Sample records for automatic text summarization

  1. A Survey on Automatic Text Summarization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dipanjan Das Andr; F. T. Martins

    2008-01-01

    The increasing availability of online information has necessitated intensive research in the area of automatic text summarization within the Natural Lan- guage Processing (NLP) community. Over the past half a century, the prob- lem has been addressed from many dierent perspectives, in varying domains and using various paradigms. This survey intends to investigate some of the most relevant approaches both

  2. Automatic Text Summarization Using a Machine Learning Approach

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joel Larocca Neto; Alex Alves Freitas; Celso A. A. Kaestner

    2002-01-01

    Abstract. In this paper we address the automatic summarization task. Recent research works on extractive-summary generation employ some heuristics, but few works indicate how to select the relevant features. We will present a summarization procedure based on the application of trainable Machine Learning algorithms which employs a set of features extracted directly from the original text. These features are of

  3. Automated Text Summarization in SUMMARIST

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eduard Hovy; Chin-Yew Lin

    1999-01-01

    SUMMARIST is an attempt to create a robust automated text summarization system, based on the 'equation': summarization = topic identification + interpretation + generation. Each of these stages contains several independent modules, many of them trained on large corpora of text. We describe the system's architecture and provide details of some of its modules.

  4. Using Text Messaging to Summarize Text

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Angela Ruffin

    2012-01-01

    Summarizing is an academic task that students are expected to have mastered by the time they enter college. However, experience has revealed quite the contrary. Summarization is often difficult to master as well as teach, but instructors in higher education can benefit greatly from the rapid advancement in mobile wireless technology devices, by…

  5. Figure-associated text summarization and evaluation.

    PubMed

    Polepalli Ramesh, Balaji; Sethi, Ricky J; Yu, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Biomedical literature incorporates millions of figures, which are a rich and important knowledge resource for biomedical researchers. Scientists need access to the figures and the knowledge they represent in order to validate research findings and to generate new hypotheses. By themselves, these figures are nearly always incomprehensible to both humans and machines and their associated texts are therefore essential for full comprehension. The associated text of a figure, however, is scattered throughout its full-text article and contains redundant information content. In this paper, we report the continued development and evaluation of several figure summarization systems, the FigSum+ systems, that automatically identify associated texts, remove redundant information, and generate a text summary for every figure in an article. Using a set of 94 annotated figures selected from 19 different journals, we conducted an intrinsic evaluation of FigSum+. We evaluate the performance by precision, recall, F1, and ROUGE scores. The best FigSum+ system is based on an unsupervised method, achieving F1 score of 0.66 and ROUGE-1 score of 0.97. The annotated data is available at figshare.com (http://figshare.com/articles/Figure_Associated_Text_Summarization_and_Evaluation/858903). PMID:25643357

  6. AZOM: A Persian Structured Text Summarizer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Azadeh Zamanifar; Omid Kashefi

    \\u000a In this paper we propose a summarization approach, nicknamed AZOM, that combines statistical and conceptual property of text\\u000a and in regards of document structure, extracts the summary of text. AZOM is also capable of summarizing unstructured documents.\\u000a Proposed approach is localized for Persian language but easily can apply to other languages. The empirical results show comparatively\\u000a superior results than common

  7. Graphbased Ranking Algorithms for Sentence Extraction, Applied to Text Summarization

    E-print Network

    Mihalcea, Rada

    be adapted to undirected or weighted graphs, which are particularly useful in the context of textGraph­based Ranking Algorithms for Sentence Extraction, Applied to Text Summarization Rada Mihalcea an innovative unsupervised method for automatic sentence extraction using graph­ based ranking algorithms. We

  8. Automatic soccer video analysis and summarization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ahmet Ekin; A. Murat Tekalp; Rajiv Mehrotra

    2003-01-01

    We propose a fully automatic and computationally ecient framework for analysis and summariza-tion of soccer videos using cinematic and object-based features. The proposed framework includes somenovel low-level soccer video processing algorithms, such as dominant color region detection, robust shotboundary detection, and shot classification, as well as some higher-level algorithms for goal detection,referee detection, and penalty-box detection. The system can output

  9. News to go: hierarchical text summarization for mobile devices

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jahna Otterbacher; Dragomir R. Radev; Omer Kareem

    2006-01-01

    We present an evaluation of a novel hierarchical text sum- marization method that allows users to view summaries of Web documents from small, mobile devices. Unlike previ- ous approaches, ours does not require the documents to be in HTML since it infers a hierarchical structure automat- ically. Currently, the method is used to summarize news articles sent to a Web

  10. Using Lexical Chains for Text Summarization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Regina Barzilay; Michael Elhadad

    1999-01-01

    We investigate one technique to produce a summary of an original text without requiring its full semantic in- terpretation, but instead relying on a model of the topic progression in the text derived from lexical chains. We present a new algorithm to compute lexical chains in a text, merging several robust knowledge sources: the WordNet thesaurus, a part-of-speech tagger, shallow

  11. A hybrid PSO model in Extractive Text Summarizer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Oi-Mean Foong; Alan Oxley

    2011-01-01

    The World Wide Web has caused an information explosion. Readers are often drowned in information while starved of knowledge. Readers are bombarded with too many lengthy documents where shorter summarized texts would be preferable. This paper presents a hybrid Harmony Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) framework in an Extractive Text Summarizer to tackle the information overload problem. Particle Swarm Optimization is

  12. Automatic Multimedia Knowledge Discovery, Summarization and Evaluation Ana B. Benitez *

    E-print Network

    Fan, Jianping

    of Electrical Engineering Columbia University 1312 Mudd, #F6; 500 W. 120th St., MC 4712 New York, NY 10027, USA Phone: 1-212-854-7473 / Fax: 1-212-932-9421 ana@ee.columbia.edu Shih-Fu Chang Department of Electrical for automatically discovering, summarizing and evaluating multimedia knowledge from annotated images in the form

  13. Facilitating physicians' access to information via tailored text summarization.

    PubMed

    Elhadad, Noemie; McKeown, Kathleen; Kaufman, David; Jordan, Desmond

    2005-01-01

    We have developed a summarization system, TAS (Technical Article Summarizer), which, when provided with a patient record and journal articles returned by a search, automatically generates a summary that is tailored to the patient characteristics. We hypothesize that a personalized summary will allow a physician to more quickly find information relevant to patient care. In this paper, we present a user study in which subjects carried out a task under three different conditions: using search results only, using a generic summary and search results, and using a personalized summary with search results. Our study demonstrates that subjects do a better job on task completion with the personalized summary, and show a higher level of satisfaction, than under other conditions. PMID:16779035

  14. Information Extraction and Text Summarization Using Linguistic Knowledge Acquisition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rau, Lisa F.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Describes SCISOR (System for Conceptual Information Summarization, Organization and Retrieval), a prototype intelligent information retrieval system that extracts useful information from large bodies of text. It overcomes limitations of linguistic coverage by applying a text processing strategy that is tolerant of unknown words and gaps in…

  15. Graph-based Ranking Algorithms for Sentence Extraction, Applied to Text Summarization

    E-print Network

    Mihalcea, Rada

    be adapted to undirected or weighted graphs, which are particularly useful in the context of textGraph-based Ranking Algorithms for Sentence Extraction, Applied to Text Summarization Rada Mihalcea an innovative unsupervised method for automatic sentence extraction using graph- based ranking algorithms. We

  16. Enhancing Summarization Skills Using Twin Texts: Instruction in Narrative and Expository Text Structures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furtado, Leena; Johnson, Lisa

    2010-01-01

    This action-research case study endeavors to enhance the summarization skills of first grade students who are reading at or above the third grade level during the first trimester of the academic school year. Students read "twin text" sources, meaning, fiction and nonfiction literary selections focusing on a common theme to help identify and…

  17. Text Summarization for Oil and Gas Drilling Topic

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. Y. Chen; O. M. Foong; S. P. Yong; Kurniawan Iwan

    2008-01-01

    Information sharing and gathering are important in the rapid advancement era of technology. The existence of WWW has caused rapid growth of information explosion. Readers are overloaded with too many lengthy text documents in which they are more interested in shorter versions. Oil and gas industry could not escape from this predicament. In this paper, we develop an Automated Text

  18. ! -..///+ + +,.0 This text first summarizes what can be the respective

    E-print Network

    Nugues, Pierre

    and dialogue. It then describes three examples of verbal and written interaction systems in virtual reality in virtual worlds. Keywords: Virtual reality, Conversational agents, Spoken navigation, Scene generation from texts. 1 COMPUTER INTERFACES AND VIRTUAL REALITY Computer interfaces have now widely stabilized

  19. Naïve Algorithms for Keyphrase Extraction and Text Summarization from a Single Document Inspired by the Protein Biosynthesis Process

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel Gayo-avello; Darío Álvarez Gutiérrez; José Gayo-avello

    2004-01-01

    Keywords are a simple way of describing a document, giving the reader some clues about its contents. However, sometimes they only categorize the text into a topic being more useful a summary. Keywords and abstracts are common in scientific and technical literature but most of the documents available (e.g., web pages) lack such help, so automatic keyword extraction and summarization

  20. Multiple Alternative Sentence Compressions for Automatic Text Summarization

    E-print Network

    Ayan, Necip Fazil

    multi-document summariza- tion by generating compressed versions of source sentences as summary candi selector to construct a summary from the compressed candi- dates. The selector uses a combination of static

  1. Automatic summarization of voicemail messages using lexical and prosodic features 

    E-print Network

    Koumpis, Konstantinos; Renals, Steve

    This article presents trainable methods for extracting principal content words from voicemail messages. The short text summaries generated are suitable for mobile messaging applications. The system uses a set of classifiers ...

  2. A method for stemming and eliminating common words for Persian text summarization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marzieh BERENJKOOB; Razieh MEHRI; Hadi KHOSRAVI; M. A. Nematbakhsh

    2009-01-01

    With high increasing documents and electronic texts in Persian language, the use of fast methods to achieve texts through huge sets of documents is highly crucial. Persian text summarization which shows the main concept of a text in minimum size is an effective solution. One of the steps in Persian text summarization is to stem and eliminate common words. The

  3. Summarization Evaluation for Text and Speech: Issues and Approaches Ani Nenkova

    E-print Network

    Plotkin, Joshua B.

    . Such concerns have sparked interest in automatic summarization as early as the late 1950s [1] and have lead with a human-authored gold-standard. When comparisions with a gold-standard are in- volved, it is desirable) The appeal of precision and recall as evaluation measure is obvious: after a human defines the gold

  4. Automatic Analysis and Annotation of Literary Texts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tor Vergata

    In this work a machine learning oriented perspective on com- puter aided support to literary analysis is presented. A representation of narrative phenomena is proposed and an automatic annotation model for such phenomena is trained on texts provided by a critic. As a short-term research task, we studied how the observable textual piece of evidence impact on the learning agent

  5. Studying the correlation between different word sense disambiguation methods and summarization effectiveness in biomedical texts

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Word sense disambiguation (WSD) attempts to solve lexical ambiguities by identifying the correct meaning of a word based on its context. WSD has been demonstrated to be an important step in knowledge-based approaches to automatic summarization. However, the correlation between the accuracy of the WSD methods and the summarization performance has never been studied. Results We present three existing knowledge-based WSD approaches and a graph-based summarizer. Both the WSD approaches and the summarizer employ the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) Metathesaurus as the knowledge source. We first evaluate WSD directly, by comparing the prediction of the WSD methods to two reference sets: the NLM WSD dataset and the MSH WSD collection. We next apply the different WSD methods as part of the summarizer, to map documents onto concepts in the UMLS Metathesaurus, and evaluate the summaries that are generated. The results obtained by the different methods in both evaluations are studied and compared. Conclusions It has been found that the use of WSD techniques has a positive impact on the results of our graph-based summarizer, and that, when both the WSD and summarization tasks are assessed over large and homogeneous evaluation collections, there exists a correlation between the overall results of the WSD and summarization tasks. Furthermore, the best WSD algorithm in the first task tends to be also the best one in the second. However, we also found that the improvement achieved by the summarizer is not directly correlated with the WSD performance. The most likely reason is that the errors in disambiguation are not equally important but depend on the relative salience of the different concepts in the document to be summarized. PMID:21871110

  6. Application of knowledge graph for making Text Summarization (Analizing a text of educational issues)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Khodijah Hulliyah; Husni Teja Kusuma

    2010-01-01

    Text Summerization, is a topic that is related to the fields of philosophy and linguistics [2] are also included in the social sciences, so often sought by researchers in computer science who prefer something in the field of exact sciences. Interestingly, the Text Summerization applications, is a system that will make a summary or conclusion of tens or hundreds of

  7. Science Text Comprehension: Drawing, Main Idea Selection, and Summarizing as Learning Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leopold, Claudia; Leutner, Detlev

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of two experiments was to contrast instructions to generate drawings with two text-focused strategies--main idea selection (Exp. 1) and summarization (Exp. 2)--and to examine whether these strategies could help students learn from a chemistry science text. Both experiments followed a 2 x 2 design, with drawing strategy instructions…

  8. Summarizing Blog Entries versus News Texts Shamima Mithun and Leila Kosseim

    E-print Network

    Kosseim, Leila

    Summarizing Blog Entries versus News Texts Shamima Mithun and Leila Kosseim Concordia University}@encs.concordia.ca Abstract As more and more people are expressing their opinions on the web in the form of weblogs (or blogs on a par- ticular event or entity in blog entries. How- ever, the variety of blog posts and the infor- mal

  9. Towards automatic recognition of product names: an exploratory study of brand names in economic texts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kristina Nilsson; Aisha Malmgren

    This paper describes the first stage of research towards automatic recog- nition of brand names (trademarks, product names and service names) in Swedish economic texts. The find- ings of an exploratory study of brand names in economic texts by Malmgren (2004) are summarized, and the work of compiling a corpus annotated with named entities based on these findings is described.

  10. Automatic summarization of changes in biological image sequences using algorithmic information theory.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Andrew R; Bjornsson, Christopher S; Temple, Sally; Banker, Gary; Roysam, Badrinath

    2009-08-01

    An algorithmic information-theoretic method is presented for object-level summarization of meaningful changes in image sequences. Object extraction and tracking data are represented as an attributed tracking graph (ATG). Time courses of object states are compared using an adaptive information distance measure, aided by a closed-form multidimensional quantization. The notion of meaningful summarization is captured by using the gap statistic to estimate the randomness deficiency from algorithmic statistics. The summary is the clustering result and feature subset that maximize the gap statistic. This approach was validated on four bioimaging applications: 1) It was applied to a synthetic data set containing two populations of cells differing in the rate of growth, for which it correctly identified the two populations and the single feature out of 23 that separated them; 2) it was applied to 59 movies of three types of neuroprosthetic devices being inserted in the brain tissue at three speeds each, for which it correctly identified insertion speed as the primary factor affecting tissue strain; 3) when applied to movies of cultured neural progenitor cells, it correctly distinguished neurons from progenitors without requiring the use of a fixative stain; and 4) when analyzing intracellular molecular transport in cultured neurons undergoing axon specification, it automatically confirmed the role of kinesins in axon specification. PMID:19542574

  11. MeSH: a window into full text for document summarization

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharya, Sanmitra; Ha?Thuc, Viet; Srinivasan, Padmini

    2011-01-01

    Motivation: Previous research in the biomedical text-mining domain has historically been limited to titles, abstracts and metadata available in MEDLINE records. Recent research initiatives such as TREC Genomics and BioCreAtIvE strongly point to the merits of moving beyond abstracts and into the realm of full texts. Full texts are, however, more expensive to process not only in terms of resources needed but also in terms of accuracy. Since full texts contain embellishments that elaborate, contextualize, contrast, supplement, etc., there is greater risk for false positives. Motivated by this, we explore an approach that offers a compromise between the extremes of abstracts and full texts. Specifically, we create reduced versions of full text documents that contain only important portions. In the long-term, our goal is to explore the use of such summaries for functions such as document retrieval and information extraction. Here, we focus on designing summarization strategies. In particular, we explore the use of MeSH terms, manually assigned to documents by trained annotators, as clues to select important text segments from the full text documents. Results: Our experiments confirm the ability of our approach to pick the important text portions. Using the ROUGE measures for evaluation, we were able to achieve maximum ROUGE-1, ROUGE-2 and ROUGE-SU4 F-scores of 0.4150, 0.1435 and 0.1782, respectively, for our MeSH term-based method versus the maximum baseline scores of 0.3815, 0.1353 and 0.1428, respectively. Using a MeSH profile-based strategy, we were able to achieve maximum ROUGE F-scores of 0.4320, 0.1497 and 0.1887, respectively. Human evaluation of the baselines and our proposed strategies further corroborates the ability of our method to select important sentences from the full texts. Contact: sanmitra-bhattacharya@uiowa.edu; padmini-srinivasan@uiowa.edu PMID:21685060

  12. Stemming Malay Text and Its Application in Automatic Text Categorization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasukawa, Michiko; Lim, Hui Tian; Yokoo, Hidetoshi

    In Malay language, there are no conjugations and declensions and affixes have important grammatical functions. In Malay, the same word may function as a noun, an adjective, an adverb, or, a verb, depending on its position in the sentence. Although extensively simple root words are used in informal conversations, it is essential to use the precise words in formal speech or written texts. In Malay, to make sentences clear, derivative words are used. Derivation is achieved mainly by the use of affixes. There are approximately a hundred possible derivative forms of a root word in written language of the educated Malay. Therefore, the composition of Malay words may be complicated. Although there are several types of stemming algorithms available for text processing in English and some other languages, they cannot be used to overcome the difficulties in Malay word stemming. Stemming is the process of reducing various words to their root forms in order to improve the effectiveness of text processing in information systems. It is essential to avoid both over-stemming and under-stemming errors. We have developed a new Malay stemmer (stemming algorithm) for removing inflectional and derivational affixes. Our stemmer uses a set of affix rules and two types of dictionaries: a root-word dictionary and a derivative-word dictionary. The use of set of rules is aimed at reducing the occurrence of under-stemming errors, while that of the dictionaries is believed to reduce the occurrence of over-stemming errors. We performed an experiment to evaluate the application of our stemmer in text mining software. For the experiment, text data used were actual web pages collected from the World Wide Web to demonstrate the effectiveness of our Malay stemming algorithm. The experimental results showed that our stemmer can effectively increase the precision of the extracted Boolean expressions for text categorization.

  13. Information fusion for automatic text classification

    SciTech Connect

    Dasigi, V. [Department of Computer Science and Information Technology, Sacred Heart University, Fairfield, CT (United States); Mann, R.C.; Protopopescu, V.A. [Computer and Mathematics Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1996-08-01

    Analysis and classification of free text documents encompass decision-making processes that rely on several clues derived from text and other contextual information. When using multiple clues, it is generally not known a priori how these should be integrated into a decision. An algorithmic sensor based on Latent Semantic Indexing (LSI) (a recent successful method for text retrieval rather than classification) is the primary sensor used in our work, but its utility is limited by the {ital reference}{ital library} of documents. Thus, there is an important need to complement or at least supplement this sensor. We have developed a system that uses a neural network to integrate the LSI-based sensor with other clues derived from the text. This approach allows for systematic fusion of several information sources in order to determine a combined best decision about the category to which a document belongs.

  14. Ontology-Driven Automatic Entity Disambiguation in Unstructured Text

    E-print Network

    Arpinar, I. Budak

    Ontology-Driven Automatic Entity Disambiguation in Unstructured Text Joseph Hassell, Boanerges integration. Entity disambiguation is the challenge of determining the correct entity out of various candidate encouraging results. Keywords: Entity disambiguation, ontology, semantic web, DBLP, DBWorld. 1 Introduction

  15. Automatic Text Localisation in Scanned Comic Books Christophe Rigaud1

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Automatic Text Localisation in Scanned Comic Books Christophe Rigaud1 , Dimosthenis Karatzas2-christophe.burie}@univ-lr.fr, {dimos, joost}@cvc.uab.es Keywords: Text localization, comics, text/graphic separation, complex background, unstructured document Abstract: Comic books constitute an important cultural heritage asset

  16. The Development of Plans for Summarizing Texts. Technical Report No. 268.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Ann L.; And Others

    A study examined the ability of subjects of varying ages to write summaries of very familiar material. In particular, it explored the subjects' planning activities both prior to and during the summarization task. The subjects, 15 fifth, 16 seventh, and 15 eleventh grade students and 11 college students, were given two stories to study for a week.…

  17. Profiling School Shooters: Automatic Text-Based Analysis.

    PubMed

    Neuman, Yair; Assaf, Dan; Cohen, Yochai; Knoll, James L

    2015-01-01

    School shooters present a challenge to both forensic psychiatry and law enforcement agencies. The relatively small number of school shooters, their various characteristics, and the lack of in-depth analysis of all of the shooters prior to the shooting add complexity to our understanding of this problem. In this short paper, we introduce a new methodology for automatically profiling school shooters. The methodology involves automatic analysis of texts and the production of several measures relevant for the identification of the shooters. Comparing texts written by 6 school shooters to 6056 texts written by a comparison group of male subjects, we found that the shooters' texts scored significantly higher on the Narcissistic Personality dimension as well as on the Humilated and Revengeful dimensions. Using a ranking/prioritization procedure, similar to the one used for the automatic identification of sexual predators, we provide support for the validity and relevance of the proposed methodology. PMID:26089804

  18. Profiling School Shooters: Automatic Text-Based Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Neuman, Yair; Assaf, Dan; Cohen, Yochai; Knoll, James L.

    2015-01-01

    School shooters present a challenge to both forensic psychiatry and law enforcement agencies. The relatively small number of school shooters, their various characteristics, and the lack of in-depth analysis of all of the shooters prior to the shooting add complexity to our understanding of this problem. In this short paper, we introduce a new methodology for automatically profiling school shooters. The methodology involves automatic analysis of texts and the production of several measures relevant for the identification of the shooters. Comparing texts written by 6 school shooters to 6056 texts written by a comparison group of male subjects, we found that the shooters’ texts scored significantly higher on the Narcissistic Personality dimension as well as on the Humilated and Revengeful dimensions. Using a ranking/prioritization procedure, similar to the one used for the automatic identification of sexual predators, we provide support for the validity and relevance of the proposed methodology.

  19. Automatic Feature Extraction and Text Recognition From Scanned Topographic Maps

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aria Pezeshk; Richard L. Tutwiler

    2011-01-01

    A system for automatic extraction of various feature layers and recognition of the text content of scanned topographic maps is presented here. Linear features which are often intersect- ing with the text are first extracted using a novel line represen- tation method and a set of directional morphological operations. Other graphical objects are then removed in several stages to obtain

  20. Automatic Image Annotation through Multi-Topic Text Categorization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sheng Gao; De-Hong Wang; Chin-Hui Lee

    2006-01-01

    We propose a new framework for automatic image annotation through multi-topic text categorization. Given a test image, it is first converted into a text document using a visual codebook learnt from a collection of training images. Latent semantic analysis is then performed on the tokenized document to extract a feature vector based on a visual lexicon with its vocabulary items

  1. Automatic bug triage using text categorization Davor Cubranic

    E-print Network

    Murphy, Gail

    Automatic bug triage using text categorization Davor Cubrani´c Department of Computer Science murphy@cs.ubc.ca Abstract Bug triage, deciding what to do with an incoming bug re- port, is taking up machine learning techniques to assist in bug triage by using text categorization to predict the developer

  2. Automatic Summarization of Changes in Biological Image Sequences Using Algorithmic Information Theory

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrew R. Cohen; Christopher S. Bjornsson; Sally Temple; Gary Banker; Badrinath Roysam

    2009-01-01

    An algorithmic information-theoretic method is presented for object-level summarization of meaningful changes in image sequences. Object extraction and tracking data are represented as an attributed tracking graph (ATG). Time courses of object states are compared using an adaptive information distance measure, aided by a closed-form multidimensional quantization. The notion of meaningful summarization is captured by using the gap statistic to

  3. Automatic summarization of changes in image sequences using algorithmic information theory

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrew R. Cohen; Christopher Bjornsson; Ying Chen; Gary Banker; Ena Ladi; Ellen Robey; Sally Temple; Badrinath Roysam

    2008-01-01

    An algorithmic information theoretic method is presented for object-level summarization of meaningful changes in image sequences. Object extraction and tracking data are represented as an attributed tracking graph (ATG), whose connected subgraphs are compared using an adaptive information distance measure, aided by a closed-form multi-dimensional quantization. The summary is the clustering result and feature subset that maximize the gap statistic.

  4. Text segmentation using gabor filters for automatic document processing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anil K. Jain; Sushil K. Bhattacharjee

    1992-01-01

    There is a considerable interest in designing automatic systems that will scan a given paper document and store it on electronic\\u000a media for easier storage, manipulation, and access. Most documents contain graphics and images in addition to text. Thus,\\u000a the document image has to be segmented to identify the text regions, so that OCR techniques may be applied only to

  5. Effects of Presentation Mode and Computer Familiarity on Summarization of Extended Texts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, Guoxing

    2010-01-01

    Comparability studies on computer- and paper-based reading tests have focused on short texts and selected-response items via almost exclusively statistical modeling of test performance. The psychological effects of presentation mode and computer familiarity on individual students are under-researched. In this study, 157 students read extended…

  6. Automatic extraction of relations between medical concepts in clinical texts

    PubMed Central

    Harabagiu, Sanda; Roberts, Kirk

    2011-01-01

    Objective A supervised machine learning approach to discover relations between medical problems, treatments, and tests mentioned in electronic medical records. Materials and methods A single support vector machine classifier was used to identify relations between concepts and to assign their semantic type. Several resources such as Wikipedia, WordNet, General Inquirer, and a relation similarity metric inform the classifier. Results The techniques reported in this paper were evaluated in the 2010 i2b2 Challenge and obtained the highest F1 score for the relation extraction task. When gold standard data for concepts and assertions were available, F1 was 73.7, precision was 72.0, and recall was 75.3. F1 is defined as 2*Precision*Recall/(Precision+Recall). Alternatively, when concepts and assertions were discovered automatically, F1 was 48.4, precision was 57.6, and recall was 41.7. Discussion Although a rich set of features was developed for the classifiers presented in this paper, little knowledge mining was performed from medical ontologies such as those found in UMLS. Future studies should incorporate features extracted from such knowledge sources, which we expect to further improve the results. Moreover, each relation discovery was treated independently. Joint classification of relations may further improve the quality of results. Also, joint learning of the discovery of concepts, assertions, and relations may also improve the results of automatic relation extraction. Conclusion Lexical and contextual features proved to be very important in relation extraction from medical texts. When they are not available to the classifier, the F1 score decreases by 3.7%. In addition, features based on similarity contribute to a decrease of 1.1% when they are not available. PMID:21846787

  7. Automatic structuring of radiology free-text reports.

    PubMed

    Taira, R K; Soderland, S G; Jakobovits, R M

    2001-01-01

    A natural language processor was developed that automatically structures the important medical information (eg, the existence, properties, location, and diagnostic interpretation of findings) contained in a radiology free-text document as a formal information model that can be interpreted by a computer program. The input to the system is a free-text report from a radiologic study. The system requires no reporting style changes on the part of the radiologist. Statistical and machine learning methods are used extensively throughout the system. A graphical user interface has been developed that allows the creation of hand-tagged training examples. Various aspects of the difficult problem of implementing an automated structured reporting system have been addressed, and the relevant technology is progressing well. Extensible Markup Language is emerging as the preferred syntactic standard for representing and distributing these structured reports within a clinical environment. Early successes hold out hope that similar statistically based models of language will allow deep understanding of textual reports. The success of these statistical methods will depend on the availability of large numbers of high-quality training examples for each radiologic subdomain. The acceptability of automated structured reporting systems will ultimately depend on the results of comprehensive evaluations. PMID:11158658

  8. Automatic Indexing Of Text And Graphics In Technical Manuals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marcel Worring; Bob J. Wielinga; Anjo Anjewierden; Frans Verster; Leon Todoran; Suzanne Kabel; Robert De Hoog

    2001-01-01

    Goal driven authoring of training material from existing tech- nical manuals requires the automatic indexing of the man- ual. In this contribution we consider the different represen- tation levels and document knowledge required to do the task. On that basis we have developed tools for automatic indexing in diverse domains.

  9. On the Application of Syntactic Methodologies in Automatic Text Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salton, Gerard; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Summarizes various linguistic approaches proposed for document analysis in information retrieval environments. Topics discussed include syntactic analysis; use of machine-readable dictionary information; knowledge base construction; the PLNLP English Grammar (PEG) system; phrase normalization; and statistical and syntactic phrase evaluation used…

  10. The Effects of Teaching a Genre-Specific Reading Comprehension Strategy on Struggling Fifth Grade Students' Ability to Summarize and Analyze Argumentative Texts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haria, Priti Damji

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of instruction in a genre-specific reading comprehension strategy, "Critical Analysis of Argumentative Text" (CAAT), which was designed to help students to identify, summarize and critically analyze parts of argumentative text. Based on the premise that reading and writing require similar knowledge of text

  11. Reading Performance of Chinese Text with Automatic Scrolling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yao-hung Hsieh; Chiuhsiang Joe Lin; Hsiao-ching Chen; Ting-ting Huang; James C. Chen

    2007-01-01

    Auto-scrolling is useful when the reader wishes to move the text continuously to where the reader’s eyes are fixated on the\\u000a visual display without having to press the control button on the scrolling device all the time. In this paper, we conducted\\u000a an experiment to study the effects of scroll speed in text error search tasks. The study considered three

  12. Automatic semantic interpretation of anatomic spatial relationships in clinical text.

    PubMed Central

    Bean, C. A.; Rindflesch, T. C.; Sneiderman, C. A.

    1998-01-01

    A set of semantic interpretation rules to link the syntax and semantics of locative relationships among anatomic entities was developed and implemented in a natural language processing system. Two experiments assessed the ability of the system to identify and characterize physico-spatial relationships in coronary angiography reports. Branching relationships were by far the most common observed (75%), followed by PATH (20%) and PART/WHOLE relationships. Recall and precision scores were 0.78 and 0.67 overall, suggesting the viability of this approach in semantic processing of clinical text. PMID:9929348

  13. Automatic Tagging of Arabic Text: From Raw Text to Base Phrase Chunks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mona Diab; Kadri Hacioglu; Daniel Jurafsky

    2004-01-01

    To date, there are no fully automated systems addressing the community's need for funda- mental language processing tools for Arabic text. In this paper, we present a Support Vector Machine (SVM) based approach to automati- cally tokenize (segmenting off clitics), part-of- speech (POS) tag and annotate base phrases (BPs) in Arabic text. We adapt highly accu- rate tools that have

  14. Text Classification for Automatic Detection of Alcohol Use-Related Tweets

    E-print Network

    Statnikov, Alexander

    instances of use. More work is needed to capture the potential of social media to support alcohol useText Classification for Automatic Detection of Alcohol Use-Related Tweets A Feasibility Study Yin.a@nyumc.org Abstract--We present a feasibility study using text classification to classify tweets about alcohol use

  15. Summarizing Reflections.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Kenneth

    2003-01-01

    Summarizes the conference proceedings, asserting that two fundamental questions were addressed: "How can international cohesion be achieved without also reducing diversity?" and "How can collateral damage to local higher education systems be avoided?" (EV)

  16. Ontology-Driven Automatic Entity Disambiguation in Unstructured Text JOSEPH EDWARD HASSELL IV

    E-print Network

    Arpinar, I. Budak

    Ontology-Driven Automatic Entity Disambiguation in Unstructured Text by JOSEPH EDWARD HASSELL IV is essential for document indexing, web search and data integration. Entity disambiguation is the challenge the correct entity. We demonstrate the applicability of our method by disambiguating authors in a collection

  17. Automatic Case Acquisition From Texts for Process-Oriented Case-Based Reasoning

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Automatic Case Acquisition From Texts for Process-Oriented Case-Based Reasoning Valmi Dufour for process-oriented case-based reasoning. Case engineering is among the most complicated and costly tasks in implementing a case-based reasoning system. This is especially so for process-oriented case-based reasoning

  18. Experimentation of an automatic resolution method for protein abbreviations in full-text papers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paolo Atzeni; Fabio Polticelli; Daniele Toti

    2011-01-01

    We report and comment the experimental results of the PRAISED system, which implements an automatic method for discovering and resolving a wide range of protein name abbreviations from the full-text versions of scientific articles. This system has been recently proposed as part of a framework for creating and maintaining a publicly-accessible abbreviation repository. The testing phase was carried out against

  19. Evaluation of Extractive Voicemail Summarization

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Koumpis, Konstantinos

    This interesting paper outlines a framework for automatic summarization of voicemail messages and delivery as compact text messages. The proposed system, developed at the University of Sheffield, incorporates speech recognition technology and summary word extraction. An overview of the feature selection process is especially interesting, as it briefly describes how pitch, word duration, and pauses in the voicemail message are used to obtain a compressed subset of the most important features. A number of experiments were performed to determine the system's accuracy and usability, and the results are presented in the paper.

  20. Automatic Mapping of Social Networks of Actors from Text Corpora: Time Series Analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James A. Danowski; Noah Cepela

    \\u000a To test hypotheses about presidential cabinet network centrality and presidential job approval over time and to illustrate\\u000a automatic social network identification from large volumes of text, this research mined the social networks among the cabinets\\u000a of Presidents Reagan, G.H.W. Bush, Clinton, and G.W. Bush based on the members’ co-occurrence in news stories. Each administration’s\\u000a data was sliced into time intervals

  1. Extractive summarization using complex networks and syntactic dependency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amancio, Diego R.; Nunes, Maria G. V.; Oliveira, Osvaldo N.; Costa, Luciano da F.

    2012-02-01

    The realization that statistical physics methods can be applied to analyze written texts represented as complex networks has led to several developments in natural language processing, including automatic summarization and evaluation of machine translation. Most importantly, so far only a few metrics of complex networks have been used and therefore there is ample opportunity to enhance the statistics-based methods as new measures of network topology and dynamics are created. In this paper, we employ for the first time the metrics betweenness, vulnerability and diversity to analyze written texts in Brazilian Portuguese. Using strategies based on diversity metrics, a better performance in automatic summarization is achieved in comparison to previous work employing complex networks. With an optimized method the Rouge score (an automatic evaluation method used in summarization) was 0.5089, which is the best value ever achieved for an extractive summarizer with statistical methods based on complex networks for Brazilian Portuguese. Furthermore, the diversity metric can detect keywords with high precision, which is why we believe it is suitable to produce good summaries. It is also shown that incorporating linguistic knowledge through a syntactic parser does enhance the performance of the automatic summarizers, as expected, but the increase in the Rouge score is only minor. These results reinforce the suitability of complex network methods for improving automatic summarizers in particular, and treating text in general.

  2. The Fractal Patterns of Words in a Text: A Method for Automatic Keyword Extraction

    PubMed Central

    Najafi, Elham; Darooneh, Amir H.

    2015-01-01

    A text can be considered as a one dimensional array of words. The locations of each word type in this array form a fractal pattern with certain fractal dimension. We observe that important words responsible for conveying the meaning of a text have dimensions considerably different from one, while the fractal dimensions of unimportant words are close to one. We introduce an index quantifying the importance of the words in a given text using their fractal dimensions and then ranking them according to their importance. This index measures the difference between the fractal pattern of a word in the original text relative to a shuffled version. Because the shuffled text is meaningless (i.e., words have no importance), the difference between the original and shuffled text can be used to ascertain degree of fractality. The degree of fractality may be used for automatic keyword detection. Words with the degree of fractality higher than a threshold value are assumed to be the retrieved keywords of the text. We measure the efficiency of our method for keywords extraction, making a comparison between our proposed method and two other well-known methods of automatic keyword extraction. PMID:26091207

  3. Using a MaxEnt Classifier for the Automatic Content Scoring of Free-Text Responses

    SciTech Connect

    Sukkarieh, Jana Z. [Educational Testing Service, Rosedale Road, Princeton NJ 08541 (United States)

    2011-03-14

    Criticisms against multiple-choice item assessments in the USA have prompted researchers and organizations to move towards constructed-response (free-text) items. Constructed-response (CR) items pose many challenges to the education community - one of which is that they are expensive to score by humans. At the same time, there has been widespread movement towards computer-based assessment and hence, assessment organizations are competing to develop automatic content scoring engines for such items types - which we view as a textual entailment task. This paper describes how MaxEnt Modeling is used to help solve the task. MaxEnt has been used in many natural language tasks but this is the first application of the MaxEnt approach to textual entailment and automatic content scoring.

  4. Automatically classifying sentences in full-text biomedical articles into Introduction, Methods, Results and Discussion

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Shashank; Yu, Hong

    2009-01-01

    Biomedical texts can be typically represented by four rhetorical categories: Introduction, Methods, Results and Discussion (IMRAD). Classifying sentences into these categories can benefit many other text-mining tasks. Although many studies have applied different approaches for automatically classifying sentences in MEDLINE abstracts into the IMRAD categories, few have explored the classification of sentences that appear in full-text biomedical articles. We first evaluated whether sentences in full-text biomedical articles could be reliably annotated into the IMRAD format and then explored different approaches for automatically classifying these sentences into the IMRAD categories. Our results show an overall annotation agreement of 82.14% with a Kappa score of 0.756. The best classification system is a multinomial naïve Bayes classifier trained on manually annotated data that achieved 91.95% accuracy and an average F-score of 91.55%, which is significantly higher than baseline systems. A web version of this system is available online at—http://wood.ims.uwm.edu/full_text_classifier/. Contact: hongyu@uwm.edu PMID:19783830

  5. Automatic Evaluation of Voice Quality Using Text-Based Laryngograph Measurements and Prosodic Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Haderlein, Tino; Schwemmle, Cornelia; Döllinger, Michael; Matoušek, Václav; Ptok, Martin; Nöth, Elmar

    2015-01-01

    Due to low intra- and interrater reliability, perceptual voice evaluation should be supported by objective, automatic methods. In this study, text-based, computer-aided prosodic analysis and measurements of connected speech were combined in order to model perceptual evaluation of the German Roughness-Breathiness-Hoarseness (RBH) scheme. 58 connected speech samples (43 women and 15 men; 48.7 ± 17.8 years) containing the German version of the text “The North Wind and the Sun” were evaluated perceptually by 19 speech and voice therapy students according to the RBH scale. For the human-machine correlation, Support Vector Regression with measurements of the vocal fold cycle irregularities (CFx) and the closed phases of vocal fold vibration (CQx) of the Laryngograph and 33 features from a prosodic analysis module were used to model the listeners' ratings. The best human-machine results for roughness were obtained from a combination of six prosodic features and CFx (r = 0.71, ? = 0.57). These correlations were approximately the same as the interrater agreement among human raters (r = 0.65, ? = 0.61). CQx was one of the substantial features of the hoarseness model. For hoarseness and breathiness, the human-machine agreement was substantially lower. Nevertheless, the automatic analysis method can serve as the basis for a meaningful objective support for perceptual analysis.

  6. Automatic vs. manual curation of a multi-source chemical dictionary: the impact on text mining

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Previously, we developed a combined dictionary dubbed Chemlist for the identification of small molecules and drugs in text based on a number of publicly available databases and tested it on an annotated corpus. To achieve an acceptable recall and precision we used a number of automatic and semi-automatic processing steps together with disambiguation rules. However, it remained to be investigated which impact an extensive manual curation of a multi-source chemical dictionary would have on chemical term identification in text. ChemSpider is a chemical database that has undergone extensive manual curation aimed at establishing valid chemical name-to-structure relationships. Results We acquired the component of ChemSpider containing only manually curated names and synonyms. Rule-based term filtering, semi-automatic manual curation, and disambiguation rules were applied. We tested the dictionary from ChemSpider on an annotated corpus and compared the results with those for the Chemlist dictionary. The ChemSpider dictionary of ca. 80 k names was only a 1/3 to a 1/4 the size of Chemlist at around 300 k. The ChemSpider dictionary had a precision of 0.43 and a recall of 0.19 before the application of filtering and disambiguation and a precision of 0.87 and a recall of 0.19 after filtering and disambiguation. The Chemlist dictionary had a precision of 0.20 and a recall of 0.47 before the application of filtering and disambiguation and a precision of 0.67 and a recall of 0.40 after filtering and disambiguation. Conclusions We conclude the following: (1) The ChemSpider dictionary achieved the best precision but the Chemlist dictionary had a higher recall and the best F-score; (2) Rule-based filtering and disambiguation is necessary to achieve a high precision for both the automatically generated and the manually curated dictionary. ChemSpider is available as a web service at http://www.chemspider.com/ and the Chemlist dictionary is freely available as an XML file in Simple Knowledge Organization System format on the web at http://www.biosemantics.org/chemlist. PMID:20331846

  7. The Effects of Human Variation in DUC Summarization Evaluation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Donna Harman; Paul Over

    2004-01-01

    There is a long history of research in automatic text summarization systems by both the text retrieval and the natural language processing communities, but evaluation of such systems' output has always presented problems. One critical problem remains how to handle the unavoidable variability in hu- man judgments at the core of all the evaluations. Sponsored by the DARPA TIDES project,

  8. CarSim: An Automatic 3D Text-to-Scene Conversion System Applied to Road Accident Reports

    E-print Network

    Nugues, Pierre

    CarSim: An Automatic 3D Text-to-Scene Conversion System Applied to Road Accident Reports Ola-21071 Hamburg, Germany¢ e94oa, e94hsv£ @efd.lth.se b.schulz@tuhh.de Pierre.Nugues@cs.lth.se Abstract CarSim is an automatic text-to-scene conversion system. It analyzes written descriptions of car accidents and synthe

  9. Evaluation of information retrieval and text mining tools on automatic named entity extraction. Intelligence and security informatics. Proceedings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nishant Kumar; Jan De Beer; Jan Vanthienen; Marie-Francine Moens

    2006-01-01

    We will report evaluation of Automatic Named Entity Extraction feature of IR tools on Dutch, French, and English text. The aim is to analyze the competency of off-the-shelf information extraction tools in recognizing entity types including person, organization, location, vehicle, time, & currency from unstructured text. Within such an evaluation one can compare the effectiveness of different approaches for identifying

  10. Automatic correction of grammatical errors in non-native English text

    E-print Network

    Lee, John Sie Yuen, 1977-

    2009-01-01

    Learning a foreign language requires much practice outside of the classroom. Computer-assisted language learning systems can help fill this need, and one desirable capability of such systems is the automatic correction of ...

  11. Automatic language identity tagging on word and sentence-level in multilingual text sources: a case-study on Luxembourgish

    E-print Network

    and 35% of immigrants. The national language, Luxembourgish ("Lëtzebuergesch"), has only been consideredAutomatic language identity tagging on word and sentence-level in multilingual text sources: a case-CNRS, B.P. 133, 91403 Orsay cedex, France, Thomas.Laverge@limsi.fr 2 Spoken Language Processing group

  12. Texting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tilley, Carol L.

    2009-01-01

    With the increasing ranks of cell phone ownership is an increase in text messaging, or texting. During 2008, more than 2.5 trillion text messages were sent worldwide--that's an average of more than 400 messages for every person on the planet. Although many of the messages teenagers text each day are perhaps nothing more than "how r u?" or "c u…

  13. A TMs32020-based real time, text-independent, automatic speaker verification system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. B. Attili; M. Savic

    1988-01-01

    A fast, reliable, yet inexpensive automatic speaker verification system based on the Texas Instruments TMS32020 digital signal processor (DSP) is described. This system uses a novel speaker verification algorithm which operates in 75% of real time and requires two to three seconds of unconstrained speech to perform accurate authentication. Experimental results on a population of 90 speakers are also given.

  14. Evaluation of extractive voicemail summarization

    E-print Network

    Koumpis, Konstantinos; Renals, Steve

    2003-01-01

    This paper is about the evaluation of a system that generates short text summaries of voicemail messages, suitable for transmission as text messages. Our approach to summarization is based on a speech-recognized transcript ...

  15. Automatism

    PubMed Central

    McCaldon, R. J.

    1964-01-01

    Individuals can carry out complex activity while in a state of impaired consciousness, a condition termed “automatism”. Consciousness must be considered from both an organic and a psychological aspect, because impairment of consciousness may occur in both ways. Automatism may be classified as normal (hypnosis), organic (temporal lobe epilepsy), psychogenic (dissociative fugue) or feigned. Often painstaking clinical investigation is necessary to clarify the diagnosis. There is legal precedent for assuming that all crimes must embody both consciousness and will. Jurists are loath to apply this principle without reservation, as this would necessitate acquittal and release of potentially dangerous individuals. However, with the sole exception of the defence of insanity, there is at present no legislation to prohibit release without further investigation of anyone acquitted of a crime on the grounds of “automatism”. PMID:14199824

  16. Web-based UMLS concept retrieval by automatic text scanning: a comparison of two methods.

    PubMed

    Brandt, C; Nadkarni, P

    2001-01-01

    The Web is increasingly the medium of choice for multi-user application program delivery. Yet selection of an appropriate programming environment for rapid prototyping, code portability, and maintainability remain issues. We summarize our experience on the conversion of a LISP Web application, Search/SR to a new, functionally identical application, Search/SR-ASP using a relational database and active server pages (ASP) technology. Our results indicate that provision of easy access to database engines and external objects is almost essential for a development environment to be considered viable for rapid and robust application delivery. While LISP itself is a robust language, its use in Web applications may be hard to justify given that current vendor implementations do not provide such functionality. Alternative, currently available scripting environments for Web development appear to have most of LISP's advantages and few of its disadvantages. PMID:11084231

  17. How much does automatic text de-identification impact clinical problems, tests, and treatments?

    PubMed

    Meystre, Stéphane M; Ferrández, Oscar; South, Brett R; Shen, Shuying; Samore, Matthew H

    2013-01-01

    Clinical text de-identification can potentially overlap with clinical information such as medical problems or treatments, therefore causing this information to be lost. In this study, we focused on the analysis of the overlap between the 2010 i2b2 NLP challenge concept annotations, with the PHI annotations of our best-of-breed clinical text de-identification application. Overall, 0.81% of the annotations overlapped exactly, and 1.78% partly overlapped. PMID:24303260

  18. Using Discourse Analysis and Automatic Text Generation to Study Discourse Cue Usage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Megan Moser; Johanna D. Moore

    1995-01-01

    Our two stage methodology for the study of cue usage coordinates an exhaustive corpus analysis with a system for text generation. Coding of the corpus uses Relational Discourse Analysis, a syn- thesis of two previous accounts of discourse struc- ture. In the first stage of our study, hypotheses about cue usage are evaluated and refined using the corpus analysis. Several

  19. Text Mining and Natural Language Processing Approaches for Automatic Categorization of Lay Requests to Web-Based Expert Forums

    PubMed Central

    Reincke, Ulrich; Michelmann, Hans Wilhelm

    2009-01-01

    Background Both healthy and sick people increasingly use electronic media to obtain medical information and advice. For example, Internet users may send requests to Web-based expert forums, or so-called “ask the doctor” services. Objective To automatically classify lay requests to an Internet medical expert forum using a combination of different text-mining strategies. Methods We first manually classified a sample of 988 requests directed to a involuntary childlessness forum on the German website “Rund ums Baby” (“Everything about Babies”) into one or more of 38 categories belonging to two dimensions (“subject matter” and “expectations”). After creating start and synonym lists, we calculated the average Cramer’s V statistic for the association of each word with each category. We also used principle component analysis and singular value decomposition as further text-mining strategies. With these measures we trained regression models and determined, on the basis of best regression models, for any request the probability of belonging to each of the 38 different categories, with a cutoff of 50%. Recall and precision of a test sample were calculated as a measure of quality for the automatic classification. Results According to the manual classification of 988 documents, 102 (10%) documents fell into the category “in vitro fertilization (IVF),” 81 (8%) into the category “ovulation,” 79 (8%) into “cycle,” and 57 (6%) into “semen analysis.” These were the four most frequent categories in the subject matter dimension (consisting of 32 categories). The expectation dimension comprised six categories; we classified 533 documents (54%) as “general information” and 351 (36%) as a wish for “treatment recommendations.” The generation of indicator variables based on the chi-square analysis and Cramer’s V proved to be the best approach for automatic classification in about half of the categories. In combination with the two other approaches, 100% precision and 100% recall were realized in 18 (47%) out of the 38 categories in the test sample. For 35 (92%) categories, precision and recall were better than 80%. For some categories, the input variables (ie, “words”) also included variables from other categories, most often with a negative sign. For example, absence of words predictive for “menstruation” was a strong indicator for the category “pregnancy test.” Conclusions Our approach suggests a way of automatically classifying and analyzing unstructured information in Internet expert forums. The technique can perform a preliminary categorization of new requests and help Internet medical experts to better handle the mass of information and to give professional feedback. PMID:19632978

  20. Generalizability and Comparison of Automatic Clinical Text De-Identification Methods and Resources

    PubMed Central

    Ferrández, Óscar; South, Brett R.; Shen, Shuying; Friedlin, F. Jeff; Samore, Matthew H.; Meystre, Stéphane M.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we present an evaluation of the hybrid best-of-breed automated VHA (Veteran’s Health Administration) clinical text de-identification system, nicknamed BoB, developed within the VHA Consortium for Healthcare Informatics Research. We also evaluate two available machine learning-based text de-identifications systems: MIST and HIDE. Two different clinical corpora were used for this evaluation: a manually annotated VHA corpus, and the 2006 i2b2 de-identification challenge corpus. These experiments focus on the generalizability and portability of the classification models across different document sources. BoB demonstrated good recall (92.6%), satisfactorily prioritizing patient privacy, and also achieved competitive precision (83.6%) for preserving subsequent document interpretability. MIST and HIDE reached very competitive results, in most cases with high precision (92.6% and 93.6%), although recall was sometimes lower than desired for the most sensitive PHI categories. PMID:23304289

  1. General Purpose Database Summarization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Régis Saint-Paul; Guillaume Raschia; Noureddine Mouaddib

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, a message-oriented architecture for large database summarization is presented. The summarization system takes a database table as input and produces a reduced version of this table through both a rewriting and a generalization process. The resulting table provides tuples with less precision than the original but yet are very informative of the actual content of the database.

  2. Summarizing Email Threads

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Owen Rambow; Lokesh Shrestha; John Chen; Chirsty Lauridsen

    Summarizing threads of email is different from summarizing other types of written communi- cation as it has an inherent dialog structure. We present initial research which shows that sen- tence extraction techniques can work for email threads as well, but profit from email-specific features. In addition, the presentation of the summary should take into account the dialogic structure of email

  3. A trainable document summarizer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Julian Kupiec; Jan O. Pedersen; Francine Chen

    1995-01-01

    To summarize is to reduce in complexity, and hence in length, while retaining some of the essential qualities of the original. This paper focusses on document extracts, a particular kind of computed document summary.

  4. Multi-Document Summarization By Sentence Extraction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jade Goldstein; Vibhu Mittal; Jaime Carbonell; Mark Kantrowitzt

    This paper discusses a text extraction approach to multi- document summarization that builds on single-document summarization methods by using additional, available in-, formation about the document set as a whole and the relationships between the documents. Multi-document summarization differs from single in that the issues of compression, speed, redundancy and passage selec- tion are critical in the formation of useful

  5. Opinion Extraction, Summarization and Tracking in News and Blog Corpora

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lun-Wei Ku; Yu-Ting Liang; Hsin-Hsi Chen

    Humans like to express their opinions and are eager to know others' opinions. Automatically mining and organizing opinions from heterogeneous information sources are very useful for individuals, organizations and even governments. Opinion extraction, opinion summarization and opinion tracking are three important techniques for understanding opinions. Opinion extraction mines opinions at word, sentence and document levels from articles. Opinion summarization summarizes

  6. Large-scale automatic extraction of side effects associated with targeted anticancer drugs from full-text oncological articles.

    PubMed

    Xu, Rong; Wang, QuanQiu

    2015-06-01

    Targeted anticancer drugs such as imatinib, trastuzumab and erlotinib dramatically improved treatment outcomes in cancer patients, however, these innovative agents are often associated with unexpected side effects. The pathophysiological mechanisms underlying these side effects are not well understood. The availability of a comprehensive knowledge base of side effects associated with targeted anticancer drugs has the potential to illuminate complex pathways underlying toxicities induced by these innovative drugs. While side effect association knowledge for targeted drugs exists in multiple heterogeneous data sources, published full-text oncological articles represent an important source of pivotal, investigational, and even failed trials in a variety of patient populations. In this study, we present an automatic process to extract targeted anticancer drug-associated side effects (drug-SE pairs) from a large number of high profile full-text oncological articles. We downloaded 13,855 full-text articles from the Journal of Oncology (JCO) published between 1983 and 2013. We developed text classification, relationship extraction, signaling filtering, and signal prioritization algorithms to extract drug-SE pairs from downloaded articles. We extracted a total of 26,264 drug-SE pairs with an average precision of 0.405, a recall of 0.899, and an F1 score of 0.465. We show that side effect knowledge from JCO articles is largely complementary to that from the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) drug labels. Through integrative correlation analysis, we show that targeted drug-associated side effects positively correlate with their gene targets and disease indications. In conclusion, this unique database that we built from a large number of high-profile oncological articles could facilitate the development of computational models to understand toxic effects associated with targeted anticancer drugs. PMID:25817969

  7. Using Automated Classification for Summarizing and Selecting Heterogeneous Information Sources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dolin, R.; Agrawal, D.; Pearlman, J.; El Abbadi, A.

    1998-01-01

    Describes Pharos, a prototype that automatically classifies and summarizes Internet newsgroups using the Library of Congress Classification (LCC) scheme. Topics addressed include the methodology of collection summarization and selection, constructing an online LCC outline, evaluation, limitations of the system, and classification of nontextual…

  8. Degree centrality for semantic abstraction summarization of therapeutic studies

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Han; Fiszman, Marcelo; Shin, Dongwook; Miller, Christopher M.; Rosemblat, Graciela; Rindflesch, Thomas C.

    2011-01-01

    Automatic summarization has been proposed to help manage the results of biomedical information retrieval systems. Semantic MEDLINE, for example, summarizes semantic predications representing assertions in MEDLINE citations. Results are presented as a graph which maintains links to the original citations. Graphs summarizing more than 500 citations are hard to read and navigate, however. We exploit graph theory for focusing these large graphs. The method is based on degree centrality, which measures connectedness in a graph. Four categories of clinical concepts related to treatment of disease were identified and presented as a summary of input text. A baseline was created using term frequency of occurrence. The system was evaluated on summaries for treatment of five diseases compared to a reference standard produced manually by two physicians. The results showed that recall for system results was 72%, precision was 73%, and F-score was 0.72. The system F-score was considerably higher than that for the baseline (0.47). PMID:21575741

  9. NoDoSE—a tool for semi-automatically extracting structured and semistructured data from text documents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brad Adelberg

    1998-01-01

    Often interesting structured or semistructured data is not in database systems but in HTML pages, text files, or on paper. The data in these formats is not usable by standard query processing engines and hence users need a way of extracting data from these sources into a DBMS or of writing wrappers around the sources. This paper describes NoDoSE, the

  10. Adaptive Maximum Marginal Relevance Based Multi-email Summarization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Baoxun; Liu, Bingquan; Sun, Chengjie; Wang, Xiaolong; Li, Bo

    By analyzing the inherent relationship between the maximum marginal relevance (MMR) model and the content cohesion of emails with the same subject, this paper presents an adaptive maximum marginal relevance based multi-email summarization method. Due to the adoption of approximate computing of email content cohesion, the adaptive MMR is able to automatically adjust the parameters according to the changing of the email sets. The experimental results have shown that the email summarizing system based on this technique can increase the precision while reducing the redundancy of the automatic summary results, consequently improve the average quality of email summaries.

  11. Ranking, Labeling, and Summarizing Short Text in Social Media 

    E-print Network

    Khabiri, Elham

    2013-04-18

    . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 4.2 Predicting Semantic Annotations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 4.2.1 Problem Statement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 4.2.2 Hashtag Graph-Based Prediction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 4.3 Evaluation..., and the boosted ranking using the positional boost modi cation. . . . . . 48 4.1 Two sample tweets annotated with the hashtag #health. . . . . . . . 51 4.2 Most tweets are annotated with no hashtags. In a random sample of 3 million tweets, we nd that 7...

  12. Reshaping automatic speech transcripts for robust high-level spoken document analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Julien Fayolle; Fabienne Moreau; Christian Raymond; Guillaume Gravier

    2010-01-01

    High-level spoken document analysis is required in many applications seeking access to the semantic content of audio data, such as information retrieval, machine translation or automatic summarization. It is nevertheless a difficult task that is generally based on transcripts provided by an automatic speech recognition system. Unlike standard texts, transcripts belong to the category of highly noisy data because of

  13. Combining automatic table classification and relationship extraction in extracting anticancer drug-side effect pairs from full-text articles.

    PubMed

    Xu, Rong; Wang, QuanQiu

    2015-02-01

    Anticancer drug-associated side effect knowledge often exists in multiple heterogeneous and complementary data sources. A comprehensive anticancer drug-side effect (drug-SE) relationship knowledge base is important for computation-based drug target discovery, drug toxicity predication and drug repositioning. In this study, we present a two-step approach by combining table classification and relationship extraction to extract drug-SE pairs from a large number of high-profile oncological full-text articles. The data consists of 31,255 tables downloaded from the Journal of Oncology (JCO). We first trained a statistical classifier to classify tables into SE-related and -unrelated categories. We then extracted drug-SE pairs from SE-related tables. We compared drug side effect knowledge extracted from JCO tables to that derived from FDA drug labels. Finally, we systematically analyzed relationships between anti-cancer drug-associated side effects and drug-associated gene targets, metabolism genes, and disease indications. The statistical table classifier is effective in classifying tables into SE-related and -unrelated (precision: 0.711; recall: 0.941; F1: 0.810). We extracted a total of 26,918 drug-SE pairs from SE-related tables with a precision of 0.605, a recall of 0.460, and a F1 of 0.520. Drug-SE pairs extracted from JCO tables is largely complementary to those derived from FDA drug labels; as many as 84.7% of the pairs extracted from JCO tables have not been included a side effect database constructed from FDA drug labels. Side effects associated with anticancer drugs positively correlate with drug target genes, drug metabolism genes, and disease indications. PMID:25445920

  14. Context-Based Persian Multi-document Summarization (Global View)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Asef Poormasoomi; Mohsen Kahani; Saeed Varasteh Yazdi; Hossein Kamyar

    2011-01-01

    Multi-document summarization is the automatic extraction of information from multiple documents of the same topic. This paper proposes a new method, using LSA, for extracting the global context of a topic and removes sentence redundancy using SRL and WordNet semantic similarity for Persian language. In the previous approaches, the focus was on the sentence features (local view) as the main

  15. Automatic lexical classification: bridging research and practice.

    PubMed

    Korhonen, Anna

    2010-08-13

    Natural language processing (NLP)--the automatic analysis, understanding and generation of human language by computers--is vitally dependent on accurate knowledge about words. Because words change their behaviour between text types, domains and sub-languages, a fully accurate static lexical resource (e.g. a dictionary, word classification) is unattainable. Researchers are now developing techniques that could be used to automatically acquire or update lexical resources from textual data. If successful, the automatic approach could considerably enhance the accuracy and portability of language technologies, such as machine translation, text mining and summarization. This paper reviews the recent and on-going research in automatic lexical acquisition. Focusing on lexical classification, it discusses the many challenges that still need to be met before the approach can benefit NLP on a large scale. PMID:20603372

  16. COLING 2014 Automatic Text Simplification

    E-print Network

    people with disabilities, the elderly and migrants. However, due to the ambiguity and complexity is originally designed for Basque and then adapted for five European languages. The contribution Exploring

  17. Tracking Visible Targets Automatically

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armstrong, R. W.

    1984-01-01

    Report summarizes techniques for automatic pointing of scientific instruments by reference to visible targets. Applications foreseen in industrial robotics. Measurement done by image analysis based on gradient edge location, image-centroid location and/or outline matching.

  18. Learning Semantic Graph Mapping for Document Summarization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jure Leskovec; Marko Grobelnik; Natasa Milic-Frayling

    We present a method for summarizing document by creating a se- mantic graph of the original document and identifying the substructure of such a graph that can be used to extract sentences for a document summary. We start with deep syntactic analysis of the text and, for each sentence, extract logical form triples, subject-predicate-object. We then apply cross-sentence pronoun resolution,

  19. Extractive Summarization of Voicemail using Lexical and Prosodic Feature Subset Selection 

    E-print Network

    Koumpis, Konstantinos; Renals, Steve; Niranjan, Mahesan

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents a novel data-driven approach to summarizing spoken audio transcripts utilizing lexical and prosodic features. The former are obtained from a speech recognizer and the latter are extracted automatically ...

  20. LEXA: Towards Automatic Legal Citation Classification

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Filippo Galgani; Achim Hoffmann

    2010-01-01

    \\u000a In this paper we present our approach towards legal citation classification using incremental knowledge acquisition. This\\u000a forms a part of our more ambitious goal of automatic legal text summarization. We created a large training and test corpus\\u000a from court decision reports in Australia. We showed that, within less than a week, it is possible to develop a good quality\\u000a knowledge

  1. Lexical Chains Segmentation in Summarization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Doina Tatar; Andreea Diana Mihis; Gabriela Serban Czibula

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we propose a new method of linear text segmentation based on lexical cohesion of a text. The usual steps (to compute the lexical chains according to relatedness criteria, to score the chains after different parameters,to select the strong chains, to obtain the segments) are replaced by a single procedure. Namely, a single chain of disambiguated words in

  2. University students for using the summarizing strategies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fatma Susar; Nevin Akkaya

    2009-01-01

    Summarizing helps students to comprehend knowledge, transferring it to long-term memory significantly. Summarizing, which is one of the metacognitive strategies, leads to effective using of mental skills, and increases remembering and understanding. The purpose of this study is to find whether the university students effectively use the summarizing strategy as a reading comprehensive strategy or not. Taking the properties into

  3. Multi-Document Summarization By Sentence Extraction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jade Goldstein; Vibhu Mittal; Jaime Carbonell; Mark Kantrowitz

    2000-01-01

    This paper discusses an sentence extraction approach to multi-document summarization that builds on single- document summarization methods by using additional, available information about the document set as a whole and the relationships between the documents. Multi- document summarization differs from single in that the issues of compression, speed, redundancy and passage selection are critical in the formation of useful sum-

  4. Automatic classification of documents with an in-depth analysis of information extraction and automatic summarization

    E-print Network

    Hohm, Joseph Brandon, 1982-

    2004-01-01

    Today, annual information fabrication per capita exceeds two hundred and fifty megabytes. As the amount of data increases, classification and retrieval methods become more necessary to find relevant information. This thesis ...

  5. A coherent graph-based semantic clustering and summarization approach for biomedical literature and a new summarization evaluation method

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Illhoi; Hu, Xiaohua; Song, Il-Yeol

    2007-01-01

    Background A huge amount of biomedical textual information has been produced and collected in MEDLINE for decades. In order to easily utilize biomedical information in the free text, document clustering and text summarization together are used as a solution for text information overload problem. In this paper, we introduce a coherent graph-based semantic clustering and summarization approach for biomedical literature. Results Our extensive experimental results show the approach shows 45% cluster quality improvement and 72% clustering reliability improvement, in terms of misclassification index, over Bisecting K-means as a leading document clustering approach. In addition, our approach provides concise but rich text summary in key concepts and sentences. Conclusion Our coherent biomedical literature clustering and summarization approach that takes advantage of ontology-enriched graphical representations significantly improves the quality of document clusters and understandability of documents through summaries. PMID:18047705

  6. Security review of email summarization systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Taiwo Ayodele; Charles A. Shoniregun; Galyna A. Akmayeva

    2011-01-01

    There are hundreds of email summarization tools nowadays. One of the challenging issues of email summarization is to determine how to secure email summaries from spoofing and bombing and to provide preventive measures. Email is one of the most ubiquitous applications used on a daily basis by millions of people world-wide, traditionally accessed over a fixed terminal or laptop computer.

  7. Indexing of Arabic documents automatically based on lexical analysis

    E-print Network

    Molijy, Abdulrahman Al; Alsmadi, Izzat

    2012-01-01

    The continuous information explosion through the Internet and all information sources makes it necessary to perform all information processing activities automatically in quick and reliable manners. In this paper, we proposed and implemented a method to automatically create and Index for books written in Arabic language. The process depends largely on text summarization and abstraction processes to collect main topics and statements in the book. The process is developed in terms of accuracy and performance and results showed that this process can effectively replace the effort of manually indexing books and document, a process that can be very useful in all information processing and retrieval applications.

  8. Selective text utilization and text traversal

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gerard Salton; James Allan

    1995-01-01

    Many large collections of full-text documents are currently stored in machine-readable form and processed automatically in various ways. These collections may include different types of documents, such as messages, research articles, and books, and the subject matter may vary widely. To process such collections, robust text analysis methods must be used, capable of handling materials in arbitrary subject areas, and

  9. Finding text in images

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Victor Wu; R. Manmatha; Edward M. Riseman

    1997-01-01

    There are many applications in which the automatic detection and recognition of text embedded in images isuseful. These applications include multimedia systems, digital libraries, and Geographical Information Systems.When machine generated text is printed against clean backgrounds, it can be converted to a computer readbleform (ASCII) using current Optical Character Recognition (OCR) technology. However, text is often printedagainst shaded or textured

  10. Recording, Indexing, Summarizing, and Accessing Meeting Videos: An Overview of the AMI Project

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alejandro Jaimes; Herve Bourlard; Steve Renals; Jean Carletta

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we give an overview of the AMI project. AMI developed the following: (1) an infrastructure for recording meetings using multiple microphones and cameras; (2) a one hundred hour, manually annotated meeting corpus; (3) a number of techniques for indexing, and summarizing of meeting videos using automatic speech recognition and computer vision, and (4) an extensible framework for

  11. Task-focused Summarization of Email

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Simon Corston-Oliver; Eric Ringger; Michael Gamon; Richard Campbell

    2004-01-01

    We describe SmartMail, a prototype system for automatically identifying action items (tasks) in email messages. SmartMail presents the user with a task-focused summary of a message. The summary consists of a list of action items extracted from the message. The user can add these action items to their \\

  12. Saliency Guided Summarization of Molecular Dynamics Simulations

    E-print Network

    Varshney, Amitabh

    Saliency Guided Summarization of Molecular Dynamics Simulations Robert Patro1 , Cheuk Yiu Ip1,ipcy,varshney}@cs.umd.edu Abstract We present a novel method to measure saliency in molecular dynamics simulation data. This saliency exceedingly long timescale molecular dynamics simulations, does not necessarily mean that we are better

  13. Graph Summarization with Bounded Error Saket Navlakha

    E-print Network

    Gruner, Daniel S.

    with multiple real- life graph data sets. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first work to compute graphGraph Summarization with Bounded Error Saket Navlakha Dept. of Computer Science University a highly compact two-part representation of a given graph G consisting of a graph summary and a set

  14. PRINCIPAL COMPONENTS ANALYSIS TO SUMMARIZE MICROARRAY EXPERIMENTS

    E-print Network

    Stuart, Josh

    PRINCIPAL COMPONENTS ANALYSIS TO SUMMARIZE MICROARRAY EXPERIMENTS: APPLICATION TO SPORULATION TIME.stanford.edu A series of microarray experiments produces observations of differential expression for thousands of genes across multiple conditions. It is often not clear whether a set of experiments are measuring

  15. Review Mining for Feature based Opinion Summarization and Visualization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamal, Ahmad

    2015-06-01

    The application and usage of opinion mining, especially for business intelligence, product recommendation, targeted marketing etc. have fascinated many research attentions around the globe. Various research efforts attempted to mine opinions from customer reviews at different levels of granularity, including word-, sentence-, and document-level. However, development of a fully automatic opinion mining and sentiment analysis system is still elusive. Though the development of opinion mining and sentiment analysis systems are getting momentum, most of them attempt to perform document-level sentiment analysis, classifying a review document as positive, negative, or neutral. Such document-level opinion mining approaches fail to provide insight about users sentiment on individual features of a product or service. Therefore, it seems to be a great help for both customers and manufacturers, if the reviews could be processed at a finer-grained level and presented in a summarized form through some visual means, highlighting individual features of a product and users sentiment expressed over them. In this paper, the design of a unified opinion mining and sentiment analysis framework is presented at the intersection of both machine learning and natural language processing approaches. Also, design of a novel feature-level review summarization scheme is proposed to visualize mined features, opinions and their polarity values in a comprehendible way.

  16. Learning Semantic Sub-graphs for Document Summarization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jure Leskovec; Marko Grobelnik; Natasa Milic-Frayling

    In this paper we present a method for summarizing document by creating a semantic graph of the original document and identifying the substructure of such a graph that can be used to extract sentences for a document summary. We start with deep syntactic analysis of the text and, for each sentence, extract logical form triples, subject-predicate-object. We then apply cross-sentence

  17. Get the Gist: A Summarizing Strategy for Any Content Area

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-04-26

    In this series of lessons, students read newspaper articles obtained from newspaper websites. Students then identify journalism's "5 Ws and 1 H" (who, what, when, where, why, and how) and complete a template with the corresponding information they have found in the article. Finally, students use their notes to write a 20-word summary called a gist. Once students have mastered writing a gist using newspaper articles, the strategy is then applied to content area texts to support comprehension and summarizing skills.

  18. Automatic Imitation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heyes, Cecilia

    2011-01-01

    "Automatic imitation" is a type of stimulus-response compatibility effect in which the topographical features of task-irrelevant action stimuli facilitate similar, and interfere with dissimilar, responses. This article reviews behavioral, neurophysiological, and neuroimaging research on automatic imitation, asking in what sense it is "automatic"…

  19. Automation of summarization evaluation methods and their application to the summarization process 

    E-print Network

    Nahnsen, Thade

    2011-06-30

    Summarization is the process of creating a more compact textual representation of a document or a collection of documents. In view of the vast increase in electronically available information sources in the last decade, ...

  20. MD11 automatic flight system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. T. Devlin; R. D. Girts

    1992-01-01

    The authors summarize the overall architecture and redundancy management concepts of the MD-11 Automatic Flight System (AFS) and detail the unique application of the flight control computer capabilities to each of the system functions. In addition to the autoland and windshear functions, the integrated AFS provides Longitudinal Stability Augmentation Systems (LSASs) and roll control wheel steering when the autopilot is

  1. Effective Replays and Summarization of Virtual Experiences

    PubMed Central

    Ponto, Kevin; Kohlmann, Joe; Gleicher, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Direct replays of the experience of a user in a virtual environment are difficult for others to watch due to unnatural camera motions. We present methods for replaying and summarizing these egocentric experiences that effectively communicate the users observations while reducing unwanted camera movements. Our approach summarizes the viewpoint path as a concise sequence of viewpoints that cover the same parts of the scene. The core of our approach is a novel content dependent metric that can be used to identify similarities between viewpoints. This enables viewpoints to be grouped by similar contextual view information and provides a means to generate novel viewpoints that can encapsulate a series of views. These resulting encapsulated viewpoints are used to synthesize new camera paths that convey the content of the original viewers experience. Projecting the initial movement of the user back on the scene can be used to convey the details of their observations, and the extracted viewpoints can serve as bookmarks for control or analysis. Finally we present performance analysis along with two forms of validation to test whether the extracted viewpoints are representative of the viewers original observations and to test for the overall effectiveness of the presented replay methods. PMID:22402688

  2. Video summarization for energy efficient wireless streaming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhu; Zhai, Fan; Katsaggelos, Aggelos K.

    2005-07-01

    With the proliferation of camera equipped cell phones and the deployment of the higher data rate 2.5G and 3G infra structure systems, providing consumers with video-equipped cellular communication infrastructure is highly desirable, and can drive the development of a large number of valuable applications. However, for an uplink wireless channel, both the bandwidth and battery energy in a mobile phone are limited for video communications. In this paper, we pursue an energy efficient video communication solution through joint video summarization and transmission adaptation over a slow fading wireless channel. Coding and modulation schemes and packet transmission strategy are optimized and adapted to the unique packet arrival and delay characteristics of the video summaries. In additional to the optimal solution, we also propose a heuristic solution that is greedy but has close to optimal performance. Operational energy efficiency-summary distortion performance is characterized under an optimal summarization setting. Simulation results show the advantage of the proposed scheme with respect to energy efficiency and video transmission quality.

  3. Summarizing X-ray Stellar Spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hyunsook; Kashyap, V.; XAtlas Collaboration

    2008-05-01

    XAtlas is a spectrum database made with the High Resolution Transmission Grating on the Chandra X-ray Observatory, after painstaking detailed emission measure analysis to extract quantified information. Here, we explore the possibility of summarizing this spectral information into relatively convenient measurable quantities via dimension reduction methods. Principal component analysis, simple component analysis, projection pursuit, independent component analysis, and parallel coordinates are employed to enhance any patterned structures embedded in the high dimensional space. We discuss pros and cons of each dimension reduction method as a part of developing clustering algorithms for XAtlas. The biggest challenge from analyzing XAtlas was handling missing values that pertain astrophysical importance. This research was supported by NASA/AISRP grant NNG06GF17G and NASA contract NAS8-39073.

  4. On the Summarization of Dynamically Introduced Information: Online Discussions and Blogs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Liang Zhou; Eduard Hovy

    In this paper we describe computational approaches to summarizing dynamically introduced information: online discussions and blogs, and their evaluations. Research in the past has been mainly focused on text-based summarization where the input data is predominantly newswire data. When branching into these newly emerged data types, we face number of difficulties that are discussed here.

  5. Multi-document Text Summarization in E-learning System for Operating System Domain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Saraswathi; M. Hemamalini; S. Janani; V. Priyadharshini

    \\u000a The query answering in E-learning systems generally mean retrieving relevant answer for the user query. In general the conventional\\u000a E-learning systems retrieve answers from their inbuilt knowledge base. This leads to the limitation that the system cannot\\u000a work out of its bound i.e. it does not answer for a query whose contents are not in the knowledge base. The proposed

  6. Personal Photo Album Summarization Pinaki Sinha

    E-print Network

    Reif, Rafael

    . It also detects faces in the photos and filters them using human skin color segmentation (thus re- moving-outdoor-night shot classification. It retrieves the location data for each photo either from the text-tags, gps-tags

  7. Discourse Analysis and Structuring Text.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pace, Ann Jaffe

    1980-01-01

    Reviews the kinds of discourse analyses that are currently being undertaken, summarizes research findings, and makes suggestions based on these findings for structuring texts to be used for instructional or informational purposes. (Author/MER)

  8. Text Structure

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-01-01

    This web page defines and describes text structure, or how the information within a written text is organized. It explains the benefits of teaching students to identify and analyze text structures within text and describes an instructional sequence in which students read examples of different text structures and then write paragraphs that follow a specific text structure. The site includes definitions and examples of five common text structures, and graphic organizers that can be used with each type of text. Links to additional resources and research citations are included.

  9. Summarization Techniques for Visualization of Large Multidimensional Datasets

    E-print Network

    Healey, Christopher G.

    Summarization Techniques for Visualization of Large Multidimensional Datasets Technical Report TR One of the main issues confronting visualization, is how to effectively display large, high di raw data. Using summarization techniques intelligently within visualization systems, could potentially

  10. Graph-based Submodular Selection for Extractive Summarization

    E-print Network

    Noble, William Stafford

    Graph-based Submodular Selection for Extractive Summarization Hui Lin1 , Jeff Bilmes1 , Shasha Xie2 for unsupervised extractive summarization. Our approach builds a semantic graph for the document to be summarized. Summary extraction is then formulated as optimizing submodular functions defined on the semantic graph

  11. Automatically Learning Cognitive Status for Multi-Document Summarization of Newswire

    E-print Network

    Siddharthan, Advaith

    summary, an age-old technique (Luhn, 1958) that has well-known problems. Ex- tractive summaries contain phrases that the reader cannot understand out of context (Paice, 1990) and irrelevant phrases that happen--the referent's cog- nitive status (Gundel et al., 1993). If, for example, the referent is unknown to the reader

  12. Automatic analysis of medical dialogue in the home hemodialysis domain : structure induction and summarization

    E-print Network

    Lacson, Ronilda Covar, 1968-

    2005-01-01

    Spoken medical dialogue is a valuable source of information, and it forms a foundation for diagnosis, prevention and therapeutic management. However, understanding even a perfect transcript of spoken dialogue is challenging ...

  13. Text Mining.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trybula, Walter J.

    1999-01-01

    Reviews the state of research in text mining, focusing on newer developments. The intent is to describe the disparate investigations currently included under the term text mining and provide a cohesive structure for these efforts. A summary of research identifies key organizations responsible for pushing the development of text mining. A section…

  14. Automatic Stabilization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haus, FR

    1936-01-01

    This report lays more stress on the principles underlying automatic piloting than on the means of applications. Mechanical details of servomotors and the mechanical release device necessary to assure instantaneous return of the controls to the pilot in case of malfunction are not included. Descriptions are provided of various commercial systems.

  15. Text Sets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giorgis, Cyndi; Johnson, Nancy J.

    2002-01-01

    Presents annotations of approximately 30 titles grouped in text sets. Defines a text set as five to ten books on a particular topic or theme. Discusses books on the following topics: living creatures; pirates; physical appearance; natural disasters; and the Irish potato famine. (SG)

  16. Fetch Text

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Jiang, Andy

    Looking for a new way to share articles in your emails? Fetch Text can lend a hand. By simply forwarding a link to the email address provided on the site, visitors will receive a response email of just the main text pulled from the link. Itâ??s easy to use and is compatible with all operating systems.

  17. Freshwater Ecology Laboratory Finding and summarizing primary literature assignment

    E-print Network

    Hutchens, John

    the process of finding and summarizing peer- reviewed literature that is relevant to your project. Our project using Inter-Library Loan or PASCAL, (downloading PDF's is fine). We'll review whichFreshwater Ecology Laboratory Finding and summarizing primary literature assignment Due 27 August

  18. Multimedia Document Summarization based on a Semantic Adaptation Framework

    E-print Network

    Joseph Fourier Grenoble-I, Université

    Multimedia Document Summarization based on a Semantic Adaptation Framework S´ebastien Laborie, J´er^ome Euzenat and Nabil Laya¨ida SADPI'07 1 S´ebastien Laborie, J´er^ome Euzenat and Nabil Laya¨ida Multimedia Document Summarization #12;Introduction Motivations A multimedia document example A movie trailer

  19. Probabilistic Graph Summarization Nasrin Hassanlou, Maryam Shoaran, and Alex Thomo

    E-print Network

    Thomo, Alex

    Probabilistic Graph Summarization Nasrin Hassanlou, Maryam Shoaran, and Alex Thomo University-summarization of probabilistic graphs that naturally arise in so- cial networks, semistructured data, and other applications. Our proposed frame- work groups the nodes and the edges of the graph based on a user selected set of node

  20. Mining the Web for Bilingual Text

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Philip Resnik

    1999-01-01

    STRAND (Resnik, 1998) is a language- independent system for automatic discovery of text in parallel translation on the World Wide Web. This paper extends the prelim- inary STRAND results by adding automatic language identification, scaling up by orders of magnitude, and formally evaluating perfor- mance. The most recent end-product is an au- tomatically acquired parallel corpus comprising 2491 English-French document

  1. Extracting company names from text

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lisa F. Rau

    1991-01-01

    A detailed description is given of an implemented algorithm that extracts company names automatically from financial news. Extracting company names from text is one problem; recognizing subsequent references to a company is another. The author addresses both problems in an implemented, well-tested module that operates as a detachable process from a set of natural language processing tools. She implements a

  2. Combining classifiers in text categorization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Leah S. Larkey; W. Bruce Croft

    1996-01-01

    Three different types of classifiers were investigatedin the context of a text categorization problem in the medical do- main: the automatic assignment of ICD9 codes to dictated inpatient discharge summaries. K-nearest-neighbor, rele- vance feedback, and Bayesian independence classifiers were applied individually and in combination. A coknbination of different classifiers produced better results than any sin- gle type of classifier. For

  3. Automatic stabilization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haus, FR

    1936-01-01

    This report concerns the study of automatic stabilizers and extends it to include the control of the three-control system of the airplane instead of just altitude control. Some of the topics discussed include lateral disturbed motion, static stability, the mathematical theory of lateral motion, and large angles of incidence. Various mechanisms and stabilizers are also discussed. The feeding of Diesel engines by injection pumps actuated by engine compression, achieves the required high speeds of injection readily and permits rigorous control of the combustible charge introduced into each cylinder and of the peak pressure in the resultant cycle.

  4. An Approach towards English Automatic Abstraction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wu Yan; James N. K. Liu; Wang Kaizhu

    This paper presents a hybrid approach for automatic abstraction of English text. This approach is based on statistical analysis and unde rstanding of the text. An abstraction algorithm is introduced and its application discussed. Expe riment results demonstrate that this hybrid approach absorbs the advantages of two kinds of automatic abstraction and achieves a better result.

  5. Summarizing and Mining Skewed Data Streams Graham Cormode

    E-print Network

    Summarizing and Mining Skewed Data Streams Graham Cormode S. Muthukrishnan Abstract Many applications generate massive data streams. Sum- marizing such massive data requires fast, small space algo bounds. Keywords: data stream analysis, data mining, Zipf distribution, power laws, heavy hitters

  6. Investigation of Learners' Perceptions for Video Summarization and Recommendation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Jie Chi; Chen, Sherry Y.

    2012-01-01

    Recently, multimedia-based learning is widespread in educational settings. A number of studies investigate how to develop effective techniques to manage a huge volume of video sources, such as summarization and recommendation. However, few studies examine how these techniques affect learners' perceptions in multimedia learning systems. This…

  7. Upper-Intermediate-Level ESL Students' Summarizing in English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vorobel, Oksana; Kim, Deoksoon

    2011-01-01

    This qualitative instrumental case study explores various factors that might influence upper-intermediate-level English as a second language (ESL) students' summarizing from a sociocultural perspective. The study was conducted in a formal classroom setting, during a reading and writing class in the English Language Institute at a university in the…

  8. Comments-Oriented Document Summarization: Understanding Documents with Readers' Feedback

    E-print Network

    Aixin, Sun

    search, visualization, and summarization. In this paper, we study the problem of comments from the given Web document using either feature-biased approach or uniform-document approach. The former scores sentences to bias keywords derived from comments; while the latter scores sentences

  9. Summarizing Spatial Data Streams Using ClusterHulls John Hershberger

    E-print Network

    Suri, Subhash

    Summarizing Spatial Data Streams Using ClusterHulls John Hershberger Nisheeth Shrivastava Subhash? We pro- pose a novel scheme, called ClusterHull, which repre- sents the shape of the stream, and exchange ClusterHull sum- maries of their data, without losing important geomet- ric information. We

  10. Time Sequence Summarization to Scale Up Chronology-dependent Applications

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ]: Clustering--Algorithms General Terms Algorithms, Experimentation, Performance, Theory Keywords Time sequences, Summarization, Taxonomies, Clustering Permission to make digital or hard copies of all or part of this work to browse through companies' stock values while visualizing background information about the companies

  11. Streaming Time Series Summarization Using User-Defined Amnesic Functions

    E-print Network

    Palpanas, Themis

    Streaming Time Series Summarization Using User-Defined Amnesic Functions Themis Palpanas, Michail of research on time series representations, because the manipulation, storage, and indexing of large volumes of raw time series data is impractical. The vast majority of research has concentrated on representations

  12. Summarizing Scientific Articles: Experiments with Relevance and Rhetorical Status

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Simone Teufel; Marc Moens

    2002-01-01

    In this article we propose a strategy for the summarization of scientific articles that concentrates on the rhetorical status of statements in an article: Material for summaries is selected in such a way that summaries can highlight the new contribution of the source article and situate it with respect to earlier work.We provide a gold standard for summaries of this

  13. Video Indexing and Summarization as a Tool for Privacy Protection

    E-print Network

    Wichmann, Felix

    protection by design. Keywords-Video Indexing; Video Summarization; Privacy Pro- tection; Video Surveillance I. INTRODUCTION Video surveillance systems have experienced a fast growth in the last decades surveillance systems is not restricted to safety and security applications. Nowadays, video surveillance

  14. Interactive Montages of Sprites for Indexing and Summarizing Security Video

    E-print Network

    Pal, Chris

    Interactive Montages of Sprites for Indexing and Summarizing Security Video Chris Pal University Redmond, WA USA Email:jojic@microsoft.com DESCRIPTION In this video we present a new model of interaction for indexing and visualizing video in the context of security applications. We wish to index security video

  15. Speech summarization using weighted finite-state transducers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Takaaki Hori; Chiori Hori; Yasuhiro Minami

    2003-01-01

    This paper proposes an integrated framework to summarize spontaneous speech into written-style compact sentences. Most current speech recognition systems attempt to transcribe whole spoken words correctly. However, recognition results of spon- taneous speech are usually difficult to understand, even if the recognition is perfect, because spontaneous speech includes re- dundant information, and its style is different to that of written

  16. Linguistic summarization of sensor data for eldercare Anna Wilbik

    E-print Network

    He, Zhihai "Henry"

    includes many passive sensors detecting motion, pulse, respiration, rest- lessness, location and activityLinguistic summarization of sensor data for eldercare Anna Wilbik Electrical and Computer of one dimensional data, motion and restlessness. The technique is demonstrated on a 15 month sensor

  17. Summarizing Highly Structured Documents for Effective Search Interaction

    E-print Network

    Zhang, Yi

    Summarizing Highly Structured Documents for Effective Search Interaction Lanbo Zhang, Yi Zhang, yiz, ychen}@soe.ucsc.edu ABSTRACT As highly structured documents with rich metadata (such as products, movies, etc.) become increasingly prevalent, searching those documents has become an important IR problem

  18. Modelling the `Hurried' Bug Report Reading Process to Summarize Bug

    E-print Network

    Czarnecki, Krzysztof

    Modelling the `Hurried' Bug Report Reading Process to Summarize Bug Reports Rafael Lotufo, Zeeshan. September 27, 2012 #12;Introduction Motivation Bug reports are consulted all the time 40% of sw. dev. efforts are spent in bug resolution; Getting updates on bug diagnostics; Consuling similar/related bugs

  19. Multimedia Document Summarization based on a Semantic Adaptation Framework

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Multimedia Document Summarization based on a Semantic Adaptation Framework Sébastien Laborie.Laborie,Jerome.Euzenat,Nabil.Layaida}@inrialpes.fr ABSTRACT The multiplication of presentation contexts (such as mo- bile phones, PDAs) for multimedia for multimedia document adaptation was proposed. This framework deals with the semantics of the document

  20. Summarizing Spoken and Written Conversations Gabriel Murray and Giuseppe Carenini

    E-print Network

    Murray, Gabriel

    to develop unique summarizers in each domain and across modalities. While progress has been made domain-specific systems, while having the advantage of being portable across con- versational modalities techniques, and we give an in-depth analysis of the effectiveness of the indi- vidual features and feature

  1. Efficacious Data Cube Exploration by Semantic Summarization and Compression

    E-print Network

    Pei, Jian

    Efficacious Data Cube Exploration by Semantic Summarization and Compression Laks V.S. Lakshmanan of New York at Buffalo, USA. jianpei@cse.buffalo.edu Abstract Data cube is the core operator in data ware of the data cube limits its applicability as a means for semantic exploration by the user. Recently, we have

  2. p-adic Gauss integrals from the Poison summarizing formula

    E-print Network

    Prokhorenko, D V

    2011-01-01

    In the present paper we show how to obtain the well-known formula for Gauss sums and the Gauss reciprocity low from the Poison summarizing formula by using some ideas of renormalization and ergodic theories. We also apply our method to obtain new simple derivation of the standard formula for p-adic Gauss integrals.

  3. p-adic Gauss integrals from the Poison summarizing formula

    E-print Network

    D. V. Prokhorenko

    2011-01-04

    In the present paper we show how to obtain the well-known formula for Gauss sums and the Gauss reciprocity low from the Poison summarizing formula by using some ideas of renormalization and ergodic theories. We also apply our method to obtain new simple derivation of the standard formula for p-adic Gauss integrals.

  4. Summarization system evaluation revisited: N-gram graphs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    George Giannakopoulos; Vangelis Karkaletsis; George A. Vouros; Panagiotis Stamatopoulos

    2008-01-01

    This article presents a novel automatic method (AutoSummENG) for the evaluation of summa- rization systems, based on comparing the character n-gram graphs representation of the extracted summaries and a number of model summaries. The presented approach is language neutral, due to its statistical nature, and appears to hold a level of evaluation performance that matches and even exceeds other contemporary

  5. Ergito: Virtual Text

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ergito's Virtual Text, started in 2000, was created to provide a more timely and interactive alternative to printed scientific textbooks at the undergraduate and graduate level. This still-developing Web site covers life science writ large, including molecular biology, cell biology, genetics, biochemistry, immunology, and so on. However, only a small number of features are available free of charge. The first chapter of the molecular biology module -- Genes are DNA -- is available for free, as is Great Experiments, a collection of essays written by authors who conducted original research that has contributed greatly to our understanding of molecular and cellular biology. Great Experiments has a recently added essay by 2001 Nobel Prize winner Paul Nurse, titled "The Discovery of cdc2 as the Key Regulator of the Cell Cycle." These essays are formatted just as the Virtual Text pages are, with downloadable figures, a glossary, an online note-taking feature (notes are automatically compiled with a summary of the essay), glossary, and more. Ergito will soon make available Techniques, another free feature offering descriptions of widely used experimental protocols. Even without free access to the larger body of material in this Web site, Ergito is a fantastic resource for learning about molecular and cellular biology. Users must complete a free registration process to access this Web site.

  6. Effective and efficient itemset pattern summarization: regression-based approaches

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ruoming Jin; Muad Abu-ata; Yang Xiang; Ning Ruan

    2008-01-01

    ABSTRACT In this paper, we propose a set of novel regression-based ap- proaches to effectively and efficiently summarize,frequent item- set patterns. Specifically, we show that the problem of minimiz- ing the restoration error for a set of itemsets based on a proba- bilistic model,corresponds to a non-linear regression problem. We show that under certain conditions, we can transform the non-linear

  7. Personalized summarization using user preference for m-learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sihyoung; Yang, Seungji; Ro, Yong Man; Kim, Hyoung Joong

    2008-02-01

    As the Internet and multimedia technology is becoming advanced, the number of digital multimedia contents is also becoming abundant in learning area. In order to facilitate the access of digital knowledge and to meet the need of a lifelong learning, e-learning could be the helpful alternative way to the conventional learning paradigms. E-learning is known as a unifying term to express online, web-based and technology-delivered learning. Mobile-learning (m-learning) is defined as e-learning through mobile devices using wireless transmission. In a survey, more than half of the people remarked that the re-consumption was one of the convenient features in e-learning. However, it is not easy to find user's preferred segmentation from a full version of lengthy e-learning content. Especially in m-learning, a content-summarization method is strongly required because mobile devices are limited to low processing power and battery capacity. In this paper, we propose a new user preference model for re-consumption to construct personalized summarization for re-consumption. The user preference for re-consumption is modeled based on user actions with statistical model. Based on the user preference model for re-consumption with personalized user actions, our method discriminates preferred parts over the entire content. Experimental results demonstrated successful personalized summarization.

  8. Epitomized summarization of wireless capsule endoscopic videos for efficient visualization.

    PubMed

    Chu, Xinqi; Poh, Chee Khun; Li, Liyuan; Chan, Kap Luk; Yan, Shuicheng; Shen, Weijia; Htwe, That Mon; Liu, Jiang; Lim, Joo Hwee; Ong, Eng Hui; Ho, Khek Yu

    2010-01-01

    A video recording of an examination by Wireless Capsule Endoscopy (WCE) may typically contain more than 55,000 video frames, which makes the manual visual screening by an experienced gastroenterologist a highly time-consuming task. In this paper, we propose a novel method of epitomized summarization of WCE videos for efficient visualization to a gastroenterologist. For each short sequence of a WCE video, an epitomized frame is generated. New constraints are introduced into the epitome formulation to achieve the necessary visual quality for manual examination, and an EM algorithm for learning the epitome is derived. First, the local context weights are introduced to generate the epitomized frame. The epitomized frame preserves the appearance of all the input patches from the frames of the short sequence. Furthermore, by introducing spatial distributions for semantic interpretation of image patches in our epitome formulation, we show that it also provides a framework to facilitate the semantic description of visual features to generate organized visual summarization of WCE video, where the patches in different positions correspond to different semantic information. Our experiments on real WCE videos show that, using epitomized summarization, the number of frames have to be examined by the gastroenterologist can be reduced to less than one-tenth of the original frames in the video. PMID:20879355

  9. Learning sub-structures of document semantic graphs for document summarization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jure Leskovec; Marko Grobelnik; Natasa Milic-Frayling

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we present a method for summarizing document by creating a semantic graph of the original document and identifying the substructure of such a graph that can be used to extract sentences for a document summary. We start with deep syntactic analysis of the text and, for each sentence, extract logical form triples, subject-predicate-object. We then apply cross-sentence

  10. Text Mining for Neuroscience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tirupattur, Naveen; Lapish, Christopher C.; Mukhopadhyay, Snehasis

    2011-06-01

    Text mining, sometimes alternately referred to as text analytics, refers to the process of extracting high-quality knowledge from the analysis of textual data. Text mining has wide variety of applications in areas such as biomedical science, news analysis, and homeland security. In this paper, we describe an approach and some relatively small-scale experiments which apply text mining to neuroscience research literature to find novel associations among a diverse set of entities. Neuroscience is a discipline which encompasses an exceptionally wide range of experimental approaches and rapidly growing interest. This combination results in an overwhelmingly large and often diffuse literature which makes a comprehensive synthesis difficult. Understanding the relations or associations among the entities appearing in the literature not only improves the researchers current understanding of recent advances in their field, but also provides an important computational tool to formulate novel hypotheses and thereby assist in scientific discoveries. We describe a methodology to automatically mine the literature and form novel associations through direct analysis of published texts. The method first retrieves a set of documents from databases such as PubMed using a set of relevant domain terms. In the current study these terms yielded a set of documents ranging from 160,909 to 367,214 documents. Each document is then represented in a numerical vector form from which an Association Graph is computed which represents relationships between all pairs of domain terms, based on co-occurrence. Association graphs can then be subjected to various graph theoretic algorithms such as transitive closure and cycle (circuit) detection to derive additional information, and can also be visually presented to a human researcher for understanding. In this paper, we present three relatively small-scale problem-specific case studies to demonstrate that such an approach is very successful in replicating a neuroscience expert's mental model of object-object associations entirely by means of text mining. These preliminary results provide the confidence that this type of text mining based research approach provides an extremely powerful tool to better understand the literature and drive novel discovery for the neuroscience community.

  11. Using Text Processing Techniques to Automatically enrich a Domain Ontology

    E-print Network

    Velardi, Paola

    present the experience carried out within the European project FETISH [8], aimed at developing element of the FETISH architecture is OntoTour, a shared ontology for the tourism domain. Constructing. To this end, in FETISH, the SymOntos [20] system has been developed. Another key issue is the task

  12. Automatic extraction of relations between medical concepts in clinical texts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bryan Rink; Sanda Harabagiu; Kirk Roberts

    2011-01-01

    ObjectiveA supervised machine learning approach to discover relations between medical problems, treatments, and tests mentioned in electronic medical records.Materials and methodsA single support vector machine classifier was used to identify relations between concepts and to assign their semantic type. Several resources such as Wikipedia, WordNet, General Inquirer, and a relation similarity metric inform the classifier.ResultsThe techniques reported in this paper

  13. Automatic extraction of relations between medical concepts in clinical texts

    E-print Network

    Harabagiu, Sanda M.

    evaluated in the 2010 i2b2 Challenge and obtained the highest F1 score for the relation extraction task mining from electronic medical records (EMR), the 2010 i2b2/VA NLP Challenge1 considered a task of relation extraction from EMRs. The organizers of the 2010 i2b2 Challenge have provided two sets

  14. Supervised Methods for Automatic Acronym Expansion in Medical Text

    E-print Network

    Pedersen, Ted

    .g. ACA ­ ACA only ­ 5,483 notes (2,543 patients) `adeno carcinoma' or `adenocarcinoma' only ­ 299,714 notes (66,057 patients) ACA and (`adeno carcinoma' or `adenocarcinoma') ­ 1,209 notes (880 patients for ACA and DJD, increasing the sensitivity or recall for the search. August 25, 2005 Supervised Methods

  15. Ontology-Driven Automatic Entity Disambiguation in Unstructured Text

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joseph Hassell; Boanerges Aleman-meza; Ismailcem Budak Arpinar

    2006-01-01

    Precisely identifying entities in web documents is essential for document indexing, web search and data integration. Entity disambiguation is the challenge of determining the correct entity out of various candidate entities. Our novel method utilizes background knowledge in the form of a populated ontology. Additionally, it does not rely on the existence of any structure in a document or the

  16. SPEECH PROCESSING & TEXT-INDEPENDENT AUTOMATIC PERSON VERIFICATION

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Conrad Sanderson

    2002-01-01

    In this communication we first review the human speech production process and feature extraction approaches commonly used in a speaker verification system. Mel Frequency Cepstral Coefficients (MFCCs), delta (regression) features and Cepstral Mean Subtraction (CMS) are covered. A recently proposed feature set, termed Maximum Auto-Correlation Values (MACVs), which utilizes information from the source part of the speech signal, is also

  17. Automatic Segmentation of Texts and Corpora Cyril Labb

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    becomes increasingly important as software programmes are used with an ever-growing body of electronic for linguistics ; segmentation ; corpora ; vocabulary growth ; vocabulary diversity ; stylistics Draft of the paper published in: Journal of Quantitative Linguistics. December 2004, vol. 11, n° 3, p. 193

  18. Mining Reference Tables for Automatic Text Segmentation Eugene Agichtein

    E-print Network

    Agichtein, Eugene

    , mining and integration. In this paper, we mine tables present in data warehouses and relational databases of the art supervised approaches. Categories and Subject Descriptors H.2.8 [Database Management]: Database- tured representation to enable effective querying and analysis. For example, addresses, bibliographic

  19. Aligning Parallel EnglishChinese Texts Statistically with Lexical

    E-print Network

    Wu, Dekai

    experience with automatic alignment of sentences in parallel English­ Chinese texts. Our report concerns towards addressing this problem. In this paper, we describe our experience with automatic alignmentAligning Parallel English­Chinese Texts Statistically with Lexical Criteria Dekai Wu \\Lambda

  20. Text extraction from colored book and journal covers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Sobottka; H. Kronenberg; T. Perroud; H. Bunke

    2000-01-01

    The automatic retrieval of indexing information from colored paper documents is a challenging problem. In order to build up bibliographic databases, editing by humans is usually necessary to provide information about title, authors and keywords. For automating the indexing process, the identification of text elements is essential. In this article an approach to automatic text extraction from colored book and

  1. The Computer and the Concept of Text

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wittig, Susan

    1977-01-01

    The use of the computer for literature should turn from automatic content analysis to a new study of how, why, and under what conditions the text is fulfilled with meaning by its readers, thereby shaping new directions in the exploration of human interaction with the literary text. (CMV)

  2. Text mining: Generating hypotheses from MEDLINE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Padmini Srinivasan

    2004-01-01

    Hypothesis generation, a crucial initial step for making scientific discoveries, relies on prior knowledge, experi- ence, and intuition. Chance connections made between seemingly distinct subareas sometimes turn out to be fruitful. The goal in text mining is to assist in this process by automatically discovering a small set of interesting hypotheses from a suitable text collection. In this report, we

  3. Automatic detection of replay segments in broadcast sports programs by detection of logos in scene transitions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hao Pan; Baoxin Li; M. Ibrahim Sezan

    2002-01-01

    In broadcast sports, replays provide viewers another look at interesting events. We propose an automatic algorithm for replay segment detection by detecting frames containing logos in the special scene transitions that sandwich replays. Detected replays are utilized in efficient navigation, indexing, and summarization of sports programs. The proposed algorithm first automatically determines the logo template from frames surrounding slow motion

  4. Automatic storytelling in comics: a case study on World of Warcraft

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chia-jung Chan; Ruck Thawonmas; Kuan-ta Chen

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a development of our comic generation system that automatically summarizes players' actions and interactions in the virtual world. The feature of the system is that it analyzes the log and screenshots of a game, decides which events are important and memorable, and then generates comics in a fully automatic manner. Also, the interface of our system allows

  5. Automatic Storytelling in Comics: A Case Study on World of Warcraft

    E-print Network

    Chen, Sheng-Wei

    Automatic Storytelling in Comics: A Case Study on World of Warcraft AbstractChia-Jung Chan This paper presents a development of our comic generation system that automatically summarizes players and screenshots of a game, decides which events are important and memorable, and then generates comics in a fully

  6. Autoclass: An automatic classification system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stutz, John; Cheeseman, Peter; Hanson, Robin

    1991-01-01

    The task of inferring a set of classes and class descriptions most likely to explain a given data set can be placed on a firm theoretical foundation using Bayesian statistics. Within this framework, and using various mathematical and algorithmic approximations, the AutoClass System searches for the most probable classifications, automatically choosing the number of classes and complexity of class descriptions. A simpler version of AutoClass has been applied to many large real data sets, has discovered new independently-verified phenomena, and has been released as a robust software package. Recent extensions allow attributes to be selectively correlated within particular classes, and allow classes to inherit, or share, model parameters through a class hierarchy. The mathematical foundations of AutoClass are summarized.

  7. Performance analysis of DEM automatic extraction from SPOT5 sensors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Nonin; S. Piccard

    2003-01-01

    During the first six months following the successful SPOT5 launch, the capabilities of its various sensors for topographic applications have been widely tested. This paper summarizes the extensive experiments we made with SPOT5 high resolution sensors in the domain of automatic terrain extraction. Correlation based Digital Elevation Models were produced from along the track HRS and cross track HRG stereo

  8. Automatic Detection of Microcalcification in Mammograms- A Review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Thangavel; M. Karnan; R. Sivakumar; A. Kaja Mohideen

    2005-01-01

    In this review paper, it is intended to summarize and compare the methods of automatic detection of microcalcifications in digitized mammograms used in various stages of the Computer Aided Detection systems (CAD). In particular, the pre processing and enhancement, bilateral subtraction techniques, segmentation algorithms, feature extraction, selection and classification, classifiers, Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC); Free-response Receiver Operating Characteristic (FROC) analysis

  9. A Graph Summarization Algorithm Based on RFID Logistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yan; Hu, Kongfa; Lu, Zhipeng; Zhao, Li; Chen, Ling

    Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) applications are set to play an essential role in object tracking and supply chain management systems. The volume of data generated by a typical RFID application will be enormous as each item will generate a complete history of all the individual locations that it occupied at every point in time. The movement trails of such RFID data form gigantic commodity flowgraph representing the locations and durations of the path stages traversed by each item. In this paper, we use graph to construct a warehouse of RFID commodity flows, and introduce a database-style operation to summarize graphs, which produces a summary graph by grouping nodes based on user-selected node attributes, further allows users to control the hierarchy of summaries. It can cut down the size of graphs, and provide convenience for users to study just on the shrunk graph which they interested. Through extensive experiments, we demonstrate the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed method.

  10. Summarizing with Drawings: A Reading-Comprehension Strategy

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Janine Elliott

    2007-01-01

    The development of literacy skills is essential for student success. According to the National Science Education Standards , "Scientific literacy entails being able to read with understanding articles about science in the popular press and to engage in social conversation about the validity of conclusions" (NRC 1996). Teachers can help students develop these skills by finding methods that not only motivate but also engage students in the reading process. One such method is described in this article wherein students draw after reading science content. When students summarize by drawing they must form a visual representation of the information they're trying to convey. This provides an opportunity for students to elaborate and encode the information in a personally meaningful way. In addition, drawing after reading encourages students to reflect on what they have read and allows time to process the information.

  11. Figure Text Extraction in Biomedical Literature

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daehyun Kim; Hong Yu; Vladimir N. Uversky

    2011-01-01

    BackgroundFigures are ubiquitous in biomedical full-text articles, and they represent important biomedical knowledge. However, the sheer volume of biomedical publications has made it necessary to develop computational approaches for accessing figures. Therefore, we are developing the Biomedical Figure Search engine (http:\\/\\/figuresearch.askHERMES.org) to allow bioscientists to access figures efficiently. Since text frequently appears in figures, automatically extracting such text may assist

  12. Automatic Quality Assessment of SRS Text by Means of a Decision-Tree-Based Text Classifier

    E-print Network

    Kosseim, Leila

    of Requirements Through Flash Animation Accepted by Client? Write SRS Yes Yes No No Interview of Execution Path of Execution Visualization of Requirements Through Flash Animation Accepted by Client in Requirements Engineering #12;G3. This involves graphical visualization and animation of the conceptual models

  13. Mining the Web for Bilingual Text Philip Resnik \\Lambda

    E-print Network

    Resnik, Philip

    Computer Studies University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 resnik@umiacs.umd.edu Abstract STRAND (Resnik, 1998) is a language­ independent system for automatic discovery of text in parallel translation on the World Wide Web. This paper extends the prelim­ inary STRAND results by adding automatic language

  14. Automatic differentiation bibliography

    SciTech Connect

    Corliss, G.F. (comp.)

    1992-07-01

    This is a bibliography of work related to automatic differentiation. Automatic differentiation is a technique for the fast, accurate propagation of derivative values using the chain rule. It is neither symbolic nor numeric. Automatic differentiation is a fundamental tool for scientific computation, with applications in optimization, nonlinear equations, nonlinear least squares approximation, stiff ordinary differential equation, partial differential equations, continuation methods, and sensitivity analysis. This report is an updated version of the bibliography which originally appeared in Automatic Differentiation of Algorithms: Theory, Implementation, and Application.

  15. Analyzing Human Intentions in Natural Language Text

    E-print Network

    @tugraz.at , markus.strohmaier@tugraz.at) A Novel Perspective: · ) existing text analysis techniques provide different high-level goals of people into 135 categories of human intent including "A good marriage", "Getting the most similar sentence in our knowledge base. Motivation Approach: Automatically Generating Intent

  16. Automatization for Software Aregahegn Negatu

    E-print Network

    Memphis, University of

    is automatization? · Automatization ­ a cognitive function to learn procedural tasks via experience/practice. · Examples: ­ Driving ­ Walking ­ Cycling ­ Swimming ­ Typing · Advantages: ­ Performance: ­ Inflexibility. ­ Resistance to modification. #12;Automatization characteristics · implicit learning

  17. AMETHYST: automatic alarm assessment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Mockler; N. Clarke

    2002-01-01

    The aim of the AMETHYST (AutoMatic Event auTHentication sYSTem) project is to encourage the development of a high-performance, perimeter-alarm verification system that, using computer-vision, automatically rejects false alarms. AMETHYST will pass to an operator only those alarms that are caused by an intruder.

  18. A novel tool for assessing and summarizing the built environment

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background A growing corpus of research focuses on assessing the quality of the local built environment and also examining the relationship between the built environment and health outcomes and indicators in communities. However, there is a lack of research presenting a highly resolved, systematic, and comprehensive spatial approach to assessing the built environment over a large geographic extent. In this paper, we contribute to the built environment literature by describing a tool used to assess the residential built environment at the tax parcel-level, as well as a methodology for summarizing the data into meaningful indices for linkages with health data. Methods A database containing residential built environment variables was constructed using the existing body of literature, as well as input from local community partners. During the summer of 2008, a team of trained assessors conducted an on-foot, curb-side assessment of approximately 17,000 tax parcels in Durham, North Carolina, evaluating the built environment on over 80 variables using handheld Global Positioning System (GPS) devices. The exercise was repeated again in the summer of 2011 over a larger geographic area that included roughly 30,700 tax parcels; summary data presented here are from the 2008 assessment. Results Built environment data were combined with Durham crime data and tax assessor data in order to construct seven built environment indices. These indices were aggregated to US Census blocks, as well as to primary adjacency communities (PACs) and secondary adjacency communities (SACs) which better described the larger neighborhood context experienced by local residents. Results were disseminated to community members, public health professionals, and government officials. Conclusions The assessment tool described is both easily-replicable and comprehensive in design. Furthermore, our construction of PACs and SACs introduces a novel concept to approximate varying scales of community and describe the built environment at those scales. Our collaboration with community partners at all stages of the tool development, data collection, and dissemination of results provides a model for engaging the community in an active research program. PMID:23075269

  19. Text Nouveau: Visible Structure in Text Presentation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunter, Lawrie

    1998-01-01

    Examines the emerging form of text on the World Wide Web and how it is influencing reading, in particular reading by non-native readers of English. Focus is on the visual representation of text structure. (Author/VWL)

  20. Text documents as social networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balinsky, Helen; Balinsky, Alexander; Simske, Steven J.

    2012-03-01

    The extraction of keywords and features is a fundamental problem in text data mining. Document processing applications directly depend on the quality and speed of the identification of salient terms and phrases. Applications as disparate as automatic document classification, information visualization, filtering and security policy enforcement all rely on the quality of automatically extracted keywords. Recently, a novel approach to rapid change detection in data streams and documents has been developed. It is based on ideas from image processing and in particular on the Helmholtz Principle from the Gestalt Theory of human perception. By modeling a document as a one-parameter family of graphs with its sentences or paragraphs defining the vertex set and with edges defined by Helmholtz's principle, we demonstrated that for some range of the parameters, the resulting graph becomes a small-world network. In this article we investigate the natural orientation of edges in such small world networks. For two connected sentences, we can say which one is the first and which one is the second, according to their position in a document. This will make such a graph look like a small WWW-type network and PageRank type algorithms will produce interesting ranking of nodes in such a document.

  1. DiZer: An Automatic Discourse Analyzer for Brazilian Portuguese

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thiago Alexandre Salgueiro Pardo; Maria Das Graças Volpe Nunes; Lucia Helena Machado Rino

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents DiZer, an automatic DIscourse analyZER for Brazilian Portuguese. Given a source text, the system automatically produces its corresponding rhetorical analysis, following Rhetorical Structure Theory - RST (Mann and Thompson, 1987). A rhetorical repository, which is DiZer main component, makes the automatic analysis possible. This repository, produced by means of a corpus analysis, includes discourse analysis patterns that

  2. Improving Text Recall with Multiple Summaries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Meij, Hans; van der Meij, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Background. QuikScan (QS) is an innovative design that aims to improve accessibility, comprehensibility, and subsequent recall of expository text by means of frequent within-document summaries that are formatted as numbered list items. The numbers in the QS summaries correspond to numbers placed in the body of the document where the summarized

  3. Learning Statistical Models for Annotating Proteins with Function Information using Biomedical Text

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Soumya Ray; Mark Craven

    2005-01-01

    Background: The BioCreative text mining evaluation investigated the application of text mining methods to the task of automatically extracting information from text in biomedical research articles. We participated in Task 2 of the evaluation. For this task, we built a system to automatically annotate a given protein with codes from the Gene Ontology (GO) using the text of an article

  4. Automated de-identification of free-text medical records

    E-print Network

    Neamatullah, Ishna

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a de-identification study at the Harvard-MIT Division of Health Science and Technology (HST) to automatically de-identify confidential patient information from text medical records used in intensive ...

  5. Automatic Payroll Deposit System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidson, D. B.

    1979-01-01

    The Automatic Payroll Deposit System in Yakima, Washington's Public School District No. 7, directly transmits each employee's salary amount for each pay period to a bank or other financial institution. (Author/MLF)

  6. Automatic Input Rectification

    E-print Network

    Long, Fan

    2011-10-03

    We present a novel technique, automatic input rectification, and a prototype implementation called SOAP. SOAP learns a set of constraints characterizing typical inputs that an application is highly likely to process ...

  7. Automatic input rectification

    E-print Network

    Long, Fan

    We present a novel technique, automatic input rectification, and a prototype implementation, SOAP. SOAP learns a set of constraints characterizing typical inputs that an application is highly likely to process correctly. ...

  8. Automatic input rectification

    E-print Network

    Long, Fan, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2012-01-01

    We present a novel technique, automatic input rectification, and a prototype implementation, SOAP. SOAP learns a set of constraints characterizing typical inputs that an application is highly likely to process correctly. ...

  9. The Interplay between Automatic and Control Processes in Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walczyk, Jeffrey J.

    2000-01-01

    Reviews prominent reading theories in light of their accounts of how automatic and control processes combine to produce successful text comprehension, and the trade-offs between the two. Presents the Compensatory-Encoding Model of reading, which explicates how, when, and why automatic and control processes interact. Notes important educational…

  10. Automatic Annotation of Semantic Fields for Political Science Research

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Beata Beigman Klebanov; Daniel Diermeier; Eyal Beigman

    2008-01-01

    This article discusses methods for automatic annotation of political texts for semantic fields—groups of words with related meanings. This type of annotation is useful when studying political communication, such as legislative debate or political speeches. We present three types of automatic annotation: unsupervised clustering, dictionary-based approaches, and a method based on relevant experimental data. All methods are applied to analyzing

  11. XTRN - Automatic Code Generator For C Header Files

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pieniazek, Lester A.

    1990-01-01

    Computer program XTRN, Automatic Code Generator for C Header Files, generates "extern" declarations for all globally visible identifiers contained in input C-language code. Generates external declarations by parsing input text according to syntax derived from C. Automatically provides consistent and up-to-date "extern" declarations and alleviates tedium and errors involved in manual approach. Written in C and Unix Shell.

  12. Automatic pesticide application in greenhouses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Miriam Austerweil; A. Grinstein

    1997-01-01

    Three automatic pesticide application systems are presented: an automatic thermal vaporimeter; a cold fogger (low volume mist\\u000a applicator or mechanical aerosol generator); and an automatic air-assisted sprayer for controlled droplet application (CDA).\\u000a The automatic thermal vaporimeter is thermally regulated to prevent spontaneous ignition of the evaporated pesticide, and\\u000a is equipped with an automatic quantity-control system. One vaporimeter is capable of

  13. The Second Text Retrieval Conference (TREC-2) [and] Overview of the Second Text Retrieval Conference (TREC-2) [and] Reflections on TREC [and] Automatic Routing and Retrieval Using Smart: TREC-2 [and] TREC and TIPSTER Experiments with INQUIRY [and] Large Test Collection Experiments on an Operational Interactive System: Okapi at TREC [and] Efficient Retrieval of Partial Documents [and] TREC Routing Experiments with the TRW/Paracel Fast Data Finder [and] CLARIT-TREC Experiments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harman, Donna; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Presents an overview of the second Text Retrieval Conference (TREC-2), an opinion paper about the program, and nine papers by participants that show a range of techniques used in TREC. Topics include traditional text retrieval and information technology, efficiency, the use of language processing techniques, unusual approaches to text retrieval,…

  14. Automatic Retrieval and Clustering of Similar Words

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dekang Lin

    1998-01-01

    Bootstrapping semantics from text is one of the greatest challenges in natural language learning. We first define a word similarity measure based on the distributional pattern of words. The similarity measure allows us to construct a thesaurus using a parsed corpus. We then present a new evaluation methodology for the automatically constructed thesaurus. The evaluation results show that the thesaurus

  15. Towards the Automatic Construction of Conceptual Taxonomies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dino Ienco; Rosa Meo

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the possibility of an automatic construc- tion of conceptual taxonomies and evaluate the achievable results. In our mean- ing, a concept is represented by a keyword contained and extracted from a text corpus. A conceptual taxonomy is then a hierarchical organization of the key- words (Keyword Hierarchy, KH) such that the keywords at the higher

  16. AUTOMATIC HUMAN BEHAVIOUR RECOGNITION AND EXPLANATION FOR

    E-print Network

    Greenaway, Alan

    AUTOMATIC HUMAN BEHAVIOUR RECOGNITION AND EXPLANATION FOR CCTV VIDEO SURVEILLANCE September 12 activity in video from a single, static camera. The motivation is to enable surveillance analysts on is urban surveillance where the imaged person is medium/low reso- lution. The final output is text

  17. Writing Home/Decolonizing Text(s)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asher, Nina

    2009-01-01

    The article draws on postcolonial and feminist theories, combined with critical reflection and autobiography, and argues for generating decolonizing texts as one way to write and reclaim home in a postcolonial world. Colonizers leave home to seek power and control elsewhere, and the colonized suffer loss of home as they know it. This dislocation…

  18. Gradient based Approach for Text Detection in Video Frames

    E-print Network

    Tan, Chew Lim

    dilated and opened using suitable structuring elements and used for text regions. We then perform, internet and wireless network. It is often required to automatically detect and extract the text also be extended to any camera based image. So Text Information Extraction (TIE) from images (still

  19. Text File Display Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vavrus, J. L.

    1986-01-01

    LOOK program permits user to examine text file in pseudorandom access manner. Program provides user with way of rapidly examining contents of ASCII text file. LOOK opens text file for input only and accesses it in blockwise fashion. Handles text formatting and displays text lines on screen. User moves forward or backward in file by any number of lines or blocks. Provides ability to "scroll" text at various speeds in forward or backward directions.

  20. Selective Information Presentation in an Integrated Publication System: An Application of Genre-Driven Text Generation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bateman, John; Teich, Elke

    1995-01-01

    Describes a method of selective information presentation exemplified by an editor that produces an encyclopedia based on source articles, and needs access to dynamically-selected aspects of the articles for editorial decision making. Presents a system that provides a generic basis for summarization by building multilingual, genre-driven automatic

  1. Automatic Whistler Detector and Analyzer system: Automatic Whistler Detector

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Lichtenberger; C. Ferencz; L. Bodnár; D. Hamar; P. Steinbach

    2008-01-01

    A new, unique system has been developed for the automatic detection and analysis of whistlers. The Automatic Whistler Detector and Analyzer (AWDA) system has two purposes: (1) to automatically provide plasmaspheric electron densities extracted from whistlers and (2) to collect statistical data for the investigation of whistler generation and propagation. This paper presents the details of and the first results

  2. Automatic audio morphing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Malcolm Slaney; Michele Covell; Bud Lassiter

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes techniques to automatically morph from one sound to another. Audio morphing is accomplished by representing the sound in a multi-dimensional space that is warped or modified to produce a desired result. The multi-dimensional space encodes the spectral shape and pitch on orthogonal axes. After matching components of the sound, a morph smoothly interpolates the amplitudes to describe

  3. Automatic multiple applicator electrophoresis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grunbaum, B. W.

    1977-01-01

    Easy-to-use, economical device permits electrophoresis on all known supporting media. System includes automatic multiple-sample applicator, sample holder, and electrophoresis apparatus. System has potential applicability to fields of taxonomy, immunology, and genetics. Apparatus is also used for electrofocusing.

  4. ARM: Automatic Rule Miner

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Slim Abdennadher; Abdellatif Olama; Noha Salem; Amira Thabet

    2006-01-01

    Rule-based formalisms are ubiquitous in computer science. However, a difficulty that arises frequently when specifyingor program- ming the rules is to determine which effects should be propagated by these rules. In this paper, we present a tool called ARM (Automatic Rule Miner) that generates rules for relations over finite domains. ARM offers a rich functionality to provide the user with

  5. Automatic Program Synthesis Reports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biermann, A. W.; And Others

    Some of the major results of future goals of an automatic program synthesis project are described in the two papers that comprise this document. The first paper gives a detailed algorithm for synthesizing a computer program from a trace of its behavior. Since the algorithm involves a search, the length of time required to do the synthesis of…

  6. Automatic domotic device interoperation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dario Bonino; Emiliano Castellina; Fulvio Corno

    2009-01-01

    Current domotic systems manufacturers develop their systems nearly in isolation, responding to different marketing policies and to different technological choices. While there are many available approaches to enable interoperation with domotic systems as a whole, few solutions tackle interoperation between single domotic devices belonging to different technology networks. This paper introduces an automatic device-to-device interoperation solution exploiting ontology- based semantic

  7. Automatic Electronic Oxygen Supply

    PubMed Central

    Ford, Patricia; Hoodless, D. J.

    1971-01-01

    An automatic electronic oxygen system has been devised to supply an intensive care unit with a “fail-safe” supply of continuous oxygen. All parts of the system are fitted with alarms, as the oxygen powers gas-driven ventilators. Since the system is cheap it can be installed in hospitals where finance is limited. PMID:5278618

  8. Automatic temporal layout mechanisms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Cecelia Buchanan; Polle T. Zellweger

    1993-01-01

    A traditional static document has a spatial layout that indicates where objects in the document appear. Because multimedia documents incorporate time, they also require a temporal layout, or schedule, that indicates when events in the document occur. This paper argues that multimedia document systems should provide mechanisms for automatically producing temporal layouts for documents. The major advantage of this approach

  9. Automatic Dance Lesson Generation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Yang; Leung, H.; Yue, Lihua; Deng, LiQun

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, an automatic lesson generation system is presented which is suitable in a learning-by-mimicking scenario where the learning objects can be represented as multiattribute time series data. The dance is used as an example in this paper to illustrate the idea. Given a dance motion sequence as the input, the proposed lesson generation…

  10. MANIPULATING MATRIX INEQUALITIES AUTOMATICALLY

    E-print Network

    Helton, J. William

    systems problems convert directly into matrix inequalities. Matrix inequalities take the form of a listMANIPULATING MATRIX INEQUALITIES AUTOMATICALLY J. WILLIAM HELTON #3; Abstract. Matrix inequalities problem presents and converting these to a nice form, or at least checking if they already have or do

  11. Normal Motor Automatism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Leon M. Solomons; Gertrude Stein

    1896-01-01

    It is well known that many hysterical subjects exhibit a remarkable development of the subconscious life, amounting, in many cases, to that most interesting phenomenon known as double personality. It has often been argued that the performances of these 'second personalities' are essentially different from the merely automatic movements of ordinary people--so different, in fact, as to compel us to

  12. Noisy text categorization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alessandro Vinciarelli

    2005-01-01

    This work presents categorization experiments performed over noisy texts. By noisy, we mean any text obtained through an extraction process (affected by errors) from media other than digital texts (e.g., transcriptions of speech recordings extracted with a recognition system). The performance of a categorization system over the clean and noisy (word error rate between ? 10 and ? 50 percent)

  13. Full-Text Databases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siddiqui, Moid A.

    1991-01-01

    This review of the literature on full-text databases provides information on search strategy, performance measurement, and the benefits and limitations of full text compared to bibliographic database searching. Various use studies and uses of full-text databases are also listed. (21 references) (LAE)

  14. Oxford Text Archive

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The well-established Oxford Text Archive can now be accessed via its new web site, a redesign intended to improve navigation, functionality, and to utilize the SGML metadata available for all texts. Users can also now conduct full text searches. Founded in 1976 and based in the Humanities Computing Unit of Oxford University Computing Services, the Oxford Text Archive houses selected academic submissions for the purpose of preserving "high-quality electronic texts for research and teaching." Scholars and other interested users have access to more than 2500 resources in over 25 different languages. The OTA encourages new submissions of quality, scholarly electronic resources.

  15. A Publicly Available Annotated Corpus for Supervised Email Summarization Jan Ulrich, Gabriel Murray, and Giuseppe Carenini

    E-print Network

    Murray, Gabriel

    learning summarization tech- niques. The scarcity of corpora has been a limiting fac- tor for research to manage email data efficiently has become paramount. Summarization provides one tool for reducing techniques tend to be less domain dependent and do not require a deep un- derstanding of the source material

  16. Summarizing Email Conversations with Clue Words Giuseppe Carenini, Raymond T. Ng, Xiaodong Zhou

    E-print Network

    Ng, Raymond T.

    Summarizing Email Conversations with Clue Words Giuseppe Carenini, Raymond T. Ng, Xiaodong Zhou}@cs.ubc.ca ABSTRACT Accessing an ever increasing number of emails, possibly on small mobile devices, has become a major problem for many users. Email summarization is a promising way to solve this problem

  17. Using SUMMA for Language Independent Summarization at TAC 2011 Horacio Saggion

    E-print Network

    Saggion, Horacio

    ) are a series of evaluation programs to advance the state-of-the-art in various natural language processing a natural language pocessing system for the Multilingual Summarization pilot task that has as objectiveUsing SUMMA for Language Independent Summarization at TAC 2011 Horacio Saggion TALN Department

  18. [20] summarized the data then available on morphometric variation in A. cerana. He

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    [20] summarized the data then available on morphometric variation in A. cerana. He recognized four et al. [19] summarized studies showing that morphometric varia- tion exists among Chinese populations of A. cerana. Damus [2] and Damus and Otis [3] carried out a morphometric analysis of cavity

  19. Yesterday's Weather: Guiding Early Reverse Engineering Efforts by Summarizing the Evolution of Changes

    E-print Network

    Lanza, Michele

    Yesterday's Weather: Guiding Early Reverse Engineering Efforts by Summarizing the Evolution, Switzerland {girba, ducasse, lanza}@iam.unibe.ch Abstract 1 Knowing where to start reverse engineering a large for reverse engineering and reengi- neering efforts. Our solution is based on summarizing the changes

  20. Red-Tide Research Summarized to 1964 Including an Annotated Bibliography

    E-print Network

    535^ Red-Tide Research Summarized to 1964 Including an Annotated Bibliography By George A, Harold E. Crowther, Acting Director Red-Tide Research Summarized to 1964 Including an Annotated Historical 2 General conditions during red-tide outbreaks 3 Temperature 3 Salinity 3 Rainfall 4 Wind 4 Light

  1. Constructing Biological Knowledge Bases by Extracting Information from Text Sources

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark Craven; Johan Kumlien

    1999-01-01

    Recently, there has been much eort in making databases for molecular biology more accessible and interoperable. However, information in text form, such as MEDLINE records, remains a greatly underutilized source of biological information. We have begun a re- search eort aimed at automatically mapping infor- mation from text sources into structured representa- tions, such as knowledge bases. Our approach to

  2. Text-mining approaches in molecular biology and biomedicine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martin Krallinger; Ramon Alonso-Allende Erhardt; Alfonso Valencia

    2005-01-01

    Biomedical articles provide functional descriptions of bioentities such as chemical compounds and proteins. To extract relevant information using automatic techniques, text-mining and information-extraction approaches have been developed. These technologies have a key role in integrating biomedical information through analysis of scientific literature. In this article, important applications such as the identification of biologically relevant entities in free text and the

  3. Persian Text Watermarking

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ali Asghar Khodami; Khashayar Yaghmaie

    2006-01-01

    Digital watermarking applies to variety of media including image, video, audio and text. Because of the nature of digital\\u000a text, its watermarking methods are special. Moreover, these methods basically depend on the script used in the text. This\\u000a paper reviews application of digital watermarking to Farsi (Persian) and similar scripts (like Arabic, Urdu and Pashto) which\\u000a are substantially different from

  4. TextImages

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Trost, Stefan

    2012-03-30

    Those persons who do their own website design will find TextImages most useful. Developed by Stefan Trost, this helpful tool allows users to integrate text written on images into their websites. Visitors can create single text images with this application, along with a wide range of pictures. Visitors also have the ability to precisely adjust the writing, design, format, style, colors, fonts, margins, and spacing as they see fit. The tool is particularly useful for those who want headings or other recurring text to look the same regardless of browser or available fonts. This version is compatible with Windows 7, XP, and Vista.

  5. Automatic recognition and understanding of spoken language - a first step toward natural human-machine communication

    Microsoft Academic Search

    BIING-HWANG JUANG; SADAOKI FURUI

    2000-01-01

    The promise of a powerful computing device to help people in productivity as well as in recreation can only be realized with proper human-machine communication. Automatic recognition and understanding of spoken language is the first step toward natural human-machine interaction. Research in this field has produced remarkable results, leading to many exciting expectations and new challenges. We summarize the development

  6. Linguistically informed digital fingerprints for text

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uzuner, Özlem

    2006-02-01

    Digital fingerprinting, watermarking, and tracking technologies have gained importance in the recent years in response to growing problems such as digital copyright infringement. While fingerprints and watermarks can be generated in many different ways, use of natural language processing for these purposes has so far been limited. Measuring similarity of literary works for automatic copyright infringement detection requires identifying and comparing creative expression of content in documents. In this paper, we present a linguistic approach to automatically fingerprinting novels based on their expression of content. We use natural language processing techniques to generate "expression fingerprints". These fingerprints consist of both syntactic and semantic elements of language, i.e., syntactic and semantic elements of expression. Our experiments indicate that syntactic and semantic elements of expression enable accurate identification of novels and their paraphrases, providing a significant improvement over techniques used in text classification literature for automatic copy recognition. We show that these elements of expression can be used to fingerprint, label, or watermark works; they represent features that are essential to the character of works and that remain fairly consistent in the works even when works are paraphrased. These features can be directly extracted from the contents of the works on demand and can be used to recognize works that would not be correctly identified either in the absence of pre-existing labels or by verbatim-copy detectors.

  7. Text File Comparator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kotler, R. S.

    1983-01-01

    File Comparator program IFCOMP, is text file comparator for IBM OS/VScompatable systems. IFCOMP accepts as input two text files and produces listing of differences in pseudo-update form. IFCOMP is very useful in monitoring changes made to software at the source code level.

  8. Solar Energy Project: Text.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tullock, Bruce, Ed.; And Others

    The text is a compilation of background information which should be useful to teachers wishing to obtain some technical information on solar technology. Twenty sections are included which deal with topics ranging from discussion of the sun's composition to the legal implications of using solar energy. The text is intended to provide useful…

  9. Arabic Short Text Compression

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eman Omer; Khalaf Khatatneh

    Problem statement: Text compression permits representing a document by using less space. This is useful not only to save disk space, but more importantly, to save disk transfer and network transmission time. With the continues incre ase in the number of Arabic short text messages sent by mobile phones, the use of a suitable compre ssion scheme would allow users

  10. YORUBA, INTERMEDIATE TEXTS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MCCLURE, H. DAVID; OYEWALE, JOHN O.

    THIS COURSE IS BASED ON A SERIES OF BRIEF MONOLOGUES RECORDED BY A WESTERN-EDUCATED NATIVE SPEAKER OF YORUBA FROM THE OYO AREA. THE TAPES CONSTITUTE THE CENTRAL PART OF THE COURSE, WITH THE TEXT INTENDED AS SUPPLEMENTARY AND AUXILIARY MATERIAL. THE TEXT TOPICS WERE CHOSEN FOR THEIR SPECIAL RELEVANCE TO PEACE CORPS VOLUNTEERS WHO EXPECT TO USE…

  11. Making Sense of Texts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harper, Rebecca G.

    2014-01-01

    This article addresses the triadic nature regarding meaning construction of texts. Grounded in Rosenblatt's (1995; 1998; 2004) Transactional Theory, research conducted in an undergraduate Language Arts curriculum course revealed that when presented with unfamiliar texts, students used prior experiences, social interactions, and literary…

  12. Automatic transmission control method

    SciTech Connect

    Hasegawa, H.; Ishiguro, T.

    1989-07-04

    This patent describes a method of controlling an automatic transmission of an automotive vehicle. The transmission has a gear train which includes a brake for establishing a first lowest speed of the transmission, the brake acting directly on a ring gear which meshes with a pinion, the pinion meshing with a sun gear in a planetary gear train, the ring gear connected with an output member, the sun gear being engageable and disengageable with an input member of the transmission by means of a clutch. The method comprises the steps of: detecting that a shift position of the automatic transmission has been shifted to a neutral range; thereafter introducing hydraulic pressure to the brake if present vehicle velocity is below a predetermined value, whereby the brake is engaged to establish the first lowest speed; and exhausting hydraulic pressure from the brake if present vehicle velocity is higher than a predetermined value, whereby the brake is disengaged.

  13. Lossy Text Compression Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palaniappan, Venka; Latifi, Shahram

    Most text documents contain a large amount of redundancy. Data compression can be used to minimize this redundancy and increase transmission efficiency or save storage space. Several text compression algorithms have been introduced for lossless text compression used in critical application areas. For non-critical applications, we could use lossy text compression to improve compression efficiency. In this paper, we propose three different source models for character-based lossy text compression: Dropped Vowels (DOV), Letter Mapping (LMP), and Replacement of Characters (ROC). The working principles and transformation methods associated with these methods are presented. Compression ratios obtained are included and compared. Comparisons of performance with those of the Huffman Coding and Arithmetic Coding algorithm are also made. Finally, some ideas for further improving the performance already obtained are proposed.

  14. Automatic Score Recording System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tsang-Long Pao; Wei-Chih Pan; Hsiu-Wen Cheng

    2004-01-01

    Abstract-In formal entrance examination, after the score is being graded, it still requires quite a lot ofeffort to record ,the score into database. These processes are inefficient, time-consuming and laborious. Therefore, we propose an Automatic Score Recording ,System ,that uses ,the ,image processing techniques to simplify the procedure and speed up the process. In the proposed system, we use adigital,camera

  15. Towards Automatic Event Tracking

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Clive Best; Bruno Pouliquen; Ralf Steinberger; Erik Van Der Goot; Ken Blackler; Flavio Fuart; Tamara Oellinger; Camelia Ignat

    2006-01-01

    \\u000a An automatic news tracking and analysis system which records world events over long time periods is described. It allows to\\u000a track country specific news, the activities of individual persons and groups, to derive trends, and to provide data for further\\u000a analysis and research. The data source is the Europe Media Monitor (EMM) which monitors news from around the world in

  16. Automatic digital image registration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goshtasby, A.; Jain, A. K.; Enslin, W. R.

    1982-01-01

    This paper introduces a general procedure for automatic registration of two images which may have translational, rotational, and scaling differences. This procedure involves (1) segmentation of the images, (2) isolation of dominant objects from the images, (3) determination of corresponding objects in the two images, and (4) estimation of transformation parameters using the center of gravities of objects as control points. An example is given which uses this technique to register two images which have translational, rotational, and scaling differences.

  17. Automatic Reconfiguration in Autonet

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas L. Rodeheffer; Michael D. Schroeder

    1991-01-01

    Autonet is a switch-based local area network using 100 Mbit\\/s full-duplex point-to-point links. Crossbar switches are interconnected to other switches and to host controllers in an arbitrary pattern. Switch hardware uses the destination address in each packet to determine the proper outgoing link for the next step in the path from source to destination. Autonet automatically recalculates these forwarding paths

  18. Criterra automatic location planning

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lawrence Cassenti; P. E. Peter Leed

    2011-01-01

    Criterra is a software suite that automatically determines optimum locations and heights in seconds\\/minutes for security system sensors, and locations for infrastructure and response forces based on dominant mosaic, line-of-sight, time-and-space, Doppler, propagation and other algorithms, executed on a terabyte size 3D geospatial and object database. Inputs include specifications of sensor systems, barriers, and response forces. Criterra is based on

  19. Mining for Surprise Events within Text Streams

    SciTech Connect

    Whitney, Paul D.; Engel, David W.; Cramer, Nicholas O.

    2009-04-30

    This paper summarizes algorithms and analysis methodology for mining the evolving content in text streams. Text streams include news, press releases from organizations, speeches, Internet blogs, etc. These data are a fundamental source for detecting and characterizing strategic intent of individuals and organizations as well as for detecting abrupt or surprising events within communities. Specifically, an analyst may need to know if and when the topic within a text stream changes. Much of the current text feature methodology is focused on understanding and analyzing a single static collection of text documents. Corresponding analytic activities include summarizing the contents of the collection, grouping the documents based on similarity of content, and calculating concise summaries of the resulting groups. The approach reported here focuses on taking advantage of the temporal characteristics in a text stream to identify relevant features (such as change in content), and also on the analysis and algorithmic methodology to communicate these characteristics to a user. We present a variety of algorithms for detecting essential features within a text stream. A critical finding is that the characteristics used to identify features in a text stream are uncorrelated with the characteristics used to identify features in a static document collection. Our approach for communicating the information back to the user is to identify feature (word/phrase) groups. These resulting algorithms form the basis of developing software tools for a user to analyze and understand the content of text streams. We present analysis using both news information and abstracts from technical articles, and show how these algorithms provide understanding of the contents of these text streams.

  20. Text Segmentation by Topic

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jay M. Ponte; W. Bruce Croft

    1997-01-01

    . We investigate the problem of text segmentation by topic.Applications for this task include topic tracking of broadcast speech dataand topic identification in full-text databases. Researchers have tackledsimilar problems before but with different goals. This study focuses ondata with relatively small segment sizes and for which within-segmentsentences have relatively few words in common making the problem challenging.We present a method

  1. Emotion Detection from Text

    E-print Network

    Shivhare, Shiv Naresh

    2012-01-01

    Emotion can be expressed in many ways that can be seen such as facial expression and gestures, speech and by written text. Emotion Detection in text documents is essentially a content - based classification problem involving concepts from the domains of Natural Language Processing as well as Machine Learning. In this paper emotion recognition based on textual data and the techniques used in emotion detection are discussed.

  2. Terminology extraction from medical texts in Polish

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Hospital documents contain free text describing the most important facts relating to patients and their illnesses. These documents are written in specific language containing medical terminology related to hospital treatment. Their automatic processing can help in verifying the consistency of hospital documentation and obtaining statistical data. To perform this task we need information on the phrases we are looking for. At the moment, clinical Polish resources are sparse. The existing terminologies, such as Polish Medical Subject Headings (MeSH), do not provide sufficient coverage for clinical tasks. It would be helpful therefore if it were possible to automatically prepare, on the basis of a data sample, an initial set of terms which, after manual verification, could be used for the purpose of information extraction. Results Using a combination of linguistic and statistical methods for processing over 1200 children hospital discharge records, we obtained a list of single and multiword terms used in hospital discharge documents written in Polish. The phrases are ordered according to their presumed importance in domain texts measured by the frequency of use of a phrase and the variety of its contexts. The evaluation showed that the automatically identified phrases cover about 84% of terms in domain texts. At the top of the ranked list, only 4% out of 400 terms were incorrect while out of the final 200, 20% of expressions were either not domain related or syntactically incorrect. We also observed that 70% of the obtained terms are not included in the Polish MeSH. Conclusions Automatic terminology extraction can give results which are of a quality high enough to be taken as a starting point for building domain related terminological dictionaries or ontologies. This approach can be useful for preparing terminological resources for very specific subdomains for which no relevant terminologies already exist. The evaluation performed showed that none of the tested ranking procedures were able to filter out all improperly constructed noun phrases from the top of the list. Careful choice of noun phrases is crucial to the usefulness of the created terminological resource in applications such as lexicon construction or acquisition of semantic relations from texts. PMID:24976943

  3. A Topic Segmentation of Texts based on Semantic Domains

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Olivier Ferret; Brigitte Grau

    2000-01-01

    Thematic analysis is essential for many Natural Language Proc- essing (NLP) applications, such as text summarization or information extraction. It is a two-dimensional process that has both to delimit the thematic segments of a text and to identify the topic of each of them. The system we present possesses these two characteristics. Based on the use of semantic domains, it

  4. Making a Splash: Comparing Two Informational Texts through Read Alouds

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Heather Judah

    2012-09-20

    In this lesson, students will learn to compare and contrast two informational texts through read alouds and use of a Venn diagram graphic organizer. The lesson uses Swimming by JoAnn Macken and Let's Swim by Carol Lindeen. Students will also write to summarize what they have learned about the similarities and differences between the two texts.

  5. Failsafe system in automatic transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Iwatsuki, K.; Shindo, Y.

    1988-11-22

    This patent describes a failsafe system in an automatic transmission for a vehicle, comprising: means for detecting an output shaft rotary speed of the automatic transmission; means for detecting engine rotary speed; means for detecting engine load; means for detecting whether a lockup clutch of the automatic transmission is engaged; means for detecting whether a prescribed period of time has elapsed from either a shift judgment or a shift command of the automatic transmission; means for determining a correlation between the output shaft rotary speed and the engine rotary speed when the engine load is higher than a predetermined value, the lockup clutch is engaged, and the prescribed period of time has elapsed form either of the shift judgment or shift command of the automatic transmission; means for judging whether the correlation is abnormal; and means for increasing oil pressure in a hydraulic control device of the automatic transmission when the correlation is judged to be abnormal.

  6. Text Exchange System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, W. V.; Hanson, R. J.

    1986-01-01

    Text Exchange System (TES) exchanges and maintains organized textual information including source code, documentation, data, and listings. System consists of two computer programs and definition of format for information storage. Comprehensive program used to create, read, and maintain TES files. TES developed to meet three goals: First, easy and efficient exchange of programs and other textual data between similar and dissimilar computer systems via magnetic tape. Second, provide transportable management system for textual information. Third, provide common user interface, over wide variety of computing systems, for all activities associated with text exchange.

  7. Automatic breast border extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olsen, Christina M.

    2005-04-01

    In computer aided mammography algorithms there are several processing steps, which must be performed. The basic segmentation procedure involves extracting the principal feature on a mammogram; the breast border. This is performed by segmenting the breast and the non-breast into distinct regions. In this paper, a method for extracting the breast border is proposed. The method has performance similar to established techniques but with higher degrees of automatization and robustness. It iteratively adapts a model of the background to ensure a robust object detection yielding a smooth outline of the breast. The main idea is to identify the "knee" in the cumulative intensity histogram of the image. The intensity value at the knee is thereafter used to automatically define a region, to be modelled by a two-dimensional polynomial surface of degree two. The modelled background is then subtracted from the original image. The procedure described is iteratively performed until the degree of non-uniformity of the grey-scale background is smaller then a certain value. Thereafter the difference image is post-processed by a flood-filling algorithm, a new threshold is estimated as above and applied to yield a binary image. Lastly morphological operations are performed to smoothen the breast border. In conclusion, the strength in the proposed method, compared to similar methods, is that it makes use of an iterative approach to reduce the effects of the background, it produces smooth edges and automatically finds thresholds. It is also evaluated on the entire MIAS database (322 images) with a performance of 94%.

  8. BILAN SOCIAL [Texte

    E-print Network

    Sart, Remi

    BILAN SOCIAL 2011 > #12;#12;3) #12;B) 3) 4) #12;§ § § #12;#12;#12;#12;[Texte] L'UBP EN BREF SERVICE DE MÉDECINE DE PRÉVENTION M.-C. Ratinaud SERVICE COMMUN D'ACTION SOCIALE D. Sargos SERVICE DE. Bachelery ÉCOLES DOCTORALES LETTRES, SCIENCES HUMAINES ET SOCIALES E. Lysoe SCIENCES FONDAMENTALES P

  9. [Type text] Northwestern University

    E-print Network

    Shull, Kenneth R.

    [Type text] Northwestern University Office for Research Safety Hazardous Waste Management Program ­ Radiation & Laser Safety Officer Office: (847) 467-0634 24-hour pager: (312) 661-3858 Cell 708 668 8042 (Evanston) (847) 570-2000 STATE AND LOCAL AGENCIES Metropolitan Water Reclamation District (NWRD) (312) 787

  10. STEM Careers Cursive Text

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    WPSU

    2009-11-10

    This brief video from WPSU compares technologies from yesterday with today. Yesterday a middle school girl writes in cursive while today a girl the same age texts on her cell. The video suggests that science will bring us technologies of tomorrow.

  11. Texting on the Move

    MedlinePLUS

    ... for Parents for Kids for Teens Teens Home Body Mind Sexual Health Food & Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Q&A School & Jobs Drugs & Alcohol Staying Safe Recipes En Español ... Guy's Guide to Body Image Texting on the Move KidsHealth > Teens > Staying ...

  12. Elision Based Text Zooming

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sam Davis

    Scrolling through text documents is a cumbersome and ineffective means of getting context and overview. I present a superior technique that augments scrolling by using elision to simulate zooming. This allows smooth, rapid transitions between overview and detail and effectively supports the task of recovering lost context when reading or navigating through a document. I describe an implementation of the

  13. Automatic pattern recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clement, Brian E. P.

    1992-09-01

    A description is first given of the electronic circuitry sufficient and necessary to imitate the action and optical functions of a phase conjugate hologram in the two dimensions of the Euclidean plane. An explanation is then given of its derivation from the underlying principles of UK patent No. GB 2 199 976 (automatic pattern recognition), and of its spatiotemporal (hypercube) applications in neural network form using the phenomena of superconductivity, the genetic code, and a simple geometrical solution of the traveling salesman problem as examples. The presentation includes a discussion of the degree of phase coherence which would be necessary to construct an artificial brain based on a dynamic holographic structure.

  14. Automatic Evidence Retrieval for Systematic Reviews

    PubMed Central

    Choong, Miew Keen; Galgani, Filippo; Dunn, Adam G

    2014-01-01

    Background Snowballing involves recursively pursuing relevant references cited in the retrieved literature and adding them to the search results. Snowballing is an alternative approach to discover additional evidence that was not retrieved through conventional search. Snowballing’s effectiveness makes it best practice in systematic reviews despite being time-consuming and tedious. Objective Our goal was to evaluate an automatic method for citation snowballing’s capacity to identify and retrieve the full text and/or abstracts of cited articles. Methods Using 20 review articles that contained 949 citations to journal or conference articles, we manually searched Microsoft Academic Search (MAS) and identified 78.0% (740/949) of the cited articles that were present in the database. We compared the performance of the automatic citation snowballing method against the results of this manual search, measuring precision, recall, and F1 score. Results The automatic method was able to correctly identify 633 (as proportion of included citations: recall=66.7%, F1 score=79.3%; as proportion of citations in MAS: recall=85.5%, F1 score=91.2%) of citations with high precision (97.7%), and retrieved the full text or abstract for 490 (recall=82.9%, precision=92.1%, F1 score=87.3%) of the 633 correctly retrieved citations. Conclusions The proposed method for automatic citation snowballing is accurate and is capable of obtaining the full texts or abstracts for a substantial proportion of the scholarly citations in review articles. By automating the process of citation snowballing, it may be possible to reduce the time and effort of common evidence surveillance tasks such as keeping trial registries up to date and conducting systematic reviews. PMID:25274020

  15. Perfectionistic Automatic Thoughts, Trait Perfectionism, and Bulimic Automatic Thoughts in Young Women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gordon L. Flett; Jennifer Newby; Paul L. Hewitt; Christina Persaud

    2011-01-01

    The current research examined the associations among perfectionistic automatic thoughts, trait perfectionism, negative automatic\\u000a thoughts, and bulimic automatic thoughts. A non-clinical sample of 94 undergraduate women completed the Perfectionism Cognitions\\u000a Inventory, the Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale, the Automatic Thoughts Questionnaire, and the Bulimic Automatic Thoughts\\u000a Test. Correlational tests revealed that two automatic thoughts measures (perfectionistic automatic thoughts and negative automatic\\u000a thoughts)

  16. Towards Automatic Generation of Gene Summary

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Feng Jin; Minlie Huang; Zhiyong Lu; Xiaoyan Zhu

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we present an extractive system that au- tomatically generates gene summaries from the biomed- ical literature. The proposed text summarization system selects and ranks sentences from multiple MEDLINE abstracts by exploiting gene-specific information and similarity relationships between sentences. We evaluate our system on a large dataset of 7,294 human genes and 187,628 MEDLINE abstracts using Recall-Oriented Understudy

  17. Integrating image data into biomedical text categorization.

    PubMed

    Shatkay, Hagit; Chen, Nawei; Blostein, Dorothea

    2006-07-15

    Categorization of biomedical articles is a central task for supporting various curation efforts. It can also form the basis for effective biomedical text mining. Automatic text classification in the biomedical domain is thus an active research area. Contests organized by the KDD Cup (2002) and the TREC Genomics track (since 2003) defined several annotation tasks that involved document classification, and provided training and test data sets. So far, these efforts focused on analyzing only the text content of documents. However, as was noted in the KDD'02 text mining contest-where figure-captions proved to be an invaluable feature for identifying documents of interest-images often provide curators with critical information. We examine the possibility of using information derived directly from image data, and of integrating it with text-based classification, for biomedical document categorization. We present a method for obtaining features from images and for using them-both alone and in combination with text-to perform the triage task introduced in the TREC Genomics track 2004. The task was to determine which documents are relevant to a given annotation task performed by the Mouse Genome Database curators. We show preliminary results, demonstrating that the method has a strong potential to enhance and complement traditional text-based categorization methods. PMID:16873506

  18. Automatic Structures — Recent Results and Open Questions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephan, Frank

    2015-06-01

    Regular languages are languages recognised by finite automata; automatic structures are a generalisation of regular languages where one also uses automatic relations (which are relations recognised by synchronous finite automata) and automatic functions (which are functions whose graph is an automatic relation). Functions and relations first-order definable from other automatic functions and relations are again automatic. Automatic functions coincide with the functions computed by position-faithful one-tape Turing machines in linear time. This survey addresses recent results and open questions on topics related to automatic structures: How difficult is the isomorphism problem for various types of automatic structures? Which groups are automatic? When are automatic groups Abelian or orderable? How can one overcome some of the limitations to represent rings and fields by weakening the automaticity requirements of a structure?

  19. Device for the Automatic Control of Airplanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gradenwitz, Alfred

    1929-01-01

    This report provides a description of an automatic control mechanism that consists of an automatic elevator control, aileron control, and a rudder control. Each automatic control can be independently switched on or off.

  20. Champollion: A Robust Parallel Text Sentence Aligner Linguistic Data Consortium

    E-print Network

    Pennsylvania, University of

    Market St. Suite 810 Philadelphia, PA 19104 xma@ldc.upenn.edu Abstract This paper describes Champollion. Experiments on a manually aligned Chinese ­ English parallel corpus show that Champollion achieves high sentence alignment makes large parallel text corpus development difficult. Thus a number of automatic

  1. A text-to-speech system for italian

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rodolfo Delmonte; G. Mian; G. Tisato

    1984-01-01

    A system for the automatic translation of any text of Italian into naturally fluent speech is presented. The system, planned for use in a reading machine for the blind, is build up around a Phonological Processor (hence FP) and synthesizes speech-by joining LPC coded diphones. The FP maps into prosodic structures the phonological rules of Italian. Structural information is provided

  2. Topic Detection Of Unrestricted Texts: Approaches And Evaluations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yllias Chali

    2005-01-01

    Topic detection and tracking refers to automatic techniques for locating topically related cohesive paragraphs in a stream of text. Most documents are about more than one subject, but many Natural Language Processing (NLP) and Information Retrieval (IR) techniques implicitly assume documents have just one topic. Even in the presence of a single topic within a document, the document may address

  3. Exploiting vibration-based spectral signatures for automatic target recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crider, Lauren; Kangas, Scott

    2014-06-01

    Feature extraction algorithms for vehicle classification techniques represent a large branch of Automatic Target Recognition (ATR) efforts. Traditionally, vehicle ATR techniques have assumed time series vibration data collected from multiple accelerometers are a function of direct path, engine driven signal energy. If data, however, is highly dependent on measurement location these pre-established feature extraction algorithms are ineffective. In this paper, we examine the consequences of analyzing vibration data potentially contingent upon transfer path effects by exploring the sensitivity of sensor location. We summarize our analysis of spectral signatures from each accelerometer and investigate similarities within the data.

  4. Automatic Meteorological Data Collecting System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Thomas; M. McLardie

    1960-01-01

    The automatic data collecting system, as designed, permits automatic sensing and logging of 64 meteorological parameters measured on a 220-foot tower. The design permits simultaneous measurements of all parameters at all levels, with response of the instruments on the order of a few seconds. There is a resultant increase in data accuracy and acquisition, flexibility of observation periods, ease of

  5. Assessment of Positive Automatic Cognition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingram, Rick E.; Wisnicki, Kathleen S.

    1988-01-01

    Reports on two studies designed to develop and evaluate the Automatic Thoughts Questionnaire-Positive (ATQ-P), a measure of positive automatic thinking that is complementary to the ATQ, a measure of negative thinking in psychopathology. Describes results suggesting that ATQ-P is reliable and valid measure of positive thinking. (Author/NB)

  6. Automatic Control Laboratory ETH, Zurich

    E-print Network

    Lygeros, John

    Automatic Control Laboratory ETH, Z¨urich Physikstrasse 3 8092 Z¨urich, Switzerland +41 44 632 22 71 How to get to the Automatic Control Laboratory (IfA) From the Z¨urich airport: · By Taxi. Taxi of the Airport Center. There are also ticket machines close to the elevators down to the platforms. A button

  7. Automatic control of catalyst regeneration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. V. Kozlov; A. A. Oprishko; A. A. Orekhov; N. T. Demikhova

    1967-01-01

    1.Utilization of an ÉMU-10 analogue computer enabled us to build a model that represents the complex dynamical characteristics of a regenerator and the automatic control system.2.The automatic system that controls the burning of coke is built from electronic devices of the VTI system that are manufactured in series. The reliability of these devices was checked by prolonged operation in oil

  8. Internet Sacred Text Archive

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The world's philosophical and religious traditions have found a fine home at the Internet Sacred Text Archive, which, as the homepage notes, is "a quiet place in cyberspace devoted to religious tolerance and scholarship." Working together with a number of colleagues and volunteers, JB Hare has compiled this vast archive of sacred and philosophical texts from a number of public-domain sources and placed them on the site. What makes the site so intriguing is that Hare has placed detailed information about the sources and standards that have been deployed for each separate project, which will be of great interest to scholars. While the entire site can be searched, there is much to be learned by looking through the topics listed on the main page, which range from Atlantis to Zoroastrianism. Each separate topic contains a number of accurately transcribed (and some times, translated) primary and secondary documents, such as first-hand collections of oral traditions. For persons looking for their own copy of the material contained on the site, a CD-ROM is available for purchase as well.

  9. TRMM Gridded Text Products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stocker, Erich Franz

    2007-01-01

    NASA's Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) has many products that contain instantaneous or gridded rain rates often among many other parameters. However, these products because of their completeness can often seem intimidating to users just desiring surface rain rates. For example one of the gridded monthly products contains well over 200 parameters. It is clear that if only rain rates are desired, this many parameters might prove intimidating. In addition, for many good reasons these products are archived and currently distributed in HDF format. This also can be an inhibiting factor in using TRMM rain rates. To provide a simple format and isolate just the rain rates from the many other parameters, the TRMM product created a series of gridded products in ASCII text format. This paper describes the various text rain rate products produced. It provides detailed information about parameters and how they are calculated. It also gives detailed format information. These products are used in a number of applications with the TRMM processing system. The products are produced from the swath instantaneous rain rates and contain information from the three major TRMM instruments: radar, radiometer, and combined. They are simple to use, human readable, and small for downloading.

  10. Reception of Texts Database

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Created by the Reception of Texts Project at the Open University, this pilot database is designed to help practitioners of reception studies "address issues of performance with the same degree of rigour and attention to evidence which is expected in textual studies and to develop ways of documenting performance which recognise its cross disciplinary and creative dimensions." To that end, academics and students in classical studies, literature, theater studies, and related fields can use this database to search for information on the performances of Greek plays in the original and in adaptations, versions and translations in English from c.1970 to the present, and in the future, poetry in English which draws on Greek texts, myths, and images. The database offers nine search categories, each with a slightly different search format, some offering only a simple keyword search, others with multiple modifiers, and others with pull-down menus for browsing. With the exception of the Critical Works category, searches ultimately return a Production Details page which generally includes modern and original title, year, theater, dates of performance, company, and music, design, and general notes. A useful feature throughout the database is a Missing Information form, which allows users to submit additional or missing information about specific entries.

  11. Automatically Identifying Candidate Treatments from Existing Medical Literature

    E-print Network

    Pratt, Wanda

    and Smalheiser have shown that such text mining is indeed possible (Swanson 1988; Swanson and Smalheiser 1997Automatically Identifying Candidate Treatments from Existing Medical Literature Catherine Blake and unstructured nature of those texts make it difficult to use them for answering research questions. Thus, many

  12. Linguistic Summarization of Video for Fall Detection Using Voxel Person and Fuzzy Logic

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Derek; Luke, Robert H.; Keller, James M.; Skubic, Marjorie; Rantz, Marilyn; Aud, Myra

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we present a method for recognizing human activity from linguistic summarizations of temporal fuzzy inference curves representing the states of a three-dimensional object called voxel person. A hierarchy of fuzzy logic is used, where the output from each level is summarized and fed into the next level. We present a two level model for fall detection. The first level infers the states of the person at each image. The second level operates on linguistic summarizations of voxel person’s states and inference regarding activity is performed. The rules used for fall detection were designed under the supervision of nurses to ensure that they reflect the manner in which elders perform these activities. The proposed framework is extremely flexible. Rules can be modified, added, or removed, allowing for per-resident customization based on knowledge about their cognitive and physical ability. PMID:20046216

  13. Injury narrative text classification using factorization model

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Narrative text is a useful way of identifying injury circumstances from the routine emergency department data collections. Automatically classifying narratives based on machine learning techniques is a promising technique, which can consequently reduce the tedious manual classification process. Existing works focus on using Naive Bayes which does not always offer the best performance. This paper proposes the Matrix Factorization approaches along with a learning enhancement process for this task. The results are compared with the performance of various other classification approaches. The impact on the classification results from the parameters setting during the classification of a medical text dataset is discussed. With the selection of right dimension k, Non Negative Matrix Factorization-model method achieves 10 CV accuracy of 0.93. PMID:26043671

  14. Semi-Supervised Data Summarization: Using Spectral Libraries to Improve Hyperspectral Clustering

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. L. Wagstaff; H. P. Shu; D. Mazzoni; R. Casta

    2005-01-01

    no1 Hyperspectral imagers produce very large images, with each pixel recorded at hundreds or thousands of different wavelengths. The ability to automatically gen- erate summaries of these data sets enables several important applications, such as quickly browsing through a large image repository or determining the best use of a limited bandwidth link (e.g., determining which images are most critical for

  15. Calibrating Item Families and Summarizing the Results Using Family Expected Response Functions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinharay, Sandip; Johnson, Matthew S.; Williamson, David M.

    2003-01-01

    Item families, which are groups of related items, are becoming increasingly popular in complex educational assessments. For example, in automatic item generation (AIG) systems, a test may consist of multiple items generated from each of a number of item models. Item calibration or scoring for such an assessment requires fitting models that can…

  16. Berkovsky, Shlomo, Timothy Baldwin and Ingrid Zukerman (2008) Aspect-Based Personalized Text Summarization, In Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Adaptive

    E-print Network

    Baldwin, Timothy

    2008-01-01

    is focused on personaliza- tion in museums. For example, consider the following document d about blue whales The blue whale is a marine mammal belonging to the family of baleen whales. This family also includes the Humpback, Fin, and Minke Whales. Due to its yellow underparts, the blue whale is often called the sulphur

  17. Ways students read texts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wandersee, James H.

    College students responding to the Preferred Method of Study (PMOS) questionnaire explained how they approach reading a new textbook chapter for comprehension. Results indicated that a significant positive correlation exists between the number of passes a student makes at new textbook material and his/her college grade-point average. Women showed a significant preference for adopting a single method of study. Less than half of the students queried construct organizational tools such as outlines or diagrams as they study a textbook. Students said they would alter their textbook strategies in response to the type of test they expected significantly more often than they would for the type of subject matter being studied. Only 6% of the students said they make a conscious effort to link the new concepts in the text to prior knowledge. There was no discernable relationship between the study strategies undergraduate college students employ and their college grade level (freshman through senior).

  18. Magnetic Resonance Online Texts

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    S�½kora, Stanislav

    This well-organized and very thorough website was developed by the physicist Stanislav Sykora with the aim of providing free online texts, theses, and course materials on the subjects of magnetic resonance (MR), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), nuclear-magnetic resonance (NMR) and other related topics. The amount of material on the site is impressive. At the top of the page are links to an "MR Blog", as well as to "MR Links" and the "Site Plan & SEARCH". The NMR/MRI Extras section on the right side of the page is particularly useful for visitors interested in all things about MR. Its links to "Events" provides an up-to-date list of symposia, conferences, and meetings, along with links to the events' sites. The "Societies" link offers at least 50 groups about MR, some of which are country-based, and others that are region- or application-based.

  19. Automatic flowmeter calibration system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lisle, R. V.; Wilson, T. L. (inventor)

    1981-01-01

    A system for automatically calibrating the accuracy of a flowmeter is described. The system includes a calculator capable of performing mathematical functions responsive to receiving data signals and function command signals. A prover cylinder is provided for measuring the temperature, pressure, and time required for accumulating a predetermined volume of fluid. Along with these signals, signals representing the temperature and pressure of the fluid going into the meter are fed to a plurality of data registers. Under control of a progress controller, the data registers are read out and the information is fed through a data select circuit to the calculator. Command signals are also produced by a function select circuit and are fed to the calculator set indicating the desired function to be performed. The reading is then compared with the reading produced by the flowmeter.

  20. SCHOOL LAW OF MONTANA 20-4-301. Duties of the teacher (summarized)

    E-print Network

    Maxwell, Bruce D.

    SCHOOL LAW OF MONTANA 20-4-301. Duties of the teacher (summarized): Conform to and enforce - definition of corporal punishment - penalty - defense. (l) "A teacher or principal has the authority to hold district may not inflict or cause to be inflicted corporal punishment on a pupil." (4) A teacher has

  1. Protein Folding Trajectories Analysis: Summarization, Event Detection and Consensus Partial Folding Pathway

    E-print Network

    Yang, Hui

    Protein Folding Trajectories Analysis: Summarization, Event Detection and Consensus Partial Folding in protein folding trajectories. We pro- pose an approach that employs the simplicity of contact maps and po- tentially cure diseases caused by misfolding. The protein folding problem is therefore one

  2. iBIOMES Lite: summarizing biomolecular simulation data in limited settings.

    PubMed

    Thibault, Julien C; Cheatham, Thomas E; Facelli, Julio C

    2014-06-23

    As the amount of data generated by biomolecular simulations dramatically increases, new tools need to be developed to help manage this data at the individual investigator or small research group level. In this paper, we introduce iBIOMES Lite, a lightweight tool for biomolecular simulation data indexing and summarization. The main goal of iBIOMES Lite is to provide a simple interface to summarize computational experiments in a setting where the user might have limited privileges and limited access to IT resources. A command-line interface allows the user to summarize, publish, and search local simulation data sets. Published data sets are accessible via static hypertext markup language (HTML) pages that summarize the simulation protocols and also display data analysis graphically. The publication process is customized via extensible markup language (XML) descriptors while the HTML summary template is customized through extensible stylesheet language (XSL). iBIOMES Lite was tested on different platforms and at several national computing centers using various data sets generated through classical and quantum molecular dynamics, quantum chemistry, and QM/MM. The associated parsers currently support AMBER, GROMACS, Gaussian, and NWChem data set publication. The code is available at https://github.com/jcvthibault/ibiomes . PMID:24830957

  3. Medical Volume Image Summarization Feng Ding Hao Li Yuan Cheng Wee Kheng Leow

    E-print Network

    Leow, Wee Kheng

    Medical Volume Image Summarization Feng Ding Hao Li Yuan Cheng Wee Kheng Leow Dept. of Computer images, there is now an explosion of medical images in any moderate-sized hospital. Access to medical images provided by standard medical databases is very limited. Therefore, there is an increasing interest

  4. Indian Education in America. Summarizing a Collection of Essays by Vine Deloria, Jr.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simonelli, Richard

    1991-01-01

    Summarizes 11 themes of Deloria's "Indian Education in America," including Native versus Western worldview; history of Indian education; Indian versus professional identity; community as key to survival; destructive aspects of American education; necessity of tribal context for education and knowledge; and reconciliation of science and tribal…

  5. Information Navigation on the Web by Clustering and Summarizing Query Results.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roussinov, Dmitri G.; Chen, Hsinchun

    2001-01-01

    Reports an approach to interactive information seeking that is grounded in the idea of summarizing query results through automated document clustering. The authors' prototype acted as an intermediate layer between the user and a commercial Internet search engine. Data was processed from 36 users and it was concluded that the prototype improved…

  6. Learning Sub-structures of Document Semantic Graphs for Document Summarization

    E-print Network

    Leskovec, Jure

    Learning Sub-structures of Document Semantic Graphs for Document Summarization Jurij Leskovec Jozef of semantic graph are weighted highly by SVM in the learned model. Categories and Subject Descriptors H.3 of the document, visualized as semantic graphs, and learn the model to extract sub-structures that could be used

  7. FY 2012 SummarY oF PerFormance and Financial inFormation

    E-print Network

    Government; this docu- ment reports back to you, the American people, to the President of the United StatesFY 2012 SummarY oF PerFormance and Financial inFormation nasa.gov National Aeronautics and Space of Mount Sharp, Mars. (Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/Malin Space Science Systems (MSSS)) Outside Front Bottom

  8. The behavioral summarized evaluation: Validity and reliability of a scale for the assessment of autistic behaviors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Barthelemy; J. L. Adrien; P. Tanguay; B. Garreau; J. Fermanian; S. Roux; D. Sauvage; G. Lelord

    1990-01-01

    The Behavioral Summarized Evaluation (BSE), is a 20-item paper- and-pencil rating scale specifically designed for the measurement of behavioral parameters which could be related to biological data in autistic children involved in educational programs, neurophysiological studies, and therapeutic trials. The development of the scale, the validity, and reliability studies are presented in this paper. The results suggest that the BSE

  9. iBIOMES Lite: Summarizing Biomolecular Simulation Data in Limited Settings

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    As the amount of data generated by biomolecular simulations dramatically increases, new tools need to be developed to help manage this data at the individual investigator or small research group level. In this paper, we introduce iBIOMES Lite, a lightweight tool for biomolecular simulation data indexing and summarization. The main goal of iBIOMES Lite is to provide a simple interface to summarize computational experiments in a setting where the user might have limited privileges and limited access to IT resources. A command-line interface allows the user to summarize, publish, and search local simulation data sets. Published data sets are accessible via static hypertext markup language (HTML) pages that summarize the simulation protocols and also display data analysis graphically. The publication process is customized via extensible markup language (XML) descriptors while the HTML summary template is customized through extensible stylesheet language (XSL). iBIOMES Lite was tested on different platforms and at several national computing centers using various data sets generated through classical and quantum molecular dynamics, quantum chemistry, and QM/MM. The associated parsers currently support AMBER, GROMACS, Gaussian, and NWChem data set publication. The code is available at https://github.com/jcvthibault/ibiomes. PMID:24830957

  10. Summarizing the Evidence on the International Trade in Illegal Gail Emilia Rosen1,2

    E-print Network

    Smith, Kate

    a commoditized species is endangered, its harvest to supply illegal trade may easily reach unsustain- able levelsSummarizing the Evidence on the International Trade in Illegal Wildlife Gail Emilia Rosen1, Providence, RI 02912 2 Wildlife Trust, New York, NY 10001 Abstract: The global trade in illegal wildlife

  11. Report Summarizing Development and Testing of Solar Forecasting for Hawai`i

    E-print Network

    Report Summarizing Development and Testing of Solar Forecasting for Hawai`i Prepared for the U-FC26-06NT42847 Hawai`i Distributed Energy Resource Technologies for Energy Security Subtask 11 and Technology University of Hawai`i #12;ii September 2012 Acknowledgement: This material is based upon work

  12. Multiple Cue Indexing and Summarization of Surveillance Video Ruben Heras Evangelio, Ivo Keller, Thomas Sikora

    E-print Network

    Wichmann, Felix

    Multiple Cue Indexing and Summarization of Surveillance Video Rub´en Heras Evangelio, Ivo Keller- tion of safety and security surveillance video. By combining the information provided by multiple with the content of the original video. The proposed system has been tested using an extensive set of surveillance

  13. Comments-Oriented Blog Summarization by Sentence Meishan Hu, Aixin Sun and Ee-Peng Lim

    E-print Network

    Aixin, Sun

    Comments-Oriented Blog Summarization by Sentence Extraction Meishan Hu, Aixin Sun and Ee-Peng Lim, Singapore {hu0004an,axsun,aseplim}@ntu.edu.sg ABSTRACT Much existing research on blogs focused on posts only, ignor- ing their comments. Our user study conducted on summa- rizing blog posts, however, showed

  14. SOCQET: Semantic OLAP with Compressed Cube and Summarization Laks V.S. Lakshmanan

    E-print Network

    Pei, Jian

    SOCQET: Semantic OLAP with Compressed Cube and Summarization Laks V.S. Lakshmanan Jian Pei Yan Zhao cube, which can be viewed as a multi-level, multi-dimensional database with aggregate data at multiple granularity. In a data cube, two basic semantic relations among cells are roll up and drill down. A cell c1

  15. A Participant-based Approach for Event Summarization Using Twitter Streams

    E-print Network

    Li, Tao

    , USA {cshen001, taoli}@cs.fiu.edu {fei.liu, fuliang.weng}@us.bosch.com Abstract Twitter offersb; Liu et al., 2012; Eisenstein, 2013). The noisy contents also cause great difficulties to the traA Participant-based Approach for Event Summarization Using Twitter Streams Chao Shen1 , Fei Liu2

  16. Life Goals, Finances and Financial Service Choice Preliminary Report Summarizing Individual Respondents' Financial Life Histories

    E-print Network

    Martin, Jeff

    1 Life Goals, Finances and Financial Service Choice Preliminary Report Summarizing Individual Respondents' Financial Life Histories 16 July 2008 This report was compiled by Jerry Buckland and Antonia Fikkert. A Component of the Research Project: Financial Exclusion & Poverty in Canada: Individual Coping

  17. Revealing Biological Modules via Graph Summarization Saket Navlakha, Michael C. Schatz, and Carl Kingsford

    E-print Network

    Kingsford, Carl

    this definition, put into practice by a GS algorithm, reveals modules that are more biologically enriched than in similar biological processes within protein interaction networks, a natural definition of a moduleRevealing Biological Modules via Graph Summarization Saket Navlakha, Michael C. Schatz, and Carl

  18. Selecting Text Spans for Document Summaries: Heuristics and Metrics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vibhu O. Mittal; Mark Kantrowitz; Jade Goldstein; Jaime G. Carbonell

    1999-01-01

    Human-quality text summarization systems are difficult to d e- sign, and even more difficult to evaluate, in part because doc - uments can differ along several dimensions, such as length, writing style and lexical usage. Nevertheless, certain cue s can often help suggest the selection of sentences for inclu- sion in a summary. This paper presents an analysis of news-

  19. Rewriting and Paraphrasing Source Texts in Second Language Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shi, Ling

    2012-01-01

    The present study is based on interviews with 48 students and 27 instructors in a North American university and explores whether students and professors across faculties share the same views on the use of paraphrased, summarized, and translated texts in four examples of L2 student writing. Participants' comments centered on whether the paraphrases…

  20. Automatic Command Sequence Generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, Forest; Gladded, Roy; Khanampompan, Teerapat

    2007-01-01

    Automatic Sequence Generator (Autogen) Version 3.0 software automatically generates command sequences for the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) and several other JPL spacecraft operated by the multi-mission support team. Autogen uses standard JPL sequencing tools like APGEN, ASP, SEQGEN, and the DOM database to automate the generation of uplink command products, Spacecraft Command Message Format (SCMF) files, and the corresponding ground command products, DSN Keywords Files (DKF). Autogen supports all the major multi-mission mission phases including the cruise, aerobraking, mapping/science, and relay mission phases. Autogen is a Perl script, which functions within the mission operations UNIX environment. It consists of two parts: a set of model files and the autogen Perl script. Autogen encodes the behaviors of the system into a model and encodes algorithms for context sensitive customizations of the modeled behaviors. The model includes knowledge of different mission phases and how the resultant command products must differ for these phases. The executable software portion of Autogen, automates the setup and use of APGEN for constructing a spacecraft activity sequence file (SASF). The setup includes file retrieval through the DOM (Distributed Object Manager), an object database used to store project files. This step retrieves all the needed input files for generating the command products. Depending on the mission phase, Autogen also uses the ASP (Automated Sequence Processor) and SEQGEN to generate the command product sent to the spacecraft. Autogen also provides the means for customizing sequences through the use of configuration files. By automating the majority of the sequencing generation process, Autogen eliminates many sequence generation errors commonly introduced by manually constructing spacecraft command sequences. Through the layering of commands into the sequence by a series of scheduling algorithms, users are able to rapidly and reliably construct the desired uplink command products. With the aid of Autogen, sequences may be produced in a matter of hours instead of weeks, with a significant reduction in the number of people on the sequence team. As a result, the uplink product generation process is significantly streamlined and mission risk is significantly reduced. Autogen is used for operations of MRO, Mars Global Surveyor (MGS), Mars Exploration Rover (MER), Mars Odyssey, and will be used for operations of Phoenix. Autogen Version 3.0 is the operational version of Autogen including the MRO adaptation for the cruise mission phase, and was also used for development of the aerobraking and mapping mission phases for MRO.

  1. Clothes Dryer Automatic Termination Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    TeGrotenhuis, Ward E.

    2014-10-01

    Volume 2: Improved Sensor and Control Designs Many residential clothes dryers on the market today provide automatic cycles that are intended to stop when the clothes are dry, as determined by the final remaining moisture content (RMC). However, testing of automatic termination cycles has shown that many dryers are susceptible to over-drying of loads, leading to excess energy consumption. In particular, tests performed using the DOE Test Procedure in Appendix D2 of 10 CFR 430 subpart B have shown that as much as 62% of the energy used in a cycle may be from over-drying. Volume 1 of this report shows an average of 20% excess energy from over-drying when running automatic cycles with various load compositions and dryer settings. Consequently, improving automatic termination sensors and algorithms has the potential for substantial energy savings in the U.S.

  2. Automatic programming of simulation models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schroer, Bernard J.; Tseng, Fan T.; Zhang, Shou X.; Dwan, Wen S.

    1988-01-01

    The objective of automatic programming is to improve the overall environment for describing the program. This improved environment is realized by a reduction in the amount of detail that the programmer needs to know and is exposed to. Furthermore, this improved environment is achieved by a specification language that is more natural to the user's problem domain and to the user's way of thinking and looking at the problem. The goal of this research is to apply the concepts of automatic programming (AP) to modeling discrete event simulation system. Specific emphasis is on the design and development of simulation tools to assist the modeler define or construct a model of the system and to then automatically write the corresponding simulation code in the target simulation language, GPSS/PC. A related goal is to evaluate the feasibility of various languages for constructing automatic programming simulation tools.

  3. A Step Towards Automatic Documentation

    E-print Network

    Frank, Claude

    This paper describes a system which automatically generates program documentation. Starting with a plan generated by analyzing the program, the system computes several kinds of summary information about the program. The ...

  4. Some Projects in Automatic Programming

    E-print Network

    Goldstein, Ira

    This paper proposes three research topics within the general framework of Automatic Programming. The projects are designing (1) a student programmer, (2) a robot programmer and (3) a physicist's helper. The purpose of these ...

  5. Automatic imitation in budgerigars.

    PubMed

    Mui, Rosetta; Haselgrove, Mark; Pearce, John; Heyes, Cecilia

    2008-11-22

    A fully automated procedure, involving computer-controlled stimulus presentation and computer-recorded response measurement, was used for the first time to study imitation in non-human animals. After preliminary training to peck and step on a manipulandum, budgerigars were given a discrimination task in which they were rewarded with food for pecking during observation of pecking and for stepping during observation of stepping (Compatible group), or for pecking while observing stepping and for stepping while observing pecking (Incompatible group). The Incompatible group, which had to counter-imitate for food reward, showed weaker discrimination performance than the Compatible group. This suggests that, like humans, budgerigars are subject to 'automatic imitation'; they cannot inhibit online the tendency to imitate pecking and/or stepping, even when imitation of these behaviours interferes with the performance of an ongoing task. The difference between the two groups persisted over 10 test sessions, but the Incompatible group eventually acquired the discrimination, making more counter-imitative than imitative responses in the final sessions. These results are consistent with the associative sequence learning model, which suggests that, across species, the development of imitation and the mirror system depends on sensorimotor experience and phylogenetically ancient mechanisms of associative learning. PMID:18664439

  6. Automatic EEG spike detection.

    PubMed

    Harner, Richard

    2009-10-01

    Since the 1970s advances in science and technology during each succeeding decade have renewed the expectation of efficient, reliable automatic epileptiform spike detection (AESD). But even when reinforced with better, faster tools, clinically reliable unsupervised spike detection remains beyond our reach. Expert-selected spike parameters were the first and still most widely used for AESD. Thresholds for amplitude, duration, sharpness, rise-time, fall-time, after-coming slow waves, background frequency, and more have been used. It is still unclear which of these wave parameters are essential, beyond peak-peak amplitude and duration. Wavelet parameters are very appropriate to AESD but need to be combined with other parameters to achieve desired levels of spike detection efficiency. Artificial Neural Network (ANN) and expert-system methods may have reached peak efficiency. Support Vector Machine (SVM) technology focuses on outliers rather than centroids of spike and nonspike data clusters and should improve AESD efficiency. An exemplary spike/nonspike database is suggested as a tool for assessing parameters and methods for AESD and is available in CSV or Matlab formats from the author at brainvue@gmail.com. Exploratory Data Analysis (EDA) is presented as a graphic method for finding better spike parameters and for the step-wise evaluation of the spike detection process. PMID:19780347

  7. Automatic Welding System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Robotic welding has been of interest to industrial firms because it offers higher productivity at lower cost than manual welding. There are some systems with automated arc guidance available, but they have disadvantages, such as limitations on types of materials or types of seams that can be welded; susceptibility to stray electrical signals; restricted field of view; or tendency to contaminate the weld seam. Wanting to overcome these disadvantages, Marshall Space Flight Center, aided by Hayes International Corporation, developed system that uses closed-circuit TV signals for automatic guidance of the welding torch. NASA granted license to Combined Technologies, Inc. for commercial application of the technology. They developed a refined and improved arc guidance system. CTI in turn, licensed the Merrick Corporation, also of Nashville, for marketing and manufacturing of the new system, called the CT2 Optical Trucker. CT2 is a non-contracting system that offers adaptability to broader range of welding jobs and provides greater reliability in high speed operation. It is extremely accurate and can travel at high speed of up to 150 inches per minute.

  8. [The implantable automatic defibrillator].

    PubMed

    Chauvin, M; Jesel, L; Douchet-Krebs, M P

    2004-11-01

    Technical advances in the design of implantable automatic defibrillators have been constant since the introduction of these devices in the mid 80s. The most obvious advance is the miniaturisation of the devices from which all components have benefited. The capacity of the batteries has improved inversely proportionally to their size, even if the longevity has not always lived up to expectations. The volumic energy of the condensers has improved and their technology also, and their size has decreased. Condensers are still usually made by the electrolytic/aluminium method but tantalum technology is bound to become more generalised because it presents so many advantages. Above all, the circuitry has benefited from the progress of micro-electronics, associating miniaturisation with an increase in more and more complex functions...but requiring more electrical current. Of these functions, algorithms to detect arrhythmias has reduced the number of inappropriate shocks but do not yet have excellent specificity either in single or in dual chamber sensing. Defibrillators incorporating a multisite anti-bradycardiac function are more and more popular because of the close relationship between cardiac failure and sudden death. PMID:15609913

  9. Electronically controlled automatic transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Ohkubo, M.; Shiba, H.; Nakamura, K.

    1989-03-28

    This patent describes an electronically controlled automatic transmission having a manual valve working in connection with a manual shift lever, shift valves operated by solenoid valves which are driven by an electronic control circuit previously memorizing shift patterns, and a hydraulic circuit controlled by these manual valve and shift valves for driving brakes and a clutch in order to change speed. Shift patterns of 2-range and L-range, in addition to a shift pattern of D-range, are memorized previously in the electronic control circuit, an operation switch is provided which changes the shift pattern of the electronic control circuit to any shift pattern among those of D-range, 2-range and L-range at time of the manual shift lever being in a D-range position, a releasable lock mechanism is provided which prevents the manual shift lever from entering 2-range and L-range positions, and the hydraulic circuit is set to a third speed mode when the manual shift lever is in the D-range position. The circuit is set to a second speed mode when it is in the 2-range position, and the circuit is set to a first speed mode when it is in the L-range position, respectively, in case where the shift valves are not working.

  10. Automatic safety rod for reactors

    DOEpatents

    Germer, John H. (San Jose, CA)

    1988-01-01

    An automatic safety rod for a nuclear reactor containing neutron absorbing material and designed to be inserted into a reactor core after a loss-of-core flow. Actuation is based upon either a sudden decrease in core pressure drop or the pressure drop decreases below a predetermined minimum value. The automatic control rod includes a pressure regulating device whereby a controlled decrease in operating pressure due to reduced coolant flow does not cause the rod to drop into the core.

  11. Prospects for de-automatization.

    PubMed

    Kihlstrom, John F

    2011-06-01

    Research by Raz and his associates has repeatedly found that suggestions for hypnotic agnosia, administered to highly hypnotizable subjects, reduce or even eliminate Stroop interference. The present paper sought unsuccessfully to extend these findings to negative priming in the Stroop task. Nevertheless, the reduction of Stroop interference has broad theoretical implications, both for our understanding of automaticity and for the prospect of de-automatizing cognition in meditation and other altered states of consciousness. PMID:20356765

  12. Networking automatic test equipment environments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Benetazzo; M. Bertocco; C. Narduzzi

    2005-01-01

    Automatic test equipment (ATE) is a term that, in its broadest meaning, indicates a generic system capable of performing measurements in an automatic or semiautomated (human-assisted) way. Years ago, this term was used specifically to refer to an automated measurement system employed to test the functionality of some electronic device-under-test (DUT). Typical applications were in the manufacturing area, where ATE

  13. Automatic monitoring of software requirements

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Don Cohen; Martin S. Feather; Khaled Narayanaswamy; Stephen S. Fickas

    1997-01-01

    Automatic run-time monitoring of software systems'design- \\/ purchase- \\/ installationtime requirements andassumptions is a key step towards making those systemsmore robust, maintainable, and self-evolving.A concise language has been designed to permit theconvenient expression of a wide range of requirements andassumptions. A compiler automatically converts theseexpressions into run-time monitors to watch for, andreport, all requirement and assumption violations.The mechanism is...

  14. Salomon: Automatic Abstracting of Legal Cases for Effective Access to Court Decisions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Caroline Uyttendaele; Marie-Francine Moens; Jos Dumortier

    1998-01-01

    The SALOMON project is a contribution to the automatic processing of legal texts. Its aim is to automatically summarise Belgian criminal cases in order to improve access to the large number of existing and future cases. Therefore, techniques are developed for identifying and extracting relevant information from the cases. A broader application of these techniques could considerably simplify the work

  15. Automatic classification of citation function Simone Teufel Advaith Siddharthan Dan Tidhar

    E-print Network

    Teufel, Simone

    Automatic classification of citation function Simone Teufel Advaith Siddharthan Dan Tidhar Natural.Teufel,Advaith.Siddharthan,Dan.Tidhar}@cl.cam.ac.uk Abstract The automatic recognition of the rhetori- cal function of citations in scientific text has many citation indexers. Citation function is defined as the author's reason for citing a given pa- per (e

  16. Automatic Collision Avoidance Technology (ACAT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swihart, Donald E.; Skoog, Mark A.

    2007-01-01

    This document represents two views of the Automatic Collision Avoidance Technology (ACAT). One viewgraph presentation reviews the development and system design of Automatic Collision Avoidance Technology (ACAT). Two types of ACAT exist: Automatic Ground Collision Avoidance (AGCAS) and Automatic Air Collision Avoidance (AACAS). The AGCAS Uses Digital Terrain Elevation Data (DTED) for mapping functions, and uses Navigation data to place aircraft on map. It then scans DTED in front of and around aircraft and uses future aircraft trajectory (5g) to provide automatic flyup maneuver when required. The AACAS uses data link to determine position and closing rate. It contains several canned maneuvers to avoid collision. Automatic maneuvers can occur at last instant and both aircraft maneuver when using data link. The system can use sensor in place of data link. The second viewgraph presentation reviews the development of a flight test and an evaluation of the test. A review of the operation and comparison of the AGCAS and a pilot's performance are given. The same review is given for the AACAS is given.

  17. Coal mineralogies by SEM automatic image analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Huggins, F.E.; Kosmack, D.A.; Huffman, G.P.; Lee, R.J.

    1980-01-01

    Procedures for using SEM automatic image analysis (AIA) to obtain quantitative mineralogical descriptions of coals are updated from our earlier description (SEM/1978/I, pp. 561-568), as improvements have been made in many aspects of the method. Experiments designed to test the precision and accuracy of the method indicate that its precision is comparable to that of other techniques, but that it overestimates pyrite because the contrast of this mineral in the BSE image is much higher than that of all other common minerals. A multiplicative correction factor of about 0.75 for pyrite or indepedent measures of pyrite will ensure the most accurate results by the SEM-AIA method. As the SEM-AIA technique is applied directly to the coal, is more sensitive to minor constituents than other methods, and yields information on the distribution of particle-size parameters, it compares well with other techniques for quantitative coal mineralogies. Results obtained with this technique are summarized for two applications: mineralogical changes effected by washing and reconstructions of paleoenvironments for coal quality delineation. (18 refs.)

  18. Automatic addressing of telemetry channels

    SciTech Connect

    Lucero, L A

    1982-08-01

    To simplify telemetry software development, a design that eliminates the use of software instructions to address telemetry channels is being implemented in our telemetry systems. By using the direct memory access function of the RCA 1802 microprocessor, once initialized, addressing of telemetry channels is automatic, requiring no software. In this report the automatic addressing of telemetry channels (AATC) scheme is compared with an earlier technique that uses software. In comparison, the automatic addressing scheme effectively increases the software capability of the microprocessor, simplifies telemetry dataset encoding, eases dataset changes, and may decrease the electronic hardware count. The software addressing technique uses at least three instructions to address each channel. The automatic addressing technique requires no software instructions. Instead, addressing is performed using a direct memory access cycle stealing technique. Application of an early version of this addressing scheme to telemetry Type 1, Dataset 3, opened up the capability to execute 400 more microprocessor instructions than could be executed using the software addressing scheme. The present version of the automatic addressing scheme uses a section of PROM reserved for telemetry channel addresses. Encoding for a dataset is accomplished by programming the PROM with channel addresses in the order they are to be monitored. The telemetry Type 2 software was written using the software addressing scheme, then rewritten using the automatic addressing scheme. While 1000 bytes of memory were required by the software addressing scheme, the automatic addressing scheme required only 396 bytes. A number of prototypes using AATC have been built and tested in a full telemetry lab unit. All have worked successfully.

  19. Important Text Characteristics for Early-Grades Text Complexity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzgerald, Jill; Elmore, Jeff; Koons, Heather; Hiebert, Elfrieda H.; Bowen, Kimberly; Sanford-Moore, Eleanor E.; Stenner, A. Jackson

    2015-01-01

    The Common Core set a standard for all children to read increasingly complex texts throughout schooling. The purpose of the present study was to explore text characteristics specifically in relation to early-grades text complexity. Three hundred fifty primary-grades texts were selected and digitized. Twenty-two text characteristics were identified…

  20. Automatic detection and recognition of signs from natural scenes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xilin Chen; Jie Yang; Jing Zhang; Alex Waibel

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, we present an approach to automatic detection and recognition of signs from natural scenes, and its application to a sign translation task. The proposed approach embeds multiresolution and multiscale edge detection, adaptive searching, color analysis, and affine rectification in a hierarchical framework for sign detection, with different emphases at each phase to handle the text in different

  1. A Comparison of Automatic Email Categorization Algorithms on Enron

    E-print Network

    de Freitas, Nando

    A Comparison of Automatic Email Categorization Algorithms on Enron Anonymous Author(s) Affiliation Address email Abstract More and more people are dealing with email every day. Large quantities of emails there are a lot of text categorization methods, email categorization, due to many of its unique characteristics

  2. Automatic Generation of Talk Show from Dialog using TVML

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Masaki HAYASHI; Yuko GAKUMAZAWA; Yuko YAMANOUCHI

    We have described the automatic generation of a talk-show program from input dialog using TVML (TV program Making Language). TVML is a text-based language that we have designed to describe a complete television program. We have also developed a TVML Player to read in a program script written in TVML one line at a time and generate program video and

  3. Automatic Content-based Categorization of Wikipedia Articles Zeno Gantner

    E-print Network

    Schmidt-Thieme, Lars

    Automatic Content-based Categorization of Wikipedia Articles Zeno Gantner University of Hildesheim schmidt-thieme@ismll.de Abstract Wikipedia's article contents and its cate- gory hierarchy are widely used articles ­ has attracted less attention so far. We propose to "return the favor" and use text classi- fiers

  4. Linguistic Steganography Using Automatically Generated Paraphrases Ching-Yun Chang

    E-print Network

    Koehn, Philipp

    Linguistic Steganography Using Automatically Generated Paraphrases Ching-Yun Chang University of our work is to integrate text paraphrasing into a Linguistic Steganography system, by using and use- ful source of transformations for Linguistic Steganography, and show that our method for checking

  5. Using corpus statistics to remove redundant words in text categorization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yiming Yang; John W. Wilbur

    1996-01-01

    This article studies aggressive word removal in text\\u000a categorization to reduce the noise in free texts and to\\u000a enhance the computational efficiency of categorization. We\\u000a use a novel stop word identification method to\\u000a automatically generate domain-specific stoplists which are\\u000a much larger than a conventional domain-independent\\u000a stoplist. In our tests with three categorization methods\\u000a on text collections from different domains\\/applications,\\u000a significant

  6. Intermediate leak protection/automatic shutdown for B and W helical coil steam generator

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-01-01

    The report summarizes a follow-on study to the multi-tiered Intermediate Leak/Automatic Shutdown System report. It makes the automatic shutdown system specific to the Babcock and Wilcox (B and W) helical coil steam generator and to the Large Development LMFBR Plant. Threshold leak criteria specific to this steam generator design are developed, and performance predictions are presented for a multi-tier intermediate leak, automatic shutdown system applied to this unit. Preliminary performance predictions for application to the helical coil steam generator were given in the referenced report; for the most part, these predictions have been confirmed. The importance of including a cover gas hydrogen meter in this unit is demonstrated by calculation of a response time one-fifth that of an in-sodium meter at hot standby and refueling conditions.

  7. Filtering artificial texts with statistical machine learning techniques

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas Lavergne; Tanguy Urvoy; François Yvon

    2011-01-01

    Fake content is flourishing on the Internet, ranging from basic random word salads to web scraping. Most of this fake content\\u000a is generated for the purpose of nourishing fake web sites aimed at biasing search engine indexes: at the scale of a search\\u000a engine, using automatically generated texts render such sites harder to detect than using copies of existing pages.

  8. A systematic review of named entity recognition in biomedical texts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rodrigo Rafael Villarreal Goulart; Clarissa Castellã Xavier

    2011-01-01

    Biomedical Named Entities (NEs) are phrases or combinations of phrases that denote specific objects or groups of objects in\\u000a the biomedical literature. Research on Named Entity Recognition (NER) is one of the most disseminated activities in the automatic\\u000a processing of biomedical scientific articles. We analyzed articles relevant to NER in biomedical texts, in the period from\\u000a 2007 to 2009, through

  9. Automatic rapid attachable warhead section

    DOEpatents

    Trennel, A.J.

    1994-05-10

    Disclosed are a method and apparatus for automatically selecting warheads or reentry vehicles from a storage area containing a plurality of types of warheads or reentry vehicles, automatically selecting weapon carriers from a storage area containing at least one type of weapon carrier, manipulating and aligning the selected warheads or reentry vehicles and weapon carriers, and automatically coupling the warheads or reentry vehicles with the weapon carriers such that coupling of improperly selected warheads or reentry vehicles with weapon carriers is inhibited. Such inhibition enhances safety of operations and is achieved by a number of means including computer control of the process of selection and coupling and use of connectorless interfaces capable of assuring that improperly selected items will be rejected or rendered inoperable prior to coupling. Also disclosed are a method and apparatus wherein the stated principles pertaining to selection, coupling and inhibition are extended to apply to any item-to-be-carried and any carrying assembly. 10 figures.

  10. Toward the automatic flow solver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakahashi, Kazuhiro

    For achieving an automation of flow computations, a fully-automatic grid generator together with an unstructured upwind method are developed. The unstructured grid is generated using two techniques; geometry-adaptive refinement and solution-adaptive refinement. The geometry-adaptive refinement introduces the information of flowfield geometry into the grid, and the solution-adaptive refinement introduces the fluid physics. A combination of these two techniques enables a fully automatic grid generator in which the user is not always requested to have knowledge of and experience in Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). The flux-vector splitting method of Van Leer for the Euler equations is extended for the use on the arbitrarily-shaped unstructured meshes. This robust upwind flow solver with the automatic grid generator can be a useful CFD tool for engineering routine works. The method is applied to external and internal flow problems to demonstrate its capability.

  11. Automatic programming of simulation models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schroer, Bernard J.; Tseng, Fan T.; Zhang, Shou X.; Dwan, Wen S.

    1990-01-01

    The concepts of software engineering were used to improve the simulation modeling environment. Emphasis was placed on the application of an element of rapid prototyping, or automatic programming, to assist the modeler define the problem specification. Then, once the problem specification has been defined, an automatic code generator is used to write the simulation code. The following two domains were selected for evaluating the concepts of software engineering for discrete event simulation: manufacturing domain and a spacecraft countdown network sequence. The specific tasks were to: (1) define the software requirements for a graphical user interface to the Automatic Manufacturing Programming System (AMPS) system; (2) develop a graphical user interface for AMPS; and (3) compare the AMPS graphical interface with the AMPS interactive user interface.

  12. Automatic rapid attachable warhead section

    DOEpatents

    Trennel, Anthony J. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1994-05-10

    Disclosed are a method and apparatus for (1) automatically selecting warheads or reentry vehicles from a storage area containing a plurality of types of warheads or reentry vehicles, (2) automatically selecting weapon carriers from a storage area containing at least one type of weapon carrier, (3) manipulating and aligning the selected warheads or reentry vehicles and weapon carriers, and (4) automatically coupling the warheads or reentry vehicles with the weapon carriers such that coupling of improperly selected warheads or reentry vehicles with weapon carriers is inhibited. Such inhibition enhances safety of operations and is achieved by a number of means including computer control of the process of selection and coupling and use of connectorless interfaces capable of assuring that improperly selected items will be rejected or rendered inoperable prior to coupling. Also disclosed are a method and apparatus wherein the stated principles pertaining to selection, coupling and inhibition are extended to apply to any item-to-be-carried and any carrying assembly.

  13. On the notions of theme and topic in psychological process models of text comprehension

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Walter Kintsch

    2002-01-01

    Running Head : Process models of comprehension Abstract : Latent semantic analysis (LSA) is used to define the theme of a text and to generate summaries automatically. The theme information - the already known information - in a text can be represented as a vector in semantic space; the text provides new information about this theme, potentially modifying and expanding

  14. Functional Semantic Categories for Art History Text: Human Labeling and Preliminary Machine Learning ?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rebecca J. Passonneau; Tae Yano; Tom Lippincott; Judith Klavans

    The CLiMB project investigates semi-automatic methods to extract descriptive metadata from texts for indexing digital image collections. We devel- oped a set of functional semantic categories to classify text extracts that describe images. Each semantic category names a functional relation between an image depicting a work of art historical significance, and expository text associated with the image. This includes description

  15. Featurizing Text: Converting Text into Predictors for Regression Analysis

    E-print Network

    Stine, Robert A.

    : sentiment analysis, n-gram, latent semantic analysis, text mining Research supported by NSF grant 1106743 1 text with numerical data suitable for in regres- sion analysis. For example, patient medical recordsFeaturizing Text: Converting Text into Predictors for Regression Analysis Dean P. Foster Mark

  16. Comment on se rappelle et on resume des histoires (How We Remember and Summarize Stories)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kintsch, Walter; Van Dijk, Teun A.

    1975-01-01

    Working from theories of text grammar and logic, the authors suggest and tentatively confirm several hypotheses concerning the role of micro- and macro-structures in comprehension and recall of texts. (Text is in French.) (DB)

  17. An Enterprise Ontology Building the Bases for Automatic Metadata Generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thönssen, Barbara

    'Information Overload' or 'Document Deluge' is a problem enterprises and Public Administrations alike are still dealing with. Although commercial products for Enterprise Content or Records Management are available since more than two decades, especially in Small and Medium Enterprises and Public Administrations they didn't get through. Because of the wide range of document types and formats full-text indexing is not sufficient, but assigning metadata manually is not possible. Thus, automatic, format-independent generation of metadata for (public) enterprise documents is needed. Using context to infer metadata automatically has been researched for example for web-documents or learning objects. If (public) enterprise objects were modelled 'machine understandable' they could be build the context for automatic metadata generation. The approach introduced in this paper is to model context (the (public) enterprise objects) in an ontology and using that ontology to infer content-related metadata.

  18. [Automatic segmentation and annotation in radiology].

    PubMed

    Dankerl, P; Cavallaro, A; Uder, M; Hammon, M

    2014-03-01

    The technical progress and broader indications for cross-sectional imaging continuously increase the number of radiological images to be assessed. However, as the amount of image information and available resources (radiologists) do not increase at the same pace and the standards of radiological interpretation and reporting remain consistently high, radiologists have to rely on computer-based support systems. Novel semantic technologies and software relying on structured ontological knowledge are able to "understand" text and image information and interconnect both. This allows complex database queries with both the input of text and image information to be accomplished. Furthermore, semantic software in combination with automatic detection and segmentation of organs and body regions facilitates personalized supportive information in topographical accordance and generates additional information, such as organ volumes. These technologies promise improvements in workflow; however, great efforts and close cooperation between developers and users still lie ahead. PMID:24522625

  19. Mining the Text: 34 Text Features that Can Ease or Obstruct Text Comprehension and Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Sheida

    2012-01-01

    This article presents 34 characteristics of texts and tasks ("text features") that can make continuous (prose), noncontinuous (document), and quantitative texts easier or more difficult for adolescents and adults to comprehend and use. The text features were identified by examining the assessment tasks and associated texts in the national…

  20. Automatic Utterance Type Detection Using Suprasegmental Features 

    E-print Network

    Wright, Helen

    The goal of the work presented here is to automatically predict the type of an utterance in spoken dialogue by using automatically extracted suprasegmental information. For this task we present and compare three stochastic ...

  1. Automatisms: bridging clinical neurology with criminal law.

    PubMed

    Rolnick, Joshua; Parvizi, Josef

    2011-03-01

    The law, like neurology, grapples with the relationship between disease states and behavior. Sometimes, the two disciplines share the same terminology, such as automatism. In law, the "automatism defense" is a claim that action was involuntary or performed while unconscious. Someone charged with a serious crime can acknowledge committing the act and yet may go free if, relying on the expert testimony of clinicians, the court determines that the act of crime was committed in a state of automatism. In this review, we explore the relationship between the use of automatism in the legal and clinical literature. We close by addressing several issues raised by the automatism defense: semantic ambiguity surrounding the term automatism, the presence or absence of consciousness during automatisms, and the methodological obstacles that have hindered the study of cognition during automatisms. PMID:21145287

  2. Automatic caption generation for news images 

    E-print Network

    Feng, Yansong

    2011-06-30

    This thesis is concerned with the task of automatically generating captions for images, which is important for many image-related applications. Automatic description generation for video frames would help security ...

  3. Evaluating Automatic Summaries of Meeting Recordings 

    E-print Network

    Murray, Gabriel; Renals, Steve; Carletta, Jean; Moore, Johanna

    2005-01-01

    The research below explores schemes for evaluating automatic summaries of business meetings, using the ICSI Meeting Corpus. Both automatic and subjective evaluations were carried out, with a central interest being whether ...

  4. Text Complexity and the CCSS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aspen Institute, 2012

    2012-01-01

    What is meant by text complexity is a measurement of how challenging a particular text is to read. There are a myriad of different ways of explaining what makes text challenging to read, from the sophistication of the vocabulary employed to the length of its sentences to even measurements of how the text as a whole coheres. Research shows that no…

  5. The Challenge of Challenging Text

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shanahan, Timothy; Fisher, Douglas; Frey, Nancy

    2012-01-01

    The Common Core State Standards emphasize the value of teaching students to engage with complex text. But what exactly makes a text complex, and how can teachers help students develop their ability to learn from such texts? The authors of this article discuss five factors that determine text complexity: vocabulary, sentence structure, coherence,…

  6. Semi-Supervised Data Summarization: Using Spectral Libraries to Improve Hyperspectral Clustering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wagstaff, K. L.; Shu, H. P.; Mazzoni, D.; Castano, R.

    2005-01-01

    Hyperspectral imagers produce very large images, with each pixel recorded at hundreds or thousands of different wavelengths. The ability to automatically generate summaries of these data sets enables several important applications, such as quickly browsing through a large image repository or determining the best use of a limited bandwidth link (e.g., determining which images are most critical for full transmission). Clustering algorithms can be used to generate these summaries, but traditional clustering methods make decisions based only on the information contained in the data set. In contrast, we present a new method that additionally leverages existing spectral libraries to identify materials that are likely to be present in the image target area. We find that this approach simultaneously reduces runtime and produces summaries that are more relevant to science goals.

  7. Semi-Supervised Data Summarization: Using Spectral Libraries to Improve Hyperspectral Clustering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagstaff, K. L.; Shu, H. P.; Mazzoni, D.; Castano, R.

    2005-11-01

    Hyperspectral imagers produce very large images, with each pixel recorded at hundreds or thousands of different wavelengths. The ability to automatically generate summaries of these data sets enables several important applications, such as quickly browsing through a large image repository or determining the best use of a limited bandwidth link (e.g., determining which images are most critical for full transmission). Clustering algorithms can be used to generate these summaries, but traditional clustering methods make decisions based only on the information contained in the data set. In contrast, we present a new method that additionally leverages existing spectral libraries to identify materials that are likely to be present in the image target area. We find that this approach simultaneously reduces runtime and produces summaries that are more relevant to science goals.

  8. Automatic Validation of Numerical Solutions

    E-print Network

    Mosegaard, Klaus

    . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 3 Taylor's Theorem and the mean value enclosure 15 3.1 The interval Newton and Krawczyk methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 4.1.1 The mean value enclosure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 4.1.2 The extended mean value of initial value problems . . . . . . . . . . . 66 6.3.1 An automatic differentiation interval ordinary

  9. An automatic adiabatic bomb calorimeter

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W F Raymond; R J Canaway; C E Harris

    1957-01-01

    The paper details the conversion of an existing isothermal bomb calorimeter to an adiabatic calorimeter with automatic control. Thermistors in the inner and outer vessels are included in two arms of an a.c. Wheatstone bridge: any rise in temperature of the inner vessel above that of the outer vessel results in phase reversal of the output voltage from the bridge,

  10. Automatic Piping System in Ship

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ubald Nienhuis

    One of the most complicated and time-consuming process in ship production is to determine the optimum route of piping. The automatic system to generate optimum collision free routes for pipes is presented in this paper. In the past, research has been primarily focused on the use of only deterministic or only nondeterministic optimization techniques to find the optimal route. In

  11. Automatic Labeling of Prosodic Events

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Norbert Braunschweiler

    2000-01-01

    An approach for a program is presented that automatically detects the position of pitch accents and intonation phrase (IP) boundaries from waveforms. The technique maps acoustic correlate bundles to prosodic labels by inspecting the course of F0 and intensity. Within an analysis frame specific criteria are applied to select possible candidates of pitch accents and IP-boundaries. The system works without

  12. Automatic Optimization of Dialogue Management

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Diane J. Litman; Michael S. Kearns; Satinder P. Singh; Marilyn A. Walker

    2000-01-01

    Designing the dialogue strategy of a spoken dialogue system involves many nontrivial choices. This paper presents a reinforcement learning approach for automatically optimizing a dialogue strategy that addresses the technical challenges in applying reinforcement learning to a working dialogue system with human users. We then show that our approach measurably improves performance in an experimental system.

  13. Automatic Refinement Checking for B

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Leuschel; Michael J. Butler

    2005-01-01

    While refinement is at the heart of the B Method so far no automatic refinement checker has been developed for it. In this paper we present a refinement checking algorithm and implementation for B. It is based on using an operational semantics of B, obtained in practice by the ProB animator. The refinement checker has been integrated into ProB toolset

  14. Automatically classifying emails into activities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark Dredze; Tessa A. Lau; Nicholas Kushmerick

    2006-01-01

    Email-based activity management systems promise to give users better tools for managing increasing volumes of email, by organizing email according to a user's activities. Current activity management systems do not automatically classify incoming messages by the activity to which they belong, in- stead relying on simple heuristics (such as message threads), or asking the user to manually classify incoming messages

  15. Automatic generation of technical documentation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ehud Reiter; Chris Mellish; John Levine

    1995-01-01

    Natural-language generation (NLG) techniques can be used to automatically produce technical documentation from a domain knowledge base and linguistic and contextual models. We discuss this application of NLG technology from both a technical and a usefulness (costs and benefits) perspective. This discus- sion is based largely on our experiences with the idas documentation-generation project, and the reactions various interested people

  16. Automatic Image Retargeting Vidya Setlur

    E-print Network

    Gooch, Bruce

    Automatic Image Retargeting Vidya Setlur Northwestern University and Nokia Research Center Saeko functional realism rather than photo-realism by image retargeting. (a) The source image containing three areas of higher importance, the two boys, and the ball. (b) The source image retargeted to fit a PDA

  17. Automatic generation of amendment legislation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Timothy Arnold-Moore

    1997-01-01

    The Themis system is an integrated drafting environment for legislation which automatically generates the wording of amending legislation in the textual amendment style. Themis provides the legislative drafter with a version of the Act or Regulation to be amended on which the drafter marks the amendments directly. From these marked changes, the system generates an amending Act or Statutory Rule

  18. The Virgo automatic alignment system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Acernese; P. Amico; M. Al-Shourbagy; S. Aoudia; S. Avino; D. Babusci; G. Ballardin; R. Barillé; F. Barone; L. Barsotti; M. Barsuglia; F. Beauville; M. A. Bizouard; C. Boccara; F. Bondu; L. Bosi; C. Bradaschia; S. Braccini; A. Brillet; V. Brisson; L. Brocco; D. Buskulic; E. Calloni; E. Campagna; F. Cavalier; R. Cavalieri; G. Cella; E. Chassande-Mottin; C. Corda; A.-C. Clapson; F. Cleva; J.-P. Coulon; E. Cuoco; V. Dattilo; M. Davier; R. De Rosa; L. Di Fiore; A. Di Virgilio; B. Dujardin; A. Eleuteri; D. Enard; I. Ferrante; F. Fidecaro; I. Fiori; R. Flaminio; J.-D. Fournier; S. Frasca; F. Frasconi; A. Freise; L. Gammaitoni; A. Gennai; A. Giazotto; G. Giordano; L. Giordano; R. Gouaty; D. Grosjean; G. Guidi; S. Hebri; H. Heitmann; P. Hello; L. Holloway; S. Kreckelbergh; P. La Penna; V. Loriette; M. Loupias; G. Losurdo; J.-M. Mackowski; E. Majorana; C. N. Man; M. Mantovani; F. Marchesoni; F. Marion; J. Marque; F. Martelli; A. Masserot; M. Mazzoni; L. Milano; C. Moins; J. Moreau; N. Morgado; B. Mours; A. Pai; C. Palomba; F. Paoletti; S. Pardi; A. Pasqualetti; R. Passaquieti; D. Passuello; B. Perniola; F. Piergiovanni; L. Pinard; R. Poggiani; M. Punturo; P. Puppo; K. Qipiani; P. Rapagnani; V. Reita; A. Remillieux; F. Ricci; I. Ricciardi; P. Ruggi; G. Russo; S. Solimeno; A. Spallicci; R. Stanga; R. Taddei; D. Tombolato; M. Tonelli; A. Toncelli; E. Tournefier; F. Travasso; G. Vajente; D. Verkindt; F. Vetrano; A. Viceré; J.-Y. Vinet; H. Vocca; M. Yvert; Z. Zhang

    2006-01-01

    The automatic alignment system of the Virgo interferometer differs substantially from those used in similar experiments, since it uses a variant of the Anderson technique. This implies a completely different control topology with respect to other detectors, and the main feature is a strong coupling of different degrees of freedom in the optical signals. It also provides two extra output

  19. Automatic recognition of film genres

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephan Fischer; Rainer Lienhart; Wolfgang Effelsberg

    1995-01-01

    Film genres in digital video can be detected automatically. In a three-step approach we analyze first the syntactic properties of digital films: color statistics, cut detection, camera motion, object motion and audio. In a second step we use these statistics to derive at a more abstract level film style attributes such as camera panning and zooming, speech and music. These

  20. Automatic Detection of Human Nudes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David A. Forsyth; Margaret M. Fleck

    1999-01-01

    This paper demonstrates an automatic system for telling whether there are human nudes present in an image. The system marks skin-like pixels using combined color and texture properties. These skin regions are then fed to a specialized grouper, which attempts to group a human figure using geometric constraints on human structure. If the grouper finds a sufficiently complex structure, the

  1. Systematic Characterizations of Text Similarity in Full Text Biomedical Publications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhaohui Sun; Mounir Errami; Tara Long; Chris Renard; Nishant Choradia; Harold Garner; Walter H. Curioso

    2010-01-01

    BackgroundComputational methods have been used to find duplicate biomedical publications in MEDLINE. Full text articles are becoming increasingly available, yet the similarities among them have not been systematically studied. Here, we quantitatively investigated the full text similarity of biomedical publications in PubMed Central.Methodology\\/Principal Findings72,011 full text articles from PubMed Central (PMC) were parsed to generate three different datasets: full texts,

  2. A New Block Partitioned Text Feature for Text Verification

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiufei Wang; Lei Huang; Changping Liu

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, a new feature for text verification is proposed. The difficulties for the selection of features for text verification (FTV) are first discussed, followed by two principles for the FTV: the FTV should minimize the influence of backgrounds, and it should also be expressive enough for all the texts varied in structures prominently. In this paper, we exploit

  3. A Web marketing system with automatic pricing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Naoki Abe; Tomonari Kamba

    2000-01-01

    We propose a new scheme ofautomatic pricing' for digital contents, and describe an implemented system as well as concrete pricing algorithms for it. Automatic pricing refers to a methodology of automatically setting sales prices to optimal prices, based on past prices and sales. In particular, we consider the case in which automatic pricing is done in order to maximize the

  4. PROPERTIES OF AGEBASED AUTOMATIC MEMORY RECLAMATION ALGORITHMS

    E-print Network

    Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

    PROPERTIES OF AGE­BASED AUTOMATIC MEMORY RECLAMATION ALGORITHMS A Dissertation Presented by DARKO­BASED AUTOMATIC MEMORY RECLAMATION ALGORITHMS A Dissertation Presented by DARKO STEFANOVI â?? C Approved as to style­BASED AUTOMATIC MEMORY RECLAMATION ALGORITHMS FEBRUARY 1999 DARKO STEFANOVI â?? C Dipl.Ing., UNIVERSITY OF BELGRADE

  5. Exploiting Attribute Grammars to Achieve Automatic Tupling

    E-print Network

    Utrecht, Universiteit

    Exploiting Attribute Grammars to Achieve Automatic Tupling Jeroen Bransen Atze Dijkstra S. Doaitse Attribute Grammars to Achieve Automatic Tupling Jeroen Bransen, Atze Dijkstra, and S. Doaitse Swierstra is done automatically. In this paper we show how we can get tupling for free by using attribute grammars

  6. Self-Compassion and Automatic Thoughts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akin, Ahmet

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this research is to examine the relationships between self-compassion and automatic thoughts. Participants were 299 university students. In this study, the Self-compassion Scale and the Automatic Thoughts Questionnaire were used. The relationships between self-compassion and automatic thoughts were examined using correlation analysis…

  7. Summarizing benchmarks in the national database of nursing quality indicators using bootstrap confidence intervals.

    PubMed

    Gajewski, Byron; Hall, Matthew; Dunton, Nancy

    2007-02-01

    When summarizing the benchmarks for nursing quality indicators with confidence intervals around the means, bounds too high or too low are sometimes found due to small sample size or violation of the normality assumption. Transforming the data or truncating the confidence intervals at realistic values can solve the problem of out of range values. However, truncation does not improve upon the non-normality of the data, and transformations are not always successful in normalizing the data. The percentile bootstrap has the advantage of providing realistic bounds while not relying upon the assumption of normality and may provide a convenient way of obtaining appropriate confidence intervals around the mean for nursing quality indicators. PMID:17243112

  8. Interactive exploration of surveillance video through action shot summarization and trajectory visualization.

    PubMed

    Meghdadi, Amir H; Irani, Pourang

    2013-12-01

    We propose a novel video visual analytics system for interactive exploration of surveillance video data. Our approach consists of providing analysts with various views of information related to moving objects in a video. To do this we first extract each object's movement path. We visualize each movement by (a) creating a single action shot image (a still image that coalesces multiple frames), (b) plotting its trajectory in a space-time cube and (c) displaying an overall timeline view of all the movements. The action shots provide a still view of the moving object while the path view presents movement properties such as speed and location. We also provide tools for spatial and temporal filtering based on regions of interest. This allows analysts to filter out large amounts of movement activities while the action shot representation summarizes the content of each movement. We incorporated this multi-part visual representation of moving objects in sViSIT, a tool to facilitate browsing through the video content by interactive querying and retrieval of data. Based on our interaction with security personnel who routinely interact with surveillance video data, we identified some of the most common tasks performed. This resulted in designing a user study to measure time-to-completion of the various tasks. These generally required searching for specific events of interest (targets) in videos. Fourteen different tasks were designed and a total of 120 min of surveillance video were recorded (indoor and outdoor locations recording movements of people and vehicles). The time-to-completion of these tasks were compared against a manual fast forward video browsing guided with movement detection. We demonstrate how our system can facilitate lengthy video exploration and significantly reduce browsing time to find events of interest. Reports from expert users identify positive aspects of our approach which we summarize in our recommendations for future video visual analytics systems. PMID:24051778

  9. Use of a New Set of Linguistic Features to Improve Automatic Assessment of Text Readability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoshimi, Takehiko; Kotani, Katsunori; Isahara, Hitoshi

    2012-01-01

    The present paper proposes and evaluates a readability assessment method designed for Japanese learners of EFL (English as a foreign language). The proposed readability assessment method is constructed by a regression algorithm using a new set of linguistic features that were employed separately in previous studies. The results showed that the…

  10. Automatic extraction of relations between medical concepts in clinical texts Corresponding Author: Bryan Rink

    E-print Network

    Harabagiu, Sanda M.

    the classifier. Results The techniques reported in this paper were evaluated in the 2010 i2b2 Challenge mining from electronic medical records (EMR), the 2010 i2b2/VA NLP challenge [2] considered a task of relation extraction from EMRs. The organizers of the 2010 i2b2 Challenge have provided two sets

  11. Other-Anaphora Resolution in Biomedical Texts with Automatically Mined Patterns

    E-print Network

    Tan, Chew Lim

    Xiaofeng$ , Su Jian^ and Tan Chew Lim* #* School of Computing, National University of Singapore a supper set "transcription factors" that in- cludes the antecedent. The anaphor and antece- dent thus have

  12. Automatically Producing Plot Unit Representations for Narrative Text Dept. of Computer Science

    E-print Network

    Daume III, Hal

    Science University of Maryland College Park, MD 20742 amit@umiacs.umd.edu Ellen Riloff School of Computing University of Maryland College Park, MD 20742 hal@umiacs.umd.edu Abstract In the 1980s, plot units were eaten is bad. Similarly, "the man fed the dog" pro- duces a positive state for the dog because being fed

  13. Automatic computation of CHA2DS2-VASc score: Information extraction from clinical texts

    E-print Network

    Zweigenbaum, Pierre

    for a patient, for instance their smoking status,[6] obesity status,[7] or the presence of a congestive heart in the final score: (i) Congestive heart failure or left ventricular dysfunction, 1 pt, (ii) Hypertension, 1 pt, or thromboembolism, 2 pts, (vi) Vascular disease (prior myocardial infarction, peripheral artery disease, aortic

  14. Evaluating a variety of text-mined features for automatic protein function prediction with GOstruct.

    PubMed

    Funk, Christopher S; Kahanda, Indika; Ben-Hur, Asa; Verspoor, Karin M

    2015-01-01

    Most computational methods that predict protein function do not take advantage of the large amount of information contained in the biomedical literature. In this work we evaluate both ontology term co-mention and bag-of-words features mined from the biomedical literature and analyze their impact in the context of a structured output support vector machine model, GOstruct. We find that even simple literature based features are useful for predicting human protein function (F-max: Molecular Function =0.408, Biological Process =0.461, Cellular Component =0.608). One advantage of using literature features is their ability to offer easy verification of automated predictions. We find through manual inspection of misclassifications that some false positive predictions could be biologically valid predictions based upon support extracted from the literature. Additionally, we present a "medium-throughput" pipeline that was used to annotate a large subset of co-mentions; we suggest that this strategy could help to speed up the rate at which proteins are curated. PMID:26005564

  15. Automatic Extraction of Data Points and Text Blocks from 2-Dimensional Plots in Digital Documents

    E-print Network

    Giles, C. Lee

    present their most important results in the form of figures (in scientific articles, financial reports in Copyright c 2008, Association for the Advancement of Artificial Intelligence (www.aaai.org). All rights analysis and machine learning algorithms that extract data and metadata related to it from the figures

  16. Automatically Detecting Acute Myocardial Infarction Events from EHR Text: A Preliminary Study

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Jiaping; Yarzebski, Jorge; Ramesh, Balaji Polepalli; Goldberg, Robert J.; Yu, Hong

    2014-01-01

    The Worcester Heart Attack Study (WHAS) is a population-based surveillance project examining trends in the incidence, in-hospital, and long-term survival rates of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) among residents of central Massachusetts. It provides insights into various aspects of AMI. Much of the data has been assessed manually. We are developing supervised machine learning approaches to automate this process. Since the existing WHAS data cannot be used directly for an automated system, we first annotated the AMI information in electronic health records (EHR). With strict inter-annotator agreement over 0.74 and un-strict agreement over 0.9 of Cohen’s ?, we annotated 105 EHR discharge summaries (135k tokens). Subsequently, we applied the state-of-the-art supervised machine-learning model, Conditional Random Fields (CRFs) for AMI detection. We explored different approaches to overcome the data sparseness challenge and our results showed that cluster-based word features achieved the highest performance. PMID:25954440

  17. Intelligent Text Retrieval and Knowledge Acquisition from Texts for NASA Applications: Preprocessing Issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    In this contract, which is a component of a larger contract that we plan to submit in the coming months, we plan to study the preprocessing issues which arise in applying natural language processing techniques to NASA-KSC problem reports. The goals of this work will be to deal with the issues of: a) automatically obtaining the problem reports from NASA-KSC data bases, b) the format of these reports and c) the conversion of these reports to a format that will be adequate for our natural language software. At the end of this contract, we expect that these problems will be solved and that we will be ready to apply our natural language software to a text database of over 1000 KSC problem reports.

  18. Choosing Software for Text Processing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Robert M.

    1983-01-01

    Review of text processing software for microcomputers covers data entry, text editing, document formatting, and spelling and proofreading programs including "Wordstar,""PeachText,""PerfectWriter,""Select," and "The Word Plus.""The Whole Earth Software Catalog" and a new terminal to be manufactured for OCLC by IBM are mentioned. (EJS)

  19. Informational Text and the CCSS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aspen Institute, 2012

    2012-01-01

    What constitutes an informational text covers a broad swath of different types of texts. Biographies & memoirs, speeches, opinion pieces & argumentative essays, and historical, scientific or technical accounts of a non-narrative nature are all included in what the Common Core State Standards (CCSS) envisions as informational text. Also included…

  20. Too Dumb for Complex Texts?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauerlein, Mark

    2011-01-01

    High school students' lack of experience and practice with reading complex texts is a primary cause of their difficulties with college-level reading. Filling the syllabus with digital texts does little to address this deficiency. Complex texts demand three dispositions from readers: a willingness to probe works characterized by dense meanings, the…

  1. ParaText : scalable text analysis and visualization.

    SciTech Connect

    Dunlavy, Daniel M.; Stanton, Eric T.; Shead, Timothy M.

    2010-07-01

    Automated analysis of unstructured text documents (e.g., web pages, newswire articles, research publications, business reports) is a key capability for solving important problems in areas including decision making, risk assessment, social network analysis, intelligence analysis, scholarly research and others. However, as data sizes continue to grow in these areas, scalable processing, modeling, and semantic analysis of text collections becomes essential. In this paper, we present the ParaText text analysis engine, a distributed memory software framework for processing, modeling, and analyzing collections of unstructured text documents. Results on several document collections using hundreds of processors are presented to illustrate the exibility, extensibility, and scalability of the the entire process of text modeling from raw data ingestion to application analysis.

  2. Semantic Annotation of Complex Text Structures in Problem Reports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malin, Jane T.; Throop, David R.; Fleming, Land D.

    2011-01-01

    Text analysis is important for effective information retrieval from databases where the critical information is embedded in text fields. Aerospace safety depends on effective retrieval of relevant and related problem reports for the purpose of trend analysis. The complex text syntax in problem descriptions has limited statistical text mining of problem reports. The presentation describes an intelligent tagging approach that applies syntactic and then semantic analysis to overcome this problem. The tags identify types of problems and equipment that are embedded in the text descriptions. The power of these tags is illustrated in a faceted searching and browsing interface for problem report trending that combines automatically generated tags with database code fields and temporal information.

  3. Complex dynamics of text analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ke, Xiaohua; Zeng, Yongqiang; Ma, Qinghua; Zhu, Lin

    2014-12-01

    This paper presents a novel method for the analysis of nonlinear text quality in Chinese language. Texts produced by university students in China were represented as scale-free networks (word adjacency model), from which typical network features such as the in/outdegree, clustering coefficient and network dynamics were obtained. The method integrates the classical concepts of network feature representation and text quality series variation. The analytical and numerical scheme leads to a parameter space representation that constitutes a valid alternative to represent the network features. The results reveal that complex network features of different text qualities can be clearly revealed and applied to potential applications in other instances of text analysis.

  4. Multimodal Excitatory Interfaces with Automatic Content Classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williamson, John; Murray-Smith, Roderick

    We describe a non-visual interface for displaying data on mobile devices, based around active exploration: devices are shaken, revealing the contents rattling around inside. This combines sample-based contact sonification with event playback vibrotactile feedback for a rich and compelling display which produces an illusion much like balls rattling inside a box. Motion is sensed from accelerometers, directly linking the motions of the user to the feedback they receive in a tightly closed loop. The resulting interface requires no visual attention and can be operated blindly with a single hand: it is reactive rather than disruptive. This interaction style is applied to the display of an SMS inbox. We use language models to extract salient features from text messages automatically. The output of this classification process controls the timbre and physical dynamics of the simulated objects. The interface gives a rapid semantic overview of the contents of an inbox, without compromising privacy or interrupting the user.

  5. ParaText : scalable text modeling and analysis.

    SciTech Connect

    Dunlavy, Daniel M.; Stanton, Eric T.; Shead, Timothy M.

    2010-06-01

    Automated processing, modeling, and analysis of unstructured text (news documents, web content, journal articles, etc.) is a key task in many data analysis and decision making applications. As data sizes grow, scalability is essential for deep analysis. In many cases, documents are modeled as term or feature vectors and latent semantic analysis (LSA) is used to model latent, or hidden, relationships between documents and terms appearing in those documents. LSA supplies conceptual organization and analysis of document collections by modeling high-dimension feature vectors in many fewer dimensions. While past work on the scalability of LSA modeling has focused on the SVD, the goal of our work is to investigate the use of distributed memory architectures for the entire text analysis process, from data ingestion to semantic modeling and analysis. ParaText is a set of software components for distributed processing, modeling, and analysis of unstructured text. The ParaText source code is available under a BSD license, as an integral part of the Titan toolkit. ParaText components are chained-together into data-parallel pipelines that are replicated across processes on distributed-memory architectures. Individual components can be replaced or rewired to explore different computational strategies and implement new functionality. ParaText functionality can be embedded in applications on any platform using the native C++ API, Python, or Java. The ParaText MPI Process provides a 'generic' text analysis pipeline in a command-line executable that can be used for many serial and parallel analysis tasks. ParaText can also be deployed as a web service accessible via a RESTful (HTTP) API. In the web service configuration, any client can access the functionality provided by ParaText using commodity protocols ... from standard web browsers to custom clients written in any language.

  6. Automatic design of magazine covers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jahanian, Ali; Liu, Jerry; Tretter, Daniel R.; Lin, Qian; Damera-Venkata, Niranjan; O'Brien-Strain, Eamonn; Lee, Seungyon; Fan, Jian; Allebach, Jan P.

    2012-03-01

    In this paper, we propose a system for automatic design of magazine covers that quantifies a number of concepts from art and aesthetics. Our solution to automatic design of this type of media has been shaped by input from professional designers, magazine art directors and editorial boards, and journalists. Consequently, a number of principles in design and rules in designing magazine covers are delineated. Several techniques are derived and employed in order to quantify and implement these principles and rules in the format of a software framework. At this stage, our framework divides the task of design into three main modules: layout of magazine cover elements, choice of color for masthead and cover lines, and typography of cover lines. Feedback from professional designers on our designs suggests that our results are congruent with their intuition.

  7. Automatic registration of satellite imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fonseca, Leila M. G.; Costa, Max H. M.; Manjunath, B. S.; Kenney, C.

    1997-01-01

    Image registration is one of the basic image processing operations in remote sensing. With the increase in the number of images collected every day from different sensors, automated registration of multi-sensor/multi-spectral images has become an important issue. A wide range of registration techniques has been developed for many different types of applications and data. The objective of this paper is to present an automatic registration algorithm which uses a multiresolution analysis procedure based upon the wavelet transform. The procedure is completely automatic and relies on the grey level information content of the images and their local wavelet transform modulus maxima. The registration algorithm is very simple and easy to apply because it needs basically one parameter. We have obtained very encouraging results on test data sets from the TM and SPOT sensor images of forest, urban and agricultural areas.

  8. An NLP Framework for Non-Topical Text Analysis in Urdu--A Resource Poor Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mukund, Smruthi

    2012-01-01

    Language plays a very important role in understanding the culture and mindset of people. Given the abundance of electronic multilingual data, it is interesting to see what insight can be gained by automatic analysis of text. This in turn calls for text analysis which is focused on non-topical information such as emotions being expressed that is in…

  9. Automatic noise limiter-blanker

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burhans, R. W.

    1976-01-01

    A blanker system that may be used with audio noise limiters or automatic noise limiters was described. The system employs a pair of silicon diodes and two RC filters connected across the feedback impedance of an operational amplifier so as to counteract impulse noise interference caused by local spherics activity or 60 Hz harmonics radiated from ac motor control systems. The following information is given: circuit diagram and description, operating details, evaluation, discussion of other noise blanking methods.

  10. Automatic Meaning Discovery Using Google

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rudi Cilibrasi; Paul M. B. Vitányi

    2006-01-01

    Abstract We present a new theory of relative semantics between objects, based on information distance and Kolmogorov,complexity. This theory is then applied to construct a method,to automatically extract the meaning,of words and phrases from the world-wide-web using Google page counts. The approach is novel in its unrestricted problem domain, simplicity of implementation, and manifestly ontological underpinnings. The world-wide-web is the

  11. Collaboration Supported Automatic Examination Architecture

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Song Luo; Jianbin Hu; Zhong Chen

    2009-01-01

    During the past few years, automatic computer examination systems have been widely used for computer-based tests. But these systems are based on the traditional question-answer examination style which is limited for the collaborative examination. The collaborative examination needs multiple examinees and can be parallel performed. The collaborative examination also should consider the context of the examinee, e.g. the order of

  12. Automatic translation among spoken languages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walter, Sharon M.; Costigan, Kelly

    1994-02-01

    The Machine Aided Voice Translation (MAVT) system was developed in response to the shortage of experienced military field interrogators with both foreign language proficiency and interrogation skills. Combining speech recognition, machine translation, and speech generation technologies, the MAVT accepts an interrogator's spoken English question and translates it into spoken Spanish. The spoken Spanish response of the potential informant can then be translated into spoken English. Potential military and civilian applications for automatic spoken language translation technology are discussed in this paper.

  13. Automatic Program Specialization for Java

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ULRIK P. SCHULTZ; Charles Consel

    2000-01-01

    The object-oriented style of programming facilitates program adaptation and enhances program genericness, but at the expense of eciency . We demonstrate experimentally that state-of-the-art Java compilers fail to compensate for the use of object-oriented abstractions in the implementation of generic programs, and that program specialization can eliminate a signican t portion of these overheads. We present an automatic program specializer

  14. Automatic Home Nursing Activity Recommendation

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Gang; Tang, Chunqiang

    2009-01-01

    The rapid deployment of Web-based, consumer-centric electronic medical records (CEMRs) is an important trend in healthcare. In this paper, we incorporate nursing knowledge into CEMR so that it can automatically recommend home nursing activities (HNAs). Those more complex HNAs are made clickable for users to find detailed implementation procedures. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our techniques using USMLE medical exam cases. PMID:20351888

  15. Texting while driving: is speech-based text entry less risky than handheld text entry?

    PubMed

    He, J; Chaparro, A; Nguyen, B; Burge, R J; Crandall, J; Chaparro, B; Ni, R; Cao, S

    2014-11-01

    Research indicates that using a cell phone to talk or text while maneuvering a vehicle impairs driving performance. However, few published studies directly compare the distracting effects of texting using a hands-free (i.e., speech-based interface) versus handheld cell phone, which is an important issue for legislation, automotive interface design and driving safety training. This study compared the effect of speech-based versus handheld text entries on simulated driving performance by asking participants to perform a car following task while controlling the duration of a secondary text-entry task. Results showed that both speech-based and handheld text entries impaired driving performance relative to the drive-only condition by causing more variation in speed and lane position. Handheld text entry also increased the brake response time and increased variation in headway distance. Text entry using a speech-based cell phone was less detrimental to driving performance than handheld text entry. Nevertheless, the speech-based text entry task still significantly impaired driving compared to the drive-only condition. These results suggest that speech-based text entry disrupts driving, but reduces the level of performance interference compared to text entry with a handheld device. In addition, the difference in the distraction effect caused by speech-based and handheld text entry is not simply due to the difference in task duration. PMID:25089769

  16. Click here to add text Click here to add text. Click here to add text.

    E-print Network

    Martin, Jeff

    text. Click here to add text. Click here to add text. Personal Information (PI) Recorded information, nationality or ethnic origin · Religion or creed, belief system, association or activity · Personal health Provide Access to Information · Public may request access to general University records · Individuals may

  17. Hierarchical Text Classification Incremental Learning

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shengli Song; Xiaofei Qiao; Ping Chen

    2009-01-01

    \\u000a To classify large-scale text corpora, an incremental learning method for hierarchical text classification is proposed. Based\\u000a on the deep analysis of virtual classification tree based hierarchical text classification, combining the two application\\u000a models of single document adjustment after classification and new sample set learning, a dynamic online learning algorithm\\u000a and a sample set incremental learning algorithm are put forward. By

  18. Automatic Identification of Algal Community from Microscopic Images

    PubMed Central

    Santhi, Natchimuthu; Pradeepa, Chinnaraj; Subashini, Parthasarathy; Kalaiselvi, Senthil

    2013-01-01

    A good understanding of the population dynamics of algal communities is crucial in several ecological and pollution studies of freshwater and oceanic systems. This paper reviews the subsequent introduction to the automatic identification of the algal communities using image processing techniques from microscope images. The diverse techniques of image preprocessing, segmentation, feature extraction and recognition are considered one by one and their parameters are summarized. Automatic identification and classification of algal community are very difficult due to various factors such as change in size and shape with climatic changes, various growth periods, and the presence of other microbes. Therefore, the significance, uniqueness, and various approaches are discussed and the analyses in image processing methods are evaluated. Algal identification and associated problems in water organisms have been projected as challenges in image processing application. Various image processing approaches based on textures, shapes, and an object boundary, as well as some segmentation methods like, edge detection and color segmentations, are highlighted. Finally, artificial neural networks and some machine learning algorithms were used to classify and identifying the algae. Further, some of the benefits and drawbacks of schemes are examined. PMID:24151424

  19. Scene text deblurring using text-specific multiscale dictionaries.

    PubMed

    Cao, Xiaochun; Ren, Wenqi; Zuo, Wangmeng; Guo, Xiaojie; Foroosh, Hassan

    2015-04-01

    Texts in natural scenes carry critical semantic clues for understanding images. When capturing natural scene images, especially by handheld cameras, a common artifact, i.e., blur, frequently happens. To improve the visual quality of such images, deblurring techniques are desired, which also play an important role in character recognition and image understanding. In this paper, we study the problem of recovering the clear scene text by exploiting the text field characteristics. A series of text-specific multiscale dictionaries (TMD) and a natural scene dictionary is learned for separately modeling the priors on the text and nontext fields. The TMD-based text field reconstruction helps to deal with the different scales of strings in a blurry image effectively. Furthermore, an adaptive version of nonuniform deblurring method is proposed to efficiently solve the real-world spatially varying problem. Dictionary learning allows more flexible modeling with respect to the text field property, and the combination with the nonuniform method is more appropriate in real situations where blur kernel sizes are depth dependent. Experimental results show that the proposed method achieves the deblurring results with better visual quality than the state-of-the-art methods. PMID:25705915

  20. Counting OCR errors in typeset text

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandberg, Jonathan S.

    1995-03-01

    Frequently object recognition accuracy is a key component in the performance analysis of pattern matching systems. In the past three years, the results of numerous excellent and rigorous studies of OCR system typeset-character accuracy (henceforth OCR accuracy) have been published, encouraging performance comparisons between a variety of OCR products and technologies. These published figures are important; OCR vendor advertisements in the popular trade magazines lead readers to believe that published OCR accuracy figures effect market share in the lucrative OCR market. Curiously, a detailed review of many of these OCR error occurrence counting results reveals that they are not reproducible as published and they are not strictly comparable due to larger variances in the counts than would be expected by the sampling variance. Naturally, since OCR accuracy is based on a ratio of the number of OCR errors over the size of the text searched for errors, imprecise OCR error accounting leads to similar imprecision in OCR accuracy. Some published papers use informal, non-automatic, or intuitively correct OCR error accounting. Still other published results present OCR error accounting methods based on string matching algorithms such as dynamic programming using Levenshtein (edit) distance but omit critical implementation details (such as the existence of suspect markers in the OCR generated output or the weights used in the dynamic programming minimization procedure). The problem with not specifically revealing the accounting method is that the number of errors found by different methods are significantly different. This paper identifies the basic accounting methods used to measure OCR errors in typeset text and offers an evaluation and comparison of the various accounting methods.

  1. Semi-automatic development of Payload Operations Control Center software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ballin, Sidney

    1988-01-01

    This report summarizes the current status of CTA's investigation of methods and tools for automating the software development process in NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 500. The emphasis in this effort has been on methods and tools in support of software reuse. The most recent phase of the effort has been a domain analysis of Payload Operations Control Center (POCC) software. This report summarizes the results of the domain analysis, and proposes an approach to semi-automatic development of POCC Application Processor (AP) software based on these results. The domain analysis enabled us to abstract, from specific systems, the typical components of a POCC AP. We were also able to identify patterns in the way one AP might be different from another. These two perspectives--aspects that tend to change from AP to AP, and aspects that tend to remain the same--suggest an overall approach to the reuse of POCC AP software. We found that different parts of an AP require different development technologies. We propose a hybrid approach that combines constructive and generative technologies. Constructive methods emphasize the assembly of pre-defined reusable components. Generative methods provide for automated generation of software from specifications in a very-high-level language (VHLL).

  2. Supporting the education evidence portal via text mining

    PubMed Central

    Ananiadou, Sophia; Thompson, Paul; Thomas, James; Mu, Tingting; Oliver, Sandy; Rickinson, Mark; Sasaki, Yutaka; Weissenbacher, Davy; McNaught, John

    2010-01-01

    The UK Education Evidence Portal (eep) provides a single, searchable, point of access to the contents of the websites of 33 organizations relating to education, with the aim of revolutionizing work practices for the education community. Use of the portal alleviates the need to spend time searching multiple resources to find relevant information. However, the combined content of the websites of interest is still very large (over 500?000 documents and growing). This means that searches using the portal can produce very large numbers of hits. As users often have limited time, they would benefit from enhanced methods of performing searches and viewing results, allowing them to drill down to information of interest more efficiently, without having to sift through potentially long lists of irrelevant documents. The Joint Information Systems Committee (JISC)-funded ASSIST project has produced a prototype web interface to demonstrate the applicability of integrating a number of text-mining tools and methods into the eep, to facilitate an enhanced searching, browsing and document-viewing experience. New features include automatic classification of documents according to a taxonomy, automatic clustering of search results according to similar document content, and automatic identification and highlighting of key terms within documents. PMID:20643679

  3. User profiling using text classification

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patricia H. Carter

    2005-01-01

    Computer user behavior over time is abstracted into text documents. Using text classification methods users from a small group are well-distinguished from one another by their behaviors, even using relatively small amounts of data. This technique is particularly appropriate to forensics, but is widely applicable in information assurance.

  4. Text, Topos, and Mental Models.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jarvella, Robert J.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Investigates how readers use predication for the interpretation of referents in text and to develop a coherent model of the events described in text. Illustrates how two types of predication (scalar copredication and antipredication) induce readers to disambiguate the referents of definite noun phrases in essentially the opposite way, with…

  5. Intercultural Rhetoric Research: Beyond Texts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connor, Ulla

    2004-01-01

    This paper proposes a set of new methods for intercultural rhetoric research that is context-sensitive and, in many instances, goes beyond mere text analysis. It considers changes in the field as intercultural rhetoric has moved from the EAP study of student essays to the study of writing in many disciplines and genres. New developments in text,…

  6. Improve Reading with Complex Texts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Douglas; Frey, Nancy

    2015-01-01

    The Common Core State Standards have cast a renewed light on reading instruction, presenting teachers with the new requirements to teach close reading of complex texts. Teachers and administrators should consider a number of essential features of close reading: They are short, complex texts; rich discussions based on worthy questions; revisiting…

  7. Text Mining Using Linear Models

    E-print Network

    Stine, Robert A.

    ) or something else. Wiki example Jim bought 300 shares of Acme Corp in 2006. Customized systems build Statistical Models for Text Markov chains Hidden Markov models have been successfully used in text mining, particularly speech tagging Hidden Markov model (HMM) Transition probabilities for observed words ! P(wt|wt-1

  8. Graphic design of program text

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aaron Marcus; Ronald Baecker

    1982-01-01

    Computer programs, like literature, deserve attention not only to conceptual and verbal (linguistic) structure but also to visual structure, i.e., the qualities of alphanumeric text fonts and other graphic symbols, the spatial arrangement of isolated texts and symbols, the temporal sequencing of individual parts of the program, and the use of color (including gray values). With the increasing numbers of

  9. Text recycling: acceptable or misconduct?

    PubMed

    Harriman, Stephanie; Patel, Jigisha

    2014-01-01

    Text recycling, also referred to as self-plagiarism, is the reproduction of an author's own text from a previous publication in a new publication. Opinions on the acceptability of this practice vary, with some viewing it as acceptable and efficient, and others as misleading and unacceptable. In light of the lack of consensus, journal editors often have difficulty deciding how to act upon the discovery of text recycling. In response to these difficulties, we have created a set of guidelines for journal editors on how to deal with text recycling. In this editorial, we discuss some of the challenges of developing these guidelines, and how authors can avoid undisclosed text recycling. PMID:25127654

  10. A general graphical user interface for automatic reliability modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liceaga, Carlos A.; Siewiorek, Daniel P.

    1991-01-01

    Reported here is a general Graphical User Interface (GUI) for automatic reliability modeling of Processor Memory Switch (PMS) structures using a Markov model. This GUI is based on a hierarchy of windows. One window has graphical editing capabilities for specifying the system's communication structure, hierarchy, reconfiguration capabilities, and requirements. Other windows have field texts, popup menus, and buttons for specifying parameters and selecting actions. An example application of the GUI is given.

  11. Towards automatic causality boundary identification from root cause analysis reports

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sanghee Kim; Marco Aurisicchio; Ken Wallace

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the results of developing and evaluating an automatic approach that identifies causality boundaries from\\u000a causality expressions. This approach focuses on explicitly expressed causalities extracted from Root Cause Analysis (RCA)\\u000a reports in engineering domains. Causality expressions contain Cause and Effect pairs and multiple expressions can occur in\\u000a a single sentence. Causality boundaries are semantically annotated text fragments explicitly

  12. Why is Light Text Harder to Read Than Dark Text?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scharff, Lauren V.; Ahumada, Albert J.

    2005-01-01

    Scharff and Ahumada (2002, 2003) measured text legibility for light text and dark text. For paragraph readability and letter identification, responses to light text were slower and less accurate for a given contrast. Was this polarity effect (1) an artifact of our apparatus, (2) a physiological difference in the separate pathways for positive and negative contrast or (3) the result of increased experience with dark text on light backgrounds? To rule out the apparatus-artifact hypothesis, all data were collected on one monitor. Its luminance was measured at all levels used, and the spatial effects of the monitor were reduced by pixel doubling and quadrupling (increasing the viewing distance to maintain constant angular size). Luminances of vertical and horizontal square-wave gratings were compared to assess display speed effects. They existed, even for 4-pixel-wide bars. Tests for polarity asymmetries in display speed were negative. Increased experience might develop full letter templates for dark text, while recognition of light letters is based on component features. Earlier, an observer ran all conditions at one polarity and then switched. If dark and light letters were intermixed, the observer might use component features on all trials and do worse on the dark letters, reducing the polarity effect. We varied polarity blocking (completely blocked, alternating smaller blocks, and intermixed blocks). Letter identification responses times showed polarity effects at all contrasts and display resolution levels. Observers were also more accurate with higher contrasts and more pixels per degree. Intermixed blocks increased the polarity effect by reducing performance on the light letters, but only if the randomized block occurred prior to the nonrandomized block. Perhaps observers tried to use poorly developed templates, or they did not work as hard on the more difficult items. The experience hypothesis and the physiological gain hypothesis remain viable explanations.

  13. Text Analysis for Knowledge Graphs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roel Popping

    2007-01-01

    :  The concept of knowledge graphs is introduced as a method to represent the state of the art in a specific scientific discipline.\\u000a Next the text analysis part in the construction of such graphs is considered. Here the ‘translation’ from text to graph takes\\u000a place. The method that is used here is compared to methods used in other approaches in which

  14. Text Mining in Social Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aggarwal, Charu C.; Wang, Haixun

    Social networks are rich in various kinds of contents such as text and multimedia. The ability to apply text mining algorithms effectively in the context of text data is critical for a wide variety of applications. Social networks require text mining algorithms for a wide variety of applications such as keyword search, classification, and clustering. While search and classification are well known applications for a wide variety of scenarios, social networks have a much richer structure both in terms of text and links. Much of the work in the area uses either purely the text content or purely the linkage structure. However, many recent algorithms use a combination of linkage and content information for mining purposes. In many cases, it turns out that the use of a combination of linkage and content information provides much more effective results than a system which is based purely on either of the two. This paper provides a survey of such algorithms, and the advantages observed by using such algorithms in different scenarios. We also present avenues for future research in this area.

  15. Automatic melting point determination of fats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. G. Mertens; J. M. DeMan

    1972-01-01

    The Mettler FP3 automatic dropping point apparatus was used for the determination of melting points of a variety of edible\\u000a fat products. The instrument was particularly suitable for this purpose because of the availability-of different heating rates.\\u000a Advantages were the fully automatic heating, the automatic and objective endpoint determination, the application for melted\\u000a as well as solidified samples (shortening, margarine,

  16. Semi-automatic object geometry estimation for image personalization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Hengzhou; Bala, Raja; Fan, Zhigang; Eschbach, Reiner; Bouman, Charles A.; Allebach, Jan P.

    2010-01-01

    Digital printing brings about a host of benefits, one of which is the ability to create short runs of variable, customized content. One form of customization that is receiving much attention lately is in photofinishing applications, whereby personalized calendars, greeting cards, and photo books are created by inserting text strings into images. It is particularly interesting to estimate the underlying geometry of the surface and incorporate the text into the image content in an intelligent and natural way. Current solutions either allow fixed text insertion schemes into preprocessed images, or provide manual text insertion tools that are time consuming and aimed only at the high-end graphic designer. It would thus be desirable to provide some level of automation in the image personalization process. We propose a semi-automatic image personalization workflow which includes two scenarios: text insertion and text replacement. In both scenarios, the underlying surfaces are assumed to be planar. A 3-D pinhole camera model is used for rendering text, whose parameters are estimated by analyzing existing structures in the image. Techniques in image processing and computer vison such as the Hough transform, the bilateral filter, and connected component analysis are combined, along with necessary user inputs. In particular, the semi-automatic workflow is implemented as an image personalization tool, which is presented in our companion paper.1 Experimental results including personalized images for both scenarios are shown, which demonstrate the effectiveness of our algorithms.

  17. Unification of automatic target tracking and automatic target recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schachter, Bruce J.

    2014-06-01

    The subject being addressed is how an automatic target tracker (ATT) and an automatic target recognizer (ATR) can be fused together so tightly and so well that their distinctiveness becomes lost in the merger. This has historically not been the case outside of biology and a few academic papers. The biological model of ATT?ATR arises from dynamic patterns of activity distributed across many neural circuits and structures (including retina). The information that the brain receives from the eyes is "old news" at the time that it receives it. The eyes and brain forecast a tracked object's future position, rather than relying on received retinal position. Anticipation of the next moment - building up a consistent perception - is accomplished under difficult conditions: motion (eyes, head, body, scene background, target) and processing limitations (neural noise, delays, eye jitter, distractions). Not only does the human vision system surmount these problems, but it has innate mechanisms to exploit motion in support of target detection and classification. Biological vision doesn't normally operate on snapshots. Feature extraction, detection and recognition are spatiotemporal. When vision is viewed as a spatiotemporal process, target detection, recognition, tracking, event detection and activity recognition, do not seem as distinct as they are in current ATT and ATR designs. They appear as similar mechanism taking place at varying time scales. A framework is provided for unifying ATT and ATR.

  18. Graph-based text classification: learn from your neighbors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ralitsa Angelova; Gerhard Weikum

    2006-01-01

    Automatic classification of data items, based on training samples,\\u000d\\u000a can be boosted by considering the neighborhood of data items in\\u000d\\u000a a graph structure (e.g., neighboring documents in a hyperlink\\u000d\\u000a environment or co-authors and their publications for bibliographic\\u000d\\u000a data entries). This paper presents a new method for graph-based\\u000d\\u000a classification, with particular emphasis on hyperlinked text\\u000d\\u000a documents but broader applicability. Our approach

  19. Automated learning of decision rules for text categorization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chidanand Apte; Fred J. Damerau; Sholom M. Weiss

    1994-01-01

    We describe the results of extensive experiments using\\u000a optimized rule-based induction methods on large document\\u000a collections. The goal of these methods is to discover\\u000a automatically classification patterns that can be used for\\u000a general document categorization or personalized filtering\\u000a of free text. Previous reports indicate that\\u000a human-engineered rule-based systems, requiring many\\u000a man-years of developmental efforts, have been successfully\\u000a built to ``read''

  20. Text Structures, Readings, and Retellings: An Exploration of Two Texts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martens, Prisca; Arya, Poonam; Wilson, Pat; Jin, Lijun

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore the relationship between children's use of reading strategies and language cues while reading and their comprehension after reading two texts: "Cherries and Cherry Pits" (Williams, 1986) and "There's Something in My Attic" (Mayer, 1988). The data were drawn from a larger study of the reading strategies of…

  1. The Automaticity of Social Life

    PubMed Central

    Bargh, John A.; Williams, Erin L.

    2008-01-01

    Much of social life is experienced through mental processes that are not intended and about which one is fairly oblivious. These processes are automatically triggered by features of the immediate social environment, such as the group memberships of other people, the qualities of their behavior, and features of social situations (e.g., norms, one's relative power). Recent research has shown these nonconscious influences to extend beyond the perception and interpretation of the social world to the actual guidance, over extended time periods, of one's important goal pursuits and social interactions. PMID:18568084

  2. Mobile Text Messaging for Health: A Systematic Review of Reviews

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Amanda K.; Cole-Lewis, Heather; Bernhardt, Jay M.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this systematic review of reviews is to identify mobile text-messaging interventions designed for health improvement and behavior change and to derive recommendations for practice. We have compiled and reviewed existing systematic research reviews and meta-analyses to organize and summarize the text-messaging intervention evidence base, identify best-practice recommendations based on findings from multiple reviews, and explore implications for future research. Our review found that the majority of published text-messaging interventions were effective when addressing diabetes self-management, weight loss, physical activity, smoking cessation, and medication adherence for antiretroviral therapy. However, we found limited evidence across the population of studies and reviews to inform recommended intervention characteristics. Although strong evidence supports the value of integrating text-messaging interventions into public health practice, additional research is needed to establish longer-term intervention effects, identify recommended intervention characteristics, and explore issues of cost-effectiveness. PMID:25785892

  3. Mobile text messaging for health: a systematic review of reviews.

    PubMed

    Hall, Amanda K; Cole-Lewis, Heather; Bernhardt, Jay M

    2015-03-18

    The aim of this systematic review of reviews is to identify mobile text-messaging interventions designed for health improvement and behavior change and to derive recommendations for practice. We have compiled and reviewed existing systematic research reviews and meta-analyses to organize and summarize the text-messaging intervention evidence base, identify best-practice recommendations based on findings from multiple reviews, and explore implications for future research. Our review found that the majority of published text-messaging interventions were effective when addressing diabetes self-management, weight loss, physical activity, smoking cessation, and medication adherence for antiretroviral therapy. However, we found limited evidence across the population of studies and reviews to inform recommended intervention characteristics. Although strong evidence supports the value of integrating text-messaging interventions into public health practice, additional research is needed to establish longer-term intervention effects, identify recommended intervention characteristics, and explore issues of cost-effectiveness. PMID:25785892

  4. Humans in Space: Summarizing the Medico-Biological Results of the Space Shuttle Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Risin, Diana; Stepaniak, P. C.; Grounds, D. J.

    2011-01-01

    As we celebrate the 50th anniversary of Gagarin's flight that opened the era of Humans in Space we also commemorate the 30th anniversary of the Space Shuttle Program (SSP) which was triumphantly completed by the flight of STS-135 on July 21, 2011. These were great milestones in the history of Human Space Exploration. Many important questions regarding the ability of humans to adapt and function in space were answered for the past 50 years and many lessons have been learned. Significant contribution to answering these questions was made by the SSP. To ensure the availability of the Shuttle Program experiences to the international space community NASA has made a decision to summarize the medico-biological results of the SSP in a fundamental edition that is scheduled to be completed by the end of 2011 beginning 2012. The goal of this edition is to define the normal responses of the major physiological systems to short-duration space flights and provide a comprehensive source of information for planning, ensuring successful operational activities and for management of potential medical problems that might arise during future long-term space missions. The book includes the following sections: 1. History of Shuttle Biomedical Research and Operations; 2. Medical Operations Overview Systems, Monitoring, and Care; 3. Biomedical Research Overview; 4. System-specific Adaptations/Responses, Issues, and Countermeasures; 5. Multisystem Issues and Countermeasures. In addition, selected operational documents will be presented in the appendices. The chapters are written by well-recognized experts in appropriate fields, peer reviewed, and edited by physicians and scientists with extensive expertise in space medical operations and space-related biomedical research. As Space Exploration continues the major question whether humans are capable of adapting to long term presence and adequate functioning in space habitats remains to be answered We expect that the comprehensive review of the medico-biological results of the SSP along with the data collected during the missions on the space stations (Mir and ISS) provides a good starting point in seeking the answer to this question.

  5. Alex Catalog of Electronic Texts

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This catalog, maintained by Eric Lease Morgan, a systems librarian at North Carolina State University, specializes in American literature, English literature, and philosophy. Alex is particularly helpful because the search interface allows researchers to both look for documents and search the content of those documents. Users first search standard fields such as author, title, or publication date; then they can search the content of documents they select from their returns list. Though returns in content searches would be more convenient were they hyperlinked to the complete record for the text, such a search nonetheless has obvious utility for someone writing on, for example, flower imagery in Shakespearian sonnets or Emerson's vision of democracy. Another nice feature of the catalog is the ability to convert documents to .pdf files on-the-fly (with the font and spacing customizable). Alternately, users can download the whole collection of American or English literature or philosophy texts and the tools to search the texts.

  6. Unsupervised Mining of Frequent Tags for Clinical Eligibility Text Indexing

    PubMed Central

    Miotto, Riccardo; Weng, Chunhua

    2013-01-01

    Clinical text, such as clinical trial eligibility criteria, is largely underused in state-of-the-art medical search engines due to difficulties of accurate parsing. This paper proposes a novel methodology to derive a semantic index for clinical eligibility documents based on a controlled vocabulary of frequent tags, which are automatically mined from the text. We applied this method to eligibility criteria on ClinicalTrials.gov and report that frequent tags (1) define an effective and efficient index of clinical trials and (2) are unlikely to grow radically when the repository increases. We proposed to apply the semantic index to filter clinical trial search results and we concluded that frequent tags reduce the result space more efficiently than an uncontrolled set of UMLS concepts. Overall, unsupervised mining of frequent tags from clinical text leads to an effective semantic index for the clinical eligibility documents and promotes their computational reuse. PMID:24036004

  7. Finding text in color images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Jiangying; Lopresti, Daniel P.; Tasdizen, Tolga

    1998-04-01

    In this paper, we consider the problem of locating and extracting text from WWW images. A previous algorithm based on color clustering and connected components analysis works well as long as the color of each character is relatively uniform and the typography is fairly simple. It breaks down quickly, however, when these assumptions are violated. In this paper, we describe more robust techniques for dealing with this challenging problem. We present an improved color clustering algorithm that measures similarity based on both RGB and spatial proximity. Layout analysis is also incorporated to handle more complex typography. THese changes significantly enhance the performance of our text detection procedure.

  8. Biomarker Identification Using Text Mining

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hui; Liu, Chunmei

    2012-01-01

    Identifying molecular biomarkers has become one of the important tasks for scientists to assess the different phenotypic states of cells or organisms correlated to the genotypes of diseases from large-scale biological data. In this paper, we proposed a text-mining-based method to discover biomarkers from PubMed. First, we construct a database based on a dictionary, and then we used a finite state machine to identify the biomarkers. Our method of text mining provides a highly reliable approach to discover the biomarkers in the PubMed database. PMID:23197989

  9. Text Classification using String Kernels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Huma Lodhi; Craig Saunders; John Shawe-Taylor; Nello Cristianini; Christopher J. C. H. Watkins

    2002-01-01

    We propose a novel approach for categorizing text\\u000a documents based on the use of a special kernel. The kernel\\u000a is an inner product in the feature space generated by all\\u000a subsequences of length k. A subsequence is any ordered\\u000a sequence of k characters occurring in the text though not\\u000a necessarily contiguously. The subsequences are weighted by\\u000a an exponentially decaying factor

  10. Automatic Computer Mapping of Terrain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smedes, H. W.

    1971-01-01

    Computer processing of 17 wavelength bands of visible, reflective infrared, and thermal infrared scanner spectrometer data, and of three wavelength bands derived from color aerial film has resulted in successful automatic computer mapping of eight or more terrain classes in a Yellowstone National Park test site. The tests involved: (1) supervised and non-supervised computer programs; (2) special preprocessing of the scanner data to reduce computer processing time and cost, and improve the accuracy; and (3) studies of the effectiveness of the proposed Earth Resources Technology Satellite (ERTS) data channels in the automatic mapping of the same terrain, based on simulations, using the same set of scanner data. The following terrain classes have been mapped with greater than 80 percent accuracy in a 12-square-mile area with 1,800 feet of relief; (1) bedrock exposures, (2) vegetated rock rubble, (3) talus, (4) glacial kame meadow, (5) glacial till meadow, (6) forest, (7) bog, and (8) water. In addition, shadows of clouds and cliffs are depicted, but were greatly reduced by using preprocessing techniques.

  11. Automatic interpretation of digital maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walter, Volker; Luo, Fen

    In the past, the availability and/or the acquisition of spatial data were often the main problems of the realization of spatial applications. Meanwhile this situation has changed: on one hand, comprehensive spatial datasets already exist and on the other hand, new sensor technologies have the ability to capture fast and with high quality large amounts of spatial data. More and more responsible for the increasing accessibility of spatial data are also collaborative mapping techniques which enable users to create maps by themselves and to make them available in the internet. However, the potential of this diversity of spatial data can only hardly be utilized. Especially maps in the internet are represented very often only with graphical elements and no explicit information about the map's scale, extension and content is available. Nevertheless, humans are able to extract this information and to interpret maps. For example, it is possible for a human to distinguish between rural and industrial areas only by looking at the objects' geometries. Furthermore, a human can easily identify and group map objects that belong together. Also the type, scale and extension of a map can be identified under certain conditions only by looking at the objects' geometries. All these examples can be subsumed under the term "map interpretation". In this paper it is discussed how map interpretation can be automated and how automatic map interpretation can be used in order to support other processes. The different kinds of automatic map interpretation are discussed and two approaches are shown in detail.

  12. Automatic temperature controlled retinal photocoagulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlott, Kerstin; Koinzer, Stefan; Ptaszynski, Lars; Bever, Marco; Baade, Alex; Roider, Johann; Birngruber, Reginald; Brinkmann, Ralf

    2012-06-01

    Laser coagulation is a treatment method for many retinal diseases. Due to variations in fundus pigmentation and light scattering inside the eye globe, different lesion strengths are often achieved. The aim of this work is to realize an automatic feedback algorithm to generate desired lesion strengths by controlling the retinal temperature increase with the irradiation time. Optoacoustics afford non-invasive retinal temperature monitoring during laser treatment. A 75 ns/523 nm Q-switched Nd:YLF laser was used to excite the temperature-dependent pressure amplitudes, which were detected at the cornea by an ultrasonic transducer embedded in a contact lens. A 532 nm continuous wave Nd:YAG laser served for photocoagulation. The ED50 temperatures, for which the probability of ophthalmoscopically visible lesions after one hour in vivo in rabbits was 50%, varied from 63°C for 20 ms to 49°C for 400 ms. Arrhenius parameters were extracted as ?E=273 J mol-1 and A=3.1044 s-1. Control algorithms for mild and strong lesions were developed, which led to average lesion diameters of 162+/-34 ?m and 189+/-34 ?m, respectively. It could be demonstrated that the sizes of the automatically controlled lesions were widely independent of the treatment laser power and the retinal pigmentation.

  13. Text Mining Nonnegative Matrix Factorization

    E-print Network

    Kunkle, Tom

    Text Mining using the Nonnegative Matrix Factorization Amy Langville Carl Meyer Department: Guide D3: Child Safety at Home T4: Health D4: Your Baby's Health & Safety : From Infant to Toddler T5 Babies Collector's Guide T8: Safety T9: Toddler #12;Example from Berry's book Terms Documents T1: Bab

  14. A Visually Oriented Text Editor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gomez, J. E.

    1985-01-01

    HERMAN employs Evans & Sutherland Picture System 2 to provide screenoriented editing capability for DEC PDP-11 series computer. Text altered by visual indication of characters changed. Group of HERMAN commands provides for higher level operations. HERMAN provides special features for editing FORTRAN source programs.

  15. Reviving "Walden": Mining the Text.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hewitt Julia

    2000-01-01

    Describes how the author and her high school English students begin their study of Thoreau's "Walden" by mining the text for quotations to inspire their own writing and discussion on the topic, "How does Thoreau speak to you or how could he speak to someone you know?" (SR)

  16. Predictive Encoding in Text Compression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raita, Timo; Teuhola, Jukka

    1989-01-01

    Presents three text compression methods of increasing power and evaluates each based on the trade-off between compression gain and processing time. The advantages of using hash coding for speed and optimal arithmetic coding to successor information for compression gain are discussed. (26 references) (Author/CLB)

  17. Bornholm Text analysis rup Nielsen

    E-print Network

    Nielsen, Finn Årup

    white spaces! #15; Web search engines { Letters (case-insensitive) and digits as characters { Everything.nih.gov/entrez/query/static/help/pmhelp.html#Stopwords. #15; Implemented in web search engine such as Google? \\Google ignores common words and characters; Statistical language processing #15; Examples { Text classication { Authorship with N-grams { Topic spotting

  18. This Article Full Text (PDF)

    E-print Network

    Lopez, John M.

    This Article Full Text (PDF) Alert me when this article is cited Alert me if a correction is posted Services Email this article to a friend Similar articles in this journal Alert me to new issues Articles by LOPEZ, J. M. Articles by MURPHY, J. O. Search for Related Content Social Bookmarking What

  19. Applications of Multilingual Text Retrieval

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. Bruce Croft; John Broglio; Hideo Fujii

    1996-01-01

    The recent enormous increase in the use of networked information access and on-line databases has led to more databases being available in languages other than English. The Center for Intelligent Information Retrieval (CIIR) at the University of Massachusetts is involved in a variety of industrial government, and digital library applications which have a need for multilingual text retrieval. Most information

  20. Ageism in Undergraduate Psychology Texts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitbourne, Susan Krauss; Hulicka, Irene M.

    1990-01-01

    A study of 139 textbooks written over the last 40 years. Recent texts are found to give more coverage to the psychology of later life, and many seek to present a positive image of aging and older adults. These treatments, however, often contain material that perpetuates stereotypes. (EVL)

  1. Policy Discourses in School Texts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maguire, Meg; Hoskins, Kate; Ball, Stephen; Braun, Annette

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we focus on some of the ways in which schools are both productive of and constituted by sets of "discursive practices, events and texts" that contribute to the process of policy enactment. As Colebatch (2002: 2) says, "policy involves the creation of order--that is, shared understandings about how the various participants will act…

  2. Critical Edition of Sanskrit Texts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marc Csernel; François Patte

    2008-01-01

    A critical edition takes into account all the different known versions of the same text in order to show the differ- ences between any two distinct versions. The construction of a critical edition is a long and, sometimes, tedious work. Some software that help the philologist in such a task have been available for a long time for the European

  3. 21 CFR 870.5925 - Automatic rotating tourniquet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 false Automatic rotating tourniquet. 870.5925 Section 870.5925... § 870.5925 Automatic rotating tourniquet. (a) Identification. An automatic rotating tourniquet is a device that prevents blood...

  4. 21 CFR 870.5925 - Automatic rotating tourniquet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 false Automatic rotating tourniquet. 870.5925 Section 870.5925... § 870.5925 Automatic rotating tourniquet. (a) Identification. An automatic rotating tourniquet is a device that prevents blood...

  5. 21 CFR 870.5925 - Automatic rotating tourniquet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 false Automatic rotating tourniquet. 870.5925 Section 870.5925... § 870.5925 Automatic rotating tourniquet. (a) Identification. An automatic rotating tourniquet is a device that prevents blood...

  6. 21 CFR 870.5925 - Automatic rotating tourniquet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 false Automatic rotating tourniquet. 870.5925 Section 870.5925... § 870.5925 Automatic rotating tourniquet. (a) Identification. An automatic rotating tourniquet is a device that prevents blood...

  7. 21 CFR 870.5925 - Automatic rotating tourniquet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 false Automatic rotating tourniquet. 870.5925 Section 870.5925... § 870.5925 Automatic rotating tourniquet. (a) Identification. An automatic rotating tourniquet is a device that prevents blood...

  8. 46 CFR 153.980 - Isolation of automatic closing valves.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...false Isolation of automatic closing valves. 153.980 Section 153.980...980 Isolation of automatic closing valves. The person in charge of cargo transfer may isolate automatic closing valves described in § 153.408(b)...

  9. 46 CFR 153.980 - Isolation of automatic closing valves.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...false Isolation of automatic closing valves. 153.980 Section 153.980...980 Isolation of automatic closing valves. The person in charge of cargo transfer may isolate automatic closing valves described in § 153.408(b)...

  10. 46 CFR 153.980 - Isolation of automatic closing valves.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...false Isolation of automatic closing valves. 153.980 Section 153.980...980 Isolation of automatic closing valves. The person in charge of cargo transfer may isolate automatic closing valves described in § 153.408(b)...

  11. 46 CFR 153.980 - Isolation of automatic closing valves.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...false Isolation of automatic closing valves. 153.980 Section 153.980...980 Isolation of automatic closing valves. The person in charge of cargo transfer may isolate automatic closing valves described in § 153.408(b)...

  12. 46 CFR 153.980 - Isolation of automatic closing valves.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...false Isolation of automatic closing valves. 153.980 Section 153.980...980 Isolation of automatic closing valves. The person in charge of cargo transfer may isolate automatic closing valves described in § 153.408(b)...

  13. SPEECH PARAMETERIZATION FOR AUTOMATIC SPEECH RECOGNITION IN NOISY CONDITIONS

    E-print Network

    SPEECH PARAMETERIZATION FOR AUTOMATIC SPEECH RECOGNITION IN NOISY CONDITIONS Bojana Gaji of automatic speech recognition systems (ASR) against additive background noise, by finding speech parameters noises. 1. INTRODUCTION State-of-the-art automatic speech recognition (ASR) systems are capable

  14. PRONUNCIATION VERIFICATION OF CHILDREN'S SPEECH FOR AUTOMATIC LITERACY ASSESSMENT

    E-print Network

    Alwan, Abeer

    PRONUNCIATION VERIFICATION OF CHILDREN'S SPEECH FOR AUTOMATIC LITERACY ASSESSMENT Joseph Tepperman1 part of automatically assessing a new reader's literacy is in verifying his pronunciation of read% of the time. Index Terms: children's speech, literacy, pronunciation 1. INTRODUCTION Automatically assessing

  15. Automatically Proving the Correctness of Program Analyses and Transformations

    E-print Network

    Lerner, Sorin

    Automatically Proving the Correctness of Program Analyses and Transformations Sorin Lerner;#12;University of Washington Abstract Automatically Proving the Correctness of Program Analyses and Engineering In this dissertation, I describe a technique for automatically proving compiler optimiza- tions

  16. Automatic Adverse Drug Events Detection Using Letters to the Editor

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Chao; Srinivasan, Padmini; Polgreen, Philip M.

    2012-01-01

    We present and test the intuition that letters to the editor in journals carry early signals of adverse drug events (ADEs). Surprisingly these letters have not yet been exploited for automatic ADE detection unlike for example, clinical records and PubMed. Part of the challenge is that it is not easy to access the full-text of letters (for the most part these do not appear in PubMed). Also letters are likely underrated in comparison with full articles. Besides demonstrating that this intuition holds we contribute techniques for post market drug surveillance. Specifically, we test an automatic approach for ADE detection from letters using off-the-shelf machine learning tools. We also involve natural language processing for feature definitions. Overall we achieve high accuracy in our experiments and our method also works well on a second new test set. Our results encourage us to further pursue this line of research. PMID:23304379

  17. Automatic Item Generation of Probability Word Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holling, Heinz; Bertling, Jonas P.; Zeuch, Nina

    2009-01-01

    Mathematical word problems represent a common item format for assessing student competencies. Automatic item generation (AIG) is an effective way of constructing many items with predictable difficulties, based on a set of predefined task parameters. The current study presents a framework for the automatic generation of probability word problems…

  18. Toward the Automatic Generation of Cued Speech

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maroula S. Bratakos; Paul Duchnowski; Louis D. Braida

    1998-01-01

    Although Manual Cued Speech (MCS) can greatly facilitate both education and communication for the deaf, its use is limited to situations in which the talker, or a transliterator, is able to produce cues for the cue receiver. The availability of automatically produced cues would substantially relax this restriction. However, it is unclear whether current automatic speech recognition (ASR) technology would

  19. AUTOMATIC DATA PROCESSING AT BURAR SEISMIC STATION

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniela Ghica; Johannes Schweitzer

    BURAR seismic data are continuously recorded and transmitted in real-time to the Romanian National Data Centre (RO_NDC), where they are automatically processed using a program developed at NORSAR for detecting and associating seismic signals from regional array data, and applied for BURAR characteristics. Automatic estimates from detections (slowness vector and onset time) were verified with events listed in PDE bulletins

  20. Next Generation Automatic Test System (NGATS) Update

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. A. Curry; J. Burden; G. A. Lundy

    2006-01-01

    The next generation automatic test system (NGATS) is the latest addition to the Integrated family of test equipment (IFTE) developed and managed by product manager, test, measurement and diagnostic equipment (PM TMDE). This is Version 6 of what is commonly known as the Base Shop Test Facility series of systems developed by the off platform, automatic test system program. NGATS

  1. AMETHYST: automatic alarm assessment becoming a reality

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Horner; H. Sage; G. Leach

    1998-01-01

    The aim of the AMETHYST (AutoMatic Event auTHentication SYSTems) project is to encourage the development of a high performance perimeter detection system which combines Video Motion Detection (VMD) technology with another type of Perimeter Intrusion Detection System (PIDS). AMETHYST will automatically assess the cause of PIDS alarms and pass to an operator those alarms likely to be caused by an

  2. AMETHYST: automatic alarm assessment: operational experience

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Horner; Graham Leach; T. O'Dwyer

    2000-01-01

    The aim of the AMETHYST (Automatic Event Authentication Systems) project is to encourage the development of a high-performance perimeter detection system by using video assessment to enhance the Perimeter Intrusion Detection System (PIDS). AMETHYST will automatically assess the cause of all PIDS alarms and pass to an operator only those alarms that are likely to be caused by an intruder.

  3. AMETHYST: automatic alarm assessment: becoming a reality

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Horner; K. Sage; G. Leach

    1997-01-01

    The aim of the AMETHYST (AutoMatic Event auTHentication SYSTems) project is to encourage the development of a high performance perimeter detection system which combines Video Motion Detection (VMD) technology with another type of Perimeter Intrusion Detection System (PIDS). AMETHYST will automatically assess the cause of all PIDS alarms and pass to an operator only those alarms which are likely to

  4. Automatic Generation of Intelligent Agent Lee Spector

    E-print Network

    Spector, Lee

    , computer programs are generated by natural selection. The pro- cess starts with a large initial population: it is also easier to automatically generate agent programs. The artificial life, machine learning, but the resulting prim- itives may provide equal benefit to automatic programming processes. In any case the same

  5. Acoustic Parameters for Automatic Detection Nasal Manner

    E-print Network

    Allen, Jont

    ; Acoustic Parameters for Automatic Detection Nasal Manner Tarun Pruthi , Carol Y.Espy­Wilson Dept are of sounds dominant speech output from the nasal cavity opposed the cavity. This gives the nasals some very detection, automatic speech recognition # Corresponding Author. Email addresses: tpruthi@glue.umd.edu (Tarun

  6. Allergy Attack Against Automatic Signature Generation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Simon P. Chung; Aloysius K. Mok

    2006-01-01

    Research in systems that automatically generate signatures to filter out zero-day worm instances at perimeter defense has received a lot of attention recently. While a well known problem with these sys- tems is that the signatures generated are usually not very useful against polymorphic worms, we shall in this paper investigate a different, and potentially more serious problem facing automatic

  7. Automaticity: A Theoretical and Conceptual Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moors, Agnes; De Houwer, Jan

    2006-01-01

    Several theoretical views of automaticity are discussed. Most of these suggest that automaticity should be diagnosed by looking at the presence of features such as unintentional, uncontrolled/uncontrollable, goal independent, autonomous, purely stimulus driven, unconscious, efficient, and fast. Contemporary views further suggest that these…

  8. Automatic Extension of WOLF Benot Sagot

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Automatic Extension of WOLF Benoît Sagot INRIA / University Paris 7 Paris, France benoit we present the extension of WOLF, a freely available, automatically creat- ed wordnet for French the new vocabulary to the appropriate synsets. Our approach, applied on the French wordnet WOLF

  9. Automatic Contour Tracking in Ultrasound Images

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Min; Kambhamettu, Chandra; Stone, Maureen

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, a new automatic contour tracking system, EdgeTrak, for the ultrasound image sequences of human tongue is presented. The images are produced by a head and transducer support system (HATS). The noise and unrelated high-contrast edges in ultrasound images make it very difficult to automatically detect the correct tongue surfaces. In…

  10. Automatic data editing: a brief introduction

    SciTech Connect

    Liepins, G.E.

    1982-01-01

    This paper briefly discusses the automatic data editing process: (1) check the data records for consistency, (2) analyze the inconsistent records to determine the inconsistent variables. It is stated that the application of automatic data editing is broad, and two specific examples are cited. One example, that of a vehicle maintenance data base is used to illustrate the process.

  11. Automaticity Training for Dyslexics: An Experimental Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holt-Ochsner, Liana K.; Manis, Franklin R.

    1992-01-01

    This study used computer word games to train 35 dyslexic readers (mean age 13 years) in automaticity (speed and accuracy) of word recognition. After training, reaction time on the word vocalization and sentence comprehension tasks improved significantly for both trained and untrained stimuli. Results support the automaticity hypothesis. (DB)

  12. GRAPHICAL MODELS AND AUTOMATIC SPEECH RECOGNITION

    E-print Network

    Bilmes, Jeff

    GRAPHICAL MODELS AND AUTOMATIC SPEECH RECOGNITION JEFFREY A. BILMES Abstract. Graphical models provide a promising paradigm to study both existing and novel techniques for automatic speech recognition as part of a speech recognition system can be described by a graph ­ this includes Gaussian dis

  13. Improving automatic interface generation with smart templates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeffrey Nichols; Brad A. Myers; Kevin Litwack

    2004-01-01

    One of the challenges of using mobile devices for ubiquitous remote control is the creation of the user interface. If automatically generated designs are used, then they must be close in quality to hand-designed interfaces. Automatically generated interfaces can be dramatically improved if they use standard conventions to which users are accustomed, such as the arrangement of buttons on a

  14. Automatic Generation of Device User-Interfaces?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Olufisayo Omojokun; Prasun Dewan

    2007-01-01

    One of the visions of pervasive computing is using mobile computers to interact with networked devices. A question raised by this vision is: Should the user- interfaces of these devices be handcrafted manually or generated automatically? Based on experience within the domain of desktop computing, the answer seems to be that automatic generation is not flexible enough to support a

  15. The Automaticity of Visual Statistical Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turk-Browne, Nicholas B.; Junge, Justin; Scholl, Brian J.

    2005-01-01

    The visual environment contains massive amounts of information involving the relations between objects in space and time, and recent studies of visual statistical learning (VSL) have suggested that this information can be automatically extracted by the visual system. The experiments reported in this article explore the automaticity of VSL in…

  16. ASAP: AUTOMATIC SPECULATIVE ACYCLIC PARALLELIZATION FOR CLUSTERS

    E-print Network

    August, David

    ASAP: AUTOMATIC SPECULATIVE ACYCLIC PARALLELIZATION FOR CLUSTERS HANJUN KIM A DISSERTATION-threaded transactions (MTXs). This dissertation proposes the Automatic Speculative Acyclic Parallelization (ASAP) system that enables Spec-DSWP for clusters without any hardware modification. The ASAP system supports various

  17. SIMULTANEOUS MULTISPEAKER SEGMENTATION FOR AUTOMATIC MEETING RECOGNITION

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kornel Laskowski; Tanja Schultz

    Vocal activity detection is an important technology for bot h automatic speech recognition and automatic speech under- standing. In meetings, participants typically vocalize fo r only a fraction of the recorded time, and standard vocal ac- tivity detection algorithms for close-talk microphones ha ve shown to be ineffective. This is primarily due to the prob- lem of crosstalk, in which

  18. Proving Data Structure Properties by Automatic Induction

    E-print Network

    Jaffar, Joxan

    Proving Data Structure Properties by Automatic Induction Duc-Hiep Chu, Joxan Jaffar, and Minh are limited to the unfold-and-match (U+M) paradigm where predicates are transformed by fold/unfold operations properties between different predicates. Our contribution is a method which can automatically detect

  19. Automatic Grading of Spreadsheet and Database Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kovacic, Zlatko J.; Green, John Steven

    2012-01-01

    Growing enrollment in distance education has increased student-to-lecturer ratios and, therefore, increased the workload of the lecturer. This growing enrollment has resulted in mounting efforts to develop automatic grading systems in an effort to reduce this workload. While research in the design and development of automatic grading systems has a…

  20. Automatically scoring ladar detectors using target descriptors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Annette Bergman; David H. DeKruger

    2001-01-01

    The volume of data that must be processed to characterize the performance of target detection algorithms over a complex parameter space requires automated analysis. This paper discusses a methodology for automatically scoring the results from a diversity of detectors producing several different forms of detected regions. The ability to automatically score detector outputs without using full target templates or models