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1

Automatic Text Structuring and Summarization  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, information retrieval techniques have been used for automatic generation of semantic hypertext links. This study applies the ideas from the automatic link generation research to attack another important problem in text processing—automatic text summarization. An automatic “general purpose” text summarization tool would be of immense utility in this age of information overload. Using the techniques used (by

Gerard Salton; Amit Singhal; Mandar Mitra; Chris Buckley

1997-01-01

2

Automatic Text Structuring and Summarization.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discussion of the use of information retrieval techniques for automatic generation of semantic hypertext links focuses on automatic text summarization. Topics include World Wide Web links, text segmentation, and evaluation of text summarization by comparing automatically generated abstracts with manually prepared abstracts. (Author/LRW)

Salton, Gerard; And Others

1997-01-01

3

A TURKISH AUTOMATIC TEXT SUMMARIZATION SYSTEM  

Microsoft Academic Search

The system developed in this study uses a Turkish text as input, and after the implementation of a sequence of procedures the summary results accomplishing the target sentence length. The study has been specialized to obtain more significant results for the articles on economic matters. We converted the context of all papers into HTML documents to provide the formal structures.

Zeynep Altan

4

Automatic Text Summarization Using a Machine Learning Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract. In this paper we address the automatic summarization task. Recent research works on extractive-summary generation employ some heuristics, but few works indicate how to select the relevant features. We will present a summarization procedure based on the application of trainable Machine Learning algorithms which employs a set of features extracted directly from the original text. These features are of

Joel Larocca Neto; Alex Alves Freitas; Celso A. A. Kaestner

2002-01-01

5

SABIO: A Biologically Plausible Connectionist Approach to Automatic Text Summarization  

Microsoft Academic Search

An implementation of a computational tool to generate new summaries from new source texts is presented, by means of the connectionist approach (artificial neural networks). Among other contributions that this work intends to bring to natural language processing research, the use of a more biologically plausible connectionist architecture and training for automatic summarization is emphasized. The choice relies on the

Télvio Orrú; João Luís Garcia Rosa; Márcio Luiz De Andrade Netto

2008-01-01

6

Automatic Analysis, Theme Generation, and Summarization of Machine-Readable Texts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vast amounts of text material are now available in machine-readable form for automatic processing. Here, approaches are outlined for manipulating and accessing texts in arbitrary subject areas in accordance with user needs. In particular, methods are given for determining text themes, traversing texts selectively, and extracting summary statements that reflect text content.

Gerard Salton; James Allan; Chris Buckley; Amit Singhal

1994-01-01

7

Using clustering and a modified classification algorithm for automatic text summarization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we describe a modified classification method destined for extractive summarization purpose. The classification in this method doesn't need a learning corpus; it uses the input text to do that. First, we cluster the document sentences to exploit the diversity of topics, then we use a learning algorithm (here we used Naive Bayes) on each cluster considering it as a class. After obtaining the classification model, we calculate the score of a sentence in each class, using a scoring model derived from classification algorithm. These scores are used, then, to reorder the sentences and extract the first ones as the output summary. We conducted some experiments using a corpus of scientific papers, and we have compared our results to another summarization system called UNIS.1 Also, we experiment the impact of clustering threshold tuning, on the resulted summary, as well as the impact of adding more features to the classifier. We found that this method is interesting, and gives good performance, and the addition of new features (which is simple using this method) can improve summary's accuracy.

Aries, Abdelkrime; Oufaida, Houda; Nouali, Omar

2013-01-01

8

Automated Text Summarization in SUMMARIST  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARIST is an attempt to create a robust automated text summarization system, based on the 'equation': summarization = topic identification + interpretation + generation. Each of these stages contains several independent modules, many of them trained on large corpora of text. We describe the system's architecture and provide details of some of its modules.

Eduard Hovy; Chin-Yew Lin

1999-01-01

9

Text summarization using a trainable summarizer and latent semantic analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes two approaches to address text summarization: modified corpus-based approach (MCBA) and LSA-based T.R.M. approach (LSA + T.R.M.). The first is a trainable summarizer, which takes into account several features, including position, positive keyword, negative keyword, centrality, and the resemblance to the title, to generate summaries. Two new ideas are exploited: (1) sentence positions are ranked to emphasize

Jen-yuan Yeh; Hao-ren Ke; Wei-pang Yang; I-heng Meng

2005-01-01

10

Statistical Automatic Summarization in Organic Chemistry  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present an oriented numerical summarizer algorithm, applied to producing automatic summaries of scientific documents in Organic Chemistry. We present its implementation named Yachs (Yet Another Chemistry Summarizer) that combines a specific document pre-processing with a sentence scoring method relying on the statistical properties of documents. We show that Yachs achieves the best results among several other summarizers on a

Florian Boudin; Patricia Velazquez-Morales; Juan Manuel Torres Moreno

2009-01-01

11

Recent Advances in Automatic Speech Summarization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Speech summarization technology, which extracts important information and removes irrelevant information from speech, is expected to play an important role in building speech archives and improving the efficiency of spoken document retrieval. However, speech summarization has a number of significant challenges that distinguish it from general text summarization. Fundamental problems with speech summarization include speech recognition errors, disfluencies, and difficulties

Sadaoki Furui

2007-01-01

12

RECENT ADVANCES IN AUTOMATIC SPEECH SUMMARIZATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Speech summarization technology, which extracts important information and removes irrelevant information from speech, is expected to play an important role in building speech archives and improving the efficiency of spoken document retrieval. However, speech summarization has a number of significant challenges that distinguish it from general text summarization. Fundamental problems with speech summarization include speech recognition errors, disfluencies, and difficulties

Sadaoki Furui

2006-01-01

13

Statistical Automatic Summarization in Organic Chemistry  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present an oriented numerical summarizer algorithm, applied to producing\\u000aautomatic summaries of scientific documents in Organic Chemistry. We present\\u000aits implementation named Yachs (Yet Another Chemistry Summarizer) that combines\\u000aa specific document pre-processing with a sentence scoring method relying on\\u000athe statistical properties of documents. We show that Yachs achieves the best\\u000aresults among several other summarizers on a

Florian Boudin; Patricia Velazquez-Morales; Juan-Manuel Torres-Moreno

2009-01-01

14

Automatic Text Processing for Spanish Texts  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work focuses on some aspects of automatic text processing by using a metric named po defined in a working prototype WIB (Web Intelligent Browser). The word weighting generated by this metric is defined with morphosyntactic considerations and allows the categorization of text words in fuzzy clusters. This weighting could also be used as a model of the original text

M. D. L. De Luise; Mariana Soffer

2008-01-01

15

An Efficient Statistical Approach for Automatic Organic Chemistry Summarization  

E-print Network

of Organic Chemistry articles. 1 Introduction Over 1.7 million new Chemistry articles were published in 20071An Efficient Statistical Approach for Automatic Organic Chemistry Summarization Florian Boudin1 for summa- rizing scientific documents in Organic Chemistry that concentrates on numerical treatments. We

Avignon et des Pays de Vaucluse, Université de

16

Generic text summarization using relevance measure and latent semantic analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we propose two generic text summarization methods that create text summaries by ranking and extracting sentences from the original documents. The first method uses standard IR methods to rank sentence relevances, while the second method uses the latent semantic analysis technique to identify semantically important sentences, for summary creations. Both methods strive to select sentences that are

Yihong Gong; Xin Liu

2001-01-01

17

Summarizing text documents: sentence selection and evaluation metrics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human-quality text summarization systems are difficult to design, and even more difficult to evaluate, in part because documents can differ along several dimensions, such as length, writing style and lexical usage. Nevertheless, certain cues can often help suggest the selection of sentences for inclusion in a summary. This paper presents our analysis of news-article summaries generated by sentence selection. Sentences

Jade Goldstein; Mark Kantrowitz; Vibhu O. Mittal; Jaime G. Carbonell

1999-01-01

18

Automatic segmentation of clinical texts.  

PubMed

Clinical narratives, such as radiology and pathology reports, are commonly available in electronic form. However, they are also commonly entered and stored as free text. Knowledge of the structure of clinical narratives is necessary for enhancing the productivity of healthcare departments and facilitating research. This study attempts to automatically segment medical reports into semantic sections. Our goal is to develop a robust and scalable medical report segmentation system requiring minimum user input for efficient retrieval and extraction of information from free-text clinical narratives. Hand-crafted rules were used to automatically identify a high-confidence training set. This automatically created training dataset was later used to develop metrics and an algorithm that determines the semantic structure of the medical reports. A word-vector cosine similarity metric combined with several heuristics was used to classify each report sentence into one of several pre-defined semantic sections. This baseline algorithm achieved 79% accuracy. A Support Vector Machine (SVM) classifier trained on additional formatting and contextual features was able to achieve 90% accuracy. Plans for future work include developing a configurable system that could accommodate various medical report formatting and content standards. PMID:19965054

Apostolova, Emilia; Channin, David S; Demner-Fushman, Dina; Furst, Jacob; Lytinen, Steven; Raicu, Daniela

2009-01-01

19

Explorations in Automatic Book Summarization Rada Mihalcea and Hakan Ceylan  

E-print Network

research car- ried out to date has been concerned with the summarization of short documents (e.g., news fraction of the electronic documents available online and elsewhere consist of short texts such as Web techniques to date has been on the automation of methods tar- geting short documents. We are witnessing

Mihalcea, Rada

20

Text Summarization Model based on Facility Location Problem  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

e propose a novel multi-document generic summarization model based on the budgeted median problem, which is a facility location problem. The summarization method based on our model is an extractive method, which selects sentences from the given document cluster and generates a summary. Each sentence in the document cluster will be assigned to one of the selected sentences, where the former sentece is supposed to be represented by the latter. Our method selects sentences to generate a summary that yields a good sentence assignment and hence covers the whole content of the document cluster. An advantage of this method is that it can incorporate asymmetric relations between sentences such as textual entailment. Through experiments, we showed that the proposed method yields good summaries on the dataset of DUC'04.

Takamura, Hiroya; Okumura, Manabu

21

An Efficient Statistical Approach for Automatic Organic Chemistry Summarization  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we propose an efficient strategy for summarizing scientific documents in Organic Chemistry that concentrates\\u000a on numerical treatments. We present its implementation named yachs (Yet Another Chemistry Summarizer) that combines a specific document pre-processing with a sentence scoring method relying\\u000a on the statistical properties of documents. We show that yachs achieves the best results among several other summarizers

Florian Boudin; Juan Manuel Torres Moreno; Patricia Velázquez-morales

2008-01-01

22

Text Summarization for Oil and Gas Drilling Topic  

Microsoft Academic Search

Information sharing and gathering are important in the rapid advancement era of technology. The existence of WWW has caused rapid growth of information explosion. Readers are overloaded with too many lengthy text documents in which they are more interested in shorter versions. Oil and gas industry could not escape from this predicament. In this paper, we develop an Automated Text

Y. Y. Chen; O. M. Foong; S. P. Yong; Kurniawan Iwan

2008-01-01

23

! -..///+ + +,.0 This text first summarizes what can be the respective  

E-print Network

world. On tests we carried out, we discovered that users, novices as well as experienced ones have company and describe most often collisions between two vehicles. We could animate scenes, coordinate descriptions. Such animation would have been difficult using classical interaction devices. The text describes

Nugues, Pierre

24

Automatic Text Decomposition and Structuring  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sophisticated text similarity measurements are used to determine relationships between natural-language texts and text excerpts. The resulting linked hypertext maps can be decomposed into text segments and text themes, and these decompositions are usable to identify different text types and text structures, leading to improved text access and utilization. Examples of text decomposition are given for expository and non-expository texts.

Gerard Salton; James Allan; Amit Singhal

1996-01-01

25

Text2arff: Automatic feature extraction software for Turkish texts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Which features are the most important for the text classification tasks? In the automatic text categorization area, several studies seek answers to this question. In this paper, a feature extraction tool for Turkish texts (Text2arff) is presented. The toolbox automatically extracts several features such as the frequencies of the words and ngrams, word clustering, Latent semantic indexing etc. The features

M. F. Amasyali; F. Davletov; A. I. Torayew; U. C?iftçi

2010-01-01

26

Automatic Text Decomposition and Structuring.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Text similarity measurements are used to determine relationships between natural-language texts and text excerpts. The resulting linked hypertext maps can be broken down into text segments and themes used to identify different text types and structures, leading to improved information access and utilization. Examples are provided for text

Salton, Gerard; And Others

1996-01-01

27

Mining reference tables for automatic text segmentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Automatically segmenting unstructured text strings into structured records is necessary for importing the information contained in legacy sources and text collections into a data warehouse for subsequent querying, analysis, mining and integration. In this paper, we mine tables present in data warehouses and relational databases to develop an automatic segmentation system. Thus, we overcome limitations of existing supervised text segmentation

Eugene Agichtein; Venkatesh Ganti

2004-01-01

28

COLING 2014 Automatic Text Simplification  

E-print Network

people with disabilities, the elderly and migrants. However, due to the ambiguity and complexity to disabilities, or who have to read texts in a language they do not have a good command of. In all these cases

29

Automatic text decomposition using text segments and text themes  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the widespread use of full-text information retrieval,passage-retrieval techniques are becoming increasinglypopular. Larger texts can then be replacedby important text excerpts, thereby simplifying the retrievaltask and improving retrieval effectiveness. Passagelevelevidence about the use of words in local contextsis also useful for resolving language ambiguities and improvingretrieval output.Two main text decomposition strategies are introducedin this study, including a...

Gerard Salton; Amit Singhal; Chris Buckley; Mandar Mitra

1996-01-01

30

Automatic Analysis and Annotation of Literary Texts  

E-print Network

]) that computer based literary critic is still relying on studies of concordances as traditionally intended since elements The critical study of a literary work usually starts from the identification and the analysisAutomatic Analysis and Annotation of Literary Texts R. Basili (), A. Di Stefano (), R. Gigliucci

Moschitti, Alessandro

31

Automatic Video Summarization by Affinity Propagation Clustering and Semantic Content Mining  

Microsoft Academic Search

Video summarization has become an indispensable tool of any practical video content management system in large volume video data. In this paper, we propose a novel approach to automatically generate the video summary for broadcast news videos. Firstly, videos are pre-processed by shot detection, key frame extraction, and story segmentation. Then, a clustering algorithm based on affinity propagation (AP) is

Xiao-neng Xie; Fei Wu

2008-01-01

32

Automatically categorizing written texts by author gender  

Microsoft Academic Search

The problem of automatically determining the gender of a\\u000a document's author would appear to be a more subtle problem\\u000a than those of categorization by topic or authorship\\u000a attribution. Nevertheless, it is shown that automated text\\u000a categorization techniques can exploit combinations of\\u000a simple lexical and syntactic features to infer the gender\\u000a of the author of an unseen formal written document with

Moshe Koppel; Shlomo Argamon; Anat R. Shimoni

2002-01-01

33

Text Summarization Model based on Maximum Coverage Problem and its Variant  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We discuss text summarization in terms of maximum coverage problem and its variant. To solve the optimization problem, we applied some decoding algorithms including the ones never used in this summarization formulation, such as a greedy algorithm with performance guarantee, a randomized algorithm, and a branch-and-bound method. We conduct comparative experiments. On the basis of the experimental results, we also augment the summarization model so that it takes into account the relevance to the document cluster. Through experiments, we showed that the augmented model is at least comparable to the best-performing method of DUC'04.

Takamura, Hiroya; Okumura, Manabu

34

Another look at automatic text-retrieval systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evidence from available studies comparing manual and automatic text-retrieval systems does not support the conclusion that intellectual content analysis produces better results than comparable automatic systems.

Gerard Salton

1986-01-01

35

Segmentation Of Automatically Transcribed Broadcast News Text  

Microsoft Academic Search

Expertise in the automatic transcription of broadcast speechhas progressed to the point of being able to use the resulting transcriptsfor information retrieval purposes. In this paper, we describethe Segmentation system used by Dragon Systems in theSegmentation task of the 1998 TDT evaluation, highlighting improvementsmade since the September 1998 dryrun. Segmentationof closed-caption and human transcripts of news is contrasted withthe results

P. Van Mulbregt; I. Carp; L. Gillick; S. Lowe; J. Yamron Dragon

1999-01-01

36

Presentation video retrieval using automatically recovered slide and spoken text  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Video is becoming a prevalent medium for e-learning. Lecture videos contain text information in both the presentation slides and lecturer's speech. This paper examines the relative utility of automatically recovered text from these sources for lecture video retrieval. To extract the visual information, we automatically detect slides within the videos and apply optical character recognition to obtain their text. Automatic speech recognition is used similarly to extract spoken text from the recorded audio. We perform controlled experiments with manually created ground truth for both the slide and spoken text from more than 60 hours of lecture video. We compare the automatically extracted slide and spoken text in terms of accuracy relative to ground truth, overlap with one another, and utility for video retrieval. Results reveal that automatically recovered slide text and spoken text contain different content with varying error profiles. Experiments demonstrate that automatically extracted slide text enables higher precision video retrieval than automatically recovered spoken text.

Cooper, Matthew

2013-03-01

37

DiffNet: Automatic differential functional summarization of dE-MAP networks.  

PubMed

The study of genetic interaction networks that respond to changing conditions is an emerging research problem. Recently, Bandyopadhyay et al. (2010) proposed a technique to construct a differential network (dE-MAPnetwork) from two static gene interaction networks in order to map the interaction differences between them under environment or condition change (e.g., DNA-damaging agent). This differential network is then manually analyzed to conclude that DNA repair is differentially effected by the condition change. Unfortunately, manual construction of differential functional summary from a dE-MAP network that summarizes all pertinent functional responses is time-consuming, laborious and error-prone, impeding large-scale analysis on it. To this end, we propose DiffNet, a novel data-driven algorithm that leverages Gene Ontology (go) annotations to automatically summarize a dE-MAP network to obtain a high-level map of functional responses due to condition change. We tested DiffNet on the dynamic interaction networks following MMS treatment and demonstrated the superiority of our approach in generating differential functional summaries compared to state-of-the-art graph clustering methods. We studied the effects of parameters in DiffNet in controlling the quality of the summary. We also performed a case study that illustrates its utility. PMID:25009128

Seah, Boon-Siew; Bhowmick, Sourav S; Dewey, C Forbes

2014-10-01

38

On the application of syntactic methodologies in automatic text analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study summarizes various linguistic approaches proposed for document analysis in information retrieval environments. Included are standard syntactic methods to generate complex content identifiers, and the use of semantic know-how obtained from machine-readable dictionaries and from specially constructed knowledge bases. A particular syntactic analysis methodology is also outlined and its usefulness for the automatic construction of book indexes is examined.

Gerard Salton; Maria Smith

1989-01-01

39

Hierarchical bayesian clustering for automatic text classification  

E-print Network

Text classification, the grouping of texts into several clusters, has been used as a means of improving both the efficiency and the effective-Dess of text retrieval/categorization In this paper we propose a hierarchical clustering algorithm that constructs a Bet of clusters having the maximum Bayesian posterior probability, the probability that the given texts are classified into clusters We call the algorithm Hierarchical Bayesian Clustering (HBC) The advantages of HBC are experimentally verified from several viewpoints (1) HBC can re-construct the original clusters more accurately than do other non probabilistic algorithms (2) When

Makoto Iwayama

1995-01-01

40

Automatically classifying case texts and predicting outcomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Work on a computer program called SMILE + IBP (SMart Index Learner Plus Issue-Based Prediction) bridges case-based reasoning\\u000a and extracting information from texts. The program addresses a technologically challenging task that is also very relevant\\u000a from a legal viewpoint: to extract information from textual descriptions of the facts of decided cases and apply that information\\u000a to predict the outcomes of new cases.

Kevin D. Ashley; Stefanie Brüninghaus

2009-01-01

41

Recent Studies in Automatic Text Analysis and Document Retrieval  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many experts in mechanized text processing now agree that useful automatic language analysis procedures are largely unavailable and that the existing linguistic methodologies generally produce disappointing results. An attempt is made in the present study to identify those automatic procedures which appear most effective as a replacement for the missing language analysis.A series of computer experiments is described, designed to

Gerard Salton

1973-01-01

42

Automatic Scene Text Recognition using a Convolutional Neural Network  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an automatic recognition method for color text characters extracted from scene images, which is robust to strong distortions, complex background, low res- olution and non uniform lightning. Based on a specific ar- chitecture of convolutional neural networks, the proposed system automatically learns how to recognize characters without making any assumptions, without applying any pre- processing or post-processing

Zohra Saidane; Christophe Garcia

43

The process of summarization in the pre-processing stage in order to improve measurement of texts when clustering  

E-print Network

dimensionality, a problem that is inherent to Text Mining. In the knowledge extraction, the texts are clustered of including summarization in the process of text clusterization. The experiments conducted in this study indicate that text clusterization using summaries is in fact much more effective than direct clusterization

Branco, António Horta

44

Effects of Presentation Mode and Computer Familiarity on Summarization of Extended Texts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Comparability studies on computer- and paper-based reading tests have focused on short texts and selected-response items via almost exclusively statistical modeling of test performance. The psychological effects of presentation mode and computer familiarity on individual students are underresearched. In this study, 157 students read extended English texts, presented on computer or in print, and then wrote summaries on paper in

Guoxing Yu

2010-01-01

45

Individual Differences in Reading To Summarize Expository Text: Evidence from Eye Fixation Patterns.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Eye fixation patterns were used to identify reading strategies of adults as they read multiple-topic expository texts. A clustering technique distinguished four strategies that differed with respect to the ways in which readers processed text. Findings indicated that qualitatively distinct reading strategies are observable among competent, adult…

Hyona, Jukka; Lorch, Robert F., Jr.; Kaakinen, Johanna K.

2002-01-01

46

Automatic Acquisition of Taxonomies from Text: FCA meets NLP  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a novel approach to the automatic acquisition of taxonomies or concept hierarchies from domain-specific texts based on Formal Concept Analy- sis (FCA). Our approach is based on the assumption that verbs pose more or less strong selectional restrictions on their ar- guments. The conceptual hierarchy is then built on the basis of the inclusion rela- tions between the

Philipp Cimiano; Steffen Staab

2003-01-01

47

Towards automatic detection of antisocial behavior from texts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The automatic analysis of emotional content of text has become pervasive and has been applied in many fields of research. The work reported in this paper is in particular interest- ed in modeling antisocial behavior and the emotional states that define it. We introduce the antisocial behavior detection (ASBD) model for portraying the emotions pertaining to antisocial behavior. In addition

Myriam Munezero; Tuomo Kakkonen; Calkin S. Montero

2011-01-01

48

Automatic Text Reduction For Changing Size Constraints Lance Good1  

E-print Network

Automatic Text Reduction For Changing Size Constraints Lance Good1 , Benjamin B. Bederson2 , Mark +1 650 812 4661 {good,stefik,baudisch}@parc.xerox.com 2 Human Computer Interaction Lab University], authors often organize short notes using spatial arrange- ments, for example to make sense of material

Baudisch, Patrick

49

Term-Weighting Approaches in Automatic Text Retrieval.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Summarizes the experimental evidence that indicates that text indexing systems based on the assignment of appropriately weighted single terms produce retrieval results superior to those obtained with more elaborate text representations, and provides baseline single term indexing models with which more elaborate content analysis procedures can be…

Salton, Gerard; Buckley, Christopher

1988-01-01

50

Mood avatar: automatic text-driven head motion synthesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Natural head motion is an indispensable part of realistic facial animation. This paper presents a novel approach to synthesize natural head motion automatically based on grammatical and prosodic features, which are extracted by the text analysis part of a Chinese Text-to-Speech (TTS) system. A two-layer clustering method is proposed to determine elementary head motion patterns from a multimodal database which

Kaihui Mu; Jianhua Tao; Jianfeng Che; Minghao Yang

2010-01-01

51

Automatic inpainting scheme for video text detection and removal.  

PubMed

We present a two stage framework for automatic video text removal to detect and remove embedded video texts and fill-in their remaining regions by appropriate data. In the video text detection stage, text locations in each frame are found via an unsupervised clustering performed on the connected components produced by the stroke width transform (SWT). Since SWT needs an accurate edge map, we develop a novel edge detector which benefits from the geometric features revealed by the bandlet transform. Next, the motion patterns of the text objects of each frame are analyzed to localize video texts. The detected video text regions are removed, then the video is restored by an inpainting scheme. The proposed video inpainting approach applies spatio-temporal geometric flows extracted by bandlets to reconstruct the missing data. A 3D volume regularization algorithm, which takes advantage of bandlet bases in exploiting the anisotropic regularities, is introduced to carry out the inpainting task. The method does not need extra processes to satisfy visual consistency. The experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of both our proposed video text detection approach and the video completion technique, and consequently the entire automatic video text removal and restoration process. PMID:24057006

Mosleh, Ali; Bouguila, Nizar; Ben Hamza, Abdessamad

2013-11-01

52

Toward a multi-sensor neural net approach to automatic text classification  

SciTech Connect

Many automatic text indexing and retrieval methods use a term-document matrix that is automatically derived from the text in question. Latent Semantic Indexing, a recent method for approximating large term-document matrices, appears to be quite useful in the problem of text information retrieval, rather than text classification. Here we outline a method that attempts to combine the strength of the LSI method with that of neural networks, in addressing the problem of text classification. In doing so, we also indicate ways to improve performance by adding additional {open_quotes}logical sensors{close_quotes} to the neural network, something that is hard to do with the LSI method when employed by itself. Preliminary results are summarized, but much work remains to be done.

Dasigi, V. [Sacred Heart Univ., Fairfield, CT (United States). Department of Computer Science and Information Technology; Mann, R. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, TN (United States)

1996-01-26

53

Image-based mobile service: automatic text extraction and translation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a new mobile service for the translation of text from images taken by consumer-grade cell-phone cameras. Such capability represents a new paradigm for users where a simple image provides the basis for a service. The ubiquity and ease of use of cell-phone cameras enables acquisition and transmission of images anywhere and at any time a user wishes, delivering rapid and accurate translation over the phone's MMS and SMS facilities. Target text is extracted completely automatically, requiring no bounding box delineation or related user intervention. The service uses localization, binarization, text deskewing, and optical character recognition (OCR) in its analysis. Once the text is translated, an SMS message is sent to the user with the result. Further novelties include that no software installation is required on the handset, any service provider or camera phone can be used, and the entire service is implemented on the server side.

Berclaz, Jérôme; Bhatti, Nina; Simske, Steven J.; Schettino, John C.

2010-01-01

54

Movie review mining and summarization  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the ?ourish of the Web, online review is becoming a more and more useful and important information resource for people. As a result, automatic review mining and sum- marizing has become a hot research topic recently. Difier- ent from traditional text summarization, review mining and summarizing aims at extracting the features on which the re- viewers express their opinions

Li Zhuang; Feng Jing; Xiao-Yan Zhu

2006-01-01

55

Automatic Sublanguage Identification for a New Text Satoshi SEKINE  

E-print Network

by the domain or context. Furthermore, there are some successful NLP systems which have explicitly or implicitly for future NLP research: 1) automatic linguistic knowledge acquisition for sublanguage, and 2) automatic, there are few on the second objective. If this objective is achieved, NLP systems will be able to optimize

56

Automatic structuring of radiology free-text reports.  

PubMed

A natural language processor was developed that automatically structures the important medical information (eg, the existence, properties, location, and diagnostic interpretation of findings) contained in a radiology free-text document as a formal information model that can be interpreted by a computer program. The input to the system is a free-text report from a radiologic study. The system requires no reporting style changes on the part of the radiologist. Statistical and machine learning methods are used extensively throughout the system. A graphical user interface has been developed that allows the creation of hand-tagged training examples. Various aspects of the difficult problem of implementing an automated structured reporting system have been addressed, and the relevant technology is progressing well. Extensible Markup Language is emerging as the preferred syntactic standard for representing and distributing these structured reports within a clinical environment. Early successes hold out hope that similar statistically based models of language will allow deep understanding of textual reports. The success of these statistical methods will depend on the availability of large numbers of high-quality training examples for each radiologic subdomain. The acceptability of automated structured reporting systems will ultimately depend on the results of comprehensive evaluations. PMID:11158658

Taira, R K; Soderland, S G; Jakobovits, R M

2001-01-01

57

A Theory of Term Importance in Automatic Text Analysis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Most existing automatic content analysis and indexing techniques are based on work frequency characteristics applied largely in an ad hoc manner. Contradictory requirements arise in this connection, in that terms exhibiting high occurrence frequencies in individual documents are often useful for high recall performance (to retrieve many relevant…

Salton, G.; And Others

58

Toward a multi-sensor-based approach to automatic text classification  

SciTech Connect

Many automatic text indexing and retrieval methods use a term-document matrix that is automatically derived from the text in question. Latent Semantic Indexing is a method, recently proposed in the Information Retrieval (IR) literature, for approximating a large and sparse term-document matrix with a relatively small number of factors, and is based on a solid mathematical foundation. LSI appears to be quite useful in the problem of text information retrieval, rather than text classification. In this report, we outline a method that attempts to combine the strength of the LSI method with that of neural networks, in addressing the problem of text classification. In doing so, we also indicate ways to improve performance by adding additional {open_quotes}logical sensors{close_quotes} to the neural network, something that is hard to do with the LSI method when employed by itself. The various programs that can be used in testing the system with TIPSTER data set are described. Preliminary results are summarized, but much work remains to be done.

Dasigi, V.R. [Sacred Heart Univ., Fairfield, CT (United States); Mann, R.C. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

1995-10-01

59

On the Application of Syntactic Methodologies in Automatic Text Analysis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Summarizes various linguistic approaches proposed for document analysis in information retrieval environments. Topics discussed include syntactic analysis; use of machine-readable dictionary information; knowledge base construction; the PLNLP English Grammar (PEG) system; phrase normalization; and statistical and syntactic phrase evaluation used…

Salton, Gerard; And Others

1990-01-01

60

How much noise is too much: {A} study in automatic text classification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Noise is a stark reality in real life data. Especially in the domain of text analytics, it has a significant impact as data cleaning forms a very large part of the data processing cycle. Noisy unstructured text is common in informal settings such as on-line chat, SMS, email, newsgroups and blogs, automatically transcribed text from speech, and automatically recognized text

Sumeet Agarwal; Shantanu Godbole; Diwakar Punjani; Shourya Roy

2007-01-01

61

Automatic Classification of Text Databases through Query Probing  

E-print Network

of text databases accessible on the web. 1. INTRODUCTION Text databases abound on the Internet. Sometimes. Some sites have started in the last few years to provide such services. For ex- ample, InvisibleWeb 1

Gravano, Luis

62

The Effects of Teaching a Genre-Specific Reading Comprehension Strategy on Struggling Fifth Grade Students' Ability to Summarize and Analyze Argumentative Texts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the effectiveness of instruction in a genre-specific reading comprehension strategy, "Critical Analysis of Argumentative Text" (CAAT), which was designed to help students to identify, summarize and critically analyze parts of argumentative text. Based on the premise that reading and writing require similar knowledge of text

Haria, Priti Damji

2010-01-01

63

CUCS00400 Automatic Classification of Text Databases Through Query Probing  

E-print Network

characterize the contents of text databases accessible on the web. 1 Introduction Text databases abound to these databases. Some sites have started in the last two years to provide such services. For example, InvisibleWeb 1 and SearchEngine Guide 2 classify various search engines into a hierarchical classification scheme

64

Automatic Processing of Japanese Text Data Based on the Occurrence Frequency Distributions of Kanji  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The possibility of use of the occurrence frequency distribution of Kanji for automatic indexing and automatic classification of Japanese texts is investigated. This idea is founded on the understanding that it is usually difficult to separate a Japanese text into words automatically and that most keywords in a Japanese text involve Kanji. The concept of 'subject discriminative power' of Kanji is introduced and the Kanji of high discriminative power both in each subfield and as a whole of the electric engineering field are given based on the frequency distributions of Kanji in the JICST File. Experiments of automatic classification and automatic indexing for a sample document collection were carried out by using Kanji of high discriminative power in the documents. It was concluded that the utilization of frequency distribution data of Kanji is significantly effective for automatic processing of Japanese texts but insufficient with Kanji data alone.

Hosono, Kimio; Harada, Takashi; Umeda, Shigeki; Morohashi, Masayuki; Goto, Tomonori; Moriya, Satoru

65

Automatic Classification of Text Databases through Query Probing  

E-print Network

databases accessible on the web. 1. INTRODUCTION Text databases abound on the Internet. Sometimes users can started in the last few years to provide such services. For ex- ample, InvisibleWeb1 and Search

Sahami, Mehran

66

AN EVALUATION OF EXISTING AND NEW FEATURE SELECTION METRICS IN AUTOMATIC TEXT CATEGORIZATION  

E-print Network

I AN EVALUATION OF EXISTING AND NEW FEATURE SELECTION METRICS IN AUTOMATIC TEXT CATEGORIZATION AND NEW FEATURE SELECTION METRICS IN AUTOMATIC TEXT CATEGORIZATION APPROVED BY: Assoc. Prof. Tunga Güngör thesis jury and giving me feedback about the thesis. I am also grateful to T�B TAK-B DEB for awarding me

Güngör, Tunga

67

A Pretopological Framework for the Automatic Construction of Lexical-Semantic Structures from Texts  

E-print Network

into a lexical-semantic structure may enrich the rea- soning capabilities of Information Retrieval and NaturalA Pretopological Framework for the Automatic Construction of Lexical-Semantic Structures from Texts for the automatic generation of lexical-semantic structures from texts. In par- ticular, we propose a pretopological

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

68

High compression rate text summarization  

E-print Network

This thesis focuses on methods for condensing large documents into highly concise summaries, achieving compression rates on par with human writers. While the need for such summaries in the current age of information overload ...

Branavan, Satchuthananthavale Rasiah Kuhan

2008-01-01

69

Video Summarization with SOMs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Video summarization is a process where a long video file is converted to a considerably shorter form. The video summary can then be used to facilitate efficient searching and browsing of video files in large video collec- tions. The aim of successful automatic summarization is to preserve as much as possible from the essential content of each video. What is

Jorma Laaksonen; Ville Viitaniemi; Hannes Muurinen

2007-01-01

70

Automatic Quality Assessment of SRS Text by Means of a Decision-Tree-Based Text Classifier  

E-print Network

believe that, with proper training, such a text classification system will prove to be of immense benefit as an input to the design, coding and testing phases. The quality assessment of SRS documents often takes of Requirements Through Flash Animation Accepted by Client? Write SRS Yes Yes No No Interview

Kosseim, Leila

71

Automatic text structuring and retrieval-experiments in automatic encyclopedia searching  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many conventional approaches to text analysis and informationretrieval prove ineffective when large textcollections must be processed in heterogeneous subjectareas. An alternative text manipulation systemis outlined useful for the retrieval of large heterogeneoustexts, and for the recognition of content similaritiesbetween text excerpts, based on flexible textmatching procedures carried out in several contexts ofdifferent scope. The methods are illustrated by searchexperiments...

Gerard Salton; Chris Buckley

1991-01-01

72

Towards CST-Enhanced Summarization  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we propose to enhance the process of automatic extractive multi-document text summarization by taking into account cross-document structural relationships as posited in Cross-document Structure Theory (CST). An arbitrary multi- document extract can be CST-enhanced by replacing low- salience sentences with other sentences that increase the total number of CST relationships included in the summary. We show that

Zhu Zhang; Sasha Blair-goldensohn; Dragomir R. Radev

2002-01-01

73

Multi-documents Automatic Abstracting based on text clustering and semantic analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method of realization of multi-documents Automatic Abstracting based on text clustering and semantic analysis is brought forward, aimed at overcoming shortages of some current methods about multi-documents. The method makes use of semantic analysis and can realize Automatic Abstracting of multi-documents. The algorithm of twice word segmentation based on the title and first-sentences in paragraphs is brought forward. Its

Qinglin Guo; Ming Zhang

2009-01-01

74

Supporting Efficient and Reliable Content Analysis using Automatic Text Processing Technology  

E-print Network

Supporting Efficient and Reliable Content Analysis using Automatic Text Processing Technology,nueckles}@psychologie.uni-freiburg.de Abstract. Text categorization technology can be used to streamline the process of content analysis that are currently being used for HCI research and practice do not make use of it. Here, we empirically evaluate

Rose, Carolyn Penstein

75

Automatic Derivation of Surface Text Patterns for a Maximum Entropy Based Question Answering System  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we investigate the use of surface text patterns for a Maximum Entropy based Question Answering (QA) system. These text patterns are collected automatically in an unsupervised fashion using a collection of trivia question and answer pairs as seeds. These patterns are used to generate features for a statistical question answering system. We report our results on the

Deepak Ravichandran; Abraham Ittycheriah; Salim Roukos

2003-01-01

76

Automatically Producing Plot Unit Representations for Narrative Text Dept. of Computer Science  

E-print Network

to positive, negative, and mental affect states. AESOP uses affect projection rules to map the affect statesAutomatically Producing Plot Unit Representations for Narrative Text Amit Goyal Dept. of Computer representations for narrative text. We create a system called AESOP that exploits a variety of existing resources

Daume III, Hal

77

Automatic Grammar Induction and Parsing Free Text: A Transformation-Based Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we describe a new technique for parsing free text: a transformational grammar is automatically learned that is capable of accurately parsing text into binary-branching syntactic trees with nonterminals unlabelled. The algorithm works by beginning in a very naive state of knowledge about phrase structure. By repeatedly comparing the results of bracketing in the current state to proper

Eric Brill

1993-01-01

78

Using Linguistic Cues for the Automatic Recognition of Personality in Conversation and Text  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is well known that utterances convey a great deal of information about the speaker in addition to their semantic content. One such type of information consists of cues to the speaker's personality traits, the most fundamental dimension of variation between humans. Recent work explores the automatic detection of other types of pragmatic variation in text and conversation, such as

François Mairesse; Marilyn A. Walker; Matthias R. Mehl; Roger K. Moore

2007-01-01

79

Genetic Algorithm-based Text Clustering Technique: Automatic Evolution of Clusters with High Efficiency  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we propose a modified variable string length genetic algorithm (MVGA) for text clustering. Our algorithm has been exploited for automatically evolving the optimal number of clusters as well as providing proper data set clustering. The chromosome is encoded by a string of real numbers with special indices to indicate the location of each gene. More effective versions

Wei Song; Soon Cheol Park

2006-01-01

80

Automatic Evaluation of Search Ontologies in the Entertainment Domain using Text  

E-print Network

Automatic Evaluation of Search Ontologies in the Entertainment Domain using Text Classification with the domain or not have decided what is the goal of his query. A popular tool to support exploratory search by metadata in the form of attributes and hi- erarchical categories. In many applications, the metadata

Elhadad, Michael

81

Automatic vs. manual curation of a multi-source chemical dictionary: the impact on text mining  

PubMed Central

Background Previously, we developed a combined dictionary dubbed Chemlist for the identification of small molecules and drugs in text based on a number of publicly available databases and tested it on an annotated corpus. To achieve an acceptable recall and precision we used a number of automatic and semi-automatic processing steps together with disambiguation rules. However, it remained to be investigated which impact an extensive manual curation of a multi-source chemical dictionary would have on chemical term identification in text. ChemSpider is a chemical database that has undergone extensive manual curation aimed at establishing valid chemical name-to-structure relationships. Results We acquired the component of ChemSpider containing only manually curated names and synonyms. Rule-based term filtering, semi-automatic manual curation, and disambiguation rules were applied. We tested the dictionary from ChemSpider on an annotated corpus and compared the results with those for the Chemlist dictionary. The ChemSpider dictionary of ca. 80 k names was only a 1/3 to a 1/4 the size of Chemlist at around 300 k. The ChemSpider dictionary had a precision of 0.43 and a recall of 0.19 before the application of filtering and disambiguation and a precision of 0.87 and a recall of 0.19 after filtering and disambiguation. The Chemlist dictionary had a precision of 0.20 and a recall of 0.47 before the application of filtering and disambiguation and a precision of 0.67 and a recall of 0.40 after filtering and disambiguation. Conclusions We conclude the following: (1) The ChemSpider dictionary achieved the best precision but the Chemlist dictionary had a higher recall and the best F-score; (2) Rule-based filtering and disambiguation is necessary to achieve a high precision for both the automatically generated and the manually curated dictionary. ChemSpider is available as a web service at http://www.chemspider.com/ and the Chemlist dictionary is freely available as an XML file in Simple Knowledge Organization System format on the web at http://www.biosemantics.org/chemlist. PMID:20331846

2010-01-01

82

Challenges for automatically extracting molecular interactions from full-text articles  

PubMed Central

Background The increasing availability of full-text biomedical articles will allow more biomedical knowledge to be extracted automatically with greater reliability. However, most Information Retrieval (IR) and Extraction (IE) tools currently process only abstracts. The lack of corpora has limited the development of tools that are capable of exploiting the knowledge in full-text articles. As a result, there has been little investigation into the advantages of full-text document structure, and the challenges developers will face in processing full-text articles. Results We manually annotated passages from full-text articles that describe interactions summarised in a Molecular Interaction Map (MIM). Our corpus tracks the process of identifying facts to form the MIM summaries and captures any factual dependencies that must be resolved to extract the fact completely. For example, a fact in the results section may require a synonym defined in the introduction. The passages are also annotated with negated and coreference expressions that must be resolved. We describe the guidelines for identifying relevant passages and possible dependencies. The corpus includes 2162 sentences from 78 full-text articles. Our corpus analysis demonstrates the necessity of full-text processing; identifies the article sections where interactions are most commonly stated; and quantifies the proportion of interaction statements requiring coherent dependencies. Further, it allows us to report on the relative importance of identifying synonyms and resolving negated expressions. We also experiment with an oracle sentence retrieval system using the corpus as a gold-standard evaluation set. Conclusion We introduce the MIM corpus, a unique resource that maps interaction facts in a MIM to annotated passages within full-text articles. It is an invaluable case study providing guidance to developers of biomedical IR and IE systems, and can be used as a gold-standard evaluation set for full-text IR tasks. PMID:19778419

McIntosh, Tara; Curran, James R

2009-01-01

83

Extractive summarization using complex networks and syntactic dependency  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The realization that statistical physics methods can be applied to analyze written texts represented as complex networks has led to several developments in natural language processing, including automatic summarization and evaluation of machine translation. Most importantly, so far only a few metrics of complex networks have been used and therefore there is ample opportunity to enhance the statistics-based methods as new measures of network topology and dynamics are created. In this paper, we employ for the first time the metrics betweenness, vulnerability and diversity to analyze written texts in Brazilian Portuguese. Using strategies based on diversity metrics, a better performance in automatic summarization is achieved in comparison to previous work employing complex networks. With an optimized method the Rouge score (an automatic evaluation method used in summarization) was 0.5089, which is the best value ever achieved for an extractive summarizer with statistical methods based on complex networks for Brazilian Portuguese. Furthermore, the diversity metric can detect keywords with high precision, which is why we believe it is suitable to produce good summaries. It is also shown that incorporating linguistic knowledge through a syntactic parser does enhance the performance of the automatic summarizers, as expected, but the increase in the Rouge score is only minor. These results reinforce the suitability of complex network methods for improving automatic summarizers in particular, and treating text in general.

Amancio, Diego R.; Nunes, Maria G. V.; Oliveira, Osvaldo N.; Costa, Luciano da F.

2012-02-01

84

Automatic extraction of property norm-like data from large text corpora.  

PubMed

Traditional methods for deriving property-based representations of concepts from text have focused on either extracting only a subset of possible relation types, such as hyponymy/hypernymy (e.g., car is-a vehicle) or meronymy/metonymy (e.g., car has wheels), or unspecified relations (e.g., car--petrol). We propose a system for the challenging task of automatic, large-scale acquisition of unconstrained, human-like property norms from large text corpora, and discuss the theoretical implications of such a system. We employ syntactic, semantic, and encyclopedic information to guide our extraction, yielding concept-relation-feature triples (e.g., car be fast, car require petrol, car cause pollution), which approximate property-based conceptual representations. Our novel method extracts candidate triples from parsed corpora (Wikipedia and the British National Corpus) using syntactically and grammatically motivated rules, then reweights triples with a linear combination of their frequency and four statistical metrics. We assess our system output in three ways: lexical comparison with norms derived from human-generated property norm data, direct evaluation by four human judges, and a semantic distance comparison with both WordNet similarity data and human-judged concept similarity ratings. Our system offers a viable and performant method of plausible triple extraction: Our lexical comparison shows comparable performance to the current state-of-the-art, while subsequent evaluations exhibit the human-like character of our generated properties. PMID:25019134

Kelly, Colin; Devereux, Barry; Korhonen, Anna

2014-01-01

85

Exploring the Effects of Multimedia Learning on Pre-Service Teachers' Perceived and Actual Learning Performance: The Use of Embedded Summarized Texts in Educational Media  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In light of the increased usage of instructional media for teaching and learning, the design of these media as aids to convey the content for learning can be crucial for effective learning outcomes. In this vein, the literature has given attention to how concurrent on-screen text can be designed using these media to enhance learning performance.…

Wu, Leon Yufeng; Yamanaka, Akio

2013-01-01

86

Automatic correction of grammatical errors in non-native English text  

E-print Network

Learning a foreign language requires much practice outside of the classroom. Computer-assisted language learning systems can help fill this need, and one desirable capability of such systems is the automatic correction of ...

Lee, John Sie Yuen, 1977-

2009-01-01

87

Texting  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With the increasing ranks of cell phone ownership is an increase in text messaging, or texting. During 2008, more than 2.5 trillion text messages were sent worldwide--that's an average of more than 400 messages for every person on the planet. Although many of the messages teenagers text each day are perhaps nothing more than "how r u?" or "c u…

Tilley, Carol L.

2009-01-01

88

Computational Linguistics for Metadata Building (CLiMB) Text Mining for the Automatic Extraction of Subject Terms for Image Metadata  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we present a fully-implemented system using computa- tional linguistic techniques to apply automatic text mining for the extraction of metadata for image access. We describe the implementation of a workbench created for, and evaluated by, image catalogers. We discuss the current func- tionality and future goals for this image catalogers' toolkit, developed in the Computational Linguistics for

Judith L. Klavans; Tandeep Sidhu; Carolyn Sheffield; Dagobert Soergel; Jimmy Lin; Eileen Abels; Rebecca Passonneau

89

Is automatic classification a reasonable application of statistical analysis of text?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The statistical approach to the analysis of document\\u000a collections and retrieval therefrom has proceeded along\\u000a two main lines, associative machine searching and\\u000a automatic classification. The former approach has been\\u000a favored because of the tendency of people in the computer\\u000a field to strive for new methods of dealing with the\\u000a literature -- methods which do not resemble those of\\u000a traditional libraries.

Lauren B. Doyle

1965-01-01

90

A new hybrid summarizer based on Vector Space model Statistical Physics and Linguistics  

E-print Network

of medical papers because this kind of texts are published in journals with their corresponding abstracts summarization of Spanish medical texts. There are a lot of systems for automatic summarization using statistics- brid system over a corpora of medical articles and we have evaluated their performances obtaining good

Avignon et des Pays de Vaucluse, Université de

91

Extraction-Based Text Categorization: Generating Domain-Specific Role Relationships Automatically  

Microsoft Academic Search

In previous work, we developed several algorithms that use information extraction techniques to achieve high-precision text categorization. The relevancy signatures algorithm classifies texts using extraction patterns, and the augmented relevancy signatures algorithm classifies texts using extraction patterns and semantic features associated with role fillers (Riloff and Lehnert, 1994). These algorithms relied on hand-coded training data, including annotated texts and a

Ellen Riloff; Jeffrey Lorenzen

1998-01-01

92

Summarizing Lecture 1 Summarizing Lecture 2  

E-print Network

Lecture 1 Summarizing Lecture 2 Historical Perspective What is Science? Scientific Method NOTE: A theory'll be studying Classical Mechanics. Image modified by author. Original Source: Wikimedia Commons. Original Image. License: CC-BY-SA 3.0 Classical Mechanics is only valid at low speeds (compared to light), weak gravity

Raizen, Mark G.

93

T2D: Generating Dialogues Between Virtual Agents Automatically from Text  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Text2Dialogue (T2D) system that we are developing allows digital content creators to generate attractive multi-modal di- alogues presented by two virtual agents—by simply providing textual information as input. We use Rhetorical Structure Theory (RST) to de- compose text into segments and to identify rhetorical discourse relations between them. These are then \\

Paul Piwek; Hugo Hernault; Helmut Prendinger; Mitsuru Ishizuka

2007-01-01

94

CUCS-004-00 Automatic Classification of Text Databases Through Query Probing  

E-print Network

characterize the contents of text databases accessible on the web. 1 Introduction Text databases abound to these databases. Some sites have started in the last two years to provide such services. For example, InvisibleWeb1 and SearchEngine Guide2 classify various search engines into a hierarchical classification scheme

95

Experimenting with Automatic Text-to-Diagram Conversion: A Novel Teaching Aid for the Blind People  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Diagram describing texts are integral part of science and engineering subjects including geometry, physics, engineering drawing, etc. In order to understand such text, one, at first, tries to draw or perceive the underlying diagram. For perception of the blind students such diagrams need to be drawn in some non-visual accessible form like tactile…

Mukherjee, Anirban; Garain, Utpal; Biswas, Arindam

2014-01-01

96

An Automatic Filter for Non-Parallel Texts Computer Science Department  

E-print Network

of unrelated texts (Resnik and Smith, 2003). In this paper, we propose a solution to the more difficult problem and computer- assisted foreign language learning. Resnik and Smith (2003) suggested three ap- proaches

97

Read-X: Automatic Evaluation of Reading Difficulty of Web Text  

Microsoft Academic Search

We are developing a web-search application to locate and evaluate potential reading material on the internet. Our application, Read-X, performs a keyword search of the internet, analyzes the readability of text from each resulting website and classifies the text according to theme. This tool will be useful to adolescent and adult low-level reading students who face, among other challenges, a

Eleni Miltsakaki; Audrey Troutt

98

Automatic Text Formatting for Social Media Based on Linefeed and Comma Insertion  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a By appearance of social media, people are coming to be able to transmit information easily on a personal level. However, because\\u000a users of social media generally spend little time on describing information, low-quality texts are transmitted and it blocks\\u000a the spread of information. On transmitted texts in social media, commas and linefeeds are inserted incorrectly, and it becomes\\u000a a factor

Masaki Murata; Tomohiro Ohno; Shigeki Matsubara

99

BROWSER: An Automatic Indexing On-Line Text Retrieval System. Annual Progress Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The development and testing of the Browsing On-line With Selective Retrieval (BROWSER) text retrieval system allowing a natural language query statement and providing on-line browsing capabilities through an IBM 2260 display terminal is described. The prototype system contains data bases of 25,000 German language patent abstracts, 9,000 English…

Williams, J. H., Jr.

100

Test-Driving TANKA: Evaluating a Semi-automatic System of Text Analysis for Knowledge Acquisition  

Microsoft Academic Search

The evaluation of a large implemented natural language processing system involves more than its application to a common performance task. Such tasks have been used in the message understanding conferences (MUCs), text retrieval conferences (TRECs) as well as in speech technology and machine translation workshops. It is useful to compare the performance of different systems in a predefined application, but

Ken Barker; Sylvain Delisle; Stan Szpakowicz

1998-01-01

101

The Automatic Assessment of Free Text Answers Using a Modified BLEU Algorithm  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

e-Learning plays an undoubtedly important role in today's education and assessment is one of the most essential parts of any instruction-based learning process. Assessment is a common way to evaluate a student's knowledge regarding the concepts related to learning objectives. In this paper, a new method for assessing the free text answers of…

Noorbehbahani, F.; Kardan, A. A.

2011-01-01

102

Semi-Automatic Grading of Students' Answers Written in Free Text  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The correct grading of free text answers to exam questions during an assessment process is time consuming and subject to fluctuations in the application of evaluation criteria, particularly when the number of answers is high (in the hundreds). In consequence of these fluctuations, inherent to human nature, and largely determined by emotional…

Escudeiro, Nuno; Escudeiro, Paula; Cruz, Augusto

2011-01-01

103

Generalizability and Comparison of Automatic Clinical Text De-Identification Methods and Resources  

PubMed Central

In this paper, we present an evaluation of the hybrid best-of-breed automated VHA (Veteran’s Health Administration) clinical text de-identification system, nicknamed BoB, developed within the VHA Consortium for Healthcare Informatics Research. We also evaluate two available machine learning-based text de-identifications systems: MIST and HIDE. Two different clinical corpora were used for this evaluation: a manually annotated VHA corpus, and the 2006 i2b2 de-identification challenge corpus. These experiments focus on the generalizability and portability of the classification models across different document sources. BoB demonstrated good recall (92.6%), satisfactorily prioritizing patient privacy, and also achieved competitive precision (83.6%) for preserving subsequent document interpretability. MIST and HIDE reached very competitive results, in most cases with high precision (92.6% and 93.6%), although recall was sometimes lower than desired for the most sensitive PHI categories. PMID:23304289

Ferrandez, Oscar; South, Brett R.; Shen, Shuying; Friedlin, F. Jeff; Samore, Matthew H.; Meystre, Stephane M.

2012-01-01

104

Distributed automatic text-independent speaker identification using GMM-UBM speaker models  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ETSI ldquoAurorardquo is a digit-based standard developed for distributed speech recognition (DSR) over telephone communication channels. This paper introduces a digit-based text-independent distributed speaker identification (DSID) system over telephone channels within the DSR framework. In this DSID system, the hypothesized speaker model is derived by GMM-UBM model training using Aurora2 connected digit training speech data and maximum a posteriori

Sid-ahmed Selouani; Douglas D. O'shaughnessy

2009-01-01

105

A Language-Independent Approach to Automatic Text Difficulty Assessment for Second-Language Learners  

E-print Network

In this paper, we introduce a new baseline for language-independent text difficulty assessment applied to the Interagency Language Roundtable (ILR) proficiency scale. We demonstrate that reading level assessment is a discriminative problem that is best-suited for regression. Our baseline uses z-normalized shallow length features and TF-LOG weighted vectors on bag-of-words for Arabic, Dari, English, and Pashto. We compare Support Vector Machines and the Margin-Infused Relaxed Algorithm measured by mean squared error. We provide an analysis of which features are most predictive of a given level. 1

Wade Shen; Jennifer Williams; Tamas Marius; Elizabeth Salesky

106

Video Summarization via Crowdsourcing  

E-print Network

Video Summarization via Crowdsourcing Abstract Although video summarization has been studied extensively, existing schemes are neither lightweight nor generalizable to all types of video content. To generate accurate abstractions of all types of video, we propose a framework called Click2SMRY, which

Chen, Sheng-Wei

107

Experiments in Multidocument Summarization  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a multidocument summarizer built upon re- search into the detection of new information. The summarizer uses several new strategies to select interesting and informative sentences, including an innovative measure of importance derived from the analysis of a large corpus. The system also computes concept frequencies rather than word frequencies as an additional measure of importance. It merges

Barry Schiffman; Ani Nenkova; Kathleen McKeown

2002-01-01

108

Automatic recognition of disorders, findings, pharmaceuticals and body structures from clinical text: an annotation and machine learning study.  

PubMed

Automatic recognition of clinical entities in the narrative text of health records is useful for constructing applications for documentation of patient care, as well as for secondary usage in the form of medical knowledge extraction. There are a number of named entity recognition studies on English clinical text, but less work has been carried out on clinical text in other languages. This study was performed on Swedish health records, and focused on four entities that are highly relevant for constructing a patient overview and for medical hypothesis generation, namely the entities: Disorder, Finding, Pharmaceutical Drug and Body Structure. The study had two aims: to explore how well named entity recognition methods previously applied to English clinical text perform on similar texts written in Swedish; and to evaluate whether it is meaningful to divide the more general category Medical Problem, which has been used in a number of previous studies, into the two more granular entities, Disorder and Finding. Clinical notes from a Swedish internal medicine emergency unit were annotated for the four selected entity categories, and the inter-annotator agreement between two pairs of annotators was measured, resulting in an average F-score of 0.79 for Disorder, 0.66 for Finding, 0.90 for Pharmaceutical Drug and 0.80 for Body Structure. A subset of the developed corpus was thereafter used for finding suitable features for training a conditional random fields model. Finally, a new model was trained on this subset, using the best features and settings, and its ability to generalise to held-out data was evaluated. This final model obtained an F-score of 0.81 for Disorder, 0.69 for Finding, 0.88 for Pharmaceutical Drug, 0.85 for Body Structure and 0.78 for the combined category Disorder+Finding. The obtained results, which are in line with or slightly lower than those for similar studies on English clinical text, many of them conducted using a larger training data set, show that the approaches used for English are also suitable for Swedish clinical text. However, a small proportion of the errors made by the model are less likely to occur in English text, showing that results might be improved by further tailoring the system to clinical Swedish. The entity recognition results for the individual entities Disorder and Finding show that it is meaningful to separate the general category Medical Problem into these two more granular entity types, e.g. for knowledge mining of co-morbidity relations and disorder-finding relations. PMID:24508177

Skeppstedt, Maria; Kvist, Maria; Nilsson, Gunnar H; Dalianis, Hercules

2014-06-01

109

Summarization of Multimodal Information1  

E-print Network

analysis to separate out the trend, cyclical fluctuations and autocorrelational effects and generating summarization. 1 Introduction The Oxford English Dictionary defines multimodal as "characterized by several of natural language text documents ­ chief points, sum or substance of a matter (Mani, 2000). More recently

Gillam, Lee

110

In Proceedings of the 2010 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing (EMNLP 2010) Automatically Producing Plot Unit Representations for Narrative Text  

E-print Network

to positive, negative, and mental affect states. AESOP uses affect projection rules to map the affect states 2010) Automatically Producing Plot Unit Representations for Narrative Text Amit Goyal Dept. of Computer representations for narrative text. We create a system called AESOP that exploits a variety of existing resources

Riloff, Ellen

111

Chinese Text Summarization Using a Trainable Summarizer and Latent Semantic Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, two novel approaches are proposed to extract important sentences from a document to create its summary. The\\u000a first is a corpus-based approach using feature analysis. It brings up three new ideas: 1) to employ ranked position to emphasize\\u000a the significance of sentence position, 2) to reshape word unit to achieve higher accuracy of keyword importance, and 3)

Jen-yuan Yeh; Hao-ren Ke; Wei-pang Yang

2002-01-01

112

Entity-centric topic-oriented opinion summarization in twitter  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microblogging services, such as Twitter, have become popular channels for people to express their opinions towards a broad range of topics. Twitter generates a huge volume of instant messages (i.e. tweets) carrying users' sentiments and attitudes every minute, which both necessitates automatic opinion summarization and poses great challenges to the summarization system. In this paper, we study the problem of

Xinfan Meng; Furu Wei; Xiaohua Liu; Ming Zhou; Sujian Li; Houfeng Wang

2012-01-01

113

CarSim: An Automatic 3D Text-to-Scene Conversion System Applied to Road Accident Reports  

E-print Network

Transportation Safety Board in the United States. 1 Text-to-Scene Conversion Text-to-scene conversion consists research organization of the United States government. The accidents described by the NTSB are more complex of this, many reports are pretty complex and sometimes difficult to understand. #12;Figure 1: The Car

Nugues, Pierre

114

Ranking, Labeling, and Summarizing Short Text in Social Media  

E-print Network

: Identifying Representative Sentences . . . . . . . . 78 5.4 Identify Groups of Related Sentences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79 5.4.1 Topic Model-based Clustering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79 5.4.2 K-Means Clustering... of sentences with di erent topics and quality. Higher quality is shown as pink and lower quality as blue. Di erent styles represent di erent topics. The output consists of a variety of topic of high quality. 80 5.2 Plate notation for LDA...

Khabiri, Elham

2013-04-18

115

QCS : a system for querying, clustering, and summarizing documents.  

SciTech Connect

Information retrieval systems consist of many complicated components. Research and development of such systems is often hampered by the difficulty in evaluating how each particular component would behave across multiple systems. We present a novel hybrid information retrieval system--the Query, Cluster, Summarize (QCS) system--which is portable, modular, and permits experimentation with different instantiations of each of the constituent text analysis components. Most importantly, the combination of the three types of components in the QCS design improves retrievals by providing users more focused information organized by topic. We demonstrate the improved performance by a series of experiments using standard test sets from the Document Understanding Conferences (DUC) along with the best known automatic metric for summarization system evaluation, ROUGE. Although the DUC data and evaluations were originally designed to test multidocument summarization, we developed a framework to extend it to the task of evaluation for each of the three components: query, clustering, and summarization. Under this framework, we then demonstrate that the QCS system (end-to-end) achieves performance as good as or better than the best summarization engines. Given a query, QCS retrieves relevant documents, separates the retrieved documents into topic clusters, and creates a single summary for each cluster. In the current implementation, Latent Semantic Indexing is used for retrieval, generalized spherical k-means is used for the document clustering, and a method coupling sentence ''trimming'', and a hidden Markov model, followed by a pivoted QR decomposition, is used to create a single extract summary for each cluster. The user interface is designed to provide access to detailed information in a compact and useful format. Our system demonstrates the feasibility of assembling an effective IR system from existing software libraries, the usefulness of the modularity of the design, and the value of this particular combination of modules.

Dunlavy, Daniel M.

2006-08-01

116

QCS: a system for querying, clustering and summarizing documents.  

SciTech Connect

Information retrieval systems consist of many complicated components. Research and development of such systems is often hampered by the difficulty in evaluating how each particular component would behave across multiple systems. We present a novel hybrid information retrieval system--the Query, Cluster, Summarize (QCS) system--which is portable, modular, and permits experimentation with different instantiations of each of the constituent text analysis components. Most importantly, the combination of the three types of components in the QCS design improves retrievals by providing users more focused information organized by topic. We demonstrate the improved performance by a series of experiments using standard test sets from the Document Understanding Conferences (DUC) along with the best known automatic metric for summarization system evaluation, ROUGE. Although the DUC data and evaluations were originally designed to test multidocument summarization, we developed a framework to extend it to the task of evaluation for each of the three components: query, clustering, and summarization. Under this framework, we then demonstrate that the QCS system (end-to-end) achieves performance as good as or better than the best summarization engines. Given a query, QCS retrieves relevant documents, separates the retrieved documents into topic clusters, and creates a single summary for each cluster. In the current implementation, Latent Semantic Indexing is used for retrieval, generalized spherical k-means is used for the document clustering, and a method coupling sentence 'trimming', and a hidden Markov model, followed by a pivoted QR decomposition, is used to create a single extract summary for each cluster. The user interface is designed to provide access to detailed information in a compact and useful format. Our system demonstrates the feasibility of assembling an effective IR system from existing software libraries, the usefulness of the modularity of the design, and the value of this particular combination of modules.

Dunlavy, Daniel M.; Schlesinger, Judith D. (Center for Computing Sciences, Bowie, MD); O'Leary, Dianne P. (University of Maryland, College Park, MD); Conroy, John M. (Center for Computing Sciences, Bowie, MD)

2006-10-01

117

Music summarization using key phrases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Systems to automatically provide a representative summary or `key phrase' of a piece of music are described. For a `rock' song with `verse' and `chorus' sections, we aim to return the chorus or in any case the most repeated and hence most memorable section. The techniques are less applicable to music with more complicated structure although possibly our general framework

Beth Logan; Stephen Chu

2000-01-01

118

Adaptive Maximum Marginal Relevance Based Multi-email Summarization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

By analyzing the inherent relationship between the maximum marginal relevance (MMR) model and the content cohesion of emails with the same subject, this paper presents an adaptive maximum marginal relevance based multi-email summarization method. Due to the adoption of approximate computing of email content cohesion, the adaptive MMR is able to automatically adjust the parameters according to the changing of the email sets. The experimental results have shown that the email summarizing system based on this technique can increase the precision while reducing the redundancy of the automatic summary results, consequently improve the average quality of email summaries.

Wang, Baoxun; Liu, Bingquan; Sun, Chengjie; Wang, Xiaolong; Li, Bo

119

Automatic Condensation of Electronic Publications by Sentence Selection  

Microsoft Academic Search

As electronic information access becomes the norm, and the variety of retrievable material increases, automatic methods of summarizing or condensing text will become critical. This paper describes a system that performs domain-independent automatic condensation of news from a large commercial news service encompassing 41 different publications. This system was evaluated against a system that condensed the same articles using only

Ronald Brandow; Karl Mitze; Lisa F. Rau

1995-01-01

120

User and Device Adaptation in Summarizing Sports Videos  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Video summarization is defined as creating a video summary which includes only important scenes in the original video streams. In order to realize automatic video summarization, the significance of each scene needs to be determined. When targeted especially on broadcast sports videos, a play scene, which corresponds to a play, can be considered as a scene unit. The significance of every play scene can generally be determined based on the importance of the play in the game. Furthermore, the following two issues should be considered: 1) what is important depends on each user's preferences, and 2) the summaries should be tailored for media devices that each user has. Considering the above issues, this paper proposes a unified framework for user and device adaptation in summarizing broadcast sports videos. The proposed framework summarizes sports videos by selecting play scenes based on not only the importance of each play itself but also the users' preferences by using the metadata, which describes the semantic content of videos with keywords, and user profiles, which describe users' preference degrees for the keywords. The selected scenes are then presented in a proper way using various types of media such as video, image, or text according to device profiles which describe the device type. We experimentally verified the effectiveness of user adaptation by examining how the generated summaries are changed by different preference degrees and by comparing our results with/without using user profiles. The validity of device adaptation is also evaluated by conducting questionnaires using PCs and mobile phones as the media devices.

Nitta, Naoko; Babaguchi, Noboru

121

Extractive Summarization of Broadcast News: Comparing Strategies for European Portuguese  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the comparison between three methods for extractive summarization of Portuguese broadcast news: feature-based,\\u000a Maximal Marginal Relevance, and Latent Semantic Analysis. The main goal is to understand the level of agreement among the\\u000a automatic summaries and how they compare to summaries produced by non-professional human summarizers. Results were evaluated\\u000a using the ROUGE-L metric. Maximal Marginal Relevance performed close

Ricardo Ribeiro; David Martins De Matos

2007-01-01

122

Summarize to Get the Gist  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As schools prepare for the common core state standards in literacy, they'll be confronted with two challenges: first, helping students comprehend complex texts, and, second, training students to write arguments supported by factual evidence. A teacher's response to these challenges might be to lead class discussions about complex reading or assign…

Collins, John

2012-01-01

123

Event-centric Twitter photo summarization  

E-print Network

We develop a novel algorithm based on spectral geometry that summarize a photo collection into a small subset that represents the collection well. While the definition for a good summarization might not be unique, we focus ...

Wen, Chung-Lin, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2014-01-01

124

Evolutionary Document Summarization for Disaster Management  

E-print Network

Evolutionary Document Summarization for Disaster Management Dingding Wang Li Zheng Tao Li Yi Deng. In addition, it is also very challenging to extract the changes of the event at different phases for disaster management. In this paper, we develop a novel evolutionary summarization system to summarize the changes

Li, Tao

125

Automatic classification of documents with an in-depth analysis of information extraction and automatic summarization  

E-print Network

Today, annual information fabrication per capita exceeds two hundred and fifty megabytes. As the amount of data increases, classification and retrieval methods become more necessary to find relevant information. This thesis ...

Hohm, Joseph Brandon, 1982-

2004-01-01

126

Highlight summarization in golf videos using audio signals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we present an automatic summarization of highlights in golf videos based on audio information alone without video information. The proposed highlight summarization system is carried out based on semantic audio segmentation and detection on action units from audio signals. Studio speech, field speech, music, and applause are segmented by means of sound classification. Swing is detected by the methods of impulse onset detection. Sounds like swing and applause form a complete action unit, while studio speech and music parts are used to anchor the program structure. With the advantage of highly precise detection of applause, highlights are extracted effectively. Our experimental results obtain high classification precision on 18 golf games. It proves that the proposed system is very effective and computationally efficient to apply the technology to embedded consumer electronic devices.

Kim, Hyoung-Gook; Kim, Jin Young

2008-01-01

127

Reducing metadata complexity for faster table summarization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the visualization real estate puts stringent constraints on how much data can be presented to the users at once, table summarization is an essential tool in helping users quickly explore large data sets. An effective summary needs to minimize the information loss due to the reduction in details. Summarization algorithms leverage the redundancy in the data to identify value

K. Selçuk Candan; Mario Cataldi; Maria Luisa Sapino

2010-01-01

128

MPEG content summarization based on compressed domain feature analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper addresses automatic summarization of MPEG audiovisual content on compressed domain. By analyzing semantically important low-level and mid-level audiovisual features, our method universally summarizes the MPEG-1/-2 contents in the form of digest or highlight. The former is a shortened version of an original, while the latter is an aggregation of important or interesting events. In our proposal, first, the incoming MPEG stream is segmented into shots and the above features are derived from each shot. Then the features are adaptively evaluated in an integrated manner, and finally the qualified shots are aggregated into a summary. Since all the processes are performed completely on compressed domain, summarization is achieved at very low computational cost. The experimental results show that news highlights and sports highlights in TV baseball games can be successfully extracted according to simple shot transition models. As for digest extraction, subjective evaluation proves that meaningful shots are extracted from content without a priori knowledge, even if it contains multiple genres of programs. Our method also has the advantage of generating an MPEG-7 based description such as summary and audiovisual segments in the course of summarization.

Sugano, Masaru; Nakajima, Yasuyuki; Yanagihara, Hiromasa

2003-11-01

129

TextPool: Visualizing Live Text Streams  

Microsoft Academic Search

In today's fast-paced world, it is becoming increasingly difficult to understand and act promptly upon the content of the many information streams available to us. TextPool addresses this problem by quickly summarizing recent content in live text streams, such as newswires and closed captioning. The summarization is a dynamically changing textual collage that clusters related terms. We tested TextPool with

Conrad Albrecht-buehler; Benjamin Watson; David A. Shamma

2004-01-01

130

Abstract--In this paper we propose an NLP-based method for Ontology Population from texts and apply it to semi automatic  

E-print Network

Abstract--In this paper we propose an NLP-based method for Ontology Population from texts and apply ontologies. In this paper we focus on ontology population. We propose an NLP-based approach for Ontology

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

131

NAACL-HLT 2010 Workshop on Computational Approaches to Analysis and Generation of Emotion in Text Toward Plot Units: Automatic Affect State Analysis  

E-print Network

: a method for acquiring patient polar- ity verbs, which impart negative affect on their patients, and affect the mouse" produces a pos- itive affect state for the cat and a negative affect 1 This is somewhat analogousNAACL-HLT 2010 Workshop on Computational Approaches to Analysis and Generation of Emotion in Text

Riloff, Ellen

132

Aspect Summarization from Blogsphere for Social Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we study the problem of summarizing reasons from blogsphere for social study. We regard weblogs as a source for collecting non-discrete public opinions, where genuine reasons\\/aspects can be found. To extract the reason inside the blogs, we define four tasks: irrelevant blog filtering, reason\\/non-reason classification, polarity identification, and reason summarization. We solve the reason\\/non-reason classification problem by

Chia-hui Chang; Kun-chang Tsai

2007-01-01

133

Exploiting E-mail Structure to Improve Summarization  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the design and implementation of a sys- tem to summarize e-mail messages. The system exploits two aspects of e-mail, thread reply chains and commonly-found features, to generate summaries. The system uses existing software designed to summarize single text documents. Such software typically performs best on well-authored, formal documents. E-mail messages, however, are typically neither well-authored, nor formal.

Derek Scott Lam; Steven L. Rohall; Chris Schmandt

2002-01-01

134

Corpus-based and Knowledge-based Measures of Text Semantic Similarity  

E-print Network

(Salton & Lesk 1971). Text similarity has also been used for relevance feedback and text classification summarization (Salton et al. 1997), and methods for automatic evaluation of machine translation (Papineni et al matching, as well as various weighting and normalization factors (Salton & Buckley 1997). While Copyright c

Mihalcea, Rada

135

Adaptive detection of missed text areas in OCR outputs: application to the automatic assessment of OCR quality in mass digitization projects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The French National Library (BnF*) has launched many mass digitization projects in order to give access to its collection. The indexation of digital documents on Gallica (digital library of the BnF) is done through their textual content obtained thanks to service providers that use Optical Character Recognition softwares (OCR). OCR softwares have become increasingly complex systems composed of several subsystems dedicated to the analysis and the recognition of the elements in a page. However, the reliability of these systems is always an issue at stake. Indeed, in some cases, we can find errors in OCR outputs that occur because of an accumulation of several errors at different levels in the OCR process. One of the frequent errors in OCR outputs is the missed text components. The presence of such errors may lead to severe defects in digital libraries. In this paper, we investigate the detection of missed text components to control the OCR results from the collections of the French National Library. Our verification approach uses local information inside the pages based on Radon transform descriptors and Local Binary Patterns descriptors (LBP) coupled with OCR results to control their consistency. The experimental results show that our method detects 84.15% of the missed textual components, by comparing the OCR ALTO files outputs (produced by the service providers) to the images of the document.

Ben Salah, Ahmed; Ragot, Nicolas; Paquet, Thierry

2013-01-01

136

A blueprint for automatic indexing  

Microsoft Academic Search

This note summarizes some of the currently available insights in automatic indexing. The emphasis is on aspects that are expected to be useful in a practical automatic indexing applications. The discussion is necessarily cursory, but the references will lead interested readers to a deeper treatment of the indexing problem.

Gerard Salton

1981-01-01

137

Graph Summarization with Bounded Error Saket Navlakha  

E-print Network

Graph Summarization with Bounded Error Saket Navlakha Dept. of Computer Science University a highly compact two-part representation of a given graph G consisting of a graph summary and a set of corrections. The graph summary is an aggregate graph in which each node corresponds to a set of nodes in G

Gruner, Daniel S.

138

Summarization Jimmy Lin (jimmylin@umd.edu)  

E-print Network

sources. HISTORICAL BACKGROUND Summarization has a long history dating back to the 1960's, when is a broad and diverse field. Traditionally, it is considered a sub-area of natural language processing to be exhaustive. Input factors characterize the source of the summaries: Single vs. Multiple Sources. For example

Lin, Jimmy

139

REGIONAL AIR POLLUTION STUDY, EMISSION INVENTORY SUMMARIZATION  

EPA Science Inventory

As part of the Regional Air Pollution Study (RAPS), data for an air pollution emission inventory are summarized for point and area sources in the St. Louis Air Quality Control Region. Data for point sources were collected for criteria and noncriteria pollutants, hydrocarbons, sul...

140

Contextual Text Mining  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With the dramatic growth of text information, there is an increasing need for powerful text mining systems that can automatically discover useful knowledge from text. Text is generally associated with all kinds of contextual information. Those contexts can be explicit, such as the time and the location where a blog article is written, and the…

Mei, Qiaozhu

2009-01-01

141

Summarizing and Synthesizing: What's the Difference?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

For teachers in K-Grade 5 classrooms, the author of this article reviews the reading comprehension strategies known as Summarizing and Synthesizing. She provides links to web sites and to a book that will provide more background information and lessons. The article appears in the free, online magazine Beyond Weather and the Water Cycle, which focuses on the seven essential principles of climate science.

Fries-Gaither, Jessica

2012-02-01

142

Finding text in images  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are many applications in which the automatic detection and recognition of text embedded in images isuseful. These applications include multimedia systems, digital libraries, and Geographical Information Systems.When machine generated text is printed against clean backgrounds, it can be converted to a computer readbleform (ASCII) using current Optical Character Recognition (OCR) technology. However, text is often printedagainst shaded or textured

Victor Wu; R. Manmatha; Edward M. Riseman

1997-01-01

143

The Role of Instructions in Testing Summarizing Ability.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The effects of specific guidelines in the taking and rating of tests of language summarizing ability were investigated, as well as interrater agreement regarding the rating of specific ideas within the summaries. The tests involved respondents reading source texts and providing written summaries as a measure of their reading comprehension and…

Cohen, Andrew D.

144

Selective text utilization and text traversal  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT Many large collections of full-text documents,are currently,stored,in machine-readable form and processed automatically in various ways. These collections may include different types of documents, such as messages, research articles, and books, and the subject matter may vary widely. To process such collections, robust text analysis methods must be used, capable of handling materials in arbitrary subject areas, and flexible access

Gerard Salton; James Allen

1993-01-01

145

A scalable summarization system using robust nlp  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract We describe a scalable summarization,sys- tem which takes advantage,of robust NLP technology,such as corpus-based statlsh- cal NLP techmques, information extrac- tmn and readily available on-hne resources The system attempts to compensate,for the bottlenecks of traditional frequency-based, knowledge-based,or discourse-based sum- manzatlon,approaches,by uhhzlng features derived by these robust techniques,Pre- hrmnary evaluation results are reported, and the multi-dimensional summary,viewer is described

C. Aone; M. E. Okurowski; J. Gorlinsky; B. Larsen

1997-01-01

146

Video summarization for energy efficient wireless streaming  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the proliferation of camera equipped cell phones and the deployment of the higher data rate 2.5G and 3G infra structure systems, providing consumers with video-equipped cellular communication infrastructure is highly desirable, and can drive the development of a large number of valuable applications. However, for an uplink wireless channel, both the bandwidth and battery energy in a mobile phone are limited for video communications. In this paper, we pursue an energy efficient video communication solution through joint video summarization and transmission adaptation over a slow fading wireless channel. Coding and modulation schemes and packet transmission strategy are optimized and adapted to the unique packet arrival and delay characteristics of the video summaries. In additional to the optimal solution, we also propose a heuristic solution that is greedy but has close to optimal performance. Operational energy efficiency-summary distortion performance is characterized under an optimal summarization setting. Simulation results show the advantage of the proposed scheme with respect to energy efficiency and video transmission quality.

Li, Zhu; Zhai, Fan; Katsaggelos, Aggelos K.

2005-07-01

147

Person-based video summarization and retrieval by tracking and clustering temporal face sequences  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

People are often the most important subjects in videos. It is highly desired to automatically summarize the occurrences of different people in a large collection of video and quickly find the video clips containing a particular person among them. In this paper, we present a person-based video summarization and retrieval system named VideoWho which extracts temporal face sequences in videos and groups them into clusters, with each cluster containing video clips of the same person. This is accomplished based on advanced face detection and tracking algorithms, together with a semisupervised face clustering approach. The system achieved good clustering accuracy when tested on a hybrid video set including home video, TV plays and movies. On top of this technology, a number of applications can be built, such as automatic summarization of major characters in videos, person-related video search on the Internet and personalized UI systems etc.

Zhang, Tong; Wen, Di; Ding, Xiaoqing

2013-03-01

148

Automatic Imitation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Automatic imitation" is a type of stimulus-response compatibility effect in which the topographical features of task-irrelevant action stimuli facilitate similar, and interfere with dissimilar, responses. This article reviews behavioral, neurophysiological, and neuroimaging research on automatic imitation, asking in what sense it is "automatic"…

Heyes, Cecilia

2011-01-01

149

A Joint Model of Text and Aspect Ratings for Sentiment Summarization Department of Computer Science  

E-print Network

of Computer Science University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign Urbana, IL 61801 titov@uiuc.edu Ryan McDonald (Hu and Liu, 2004a; Popescu and Etzioni, 2005; Gamon et al., 2005; Nikos' Fine Dining Food 4/5 "Best/5 "Our waitress was rude", "Awful service" Value 5/5 "Good Greek food for the $", "Great price!" Figure 1

Tomkins, Andrew

150

Using Gene Expression Programming to Construct Sentence Ranking Functions for Text Summarization  

E-print Network

Zhuli Xie, Xin Li, Barbara Di Eugenio, Pete C. Nelson Artificial Intelligence Laboratory, Department, 1995; Lin, 1999; Aone et al, 1999; Sekine and Nobata, 2001; Mani, 2001; McKeown, 2001; and Radev, 2003). Only a few have tried using machine learning to accomplish this difficult task (Lin, 1999), (Aone, et

Di Eugenio, Barbara

151

Using Gene Expression Programming to Construct Sentence Ranking Functions for Text Summarization  

E-print Network

Zhuli Xie, Xin Li, Barbara Di Eugenio, Peter C. Nelson Department of Computer Science University active area (Salton et al. 1994; Kupiec et al. 1995; Bran� dow et al. 1995; Lin 1999; Aone et al. 1999 ma� chine learning to accomplish this difficult task (Lin 1999; Aone et al. 1999; Neto et al. 2002

152

Using Gene Expression Programming to Construct Sentence Ranking Functions for Text Summarization  

E-print Network

Zhuli Xie, Xin Li, Barbara Di Eugenio, Peter C. Nelson Department of Computer Science University active area (Salton et al. 1994; Kupiec et al. 1995; Bran- dow et al. 1995; Lin 1999; Aone et al. 1999 ma- chine learning to accomplish this difficult task (Lin 1999; Aone et al. 1999; Neto et al. 2002

Fernandez, Thomas

153

Some Examinations of Intrinsic Methods for Summary Evaluation Based on the Text Summarization Challenge (TSC)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Computer-produced summaries have traditionally been evaluated by comparing them with human-produced summaries using the F- measure. However, the F-measure is not appropriate when alternative sentences are possible in a human-produced extract. In this paper, we examine some evaluation methods devised to overcome the problem, including utility-based evaluation. By giving scores for moderately important sentences that does not appear in the

Hidetsugu Nanba; Manabu Okumura

154

Automatic Speech Recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a \\u000a Automatic speech recognition (ASR) is a critical component for CHIL services. For example, it provides the input to higher-level technologies, such as\\u000a summarization and question answering, as discussed in Chapter 8. In the spirit of ubiquitous computing, the goal of ASR in\\u000a CHIL is to achieve a high performance using far-field sensors (networks of microphone arrays and distributed far-field microphones).

Gerasimos Potamianos; Lori Lamel; Matthias Wölfel; Jing Huang; Etienne Marcheret; Claude Barras; Xuan Zhu; John McDonough; Javier Hernando; Dusan Macho; Climent Nadeu

2009-01-01

155

Medical textbook summarization and guided navigation using statistical sentence extraction.  

PubMed

We present a method for automated medical textbook and encyclopedia summarization. Using statistical sentence extraction and semantic relationships, we extract sentences from text returned as part of an existing textbook search (similar to a book index). Our system guides users to the information they desire by summarizing the content of each relevant chapter or section returned in the search. The summary is tailored to contain sentences that specifically address the user's search terms. Our clustering method selects sentences that contain concepts specifically addressing the context of the query term in each of the returned sections. Our method examines conceptual relationships from the UMLS and selects clusters of concepts using Expectation Maximization (EM). Sentences associated with the concept clusters are shown to the user. We evaluated whether our extracted summary provides a suitable answer to the user's question. PMID:16779153

Whalen, Gregory

2005-01-01

156

Blind summarization: content-adaptive video summarization using time-series analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Severe complexity constraints on consumer electronic devices motivate us to investigate general-purpose video summarization techniques that are able to apply a common hardware setup to multiple content genres. On the other hand, we know that high quality summaries can only be produced with domain-specific processing. In this paper, we present a time-series analysis based video summarization technique that provides a general core to which we are able to add small content-specific extensions for each genre. The proposed time-series analysis technique consists of unsupervised clustering of samples taken through sliding windows from the time series of features obtained from the content. We classify content into two broad categories, scripted content such as news and drama, and unscripted content such as sports and surveillance. The summarization problem then reduces to finding either finding semantic boundaries of the scripted content or detecting highlights in the unscripted content. The proposed technique is essentially an event detection technique and is thus best suited to unscripted content, however, we also find applications to scripted content. We thoroughly examine the trade-off between content-neutral and content-specific processing for effective summarization for a number of genres, and find that our core technique enables us to minimize the complexity of the content-specific processing and to postpone it to the final stage. We achieve the best results with unscripted content such as sports and surveillance video in terms of quality of summaries and minimizing content-specific processing. For other genres such as drama, we find that more content-specific processing is required. We also find that judicious choice of key audio-visual object detectors enables us to minimize the complexity of the content-specific processing while maintaining its applicability to a broad range of genres. We will present a demonstration of our proposed technique at the conference.

Divakaran, Ajay; Radhakrishnan, Regunathan; Peker, Kadir A.

2006-01-01

157

Machine Translation from Text  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Machine translation (MT) from text, the topic of this chapter, is perhaps the heart of the GALE project. Beyond being a well defined application that stands on its own, MT from text is the link between the automatic speech recognition component and the distillation component. The focus of MT in GALE is on translating from Arabic or Chinese to English. The three languages represent a wide range of linguistic diversity and make the GALE MT task rather challenging and exciting.

Habash, Nizar; Olive, Joseph; Christianson, Caitlin; McCary, John

158

Improving Update Summarization by Revisiting the MMR Criterion  

E-print Network

This paper describes a method for multi-document update summarization that relies on a double maximization criterion. A Maximal Marginal Relevance like criterion, modified and so called Smmr, is used to select sentences that are close to the topic and at the same time, distant from sentences used in already read documents. Summaries are then generated by assembling the high ranked material and applying some ruled-based linguistic post-processing in order to obtain length reduction and maintain coherency. Through a participation to the Text Analysis Conference (TAC) 2008 evaluation campaign, we have shown that our method achieves promising results.

Boudin, Florian; El-Bèze, Marc

2010-01-01

159

The Night I Followed the Dog: Sequencing, Summarizing and Main Idea  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this series of three lessons, students will listen to The Night I Followed the Dog by Nina Laden and work to summarize the story by writing a sequence of events from the beginning, middle, and end of the story. Then, with teacher guidance, students will summarize the text through determining the main idea and key details of the text.

Wikispaces

2012-08-02

160

SUMMARIZATION: (1) USING MMR FOR DIVERSITY BASED RERANKING AND (2) EVALUATING SUMMARIES  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper 1 develops a method for combining query- relevance with information-novelty in the context of text retrieval and summarization. The Maximal Marginal Relevance (MMR) criterion strives to reduce redundancy while maintaining query relevance in re- ranking retrieved documents and in selecting appropriate passages for text summarization. Preliminary results indicate some benefits for MMR diversity ranking in ad-hoc query and

Jade Goldstein; Jaime Carbonell

161

Issues and conditions summarized by USGS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A chronology of recent significant hydrologic events, a state-by-state analysis of water conditions, and key water policy issues are described in two reports published earlier this year by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS).In its 243 pages, the report National Water Summary 1983: Hydrologic Events and Issues highlights water issues and related activities in all 50 states, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, the U.S. Virgin Islands, and the western Pacific islands under U.S. jurisdiction. Four concerns are addressed in this state-by-state analysis: water availability, water quality, hydrologic hazards and land use, and institutional and management issues. A chronology of significant hydrologic events between January 1982 and August 1983 is also included in the report. Copies are available for $9 each from the Branch of Distribution, Text Products Section, USGS, 604 South Pickett St., Alexandria, VA 22304. Orders must specify water supply paper 2250 and must include a check or money order made payable to the Department of the Interior/USGS.

162

Automatic analysis of medical dialogue in the home hemodialysis domain : structure induction and summarization  

E-print Network

Spoken medical dialogue is a valuable source of information, and it forms a foundation for diagnosis, prevention and therapeutic management. However, understanding even a perfect transcript of spoken dialogue is challenging ...

Lacson, Ronilda Covar, 1968-

2005-01-01

163

Graph-based Submodular Selection for Extractive Summarization  

E-print Network

Graph-based Submodular Selection for Extractive Summarization Hui Lin1 , Jeff Bilmes1 , Shasha Xie2 for unsupervised extractive summarization. Our approach builds a semantic graph for the document to be summarized. Summary extraction is then formulated as optimizing submodular functions defined on the semantic graph

Noble, William Stafford

164

Sports video summarization using highlights and play-breaks  

Microsoft Academic Search

To manage the massive growth of sport videos, we need to summarize the contents into a more compact and interesting representation. Unlike previous work which summarized either highlights or play scenes, we propose a unified summarization scheme which integrates both highlights and play-break scenes. For automation of the process, combination of audio and visual features provides more accurate detection. We

Dian Tjondronegoro; Yi-Ping Phoebe Chen; Binh Pham

2003-01-01

165

Automatic speaker recognition system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Defense Communications Division of ITT (ITTDCD) has developed an automatic speaker recognition (ASR) system that meets the functional requirements defined in NRL's Statement of Work. This report is organized as follows. Chapter 2 is a short history of the development of the ASR system, both the algorithm and the implementation. Chapter 3 describes the methodology of system testing, and Chapter 4 summarizes test results. In Chapter 5, some additional testing performed using GFM test material is discussed. Conclusions derived from the contract work are given in Chapter 6.

Higgins, Alan; Naylor, Joe

1984-07-01

166

Library texts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to discuss how text messaging offers a variety of ways to stay vital and visible to younger patrons with whom libraries most need to establish a relationship to ensure their future. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The paper discusses narrowcasting, one-to-one communication and reference queries, all methods of text messaging Findings – Even with the

John Maxymuk

2009-01-01

167

Automatic imitation.  

PubMed

"Automatic imitation" is a type of stimulus-response compatibility effect in which the topographical features of task-irrelevant action stimuli facilitate similar, and interfere with dissimilar, responses. This article reviews behavioral, neurophysiological, and neuroimaging research on automatic imitation, asking in what sense it is "automatic" and whether it is "imitation." This body of research reveals that automatic imitation is a covert form of imitation, distinct from spatial compatibility. It also indicates that, although automatic imitation is subject to input modulation by attentional processes, and output modulation by inhibitory processes, it is mediated by learned, long-term sensorimotor associations that cannot be altered directly by intentional processes. Automatic imitation provides an important tool for the investigation of the mirror neuron system, motor mimicry, and complex forms of imitation. It is a new behavioral phenomenon, comparable with the Stroop and Simon effects, providing strong evidence that even healthy adult humans are prone, in an unwilled and unreasoned way, to copy the actions of others. PMID:21280938

Heyes, Cecilia

2011-05-01

168

Tracking and Summarizing News on a Daily Basis with Columbia's Newsblaster  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, there have been significant advances in several areas of language technology, including clustering, text categorization, and summarization. However, efforts to combine technology from these areas in a practical system for information access have been limited. In this paper, we present Columbia's Newsblaster system for online news summarization. Many of the tools developed at Columbia over the years are combined

Kathleen R. Mckeown; Regina Barzilay; David Evans; Vasileios Hatzivassiloglou; Judith L. Klavans; Ani Nenkova; Carl Sable; Barry Schiffman; Sergey Sigelman

2002-01-01

169

A unified probabilistic generative framework for extractive spoken document summarization  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we consider extractive summarization of Chinese broadcast news speech. A unified probabilistic generative framework that combined the sentence generative probability and the sentence prior probability for sentence ranking was proposed. Each sentence of a spoken document to be summarized was treated as a probabilistic generative model for predicting the document. Two different matching strategies, i.e., literal term

Yi-Ting Chen; Hsuan-Sheng Chiu; Hsin-Min Wang; Berlin Chen

2007-01-01

170

A Probabilistic Generative Framework for Extractive Broadcast News Speech Summarization  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we consider extractive summarization of broadcast news speech and propose a unified probabilistic generative framework that combines the sentence generative probability and the sentence prior probability for sentence ranking. Each sentence of a spoken document to be summarized is treated as a probabilistic generative model for predicting the document. Two matching strategies, namely literal term matching and

Yi-ting Chen; Berlin Chen; Hsin-min Wang

2009-01-01

171

Summarization from medical documents: a survey Stergos Afantenosa,*, Vangelis Karkaletsisa  

E-print Network

(2005) 33, 157--177 http://www.intl.elsevierhealth.com/journals/aiim KEYWORDS Summarization from medical number of published journals, conference proceedings, medical sites and portals on the World Wide WebSummarization from medical documents: a survey Stergos Afantenosa,*, Vangelis Karkaletsisa

Panagiotis, Stamatopoulos

172

Abstractive Meeting Summarization with Entailment and Fusion Yashar Mehdad  

E-print Network

Abstractive Meeting Summarization with Entailment and Fusion Yashar Mehdad Giuseppe Carenini Frank for abstractive meeting summariza- tion. We cluster sentences in the in- put into communities and build an entail, it has been observed in the context of meeting summarization that concise abstracts are generally

Carenini, Giuseppe

173

Summarization Techniques for Visualization of Large Multidimensional Datasets  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the main issues confronting visualization, is how to effectively display large, high di- mensional datasets within a limited display area, without overwhelming the user. In this report, we discuss a data summarization approach to tackle this problem. Summarization is the pro- cess by which data is reduced in a meaningful and intelligent fashion, to its important and relevant

Sarat M. Kocherlakota; Christopher G. Healey

174

Trainable, Scalable Summarization Using Robust NLP and Machine Learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe a trainable and scalable summarization system which utilizes features derived from information retrieval, information extraction, and NLP techniques and on-line resources. The system combines these features using a trainable feature combiner learned from summary examples through a machine learning algorithm. We demonstrate system scalability by reporting results on the best combination of summarization features for different document sources.

Chinatsu Aone; Mary Ellen Okurowski; James Gorlinsky

1998-01-01

175

VIDEO SUMMARIZATION BY VIDEO STRUCTURE ANALYSIS AND GRAPH OPTIMIZATION  

E-print Network

VIDEO SUMMARIZATION BY VIDEO STRUCTURE ANALYSIS AND GRAPH OPTIMIZATION Shi Lu, Irwin King video summarization method that combines video structure analysis and graph optimiza- tion. First, we analyze the structure of the video, find the boundaries of video scenes, then we calculate each scene

King, Kuo Chin Irwin

176

Investigation of learners' perceptions for video summarization and recommendation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, multimedia-based learning is widespread in educational settings. A number of studies investigate how to develop effective techniques to manage a huge volume of video sources, such as summarization and recommendation. However, few studies examine how these techniques affect learners' perceptions in multimedia learning systems. This article aims to examine learners' perceptions for summarization and recommendation, with an emphasis on

Jie Chi Yang; Sherry Y. Chen

2012-01-01

177

Text Mining Nonnegative Matrix Factorization  

E-print Network

Factorization (2000) #12;Vector Space Model (1960s and 1970s) Gerard Salton's Information Retrieval System SMART: System for the Mechanical Analysis and Retrieval of Text (Salton's Magical Automatic Retriever of Text Model (1960s and 1970s) Gerard Salton's Information Retrieval System SMART: System for the Mechanical

Kunkle, Tom

178

Automatic Authorship Attribution  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we present an approach to automatic authorship attribution dealing with real-world (or unrestricted) text. Our method is based on the computational analysis of the input text using a text-processing tool. Besides the style markes relevant to the output of this tool we also use analysis-dependent style markers, that is, measures that represent the way in which the

Efstathios Stamatatos; Nikos Fakotakis; George K. Kokkinakis

1999-01-01

179

[Metabolic myopathies in childhood. A review in summarized form].  

PubMed

In this review hereditary disorders of muscle metabolism are summarized. Defects in the glycogen metabolism, the glycolysis, the carnitine metabolism, the respiratory chain in the mitochondria and other rare defects are discussed. PMID:6090889

Schaub, J

1984-08-01

180

Mandarin Chinese Broadcast News Retrieval and Summarization Using Probabilistic Generative  

E-print Network

inherent in the query and documents. The latent semantic indexing (LSI) model [3] and the probabilistic latent semantic analysis (PLSA) model [4] are two good examples. Spoken document summarization (SDS. The latent semantic analysis (LSA) model for information re

Wang, Hsin-Min

181

Multi-video summarization based on OB-MMR  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we propose a novel algorithm for video summarization, OB-MMR (Optimized Balanced Audio Video Maximal Marginal Relevance). This algorithm is suitable to summarize both single and multiple videos. OB-MMR is achieved by optimizing the parameters in Balanced AV-MMR (Balanced Audio Video Maximal Marginal Relevance), namely the balance factor between audio information and visual information in the video, but

Yingbo Li; Bernard Merialdo

2011-01-01

182

Dynamic video summarization using two-level redundancy detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mushroom growth of video information, consequently, necessitates the progress of content-based video analysis techniques.\\u000a Video summarization, aiming to provide a short video summary of the original video document, has drawn much attention these\\u000a years. In this paper, we propose an algorithm for video summarization with a two-level redundancy detection procedure. By\\u000a video segmentation and cast indexing, the algorithm first

Yue Gao; Wei-bo Wang; Jun-hai Yong; He-jin Gu

2009-01-01

183

Automatic stabilization  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report concerns the study of automatic stabilizers and extends it to include the control of the three-control system of the airplane instead of just altitude control. Some of the topics discussed include lateral disturbed motion, static stability, the mathematical theory of lateral motion, and large angles of incidence. Various mechanisms and stabilizers are also discussed. The feeding of Diesel engines by injection pumps actuated by engine compression, achieves the required high speeds of injection readily and permits rigorous control of the combustible charge introduced into each cylinder and of the peak pressure in the resultant cycle.

Haus, FR

1936-01-01

184

Mining the Web for Bilingual Text  

Microsoft Academic Search

STRAND (Resnik, 1998) is a language- independent system for automatic discovery of text in parallel translation on the World Wide Web. This paper extends the prelim- inary STRAND results by adding automatic language identification, scaling up by orders of magnitude, and formally evaluating perfor- mance. The most recent end-product is an au- tomatically acquired parallel corpus comprising 2491 English-French document

Philip Resnik

1999-01-01

185

Adding Search This document summarizes additions that are needed for adding keyword search to a scaffolded  

E-print Network

_text] match_term = "%" + params[:search_text] + "%" @movies = Movie.where("title LIKE ?", match_term) end endAdding Search This document summarizes additions that are needed for adding keyword search (integer) and seen (boolean). The additions add a new view (search) that presents a search form

Miller, Craig

186

Administered by--Human The group plan summarized below  

E-print Network

Administered by--Human Resources The group plan summarized below applies to short-term disabilities it at any time. Plan Description 1. Short-Term Disability insurance is provided at no cost to you. The plan the completed application and supporting medical documentation is received, reviewed and approved by Human

187

Upper-Intermediate-Level ESL Students' Summarizing in English  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This qualitative instrumental case study explores various factors that might influence upper-intermediate-level English as a second language (ESL) students' summarizing from a sociocultural perspective. The study was conducted in a formal classroom setting, during a reading and writing class in the English Language Institute at a university in the…

Vorobel, Oksana; Kim, Deoksoon

2011-01-01

188

Using Topic Themes for Multi-Document Summarization  

E-print Network

on Information Systems, Vol. 28, No. 3, Article 13, Publication date: June 2010. #12;13:2 · S. Harabagiu and F for producing informative and coherent summaries. In this article, we describe five previously known topic. Using topic themes for multi-document summarization. ACM Trans. Inform. Syst. 28, 3, Article 13 (June

Harabagiu, Sanda M.

189

California DOT 1. Briefly summarize your current pavement smoothness requirements.  

E-print Network

California DOT 1. Briefly summarize your current pavement smoothness requirements. For HMA pavement to OGFC placed on existing pavement not constructed under the same project. If concrete pavement is placed ordered. 39-1.12B Straightedge The top layer of HMA pavement must not vary from the lower edge of a12-foot

190

Wisconsin DOT 1. Briefly summarize your current pavement smoothness requirements.  

E-print Network

Wisconsin DOT 1. Briefly summarize your current pavement smoothness requirements. We currently-contact profiling equipment. Most PCC pavements are profiled using lightweight profilers when the project is still closed to traffic. Most HMA pavements are profiled using high speed profilers (with the same measuring

191

Ontology-enriched Multi-Document Summarization in Disaster Management  

E-print Network

Ontology-enriched Multi-Document Summarization in Disaster Management Lei Li, Dingding Wang, Chao of the extracted sentences. We apply OMS to disaster management for evaluation. For natural calamities for broadcasting and recording events. Experimental results on such disaster management demonstrate the effi- cacy

Li, Tao

192

Summarizing and Mining Skewed Data Streams Graham Cormode  

E-print Network

Summarizing and Mining Skewed Data Streams Graham Cormode S. Muthukrishnan Abstract Many applications generate massive data streams. Sum- marizing such massive data requires fast, small space algo- rithms to support post-hoc queries and mining. An important observation is that such streams are rarely

193

A Summarization System for Chinese News from Multiple Sources.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Proposes a summarization system for multiple documents that employs named entities and other signatures to cluster news from different sources, as well as punctuation marks, linking elements, and topic chains to identify the meaningful units (MUs). Using nouns and verbs to identify similar MUs, focusing and browsing models are applied to represent…

Chen, Hsin-Hsi; Kuo, June-Jei; Huang, Sheng-Jie; Lin, Chuan-Jie; Wung, Hung-Chia

2003-01-01

194

Interactive Montages of Sprites for Indexing and Summarizing Security Video  

E-print Network

facilities (e.g. a nuclear power plant) or exterior home security video from a residential neighborhood. WeInteractive Montages of Sprites for Indexing and Summarizing Security Video Chris Pal University for indexing and visualizing video in the context of security applications. We wish to index security video

Pal, Chris

195

TSCAN: A Content Anatomy Approach to Temporal Topic Summarization  

Microsoft Academic Search

A topic is defined as a seminal event or activity along with all directly related events and activities. It is represented by a chronological sequence of documents published by different authors on the Internet. In this study, we define a task called topic anatomy, which summarizes and associates the core parts of a topic temporally so that readers can understand

Chien Chin Chen; Meng Chang Chen

2012-01-01

196

Columbia Multi-Document Summarization: Approach and Evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

this paper we discuss Columbia's summarizationsystem for DUC, covering the differentcomponent summarizers that handle differentdocument types, the router that decides whichsummarizer to use, and a preliminary analysis ofevaluation results relative to other systems andof factors such as the document types and themodel summaries that affect the evaluation. Ouranalysis shows that Columbia's system consis-PreprocessingRoutersingle-eve MultiGen DEMSbio configuration.... i:: n\\

Kathleen R. Mckeown; Vasileios Hatzivassiloglou; Regina Barzilay; Barry Schiffman; David Evans; Simone Teufel

2001-01-01

197

Teaching Summarization Skills to Bilingual Elementary School Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study was undertaken to examine the effects of teaching five writing rules on English summarization and comprehension under two conditions of reading instruction. The five summary writing rules taught included: (1) identifying unimportant statements, (2) identifying repetition of ideas in statements, (3) identifying lists of things or series of…

Amuchie, Paul M.

198

Investigation of Learners' Perceptions for Video Summarization and Recommendation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recently, multimedia-based learning is widespread in educational settings. A number of studies investigate how to develop effective techniques to manage a huge volume of video sources, such as summarization and recommendation. However, few studies examine how these techniques affect learners' perceptions in multimedia learning systems. This…

Yang, Jie Chi; Chen, Sherry Y.

2012-01-01

199

Efficacious Data Cube Exploration by Semantic Summarization and Compression  

E-print Network

Efficacious Data Cube Exploration by Semantic Summarization and Compression Laks V.S. Lakshmanan of New York at Buffalo, USA. jianpei@cse.buffalo.edu Abstract Data cube is the core operator in data ware of the data cube limits its applicability as a means for semantic exploration by the user. Recently, we have

Pei, Jian

200

Evaluation challenges in largescale document summarization Dragomir R. Radev  

E-print Network

@umich.edu Wai Lam Chinese U. of Hong Kong wlam@se.cuhk.edu.hk Arda C� elebi USC/ISI ardax@isi.edu Simone Teufel summarizers and baselines at ten summary lengths in both English and Chinese, (b) more than 10,000 manual is a diffi­ cult task (Mani et al., 2001). Traditional large­scale evaluations are either too simplistic

Radev, Dragomir R.

201

Maximizing text-mining performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the advent of centralized data warehouses, where\\u000a data might be stored as electronic documents or as text\\u000a fields in databases, text mining has increased in\\u000a importance and economic value. One important goal in text\\u000a mining is automatic classification of electronic\\u000a documents. Computer programs scan text in a document and\\u000a apply a model that assigns the document to one or

Sholom M. Weiss; Chidanand Apte; Fred J. Damerau; David E. Johnson; Frank J. Oles; Thilo Goetz; Thomas Hampp

1999-01-01

202

Summarization-based image resizing by intelligent object carving.  

PubMed

Image resizing can be more effectively achieved with a better understanding of image semantics. In this paper, similar patterns that exist in many real-world images are analyzed. By interactively detecting similar objects in an image, the image content can be summarized rather than simply distorted or cropped. This method enables the manipulation of image pixels or patches as well as semantic objects in the scene during image resizing process. Given the special nature of similar objects in a general image, the integration of a novel object carving (OC) operator with the multi-operator framework is proposed for summarizing similar objects. The object removal sequence in the summarization strategy directly affects resizing quality. The method by which to evaluate the visual importance of the object as well as to optimally select the candidates for object carving is demonstrated. To achieve practical resizing applications for general images, a template matching-based method is developed. This method can detect similar objects even when they are of various colors, transformed in terms of perspective, or partially occluded. To validate the proposed method, comparisons with state-of-the-art resizing techniques and a user study were conducted. Convincing visual results are shown to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method. PMID:24201330

Dong, Weiming; Zhou, Ning; Lee, Tong-Yee; Wu, Fuzhang; Kong, Yan; Zhang, Xiaopeng

2014-01-01

203

Integration of Cluster Ensemble and EM based Text Mining for Microarray Gene Cluster Identification and Annotation  

E-print Network

In this paper, we design and develop a unified system GE-Miner (Gene Expression Miner) to integrate cluster ensemble, text clustering and multi document summarization and provide an environment for comprehensive gene expression data analysis. We present a novel cluster ensemble approach to generate high quality gene cluster. In our text summarization module, given a gene cluster, our Expectation Maximization (EM) based algorithm can automatically identify subtopics and extract most probable terms for each topic. Then, the extracted top k topical terms from each subtopic are combined to form the biological explanation of each gene cluster. Experimental results demonstrate that our system can obtain high quality clusters and provide informative key terms for the gene clusters.

Xiaohua Hu

204

Ergito: Virtual Text  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Ergito's Virtual Text, started in 2000, was created to provide a more timely and interactive alternative to printed scientific textbooks at the undergraduate and graduate level. This still-developing Web site covers life science writ large, including molecular biology, cell biology, genetics, biochemistry, immunology, and so on. However, only a small number of features are available free of charge. The first chapter of the molecular biology module -- Genes are DNA -- is available for free, as is Great Experiments, a collection of essays written by authors who conducted original research that has contributed greatly to our understanding of molecular and cellular biology. Great Experiments has a recently added essay by 2001 Nobel Prize winner Paul Nurse, titled "The Discovery of cdc2 as the Key Regulator of the Cell Cycle." These essays are formatted just as the Virtual Text pages are, with downloadable figures, a glossary, an online note-taking feature (notes are automatically compiled with a summary of the essay), glossary, and more. Ergito will soon make available Techniques, another free feature offering descriptions of widely used experimental protocols. Even without free access to the larger body of material in this Web site, Ergito is a fantastic resource for learning about molecular and cellular biology. Users must complete a free registration process to access this Web site.

2000-01-01

205

Sentence Position revisited: A robust light-weight Update Summarization 'baseline' Algorithm  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we describe a sentence po- sition based summarizer that is built based on a sentence position policy, created from the evaluation testbed of recent summariza- tion tasks at Document Understanding Con- ferences (DUC). We show that the summa- rizer thus built is able to outperform most sys- tems participating in task focused summariza- tion evaluations at Text

Rahul Katragadda; Prasad Pingali

2009-01-01

206

Heterogeneity image patch index and its application to consumer video summarization.  

PubMed

Automatic video summarization is indispensable for fast browsing and efficient management of large video libraries. In this paper, we introduce an image feature that we refer to as heterogeneity image patch (HIP) index. The proposed HIP index provides a new entropy-based measure of the heterogeneity of patches within any picture. By evaluating this index for every frame in a video sequence, we generate a HIP curve for that sequence. We exploit the HIP curve in solving two categories of video summarization applications: key frame extraction and dynamic video skimming. Under the key frame extraction frame-work, a set of candidate key frames is selected from abundant video frames based on the HIP curve. Then, a proposed patch-based image dissimilarity measure is used to create affinity matrix of these candidates. Finally, a set of key frames is extracted from the affinity matrix using a min–max based algorithm. Under video skimming, we propose a method to measure the distance between a video and its skimmed representation. The video skimming problem is then mapped into an optimization framework and solved by minimizing a HIP-based distance for a set of extracted excerpts. The HIP framework is pixel-based and does not require semantic information or complex camera motion estimation. Our simulation results are based on experiments performed on consumer videos and are compared with state-of-the-art methods. It is shown that the HIP approach outperforms other leading methods, while maintaining low complexity. PMID:24801112

Dang, Chinh T; Radha, Hayder

2014-06-01

207

Supervised Methods for Automatic Acronym Expansion in Medical Text  

E-print Network

.g. ACA ­ ACA only ­ 5,483 notes (2,543 patients) `adeno carcinoma' or `adenocarcinoma' only ­ 299,714 notes (66,057 patients) ACA and (`adeno carcinoma' or `adenocarcinoma') ­ 1,209 notes (880 patients for ACA and DJD, increasing the sensitivity or recall for the search. August 25, 2005 Supervised Methods

Pedersen, Ted

208

A Lightweight Tool for Automatically Extracting Causal Relationships from Text  

E-print Network

that a routine analysis of data collected at a small border crossing indicated that a suspected terrorist might have been able to enter the country at that location. Then, twelve days later a large quantity city. The city is located on a river with a large hydroelectric power dam. From these facts the analyst

Huhns, Michael N.

209

Spam Detection Using Text Clustering  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a new spam detection technique using the text clustering based on vector space model. Our method computes disjoint clusters automatically using a spherical k-means algorithm for all spam\\/non-spam mails and obtains centroid vectors of the clusters for extracting the cluster description. For each centroid vectors, the label (`spam' or `non-spam') is assigned by calculating the number of spam

Minoru Sasaki; Hiroyuki Shinnou

2005-01-01

210

Capturing User Reading Behaviors for Personalized Document Summarization  

SciTech Connect

We propose a new personalized document summarization method that observes a user's personal reading preferences. These preferences are inferred from the user's reading behaviors, including facial expressions, gaze positions, and reading durations that were captured during the user's past reading activities. We compare the performance of our algorithm with that of a few peer algorithms and software packages. The results of our comparative study show that our algorithm can produce more superior personalized document summaries than all the other methods in that the summaries generated by our algorithm can better satisfy a user's personal preferences.

Xu, Songhua [ORNL; Jiang, Hao [University of Hong Kong, The; Lau, Francis [University of Hong Kong, The

2011-01-01

211

Text Independent Methods for Speech Segmentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This paper describes several text independent speech segmentation methods. State-of-the-art applications and the prospected\\u000a use of automatic speech segmentation techniques are presented, including the direct applicability of automatic segmentation\\u000a in recognition, coding and speech corpora annotation, which is a central issue in today’s speech technology. Moreover, a novel\\u000a parametric segmentation algorithm will be presented and performance will be evaluated by

Anna Esposito; Guido Aversano

2004-01-01

212

Genetic Algorithm-Based Text Clustering Technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

A modified variable string length genetic algorithm, called MVGA, is proposed for text clustering in this paper. Our algorithm\\u000a has been exploited for automatically evolving the optimal number of clusters as well as providing proper data set clustering.\\u000a The chromosome is encoded by special indices to indicate the location of each gene. More effective version of evolutional\\u000a steps can automatically

Wei Song; Soon Cheol Park

2006-01-01

213

Evaluation Methods of The Text Entities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The paper highlights some evaluation methods to assess the quality characteristics of the text entities. The main concepts used in building and evaluation processes of the text entities are presented. Also, some aggregated metrics for orthogonality measurements are presented. The evaluation process for automatic evaluation of the text entities is…

Popa, Marius

2006-01-01

214

Automatic Software Test Drivers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Typical testing activities may involve many hundreds of tests. An automatic software test driver assists the tester by managing all of the test data, and automatically running the tests. Savings during regression testing can be significant.

David J. Panzl

1978-01-01

215

Learning Ontologies to Improve Text Clustering and Classification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent work has shown improvements in text clustering and classifl- cation tasks by integrating conceptual features extracted from ontologies. In this paper we present text mining experiments in the medical domain in which the on- tological structures used are acquired automatically in an unsupervised learning process from the text corpus in question. We compare results obtained using the automatically learned

Stephan Bloehdorn; Philipp Cimiano; Andreas Hotho

2005-01-01

216

Investigating and Annotating the Role of Citation in Biomedical Full-Text Articles  

PubMed Central

Citations are ubiquitous in scientific articles and play important roles for representing the semantic content of a full-text biomedical article. In this work, we manually examined full-text biomedical articles to analyze the semantic content of citations in full-text biomedical articles. After developing a citation relation schema and annotation guideline, our pilot annotation results show an overall agreement of 0.71, and here we report on the research challenges and the lessons we've learned while trying to overcome them. Our work is a first step toward automatic citation classification in full-text biomedical articles, which may contribute to many text mining tasks, including information retrieval, extraction, summarization, and question answering. PMID:21170175

Yu, Hong; Agarwal, Shashank; Frid, Nadya

2010-01-01

217

Automatic phonetic segmentation of Malay speech database  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deals with automatic phonetic segmentation for Malay continuous speech. This study investigates fast and automatic phone segmentation in preparing database for Malay concatenative Text-to-Speech (TTS) systems. A 35 Malay phone set has been chosen, which is suitable for building Malay TTS. The segmentation experiment is based on this phone set. HMM based segmentation approach which uses Viterbi force

Chee-Ming Ting; Sh-Hussain Salleh; Tian-Swee Tan; A. K. Ariff

2007-01-01

218

Automatic Music Genre Classification  

E-print Network

In this work, we are presenting our approach to automatic genre classification for music files, or songs, which consists of audio files represented by a time series data, where the goal is to automatically process the files, to establish a genre assignment. Such applications that require automatic genre classification include internet radio stations that play similar songs based on a user specified preference, or for automatic

unknown authors

2009-01-01

219

Ontology-Based Structured Cosine Similarity in Speech Document Summarization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Development of algorithms for automated text categorization in massive text document sets is an important research area of data mining and knowledge discovery. Most of the text-clustering methods were grounded in the term-based measurement of distance or similarity, ignoring the structure of terms in documents. In this paper we present a novel method named Structured Cosine Similarity that furnishes document

Soe-tsyr Yuan; Jerry Sun

2004-01-01

220

Automatic fluid dispenser  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Fluid automatically flows to individual dispensing units at predetermined times from a fluid supply and is available only for a predetermined interval of time after which an automatic control causes the fluid to drain from the individual dispensing units. Fluid deprivation continues until the beginning of a new cycle when the fluid is once again automatically made available at the individual dispensing units.

Sakellaris, P. C. (inventor)

1977-01-01

221

Music Genres Classification using Text Categorization Method  

Microsoft Academic Search

Automatic music genre classification is one of the most challenging problems in music information retrieval and management of digital music database. In this paper, we propose a new framework using text category methods to classify music genres. This framework is different from current methods for music genre classification. In our framework, we consider music as text-like semantic music document, which

Kai Chen; Sheng Gao; Yongwei Zhu; Qibin Sun

2006-01-01

222

KDTA: Automated Knowledge-Driven Text Annotation  

E-print Network

for the automated annota- tion of text documents. In this work we demonstrate the component that automatically a lot of human intervention, or were able to annotate only specific parts of text, like named entities by generic tools. The semantic annotation phase, which is the core of the method, utilizes the Word

Paliouras, George

223

Applying Semantics in Dataset Summarization for Solar Data Ingest Pipelines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One goal in studying phenomena of the solar corona (e.g., flares, coronal mass ejections) is to create and refine predictive models of space weather - which have broad implications for terrestrial activity (e.g., communication grid reliability). The High Altitude Observatory (HAO) [1] presently maintains an infrastructure for generating time-series visualizations of the solar corona. Through raw data gathered at the Mauna Loa Solar Observatory (MLSO) in Hawaii, HAO performs follow-up processing and quality control steps to derive visualization sets consumable by scientists. Individual visualizations will acquire several properties during their derivation, including: (i) the source instrument at MLSO used to obtain the raw data, (ii) the time the data was gathered, (iii) processing steps applied by HAO to generate the visualization, and (iv) quality metrics applied over both the raw and processed data. In parallel to MLSO's standard data gathering, time stamped observation logs are maintained by MLSO staff, which covers content of potential relevance to data gathered (such as local weather and instrument conditions). In this setting, while a significant amount of solar data is gathered, only small sections will typically be of interest to consuming parties. Additionally, direct presentation of solar data collections could overwhelm consumers (particularly those with limited background in the data structuring). This work explores how multidimensional analysis based navigation can be used to generate summary views of data collections, based on two operations: (i) grouping visualization entries based on similarity metrics (e.g., data gathered between 23:15-23:30 6-21-2012), or (ii) filtering entries (e.g., data with a quality score of UGLY, on a scale of GOOD, BAD, or UGLY). Here, semantic encodings of solar visualization collections (based on the Resource Description Framework (RDF) Datacube vocabulary [2]) are being utilized, based on the flexibility of the RDF model for supporting the following use cases: (i) Temporal alignment of time-stamped MLSO observations with raw data gathered at MLSO. (ii) Linking of multiple visualization entries to common (and structurally complex) workflow structures - designed to capture the visualization generation process. To provide real-world use cases for the described approach, a semantic summarization system is being developed for data gathered from HAO's Coronal Multi-channel Polarimeter (CoMP) and Chromospheric Helium-I Imaging Photometer (CHIP) pipelines. Web Links: [1] http://mlso.hao.ucar.edu/ [2] http://www.w3.org/TR/vocab-data-cube/

Michaelis, J.; McGuinness, D. L.; Zednik, S.; West, P.; Fox, P. A.

2012-12-01

224

Application of nonlinear transformations to automatic flight control  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The theory of transformations of nonlinear systems to linear ones is applied to the design of an automatic flight controller for the UH-1H helicopter. The helicopter mathematical model is described and it is shown to satisfy the necessary and sufficient conditions for transformability. The mapping is constructed, taking the nonlinear model to canonical form. The performance of the automatic control system in a detailed simulation on the flight computer is summarized.

Meyer, G.; Su, R.; Hunt, L. R.

1984-01-01

225

Text-to-scene conversion for accident visualization  

Microsoft Academic Search

This document describes the creation of an automatic text-to-scene conversion system, AVis (Automatic Visualizer), for accident reports. Such reports vary from short text passages to long, complex documents describing the chain of events. The visualization of accidents is an important tool in Accident and Incident Analysis [Johnson 2002] For example, computer animations may be used as a training tool, for

Maghnus O'Kane; Joe Carthy; Michela Bertolotto

2004-01-01

226

Summarizing Massive Information for Querying Web Sources and Data Streams  

E-print Network

dependency parses from phrase structure parses. ” In InPhrase ( VP ). This is the most general form of subject-to-verb link structurestructures in text through the SemScape frame- work and combining them with contextual information for terms and phrases

Mousavi, Hamid

2014-01-01

227

Abstract--One of the challenging tasks in the context of Ontological Engineering is to automatically or semi-automatically  

E-print Network

Abstract-- One of the challenging tasks in the context of Ontological Engineering is to automatically or semi-automatically support the process of Ontology Learning and Ontology Population from semi-structured documents (texts). In this paper we describe a Semi-Automatic Ontology Instantiation method from natural

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

228

Autoclass: An automatic classification system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The task of inferring a set of classes and class descriptions most likely to explain a given data set can be placed on a firm theoretical foundation using Bayesian statistics. Within this framework, and using various mathematical and algorithmic approximations, the AutoClass System searches for the most probable classifications, automatically choosing the number of classes and complexity of class descriptions. A simpler version of AutoClass has been applied to many large real data sets, has discovered new independently-verified phenomena, and has been released as a robust software package. Recent extensions allow attributes to be selectively correlated within particular classes, and allow classes to inherit, or share, model parameters through a class hierarchy. The mathematical foundations of AutoClass are summarized.

Stutz, John; Cheeseman, Peter; Hanson, Robin

1991-01-01

229

Abstracting Digital Movies Automatically  

Microsoft Academic Search

ing Digital Movies AutomaticallyS. Pfeioeer, R. Lienhart, S. Fischer und W. EoeelsbergUniversit#t MannheimPraktische Informatik IVL 15, 16D-68131 MannheimAbstracting Digital Movies AutomaticallySilvia Pfeioeer, Rainer Lienhart, Stephan Fischer andWolfgang EoeelsbergPraktische Informatik IVUniversity of MannheimD-68131 Mannheimpfeiffer@pi4.informatik.uni-mannheim.deAbstractLarge video on demand databases consisting of thousands of digital moviesare not easy to handle: the...

Reihe Informatik S. Pfeioeer; R. Lienhart; S. Fischer Und W. Eoeelsberg

1996-01-01

230

Automatic differentiation bibliography  

SciTech Connect

This is a bibliography of work related to automatic differentiation. Automatic differentiation is a technique for the fast, accurate propagation of derivative values using the chain rule. It is neither symbolic nor numeric. Automatic differentiation is a fundamental tool for scientific computation, with applications in optimization, nonlinear equations, nonlinear least squares approximation, stiff ordinary differential equation, partial differential equations, continuation methods, and sensitivity analysis. This report is an updated version of the bibliography which originally appeared in Automatic Differentiation of Algorithms: Theory, Implementation, and Application.

Corliss, G.F. [comp.

1992-07-01

231

Indentifying Emotional Characteristics from Short Blog Texts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emotion is at the core of understanding ourselves and others, and the automatic expression and detection of emotion could enhance our experience with technologies. In this paper, we explore the use of computational linguistic tools to derive emotional features. Using 50 and 200 word samples of naturally-occurring blog texts, we find that some emotions are more discernible than others. In

Alastair J. Gill; Darren Gergle

2008-01-01

232

Text on tap: the ACL\\/DCI  

Microsoft Academic Search

There has been a recent upsurge of interest in computational studies of large bodies of text. The aim of such studies varies widely, from lexicography and studies of language change to automatic indexing methods and statistical models for improving the performance of speech recognition systems and optical character readers. In general, corpus-based studies are critical for the development of adequate

Mark Liberman

1989-01-01

233

Automatic intelligibility test equipment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The report describes an Automatic Intelligibility Test equipment (AITE) which automatically measures the word intelligibility of a digital voice communication link. The system consists of a Nova 820 mini computer, AID converter, teletype unit (ASR-33), tape recorder, high speed paper tape reader and punch set, and the phoneme test sequence. The phoneme test sequence is recorded on audio tape which

D. J. Jurenko

1974-01-01

234

GMDSS Automatic Evaluation System  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current skill evaluation of GMDSS certification is mainly carried out by human being, which involves many man-made factors, and is hard to test the real level of personnel being assessed. Due to this fact, the present study designs an automatic evaluation system. Based on a B\\/S structure, the system realizes an automatic assessment content algorithm according to category and

Tao Wang; Yuna Miao; Qiang Ma

2010-01-01

235

Text representations in digital hypermedia library systems  

E-print Network

. . 2. 3. 2 Hypermedia and Digital Libraries 2. 3. 3 Text Representations and Hypermedia . . 2. 3. 4 Existing Hypermedia Taxonomies . . 2. 4 Information Retrieval . 2. 4. 1 General Information Retrieval Research . 2. 4. 2 Automatic and Intellectual... Systems 3. 5 A New Taxonomic Class . . 3. 5. 1 A Comparison of Existing Taxonomies. . . . . . . . . . 3. 5. 2 A New Taxonomic Class . . 24 25 25 26 27 29 30 32 37 38 39 51 52 53 4. THE TEXT REPRESENTATION DESIGN ISSUE 57 4. 1...

Lokken, Sveinung Taraldsrud

2012-06-07

236

Automatic amino acid analyzer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Analyzer operates unattended or up to 15 hours. It has an automatic sample injection system and can be programmed. All fluid-flow valve switching is accomplished pneumatically from miniature three-way solenoid pilot valves.

Berdahl, B. J.; Carle, G. C.; Oyama, V. I.

1971-01-01

237

Automatic Input Rectification  

E-print Network

We present a novel technique, automatic input rectification, and a prototype implementation called SOAP. SOAP learns a set of constraints characterizing typical inputs that an application is highly likely to process ...

Long, Fan

2011-10-03

238

Automatic input rectification  

E-print Network

We present a novel technique, automatic input rectification, and a prototype implementation, SOAP. SOAP learns a set of constraints characterizing typical inputs that an application is highly likely to process correctly. ...

Long, Fan, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2012-01-01

239

Automatic input rectification  

E-print Network

We present a novel technique, automatic input rectification, and a prototype implementation, SOAP. SOAP learns a set of constraints characterizing typical inputs that an application is highly likely to process correctly. ...

Long, Fan

240

Automatic natural language parsing  

SciTech Connect

This collection of papers on automatic natural language parsing examines research and development in language processing over the past decade. It focuses on current trends toward a phrase structure grammar and deterministic parsing.

Sprack-Jones, K.; Wilks, Y.

1985-01-01

241

Palmer Automatic Weather Station  

NSF Publications Database

... EAM NSF Org: OD / OPP Date : December 06, 1991 File : opp93040 DIVISION OF POLAR PROGRAMS OFFICE OF ... Palmer Automatic Weather Station) To: Files (S.7 - Environment) This Environmental Action Memorandum ...

242

Automatic switching matrix  

DOEpatents

An automatic switching matrix that includes an apertured matrix board containing a matrix of wires that can be interconnected at each aperture. Each aperture has associated therewith a conductive pin which, when fully inserted into the associated aperture, effects electrical connection between the wires within that particular aperture. Means is provided for automatically inserting the pins in a determined pattern and for removing all the pins to permit other interconnecting patterns.

Schlecht, Martin F. (Cambridge, MA); Kassakian, John G. (Newton, MA); Caloggero, Anthony J. (Lynn, MA); Rhodes, Bruce (Dorchester, MA); Otten, David (Newton, MA); Rasmussen, Neil (Sudbury, MA)

1982-01-01

243

Text File Display Program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

LOOK program permits user to examine text file in pseudorandom access manner. Program provides user with way of rapidly examining contents of ASCII text file. LOOK opens text file for input only and accesses it in blockwise fashion. Handles text formatting and displays text lines on screen. User moves forward or backward in file by any number of lines or blocks. Provides ability to "scroll" text at various speeds in forward or backward directions.

Vavrus, J. L.

1986-01-01

244

Automatic Through-the-Thickness braiding  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Three-dimensional braiding is a novel textile technology which provides significant improvements in composite toughness and delamination resistance. Techniques for three-dimensional braiding include Through-the-Thickness braiding, AYPEX, two-pass, and layer interlock. This paper summarizes the state-of-the-art and approaches to braider actuation and control. The authors illustrate the technique by describing the fabrication of complex structural shapes such as I-beams, ribs, and blade stiffened panels. The authors conclude that three-dimensional braiding is a rapidly maturing technology which is capable of automatic production of textile preforms for application in aircraft primary structures.

Brown, Richard T.; Crow, Eddie C., Jr.

245

SENT: semantic features in text  

PubMed Central

We present SENT (semantic features in text), a functional interpretation tool based on literature analysis. SENT uses Non-negative Matrix Factorization to identify topics in the scientific articles related to a collection of genes or their products, and use them to group and summarize these genes. In addition, the application allows users to rank and explore the articles that best relate to the topics found, helping put the analysis results into context. This approach is useful as an exploratory step in the workflow of interpreting and understanding experimental data, shedding some light into the complex underlying biological mechanisms. This tool provides a user-friendly interface via a web site, and a programmatic access via a SOAP web server. SENT is freely accessible at http://sent.dacya.ucm.es. PMID:19458159

Vazquez, Miguel; Carmona-Saez, Pedro; Nogales-Cadenas, Ruben; Chagoyen, Monica; Tirado, Francisco; Carazo, Jose Maria; Pascual-Montano, Alberto

2009-01-01

246

Improving Text Recall with Multiple Summaries  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background. QuikScan (QS) is an innovative design that aims to improve accessibility, comprehensibility, and subsequent recall of expository text by means of frequent within-document summaries that are formatted as numbered list items. The numbers in the QS summaries correspond to numbers placed in the body of the document where the summarized

van der Meij, Hans; van der Meij, Jan

2012-01-01

247

Automated de-identification of free-text medical records  

E-print Network

This paper presents a de-identification study at the Harvard-MIT Division of Health Science and Technology (HST) to automatically de-identify confidential patient information from text medical records used in intensive ...

Neamatullah, Ishna

2006-01-01

248

Text-Translation Alignment  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present an algorithm for aligning texts with their translations that is based only on internal evidence. The relaxation process rests on a notion of which word in one text corresponds to which word in the other text that is essentially based on the similarity of their distributions. It exploits a partial alignment of the word level to induce a

Martin Kay; Martin Röscheisen

1993-01-01

249

What is technical text?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Beyond labeling it easier to process than other types, few researchers who use technical text in their work try to define what it is. This paper describes a study that investigates the character of texts typically considered technical. We identify 42 features of a text considered likely to correlate with its degree of technicality. These include both objectively verifiable measures

Terry Copeck; Ken Barker; Sylvain Delisle; Stan Szpakowicz; Jean-François Delannoy

1997-01-01

250

Automatic Glossary Extraction: Beyond Terminology Identification  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a method for automatically extracting domain-specific glossaries from large document collections. We show that, compared with current text analysis methods for extracting technical terminology from text, our extracted glossaries more successfully support applications requiring knowledge of domain concepts. After presenting our methods, we illustrate the output of GlossEx, our glossary extraction tool, and present an informal evaluation

Roy J. Byrd; Branimir K Boguraev

2002-01-01

251

for Text Clustering  

E-print Network

Abstract: This research proposes a new strategy where documents are encoded into string vectors and modified version of k means algorithm to be adaptable to string vectors for text clustering. Traditionally, when k means algorithm is used for pattern classification, raw data should be encoded into numerical vectors. This encoding may be difficult, depending on a given application area of pattern classification. For example, in text clustering, encoding full texts given as raw data into numerical vectors leads to two main problems: huge dimensionality and sparse distribution. In this research, we encode full texts into string vectors, and modify the k means algorithm adaptable to string vectors for text clustering.

Taeho Jo

252

Text Clustering with Local Semantic Kernels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Document clustering is a fundamental task of text mining, by which efficient organization, navigation, summarization, and\\u000a retrieval of documents can be achieved. The clustering of documents presents difficult challenges due to the sparsity and\\u000a the high dimensionality of text data, and to the complex semantics of natural language. Subspace clustering is an extension\\u000a of traditional clustering that is designed to

Loulwah AlSumait; Carlotta Domeniconi

253

Persian Text Watermarking  

Microsoft Academic Search

Digital watermarking applies to variety of media including image, video, audio and text. Because of the nature of digital\\u000a text, its watermarking methods are special. Moreover, these methods basically depend on the script used in the text. This\\u000a paper reviews application of digital watermarking to Farsi (Persian) and similar scripts (like Arabic, Urdu and Pashto) which\\u000a are substantially different from

Ali Asghar Khodami; Khashayar Yaghmaie

2006-01-01

254

TextImages  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Those persons who do their own website design will find TextImages most useful. Developed by Stefan Trost, this helpful tool allows users to integrate text written on images into their websites. Visitors can create single text images with this application, along with a wide range of pictures. Visitors also have the ability to precisely adjust the writing, design, format, style, colors, fonts, margins, and spacing as they see fit. The tool is particularly useful for those who want headings or other recurring text to look the same regardless of browser or available fonts. This version is compatible with Windows 7, XP, and Vista.

Trost, Stefan

2012-03-30

255

Text categorization algorithms representations based on inductive learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Text categorization-assignment of natural language texts to one or more predefined categories based on their content-is an important component in many information organization and management tasks. Categorization algorithm is the most critical factor to text categorization system performance. The inductive learning classifiers are put forward. Very accurate text categorization result can be learned automatically from training examples.

Cao Jian-fang; Wang Hong-bin

2010-01-01

256

Text File Comparator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

File Comparator program IFCOMP, is text file comparator for IBM OS/VScompatable systems. IFCOMP accepts as input two text files and produces listing of differences in pseudo-update form. IFCOMP is very useful in monitoring changes made to software at the source code level.

Kotler, R. S.

1983-01-01

257

Health Information Text Characteristics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Millions of people search online for medical text, but these texts are often too complicated to understand. Readability evaluations are mostly based on surface metrics such as character or words counts and sentence syntax, but content is ignored. We compared four types of documents, easy and difficult WebMD documents, patient blogs, and patient educational material, for surface and content-based metrics.

Gondy Leroy; T. Laroya

2006-01-01

258

Text Classification Using Clustering  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper addresses the problem of learning to classify texts by exploiting information derived from both training and testing sets. To accomplish this, clustering is used as a complementary step to text classi- fication, and is applied not only to the training set but also to the testing set. This approach allows us to estimate the location of the testing

Antonia Kyriakopoulou; Theodore Kalamboukis

259

Content based Video Retrieval, Classification and Summarization: The State-of-the-Art and  

E-print Network

system. The representation is an abstraction of the sensory data, which should reflect a real world, sports video trajectory analysis and automatic video surveillance. Psychological studies show that human

Khokhar, Ashfaq

260

Red-Tide Research Summarized to 1964 Including an Annotated Bibliography  

E-print Network

535^ Red-Tide Research Summarized to 1964 Including an Annotated Bibliography By George A, Harold E. Crowther, Acting Director Red-Tide Research Summarized to 1964 Including an Annotated Historical 2 General conditions during red-tide outbreaks 3 Temperature 3 Salinity 3 Rainfall 4 Wind 4 Light

261

PERSIVAL, a System for Personalized Search and Summarization over Multimedia Healthcare Information.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reports on the ongoing development of PERSIVAL (Personalized Retrieval and Summarization of Image, Video, and Language), a system designed to provide personalized access to a distributed digital library of medical literature and consumer health information. The goal for PERSIVAL is to tailor search, presentation, and summarization of…

McKeown, Kathleen R.; Chang, Shih-Fu; Cimino, James; Feiner, Steven K.; Friedman, Carol; Gravano, Luis; Hatzivassiloglou, Vasileios; Johnson, Steven; Jordan, Desmond A.; Klavans, Judith L.; Kushniruk, Andre; Patel, Vimla; Teufel, Simone

262

Disaster Image Filtering and Summarization Based on Multi-layered Affinity Propagation  

E-print Network

Disaster Image Filtering and Summarization Based on Multi-layered Affinity Propagation Yimin Yang and summarization (DIFS) framework is proposed based on multi- layered affinity propagation. The proposed framework clustered into different groups based on visual descriptors using affinity propagation (AP

Chen, Shu-Ching

263

ClassMiner: Mining medical video for scalable skimming and summarization  

E-print Network

ClassMiner: Mining medical video for scalable skimming and summarization Xingquan Zhu1 , Jianping, scalable skimming, video summarization 1. SYSTEM TECHNICAL DESCRIPTION The ClassMiner system demonstrates with shots on its right side than shots on its left side. Accordingly, a separation factor for shot Si

Elmagarmid, Ahmed K.

264

Design and development of a concept-based multi-document summarization system for research abstracts  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a new concept-based multi-document summarization system that employs discourse pars- ing, information extraction and information integration. Dissertation abstracts in the field of sociology were selected as sample documents for this study. The summarization process includes four major steps - (1) parsing dissertation abstracts into five standard sections; (2) extracting research concepts (often opera- tionalized as research variables)

Shiyan Ou; Christopher Soo-Guan Khoo; Dion Hoe-lian Goh

2008-01-01

265

Summarization of Broadcast News Video through Link Analysis of Named Entities  

E-print Network

Summarization of Broadcast News Video through Link Analysis of Named Entities Norman Papernick+,alex+}@cs.cmu.edu Abstract This paper describes the use of connections between named entities for summarization of broadcast news. We first extract named entities from a transcript of a news story, and find related entities

266

Semantic Video Summarization Using Mutual Reinforcement Principle and Shot Arrangement Patterns  

E-print Network

Semantic Video Summarization Using Mutual Reinforcement Principle and Shot Arrangement Patterns Shi a novel semantic video summarization framework, which generates video skimmings that guaran- tee both the balanced content coverage and the visual co- herence. First, we collect video semantic information

King, Kuo Chin Irwin

267

Video summarization based on camera motion and a subjective evaluation method  

E-print Network

Video summarization based on camera motion and a subjective evaluation method M. Guironnet a , D of video summarization based on camera motion. It consists in selecting frames according to the succession summaries more generally. Subjects were asked to watch a video and to create a summary manually. From

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

268

VIDEO SUMMARIZATION USING A VISUALATTENTION MODEL Sophie MARAT, Mickel GUIRONNET, and Denis PELLERIN  

E-print Network

VIDEO SUMMARIZATION USING A VISUALATTENTION MODEL Sophie MARAT, Mickäel GUIRONNET, and Denis.gipsa-lab.inpg.fr ABSTRACT This paper presents a method of video summarization based on a visual attention model. The visual variation curve" which highlights changes on frames content during the video is introduced. Keyframes

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

269

A video summarization tool using two-level redundancy detection for personal video recorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Storage of video information is experiencing rapid growth as digital broadcasting services have developed. This has rapidly increased video data storage requirements in DVD and hard disc recorders in recent years. We design a video summarization tool for personal video recorders. This tool provides a video summarization function to grasp the original long video content quickly. This tool is with

Yue Gao; Wei-Bo Wang; Jun-Hai Yong

2008-01-01

270

Linguistic summarization of video for fall detection using voxel person and fuzzy logic  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we present a method for recognizing human activity from linguistic summarizations of temporal fuzzy inference curves representing the states of a three-dimensional object called voxel per- son. A hierarchy of fuzzy logic is used, where the output from each level is summarized and fed into the next level. We present a two level model for fall detection.

Derek Anderson; Robert H. Luke III; James M. Keller; Marjorie Skubic; Marilyn Rantz; Myra Aud

2009-01-01

271

Parallel text search methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comparison of recently proposed parallel text search methods to alternative available search strategies that use serial processing machines suggests parallel methods do not provide large-scale gains in either retrieval effectiveness or efficiency.

Gerard Salton; Chris Buckley

1988-01-01

272

Internet Web Text  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

_Internet Web Text_ links users to information about Internet orientation, guides, reference materials, browsing and exploring tools, subject- and word-oriented searching tools, and information about connecting with people.

273

Emotion Detection from Text  

E-print Network

Emotion can be expressed in many ways that can be seen such as facial expression and gestures, speech and by written text. Emotion Detection in text documents is essentially a content - based classification problem involving concepts from the domains of Natural Language Processing as well as Machine Learning. In this paper emotion recognition based on textual data and the techniques used in emotion detection are discussed.

Shivhare, Shiv Naresh

2012-01-01

274

Brut: Automatic bubble classifier  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Brut, written in Python, identifies bubbles in infrared images of the Galactic midplane; it uses a database of known bubbles from the Milky Way Project and Spitzer images to build an automatic bubble classifier. The classifier is based on the Random Forest algorithm, and uses the WiseRF implementation of this algorithm.

Beaumont, Christopher; Goodman, Alyssa; Williams, Jonathan; Kendrew, Sarah; Simpson, Robert

2014-07-01

275

approach to automaticity  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider how a particular set of information processing principles, de- veloped within the parallel distributed processing (PDP) framework, can address issues concerning automaticity. These principles include graded, activation-based processing that is subject to attentional modulation; incre- mental, connection-based learning; and interactivity and competition in pro- cessing. We show how simulation models, based on these principles, can account for the

DAVID SERVAN-SCHREIBER

276

Forensic Automatic Speaker Recognition  

E-print Network

considered "the golden standard of forensic identification" Fingerprint experts have long claimed: "Absolute1 Forensic Automatic Speaker Recognition: Fiction or Science? Joaquin Gonzalez-Rodriguez ATVS identification problem Influence of "classical" forensic identification This talk is: NOT a tutorial on Speaker

Autonoma de Madrid, Universidad

277

Automatic TCP Buffer Tuning  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the growth of high performance networking, a single host may have simultaneous connections that vary in bandwidth by as many as six orders of magnitude. We identify requirements for an automatically-tuning TCP to achieve maximum throughput across all connections simultaneously within the resource limits of the sender. Our auto-tuning TCP implementation makes use of several existing technologies and adds

Jeffrey Semke; Jamshid Mahdavi; Matthew Mathis

1998-01-01

278

Automatic sweep circuit  

DOEpatents

An automatically sweeping circuit for searching for an evoked response in an output signal in time with respect to a trigger input. Digital counters are used to activate a detector at precise intervals, and monitoring is repeated for statistical accuracy. If the response is not found then a different time window is examined until the signal is found.

Keefe, Donald J. (Lemont, IL)

1980-01-01

279

Abstracting Digital Movies Automatically  

Microsoft Academic Search

Large video-on-demand databases consisting of thousands of digital movies are not easy to handle: the user must have an attractive means of retrieving his movie of choice. For analog video, movie trailers are produced to allow a quick preview and perhaps stimulate possible buyers. This paper presents techniques for automatically producing such movie abstracts of digital videos.

Silvia Pfeiffer; Rainer Lienhart; Stephan Fischer; Wolfgang Effelsberg

1996-01-01

280

Automatic multiple applicator electrophoresis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Easy-to-use, economical device permits electrophoresis on all known supporting media. System includes automatic multiple-sample applicator, sample holder, and electrophoresis apparatus. System has potential applicability to fields of taxonomy, immunology, and genetics. Apparatus is also used for electrofocusing.

Grunbaum, B. W.

1977-01-01

281

Automatic Dance Lesson Generation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper, an automatic lesson generation system is presented which is suitable in a learning-by-mimicking scenario where the learning objects can be represented as multiattribute time series data. The dance is used as an example in this paper to illustrate the idea. Given a dance motion sequence as the input, the proposed lesson generation…

Yang, Yang; Leung, H.; Yue, Lihua; Deng, LiQun

2012-01-01

282

Knowledge Based Understanding of Radiology Text  

PubMed Central

A data acquisition tool which will extract pertinent diagnostic information from radiology reports has been designed and implemented. Pertinent diagnostic information is defined as that clinical data which is used by the HELP medical expert system. The program uses a memory based semantic parsing technique to “understand” the text. Moreover, the memory structures and lexicon necessary to perform this action are automatically generated from the diagnostic knowledge base by using a special purpose compiler. The result is a system where data extraction from free text is directed by an expert system whose goal is diagnosis.

Ranum, David L.

1988-01-01

283

Text Exchange System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Text Exchange System (TES) exchanges and maintains organized textual information including source code, documentation, data, and listings. System consists of two computer programs and definition of format for information storage. Comprehensive program used to create, read, and maintain TES files. TES developed to meet three goals: First, easy and efficient exchange of programs and other textual data between similar and dissimilar computer systems via magnetic tape. Second, provide transportable management system for textual information. Third, provide common user interface, over wide variety of computing systems, for all activities associated with text exchange.

Snyder, W. V.; Hanson, R. J.

1986-01-01

284

Text Retrieval Conference (TREC)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Text REtrieval Conference (TREC) is an annual event that supports "research within the information retrieval community by providing the infrastructure necessary for large-scale evaluation of text retrieval methodologies." Proceedings of the conference covering all twelve years of its history are available on the TREC homepage. As TREC has evolved, it has added several focus areas that span new and different topics in information retrieval. These tracks mainly examine methods of searching and filtering different types of data, including genomic records, digital video, and data that is given in multiple languages.

2001-01-01

285

Text Encoding Initiative  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Text Encoding Initiative (TEI) is an "international and interdisciplinary standard that helps libraries, museums, publishers, and individual scholars represent all kinds of literary and linguistic texts for online research and teaching." The site offers information about the TEI consortium; recommendations for the encoding of textual material in various languages; TEI Tutorials that provide introductory and advanced teaching materials, presentations, and user case studies; a history archive of TEI publications and working papers; and much more. This site is primarily for individuals who already possess some knowledge of material encoding.

2001-01-01

286

The Interplay between Automatic and Control Processes in Reading.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews prominent reading theories in light of their accounts of how automatic and control processes combine to produce successful text comprehension, and the trade-offs between the two. Presents the Compensatory-Encoding Model of reading, which explicates how, when, and why automatic and control processes interact. Notes important educational…

Walczyk, Jeffrey J.

2000-01-01

287

Text as Image.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As electronically mediated communication becomes more prevalent, print is regaining the original pictorial qualities which graphemes (written signs) lost when primitive pictographs (or picture writing) and ideographs (simplified graphemes used to communicate ideas as well as to represent objects) evolved into first written, then printed, texts of…

Woal, Michael; Corn, Marcia Lynn

288

Polymorphous Perversity in Texts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Here's the tricky part: If we teach ourselves and our students that texts are made to be broken apart, remixed, remade, do we lose the polymorphous perversity that brought us pleasure in the first place? Does the pleasure of transgression evaporate when the borders are opened?

Johnson-Eilola, Johndan

2012-01-01

289

Efficient streaming text clustering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Clustering data streams has been a new research topic, recently emerged from many real data mining applications, and has attracted a lot of research attention. However, there is little work on clustering high-dimensional streaming text data. This paper combines an efficient online spherical k-me ans (OSKM) algorithm with an existing scalable clustering strategy to achieve fast and adaptive clustering of

Shi Zhong

2005-01-01

290

Home > News [-] Text [+  

E-print Network

Home > News [-] Text [+] By EurekAlert Email Print retweet 1 tweet RSS Feeds Newsletters Bookmark identify and quantify the TICs in a matter of seconds." To create the sensor array, the researchers print Awards Subscribe Page 1 of 3Opto-electronic nose sniffs out toxic gases | R&D Mag 10/14/2009http

Suslick, Kenneth S.

291

[Type text] I. Introduction.  

E-print Network

#12;[Type text] #12;1 I. Introduction. The ongoing shifts in relative power and increasing ­ preferably with partners and allies, but alone if necessary ­ to deter and defeat acts of aggression. For all national interests and advance international security and stability. #12;2 deter and defeat aggression

US Army Corps of Engineers

292

Visualizing Informational Text  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Visualizing is a reading comprehension strategy that can be applied to science-themed texts, according to this article from Beyond Weather and the Water Cycle, a magazine that integrates literacy and science skills instruction. The author identifies six online resources that have activities, lesson plans, and more information.

Fries-Gaither, Jessica

2011-03-01

293

STEM Careers Cursive Text  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This brief video from WPSU compares technologies from yesterday with today. Yesterday a middle school girl writes in cursive while today a girl the same age texts on her cell. The video suggests that science will bring us technologies of tomorrow.

Wpsu

2009-11-10

294

Text information extraction in images and video: a survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Text data present in images and video contain useful information for automatic annotation, indexing, and structuring of images. Extraction of this information involves detection, localization, tracking, extraction, enhancement, and recognition of the text from a given image. However, variations of text due to differences in size, style, orientation, and alignment, as well as low image contrast and complex background make

Keechul Jung; Kwang In Kim; Anil K. Jain

2004-01-01

295

Inductive Learning Algorithms and Representations for Text Categorization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Text categorization - the assignment of natural language texts to one or more predefined categories based on their content - is an important component in many information organization and management tasks. We compare the effectiveness of five different automatic learning algorithms for text categorization in terms of learning speed, real-time classification speed, and classification accuracy. We also examine training set

Susan Dumais; John Platt; David Heckerman; Mehran Sahami

1998-01-01

296

Automatic Video Shot Detection from MPEG Stream  

E-print Network

Automatic Video Shot Detection from MPEG Stream Jianping Fan Department of Computer Science;Why we need video shots? a. Text Retrieval: Keyword Extraction Indexing Document Storage Reverse File Indexing #12;Why we need video shots? b. Database Query: Entity Extraction sid name login age gpa 53666

Fan, Jianping

297

Automatic Processing of Current Affairs Queries  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The SMART system is used for the analysis, search and retrieval of news stories appearing in Time'' magazine. A comparison is made between the automatic text processing methods incorporated into the SMART system and a manual search using the classified index to Time.'' (14 references) (Author)

Salton, G.

1973-01-01

298

Automatic processing of foreign language documents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experiments conducted over the last few years with the SMART document retrieval system have shown that fully automatic text processing methods using relatively simple linguistic tools are as effective for purposes of document indexing, classification, search, and retrieval as the more elaborate manual methods normally used in practice. Up to now, all experiments were carried out entirely with English language

G. Salton

1969-01-01

299

Toward Plot Units: Automatic Affect State Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a system called AESOP that au- tomatically produces affect states associated with characters in a story. This research repre- sents a first step toward the automatic genera- tion of plot unit structures from text. AESOP incorporates several existing sentiment analy- sis tools and lexicons to evaluate the effective- ness of current sentiment technology on this task. AESOP also

Amit Goyal; Ellen Riloff; Hal Daume; Nathan Gilbert

2008-01-01

300

Text Indexing with Errors  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In this paper we address the problem of constructing an index for a text document or a collection of documents to answer various\\u000a questions about the occurrences of a pattern when allowing a constant number of errors. In particular, our index can be built\\u000a to report all occurrences, all positions, or all documents where a pattern occurs in time linear

Moritz G. Maaß; Johannes Nowak

2005-01-01

301

Movie-in-a-Minute: Automatically Generated Video Previews  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a \\u000a Movie-in-a-minute is a summarization method that enables quick browsing and access to hundreds of hours of stored video programs. A movie-in-a-minute is a short video sequence composed of automatically selected portions of the original video that aims at conveying key aspects\\u000a of a program and its story in an efficient but entertaining way. In this paper we discuss an approach

Mauro Barbieri; Nevenka Dimitrova; Lalitha Agnihotri

2004-01-01

302

Berkovsky, Shlomo, Timothy Baldwin and Ingrid Zukerman (2008) Aspect-Based Personalized Text Summarization, In Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Adaptive  

E-print Network

is focused on personaliza- tion in museums. For example, consider the following document d about blue whales The blue whale is a marine mammal belonging to the family of baleen whales. This family also includes the Humpback, Fin, and Minke Whales. Due to its yellow underparts, the blue whale is often called the sulphur

Baldwin, Timothy

303

Constructions (Mimeo by B. Wlchli & M. Wirn, January 2013) This text summarizes some elements of Tomasello (2003), Croft (2001: 14-29), Goldberg  

E-print Network

be derived from the combination of the meanings of its parts only. (1) Pat sneezed the foam off abstracting constructions out of concrete exemplars), entrenchment and competition (account for constraining

304

Video Summarization Using a Self-Growing and Self-Organized Neural Gas Network  

E-print Network

penetrated in our everyday life. A characteristic example of multimedia data is the digital video, whose on applied to on-line videos. The novelty of this approach lies in the fact that the video summarization

Papamarkos, Nikos

305

Towards automatic program partitioning  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a trend towards using accelerators to increase per- formance and energy eciency of general-purpose proces- sors. Adoption of accelerators, however, depends on the availability of tools to facilitate programming these devices. In this paper, we present techniques for automatically par- titioning programs for execution on accelerators. We call the o-loaded code regions sub-algorithms, which are parts of the

Sean Rul; Hans Vandierendonck; Koen De Bosschere

2009-01-01

306

Reception of Texts Database  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created by the Reception of Texts Project at the Open University, this pilot database is designed to help practitioners of reception studies "address issues of performance with the same degree of rigour and attention to evidence which is expected in textual studies and to develop ways of documenting performance which recognise its cross disciplinary and creative dimensions." To that end, academics and students in classical studies, literature, theater studies, and related fields can use this database to search for information on the performances of Greek plays in the original and in adaptations, versions and translations in English from c.1970 to the present, and in the future, poetry in English which draws on Greek texts, myths, and images. The database offers nine search categories, each with a slightly different search format, some offering only a simple keyword search, others with multiple modifiers, and others with pull-down menus for browsing. With the exception of the Critical Works category, searches ultimately return a Production Details page which generally includes modern and original title, year, theater, dates of performance, company, and music, design, and general notes. A useful feature throughout the database is a Missing Information form, which allows users to submit additional or missing information about specific entries.

307

Internet Sacred Text Archive  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The world's philosophical and religious traditions have found a fine home at the Internet Sacred Text Archive, which, as the homepage notes, is "a quiet place in cyberspace devoted to religious tolerance and scholarship." Working together with a number of colleagues and volunteers, JB Hare has compiled this vast archive of sacred and philosophical texts from a number of public-domain sources and placed them on the site. What makes the site so intriguing is that Hare has placed detailed information about the sources and standards that have been deployed for each separate project, which will be of great interest to scholars. While the entire site can be searched, there is much to be learned by looking through the topics listed on the main page, which range from Atlantis to Zoroastrianism. Each separate topic contains a number of accurately transcribed (and some times, translated) primary and secondary documents, such as first-hand collections of oral traditions. For persons looking for their own copy of the material contained on the site, a CD-ROM is available for purchase as well.

1997-01-01

308

TRMM Gridded Text Products  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) has many products that contain instantaneous or gridded rain rates often among many other parameters. However, these products because of their completeness can often seem intimidating to users just desiring surface rain rates. For example one of the gridded monthly products contains well over 200 parameters. It is clear that if only rain rates are desired, this many parameters might prove intimidating. In addition, for many good reasons these products are archived and currently distributed in HDF format. This also can be an inhibiting factor in using TRMM rain rates. To provide a simple format and isolate just the rain rates from the many other parameters, the TRMM product created a series of gridded products in ASCII text format. This paper describes the various text rain rate products produced. It provides detailed information about parameters and how they are calculated. It also gives detailed format information. These products are used in a number of applications with the TRMM processing system. The products are produced from the swath instantaneous rain rates and contain information from the three major TRMM instruments: radar, radiometer, and combined. They are simple to use, human readable, and small for downloading.

Stocker, Erich Franz

2007-01-01

309

Automatic payload deployment system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ability to precisely emplace stand-alone payloads in hostile territory has long been on the wish list of US warfighters. This type of activity is one of the main functions of special operation forces, often conducted at great danger. Such risk can be mitigated by transitioning the manual placement of payloads over to an automated placement mechanism by the use of the Automatic Payload Deployment System (APDS). Based on the Automatically Deployed Communication Relays (ADCR) system, which provides non-line-of-sight operation for unmanned ground vehicles by automatically dropping radio relays when needed, the APDS takes this concept a step further and allows for the delivery of a mixed variety of payloads. For example, payloads equipped with a camera and gas sensor in addition to a radio repeater, can be deployed in support of rescue operations of trapped miners. Battlefield applications may include delivering food, ammunition, and medical supplies to the warfighter. Covert operations may require the unmanned emplacement of a network of sensors for human-presence detection, before undertaking the mission. The APDS is well suited for these tasks. Demonstrations have been conducted using an iRobot PackBot EOD in delivering a variety of payloads, for which the performance and results will be discussed in this paper.

Pezeshkian, Narek; Nguyen, Hoa G.; Burmeister, Aaron; Holz, Kevin; Hart, Abraham

2010-04-01

310

Blake Digital Text Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Maintained by Nelson Hilton, Professor of English at the University of Georgia-Athens, this site will quickly become a favorite of Blake scholars. In addition to the full text of David V. Erdman's The Complete Poetry and Prose of William Blake, the site features a hypertext version of Songs of Innocence and of Experience which allows users to explore the various versions of Blake's masterpiece and "proceed from any given poem to any other which followed it in any edition, looping through the various juxtapositions Blake created in the intratextual, echoing world of Songs." In addition, the site also includes a powerful Blake Concordance. Concordance results link to a three-line context in the bottom frame of the page.

311

Folger Digital Texts  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

As this website proclaims, visitors of the page will find "Timeless Textsâ and âÂÂCutting-Edge Code,â culled from the words of the Bard. This code refers to the source code that users can download from the site, allowing interested parties to develop new noncommercial Shakespeare projects and apps. To get started, visitors can access the Read a Play feature. There's a brief introduction to the editions here, courtesy of Barbara Mowat and Paul Werstine. In the About Us section visitors can learn more about this lovely project and also take a look at links to their digital image collection and a range of K-12 teaching resources.

312

Magnetic Resonance Online Texts  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This well-organized and very thorough website was developed by the physicist Stanislav Sykora with the aim of providing free online texts, theses, and course materials on the subjects of magnetic resonance (MR), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), nuclear-magnetic resonance (NMR) and other related topics. The amount of material on the site is impressive. At the top of the page are links to an "MR Blog", as well as to "MR Links" and the "Site Plan & SEARCH". The NMR/MRI Extras section on the right side of the page is particularly useful for visitors interested in all things about MR. Its links to "Events" provides an up-to-date list of symposia, conferences, and meetings, along with links to the events' sites. The "Societies" link offers at least 50 groups about MR, some of which are country-based, and others that are region- or application-based.

Sãâãâ½kora, Stanislav

313

Mining the Web for Bilingual Text Philip Resnik \\Lambda  

E-print Network

Mining the Web for Bilingual Text Philip Resnik \\Lambda Dept. of Linguistics/Institute for Advanced Computer Studies University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 resnik@umiacs.umd.edu Abstract STRAND (Resnik, 1998) is a language­ independent system for automatic discovery of text in parallel translation

Resnik, Philip

314

On the quality of ART1 text clustering  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a large and continually growing quantity of electronic text available, which contain essential human and organization knowledge. An important research endeavor is to study and develop better ways to access this knowledge. Text clustering is a popular approach to automatically organize textual document collections by topics to help users find the information they need. Adaptive Resonance Theory (ART)

Louis Massey

2003-01-01

315

Automatically Generating Wikipedia Articles: A Structure-Aware Approach  

E-print Network

In this paper, we investigate an approach for creating a comprehensive textual overview of a subject composed of information drawn from the Internet. We use the high-level structure of human-authored texts to automatically ...

Sauper, Christina Joan

316

Automatic Inference of Models for Statistical Code Compression  

E-print Network

Automatic Inference of Models for Statistical Code Compression Christopher W. Fraser Microsoft that the coder (e.g., an arithmetic coder) usesto encodethe next token. For example,when compressingEnglish text

Fraser, Christopher W.

317

MUSIC GENRES CLASSIFICATION USING TEXT CATEGORIZATION METHOD  

E-print Network

Automatic music genre classification is one of the most challenging problems in music information retrieval and management of digital music database. In this paper, we propose a new framework using text category methods to classify music genres. This framework is different from current methods for Music genre classification. In our framework, we consider music as text-like semantic music document, which is represented by a set of music symbol lexicons with a HMM (Hidden Markov Models) cluster. Music symbols can be seemed as high-level features or semantic features like beats or rhythms. We use latent semantic indexing (LSI) technique that is widely adopted in text categorization for music genre classification. From the experimental results, we could achieve an average recall over 70 % for ten musical genres. 1.

Kai Chen; Sheng Gao; Yongwei Zhu; Qibin Sun

318

Comparison of automatic control systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report deals with a reciprocal comparison of an automatic pressure control, an automatic rpm control, an automatic temperature control, and an automatic directional control. It shows the difference between the "faultproof" regulator and the actual regulator which is subject to faults, and develops this difference as far as possible in a parallel manner with regard to the control systems under consideration. Such as analysis affords, particularly in its extension to the faults of the actual regulator, a deep insight into the mechanism of the regulator process.

Oppelt, W

1941-01-01

319

Automatic readout micrometer  

DOEpatents

A measuring system is disclosed for surveying and very accurately positioning objects with respect to a reference line. A principal use of this surveying system is for accurately aligning the electromagnets which direct a particle beam emitted from a particle accelerator. Prior art surveying systems require highly skilled surveyors. Prior art systems include, for example, optical surveying systems which are susceptible to operator reading errors, and celestial navigation-type surveying systems, with their inherent complexities. The present invention provides an automatic readout micrometer which can very accurately measure distances. The invention has a simplicity of operation which practically eliminates the possibilities of operator optical reading error, owning to the elimination of traditional optical alignments for making measurements. The invention has an extendable arm which carries a laser surveying target. The extendable arm can be continuously positioned over its entire length of travel by either a coarse or fine adjustment without having the fine adjustment outrun the coarse adjustment until a reference laser beam is centered on the target as indicated by a digital readout. The length of the micrometer can then be accurately and automatically read by a computer and compared with a standardized set of alignment measurements. Due to its construction, the micrometer eliminates any errors due to temperature changes when the system is operated within a standard operating temperature range.

Lauritzen, Ted (Lafayette, CA)

1982-01-01

320

Text Clustering for Topic Detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract The world wide web represents vast stores of information. However, the sheer amount,of such information makes it practically impossible for any human,user to be aware of much of it. Therefore, it would be very helpful to have a system that automatically discovers relevant, yet previously unknown in formation, and reports it to users in human-readable form. As the first

Young-Woo Seo; Katia Sycara

321

Measuring Importance and Query Relevance in Topic-focused Multi-document Summarization  

E-print Network

of query focused multi-document summarization: raw frequency (word probability) and log-likelihood ratio the two weighting schemes: raw frequency (or word proba- bility estimated from the input), and log words in the input, as we discuss below. Word probability R(w) = n N , where n is the num- ber of times

Plotkin, Joshua B.

322

Effects on Science Summarization of a Reading Comprehension Intervention for Adolescents with Behavior and Attention Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Sixty-three adolescent boys with behavioral disorders (BD), 31 of whom had comorbid attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), participated in a self-regulated strategy development intervention called Think Before Reading, Think While Reading, Think After Reading, With Written Summarization (TWA-WS). TWA-WS adapted Linda Mason's TWA…

Rogevich, Mary E.; Perin, Dolores

2008-01-01

323

Generating gene summaries from biomedical literature: A study of semi-structured summarization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most knowledge accumulated through scientic discoveries in genomics and related biomed- ical disciplines is buried in the vast amount of biomedical literature. Since understand- ing gene regulations is fundamental to biomedical research, summarizing all the existing knowledge about a gene based on literature is highly desirable to help biologists digest the literature. In this paper, we present a study of

Xu Ling; Jing Jiang; Xin He; Qiaozhu Mei; Chengxiang Zhai; Bruce R. Schatz

2007-01-01

324

Towards Answer-Focused Summarization Using Search Engines University of Michigan  

E-print Network

document that a user has to skim over. Some search engines, such as Google and NorthernLight, provideChapter 18 Towards Answer-Focused Summarization Using Search Engines Harris Wu University of Michigan Ann Arbor, MI 48109 harriswu@umich.edu Dragomir R. Radev University of Michigan Ann Arbor, MI

Radev, Dragomir R.

325

NEO-CORTEX: a performant user-oriented multi-document summarization system  

E-print Network

NEO-CORTEX: a performant user-oriented multi-document summarization system Florian Boudin and Juan the document set as a whole, as well as indi- vidual documents. We present NEO-CORTEX, a multi-document sum base formed by the NIST DUC-2005 and DUC-2006 data. Our experiments have shown that NEO- CORTEX

Avignon et des Pays de Vaucluse, Université de

326

Summarized proceedings of a conference on solid state physics - Melbourne, August 1959  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Australian Branch of The Institute of Physics held a conference on solid state physics in Melbourne from 17-21 August, 1959. This conference was the first of its kind to be held in Australia and attracted an attendance of about one hundred and thirty. In all, 46 papers, ranging over a wide field, were presented and these are summarized; they

J F Nicholas

1960-01-01

327

Yesterday's Weather: Guiding Early Reverse Engineering Efforts by Summarizing the Evolution of Changes  

E-print Network

Yesterday's Weather: Guiding Early Reverse Engineering Efforts by Summarizing the Evolution this approach on two case studies and show how we can obtain an overview of the evolution of a system and pinpoint its classes that might change in the next versions. Keywords: software evolution, reverse

Ducasse, Stéphane

328

Weighted graph model based sentence clustering and ranking for document summarization  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes a sentence ranking and cluster- ing based summarization method that extracts essential sentences from a document. To discover central sentences, a weighted undirected graph that takes sentence similarities and the dis- course relationship between sentences as the weights of edges is constructed for the given document. A graph-ranking algorithm is implemented to calculate the scores of sentences.

Shuzhi Sam Ge; Zhengchen Zhang; Hongsheng He

2011-01-01

329

Summarization of University-wide Admissions Standards for 20 Comparison Institutions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

At the request of the Faculty Council on Academic Standards, a survey of university-wide admissions and graduation standards of 14 public and 6 private American institutions was undertaken. This report summarizes the university-wide admissions standards for freshmen and transfer students. Five specific requirements are dealt with and presented in…

deWolf, Virginia A.

330

Interactive, Domain-Independent Identi cation and Summarization of Topically Related News  

E-print Network

Interactive, Domain-Independent Identi#12;cation and Summarization of Topically Related News. A news event is widely reported in the press. A large number of journalists independently pick SUMMONS, NewsInEssence is domain-independent and scalable to ten news sources and several dozen documents

Radev, Dragomir R.

331

A Novel Video Summarization Framework for Document Preparation and Archival Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the rapid growth of network bandwidth and high-capacity storage devices, videos have become an important way of communication in the aerospace industry and many other entities. However, browsing and managing huge video databases are quite tedious. To solve the problem, in this paper, we propose a novel video summarization framework, and discuss its potential usage in the document preparation

Shi Lu; Irwin King; Michael R. Lyu

2005-01-01

332

Why Fuzzy Sequential Patterns can Help Data Summarization: An Application to the INPI Trade Mark Database  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mining fuzzy rules is one of the best ways to summarize large databases while keeping information as clear and understandable as possible for the end-user. Several approaches have been proposed to mine such fuzzy rules, in particular to mine fuzzy association rules. However, we argue that it is important to mine rules that convey information about the order. For instance,

Céline Fiot; Anne Laurent; Maguelonne Teisseire; Bénédicte Laurent

2006-01-01

333

Summarizing Neonatal Time Series Data Somayajulu G. Sripada, Ehud Reiter, Jim Hunter and Jin Yu  

E-print Network

intensive care unit (NICU). In the NEONATE project, a research nurse has been employed to collect data from of babies, medi- cal personnel (doctors and nurses) working in the neonatal unit are required to inspectSummarizing Neonatal Time Series Data Somayajulu G. Sripada, Ehud Reiter, Jim Hunter and Jin Yu

Sripada, Yaji

334

A Novel Video Summarization Framework for Document Preparation and Archival Applications  

E-print Network

A Novel Video Summarization Framework for Document Preparation and Archival Applications Shi Lu of network bandwidth and high-capacity storage devices, videos have become an im- portant way of communication in the aerospace industry and many other entities. However, browsing and managing huge video

Lyu, Michael R.

335

VIDEO SUMMARIZATION BY SPATIAL-TEMPORAL GRAPH OPTIMIZATION Shi Lu, Michael R. Lyu, Irwin King  

E-print Network

VIDEO SUMMARIZATION BY SPATIAL-TEMPORAL GRAPH OPTIMIZATION Shi Lu, Michael R. Lyu, Irwin King SAR {slu, lyu, king}@cse.cuhk.edu.hk ABSTRACT In this paper we present a novel approach for video sum-temporal content cov- erage and visual coherence of the video summary. The ap- proach has three stages. First

King, Kuo Chin Irwin

336

Multi-document Summarization of Dissertation Abstracts Using a Variable-Based Framework.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Proposes a variable-based framework for multi-document summarization of dissertation abstracts in the fields of sociology and psychology that makes use of the macro- and micro-level discourse structure of dissertation abstracts as well as cross-document structure. Provides a list of indicator phrases that denote different aspects of the problem…

Ou, Shiyan; Khoo, Christopher S. G.; Goh, Dion H.

2003-01-01

337

Wearable Hand Activity Recognition for Event Summarization W.W. Mayol D.W. Murray  

E-print Network

Wearable Hand Activity Recognition for Event Summarization W.W. Mayol D.W. Murray Department develop a first step towards the recogni- tion of hand activity by detecting objects subject to manip from hand activity without requiring that the wearer is explicit as in gesture-based interaction. Our

Oxford, University of

338

Summarizing the Evidence on the International Trade in Illegal Gail Emilia Rosen1,2  

E-print Network

in illegal wildlife has myriad impli- cations for the environment and for human and animal health. When (Paquette and Lapointe, 2007). Illegal wildlife trade also poses health threats to humans, native speciesSummarizing the Evidence on the International Trade in Illegal Wildlife Gail Emilia Rosen1

Smith, Kate

339

Important program information is summarized on page 2 of this form. Child Care Support During Travel  

E-print Network

Important program information is summarized on page 2 of this form. Child Care Support During: Faculty Advisor/Supervisor/Department Chair Authorized Signature Date Support for child care expenses/Coverage for Planned Care Employee Signature Signature Date #12;2 Child Care Support During Travel GENERAL REQUIREMENTS

Rollins, Andrew M.

340

SOCQET: Semantic OLAP with Compressed Cube and Summarization Laks V.S. Lakshmanan  

E-print Network

SOCQET: Semantic OLAP with Compressed Cube and Summarization Laks V.S. Lakshmanan Jian Pei Yan Zhao cube, which can be viewed as a multi-level, multi-dimensional database with aggregate data at multiple granularity. In a data cube, two basic semantic relations among cells are roll up and drill down. A cell c1

Pei, Jian

341

The behavioral summarized evaluation: Validity and reliability of a scale for the assessment of autistic behaviors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Behavioral Summarized Evaluation (BSE), is a 20-item paper- and-pencil rating scale specifically designed for the measurement of behavioral parameters which could be related to biological data in autistic children involved in educational programs, neurophysiological studies, and therapeutic trials. The development of the scale, the validity, and reliability studies are presented in this paper. The results suggest that the BSE

C. Barthelemy; J. L. Adrien; P. Tanguay; B. Garreau; J. Fermanian; S. Roux; D. Sauvage; G. Lelord

1990-01-01

342

Automatic document navigation for digital content remastering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a novel method of automatically adding navigation capabilities to re-mastered electronic books. We first analyze the need for a generic and robust system to automatically construct navigation links into re-mastered books. We then introduce the core algorithm based on text matching for building the links. The proposed method utilizes the tree-structured dictionary and directional graph of the table of contents to efficiently conduct the text matching. Information fusion further increases the robustness of the algorithm. The experimental results on the MIT Press digital library project are discussed and the key functional features of the system are illustrated. We have also investigated how the quality of the OCR engine affects the linking algorithm. In addition, the analogy between this work and Web link mining has been pointed out.

Lin, Xiaofan; Simske, Steven J.

2003-12-01

343

Tele-Graffiti: A Camera-Projector Based Remote Sketching System with Hand-Based User Interface and Automatic Session Summarization  

Microsoft Academic Search

One way to build a remote sketching system is to use a video camera to image what each user draws at their site, transmit the video to the other sites, and display it there using an LCD projector. Such camera-projector based remote sketching systems date back to Paul Wellner's (largely unimplemented) Xerox Double DigitalDesk. To make such a system usable,

Naoya Takao; Jianbo Shi; Simon Baker

2003-01-01

344

Automatic thermal switch  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An automatic thermal switch to control heat flow includes a first thermally conductive plate, a second thermally conductive plate and a thermal transfer plate pivotally mounted between the first and second plates. A phase change power unit, including a plunger connected to the transfer plate, is in thermal contact with the first thermally conductive plate. A biasing element, connected to the transfer plate, biases the transfer plate in a predetermined position with respect to the first and second plates. When the phase change power unit is actuated by an increase in heat transmitted through the first plate, the plunger extends and pivots the transfer plate to vary the thermal conduction between the first and second plates through the transfer plate. The biasing element, transfer plate and piston can be arranged to provide either a normally closed or normally open thermally conductive path between the first and second plates.

Wing, L. D.; Cunningham, J. W. (inventors)

1981-01-01

345

Spacecraft automatic umbilical system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A conceptual definition of an appropriate berthing technique and a prototype design of an automatic umbilical system suitable for use with payloads carried by the Space Shuttle are presented. A four-element berthing system is described. This concept consists of a set of four remote manipulator system (RMS)-type end-effector capture/tie-down devices on the power system and corresponding RMS-type grapple fittings on the payload. In operation, the RMS maneuvers the payload to a position where the four grapple fittings can be snared within the end-effectors and then secured to the power system. The concept takes advantage of mechanisms and operating techniques developed for attaching the RMS to a payload. Although the umbilical installation is attached to the docking interface structure, its operation is independent and it must comply with a set of primary requirements specified by Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), which is presented.

Rudy, G. C.

1982-01-01

346

Automatic Coal-Mining System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Coal cutting and removal done with minimal hazard to people. Automatic coal mine cutting, transport and roof-support movement all done by automatic machinery. Exposure of people to hazardous conditions reduced to inspection tours, maintenance, repair, and possibly entry mining.

Collins, E. R., Jr.

1985-01-01

347

Automatic hot water recovery system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heat in the hot water lines of a water system is automatically recovered by providing a bridge conduit between the cold water lines and the hot water lines and by depressurizing the hot water lines relative to the cold water lines thereby to automatically direct higher pressure cold water into the hot water lines through the interconnection, which preferably is

Haws

1982-01-01

348

Consistent and Automatic Replica Regeneration  

E-print Network

Consistent and Automatic Replica Regeneration HAIFENG YU Intel Research Pittsburgh/Carnegie Mellon the availability of large-scale distributed systems re- quire automatic replica regeneration, that is, creating new replicas in response to replica failures. A major challenge to regeneration is maintaining consistency when

Yu, Haifeng

349

Automatic Music Annotation Research Exam  

E-print Network

and sound effects. The music domain is interesting in that the audio content is rich with informationAutomatic Music Annotation Research Exam Spring 2005 Douglas Turnbull Department of Computer-based systems have been developed to automatically classify music according to a high-level musical concept

Elkan, Charles

350

Vacuum tube automatic weld station  

Microsoft Academic Search

A microcomputer controlled tube welding station has been developed that significantly improves the productivity of the process by providing fully automatic operation and improved weld quality. In addition, the microcomputer allows easy changing of the process to study and determine the optimum weld cycle parameters. The weld station provides the following significant features: (1) fully automatic flush and weld cycle;

1981-01-01

351

Automatic differentiation of limit functions  

SciTech Connect

Automatic differentiation can be used to evaluate the derivatives of and set up Taylor series for implicitly defined functions and maps. The author provides several examples of how this works, within the context of the MXYZPTLK class library, and discusses its extension to inverse functions. The techniques of automatic differentiation and differential algebra are rapidly becoming a standard part of accelerator physicists` arsenals.

Michelotti, L.

1993-05-01

352

Practical vision based degraded text recognition system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rapid growth and progress in the medical, industrial, security and technology fields means more and more consideration for the use of camera based optical character recognition (OCR) Applying OCR to scanned documents is quite mature, and there are many commercial and research products available on this topic. These products achieve acceptable recognition accuracy and reasonable processing times especially with trained software, and constrained text characteristics. Even though the application space for OCR is huge, it is quite challenging to design a single system that is capable of performing automatic OCR for text embedded in an image irrespective of the application. Challenges for OCR systems include; images are taken under natural real world conditions, Surface curvature, text orientation, font, size, lighting conditions, and noise. These and many other conditions make it extremely difficult to achieve reasonable character recognition. Performance for conventional OCR systems drops dramatically as the degradation level of the text image quality increases. In this paper, a new recognition method is proposed to recognize solid or dotted line degraded characters. The degraded text string is localized and segmented using a new algorithm. The new method was implemented and tested using a development framework system that is capable of performing OCR on camera captured images. The framework allows parameter tuning of the image-processing algorithm based on a training set of camera-captured text images. Novel methods were used for enhancement, text localization and the segmentation algorithm which enables building a custom system that is capable of performing automatic OCR which can be used for different applications. The developed framework system includes: new image enhancement, filtering, and segmentation techniques which enabled higher recognition accuracies, faster processing time, and lower energy consumption, compared with the best state of the art published techniques. The system successfully produced impressive OCR accuracies (90% -to- 93%) using customized systems generated by our development framework in two industrial OCR applications: water bottle label text recognition and concrete slab plate text recognition. The system was also trained for the Arabic language alphabet, and demonstrated extremely high recognition accuracy (99%) for Arabic license name plate text recognition with processing times of 10 seconds. The accuracy and run times of the system were compared to conventional and many states of art methods, the proposed system shows excellent results.

Mohammad, Khader; Agaian, Sos; Saleh, Hani

2011-02-01

353

INFORMATICA, 9999 Vol. 99, No. 99, 199 ANALYSIS OF AUTOMATIC STRESS ASSIGNMENT IN  

E-print Network

to achieve as good results as humans on assigning stress to unknown words. Key Words: Stress Assignment, Data and their results. Finally, in Section 7, we conclude by summarizing our findings. 2. Stress assignment in SloveneINFORMATICA, 9999 Vol. 99, No. 99, 1­99 ANALYSIS OF AUTOMATIC STRESS ASSIGNMENT IN SLOVENE Domen

Marincic, Domen

354

47 CFR 87.219 - Automatic operations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Automatic operations. 87.219 Section 87...Advisory Stations (Unicoms) § 87.219 Automatic operations. (a) A station operator...aircraft's interrogating signal and the automatic unicom's response. (3)...

2010-10-01

355

30 CFR 75.1405 - Automatic couplers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Automatic couplers. 75.1405 Section 75...Hoisting and Mantrips § 75.1405 Automatic couplers. [Statutory Provisions...March 30, 1971, shall be equipped with automatic couplers which couple by impact...

2010-07-01

356

Device for the Automatic Control of Airplanes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report provides a description of an automatic control mechanism that consists of an automatic elevator control, aileron control, and a rudder control. Each automatic control can be independently switched on or off.

Gradenwitz, Alfred

1929-01-01

357

Comparing Conceptual, Divisive and Agglomerative Clustering for Learning Taxonomies from Text  

E-print Network

Comparing Conceptual, Divisive and Agglomerative Clustering for Learning Taxonomies from Text Philipp Cimiano , Andreas Hotho and Steffen Staab Abstract. The application of clustering methods for automatic tax- onomy construction from text requires knowledge about the trade- off between, (i

Staab, Steffen

358

SemEval-2007 Task 14: Affective Text Carlo Strapparava  

E-print Network

concepts or cate- gories. Some words have emotional meaning with respect to an individual story, while", "ghost", "war"). The automatic detection of emotion in texts is becoming increasingly important from;emotions depending on the context (e.g. "monster", "ghost"). We can call the former direct affective words

Mihalcea, Rada

359

Emotional Reading of Medical Texts Using Conversational Agents (Short Paper)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we present a prototype that helps visualizing the relative importance of sentences extracted from medical texts using Embodied Conversational Agents (ECA). We propose to map rhetorical structures automatically recognized in the documents onto a set of communicative acts controlling the expression of an ECA. As a consequence, the ECA will dramatize a sentence to reflect its perceived

Gersende Georg; Catherine Pelachaud; Marc Cavazza

2008-01-01

360

The language of emotion in short blog texts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emotion is central to human interactions, and automatic detection could enhance our experience with technologies. We investigate the linguistic expression of fine-grained emotion in 50 and 200 word samples of real blog texts previously coded by expert and naive raters. Content analysis (LIWC) reveals angry authors use more affective language and negative affect words, and that joyful authors use more

Alastair J. Gill; Robert M. French; Darren Gergle; Jon Oberlander

2008-01-01

361

Knowledge discovery in virtual community texts: Clustering virtual communities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Automatic knowledge discovery from texts (KDT) is proving to be a promising method for businesses today to deal with the overload of textual information. In this paper, we first explore the possibilities for KDT to enhance communication in virtual communities, and then we present a practical case study with real-life Internet data. The problem in the case study is to

A. M. Oudshoff; Ivor Bosloper; Tomas B. Klos; Lambert Spaanenburg

2003-01-01

362

Automatic Evidence Retrieval for Systematic Reviews  

PubMed Central

Background Snowballing involves recursively pursuing relevant references cited in the retrieved literature and adding them to the search results. Snowballing is an alternative approach to discover additional evidence that was not retrieved through conventional search. Snowballing’s effectiveness makes it best practice in systematic reviews despite being time-consuming and tedious. Objective Our goal was to evaluate an automatic method for citation snowballing’s capacity to identify and retrieve the full text and/or abstracts of cited articles. Methods Using 20 review articles that contained 949 citations to journal or conference articles, we manually searched Microsoft Academic Search (MAS) and identified 78.0% (740/949) of the cited articles that were present in the database. We compared the performance of the automatic citation snowballing method against the results of this manual search, measuring precision, recall, and F1 score. Results The automatic method was able to correctly identify 633 (as proportion of included citations: recall=66.7%, F1 score=79.3%; as proportion of citations in MAS: recall=85.5%, F1 score=91.2%) of citations with high precision (97.7%), and retrieved the full text or abstract for 490 (recall=82.9%, precision=92.1%, F1 score=87.3%) of the 633 correctly retrieved citations. Conclusions The proposed method for automatic citation snowballing is accurate and is capable of obtaining the full texts or abstracts for a substantial proportion of the scholarly citations in review articles. By automating the process of citation snowballing, it may be possible to reduce the time and effort of common evidence surveillance tasks such as keeping trial registries up to date and conducting systematic reviews. PMID:25274020

Choong, Miew Keen; Galgani, Filippo; Dunn, Adam G

2014-01-01

363

Query-Focused Summarization by Combining Topic Model and Affinity Propagation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal of query-focused summarization is to extract a summary for a given query from the document collection. Although much\\u000a work has been done for this problem, there are still many challenging issues: (1) The length of the summary is predefined\\u000a by, for example, the number of word tokens or the number of sentences. (2) A query usually asks for

Dewei Chen; Jie Tang; Limin Yao; Juanzi Li; Lizhu Zhou

2009-01-01

364

Evaluation challenges in large-scale document summarization Dragomir R. Radev  

E-print Network

@umich.edu Wai Lam Chinese U. of Hong Kong wlam@se.cuhk.edu.hk Arda C¸ elebi USC/ISI ardax@isi.edu Simone Teufel summarizers and baselines at ten summary lengths in both English and Chinese, (b) more than 10,000 manual is a diffi- cult task (Mani et al., 2001). Traditional large-scale evaluations are either too simplistic

Saggion, Horacio

365

Extension of a soft-computing framework for activity analysis from linguistic summarizations of video  

Microsoft Academic Search

Video cameras are a relatively low-cost, rich source of information that can be used for ldquowell-beingrdquo assessment and abnormal event detection for the goal of allowing elders to live longer and healthier independent lives. We previously reported a soft-computing fall detection system, based on two levels from a hierarchy of fuzzy inference using linguistic summarizations of activity acquired temporally from

Derek Anderson; Robert H. Luke; James M. Keller; Marjorie Skubic

2008-01-01

366

Automatic Neural Processing of Disorder-Related Stimuli in Social Anxiety Disorder: Faces and More  

PubMed Central

It has been proposed that social anxiety disorder (SAD) is associated with automatic information processing biases resulting in hypersensitivity to signals of social threat such as negative facial expressions. However, the nature and extent of automatic processes in SAD on the behavioral and neural level is not entirely clear yet. The present review summarizes neuroscientific findings on automatic processing of facial threat but also other disorder-related stimuli such as emotional prosody or negative words in SAD. We review initial evidence for automatic activation of the amygdala, insula, and sensory cortices as well as for automatic early electrophysiological components. However, findings vary depending on tasks, stimuli, and neuroscientific methods. Only few studies set out to examine automatic neural processes directly and systematic attempts are as yet lacking. We suggest that future studies should: (1) use different stimulus modalities, (2) examine different emotional expressions, (3) compare findings in SAD with other anxiety disorders, (4) use more sophisticated experimental designs to investigate features of automaticity systematically, and (5) combine different neuroscientific methods (such as functional neuroimaging and electrophysiology). Finally, the understanding of neural automatic processes could also provide hints for therapeutic approaches. PMID:23745116

Schulz, Claudia; Mothes-Lasch, Martin; Straube, Thomas

2013-01-01

367

Exploring the Effects of First- and Second-Language Proficiency on Summarizing in French as a Second Language.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports on a study that found that both first-language summarizing skills and second language proficiency affect second language summarizing skills, with the exception of inclusion of main ideas and amount of distortion that are more affected by first language summarizing skills. (Author/VWL)

Corbeil, Giselle

2000-01-01

368

Automatic Command Sequence Generation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Automatic Sequence Generator (Autogen) Version 3.0 software automatically generates command sequences for the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) and several other JPL spacecraft operated by the multi-mission support team. Autogen uses standard JPL sequencing tools like APGEN, ASP, SEQGEN, and the DOM database to automate the generation of uplink command products, Spacecraft Command Message Format (SCMF) files, and the corresponding ground command products, DSN Keywords Files (DKF). Autogen supports all the major multi-mission mission phases including the cruise, aerobraking, mapping/science, and relay mission phases. Autogen is a Perl script, which functions within the mission operations UNIX environment. It consists of two parts: a set of model files and the autogen Perl script. Autogen encodes the behaviors of the system into a model and encodes algorithms for context sensitive customizations of the modeled behaviors. The model includes knowledge of different mission phases and how the resultant command products must differ for these phases. The executable software portion of Autogen, automates the setup and use of APGEN for constructing a spacecraft activity sequence file (SASF). The setup includes file retrieval through the DOM (Distributed Object Manager), an object database used to store project files. This step retrieves all the needed input files for generating the command products. Depending on the mission phase, Autogen also uses the ASP (Automated Sequence Processor) and SEQGEN to generate the command product sent to the spacecraft. Autogen also provides the means for customizing sequences through the use of configuration files. By automating the majority of the sequencing generation process, Autogen eliminates many sequence generation errors commonly introduced by manually constructing spacecraft command sequences. Through the layering of commands into the sequence by a series of scheduling algorithms, users are able to rapidly and reliably construct the desired uplink command products. With the aid of Autogen, sequences may be produced in a matter of hours instead of weeks, with a significant reduction in the number of people on the sequence team. As a result, the uplink product generation process is significantly streamlined and mission risk is significantly reduced. Autogen is used for operations of MRO, Mars Global Surveyor (MGS), Mars Exploration Rover (MER), Mars Odyssey, and will be used for operations of Phoenix. Autogen Version 3.0 is the operational version of Autogen including the MRO adaptation for the cruise mission phase, and was also used for development of the aerobraking and mapping mission phases for MRO.

Fisher, Forest; Gladded, Roy; Khanampompan, Teerapat

2007-01-01

369

Overlay Text Retrieval From Video Scene  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The rapid growth of video data leads to an urgent demand for efficient and true contentbased browsing and retrieving systems. In response to such needs, various video content analysis schemes using one or a combination of image, audio, and text information in videos have been proposed to parse, index, or abstract massive amount of data text in video is a very compact and accurate clue for video indexing and summarization. Most video text detection and extraction methods hold assumptions on text color, background contrast, and font style. Moreover, few methods can handle multilingual text well since different languages may have quite different appearances. In this paper, an efficient overlay text detection and extraction method is implemented which deals with complex backgrounds. Based on our observation that there exist transient colors between inserted text and its adjacent background. It is robust with respect to font size, style text, color, orientation and noise and can be used in a large variety of application fields such as mobile robot navigation vehicle license detection and recognition, object identification , document retrieving, etc.

Manohar, K.; Irfan, S.; Sravani, K.

2013-03-01

370

Use of SI Metric Units Misrepresented in College Physics Texts.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Summarizes results of a survey that examined 13 textbooks claiming to use SI units. Tables present data concerning the SI and non-SI units actually used in each text in discussion of fluid pressure and thermal energy, and data concerning which texts do and do not use SI as claimed. (CS)

Hooper, William

1980-01-01

371

Making a Splash: Comparing Two Informational Texts through Read Alouds  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, students will learn to compare and contrast two informational texts through read alouds and use of a Venn diagram graphic organizer. The lesson uses Swimming by JoAnn Macken and Let's Swim by Carol Lindeen. Students will also write to summarize what they have learned about the similarities and differences between the two texts.

Judah, Heather

2012-09-20

372

Text-to-Animation: Aective, Intelligent and Multimodal Visualisation of Natural Language Scripts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Performing plays or creating lms and animations is a complex creative, and thus expensive process, involving various professionals and media. This paper re- views articial intelligence text-to-animation systems and tools to augment this process by automatically interpreting lm and play scripts and automatically generating an- imated scenes. Special attention is given to emotional aspects and their reection in the execution

Eva Hanser; Paul Mc; Tom Lunney; Joan Condell

373

Automatic Technique for Spectral Analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper puts forward two automatic methods to deal with astronomical spectra. An automatic classification method of stellar spectra using the Self Organization Feature Mapping(SOFM) method is given. We use this method to classify stellar spectra automatically. The classification result is very similar to the Harvard sequence. Wavelet method is also used in spectral analysis, the continuum is seperated from the spectral lines through a wavelet filter bank, and the wavelet domain Hidden Markov Model(HMM) is used to denoise the spectra.

Zhao, Yongheng; Xue, Jianqiao; Luo, Ali; Li, Qibin

374

Benchmarking infrastructure for mutation text mining  

PubMed Central

Background Experimental research on the automatic extraction of information about mutations from texts is greatly hindered by the lack of consensus evaluation infrastructure for the testing and benchmarking of mutation text mining systems. Results We propose a community-oriented annotation and benchmarking infrastructure to support development, testing, benchmarking, and comparison of mutation text mining systems. The design is based on semantic standards, where RDF is used to represent annotations, an OWL ontology provides an extensible schema for the data and SPARQL is used to compute various performance metrics, so that in many cases no programming is needed to analyze results from a text mining system. While large benchmark corpora for biological entity and relation extraction are focused mostly on genes, proteins, diseases, and species, our benchmarking infrastructure fills the gap for mutation information. The core infrastructure comprises (1) an ontology for modelling annotations, (2) SPARQL queries for computing performance metrics, and (3) a sizeable collection of manually curated documents, that can support mutation grounding and mutation impact extraction experiments. Conclusion We have developed the principal infrastructure for the benchmarking of mutation text mining tasks. The use of RDF and OWL as the representation for corpora ensures extensibility. The infrastructure is suitable for out-of-the-box use in several important scenarios and is ready, in its current state, for initial community adoption. PMID:24568600

2014-01-01

375

Invited Editorial Manually structured digital abstracts: A scaffold for automatic  

E-print Network

will be invaluable in providing gold- standard data sets for training and refining text-mining algo- rithms. It hasInvited Editorial Manually structured digital abstracts: A scaffold for automatic text mining as apply- ing text-mining software (with curatorial supervision, where necessary) to accepted journal

Gerstein, Mark

376

Automatic analysis of images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new approaches and computer codes (A&CC) for automatic analysis of images are offered. The A&CC are based on presentation of object image as a collection of pixels of various colours and consecutive painting of distinguished itself parts of the image in unusual manner. The A&CC have technical objectives centred on such direction as: 1) image processing (filtration, elimination of noise, segmentation), 2) image feature extraction, 3) image analysis, 4) recognition of image and object and some others. Additional possibilities of the A&CC dealing with usage of artificial neural networks technologies. The A&CC allows to obtain various geometrical and statistical parameters of object image and object. Among them: coordinates and maximum values of cross sizes of every individual part of object image, its square and perimeter, histogram of individual parts with respect to size as well as with respect to type, to form, etc. The opportunities of the A&CC are tested at image analysis of model fires and plumes of the sprayed fluid, ensembles of particles, at a decoding of interferometric images, for elimination of a noise of the images, for filtration of the image, at detection of objects.

Abrukov, Victor S.

2004-06-01

377

Automatic programming of simulation models  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objective of automatic programming is to improve the overall environment for describing the program. This improved environment is realized by a reduction in the amount of detail that the programmer needs to know and is exposed to. Furthermore, this improved environment is achieved by a specification language that is more natural to the user's problem domain and to the user's way of thinking and looking at the problem. The goal of this research is to apply the concepts of automatic programming (AP) to modeling discrete event simulation system. Specific emphasis is on the design and development of simulation tools to assist the modeler define or construct a model of the system and to then automatically write the corresponding simulation code in the target simulation language, GPSS/PC. A related goal is to evaluate the feasibility of various languages for constructing automatic programming simulation tools.

Schroer, Bernard J.; Tseng, Fan T.; Zhang, Shou X.; Dwan, Wen S.

1988-01-01

378

Some Projects in Automatic Programming  

E-print Network

This paper proposes three research topics within the general framework of Automatic Programming. The projects are designing (1) a student programmer, (2) a robot programmer and (3) a physicist's helper. The purpose of these ...

Goldstein, Ira

379

Suggestion overrides automatic audiovisual integration.  

PubMed

Cognitive scientists routinely distinguish between controlled and automatic mental processes. Through learning, practice, and exposure, controlled processes can become automatic; however, whether automatic processes can become deautomatized - recuperated under the purview of control - remains unclear. Here we show that a suggestion derails a deeply ingrained process involving involuntary audiovisual integration. We compared the performance of highly versus less hypnotically suggestible individuals (HSIs versus LSIs) in a classic McGurk paradigm - a perceptual illusion task demonstrating the influence of visual facial movements on auditory speech percepts. Following a posthypnotic suggestion to prioritize auditory input, HSIs but not LSIs manifested fewer illusory auditory perceptions and correctly identified more auditory percepts. Our findings demonstrate that a suggestion deautomatized a ballistic audiovisual process in HSIs. In addition to guiding our knowledge regarding theories and mechanisms of automaticity, the present findings pave the road to a more scientific understanding of top-down effects and multisensory integration. PMID:24398260

Déry, Catherine; Campbell, Natasha K J; Lifshitz, Michael; Raz, Amir

2014-02-01

380

AUTOMATIC DIFFERENTIATION TOOLS IN OPTIMIZATION ...  

E-print Network

We discuss the role of automatic di erentiation tools in optimization software. We. emphasize issues ..... machines. In an optimization .... the unknowns are determined in a given order, either directly or as a linear combination of. elements that ...

381

Operating safety of automatic objects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Operating-safety assurance for automatic objects (aircraft, spacecraft, and underwater vehicles) is considered in the framework of safety-automata theory and automatic-control considerations. The interaction between the operator and the safety-assurance facilities is considered. Methodological recommendations are presented on the specification of reliability requirements for the vehicles considered, as well as on automata synthesis and analysis considerations, test planning, and the analysis of test results.

Maiorov, Anatolii Vladimirovich; Moskatov, Genrikh Karlovich; Shibanov, Georgii Petrovich

382

Automatic safety rod for reactors  

DOEpatents

An automatic safety rod for a nuclear reactor containing neutron absorbing material and designed to be inserted into a reactor core after a loss-of-core flow. Actuation is based upon either a sudden decrease in core pressure drop or the pressure drop decreases below a predetermined minimum value. The automatic control rod includes a pressure regulating device whereby a controlled decrease in operating pressure due to reduced coolant flow does not cause the rod to drop into the core.

Germer, John H. (San Jose, CA)

1988-01-01

383

Automatic Calculations in High Energy Physics by GRACE and Comphep  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ten three-body processes in e+e- collisions for heavy particle productions such as Higgs, t-quark, W± and Z0 are calculated by two independent computer codes for automatic calculation of Feynman amplitude. The results are in excellent agreement within statistical error of numerical integration (about 0.5%). This demonstrates that these systems are quite powerful for theoretical study for future e+e-, e±? and ?? colliders. Numerical values of cross sections are summarized in tables and a figure.

Boos, E. E.; Dubinin, M. N.; Ilyin, V. A.; Pukhov, A. E.; Shichanin, S. A.; Kaneko, T.; Kawabata, S.; Kurihara, Y.; Shimizu, Y.

384

Automatic control of a primary electric thrust subsystem  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A concept for automatic control of the thrust subsystem has been developed by JPL and participating NASA Centers. This paper reports on progress in implementing the concept at JPL. Control of the Thrust Subsystem (TSS) is performed by the spacecraft computer command subsystem, and telemetry data is extracted by the spacecraft flight data subsystem. The Data and Control Interface Unit, an element of the TSS, provides the interface with the individual elements of the TSS. The control philosophy and implementation guidelines are presented. Control requirements are listed, and the control mechanism, including the serial digital data intercommunication system, is outlined. The paper summarizes progress to Fall 1974.

Macie, T. W.; Macmedan, M. L.

1975-01-01

385

How to summarize a 6,000-word paper in a six-minute video clip.  

PubMed

As part of our research team's knowledge transfer and exchange (KTE) efforts, we created a six-minute video clip that summarizes, in plain language, a scientific paper that describes why and how three teams of academic entrepreneurs developed new health technologies. Recognizing that video-based KTE strategies can be a valuable tool for health services and policy researchers, this paper explains the constraints and sources of inspiration that shaped our video production process. Aiming to provide practical guidance, we describe the steps and tools that we used to identify, refine and package the key content of the scientific paper into an original video format. PMID:23968634

Lehoux, Pascale; Vachon, Patrick; Daudelin, Genevieve; Hivon, Myriam

2013-05-01

386

Validation of Text Clustering Based on Document Contents  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper some results of a new text clustering methodology are presented. A prototype is an interesting document or a\\u000a part of an extracted, interesting text. The given prototype is matched with the existing document database or the monitored\\u000a document flow. Our claim is that the new methodology is capable of automatic content-based clustering using the information\\u000a of the

Jarmo Toivonen; Ari Visa; Tomi Vesanen; Barbro Back; Hannu Vanharanta

2001-01-01

387

Automatic Collision Avoidance Technology (ACAT)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This document represents two views of the Automatic Collision Avoidance Technology (ACAT). One viewgraph presentation reviews the development and system design of Automatic Collision Avoidance Technology (ACAT). Two types of ACAT exist: Automatic Ground Collision Avoidance (AGCAS) and Automatic Air Collision Avoidance (AACAS). The AGCAS Uses Digital Terrain Elevation Data (DTED) for mapping functions, and uses Navigation data to place aircraft on map. It then scans DTED in front of and around aircraft and uses future aircraft trajectory (5g) to provide automatic flyup maneuver when required. The AACAS uses data link to determine position and closing rate. It contains several canned maneuvers to avoid collision. Automatic maneuvers can occur at last instant and both aircraft maneuver when using data link. The system can use sensor in place of data link. The second viewgraph presentation reviews the development of a flight test and an evaluation of the test. A review of the operation and comparison of the AGCAS and a pilot's performance are given. The same review is given for the AACAS is given.

Swihart, Donald E.; Skoog, Mark A.

2007-01-01

388

An Automatic Tremor Activity Monitoring System (TAMS)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have developed an algorithm that quantitatively characterizes the level of seismic tremors from recorded seismic waveforms. For each hour of waveform at a given station, the process begins with the calculation of scintillation index and moving average with various time lengths. The scintillation index (essentially the `normalized variance of intensity of the signal') is adapted from the studies of pulses in radio waves and is an efficient tool to identify the energy bursts of tremor signals. Both scintillation index and moving average values are fed into a series of logic gates to determine if tremor activity exists. This algorithm is implemented in the Tremor Activity Monitoring System (TAMS) to provide automatic early alerts for episodic tremor and slip (ETS) events in the northern Cascadia margin. Currently, TAMS retrieves the digital waveforms recorded during the previous day from the Canadian National Seismographic Network (CNSN) archive server at 1 AM every morning. The detecting process is repeated for all stations and hours to determine the level of tremor activity of the previous day. If a sufficient number of stations within a radius of 100 km are determined to have tremor patterns and coherent tremor arrivals can be found at more than 3 stations, TAMS automatically sends out alert emails to a list of subscribers with a figure summarizing the hours and locations of coherent tremors. TAMS outputs are very consistent with the work done by visual inspection, especially for major ETS events. It is straightforward to configure TAMS into a near-real-time system that can send out hourly (or shorter) reports if necessary.

Kao, H.; Thompson, P. J.; Rogers, G.; Dragert, H.; Spence, G.

2006-12-01

389

Techniques for Automatic Magnetic Resonance Image Classification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Designing and developing automatic techniques for magnetic resonance images (MR) for data analysis is very challenging. One popular and public available method, FAST (FMRIB Automatic Segmentation Tool) has been widely used for automatic brain tissue segmentation for this purpose. This paper investigates limitations of this software algorithm on implementation and further develops a new approach to automatic MR brain tissue

Hsian-Min Chen; Shih-Yu Chen; Jyh Wen Chai; Clayton Chi-Chang Chen; Chao-Cheng Wu; Yen-Chieh Ouyang; Ching Tsorng Tsai; Ching-Wen Yang; San-Kan Lee; Chein-I Chang

2010-01-01

390

Semi-Supervised Data Summarization: Using Spectral Libraries to Improve Hyperspectral Clustering  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Hyperspectral imagers produce very large images, with each pixel recorded at hundreds or thousands of different wavelengths. The ability to automatically generate summaries of these data sets enables several important applications, such as quickly browsing through a large image repository or determining the best use of a limited bandwidth link (e.g., determining which images are most critical for full transmission). Clustering algorithms can be used to generate these summaries, but traditional clustering methods make decisions based only on the information contained in the data set. In contrast, we present a new method that additionally leverages existing spectral libraries to identify materials that are likely to be present in the image target area. We find that this approach simultaneously reduces runtime and produces summaries that are more relevant to science goals.

Wagstaff, K. L.; Shu, H. P.; Mazzoni, D.; Castano, R.

2005-01-01

391

Texting Islam: Text messages and religiosity among young Pakistanis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Among the urban Pakistani youth, SMS texts have become of critical importance in mediating religious and aesthetic sensations in unexpected domains of everyday life. Although grounded in a distinct valuation of the moral bearing of language upon individuals, texting religious messages is not simply a new way of pursuing a ‘traditional’ form of sociality. Texting reactivates religious texts with an

Paul Rollier

2010-01-01

392

Authentic Text: Linking Home, School, and Community with Environmental Texts.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Authentic or popular texts--such as newspapers, grocery lists, magazines, and pamphlets--can be used effectively in reading instruction. This article first discusses the importance and usefulness of environmental print, or authentic texts, in the context of formal schooling. It then presents a list of authentic texts (several kinds of texts for…

Honeyghan, Glasceta

2000-01-01

393

Automatic Generation of Frequent Case Forms of Query Keywords in Text Retrieval  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents implementations of generative management method for morphological variation of query keywords. The method\\u000a is called FCG, Frequent Case Generation. It is based on the skewed distributions of word forms in natural languages and is\\u000a suitable for languages that either have fair amount of morphological variation or are morphologically very rich. The paper\\u000a reports implementation and evaluation of

Kimmo Kettunen

2008-01-01

394

Automatic Extraction of Biological Information from Scientific Text: Protein-Protein Interactions  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe the basic design of a system for au- tomatic detection of protein-protein interactions extracted from scientific abstracts. By restrict- ing the problem domain and imposing a number of strong assumptions which include pre-speeified protein names and a limited set of verbs that rep- resent actions, we show- that it is possible to per- form accurate information extraction. The

Christian Blaschke; Miguel A. Andrade; Christos A. Ouzounis; Alfonso Valencia

1999-01-01

395

T2D: Generating Dialogues between Virtual Agents Automatically from Text  

E-print Network

for information presentation is probably by Plato: in the Platonic dialogues, Socrates and his contemporaries engage in fictitious conversations that convey Plato's philosophy. A more recent example is Douglas in databases and, with the advent of the semantic web, ontologies. In: Pelachaud et al. (2007). Intelligent

Piwek, Paul

396

Text Document Topical Recursive Clustering and Automatic Labeling of a Hierarchy of  

E-print Network

Clusters Xiaoxiao Li1 , Jiyang Chen2 , and Osmar Zaiane1 1 Department of Computing Science, University, Canada jiyang@google.com Abstract. The overwhelming amount of textual documents available nowadays- perienced user would waste time and energy in sifting through the long list of #12;2 Xiaoxiao Li, Jiyang

Zaiane, Osmar R.

397

Automatic generation of semantically enriched web pages by a text mining approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nowadays most of the Web pages contain little amount of structure and supporting information that can reveal their semantics or meanings. To enable automated processing of the Web pages, semantic information such as metadata and tags regarding to each page should be added to it. Several authoring tools have been developed to help users tackling this task. However, manual or

Hsin-chang Yang

2009-01-01

398

Use of a New Set of Linguistic Features to Improve Automatic Assessment of Text Readability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present paper proposes and evaluates a readability assessment method designed for Japanese learners of EFL (English as a foreign language). The proposed readability assessment method is constructed by a regression algorithm using a new set of linguistic features that were employed separately in previous studies. The results showed that the…

Yoshimi, Takehiko; Kotani, Katsunori; Isahara, Hitoshi

2012-01-01

399

A New Comparison Between Conventional Indexing (MEDLARS) and Automatic Text Processing (SMART)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A new testing process is described. The design of the test procedure is covered in detail, and the several language processing features incorporated into the SMART system are individually evaluated. (20 references) (Author)

Salton, G.

1972-01-01

400

Text analysis devices, articles of manufacture, and text analysis methods  

DOEpatents

Text analysis devices, articles of manufacture, and text analysis methods are described according to some aspects. In one aspect, a text analysis device includes processing circuitry configured to analyze initial text to generate a measurement basis usable in analysis of subsequent text, wherein the measurement basis comprises a plurality of measurement features from the initial text, a plurality of dimension anchors from the initial text and a plurality of associations of the measurement features with the dimension anchors, and wherein the processing circuitry is configured to access a viewpoint indicative of a perspective of interest of a user with respect to the analysis of the subsequent text, and wherein the processing circuitry is configured to use the viewpoint to generate the measurement basis.

Turner, Alan E; Hetzler, Elizabeth G; Nakamura, Grant C

2013-05-28

401

L'ordre du texte (The Order of the Text)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article outlines a model of the two basic components of a text, namely, the system of formal linguistic rules, and the realization of these rules into concrete discourse, by means of particular transformations. (Text is in French.) (CLK)

Slakta, Denis

1975-01-01

402

Interactive exploration of surveillance video through action shot summarization and trajectory visualization.  

PubMed

We propose a novel video visual analytics system for interactive exploration of surveillance video data. Our approach consists of providing analysts with various views of information related to moving objects in a video. To do this we first extract each object's movement path. We visualize each movement by (a) creating a single action shot image (a still image that coalesces multiple frames), (b) plotting its trajectory in a space-time cube and (c) displaying an overall timeline view of all the movements. The action shots provide a still view of the moving object while the path view presents movement properties such as speed and location. We also provide tools for spatial and temporal filtering based on regions of interest. This allows analysts to filter out large amounts of movement activities while the action shot representation summarizes the content of each movement. We incorporated this multi-part visual representation of moving objects in sViSIT, a tool to facilitate browsing through the video content by interactive querying and retrieval of data. Based on our interaction with security personnel who routinely interact with surveillance video data, we identified some of the most common tasks performed. This resulted in designing a user study to measure time-to-completion of the various tasks. These generally required searching for specific events of interest (targets) in videos. Fourteen different tasks were designed and a total of 120 min of surveillance video were recorded (indoor and outdoor locations recording movements of people and vehicles). The time-to-completion of these tasks were compared against a manual fast forward video browsing guided with movement detection. We demonstrate how our system can facilitate lengthy video exploration and significantly reduce browsing time to find events of interest. Reports from expert users identify positive aspects of our approach which we summarize in our recommendations for future video visual analytics systems. PMID:24051778

Meghdadi, Amir H; Irani, Pourang

2013-12-01

403

Text Complexity and the CCSS  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

What is meant by text complexity is a measurement of how challenging a particular text is to read. There are a myriad of different ways of explaining what makes text challenging to read, from the sophistication of the vocabulary employed to the length of its sentences to even measurements of how the text as a whole coheres. Research shows that no…

Aspen Institute, 2012

2012-01-01

404

The Challenge of Challenging Text  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Common Core State Standards emphasize the value of teaching students to engage with complex text. But what exactly makes a text complex, and how can teachers help students develop their ability to learn from such texts? The authors of this article discuss five factors that determine text complexity: vocabulary, sentence structure, coherence,…

Shanahan, Timothy; Fisher, Douglas; Frey, Nancy

2012-01-01

405

Rewriting and Paraphrasing Source Texts in Second Language Writing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study is based on interviews with 48 students and 27 instructors in a North American university and explores whether students and professors across faculties share the same views on the use of paraphrased, summarized, and translated texts in four examples of L2 student writing. Participants' comments centered on whether the paraphrases…

Shi, Ling

2012-01-01

406

Mining the Text: 34 Text Features that Can Ease or Obstruct Text Comprehension and Use  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents 34 characteristics of texts and tasks ("text features") that can make continuous (prose), noncontinuous (document), and quantitative texts easier or more difficult for adolescents and adults to comprehend and use. The text features were identified by examining the assessment tasks and associated texts in the national…

White, Sheida

2012-01-01

407

Metamorphoses d'un texte (Metamorphoses of a Text).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A variety of exercises based on manipulation of a single text are described. The activities involve replacing words or phrases in the text with synonyms or opposites, transposing gender, changing tenses, filling in blanks, and answering multiple-choice questions about linguistic forms. Three brief sample texts are offered. (MSE)

Meitinger, Guy Roger

1993-01-01

408

Litterature: Retour au texte (Literature: Return to the Text).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Choice of texts for use in French language instruction is discussed. It is argued that the text's format (e.g., advertising, figurative poetry, journal article, play, prose, etc.) is instrumental in bringing attention to the language in it, and this has implications for the best uses of different text types. (MSE)

Noe, Alfred

1993-01-01

409

Supported eText: Assistive Technology through Text Transformations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To gain meaningful access to the curriculum, students with reading difficulties must overcome substantial barriers imposed by the printed materials they are asked to read. Technology can assist students to overcome these challenges by enabling a shift from printed text to electronic text. By electronic text it means textual material read using a…

Anderson-Inman, Lynne; Horney, Mark A.

2007-01-01

410

Automatic rapid attachable warhead section  

DOEpatents

Disclosed are a method and apparatus for automatically selecting warheads or reentry vehicles from a storage area containing a plurality of types of warheads or reentry vehicles, automatically selecting weapon carriers from a storage area containing at least one type of weapon carrier, manipulating and aligning the selected warheads or reentry vehicles and weapon carriers, and automatically coupling the warheads or reentry vehicles with the weapon carriers such that coupling of improperly selected warheads or reentry vehicles with weapon carriers is inhibited. Such inhibition enhances safety of operations and is achieved by a number of means including computer control of the process of selection and coupling and use of connectorless interfaces capable of assuring that improperly selected items will be rejected or rendered inoperable prior to coupling. Also disclosed are a method and apparatus wherein the stated principles pertaining to selection, coupling and inhibition are extended to apply to any item-to-be-carried and any carrying assembly. 10 figures.

Trennel, A.J.

1994-05-10

411

Automatic programming of simulation models  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The concepts of software engineering were used to improve the simulation modeling environment. Emphasis was placed on the application of an element of rapid prototyping, or automatic programming, to assist the modeler define the problem specification. Then, once the problem specification has been defined, an automatic code generator is used to write the simulation code. The following two domains were selected for evaluating the concepts of software engineering for discrete event simulation: manufacturing domain and a spacecraft countdown network sequence. The specific tasks were to: (1) define the software requirements for a graphical user interface to the Automatic Manufacturing Programming System (AMPS) system; (2) develop a graphical user interface for AMPS; and (3) compare the AMPS graphical interface with the AMPS interactive user interface.

Schroer, Bernard J.; Tseng, Fan T.; Zhang, Shou X.; Dwan, Wen S.

1990-01-01

412

Text editor on a chip  

SciTech Connect

The authors propose a processor which provides useful facilities for implementing text editing commands. The processor now being developed is a component of the general front-end editing system which parses the program text and processes the text. This processor attached to a conventional microcomputer system bus executes screen editing functions. Conventional text editing is a typical application of the microprocessors. But in this paper emphasis is given to the firmware and hardware processing of texts in order that the processor can be fabricated in a single VLSI chip. To increase the overall regularity and decrease the design cost, the basic instructions are text editing oriented with short basic cycles. 6 references.

Jung Wan Cho; Heung Kyu Lee

1983-01-01

413

Text Clustering Exploration – Swedish Text Representation and Clustering Results Unraveled  

E-print Network

Text clustering divides a set of texts into clusters (parts), so that texts within each cluster are similar in content. It may be used to uncover the structure and content of unknown text sets as well as to give new perspectives on familiar ones. The main contributions of this thesis are an investigation of text representation for Swedish and some extensions of the work on how to use text clustering as an exploration tool. We have also done some work on synonyms and evaluation of clustering results. Text clustering, at least such as it is treated here, is performed using the vector space model, which is commonly used in information retrieval. This model represents texts by the words that appear in them and considers texts similar in content if they share many words. Languages differ in what is considered a word. We have investigated the impact of some of the characteristics of Swedish on text clustering. Swedish has more morphological variation than for instance English. We show that it is beneficial to use the lemma form of words rather than the word forms. Swedish has a rich production of solid compounds. Most of the constituents of these are used on their

Magnus Rosell

2009-01-01

414

Is egocentric space automatically encoded?  

PubMed

Using the criteria defined by Hasher and Zacks [Hasher, L., & Zacks, R. T. (1979). Automatic and effortful processes in memory. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 108(3), 356-388], three studies examined the effects of intent of memorization, dual task interference, old age, practice and individual differences on memory for egocentric positions. Results showed that dual task interference and old age slightly influenced memory for egocentric positions. Small but significant individual differences were also observed. However, intent of memorization and practice had no influence on accuracy. The findings demonstrate that encoding of egocentric space works rather automatically but nevertheless requires minimal attentional resources. PMID:15698820

Pouliot, Sandra; Gagnon, Sylvain

2005-03-01

415

FAMA: Fast Automatic MOOG Analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

FAMA (Fast Automatic MOOG Analysis), written in Perl, computes the atmospheric parameters and abundances of a large number of stars using measurements of equivalent widths (EWs) automatically and independently of any subjective approach. Based on the widely-used MOOG code, it simultaneously searches for three equilibria, excitation equilibrium, ionization balance, and the relationship between logn(FeI) and the reduced EWs. FAMA also evaluates the statistical errors on individual element abundances and errors due to the uncertainties in the stellar parameters. Convergence criteria are not fixed "a priori" but instead are based on the quality of the spectra.

Magrini, Laura; Randich, Sofia; Friel, Eileen; Spina, Lorenzo; Jacobson, Heather; Cantat-Gaudin, Tristan; Donati, Paolo; Baglioni, Roberto; Maiorca, Enrico; Bragaglia, Angela; Sordo, Rosanna; Vallenari, Antonella

2014-02-01

416

Automatic hot water recovery system  

SciTech Connect

Heat in the hot water lines of a water system is automatically recovered by providing a bridge conduit between the cold water lines and the hot water lines and by depressurizing the hot water lines relative to the cold water lines thereby to automatically direct higher pressure cold water into the hot water lines through the interconnection, which preferably is located near the hot water outlet. The higher pressure cold water forces the hot water back into the storage tank and out of the hot water lines until pressure is equalized. Loss of unused heat trapped in the hot water lines is minimized thereby saving energy.

Haws, S.K.

1982-03-30

417

Text structure-aware classification  

E-print Network

Bag-of-words representations are used in many NLP applications, such as text classification and sentiment analysis. These representations ignore relations across different sentences in a text and disregard the underlying ...

Dzunic, Zoran, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2009-01-01

418

Prioritized text spotting using SLAM  

E-print Network

We show how to exploit temporal and spatial coherence of image observations to achieve efficient and effective text detection and decoding for a sensor suite moving through an environment rich in text at a variety of scales ...

Landa, Yafim

2013-01-01

419

Meaning Representation and Text Planning  

Microsoft Academic Search

starts with a'world'state, represented by structures of an application program (e. g., an expert system) that has text generation needs and an impetus to produce a natu-ral language text. The output of generation is a natural language text. The generation process involves the tasks of a) delimiting the content of the eventual text, b) plano ning its structure, c) selecting

Christine Defrise; Sergei Nirenburg

1990-01-01

420

Informational Text and the CCSS  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

What constitutes an informational text covers a broad swath of different types of texts. Biographies & memoirs, speeches, opinion pieces & argumentative essays, and historical, scientific or technical accounts of a non-narrative nature are all included in what the Common Core State Standards (CCSS) envisions as informational text. Also included…

Aspen Institute, 2012

2012-01-01

421

Slippery Texts and Evolving Literacies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The idea of "slippery texts" provides a useful descriptor for materials that mutate and evolve across different media. Eight adult gamers, encountering the slippery text "American McGee's Alice," demonstrate a variety of ways in which players attempt to manage their attention as they encounter a new text with many resonances. The range of their…

Mackey, Margaret

2007-01-01

422

Text Editing in Chemistry Instruction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes experiments with Australian high school students that investigated differences in performance on chemistry word problems between two learning strategies: text editing, and conventional problem solving. Concluded that text editing had no advantage over problem solving in stoichiometry problems, and that the suitability of a text editing…

Ngu, Bing Hiong; Low, Renae; Sweller, John

2002-01-01

423

A systematic review of named entity recognition in biomedical texts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biomedical Named Entities (NEs) are phrases or combinations of phrases that denote specific objects or groups of objects in\\u000a the biomedical literature. Research on Named Entity Recognition (NER) is one of the most disseminated activities in the automatic\\u000a processing of biomedical scientific articles. We analyzed articles relevant to NER in biomedical texts, in the period from\\u000a 2007 to 2009, through

Rodrigo Rafael Villarreal Goulart; Clarissa Castellã Xavier

2011-01-01

424

ParaText : scalable text modeling and analysis.  

SciTech Connect

Automated processing, modeling, and analysis of unstructured text (news documents, web content, journal articles, etc.) is a key task in many data analysis and decision making applications. As data sizes grow, scalability is essential for deep analysis. In many cases, documents are modeled as term or feature vectors and latent semantic analysis (LSA) is used to model latent, or hidden, relationships between documents and terms appearing in those documents. LSA supplies conceptual organization and analysis of document collections by modeling high-dimension feature vectors in many fewer dimensions. While past work on the scalability of LSA modeling has focused on the SVD, the goal of our work is to investigate the use of distributed memory architectures for the entire text analysis process, from data ingestion to semantic modeling and analysis. ParaText is a set of software components for distributed processing, modeling, and analysis of unstructured text. The ParaText source code is available under a BSD license, as an integral part of the Titan toolkit. ParaText components are chained-together into data-parallel pipelines that are replicated across processes on distributed-memory architectures. Individual components can be replaced or rewired to explore different computational strategies and implement new functionality. ParaText functionality can be embedded in applications on any platform using the native C++ API, Python, or Java. The ParaText MPI Process provides a 'generic' text analysis pipeline in a command-line executable that can be used for many serial and parallel analysis tasks. ParaText can also be deployed as a web service accessible via a RESTful (HTTP) API. In the web service configuration, any client can access the functionality provided by ParaText using commodity protocols ... from standard web browsers to custom clients written in any language.

Dunlavy, Daniel M.; Stanton, Eric T.; Shead, Timothy M.

2010-06-01

425

Succinct Text Indexing with Wildcards  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A succinct text index uses space proportional to the text itself, say, two times n log? for a text of n characters over an alphabet of size ?. In the past few years, there were several exciting results leading to succinct indexes that support efficient pattern matching. In this paper we present the first succinct index for a text that contains wildcards. The space complexity of our index is (3 + o(1))n log? + O(?logn) bits, where ? is the number of wildcard groups in the text. Such an index finds applications in indexing genomic sequences that contain single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP), which could be modeled as wildcards.

Tam, Alan; Wu, Edward; Lam, Tak-Wah; Yiu, Siu-Ming

426

Complex dynamics of text analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a novel method for the analysis of nonlinear text quality in Chinese language. Texts produced by university students in China were represented as scale-free networks (word adjacency model), from which typical network features such as the in/outdegree, clustering coefficient and network dynamics were obtained. The method integrates the classical concepts of network feature representation and text quality series variation. The analytical and numerical scheme leads to a parameter space representation that constitutes a valid alternative to represent the network features. The results reveal that complex network features of different text qualities can be clearly revealed and applied to potential applications in other instances of text analysis.

Ke, Xiaohua; Zeng, Yongqiang; Ma, Qinghua; Zhu, Lin

2014-12-01

427

Les Textes aussi sont des images (Texts Are Also Pictures)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A printed text can be considered a picture on which readers project their own image in order to understand its original meaning. This process is explained via several kinds of original documents. Implications for instruction in reading a foreign language are discussed and several examples are given. (Text is in French.) (AMH)

Moirand, Sophie

1978-01-01

428

Inductive learning algorithms and representations for text categorization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Text categorization - the assignment of natural language\\u000a texts to one or more predefined categories based on their\\u000a content - is an important component in many information\\u000a organization and management tasks. We compare the\\u000a effectiveness of five different automatic learning\\u000a algorithms for text categorization in terms of learning\\u000a speed, real-time classification speed, and classification\\u000a accuracy. We also examine training set

Susan T. Dumais; John C. Platt; David Heckerman; Mehran Sahami

1998-01-01

429

SUPPLE: automatically generating user interfaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to give people ubiquitous access to software applications, device controllers, and Internet services, it will be necessary to automatically adapt user interfaces to the computational devices at hand (eg, cell phones, PDAs, touch panels, etc.). While previous researchers have proposed solutions to this problem, each has limitations. This paper proposes a novel solution based on treating interface adaptation

Krzysztof Gajos; Daniel S. Weld

2004-01-01

430

Automatic marker for photographic film  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Commercially-produced wire-marking machine is modified to title or mark film rolls automatically. Machine is used with film drive mechanism which is powered with variable-speed, 28-volt dc motor. Up to 40 frames per minute can be marked, reducing time and cost of process.

Gabbard, N. M.; Surrency, W. M.

1974-01-01

431

The Saturn automatic checkout system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Space vehicles and missiles have become so complec it is almost mandatory that they be tested by automatic methods under computer control for the following reasons: (1) Increased reliability by eliminating human error and subjective evaluations. (2) It is almost impossible to test a complex system manually within a practical period of time. Thus, manual methods for the checkout of

Joseph Heskin

1961-01-01

432

Automatic Validation of Numerical Solutions  

E-print Network

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 3 Taylor's Theorem and the mean value enclosure 15 3.1 The interval Newton and Krawczyk methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 4.1.1 The mean value enclosure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 4.1.2 The extended mean value of initial value problems . . . . . . . . . . . 66 6.3.1 An automatic differentiation interval ordinary

Mosegaard, Klaus

433

Algorithm of automatic cartridge identification  

Microsoft Academic Search

An effective algorithm for automatic cartridge identification is proposed. The ejector impression is used to calibrate the cartridge image. Features of the firing pin impression and the breach face impression are extracted using active snake and orientation analysis, respectively. These different features are then integrated to make a final decision by using a support vector machine. Experimental results illustrate the

Jie Zhou; Le-ping Xin; Gang Rong; David Zhang

2001-01-01

434

Automatic electronic astrolabe at Mizusawa  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Tsubokawa type astrolabe has been developed at the International Latitude Observatory of Mizusawa (ILOM). It works fully automatically under the control of a computer. Using this instrument, one performs high accuracy measurements of the time (UT0-UTC) and latitude. The accuracy is comparable to that of the PZT of the ILOM. The design, construction and adjustment of the astrolabe are

I. Tsubokawa; T. Tsubokawa; K. Asari; C. Kakuta; S. Manabe; S. Sakai

1984-01-01

435

An automatic adiabatic bomb calorimeter  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper details the conversion of an existing isothermal bomb calorimeter to an adiabatic calorimeter with automatic control. Thermistors in the inner and outer vessels are included in two arms of an a.c. Wheatstone bridge: any rise in temperature of the inner vessel above that of the outer vessel results in phase reversal of the output voltage from the bridge,

W F Raymond; R J Canaway; C E Harris

1957-01-01

436

Automatic Error Analysis Using Intervals  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A technique for automatic error analysis using interval mathematics is introduced. A comparison to standard error propagation methods shows that in cases involving complicated formulas, the interval approach gives comparable error estimates with much less effort. Several examples are considered, and numerical errors are computed using the INTLAB…

Rothwell, E. J.; Cloud, M. J.

2012-01-01

437

Automatic graders for programming classes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fifteen months ago the first version of an “automatic grader” was tried with a group of twenty students taking a formal course in programming. The first group of twenty programs took only five minutes on the computer (an IBM 650). With such a satisfactory beginning, the grader was then used for the entire course with this group of students and

Jack Hollingsworth

1960-01-01

438

Automatic recognition of film genres  

Microsoft Academic Search

Film genres in digital video can be detected automatically. In a three-step approach we analyze first the syntactic properties of digital films: color statistics, cut detection, camera motion, object motion and audio. In a second step we use these statistics to derive at a more abstract level film style attributes such as camera panning and zooming, speech and music. These

Stephan Fischer; Rainer Lienhart; Wolfgang Effelsberg

1995-01-01

439

Automatic Image Retargeting Vidya Setlur  

E-print Network

-networked media ap- pliances, and "heads up" informational displays in automobiles and helmets. Image retargetingAutomatic Image Retargeting Vidya Setlur Northwestern University and Nokia Research Center Saeko functional realism rather than photo-realism by image retargeting. (a) The source image containing three

Gooch, Bruce

440

The Automaticity of Social Life  

Microsoft Academic Search

Much of social life is experienced through mental processes that are not intended and about which one is fairly oblivious. These processes are automatically triggered by features of the immediate social environment, such as the group memberships of other people, the qualities of their behavior, and features of social situations (e.g., norms, one's relative power). Recent research has shown these

John A. Bargh; Erin L. Williams

2006-01-01

441

An Automatic Recording Weather Station  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the Automatic Weather Station erected by the First Indian Antarctic Expedition. A simplified block diagram of the system electronics presents an overview of the sensors and associated electronic hardware. A detailed flow-chart of the acquisition and storage software is also presented together with details of the processor module, analog board, clock and power supply circuits and tape

E. Desa; A. P. S elvam; R. G. Prabhu Desai; M. R. Nayak

442

AUTOMATIC RECORD REVIEWS Brian Whitman  

E-print Network

music editor trained from the consensus of the online reviews we have gathered. Keywords: cultural structure), cultural position (re- lationships to other groups, buzz, history) and individual preference intelligences that automatically classify, recommend and even synthe- size music for listeners, we could start

Ellis, Dan

443

Intelligent Text Retrieval and Knowledge Acquisition from Texts for NASA Applications: Preprocessing Issues  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this contract, which is a component of a larger contract that we plan to submit in the coming months, we plan to study the preprocessing issues which arise in applying natural language processing techniques to NASA-KSC problem reports. The goals of this work will be to deal with the issues of: a) automatically obtaining the problem reports from NASA-KSC data bases, b) the format of these reports and c) the conversion of these reports to a format that will be adequate for our natural language software. At the end of this contract, we expect that these problems will be solved and that we will be ready to apply our natural language software to a text database of over 1000 KSC problem reports.

2001-01-01

444

Planning texts by constraint satisfaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method is described by which a rhetorical-structure tree can be realized by a text structure made up of sections, paragraphs, sentences, vertical lists, and other textual patterns, with discourse connectives added (in the correct positions) to mark rhetorical relations. We show that text-structuring can be formulated as a Constraint Satisfaction Problem, so that all solutions respecting constraints on text-structure

Richard Power

2000-01-01

445

Zum Uebersetzen fachlicher Texte (On the Translation of Technical Texts)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews a 1974 East German publication on translation of scientific literature from Russian to German. Considers terminology, different standard levels of translation in East Germany, and other matters related to translation. (Text is in German.) (DH)

Friederich, Wolf

1975-01-01

446

TextArc: An Alternate Way to View a Text  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Textarc is an unconventional tool that gives readers the opportunity to discover patterns and concepts in texts. Still in a developmental stage, the site offers readers the opportunity to utilize human visual processing by allowing intuition to help extract meaning from a text. By exposing every word at once, the eye is able to make connections and decipher meaning otherwise overlooked by normal reading, thereby exposing the essence of a text. The site currently has Hamlet available as a full textarc text, and is in the process of exposing more literary works. Not only of value for avid readers and literary critics, the site offers librarians and archivists new approaches to cataloguing. On the whole, this new and innovative creation is at a minimum intriguing, and the site is definitely worth a visit.

2002-01-01

447

Texting while driving: Is speech-based text entry less risky than handheld text entry?  

PubMed

Research indicates that using a cell phone to talk or text while maneuvering a vehicle impairs driving performance. However, few published studies directly compare the distracting effects of texting using a hands-free (i.e., speech-based interface) versus handheld cell phone, which is an important issue for legislation, automotive interface design and driving safety training. This study compared the effect of speech-based versus handheld text entries on simulated driving performance by asking participants to perform a car following task while controlling the duration of a secondary text-entry task. Results showed that both speech-based and handheld text entries impaired driving performance relative to the drive-only condition by causing more variation in speed and lane position. Handheld text entry also increased the brake response time and increased variation in headway distance. Text entry using a speech-based cell phone was less detrimental to driving performance than handheld text entry. Nevertheless, the speech-based text entry task still significantly impaired driving compared to the drive-only condition. These results suggest that speech-based text entry disrupts driving, but reduces the level of performance interference compared to text entry with a handheld device. In addition, the difference in the distraction effect caused by speech-based and handheld text entry is not simply due to the difference in task duration. PMID:25089769

He, J; Chaparro, A; Nguyen, B; Burge, R J; Crandall, J; Chaparro, B; Ni, R; Cao, S

2014-11-01

448

Metaphor Identification in Large Texts Corpora  

E-print Network

Identifying metaphorical language-use (e.g., sweet child) is one of the challenges facing natural language processing. This paper describes three novel algorithms for automatic metaphor identification. The algorithms are ...

Neuman, Yair

449

How automatic are crossmodal correspondences?  

PubMed

The last couple of years have seen a rapid growth of interest (especially amongst cognitive psychologists, cognitive neuroscientists, and developmental researchers) in the study of crossmodal correspondences - the tendency for our brains (not to mention the brains of other species) to preferentially associate certain features or dimensions of stimuli across the senses. By now, robust empirical evidence supports the existence of numerous crossmodal correspondences, affecting people's performance across a wide range of psychological tasks - in everything from the redundant target effect paradigm through to studies of the Implicit Association Test, and from speeded discrimination/classification tasks through to unspeeded spatial localisation and temporal order judgment tasks. However, one question that has yet to receive a satisfactory answer is whether crossmodal correspondences automatically affect people's performance (in all, or at least in a subset of tasks), as opposed to reflecting more of a strategic, or top-down, phenomenon. Here, we review the latest research on the topic of crossmodal correspondences to have addressed this issue. We argue that answering the question will require researchers to be more precise in terms of defining what exactly automaticity entails. Furthermore, one's answer to the automaticity question may also hinge on the answer to a second question: Namely, whether crossmodal correspondences are all 'of a kind', or whether instead there may be several different kinds of crossmodal mapping (e.g., statistical, structural, and semantic). Different answers to the automaticity question may then be revealed depending on the type of correspondence under consideration. We make a number of suggestions for future research that might help to determine just how automatic crossmodal correspondences really are. PMID:23370382

Spence, Charles; Deroy, Ophelia

2013-03-01

450

49 CFR 236.750 - Interlocking, automatic.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Interlocking, automatic. 236.750 Section 236.750 Transportation...MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.750 Interlocking, automatic. An arrangement of signals,...

2010-10-01

451

8 CFR 1205.1 - Automatic revocation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT...Automatic revocation. (a) Reasons for automatic revocation...petitioner, except as provided for in 8 CFR 205.1(a...legal termination of the marriage when a citizen...

2012-01-01

452

8 CFR 1205.1 - Automatic revocation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT...Automatic revocation. (a) Reasons for automatic revocation...petitioner, except as provided for in 8 CFR 205.1(a...legal termination of the marriage when a citizen...

2010-01-01

453

8 CFR 1205.1 - Automatic revocation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT...Automatic revocation. (a) Reasons for automatic revocation...petitioner, except as provided for in 8 CFR 205.1(a...legal termination of the marriage when a citizen...

2011-01-01

454

8 CFR 1205.1 - Automatic revocation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT...Automatic revocation. (a) Reasons for automatic revocation...petitioner, except as provided for in 8 CFR 205.1(a...legal termination of the marriage when a citizen...

2013-01-01

455

8 CFR 1205.1 - Automatic revocation.  

...Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT...Automatic revocation. (a) Reasons for automatic revocation...petitioner, except as provided for in 8 CFR 205.1(a...legal termination of the marriage when a citizen...

2014-01-01

456

Machine Intelligence Technology for Automatic Target Recognition.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Automatic target recognition (ATR)-the use of computer processing to detect and identify targets (such as tanks, howitzers, and armored personnel carriers) automatically-is becoming critically important in several military applications. ATR systems can re...

J. G. Verly, R. L. Delanoy, D. E. Dudgeon

1989-01-01

457

Understanding and Teaching Complex Texts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Teachers in today's classrooms struggle every day to design instructional interventions that would build students' reading skills and strategies in order to ensure their comprehension of complex texts. Text complexity can be determined in both qualitative and quantitative ways. In this article, the authors describe various innovative…

Fisher, Douglas; Frey, Nancy

2014-01-01

458

Graphic design of program text  

Microsoft Academic Search

Computer programs, like literature, deserve attention not only to conceptual and verbal (linguistic) structure but also to visual structure, i.e., the qualities of alphanumeric text fonts and other graphic symbols, the spatial arrangement of isolated texts and symbols, the temporal sequencing of individual parts of the program, and the use of color (including gray values). With the increasing numbers of

Aaron Marcus; Ronald Baecker

1982-01-01

459

Sequential patterns for text categorization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Text categorization is a well-known task based essentially on statistical approaches using neural networks, Support Vector Machines and other machine learning algorithms. Texts are generally considered as bags of words without any order. Although these approaches have proven to be efficient, they do not provide users with comprehensive and reusable rules about their data. Such rules are, however, very important

Simon Jaillet; Anne Laurent; Maguelonne Teisseire

2006-01-01

460

Towards Sustainable Text Concept Mapping  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Previous experimental studies have indicated that young people's text comprehension and summarisation skills can be improved by techniques based on text concept mapping (TCM). However, these studies have done little to elucidate a practical pedagogy that can make the techniques adoptable within the context of typical secondary school classrooms.…

Conlon, Tom

2009-01-01

461

Text Messaging During Simulated Driving  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: This research aims to identify the impact of text messaging on simulated driving performance. Background: In the past decade, a number of on-road, epidemiological, and simulator-based studies reported the negative impact of talking on a cell phone on driving behavior. However, the impact of text messaging on simulated driving performance is still not fully understood. Method: Forty participants engaged

Frank A. Drews; Hina Yazdani; Celeste N. Godfrey; Joel M. Cooper; David L. Strayer

2009-01-01

462

Ontology-based Text Clustering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Text clustering typically involves clusteringin a high dimensional space, whichappears difficult with regard to virtuallyall practical settings. In addition, given aparticular clustering result it is typicallyvery hard to come up with a good explanationof why the text clusters havebeen constructed the way they are. In thispaper, we propose a new approach forapplying background knowledge duringpreprocessing in order to improve clusteringresults

Andreas Hotho

2001-01-01

463

Ontology-based Text Clustering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Text clustering typically involves cluster- ing in a high dimensional space, which appears difficult with regard to virtually all practical settings. In addition, given a particular clustering result it is typically very hard to come up with a good ex- planation of why the text clusters have been constructed the way they are. In this paper, we propose a new

Andreas Hotho; Steffen Staab; Alexander Maedche

464

Text clustering using frequent itemsets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Frequent itemset originates from association rule mining. Recently, it has been applied in text mining such as document categorization, clustering, etc. In this paper, we conduct a study on text clustering using frequent itemsets. The main contribution of this paper is three manifolds. First, we present a review on existing methods of document clustering using frequent patterns. Second, a new

Wen Zhang; Taketoshi Yoshida; Xijin Tang; Qing Wang

2010-01-01

465

ONTOLOGY ENGINEERING VIA TEXT UNDERSTANDING  

Microsoft Academic Search

We introduce a methodology for automating the maintenance of domain-specific ontolo- gies based on natural language text understanding. A given taxonomy is incrementally updated as new concepts are acquired from real-world texts. The acquisition proc ess is centered around the linguistic and conceptual \\

Udo Hahn; Klemens Schnattinger

1998-01-01

466

Text recycling: acceptable or misconduct?  

PubMed

Text recycling, also referred to as self-plagiarism, is the reproduction of an author's own text from a previous publication in a new publication. Opinions on the acceptability of this practice vary, with some viewing it as acceptable and efficient, and others as misleading and unacceptable. In light of the lack of consensus, journal editors often have difficulty deciding how to act upon the discovery of text recycling. In response to these difficulties, we have created a set of guidelines for journal editors on how to deal with text recycling. In this editorial, we discuss some of the challenges of developing these guidelines, and how authors can avoid undisclosed text recycling. PMID:25127654

Harriman, Stephanie; Patel, Jigisha

2014-01-01

467

Toward integrated scene text reading.  

PubMed

The growth in digital camera usage combined with a worldly abundance of text has translated to a rich new era for a classic problem of pattern recognition, reading. While traditional document processing often faces challenges such as unusual fonts, noise, and unconstrained lexicons, scene text reading amplifies these challenges and introduces new ones such as motion blur, curved layouts, perspective projection, and occlusion among others. Reading scene text is a complex problem involving many details that must be handled effectively for robust, accurate results. In this work, we describe and evaluate a reading system that combines several pieces, using probabilistic methods for coarsely binarizing a given text region, identifying baselines, and jointly performing word and character segmentation during the recognition process. By using scene context to recognize several words together in a line of text, our system gives state-of-the-art performance on three difficult benchmark data sets. PMID:24356356

Weinman, Jerod J; Butler, Zachary; Knoll, Dugan; Feild, Jacqueline

2014-02-01

468

Automatic Borders Detection of Camera Document Images N. Stamatopoulos, B. Gatos, A. Kesidis  

E-print Network

Automatic Borders Detection of Camera Document Images N. Stamatopoulos, B. Gatos, A. Kesidis document image is often framed by a noisy black border or includes noisy text regions from neighbouring by a digital camera by automatically detecting the document borders and cutting out noisy black borders as well

Gatos, Basilios

469

Automatic opacity detection in retro-illumination images for cortical cataract diagnosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Computer aided analysis of medical images, a unique type of non-text media, can facilitate clinical diagnosis. As an example, an automatic opacity detection approach is proposed in this paper to grade cortical cataract more objectively. The automatic pupil detection is performed by detecting the strongest edges on the convex hull and ellipse fitting using nonlinear least square method. The cortical

Huiqi Li; Liling Ko; Joo-hwee Lim; Jiang Liu; Damon Wing Kee Wong; Tien Yin Wong; Ying Sun

2008-01-01

470

Automatic Web Service Tagging Using Machine Learning and WordNet Synsets  

E-print Network

Automatic Web Service Tagging Using Machine Learning and WordNet Synsets Zeina Azmeh, Jean services automatically. It adapts techniques from text min- ing and machine learning to extract tags from mining, machine learning. 1 Introduction Service-oriented architectures (SOA) are achieved by connecting

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

471

Problem of Automatic Thesaurus Construction (K Voprosu Ob Avtomaticheskom Postroenii Tezarusa). Subject Country: USSR.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With respect to automatic indexing and information retrieval, statistical analysis of word usages in written texts is finding broad application in the solution of a number of problems. One of these problems is compiling a thesaurus on a digital computer. Using two methods, a comparative experiment in automatic thesaurus construction is presented.…

Ivanova, I. S.

472

Young Children's Thinking in Relation to Texts: A Comparison with Older Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Compared the thinking of kindergartners and sixth-graders as expressed in unassisted retellings of a narrative text. Found no significant age differences in retelling lengths and few significant age differences in the amount of types of thinking. Older children tended to summarize paragraphs and single sentences; young children tended to summarize

Feathers, Karen M.

2002-01-01

473

What Is Automatic Self-Regulation?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on Bargh’s (1994) principles of automaticity, and Förster, Liberman, and Friedman’s (2007) principles of automatic goal activation, we discuss recent findings suggesting automatic self-regulation. We found evidence that many self-regulatory strategies can be automatized, particularly goal activation outside of participants’ awareness, and procedures to inhibit accessibility of competing goals and to devalue temptations. However, our review also suggests that

Jens Förster; Nils B. Jostmann

2012-01-01

474

Why is Light Text Harder to Read Than Dark Text?  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Scharff and Ahumada (2002, 2003) measured text legibility for light text and dark text. For paragraph readability and letter identification, responses to light text were slower and less accurate for a given contrast. Was this polarity effect (1) an artifact of our apparatus, (2) a physiological difference in the separate pathways for positive and negative contrast or (3) the result of increased experience with dark text on light backgrounds? To rule out the apparatus-artifact hypothesis, all data were collected on one monitor. Its luminance was measured at all levels used, and the spatial effects of the monitor were reduced by pixel doubling and quadrupling (increasing the viewing distance to maintain constant angular size). Luminances of vertical and horizontal square-wave gratings were compared to assess display speed effects. They existed, even for 4-pixel-wide bars. Tests for polarity asymmetries in display speed were negative. Increased experience might develop full letter templates for dark text, while recognition of light letters is based on component features. Earlier, an observer ran all conditions at one polarity and then switched. If dark and light letters were intermixed, the observer might use component features on all trials and do worse on the dark letters, reducing the polarity effect. We varied polarity blocking (completely blocked, alternating smaller blocks, and intermixed blocks). Letter identification responses times showed polarity effects at all contrasts and display resolution levels. Observers were also more accurate with higher contrasts and more pixels per degree. Intermixed blocks increased the polarity effect by reducing performance on the light letters, but only if the randomized block occurred prior to the nonrandomized block. Perhaps observers tried to use poorly developed templates, or they did not work as hard on the more difficult items. The experience hypothesis and the physiological gain hypothesis remain viable explanations.

Scharff, Lauren V.; Ahumada, Albert J.

2005-01-01

475

Automatic Structures Achim Blumensath and Erich Grdel  

E-print Network

Automatic Structures Achim Blumensath and Erich Grädel Mathematische Grundlagen der Informatik RWTH for automatic and -automatic structures. These are, in general, infinite structures but they can be finitely of all first-order queries. Therefore, au- tomatic structures provide an interesting framework for ex

Blumensath, Achim

476

Ground truth for automatic music mood classification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Automatic music classication based on audio signals pro- vides a core technology for tools that help users to manage and browse their music collections. Since ìmoodî is also used as a browsing criterium, automatic mood classication could support the creation of the necessary metadata. We have developed a method to obtain a reliable ìground truthî database for automatic music mood

Janto Skowronek; Martin F. Mckinney; Steven Van De Par

2006-01-01

477

Self-Compassion and Automatic Thoughts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this research is to examine the relationships between self-compassion and automatic thoughts. Participants were 299 university students. In this study, the Self-compassion Scale and the Automatic Thoughts Questionnaire were used. The relationships between self-compassion and automatic thoughts were examined using correlation analysis…

Akin, Ahmet

2012-01-01

478

Automatic Identification of Class Stereotypes Natalia Dragan  

E-print Network

Automatic Identification of Class Stereotypes Natalia Dragan Department of Computer Science Kent to automatically determine a class's stereotype. The stereotype is based on the frequency and distribution of method stereotypes in the class. Method stereotypes are automatically determined using a defined taxonomy

Maletic, Jonathan I.

479

PROPERTIES OF AGEBASED AUTOMATIC MEMORY RECLAMATION ALGORITHMS  

E-print Network

PROPERTIES OF AGE­BASED AUTOMATIC MEMORY RECLAMATION ALGORITHMS A Dissertation Presented by DARKO­BASED AUTOMATIC MEMORY RECLAMATION ALGORITHMS A Dissertation Presented by DARKO STEFANOVI â?? C Approved as to style­BASED AUTOMATIC MEMORY RECLAMATION ALGORITHMS FEBRUARY 1999 DARKO STEFANOVI â?? C Dipl.Ing., UNIVERSITY OF BELGRADE

Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

480

New challenges for text mining: mapping between text and manually curated pathways  

PubMed Central

Background Associating literature with pathways poses new challenges to the Text Mining (TM) community. There are three main challenges to this task: (1) the identification of the mapping position of a specific entity or reaction in a given pathway, (2) the recognition of the causal relationships among multiple reactions, and (3) the formulation and implementation of required inferences based on biological domain knowledge. Results To address these challenges, we constructed new resources to link the text with a model pathway; they are: the GENIA pathway corpus with event annotation and NF-kB pathway. Through their detailed analysis, we address the untapped resource, ‘bio-inference,’ as well as the differences between text and pathway representation. Here, we show the precise comparisons of their representations and the nine classes of ‘bio-inference’ schemes observed in the pathway corpus. Conclusions We believe that the creation of such rich resources and their detailed analysis is the significant first step for accelerating the research of the automatic construction of pathway from text. PMID:18426550

Oda, Kanae; Kim, Jin-Dong; Ohta, Tomoko; Okanohara, Daisuke; Matsuzaki, Takuya; Tateisi, Yuka; Tsujii, Jun'ichi

2008-01-01

481

Text structures in medical text processing: empirical evidence and a text understanding prototype.  

PubMed Central

We consider the role of textual structures in medical texts. In particular, we examine the impact the lacking recognition of text phenomena has on the validity of medical knowledge bases fed by a natural language understanding front-end. First, we review the results from an empirical study on a sample of medical texts considering, in various forms of local coherence phenomena (anaphora and textual ellipses). We then discuss the representation bias emerging in the text knowledge base that is likely to occur when these phenomena are not dealt with--mainly the emergence of referentially incoherent and invalid representations. We then turn to a medical text understanding system designed to account for local text coherence. PMID:9357739

Hahn, U.; Romacker, M.

1997-01-01

482

Linguistic Steganography Using Automatically Generated Paraphrases Ching-Yun Chang  

E-print Network

Linguistic Steganography Using Automatically Generated Paraphrases Ching-Yun Chang University of our work is to integrate text paraphrasing into a Linguistic Steganography system, by using and use- ful source of transformations for Linguistic Steganography, and show that our method for checking

Koehn, Philipp

483

Automatic Video Classification: A Survey of the Literature  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is much video available today. To help viewers find video of interest, work has begun on methods of automatic video classification. In this paper, we survey the video classification literature. We find that features are drawn from three modalities - text, audio, and visual - and that a large variety of combinations of features and classification have been explored.

Darin Brezeale; Diane J. Cook

2008-01-01

484

Automatic Generation of Sequence-Style Notes from Live Lecture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Speech recognition software (speech-to-text) accu- racy is improving at a fast pace, thus making possible a diverse range of new applications. The Liberated Learning Initiative has demonstrated that automatic speech recognition software provides the potential of making instruction more applicable to students, particularly for deaf students who can follow the lecture without the distraction of an interpreter. In this initiati

Adrian Rusu; Gary Dainton

485

Automatic Content-based Categorization of Wikipedia Articles Zeno Gantner  

E-print Network

Automatic Content-based Categorization of Wikipedia Articles Zeno Gantner University of Hildesheim schmidt-thieme@ismll.de Abstract Wikipedia's article contents and its cate- gory hierarchy are widely used articles ­ has attracted less attention so far. We propose to "return the favor" and use text classi- fiers

Schmidt-Thieme, Lars

486

Al-Hadith Text Classifier  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study explore the implementation of a text classification method to classify the prophet Mohammed (PBUH) hadiths (sayings) using Sahih Al-Bukhari classification. The sayings explain the Holy Qur`an, which considered by Muslims to be the direct word of Allah. Present method adopts TF\\/IDF (Term Frequency-Inverse Document Frequency) which is used usually for text search. TF\\/IDF was used for term weighting,

Mohammed Naji Al-Kabi; Ghassan Kanaan; Riyad Al-Shalabi; Saja I. Al-Sinjilawi; Ronza S. Al-Mustafa

2005-01-01

487

Al-Hadith Text Classifier  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study explores the implementation of a text classification method to classify the prophet Mohammed (PBUB) hadiths (sayings) using Sahih Al-Bukhari classification. The sayings explain the Holy Qur'an, which considered by Muslims to be the direct word of Allah. Present method adopts TF\\/IDF (Term Frequency-Inverse Document Frequency) which is used usually for text search. TF\\/IDF was used for term weighting,

Mohammed Naji Al-Kabi

2005-01-01

488

46 CFR 63.25-1 - Small automatic auxiliary boilers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false Small automatic auxiliary boilers. 63.25-1 Section 63.25-1...MARINE ENGINEERING AUTOMATIC AUXILIARY BOILERS Requirements for Specific Types of Automatic Auxiliary Boilers § 63.25-1 Small automatic...

2012-10-01

489

46 CFR 63.25-1 - Small automatic auxiliary boilers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false Small automatic auxiliary boilers. 63.25-1 Section 63.25-1...MARINE ENGINEERING AUTOMATIC AUXILIARY BOILERS Requirements for Specific Types of Automatic Auxiliary Boilers § 63.25-1 Small automatic...

2011-10-01

490

46 CFR 63.25-1 - Small automatic auxiliary boilers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false Small automatic auxiliary boilers. 63.25-1 Section 63.25-1...MARINE ENGINEERING AUTOMATIC AUXILIARY BOILERS Requirements for Specific Types of Automatic Auxiliary Boilers § 63.25-1 Small automatic...

2013-10-01

491

46 CFR 63.25-1 - Small automatic auxiliary boilers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Small automatic auxiliary boilers. 63.25-1 Section 63.25-1...MARINE ENGINEERING AUTOMATIC AUXILIARY BOILERS Requirements for Specific Types of Automatic Auxiliary Boilers § 63.25-1 Small automatic...

2010-10-01

492

14 CFR 27.1329 - Automatic pilot system.  

... Automatic pilot system. 27.1329 Section...OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS... Automatic pilot system. (a) Each automatic...the automatic pilot system can be coupled to airborne navigation equipment,...

2014-01-01

493

14 CFR 23.1329 - Automatic pilot system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Automatic pilot system. 23.1329 Section...OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS... Automatic pilot system. If an automatic...the automatic pilot system can be coupled to airborne navigation equipment,...

2013-01-01

494

14 CFR 27.1329 - Automatic pilot system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Automatic pilot system. 27.1329 Section...OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS... Automatic pilot system. (a) Each automatic...the automatic pilot system can be coupled to airborne navigation equipment,...

2013-01-01

495

14 CFR 23.1329 - Automatic pilot system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... Automatic pilot system. 23.1329 Section...OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS... Automatic pilot system. If an automatic...the automatic pilot system can be coupled to airborne navigation equipment,...

2011-01-01

496

14 CFR 29.1329 - Automatic pilot system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Automatic pilot system. 29.1329 Section...OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS... Automatic pilot system. (a) Each automatic...the automatic pilot system can be coupled to airborne navigation equipment,...

2013-01-01

497

14 CFR 23.1329 - Automatic pilot system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Automatic pilot system. 23.1329 Section...OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS... Automatic pilot system. If an automatic...the automatic pilot system can be coupled to airborne navigation equipment,...

2010-01-01

498

14 CFR 29.1329 - Automatic pilot system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... Automatic pilot system. 29.1329 Section...OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS... Automatic pilot system. (a) Each automatic...the automatic pilot system can be coupled to airborne navigation equipment,...

2011-01-01

499

14 CFR 27.1329 - Automatic pilot system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Automatic pilot system. 27.1329 Section...OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS... Automatic pilot system. (a) Each automatic...the automatic pilot system can be coupled to airborne navigation equipment,...

2010-01-01

500

14 CFR 29.1329 - Automatic pilot system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Automatic pilot system. 29.1329 Section...OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS... Automatic pilot system. (a) Each automatic...the automatic pilot system can be coupled to airborne navigation equipment,...

2010-01-01