature extraction maps each document or record to a point in high-dimensional space, then clustering algorithms automatically group the points into a hierarchy of clusters. We describe an unsupervised, near-linear time text clustering system that offers a number of algorithm choices for each phase.

Bjornar Larsen; Chinatsu Aone

1999-01-01

478

Inducing multilingual text analysis tools via robust projection across aligned corpora  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a system and set of algorithms for automatically inducing stand-alone monolingual part-of-speech taggers, base noun-phrase bracketers, named-entity taggers and morphological analyzers for an arbitrary foreign language. Case studies include French, Chinese, Czech and Spanish.Existing text analysis tools for English are applied to bilingual text corpora and their output projected onto the second language via statistically derived word

David Yarowsky; Grace Ngai; Richard Wicentowski

2000-01-01

479

Inducing multilingual text analysis tools via robust projection across aligned corpora  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT This paper describes a system and set of algorithms for automatically inducing stand-alone monolingual part-of-speech taggers, base noun-phrase bracketers, named-entity taggers and morphological analyzers for an arbitrary foreign language. Case studies include French, Chinese, Czech and Spanish. Existing text analysis tools for English are applied to bilingual text corpora and their output projected onto the second,language via statistically derived

David Yarowsky; Grace Ngai

2001-01-01

480

Automatic pitching scene archiving system for video indexing support  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A content-based scene indexing has been important technique for an effective video contents handling such as scene retrieval and editing. The standard multimedia content descriptor (MPEG7) has been proposed for the key scene indexing. As for an automatic scene indexing, audio-visual features are most important clues. Many methods have been proposed for effective scene indexing based on those features. In this paper, we propose an automatic key scene detection method for baseball video contents using video features. We regard pitching scenes as key scenes, because they are starting points of all baseball play scenes. If the pitching scenes are detected, they could be effective hints to detect other scenes. In addition, a pitching scene digest video can be easily edited by gathering automatically extracted scenes. The pitching scene digest can be useful data for pitching analysis. We extract pitching scenes using color, domain and motion template created from manually selected pitching scene samples. Those templates contain image features unique to pitching scenes. Template matching is applied to video stream, so that target scenes can be detected by judging calculated matching rate. We experimentally test our method for actual baseball video contents. It can be useful data for pitching analysis and editing of digest news broad casting. We are developing the video indexing support system which users can give text annotations to indexed scenes using MPEG7 format descriptors.

Shono, Yuki; Aoki, Yoshimitsu

2004-10-01

481

Evaluation of DEFINDER: a system to mine definitions from consumer-oriented medical text  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we present DEFINDER, a rule-based system that mines cons umer-oriented full text articles in order to extract definitions and the terms they define. This research is part of Digital Library Project at Columbia University, entitled PERSIVAL (PErsonalized Retrieval and Summarization of Image, Video and Language resources) [5]. One goal of the project is to present information to

Judith L. Klavans; Smaranda Muresan

2001-01-01

482

PV-5 automatic furnace control  

SciTech Connect

While refurbishing a Harwood Engineering, Inc. designed gas autoclave facility (designated PV-5) for hot isostatic pressing (HIP) of various materials at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, a furnace power supply problem was encountered. One phase of the furnace's variable AC power supply was devastated when a fault condition occurred. In the process of diagnosing the cause of the fault and repairing the AC power supply of the 30KW furnace for the autoclave vessel, a recommendation to replace the existing, outdated 3-phase saturable-core reactor variable power supplies was implemented. Three new Silicon Controlled Rectifier (SCR) phase-angle fired AC power supplies, one for each phase of the 3-phase 480 volt circuit, were installed. To improve operator control over the new power supplies, a new 0--5 mA controller was connected as a slave to a process programmer to automatically heat the furnace according to preprogrammed temperature profiles. Data acquisition of the process parameters was enhanced by the installation of a hybrid strip chart recorder. 4 figs., 4 tabs.

Younkin, J.R.

1991-06-25

483

Automatic panoramic thermal integrated sensor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Historically, the US Army has recognized the advantages of panoramic imagers with high image resolution: increased area coverage with fewer cameras, instantaneous full horizon detection, location and tracking of multiple targets simultaneously, extended range, and others. The novel ViperViewTM high-resolution panoramic thermal imager is the heart of the Automatic Panoramic Thermal Integrated Sensor (APTIS), being jointly developed by Applied Science Innovative, Inc. (ASI) and the Armament Research, Development and Engineering Center (ARDEC) in support of the Future Combat Systems (FCS) and the Intelligent Munitions Systems (IMS). The APTIS is anticipated to operate as an intelligent node in a wireless network of multifunctional nodes that work together to improve situational awareness (SA) in many defense and offensive operations, as well as serve as a sensor node in tactical Intelligence Surveillance Reconnaissance (ISR). The ViperView is as an aberration-corrected omnidirectional imager with small optics designed to match the resolution of a 640x480 pixels IR camera with improved image quality for longer range target detection, classification, and tracking. The same approach is applicable to panoramic cameras working in the visible spectral range. Other components of the ATPIS sensor suite include ancillary sensors, advanced power management, and wakeup capability. This paper describes the development status of the APTIS system.

Gutin, Mikhail A.; Tsui, Eddy K.; Gutin, Olga N.

2005-05-01

484

Automatic image cropping for republishing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Image cropping is an important aspect of creating aesthetically pleasing web pages and repurposing content for different web or printed output layouts. Cropping provides both the possibility of improving the composition of the image, and also the ability to change the aspect ratio of the image to suit the layout design needs of different document or web page formats. This paper presents a method for aesthetically cropping images on the basis of their content. Underlying the approach is a novel segmentation-based saliency method which identifies some regions as "distractions", as an alternative to the conventional "foreground" and "background" classifications. Distractions are a particular problem with typical consumer photos found on social networking websites such as FaceBook, Flickr etc. Automatic cropping is achieved by identifying the main subject area of the image and then using an optimization search to expand this to form an aesthetically pleasing crop. Evaluation of aesthetic functions like auto-crop is difficult as there is no single correct solution. A further contribution of this paper is an automated evaluation method which goes some way towards handling the complexity of aesthetic assessment. This allows crop algorithms to be easily evaluated against a large test set.

Cheatle, Phil

2010-02-01

485

Automatic segmentation of psoriasis lesions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The automatic segmentation of psoriatic lesions is widely researched these years. It is an important step in Computer-aid methods of calculating PASI for estimation of lesions. Currently those algorithms can only handle single erythema or only deal with scaling segmentation. In practice, scaling and erythema are often mixed together. In order to get the segmentation of lesions area - this paper proposes an algorithm based on Random forests with color and texture features. The algorithm has three steps. The first step, the polarized light is applied based on the skin's Tyndall-effect in the imaging to eliminate the reflection and Lab color space are used for fitting the human perception. The second step, sliding window and its sub windows are used to get textural feature and color feature. In this step, a feature of image roughness has been defined, so that scaling can be easily separated from normal skin. In the end, Random forests will be used to ensure the generalization ability of the algorithm. This algorithm can give reliable segmentation results even the image has different lighting conditions, skin types. In the data set offered by Union Hospital, more than 90% images can be segmented accurately.

Ning, Yang; Shi, Chenbo; Wang, Li; Shu, Chang

2014-10-01

486

Automatic Tracking Of Multiple Objects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We are developing a computer vision system to automatically detect and track human motion across the international border between the United States and Mexico. Fundamental requirements are that the system work in real time under varying environmental conditions with relatively inexpensive hardware. The work we describe is applicable to a wide range of multiple object tracking problems. This paper describes the algorithm we have developed to detect and track moving objects. The algorithm is based on the notion of path coherence. However, the algorithm presented there is not suitable for our application because it requires noise free images, all trajectories must be present from the first through last images, and it requires multiple passes throught the trajectory points as each new image is acquired. This procedure is not acceptable for real time applications. We have previously reported on the front end of our system which takes video images and determines the areas which represent changing objects'. Thus the input to the tracking portion of the system consists of a binary image representing the changing pixels. In this paper we present a detailed description of the tracking algorithm, its implementation in Smalltalk-80, and samples of its operation. We also discuss system performance as a function of trajectory complexity and image noise level.

Bernat, Andrew P.; Riter, Stephen

1989-03-01

487

Automatic Ammunition Identification Technology Project  

SciTech Connect

The Automatic Ammunition Identification Technology (AAIT) Project is an activity of the Robotics Process Systems Division at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) for the US Army's Project Manager-Ammunition Logistics (PM-AMMOLOG) at the Picatinny Arsenal in Picatinny, New Jersey. The project objective is to evaluate new two-dimensional bar code symbologies for potential use in ammunition logistics systems and automated reloading equipment. These new symbologies are a significant improvement over typical linear bar codes since machine-readable alphanumeric messages up to 2000 characters long are achievable. These compressed data symbologies are expected to significantly improve logistics and inventory management tasks and permit automated feeding and handling of ammunition to weapon systems. The results will be increased throughout capability, better inventory control, reduction of human error, lower operation and support costs, and a more timely re-supply of various weapon systems. This paper will describe the capabilities of existing compressed data symbologies and the symbol testing activities being conducted at ORNL for the AAIT Project.

Weil, B.

1993-01-01

488

Mobile-cloud assisted video summarization framework for efficient management of remote sensing data generated by wireless capsule sensors.  

PubMed

Wireless capsule endoscopy (WCE) has great advantages over traditional endoscopy because it is portable and easy to use, especially in remote monitoring health-services. However, during the WCE process, the large amount of captured video data demands a significant deal of computation to analyze and retrieve informative video frames. In order to facilitate efficient WCE data collection and browsing task, we present a resource- and bandwidth-aware WCE video summarization framework that extracts the representative keyframes of the WCE video contents by removing redundant and non-informative frames. For redundancy elimination, we use Jeffrey-divergence between color histograms and inter-frame Boolean series-based correlation of color channels. To remove non-informative frames, multi-fractal texture features are extracted to assist the classification using an ensemble-based classifier. Owing to the limited WCE resources, it is impossible for the WCE system to perform computationally intensive video summarization tasks. To resolve computational challenges, mobile-cloud architecture is incorporated, which provides resizable computing capacities by adaptively offloading video summarization tasks between the client and the cloud server. The qualitative and quantitative results are encouraging and show that the proposed framework saves information transmission cost and bandwidth, as well as the valuable time of data analysts in browsing remote sensing data. PMID:25225874

Mehmood, Irfan; Sajjad, Muhammad; Baik, Sung Wook

2014-01-01

489

Direct Document Capture and Full Text Indexing: An Introduction to the National Air and Space Museum System.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes objectives of a museum information system: to capture photographic, lineal, and textual documents in high resolution digital images; to convert digital images of text to standard computer code; and to retrieve appropriate code automatically through keyword searching of full text. System assembly and planned and potential applications are…

Boyne, Walter J.; Otano, Herman

1984-01-01

490

Barbiturate automatism—myth or malady?  

PubMed Central

Patients admitted to the Regional Poisoning Treatment Centre at the Royal Infirmary, Edinburgh, were assessed to identify cases of drug automatism and those who denied the act of self-poisoning. Only two out of 994 instances of poisoning could be attributed to barbiturate automatism. The case histories of these patients are reported. Twenty-nine patients on thirty-one admissions denied the act of self-poisoning and clinical data on this sample are reviewed. It is suggested that there is insufficient evidence for accepting barbiturate automatism as a clinical entity and that the failure of these patients to remember the ingestion of more than a therapeutic dose is the result of psychogenic defence mechanisms. It is concluded that the use of the term automatism contributes nothing to the management of patients poisoned with these drugs. PMID:5809556

Aitken, R. C. B.; Proudfoot, A. T.

1969-01-01

491

Supporting Framework Use via Automatically Extracted  

E-print Network

, and a technique named FUDA (Framework API Understanding through Dynamic Analysis) which automatically extracts in one or more sample applications. The experimental evaluation of FUDA with twelve re- alistic concepts

Czarnecki, Krzysztof

492

Mobi : automatic customization of the mobile Web  

E-print Network

Mobi is a system that automatically rewrites web pages into formats optimized for web browsing on mobile devices. The system estimates heuristically which parts of a web page's content users are most likely interested in, ...

Chan, Richard W., M. Eng. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2010-01-01

493

Automatic 5-axis NC toolpath generation  

E-print Network

Despite over a decade of research, automatic toolpath generation has remained an elusive goal for 5-axis NC machining. This thesis describes the theoretical and practical issues associated with generating collision free ...

Balasubramaniam, Mahadevan, 1976-

2001-01-01

494

Automatic tuning of continuous-time filters  

E-print Network

Integrated high-Q continuous-time filters require adaptive tuning circuits that will correct the filter parameters such as center frequency and quality factor (Q). Three different automatic tuning techniques are introduced. In all of the proposed...

Sumesaglam, Taner

2004-11-15

495

32 CFR 2001.30 - Automatic declassification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...for the declassification of presidential, vice-presidential, or White House materials...NARA or maintained in the presidential libraries. (c) Classified...international agreement that does not permit automatic or...

2012-07-01

496

32 CFR 2001.30 - Automatic declassification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...for the declassification of presidential, vice-presidential, or White House materials...NARA or maintained in the presidential libraries. (c) Classified...international agreement that does not permit automatic or...

2014-07-01

497

32 CFR 2001.30 - Automatic declassification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...for the declassification of presidential, vice-presidential, or White House materials...NARA or maintained in the presidential libraries. (c) Classified...international agreement that does not permit automatic or...

2011-07-01

498

32 CFR 2001.30 - Automatic declassification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...for the declassification of presidential, vice-presidential, or White House materials...NARA or maintained in the presidential libraries. (c) Classified...international agreement that does not permit automatic or...

2013-07-01

499

LIMESTONE SCRUBBER SLURRY AUTOMATIC CONTROL SYSTEMS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report utilizes current understanding of limestone scrubbers for flue gas desulfurization (FGD) to develop an effort into the optimization of automatic control for the recirculating slurry processes. The acknowledged methods of mathematical modeling, computer simulation, and ...

500

Edelweiss: Automatic Storage Reclamation for Distributed Programming  

E-print Network

Edelweiss: Automatic Storage Reclamation for Distributed Programming Neil Conway, Peter Alvaro challenges in designing space reclamation protocols to avoid consuming unbounded storage. We introduce generate application-specific dis- tributed space reclamation logic. We show how Edelweiss can be used

California at Irvine, University of