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1

Summarizing Expository Texts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: This article reviews the literature on students' developing skills in summarizing expository texts and describes strategies for evaluating students' expository summaries. Evaluation outcomes are presented for a professional development project aimed at helping teachers develop new techniques for teaching summarization. Methods: Strategies…

Westby, Carol; Culatta, Barbara; Lawrence, Barbara; Hall-Kenyon, Kendra

2010-01-01

2

Using clustering and a modified classification algorithm for automatic text summarization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we describe a modified classification method destined for extractive summarization purpose. The classification in this method doesn't need a learning corpus; it uses the input text to do that. First, we cluster the document sentences to exploit the diversity of topics, then we use a learning algorithm (here we used Naive Bayes) on each cluster considering it as a class. After obtaining the classification model, we calculate the score of a sentence in each class, using a scoring model derived from classification algorithm. These scores are used, then, to reorder the sentences and extract the first ones as the output summary. We conducted some experiments using a corpus of scientific papers, and we have compared our results to another summarization system called UNIS.1 Also, we experiment the impact of clustering threshold tuning, on the resulted summary, as well as the impact of adding more features to the classifier. We found that this method is interesting, and gives good performance, and the addition of new features (which is simple using this method) can improve summary's accuracy.

Aries, Abdelkrime; Oufaida, Houda; Nouali, Omar

2013-01-01

3

The Tipster Summac Text Summarization Evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The TIPSTER Text Summarization Evaluation (SUMMAC) has established definitively that automatic text summarization is very effective in relevance assessment tasks. Summaries as short as 17% of full text length sped up decision-making by almost a factor of 2 with no statistically significant degradation in F-score accuracy. SUMMAC has also introduced a new intrinsic method for automated evaluation of informative summaries.

Inderjeet Mani; David House; Gary Klein; Lynette Hirschman; Therese Firmin; Beth Sundheim

1999-01-01

4

Automated Text Summarization in SUMMARIST  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARIST is an attempt to create a robust automated text summarization system, based on the 'equation': summarization = topic identification + interpretation + generation. Each of these stages contains several independent modules, many of them trained on large corpora of text. We describe the system's architecture and provide details of some of its modules.

Eduard Hovy; Chin-Yew Lin

1999-01-01

5

Summarization as the base for text assessment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a model that apply shallow text summarization as a cheap (in resources needed) process for Automatic (machine based) free text answer Assessment (AA). The evaluation of the proposed method induces the inference that the Conventional Assessment (CA, man made assessment of free text answers) does not have an obvious mechanical replacement. However, this is a research challenge.

Karanikolas, Nikitas N.

2015-02-01

6

Figure-Associated Text Summarization and Evaluation  

PubMed Central

Biomedical literature incorporates millions of figures, which are a rich and important knowledge resource for biomedical researchers. Scientists need access to the figures and the knowledge they represent in order to validate research findings and to generate new hypotheses. By themselves, these figures are nearly always incomprehensible to both humans and machines and their associated texts are therefore essential for full comprehension. The associated text of a figure, however, is scattered throughout its full-text article and contains redundant information content. In this paper, we report the continued development and evaluation of several figure summarization systems, the FigSum+ systems, that automatically identify associated texts, remove redundant information, and generate a text summary for every figure in an article. Using a set of 94 annotated figures selected from 19 different journals, we conducted an intrinsic evaluation of FigSum+. We evaluate the performance by precision, recall, F1, and ROUGE scores. The best FigSum+ system is based on an unsupervised method, achieving F1 score of 0.66 and ROUGE-1 score of 0.97. The annotated data is available at figshare.com (http://figshare.com/articles/Figure_Associated_Text_Summarization_and_Evaluation/858903). PMID:25643357

Polepalli Ramesh, Balaji; Sethi, Ricky J.; Yu, Hong

2015-01-01

7

Automatic soccer video analysis and summarization  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a fully automatic and computationally ecient framework for analysis and summariza-tion of soccer videos using cinematic and object-based features. The proposed framework includes somenovel low-level soccer video processing algorithms, such as dominant color region detection, robust shotboundary detection, and shot classification, as well as some higher-level algorithms for goal detection,referee detection, and penalty-box detection. The system can output

Ahmet Ekin; A. Murat Tekalp; Rajiv Mehrotra

2003-01-01

8

Task-Driven Dynamic Text Summarization  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The objective of this work is to examine the efficacy of natural language processing (NLP) in summarizing bibliographic text for multiple purposes. Researchers have noted the accelerating growth of bibliographic databases. Information seekers using traditional information retrieval techniques when searching large bibliographic databases are often…

Workman, Terri Elizabeth

2011-01-01

9

Kernel-based Approach for Automatic Evaluation of Natural Language Generation Technologies: Application to Automatic Summarization  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to promote the study of auto- matic summarization and translation, we need an accurate automatic evaluation method that is close to human evalua- tion. In this paper, we present an eval- uation method that is based on convolu- tion kernels that measure the similarities between texts considering their substruc- tures. We conducted an experiment us- ing automatic summarization

Tsutomu Hirao; Manabu Okumura; Hideki Isozaki

2005-01-01

10

Automatic summarization of audio-visual soccer feeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a fully automatic system for soccer game summarization. The system takes audio-visual content as an input, and builds on the integration of two independent but complementary contributions (i) to identify crucial periods of the soccer game in a fully automatic way, and (ii) to summarize the soccer game as a function of individual narrative preferences of the

Fan Chen; Christophe De Vleeschouwer; Helenca Duxans Barrobes; J. Gregorio Escalada; David Conejero

2010-01-01

11

Summarization Instruction: Effects on Foreign Language Comprehension and Summarization of Expository Texts.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports the effects of metacognitive strategy training in summarization on the ability of foreign language learners to comprehend and summarize expository texts. Notes that the improved summary performance was maintained three weeks after instruction ended. Suggests that explicit instruction in the rules of summarization is an effective tool for…

Cordero-Ponce, Wanda L.

2000-01-01

12

Summarization of Text Document Using Query Dependent Parsing Techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

World Wide Web is the largest source of information. Huge amount of data is present on the Web. There has been a great amount of work on query-independent summarization of documents. However, due to the success of Web search engines query-specific document summarization (query result snippets) has become an important problem. In this paper a method to create query specific summaries by identifying the most query-relevant fragments and combining them using the semantic associations within the document is discussed. In particular, first a structure is added to the documents in the preprocessing stage and converts them to document graphs. The present research work focuses on analytical study of different document clustering and summarization techniques currently the most research is focused on Query-Independent summarization. The main aim of this research work is to combine the both approaches of document clustering and query dependent summarization. This mainly includes applying different clustering algorithms on a text document. Create a weighted document graph of the resulting graph based on the keywords. And obtain the document graph to get the summary of the document. The performance of the summary using different clustering techniques will be analyzed and the optimal approach will be suggested.

Rokade, P. P.; Mrunal, Bewoor; Patil, S. H.

2010-11-01

13

An Efficient Statistical Approach for Automatic Organic Chemistry Summarization  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we propose an efficient strategy for summarizing scientific documents in Organic Chemistry that concentrates\\u000a on numerical treatments. We present its implementation named yachs (Yet Another Chemistry Summarizer) that combines a specific document pre-processing with a sentence scoring method relying\\u000a on the statistical properties of documents. We show that yachs achieves the best results among several other summarizers

Florian Boudin; Juan Manuel Torres Moreno; Patricia Velázquez-morales

2008-01-01

14

Comparing Abstractive and Extractive Summarization of Evaluative Text: Controversiality and Content Selection  

E-print Network

Comparing Abstractive and Extractive Summarization of Evaluative Text: Controversiality and Content with the controversiality of the opinions in the corpus. We then propose a clustering framework for summarization content. Controversiality and Summarization Strategy 2 2.1. Abstractive and Extractive Summarization 2 2.2. Summarization

Penn, Gerald

15

Using Librarian Techniques in Automatic Text Summarization for Information Retrieval  

E-print Network

as in the paper library but need to adapt them to the online context. We discuss Centrifuser, a system that we Department of Computer Science Columbia University New York, New York 10027 min@cs.columbia.edu Judith L. Klavans Center for Research on Information Access Columbia University New York, New York 10027 klavans

Kan, Min-Yen

16

Automatic Detection of Text Genre  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the text databases available to users become larger and more heterogeneous, genre becomes increasingly important for computational linguistics as a complement to topical and structural principles of classification. We propose a theory of genres as bundles of , which correlate with various surface cues, and argue that genre detection based on surface cues is as successful as detection based

Brett Kessler; Geoffrey Nunberg; Hinrich Schuetze

1997-01-01

17

An Automatic Multimedia Content Summarization System for Video Recommendation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In recent years, using video as a learning resource has received a lot of attention and has been successfully applied to many learning activities. In comparison with text-based learning, video learning integrates more multimedia resources, which usually motivate learners more than texts. However, one of the major limitations of video learning is…

Yang, Jie Chi; Huang, Yi Ting; Tsai, Chi Cheng; Chung, Ching I.; Wu, Yu Chieh

2009-01-01

18

An automatic question answering and knowledge summarization approach for Q&A services  

Microsoft Academic Search

With regard to the drastic development of information technologies, the communication channels between enterprises and customers have become more and more complicated. Many enterprises have realized that electronic CRM mechanisms can provide efficient and cost?effective customer services. In order to automatically answer customer queries via contact centers, this paper proposes an integrated model with automatic question answering and knowledge summarization

2009-01-01

19

Automatic Summarization of MEDLINE Citations for Evidence–Based Medical Treatment: A Topic-Oriented Evaluation  

PubMed Central

As the number of electronic biomedical textual resources increases, it becomes harder for physicians to find useful answers at the point of care. Information retrieval applications provide access to databases; however, little research has been done on using automatic summarization to help navigate the documents returned by these systems. After presenting a semantic abstraction automatic summarization system for MEDLINE citations, we concentrate on evaluating its ability to identify useful drug interventions for fifty-three diseases. The evaluation methodology uses existing sources of evidence-based medicine as surrogates for a physician-annotated reference standard. Mean average precision (MAP) and a clinical usefulness score developed for this study were computed as performance metrics. The automatic summarization system significantly outperformed the baseline in both metrics. The MAP gain was 0.17 (p < 0.01) and the increase in the overall score of clinical usefulness was 0.39 (p < 0.05). PMID:19022398

Fiszman, Marcelo; Demner-Fushman, Dina; Kilicoglu, Halil; Rindflesch, Thomas C.

2009-01-01

20

Research on Personalized Recommendation System of Scientific and Technological Periodical Based on Automatic Summarization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Utilizing the theoretical methods and technology of automatic summarization system and personalized recommend system, ire study how to access to thesis document index, theme words, summary, readers' evaluations and other important recommended information from the vast amount of scientific and technological periodical documents quickly and effectively. The aim is to improve the scientific workers' research efficiency remarkably. On the basis

Qifeng Yang; Sihang Zhang; Bin Feng

2007-01-01

21

Science Text Comprehension: Drawing, Main Idea Selection, and Summarizing as Learning Strategies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of two experiments was to contrast instructions to generate drawings with two text-focused strategies--main idea selection (Exp. 1) and summarization (Exp. 2)--and to examine whether these strategies could help students learn from a chemistry science text. Both experiments followed a 2 x 2 design, with drawing strategy instructions…

Leopold, Claudia; Leutner, Detlev

2012-01-01

22

Extractive vs. NLG-based Abstractive Summarization of Evaluative Text: The Effect of Corpus Controversiality  

E-print Network

Controversiality Giuseppe Carenini and Jackie Chi Kit Cheung1 Department of Computer Science University of British controversiality of opinions con- tained in evaluative text, and report the results of a user study comparing extractive and NLG-based abstractive summarization at dif- ferent levels of controversiality. While the ab

Carenini, Giuseppe

23

Presentation video retrieval using automatically recovered slide and spoken text  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Video is becoming a prevalent medium for e-learning. Lecture videos contain text information in both the presentation slides and lecturer's speech. This paper examines the relative utility of automatically recovered text from these sources for lecture video retrieval. To extract the visual information, we automatically detect slides within the videos and apply optical character recognition to obtain their text. Automatic speech recognition is used similarly to extract spoken text from the recorded audio. We perform controlled experiments with manually created ground truth for both the slide and spoken text from more than 60 hours of lecture video. We compare the automatically extracted slide and spoken text in terms of accuracy relative to ground truth, overlap with one another, and utility for video retrieval. Results reveal that automatically recovered slide text and spoken text contain different content with varying error profiles. Experiments demonstrate that automatically extracted slide text enables higher precision video retrieval than automatically recovered spoken text.

Cooper, Matthew

2013-03-01

24

Automatic Detection of Machine Translated Text  

E-print Network

-word and POS features to classify human vs. MT · For a given MT system: · Perform a 10-fold cross validation - Commercial MT Systems good detection - bad translation bad detection - good translation · Very strong reverse, Moshe Koppel andYoav Goldberg Bar Ilan University ISCOL 2014 #12;Motivation · Automatic MT evaluation

Wintner, Shuly

25

DiffNet: automatic differential functional summarization of dE-MAP networks.  

PubMed

The study of genetic interaction networks that respond to changing conditions is an emerging research problem. Recently, Bandyopadhyay et al. (2010) proposed a technique to construct a differential network (dE-MAPnetwork) from two static gene interaction networks in order to map the interaction differences between them under environment or condition change (e.g., DNA-damaging agent). This differential network is then manually analyzed to conclude that DNA repair is differentially effected by the condition change. Unfortunately, manual construction of differential functional summary from a dE-MAP network that summarizes all pertinent functional responses is time-consuming, laborious and error-prone, impeding large-scale analysis on it. To this end, we propose DiffNet, a novel data-driven algorithm that leverages Gene Ontology (go) annotations to automatically summarize a dE-MAP network to obtain a high-level map of functional responses due to condition change. We tested DiffNet on the dynamic interaction networks following MMS treatment and demonstrated the superiority of our approach in generating differential functional summaries compared to state-of-the-art graph clustering methods. We studied the effects of parameters in DiffNet in controlling the quality of the summary. We also performed a case study that illustrates its utility. PMID:25009128

Seah, Boon-Siew; Bhowmick, Sourav S; Dewey, C Forbes

2014-10-01

26

Machine Learning with Transformed Features in Automatic Text Classification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Automatic text classification (ATC) is the task of automatically assigning a set of documents into appropriate categories (or classes, or topics). One of the feature generation techniques is extracting absolute word frequency from textual documents to be used as feature vectors in machine learning techniques. One of the limitations of this technique is the dependency on text length leading into

Lazaro S. P. Busagala; Wataru Ohyama; Tetsushi Wakabayashi

27

Stemming Malay Text and Its Application in Automatic Text Categorization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In Malay language, there are no conjugations and declensions and affixes have important grammatical functions. In Malay, the same word may function as a noun, an adjective, an adverb, or, a verb, depending on its position in the sentence. Although extensively simple root words are used in informal conversations, it is essential to use the precise words in formal speech or written texts. In Malay, to make sentences clear, derivative words are used. Derivation is achieved mainly by the use of affixes. There are approximately a hundred possible derivative forms of a root word in written language of the educated Malay. Therefore, the composition of Malay words may be complicated. Although there are several types of stemming algorithms available for text processing in English and some other languages, they cannot be used to overcome the difficulties in Malay word stemming. Stemming is the process of reducing various words to their root forms in order to improve the effectiveness of text processing in information systems. It is essential to avoid both over-stemming and under-stemming errors. We have developed a new Malay stemmer (stemming algorithm) for removing inflectional and derivational affixes. Our stemmer uses a set of affix rules and two types of dictionaries: a root-word dictionary and a derivative-word dictionary. The use of set of rules is aimed at reducing the occurrence of under-stemming errors, while that of the dictionaries is believed to reduce the occurrence of over-stemming errors. We performed an experiment to evaluate the application of our stemmer in text mining software. For the experiment, text data used were actual web pages collected from the World Wide Web to demonstrate the effectiveness of our Malay stemming algorithm. The experimental results showed that our stemmer can effectively increase the precision of the extracted Boolean expressions for text categorization.

Yasukawa, Michiko; Lim, Hui Tian; Yokoo, Hidetoshi

28

Multilingual Text Entry using Automatic Language Detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Computer users increasingly need to pro- duce text written in multiple languages. However, typical computer interfaces re- quire the user to change the text entry soft- ware each time a different language is used. This is cumbersome, especially when lan- guage changes are frequent. To solve this problem, we propose TypeAny, a novel front-end interface that detects the language of

Yo Ehara; Kumiko Tanaka-Ishii

29

Automatic Text Segmentation for Movie Subtitles  

E-print Network

Abstract. To improve information retrieval from films we attempt to segment movies into scenes using the subtitles. Film subtitles differ significantly in nature from other texts; we describe some of the challenges of working with movie subtitles. We test a few modifications to the TextTiling algorithm, in order to get an effective segmentation.

Martin Scaiano; Diana Inkpen; Robert Laganiere; Adele Reinhartz

30

Automatically generating extraction patterns from untagged text  

SciTech Connect

Many corpus-based natural language processing systems rely on text corpora that have been manually annotated with syntactic or semantic tags. In particular, all previous dictionary construction systems for information extraction have used an annotated training corpus or some form of annotated input. We have developed a system called AutoSlog-TS that creates dictionaries of extraction patterns using only untagged text. AutoSlog-TS is based on the AutoSlog system, which generated extraction patterns using annotated text and a set of heuristic rules. By adapting AutoSlog and combining it with statistical techniques, we eliminated its dependency on tagged text. In experiments with the MUC-4 terrorism domain, AutoSlog-TS created a dictionary of extraction patterns that performed comparably to a dictionary created by AutoSlog, using only preclassified texts as input.

Riloff, E. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

1996-12-31

31

Information fusion for automatic text classification  

SciTech Connect

Analysis and classification of free text documents encompass decision-making processes that rely on several clues derived from text and other contextual information. When using multiple clues, it is generally not known a priori how these should be integrated into a decision. An algorithmic sensor based on Latent Semantic Indexing (LSI) (a recent successful method for text retrieval rather than classification) is the primary sensor used in our work, but its utility is limited by the {ital reference}{ital library} of documents. Thus, there is an important need to complement or at least supplement this sensor. We have developed a system that uses a neural network to integrate the LSI-based sensor with other clues derived from the text. This approach allows for systematic fusion of several information sources in order to determine a combined best decision about the category to which a document belongs.

Dasigi, V. [Department of Computer Science and Information Technology, Sacred Heart University, Fairfield, CT (United States); Mann, R.C.; Protopopescu, V.A. [Computer and Mathematics Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

1996-08-01

32

Automatically classifying case texts and predicting outcomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Work on a computer program called SMILE + IBP (SMart Index Learner Plus Issue-Based Prediction) bridges case-based reasoning\\u000a and extracting information from texts. The program addresses a technologically challenging task that is also very relevant\\u000a from a legal viewpoint: to extract information from textual descriptions of the facts of decided cases and apply that information\\u000a to predict the outcomes of new cases.

Kevin D. Ashley; Stefanie Brüninghaus

2009-01-01

33

Automatic Construction of Navigable Concept Networks Characterizing Text Databases  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we present a comprehensive approach to conceptual structuring and intelligent navigation of text databases. Given any collection of texts, we first automatically extract a set of index terms describing each text. Next, we use a particular lattice conceptual clustering method to build a network of clustered texts whose nodes are described using the index terms. We argue

Claudio Carpineto; Giovanni Romano

1995-01-01

34

Mining Reference Tables for Automatic Text Segmentation Eugene Agichtein  

E-print Network

Mining Reference Tables for Automatic Text Segmentation Eugene Agichtein Columbia University, mining and integration. In this paper, we mine tables present in data warehouses and relational databases segmentation approaches, which require comprehensive manually labeled training data. Our segmentation system

Agichtein, Eugene

35

Seeing the Whole in Parts: Text Summarization for Web Browsing on Handheld Devices  

E-print Network

for summarizing parts of Web pages on handheld devices, such as personal digital assistants (PDAs), or cellular, as compared to other schemes. Keywords Personal Digital Assistant, PDA, Handheld Computers, Mobile Computing-Wide Web from handheld personal digital assistants (PDAs) is an exciting, promising addition to our use

Khan, Javed I.

36

Automatic text location in images and video frames  

Microsoft Academic Search

Textual data is very important in a number of applications such as image database indexing and document understanding. The goal of automatic text location without character recognition capabilities is to extract image regions that contain only text. These regions can then be either fed to an optical character recognition module or highlighted for a user. Text location is a very

Anil K. Jain; Bin Yu

1998-01-01

37

Automatic Text Localisation in Scanned Comic Books Christophe Rigaud1  

E-print Network

Automatic Text Localisation in Scanned Comic Books Christophe Rigaud1 , Dimosthenis Karatzas2-christophe.burie}@univ-lr.fr, {dimos, joost}@cvc.uab.es Keywords: Text localization, comics, text/graphic separation, complex background, unstructured document Abstract: Comic books constitute an important cultural heritage asset

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

38

Automatic Acquisition of Hyponyms from Large Text Corpora  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe a method for the automatic acquisition of the hyponymy lexical relation from unrestricted text. Two goals motivate the approach: (i) avoidance of the need for pre-encoded knowledge and (ii) applicability across a wide range of text. We identify a set of lexico-syntactic patterns that are easily recognizable, that occur frequently and across text genre boundaries, and that indisputably

Marti A. Hearst

1992-01-01

39

Syllabic Level Automatic Synchronization of Music Signals and Text Lyrics  

E-print Network

Syllabic Level Automatic Synchronization of Music Signals and Text Lyrics Denny Iskandar Institute.a-star.edu.sg ABSTRACT We present a framework to synchronize pop music to corresponding text lyric. We refine line level music processing in which the acoustic music signal and textual lyrics constitute two correlated views

Wang, Ye

40

Towards scalable summarization and visualization of large text corpora (abstract only)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Society is awash with problems requiring the analysis of vast quantities of text and data. From detecting flu trends out of twitter conversations to finding scholarly works answering specific questions, we rely more and more on computers to process text for us. Text analytics is the application of computational, mathematical, and statistical models to derive information from large quantities of

Tyler Sliwkanich; Douglas Schneider; Aaron Yong; Mitchell Home; Denilson Barbosa

2012-01-01

41

Automatic Discovery of Language Models for Text Databases  

Microsoft Academic Search

The proliferation of text databases within large organiza- tions and on the Internet makes it difficult for a person to know which databases to search. Given language models that describe the contents of each database, a database se- lection algorithm such as GlOSS can provide assistance by automatically selecting appropriate databases for an infor- mation need. Current practice is that

James P. Callan; Margaret E. Connell; Aiqun Du

1999-01-01

42

Automatic Acquisition of Taxonomies from Text: FCA meets NLP  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a novel approach to the automatic acquisition of taxonomies or concept hierarchies from domain-specific texts based on Formal Concept Analy- sis (FCA). Our approach is based on the assumption that verbs pose more or less strong selectional restrictions on their ar- guments. The conceptual hierarchy is then built on the basis of the inclusion rela- tions between the

Philipp Cimiano; Steffen Staab

2003-01-01

43

Toward a multi-sensor neural net approach to automatic text classification  

SciTech Connect

Many automatic text indexing and retrieval methods use a term-document matrix that is automatically derived from the text in question. Latent Semantic Indexing, a recent method for approximating large term-document matrices, appears to be quite useful in the problem of text information retrieval, rather than text classification. Here we outline a method that attempts to combine the strength of the LSI method with that of neural networks, in addressing the problem of text classification. In doing so, we also indicate ways to improve performance by adding additional {open_quotes}logical sensors{close_quotes} to the neural network, something that is hard to do with the LSI method when employed by itself. Preliminary results are summarized, but much work remains to be done.

Dasigi, V. [Sacred Heart Univ., Fairfield, CT (United States). Department of Computer Science and Information Technology; Mann, R. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, TN (United States)

1996-01-26

44

Macrorules for Summarizing Texts: The Development of Expertise. Technical Report No. 270.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three studies were conducted to investigate the development of the ability of individuals of varying ages to use macrorules for paraphrasing expository text. Macrorules were defined as the general rules of deletion, superordination, selection, and invention that underlie comprehension of prose. In the first study, 18 fifth grade, 16 seventh grade,…

Illinois Univ., Urbana. Center for the Study of Reading.

45

Effects of Presentation Mode and Computer Familiarity on Summarization of Extended Texts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Comparability studies on computer- and paper-based reading tests have focused on short texts and selected-response items via almost exclusively statistical modeling of test performance. The psychological effects of presentation mode and computer familiarity on individual students are under-researched. In this study, 157 students read extended…

Yu, Guoxing

2010-01-01

46

Mood avatar: automatic text-driven head motion synthesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Natural head motion is an indispensable part of realistic facial animation. This paper presents a novel approach to synthesize natural head motion automatically based on grammatical and prosodic features, which are extracted by the text analysis part of a Chinese Text-to-Speech (TTS) system. A two-layer clustering method is proposed to determine elementary head motion patterns from a multimodal database which

Kaihui Mu; Jianhua Tao; Jianfeng Che; Minghao Yang

2010-01-01

47

Automatic Time Expression Labeling for English and Chinese Text  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In this paper, we describe systems for automatic labeling of time expressions occurring in English and Chinese text as specified\\u000a in the ACE Temporal Expression Recognition and Normalization (TERN) task. We cast the chunking of text into time expressions\\u000a as a tagging problem using a bracketed representation at token level, which takes into account embedded constructs. We adopted\\u000a a left-to-right,

Kadri Hacioglu; Ying Chen; Benjamin Douglas

2005-01-01

48

Automatic inpainting scheme for video text detection and removal.  

PubMed

We present a two stage framework for automatic video text removal to detect and remove embedded video texts and fill-in their remaining regions by appropriate data. In the video text detection stage, text locations in each frame are found via an unsupervised clustering performed on the connected components produced by the stroke width transform (SWT). Since SWT needs an accurate edge map, we develop a novel edge detector which benefits from the geometric features revealed by the bandlet transform. Next, the motion patterns of the text objects of each frame are analyzed to localize video texts. The detected video text regions are removed, then the video is restored by an inpainting scheme. The proposed video inpainting approach applies spatio-temporal geometric flows extracted by bandlets to reconstruct the missing data. A 3D volume regularization algorithm, which takes advantage of bandlet bases in exploiting the anisotropic regularities, is introduced to carry out the inpainting task. The method does not need extra processes to satisfy visual consistency. The experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of both our proposed video text detection approach and the video completion technique, and consequently the entire automatic video text removal and restoration process. PMID:24057006

Mosleh, Ali; Bouguila, Nizar; Ben Hamza, Abdessamad

2013-11-01

49

Movie review mining and summarization  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the ?ourish of the Web, online review is becoming a more and more useful and important information resource for people. As a result, automatic review mining and sum- marizing has become a hot research topic recently. Difier- ent from traditional text summarization, review mining and summarizing aims at extracting the features on which the re- viewers express their opinions

Li Zhuang; Feng Jing; Xiao-Yan Zhu

2006-01-01

50

Image-based mobile service: automatic text extraction and translation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a new mobile service for the translation of text from images taken by consumer-grade cell-phone cameras. Such capability represents a new paradigm for users where a simple image provides the basis for a service. The ubiquity and ease of use of cell-phone cameras enables acquisition and transmission of images anywhere and at any time a user wishes, delivering rapid and accurate translation over the phone's MMS and SMS facilities. Target text is extracted completely automatically, requiring no bounding box delineation or related user intervention. The service uses localization, binarization, text deskewing, and optical character recognition (OCR) in its analysis. Once the text is translated, an SMS message is sent to the user with the result. Further novelties include that no software installation is required on the handset, any service provider or camera phone can be used, and the entire service is implemented on the server side.

Berclaz, Jérôme; Bhatti, Nina; Simske, Steven J.; Schettino, John C.

2010-01-01

51

The Extent to Which Pre-Service Turkish Language and Literature Teachers Could Apply Summarizing Rules in Informative Texts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of the present study is to determine the extent to which pre-service Turkish Language and Literature teachers possess summarizing skill. Answers to the following questions were sought in the study: What is the summarizing skill level of the pre-service Turkish Language and Literature teachers? Which of the summarizing rules are…

Görgen, Izzet

2015-01-01

52

Toward a multi-sensor-based approach to automatic text classification  

SciTech Connect

Many automatic text indexing and retrieval methods use a term-document matrix that is automatically derived from the text in question. Latent Semantic Indexing is a method, recently proposed in the Information Retrieval (IR) literature, for approximating a large and sparse term-document matrix with a relatively small number of factors, and is based on a solid mathematical foundation. LSI appears to be quite useful in the problem of text information retrieval, rather than text classification. In this report, we outline a method that attempts to combine the strength of the LSI method with that of neural networks, in addressing the problem of text classification. In doing so, we also indicate ways to improve performance by adding additional {open_quotes}logical sensors{close_quotes} to the neural network, something that is hard to do with the LSI method when employed by itself. The various programs that can be used in testing the system with TIPSTER data set are described. Preliminary results are summarized, but much work remains to be done.

Dasigi, V.R. [Sacred Heart Univ., Fairfield, CT (United States); Mann, R.C. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

1995-10-01

53

Automatic Sublanguage Identification for a New Text Satoshi SEKINE  

E-print Network

by the domain or context. Furthermore, there are some successful NLP systems which have explicitly or implicitly for future NLP research: 1) automatic linguistic knowledge acquisition for sublanguage, and 2) automatic, there are few on the second objective. If this objective is achieved, NLP systems will be able to optimize

54

Movie review mining and summarization  

E-print Network

With the flourish of the Web, online review is becoming a more and more useful and important information resource for people. As a result, automatic review mining and summarization has become a hot research topic recently. Different from traditional text summarization, review mining and summarization aims at extracting the features on which the reviewers express their opinions and determining whether the opinions are positive or negative. In this paper, we focus on a specific domain – movie review. A multi-knowledge based approach is proposed, which integrates WordNet, statistical analysis and movie knowledge. The experimental results show the effectiveness of the proposed approach in movie review mining and summarization.

Li Zhuang; Feng Jing; Xiao-yan Zhu

2006-01-01

55

Semi-automatic annotation process for procedural texts: An application on cooking recipes  

E-print Network

, and is built automatically thanks to natural language processing. The results of the automatic annotationSemi-automatic annotation process for procedural texts: An application on cooking recipes Valmi. Keywords: cooking, natural language processing, procedu- ral texts, semantic annotation, semantic wiki. 1

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

56

Automatic Resource Compilation by Analyzing Hyperlink Structure and Associated Text  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe the design, prototyping and evaluation of ARC, a system for automatically compiling a list of authoritative web resources on any (sufficiently broad) topic. The goal of ARC is to compile resource lists similar to those provided by Yahoo! or Infoseek. The fundamental difference is that these services construct lists either manually or through a combination of human and

Soumen Chakrabarti; Byron Dom; Prabhakar Raghavan; Sridhar Rajagopalan; David Gibson; Jon M. Kleinberg

1998-01-01

57

Automatic resource compilation by analyzing hyperlink structure and associated text  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract We describe the design, prototyping and evaluation of ARC, a system for automatically compiling a list of authoritativeWeb resources on any (sufficiently broad) topic. The goal of ARC is to compile resource lists similar to those provided by Yahoo! or Infoseek. The fundamental difference is that these services construct lists either manually or through a combination of human and

Soumen Chakrabarti; Byron Dom; David Gibson; Jon M. Kleinberg; Prabhakar Raghavan; Sridhar Rajagopalan

1997-01-01

58

Automatic CEFR Level Prediction for Estonian Learner Text Sowmya Vajjala1  

E-print Network

and with the advent of computational tools that can process language, automatic approaches that reduce human gradingAutomatic CEFR Level Prediction for Estonian Learner Text Sowmya Vajjala1 , Kaidi Lõo2 (1) LEAD for automatically predicting a learner's language proficiency in Estonian according to the European CEFR scale. We

59

Automatic text detection and tracking in digital video  

Microsoft Academic Search

Text which appears in a scene or is graphically added to video can provide an important supplementalsource of index information as well as clues for decoding the video's structure and for classification. In thispaper we present algorithms for detecting and tracking text in digital video. Our system implements a scalespacefeature extractor that feeds an artificial neural processor to detect text

Huiping Li; David S. Doermann; Omid E. Kia

2000-01-01

60

Automatic Discovery of Language Models for Text Databases Jamie Callan, Margaret Connell, and Aiqun Du  

E-print Network

Automatic Discovery of Language Models for Text Databases Jamie Callan, Margaret Connell, and Aiqun of Massachusetts Amherst, Massachusetts 01003­4610, USA callan@cs.umass.edu Abstract The proliferation of text

Callan, Jamie

61

Automatic Acquisition of Subcategorization Frames from Untagged Text  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes an implemented program that takes a raw, untagged text corpus as its only input (no open-class dictionary) and generates a partial list of verbs occurring in the text and the subcategorization frames (SFs) in which they occur. Verbs are detected by a novel technique based on the Case Filter of Rouvret and Vergnaud (1980). The completeness of

Michael R. Brent; Robert C. Berwick

1991-01-01

62

CUCS00400 Automatic Classification of Text Databases Through Query Probing  

E-print Network

and focused results than when searching a more general text database. Other services (e.g., Copernic 3://www.searchengineguide.com/ 3 http://www.copernic.com/ 1 #12; databases with queries to determine an approximation

63

Why discourse structures in medical reports matter for the validity of automatically generated text knowledge bases.  

PubMed

The automatic analysis of medical full-texts currently suffers from neglecting text coherence phenomena such as reference relations between discourse units. This has unwarranted effects on the description adequacy of medical knowledge bases automatically generated from texts. The resulting representation bias can be characterized in terms of artificially fragmented, incomplete and invalid knowledge structures. We discuss three types of textual phenomena (pronominal and nominal anaphora, as well as textual ellipsis) and outline basic methodologies how to deal with them. PMID:10384532

Hahn, U; Romacker, M; Schulz, S

1998-01-01

64

Automatic Text Categorization from Information Retrieval to Support Vector Learning  

E-print Network

. The Rocchio text classifier derives category profiles (e.g. foreign politics or sports) from a representation of the data in a metric space. Such profile building is the actual Rocchio training and relates. Nevertheless, the character- ization of such learning tasks is still problematic. Questions like "How many

Moschitti, Alessandro

65

Development and Evaluation of Automatic Punctuation for French and English Speech-to-Text  

E-print Network

´achym Kol´ar, Lori Lamel Spoken Language Processing Group, LIMSI-CNRS, B.P. 133, 91403 Orsay cedex, France processing modules. This pa- per describes recent efforts towards improving automatic punc- tuation of speechDevelopment and Evaluation of Automatic Punctuation for French and English Speech-to-Text J

66

Text independent speaker identification using automatic acoustic segmentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

An acoustic-class-dependent technique for text-independent speaker identification on very short utterances is described. The technique is based on maximum-likelihood estimation of a Gaussian mixture model representation of speaker identity. Gaussian mixtures are noted for their robustness as a parametric model and their ability to form smooth estimates of rather arbitrary underlying densities. Speaker model parameters are estimated using a special

Richard C. Rose; Douglas A. Reynolds

1990-01-01

67

Automatic theory generation from analyst text files using coherence networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes a three-phase process of extracting knowledge from analyst textual reports. Phase 1 involves performing natural language processing on the source text to extract subject-predicate-object triples. In phase 2, these triples are then fed into a coherence network analysis process, using a genetic algorithm optimization. Finally, the highest-value sub networks are processed into a semantic network graph for display. Initial work on a well- known data set (a Wikipedia article on Abraham Lincoln) has shown excellent results without any specific tuning. Next, we ran the process on the SYNthetic Counter-INsurgency (SYNCOIN) data set, developed at Penn State, yielding interesting and potentially useful results.

Shaffer, Steven C.

2014-05-01

68

High compression rate text summarization  

E-print Network

This thesis focuses on methods for condensing large documents into highly concise summaries, achieving compression rates on par with human writers. While the need for such summaries in the current age of information overload ...

Branavan, Satchuthananthavale Rasiah Kuhan

2008-01-01

69

Automatic text structuring and retrieval-experiments in automatic encyclopedia searching  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many conventional approaches to text analysis and informationretrieval prove ineffective when large textcollections must be processed in heterogeneous subjectareas. An alternative text manipulation systemis outlined useful for the retrieval of large heterogeneoustexts, and for the recognition of content similaritiesbetween text excerpts, based on flexible textmatching procedures carried out in several contexts ofdifferent scope. The methods are illustrated by searchexperiments...

Gerard Salton; Chris Buckley

1991-01-01

70

Automatic Text Classification of English Newswire Articles Based on Statistical Classification Techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The basic process of automatic text classification is learning a classification scheme from training examples then using it to classify unseen textual documents. It is essentially the same as graphic or character pattern recognition process. So the pattern recognition approaches can be used for automatic text categorization. In this research several statistical classification techniques each of which employs Euclidean distance, various similarity measures, linear discriminant function, projection distance, modified projection distance, SVM, nearest-neighbor, have been used for automatic text classification. The principal component analysis was used to reduce the dimensionality of the feature vector. Comparative experiments have been conducted on the Reuters-21578 test collection of English newswire articles. The results illustrate that the efficiency of modified projection distance is totally better than the other methods and the principal component analysis is suitable for reducing the dimensionality of the text features.

Zu, Guowei; Ohyama, Wataru; Wakabayashi, Tetsushi; Kimura, Fumitaka

71

Combining MEDLINE and publisher data to create parallel corpora for the automatic translation of biomedical text  

PubMed Central

Background Most of the institutional and research information in the biomedical domain is available in the form of English text. Even in countries where English is an official language, such as the United States, language can be a barrier for accessing biomedical information for non-native speakers. Recent progress in machine translation suggests that this technique could help make English texts accessible to speakers of other languages. However, the lack of adequate specialized corpora needed to train statistical models currently limits the quality of automatic translations in the biomedical domain. Results We show how a large-sized parallel corpus can automatically be obtained for the biomedical domain, using the MEDLINE database. The corpus generated in this work comprises article titles obtained from MEDLINE and abstract text automatically retrieved from journal websites, which substantially extends the corpora used in previous work. After assessing the quality of the corpus for two language pairs (English/French and English/Spanish) we use the Moses package to train a statistical machine translation model that outperforms previous models for automatic translation of biomedical text. Conclusions We have built translation data sets in the biomedical domain that can easily be extended to other languages available in MEDLINE. These sets can successfully be applied to train statistical machine translation models. While further progress should be made by incorporating out-of-domain corpora and domain-specific lexicons, we believe that this work improves the automatic translation of biomedical texts. PMID:23631733

2013-01-01

72

A rule triggering system for automatic text-to-Sign translation  

E-print Network

is machine translation from French text to French Sign Language (LSF). After arguing in favour of a ruleA rule triggering system for automatic text-to-Sign translation Michael Filhol LIMSI­CNRS B.P. 133. With this proposal, we hope also to show how MT can benefit today from Sign Language processing. Categories

Filhol, Michael

73

Using Linguistic Cues for the Automatic Recognition of Personality in Conversation and Text  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is well known that utterances convey a great deal of information about the speaker in addition to their semantic content. One such type of information consists of cues to the speaker's personality traits, the most fundamental dimension of variation between humans. Recent work explores the automatic detection of other types of pragmatic variation in text and conversation, such as

François Mairesse; Marilyn A. Walker; Matthias R. Mehl; Roger K. Moore

2007-01-01

74

Automatic Case Acquisition From Texts for Process-Oriented Case-Based Reasoning  

E-print Network

Automatic Case Acquisition From Texts for Process-Oriented Case-Based Reasoning Valmi Dufour cooking recipes. We argue that techniques taken from natural language processing are required extraction, natural language processing, process-oriented case-based reasoning, textual case-based reasoning

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

75

Supporting Efficient and Reliable Content Analysis using Automatic Text Processing Technology  

E-print Network

the accuracy of the classification affects user performance. 2. Technical Approach Automatic text that are currently being used for HCI research and practice do not make use of it. Here, we empirically evaluate of coding in order to assess the usefulness of incorporating this technology into HCI tools. 1. Introduction

Rose, Carolyn Penstein

76

Automatic language identity tagging on word and sentence-level in multilingual text sources: a case-study on Luxembourgish  

E-print Network

models needed for natural language processing tasks such as automatic speech recognition, language used needed for nat- ural language processing tasks such as automatic speech recognition, language usedAutomatic language identity tagging on word and sentence-level in multilingual text sources: a case

77

Evaluation of Extractive Voicemail Summarization  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interesting paper outlines a framework for automatic summarization of voicemail messages and delivery as compact text messages. The proposed system, developed at the University of Sheffield, incorporates speech recognition technology and summary word extraction. An overview of the feature selection process is especially interesting, as it briefly describes how pitch, word duration, and pauses in the voicemail message are used to obtain a compressed subset of the most important features. A number of experiments were performed to determine the system's accuracy and usability, and the results are presented in the paper.

Koumpis, Konstantinos

78

An automatic system to detect and extract texts in medical images for de-identification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, there is an increasing need to share medical images for research purpose. In order to respect and preserve patient privacy, most of the medical images are de-identified with protected health information (PHI) before research sharing. Since manual de-identification is time-consuming and tedious, so an automatic de-identification system is necessary and helpful for the doctors to remove text from medical images. A lot of papers have been written about algorithms of text detection and extraction, however, little has been applied to de-identification of medical images. Since the de-identification system is designed for end-users, it should be effective, accurate and fast. This paper proposes an automatic system to detect and extract text from medical images for de-identification purposes, while keeping the anatomic structures intact. First, considering the text have a remarkable contrast with the background, a region variance based algorithm is used to detect the text regions. In post processing, geometric constraints are applied to the detected text regions to eliminate over-segmentation, e.g., lines and anatomic structures. After that, a region based level set method is used to extract text from the detected text regions. A GUI for the prototype application of the text detection and extraction system is implemented, which shows that our method can detect most of the text in the images. Experimental results validate that our method can detect and extract text in medical images with a 99% recall rate. Future research of this system includes algorithm improvement, performance evaluation, and computation optimization.

Zhu, Yingxuan; Singh, P. D.; Siddiqui, Khan; Gillam, Michael

2010-03-01

79

Using a MaxEnt Classifier for the Automatic Content Scoring of Free-Text Responses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Criticisms against multiple-choice item assessments in the USA have prompted researchers and organizations to move towards constructed-response (free-text) items. Constructed-response (CR) items pose many challenges to the education community—one of which is that they are expensive to score by humans. At the same time, there has been widespread movement towards computer-based assessment and hence, assessment organizations are competing to develop automatic content scoring engines for such items types—which we view as a textual entailment task. This paper describes how MaxEnt Modeling is used to help solve the task. MaxEnt has been used in many natural language tasks but this is the first application of the MaxEnt approach to textual entailment and automatic content scoring.

Sukkarieh, Jana Z.

2011-03-01

80

Using a MaxEnt Classifier for the Automatic Content Scoring of Free-Text Responses  

SciTech Connect

Criticisms against multiple-choice item assessments in the USA have prompted researchers and organizations to move towards constructed-response (free-text) items. Constructed-response (CR) items pose many challenges to the education community - one of which is that they are expensive to score by humans. At the same time, there has been widespread movement towards computer-based assessment and hence, assessment organizations are competing to develop automatic content scoring engines for such items types - which we view as a textual entailment task. This paper describes how MaxEnt Modeling is used to help solve the task. MaxEnt has been used in many natural language tasks but this is the first application of the MaxEnt approach to textual entailment and automatic content scoring.

Sukkarieh, Jana Z. [Educational Testing Service, Rosedale Road, Princeton NJ 08541 (United States)

2011-03-14

81

Extractive summarization using complex networks and syntactic dependency  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The realization that statistical physics methods can be applied to analyze written texts represented as complex networks has led to several developments in natural language processing, including automatic summarization and evaluation of machine translation. Most importantly, so far only a few metrics of complex networks have been used and therefore there is ample opportunity to enhance the statistics-based methods as new measures of network topology and dynamics are created. In this paper, we employ for the first time the metrics betweenness, vulnerability and diversity to analyze written texts in Brazilian Portuguese. Using strategies based on diversity metrics, a better performance in automatic summarization is achieved in comparison to previous work employing complex networks. With an optimized method the Rouge score (an automatic evaluation method used in summarization) was 0.5089, which is the best value ever achieved for an extractive summarizer with statistical methods based on complex networks for Brazilian Portuguese. Furthermore, the diversity metric can detect keywords with high precision, which is why we believe it is suitable to produce good summaries. It is also shown that incorporating linguistic knowledge through a syntactic parser does enhance the performance of the automatic summarizers, as expected, but the increase in the Rouge score is only minor. These results reinforce the suitability of complex network methods for improving automatic summarizers in particular, and treating text in general.

Amancio, Diego R.; Nunes, Maria G. V.; Oliveira, Osvaldo N.; Costa, Luciano da F.

2012-02-01

82

Challenges for automatically extracting molecular interactions from full-text articles  

PubMed Central

Background The increasing availability of full-text biomedical articles will allow more biomedical knowledge to be extracted automatically with greater reliability. However, most Information Retrieval (IR) and Extraction (IE) tools currently process only abstracts. The lack of corpora has limited the development of tools that are capable of exploiting the knowledge in full-text articles. As a result, there has been little investigation into the advantages of full-text document structure, and the challenges developers will face in processing full-text articles. Results We manually annotated passages from full-text articles that describe interactions summarised in a Molecular Interaction Map (MIM). Our corpus tracks the process of identifying facts to form the MIM summaries and captures any factual dependencies that must be resolved to extract the fact completely. For example, a fact in the results section may require a synonym defined in the introduction. The passages are also annotated with negated and coreference expressions that must be resolved. We describe the guidelines for identifying relevant passages and possible dependencies. The corpus includes 2162 sentences from 78 full-text articles. Our corpus analysis demonstrates the necessity of full-text processing; identifies the article sections where interactions are most commonly stated; and quantifies the proportion of interaction statements requiring coherent dependencies. Further, it allows us to report on the relative importance of identifying synonyms and resolving negated expressions. We also experiment with an oracle sentence retrieval system using the corpus as a gold-standard evaluation set. Conclusion We introduce the MIM corpus, a unique resource that maps interaction facts in a MIM to annotated passages within full-text articles. It is an invaluable case study providing guidance to developers of biomedical IR and IE systems, and can be used as a gold-standard evaluation set for full-text IR tasks. PMID:19778419

McIntosh, Tara; Curran, James R

2009-01-01

83

Semi-automatic image personalization tool for variable text insertion and replacement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Image personalization is a widely used technique in personalized marketing,1 in which a vendor attempts to promote new products or retain customers by sending marketing collateral that is tailored to the customers' demographics, needs, and interests. With current solutions of which we are aware such as XMPie,2 DirectSmile,3 and AlphaPicture,4 in order to produce this tailored marketing collateral, image templates need to be created manually by graphic designers, involving complex grid manipulation and detailed geometric adjustments. As a matter of fact, the image template design is highly manual, skill-demanding and costly, and essentially the bottleneck for image personalization. We present a semi-automatic image personalization tool for designing image templates. Two scenarios are considered: text insertion and text replacement, with the text replacement option not offered in current solutions. The graphical user interface (GUI) of the tool is described in detail. Unlike current solutions, the tool renders the text in 3-D, which allows easy adjustment of the text. In particular, the tool has been implemented in Java, which introduces flexible deployment and eliminates the need for any special software or know-how on the part of the end user.

Ding, Hengzhou; Bala, Raja; Fan, Zhigang; Eschbach, Reiner; Bouman, Charles A.; Allebach, Jan P.

2010-02-01

84

Automatic coding of reasons for hospital referral from general medicine free-text reports.  

PubMed Central

Although the coding of medical data is expected to benefit both patients and the health care system, its implementation as a manual process often represents a poorly attractive workload for the physician. For epidemiological purpose, we developed a simple automatic coding system based on string matching, which was designed to process free-text sentences stating reasons for hospital referral, as collected from general practitioners (GPs). This system relied on a look-up table, built up from 2590 reports giving a single reason for referral, which were coded manually according to the International Classification of Primary Care (ICPC). We tested the system by entering 797 new reasons for referral. The match rate was estimated at 77%, and the accuracy rate, at 80% at code level and 92% at chapter level. This simple system is now routinely used by a national epidemiological network of sentinel physicians. PMID:11079931

Letrilliart, L.; Viboud, C.; Boëlle, P. Y.; Flahault, A.

2000-01-01

85

Automatic extraction of property norm-like data from large text corpora.  

PubMed

Traditional methods for deriving property-based representations of concepts from text have focused on either extracting only a subset of possible relation types, such as hyponymy/hypernymy (e.g., car is-a vehicle) or meronymy/metonymy (e.g., car has wheels), or unspecified relations (e.g., car--petrol). We propose a system for the challenging task of automatic, large-scale acquisition of unconstrained, human-like property norms from large text corpora, and discuss the theoretical implications of such a system. We employ syntactic, semantic, and encyclopedic information to guide our extraction, yielding concept-relation-feature triples (e.g., car be fast, car require petrol, car cause pollution), which approximate property-based conceptual representations. Our novel method extracts candidate triples from parsed corpora (Wikipedia and the British National Corpus) using syntactically and grammatically motivated rules, then reweights triples with a linear combination of their frequency and four statistical metrics. We assess our system output in three ways: lexical comparison with norms derived from human-generated property norm data, direct evaluation by four human judges, and a semantic distance comparison with both WordNet similarity data and human-judged concept similarity ratings. Our system offers a viable and performant method of plausible triple extraction: Our lexical comparison shows comparable performance to the current state-of-the-art, while subsequent evaluations exhibit the human-like character of our generated properties. PMID:25019134

Kelly, Colin; Devereux, Barry; Korhonen, Anna

2014-01-01

86

Summarizing can improve metacomprehension accuracy  

Microsoft Academic Search

In two experiments, it was examined whether the accuracy of comprehension monitoring (metacomprehension accuracy) was improved by summarizing texts. College students read texts and then some wrote a summary of each text (either immediately after reading or after a delay—the delay between reading and summarizing was filled by the reading of the remaining texts), whereas others did not (the control

Keith W Thiede; Mary C. M Anderson

2003-01-01

87

Automatically Detecting Medications and the Reason for their Prescription in Clinical Narrative Text Documents  

PubMed Central

An important proportion of the information about the medications a patient is taking is mentioned only in narrative text in the electronic health record. Automated information extraction can make this information accessible for decision-support, research, or any other automated processing. In the context of the “i2b2 medication extraction challenge,” we have developed a new NLP application called Textractor to automatically extract medications and details about them (e.g., dosage, frequency, reason for their prescription). This application and its evaluation with part of the reference standard for this “challenge” are presented here, along with an analysis of the development of this reference standard. During this evaluation, Textractor reached a system-level overall F1-measure, the reference metric for this challenge, of about 77% for exact matches. The best performance was measured with medication routes (F1-measure 86.4%), and the worst with prescription reasons (F1-measure 29%). These results are consistent with the agreement observed between human annotators when developing the reference standard, and with other published research. PMID:20841823

Meystre, Stéphane M.; Thibault, Julien; Shen, Shuying; Hurdle, John F.; South, Brett R.

2011-01-01

88

Exploring the Effects of Multimedia Learning on Pre-Service Teachers' Perceived and Actual Learning Performance: The Use of Embedded Summarized Texts in Educational Media  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In light of the increased usage of instructional media for teaching and learning, the design of these media as aids to convey the content for learning can be crucial for effective learning outcomes. In this vein, the literature has given attention to how concurrent on-screen text can be designed using these media to enhance learning performance.…

Wu, Leon Yufeng; Yamanaka, Akio

2013-01-01

89

The Effects of Two Summarization Strategies Using Expository Text on the Reading Comprehension and Summary Writing of Fourth-and Fifth-Grade Students in an Urban, Title 1 School  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using a quasi-experimental pretest/post test design, this study examined the effects of two summarization strategies on the reading comprehension and summary writing of fourth- and fifth- grade students in an urban, Title 1 school. The Strategies, "G"enerating "I"nteractions between "S"chemata and "T"ext (GIST) and Rule-based, were taught using…

Braxton, Diane M.

2009-01-01

90

Automatic Speech-to-Text Transcription in Arabic LORI LAMEL and ABDELKHALEK MESSAOUDI and JEAN-LUC GAUVAIN  

E-print Network

Automatic Speech-to-Text Transcription in Arabic LORI LAMEL and ABDELKHALEK MESSAOUDI and JEAN with nominally only three vowels, 1www.darpa.mil/ipto/Programs/gale Authors' address: Lori Lamel, Abdelkhalek, to republish, to post on servers, or to redistribute to lists requires prior specific permission and/or a fee

91

A new hybrid summarizer based on Vector Space model Statistical Physics and Linguistics  

E-print Network

summarization of Spanish medical texts. There are a lot of systems for automatic summarization using statistics models [16], Maximal Marginal Relevance [12] or discourse structure [22, 23, 27] were used. In this work in Spanish. The resulting summaries have been eval- uated with Rouge [17] obtaining good results. We present

Avignon et des Pays de Vaucluse, Université de

92

Ontea: Semi-automatic Pattern based Text Annotation empowered with Information Retrieval Methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Automated annotation of the Web documents is a key chal- lenge of the Semantic Web effort. Web documents are structured but their structure is understandable mainly for humans, which is the major problem of the Semantic Web. Many solutions for semi-automatic anno- tation exists based on neural networks, structure analysis or supervised learning techniques. Other possibility is to use pattern

Michal Laclav ´ õk; Marek Ciglan; Stanislav Krajÿc ´ õ

93

A TMs32020-based real time, text-independent, automatic speaker verification system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A fast, reliable, yet inexpensive automatic speaker verification system based on the Texas Instruments TMS32020 digital signal processor (DSP) is described. This system uses a novel speaker verification algorithm which operates in 75% of real time and requires two to three seconds of unconstrained speech to perform accurate authentication. Experimental results on a population of 90 speakers are also given.

J. B. Attili; M. Savic

1988-01-01

94

Learning Summarization by Using Similarities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses a research project aimed at designing a computer-based system to help students learn to summarize French texts by using a method called Case-Based Reasoning (CBR). Such a system uses previous, similar situations to make a new summary by reusing and adapting the same summarization rules. The rationale underlying the learning of text

Capus, Laurence; Tourigny, Nicole

1998-01-01

95

Summarization of Diagrams in Documents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Documents are composed of text and graphics. There is substantial work on automated text summarization but almost none on the automated summarization of graphics. Four examples of diagrams from the scientific literature are used to indicate the problems and possible solutions: a table of images, a flow chart, a set of x,y data plots, and a block diagram. Manual summaries

Robert P. Futrelle

1999-01-01

96

Query-Focused Summarization: Summarization is Easy,  

E-print Network

://www-nlpir.nist.gov/projects/duc/duc2005/ #12;DUC Query example "Identify and describe types of organized crime that crosses borders · Rank passages by their similarity to the manual summaries #12;Summarization Methods KLSum Biased Lex

Wintner, Shuly

97

CUCS-004-00 Automatic Classification of Text Databases Through Query Probing  

E-print Network

results than when searching a more general text database. Other services (e.g., Copernic3 ) combine. [CCD99] probe text 1http://www.invisibleweb.com/ 2http://www.searchengineguide.com/ 3http://www.copernic

98

Multimedia Knowledge Integration, Summarization And Evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents new methods for automatically integrating, summarizing and evaluating multimedia knowledge. These are essential for multimedia applications to efficiently and coherently deal with multimedia knowledge at different abstraction levels such as perceptual and semantic knowledge (e.g., image clusters and word senses, respectively). The proposed methods include automatic techniques (1) for interrelating the concepts in the multimedia knowledge using

Ana B. Benitez; Shih-fu Chang

2002-01-01

99

Summarization of Documentaries Kezban Demirtas1  

E-print Network

news stories from the video and provide a summary for each story by using lexical chain analysis@ceng.metu.edu.tr Abstract. Video summarization algorithms present condensed versions of a full length video by identifying the most significant parts of the video. In this paper, we propose an automatic video summarization method

Cicekli, Ilyas

100

Automatic Detection of Arguments in Legal Texts Marie-Francine Moens  

E-print Network

in information systems, such as the Araucaria project [24], that visualize the argument structure of a text. The manual structuring of an argumentative text into a graph visualiza- tion as is done in the Araucaria research is a very costly job. The Araucaria tool assists the drafting of the argumentation structure

Reed, Chris

101

Experimenting with Automatic Text-to-Diagram Conversion: A Novel Teaching Aid for the Blind People  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Diagram describing texts are integral part of science and engineering subjects including geometry, physics, engineering drawing, etc. In order to understand such text, one, at first, tries to draw or perceive the underlying diagram. For perception of the blind students such diagrams need to be drawn in some non-visual accessible form like tactile…

Mukherjee, Anirban; Garain, Utpal; Biswas, Arindam

2014-01-01

102

Summarizing Lecture 1 Summarizing Lecture 2  

E-print Network

Units and Dimensions Significant Figures Orders of magnitude and Estimation Scaling Math stuff! Akarsh Units and Dimensions Significant Figures Orders of magnitude and Estimation Scaling Math stuff! Akarsh Summarizing Lecture 2 Units and Dimensions Significant Figures Orders of magnitude and Estimation Scaling Math

Raizen, Mark G.

103

Using Discourse Analysis and Automatic Text Generation to Study Discourse Cue Usage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our two stage methodology for the study of cue usage coordinates an exhaustive corpus analysis with a system for text generation. Coding of the corpus uses Relational Discourse Analysis, a syn- thesis of two previous accounts of discourse struc- ture. In the first stage of our study, hypotheses about cue usage are evaluated and refined using the corpus analysis. Several

Megan Moser; Johanna D. Moore

1995-01-01

104

Test-Driving TANKA: Evaluating a Semi-automatic System of Text Analysis for Knowledge Acquisition  

Microsoft Academic Search

The evaluation of a large implemented natural language processing system involves more than its application to a common performance task. Such tasks have been used in the message understanding conferences (MUCs), text retrieval conferences (TRECs) as well as in speech technology and machine translation workshops. It is useful to compare the performance of different systems in a predefined application, but

Ken Barker; Sylvain Delisle; Stan Szpakowicz

1998-01-01

105

Semi-Automatic Grading of Students' Answers Written in Free Text  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The correct grading of free text answers to exam questions during an assessment process is time consuming and subject to fluctuations in the application of evaluation criteria, particularly when the number of answers is high (in the hundreds). In consequence of these fluctuations, inherent to human nature, and largely determined by emotional…

Escudeiro, Nuno; Escudeiro, Paula; Cruz, Augusto

2011-01-01

106

The Application Research of Topic Word List In Text Automatic Classification  

Microsoft Academic Search

When the traditional text classification technologies classify academic dissertations, the dimension of extracted feature terms is high, and they can't represent the theme of thesis. it makes the efficiency is very low and the accuracy rate is not high. The topic words are small in quantity and can reflect the theme of thesis well. Accordingly, the paper proposes to extract

Huan Huang; Qingtang Liu; Linjing Wu; Tao Huang; Shuai Yuan

2009-01-01

107

A Pretopological Framework for the Automatic Construction of Lexical-Semantic Structures from Texts  

E-print Network

metric to intrinsically evaluate structures. Categories and Subject Descriptors: I.2.4 [Artificial from texts within a domain may fit the semantic component neatly and directly, which will never classes: the similarity-based methods [12, 3], the set-theoretical approaches [9, 4] and the associative

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

108

Summarizing Email Threads  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summarizing threads of email is different from summarizing other types of written communi- cation as it has an inherent dialog structure. We present initial research which shows that sen- tence extraction techniques can work for email threads as well, but profit from email-specific features. In addition, the presentation of the summary should take into account the dialogic structure of email

Owen Rambow; Lokesh Shrestha; John Chen; Chirsty Lauridsen

109

Automatic Classification of Free-Text Radiology Reports to Identify Limb Fractures using Machine Learning and the SNOMED CT Ontology  

PubMed Central

Objective To develop and evaluate machine learning techniques that identify limb fractures and other abnormalities (e.g. dislocations) from radiology reports. Materials and Methods 99 free-text reports of limb radiology examinations were acquired from an Australian public hospital. Two clinicians were employed to identify fractures and abnormalities from the reports; a third senior clinician resolved disagreements. These assessors found that, of the 99 reports, 48 referred to fractures or abnormalities of limb structures. Automated methods were then used to extract features from these reports that could be useful for their automatic classification. The Naive Bayes classification algorithm and two implementations of the support vector machine algorithm were formally evaluated using cross-fold validation over the 99 reports. Results Results show that the Naive Bayes classifier accurately identifies fractures and other abnormalities from the radiology reports. These results were achieved when extracting stemmed token bigram and negation features, as well as using these features in combination with SNOMED CT concepts related to abnormalities and disorders. The latter feature has not been used in previous works that attempted classifying free-text radiology reports. Discussion Automated classification methods have proven effective at identifying fractures and other abnormalities from radiology reports (F-Measure up to 92.31%). Key to the success of these techniques are features such as stemmed token bigrams, negations, and SNOMED CT concepts associated with morphologic abnormalities and disorders. Conclusion This investigation shows early promising results and future work will further validate and strengthen the proposed approaches. PMID:24303284

Zuccon, Guido; Wagholikar, Amol S; Nguyen, Anthony N; Butt, Luke; Chu, Kevin; Martin, Shane; Greenslade, Jaimi

110

Medical volume image summarization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Medical volume images are large in size. They cannot be efficiently transmitted and visualized as candidates for medical image retrieval and relevance feedback. On the other hand, 2D images that are small in size and rich in 3D details can be efficiently transmitted and visualized as candidates. This paper presents an algorithm that summarizes the 3D details in a volume

Feng Ding; Hao Li; Yuan Cheng; W. K. Leow

2009-01-01

111

Evidence of a Highly Specific Relationship between Rapid Automatic Naming of Digits and Text-Reading Speed  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper explores the specificity of the relationship between rapid automatic naming and reading fluency. Reading accuracy, rate, and fluency was measured among a sample of 67 children, the majority of whom were very poor readers. Regression analyses revealed that phonological processing tasks predicted reading accuracy and comprehension whereas…

Savage, R.; Frederickson, N.

2005-01-01

112

QCS : a system for querying, clustering, and summarizing documents.  

SciTech Connect

Information retrieval systems consist of many complicated components. Research and development of such systems is often hampered by the difficulty in evaluating how each particular component would behave across multiple systems. We present a novel hybrid information retrieval system--the Query, Cluster, Summarize (QCS) system--which is portable, modular, and permits experimentation with different instantiations of each of the constituent text analysis components. Most importantly, the combination of the three types of components in the QCS design improves retrievals by providing users more focused information organized by topic. We demonstrate the improved performance by a series of experiments using standard test sets from the Document Understanding Conferences (DUC) along with the best known automatic metric for summarization system evaluation, ROUGE. Although the DUC data and evaluations were originally designed to test multidocument summarization, we developed a framework to extend it to the task of evaluation for each of the three components: query, clustering, and summarization. Under this framework, we then demonstrate that the QCS system (end-to-end) achieves performance as good as or better than the best summarization engines. Given a query, QCS retrieves relevant documents, separates the retrieved documents into topic clusters, and creates a single summary for each cluster. In the current implementation, Latent Semantic Indexing is used for retrieval, generalized spherical k-means is used for the document clustering, and a method coupling sentence ''trimming'', and a hidden Markov model, followed by a pivoted QR decomposition, is used to create a single extract summary for each cluster. The user interface is designed to provide access to detailed information in a compact and useful format. Our system demonstrates the feasibility of assembling an effective IR system from existing software libraries, the usefulness of the modularity of the design, and the value of this particular combination of modules.

Dunlavy, Daniel M.

2006-08-01

113

QCS: a system for querying, clustering and summarizing documents.  

SciTech Connect

Information retrieval systems consist of many complicated components. Research and development of such systems is often hampered by the difficulty in evaluating how each particular component would behave across multiple systems. We present a novel hybrid information retrieval system--the Query, Cluster, Summarize (QCS) system--which is portable, modular, and permits experimentation with different instantiations of each of the constituent text analysis components. Most importantly, the combination of the three types of components in the QCS design improves retrievals by providing users more focused information organized by topic. We demonstrate the improved performance by a series of experiments using standard test sets from the Document Understanding Conferences (DUC) along with the best known automatic metric for summarization system evaluation, ROUGE. Although the DUC data and evaluations were originally designed to test multidocument summarization, we developed a framework to extend it to the task of evaluation for each of the three components: query, clustering, and summarization. Under this framework, we then demonstrate that the QCS system (end-to-end) achieves performance as good as or better than the best summarization engines. Given a query, QCS retrieves relevant documents, separates the retrieved documents into topic clusters, and creates a single summary for each cluster. In the current implementation, Latent Semantic Indexing is used for retrieval, generalized spherical k-means is used for the document clustering, and a method coupling sentence 'trimming', and a hidden Markov model, followed by a pivoted QR decomposition, is used to create a single extract summary for each cluster. The user interface is designed to provide access to detailed information in a compact and useful format. Our system demonstrates the feasibility of assembling an effective IR system from existing software libraries, the usefulness of the modularity of the design, and the value of this particular combination of modules.

Dunlavy, Daniel M.; Schlesinger, Judith D. (Center for Computing Sciences, Bowie, MD); O'Leary, Dianne P. (University of Maryland, College Park, MD); Conroy, John M. (Center for Computing Sciences, Bowie, MD)

2006-10-01

114

A System for Automatic Text Detection in Video Ullas Gargi David Crandall Sameer Antani Tarak Gandhi Ryan Keener Rangachar Kasturi  

E-print Network

Gandhi Ryan Keener Rangachar Kasturi Department of Computer Science & Engineering The Pennsylvania State is an important problem that has occu- pied recent research efforts. The text appearing in video can provide-based indexing of digital video has gained re- search importance in recent years. Detected text in video can

Menczer, Filippo

115

An integral image and text processing system for automatic generation of 3D sign-language animations  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a new multi-modal information processing system for generating Japanese sign-language animations in a 3D virtual-reality space. In order to create sign-motions composed of hand movements and finger shapes, the system analyzes illustrative pictures (line images) and texts given in sign-language dictionaries. In addition to the individual image analysis and text analysis mutual augmentation and integration of the

T. Ozawa

2001-01-01

116

User and Device Adaptation in Summarizing Sports Videos  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Video summarization is defined as creating a video summary which includes only important scenes in the original video streams. In order to realize automatic video summarization, the significance of each scene needs to be determined. When targeted especially on broadcast sports videos, a play scene, which corresponds to a play, can be considered as a scene unit. The significance of every play scene can generally be determined based on the importance of the play in the game. Furthermore, the following two issues should be considered: 1) what is important depends on each user's preferences, and 2) the summaries should be tailored for media devices that each user has. Considering the above issues, this paper proposes a unified framework for user and device adaptation in summarizing broadcast sports videos. The proposed framework summarizes sports videos by selecting play scenes based on not only the importance of each play itself but also the users' preferences by using the metadata, which describes the semantic content of videos with keywords, and user profiles, which describe users' preference degrees for the keywords. The selected scenes are then presented in a proper way using various types of media such as video, image, or text according to device profiles which describe the device type. We experimentally verified the effectiveness of user adaptation by examining how the generated summaries are changed by different preference degrees and by comparing our results with/without using user profiles. The validity of device adaptation is also evaluated by conducting questionnaires using PCs and mobile phones as the media devices.

Nitta, Naoko; Babaguchi, Noboru

117

Ranking, Labeling, and Summarizing Short Text in Social Media  

E-print Network

indebted to my advisor, Dr. James Caverlee for his unlimited help and support throughout my research; After any single meeting with him I felt more motivated and more eager about my research. He taught me rst how to be a better person and second how...

Khabiri, Elham

2013-04-18

118

Combining automatic table classification and relationship extraction in extracting anticancer drug-side effect pairs from full-text articles.  

PubMed

Anticancer drug-associated side effect knowledge often exists in multiple heterogeneous and complementary data sources. A comprehensive anticancer drug-side effect (drug-SE) relationship knowledge base is important for computation-based drug target discovery, drug toxicity predication and drug repositioning. In this study, we present a two-step approach by combining table classification and relationship extraction to extract drug-SE pairs from a large number of high-profile oncological full-text articles. The data consists of 31,255 tables downloaded from the Journal of Oncology (JCO). We first trained a statistical classifier to classify tables into SE-related and -unrelated categories. We then extracted drug-SE pairs from SE-related tables. We compared drug side effect knowledge extracted from JCO tables to that derived from FDA drug labels. Finally, we systematically analyzed relationships between anti-cancer drug-associated side effects and drug-associated gene targets, metabolism genes, and disease indications. The statistical table classifier is effective in classifying tables into SE-related and -unrelated (precision: 0.711; recall: 0.941; F1: 0.810). We extracted a total of 26,918 drug-SE pairs from SE-related tables with a precision of 0.605, a recall of 0.460, and a F1 of 0.520. Drug-SE pairs extracted from JCO tables is largely complementary to those derived from FDA drug labels; as many as 84.7% of the pairs extracted from JCO tables have not been included a side effect database constructed from FDA drug labels. Side effects associated with anticancer drugs positively correlate with drug target genes, drug metabolism genes, and disease indications. PMID:25445920

Xu, Rong; Wang, QuanQiu

2015-02-01

119

Music summarization using key phrases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Systems to automatically provide a representative summary or `key phrase' of a piece of music are described. For a `rock' song with `verse' and `chorus' sections, we aim to return the chorus or in any case the most repeated and hence most memorable section. The techniques are less applicable to music with more complicated structure although possibly our general framework

Beth Logan; Stephen Chu

2000-01-01

120

Abstraction Summarization for Managing the Biomedical Research Literature  

Microsoft Academic Search

We explore a semantic abstraction approach to automatic summarization in the biomedical domain. The approach relies on a semantic processor that functions as the source inter- preter and produces a list of predications. A transformation stage then generalizes and condenses this list, ultimately generating a conceptual condensate for a disorder input topic. The final condensate is displayed in graphical form.

Marcelo Fiszman; Thomas C. Rindflesch; Halil Kilicoglu

2004-01-01

121

LANGUAGE MODELS FOR HIERARCHICAL SUMMARIZATION  

E-print Network

LANGUAGE MODELS FOR HIERARCHICAL SUMMARIZATION A Dissertation Presented by DAWN J. LAWRIE Submitted for the degree of DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY September 2003 Computer Science #12;c Copyright by Dawn J. Lawrie 2003 by DAWN J. LAWRIE Approved as to style and content by: W. Bruce Croft, Chair James Allan, Member Donald

Lawrie, Dawn J.

122

Video summarization with supervised learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a video summarization technique based on supervised learning. Within a class of videos of similar nature, user provides the desired summaries for a subset of videos. Based on this supervised information, the summaries for other videos in the same class are generated. We derive frame-transitional features and subsequently represent each frame transition as a state. We then formulate

Jayanta Basak; Varun Luthra; Santanu Chaudhury

2008-01-01

123

Teaching Students to Summarize: Applying Textlinguistics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The findings from research on written and oral summarization are discussed under three headings: summarizers' strategies, improving summarizers' performance, and the assessment of summary quality. Objective measures of summary quality used by researchers are described, and ways these measures could be adapted for use in higher education assessment…

Sherrard, Carol

1989-01-01

124

Observation planning for efficient environment information summarization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mapping is an activity of making a useful descrip- tion of an environment. Not only geometric information such as free space but also object placements are important if the map is used for human-robot communication. We call such a map making environment information summarization because how to summarize may change depending on the purpose of the map. Environment information summarization

Hiroaki Masuzawa; Jun Miura

2009-01-01

125

Summarization of an online medical encyclopedia.  

PubMed

We explore a knowledge-rich (abstraction) approach to summarization and apply it to multiple documents from an online medical encyclopedia. A semantic processor functions as the source interpreter and produces a list of predications. A transformation stage then generalizes and condenses this list, ultimately generating a conceptual condensate for a given disorder topic. We provide a preliminary evaluation of the quality of the condensates produced for a sample of four disorders. The overall precision of the disorder conceptual condensates was 87%, and the compression ratio from the base list of predications to the final condensate was 98%. The conceptual condensate could be used as input to a text generator to produce a natural language summary for a given disorder topic. PMID:15360864

Fiszman, Marcelo; Rindflesch, Thomas C; Kilicoglu, Halil

2004-01-01

126

A practical implementation of automatic text categorisation and correction for the conversion of noisy OCR documents into braille and large print  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel text categorisation method called C- measure is applied to the problem of automati- cally correcting standard blocks of noisy OCR text within structured documents such as credit card statements and standardised letters. The blocks of text in the scanned image are first identified then classified using the C-Measure algorithm against a small set of known correct text. The

Ryan Brooks; David Hunnisett; William J. Teahan

2007-01-01

127

On the Application of Generic Summarization Algorithms to Music  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several generic summarization algorithms were developed in the past and successfully applied in fields such as text and speech summarization. In this paper, we review and apply these algorithms to music. To evaluate this summarization's performance, we adopt an extrinsic approach: we compare a Fado Genre Classifier's performance using truncated contiguous clips against the summaries extracted with those algorithms on 2 different datasets. We show that Maximal Marginal Relevance (MMR), LexRank and Latent Semantic Analysis (LSA) all improve classification performance in both datasets used for testing.

Raposo, Francisco; Ribeiro, Ricardo; de Matos, David Martins

2015-01-01

128

Automatic classification of documents with an in-depth analysis of information extraction and automatic summarization  

E-print Network

Today, annual information fabrication per capita exceeds two hundred and fifty megabytes. As the amount of data increases, classification and retrieval methods become more necessary to find relevant information. This thesis ...

Hohm, Joseph Brandon, 1982-

2004-01-01

129

Contextual Text Mining  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With the dramatic growth of text information, there is an increasing need for powerful text mining systems that can automatically discover useful knowledge from text. Text is generally associated with all kinds of contextual information. Those contexts can be explicit, such as the time and the location where a blog article is written, and the…

Mei, Qiaozhu

2009-01-01

130

Abstract--In this paper we propose an NLP-based method for Ontology Population from texts and apply it to semi automatic  

E-print Network

Abstract--In this paper we propose an NLP-based method for Ontology Population from texts and apply ontologies. In this paper we focus on ontology population. We propose an NLP-based approach for Ontology

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

131

Summarization Evaluation Methods: Experiments and Analysis  

E-print Network

Summarization Evaluation Methods: Experiments and Analysis Hongyan Jing Dept. of Computer Science@cs.bgu.ac.il) Abstract Two methods are used for evaluation of summarization systems: an evaluation of generated summaries such as informa­ tion retrieval. We carried out two large experiments to study the two evaluation methods. Our

Elhadad, Michael

132

Adaptive detection of missed text areas in OCR outputs: application to the automatic assessment of OCR quality in mass digitization projects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The French National Library (BnF*) has launched many mass digitization projects in order to give access to its collection. The indexation of digital documents on Gallica (digital library of the BnF) is done through their textual content obtained thanks to service providers that use Optical Character Recognition softwares (OCR). OCR softwares have become increasingly complex systems composed of several subsystems dedicated to the analysis and the recognition of the elements in a page. However, the reliability of these systems is always an issue at stake. Indeed, in some cases, we can find errors in OCR outputs that occur because of an accumulation of several errors at different levels in the OCR process. One of the frequent errors in OCR outputs is the missed text components. The presence of such errors may lead to severe defects in digital libraries. In this paper, we investigate the detection of missed text components to control the OCR results from the collections of the French National Library. Our verification approach uses local information inside the pages based on Radon transform descriptors and Local Binary Patterns descriptors (LBP) coupled with OCR results to control their consistency. The experimental results show that our method detects 84.15% of the missed textual components, by comparing the OCR ALTO files outputs (produced by the service providers) to the images of the document.

Ben Salah, Ahmed; Ragot, Nicolas; Paquet, Thierry

2013-01-01

133

Task-focused Summarization of Email  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe SmartMail, a prototype system for automatically identifying action items (tasks) in email messages. SmartMail presents the user with a task-focused summary of a message. The summary consists of a list of action items extracted from the message. The user can add these action items to their \\

Simon Corston-Oliver; Eric Ringger; Michael Gamon; Richard Campbell

2004-01-01

134

Summarizing and Synthesizing: What's the Difference?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

For teachers in K-Grade 5 classrooms, the author of this article reviews the reading comprehension strategies known as Summarizing and Synthesizing. She provides links to web sites and to a book that will provide more background information and lessons. The article appears in the free, online magazine Beyond Weather and the Water Cycle, which focuses on the seven essential principles of climate science.

Jessica Fries-Gaither

135

Get the Gist: A Summarizing Strategy for Any Content Area  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this series of lessons, students read newspaper articles obtained from newspaper websites. Students then identify journalism's "5 Ws and 1 H" (who, what, when, where, why, and how) and complete a template with the corresponding information they have found in the article. Finally, students use their notes to write a 20-word summary called a gist. Once students have mastered writing a gist using newspaper articles, the strategy is then applied to content area texts to support comprehension and summarizing skills.

2012-04-26

136

Learning Semantic Sub-graphs for Document Summarization  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we present a method for summarizing document by creating a semantic graph of the original document and identifying the substructure of such a graph that can be used to extract sentences for a document summary. We start with deep syntactic analysis of the text and, for each sentence, extract logical form triples, subject-predicate-object. We then apply cross-sentence

Jure Leskovec; Marko Grobelnik; Natasa Milic-Frayling

137

The Night I Followed the Dog: Sequencing, Summarizing and Main Idea  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this series of three lessons, students will listen to The Night I Followed the Dog by Nina Laden and work to summarize the story by writing a sequence of events from the beginning, middle, and end of the story. Then, with teacher guidance, students will summarize the text through determining the main idea and key details of the text.

Wikispaces

2012-08-02

138

A scalable summarization system using robust nlp  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract We describe a scalable summarization,sys- tem which takes advantage,of robust NLP technology,such as corpus-based statlsh- cal NLP techmques, information extrac- tmn and readily available on-hne resources The system attempts to compensate,for the bottlenecks of traditional frequency-based, knowledge-based,or discourse-based sum- manzatlon,approaches,by uhhzlng features derived by these robust techniques,Pre- hrmnary evaluation results are reported, and the multi-dimensional summary,viewer is described

C. Aone; M. E. Okurowski; J. Gorlinsky; B. Larsen

1997-01-01

139

Method for gathering and summarizing internet information  

DOEpatents

A computer method of gathering and summarizing large amounts of information comprises collecting information from a plurality of information sources (14, 51) according to respective maps (52) of the information sources (14), converting the collected information from a storage format to XML-language documents (26, 53) and storing the XML-language documents in a storage medium, searching for documents (55) according to a search query (13) having at least one term and identifying the documents (26) found in the search, and displaying the documents as nodes (33) of a tree structure (32) having links (34) and nodes (33) so as to indicate similarity of the documents to each other.

Potok, Thomas E.; Elmore, Mark Thomas; Reed, Joel Wesley; Treadwell, Jim N.; Samatova, Nagiza Faridovna

2010-04-06

140

System for gathering and summarizing internet information  

DOEpatents

A computer method of gathering and summarizing large amounts of information comprises collecting information from a plurality of information sources (14, 51) according to respective maps (52) of the information sources (14), converting the collected information from a storage format to XML-language documents (26, 53) and storing the XML-language documents in a storage medium, searching for documents (55) according to a search query (13) having at least one term and identifying the documents (26) found in the search, and displaying the documents as nodes (33) of a tree structure (32) having links (34) and nodes (33) so as to indicate similarity of the documents to each other.

Potok, Thomas E.; Elmore, Mark Thomas; Reed, Joel Wesley; Treadwell, Jim N.; Samatova, Nagiza Faridovna

2006-07-04

141

Method for gathering and summarizing internet information  

DOEpatents

A computer method of gathering and summarizing large amounts of information comprises collecting information from a plurality of information sources (14, 51) according to respective maps (52) of the information sources (14), converting the collected information from a storage format to XML-language documents (26, 53) and storing the XML-language documents in a storage medium, searching for documents (55) according to a search query (13) having at least one term and identifying the documents (26) found in the search, and displaying the documents as nodes (33) of a tree structure (32) having links (34) and nodes (33) so as to indicate similarity of the documents to each other.

Potok, Thomas E. (Oak Ridge, TN); Elmore, Mark Thomas (Oak Ridge, TN); Reed, Joel Wesley (Knoxville, TN); Treadwell, Jim N. (Louisville, TN); Samatova, Nagiza Faridovna (Oak Ridge, TN)

2008-01-01

142

Automatic Imitation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Automatic imitation" is a type of stimulus-response compatibility effect in which the topographical features of task-irrelevant action stimuli facilitate similar, and interfere with dissimilar, responses. This article reviews behavioral, neurophysiological, and neuroimaging research on automatic imitation, asking in what sense it is "automatic"…

Heyes, Cecilia

2011-01-01

143

Automation of summarization evaluation methods and their application to the summarization process   

E-print Network

Summarization is the process of creating a more compact textual representation of a document or a collection of documents. In view of the vast increase in electronically available information sources in the last decade, ...

Nahnsen, Thade

2011-06-30

144

Effective Replays and Summarization of Virtual Experiences  

PubMed Central

Direct replays of the experience of a user in a virtual environment are difficult for others to watch due to unnatural camera motions. We present methods for replaying and summarizing these egocentric experiences that effectively communicate the users observations while reducing unwanted camera movements. Our approach summarizes the viewpoint path as a concise sequence of viewpoints that cover the same parts of the scene. The core of our approach is a novel content dependent metric that can be used to identify similarities between viewpoints. This enables viewpoints to be grouped by similar contextual view information and provides a means to generate novel viewpoints that can encapsulate a series of views. These resulting encapsulated viewpoints are used to synthesize new camera paths that convey the content of the original viewers experience. Projecting the initial movement of the user back on the scene can be used to convey the details of their observations, and the extracted viewpoints can serve as bookmarks for control or analysis. Finally we present performance analysis along with two forms of validation to test whether the extracted viewpoints are representative of the viewers original observations and to test for the overall effectiveness of the presented replay methods. PMID:22402688

Ponto, Kevin; Kohlmann, Joe; Gleicher, Michael

2012-01-01

145

Machine Translation from Text  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Machine translation (MT) from text, the topic of this chapter, is perhaps the heart of the GALE project. Beyond being a well defined application that stands on its own, MT from text is the link between the automatic speech recognition component and the distillation component. The focus of MT in GALE is on translating from Arabic or Chinese to English. The three languages represent a wide range of linguistic diversity and make the GALE MT task rather challenging and exciting.

Habash, Nizar; Olive, Joseph; Christianson, Caitlin; McCary, John

146

Automatic Estimation Techniques are Useful?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Best practices for software effort estimation can include the use of automatic techniques to summarize past data. There exists a large and growing number of techniques. Which are useful? In this study, 158 techniques were applied to some COCOMO data. 154 158 = 97% of the variants explored below add little or nothing to a standard linear model (with simple

Tim Menzies; Omid Jalali; Jairus Hihn; Dan Baker; Karen Lum

147

MD11 automatic flight system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors summarize the overall architecture and redundancy management concepts of the MD-11 Automatic Flight System (AFS) and detail the unique application of the flight control computer capabilities to each of the system functions. In addition to the autoland and windshear functions, the integrated AFS provides Longitudinal Stability Augmentation Systems (LSASs) and roll control wheel steering when the autopilot is

B. T. Devlin; R. D. Girts

1992-01-01

148

Development of Disabled Readers' Metacomprehension Ability through Summarization Training Using Expository Text: Results of Three Studies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the three studies, high school aged disabled readers were taught how to identify passages' main ideas, construct graphic organizers, and write summaries. Study results suggest the need for modeling strategies and consistent feedback and the usefulness of these techniques in helping students monitor their understanding and improve reading…

Weisberg, Renee; Balajthy, Ernest

1990-01-01

149

Text Structure  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This web page defines and describes text structure, or how the information within a written text is organized. It explains the benefits of teaching students to identify and analyze text structures within text and describes an instructional sequence in which students read examples of different text structures and then write paragraphs that follow a specific text structure. The site includes definitions and examples of five common text structures, and graphic organizers that can be used with each type of text. Links to additional resources and research citations are included.

2012-01-01

150

Blind summarization: content-adaptive video summarization using time-series analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Severe complexity constraints on consumer electronic devices motivate us to investigate general-purpose video summarization techniques that are able to apply a common hardware setup to multiple content genres. On the other hand, we know that high quality summaries can only be produced with domain-specific processing. In this paper, we present a time-series analysis based video summarization technique that provides a general core to which we are able to add small content-specific extensions for each genre. The proposed time-series analysis technique consists of unsupervised clustering of samples taken through sliding windows from the time series of features obtained from the content. We classify content into two broad categories, scripted content such as news and drama, and unscripted content such as sports and surveillance. The summarization problem then reduces to finding either finding semantic boundaries of the scripted content or detecting highlights in the unscripted content. The proposed technique is essentially an event detection technique and is thus best suited to unscripted content, however, we also find applications to scripted content. We thoroughly examine the trade-off between content-neutral and content-specific processing for effective summarization for a number of genres, and find that our core technique enables us to minimize the complexity of the content-specific processing and to postpone it to the final stage. We achieve the best results with unscripted content such as sports and surveillance video in terms of quality of summaries and minimizing content-specific processing. For other genres such as drama, we find that more content-specific processing is required. We also find that judicious choice of key audio-visual object detectors enables us to minimize the complexity of the content-specific processing while maintaining its applicability to a broad range of genres. We will present a demonstration of our proposed technique at the conference.

Divakaran, Ajay; Radhakrishnan, Regunathan; Peker, Kadir A.

2006-01-01

151

Text Mining.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews the state of research in text mining, focusing on newer developments. The intent is to describe the disparate investigations currently included under the term text mining and provide a cohesive structure for these efforts. A summary of research identifies key organizations responsible for pushing the development of text mining. A section…

Trybula, Walter J.

1999-01-01

152

What is in the news on a subject: automatic and sparse summarization of  

E-print Network

several pre- processing schemes, including document unit choice, labeling scheme, tf-idf representation overall choice of feature selection method; second, the tf-idf representation is a strong choice of vector profession and one of unequaled importance for its influence upon the minds and morals of the people." Faced

Yu, Bin

153

Automatic analysis of medical dialogue in the home hemodialysis domain : structure induction and summarization  

E-print Network

Spoken medical dialogue is a valuable source of information, and it forms a foundation for diagnosis, prevention and therapeutic management. However, understanding even a perfect transcript of spoken dialogue is challenging ...

Lacson, Ronilda Covar, 1968-

2005-01-01

154

Summarization of Egocentric Moving Videos for Generating Walking Route Guidance  

E-print Network

that the proposed method is much better than a simple baseline summarization method without video analysis. KeywordsSummarization of Egocentric Moving Videos for Generating Walking Route Guidance Masaya Okamoto to summarize an ego- centric moving video (a video recorded by a moving wearable camera) for generating

Yanai, Keiji

155

Text Sets.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents annotations of approximately 30 titles grouped in text sets. Defines a text set as five to ten books on a particular topic or theme. Discusses books on the following topics: living creatures; pirates; physical appearance; natural disasters; and the Irish potato famine. (SG)

Giorgis, Cyndi; Johnson, Nancy J.

2002-01-01

156

Evaluating the use of different positional strategies for sentence selection in biomedical literature summarization  

PubMed Central

Background The position of a sentence in a document has been traditionally considered an indicator of the relevance of the sentence, and therefore it is frequently used by automatic summarization systems as an attribute for sentence selection. Sentences close to the beginning of the document are supposed to deal with the main topic and thus are selected for the summary. This criterion has shown to be very effective when summarizing some types of documents, such as news items. However, this property is not likely to be found in other types of documents, such as scientific articles, where other positional criteria may be preferred. The purpose of the present work is to study the utility of different positional strategies for biomedical literature summarization. Results We have evaluated three different positional strategies: (1) awarding the sentences at the beginning of the document, (2) preferring those at the beginning and end of the document, and (3) weighting the sentences according to the section in which they appear. To this end, we have implemented two summarizers, one based on semantic graphs and the other based on concept frequencies, and evaluated the summaries they produce when combined with each of the positional strategies above using ROUGE metrics. Our results indicate that it is possible to improve the quality of the summaries by weighting the sentences according to the section in which they appear (?17% improvement in ROUGE-2 for the graph-based summarizer and ?20% for the frequency-based summarizer), and that the sections containing the more salient information are the Methods and Material and the Discussion and Results ones. Conclusions It has been found that the use of traditional positional criteria that award sentences at the beginning and/or the end of the document are not helpful when summarizing scientific literature. In contrast, a more appropriate strategy is that which weights sentences according to the section in which they appear. PMID:23445074

2013-01-01

157

Automatic sound annotation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sound engineers need to access vast collections of sound effects for their film and video productions. Sound effects providers rely on text-retrieval techniques to offer their collections. Currently, annotation of audio content is done manually, which is an arduous task. Automatic annotation methods, normally fine-tuned to reduced domains such as musical instruments or reduced sound effects taxonomies, are not mature

Pedro Cano; Markus Koppenberger

2004-01-01

158

Recent progress in automatically extracting information from the pharmacogenomic literature  

PubMed Central

The biomedical literature holds our understanding of pharmacogenomics, but it is dispersed across many journals. In order to integrate our knowledge, connect important facts across publications and generate new hypotheses we must organize and encode the contents of the literature. By creating databases of structured pharmocogenomic knowledge, we can make the value of the literature much greater than the sum of the individual reports. We can, for example, generate candidate gene lists or interpret surprising hits in genome-wide association studies. Text mining automatically adds structure to the unstructured knowledge embedded in millions of publications, and recent years have seen a surge in work on biomedical text mining, some specific to pharmacogenomics literature. These methods enable extraction of specific types of information and can also provide answers to general, systemic queries. In this article, we describe the main tasks of text mining in the context of pharmacogenomics, summarize recent applications and anticipate the next phase of text mining applications. PMID:21047206

Garten, Yael; Coulet, Adrien; Altman, Russ B

2011-01-01

159

Automatic transmission  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes an automatic transmission connected between a drive shaft and a driven shaft and comprising: a planetary gear mechanism including a first gear driven by the drive shaft, a second gear operatively engaged with the first gear to transmit speed change output to the driven shaft, and a third gear operatively engaged with the second gear to control

M. Hamane; H. Ohri

1989-01-01

160

VIDEO SUMMARIZATION BY VIDEO STRUCTURE ANALYSIS AND GRAPH OPTIMIZATION  

E-print Network

VIDEO SUMMARIZATION BY VIDEO STRUCTURE ANALYSIS AND GRAPH OPTIMIZATION Shi Lu, Irwin King video summarization method that combines video structure analysis and graph optimiza- tion. First, we video structure analysis and graph op- timization. We analyze the structure of the original video, find

King, Kuo Chin Irwin

161

Generating Descriptions that Summarize Geospatial and Temporal Data Martin Molina  

E-print Network

devices (mobile phones, cars, etc.). The summarization of geospatial and temporal data can be usefulGenerating Descriptions that Summarize Geospatial and Temporal Data Martin Molina Department of Artificial Intelligence Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Spain martin.molina@upm.es Amanda Stent AT&T Labs

Molina, Martín

162

Linguistic summarization of sensor data for eldercare Anna Wilbik  

E-print Network

detection, fall risk assessment, activity recognition, early illness detection, etc. can be inferred from and healthcare providers is essential. Long term trends can be most easily identified using summarized collection for an elder participant. Index Terms--Linguistic summarization, fuzzy logic, comput- ing

He, Zhihai "Henry"

163

Trainable, Scalable Summarization Using Robust NLP and Machine Learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe a trainable and scalable summarization system which utilizes features derived from information retrieval, information extraction, and NLP techniques and on-line resources. The system combines these features using a trainable feature combiner learned from summary examples through a machine learning algorithm. We demonstrate system scalability by reporting results on the best combination of summarization features for different document sources.

Chinatsu Aone; Mary Ellen Okurowski; James Gorlinsky

1998-01-01

164

Video Summarization Based on User Interaction Dan R. Olsen Jr.  

E-print Network

to watch sports in less time than a game takes to play. Computing a summarization of a game depends upon, interactive television, sports 1. INTRODUCTION Recent advances in internet video technology are the precursorsVideo Summarization Based on User Interaction Dan R. Olsen Jr. Brigham Young University olsen

Olsen Jr., Dan R.

165

Efficacious Data Cube Exploration by Semantic Summarization and Compression  

E-print Network

Efficacious Data Cube Exploration by Semantic Summarization and Compression Laks V.S. Lakshmanan developed a systematic approach to achieve efficacious data cube construction and exploration by semantic summarization and compression. Our ap- proach is pivoted on a notion of quotient cube that groups together

Pei, Jian

166

Abstractive Meeting Summarization with Entailment and Fusion Yashar Mehdad  

E-print Network

Abstractive Meeting Summarization with Entailment and Fusion Yashar Mehdad Giuseppe Carenini Frank for abstractive meeting summariza- tion. We cluster sentences in the in- put into communities and build an entail, it has been observed in the context of meeting summarization that concise abstracts are generally

Carenini, Giuseppe

167

AUTOMATICITY III: POLYNOMIAL AUTOMATICITY AND CONTEXTFREE  

E-print Network

, introducing the classes NPA (languages of nondeterministic polynomial automaticity) and NPLA (languages) = O(n k )g: 2. nondeterministic polynomial automaticity, or NPA: NPA = fL ` \\Sigma \\Lambda : 9kAUTOMATICITY III: POLYNOMIAL AUTOMATICITY AND CONTEXT­FREE LANGUAGES Ian Glaister and Jeffrey

Shallit, Jeffrey O.

168

Text-to-Text Similarity of Sentences Vasile Rus1  

E-print Network

can increase total heat production in the body markedly. SP: alot of excercise can make your body S. McNamara2 1 Department of Computer Science 2 Department of Psychology Institute for Intelligent two texts is a central task in many applications, including summarization, intelligent tutoring

Rus, Vasile

169

Automatic transmission  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes an automatic transmission including a fluid torque converter, a first gear unit having three forward-speed gears and a single reverse gear, a second gear unit having a low-speed gear and a high-speed gear, and a hydraulic control system, the hydraulic control system comprising: a source of pressurized fluid; a first shift valve for controlling the shifting between the first-speed gear and the second-speed gear of the first gear unit; a second shift valve for controlling the shifting between the second-speed gear and the third-speed gear of the first gear unit; a third shift valve equipped with a spool having two positions for controlling the shifting between the low-speed gear and the high-speed gear of the second gear unit; a manual selector valve having a plurality of shift positions for distributing the pressurized fluid supply from the source of pressurized fluid to the first, second and third shift valves respectively; first, second and third solenoid valves corresponding to the first, second and third shift valves, respectively for independently controlling the operation of the respective shift valves, thereby establishing a six forward-speed automatic transmission by combining the low-speed gear and the high-speed gear of the second gear unit with each of the first-speed gear, the second speed gear and the third-speed gear of the first gear unit; and means to fixedly position the spool of the third shift valve at one of the two positions by supplying the pressurized fluid to the third shift valve when the manual selector valve is shifted to a particular shift position, thereby locking the second gear unit in one of low-speed gear and the high-speed gear, whereby the six forward-speed automatic transmission is converted to a three forward-speed automatic transmission when the manual selector valve is shifted to the particular shift position.

Miki, N.

1988-10-11

170

Automatic transmission  

SciTech Connect

An automatic transmission is described combining a stator reversing type torque converter and speed changer having first and second sun gears comprising: (a) a planetary gear train composed of first and second planetary gears sharing one planetary carrier in common; (b) a clutch and requisite brakes to control the planetary gear train; and (c) a speed-increasing or speed-decreasing mechanism is installed both in between a turbine shaft coupled to a turbine of the stator reversing type torque converter and the first sun gear of the speed changer, and in between a stator shaft coupled to a reversing stator and the second sun gear of the speed changer.

Ohkubo, M.

1988-02-16

171

Maximizing text-mining performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the advent of centralized data warehouses, where\\u000a data might be stored as electronic documents or as text\\u000a fields in databases, text mining has increased in\\u000a importance and economic value. One important goal in text\\u000a mining is automatic classification of electronic\\u000a documents. Computer programs scan text in a document and\\u000a apply a model that assigns the document to one or

Sholom M. Weiss; Chidanand Apte; Fred J. Damerau; David E. Johnson; Frank J. Oles; Thilo Goetz; Thomas Hampp

1999-01-01

172

Automatic transmission  

SciTech Connect

An automatic transmission is described, comprising: a torque converter including an impeller having a connected member, a turbine having an input member and a reactor; and an automatic transmission mechanism having first to third clutches and plural gear units including a single planetary gear unit with a ring gear and a dual planetary gear unit with a ring gear. The single and dual planetary gear units have respective carriers integrally coupled with each other and respective sun gears integrally coupled with each other, the input member of the turbine being coupled with the ring gear of the single planetary gear unit through the first clutch, and being coupled with the sun gear through the second clutch. The connected member of the impeller is coupled with the ring gear of the dual planetary gear of the dual planetary gear unit is made to be and ring gear of the dual planetary gear unit is made to be restrained as required, and the carrier is coupled with an output member.

Aoki, H.

1989-03-21

173

Automatic transmission  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes an automatic transmission connected between a drive shaft and a driven shaft and comprising: a planetary gear mechanism including a first gear driven by the drive shaft, a second gear operatively engaged with the first gear to transmit speed change output to the driven shaft, and a third gear operatively engaged with the second gear to control the operation thereof; centrifugally operated clutch means for driving the first gear and the second gear. It also includes a ratchet type one-way clutch for permitting rotation of the third gear in the same direction as that of the drive shaft but preventing rotation in the reverse direction; the clutch means comprising a ratchet pawl supporting plate coaxially disposed relative to the drive shaft and integrally connected to the third gear, the ratchet pawl supporting plate including outwardly projection radial projections united with one another at base portions thereof.

Hamane, M.; Ohri, H.

1989-03-21

174

Event detection and summarization in American football broadcast video  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose a framework for event detection and summary generation in football broadcast video. First, we formulate summarization as a play detection problem, with play being defined as the most basic segment of time during which the ball is being played. Then we propose both deterministic and probabilistic approaches to the detection of the plays. The detected plays are concatenated to generate a compact, time-compressed summary of the original video. Such a summary is complete in the sense that it contains every meaningful action of the underlying game, and it also servers as a much better starting point for higher-level summarization and other analyses than the original video does. Based on the summary, we also propose an audio-based hierarchical summarization method. Experimental results show the proposed methods work very well on consumer grade platforms.

Li, Baoxin; Sezan, M. Ibrahim

2001-12-01

175

Video Analytics for Indexing, Summarization and Searching of Video Archives  

SciTech Connect

This paper will be submitted to the proceedings The Eleventh IASTED International Conference on. Signal and Image Processing. Given a video or video archive how does one effectively and quickly summarize, classify, and search the information contained within the data? This paper addresses these issues by describing a process for the automated generation of a table-of-contents and keyword, topic-based index tables that can be used to catalogue, summarize, and search large amounts of video data. Having the ability to index and search the information contained within the videos, beyond just metadata tags, provides a mechanism to extract and identify "useful" content from image and video data.

Trease, Harold E.; Trease, Lynn L.

2009-08-01

176

Evaluation Methods of The Text Entities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The paper highlights some evaluation methods to assess the quality characteristics of the text entities. The main concepts used in building and evaluation processes of the text entities are presented. Also, some aggregated metrics for orthogonality measurements are presented. The evaluation process for automatic evaluation of the text entities is…

Popa, Marius

2006-01-01

177

TEXT EXTRACTION FROM STREET LEVEL IMAGES  

Microsoft Academic Search

We offer in this article, a method for text extraction in images issued from city scenes. This method is used in the French iTowns project (iTowns ANR project, 2008) to automatically enhance cartographic database by extracting text from geolocalized pictures of town streets. This task is difficult as 1. text in this environment varies in shape, size, color, orientation... 2.

J. Fabrizio; M. Cord; B. Marcotegui

2009-01-01

178

LANGUAGE MODELS FOR HIERARCHICAL SUMMARIZATION (PROPOSAL FOR DISSERTATION)  

E-print Network

Presented by DAWN LAWRIE Submitted to the Graduate School of the University of Massachusetts Amherst #12;c Copyright by Dawn Lawrie 2001 All Rights Reserved #12;LANGUAGE MODELS FOR HIERARCHICAL SUMMARIZATION (PROPOSAL FOR DISSERTATION) A Dissertation Outline Presented by DAWN LAWRIE Approved as to style

Lawrie, Dawn J.

179

Teaching Summarization Skills to Bilingual Elementary School Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study was undertaken to examine the effects of teaching five writing rules on English summarization and comprehension under two conditions of reading instruction. The five summary writing rules taught included: (1) identifying unimportant statements, (2) identifying repetition of ideas in statements, (3) identifying lists of things or series of…

Amuchie, Paul M.

180

An Unsupervised Sentiment Classifier on Summarized or Full Reviews  

E-print Network

-intensive process. To simplify the task of identifying reviews expressing positive, negative, and neutral opinions users, as well as web search engine designers. To facilitate the task of identifying reviews on PS in this paper. eSummar pre-processes a review R using anaphora resolution, which identifies successive

Ng, Yiu-Kai Dennis

181

Power Mean Pyramid Scores for Summarization Evaluation Sameer Maskey  

E-print Network

Power Mean Pyramid Scores for Summarization Evaluation Sameer Maskey , Andrew Rosenberg+ IBM@cs.qc.cuny.edu Abstract We present Power Mean Pyramid Scores (PMP), an evaluation metric that extends the Pyramid popular approaches, in- cluding Pyramid Scoring [4], ROUGE [5], and F-measure [6], compare a machine

Maskey, Sameer R.

182

SUMMVL: Stata module: as summarize, but with variable labels  

Microsoft Academic Search

summvl is a simple enhancement of summarize (without detail) that includes variable labels in its output. It uses the full display linesize. For those with Stata v6 on an internet-accessible machine, install by typing .net cd http:\\/\\/www.fss.uu.nl\\/soc\\/iscore\\/stata\\/ then .net install summvl

Jeroen Weesie

1999-01-01

183

TSCAN: A Content Anatomy Approach to Temporal Topic Summarization  

Microsoft Academic Search

A topic is defined as a seminal event or activity along with all directly related events and activities. It is represented by a chronological sequence of documents published by different authors on the Internet. In this study, we define a task called topic anatomy, which summarizes and associates the core parts of a topic temporally so that readers can understand

Chien Chin Chen; Meng Chang Chen

2012-01-01

184

Image Database Summarization with the SaintEtiQ System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inthispaper,anewapproachforthe summarization of image database is described. A linguistic description of images is flrst generated from its low level features such as color. Anoriginalsummaryprocess,called SaintEtiQ is then applied, leading to a hierarchically organized set of summaries containing parts of the database. The process relies on the use of Fuzzy Relational Thesaurus producing a generalized description of summaries.

R. Saint-Paul; G. Raschia; N. Mouaddib

2002-01-01

185

Web-page Classification through Summarization Zheng Chen2  

E-print Network

Web-page Classification through Summarization Dou Shen1 Zheng Chen2 Qiang Yang3 Hua-Jun Zeng2 Benyu Zhang2 Yuchang Lu1 Wei-Ying Ma2 1 Computer Science and Tech. Tsinghua University Beijing, P, research conducted by Chen and Dumais shows that users prefer navigating through catalogues of pre

Yang, Qiang

186

Investigation of Learners' Perceptions for Video Summarization and Recommendation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recently, multimedia-based learning is widespread in educational settings. A number of studies investigate how to develop effective techniques to manage a huge volume of video sources, such as summarization and recommendation. However, few studies examine how these techniques affect learners' perceptions in multimedia learning systems. This…

Yang, Jie Chi; Chen, Sherry Y.

2012-01-01

187

VOG: Summarizing and Understanding Large Graphs Danai Koutra  

E-print Network

VOG: Summarizing and Understanding Large Graphs Danai Koutra School of Computer Science Carnegie vocabulary subgraphs; (b) algorithm: we develop VOG, an efficient method to minimize the description cost not help the user gain further insights in the properties of the graph. In this paper, we propose VOG

188

Video Indexing and Summarization as a Tool for Privacy Protection  

E-print Network

number of surveillance camera networks being deployed all over the world has resulted in a high interest cameras during a day [2]. Obviously, the rapid growth of video surveillance systems results protection by design. Keywords-Video Indexing; Video Summarization; Privacy Pro- tection; Video Surveillance

Wichmann, Felix

189

A fuzzy ontology and its application to news summarization.  

PubMed

In this paper, a fuzzy ontology and its application to news summarization are presented. The fuzzy ontology with fuzzy concepts is an extension of the domain ontology with crisp concepts. It is more suitable to describe the domain knowledge than domain ontology for solving the uncertainty reasoning problems. First, the domain ontology with various events of news is predefined by domain experts. The document preprocessing mechanism will generate the meaningful terms based on the news corpus and the Chinese news dictionary defined by the domain expert. Then, the meaningful terms will be classified according to the events of the news by the term classifier. The fuzzy inference mechanism will generate the membership degrees for each fuzzy concept of the fuzzy ontology. Every fuzzy concept has a set of membership degrees associated with various events of the domain ontology. In addition, a news agent based on the fuzzy ontology is also developed for news summarization. The news agent contains five modules, including a retrieval agent, a document preprocessing mechanism, a sentence path extractor, a sentence generator, and a sentence filter to perform news summarization. Furthermore, we construct an experimental website to test the proposed approach. The experimental results show that the news agent based on the fuzzy ontology can effectively operate for news summarization. PMID:16240764

Lee, Chang-Shing; Jian, Zhi-Wei; Huang, Lin-Kai

2005-10-01

190

Ergito: Virtual Text  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Ergito's Virtual Text, started in 2000, was created to provide a more timely and interactive alternative to printed scientific textbooks at the undergraduate and graduate level. This still-developing Web site covers life science writ large, including molecular biology, cell biology, genetics, biochemistry, immunology, and so on. However, only a small number of features are available free of charge. The first chapter of the molecular biology module -- Genes are DNA -- is available for free, as is Great Experiments, a collection of essays written by authors who conducted original research that has contributed greatly to our understanding of molecular and cellular biology. Great Experiments has a recently added essay by 2001 Nobel Prize winner Paul Nurse, titled "The Discovery of cdc2 as the Key Regulator of the Cell Cycle." These essays are formatted just as the Virtual Text pages are, with downloadable figures, a glossary, an online note-taking feature (notes are automatically compiled with a summary of the essay), glossary, and more. Ergito will soon make available Techniques, another free feature offering descriptions of widely used experimental protocols. Even without free access to the larger body of material in this Web site, Ergito is a fantastic resource for learning about molecular and cellular biology. Users must complete a free registration process to access this Web site.

191

Mendelian Randomization Analysis With Multiple Genetic Variants Using Summarized Data  

PubMed Central

Genome-wide association studies, which typically report regression coefficients summarizing the associations of many genetic variants with various traits, are potentially a powerful source of data for Mendelian randomization investigations. We demonstrate how such coefficients from multiple variants can be combined in a Mendelian randomization analysis to estimate the causal effect of a risk factor on an outcome. The bias and efficiency of estimates based on summarized data are compared to those based on individual-level data in simulation studies. We investigate the impact of gene–gene interactions, linkage disequilibrium, and ‘weak instruments’ on these estimates. Both an inverse-variance weighted average of variant-specific associations and a likelihood-based approach for summarized data give similar estimates and precision to the two-stage least squares method for individual-level data, even when there are gene–gene interactions. However, these summarized data methods overstate precision when variants are in linkage disequilibrium. If the P-value in a linear regression of the risk factor for each variant is less than , then weak instrument bias will be small. We use these methods to estimate the causal association of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) on coronary artery disease using published data on five genetic variants. A 30% reduction in LDL-C is estimated to reduce coronary artery disease risk by 67% (95% CI: 54% to 76%). We conclude that Mendelian randomization investigations using summarized data from uncorrelated variants are similarly efficient to those using individual-level data, although the necessary assumptions cannot be so fully assessed. PMID:24114802

Burgess, Stephen; Butterworth, Adam; Thompson, Simon G

2013-01-01

192

Wireless Automatic Water-meter Reading System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wireless automatic meter reading (AMR) system based on a fixed radio network brings many advantages when compared to other meter reading techniques. After an introduction to the state of the art of AMR systems in general, and particularly of water meter reading system, a wireless automatic water-meter reading system founded on ZigBee technology is presented. Set forth in the text

Vedran Bilas

193

Text Mining for Neuroscience  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Text mining, sometimes alternately referred to as text analytics, refers to the process of extracting high-quality knowledge from the analysis of textual data. Text mining has wide variety of applications in areas such as biomedical science, news analysis, and homeland security. In this paper, we describe an approach and some relatively small-scale experiments which apply text mining to neuroscience research literature to find novel associations among a diverse set of entities. Neuroscience is a discipline which encompasses an exceptionally wide range of experimental approaches and rapidly growing interest. This combination results in an overwhelmingly large and often diffuse literature which makes a comprehensive synthesis difficult. Understanding the relations or associations among the entities appearing in the literature not only improves the researchers current understanding of recent advances in their field, but also provides an important computational tool to formulate novel hypotheses and thereby assist in scientific discoveries. We describe a methodology to automatically mine the literature and form novel associations through direct analysis of published texts. The method first retrieves a set of documents from databases such as PubMed using a set of relevant domain terms. In the current study these terms yielded a set of documents ranging from 160,909 to 367,214 documents. Each document is then represented in a numerical vector form from which an Association Graph is computed which represents relationships between all pairs of domain terms, based on co-occurrence. Association graphs can then be subjected to various graph theoretic algorithms such as transitive closure and cycle (circuit) detection to derive additional information, and can also be visually presented to a human researcher for understanding. In this paper, we present three relatively small-scale problem-specific case studies to demonstrate that such an approach is very successful in replicating a neuroscience expert's mental model of object-object associations entirely by means of text mining. These preliminary results provide the confidence that this type of text mining based research approach provides an extremely powerful tool to better understand the literature and drive novel discovery for the neuroscience community.

Tirupattur, Naveen; Lapish, Christopher C.; Mukhopadhyay, Snehasis

2011-06-01

194

Automatic transmission  

SciTech Connect

1. An automatic transmission with four forward speeds and one reverse position, is described which consists of: an input shaft; an output member; first and second planetary gear sets each having a sun gear, a ring gear and a carrier supporting a pinion in mesh with the sun gear and ring gear; the carrier of the first gear set, the ring gear of the second gear set and the output member all being connected; the ring gear of the first gear set connected to the carrier of the second gear set; a first clutch means for selectively connecting the input shaft to the sun gear of the first gear set, including friction elements, a piston selectively engaging the friction elements and a fluid servo in which hydraulic fluid is selectively supplied to the piston; a second clutch means for selectively connecting the input shaft to the sun gear of the second gear set a third clutch means for selectively connecting the input shaft to the carrier of the second gear set including friction elements, a piston selectively engaging the friction elements and a fluid servo in which hydraulic fluid is selectively supplied to the piston; a first drive-establishing means for selectively preventing rotation of the ring gear of the first gear set and the carrier of the second gear set in only one direction and, alternatively, in any direction; a second drive-establishing means for selectively preventing rotation of the sun gear of the second gear set; and a drum being open to the first planetary gear set, with a cylindrical intermediate wall, an inner peripheral wall and outer peripheral wall and forming the hydraulic servos of the first and third clutch means between the intermediate wall and the inner peripheral wall and between the intermediate wall and the outer peripheral wall respectively.

Miura, M.; Inuzuka, T.

1986-08-26

195

Learning sub-structures of document semantic graphs for document summarization  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we present a method for summarizing document by creating a semantic graph of the original document and identifying the substructure of such a graph that can be used to extract sentences for a document summary. We start with deep syntactic analysis of the text and, for each sentence, extract logical form triples, subject-predicate-object. We then apply cross-sentence

Jure Leskovec; Marko Grobelnik; Natasa Milic-Frayling

2004-01-01

196

Automatic Discovery of Term Similarities Using Pattern Mining  

Microsoft Academic Search

Term recognition and clustering are key topics in automatic knowledge acquisition and text mining. In this paper we present a novel approach to the automatic discovery of term similarities, which serves as a basis for both classification and clustering of domain-specific concepts represented by terms. The method is based on automatic extraction of significant patterns in which terms tend to

Sophia ANANIADOU

2002-01-01

197

A parallel learning algorithm for text classification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Text classification is the process of classifying documents into predefined categories based on their content. Existing supervised learning algorithms to automatically classify text need sufficient labeled documents to learn accurately. Applying the Expectation-Maximization (EM) algorithm to this problem is an alternative approach that utilizes a large pool of unlabeled documents to augment the available labeled documents. Unfortunately, the time needed

Canasai Kruengkrai; Chuleerat Jaruskulchai

2002-01-01

198

Query-based sampling of text databases  

Microsoft Academic Search

The proliferation of searchable text databases on corporate networks and the Internet causes a database selection problem for many people. Algorithms such as gGLOSS and CORI can automatically select which text databases to search for a given information need, but only if given a set of resource descriptions that accurately represent the contents of each database. The existing techniques for

James P. Callan; Margaret E. Connell

2001-01-01

199

Tagging and Morphological Disambiguation of Turkish Text  

Microsoft Academic Search

Automatic text tagging is an important component in higher level analysis of text corpora, and its output can be used in many natural language processing applica- tions. In languages like Turkish or Finnish, with agglutinative morphology, morpholog- ical disambiguation is a very crucial pro- cess in tagging, as the structures of many lexical forms are morphologically ambigu- ous. This paper

Kemal Oflazer; Ilker Kuruoz

1994-01-01

200

Using Text Processing Techniques to Automatically enrich a Domain Ontology  

E-print Network

present the experience carried out within the European project FETISH [8], aimed at developing an interoperability infrastructure for small and medium European enterprises that operate in the tourism sector. A key element of the FETISH architecture is OntoTour, a shared ontology for the tourism domain. Constructing

Velardi, Paola

201

Astro-Venture Geology Unit Conclusion: Summarizing Learning  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

in this concluding lesson, learners review astronomy and atmosphere systems and draw connections to geological processes and structures. They then summarize their learning from this unit in a final project. The lesson models scientific inquiry using the 5E instructional model and includes teacher notes, prerequisite concepts, common misconceptions, student journal and reading. This is lesson eight in the Astro-Venture Geology Training Unit that were developed to increase students' awareness of and interest in astrobiology and the many career opportunities that utilize science, math and technology skills. The lessons are designed for educators to use with the Astro-Venture multimedia modules.

2012-08-03

202

Automatic transmission adapter kit  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes, in a four-wheel-drive vehicle apparatus having a power train including an automatic transmission and a transfer case, an automatic transmission adapter kit for installation of a replacement automatic transmission of shorter length than an original automatic transmission in the four-wheel-drive vehicle. The adapter kit comprises: an extension housing interposed between the replacement automatic transmission and the transfer case; an output shaft, having a first end which engages the replacement automatic transmission and a second end which engages the transfer case; first sealing means for sealing between the extension housing and the replacement automatic transmission; second sealing means for sealing between the extension housing and the transfer case; and fastening means for connecting the extension housing between the replacement automatic transmission and the transfer case.

Stich, R.L.; Neal, W.D.

1987-02-10

203

Automatic fluid dispenser  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Fluid automatically flows to individual dispensing units at predetermined times from a fluid supply and is available only for a predetermined interval of time after which an automatic control causes the fluid to drain from the individual dispensing units. Fluid deprivation continues until the beginning of a new cycle when the fluid is once again automatically made available at the individual dispensing units.

Sakellaris, P. C. (inventor)

1977-01-01

204

A Graph Summarization Algorithm Based on RFID Logistics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) applications are set to play an essential role in object tracking and supply chain management systems. The volume of data generated by a typical RFID application will be enormous as each item will generate a complete history of all the individual locations that it occupied at every point in time. The movement trails of such RFID data form gigantic commodity flowgraph representing the locations and durations of the path stages traversed by each item. In this paper, we use graph to construct a warehouse of RFID commodity flows, and introduce a database-style operation to summarize graphs, which produces a summary graph by grouping nodes based on user-selected node attributes, further allows users to control the hierarchy of summaries. It can cut down the size of graphs, and provide convenience for users to study just on the shrunk graph which they interested. Through extensive experiments, we demonstrate the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed method.

Sun, Yan; Hu, Kongfa; Lu, Zhipeng; Zhao, Li; Chen, Ling

205

Summarizing with Drawings: A Reading-Comprehension Strategy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The development of literacy skills is essential for student success. According to the National Science Education Standards , "Scientific literacy entails being able to read with understanding articles about science in the popular press and to engage in social conversation about the validity of conclusions" (NRC 1996). Teachers can help students develop these skills by finding methods that not only motivate but also engage students in the reading process. One such method is described in this article wherein students draw after reading science content. When students summarize by drawing they must form a visual representation of the information they're trying to convey. This provides an opportunity for students to elaborate and encode the information in a personally meaningful way. In addition, drawing after reading encourages students to reflect on what they have read and allows time to process the information.

Janine Elliott

2007-01-01

206

Astro-Venture Atmosphere Unit - Conclusion: Summarizing Learning  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this concluding lesson to the Astro-Venture Atmospheric Unit, students review and summarize their learning in a final project. Learners will draw and explain concept maps that show how the gases in the atmosphere interact with many different systems to support human habitability. They also write a superhero comic book explaining how superheroes representing elements combine their powers to protect the Earth's habitability. The lesson models scientific inquiry using the 5E instructional model and includes teacher notes, prerequisite concepts, common misconceptions, student journal and reading. This is the eighth lesson in the Astro-Venture Atmospheric Science Training Unit. The purpose of the unit is to increase students' awareness of and interest in astrobiology and the many career opportunities that utilize science, math and technology skills. The lessons are designed for educators to use in conjunction with the Astro-Venture multimedia modules.

207

REVIGO Summarizes and Visualizes Long Lists of Gene Ontology Terms  

PubMed Central

Outcomes of high-throughput biological experiments are typically interpreted by statistical testing for enriched gene functional categories defined by the Gene Ontology (GO). The resulting lists of GO terms may be large and highly redundant, and thus difficult to interpret. REVIGO is a Web server that summarizes long, unintelligible lists of GO terms by finding a representative subset of the terms using a simple clustering algorithm that relies on semantic similarity measures. Furthermore, REVIGO visualizes this non-redundant GO term set in multiple ways to assist in interpretation: multidimensional scaling and graph-based visualizations accurately render the subdivisions and the semantic relationships in the data, while treemaps and tag clouds are also offered as alternative views. REVIGO is freely available at http://revigo.irb.hr/. PMID:21789182

Supek, Fran; Bošnjak, Matko; Škunca, Nives; Šmuc, Tomislav

2011-01-01

208

Autoclass: An automatic classification system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The task of inferring a set of classes and class descriptions most likely to explain a given data set can be placed on a firm theoretical foundation using Bayesian statistics. Within this framework, and using various mathematical and algorithmic approximations, the AutoClass System searches for the most probable classifications, automatically choosing the number of classes and complexity of class descriptions. A simpler version of AutoClass has been applied to many large real data sets, has discovered new independently-verified phenomena, and has been released as a robust software package. Recent extensions allow attributes to be selectively correlated within particular classes, and allow classes to inherit, or share, model parameters through a class hierarchy. The mathematical foundations of AutoClass are summarized.

Stutz, John; Cheeseman, Peter; Hanson, Robin

1991-01-01

209

Automatic detection of replay segments in broadcast sports programs by detection of logos in scene transitions  

Microsoft Academic Search

In broadcast sports, replays provide viewers another look at interesting events. We propose an automatic algorithm for replay segment detection by detecting frames containing logos in the special scene transitions that sandwich replays. Detected replays are utilized in efficient navigation, indexing, and summarization of sports programs. The proposed algorithm first automatically determines the logo template from frames surrounding slow motion

Hao Pan; Baoxin Li; M. Ibrahim Sezan

2002-01-01

210

Automatic storytelling in comics: a case study on World of Warcraft  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a development of our comic generation system that automatically summarizes players' actions and interactions in the virtual world. The feature of the system is that it analyzes the log and screenshots of a game, decides which events are important and memorable, and then generates comics in a fully automatic manner. Also, the interface of our system allows

Chia-jung Chan; Ruck Thawonmas; Kuan-ta Chen

2009-01-01

211

[A biologistic model to summarize cohort nuptiality experience].  

PubMed

It is important to analyze in which measure the reduction of fertility rate is due to changes in the age at marriage for women, and to variations in the proportion of women who never got married. This article presents a bilogistic model used to summarize the history of groups of women, or cohorts, of the same age, who have complete or incomplete nuptiality experience. The model was applied to nuptiality data gathered by the 1975 National Fertility Survey conducted in the Dominican Republic. The results show that: 1) the bilogistic model describes effectively the variation according to age of the percentage of women who get married for the first time; 2) the model can be applied to not only cohorts with complete nuptiality experience, but to cohorts with experience still in progress; and 3) it is possible to detect changes in time of the value of the 2 main parameters of the model, the one related to age at beginning of nuptiality, and the one related to age at the end of the same process. PMID:12309556

Bocaz, A

1979-04-01

212

Usability study of text-based CAPTCHAs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Completely Automatic Public Turing test to tell Computers and Humans Apart, or CAPTCHA, is a security measure that guards a system from exploitation by the discrimination between a real human being and an automated computer program via the method of presenting to the unknown user the challenges that are hard for computer yet easy for human. Focusing on text-based CAPTCHA,

Ying-Lien Lee; Chih-Hsiang Hsu

2011-01-01

213

Sign language to text by SVM  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper is presented an automatic deaf language to text system. The scheme is based on support vector machines (SVM) classifier using a Gaussian kernel. The input parameter vector to SVM is the Fisher score, which represents the derivate of the matrix of symbol probability in hidden Markov model (HMM). The HMM, which needs a sequence to be trained

Carlos M. Travieso; Jesus B. Alonso; M. A. Ferrer

2003-01-01

214

Language Independent Text Correction using Finite State Automata  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many natural language applications, like machine translation and information extrac- tion, are required to operate on text with spelling errors. Those spelling mistakes have to be corrected automatically to avoid deteriorating the performance of such ap- plications. In this work, we introduce a novel approach for automatic correction of spelling mistakes by deploying finite state automata to propose candidates corrections

Ahmed Hassan; Sara Noeman; Hany Hassan

215

A conceptual study of automatic and semi-automatic quality assurance techniques for round image processing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report summarizes the results of a study conducted by Engineering and Economics Research (EER), Inc. under NASA Contract Number NAS5-27513. The study involved the development of preliminary concepts for automatic and semiautomatic quality assurance (QA) techniques for ground image processing. A distinction is made between quality assessment and the more comprehensive quality assurance which includes decision making and system feedback control in response to quality assessment.

1983-01-01

216

Automatic segmentation of moving objects for video object plane generation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The new video coding standard MPEG-4 is enabling content-based functionalities. It takes advantage of a prior decomposition of sequences into video object planes (VOPs) so that each VOP represents one moving object. A comprehensive review summarizes some of the most important motion segmentation and VOP generation techniques that have been proposed. Then, a new automatic video sequence segmentation algorithm that

Thomas Meier; King N. Ngan

1998-01-01

217

Abstracting Digital Movies Automatically  

Microsoft Academic Search

ing Digital Movies AutomaticallyS. Pfeioeer, R. Lienhart, S. Fischer und W. EoeelsbergUniversit#t MannheimPraktische Informatik IVL 15, 16D-68131 MannheimAbstracting Digital Movies AutomaticallySilvia Pfeioeer, Rainer Lienhart, Stephan Fischer andWolfgang EoeelsbergPraktische Informatik IVUniversity of MannheimD-68131 Mannheimpfeiffer@pi4.informatik.uni-mannheim.deAbstractLarge video on demand databases consisting of thousands of digital moviesare not easy to handle: the...

Reihe Informatik S. Pfeioeer; R. Lienhart; S. Fischer Und W. Eoeelsberg

1996-01-01

218

A Mandarin text-to-speech system  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the implementation of a high-performance Mandarin TTS system is presented. The system is composed of four main parts: text analysis (TA), prosodic information generation (PIG), a waveform table of 411 base-syllables (WT), and PSOLA-based waveform synthesis (PSOLA). In TA, statistical model based method is first employed to automatically tag the input text to obtain the word sequence

Shaw-Hwa Hwang; Sin-Horng Chen; Yih-Ru Wang

1996-01-01

219

Automatic differentiation bibliography  

SciTech Connect

This is a bibliography of work related to automatic differentiation. Automatic differentiation is a technique for the fast, accurate propagation of derivative values using the chain rule. It is neither symbolic nor numeric. Automatic differentiation is a fundamental tool for scientific computation, with applications in optimization, nonlinear equations, nonlinear least squares approximation, stiff ordinary differential equation, partial differential equations, continuation methods, and sensitivity analysis. This report is an updated version of the bibliography which originally appeared in Automatic Differentiation of Algorithms: Theory, Implementation, and Application.

Corliss, G.F. [comp.

1992-07-01

220

Automatic battery charger  

SciTech Connect

An automatic battery charging circuit for use with battery powered vehicles such as golf carts includes an automatically timed charging switch which is connected in parallel with the conventional manually timed charging switch of the battery charger. The automatically timed charging switch includes an electrical clock connected across the power line of the charger. When the charger is plugged into the power line, the clock closes the terminals of the automatically timed charging switch for a brief period of time on a periodic basis. This prevents the batteries of the vehicle from becoming substantially discharged during extended periods of non-use, thereby increasing the life of the batteries.

Schub, L.

1984-06-26

221

Text documents as social networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The extraction of keywords and features is a fundamental problem in text data mining. Document processing applications directly depend on the quality and speed of the identification of salient terms and phrases. Applications as disparate as automatic document classification, information visualization, filtering and security policy enforcement all rely on the quality of automatically extracted keywords. Recently, a novel approach to rapid change detection in data streams and documents has been developed. It is based on ideas from image processing and in particular on the Helmholtz Principle from the Gestalt Theory of human perception. By modeling a document as a one-parameter family of graphs with its sentences or paragraphs defining the vertex set and with edges defined by Helmholtz's principle, we demonstrated that for some range of the parameters, the resulting graph becomes a small-world network. In this article we investigate the natural orientation of edges in such small world networks. For two connected sentences, we can say which one is the first and which one is the second, according to their position in a document. This will make such a graph look like a small WWW-type network and PageRank type algorithms will produce interesting ranking of nodes in such a document.

Balinsky, Helen; Balinsky, Alexander; Simske, Steven J.

2012-03-01

222

A novel tool for assessing and summarizing the built environment  

PubMed Central

Background A growing corpus of research focuses on assessing the quality of the local built environment and also examining the relationship between the built environment and health outcomes and indicators in communities. However, there is a lack of research presenting a highly resolved, systematic, and comprehensive spatial approach to assessing the built environment over a large geographic extent. In this paper, we contribute to the built environment literature by describing a tool used to assess the residential built environment at the tax parcel-level, as well as a methodology for summarizing the data into meaningful indices for linkages with health data. Methods A database containing residential built environment variables was constructed using the existing body of literature, as well as input from local community partners. During the summer of 2008, a team of trained assessors conducted an on-foot, curb-side assessment of approximately 17,000 tax parcels in Durham, North Carolina, evaluating the built environment on over 80 variables using handheld Global Positioning System (GPS) devices. The exercise was repeated again in the summer of 2011 over a larger geographic area that included roughly 30,700 tax parcels; summary data presented here are from the 2008 assessment. Results Built environment data were combined with Durham crime data and tax assessor data in order to construct seven built environment indices. These indices were aggregated to US Census blocks, as well as to primary adjacency communities (PACs) and secondary adjacency communities (SACs) which better described the larger neighborhood context experienced by local residents. Results were disseminated to community members, public health professionals, and government officials. Conclusions The assessment tool described is both easily-replicable and comprehensive in design. Furthermore, our construction of PACs and SACs introduces a novel concept to approximate varying scales of community and describe the built environment at those scales. Our collaboration with community partners at all stages of the tool development, data collection, and dissemination of results provides a model for engaging the community in an active research program. PMID:23075269

2012-01-01

223

Applying Semantics in Dataset Summarization for Solar Data Ingest Pipelines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One goal in studying phenomena of the solar corona (e.g., flares, coronal mass ejections) is to create and refine predictive models of space weather - which have broad implications for terrestrial activity (e.g., communication grid reliability). The High Altitude Observatory (HAO) [1] presently maintains an infrastructure for generating time-series visualizations of the solar corona. Through raw data gathered at the Mauna Loa Solar Observatory (MLSO) in Hawaii, HAO performs follow-up processing and quality control steps to derive visualization sets consumable by scientists. Individual visualizations will acquire several properties during their derivation, including: (i) the source instrument at MLSO used to obtain the raw data, (ii) the time the data was gathered, (iii) processing steps applied by HAO to generate the visualization, and (iv) quality metrics applied over both the raw and processed data. In parallel to MLSO's standard data gathering, time stamped observation logs are maintained by MLSO staff, which covers content of potential relevance to data gathered (such as local weather and instrument conditions). In this setting, while a significant amount of solar data is gathered, only small sections will typically be of interest to consuming parties. Additionally, direct presentation of solar data collections could overwhelm consumers (particularly those with limited background in the data structuring). This work explores how multidimensional analysis based navigation can be used to generate summary views of data collections, based on two operations: (i) grouping visualization entries based on similarity metrics (e.g., data gathered between 23:15-23:30 6-21-2012), or (ii) filtering entries (e.g., data with a quality score of UGLY, on a scale of GOOD, BAD, or UGLY). Here, semantic encodings of solar visualization collections (based on the Resource Description Framework (RDF) Datacube vocabulary [2]) are being utilized, based on the flexibility of the RDF model for supporting the following use cases: (i) Temporal alignment of time-stamped MLSO observations with raw data gathered at MLSO. (ii) Linking of multiple visualization entries to common (and structurally complex) workflow structures - designed to capture the visualization generation process. To provide real-world use cases for the described approach, a semantic summarization system is being developed for data gathered from HAO's Coronal Multi-channel Polarimeter (CoMP) and Chromospheric Helium-I Imaging Photometer (CHIP) pipelines. Web Links: [1] http://mlso.hao.ucar.edu/ [2] http://www.w3.org/TR/vocab-data-cube/

Michaelis, J.; McGuinness, D. L.; Zednik, S.; West, P.; Fox, P. A.

2012-12-01

224

An Algorithm for Generating Structural Surrogates of English Text  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the development and application of an algorithm that generates non-linear representations of English text. It appears that the representation it produces could be quite useful in automatic language processing. (JB)

Strong, Suzanne M.

1974-01-01

225

Using Text Analysis to Identify Functionally Coherent Gene Groups  

E-print Network

based on their associated scientific literature. The method uses statistical natural language processing of genes shares a common biological function by automatic analysis of scientific text. It requires only

Batzoglou, Serafim

226

Automated de-identification of free-text medical records  

E-print Network

This paper presents a de-identification study at the Harvard-MIT Division of Health Science and Technology (HST) to automatically de-identify confidential patient information from text medical records used in intensive ...

Neamatullah, Ishna

2006-01-01

227

Improving Text Recall with Multiple Summaries  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background. QuikScan (QS) is an innovative design that aims to improve accessibility, comprehensibility, and subsequent recall of expository text by means of frequent within-document summaries that are formatted as numbered list items. The numbers in the QS summaries correspond to numbers placed in the body of the document where the summarized

van der Meij, Hans; van der Meij, Jan

2012-01-01

228

Mediation and Automatization.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper discusses the relationship between the mediation of task performance by some structure that is not inherent in the task domain itself and the phenomenon of automatization, in which skilled performance becomes effortless or phenomenologically "automatic" after extensive practice. The use of a common simple explicit mediating device, a…

Hutchins, Edwin

229

AMETHYST: automatic alarm assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the AMETHYST (AutoMatic Event auTHentication sYSTem) project is to encourage the development of a high-performance, perimeter-alarm verification system that, using computer-vision, automatically rejects false alarms. AMETHYST will pass to an operator only those alarms that are caused by an intruder.

S. Mockler; N. Clarke

2002-01-01

230

Text-to-Video: Story Illustration from Online Photo Collections  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a We present a first system to semi-automatically create a visual representation for a given, short text. We first parse the\\u000a input text, decompose it into suitable units, and construct meaningful search terms. Using these search terms we retrieve\\u000a a set of candidate images from online photo collections. We then select the final images in a user-assisted process and automatically\\u000a create

Katharina Schwarz; Pavel Rojtberg; Joachim Caspar; Iryna Gurevych; Michael Goesele; Hendrik P. A. Lensch

2010-01-01

231

Automatic analysis of computation in biochemical reactions.  

PubMed

We propose a modeling and analysis method for biochemical reactions based on finite state automata. This is a completely different approach compared to traditional modeling of reactions by differential equations. Our method aims to explore the algebraic structure behind chemical reactions using automatically generated coordinate systems. In this paper we briefly summarize the underlying mathematical theory (the algebraic hierarchical decomposition theory of finite state automata) and describe how such automata can be derived from the description of chemical reaction networks. We also outline techniques for the flexible manipulation of existing models. As a real-world example we use the Krebs citric acid cycle. PMID:18606208

Egri-Nagy, Attila; Nehaniv, Chrystopher L; Rhodes, John L; Schilstra, Maria J

2008-01-01

232

DiZer: An Automatic Discourse Analyzer for Brazilian Portuguese  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents DiZer, an automatic DIscourse analyZER for Brazilian Portuguese. Given a source text, the system automatically produces its corresponding rhetorical analysis, following Rhetorical Structure Theory - RST (Mann and Thompson, 1987). A rhetorical repository, which is DiZer main component, makes the automatic analysis possible. This repository, produced by means of a corpus analysis, includes discourse analysis patterns that

Thiago Alexandre Salgueiro Pardo; Maria Das Graças Volpe Nunes; Lucia Helena Machado Rino

2004-01-01

233

Writing Home/Decolonizing Text(s)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The article draws on postcolonial and feminist theories, combined with critical reflection and autobiography, and argues for generating decolonizing texts as one way to write and reclaim home in a postcolonial world. Colonizers leave home to seek power and control elsewhere, and the colonized suffer loss of home as they know it. This dislocation…

Asher, Nina

2009-01-01

234

Text File Display Program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

LOOK program permits user to examine text file in pseudorandom access manner. Program provides user with way of rapidly examining contents of ASCII text file. LOOK opens text file for input only and accesses it in blockwise fashion. Handles text formatting and displays text lines on screen. User moves forward or backward in file by any number of lines or blocks. Provides ability to "scroll" text at various speeds in forward or backward directions.

Vavrus, J. L.

1986-01-01

235

Word Automaticity of Tree Automatic Scattered Linear Orderings Is Decidable  

E-print Network

A tree automatic structure is a structure whose domain can be encoded by a regular tree language such that each relation is recognisable by a finite automaton processing tuples of trees synchronously. Words can be regarded as specific simple trees and a structure is word automatic if it is encodable using only these trees. The question naturally arises whether a given tree automatic structure is already word automatic. We prove that this problem is decidable for tree automatic scattered linear orderings. Moreover, we show that in case of a positive answer a word automatic presentation is computable from the tree automatic presentation.

Huschenbett, Martin

2012-01-01

236

Automatic natural language parsing  

SciTech Connect

This collection of papers on automatic natural language parsing examines research and development in language processing over the past decade. It focuses on current trends toward a phrase structure grammar and deterministic parsing.

Sprack-Jones, K.; Wilks, Y.

1985-01-01

237

Automatic amino acid analyzer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Analyzer operates unattended or up to 15 hours. It has an automatic sample injection system and can be programmed. All fluid-flow valve switching is accomplished pneumatically from miniature three-way solenoid pilot valves.

Berdahl, B. J.; Carle, G. C.; Oyama, V. I.

1971-01-01

238

Automatic switching matrix  

DOEpatents

An automatic switching matrix that includes an apertured matrix board containing a matrix of wires that can be interconnected at each aperture. Each aperture has associated therewith a conductive pin which, when fully inserted into the associated aperture, effects electrical connection between the wires within that particular aperture. Means is provided for automatically inserting the pins in a determined pattern and for removing all the pins to permit other interconnecting patterns.

Schlecht, Martin F. (Cambridge, MA); Kassakian, John G. (Newton, MA); Caloggero, Anthony J. (Lynn, MA); Rhodes, Bruce (Dorchester, MA); Otten, David (Newton, MA); Rasmussen, Neil (Sudbury, MA)

1982-01-01

239

A hierarchical structure for automatic meshing and adaptive FEM analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new algorithm for generating automatically, from solid models of mechanical parts, finite element meshes that are organized as spatially addressable quaternary trees (for 2-D work) or octal trees (for 3-D work) is discussed. Because such meshes are inherently hierarchical as well as spatially addressable, they permit efficient substructuring techniques to be used for both global analysis and incremental remeshing and reanalysis. The global and incremental techniques are summarized and some results from an experimental closed loop 2-D system in which meshing, analysis, error evaluation, and remeshing and reanalysis are done automatically and adaptively are presented. The implementation of 3-D work is briefly discussed.

Kela, Ajay; Saxena, Mukul; Perucchio, Renato

1987-01-01

240

Automatic Retrieval and Clustering of Similar Words  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bootstrapping semantics from text is one of the greatest challenges in natural language learning. We first define a word similarity measure based on the distributional pattern of words. The similarity measure allows us to construct a thesaurus using a parsed corpus. We then present a new evaluation methodology for the automatically constructed thesaurus. The evaluation results show that the thesaurus

Dekang Lin

1998-01-01

241

The Automatic Creation of Literature Abstracts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Excerpts of technical papers and magazine articles that serve the purposes of conventional abstracts have been created entirely by automatic means. In the exploratory research described, the complete text of an article in machine-readable form is scanned by an IBM 704 data-processing machine and analyzed in accordance with a standard program. Statistical information derived from word frequency and distribution is

H. P. Luhn

1958-01-01

242

Automatic Extraction of Knowledge from Web Documents  

Microsoft Academic Search

A large amount of digital information available is written as text documents in the form of web pages, reports, papers, emails, etc. Extracting the knowledge of interest from such documents from multiple sources in a timely fashion is therefore crucial. This paper provides an update on the Artequakt system which uses natural language tools to automatically extract knowledge about artists

Harith Alani; Sanghee Kim; David E. Millard; Mark J. Weal; Paul H. Lewis; Nigel Shadbolt

2003-01-01

243

Automatic Discrimination of Emotion from Spoken Finnish  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper, experiments on the automatic discrimination of basic emotions from spoken Finnish are described. For the purpose of the study, a large emotional speech corpus of Finnish was collected; 14 professional actors acted as speakers, and simulated four primary emotions when reading out a semantically neutral text. More than 40 prosodic…

Toivanen, Juhani; Vayrynen, Eero; Seppanen, Tapio

2004-01-01

244

Text-Translation Alignment  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present an algorithm for aligning texts with their translations that is based only on internal evidence. The relaxation process rests on a notion of which word in one text corresponds to which word in the other text that is essentially based on the similarity of their distributions. It exploits a partial alignment of the word level to induce a

Martin Kay; Martin Röscheisen

1993-01-01

245

Oxford Text Archive  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The well-established Oxford Text Archive can now be accessed via its new web site, a redesign intended to improve navigation, functionality, and to utilize the SGML metadata available for all texts. Users can also now conduct full text searches. Founded in 1976 and based in the Humanities Computing Unit of Oxford University Computing Services, the Oxford Text Archive houses selected academic submissions for the purpose of preserving "high-quality electronic texts for research and teaching." Scholars and other interested users have access to more than 2500 resources in over 25 different languages. The OTA encourages new submissions of quality, scholarly electronic resources.

246

Automatic Image Restoration Based on Tensor Voting  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a An automatic image restoration method is proposed for text images despite severe occlusion and noise. 3D tensor voting framework\\u000a is used to analyze surface areas to detect corrupted regions. These corrupted regions are then restored by an adaptive median\\u000a filter or image completing. The experimental results attained from several text images show that good images can be achieved\\u000a from degraded

Toan Nguyen Dinh; Jonghyun Park; Soo-hyung Kim; Hyuk Ro Park; Gueesang Lee

2009-01-01

247

Text formatting by demonstration  

Microsoft Academic Search

In text formatters such as troff, Scribe, and TEX, users write macro procedures to specify the desired visual appearance. In What-You-See-Is-What-You-Get text formatters, such as MacWrite and Microsoft Word, the formatting is specified by directly manipulating the text. However, some important functionality is lost in these systems since they are not programmable, For example, if the user wants to change

Brad A. Myers

1991-01-01

248

A new automatic synchronizer  

SciTech Connect

A phase lock loop automatic synchronizer, PLLS, matches generator speed starting from dead stop to bus frequency, and then locks the phase difference at zero, thereby maintaining zero slip frequency while the generator breaker is being closed to the bus. The significant difference between the PLLS and a conventional automatic synchronizer is that there is no slip frequency difference between generator and bus. The PLL synchronizer is most advantageous when the penstock pressure fluctuates the grid frequency fluctuates, or both. The PLL synchronizer is relatively inexpensive. Hydroplants with multiple units can economically be equipped with a synchronizer for each unit.

Malm, C.F. [C.F. Malm Engineers, Seattle, WA (United States)

1995-12-31

249

Constructing Biological Knowledge Bases by Extracting Information from Text Sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, there has been much eort in making databases for molecular biology more accessible and interoperable. However, information in text form, such as MEDLINE records, remains a greatly underutilized source of biological information. We have begun a re- search eort aimed at automatically mapping infor- mation from text sources into structured representa- tions, such as knowledge bases. Our approach to

Mark Craven; Johan Kumlien

1999-01-01

250

Research on enterprise text knowledge classification based on knowledge schema  

Microsoft Academic Search

Knowledge classification is a critical problem that has to be solved in implementation of knowledge management. However, a highlight issue is that the existing knowledge classification methods are unpractical for enterprise. In order to realize the automatic classification of enterprise knowledge, a method of enterprise text knowledge classification based on knowledge schema is proposed, which describes the enterprise text knowledge

Kaiji Liao; Donghai Ye; Yunjiang Xi

2010-01-01

251

Mining Linguistically Interpreted Texts  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes and evaluates the use of linguistic information in the pre-processing phase of text mining tasks. We present several experiments comparing our proposal for selection of terms based on linguistic knowledge with usual techniques applied in the field. The results show that part of speech information is useful for the pre-processing phase of text categorization and clustering, as

Cassiana Fagundes da Silva; Renata Vieira; Paulo Quaresma

252

Text File Comparator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

File Comparator program IFCOMP, is text file comparator for IBM OS/VScompatable systems. IFCOMP accepts as input two text files and produces listing of differences in pseudo-update form. IFCOMP is very useful in monitoring changes made to software at the source code level.

Kotler, R. S.

1983-01-01

253

Texting on the Move  

MedlinePLUS

... walked right into the path of a pickup truck. That's rare, of course. But texting is more likely to contribute to car crashes. We know this because police and other authorities sometimes use a driver's phone records to check for phone and text ...

254

Texting "boosts" felt security.  

PubMed

Attachment security can be induced in laboratory settings (e.g., Rowe & Carnelley, 2003) and the beneficial effects of repeated security priming can last for a number of days (e.g., Carnelley & Rowe, 2007). The priming process, however, can be costly in terms of time. We explored the effectiveness of security priming via text message. Participants completed a visualisation task (a secure attachment experience or neutral experience) in the laboratory. On three consecutive days following the laboratory task, participants received (secure or neutral) text message visualisation tasks. Participants in the secure condition reported significantly higher felt security than those in the neutral condition, immediately after the laboratory prime, after the last text message prime and one day after the last text prime. These findings suggest that security priming via text messages is an innovative methodological advancement that effectively induces felt security, representing a potential direction forward for security priming research. PMID:24245604

Otway, Lorna J; Carnelley, Katherine B; Rowe, Angela C

2014-01-01

255

Text mining and ontologies in biomedicine: making sense of raw text.  

PubMed

The volume of biomedical literature is increasing at such a rate that it is becoming difficult to locate, retrieve and manage the reported information without text mining, which aims to automatically distill information, extract facts, discover implicit links and generate hypotheses relevant to user needs. Ontologies, as conceptual models, provide the necessary framework for semantic representation of textual information. The principal link between text and an ontology is terminology, which maps terms to domain-specific concepts. This paper summarises different approaches in which ontologies have been used for text-mining applications in biomedicine. PMID:16212772

Spasic, Irena; Ananiadou, Sophia; McNaught, John; Kumar, Anand

2005-09-01

256

Automatic multiple applicator electrophoresis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Easy-to-use, economical device permits electrophoresis on all known supporting media. System includes automatic multiple-sample applicator, sample holder, and electrophoresis apparatus. System has potential applicability to fields of taxonomy, immunology, and genetics. Apparatus is also used for electrofocusing.

Grunbaum, B. W.

1977-01-01

257

Reactor component automatic grapple  

DOEpatents

A grapple for handling nuclear reactor components in a medium such as liquid sodium which, upon proper seating and alignment of the grapple with the component as sensed by a mechanical logic integral to the grapple, automatically seizes the component. The mechanical logic system also precludes seizure in the absence of proper seating and alignment.

Greenaway, Paul R. (Bethel Park, PA)

1982-01-01

258

Automatic Program Synthesis Reports.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Some of the major results of future goals of an automatic program synthesis project are described in the two papers that comprise this document. The first paper gives a detailed algorithm for synthesizing a computer program from a trace of its behavior. Since the algorithm involves a search, the length of time required to do the synthesis of…

Biermann, A. W.; And Others

259

Automatic Dance Lesson Generation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper, an automatic lesson generation system is presented which is suitable in a learning-by-mimicking scenario where the learning objects can be represented as multiattribute time series data. The dance is used as an example in this paper to illustrate the idea. Given a dance motion sequence as the input, the proposed lesson generation…

Yang, Yang; Leung, H.; Yue, Lihua; Deng, LiQun

2012-01-01

260

Automatic sweep circuit  

DOEpatents

An automatically sweeping circuit for searching for an evoked response in an output signal in time with respect to a trigger input. Digital counters are used to activate a detector at precise intervals, and monitoring is repeated for statistical accuracy. If the response is not found then a different time window is examined until the signal is found.

Keefe, Donald J. (Lemont, IL)

1980-01-01

261

Automatic soldering machine  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Fully-automatic tube-joint soldering machine can be used to make leakproof joints in aluminum tubes of 3/16 to 2 in. in diameter. Machine consists of temperature-control unit, heater transformer and heater head, vibrator, and associated circuitry controls, and indicators.

Stein, J. A.

1974-01-01

262

Automatic water heater systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

A heat trap is described which can be connected to the flue exhaust outlet of an automatic gas water heating system in which heat can be entrapped that would otherwise be lost via hot flue gases passing up through the flue exhaust and out of a chimney. The heat trap comprises a tank containing therein vertically extending serpentine heat tubes.

R. O. Jr

1987-01-01

263

Abstracting Digital Movies Automatically  

Microsoft Academic Search

Large video-on-demand databases consisting of thousands of digital movies are not easy to handle: the user must have an attractive means of retrieving his movie of choice. For analog video, movie trailers are produced to allow a quick preview and perhaps stimulate possible buyers. This paper presents techniques for automatically producing such movie abstracts of digital videos.

Silvia Pfeiffer; Rainer Lienhart; Stephan Fischer; Wolfgang Effelsberg

1996-01-01

264

Automatic language identification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Automatic language identification of speech is the process by which the language of a digitized speech utterance is recognized by a computer. In this paper, we will describe the set of available cues for language identification of speech and discuss the different approaches to building working systems. This overview includes a range of historical approaches, contemporary systems that have been

Marc A. Zissman; Kay M Berkling

2001-01-01

265

Forensic Automatic Speaker Recognition  

E-print Network

1 Forensic Automatic Speaker Recognition: Fiction or Science? Joaquin Gonzalez-Rodriguez ATVS is Forensic Science about? CSI is to Forensic Science as Science Fiction to Science CSI is to Forensic Science as Science Fiction to Science #12;9 9 © JGR 2008 Fiction and Science #12;10 10 © JGR 2008 Courts and Forensic

Autonoma de Madrid, Universidad

266

Automatic finite element generators  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The design and implementation of a software system for generating finite elements and related computations are described. Exact symbolic computational techniques are employed to derive strain-displacement matrices and element stiffness matrices. Methods for dealing with the excessive growth of symbolic expressions are discussed. Automatic FORTRAN code generation is described with emphasis on improving the efficiency of the resultant code.

Wang, P. S.

1984-01-01

267

Electronically controlled automatic transmission  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes an electronically controlled automatic transmission control system for an automotive vehicle. It comprises multiple ratio gearing and multiple pressure operated clutches and brakes adapted to establish and disestablish multiple torque flow paths through the gearing from an engine; a source of regulated line pressure, a valve circuit connecting the line pressure source to the clutches and brakes;

R. B. Smith; J. A. Daubenmier; J. I. Zielke

1992-01-01

268

Automatic transmission apparatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

An automatic transmission apparatus is described comprising: an input shaft, an output shaft disposed behind and coaxially with the input shaft, a counter shaft disposed substantially parallel to both of the input and output shafts, a first gear train including a first gear provided on the input shaft and a second gear provided on the counter shaft to be meshed

Hiketa

1987-01-01

269

Automatic categorization design for broadcast news  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper discusses our work on automatic categorization of broadcast news based on close caption texts. The multimedia news data under study are first segmented into story units based on video and audio signals with our previous developed algorithms. Based on the time stamp information, close caption texts are segmented into text units corresponding to each story unit. A Bayes network is then trained to automatically classify the story units into fourteen categories. The major contribution of this paper is the idea of category, which represents a higher level of semantic generalization as compared with traditional topics. We discusses in detail the administrated bottom-up clustering algorithm to generate semantically meaningful category framework as well as the training procedures to build the brief network that covers the large broadcast news data set. Using LDC (Linguistic Data Consortium)'s CSR LM 1996 data set, we designed a number of experiments to discuss the relationship between categorization design and the classification performance.

Luo, Huitao; Huang, Qian

2001-12-01

270

PERSIVAL, a System for Personalized Search and Summarization over Multimedia Healthcare Information.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reports on the ongoing development of PERSIVAL (Personalized Retrieval and Summarization of Image, Video, and Language), a system designed to provide personalized access to a distributed digital library of medical literature and consumer health information. The goal for PERSIVAL is to tailor search, presentation, and summarization of…

McKeown, Kathleen R.; Chang, Shih-Fu; Cimino, James; Feiner, Steven K.; Friedman, Carol; Gravano, Luis; Hatzivassiloglou, Vasileios; Johnson, Steven; Jordan, Desmond A.; Klavans, Judith L.; Kushniruk, Andre; Patel, Vimla; Teufel, Simone

271

Content Analysis and Summarization for Video A Thesis Submitted in Partial Fulfillment  

E-print Network

Content Analysis and Summarization for Video Documents Lu, Shi A Thesis Submitted in Partial struc- ture analysis, video scene analysis, graph modeling and optimization. Both a dynamic video content coverage and the visual coherence. iii #12;iv Content Analysis and Summarization for Video

King, Kuo Chin Irwin

272

ITRI-04-05 Be Polite or Be Summarized Norton Trevisan Roman, Paul Piwek and  

E-print Network

ITRI-04-05 Be Polite or Be Summarized Norton Trevisan Roman, Paul Piwek and Ariadne Maria Brito://www.itri.brighton.ac.uk #12;Be Polite or Be Summarized Norton Trevisan Roman1 , Paul Piwek2 , and Ariadne Maria Brito Rizzoni Carvalho1 1 Institute of Computing, Unicamp, Brazil. norton@ic.unicamp.br ariadne@ic.unicamp.br 2

van Deemter, Kees

273

Revealing Biological Modules via Graph Summarization Saket Navlakha, Michael C. Schatz, and Carl Kingsford  

E-print Network

. A common approach to this task is to partition the interaction graph into modules -- subsets of proteinsRevealing Biological Modules via Graph Summarization Saket Navlakha, Michael C. Schatz, and Carl the global organization of the cell. We propose a novel graph summarization (GS) technique, based on graph

Kingsford, Carl

274

VIDEO SUMMARIZATION USING A VISUALATTENTION MODEL Sophie MARAT, Mickel GUIRONNET, and Denis PELLERIN  

E-print Network

VIDEO SUMMARIZATION USING A VISUALATTENTION MODEL Sophie MARAT, Mickäel GUIRONNET, and Denis.gipsa-lab.inpg.fr ABSTRACT This paper presents a method of video summarization based on a visual attention model. The visual variation curve" which highlights changes on frames content during the video is introduced. Keyframes

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

275

Video summarization based on camera motion and a subjective evaluation method  

E-print Network

Video summarization based on camera motion and a subjective evaluation method M. Guironnet a , D of video summarization based on camera motion. It consists in selecting frames according to the succession summaries more generally. Subjects were asked to watch a video and to create a summary manually. From

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

276

Using Word Clouds to Summarize Multiple Search Results Rianne Kaptein1,2  

E-print Network

Using Word Clouds to Summarize Multiple Search Results Rianne Kaptein1,2 Jaap Kamps1 1 University In this paper we investigate the use of word clouds to summarize multiple search results. We study how well users can identify the relevancy and the topic of search results by looking only at the word clouds

Kamps, Jaap

277

Summarizing Neonatal Time Series Data Somayajulu G. Sripada, Ehud Reiter, Jim Hunter and Jin Yu  

E-print Network

Summarizing Neonatal Time Series Data Somayajulu G. Sripada, Ehud Reiter, Jim Hunter and Jin Yu,ereiter,jhunter,jyu}@csd.abdn.ac.uk Abstract We describe our investigations in gener- ating textual summaries of physiological time series data the content of the summary. We describe a prototype system that summarizes physiological time series. 1

Sripada, Yaji

278

Red-Tide Research Summarized to 1964 Including an Annotated Bibliography  

E-print Network

535^ Red-Tide Research Summarized to 1964 Including an Annotated Bibliography By George A, Harold E. Crowther, Acting Director Red-Tide Research Summarized to 1964 Including an Annotated Historical 2 General conditions during red-tide outbreaks 3 Temperature 3 Salinity 3 Rainfall 4 Wind 4 Light

279

Learning Sub-structures of Document Semantic Graphs for Document Summarization  

E-print Network

of semantic graph are weighted highly by SVM in the learned model. Categories and Subject Descriptors H.3Learning Sub-structures of Document Semantic Graphs for Document Summarization Jurij Leskovec Jozef@microsoft.com ABSTRACT In this paper we present a method for summarizing document by creating a semantic graph

Leskovec, Jure

280

Emotion Detection from Text  

E-print Network

Emotion can be expressed in many ways that can be seen such as facial expression and gestures, speech and by written text. Emotion Detection in text documents is essentially a content - based classification problem involving concepts from the domains of Natural Language Processing as well as Machine Learning. In this paper emotion recognition based on textual data and the techniques used in emotion detection are discussed.

Shivhare, Shiv Naresh

2012-01-01

281

Teaching Expository Text Structures  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Many students enter high school unskilled in the art of reading to learn from science textbooks. Even students who can read full-length novels often find science books difficult to read because students have relatively little practice with the various types of expository text structures used by such textbooks. In this article, the authors present an activity using a modified form of the sentence completion or "fill-in-the-blanks" worksheet that reinforces students' fluency with expository text structure and context.

Anita C. Hernandez

2006-02-01

282

Linguistically informed digital fingerprints for text  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Digital fingerprinting, watermarking, and tracking technologies have gained importance in the recent years in response to growing problems such as digital copyright infringement. While fingerprints and watermarks can be generated in many different ways, use of natural language processing for these purposes has so far been limited. Measuring similarity of literary works for automatic copyright infringement detection requires identifying and comparing creative expression of content in documents. In this paper, we present a linguistic approach to automatically fingerprinting novels based on their expression of content. We use natural language processing techniques to generate "expression fingerprints". These fingerprints consist of both syntactic and semantic elements of language, i.e., syntactic and semantic elements of expression. Our experiments indicate that syntactic and semantic elements of expression enable accurate identification of novels and their paraphrases, providing a significant improvement over techniques used in text classification literature for automatic copy recognition. We show that these elements of expression can be used to fingerprint, label, or watermark works; they represent features that are essential to the character of works and that remain fairly consistent in the works even when works are paraphrased. These features can be directly extracted from the contents of the works on demand and can be used to recognize works that would not be correctly identified either in the absence of pre-existing labels or by verbatim-copy detectors.

Uzuner, Özlem

2006-02-01

283

Text Exchange System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Text Exchange System (TES) exchanges and maintains organized textual information including source code, documentation, data, and listings. System consists of two computer programs and definition of format for information storage. Comprehensive program used to create, read, and maintain TES files. TES developed to meet three goals: First, easy and efficient exchange of programs and other textual data between similar and dissimilar computer systems via magnetic tape. Second, provide transportable management system for textual information. Third, provide common user interface, over wide variety of computing systems, for all activities associated with text exchange.

Snyder, W. V.; Hanson, R. J.

1986-01-01

284

Utah Culture Text  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Research one of Utah's many cultural festivals and send a text message explaining what you've learned! Step One: Research Select one of the following ethnic festivals in Utah to research. Navigate the webiste to find out what the festival is about and what one can do if they go to the festival. Look at available photos and videos to help learn about the festival. Asian Festival Festival of Colors Greek Festival India Fest Living Traditional Festival Scottish Festival St. Patrick s Day Parade Swiss Days Step Two: Text Message Pretend ...

Mrs. Wheeler

2011-03-02

285

Terminology extraction from medical texts in Polish  

PubMed Central

Background Hospital documents contain free text describing the most important facts relating to patients and their illnesses. These documents are written in specific language containing medical terminology related to hospital treatment. Their automatic processing can help in verifying the consistency of hospital documentation and obtaining statistical data. To perform this task we need information on the phrases we are looking for. At the moment, clinical Polish resources are sparse. The existing terminologies, such as Polish Medical Subject Headings (MeSH), do not provide sufficient coverage for clinical tasks. It would be helpful therefore if it were possible to automatically prepare, on the basis of a data sample, an initial set of terms which, after manual verification, could be used for the purpose of information extraction. Results Using a combination of linguistic and statistical methods for processing over 1200 children hospital discharge records, we obtained a list of single and multiword terms used in hospital discharge documents written in Polish. The phrases are ordered according to their presumed importance in domain texts measured by the frequency of use of a phrase and the variety of its contexts. The evaluation showed that the automatically identified phrases cover about 84% of terms in domain texts. At the top of the ranked list, only 4% out of 400 terms were incorrect while out of the final 200, 20% of expressions were either not domain related or syntactically incorrect. We also observed that 70% of the obtained terms are not included in the Polish MeSH. Conclusions Automatic terminology extraction can give results which are of a quality high enough to be taken as a starting point for building domain related terminological dictionaries or ontologies. This approach can be useful for preparing terminological resources for very specific subdomains for which no relevant terminologies already exist. The evaluation performed showed that none of the tested ranking procedures were able to filter out all improperly constructed noun phrases from the top of the list. Careful choice of noun phrases is crucial to the usefulness of the created terminological resource in applications such as lexicon construction or acquisition of semantic relations from texts. PMID:24976943

2014-01-01

286

Visualizing Informational Text  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Visualizing is a reading comprehension strategy that can be applied to science-themed texts, according to this article from Beyond Weather and the Water Cycle, a magazine that integrates literacy and science skills instruction. The author identifies six online resources that have activities, lesson plans, and more information.

Jessica Fries-Gaither

287

Taming the Wild Text  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As a well-known advocate for promoting wider reading and reading engagement among all children--and founder of a reading program for foster children--Pam Allyn knows that struggling readers often face any printed text with fear and confusion, like Max in the book Where the Wild Things Are. She argues that teachers need to actively create a…

Allyn, Pam

2012-01-01

288

STEM Careers Cursive Text  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This brief video from WPSU compares technologies from yesterday with today. Yesterday a middle school girl writes in cursive while today a girl the same age texts on her cell. The video suggests that science will bring us technologies of tomorrow.

2009-11-09

289

[Type text] Northwestern University  

E-print Network

) 782-7860 (24-hour response) Illinois Radiological Assistance Team (217) 785-0600 Hazardous Waste Dump[Type text] Northwestern University Office for Research Safety Hazardous Waste Management Program http://www.research.northwestern.edu/ors/ Hazardous Waste Disposal Guide Revised: May 2014 #12

Shull, Kenneth R.

290

Metacomprehension of text material  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two experiments investigated Ss' ability to predict future multiple-choice test performance after reading sections of text. In Exp I, 30 undergraduates who scored above median test performance showed some accuracy in their predictions of that test performance. They gave higher mean ratings to material related to correct than to incorrect test answers. Ss who scored below median test performance did

Ruth H. Maki; Sharon L. Berry

1984-01-01

291

Making a Splash: Comparing Two Informational Texts through Read Alouds  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, students will learn to compare and contrast two informational texts through read alouds and use of a Venn diagram graphic organizer. The lesson uses Swimming by JoAnn Macken and Let's Swim by Carol Lindeen. Students will also write to summarize what they have learned about the similarities and differences between the two texts.

Heather Judah

2012-09-20

292

A Topic Segmentation of Texts based on Semantic Domains  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thematic analysis is essential for many Natural Language Proc- essing (NLP) applications, such as text summarization or information extraction. It is a two-dimensional process that has both to delimit the thematic segments of a text and to identify the topic of each of them. The system we present possesses these two characteristics. Based on the use of semantic domains, it

Olivier Ferret; Brigitte Grau

2000-01-01

293

Automatism and driving offences.  

PubMed

Automatism is a rarely used defence, but it is particularly used for driving offences because many are strict liability offences. Medical evidence is almost always crucial to argue the defence, and it is important to understand the bars that limit the use of automatism so that the important medical issues can be identified. The issue of prior fault is an important public safeguard to ensure that reasonable precautions are taken to prevent accidents. The total loss of control definition is more problematic, especially with disorders of more gradual onset like hypoglycaemic episodes. In these cases the alternative of 'effective loss of control' would be fairer. This article explores several cases, how the criteria were applied to each, and the types of medical assessment required. PMID:24112330

Rumbold, John

2013-10-01

294

Automatic Abstraction in Planning  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Traditionally, abstraction in planning has been accomplished by either state abstraction or operator abstraction, neither of which has been fully automatic. We present a new method, predicate relaxation, for automatically performing state abstraction. PABLO, a nonlinear hierarchical planner, implements predicate relaxation. Theoretical, as well as empirical results are presented which demonstrate the potential advantages of using predicate relaxation in planning. We also present a new definition of hierarchical operators that allows us to guarantee a limited form of completeness. This new definition is shown to be, in some ways, more flexible than previous definitions of hierarchical operators. Finally, a Classical Truth Criterion is presented that is proven to be sound and complete for a planning formalism that is general enough to include most classical planning formalisms that are based on the STRIPS assumption.

Christensen, J.

1991-01-01

295

Automatic emergency hydraulic switch  

Microsoft Academic Search

tem automatically when large leaks appear in the system, or when the process piping ruptures suddenly, has been developed and tested at Penza Polytechnic Institute. This emergency hydraulic switch can be employed in various hydraulic systems serviug process machinery and equipment. It is designed to handle maximum flowrates at i00 liters\\/min, and to take pressures up to 200 kgf\\/cm 2.

B. T. Sitnikov; I. B. Matveev; V. N. Denisov

1972-01-01

296

Criterra automatic location planning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Criterra is a software suite that automatically determines optimum locations and heights in seconds\\/minutes for security system sensors, and locations for infrastructure and response forces based on dominant mosaic, line-of-sight, time-and-space, Doppler, propagation and other algorithms, executed on a terabyte size 3D geospatial and object database. Inputs include specifications of sensor systems, barriers, and response forces. Criterra is based on

Lawrence Cassenti; P. E. Peter Leed

2011-01-01

297

Automatic payload deployment system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ability to precisely emplace stand-alone payloads in hostile territory has long been on the wish list of US warfighters. This type of activity is one of the main functions of special operation forces, often conducted at great danger. Such risk can be mitigated by transitioning the manual placement of payloads over to an automated placement mechanism by the use of the Automatic Payload Deployment System (APDS). Based on the Automatically Deployed Communication Relays (ADCR) system, which provides non-line-of-sight operation for unmanned ground vehicles by automatically dropping radio relays when needed, the APDS takes this concept a step further and allows for the delivery of a mixed variety of payloads. For example, payloads equipped with a camera and gas sensor in addition to a radio repeater, can be deployed in support of rescue operations of trapped miners. Battlefield applications may include delivering food, ammunition, and medical supplies to the warfighter. Covert operations may require the unmanned emplacement of a network of sensors for human-presence detection, before undertaking the mission. The APDS is well suited for these tasks. Demonstrations have been conducted using an iRobot PackBot EOD in delivering a variety of payloads, for which the performance and results will be discussed in this paper.

Pezeshkian, Narek; Nguyen, Hoa G.; Burmeister, Aaron; Holz, Kevin; Hart, Abraham

2010-04-01

298

Clandestine E-Texts  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Edited and maintained by Gianluca Mori of the University of Turin-Vercelli, this site currently hosts the full texts (in French) of seventeen French clandestine manuscripts from the early enlightenment. As Mori notes, the treatises share an anti-Christian attitude, but beyond that their philosophical inspiration varies, "leading sometimes either to a deist (Examen de la religion) or to an atheist position (Meslier's Memoire, Freret's Lettre de Thrasybule a Leucippe)." The treatises are offered in HTML format, some with related links. Links are also provided to several texts on other servers and to related resources. Users may register for email notification of updates to the site, which is also available in French and Italian.

299

Fast and Robust Compressive Summarization with Dual Decomposition and Multi-Task Learning  

E-print Network

. Almeida Andr´e F. T. Martins Priberam Labs, Alameda D. Afonso Henriques, 41, 2o , 1000-123 Lisboa in compres- sive summarization (Lin, 2003; Zajic et al., 2006; Daum´e, 2006), where summaries are formed

Xing, Eric P.

300

Phenotype-genotype association grid: a convenient method for summarizing multiple association analyses  

E-print Network

Background: High-throughput genotyping generates vast amounts of data for analysis; results can be difficult to summarize succinctly. A single project may involve genotyping many genes with multiple variants per gene and ...

Levy, Daniel

301

Text categorization: the assignment of subject descriptors to magazine articles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Automatic text categorization is an important research\\u000a area and has a potential for many text-based applications\\u000a including text routing and filtering. Typical text\\u000a classifiers learn from example texts that are manually\\u000a categorized. When categorizing magazine articles with\\u000a broad subject descriptors, we study three aspects of text\\u000a classification: (1) effective selection of feature words\\u000a and proper names that reflect the main

Marie-Francine Moens; Jos Dumortier

2000-01-01

302

Linguistic Summarization of Time Series Under Different Granulation of Describing Features  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider an extension to a new approach to the linguistic summarization of time series data proposed in our previous papers.\\u000a We summarize trends identified here with straight segments of a piecewise linear approximation of time series. Then we employ,\\u000a as a set of features, the duration, dynamics of change and variability, and assume different, human consistent granulations\\u000a of their

Janusz Kacprzyk; Anna Wilbik; Slawomir Zadrozny

2007-01-01

303

Figure Text Extraction in Biomedical Literature  

PubMed Central

Background Figures are ubiquitous in biomedical full-text articles, and they represent important biomedical knowledge. However, the sheer volume of biomedical publications has made it necessary to develop computational approaches for accessing figures. Therefore, we are developing the Biomedical Figure Search engine (http://figuresearch.askHERMES.org) to allow bioscientists to access figures efficiently. Since text frequently appears in figures, automatically extracting such text may assist the task of mining information from figures. Little research, however, has been conducted exploring text extraction from biomedical figures. Methodology We first evaluated an off-the-shelf Optical Character Recognition (OCR) tool on its ability to extract text from figures appearing in biomedical full-text articles. We then developed a Figure Text Extraction Tool (FigTExT) to improve the performance of the OCR tool for figure text extraction through the use of three innovative components: image preprocessing, character recognition, and text correction. We first developed image preprocessing to enhance image quality and to improve text localization. Then we adapted the off-the-shelf OCR tool on the improved text localization for character recognition. Finally, we developed and evaluated a novel text correction framework by taking advantage of figure-specific lexicons. Results/Conclusions The evaluation on 382 figures (9,643 figure texts in total) randomly selected from PubMed Central full-text articles shows that FigTExT performed with 84% precision, 98% recall, and 90% F1-score for text localization and with 62.5% precision, 51.0% recall and 56.2% F1-score for figure text extraction. When limiting figure texts to those judged by domain experts to be important content, FigTExT performed with 87.3% precision, 68.8% recall, and 77% F1-score. FigTExT significantly improved the performance of the off-the-shelf OCR tool we used, which on its own performed with 36.6% precision, 19.3% recall, and 25.3% F1-score for text extraction. In addition, our results show that FigTExT can extract texts that do not appear in figure captions or other associated text, further suggesting the potential utility of FigTExT for improving figure search. PMID:21249186

Kim, Daehyun; Yu, Hong

2011-01-01

304

International Journal of Smart Engineering System Design, 2002 An Automatic Video Classification System Based on a  

E-print Network

As digital libraries and video databases grow, we need methods to assist us in the synthesis and analysisInternational Journal of Smart Engineering System Design, 2002 An Automatic Video Classification System Based on a Combination of HMM and Video Summarization Cheng Lu, Mark S. Drew, and James Au School

Drew, Mark S.

305

The Use of Automatically-Obtained Keyword Classifications for Information Retrieval. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report summarizes the work carried out on the automatic construction of keyword classifications and their use in information retrieval. It discusses the possible characteristics of such classifications, and potential ways of using them; and describes the various approaches to classification that were considered in terms of an overall frame of…

Jones, K. Sparck; Jackson, D. M.

306

Automatic Modeling of Virtual Humans and Body Clothing Nadia Magnenat-Thalmann, Hyewon Seo, Frederic Cordier  

E-print Network

Automatic Modeling of Virtual Humans and Body Clothing Nadia Magnenat-Thalmann, Hyewon Seo, parameterization techniques for modeling static shape (the variety of human body shapes) and dynamic shape (how the body shape changes as it moves) of virtual humans are classified, summarized and compared. Finally

Cordier, Frederic

307

Overlay Text Retrieval From Video Scene  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The rapid growth of video data leads to an urgent demand for efficient and true contentbased browsing and retrieving systems. In response to such needs, various video content analysis schemes using one or a combination of image, audio, and text information in videos have been proposed to parse, index, or abstract massive amount of data text in video is a very compact and accurate clue for video indexing and summarization. Most video text detection and extraction methods hold assumptions on text color, background contrast, and font style. Moreover, few methods can handle multilingual text well since different languages may have quite different appearances. In this paper, an efficient overlay text detection and extraction method is implemented which deals with complex backgrounds. Based on our observation that there exist transient colors between inserted text and its adjacent background. It is robust with respect to font size, style text, color, orientation and noise and can be used in a large variety of application fields such as mobile robot navigation vehicle license detection and recognition, object identification , document retrieving, etc.

Manohar, K.; Irfan, S.; Sravani, K.

2013-03-01

308

TRMM Gridded Text Products  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) has many products that contain instantaneous or gridded rain rates often among many other parameters. However, these products because of their completeness can often seem intimidating to users just desiring surface rain rates. For example one of the gridded monthly products contains well over 200 parameters. It is clear that if only rain rates are desired, this many parameters might prove intimidating. In addition, for many good reasons these products are archived and currently distributed in HDF format. This also can be an inhibiting factor in using TRMM rain rates. To provide a simple format and isolate just the rain rates from the many other parameters, the TRMM product created a series of gridded products in ASCII text format. This paper describes the various text rain rate products produced. It provides detailed information about parameters and how they are calculated. It also gives detailed format information. These products are used in a number of applications with the TRMM processing system. The products are produced from the swath instantaneous rain rates and contain information from the three major TRMM instruments: radar, radiometer, and combined. They are simple to use, human readable, and small for downloading.

Stocker, Erich Franz

2007-01-01

309

Internet Sacred Text Archive  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The world's philosophical and religious traditions have found a fine home at the Internet Sacred Text Archive, which, as the homepage notes, is "a quiet place in cyberspace devoted to religious tolerance and scholarship." Working together with a number of colleagues and volunteers, JB Hare has compiled this vast archive of sacred and philosophical texts from a number of public-domain sources and placed them on the site. What makes the site so intriguing is that Hare has placed detailed information about the sources and standards that have been deployed for each separate project, which will be of great interest to scholars. While the entire site can be searched, there is much to be learned by looking through the topics listed on the main page, which range from Atlantis to Zoroastrianism. Each separate topic contains a number of accurately transcribed (and some times, translated) primary and secondary documents, such as first-hand collections of oral traditions. For persons looking for their own copy of the material contained on the site, a CD-ROM is available for purchase as well.

310

Metacomprehension of text material.  

PubMed

Subjects' abilities to predict future multiple-choice test performance after reading sections of text were investigated in two experiments. In Experiment 1, subjects who scored above median test performance showed some accuracy in their predictions of that test performance. They gave higher mean ratings to material related to correct than to incorrect test answers. Subjects who scored below median test performance did not show this prediction accuracy. The retention interval between reading and the test was manipulated in Experiment 2. Subjects who were tested after at least a 24-hr delay showed results identical to those of Experiment 1. However, when subjects were tested immediately after reading, subjects above and below median test performance gave accurate predictions for the first immediate test. In contrast, both types of subjects gave inaccurate predictions for the second immediate test. Structural variables, such as length, serial position, and hierarchical level of the sections of text were related to subjects' predictions. These variables, in general, were not related to test performance, although the predictions were related to test performance in the conditions described above. PMID:6239006

Maki, R H; Berry, S L

1984-10-01

311

Practical vision based degraded text recognition system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rapid growth and progress in the medical, industrial, security and technology fields means more and more consideration for the use of camera based optical character recognition (OCR) Applying OCR to scanned documents is quite mature, and there are many commercial and research products available on this topic. These products achieve acceptable recognition accuracy and reasonable processing times especially with trained software, and constrained text characteristics. Even though the application space for OCR is huge, it is quite challenging to design a single system that is capable of performing automatic OCR for text embedded in an image irrespective of the application. Challenges for OCR systems include; images are taken under natural real world conditions, Surface curvature, text orientation, font, size, lighting conditions, and noise. These and many other conditions make it extremely difficult to achieve reasonable character recognition. Performance for conventional OCR systems drops dramatically as the degradation level of the text image quality increases. In this paper, a new recognition method is proposed to recognize solid or dotted line degraded characters. The degraded text string is localized and segmented using a new algorithm. The new method was implemented and tested using a development framework system that is capable of performing OCR on camera captured images. The framework allows parameter tuning of the image-processing algorithm based on a training set of camera-captured text images. Novel methods were used for enhancement, text localization and the segmentation algorithm which enables building a custom system that is capable of performing automatic OCR which can be used for different applications. The developed framework system includes: new image enhancement, filtering, and segmentation techniques which enabled higher recognition accuracies, faster processing time, and lower energy consumption, compared with the best state of the art published techniques. The system successfully produced impressive OCR accuracies (90% -to- 93%) using customized systems generated by our development framework in two industrial OCR applications: water bottle label text recognition and concrete slab plate text recognition. The system was also trained for the Arabic language alphabet, and demonstrated extremely high recognition accuracy (99%) for Arabic license name plate text recognition with processing times of 10 seconds. The accuracy and run times of the system were compared to conventional and many states of art methods, the proposed system shows excellent results.

Mohammad, Khader; Agaian, Sos; Saleh, Hani

2011-02-01

312

IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON IMAGE PROCESSING, VOL. 13, NO. 1, JANUARY 2004 87 Automatic Detection and Recognition  

E-print Network

, and translates results of sign recognition into a target language. Automatic detection and recognition of text (OCR), sign detection, sign recognition, text detection. I. INTRODUCTION WE work, live, and play warnings or hazards. Automatic sign translation, in conjunction with spoken language translation, can help

Chen, Xilin

313

Blake Digital Text Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Maintained by Nelson Hilton, Professor of English at the University of Georgia-Athens, this site will quickly become a favorite of Blake scholars. In addition to the full text of David V. Erdman's The Complete Poetry and Prose of William Blake, the site features a hypertext version of Songs of Innocence and of Experience which allows users to explore the various versions of Blake's masterpiece and "proceed from any given poem to any other which followed it in any edition, looping through the various juxtapositions Blake created in the intratextual, echoing world of Songs." In addition, the site also includes a powerful Blake Concordance. Concordance results link to a three-line context in the bottom frame of the page.

314

Magnetic Resonance Online Texts  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This well-organized and very thorough website was developed by the physicist Stanislav Sykora with the aim of providing free online texts, theses, and course materials on the subjects of magnetic resonance (MR), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), nuclear-magnetic resonance (NMR) and other related topics. The amount of material on the site is impressive. At the top of the page are links to an "MR Blog", as well as to "MR Links" and the "Site Plan & SEARCH". The NMR/MRI Extras section on the right side of the page is particularly useful for visitors interested in all things about MR. Its links to "Events" provides an up-to-date list of symposia, conferences, and meetings, along with links to the events' sites. The "Societies" link offers at least 50 groups about MR, some of which are country-based, and others that are region- or application-based.

S�½kora, Stanislav

315

Automatic Evidence Retrieval for Systematic Reviews  

PubMed Central

Background Snowballing involves recursively pursuing relevant references cited in the retrieved literature and adding them to the search results. Snowballing is an alternative approach to discover additional evidence that was not retrieved through conventional search. Snowballing’s effectiveness makes it best practice in systematic reviews despite being time-consuming and tedious. Objective Our goal was to evaluate an automatic method for citation snowballing’s capacity to identify and retrieve the full text and/or abstracts of cited articles. Methods Using 20 review articles that contained 949 citations to journal or conference articles, we manually searched Microsoft Academic Search (MAS) and identified 78.0% (740/949) of the cited articles that were present in the database. We compared the performance of the automatic citation snowballing method against the results of this manual search, measuring precision, recall, and F1 score. Results The automatic method was able to correctly identify 633 (as proportion of included citations: recall=66.7%, F1 score=79.3%; as proportion of citations in MAS: recall=85.5%, F1 score=91.2%) of citations with high precision (97.7%), and retrieved the full text or abstract for 490 (recall=82.9%, precision=92.1%, F1 score=87.3%) of the 633 correctly retrieved citations. Conclusions The proposed method for automatic citation snowballing is accurate and is capable of obtaining the full texts or abstracts for a substantial proportion of the scholarly citations in review articles. By automating the process of citation snowballing, it may be possible to reduce the time and effort of common evidence surveillance tasks such as keeping trial registries up to date and conducting systematic reviews. PMID:25274020

Choong, Miew Keen; Galgani, Filippo; Dunn, Adam G

2014-01-01

316

Behavioral Factors in Interactive Training of Text Classifiers Burr Settles  

E-print Network

Department Carnegie Mellon University Pittsburgh PA 15213, USA bsettles@cs.cmu.edu Xiaojin Zhu Computer describes a user study where hu- mans interactively train automatic text clas- sifiers. We attempt with real annotators, hu- mans were able to train near state of the art classi- fiers with only a few

Settles, Burr

317

Emotional Reading of Medical Texts Using Conversational Agents (Short Paper)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we present a prototype that helps visualizing the relative importance of sentences extracted from medical texts using Embodied Conversational Agents (ECA). We propose to map rhetorical structures automatically recognized in the documents onto a set of communicative acts controlling the expression of an ECA. As a consequence, the ECA will dramatize a sentence to reflect its perceived

Gersende Georg; Catherine Pelachaud; Marc Cavazza

2008-01-01

318

Component Skills of Text Comprehension in Less Competent Chinese Comprehenders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study examined the role of verbal working memory (memory span and tongue-twister), two-character Chinese pseudoword reading (two tasks), rapid automatized naming (RAN) (letters and numbers), and phonological segmentation (deletion of rimes and onsets) in inferential text comprehension in Chinese in 31 less competent comprehenders…

Leong, Che Kan; Hau, Kit Tai; Tse, Shek Kam; Loh, Ka Yee

2007-01-01

319

New Wavelet and Color Features for Text Detection in Video  

Microsoft Academic Search

Automatic text detection in video is an important task for efficient and accurate indexing and retrieval of multimedia data such as events identification, events boundary identification etc. This paper presents a new method comprising of wavelet decomposition and color features namely R, G and B. The wavelet decomposition is applied on three color bands separately to obtain three high frequency

Palaiahnakote Shivakumara; Trung Quy Phan; Chew Lim Tan

2010-01-01

320

Using structured text for large-scale attribute extraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a weakly-supervised approach for extracting class attributes from structured text available within Web documents. The overall precision of the extracted attributes is around 30% higher than with previous methods operating on Web documents. In addition to attribute extraction, this approach also automatically identifies values for a subset of the extracted class attributes.

Sujith Ravi; Marius Pasca

2008-01-01

321

Information from Text: Overview of Background and Opportunities  

E-print Network

now. . . 4 #12;Exploiting Weak Structure: Text Mining 5 #12;PageRankTM 1. Underlies Google 2. How does it work? 3. Lession #1: There are clever ways to extract information automatically from weakly of the web by using its vast link structure as an indicator of an individual page's value. In essence, Google

Kimbrough, Steven Orla

322

Text-to-Animation: Aective, Intelligent and Multimodal Visualisation of Natural Language Scripts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Performing plays or creating lms and animations is a complex creative, and thus expensive process, involving various professionals and media. This paper re- views articial intelligence text-to-animation systems and tools to augment this process by automatically interpreting lm and play scripts and automatically generating an- imated scenes. Special attention is given to emotional aspects and their reection in the execution

Eva Hanser; Paul Mc; Tom Lunney; Joan Condell

323

Automatic smear counter  

SciTech Connect

An automatic system to detect alpha and beta radiation emitted from either ''smeared'' IBM cards or special IBM cards with a filter paper window, as used in air sampling systems, has been designed and fabricated. A modified card reader is used to input data from the punched IBM card into the controlling computer, as well as retain the card under the solid-state detector for the required counting period. The instrument was assembled by using the drawings provided and components listed on the drawings.

Rogers, E.R. Jr.; White, L.E.

1986-02-26

324

Berkovsky, Shlomo, Timothy Baldwin and Ingrid Zukerman (2008) Aspect-Based Personalized Text Summarization, In Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Adaptive  

E-print Network

is focused on personaliza- tion in museums. For example, consider the following document d about blue whales The blue whale is a marine mammal belonging to the family of baleen whales. This family also includes the Humpback, Fin, and Minke Whales. Due to its yellow underparts, the blue whale is often called the sulphur

Baldwin, Timothy

2008-01-01

325

Clinicians' evaluation of computer-assisted medication summarization of electronic medical records.  

PubMed

Each year thousands of patients die of avoidable medication errors. When a patient is admitted to, transferred within, or discharged from a clinical facility, clinicians should review previous medication orders, current orders and future plans for care, and reconcile differences if there are any. If medication reconciliation is not accurate and systematic, medication errors such as omissions, duplications, dosing errors, or drug interactions may occur and cause harm. Computer-assisted medication applications showed promise as an intervention to reduce medication summarization inaccuracies and thus avoidable medication errors. In this study, a computer-assisted medication summarization application, designed to abstract and represent multi-source time-oriented medication data, was introduced to assist clinicians with their medication reconciliation processes. An evaluation study was carried out to assess clinical usefulness and analyze potential impact of such application. Both quantitative and qualitative methods were applied to measure clinicians' performance efficiency and inaccuracy in medication summarization process with and without the intervention of computer-assisted medication application. Clinicians' feedback indicated the feasibility of integrating such a medication summarization tool into clinical practice workflow as a complementary addition to existing electronic health record systems. The result of the study showed potential to improve efficiency and reduce inaccuracy in clinician performance of medication summarization, which could in turn improve care efficiency, quality of care, and patient safety. PMID:24393492

Zhu, Xinxin; Cimino, James J

2015-04-01

326

Automatic readout micrometer  

DOEpatents

A measuring system is disclosed for surveying and very accurately positioning objects with respect to a reference line. A principal use of this surveying system is for accurately aligning the electromagnets which direct a particle beam emitted from a particle accelerator. Prior art surveying systems require highly skilled surveyors. Prior art systems include, for example, optical surveying systems which are susceptible to operator reading errors, and celestial navigation-type surveying systems, with their inherent complexities. The present invention provides an automatic readout micrometer which can very accurately measure distances. The invention has a simplicity of operation which practically eliminates the possibilities of operator optical reading error, owning to the elimination of traditional optical alignments for making measurements. The invention has an extendable arm which carries a laser surveying target. The extendable arm can be continuously positioned over its entire length of travel by either a coarse or fine adjustment without having the fine adjustment outrun the coarse adjustment until a reference laser beam is centered on the target as indicated by a digital readout. The length of the micrometer can then be accurately and automatically read by a computer and compared with a standardized set of alignment measurements. Due to its construction, the micrometer eliminates any errors due to temperature changes when the system is operated within a standard operating temperature range.

Lauritzen, Ted (Lafayette, CA)

1982-01-01

327

Automatic engine control system  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes an automatic control circuit for an internal combustion engine and clutch assembly. One component of this circuit is a timer for determining the time the engine is allowed to run and the clutch is engaged and a second period of time when the clutch is automatically disengaged. Associated with the timer is a starter means to start the engine during the first time period and a clutch actuating mechanism for engaging the clutch near the first time period initiation after the starter starts the engine. An engine shut down and clutch disengagement mechanism is also responsive to the first timer. The patent then goes on to describe a supplemental timer mechanism for determining a third and fourth period of time within the second time period such that the third period being when the engine is shut off and the fourth period being when the engine runs with clutch disengaged. The starter mechanism is responsive to the supplemental timer to start the engine at the beginning of the fourth period. A shut down means stops the engine at the beginning of the third period in response to the timer.

Geary, W.C.; Mirsaiidi, M.V.; Redfern, T.; Wolfe, D.W.

1986-01-14

328

Automatic Neural Processing of Disorder-Related Stimuli in Social Anxiety Disorder: Faces and More  

PubMed Central

It has been proposed that social anxiety disorder (SAD) is associated with automatic information processing biases resulting in hypersensitivity to signals of social threat such as negative facial expressions. However, the nature and extent of automatic processes in SAD on the behavioral and neural level is not entirely clear yet. The present review summarizes neuroscientific findings on automatic processing of facial threat but also other disorder-related stimuli such as emotional prosody or negative words in SAD. We review initial evidence for automatic activation of the amygdala, insula, and sensory cortices as well as for automatic early electrophysiological components. However, findings vary depending on tasks, stimuli, and neuroscientific methods. Only few studies set out to examine automatic neural processes directly and systematic attempts are as yet lacking. We suggest that future studies should: (1) use different stimulus modalities, (2) examine different emotional expressions, (3) compare findings in SAD with other anxiety disorders, (4) use more sophisticated experimental designs to investigate features of automaticity systematically, and (5) combine different neuroscientific methods (such as functional neuroimaging and electrophysiology). Finally, the understanding of neural automatic processes could also provide hints for therapeutic approaches. PMID:23745116

Schulz, Claudia; Mothes-Lasch, Martin; Straube, Thomas

2013-01-01

329

Reading Text While Driving  

PubMed Central

Objective In this study, we investigated how drivers adapt secondary-task initiation and time-sharing behavior when faced with fluctuating driving demands. Background Reading text while driving is particularly detrimental; however, in real-world driving, drivers actively decide when to perform the task. Method In a test track experiment, participants were free to decide when to read messages while driving along a straight road consisting of an area with increased driving demands (demand zone) followed by an area with low demands. A message was made available shortly before the vehicle entered the demand zone. We manipulated the type of driving demands (baseline, narrow lane, pace clock, combined), message format (no message, paragraph, parsed), and the distance from the demand zone when the message was available (near, far). Results In all conditions, drivers started reading messages (drivers’ first glance to the display) before entering or before leaving the demand zone but tended to wait longer when faced with increased driving demands. While reading messages, drivers looked more or less off road, depending on types of driving demands. Conclusions For task initiation, drivers avoid transitions from low to high demands; however, they are not discouraged when driving demands are already elevated. Drivers adjust time-sharing behavior according to driving demands while performing secondary tasks. Nonetheless, such adjustment may be less effective when total demands are high. Application This study helps us to understand a driver’s role as an active controller in the context of distracted driving and provides insights for developing distraction interventions. PMID:25850162

Horrey, William J.; Hoffman, Joshua D.

2015-01-01

330

Category-specific video summarization Danila Potapov, Matthijs Douze, Zaid Harchaoui, and Cordelia Schmid  

E-print Network

corresponding to "blow the candles", "applause", etc. In this paper, we propose a category. While most previous works relate segment boundaries to shot bound- aries, our temporal segmentation approach works as follows (see Figure 2). First, we perform an automatic kernel-based temporal segmentation

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

331

Benchmarking infrastructure for mutation text mining  

PubMed Central

Background Experimental research on the automatic extraction of information about mutations from texts is greatly hindered by the lack of consensus evaluation infrastructure for the testing and benchmarking of mutation text mining systems. Results We propose a community-oriented annotation and benchmarking infrastructure to support development, testing, benchmarking, and comparison of mutation text mining systems. The design is based on semantic standards, where RDF is used to represent annotations, an OWL ontology provides an extensible schema for the data and SPARQL is used to compute various performance metrics, so that in many cases no programming is needed to analyze results from a text mining system. While large benchmark corpora for biological entity and relation extraction are focused mostly on genes, proteins, diseases, and species, our benchmarking infrastructure fills the gap for mutation information. The core infrastructure comprises (1) an ontology for modelling annotations, (2) SPARQL queries for computing performance metrics, and (3) a sizeable collection of manually curated documents, that can support mutation grounding and mutation impact extraction experiments. Conclusion We have developed the principal infrastructure for the benchmarking of mutation text mining tasks. The use of RDF and OWL as the representation for corpora ensures extensibility. The infrastructure is suitable for out-of-the-box use in several important scenarios and is ready, in its current state, for initial community adoption. PMID:24568600

2014-01-01

332

Some Thoughts On Automatic Structures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract: this paper is twofold. On the one hand, we present the theoryof automatic structures from the points of view of model theory, algebra, complexitytheory, and automata theory. On the other hand, we survey basic results and presentpossible directions for future research in the area. The theory of automatic structuresas such is relatively new though its roots go back to

Bakhadyr Khoussainov

2002-01-01

333

Automatic Coal-Mining System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Coal cutting and removal done with minimal hazard to people. Automatic coal mine cutting, transport and roof-support movement all done by automatic machinery. Exposure of people to hazardous conditions reduced to inspection tours, maintenance, repair, and possibly entry mining.

Collins, E. R., Jr.

1985-01-01

334

An automatic jigsaw puzzle solver  

Microsoft Academic Search

A computer vision system to automatically analyze and assemble an image of the pieces of a jigsaw puzzle is presented. The system, called Automatic Puzzle Solver (APS), derives a new set of features based on the shape and color characteristics of the puzzle pieces. A combination of the shape dependent features and color cues is used to match the puzzle

David A. Kosiba; Pierre M. Devaux; Sanjay Balasubramanian; T. L. Gandhi; K. Kasturi

1994-01-01

335

Automatic Composition of Secure Workflows  

Microsoft Academic Search

Automatic goal-driven composition of information processing workflows, or workflow planning, has become an active area of research in recent years. Various workflow planning methods have been proposed for automatic application development in systems like Web services, stream processing and grid computing based on compositional architectures. Significant progress has been made on the de- velopment of composition methods and on the

Marc Lelarge; Zhen Liu; Anton Riabov

2006-01-01

336

Tribology of automatic transmission fluid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Various properties are required in the latest ATFs (Automatic Transmission Fluids) because of the progress made in ATs (Automatic\\u000a Transmissions). In this paper, we will introduce the construction of the AT and describe the tribological issues, including\\u000a anti?shudder property, of ATF.

Takanori Kugimiya; Narihiko Yoshimura; Jun’ichi Mitsui

1998-01-01

337

Automatic hot water recovery system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heat in the hot water lines of a water system is automatically recovered by providing a bridge conduit between the cold water lines and the hot water lines and by depressurizing the hot water lines relative to the cold water lines thereby to automatically direct higher pressure cold water into the hot water lines through the interconnection, which preferably is

Haws

1982-01-01

338

12 CFR 925.4 - Automatic membership.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-01-01 false Automatic membership. 925.4 Section 925.4 Banks...HOUSING ASSOCIATES MEMBERS OF THE BANKS Membership Application Process § 925.4 Automatic membership. (a) Automatic membership for...

2010-01-01

339

12 CFR 1263.4 - Automatic membership.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-01-01 false Automatic membership. 1263.4 Section 1263.4 Banks...HOME LOAN BANKS MEMBERS OF THE BANKS Membership Application Process § 1263.4 Automatic membership. (a) Automatic membership for...

2011-01-01

340

Automatic vehicle location system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An automatic vehicle detection system is disclosed, in which each vehicle whose location is to be detected carries active means which interact with passive elements at each location to be identified. The passive elements comprise a plurality of passive loops arranged in a sequence along the travel direction. Each of the loops is tuned to a chosen frequency so that the sequence of the frequencies defines the location code. As the vehicle traverses the sequence of the loops as it passes over each loop, signals only at the frequency of the loop being passed over are coupled from a vehicle transmitter to a vehicle receiver. The frequencies of the received signals in the receiver produce outputs which together represent a code of the traversed location. The code location is defined by a painted pattern which reflects light to a vehicle carried detector whose output is used to derive the code defined by the pattern.

Hansen, G. R., Jr. (inventor)

1973-01-01

341

Automatic alkaloid removal system.  

PubMed

This alkaloid automated removal machine was developed at Instrumentation Laboratory, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin Malaysia that purposely for removing the alkaloid toxicity from Dioscorea hispida (DH) tuber. It is a poisonous plant where scientific study has shown that its tubers contain toxic alkaloid constituents, dioscorine. The tubers can only be consumed after it poisonous is removed. In this experiment, the tubers are needed to blend as powder form before inserting into machine basket. The user is need to push the START button on machine controller for switching the water pump ON by then creating turbulence wave of water in machine tank. The water will stop automatically by triggering the outlet solenoid valve. The powders of tubers are washed for 10 minutes while 1 liter of contaminated water due toxin mixture is flowing out. At this time, the controller will automatically triggered inlet solenoid valve and the new water will flow in machine tank until achieve the desire level that which determined by ultra sonic sensor. This process will repeated for 7 h and the positive result is achieved and shows it significant according to the several parameters of biological character ofpH, temperature, dissolve oxygen, turbidity, conductivity and fish survival rate or time. From that parameter, it also shows the positive result which is near or same with control water and assuming was made that the toxin is fully removed when the pH of DH powder is near with control water. For control water, the pH is about 5.3 while water from this experiment process is 6.0 and before run the machine the pH of contaminated water is about 3.8 which are too acid. This automated machine can save time for removing toxicity from DH compared with a traditional method while less observation of the user. PMID:24783795

Yahaya, Muhammad Rizuwan; Hj Razali, Mohd Hudzari; Abu Bakar, Che Abdullah; Ismail, Wan Ishak Wan; Muda, Wan Musa Wan; Mat, Nashriyah; Zakaria, Abd

2014-01-01

342

Multi-document Summarization of Dissertation Abstracts Using a Variable-Based Framework.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Proposes a variable-based framework for multi-document summarization of dissertation abstracts in the fields of sociology and psychology that makes use of the macro- and micro-level discourse structure of dissertation abstracts as well as cross-document structure. Provides a list of indicator phrases that denote different aspects of the problem…

Ou, Shiyan; Khoo, Christopher S. G.; Goh, Dion H.

2003-01-01

343

Time-Embedding 2D Locality Preserving Projection for Video Summarization  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we present an effective approach to creating quality video summarization. Considering the video frame sequence and visual similarity, we defined a novel distance formula, which is equivalent to Euclidean distance in respect of norm. A time embedding two dimensional locality preserving projection (TE-2DLPP) is proposed. Experiments show that the new algorithm has better time performance. From the

Maosheng Fu; Daming Zhang; Min Kong; Bin Luo

2008-01-01

344

iBIOMES Lite: summarizing biomolecular simulation data in limited settings.  

PubMed

As the amount of data generated by biomolecular simulations dramatically increases, new tools need to be developed to help manage this data at the individual investigator or small research group level. In this paper, we introduce iBIOMES Lite, a lightweight tool for biomolecular simulation data indexing and summarization. The main goal of iBIOMES Lite is to provide a simple interface to summarize computational experiments in a setting where the user might have limited privileges and limited access to IT resources. A command-line interface allows the user to summarize, publish, and search local simulation data sets. Published data sets are accessible via static hypertext markup language (HTML) pages that summarize the simulation protocols and also display data analysis graphically. The publication process is customized via extensible markup language (XML) descriptors while the HTML summary template is customized through extensible stylesheet language (XSL). iBIOMES Lite was tested on different platforms and at several national computing centers using various data sets generated through classical and quantum molecular dynamics, quantum chemistry, and QM/MM. The associated parsers currently support AMBER, GROMACS, Gaussian, and NWChem data set publication. The code is available at https://github.com/jcvthibault/ibiomes . PMID:24830957

Thibault, Julien C; Cheatham, Thomas E; Facelli, Julio C

2014-06-23

345

Protein Folding Trajectories Analysis: Summarization, Event Detection and Consensus Partial Folding Pathway  

E-print Network

Protein Folding Trajectories Analysis: Summarization, Event Detection and Consensus Partial Folding in protein folding trajectories. We pro- pose an approach that employs the simplicity of contact maps and po- tentially cure diseases caused by misfolding. The protein folding problem is therefore one

Yang, Hui

346

Simplification of Patent Claim Sentences for their Multilingual Paraphrasing and Summarization  

E-print Network

Simplification of Patent Claim Sentences for their Multilingual Paraphrasing and Summarization Joe patent writing regula- tions, patent claims must be rendered in a single sen- tence. As a result, sentences with more than 250 words are not uncommon. In order to achieve an easier com- prehension of patent

347

ERIC Annual Report-1988. Summarizing the Accomplishments of the Educational Resources Information Center.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is the second in a series of annual reports summarizing the activities and accomplishments of the Educational Resources Information Center (ERIC) program, which is funded and managed by the Office of Educational Resources and Improvement in the U.S. Department of Education. The report begins by presenting background information on ERIC's…

Krekeler, Nancy A.; Stonehill, Robert M.; Thomas, Robert L.

348

VIDEO SUMMARIZATION BY SPATIAL-TEMPORAL GRAPH OPTIMIZATION Shi Lu, Michael R. Lyu, Irwin King  

E-print Network

VIDEO SUMMARIZATION BY SPATIAL-TEMPORAL GRAPH OPTIMIZATION Shi Lu, Michael R. Lyu, Irwin King SAR {slu, lyu, king}@cse.cuhk.edu.hk ABSTRACT In this paper we present a novel approach for video sum-temporal content cov- erage and visual coherence of the video summary. The ap- proach has three stages. First

King, Kuo Chin Irwin

349

CLASSIFICATION OF SUMMARIZED VIDEOS USING HIDDEN MARKOV MODELS ON COMPRESSED CHROMATICITY  

E-print Network

grow, we need methods to assist us in the synthesis and analysis of digital video. Since1 CLASSIFICATION OF SUMMARIZED VIDEOS USING HIDDEN MARKOV MODELS ON COMPRESSED CHROMATICITY Science Simon Fraser University Vancouver, B.C., CANADA ABSTRACT As digital libraries and video databases

Drew, Mark S.

350

NEO-CORTEX: a performant user-oriented multi-document summarization system  

E-print Network

NEO-CORTEX: a performant user-oriented multi-document summarization system Florian Boudin and Juan the document set as a whole, as well as indi- vidual documents. We present NEO-CORTEX, a multi-document sum base formed by the NIST DUC-2005 and DUC-2006 data. Our experiments have shown that NEO- CORTEX

Avignon et des Pays de Vaucluse, Université de

351

Important program information is summarized on page 2 of this form. Child Care Support During Travel  

E-print Network

Important program information is summarized on page 2 of this form. Child Care Support During Employee ID/Student ID Position Department Daytime Phone Email Campus address, including mail code Event/Coverage for Planned Care Employee Signature Signature Date #12;2 Child Care Support During Travel GENERAL REQUIREMENTS

Rollins, Andrew M.

352

A framework is summarized which supports the planning of natural language argument struc  

E-print Network

Abstract A framework is summarized which supports the planning of natural language argument struc­ ture. One key aspect of natural argument is the order in which components are presented. This is in part responsible for both the coherency and persuasive effect of an argument. One means of effecting

Reed, Chris

353

PRINCIPAL COMPONENTS ANALYSIS TO SUMMARIZE MICROARRAY EXPERIMENTS: APPLICATION TO SPORULATION TIME SERIES  

Microsoft Academic Search

The enormous amount of data produced by microarray experiments can be unwieldy. A given series of microarray experiments produces observations of differential expression for thousands of genes across multiple conditions. These large data sets can be summarized with principal components analysis (PCA), a statistical technique that allows the key variables (or combinations of variables) in a multidimensional data set to

Soumya Raychaudhuri; Joshua M. Stuart; Russ B. Altman

2000-01-01

354

Rewriting and Paraphrasing Source Texts in Second Language Writing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study is based on interviews with 48 students and 27 instructors in a North American university and explores whether students and professors across faculties share the same views on the use of paraphrased, summarized, and translated texts in four examples of L2 student writing. Participants' comments centered on whether the paraphrases…

Shi, Ling

2012-01-01

355

Making automatic differentiation truly automatic : coupling PETSc with ADIC.  

SciTech Connect

Despite its name, automatic differentiation (AD) is often far from an automatic process. often one must specify independent and dependent variables, indicate the derivative quantities to be computed, and perhaps even provide information about the structure of the Jacobians or Hessians being computed. However, when AD is used in conjunction with a toolkit with well-defined interfaces, many of these issues do not arise. They describe recent research into coupling the ADIC automatic differentiation tool with PETSc, a toolkit for the parallel numerical solution of PDEs. This research leverages the interfaces and objects of PETSc to make the AD process very nearly transparent.

Hovland, P.; Norris, B.; Smith, B.

2002-01-10

356

Co-Text or No-Text? A Study of an Adapted Cloze Technique for Testing Comprehension/Summary Skills.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines one section of the objective paper of the Hong Kong Examination Authority's (HKEA) Use of English Examination. One of the test types in this section of the examination involves candidates completing a cloze passage based on a text. It is the HKEA's contention that the exercise involves summarizing/paraphrasing skills. The…

Coniam, David

1993-01-01

357

PressureText: Pressure Input for Mobile Phone Text Entry  

E-print Network

PressureText: Pressure Input for Mobile Phone Text Entry Abstract Pressure sensitive buttons presses are currently necessary to record an action. We present PressureText, a text-entry technique for a pressure augmented mobile phone. In a study comparing PressureText to MultiTap, we found that despite

358

Texts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lithuania Law on the Nuclear Power Plant (2007) People’s Republic of China Official Reply of the State Council to Questions on the Liabilities of Compensation for Damages Resulting from Nuclear Accidents (2007) Turkey Unofficial Translation of the Turkish Law No. 5710 Concerning the Construction and Operation of Nuclear Power Plants and the Sale of Energy Generated from Those Plants (2007)

2007-01-01

359

Automatic Command Sequence Generation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Automatic Sequence Generator (Autogen) Version 3.0 software automatically generates command sequences for the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) and several other JPL spacecraft operated by the multi-mission support team. Autogen uses standard JPL sequencing tools like APGEN, ASP, SEQGEN, and the DOM database to automate the generation of uplink command products, Spacecraft Command Message Format (SCMF) files, and the corresponding ground command products, DSN Keywords Files (DKF). Autogen supports all the major multi-mission mission phases including the cruise, aerobraking, mapping/science, and relay mission phases. Autogen is a Perl script, which functions within the mission operations UNIX environment. It consists of two parts: a set of model files and the autogen Perl script. Autogen encodes the behaviors of the system into a model and encodes algorithms for context sensitive customizations of the modeled behaviors. The model includes knowledge of different mission phases and how the resultant command products must differ for these phases. The executable software portion of Autogen, automates the setup and use of APGEN for constructing a spacecraft activity sequence file (SASF). The setup includes file retrieval through the DOM (Distributed Object Manager), an object database used to store project files. This step retrieves all the needed input files for generating the command products. Depending on the mission phase, Autogen also uses the ASP (Automated Sequence Processor) and SEQGEN to generate the command product sent to the spacecraft. Autogen also provides the means for customizing sequences through the use of configuration files. By automating the majority of the sequencing generation process, Autogen eliminates many sequence generation errors commonly introduced by manually constructing spacecraft command sequences. Through the layering of commands into the sequence by a series of scheduling algorithms, users are able to rapidly and reliably construct the desired uplink command products. With the aid of Autogen, sequences may be produced in a matter of hours instead of weeks, with a significant reduction in the number of people on the sequence team. As a result, the uplink product generation process is significantly streamlined and mission risk is significantly reduced. Autogen is used for operations of MRO, Mars Global Surveyor (MGS), Mars Exploration Rover (MER), Mars Odyssey, and will be used for operations of Phoenix. Autogen Version 3.0 is the operational version of Autogen including the MRO adaptation for the cruise mission phase, and was also used for development of the aerobraking and mapping mission phases for MRO.

Fisher, Forest; Gladded, Roy; Khanampompan, Teerapat

2007-01-01

360

Automatic system for computer program documentation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Work done on a project to design an automatic system for computer program documentation aids was made to determine what existing programs could be used effectively to document computer programs. Results of the study are included in the form of an extensive bibliography and working papers on appropriate operating systems, text editors, program editors, data structures, standards, decision tables, flowchart systems, and proprietary documentation aids. The preliminary design for an automated documentation system is also included. An actual program has been documented in detail to demonstrate the types of output that can be produced by the proposed system.

Simmons, D. B.; Elliott, R. W.; Arseven, S.; Colunga, D.

1972-01-01

361

Automatic transmission system  

SciTech Connect

An automatic transmission system is described for use in vehicles, which comprises: a clutch wheel containing a plurality of concentric rings of decreasing diameter, the clutch wheel being attached to an engine of the vehicle; a plurality of clutch gears corresponding in size to the concentric rings, the clutch gears being adapted to selectively and frictionally engage with the concentric rings of the clutch wheel; an accelerator pedal and a gear selector, the accelerator pedals being connected to one end of a substantially U-shaped frame member, the other end of the substantially U-shaped frame member selectively engaging with one end of one of wires received in a pair of apertures of the gear selector; a plurality of drive gear controllers and a reverse gear controller; means operatively connected with the gear selector and the plurality of drive gear controllers and reverse gear controller for selectively engaging one of the drive and reverse gear controllers depending upon the position of the gear selector; and means for individually connecting the drive and reverse gear controllers with the corresponding clutch gears whereby upon the selection of the gear selector, friction engagement is achieved between the clutch gear and the clutch wheels for rotating the wheel in the forward or reverse direction.

Ha, J.S.

1989-04-25

362

Electronically controlled automatic transmission  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes an electronically controlled automatic transmission having a manual valve working in connection with a manual shift lever, shift valves operated by solenoid valves which are driven by an electronic control circuit previously memorizing shift patterns, and a hydraulic circuit controlled by these manual valve and shift valves for driving brakes and a clutch in order to change speed. Shift patterns of 2-range and L-range, in addition to a shift pattern of D-range, are memorized previously in the electronic control circuit, an operation switch is provided which changes the shift pattern of the electronic control circuit to any shift pattern among those of D-range, 2-range and L-range at time of the manual shift lever being in a D-range position, a releasable lock mechanism is provided which prevents the manual shift lever from entering 2-range and L-range positions, and the hydraulic circuit is set to a third speed mode when the manual shift lever is in the D-range position. The circuit is set to a second speed mode when it is in the 2-range position, and the circuit is set to a first speed mode when it is in the L-range position, respectively, in case where the shift valves are not working.

Ohkubo, M.; Shiba, H.; Nakamura, K.

1989-03-28

363

Multi-document Summarization Based on Cluster Using Nonnegative Matrix Factorization  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a new summarization method, which uses non-negative matrix factorization (NMF) and K-means clustering, is introduced to extract meaningful sentences from multi-documents. The proposed method can improve the\\u000a quality of document summaries because the inherent semantics of the documents are well reflected by using the semantic features\\u000a calculated by NMF and the sentences most relevant to the given

Sun Park; Ju-hong Lee; Deok-hwan Kim; Chan-min Ahn

2007-01-01

364

Tolerance Rough Set Theory Based Data Summarization for Clustering Large Datasets  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Finding clusters in large datasets is an interesting challenge in many fields of Science and Technology. Many clustering methods\\u000a have been successfully developed over the years. However, most of the existing clustering methods need multiple data scans\\u000a to get converged. Therefore, these methods cannot be applied for cluster analysis in large datasets. Data summarization can\\u000a be used as a pre-processing

Bidyut Patra; Sukumar Nandi

365

An evaluation of an automatic markup system  

SciTech Connect

One predominant application of OCR is the recognition of full text documents for information retrieval. Modern retrieval systems exploit both the textual content of the document as well as its structure. The relationship between textual content and character accuracy have been the focus of recent studies. It has been shown that due to the redundancies in text, average precision and recall is not heavily affected by OCR character errors. What is not fully known is to what extent OCR devices can provide reliable information that can be used to capture the structure of the document. In this paper, the authors present a preliminary report on the design and evaluation of a system to automatically markup technical documents, based on information provided by an OCR device. The device the authors use differs from traditional OCR devices in that it not only performs optical character recognition, but also provides detailed information about page layout, word geometry, and font usage. Their automatic markup program, which they call Autotag, uses this information, combined with dictionary, lookup and content analysis, to identify structural components of the text. These include the document title, author information, abstract, sections, section titles, paragraphs, sentences, and de-hyphenated words. A visual examination of the hardcopy will be compared to the output of their markup system to determine its correctness.

Taghva, K.; Condit, A.; Borsack, J.

1995-04-01

366

Clothes Dryer Automatic Termination Evaluation  

SciTech Connect

Volume 2: Improved Sensor and Control Designs Many residential clothes dryers on the market today provide automatic cycles that are intended to stop when the clothes are dry, as determined by the final remaining moisture content (RMC). However, testing of automatic termination cycles has shown that many dryers are susceptible to over-drying of loads, leading to excess energy consumption. In particular, tests performed using the DOE Test Procedure in Appendix D2 of 10 CFR 430 subpart B have shown that as much as 62% of the energy used in a cycle may be from over-drying. Volume 1 of this report shows an average of 20% excess energy from over-drying when running automatic cycles with various load compositions and dryer settings. Consequently, improving automatic termination sensors and algorithms has the potential for substantial energy savings in the U.S.

TeGrotenhuis, Ward E.

2014-10-01

367

Automatically Organizing Bookmarks per Contents  

Microsoft Academic Search

The explosive growth in the Web leads to the need for personalized client-based local URL repositories often called bookmarks. We present a novel approach to bookmark organization that provides automatic classification together with user adaption.

Yoëlle S. Maarek; Israel Z. Ben Shaul

1996-01-01

368

Automatic programming of simulation models  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objective of automatic programming is to improve the overall environment for describing the program. This improved environment is realized by a reduction in the amount of detail that the programmer needs to know and is exposed to. Furthermore, this improved environment is achieved by a specification language that is more natural to the user's problem domain and to the user's way of thinking and looking at the problem. The goal of this research is to apply the concepts of automatic programming (AP) to modeling discrete event simulation system. Specific emphasis is on the design and development of simulation tools to assist the modeler define or construct a model of the system and to then automatically write the corresponding simulation code in the target simulation language, GPSS/PC. A related goal is to evaluate the feasibility of various languages for constructing automatic programming simulation tools.

Schroer, Bernard J.; Tseng, Fan T.; Zhang, Shou X.; Dwan, Wen S.

1988-01-01

369

ADMAP (automatic data manipulation program)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Instructions are presented on the use of ADMAP, (automatic data manipulation program) an aerospace data manipulation computer program. The program was developed to aid in processing, reducing, plotting, and publishing electric propulsion trajectory data generated by the low thrust optimization program, HILTOP. The program has the option of generating SC4020 electric plots, and therefore requires the SC4020 routines to be available at excution time (even if not used). Several general routines are present, including a cubic spline interpolation routine, electric plotter dash line drawing routine, and single parameter and double parameter sorting routines. Many routines are tailored for the manipulation and plotting of electric propulsion data, including an automatic scale selection routine, an automatic curve labelling routine, and an automatic graph titling routine. Data are accepted from either punched cards or magnetic tape.

Mann, F. I.

1971-01-01

370

Incremental Evolutionary Methods for Automatic  

E-print Network

Theory studies the fundamental control principles of robotic systems. However, the technological progressIncremental Evolutionary Methods for Automatic Programming of Robot Controllers Thesis Evolution methods for designing a suitable behavior arbitration mechanism for behavior-based (BB) robot

Langseth, Helge

371

Automatic Rewriting for Controlled Language Translation Teruko Mitamura and Eric Nyberg  

E-print Network

Automatic Rewriting for Controlled Language Translation Teruko Mitamura and Eric Nyberg Language and deployment of automatic rewriting systems. 1 Introduction Natural language texts are often written us­ ing first introduce the field of Controlled Language and the process of controlled language checking. We

Shamos, Michael I.

372

Automatic Image Quality Control System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new automatic image quality control system for TFT-LCD (Thin Film Transistor Liquid Crystal Display) applications is proposed. Image quality factors such as gamma adjustment, flicker, brightness, and contrast are enhanced by proposed algorithm and system. Developed system utilizes programmable 6-point matching algorithm with reference gamma curve and automatic power setting algorithm. Proposed system showed significantly reduced gamma adjusting time, reduced flicker, high contrast and much less average gamma error than conventional manual method.

Ryu, Jee-Youl; Kim, Sung-Woo; Kim, Seung-Un; Ha, Deock-Ho

373

Automatic safety rod for reactors  

DOEpatents

An automatic safety rod for a nuclear reactor containing neutron absorbing material and designed to be inserted into a reactor core after a loss-of-core flow. Actuation is based upon either a sudden decrease in core pressure drop or the pressure drop decreases below a predetermined minimum value. The automatic control rod includes a pressure regulating device whereby a controlled decrease in operating pressure due to reduced coolant flow does not cause the rod to drop into the core.

Germer, John H. (San Jose, CA)

1988-01-01

374

Text2Video: text-driven facial animation using MPEG-4  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a complete system for the automatic creation of talking head video sequences from text messages. Our system converts the text into MPEG-4 Facial Animation Parameters and synthetic voice. A user selected 3D character will perform lip movements synchronized to the speech data. The 3D models created from a single image vary from realistic people to cartoon characters. A voice selection for different languages and gender as well as a pitch shift component enables a personalization of the animation. The animation can be shown on different displays and devices ranging from 3GPP players on mobile phones to real-time 3D render engines. Therefore, our system can be used in mobile communication for the conversion of regular SMS messages to MMS animations.

Rurainsky, J.; Eisert, P.

2005-07-01

375

Inductive learning algorithms and representations for text categorization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Text categorization - the assignment of natural language\\u000a texts to one or more predefined categories based on their\\u000a content - is an important component in many information\\u000a organization and management tasks. We compare the\\u000a effectiveness of five different automatic learning\\u000a algorithms for text categorization in terms of learning\\u000a speed, real-time classification speed, and classification\\u000a accuracy. We also examine training set

Susan T. Dumais; John C. Platt; David Heckerman; Mehran Sahami

1998-01-01

376

Automatic Collision Avoidance Technology (ACAT)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This document represents two views of the Automatic Collision Avoidance Technology (ACAT). One viewgraph presentation reviews the development and system design of Automatic Collision Avoidance Technology (ACAT). Two types of ACAT exist: Automatic Ground Collision Avoidance (AGCAS) and Automatic Air Collision Avoidance (AACAS). The AGCAS Uses Digital Terrain Elevation Data (DTED) for mapping functions, and uses Navigation data to place aircraft on map. It then scans DTED in front of and around aircraft and uses future aircraft trajectory (5g) to provide automatic flyup maneuver when required. The AACAS uses data link to determine position and closing rate. It contains several canned maneuvers to avoid collision. Automatic maneuvers can occur at last instant and both aircraft maneuver when using data link. The system can use sensor in place of data link. The second viewgraph presentation reviews the development of a flight test and an evaluation of the test. A review of the operation and comparison of the AGCAS and a pilot's performance are given. The same review is given for the AACAS is given.

Swihart, Donald E.; Skoog, Mark A.

2007-01-01

377

Text analysis methods, text analysis apparatuses, and articles of manufacture  

DOEpatents

Text analysis methods, text analysis apparatuses, and articles of manufacture are described according to some aspects. In one aspect, a text analysis method includes accessing information indicative of data content of a collection of text comprising a plurality of different topics, using a computing device, analyzing the information indicative of the data content, and using results of the analysis, identifying a presence of a new topic in the collection of text.

Whitney, Paul D; Willse, Alan R; Lopresti, Charles A; White, Amanda M

2014-10-28

378

Automatic transmission apparatus  

SciTech Connect

An automatic transmission apparatus is described comprising: an input shaft, an output shaft disposed behind and coaxially with the input shaft, a counter shaft disposed substantially parallel to both of the input and output shafts, a first gear train including a first gear provided on the input shaft and a second gear provided on the counter shaft to be meshed with the first gear so as to form a first power transmitting path, first friction clutch means operative selectively to make and break the first power transmitting path, a second gear train including a third gear provided through one-way clutch means on a rear end portion of the input shaft and a fourth gear provided on the counter shaft to be meshed with the third gear so as to form a second power transmitting path, second friction clutch means provided at a front end portion of the output shaft, a third gear train including a fifth gear provided on a rear end portion of the counter shaft and a sixth gear provided on the output shaft to be meshed with the fifth gear so as to form a fourth power transmitting path, third friction clutch means operative selectively to make and break the fourth power transmitting path, fourth friction clutch means operative selectively to make and break the second power transmitting path, a fourth gear train including a seventh gear provided on the counter shaft and an eighth gear provided on the output shaft and fifth friction clutch means operative selectively to make and break the fifth power transmitting path.

Hiketa, M.

1987-10-06

379

Mining the Text: 34 Text Features that Can Ease or Obstruct Text Comprehension and Use  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents 34 characteristics of texts and tasks ("text features") that can make continuous (prose), noncontinuous (document), and quantitative texts easier or more difficult for adolescents and adults to comprehend and use. The text features were identified by examining the assessment tasks and associated texts in the national…

White, Sheida

2012-01-01

380

Annotation of Events and Temporal Expressions in French Texts Andre Bittar  

E-print Network

in natural language texts, with an original focus on the processing of English texts. This article details. This represents a particular challenge for automatic processing as determining the chronological order of events the subject of domain-independent processing of temporal information in texts. The TimeML annotation language

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

381

Component skills of text comprehension in less competent Chinese comprehenders  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study examined the role of verbal working memory (memory span and tongue-twister), two-character Chinese pseudoword\\u000a reading (two tasks), rapid automatized naming (RAN) (letters and numbers), and phonological segmentation (deletion of rimes\\u000a and onsets) in inferential text comprehension in Chinese in 31 less competent comprehenders compared with 37 reading comprehension\\u000a control students and 23 chronological age controls. It was

Che Kan Leong; Kit Tai Hau; Shek Kam Tse; Ka Yee Loh

2007-01-01

382

Relational Recognition for Information Extraction in Free Text Documents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Information extraction tools provide an important means for distilling content from free text documents, and knowledge- based tools provide an important means for automatically reasoning over statements expressed as well-formed tuples. A number of techniques deliver reliable extraction of entities, less reliable extraction of relations, and poor extraction on entity-entity-relation tuples. However, tuple extraction is needed to bridge the gap

Erik J. Larson; Todd C. Hughes

383

Text-based requirements preprocessing using nature language processing techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a distributed environment, non-technical stakeholders are required to write down requirement statements by themselves. Nature language is the first choice for them. In order to alleviate the burden of reading free-text requirement documents by requirements engineers, we extract goals and relevant stakeholders from requirement statements automatically by a computer-assisted way. In this paper, requirements are divided into system level

Huafeng Chen; Keqing He; Peng Liang; Rong Li

2010-01-01

384

Improving SVM Text Classification Performance through Threshold Adjustment  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In general, support vector machines (SVM), when applied to text classification provide excellent precision, but poor recall.\\u000a One means of customizing SVMs to improve recall, is to adjust the threshold associated with an SVM. We describe an automatic\\u000a process for adjusting the thresholds of generic SVM which incorporates a user utility model, an integral part of an information\\u000a management system.

James G. Shanahan; Norbert Roma

2003-01-01

385

The Challenge of Challenging Text  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Common Core State Standards emphasize the value of teaching students to engage with complex text. But what exactly makes a text complex, and how can teachers help students develop their ability to learn from such texts? The authors of this article discuss five factors that determine text complexity: vocabulary, sentence structure, coherence,…

Shanahan, Timothy; Fisher, Douglas; Frey, Nancy

2012-01-01

386

Text Complexity and the CCSS  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

What is meant by text complexity is a measurement of how challenging a particular text is to read. There are a myriad of different ways of explaining what makes text challenging to read, from the sophistication of the vocabulary employed to the length of its sentences to even measurements of how the text as a whole coheres. Research shows that no…

Aspen Institute, 2012

2012-01-01

387

Texts in Homes and Communities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper considers how children's text making is shaped by the environment in which the texts are made. By considering texts made in classrooms and texts made in homes, the paper explores how classrooms and homes interact with children's (6-7 year old boys) reflective processes as they create artifacts--drawings, models, and writings. The paper…

Pahl, Kate

388

FIASCO: Filtering the Internet by Automatic Subtree Classification, Osnabruck  

E-print Network

analysis of word meaning), and they have been shown to improve statistical NLP models drastically, jsteger, estemle, severt}@uos.de 1 From our experience working on this project, it appears to us advertisements (collectively referred to as boilerplate) consist of canned or automatically generated text

DeAngelis, Gregory

389

Visualization of structural information: automatic drawing of compound digraphs  

Microsoft Academic Search

An automatic method for drawing compound digraphs that contain both inclusion edges and adjacency edges are presented. In the method vertices are drawn as rectangles (areas for texts, images, etc.), inclusion edges by the geometric inclusion among the rectangles, and adjacency edges by arrows connecting them. Readability elements such as drawing conventions and rules are identified, and a heuristic algorithm

Kozo Sugiyama; Kazuo Misue

1991-01-01

390

AUTOMATIC LEXICON ENHANCEMENT BY MEANS OF CORPUS TAGGING  

E-print Network

and Natural Language Processing. The enhancement of these lex- icons can be made automatic as big corpora of specialised texts are available. A syntactic tagging process, based on 3- class and 3-gram language models Speech Processing and Nat- ural Language Processing it is necessary to use a lexicon which associates

Béchet, Frédéric

391

Automatic Generation of Talk Show from Dialog using TVML  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have described the automatic generation of a talk-show program from input dialog using TVML (TV program Making Language). TVML is a text-based language that we have designed to describe a complete television program. We have also developed a TVML Player to read in a program script written in TVML one line at a time and generate program video and

Masaki HAYASHI; Yuko GAKUMAZAWA; Yuko YAMANOUCHI

392

Automatic Video Classification: A Survey of the Literature  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is much video available today. To help viewers find video of interest, work has begun on methods of automatic video classification. In this paper, we survey the video classification literature. We find that features are drawn from three modalities - text, audio, and visual - and that a large variety of combinations of features and classification have been explored.

Darin Brezeale; Diane J. Cook

2008-01-01

393

Text analysis devices, articles of manufacture, and text analysis methods  

DOEpatents

Text analysis devices, articles of manufacture, and text analysis methods are described according to some aspects. In one aspect, a text analysis device includes processing circuitry configured to analyze initial text to generate a measurement basis usable in analysis of subsequent text, wherein the measurement basis comprises a plurality of measurement features from the initial text, a plurality of dimension anchors from the initial text and a plurality of associations of the measurement features with the dimension anchors, and wherein the processing circuitry is configured to access a viewpoint indicative of a perspective of interest of a user with respect to the analysis of the subsequent text, and wherein the processing circuitry is configured to use the viewpoint to generate the measurement basis.

Turner, Alan E; Hetzler, Elizabeth G; Nakamura, Grant C

2013-05-28

394

[Automatic segmentation and annotation in radiology].  

PubMed

The technical progress and broader indications for cross-sectional imaging continuously increase the number of radiological images to be assessed. However, as the amount of image information and available resources (radiologists) do not increase at the same pace and the standards of radiological interpretation and reporting remain consistently high, radiologists have to rely on computer-based support systems. Novel semantic technologies and software relying on structured ontological knowledge are able to "understand" text and image information and interconnect both. This allows complex database queries with both the input of text and image information to be accomplished. Furthermore, semantic software in combination with automatic detection and segmentation of organs and body regions facilitates personalized supportive information in topographical accordance and generates additional information, such as organ volumes. These technologies promise improvements in workflow; however, great efforts and close cooperation between developers and users still lie ahead. PMID:24522625

Dankerl, P; Cavallaro, A; Uder, M; Hammon, M

2014-03-01

395

Monitoring the Implementation of Consultation Planning, Recording, and Summarizing in a Breast Care Center  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE We implemented and monitored a clinical service, Consultation Planning, Recording and Summarizing (CPRS), in which trained facilitators elicit patient questions for doctors, and then audio-record, and summarize the doctor-patient consultations. METHODS We trained 8 schedulers to offer CPRS to breast cancer patients making treatment decisions, and trained 14 premedical interns to provide the service. We surveyed a convenience sample of patients regarding their self-efficacy and decisional conflict. We solicited feedback from physicians, schedulers, and CPRS staff on our implementation of CPRS. RESULTS 278 patients used CPRS over the 22 month study period, an exploitation rate of 32% compared to our capacity. Thirty-seven patients responded to surveys, providing pilot data showing improvements in self-efficacy and decisional conflict. Physicians, schedulers, and premedical interns recommended changes in the program’s locations; delivery; products; and screening, recruitment and scheduling processes. CONCLUSION Our monitoring of this implementation found elements of success while surfacing recommendations for improvement. PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS We made changes based on study findings. We moved Consultation Planning to conference rooms or telephone sessions; shortened the documents produced by CPRS staff; diverted slack resources to increase recruitment efforts; and obtained a waiver of consent in order to streamline and improve ongoing evaluation. PMID:18755564

Belkora, Jeffrey K.; Loth, Meredith K.; Chen, Daniel F.; Chen, Jennifer Y.; Volz, Shelley; Esserman, Laura J.

2008-01-01

396

Prioritized text spotting using SLAM  

E-print Network

We show how to exploit temporal and spatial coherence of image observations to achieve efficient and effective text detection and decoding for a sensor suite moving through an environment rich in text at a variety of scales ...

Landa, Yafim

2013-01-01

397

Dangers of Texting While Driving  

MedlinePLUS

... created the FCC Distracted Driving Information Clearinghouse . State Laws Currently there is no national ban on texting ... driving, but a number of states have passed laws banning texting or wireless phones or requiring hands- ...

398

Text structure-aware classification  

E-print Network

Bag-of-words representations are used in many NLP applications, such as text classification and sentiment analysis. These representations ignore relations across different sentences in a text and disregard the underlying ...

Dzunic, Zoran, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2009-01-01

399

Automatic Slide Generation Based on Discourse Structure Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we describe a method of automatically gener- ating summary slides from a text. The slides are generated by itemizing topic\\/non-topic parts that are extracted from the text based on syntac- tic\\/case analysis. The indentations of the items are controlled according to the discourse structure, which is detected by cue phrases, identica- tion of word chain and similarity

Tomohide Shibata; Sadao Kurohashi

2005-01-01

400

Meaning Representation and Text Planning  

Microsoft Academic Search

starts with a'world'state, represented by structures of an application program (e. g., an expert system) that has text generation needs and an impetus to produce a natu-ral language text. The output of generation is a natural language text. The generation process involves the tasks of a) delimiting the content of the eventual text, b) plano ning its structure, c) selecting

Christine Defrise; Sergei Nirenburg

1990-01-01

401

Text enhancement in digital video  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One difficulty with using text from digital video for indexing and retrieval is that video images are often in low resolution and poor quality, and as a result, the text can not be recognized adequately by most commercial OCR software. Text image enhancement is necessary to achieve reasonable OCR accuracy. Our enhancement consists of two main procedures, resolution enhancement based on Shannon interpolation and text separation from complex image background. Experiments show our enhancement approach improves OCR accuracy considerably.

Li, Huiping; Kia, Omid E.; Doermann, David S.

1999-01-01

402

Automatic programming of simulation models  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The concepts of software engineering were used to improve the simulation modeling environment. Emphasis was placed on the application of an element of rapid prototyping, or automatic programming, to assist the modeler define the problem specification. Then, once the problem specification has been defined, an automatic code generator is used to write the simulation code. The following two domains were selected for evaluating the concepts of software engineering for discrete event simulation: manufacturing domain and a spacecraft countdown network sequence. The specific tasks were to: (1) define the software requirements for a graphical user interface to the Automatic Manufacturing Programming System (AMPS) system; (2) develop a graphical user interface for AMPS; and (3) compare the AMPS graphical interface with the AMPS interactive user interface.

Schroer, Bernard J.; Tseng, Fan T.; Zhang, Shou X.; Dwan, Wen S.

1990-01-01

403

Toward the automatic flow solver  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For achieving an automation of flow computations, a fully-automatic grid generator together with an unstructured upwind method are developed. The unstructured grid is generated using two techniques; geometry-adaptive refinement and solution-adaptive refinement. The geometry-adaptive refinement introduces the information of flowfield geometry into the grid, and the solution-adaptive refinement introduces the fluid physics. A combination of these two techniques enables a fully automatic grid generator in which the user is not always requested to have knowledge of and experience in Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). The flux-vector splitting method of Van Leer for the Euler equations is extended for the use on the arbitrarily-shaped unstructured meshes. This robust upwind flow solver with the automatic grid generator can be a useful CFD tool for engineering routine works. The method is applied to external and internal flow problems to demonstrate its capability.

Nakahashi, Kazuhiro

404

Automatic rapid attachable warhead section  

DOEpatents

Disclosed are a method and apparatus for automatically selecting warheads or reentry vehicles from a storage area containing a plurality of types of warheads or reentry vehicles, automatically selecting weapon carriers from a storage area containing at least one type of weapon carrier, manipulating and aligning the selected warheads or reentry vehicles and weapon carriers, and automatically coupling the warheads or reentry vehicles with the weapon carriers such that coupling of improperly selected warheads or reentry vehicles with weapon carriers is inhibited. Such inhibition enhances safety of operations and is achieved by a number of means including computer control of the process of selection and coupling and use of connectorless interfaces capable of assuring that improperly selected items will be rejected or rendered inoperable prior to coupling. Also disclosed are a method and apparatus wherein the stated principles pertaining to selection, coupling and inhibition are extended to apply to any item-to-be-carried and any carrying assembly. 10 figures.

Trennel, A.J.

1994-05-10

405

Automatic rapid attachable warhead section  

DOEpatents

Disclosed are a method and apparatus for (1) automatically selecting warheads or reentry vehicles from a storage area containing a plurality of types of warheads or reentry vehicles, (2) automatically selecting weapon carriers from a storage area containing at least one type of weapon carrier, (3) manipulating and aligning the selected warheads or reentry vehicles and weapon carriers, and (4) automatically coupling the warheads or reentry vehicles with the weapon carriers such that coupling of improperly selected warheads or reentry vehicles with weapon carriers is inhibited. Such inhibition enhances safety of operations and is achieved by a number of means including computer control of the process of selection and coupling and use of connectorless interfaces capable of assuring that improperly selected items will be rejected or rendered inoperable prior to coupling. Also disclosed are a method and apparatus wherein the stated principles pertaining to selection, coupling and inhibition are extended to apply to any item-to-be-carried and any carrying assembly.

Trennel, Anthony J. (Albuquerque, NM)

1994-05-10

406

Text detection for video analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Textual information brings important semantic clues in video content analysis. We describe a method for detection and representation of text in video segments. The method consists of seven steps: channel separation, image enhancement, edge detection, edge filtering, character detection, text box detection, and text line detection. Our results show that this method can be applied to English as well as

Lalitha Agnihotri; Nevenka Dimitrova

1999-01-01

407

Informational Text and the CCSS  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

What constitutes an informational text covers a broad swath of different types of texts. Biographies & memoirs, speeches, opinion pieces & argumentative essays, and historical, scientific or technical accounts of a non-narrative nature are all included in what the Common Core State Standards (CCSS) envisions as informational text. Also included…

Aspen Institute, 2012

2012-01-01

408

Text Signals Influence Team Artifacts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This exploratory quasi-experimental investigation describes the influence of text signals on team visual map artifacts. In two course sections, four-member teams were given one of two print-based text passage versions on the course-related topic "Social influence in groups" downloaded from Wikipedia; this text had two paragraphs, each…

Clariana, Roy B.; Rysavy, Monica D.; Taricani, Ellen

2015-01-01

409

Translation and Text-Analysis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The primary goal of translation is to enable an audience in a Target Language to understand a text/discourse which was ultimately not intended for them. The primary goal of text-analysis is to further the understanding of phenomena inside one language. There are several similarities between translation and text-analysis: both translation and…

Barbe, Katharina

410

Choosing Software for Text Processing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Review of text processing software for microcomputers covers data entry, text editing, document formatting, and spelling and proofreading programs including "Wordstar,""PeachText,""PerfectWriter,""Select," and "The Word Plus.""The Whole Earth Software Catalog" and a new terminal to be manufactured for OCLC by IBM are mentioned. (EJS)

Mason, Robert M.

1983-01-01

411

An Enterprise Ontology Building the Bases for Automatic Metadata Generation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

'Information Overload' or 'Document Deluge' is a problem enterprises and Public Administrations alike are still dealing with. Although commercial products for Enterprise Content or Records Management are available since more than two decades, especially in Small and Medium Enterprises and Public Administrations they didn't get through. Because of the wide range of document types and formats full-text indexing is not sufficient, but assigning metadata manually is not possible. Thus, automatic, format-independent generation of metadata for (public) enterprise documents is needed. Using context to infer metadata automatically has been researched for example for web-documents or learning objects. If (public) enterprise objects were modelled 'machine understandable' they could be build the context for automatic metadata generation. The approach introduced in this paper is to model context (the (public) enterprise objects) in an ontology and using that ontology to infer content-related metadata.

Thönssen, Barbara

412

Semi-Supervised Data Summarization: Using Spectral Libraries to Improve Hyperspectral Clustering  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Hyperspectral imagers produce very large images, with each pixel recorded at hundreds or thousands of different wavelengths. The ability to automatically generate summaries of these data sets enables several important applications, such as quickly browsing through a large image repository or determining the best use of a limited bandwidth link (e.g., determining which images are most critical for full transmission). Clustering algorithms can be used to generate these summaries, but traditional clustering methods make decisions based only on the information contained in the data set. In contrast, we present a new method that additionally leverages existing spectral libraries to identify materials that are likely to be present in the image target area. We find that this approach simultaneously reduces runtime and produces summaries that are more relevant to science goals.

Wagstaff, K. L.; Shu, H. P.; Mazzoni, D.; Castano, R.

2005-01-01

413

Text Association Analysis and Ambiguity in Text Mining  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Text Mining is the process of analyzing a semantically rich document or set of documents to understand the content and meaning of the information they contain. The research in Text Mining will enhance human's ability to process massive quantities of information, and it has high commercial values. Firstly, the paper discusses the introduction of TM its definition and then gives an overview of the process of text mining and the applications. Up to now, not much research in text mining especially in concept/entity extraction has focused on the ambiguity problem. This paper addresses ambiguity issues in natural language texts, and presents a new technique for resolving ambiguity problem in extracting concept/entity from texts. In the end, it shows the importance of TM in knowledge discovery and highlights the up-coming challenges of document mining and the opportunities it offers.

Bhonde, S. B.; Paikrao, R. L.; Rahane, K. U.

2010-11-01

414

ParaText : scalable text analysis and visualization.  

SciTech Connect

Automated analysis of unstructured text documents (e.g., web pages, newswire articles, research publications, business reports) is a key capability for solving important problems in areas including decision making, risk assessment, social network analysis, intelligence analysis, scholarly research and others. However, as data sizes continue to grow in these areas, scalable processing, modeling, and semantic analysis of text collections becomes essential. In this paper, we present the ParaText text analysis engine, a distributed memory software framework for processing, modeling, and analyzing collections of unstructured text documents. Results on several document collections using hundreds of processors are presented to illustrate the exibility, extensibility, and scalability of the the entire process of text modeling from raw data ingestion to application analysis.

Dunlavy, Daniel M.; Stanton, Eric T.; Shead, Timothy M.

2010-07-01

415

Complex dynamics of text analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a novel method for the analysis of nonlinear text quality in Chinese language. Texts produced by university students in China were represented as scale-free networks (word adjacency model), from which typical network features such as the in/outdegree, clustering coefficient and network dynamics were obtained. The method integrates the classical concepts of network feature representation and text quality series variation. The analytical and numerical scheme leads to a parameter space representation that constitutes a valid alternative to represent the network features. The results reveal that complex network features of different text qualities can be clearly revealed and applied to potential applications in other instances of text analysis.

Ke, Xiaohua; Zeng, Yongqiang; Ma, Qinghua; Zhu, Lin

2014-12-01

416

Algorithms for skiascopy measurement automatization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Automatic dynamic infrared retinoscope was developed, which allows to run procedure at a much higher rate. Our system uses a USB image sensor with up to 180 Hz refresh rate equipped with a long focus objective and 850 nm infrared light emitting diode as light source. Two servo motors driven by microprocessor control the rotation of semitransparent mirror and motion of retinoscope chassis. Image of eye pupil reflex is captured via software and analyzed along the horizontal plane. Algorithm for automatic accommodative state analysis is developed based on the intensity changes of the fundus reflex.

Fomins, Sergejs; Trukša, Ren?rs; Kr?mi?a, Gunta

2014-10-01

417

Perceptual learning, motor learning and automaticity Switching from automatic to  

E-print Network

illustrates that most daily behaviors are composed of well- learned routines ­ occasionally, given the context Research, National Eye Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892-4435, USA 2 Laboratory Most daily tasks are performed almost automatically, but occasionally it is necessary to alter

418

Intelligent Text Retrieval and Knowledge Acquisition from Texts for NASA Applications: Preprocessing Issues  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this contract, which is a component of a larger contract that we plan to submit in the coming months, we plan to study the preprocessing issues which arise in applying natural language processing techniques to NASA-KSC problem reports. The goals of this work will be to deal with the issues of: a) automatically obtaining the problem reports from NASA-KSC data bases, b) the format of these reports and c) the conversion of these reports to a format that will be adequate for our natural language software. At the end of this contract, we expect that these problems will be solved and that we will be ready to apply our natural language software to a text database of over 1000 KSC problem reports.

2001-01-01

419

ParaText : scalable text modeling and analysis.  

SciTech Connect

Automated processing, modeling, and analysis of unstructured text (news documents, web content, journal articles, etc.) is a key task in many data analysis and decision making applications. As data sizes grow, scalability is essential for deep analysis. In many cases, documents are modeled as term or feature vectors and latent semantic analysis (LSA) is used to model latent, or hidden, relationships between documents and terms appearing in those documents. LSA supplies conceptual organization and analysis of document collections by modeling high-dimension feature vectors in many fewer dimensions. While past work on the scalability of LSA modeling has focused on the SVD, the goal of our work is to investigate the use of distributed memory architectures for the entire text analysis process, from data ingestion to semantic modeling and analysis. ParaText is a set of software components for distributed processing, modeling, and analysis of unstructured text. The ParaText source code is available under a BSD license, as an integral part of the Titan toolkit. ParaText components are chained-together into data-parallel pipelines that are replicated across processes on distributed-memory architectures. Individual components can be replaced or rewired to explore different computational strategies and implement new functionality. ParaText functionality can be embedded in applications on any platform using the native C++ API, Python, or Java. The ParaText MPI Process provides a 'generic' text analysis pipeline in a command-line executable that can be used for many serial and parallel analysis tasks. ParaText can also be deployed as a web service accessible via a RESTful (HTTP) API. In the web service configuration, any client can access the functionality provided by ParaText using commodity protocols ... from standard web browsers to custom clients written in any language.

Dunlavy, Daniel M.; Stanton, Eric T.; Shead, Timothy M.

2010-06-01

420

Semantic Annotation of Complex Text Structures in Problem Reports  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Text analysis is important for effective information retrieval from databases where the critical information is embedded in text fields. Aerospace safety depends on effective retrieval of relevant and related problem reports for the purpose of trend analysis. The complex text syntax in problem descriptions has limited statistical text mining of problem reports. The presentation describes an intelligent tagging approach that applies syntactic and then semantic analysis to overcome this problem. The tags identify types of problems and equipment that are embedded in the text descriptions. The power of these tags is illustrated in a faceted searching and browsing interface for problem report trending that combines automatically generated tags with database code fields and temporal information.

Malin, Jane T.; Throop, David R.; Fleming, Land D.

2011-01-01

421

Automatic computation of CHA2DS2-VASc score: Information extraction from clinical texts  

E-print Network

in the final score: (i) Congestive heart failure or left ventricular dysfunction, 1 pt, (ii) Hypertension, 1 pt for a patient, for instance their smoking status,[6] obesity status,[7] or the presence of a congestive heart failure (CHF).[8,9] Such information is useful for a variety of applications such as triggering alerts

Zweigenbaum, Pierre

422

Automatic Extraction of Biological Information from Scientific Text: Protein-Protein Interactions  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe the basic design of a system for au- tomatic detection of protein-protein interactions extracted from scientific abstracts. By restrict- ing the problem domain and imposing a number of strong assumptions which include pre-speeified protein names and a limited set of verbs that rep- resent actions, we show- that it is possible to per- form accurate information extraction. The

Christian Blaschke; Miguel A. Andrade; Christos A. Ouzounis; Alfonso Valencia

1999-01-01

423

A Semi-Automatic Approach to Construct Vietnamese Ontology from Online Text  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An ontology is an effective formal representation of knowledge used commonly in artificial intelligence, semantic web, software engineering, and information retrieval. In open and distance learning, ontologies are used as knowledge bases for e-learning supplements, educational recommenders, and question answering systems that support students with…

Nguyen, Bao-An; Yang, Don-Lin

2012-01-01

424

T2D: Generating Dialogues between Virtual Agents Automatically from Text  

E-print Network

robustness and extensibility. In Section 4 a walk-through example is described that illustrates how The Open University, Walton Hall, Milton Keynes MK7 6AA, UK p.piwek@open.ac.uk 2 National Institute in databases and, with the advent of the semantic web, ontologies. In: Pelachaud et al. (2007). Intelligent

Piwek, Paul

425

Use of a New Set of Linguistic Features to Improve Automatic Assessment of Text Readability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present paper proposes and evaluates a readability assessment method designed for Japanese learners of EFL (English as a foreign language). The proposed readability assessment method is constructed by a regression algorithm using a new set of linguistic features that were employed separately in previous studies. The results showed that the…

Yoshimi, Takehiko; Kotani, Katsunori; Isahara, Hitoshi

2012-01-01

426

Text-driven Automatic Image Sequence Generation using Facial Modeling for Digital TV News Production System  

E-print Network

, extremely realistic or cartoon-like, is able to animate the desired facial motion as well as to reuse or the hearing-impaired. 1. Introduction A facial animation system, regardless of the type of character the animation and expression libraries [1]. The most impressive facial modeling is to extract the realistic

Wong, Peter Hon-Wah

427

WordsEye: An Automatic Text-to-Scene Conversion System Bob Coyne Richard Sproat  

E-print Network

to depict entities and actions. Ev- ery 3D model can have associated shape displacements, spatial tags of Pennsylvania's Center for Human Modeling and Simulation [3, 4], where language is used to control animated

Sproat, Richard

428

SEMANTIC AUDIOVISUAL ANALYSIS FOR VIDEO SUMMARIZATION Junyong You, Member, IEEE, Miska M Hannuksela, Member, IEEE, Moncef Gabbouj, Senior Member,  

E-print Network

SEMANTIC AUDIOVISUAL ANALYSIS FOR VIDEO SUMMARIZATION Junyong You, Member, IEEE, Miska M Hannuksela analysis approach for video summarization. The sequence to be analyzed is first segmented into scenes importance is then calculated using selected audio and video features. Subsequently, key frames are extracted

Gabbouj, Moncef

429

Comparison of clinical knowledge bases for summarization of electronic health records.  

PubMed

Automated summarization tools that create condition-specific displays may improve clinician efficiency. These tools require new kinds of knowledge that is difficult to obtain. We compared five problem-medication pair knowledge bases generated using four previously described knowledge base development approaches. The number of pairs in the resulting mapped knowledge bases varied widely due to differing mapping techniques from the source terminologies, ranging from 2,873 to 63,977,738 pairs. The number of overlapping pairs across knowledge bases was low, with one knowledge base having half of the pairs overlapping with another knowledge base, and most having less than a third overlapping. Further research is necessary to better evaluate the knowledge bases independently in additional settings, and to identify methods to integrate the knowledge bases. PMID:23920991

McCoy, Allison B; Sittig, Dean F; Wright, Adam

2013-01-01

430

Texting while driving: is speech-based text entry less risky than handheld text entry?  

PubMed

Research indicates that using a cell phone to talk or text while maneuvering a vehicle impairs driving performance. However, few published studies directly compare the distracting effects of texting using a hands-free (i.e., speech-based interface) versus handheld cell phone, which is an important issue for legislation, automotive interface design and driving safety training. This study compared the effect of speech-based versus handheld text entries on simulated driving performance by asking participants to perform a car following task while controlling the duration of a secondary text-entry task. Results showed that both speech-based and handheld text entries impaired driving performance relative to the drive-only condition by causing more variation in speed and lane position. Handheld text entry also increased the brake response time and increased variation in headway distance. Text entry using a speech-based cell phone was less detrimental to driving performance than handheld text entry. Nevertheless, the speech-based text entry task still significantly impaired driving compared to the drive-only condition. These results suggest that speech-based text entry disrupts driving, but reduces the level of performance interference compared to text entry with a handheld device. In addition, the difference in the distraction effect caused by speech-based and handheld text entry is not simply due to the difference in task duration. PMID:25089769

He, J; Chaparro, A; Nguyen, B; Burge, R J; Crandall, J; Chaparro, B; Ni, R; Cao, S

2014-11-01

431

Interactive exploration of surveillance video through action shot summarization and trajectory visualization.  

PubMed

We propose a novel video visual analytics system for interactive exploration of surveillance video data. Our approach consists of providing analysts with various views of information related to moving objects in a video. To do this we first extract each object's movement path. We visualize each movement by (a) creating a single action shot image (a still image that coalesces multiple frames), (b) plotting its trajectory in a space-time cube and (c) displaying an overall timeline view of all the movements. The action shots provide a still view of the moving object while the path view presents movement properties such as speed and location. We also provide tools for spatial and temporal filtering based on regions of interest. This allows analysts to filter out large amounts of movement activities while the action shot representation summarizes the content of each movement. We incorporated this multi-part visual representation of moving objects in sViSIT, a tool to facilitate browsing through the video content by interactive querying and retrieval of data. Based on our interaction with security personnel who routinely interact with surveillance video data, we identified some of the most common tasks performed. This resulted in designing a user study to measure time-to-completion of the various tasks. These generally required searching for specific events of interest (targets) in videos. Fourteen different tasks were designed and a total of 120 min of surveillance video were recorded (indoor and outdoor locations recording movements of people and vehicles). The time-to-completion of these tasks were compared against a manual fast forward video browsing guided with movement detection. We demonstrate how our system can facilitate lengthy video exploration and significantly reduce browsing time to find events of interest. Reports from expert users identify positive aspects of our approach which we summarize in our recommendations for future video visual analytics systems. PMID:24051778

Meghdadi, Amir H; Irani, Pourang

2013-12-01

432

A spatio-temporal mining approach towards summarizing and analyzing protein folding trajectories  

PubMed Central

Understanding the protein folding mechanism remains a grand challenge in structural biology. In the past several years, computational theories in molecular dynamics have been employed to shed light on the folding process. Coupled with high computing power and large scale storage, researchers now can computationally simulate the protein folding process in atomistic details at femtosecond temporal resolution. Such simulation often produces a large number of folding trajectories, each consisting of a series of 3D conformations of the protein under study. As a result, effectively managing and analyzing such trajectories is becoming increasingly important. In this article, we present a spatio-temporal mining approach to analyze protein folding trajectories. It exploits the simplicity of contact maps, while also integrating 3D structural information in the analysis. It characterizes the dynamic folding process by first identifying spatio-temporal association patterns in contact maps, then studying how such patterns evolve along a folding trajectory. We demonstrate that such patterns can be leveraged to summarize folding trajectories, and to facilitate the detection and ordering of important folding events along a folding path. We also show that such patterns can be used to identify a consensus partial folding pathway across multiple folding trajectories. Furthermore, we argue that such patterns can capture both local and global structural topology in a 3D protein conformation, thereby facilitating effective structural comparison amongst conformations. We apply this approach to analyze the folding trajectories of two small synthetic proteins-BBA5 and GSGS (or Beta3S). We show that this approach is promising towards addressing the above issues, namely, folding trajectory summarization, folding events detection and ordering, and consensus partial folding pathway identification across trajectories. PMID:17407611

Yang, Hui; Parthasarathy, Srinivasan; Ucar, Duygu

2007-01-01

433

Text-image alignment for historical handwritten documents  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe our work on text-image alignment in context of building a historical document retrieval system. We aim at aligning images of words in handwritten lines with their text transcriptions. The images of handwritten lines are automatically segmented from the scanned pages of historical documents and then manually transcribed. To train automatic routines to detect words in an image of handwritten text, we need a training set - images of words with their transcriptions. We present our results on aligning words from the images of handwritten lines and their corresponding text transcriptions. Alignment based on the longest spaces between portions of handwriting is a baseline. We then show that relative lengths, i.e. proportions of words in their lines, can be used to improve the alignment results considerably. To take into account the relative word length, we define the expressions for the cost function that has to be minimized for aligning text words with their images. We apply right to left alignment as well as alignment based on exhaustive search. The quality assessment of these alignments shows correct results for 69% of words from 100 lines, or 90% of partially correct and correct alignments combined.

Zinger, S.; Nerbonne, J.; Schomaker, L.

2009-01-01

434

Automatic caption generation for news images   

E-print Network

This thesis is concerned with the task of automatically generating captions for images, which is important for many image-related applications. Automatic description generation for video frames would help security ...

Feng, Yansong

2011-06-30

435

47 CFR 87.219 - Automatic operations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...unicom frequency prior to transmission, and provide a brief...interrogating signal and the automatic unicom's response. (3) Automated advisory transmissions must be as brief as...FAA-certified, automatic weather facility,...

2013-10-01

436

47 CFR 87.219 - Automatic operations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...unicom frequency prior to transmission, and provide a brief...interrogating signal and the automatic unicom's response. (3) Automated advisory transmissions must be as brief as...FAA-certified, automatic weather facility,...

2014-10-01

437

47 CFR 87.219 - Automatic operations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...unicom frequency prior to transmission, and provide a brief...interrogating signal and the automatic unicom's response. (3) Automated advisory transmissions must be as brief as...FAA-certified, automatic weather facility,...

2010-10-01

438

47 CFR 87.219 - Automatic operations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...unicom frequency prior to transmission, and provide a brief...interrogating signal and the automatic unicom's response. (3) Automated advisory transmissions must be as brief as...FAA-certified, automatic weather facility,...

2011-10-01

439

47 CFR 87.219 - Automatic operations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...unicom frequency prior to transmission, and provide a brief...interrogating signal and the automatic unicom's response. (3) Automated advisory transmissions must be as brief as...FAA-certified, automatic weather facility,...

2012-10-01

440

Automatic Utterance Type Detection Using Suprasegmental Features   

E-print Network

The goal of the work presented here is to automatically predict the type of an utterance in spoken dialogue by using automatically extracted suprasegmental information. For this task we present and compare three stochastic ...

Wright, Helen

441

32 CFR 2001.30 - Automatic declassification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Automatic declassification. 2001.30 Section 2001.30 National Defense Other Regulations Relating...NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION Declassification § 2001.30 Automatic declassification. (a)...

2010-07-01

442

49 CFR 236.750 - Interlocking, automatic.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Interlocking, automatic. 236.750 Section 236.750 Transportation...DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.750 Interlocking, automatic. An arrangement of signals, with or...

2014-10-01

443

49 CFR 236.750 - Interlocking, automatic.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Interlocking, automatic. 236.750 Section 236.750 Transportation...DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.750 Interlocking, automatic. An arrangement of signals, with or...

2011-10-01

444

49 CFR 236.750 - Interlocking, automatic.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Interlocking, automatic. 236.750 Section 236.750 Transportation...DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.750 Interlocking, automatic. An arrangement of signals, with or...

2012-10-01

445

49 CFR 236.750 - Interlocking, automatic.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Interlocking, automatic. 236.750 Section 236.750 Transportation...DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.750 Interlocking, automatic. An arrangement of signals, with or...

2010-10-01

446

49 CFR 236.750 - Interlocking, automatic.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Interlocking, automatic. 236.750 Section 236.750 Transportation...DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.750 Interlocking, automatic. An arrangement of signals, with or...

2013-10-01

447

Automatisms: bridging clinical neurology with criminal law.  

PubMed

The law, like neurology, grapples with the relationship between disease states and behavior. Sometimes, the two disciplines share the same terminology, such as automatism. In law, the "automatism defense" is a claim that action was involuntary or performed while unconscious. Someone charged with a serious crime can acknowledge committing the act and yet may go free if, relying on the expert testimony of clinicians, the court determines that the act of crime was committed in a state of automatism. In this review, we explore the relationship between the use of automatism in the legal and clinical literature. We close by addressing several issues raised by the automatism defense: semantic ambiguity surrounding the term automatism, the presence or absence of consciousness during automatisms, and the methodological obstacles that have hindered the study of cognition during automatisms. PMID:21145287

Rolnick, Joshua; Parvizi, Josef

2011-03-01

448

The Virgo automatic alignment system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The automatic alignment system of the Virgo interferometer differs substantially from those used in similar experiments, since it uses a variant of the Anderson technique. This implies a completely different control topology with respect to other detectors, and the main feature is a strong coupling of different degrees of freedom in the optical signals. It also provides two extra output

F. Acernese; P. Amico; M. Al-Shourbagy; S. Aoudia; S. Avino; D. Babusci; G. Ballardin; R. Barillé; F. Barone; L. Barsotti; M. Barsuglia; F. Beauville; M. A. Bizouard; C. Boccara; F. Bondu; L. Bosi; C. Bradaschia; S. Braccini; A. Brillet; V. Brisson; L. Brocco; D. Buskulic; E. Calloni; E. Campagna; F. Cavalier; R. Cavalieri; G. Cella; E. Chassande-Mottin; C. Corda; A.-C. Clapson; F. Cleva; J.-P. Coulon; E. Cuoco; V. Dattilo; M. Davier; R. De Rosa; L. Di Fiore; A. Di Virgilio; B. Dujardin; A. Eleuteri; D. Enard; I. Ferrante; F. Fidecaro; I. Fiori; R. Flaminio; J.-D. Fournier; S. Frasca; F. Frasconi; A. Freise; L. Gammaitoni; A. Gennai; A. Giazotto; G. Giordano; L. Giordano; R. Gouaty; D. Grosjean; G. Guidi; S. Hebri; H. Heitmann; P. Hello; L. Holloway; S. Kreckelbergh; P. La Penna; V. Loriette; M. Loupias; G. Losurdo; J.-M. Mackowski; E. Majorana; C. N. Man; M. Mantovani; F. Marchesoni; F. Marion; J. Marque; F. Martelli; A. Masserot; M. Mazzoni; L. Milano; C. Moins; J. Moreau; N. Morgado; B. Mours; A. Pai; C. Palomba; F. Paoletti; S. Pardi; A. Pasqualetti; R. Passaquieti; D. Passuello; B. Perniola; F. Piergiovanni; L. Pinard; R. Poggiani; M. Punturo; P. Puppo; K. Qipiani; P. Rapagnani; V. Reita; A. Remillieux; F. Ricci; I. Ricciardi; P. Ruggi; G. Russo; S. Solimeno; A. Spallicci; R. Stanga; R. Taddei; D. Tombolato; M. Tonelli; A. Toncelli; E. Tournefier; F. Travasso; G. Vajente; D. Verkindt; F. Vetrano; A. Viceré; J.-Y. Vinet; H. Vocca; M. Yvert; Z. Zhang

2006-01-01

449

Automatic Image Retargeting Vidya Setlur  

E-print Network

Automatic Image Retargeting Vidya Setlur Northwestern University and Nokia Research Center Saeko functional realism rather than photo-realism by image retargeting. (a) The source image containing three areas of higher importance, the two boys, and the ball. (b) The source image retargeted to fit a PDA

Gooch, Bruce

450

ICAR: Identity Card Automatic Reader  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the ICAR system, an application for automatic reading of identity cards and passports. The system acquires the image of the document by a flatbed scanner and recognizes the type of the document among a set of predefined models using color information. Textual fields are located in the image by a connected component analysis and identified in terms

Josep Lladós; Felipe Lumbreras; Vicente Chapaprieta; Joan Queralt

2001-01-01

451

Graphonomics, Automaticity and Handwriting Assessment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A recent review of handwriting research in "Literacy" concluded that current curricula of handwriting education focus too much on writing style and neatness and neglect the aspect of handwriting automaticity. This conclusion is supported by evidence in the field of graphonomic research, where a range of experiments have been used to investigate…

Tucha, Oliver; Tucha, Lara; Lange, Klaus W.

2008-01-01

452

AN AUTOMATIC WATER DEAERATION SYSTEM  

Microsoft Academic Search

An automatic water deaeration system was designed and fabricated to ; provide a continuous supply of deaired water for fluid flow through porous media ; studies. Air is removed from the water by applying a vacuum on a tank while ; water is being sprayed into the tank. The system incorporates liquid level ; controls for the deairing and storage

1959-01-01

453

REINFORCEMENT LEARNING AND AUTOMATIC CATEGORIZATION  

E-print Network

REINFORCEMENT LEARNING AND AUTOMATIC CATEGORIZATION Josep M Porta and Enric Celaya Institut de that the necessary elements for solving a task are correctly perceived and manipulated. In reinforcement learning be relaxed and we sketch a reinforcement learning algorithm that uses a less restrictive form of sensory

Porta, Josep M.

454

Automatic Validation of Protocol Narration  

Microsoft Academic Search

We perform a systematic expansion of protocol narra- tions into terms of a process algebra in order to make pre- cise some of the detailed checks that need to be made in a protocol. We then apply static analysis technology to develop an automatic validation procedure for protocols. Finally, we demonstrate that these techniques suffice for identifying a number of

Chiara Bodei; Mikael Buchholtz; Pierpaolo Degano; Flemming Nielson; Hanne Riis Nielson

2003-01-01

455

Automatically classifying emails into activities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Email-based activity management systems promise to give users better tools for managing increasing volumes of email, by organizing email according to a user's activities. Current activity management systems do not automatically classify incoming messages by the activity to which they belong, in- stead relying on simple heuristics (such as message threads), or asking the user to manually classify incoming messages

Mark Dredze; Tessa A. Lau; Nicholas Kushmerick

2006-01-01

456

Automatically Tuned Linear Algebra Software  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes an approach for the automatic generation and optimization of numericalsoftware for processors with deep memory hierarchies and pipelined functional units.The production of such software for machines ranging from desktop workstations to embeddedprocessors can be a tedious and time consuming process. The work described here canhelp in automating much of this process. We will concentrate our efforts on

R. Clint Whaley

1997-01-01

457

Automatically tuned linear algebra software  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes an approach for the automatic generation and optimization of numerical software for processors with deep memory hierarchies and pipelined functional units. The production of such software for machines ranging from desktop workstations to embedded processors can be a tedious and time consuming process. The work described here can help in automating much of this process. We will

R. Clint Whaley; Jack J. Dongarra

1998-01-01

458

Eating as an Automatic Behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

The continued growth of the obesity epidemic at a time when obesity is highly stigmatizing should make us ques- tion the assumption that, given the right information and motivation, people can successfully reduce their food intake over the long term. An alternative view is that eat- ing is an automatic behavior over which the environment has more control than do

Deborah A. Cohen; Thomas A. Farley

459

Web Search Using Automatic Classification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract: We study the automatic classification of Web documents into pre - specified categories, with the objective of increasing the precision of Web search We describe experiments in which we classify documents into high - level categories of the Yahoo! taxonomy, and a simple search architecture and implementation using this classification The validation of our classification experiments offers interesting insights

Chandra Chekuri; Eli Upfal; Michael H. Goldwasser; Prabhakar Raghavan

1996-01-01

460

Automatic identification of sound recordings  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have designed an automatic song identification component of a digital rights management (DRM) system for music, called MusicDNA. The details of MusicDNA are presented and the process by which we arrived at the final system configuration is outlined. This paper documents our experiences so that it can serve as a reference to those seeking to build a complete DRM

V. Venkatachalam; L. Cazzanti; N. Dhillon; M. Wells

2004-01-01

461

Automatic Detection of Human Nudes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper demonstrates an automatic system for telling whether there are human nudes present in an image. The system marks skin-like pixels using combined color and texture properties. These skin regions are then fed to a specialized grouper, which attempts to group a human figure using geometric constraints on human structure. If the grouper finds a sufficiently complex structure, the

David A. Forsyth; Margaret M. Fleck

1999-01-01

462

Osort Tutorial Automatic spike detection  

E-print Network

Osort Tutorial Automatic spike detection and sorting Ueli Rutishauser California Institute of Technology #12;Spike sorting Steps in spike sorting: (1) Read raw data (2) Detect spikes to which cluster the spike belongs (sorting) #12;OSort Osort is an implementation of a template based

Rutishauser, Ueli

463

Automatic transmission for motor vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

An automatic transmission for a motor vehicle is described, comprising: a transmission housing; a hydraulic torque converter having rotational axes, an input shaft, an output shaft and a direct coupling clutch for directly coupling the input shaft to the output shaft; an auxiliary transmission mechanism provided coaxially with the hydraulic torque converter and having an input shaft, an output shaft

M. Miura; S. Sakakibara

1989-01-01

464

Automatic recognition of film genres  

Microsoft Academic Search

Film genres in digital video can be detected automatically. In a three-step approach we analyze first the syntactic properties of digital films: color statistics, cut detection, camera motion, object motion and audio. In a second step we use these statistics to derive at a more abstract level film style attributes such as camera panning and zooming, speech and music. These

Stephan Fischer; Rainer Lienhart; Wolfgang Effelsberg

1995-01-01

465

An automatic adiabatic bomb calorimeter  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper details the conversion of an existing isothermal bomb calorimeter to an adiabatic calorimeter with automatic control. Thermistors in the inner and outer vessels are included in two arms of an a.c. Wheatstone bridge: any rise in temperature of the inner vessel above that of the outer vessel results in phase reversal of the output voltage from the bridge,

W F Raymond; R J Canaway; C E Harris

1957-01-01

466

Scene text deblurring using text-specific multiscale dictionaries.  

PubMed

Texts in natural scenes carry critical semantic clues for understanding images. When capturing natural scene images, especially by handheld cameras, a common artifact, i.e., blur, frequently happens. To improve the visual quality of such images, deblurring techniques are desired, which also play an important role in character recognition and image understanding. In this paper, we study the problem of recovering the clear scene text by exploiting the text field characteristics. A series of text-specific multiscale dictionaries (TMD) and a natural scene dictionary is learned for separately modeling the priors on the text and nontext fields. The TMD-based text field reconstruction helps to deal with the different scales of strings in a blurry image effectively. Furthermore, an adaptive version of nonuniform deblurring method is proposed to efficiently solve the real-world spatially varying problem. Dictionary learning allows more flexible modeling with respect to the text field property, and the combination with the nonuniform method is more appropriate in real situations where blur kernel sizes are depth dependent. Experimental results show that the proposed method achieves the deblurring results with better visual quality than the state-of-the-art methods. PMID:25705915

Cao, Xiaochun; Ren, Wenqi; Zuo, Wangmeng; Guo, Xiaojie; Foroosh, Hassan

2015-04-01

467

Machine aided indexing from natural language text  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA Lexical Dictionary (NLD) Machine Aided Indexing (MAI) system was designed to (1) reuse the indexing of the Defense Technical Information Center (DTIC); (2) reuse the indexing of the Department of Energy (DOE); and (3) reduce the time required for original indexing. This was done by automatically generating appropriate NASA thesaurus terms from either the other agency's index terms, or, for original indexing, from document titles and abstracts. The NASA STI Program staff devised two different ways to generate thesaurus terms from text. The first group of programs identified noun phrases by a parsing method that allowed for conjunctions and certain prepositions, on the assumption that indexable concepts are found in such phrases. Results were not always satisfactory, and it was noted that indexable concepts often occurred outside of noun phrases. The first method also proved to be too slow for the ultimate goal of interactive (online) MAI. The second group of programs used the knowledge base (KB), word proximity, and frequency of word and phrase occurrence to identify indexable concepts. Both methods are described and illustrated. Online MAI has been achieved, as well as several spinoff benefits, which are also described.

Silvester, June P.; Genuardi, Michael T.; Klingbiel, Paul H.

1993-01-01

468

Synchronization of lecture videos and electronic slides by video text analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

An essential goal of structuring lecture videos captured in live presentation is to provide a synchronized view of video clips and electronic slides. This paper presents an automatic approach to match video clips and slides based on the analysis of text embedded in lecture videos. We describe a method to reconstruct high-resolution video texts from multiple keyframes for robust OCR

Feng Wang; Chong-Wah Ngo; Ting-Chuen Pong

2003-01-01

469

An NLP Framework for Non-Topical Text Analysis in Urdu--A Resource Poor Language  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Language plays a very important role in understanding the culture and mindset of people. Given the abundance of electronic multilingual data, it is interesting to see what insight can be gained by automatic analysis of text. This in turn calls for text analysis which is focused on non-topical information such as emotions being expressed that is in…

Mukund, Smruthi

2012-01-01

470

Text-based knowledge discovery: search and mining of life-sciences documents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Text literature is playing an increasingly important role in biomedical discovery. The challenge is to manage the increasing volume, complexity and specialization of knowledge expressed in this literature. Although information retrieval or text searching is useful, it is not sufficient to find specific facts and relations. Information extraction methods are evolving to extract automatically specific, fine-grained terms corresponding to the

Robert Mack; Michael Hehenberger

2002-01-01

471

The TEXT-TO-ONTO Ontology Learning Environment Alexander Maedche and Steffen Staab  

E-print Network

such as intelligent infor- mation integration, information brokering and natural-language processing, to name through language. TEXT- TO-ONTO exploits the interacting constraints on the various language levels (from Learning Environment The process of semi-automatic ontology learning from text is embedded in an architec

Staab, Steffen

472

Identifying medical terms in patient-authored text: a crowdsourcing-based approach  

E-print Network

Identifying medical terms in patient-authored text: a crowdsourcing-based approach Diana Lynn Mac, we lack an effective method for automatically identifying medical terms in patient- authored text (PAT). We demonstrate that crowdsourcing PAT medical term identification tasks to non

Heer, Jeffrey

473

MUSIC GENRES CLASSIFICATION USING TEXT CATEGORIZATION METHOD Kai Chen, Sheng Gao, Yongwei Zhu, Qibin Sun  

E-print Network

MUSIC GENRES CLASSIFICATION USING TEXT CATEGORIZATION METHOD Kai Chen, Sheng Gao, Yongwei Zhu.a-star.edu.sg ABSTRACT Automatic music genre classification is one of the most challenging problems in music information retrieval and management of digital music database. In this paper, we propose a new framework using text

Sun, Qibin

474

TextArc: An Alternate Way to View a Text  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Textarc is an unconventional tool that gives readers the opportunity to discover patterns and concepts in texts. Still in a developmental stage, the site offers readers the opportunity to utilize human visual processing by allowing intuition to help extract meaning from a text. By exposing every word at once, the eye is able to make connections and decipher meaning otherwise overlooked by normal reading, thereby exposing the essence of a text. The site currently has Hamlet available as a full textarc text, and is in the process of exposing more literary works. Not only of value for avid readers and literary critics, the site offers librarians and archivists new approaches to cataloguing. On the whole, this new and innovative creation is at a minimum intriguing, and the site is definitely worth a visit.

475

Text Messaging During Simulated Driving  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: This research aims to identify the impact of text messaging on simulated driving performance. Background: In the past decade, a number of on-road, epidemiological, and simulator-based studies reported the negative impact of talking on a cell phone on driving behavior. However, the impact of text messaging on simulated driving performance is still not fully understood. Method: Forty participants engaged

Frank A. Drews; Hina Yazdani; Celeste N. Godfrey; Joel M. Cooper; David L. Strayer

2009-01-01

476

Correct your text with Google  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the increasing amount of text files that are produced nowadays, spell checkers have become essential tools for everyday tasks of millions of end users. Among the years, several tools have been designed that show decent performances. Of course, grammatical checkers may improve corrections of texts, nevertheless, this requires large resources. We think that basic spell checking may be improved

Stephanie Jacquemont; Francois Jacquenet; Marc Sebban

2007-01-01

477

Ontology-based Text Clustering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Text clustering typically involves cluster- ing in a high dimensional space, which appears difficult with regard to virtually all practical settings. In addition, given a particular clustering result it is typically very hard to come up with a good ex- planation of why the text clusters have been constructed the way they are. In this paper, we propose a new

Andreas Hotho; Steffen Staab; Alexander Maedche

478

PROPERTIES OF AGEBASED AUTOMATIC MEMORY RECLAMATION ALGORITHMS  

E-print Network

PROPERTIES OF AGE­BASED AUTOMATIC MEMORY RECLAMATION ALGORITHMS A Dissertation Presented by DARKO­BASED AUTOMATIC MEMORY RECLAMATION ALGORITHMS A Dissertation Presented by DARKO STEFANOVI â?? C Approved as to style­BASED AUTOMATIC MEMORY RECLAMATION ALGORITHMS FEBRUARY 1999 DARKO STEFANOVI â?? C Dipl.Ing., UNIVERSITY OF BELGRADE

Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

479

Self-Compassion and Automatic Thoughts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this research is to examine the relationships between self-compassion and automatic thoughts. Participants were 299 university students. In this study, the Self-compassion Scale and the Automatic Thoughts Questionnaire were used. The relationships between self-compassion and automatic thoughts were examined using correlation analysis…

Akin, Ahmet

2012-01-01

480

A Web marketing system with automatic pricing  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a new scheme ofautomatic pricing' for digital contents, and describe an implemented system as well as concrete pricing algorithms for it. Automatic pricing refers to a methodology of automatically setting sales prices to optimal prices, based on past prices and sales. In particular, we consider the case in which automatic pricing is done in order to maximize the

Naoki Abe; Tomonari Kamba

2000-01-01

481

Door Sensors for Automatic Light Switching System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Door sensor for automatic lighting control is widely being developed for energy saving and security purposes. An infrared door sensor based on electrical and electronics combinational circuit technology is used to develop the automatic light switching system. The automatic light switching system will lead to energy saving and efficient energy usage which could benefit every single individual. Furthermore, the system

Ranjit Singh Sarban Singh; Ahamed Fayeez Tuani Ibrahim; Wong Yan Chiew

2009-01-01

482

Automatic E-Comic Content Adaptation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reading digital comic on mobile phone is demanding now. Instead of create a new mobile comic contents, adaptation of the existing digital comic web portal is valuable. In this paper, we proposed an automatic e-comic mobile content adaptation method for automatically create mobile comic content from existing digital comic website portal. Automatic e-comic content adaptation is based on our comic

Tolle Herman; Kohei Arai

2010-01-01

483

Hierarchical Concept Indexing of Full-Text Documents in the Unified Medical Language System Information Sources Map.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes methods for applying natural-language processing for automatic concept-based indexing of full text and methods for exploiting the structure and hierarchy of full-text documents to a large collection of full-text documents drawn from the Health Services/Technology Assessment Text database at the National Library of Medicine. Examines how…

Wright, Lawrence W.; Nardini, Holly K. Grossetta; Aronson, Alan R.; Rindflesch, Thomas C.

1999-01-01

484

Text recycling: acceptable or misconduct?  

PubMed

Text recycling, also referred to as self-plagiarism, is the reproduction of an author's own text from a previous publication in a new publication. Opinions on the acceptability of this practice vary, with some viewing it as acceptable and efficient, and others as misleading and unacceptable. In light of the lack of consensus, journal editors often have difficulty deciding how to act upon the discovery of text recycling. In response to these difficulties, we have created a set of guidelines for journal editors on how to deal with text recycling. In this editorial, we discuss some of the challenges of developing these guidelines, and how authors can avoid undisclosed text recycling. PMID:25127654

Harriman, Stephanie; Patel, Jigisha

2014-01-01

485

Toward Integrated Scene Text Reading.  

PubMed

The growth in digital camera usage combined with a worldly abundance of text has translated to a rich new era for a classic problem of pattern recognition, reading. While traditional document processing often faces challenges such as unusual fonts, noise, and unconstrained lexicons, scene text reading amplifies these challenges and introduces new ones such as motion blur, curved layouts, perspective projection, and occlusion among others. Reading scene text is a complex problem involving many details that must be handled effectively for robust, accurate results. In this work, we describe and evaluate a reading system that combines several pieces, using probabilistic methods for coarsely binarizing a given text region, identifying baselines, and jointly performing word and character segmentation during the recognition process. By using scene context to recognize several words together in a line of text, our system gives state of the art performance on three difficult benchmark data sets. PMID:23817560

Weinman, Jerod J; Butler, Zachary; Knoll, Dugan; Feild, Jacqueline

2013-06-26

486

Toward integrated scene text reading.  

PubMed

The growth in digital camera usage combined with a worldly abundance of text has translated to a rich new era for a classic problem of pattern recognition, reading. While traditional document processing often faces challenges such as unusual fonts, noise, and unconstrained lexicons, scene text reading amplifies these challenges and introduces new ones such as motion blur, curved layouts, perspective projection, and occlusion among others. Reading scene text is a complex problem involving many details that must be handled effectively for robust, accurate results. In this work, we describe and evaluate a reading system that combines several pieces, using probabilistic methods for coarsely binarizing a given text region, identifying baselines, and jointly performing word and character segmentation during the recognition process. By using scene context to recognize several words together in a line of text, our system gives state-of-the-art performance on three difficult benchmark data sets. PMID:24356356

Weinman, Jerod J; Butler, Zachary; Knoll, Dugan; Feild, Jacqueline

2014-02-01

487

Text structures in medical text processing: empirical evidence and a text understanding prototype.  

PubMed

We consider the role of textual structures in medical texts. In particular, we examine the impact the lacking recognition of text phenomena has on the validity of medical knowledge bases fed by a natural language understanding front-end. First, we review the results from an empirical study on a sample of medical texts considering, in various forms of local coherence phenomena (anaphora and textual ellipses). We then discuss the representation bias emerging in the text knowledge base that is likely to occur when these phenomena are not dealt with--mainly the emergence of referentially incoherent and invalid representations. We then turn to a medical text understanding system designed to account for local text coherence. PMID:9357739

Hahn, U; Romacker, M

1997-01-01

488

Measuring Variability in Sentence Ordering for News Summarization Nitin Madnania,b  

E-print Network

for short texts. We present results of a sentence reordering experiment with three experi- mental conditions. Our findings indicate a very high degree of variability in the orderings that the eigh- teen subjects, or that would maximize another extrinsic summary evaluation measure. On texts of approximately the same length

Passonneau, Rebecca J.

489

Towards Automatic Classification of Wikipedia Content  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wikipedia - the Free Encyclopedia encounters the problem of proper classification of new articles everyday. The process of assignment of articles to categories is performed manually and it is a time consuming task. It requires knowledge about Wikipedia structure, which is beyond typical editor competence, which leads to human-caused mistakes - omitting or wrong assignments of articles to categories. The article presents application of SVM classifier for automatic classification of documents from The Free Encyclopedia. The classifier application has been tested while using two text representations: inter-documents connections (hyperlinks) and word content. The results of the performed experiments evaluated on hand crafted data show that the Wikipedia classification process can be partially automated. The proposed approach can be used for building a decision support system which suggests editors the best categories that fit new content entered to Wikipedia.

Szyma?ski, Julian

490

Textsign parallel corpus study to start designing an automatic translation system  

E-print Network

project whose goal is to design an automatic system to translate from French text to Sign Language, using of journalistic texts in French and their video translations in Sign Language. Then we present our methodology, an essential notion in Sign Language with no equivalent in a written text. Using the highly-abstract model AZee

Filhol, Michael

491

Toward text understanding: classification of text documents by word map  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In many fields, for example in business, engineering, and law there is interest in the search and the classification of text documents in large databases. To information retrieval purposes there exist methods. They are mainly based on keywords. In cases where keywords are lacking the information retrieval is problematic. One approach is to use the whole text document as a search key. Neural networks offer an adaptive tool for this purpose. This paper suggests a new adaptive approach to the problem of clustering and search in large text document databases. The approach is a multilevel one based on word, sentence, and paragraph level maps. Here only the word map level is reported. The reported approach is based on smart encoding, on Self-Organizing Maps, and on document histograms. The results are very promising.

Visa, Ari J. E.; Toivanen, Jarmo; Back, Barbro; Vanharanta, Hannu

2000-04-01

492

An Experimental Text-Commentary  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An experimental text-commentary of selected passages from Sophocles'"Antigone" is described. The commentary is intended for students seeking more than a conventional translation who do not know enough Greek to use a standard commentary. (RM)

O'Brien, Joan

1976-01-01

493

Why is Light Text Harder to Read Than Dark Text?  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Scharff and Ahumada (2002, 2003) measured text legibility for light text and dark text. For paragraph readability and letter identification, responses to light text were slower and less accurate for a given contrast. Was this polarity effect (1) an artifact of our apparatus, (2) a physiological difference in the separate pathways for positive and negative contrast or (3) the result of increased experience with dark text on light backgrounds? To rule out the apparatus-artifact hypothesis, all data were collected on one monitor. Its luminance was measured at all levels used, and the spatial effects of the monitor were reduced by pixel doubling and quadrupling (increasing the viewing distance to maintain constant angular size). Luminances of vertical and horizontal square-wave gratings were compared to assess display speed effects. They existed, even for 4-pixel-wide bars. Tests for polarity asymmetries in display speed were negative. Increased experience might develop full letter templates for dark text, while recognition of light letters is based on component features. Earlier, an observer ran all conditions at one polarity and then switched. If dark and light letters were intermixed, the observer might use component features on all trials and do worse on the dark letters, reducing the polarity effect. We varied polarity blocking (completely blocked, alternating smaller blocks, and intermixed blocks). Letter identification responses times showed polarity effects at all contrasts and display resolution levels. Observers were also more accurate with higher contrasts and more pixels per degree. Intermixed blocks increased the polarity effect by reducing performance on the light letters, but only if the randomized block occurred prior to the nonrandomized block. Perhaps observers tried to use poorly developed templates, or they did not work as hard on the more difficult items. The experience hypothesis and the physiological gain hypothesis remain viable explanations.

Scharff, Lauren V.; Ahumada, Albert J.

2005-01-01

494

Development of a Summarized Health Index (SHI) for Use in Predicting Survival in Sea Turtles  

PubMed Central

Veterinary care plays an influential role in sea turtle rehabilitation, especially in endangered species. Physiological characteristics, hematological and plasma biochemistry profiles, are useful references for clinical management in animals, especially when animals are during the convalescence period. In this study, these factors associated with sea turtle surviving were analyzed. The blood samples were collected when sea turtles remained alive, and then animals were followed up for surviving status. The results indicated that significantly negative correlation was found between buoyancy disorders (BD) and sea turtle surviving (p < 0.05). Furthermore, non-surviving sea turtles had significantly higher levels of aspartate aminotranspherase (AST), creatinine kinase (CK), creatinine and uric acid (UA) than surviving sea turtles (all p < 0.05). After further analysis by multiple logistic regression model, only factors of BD, creatinine and UA were included in the equation for calculating summarized health index (SHI) for each individual. Through evaluation by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve, the result indicated that the area under curve was 0.920 ± 0.037, and a cut-off SHI value of 2.5244 showed 80.0% sensitivity and 86.7% specificity in predicting survival. Therefore, the developed SHI could be a useful index to evaluate health status of sea turtles and to improve veterinary care at rehabilitation facilities. PMID:25803431

Li, Tsung-Hsien; Chang, Chao-Chin; Cheng, I-Jiunn; Lin, Suen-Chuain

2015-01-01

495

The Summarization of Pyro-shock Testing Data and SRS Level Prediction Methodology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mechanical separation through pyrotechnic shock is widely employed in space vehicle separation. These kinds of pyrotechnic shock devices produce transient loads with high levels of acceleration at different location of satellite. The prediction of acceleration level is significant for the definition of payload shock environment in the earlier design phase and selection of proper accelerometers in the test. This paper summarizes the shock response spectrum (SRS) from the pyrotechnical testing data of several typical satellites from the view points of distance from the source, complex equipment mount structure, etc. The empirical curve for the prediction possibility of pyrotechnic shock level is discussed. At first, the SRS distribution maps at the measure points were compared to understand the shock response environment which may differ from the distance attenuation from the shock source, effects of material and size of structural components, effects of joints and inserts of structural components, etc. Then, the paper discusses the prediction methodologies related to the empirical and extrapolation model presented by NASA-HDBK-7005 is compared to the testing data distribution of several satellites.

Shi, Qinzhong; Ando, Shigemasa; Seko, Hiromi; Nagahama, Kenta; Saegusa, Hiroshi

2004-08-01

496

Development of a Summarized Health Index (SHI) for Use in Predicting Survival in Sea Turtles.  

PubMed

Veterinary care plays an influential role in sea turtle rehabilitation, especially in endangered species. Physiological characteristics, hematological and plasma biochemistry profiles, are useful references for clinical management in animals, especially when animals are during the convalescence period. In this study, these factors associated with sea turtle surviving were analyzed. The blood samples were collected when sea turtles remained alive, and then animals were followed up for surviving status. The results indicated that significantly negative correlation was found between buoyancy disorders (BD) and sea turtle surviving (p < 0.05). Furthermore, non-surviving sea turtles had significantly higher levels of aspartate aminotranspherase (AST), creatinine kinase (CK), creatinine and uric acid (UA) than surviving sea turtles (all p < 0.05). After further analysis by multiple logistic regression model, only factors of BD, creatinine and UA were included in the equation for calculating summarized health index (SHI) for each individual. Through evaluation by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve, the result indicated that the area under curve was 0.920 ± 0.037, and a cut-off SHI value of 2.5244 showed 80.0% sensitivity and 86.7% specificity in predicting survival. Therefore, the developed SHI could be a useful index to evaluate health status of sea turtles and to improve veterinary care at rehabilitation facilities. PMID:25803431

Li, Tsung-Hsien; Chang, Chao-Chin; Cheng, I-Jiunn; Lin, Suen-Chuain

2015-01-01

497

Text Mining in Social Networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Social networks are rich in various kinds of contents such as text and multimedia. The ability to apply text mining algorithms effectively in the context of text data is critical for a wide variety of applications. Social networks require text mining algorithms for a wide variety of applications such as keyword search, classification, and clustering. While search and classification are well known applications for a wide variety of scenarios, social networks have a much richer structure both in terms of text and links. Much of the work in the area uses either purely the text content or purely the linkage structure. However, many recent algorithms use a combination of linkage and content information for mining purposes. In many cases, it turns out that the use of a combination of linkage and content information provides much more effective results than a system which is based purely on either of the two. This paper provides a survey of such algorithms, and the advantages observed by using such algorithms in different scenarios. We also present avenues for future research in this area.

Aggarwal, Charu C.; Wang, Haixun

498

Supporting the education evidence portal via text mining  

PubMed Central

The UK Education Evidence Portal (eep) provides a single, searchable, point of access to the contents of the websites of 33 organizations relating to education, with the aim of revolutionizing work practices for the education community. Use of the portal alleviates the need to spend time searching multiple resources to find relevant information. However, the combined content of the websites of interest is still very large (over 500?000 documents and growing). This means that searches using the portal can produce very large numbers of hits. As users often have limited time, they would benefit from enhanced methods of performing searches and viewing results, allowing them to drill down to information of interest more efficiently, without having to sift through potentially long lists of irrelevant documents. The Joint Information Systems Committee (JISC)-funded ASSIST project has produced a prototype web interface to demonstrate the applicability of integrating a number of text-mining tools and methods into the eep, to facilitate an enhanced searching, browsing and document-viewing experience. New features include automatic classification of documents according to a taxonomy, automatic clustering of search results according to similar document content, and automatic identification and highlighting of key terms within documents. PMID:20643679

Ananiadou, Sophia; Thompson, Paul; Thomas, James; Mu, Tingting; Oliver, Sandy; Rickinson, Mark; Sasaki, Yutaka; Weissenbacher, Davy; McNaught, John

2010-01-01

499

Metaphor Identification in Large Texts Corpora  

E-print Network

Identifying metaphorical language-use (e.g., sweet child) is one of the challenges facing natural language processing. This paper describes three novel algorithms for automatic metaphor identification. The algorithms are ...

Neuman, Yair

500

Text Format, Text Comprehension, and Related Reader Variables  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This investigation explored relationships between format of text (electronic or print-based) and reading comprehension of adolescent readers. Also in question were potential influences on comprehension from related measures including academic placement of participants, gender, prior knowledge of the content, and overall reading ability. Influences…

Nichols, Jodi L.

2009-01-01