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1

Automatic Text Structuring and Summarization.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discussion of the use of information retrieval techniques for automatic generation of semantic hypertext links focuses on automatic text summarization. Topics include World Wide Web links, text segmentation, and evaluation of text summarization by comparing automatically generated abstracts with manually prepared abstracts. (Author/LRW)

Salton, Gerard; And Others

1997-01-01

2

A Survey on Automatic Text Summarization  

Microsoft Academic Search

The increasing availability of online information has necessitated intensive research in the area of automatic text summarization within the Natural Lan- guage Processing (NLP) community. Over the past half a century, the prob- lem has been addressed from many dierent perspectives, in varying domains and using various paradigms. This survey intends to investigate some of the most relevant approaches both

Dipanjan Das Andr; F. T. Martins

2008-01-01

3

Evaluation of Automatic Text Summarization Methods Based on Rhetorical Structure Theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Motivated by governmental, commercial and academic interests, automatic text summarization area has experienced an increasing number of researches and products, which led to a countless number of summarization methods. In this paper, we present a comprehensive comparative evaluation of the main automatic text summarization methods based on rhetorical structure theory (RST), claimed to be among the best ones. We also

Vinícius Rodrigues Uzêda; Thiago Alexandre Salgueiro Pardo; Maria Das Graças Nunes

2008-01-01

4

Algebraic reduction in automatic text summarization – the state of the art  

Microsoft Academic Search

Various kinds of information that is available on a topic electronically has abundantly increased over the past years. It has led the information highway to a situation called “information overload” problem. Automatic text summarization technique mainly addresses this issue by the extraction of a shortened version of information from texts written about the same topic. Several algebraic reduction methods are

N. K. Batcha; A. M. Zaki

2010-01-01

5

Summarizing Expository Texts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: This article reviews the literature on students' developing skills in summarizing expository texts and describes strategies for evaluating students' expository summaries. Evaluation outcomes are presented for a professional development project aimed at helping teachers develop new techniques for teaching summarization. Methods: Strategies…

Westby, Carol; Culatta, Barbara; Lawrence, Barbara; Hall-Kenyon, Kendra

2010-01-01

6

Using Text Messaging to Summarize Text  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Summarizing is an academic task that students are expected to have mastered by the time they enter college. However, experience has revealed quite the contrary. Summarization is often difficult to master as well as teach, but instructors in higher education can benefit greatly from the rapid advancement in mobile wireless technology devices, by…

Williams, Angela Ruffin

2012-01-01

7

NewsBytes: Tagalog Text Summarization Using Abstraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we present an automatic Tagalog text summarizer that uses abstraction instead of the traditional extraction method of summarization. It employs Natural Language Processing and Generation to produce the summary. Summarization works by determining the subject of the sentence and then building phrases for that subject. A prototype was tested and evaluated based on the following matrices: sentence

Ervin G. Batang; Regina L. Cruz; Don Erick; J. Bonus; Ria A. Sagum; Mark Angelo; T. Miano; Rubeleen Ann; C. Yu

8

Using Word Sequences for Text Summarization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traditional approaches for extractive summarization score\\/classify sentences based on features such as position in the text, word frequency and cue phrases. These features tend to produce satisfactory summaries, but have the inconvenience of being domain dependent. In this paper, we propose to tackle this problem representing the sentences by word sequences (n-grams), a widely used representation in text categorization. The

Esaú Villatoro-tello; Luis Villaseñor Pineda; Manuel Montes-y-gómez

2006-01-01

9

Automatic summarization of MP3 music objects  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose an approach to summarize MP3 music objects automatically. The MP3 music summary is constructed in three steps. First, coefficients extracted from the output of polyphase filters are used to compute the MP3 features. Based on these features, an MP3 music object can be automatically segmented into a sequence of MP3 phrases. Then, the phrase clustering technique is applied

Chih-Chin Liu; Pang-Chia Yao

2004-01-01

10

Task-Driven Dynamic Text Summarization  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The objective of this work is to examine the efficacy of natural language processing (NLP) in summarizing bibliographic text for multiple purposes. Researchers have noted the accelerating growth of bibliographic databases. Information seekers using traditional information retrieval techniques when searching large bibliographic databases are often…

Workman, Terri Elizabeth

2011-01-01

11

News to go: hierarchical text summarization for mobile devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present an evaluation of a novel hierarchical text sum- marization method that allows users to view summaries of Web documents from small, mobile devices. Unlike previ- ous approaches, ours does not require the documents to be in HTML since it infers a hierarchical structure automat- ically. Currently, the method is used to summarize news articles sent to a Web

Jahna Otterbacher; Dragomir R. Radev; Omer Kareem

2006-01-01

12

Enhancing Biomedical Text Summarization Using Semantic Relation Extraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Automatic text summarization for a biomedical concept can help researchers to get the key points of a certain topic from large amount of biomedical literature efficiently. In this paper, we present a method for generating text summary for a given biomedical concept, e.g., H1N1 disease, from multiple documents based on semantic relation extraction. Our approach includes three stages: 1) We

Yue Shang; Yanpeng Li; Hongfei Lin; Zhihao Yang; Ying Xu

2011-01-01

13

Multi-Document Summarization of Evaluative Text  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present and compare two approaches to the task of summarizing evaluative ar- guments. The first is a sentence extraction- based approach while the second is a lan- guage generation-based approach. We evaluate these approaches in a user study and find that they quantitatively perform equally well. Qualitatively, however, we find that they perform well for different but complementary reasons.

Giuseppe Carenini; Raymond T. Ng; Adam Pauls

2006-01-01

14

Automatic Performance Evaluation for Video Summarization  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a system for automated performance evaluation of video summarization algorithms. We call it SUPERSIEV (System for Unsupervised Performance Evaluation of Ranked Summarization in Extended Videos). It is primarily designed for evaluating video summarization algorithms that perform frame ranking. The task of summarization is viewed as a kind of database retrieval, and we adopt some of the concepts

Mei Huang; Ayesh B. Mahajan; Daniel F. DeMenthon

15

Summarization Instruction: Effects on Foreign Language Comprehension and Summarization of Expository Texts.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports the effects of metacognitive strategy training in summarization on the ability of foreign language learners to comprehend and summarize expository texts. Notes that the improved summary performance was maintained three weeks after instruction ended. Suggests that explicit instruction in the rules of summarization is an effective tool for…

Cordero-Ponce, Wanda L.

2000-01-01

16

Summarization evaluation for text and speech: issues and approaches  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper surveys current text and speech summarization evaluation approaches. It discusses advantages and disadvantages of these, with the goal of identifying summarization techniques most suitable to speech summarization. Precision\\/recall schemes, as well as summary accuracy measures which incorporate weight- ings based on multiple human decisions, are suggested as particu- larly suitable in evaluating speech summaries. Index Terms: evaluation, text

Ani Nenkova

2006-01-01

17

Automatic Text Processing for Spanish Texts  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work focuses on some aspects of automatic text processing by using a metric named po defined in a working prototype WIB (Web Intelligent Browser). The word weighting generated by this metric is defined with morphosyntactic considerations and allows the categorization of text words in fuzzy clusters. This weighting could also be used as a model of the original text

M. D. L. De Luise; Mariana Soffer

2008-01-01

18

QARLA: A Framework for the Evaluation of Text Summarization Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a probabilistic framework, QARLA, for the evaluation of text summarisation systems. The in- put of the framework is a set of man- ual (reference) summaries, a set of base- line (automatic) summaries and a set of similarity metrics between summaries. It provides i) a measure to evaluate the quality of any set of similarity metrics, ii) a

Enrique Amigó; Julio Gonzalo; Anselmo Peñas; Felisa Verdejo

2005-01-01

19

Information Extraction and Text Summarization Using Linguistic Knowledge Acquisition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes SCISOR (System for Conceptual Information Summarization, Organization and Retrieval), a prototype intelligent information retrieval system that extracts useful information from large bodies of text. It overcomes limitations of linguistic coverage by applying a text processing strategy that is tolerant of unknown words and gaps in…

Rau, Lisa F.; And Others

1989-01-01

20

Summarization of Text Document Using Query Dependent Parsing Techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

World Wide Web is the largest source of information. Huge amount of data is present on the Web. There has been a great amount of work on query-independent summarization of documents. However, due to the success of Web search engines query-specific document summarization (query result snippets) has become an important problem. In this paper a method to create query specific summaries by identifying the most query-relevant fragments and combining them using the semantic associations within the document is discussed. In particular, first a structure is added to the documents in the preprocessing stage and converts them to document graphs. The present research work focuses on analytical study of different document clustering and summarization techniques currently the most research is focused on Query-Independent summarization. The main aim of this research work is to combine the both approaches of document clustering and query dependent summarization. This mainly includes applying different clustering algorithms on a text document. Create a weighted document graph of the resulting graph based on the keywords. And obtain the document graph to get the summary of the document. The performance of the summary using different clustering techniques will be analyzed and the optimal approach will be suggested.

Rokade, P. P.; Mrunal, Bewoor; Patil, S. H.

2010-11-01

21

Automatic Summarization with Sloth (Summarizes Lengthy Documents and Outputs The Highlights).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

SLOTH is an object-oriented, modular, text summarization tool written in the JAVA language. It uses the concept relationship information provided from textual analysis by the eQuery software developed at Syracuse University to create a summary of a text f...

D. B. Kaplin

2002-01-01

22

MEAD - a platform for multidocument multilingual text summarization  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the functionality of MEAD, a comprehensive, public domain, open source, multidocument multilingual summariza- tion environment that has been thus far downloaded by more than 500 organizations. MEAD has been used in a variety of summarization applications ranging from summarization for mobile devices to Web page summarization within a search engine and to novelty detection.

Dragomir Radev; Timothy Allison; Sasha Blair-Goldensohn; John Blitzer; Arda Celebi; Stanko Dimitrov; Elliott Drabek; Ali Hakim; Wai Lam; Danyu Liu; Jahna Otterbacher; Hong Qi; Horacio Saggion; Simone Teufel; Michael Topper; Adam Winkel; Zhu Zhang

23

Automatic Indexing of Full Texts.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Demonstrates efficiency of preparation of query description using semantic analyser method based on analysis of semantic structure of documents in field of automatic indexing. Results obtained are compared with automatic indexing results performed by traditional methods and results of indexing done by human indexers. Sample terms and codes are…

Jonak, Zdenek

1984-01-01

24

Automatically Evaluating Content Selection in Summarization without Human Models  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a fully automatic method for content selection evaluation in summariza- tion that does not require the creation of human model summaries. Our work capi- talizes on the assumption that the distribu- tion of words in the input and an informa- tive summary of that input should be sim- ilar to each other. Results on a large scale evaluation

Annie Louis; Ani Nenkova

2009-01-01

25

Automatic patent document summarization for collaborative knowledge systems and services  

Microsoft Academic Search

Engineering and research teams often develop new products and technologies by referring to inventions described in patent\\u000a databases. Efficient patent analysis builds R&D knowledge, reduces new product development time, increases market success,\\u000a and reduces potential patent infringement. Thus, it is beneficial to automatically and systematically extract information\\u000a from patent documents in order to improve knowledge sharing and collaboration among R&D

Amy J. C. Trappey; Charles V. Trappey; Chun-Yi Wu

2009-01-01

26

Automatically estimating number of scenes for rushes summarization  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes our video summarization system using a model selection technique to estimate the optimal number of scenes for a summary. It uses a minimum description length as a model selection criterion and carries out two- stage estimation. First, we estimate the number of scenes in each shot, and then we estimate the number of scenes in a whole

Koji Yamasaki; Koichi Shinoda; Sadaoki Furui

2008-01-01

27

Comparative Evaluation of Term-Weighting Methods for Automatic Summarization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Term-based summarization assumes that it is possible to determine the importance of a sentence on the basis of the words it contains. To achieve this, words are weighted using term-weighting measures which in turn are used to weight the sentences. This article presents a comparative evaluation of summaries produced using different term-weighting measures and different combinations of parameters which are

Constantin Orasan

2009-01-01

28

Automatic Text Decomposition and Structuring.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Text similarity measurements are used to determine relationships between natural-language texts and text excerpts. The resulting linked hypertext maps can be broken down into text segments and themes used to identify different text types and structures, leading to improved information access and utilization. Examples are provided for text

Salton, Gerard; And Others

1996-01-01

29

An Automatic Multimedia Content Summarization System for Video Recommendation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In recent years, using video as a learning resource has received a lot of attention and has been successfully applied to many learning activities. In comparison with text-based learning, video learning integrates more multimedia resources, which usually motivate learners more than texts. However, one of the major limitations of video learning is…

Yang, Jie Chi; Huang, Yi Ting; Tsai, Chi Cheng; Chung, Ching I.; Wu, Yu Chieh

2009-01-01

30

An Automatic Video Text Detection, Localization and Extraction Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Text in video is a very compact and accurate clue for video indexing and summarization. This paper presents an algorithm regarding word group as a special symbol to detect, localize and extract video text using support vector machine (SVM) automatically. First, four sobel operators are applied to get the EM(edge map) of the video frame and the EM is segmented

Chengjun Zhu; Yuanxin Ouyang; Lei Gao; Zhenyong Chen; Zhang Xiong

2006-01-01

31

An Extrinsic Evaluation for Question-Biased Text Summarization on QA tasks  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes a Question-Biased Text Sum- marization (QBTS) approach that is useful for question-answering systems. QBTS is an extension of Query-Biased Text Summarization in the sense that summarization is biased not only by the ques- tion, which corresponds to the query, but also by the prospective answers to the question. We conducted text summarization experiments based on QA tasks

Tsutomu HIRAO; Yutaka SASAKI; Hideki ISOZAKI

2001-01-01

32

Automatic Video Text Localization and Recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Text in videos contains much semantic information that can be used for video indexing and summarization. In this paper, we design an integrated algorithm of locating horizontal text based on corner point detection and color clustering. First, we get candidate text regions by using the method based on corner point detection, and then identify candidate text regions and refine the

Ge Guo; Jin Jin; Xijian Ping; Tao Zhang

2007-01-01

33

Automatic Summarization of MEDLINE Citations for Evidence-Based Medical Treatment: A Topic-Oriented Evaluation  

PubMed Central

As the number of electronic biomedical textual resources increases, it becomes harder for physicians to find useful answers at the point of care. Information retrieval applications provide access to databases; however, little research has been done on using automatic summarization to help navigate the documents returned by these systems. After presenting a semantic abstraction automatic summarization system for MEDLINE citations, we concentrate on evaluating its ability to identify useful drug interventions for fifty-three diseases. The evaluation methodology uses existing sources of evidence-based medicine as surrogates for a physician-annotated reference standard. Mean average precision (MAP) and a clinical usefulness score developed for this study were computed as performance metrics. The automatic summarization system significantly outperformed the baseline in both metrics. The MAP gain was 0.17 (p < 0.01) and the increase in the overall score of clinical usefulness was 0.39 (p < 0.05).

Fiszman, Marcelo; Demner-Fushman, Dina; Kilicoglu, Halil; Rindflesch, Thomas C.

2009-01-01

34

Science Text Comprehension: Drawing, Main Idea Selection, and Summarizing as Learning Strategies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of two experiments was to contrast instructions to generate drawings with two text-focused strategies--main idea selection (Exp. 1) and summarization (Exp. 2)--and to examine whether these strategies could help students learn from a chemistry science text. Both experiments followed a 2 x 2 design, with drawing strategy instructions…

Leopold, Claudia; Leutner, Detlev

2012-01-01

35

Automatic discourse connective detection in biomedical text  

PubMed Central

Objective Relation extraction in biomedical text mining systems has largely focused on identifying clause-level relations, but increasing sophistication demands the recognition of relations at discourse level. A first step in identifying discourse relations involves the detection of discourse connectives: words or phrases used in text to express discourse relations. In this study supervised machine-learning approaches were developed and evaluated for automatically identifying discourse connectives in biomedical text. Materials and Methods Two supervised machine-learning models (support vector machines and conditional random fields) were explored for identifying discourse connectives in biomedical literature. In-domain supervised machine-learning classifiers were trained on the Biomedical Discourse Relation Bank, an annotated corpus of discourse relations over 24 full-text biomedical articles (?112?000 word tokens), a subset of the GENIA corpus. Novel domain adaptation techniques were also explored to leverage the larger open-domain Penn Discourse Treebank (?1 million word tokens). The models were evaluated using the standard evaluation metrics of precision, recall and F1 scores. Results and Conclusion Supervised machine-learning approaches can automatically identify discourse connectives in biomedical text, and the novel domain adaptation techniques yielded the best performance: 0.761 F1 score. A demonstration version of the fully implemented classifier BioConn is available at: http://bioconn.askhermes.org.

Polepalli Ramesh, Balaji; Prasad, Rashmi; Miller, Tim; Harrington, Brian

2012-01-01

36

Biomedical text summarization to support genetic database curation: using Semantic MEDLINE to create a secondary database of genetic information  

PubMed Central

Objective: This paper examines the development and evaluation of an automatic summarization system in the domain of molecular genetics. The system is a potential component of an advanced biomedical information management application called Semantic MEDLINE and could assist librarians in developing secondary databases of genetic information extracted from the primary literature. Methods: An existing summarization system was modified for identifying biomedical text relevant to the genetic etiology of disease. The summarization system was evaluated on the task of identifying data describing genes associated with bladder cancer in MEDLINE citations. A gold standard was produced using records from Genetics Home Reference and Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man. Genes in text found by the system were compared to the gold standard. Recall, precision, and F-measure were calculated. Results: The system achieved recall of 46%, and precision of 88% (F-measure?=?0.61) by taking Gene References into Function (GeneRIFs) into account. Conclusion: The new summarization schema for genetic etiology has potential as a component in Semantic MEDLINE to support the work of data curators.

Fiszman, Marcelo; Hurdle, John F; Rindflesch, Thomas C

2010-01-01

37

Another look at automatic text-retrieval systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evidence from available studies comparing manual and automatic text-retrieval systems does not support the conclusion that intellectual content analysis produces better results than comparable automatic systems.

Gerard Salton

1986-01-01

38

MeSH: a window into full text for document summarization  

PubMed Central

Motivation: Previous research in the biomedical text-mining domain has historically been limited to titles, abstracts and metadata available in MEDLINE records. Recent research initiatives such as TREC Genomics and BioCreAtIvE strongly point to the merits of moving beyond abstracts and into the realm of full texts. Full texts are, however, more expensive to process not only in terms of resources needed but also in terms of accuracy. Since full texts contain embellishments that elaborate, contextualize, contrast, supplement, etc., there is greater risk for false positives. Motivated by this, we explore an approach that offers a compromise between the extremes of abstracts and full texts. Specifically, we create reduced versions of full text documents that contain only important portions. In the long-term, our goal is to explore the use of such summaries for functions such as document retrieval and information extraction. Here, we focus on designing summarization strategies. In particular, we explore the use of MeSH terms, manually assigned to documents by trained annotators, as clues to select important text segments from the full text documents. Results: Our experiments confirm the ability of our approach to pick the important text portions. Using the ROUGE measures for evaluation, we were able to achieve maximum ROUGE-1, ROUGE-2 and ROUGE-SU4 F-scores of 0.4150, 0.1435 and 0.1782, respectively, for our MeSH term-based method versus the maximum baseline scores of 0.3815, 0.1353 and 0.1428, respectively. Using a MeSH profile-based strategy, we were able to achieve maximum ROUGE F-scores of 0.4320, 0.1497 and 0.1887, respectively. Human evaluation of the baselines and our proposed strategies further corroborates the ability of our method to select important sentences from the full texts. Contact: sanmitra-bhattacharya@uiowa.edu; padmini-srinivasan@uiowa.edu

Bhattacharya, Sanmitra; Ha-Thuc, Viet; Srinivasan, Padmini

2011-01-01

39

Discourse oriented summarization  

Microsoft Academic Search

The meaning of text appears to be tightly related to intentions and circumstances. Context sensitivity of meaning is addressed by theories of discourse structure. Few attempts have been made to exploit text organization in summarization. This thesis is an exploration of what knowledge of discourse structure can do for content selection as a subtask of automatic summarization, and query-based summarization

Wauter Eduard Bosma

2008-01-01

40

Presentation video retrieval using automatically recovered slide and spoken text  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Video is becoming a prevalent medium for e-learning. Lecture videos contain text information in both the presentation slides and lecturer's speech. This paper examines the relative utility of automatically recovered text from these sources for lecture video retrieval. To extract the visual information, we automatically detect slides within the videos and apply optical character recognition to obtain their text. Automatic speech recognition is used similarly to extract spoken text from the recorded audio. We perform controlled experiments with manually created ground truth for both the slide and spoken text from more than 60 hours of lecture video. We compare the automatically extracted slide and spoken text in terms of accuracy relative to ground truth, overlap with one another, and utility for video retrieval. Results reveal that automatically recovered slide text and spoken text contain different content with varying error profiles. Experiments demonstrate that automatically extracted slide text enables higher precision video retrieval than automatically recovered spoken text.

Cooper, Matthew

2013-03-01

41

Evaluation of Text Summarization in a Cross-lingual Information Retrieval Framework  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract: We report on research in multi-document summarization and on evaluation of summarization in the frameworkof cross-lingual information retrieval. This work was carried out during a summer workshop on Language Engineeringheld at Johns Hopkins University by a team of nine researchers from seven universities. The goals ofthe research were as follows: (1) to develop a toolkit for evaluation of single-document

Dragomir Radev; Simone Teufel; Horacio Saggion; Wai Lam; John Blitzer; Arda Celebi; Hong Qi; Elliott Drabek; Danyu Liu

2002-01-01

42

The Effects of Summarization Instruction on Text Comprehension of Students with Learning Disabilities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study, with 30 students with learning disabilities (grades 6-9) and 15 nondisabled students, found that instruction in a 5-rule summarization strategy significantly increased reading comprehension of expository prose. Strategy use was maintained over time, and students were reported to generalize its use. (Author/DB)

Gajria, Meenakshi; Salvia, John

1992-01-01

43

Topical summarization of web videos by visual-text time-dependent alignment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Search engines are used to return a long list of hundreds or even thousands of videos in response to a query topic. Efficient navigation of videos becomes difficult and users often need to painstakingly explore the search list for a gist of the search result. This paper addresses the challenge of topical summarization by providing a timeline-based visualization of videos

Song Tan; Hung-Khoon Tan; Chong-Wah Ngo

2010-01-01

44

Automatic text detection for mobile augmented reality translation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a fast automatic text detection algorithm devised for a mobile augmented reality (AR) translation system on a mobile phone. In this application, scene text must be detected, recognized, and translated into a desired language, and then the translation is displayed overlaid properly on the real-world scene. In order to offer a fast automatic text detector, we focused our

Marc Petter; Victor Fragoso; Matthew Turk; Charles Baur

2011-01-01

45

Automatic extraction of angiogenesis bioprocess from text  

PubMed Central

Motivation: Understanding key biological processes (bioprocesses) and their relationships with constituent biological entities and pharmaceutical agents is crucial for drug design and discovery. One way to harvest such information is searching the literature. However, bioprocesses are difficult to capture because they may occur in text in a variety of textual expressions. Moreover, a bioprocess is often composed of a series of bioevents, where a bioevent denotes changes to one or a group of cells involved in the bioprocess. Such bioevents are often used to refer to bioprocesses in text, which current techniques, relying solely on specialized lexicons, struggle to find. Results: This article presents a range of methods for finding bioprocess terms and events. To facilitate the study, we built a gold standard corpus in which terms and events related to angiogenesis, a key biological process of the growth of new blood vessels, were annotated. Statistics of the annotated corpus revealed that over 36% of the text expressions that referred to angiogenesis appeared as events. The proposed methods respectively employed domain-specific vocabularies, a manually annotated corpus and unstructured domain-specific documents. Evaluation results showed that, while a supervised machine-learning model yielded the best precision, recall and F1 scores, the other methods achieved reasonable performance and less cost to develop. Availability: The angiogenesis vocabularies, gold standard corpus, annotation guidelines and software described in this article are available at http://text0.mib.man.ac.uk/~mbassxw2/angiogenesis/ Contact: xinglong.wang@gmail.com

Wang, Xinglong; McKendrick, Iain; Barrett, Ian; Dix, Ian; French, Tim; Tsujii, Jun'ichi; Ananiadou, Sophia

2011-01-01

46

Automatic Performance Evaluation for Video Text Detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we propose an objective, comprehensive and difficulty-independent performance evaluation protocol for video text detection algorithms. The protocol includes a positive set and a negative set of indices at textbox level, which evaluate the detection quality in terms of both location accuracy and fragmentation of the detected textboxes. In the protocol, we assign a detection difficulty (DD) level

Xian-sheng Hua; Liu Wenyin; Hong-Jiang Zhang

2001-01-01

47

Techniques for automatically correcting words in text  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research aimed at correcting words in text has focused on three progressively more difficult problems:(1) nonword error detection; (2) isolated-word error correction; and (3) context-dependent work correction. In response to the first problem, efficient pattern-matching and n-gram analysis techniques have been developed for detecting strings that do not appear in a given word list. In response to the second problem,

Karen Kukich

1992-01-01

48

Towards scalable summarization and visualization of large text corpora (abstract only)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Society is awash with problems requiring the analysis of vast quantities of text and data. From detecting flu trends out of twitter conversations to finding scholarly works answering specific questions, we rely more and more on computers to process text for us. Text analytics is the application of computational, mathematical, and statistical models to derive information from large quantities of

Tyler Sliwkanich; Douglas Schneider; Aaron Yong; Mitchell Home; Denilson Barbosa

2012-01-01

49

Automatic Video Text Detection and Localization Based on Coarseness Texture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Video text recognition is crucial to the research in all video indexing and summarization and has been used in video semantics analysis. Video text detection and localization is important for video text recognition. In this paper we present a new approach to implement video text detection and localization. In the text detection, we perform motion detection in 30 frames to

Xiaodong Huang

2012-01-01

50

Editing by Viewing: Automatic Home Video Summarization by Viewing Behavior Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we propose the Interest Meter (IM), a system making the computer conscious of user's reactions to mea- sure user's interest and thus use it to conduct video summarization. The IM takes account of users' spontaneous reactions when they view videos. To estimate user's viewing interest, quantitative in- terest measures are devised based on the perspectives of attention

Wei-Ting Peng; Wei-Ta Chu; Chia-Han Chang; Chien-Nan Chou; Wei-Jia Huang; Wen-Yan Chang; Yi-Ping Hung

2011-01-01

51

Automatic Acquisition of Hyponyms from Large Text Corpora  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe a method for the automatic acquisition of the hyponymy lexical relation from unrestricted text. Two goals motivate the approach: (i) avoidance of the need for pre-encoded knowledge and (ii) applicability across a wide range of text. We identify a set of lexico-syntactic patterns that are easily recognizable, that occur frequently and across text genre boundaries, and that indisputably

Marti A. Hearst

1992-01-01

52

Automatic text detection and removal in video sequences  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes an approach for automatic text detection and removal in video sequences based on support vector machines (SVMs) and spatiotemporal restoration. Given two consecutive frames, first, text regions in the current frame are detected by an SVM-based texture classifier. Second, two stages are performed for the restoration of the regions occluded by the detected text regions: temporal restoration

Chang-woo Lee; Keechul Jung; Hang Joon Kim

2003-01-01

53

A text mining approach for automatic construction of hypertexts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract The research on automatic hypertext construction emerges,rapidly in the last decade because there exists a urgent need to translate the gigantic amount of legacy documents into web pages. Unlike traditional ‘flat’ texts, a hypertext contains a number of navigational hyperlinks that point to some related hypertexts or locations of the same hypertext. Traditionally, these hyperlinks were constructed by the

Hsin-chang Yang; Chung-hong Lee

2005-01-01

54

Term-Weighting Approaches in Automatic Text Retrieval.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Summarizes the experimental evidence that indicates that text indexing systems based on the assignment of appropriately weighted single terms produce retrieval results superior to those obtained with more elaborate text representations, and provides baseline single term indexing models with which more elaborate content analysis procedures can be…

Salton, Gerard; Buckley, Christopher

1988-01-01

55

Text segmentation using gabor filters for automatic document processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a considerable interest in designing automatic systems that will scan a given paper document and store it on electronic\\u000a media for easier storage, manipulation, and access. Most documents contain graphics and images in addition to text. Thus,\\u000a the document image has to be segmented to identify the text regions, so that OCR techniques may be applied only to

Anil K. Jain; Sushil K. Bhattacharjee

1992-01-01

56

Mood avatar: automatic text-driven head motion synthesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Natural head motion is an indispensable part of realistic facial animation. This paper presents a novel approach to synthesize natural head motion automatically based on grammatical and prosodic features, which are extracted by the text analysis part of a Chinese Text-to-Speech (TTS) system. A two-layer clustering method is proposed to determine elementary head motion patterns from a multimodal database which

Kaihui Mu; Jianhua Tao; Jianfeng Che; Minghao Yang

2010-01-01

57

Automatic inpainting scheme for video text detection and removal.  

PubMed

We present a two stage framework for automatic video text removal to detect and remove embedded video texts and fill-in their remaining regions by appropriate data. In the video text detection stage, text locations in each frame are found via an unsupervised clustering performed on the connected components produced by the stroke width transform (SWT). Since SWT needs an accurate edge map, we develop a novel edge detector which benefits from the geometric features revealed by the bandlet transform. Next, the motion patterns of the text objects of each frame are analyzed to localize video texts. The detected video text regions are removed, then the video is restored by an inpainting scheme. The proposed video inpainting approach applies spatio-temporal geometric flows extracted by bandlets to reconstruct the missing data. A 3D volume regularization algorithm, which takes advantage of bandlet bases in exploiting the anisotropic regularities, is introduced to carry out the inpainting task. The method does not need extra processes to satisfy visual consistency. The experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of both our proposed video text detection approach and the video completion technique, and consequently the entire automatic video text removal and restoration process. PMID:24057006

Mosleh, Ali; Bouguila, Nizar; Ben Hamza, Abdessamad

2013-11-01

58

Image-based mobile service: automatic text extraction and translation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a new mobile service for the translation of text from images taken by consumer-grade cell-phone cameras. Such capability represents a new paradigm for users where a simple image provides the basis for a service. The ubiquity and ease of use of cell-phone cameras enables acquisition and transmission of images anywhere and at any time a user wishes, delivering rapid and accurate translation over the phone's MMS and SMS facilities. Target text is extracted completely automatically, requiring no bounding box delineation or related user intervention. The service uses localization, binarization, text deskewing, and optical character recognition (OCR) in its analysis. Once the text is translated, an SMS message is sent to the user with the result. Further novelties include that no software installation is required on the handset, any service provider or camera phone can be used, and the entire service is implemented on the server side.

Berclaz, Jérôme; Bhatti, Nina; Simske, Steven J.; Schettino, John C.

2010-02-01

59

A Theory of Term Importance in Automatic Text Analysis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Most existing automatic content analysis and indexing techniques are based on work frequency characteristics applied largely in an ad hoc manner. Contradictory requirements arise in this connection, in that terms exhibiting high occurrence frequencies in individual documents are often useful for high recall performance (to retrieve many relevant…

Salton, G.; And Others

60

Automatic Resource Compilation by Analyzing Hyperlink Structure and Associated Text  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe the design, prototyping and evaluation of ARC, a system for automatically compiling a list of authoritative web resources on any (sufficiently broad) topic. The goal of ARC is to compile resource lists similar to those provided by Yahoo! or Infoseek. The fundamental difference is that these services construct lists either manually or through a combination of human and

Soumen Chakrabarti; Byron Dom; Prabhakar Raghavan; Sridhar Rajagopalan; David Gibson; Jon M. Kleinberg

1998-01-01

61

Automatic resource compilation by analyzing hyperlink structure and associated text  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract We describe the design, prototyping and evaluation of ARC, a system for automatically compiling a list of authoritativeWeb resources on any (sufficiently broad) topic. The goal of ARC is to compile resource lists similar to those provided by Yahoo! or Infoseek. The fundamental difference is that these services construct lists either manually or through a combination of human and

Soumen Chakrabarti; Byron Dom; David Gibson; Jon M. Kleinberg; Prabhakar Raghavan; Sridhar Rajagopalan

1997-01-01

62

Automatic transliteration for Japanese-to-English text retrieval  

Microsoft Academic Search

For cross language information retrieval (CLIR) based on bilingual translation dictionaries, good performance depends upon lexical coverage in the dictionary. This is especially true for languages possessing few inter-language cognates, such as between Japanese and English. In this paper, we describe a method for automatically creating and validating candidate Japanese transliterated terms of English words. A phonetic English dictionary and

Yan Qu; Gregory Grefenstette; David A. Evans

2003-01-01

63

Automatic Text Analysis Based on Transition Phenomena of Word Occurrences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a method of selecting index terms directly from a word frequency list, an idea originally suggested by Goffman. Results of the analysis of word frequencies of two articles seem to indicate that the automated selection of index terms from a frequency list holds some promise for automatic indexing. (Author/MBR)

Pao, Miranda Lee

1978-01-01

64

A comprehensive comparative evaluation of RST-based summarization methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Motivated by governmental, commercial and academic interests, and due to the growing amount of information, mainly online, automatic text summarization area has experienced an increasing number of researches and products, which led to a countless number of summarization methods. In this paper, we present a comprehensive comparative evaluation of the main automatic text summarization methods based on Rhetorical Structure Theory

Vinícius Rodrigues Uzêda; Thiago Alexandre Salgueiro Pardo; Maria das Graças Volpe Nunes

2010-01-01

65

On the Application of Syntactic Methodologies in Automatic Text Analysis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Summarizes various linguistic approaches proposed for document analysis in information retrieval environments. Topics discussed include syntactic analysis; use of machine-readable dictionary information; knowledge base construction; the PLNLP English Grammar (PEG) system; phrase normalization; and statistical and syntactic phrase evaluation used…

Salton, Gerard; And Others

1990-01-01

66

An automatic performance evaluation protocol for video text detection algorithms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Text presented in the videos provides important supplemental information for video indexing and retrieval. Many efforts have been made for text detection in videos. However, there is still lack of performance evaluation pr otocols for video text detection. In this paper, we propose an objective and comprehensive performance evaluation protocol for video text detection algorithms. The protocol includes a positive

Xian-sheng Hua; Liu Wenyin; Hong-Jiang Zhang

2004-01-01

67

Addressing challenges in automatic Language Identification of Romanized Text  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to the diversity of documents on web, language identification is a vi- tal task for web search engines dur- ing crawling and indexing of web doc- uments. Among the current challenges in language-identification, the unsettled problem remains identifying Romanized text language. The challenge in Roman- ized text is the variations in word spellings and sounds in different dialects. We

Kosuru Pavan; Niket Tandon; Vasudeva Varma

2010-01-01

68

Automatic text detection and tracking in digital video.  

PubMed

Text that appears in a scene or is graphically added to video can provide an important supplemental source of index information as well as clues for decoding the video's structure and for classification. In this work, we present algorithms for detecting and tracking text in digital video. Our system implements a scale-space feature extractor that feeds an artificial neural processor to detect text blocks. Our text tracking scheme consists of two modules: a sum of squared difference (SSD)-based module to find the initial position and a contour-based module to refine the position. Experiments conducted with a variety of video sources show that our scheme can detect and track text robustly. PMID:18255381

Li, H; Doermann, D; Kia, O

2000-01-01

69

Automatic Text Detection and Tracking in Digital Video.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Text which either appears in a scene or is graphically added to video can provide an important supplemental source of index information as well as clues for decoding the video's structure and for classification. In this paper we present algorithms for det...

D. Doermann H. Li O. Kia

1998-01-01

70

Finding keywords amongst noise: automatic text classification without parsing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The amount of text stored on the Internet, and in our libraries, continues to expand at an exponential rate. There is a great practical need to locate relevant content. This requires quick automated methods for classifying textual information, according to subject. We propose a quick statistical approach, which can distinguish between 'keywords' and 'noisewords', like 'the' and 'a', without the need to parse the text into its parts of speech. Our classification is based on an F-statistic, which compares the observed Word Recurrence Interval (WRI) with a simple null hypothesis. We also propose a model to account for the observed distribution of WRI statistics and we subject this model to a number of tests.

Allison, Andrew G.; Pearce, Charles E. M.; Abbott, Derek

2007-06-01

71

Text-based prediction of automatically extracted intonation contour classes  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper classifiers for text-based prediction of intona- tion contour classes are compared. The contour classes were derived au- tomatically by a method presented in Reichel (2006), and the follow- ing classifiers were utilised for prediction: Bayes classifier, C4.5 decision trees, perceptrons, and linear feedforward networks. Prediction accura- cies amounted from 38.0% (Perceptron) to 66.6% (Linear Network).

Uwe D. Reichel

72

Cross-language information retrieval based on parallel texts and automatic mining of parallel texts from the Web  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the use of a probabilistic translation model to cross-language IR (CLIR). The performance of this approach is compared with that using machine translation (MT). It is shown that using a probabilistic model, we are able to obtain performances close to those using an MT system. In addition, we also investigated the possibility of automatically gather parallel texts

Jian-Yun Nie; Michel Simard; Pierre Isabelle; Richard Durand

1999-01-01

73

Automatic Tagging of Arabic Text: From Raw Text to Base Phrase Chunks  

Microsoft Academic Search

To date, there are no fully automated systems addressing the community's need for funda- mental language processing tools for Arabic text. In this paper, we present a Support Vector Machine (SVM) based approach to automati- cally tokenize (segmenting off clitics), part-of- speech (POS) tag and annotate base phrases (BPs) in Arabic text. We adapt highly accu- rate tools that have

Mona Diab; Kadri Hacioglu; Daniel Jurafsky

2004-01-01

74

AViTExt: Automatic Video Text Extraction; A new Approach for video content indexing Application  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we propose a spatial temporal video-text detection technique which proceed in two principal steps: potential text region detection and a filtering process. In the first step we divide dynamically each pair of consecutive video frames into sub block in order to detect change. A significant difference between homologous blocks implies the appearance of an important object which

B. Bouaziz; T. Zlitni; W. Mahdi

2008-01-01

75

Training intonational phrasing rules automatically for English and Spanish text-to-speech  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe a procedure for acquiring intonational phrasing rules for text-to-speech synthesis automatically, from annotated text, and some evaluation of this procedure for English and Spanish. The procedure employs decision trees generated automatically, using Classification and Regression Tree techniques, from text corpora which have been hand-labeled by native speakers with likely locations of intonational boundaries, in conjunction with information available

Julia Hirschberg; Pilar Prieto

1996-01-01

76

Automatic identification and skew estimation of text lines in real scene images  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method for the automatic localization of text em- bedded in complex images is proposed. It permits to detect the spatial position and the skew of the text lines which are present in the scene and to return a bi- nary representation of each text line. Strenghts of the algorithm are independece of text skew and of pres- ence of

Stefano Messelodi; Carla Maria Modena

1999-01-01

77

Automatic text structuring and retrieval-experiments in automatic encyclopedia searching  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many conventional approaches to text analysis and informationretrieval prove ineffective when large textcollections must be processed in heterogeneous subjectareas. An alternative text manipulation systemis outlined useful for the retrieval of large heterogeneoustexts, and for the recognition of content similaritiesbetween text excerpts, based on flexible textmatching procedures carried out in several contexts ofdifferent scope. The methods are illustrated by searchexperiments...

Gerard Salton; Chris Buckley

1991-01-01

78

Automatic Identification of Text Genres and Their Roles in Subject-Based Categorization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genre characterizes text differently than the usual subject or prepositional content that has been the focus of most information retrieval and classification research. We developed a new method for automatic genre classification that is based on statistically selected features obtained from both subject-classified and genre-classified training data. The main idea of the genre classification method is to calculate the weight

Yong-bae Lee; Sung-hyon Myaeng

2004-01-01

79

Using Linguistic Cues for the Automatic Recognition of Personality in Conversation and Text  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is well known that utterances convey a great deal of information about the speaker in addition to their semantic content. One such type of information consists of cues to the speaker's personality traits, the most fundamental dimension of variation between humans. Recent work explores the automatic detection of other types of pragmatic variation in text and conversation, such as

François Mairesse; Marilyn A. Walker; Matthias R. Mehl; Roger K. Moore

2007-01-01

80

Efficient Automatic Text Location Method and Content-Based Indexing and Structuring of Video Database  

Microsoft Academic Search

An efficient automatic text detection and location method for video documents is proposed and its application for the content-based retrieval of video is presented and discussed. Target frames are selected at fixed time intervals from shots detected by a scene-change detection method. For each selected frame, segmentation by color clustering is performed around color peaks using a color histogram. For

Hae-Kwang Kim

1996-01-01

81

Experimentation of an automatic resolution method for protein abbreviations in full-text papers  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report and comment the experimental results of the PRAISED system, which implements an automatic method for discovering and resolving a wide range of protein name abbreviations from the full-text versions of scientific articles. This system has been recently proposed as part of a framework for creating and maintaining a publicly-accessible abbreviation repository. The testing phase was carried out against

Paolo Atzeni; Fabio Polticelli; Daniele Toti

2011-01-01

82

Automatic Cataloguing and Searching for Retrospective Data by Use of OCR Text.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes efforts in supporting information retrieval from OCR (optical character recognition) degraded text. Reports on approaches used in an automatic cataloging and searching contest for books in multiple languages, including a vector space retrieval model, an n-gram indexing method, and a weighting scheme; and discusses problems of Asian…

Tseng, Yuen-Hsien

2001-01-01

83

Evaluation of Extractive Voicemail Summarization  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interesting paper outlines a framework for automatic summarization of voicemail messages and delivery as compact text messages. The proposed system, developed at the University of Sheffield, incorporates speech recognition technology and summary word extraction. An overview of the feature selection process is especially interesting, as it briefly describes how pitch, word duration, and pauses in the voicemail message are used to obtain a compressed subset of the most important features. A number of experiments were performed to determine the system's accuracy and usability, and the results are presented in the paper.

Koumpis, Konstantinos; Renals, Steve

84

Memory-based processing as a mechanism of automaticity in text comprehension.  

PubMed

A widespread theoretical assumption is that many processes involved in text comprehension are automatic, with automaticity typically defined in terms of properties (e.g., speed, effort). In contrast, the authors advocate for conceptualization of automaticity in terms of underlying cognitive mechanisms and evaluate one prominent account, the memory-based processing account, which states that one mechanism underlying automatization involves a shift from algorithm-based interpretation of stimuli to retrieval of prior interpretations of those stimuli. During practice, participants repeatedly read short stories containing novel conceptual combinations that were disambiguated with either their dominant or subordinate meaning. During transfer, the combinations were embedded in new sentences that either preserved or changed the disambiguated meaning. The primary dependent variable was reading time in the disambiguating region of target sentences. Supporting the memory-based processing account, speed-ups with practice were larger for repeated versus unrepeated items of the same type, reading times for subordinate versus dominant meanings of the combinations converged on later trials, and practiced meanings were retrieved when items appeared in a transfer context. PMID:19271851

Rawson, Katherine A; Middleton, Erica L

2009-03-01

85

Influence of Reading Errors on the Text-Based Automatic Evaluation of Pathologic Voices  

Microsoft Academic Search

In speech therapy and rehabilitation, a patient’s voice has to be evaluated by the therapist. Established methods for objective,\\u000a automatic evaluation analyze only recordings of sustained vowels. However, an isolated vowel does not reflect a real communication\\u000a situation. In this paper, a speech recognition system and a prosody module are used to analyze a text that was read out by\\u000a the patients.

Tino Haderlein; Elmar Nöth; Andreas Maier; Maria Schuster; Frank Rosanowski

2008-01-01

86

An automatic system to detect and extract texts in medical images for de-identification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, there is an increasing need to share medical images for research purpose. In order to respect and preserve patient privacy, most of the medical images are de-identified with protected health information (PHI) before research sharing. Since manual de-identification is time-consuming and tedious, so an automatic de-identification system is necessary and helpful for the doctors to remove text from medical images. A lot of papers have been written about algorithms of text detection and extraction, however, little has been applied to de-identification of medical images. Since the de-identification system is designed for end-users, it should be effective, accurate and fast. This paper proposes an automatic system to detect and extract text from medical images for de-identification purposes, while keeping the anatomic structures intact. First, considering the text have a remarkable contrast with the background, a region variance based algorithm is used to detect the text regions. In post processing, geometric constraints are applied to the detected text regions to eliminate over-segmentation, e.g., lines and anatomic structures. After that, a region based level set method is used to extract text from the detected text regions. A GUI for the prototype application of the text detection and extraction system is implemented, which shows that our method can detect most of the text in the images. Experimental results validate that our method can detect and extract text in medical images with a 99% recall rate. Future research of this system includes algorithm improvement, performance evaluation, and computation optimization.

Zhu, Yingxuan; Singh, P. D.; Siddiqui, Khan; Gillam, Michael

2010-03-01

87

Automatic identification of ROI in figure images toward improving hybrid (text and image) biomedical document retrieval  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biomedical images are often referenced for clinical decision support (CDS), educational purposes, and research. They appear in specialized databases or in biomedical publications and are not meaningfully retrievable using primarily textbased retrieval systems. The task of automatically finding the images in an article that are most useful for the purpose of determining relevance to a clinical situation is quite challenging. An approach is to automatically annotate images extracted from scientific publications with respect to their usefulness for CDS. As an important step toward achieving the goal, we proposed figure image analysis for localizing pointers (arrows, symbols) to extract regions of interest (ROI) that can then be used to obtain meaningful local image content. Content-based image retrieval (CBIR) techniques can then associate local image ROIs with identified biomedical concepts in figure captions for improved hybrid (text and image) retrieval of biomedical articles. In this work we present methods that make robust our previous Markov random field (MRF)-based approach for pointer recognition and ROI extraction. These include use of Active Shape Models (ASM) to overcome problems in recognizing distorted pointer shapes and a region segmentation method for ROI extraction. We measure the performance of our methods on two criteria: (i) effectiveness in recognizing pointers in images, and (ii) improved document retrieval through use of extracted ROIs. Evaluation on three test sets shows 87% accuracy in the first criterion. Further, the quality of document retrieval using local visual features and text is shown to be better than using visual features alone.

You, Daekeun; Antani, Sameer; Demner-Fushman, Dina; Rahman, Md Mahmudur; Govindaraju, Venu; Thoma, George R.

2011-01-01

88

Exploring the Effects of Multimedia Learning on Pre-Service Teachers' Perceived and Actual Learning Performance: The Use of Embedded Summarized Texts in Educational Media  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In light of the increased usage of instructional media for teaching and learning, the design of these media as aids to convey the content for learning can be crucial for effective learning outcomes. In this vein, the literature has given attention to how concurrent on-screen text can be designed using these media to enhance learning performance.…

Wu, Leon Yufeng; Yamanaka, Akio

2013-01-01

89

Extractive summarization using complex networks and syntactic dependency  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The realization that statistical physics methods can be applied to analyze written texts represented as complex networks has led to several developments in natural language processing, including automatic summarization and evaluation of machine translation. Most importantly, so far only a few metrics of complex networks have been used and therefore there is ample opportunity to enhance the statistics-based methods as new measures of network topology and dynamics are created. In this paper, we employ for the first time the metrics betweenness, vulnerability and diversity to analyze written texts in Brazilian Portuguese. Using strategies based on diversity metrics, a better performance in automatic summarization is achieved in comparison to previous work employing complex networks. With an optimized method the Rouge score (an automatic evaluation method used in summarization) was 0.5089, which is the best value ever achieved for an extractive summarizer with statistical methods based on complex networks for Brazilian Portuguese. Furthermore, the diversity metric can detect keywords with high precision, which is why we believe it is suitable to produce good summaries. It is also shown that incorporating linguistic knowledge through a syntactic parser does enhance the performance of the automatic summarizers, as expected, but the increase in the Rouge score is only minor. These results reinforce the suitability of complex network methods for improving automatic summarizers in particular, and treating text in general.

Amancio, Diego R.; Nunes, Maria G. V.; Oliveira, Osvaldo N.; Costa, Luciano da F.

2012-02-01

90

Automatic extraction of property norm-like data from large text corpora.  

PubMed

Traditional methods for deriving property-based representations of concepts from text have focused on either extracting only a subset of possible relation types, such as hyponymy/hypernymy (e.g., car is-a vehicle) or meronymy/metonymy (e.g., car has wheels), or unspecified relations (e.g., car--petrol). We propose a system for the challenging task of automatic, large-scale acquisition of unconstrained, human-like property norms from large text corpora, and discuss the theoretical implications of such a system. We employ syntactic, semantic, and encyclopedic information to guide our extraction, yielding concept-relation-feature triples (e.g., car be fast, car require petrol, car cause pollution), which approximate property-based conceptual representations. Our novel method extracts candidate triples from parsed corpora (Wikipedia and the British National Corpus) using syntactically and grammatically motivated rules, then reweights triples with a linear combination of their frequency and four statistical metrics. We assess our system output in three ways: lexical comparison with norms derived from human-generated property norm data, direct evaluation by four human judges, and a semantic distance comparison with both WordNet similarity data and human-judged concept similarity ratings. Our system offers a viable and performant method of plausible triple extraction: Our lexical comparison shows comparable performance to the current state-of-the-art, while subsequent evaluations exhibit the human-like character of our generated properties. PMID:25019134

Kelly, Colin; Devereux, Barry; Korhonen, Anna

2014-01-01

91

Automatically Detecting Medications and the Reason for their Prescription in Clinical Narrative Text Documents  

PubMed Central

An important proportion of the information about the medications a patient is taking is mentioned only in narrative text in the electronic health record. Automated information extraction can make this information accessible for decision-support, research, or any other automated processing. In the context of the “i2b2 medication extraction challenge,” we have developed a new NLP application called Textractor to automatically extract medications and details about them (e.g., dosage, frequency, reason for their prescription). This application and its evaluation with part of the reference standard for this “challenge” are presented here, along with an analysis of the development of this reference standard. During this evaluation, Textractor reached a system-level overall F1-measure, the reference metric for this challenge, of about 77% for exact matches. The best performance was measured with medication routes (F1-measure 86.4%), and the worst with prescription reasons (F1-measure 29%). These results are consistent with the agreement observed between human annotators when developing the reference standard, and with other published research.

Meystre, Stephane M.; Thibault, Julien; Shen, Shuying; Hurdle, John F.; South, Brett R.

2011-01-01

92

Webpage classification through summarization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Web-page classification is much more difficult than pure-text classification due to a large variety of noisy information embedded in Web pages. In this paper, we propose a new Web-page classification algorithm based on Web summarization for improving the accuracy. We first give empirical evidence that ideal Web-page summaries generated by human editors can indeed improve the performance of Web-page classification

Dou Shen; Zheng Chen; Qiang Yang; Hua-Jun Zeng; Benyu Zhang; Yuchang Lu; Wei-Ying Ma

2004-01-01

93

Concept Recognition in an Automatic Text-Processing System for the Life Sciences.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a system developed for the automatic recognition of biological concepts in titles of scientific articles; reports results of several pilot experiments which tested the system's performance; analyzes typical ambiguity problems encountered by the system; describes a disambiguation technique that was developed; and discusses future plans…

Vleduts-Stokolov, Natasha

1987-01-01

94

Learning Summarization by Using Similarities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses a research project aimed at designing a computer-based system to help students learn to summarize French texts by using a method called Case-Based Reasoning (CBR). Such a system uses previous, similar situations to make a new summary by reusing and adapting the same summarization rules. The rationale underlying the learning of text

Capus, Laurence; Tourigny, Nicole

1998-01-01

95

Deep Versus Broad Methods for Automatic Extraction of Intelligence Information From Text.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Extraction of intelligence from text data is increasingly becoming automated as software and network technology increases in speed and scope. However, enormous amounts of text data are often available and one must carefully design a data mining strategy t...

J. Sparks J. Vorrath J. Wintrode M. Lear N. C. Rowe

2005-01-01

96

Automatic Text Detection In Video Frames Based on Bootstrap Artificial Neural Network and CED  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT In this paper, one novel approach for text detection in video frames, which is based on bootstrap artificial neural network (BANN) and CED operator, is proposed This method first uses a new color image edge operator (CED) to segment the image and achieve the elementary candidate text block introduced into the further classification of the text blocks and the

Hao Yan; Yi Zhang; Zeng-guang Hou; Min Tan

2003-01-01

97

Summarizing Email Threads  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summarizing threads of email is different from summarizing other types of written communi- cation as it has an inherent dialog structure. We present initial research which shows that sen- tence extraction techniques can work for email threads as well, but profit from email-specific features. In addition, the presentation of the summary should take into account the dialogic structure of email

Owen Rambow; Lokesh Shrestha; John Chen; Chirsty Lauridsen

98

Language-Independent Approach to Automatic Text Difficulty Assessment for Second-Language Learners.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In this paper, we introduce a new baseline for language-independent text difficulty assessment applied to the Interagency Language Roundtable (ILR) proficiency scale. We demonstrate that reading level assessment is a discriminative problem that is best-su...

E. Salesky J. Williams T. Marius W. Shen

2013-01-01

99

Automatic Text Formatting for Social Media Based on Linefeed and Comma Insertion  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a By appearance of social media, people are coming to be able to transmit information easily on a personal level. However, because\\u000a users of social media generally spend little time on describing information, low-quality texts are transmitted and it blocks\\u000a the spread of information. On transmitted texts in social media, commas and linefeeds are inserted incorrectly, and it becomes\\u000a a factor

Masaki Murata; Tomohiro Ohno; Shigeki Matsubara

100

Using Discourse Analysis and Automatic Text Generation to Study Discourse Cue Usage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our two stage methodology for the study of cue usage coordinates an exhaustive corpus analysis with a system for text generation. Coding of the corpus uses Relational Discourse Analysis, a syn- thesis of two previous accounts of discourse struc- ture. In the first stage of our study, hypotheses about cue usage are evaluated and refined using the corpus analysis. Several

Megan Moser; Johanna D. Moore

1995-01-01

101

Improved chemical text mining of patents with infinite dictionaries and automatic spelling correction.  

PubMed

The text mining of patents of pharmaceutical interest poses a number of unique challenges not encountered in other fields of text mining. Unlike fields, such as bioinformatics, where the number of terms of interest is enumerable and essentially static, systematic chemical nomenclature can describe an infinite number of molecules. Hence, the dictionary- and ontology-based techniques that are commonly used for gene names, diseases, species, etc., have limited utility when searching for novel therapeutic compounds in patents. Additionally, the length and the composition of IUPAC-like names make them more susceptible to typographic problems: OCR failures, human spelling errors, and hyphenation and line breaking issues. This work describes a novel technique, called CaffeineFix, designed to efficiently identify chemical names in free text, even in the presence of typographical errors. Corrected chemical names are generated as input for name-to-structure software. This forms a preprocessing pass, independent of the name-to-structure software used, and is shown to greatly improve the results of chemical text mining in our study. PMID:22148717

Sayle, Roger; Xie, Paul Hongxing; Muresan, Sorel

2012-01-23

102

Semi-Automatic Grading of Students' Answers Written in Free Text  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The correct grading of free text answers to exam questions during an assessment process is time consuming and subject to fluctuations in the application of evaluation criteria, particularly when the number of answers is high (in the hundreds). In consequence of these fluctuations, inherent to human nature, and largely determined by emotional…

Escudeiro, Nuno; Escudeiro, Paula; Cruz, Augusto

2011-01-01

103

Test-Driving TANKA: Evaluating a Semi-automatic System of Text Analysis for Knowledge Acquisition  

Microsoft Academic Search

The evaluation of a large implemented natural language processing system involves more than its application to a common performance task. Such tasks have been used in the message understanding conferences (MUCs), text retrieval conferences (TRECs) as well as in speech technology and machine translation workshops. It is useful to compare the performance of different systems in a predefined application, but

Ken Barker; Sylvain Delisle; Stan Szpakowicz

1998-01-01

104

The Automatic Assessment of Free Text Answers Using a Modified BLEU Algorithm  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

e-Learning plays an undoubtedly important role in today's education and assessment is one of the most essential parts of any instruction-based learning process. Assessment is a common way to evaluate a student's knowledge regarding the concepts related to learning objectives. In this paper, a new method for assessing the free text answers of…

Noorbehbahani, F.; Kardan, A. A.

2011-01-01

105

Webpage summarization using clickthrough data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most previous Web-page summarization methods treat a Web page as plain text. However, such methods fail to uncover the full knowledge associated with a Web page needed in building a high-quality summary, because many of these methods do not consider the hidden relationships in the Web. Uncovering the hidden knowledge is important in building good Web-page summarizers. In this paper,

Jian-Tao Sun; Dou Shen; Hua-Jun Zeng; Qiang Yang; Yuchang Lu; Zheng Chen

2005-01-01

106

Generalizability and Comparison of Automatic Clinical Text De-Identification Methods and Resources  

PubMed Central

In this paper, we present an evaluation of the hybrid best-of-breed automated VHA (Veteran’s Health Administration) clinical text de-identification system, nicknamed BoB, developed within the VHA Consortium for Healthcare Informatics Research. We also evaluate two available machine learning-based text de-identifications systems: MIST and HIDE. Two different clinical corpora were used for this evaluation: a manually annotated VHA corpus, and the 2006 i2b2 de-identification challenge corpus. These experiments focus on the generalizability and portability of the classification models across different document sources. BoB demonstrated good recall (92.6%), satisfactorily prioritizing patient privacy, and also achieved competitive precision (83.6%) for preserving subsequent document interpretability. MIST and HIDE reached very competitive results, in most cases with high precision (92.6% and 93.6%), although recall was sometimes lower than desired for the most sensitive PHI categories.

Ferrandez, Oscar; South, Brett R.; Shen, Shuying; Friedlin, F. Jeff; Samore, Matthew H.; Meystre, Stephane M.

2012-01-01

107

Generalizability and comparison of automatic clinical text de-identification methods and resources.  

PubMed

In this paper, we present an evaluation of the hybrid best-of-breed automated VHA (Veteran's Health Administration) clinical text de-identification system, nicknamed BoB, developed within the VHA Consortium for Healthcare Informatics Research. We also evaluate two available machine learning-based text de-identifications systems: MIST and HIDE. Two different clinical corpora were used for this evaluation: a manually annotated VHA corpus, and the 2006 i2b2 de-identification challenge corpus. These experiments focus on the generalizability and portability of the classification models across different document sources. BoB demonstrated good recall (92.6%), satisfactorily prioritizing patient privacy, and also achieved competitive precision (83.6%) for preserving subsequent document interpretability. MIST and HIDE reached very competitive results, in most cases with high precision (92.6% and 93.6%), although recall was sometimes lower than desired for the most sensitive PHI categories. PMID:23304289

Ferrández, Óscar; South, Brett R; Shen, Shuying; Friedlin, F Jeff; Samore, Matthew H; Meystre, Stéphane M

2012-01-01

108

Perception of synthetic speech produced automatically by rule: Intelligibility of eight text-to-speech systems.  

PubMed

We present the results of studies designed to measure the segmental intelligibility of eight text-to-speech systems and a natural speech control, using the Modified Rhyme Test (MRT). Results indicated that the voices tested could be grouped into four categories: natural speech, high-quality synthetic speech, moderate-quality synthetic speech, and low-quality synthetic speech. The overall performance of the best synthesis system, DECtalk-Paul, was equivalent to natural speech only in terms of performance on initial consonants. The findings are discussed in terms of recent work investigating the perception of synthetic speech under more severe conditions. Suggestions for future research on improving the quality of synthetic speech are also considered. PMID:23225916

Greene, Beth G; Logan, John S; Pisoni, David B

1986-03-01

109

Blog Summarization for Blog Mining  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although dimension reduction techniques for text documents can be used for preprocessing of blogs, these techniques will be\\u000a more effective if they deal with the nature of the blogs properly. In this paper we propose a shallow summarization method\\u000a for blogs as a preprocessing step for blog mining which benefits from specific characteristics of the blogs including blog\\u000a themes, time

Mohsen Jafari Asbagh; Mohsen Sayyadi; Hassan Abolhassani

2009-01-01

110

Automatic recognition of disorders, findings, pharmaceuticals and body structures from clinical text: An annotation and machine learning study.  

PubMed

Automatic recognition of clinical entities in the narrative text of health records is useful for constructing applications for documentation of patient care, as well as for secondary usage in the form of medical knowledge extraction. There are a number of named entity recognition studies on English clinical text, but less work has been carried out on clinical text in other languages. This study was performed on Swedish health records, and focused on four entities that are highly relevant for constructing a patient overview and for medical hypothesis generation, namely the entities: Disorder, Finding, Pharmaceutical Drug and Body Structure. The study had two aims: to explore how well named entity recognition methods previously applied to English clinical text perform on similar texts written in Swedish; and to evaluate whether it is meaningful to divide the more general category Medical Problem, which has been used in a number of previous studies, into the two more granular entities, Disorder and Finding. Clinical notes from a Swedish internal medicine emergency unit were annotated for the four selected entity categories, and the inter-annotator agreement between two pairs of annotators was measured, resulting in an average F-score of 0.79 for Disorder, 0.66 for Finding, 0.90 for Pharmaceutical Drug and 0.80 for Body Structure. A subset of the developed corpus was thereafter used for finding suitable features for training a conditional random fields model. Finally, a new model was trained on this subset, using the best features and settings, and its ability to generalise to held-out data was evaluated. This final model obtained an F-score of 0.81 for Disorder, 0.69 for Finding, 0.88 for Pharmaceutical Drug, 0.85 for Body Structure and 0.78 for the combined category Disorder+Finding. The obtained results, which are in line with or slightly lower than those for similar studies on English clinical text, many of them conducted using a larger training data set, show that the approaches used for English are also suitable for Swedish clinical text. However, a small proportion of the errors made by the model are less likely to occur in English text, showing that results might be improved by further tailoring the system to clinical Swedish. The entity recognition results for the individual entities Disorder and Finding show that it is meaningful to separate the general category Medical Problem into these two more granular entity types, e.g. for knowledge mining of co-morbidity relations and disorder-finding relations. PMID:24508177

Skeppstedt, Maria; Kvist, Maria; Nilsson, Gunnar H; Dalianis, Hercules

2014-06-01

111

Evaluation Challenges in Large-Scale Document Summarization  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a large-scale meta evaluation of eight evaluation measures for both single-document and multi-document summarizers. To this end we built a corpus consisting of (a) 100 Million automatic summaries using six summarizers and baselines at ten summary lengths in both English and Chinese, (b) more than 10,000 manual abstracts and extracts, and (c) 200 Million automatic document and summary

Dragomir R. Radev; Simone Teufel; Horacio Saggion; Wai Lam; John Blitzer; Hong Qi; Arda Çelebi; Danyu Liu; Elliott Drábek

2003-01-01

112

MedMeSH Summarizer: Text Mining for Gene Clusters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gene Expression is the process by which a gene's coded information is translated into the proteins present and operating in the cell. Changes in gene expression are associated with many important biological phenomena, including morphogenesis and aging, cancer and disease states, and adaptive responses to the environment. The advent of high density microarrays, introduced by Schena et al. [1] in

Pankaj Kankar; Sudeshna Adak; A. Sarkar; K. Murali; Gaurav Sharma

2002-01-01

113

Near-lossless video summarization  

Microsoft Academic Search

The daunting yet increasing volume of videos on the Internet brings the challenges of storage and indexing to existing online video services. Current techniques like video compression and summarization are still struggling to achieve the two often conflicting goals of low storage and high visual and semantic fidelity. In this work, we develop a new system for video summarization, called

Lin-xie Tang; Tao Mei; Xian-sheng Hua

2009-01-01

114

Personalized video summarization with human in the loop  

Microsoft Academic Search

In automatic video summarization, visual summary is constructed typically based on the analysis of low-level features with little consideration of video semantics. However, the contextual and semantic information of a video is marginally related to low-level features in practice although they are useful to compute visual similarity between frames. Therefore, we propose a novel video summarization technique, where the semantically

Bohyung Han; Jihun Hamm; Jack Sim

2011-01-01

115

Video summarization: methods and landscape  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ability to summarize and abstract information will be an essential part of intelligent behavior in consumer devices. Various summarization methods have been the topic of intensive research in the content-based video analysis community. Summarization in traditional information retrieval is a well understood problem. While there has been a lot of research in the multimedia community there is no agreed upon terminology and classification of the problems in this domain. Although the problem has been researched from different aspects there is usually no distinction between the various dimensions of summarization. The goal of the paper is to provide the basic definitions of widely used terms such as skimming, summarization, and highlighting. The different levels of summarization: local, global, and meta-level are made explicit. We distinguish among the dimensions of task, content, and method and provide an extensive classification model for the same. We map the existing summary extraction approaches in the literature into this model and we classify the aspects of proposed systems in the literature. In addition, we outline the evaluation methods and provide a brief survey. Finally we propose future research directions based on the white spots that we identified by analysis of existing systems in the literature.

Barbieri, Mauro; Agnihotri, Lalitha; Dimitrova, Nevenka

2003-11-01

116

QCS : a system for querying, clustering, and summarizing documents.  

SciTech Connect

Information retrieval systems consist of many complicated components. Research and development of such systems is often hampered by the difficulty in evaluating how each particular component would behave across multiple systems. We present a novel hybrid information retrieval system--the Query, Cluster, Summarize (QCS) system--which is portable, modular, and permits experimentation with different instantiations of each of the constituent text analysis components. Most importantly, the combination of the three types of components in the QCS design improves retrievals by providing users more focused information organized by topic. We demonstrate the improved performance by a series of experiments using standard test sets from the Document Understanding Conferences (DUC) along with the best known automatic metric for summarization system evaluation, ROUGE. Although the DUC data and evaluations were originally designed to test multidocument summarization, we developed a framework to extend it to the task of evaluation for each of the three components: query, clustering, and summarization. Under this framework, we then demonstrate that the QCS system (end-to-end) achieves performance as good as or better than the best summarization engines. Given a query, QCS retrieves relevant documents, separates the retrieved documents into topic clusters, and creates a single summary for each cluster. In the current implementation, Latent Semantic Indexing is used for retrieval, generalized spherical k-means is used for the document clustering, and a method coupling sentence ''trimming'', and a hidden Markov model, followed by a pivoted QR decomposition, is used to create a single extract summary for each cluster. The user interface is designed to provide access to detailed information in a compact and useful format. Our system demonstrates the feasibility of assembling an effective IR system from existing software libraries, the usefulness of the modularity of the design, and the value of this particular combination of modules.

Dunlavy, Daniel M.

2006-08-01

117

QCS: a system for querying, clustering and summarizing documents.  

SciTech Connect

Information retrieval systems consist of many complicated components. Research and development of such systems is often hampered by the difficulty in evaluating how each particular component would behave across multiple systems. We present a novel hybrid information retrieval system--the Query, Cluster, Summarize (QCS) system--which is portable, modular, and permits experimentation with different instantiations of each of the constituent text analysis components. Most importantly, the combination of the three types of components in the QCS design improves retrievals by providing users more focused information organized by topic. We demonstrate the improved performance by a series of experiments using standard test sets from the Document Understanding Conferences (DUC) along with the best known automatic metric for summarization system evaluation, ROUGE. Although the DUC data and evaluations were originally designed to test multidocument summarization, we developed a framework to extend it to the task of evaluation for each of the three components: query, clustering, and summarization. Under this framework, we then demonstrate that the QCS system (end-to-end) achieves performance as good as or better than the best summarization engines. Given a query, QCS retrieves relevant documents, separates the retrieved documents into topic clusters, and creates a single summary for each cluster. In the current implementation, Latent Semantic Indexing is used for retrieval, generalized spherical k-means is used for the document clustering, and a method coupling sentence 'trimming', and a hidden Markov model, followed by a pivoted QR decomposition, is used to create a single extract summary for each cluster. The user interface is designed to provide access to detailed information in a compact and useful format. Our system demonstrates the feasibility of assembling an effective IR system from existing software libraries, the usefulness of the modularity of the design, and the value of this particular combination of modules.

Dunlavy, Daniel M.; Schlesinger, Judith D. (Center for Computing Sciences, Bowie, MD); O'Leary, Dianne P. (University of Maryland, College Park, MD); Conroy, John M. (Center for Computing Sciences, Bowie, MD)

2006-10-01

118

Music summarization using key phrases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Systems to automatically provide a representative summary or `key phrase' of a piece of music are described. For a `rock' song with `verse' and `chorus' sections, we aim to return the chorus or in any case the most repeated and hence most memorable section. The techniques are less applicable to music with more complicated structure although possibly our general framework

Beth Logan; Stephen Chu

2000-01-01

119

Automatic indexing  

SciTech Connect

Automatic indexing has been a critical technology as more full-text data becomes available online. The paper discusses issues for automatic indexing of different types of full-text and also presents a survey of much of the current research into new techniques for automatic indexing.

Harman, D.

1992-09-01

120

An Algorithm for Automatic Content Summarization in Modern Greek Language  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, basic principles are presented and an algorithm for extracting document content summary for Greek language, by using statistic method. The algorithm presented is based on grammatical rules and semantic information dedicated for Greek language. The algorithm has been tested on a variety of news articles and produces satisfactory results for a variety of thematic subjects. Apart from

Georgios Mamakis; A. G. Malamos; A. Axaridou; Y. Kaliakatsos; A. Ware

2005-01-01

121

Extractive Summarization of Broadcast News: Comparing Strategies for European Portuguese  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the comparison between three methods for extractive summarization of Portuguese broadcast news: feature-based,\\u000a Maximal Marginal Relevance, and Latent Semantic Analysis. The main goal is to understand the level of agreement among the\\u000a automatic summaries and how they compare to summaries produced by non-professional human summarizers. Results were evaluated\\u000a using the ROUGE-L metric. Maximal Marginal Relevance performed close

Ricardo Ribeiro; David Martins De Matos

2007-01-01

122

Algorithm for Video Summarization of Bronchoscopy Procedures  

PubMed Central

Background The duration of bronchoscopy examinations varies considerably depending on the diagnostic and therapeutic procedures used. It can last more than 20 minutes if a complex diagnostic work-up is included. With wide access to videobronchoscopy, the whole procedure can be recorded as a video sequence. Common practice relies on an active attitude of the bronchoscopist who initiates the recording process and usually chooses to archive only selected views and sequences. However, it may be important to record the full bronchoscopy procedure as documentation when liability issues are at stake. Furthermore, an automatic recording of the whole procedure enables the bronchoscopist to focus solely on the performed procedures. Video recordings registered during bronchoscopies include a considerable number of frames of poor quality due to blurry or unfocused images. It seems that such frames are unavoidable due to the relatively tight endobronchial space, rapid movements of the respiratory tract due to breathing or coughing, and secretions which occur commonly in the bronchi, especially in patients suffering from pulmonary disorders. Methods The use of recorded bronchoscopy video sequences for diagnostic, reference and educational purposes could be considerably extended with efficient, flexible summarization algorithms. Thus, the authors developed a prototype system to create shortcuts (called summaries or abstracts) of bronchoscopy video recordings. Such a system, based on models described in previously published papers, employs image analysis methods to exclude frames or sequences of limited diagnostic or education value. Results The algorithm for the selection or exclusion of specific frames or shots from video sequences recorded during bronchoscopy procedures is based on several criteria, including automatic detection of "non-informative", frames showing the branching of the airways and frames including pathological lesions. Conclusions The paper focuses on the challenge of generating summaries of bronchoscopy video recordings.

2011-01-01

123

An Information-Theoretic Approach to Automatic Evaluation of Summaries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Until recently there are no common, con- venient, and repeatable evaluation methods that could be easily applied to sup- port fast turn-around development of auto- matic text summarization systems. In this paper, we introduce an information- theoretic approach to automatic evaluation of summaries based on the Jensen-Shannon divergence of distributions between an automatic summary and a set of reference summaries.

Chin-yew Lin; Guihong Cao; Jianfeng Gao; Jian-yun Nie

2006-01-01

124

Summarize to Get the Gist  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As schools prepare for the common core state standards in literacy, they'll be confronted with two challenges: first, helping students comprehend complex texts, and, second, training students to write arguments supported by factual evidence. A teacher's response to these challenges might be to lead class discussions about complex reading or assign…

Collins, John

2012-01-01

125

Automatic lexical classification: bridging research and practice.  

PubMed

Natural language processing (NLP)--the automatic analysis, understanding and generation of human language by computers--is vitally dependent on accurate knowledge about words. Because words change their behaviour between text types, domains and sub-languages, a fully accurate static lexical resource (e.g. a dictionary, word classification) is unattainable. Researchers are now developing techniques that could be used to automatically acquire or update lexical resources from textual data. If successful, the automatic approach could considerably enhance the accuracy and portability of language technologies, such as machine translation, text mining and summarization. This paper reviews the recent and on-going research in automatic lexical acquisition. Focusing on lexical classification, it discusses the many challenges that still need to be met before the approach can benefit NLP on a large scale. PMID:20603372

Korhonen, Anna

2010-08-13

126

Highlight summarization in golf videos using audio signals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we present an automatic summarization of highlights in golf videos based on audio information alone without video information. The proposed highlight summarization system is carried out based on semantic audio segmentation and detection on action units from audio signals. Studio speech, field speech, music, and applause are segmented by means of sound classification. Swing is detected by the methods of impulse onset detection. Sounds like swing and applause form a complete action unit, while studio speech and music parts are used to anchor the program structure. With the advantage of highly precise detection of applause, highlights are extracted effectively. Our experimental results obtain high classification precision on 18 golf games. It proves that the proposed system is very effective and computationally efficient to apply the technology to embedded consumer electronic devices.

Kim, Hyoung-Gook; Kim, Jin Young

2008-01-01

127

Task-focused Summarization of Email  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe SmartMail, a prototype system for automatically identifying action items (tasks) in email messages. SmartMail presents the user with a task-focused summary of a message. The summary consists of a list of action items extracted from the message. The user can add these action items to their \\

Simon Corston-Oliver; Eric Ringger; Michael Gamon; Richard Campbell

2004-01-01

128

Sociometry Based Multiparty Audio Recordings Summarization  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper shows how Social Network Analysis, the study of relational data in specic social environments, can be used to summarize multiparty radio news recordings. A social network is extracted from each recording and it is analyzed in order to detect the role of each speaker (e.g. anchorman, guest, etc.). The role is then used as a criterion to select

Alessandro Vinciarelli

2006-01-01

129

Multi-Document Summarization: Methodologies and Evaluations  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a system for the summarization of multiple documents. The system produces multi-document summaries using clustering techniques to ident ify common themes across the set of documents. For each theme, the system identif ies representative passages that are included in the final summary. We also describe a methodol ogy for evaluation of our system which is based upon

Gees C. Stein; Amit Bagga; G. Bowden Wise

2000-01-01

130

SAT-Based Summarization for Boolean Programs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Boolean programs are frequently used to model abstractions of software programs. They have the advantage that reachability prop- erties are decidable, despite the fact that their stack is not bounded. The enabling technique is summarization of procedure calls. Most model checking tools for Boolean programs use BDDs to represent these sum- maries, allowing for an ecient fix-point detection. However, BDDs

Gérard Basler; Daniel Kroening; Georg Weissenbacher

2007-01-01

131

Summarization - Compressing Data into an Informative Representation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we formulate the problem of summariza- tion of a dataset of transactions with categorical attribut es as an optimization problem involving two objective func- tions - compaction gain and information loss. We propose metrics to characterize the output of any summarization al- gorithm. We investigate two approaches to address this problem. The first approach is an adaptation

Varun Chandola; Vipin Kumar

2005-01-01

132

Adaptive detection of missed text areas in OCR outputs: application to the automatic assessment of OCR quality in mass digitization projects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The French National Library (BnF*) has launched many mass digitization projects in order to give access to its collection. The indexation of digital documents on Gallica (digital library of the BnF) is done through their textual content obtained thanks to service providers that use Optical Character Recognition softwares (OCR). OCR softwares have become increasingly complex systems composed of several subsystems dedicated to the analysis and the recognition of the elements in a page. However, the reliability of these systems is always an issue at stake. Indeed, in some cases, we can find errors in OCR outputs that occur because of an accumulation of several errors at different levels in the OCR process. One of the frequent errors in OCR outputs is the missed text components. The presence of such errors may lead to severe defects in digital libraries. In this paper, we investigate the detection of missed text components to control the OCR results from the collections of the French National Library. Our verification approach uses local information inside the pages based on Radon transform descriptors and Local Binary Patterns descriptors (LBP) coupled with OCR results to control their consistency. The experimental results show that our method detects 84.15% of the missed textual components, by comparing the OCR ALTO files outputs (produced by the service providers) to the images of the document.

Ben Salah, Ahmed; Ragot, Nicolas; Paquet, Thierry

2013-01-01

133

Summarizing and Synthesizing: What's the Difference?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

For teachers in K-Grade 5 classrooms, the author of this article reviews the reading comprehension strategies known as Summarizing and Synthesizing. She provides links to web sites and to a book that will provide more background information and lessons. The article appears in the free, online magazine Beyond Weather and the Water Cycle, which focuses on the seven essential principles of climate science.

Fries-Gaither, Jessica

2012-02-01

134

An Evaluation of Kea: An Automatic Keyphrase Extraction Algorithm  

Microsoft Academic Search

Keyphrases, often defined as keywords, are an important means of document summarization, searching, browsing, and clustering. This paper describes and evaluates Kea, an algorithm for automatically extracting keyphrases from text. Kea identifies candidate keyphrases using lexical methods, calculates TFIDF feature values for each candidate, and uses naïve Bayes learning scheme to predict keyphrases among candidates. A large test corpus GENIA

Lu Liu

135

Untangling Text Data Mining  

Microsoft Academic Search

The possibilities for data mining from large text collections are virtually untapped. Text expresses a vast, rich range of information, but encodes this information in a form that is difficult to decipher automatically. Perhaps for this reason, there has been little work in text data mining to date, and most people who have talked about it have either conflated it

Marti A. Hearst

1999-01-01

136

Effective replays and summarization of virtual experiences.  

PubMed

Direct replay of the experience of a user in a virtual environment is difficult for others to watch due to unnatural camera motions. We present methods for replaying and summarizing these egocentric experiences that effectively communicate the user's observations while reducing unwanted camera movements. Our approach summarizes the viewpoint path as a concise sequence of viewpoints that cover the same parts of the scene. The core of our approach is a novel content-dependent metric that can be used to identify similarities between viewpoints. This enables viewpoints to be grouped by similar contextual view information and provides a means to generate novel viewpoints that can encapsulate a series of views. These resulting encapsulated viewpoints are used to synthesize new camera paths that convey the content of the original viewer's experience. Projecting the initial movement of the user back on the scene can be used to convey the details of their observations, and the extracted viewpoints can serve as bookmarks for control or analysis. Finally we present performance analysis along with two forms of validation to test whether the extracted viewpoints are representative of the viewer's original observations and to test for the overall effectiveness of the presented replay methods. PMID:22402688

Ponto, Kevin; Kohlmann, Joe; Gleicher, Michael

2012-04-01

137

Automatic Ontology Extraction from Unstructured Texts  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Construction of the ontology of a specific domain currently relies on the intuition of a knowledge engineer, and the typical\\u000a output is a thesaurus of terms, each of which is expected to denote a concept. Ontological ‘engineers’ tend to hand-craft\\u000a these thesauri on an ad-hoc basis and on a relatively smallscale. Workers in the specific domain create their own special

Khurshid Ahmad; Lee Gillam

2005-01-01

138

Summarizing cellular responses as biological process networks  

PubMed Central

Background Microarray experiments can simultaneously identify thousands of genes that show significant perturbation in expression between two experimental conditions. Response networks, computed through the integration of gene interaction networks with expression perturbation data, may themselves contain tens of thousands of interactions. Gene set enrichment has become standard for summarizing the results of these analyses in terms functionally coherent collections of genes such as biological processes. However, even these methods can yield hundreds of enriched functions that may overlap considerably. Results We describe a new technique called Markov chain Monte Carlo Biological Process Networks (MCMC-BPN) capable of reporting a highly non-redundant set of links between processes that describe the molecular interactions that are perturbed under a specific biological context. Each link in the BPN represents the perturbed interactions that serve as the interfaces between the two processes connected by the link. We apply MCMC-BPN to publicly available liver-related datasets to demonstrate that the networks formed by the most probable inter-process links reported by MCMC-BPN show high relevance to each biological condition. We show that MCMC-BPN’s ability to discern the few key links from in a very large solution space by comparing results from two other methods for detecting inter-process links. Conclusions MCMC-BPN is successful in using few inter-process links to explain as many of the perturbed gene-gene interactions as possible. Thereby, BPNs summarize the important biological trends within a response network by reporting a digestible number of inter-process links that can be explored in greater detail.

2013-01-01

139

The Relations among Summarizing Instruction, Support for Student Choice, Reading Engagement and Expository Text Comprehension  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research on early adolescence reveals significant declines in intrinsic motivation for reading and points out the need for metacognitive strategy use among middle school students. Research indicates that explicit instruction involving motivation and metacognitive support for reading strategy use in the context of a discipline is an efficient and…

Littlefield, Amy Root

2011-01-01

140

Person-based video summarization and retrieval by tracking and clustering temporal face sequences  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

People are often the most important subjects in videos. It is highly desired to automatically summarize the occurrences of different people in a large collection of video and quickly find the video clips containing a particular person among them. In this paper, we present a person-based video summarization and retrieval system named VideoWho which extracts temporal face sequences in videos and groups them into clusters, with each cluster containing video clips of the same person. This is accomplished based on advanced face detection and tracking algorithms, together with a semisupervised face clustering approach. The system achieved good clustering accuracy when tested on a hybrid video set including home video, TV plays and movies. On top of this technology, a number of applications can be built, such as automatic summarization of major characters in videos, person-related video search on the Internet and personalized UI systems etc.

Zhang, Tong; Wen, Di; Ding, Xiaoqing

2013-03-01

141

Medical textbook summarization and guided navigation using statistical sentence extraction.  

PubMed

We present a method for automated medical textbook and encyclopedia summarization. Using statistical sentence extraction and semantic relationships, we extract sentences from text returned as part of an existing textbook search (similar to a book index). Our system guides users to the information they desire by summarizing the content of each relevant chapter or section returned in the search. The summary is tailored to contain sentences that specifically address the user's search terms. Our clustering method selects sentences that contain concepts specifically addressing the context of the query term in each of the returned sections. Our method examines conceptual relationships from the UMLS and selects clusters of concepts using Expectation Maximization (EM). Sentences associated with the concept clusters are shown to the user. We evaluated whether our extracted summary provides a suitable answer to the user's question. PMID:16779153

Whalen, Gregory

2005-01-01

142

Acquiring Disambiguation Rules from Text  

Microsoft Academic Search

An effective procedure for automatically acquiring a new set of disambiguation rules for an existing deterministic parser on the basis of tagged text is presented. Performance of the automatically acquired rules is much better than the existing hand-written disambiguation rules. The success of the acquired rules depends on using the linguistic information encoded in the parser; enhancements to various components

Donald Hindle

1989-01-01

143

Text Structure  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This web page defines and describes text structure, or how the information within a written text is organized. It explains the benefits of teaching students to identify and analyze text structures within text and describes an instructional sequence in which students read examples of different text structures and then write paragraphs that follow a specific text structure. The site includes definitions and examples of five common text structures, and graphic organizers that can be used with each type of text. Links to additional resources and research citations are included.

2012-01-01

144

The Night I Followed the Dog: Sequencing, Summarizing and Main Idea  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this series of three lessons, students will listen to The Night I Followed the Dog by Nina Laden and work to summarize the story by writing a sequence of events from the beginning, middle, and end of the story. Then, with teacher guidance, students will summarize the text through determining the main idea and key details of the text.

Wikispaces

2012-08-02

145

An R&D knowledge management method for patent document summarization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – In an era of rapidly expanding digital content, the number of e-documents and the amount of knowledge frequently overwhelm the R&D teams and often impede intellectual property management. The purpose of this paper is to develop an automatic patent summarization method for accurate knowledge abstraction and effective R&D knowledge management. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – This paper develops an integrated approach

Amy J. C. Trappey; Charles V. Trappey

2008-01-01

146

Text Mining.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews the state of research in text mining, focusing on newer developments. The intent is to describe the disparate investigations currently included under the term text mining and provide a cohesive structure for these efforts. A summary of research identifies key organizations responsible for pushing the development of text mining. A section…

Trybula, Walter J.

1999-01-01

147

Automatic Imitation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Automatic imitation" is a type of stimulus-response compatibility effect in which the topographical features of task-irrelevant action stimuli facilitate similar, and interfere with dissimilar, responses. This article reviews behavioral, neurophysiological, and neuroimaging research on automatic imitation, asking in what sense it is "automatic"…

Heyes, Cecilia

2011-01-01

148

Text Sets.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents annotations of approximately 30 titles grouped in text sets. Defines a text set as five to ten books on a particular topic or theme. Discusses books on the following topics: living creatures; pirates; physical appearance; natural disasters; and the Irish potato famine. (SG)

Giorgis, Cyndi; Johnson, Nancy J.

2002-01-01

149

Multi-document Summarization Using Informative Words and Its Evaluation with a QA System  

Microsoft Academic Search

To reduce both the text size and the information loss during summarization, a multi-document summarization system using informative words is proposed. The procedure to extract informative words from multiple documents and generate summaries is described in this paper. At first, a small- scale experiment with 12 events and 60 questions was made. The results are evaluated by human assessors and

June-jei Kuo; Hung-chia Wung; Chuan-jie Lin; Hsin-hsi Chen

2002-01-01

150

Discourse Analysis and Structuring Text.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews the kinds of discourse analyses that are currently being undertaken, summarizes research findings, and makes suggestions based on these findings for structuring texts to be used for instructional or informational purposes. (Author/MER)

Pace, Ann Jaffe

1980-01-01

151

Automatic transmission  

SciTech Connect

An automatic transmission is described comprising: an automatic transmission mechanism portion comprising a single planetary gear unit and a dual planetary gear unit; carriers of both of the planetary gear units that are integral with one another; an input means for inputting torque to the automatic transmission mechanism, clutches for operatively connecting predetermined ones of planetary gear elements of both of the planetary gear units to the input means and braking means for restricting the rotation of predetermined ones of planetary gear elements of both of the planetary gear units. The clutches are disposed adjacent one another at an end portion of the transmission for defining a clutch portion of the transmission; a first clutch portion which is attachable to the automatic transmission mechanism portion for comprising the clutch portion when attached thereto; a second clutch portion that is attachable to the automatic transmission mechanism portion in place of the first clutch portion for comprising the clutch portion when so attached. The first clutch portion comprising first clutch for operatively connecting the input means to a ring gear of the single planetary gear unit and a second clutch for operatively connecting the input means to a single gear of the automatic transmission mechanism portion. The second clutch portion comprising a the first clutch, the second clutch, and a third clutch for operatively connecting the input member to a ring gear of the dual planetary gear unit.

Miura, M.; Aoki, H.

1988-02-02

152

NIDA Review Summarizes Research on Marijuana's Negative Health Effects  

MedlinePLUS

... p.m. EDT NIDA review summarizes research on marijuana’s negative health effects Comprehensive review published in the ... of science on the adverse health effects of marijuana use links the drug to several significant adverse ...

153

Automatically Generating Summary Visualizations from Game Logs  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we describe a system called ViGLS (Visualization of Game Log Summaries) that generates summaries of gameplay sessions from game logs. ViGLS automatically produces visualization of the summarized actions that are extracted based on cognitive models of summarization. ViGLS is implemented using a service- oriented architecture, de-coupling the summarization methods from any particular game engine being used. The

Yun-gyung Cheong; Arnav Jhala; Byung-chull Bae; R. Michael Young

2008-01-01

154

Analysis and summarization of correlations in data cubes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a novel mechanism to analyze and summarize the statistical correlations among the attributes of a data cube. To perform the analysis and summarization, this paper proposes a new measure of statistical significance. The main reason for proposing the new measure of statistical significance is to have an essential closure property, which is exploited in the summarization stage of the data mining process. In addition to the closure property, the proposed measure of statistical significance has two other important properties. First, the proposed measure of statistical significance is more conservative than the well-known chi-square test in classical statistics and, therefore, inherits its statistical robustness. This paper does not simply employ the chi-square test due to lack of the desired closure property, which may lead to a precision problem in the summarization process. The second additional property is that, though the proposed measure of statistical significance is more conservative than the chi-square test, for most cases, the proposed measure yields a value that is almost equal to a conventional measurement of statistical significance based on the normal distribution. Based on the closure property addressed above, this paper develops an algorithm to summarize the results from performing statistical analysis in the data cube. Though the proposed measure of statistical significance avoids the precision problem due to having the closure property, its conservative nature may lead to a recall rate problem in the data mining process. On the other hand, if the chi-square test, which does not have the closure property, was employed, then the summarization process may suffer a precision problem.

Chen, Chien-Yu; Hwang, Shien-Ching; Oyang, Yen-Jen

2002-03-01

155

Semantic units detection and summarization of baseball videos  

Microsoft Academic Search

A framework for analyzing baseball videos and generation of game summary is proposed. Due to the well-defined rules of baseball games, the system efficiently detects semantic units by the domain-related knowledge, and therefore, automatically discovers the structure of a baseball game. After extracting the information changes that are caused by some semantic events on the superimposed caption, a rule-based decision

Chih-Hao Liang; Jin-Hau Kuo; Wei-Ta Chu; Ja-Ling Wu

2004-01-01

156

A Summarization System for Chinese News from Multiple Sources.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Proposes a summarization system for multiple documents that employs named entities and other signatures to cluster news from different sources, as well as punctuation marks, linking elements, and topic chains to identify the meaningful units (MUs). Using nouns and verbs to identify similar MUs, focusing and browsing models are applied to represent…

Chen, Hsin-Hsi; Kuo, June-Jei; Huang, Sheng-Jie; Lin, Chuan-Jie; Wung, Hung-Chia

2003-01-01

157

Summarizing Change in Test Scores: Shortcomings of Three Common Methods.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the advantages and disadvantages of three commonly used methods for summarizing change in test scores: (1) change in percentile rank; (2) scale or raw score change; and (3) percent change. In general, these methods are insensitive to the measurement scale on which scores are expressed and perform mathematical operations that are…

Russell, Michael

2000-01-01

158

Investigation of Learners' Perceptions for Video Summarization and Recommendation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recently, multimedia-based learning is widespread in educational settings. A number of studies investigate how to develop effective techniques to manage a huge volume of video sources, such as summarization and recommendation. However, few studies examine how these techniques affect learners' perceptions in multimedia learning systems. This…

Yang, Jie Chi; Chen, Sherry Y.

2012-01-01

159

Summarizing Scientific Articles: Experiments with Relevance and Rhetorical Status  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article we propose a strategy for the summarization of scientific articles that concentrates on the rhetorical status of statements in an article: Material for summaries is selected in such a way that summaries can highlight the new contribution of the source article and situate it with respect to earlier work.We provide a gold standard for summaries of this

Simone Teufel; Marc Moens

2002-01-01

160

Methodological Challenges Encountered in Summarizing Evidence-Based Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper details the challenges encountered by authors summarizing evidence from a primary study to describe a treatment's effectiveness using an effect size (ES) estimate. Dilemmas that are encountered, including how to calculate and interpret the pertinent standardized mean difference ES for results from studies of various research designs,…

Beretvas, S. Natasha

2005-01-01

161

Human subject-based video browsing and summarization  

Microsoft Academic Search

To acquire digital videos is much easier than before, since we can get videos captured from DV camcorder. More video archives make searching the targeted content more difficult. In the past decade, efficient video indexing, browsing and summarization techniques thus have become an important research issue in the field of content-based video retrieval. In this work, a novel mechanism of

Duan-Yu Chen; Kuei-Cheng Chu; Yu-Chien Liu; Yung-Sheng Chen

2010-01-01

162

Upper-Intermediate-Level ESL Students' Summarizing in English  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This qualitative instrumental case study explores various factors that might influence upper-intermediate-level English as a second language (ESL) students' summarizing from a sociocultural perspective. The study was conducted in a formal classroom setting, during a reading and writing class in the English Language Institute at a university in the…

Vorobel, Oksana; Kim, Deoksoon

2011-01-01

163

Mining the Web for Bilingual Text  

Microsoft Academic Search

STRAND (Resnik, 1998) is a language- independent system for automatic discovery of text in parallel translation on the World Wide Web. This paper extends the prelim- inary STRAND results by adding automatic language identification, scaling up by orders of magnitude, and formally evaluating perfor- mance. The most recent end-product is an au- tomatically acquired parallel corpus comprising 2491 English-French document

Philip Resnik

1999-01-01

164

Personal photo album summarization for global and local photo annotation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although content-based media retrieval tools are continuously improving, personalized image annotation is still one of the most reliable ways to index large image archives. Unfortunately, it is also a time consuming and repetitive operation. Using content to facilitate the user in media annotation may lead to reduced effort and more accurate results. In this paper we propose a content-based interactive tool that supports a user in annotating his personal photo albums. The system provides two main functionalities: to summarize a photo collection in salient moments, and to annotate pictures in a semi-supervised way based on their global and local content. The summarization is based on a bottom-up unsupervised hierarchical clustering that exploits two different matrices of visual distances, while the local tagging uses an object retrieval method based on local image features. Experiments on personal photo collections show that the proposed technique produces good results in terms of organization and access to data.

Broilo, M.; de Natale, Francesco G. B.

2011-02-01

165

A Qualitative Study on the Use of Summarizing Strategies in Elementary Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The objective of this study is to reveal how well summarizing strategies are used by Grade 4 and Grade 5 students as a reading comprehension strategy. This study was conducted in Buca, Izmir and the document analysis method, a qualitative research strategy, was employed. The study used a text titled "Environmental Pollution" and an "Evaluation…

Susar Kirmizi, Fatma; Akkaya, Nevin

2011-01-01

166

Astro-Venture Geology Unit Conclusion: Summarizing Learning  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

in this concluding lesson, learners review astronomy and atmosphere systems and draw connections to geological processes and structures. They then summarize their learning from this unit in a final project. The lesson models scientific inquiry using the 5E instructional model and includes teacher notes, prerequisite concepts, common misconceptions, student journal and reading. This is lesson eight in the Astro-Venture Geology Training Unit that were developed to increase students' awareness of and interest in astrobiology and the many career opportunities that utilize science, math and technology skills. The lessons are designed for educators to use with the Astro-Venture multimedia modules.

167

Capturing User Reading Behaviors for Personalized Document Summarization  

SciTech Connect

We propose a new personalized document summarization method that observes a user's personal reading preferences. These preferences are inferred from the user's reading behaviors, including facial expressions, gaze positions, and reading durations that were captured during the user's past reading activities. We compare the performance of our algorithm with that of a few peer algorithms and software packages. The results of our comparative study show that our algorithm can produce more superior personalized document summaries than all the other methods in that the summaries generated by our algorithm can better satisfy a user's personal preferences.

Xu, Songhua [ORNL; Jiang, Hao [University of Hong Kong, The; Lau, Francis [University of Hong Kong, The

2011-01-01

168

Rough Text Assisting Text Mining: Focus on Document Clustering Validity  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this chapter, the applications of rough set theory (RST) in text mining are discussed and a new concept named “Rough Text”\\u000a is presented along with some RST-based measures for the evaluation of decision systems. We will focus on the application of\\u000a such concept in clustering validity, specifically cluster labeling and multi-document summarization. The experimental studies\\u000a show that the proposed

Leticia Arco; Rafael Bello; Yailé Caballero; Rafael Falcón

169

Automatic transmission  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes an automatic transmission including a fluid torque converter, a first gear unit having three forward-speed gears and a single reverse gear, a second gear unit having a low-speed gear and a high-speed gear, and a hydraulic control system, the hydraulic control system comprising: a source of pressurized fluid; a first shift valve for controlling the shifting between the first-speed gear and the second-speed gear of the first gear unit; a second shift valve for controlling the shifting between the second-speed gear and the third-speed gear of the first gear unit; a third shift valve equipped with a spool having two positions for controlling the shifting between the low-speed gear and the high-speed gear of the second gear unit; a manual selector valve having a plurality of shift positions for distributing the pressurized fluid supply from the source of pressurized fluid to the first, second and third shift valves respectively; first, second and third solenoid valves corresponding to the first, second and third shift valves, respectively for independently controlling the operation of the respective shift valves, thereby establishing a six forward-speed automatic transmission by combining the low-speed gear and the high-speed gear of the second gear unit with each of the first-speed gear, the second speed gear and the third-speed gear of the first gear unit; and means to fixedly position the spool of the third shift valve at one of the two positions by supplying the pressurized fluid to the third shift valve when the manual selector valve is shifted to a particular shift position, thereby locking the second gear unit in one of low-speed gear and the high-speed gear, whereby the six forward-speed automatic transmission is converted to a three forward-speed automatic transmission when the manual selector valve is shifted to the particular shift position.

Miki, N.

1988-10-11

170

Heterogeneity image patch index and its application to consumer video summarization.  

PubMed

Automatic video summarization is indispensable for fast browsing and efficient management of large video libraries. In this paper, we introduce an image feature that we refer to as heterogeneity image patch (HIP) index. The proposed HIP index provides a new entropy-based measure of the heterogeneity of patches within any picture. By evaluating this index for every frame in a video sequence, we generate a HIP curve for that sequence. We exploit the HIP curve in solving two categories of video summarization applications: key frame extraction and dynamic video skimming. Under the key frame extraction frame-work, a set of candidate key frames is selected from abundant video frames based on the HIP curve. Then, a proposed patch-based image dissimilarity measure is used to create affinity matrix of these candidates. Finally, a set of key frames is extracted from the affinity matrix using a min–max based algorithm. Under video skimming, we propose a method to measure the distance between a video and its skimmed representation. The video skimming problem is then mapped into an optimization framework and solved by minimizing a HIP-based distance for a set of extracted excerpts. The HIP framework is pixel-based and does not require semantic information or complex camera motion estimation. Our simulation results are based on experiments performed on consumer videos and are compared with state-of-the-art methods. It is shown that the HIP approach outperforms other leading methods, while maintaining low complexity. PMID:24801112

Dang, Chinh T; Radha, Hayder

2014-06-01

171

Discovering evolutionary theme patterns from text: an exploration of temporal text mining  

Microsoft Academic Search

Temporal Text Mining (TTM) is concerned with discovering temporal patterns in text information collected over time. Since most text information bears some time stamps, TTM has many applications in multiple domains, such as summarizing events in news articles and revealing research trends in scientific literature. In this paper, we study a particular TTM task -- discovering and summarizing the evolutionary

Qiaozhu Mei; ChengXiang Zhai

2005-01-01

172

Automatic transmission  

SciTech Connect

An automatic transmission is described, comprising: a torque converter including an impeller having a connected member, a turbine having an input member and a reactor; and an automatic transmission mechanism having first to third clutches and plural gear units including a single planetary gear unit with a ring gear and a dual planetary gear unit with a ring gear. The single and dual planetary gear units have respective carriers integrally coupled with each other and respective sun gears integrally coupled with each other, the input member of the turbine being coupled with the ring gear of the single planetary gear unit through the first clutch, and being coupled with the sun gear through the second clutch. The connected member of the impeller is coupled with the ring gear of the dual planetary gear of the dual planetary gear unit is made to be and ring gear of the dual planetary gear unit is made to be restrained as required, and the carrier is coupled with an output member.

Aoki, H.

1989-03-21

173

Astro-Venture Atmosphere Unit - Conclusion: Summarizing Learning  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this concluding lesson to the Astro-Venture Atmospheric Unit, students review and summarize their learning in a final project. Learners will draw and explain concept maps that show how the gases in the atmosphere interact with many different systems to support human habitability. They also write a superhero comic book explaining how superheroes representing elements combine their powers to protect the Earth's habitability. The lesson models scientific inquiry using the 5E instructional model and includes teacher notes, prerequisite concepts, common misconceptions, student journal and reading. This is the eighth lesson in the Astro-Venture Atmospheric Science Training Unit. The purpose of the unit is to increase students' awareness of and interest in astrobiology and the many career opportunities that utilize science, math and technology skills. The lessons are designed for educators to use in conjunction with the Astro-Venture multimedia modules.

174

Summarizing and Visualizing Uncertainty in Non-Rigid Registration  

PubMed Central

Registration uncertainty may be important information to convey to a surgeon when surgical decisions are taken based on registered image data. However, conventional non-rigid registration methods only provide the most likely deformation. In this paper we show how to determine the registration uncertainty, as well as the most likely deformation, by using an elastic Bayesian registration framework that generates a dense posterior distribution on deformations. We model both the likelihood and the elastic prior on deformations with Boltzmann distributions and characterize the posterior with a Markov Chain Monte Carlo algorithm. We introduce methods that summarize the high-dimensional uncertainty information and show how these summaries can be visualized in a meaningful way. Based on a clinical neurosurgical dataset, we demonstrate the importance that uncertainty information could have on neurosurgical decision making.

Risholm, Petter; Pieper, Steve; Samset, Eigil; Wells, William M.

2010-01-01

175

Summarizing with Drawings: A Reading-Comprehension Strategy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The development of literacy skills is essential for student success. According to the National Science Education Standards , "Scientific literacy entails being able to read with understanding articles about science in the popular press and to engage in social conversation about the validity of conclusions" (NRC 1996). Teachers can help students develop these skills by finding methods that not only motivate but also engage students in the reading process. One such method is described in this article wherein students draw after reading science content. When students summarize by drawing they must form a visual representation of the information they're trying to convey. This provides an opportunity for students to elaborate and encode the information in a personally meaningful way. In addition, drawing after reading encourages students to reflect on what they have read and allows time to process the information.

Elliott, Janine

2007-01-01

176

A Graph Summarization Algorithm Based on RFID Logistics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) applications are set to play an essential role in object tracking and supply chain management systems. The volume of data generated by a typical RFID application will be enormous as each item will generate a complete history of all the individual locations that it occupied at every point in time. The movement trails of such RFID data form gigantic commodity flowgraph representing the locations and durations of the path stages traversed by each item. In this paper, we use graph to construct a warehouse of RFID commodity flows, and introduce a database-style operation to summarize graphs, which produces a summary graph by grouping nodes based on user-selected node attributes, further allows users to control the hierarchy of summaries. It can cut down the size of graphs, and provide convenience for users to study just on the shrunk graph which they interested. Through extensive experiments, we demonstrate the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed method.

Sun, Yan; Hu, Kongfa; Lu, Zhipeng; Zhao, Li; Chen, Ling

177

Recent progress in automatically extracting information from the pharmacogenomic literature  

PubMed Central

The biomedical literature holds our understanding of pharmacogenomics, but it is dispersed across many journals. In order to integrate our knowledge, connect important facts across publications and generate new hypotheses we must organize and encode the contents of the literature. By creating databases of structured pharmocogenomic knowledge, we can make the value of the literature much greater than the sum of the individual reports. We can, for example, generate candidate gene lists or interpret surprising hits in genome-wide association studies. Text mining automatically adds structure to the unstructured knowledge embedded in millions of publications, and recent years have seen a surge in work on biomedical text mining, some specific to pharmacogenomics literature. These methods enable extraction of specific types of information and can also provide answers to general, systemic queries. In this article, we describe the main tasks of text mining in the context of pharmacogenomics, summarize recent applications and anticipate the next phase of text mining applications.

Garten, Yael; Coulet, Adrien; Altman, Russ B

2011-01-01

178

Russian Experience in Hypertext: Automatic Compiling of Coherent Texts.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the logical construction of several Russian hypertext systems, and discusses the navigational algorithms used, nodes selected, and coherence demanded. Several illustrative graphs are included, and an overview of the development of linking structures producing logical-semantic models is given. (20 references) (EA)

Gilyarevskii, R. S.; Subbotin, M. M.

1993-01-01

179

Automatic Term Identification and Classification in Biology Texts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rapid growth of collections in online academic databases has meantthat there is increasing difficulty for experts who want to access informationin a timely and efficient way. We seek here to explore the applicationof information extraction methods to the identification and classificationof terms in biological abstracts from MEDLINE. We explore the use ofa statistical method and a decision tree method

Chikashi Nobata; Nigel Collier

1999-01-01

180

Palmer Automatic Weather Station  

NSF Publications Database

Title : Palmer Automatic Weather Station Type : Antarctic EAM NSF Org: OD / OPP Date : December 06 ... Environmental Action Memorandum (Palmer Automatic Weather Station) To: Files (S.7 - Environment ...

181

Directed Activities Related to Text: Text Analysis and Text Reconstruction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes Directed Activities Related to Text (DART), procedures that were developed and are used in the Reading for Learning Project at the University of Nottingham (England) to enhance learning from texts and that fall into two broad categories: (1) text analysis procedures, which require students to engage in some form of analysis of…

Davies, Florence; Greene, Terry

182

A novel tool for assessing and summarizing the built environment  

PubMed Central

Background A growing corpus of research focuses on assessing the quality of the local built environment and also examining the relationship between the built environment and health outcomes and indicators in communities. However, there is a lack of research presenting a highly resolved, systematic, and comprehensive spatial approach to assessing the built environment over a large geographic extent. In this paper, we contribute to the built environment literature by describing a tool used to assess the residential built environment at the tax parcel-level, as well as a methodology for summarizing the data into meaningful indices for linkages with health data. Methods A database containing residential built environment variables was constructed using the existing body of literature, as well as input from local community partners. During the summer of 2008, a team of trained assessors conducted an on-foot, curb-side assessment of approximately 17,000 tax parcels in Durham, North Carolina, evaluating the built environment on over 80 variables using handheld Global Positioning System (GPS) devices. The exercise was repeated again in the summer of 2011 over a larger geographic area that included roughly 30,700 tax parcels; summary data presented here are from the 2008 assessment. Results Built environment data were combined with Durham crime data and tax assessor data in order to construct seven built environment indices. These indices were aggregated to US Census blocks, as well as to primary adjacency communities (PACs) and secondary adjacency communities (SACs) which better described the larger neighborhood context experienced by local residents. Results were disseminated to community members, public health professionals, and government officials. Conclusions The assessment tool described is both easily-replicable and comprehensive in design. Furthermore, our construction of PACs and SACs introduces a novel concept to approximate varying scales of community and describe the built environment at those scales. Our collaboration with community partners at all stages of the tool development, data collection, and dissemination of results provides a model for engaging the community in an active research program.

2012-01-01

183

Applying Semantics in Dataset Summarization for Solar Data Ingest Pipelines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One goal in studying phenomena of the solar corona (e.g., flares, coronal mass ejections) is to create and refine predictive models of space weather - which have broad implications for terrestrial activity (e.g., communication grid reliability). The High Altitude Observatory (HAO) [1] presently maintains an infrastructure for generating time-series visualizations of the solar corona. Through raw data gathered at the Mauna Loa Solar Observatory (MLSO) in Hawaii, HAO performs follow-up processing and quality control steps to derive visualization sets consumable by scientists. Individual visualizations will acquire several properties during their derivation, including: (i) the source instrument at MLSO used to obtain the raw data, (ii) the time the data was gathered, (iii) processing steps applied by HAO to generate the visualization, and (iv) quality metrics applied over both the raw and processed data. In parallel to MLSO's standard data gathering, time stamped observation logs are maintained by MLSO staff, which covers content of potential relevance to data gathered (such as local weather and instrument conditions). In this setting, while a significant amount of solar data is gathered, only small sections will typically be of interest to consuming parties. Additionally, direct presentation of solar data collections could overwhelm consumers (particularly those with limited background in the data structuring). This work explores how multidimensional analysis based navigation can be used to generate summary views of data collections, based on two operations: (i) grouping visualization entries based on similarity metrics (e.g., data gathered between 23:15-23:30 6-21-2012), or (ii) filtering entries (e.g., data with a quality score of UGLY, on a scale of GOOD, BAD, or UGLY). Here, semantic encodings of solar visualization collections (based on the Resource Description Framework (RDF) Datacube vocabulary [2]) are being utilized, based on the flexibility of the RDF model for supporting the following use cases: (i) Temporal alignment of time-stamped MLSO observations with raw data gathered at MLSO. (ii) Linking of multiple visualization entries to common (and structurally complex) workflow structures - designed to capture the visualization generation process. To provide real-world use cases for the described approach, a semantic summarization system is being developed for data gathered from HAO's Coronal Multi-channel Polarimeter (CoMP) and Chromospheric Helium-I Imaging Photometer (CHIP) pipelines. Web Links: [1] http://mlso.hao.ucar.edu/ [2] http://www.w3.org/TR/vocab-data-cube/

Michaelis, J.; McGuinness, D. L.; Zednik, S.; West, P.; Fox, P. A.

2012-12-01

184

Text Mining for Causal Relations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Given a semantic relation, the automatic extraction of linguis- tic patterns that express that relation is a rather difficult prob- lem. This paper presents a semi-automatic method of discov- ering generally applicable lexico-syntactic patterns that refer to the causal relation. The patterns are found automatically, but their validation is done semi-automatically.

Roxana Girju; Dan I. Moldovan

2002-01-01

185

Investigating and Annotating the Role of Citation in Biomedical Full-Text Articles.  

PubMed

Citations are ubiquitous in scientific articles and play important roles for representing the semantic content of a full-text biomedical article. In this work, we manually examined full-text biomedical articles to analyze the semantic content of citations in full-text biomedical articles. After developing a citation relation schema and annotation guideline, our pilot annotation results show an overall agreement of 0.71, and here we report on the research challenges and the lessons we've learned while trying to overcome them. Our work is a first step toward automatic citation classification in full-text biomedical articles, which may contribute to many text mining tasks, including information retrieval, extraction, summarization, and question answering. PMID:21170175

Yu, Hong; Agarwal, Shashank; Frid, Nadya

2009-11-01

186

Automatic transmission  

SciTech Connect

1. An automatic transmission with four forward speeds and one reverse position, is described which consists of: an input shaft; an output member; first and second planetary gear sets each having a sun gear, a ring gear and a carrier supporting a pinion in mesh with the sun gear and ring gear; the carrier of the first gear set, the ring gear of the second gear set and the output member all being connected; the ring gear of the first gear set connected to the carrier of the second gear set; a first clutch means for selectively connecting the input shaft to the sun gear of the first gear set, including friction elements, a piston selectively engaging the friction elements and a fluid servo in which hydraulic fluid is selectively supplied to the piston; a second clutch means for selectively connecting the input shaft to the sun gear of the second gear set a third clutch means for selectively connecting the input shaft to the carrier of the second gear set including friction elements, a piston selectively engaging the friction elements and a fluid servo in which hydraulic fluid is selectively supplied to the piston; a first drive-establishing means for selectively preventing rotation of the ring gear of the first gear set and the carrier of the second gear set in only one direction and, alternatively, in any direction; a second drive-establishing means for selectively preventing rotation of the sun gear of the second gear set; and a drum being open to the first planetary gear set, with a cylindrical intermediate wall, an inner peripheral wall and outer peripheral wall and forming the hydraulic servos of the first and third clutch means between the intermediate wall and the inner peripheral wall and between the intermediate wall and the outer peripheral wall respectively.

Miura, M.; Inuzuka, T.

1986-08-26

187

Text What?! What Is Text Rendering?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Text rendering is a method of deconstructing text that allows students to make decisions regarding the importance of the text, select the portions that are most meaningful to them, and then share it with classmates--all without fear of being ridiculed. The research on students constructing meaning from text is clear. In order for knowledge to…

Davis-Haley, Rachel

2004-01-01

188

An Approach for Video-Text Extraction Based on Text Traversing Line and Stroke Connectivity  

Microsoft Academic Search

In complex background, conventional automatic video-text location methods can not robustly locate text. A robust video-text location method is proposed in this paper. It can be divided into two stages. In the first stage, an unsupervised paradigm based on wavelet is applied to obtain candidate text region. In the second stage, traversing line with its aptitude spectrum is introduced and

Wang Zhiming; Xiao Yu

2010-01-01

189

Text mining: Generating hypotheses from MEDLINE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hypothesis generation, a crucial initial step for making scientific discoveries, relies on prior knowledge, experi- ence, and intuition. Chance connections made between seemingly distinct subareas sometimes turn out to be fruitful. The goal in text mining is to assist in this process by automatically discovering a small set of interesting hypotheses from a suitable text collection. In this report, we

Padmini Srinivasan

2004-01-01

190

GIPSY: Automated Geographic Indexing of Text Documents.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents an algorithm that automatically extracts words and phrases containing geographic place names or characteristics from a text document and uses them as input to database functions that use spatial reasoning to approximate statistically the geoposition referenced in the text. Preliminary results and future work are discussed. (28 references)…

Woodruff, Allison Gyle; Plaunt, Christian

1994-01-01

191

Traduction automatique et terminologie automatique (Automatic Translation and Automatic Terminology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An exposition of reasons why a system of automatic translation could not use a terminology bank except as a source of information. The fundamental difference between the two tools is explained and examples of translation and mistranslation are given as evidence of the limits and possibilities of each process. (Text is in French.) (AMH)

Dansereau, Jules

1978-01-01

192

Ways Students Read Texts.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Summarizes the results of a preferred method of study questionnaire in which college students explained how they approached reading a new textbook. Reports that women showed a significant preference for adopting a single method of study. Indicates that there was no discernable relationship between study strategies and college level. (CW)

Wandersee, James H.

1988-01-01

193

Learning Syntactic Patterns for Automatic Hypernym Discovery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Semantic taxonomies such as WordNet provide a rich source of knowl- edge for natural language processing applications, but are expensive to build, maintain, and extend. Motivated by the problem of automatically constructing and extending such taxonomies, in this paper we present a new algorithm for automatically learning hypernym (is-a) relations from text. Our method generalizes earlier work that had relied

Rion Snow; Daniel Jurafsky; Andrew Y. Ng

2004-01-01

194

Figure Text Extraction in Biomedical Literature  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundFigures are ubiquitous in biomedical full-text articles, and they represent important biomedical knowledge. However, the sheer volume of biomedical publications has made it necessary to develop computational approaches for accessing figures. Therefore, we are developing the Biomedical Figure Search engine (http:\\/\\/figuresearch.askHERMES.org) to allow bioscientists to access figures efficiently. Since text frequently appears in figures, automatically extracting such text may assist

Daehyun Kim; Hong Yu; Vladimir N. Uversky

2011-01-01

195

Text documents as social networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The extraction of keywords and features is a fundamental problem in text data mining. Document processing applications directly depend on the quality and speed of the identification of salient terms and phrases. Applications as disparate as automatic document classification, information visualization, filtering and security policy enforcement all rely on the quality of automatically extracted keywords. Recently, a novel approach to rapid change detection in data streams and documents has been developed. It is based on ideas from image processing and in particular on the Helmholtz Principle from the Gestalt Theory of human perception. By modeling a document as a one-parameter family of graphs with its sentences or paragraphs defining the vertex set and with edges defined by Helmholtz's principle, we demonstrated that for some range of the parameters, the resulting graph becomes a small-world network. In this article we investigate the natural orientation of edges in such small world networks. For two connected sentences, we can say which one is the first and which one is the second, according to their position in a document. This will make such a graph look like a small WWW-type network and PageRank type algorithms will produce interesting ranking of nodes in such a document.

Balinsky, Helen; Balinsky, Alexander; Simske, Steven J.

2012-02-01

196

Automatic sources of aggression  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we review research on automaticity with particular relevance to aggression. Once triggered by environmental features, preconscious automatic processes run to completion without any conscious monitoring. The basic experimental technique for studying automatic processes is priming. We review studies showing that priming, including subliminal priming, of mental constructs related to aggression leads to reliable effects on perceptions, judgments,

Alexander Todorov; John A. Bargh

2002-01-01

197

Distinguishing Word Senses in Untagged Text  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes an experimental com- parison of three unsupervised learning al- gorithms that distinguish the sense of an ambiguous word in untagged text. The methods described in this paper, McQuitty's similarity analysis, Ward's minimum-variance method, and the EM algorithm, assign each instance of an am- biguous word to a known sense definition based solely on the values of automatically

Ted Pedersen; Rebecca F. Bruce

1997-01-01

198

Text File Display Program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

LOOK program permits user to examine text file in pseudorandom access manner. Program provides user with way of rapidly examining contents of ASCII text file. LOOK opens text file for input only and accesses it in blockwise fashion. Handles text formatting and displays text lines on screen. User moves forward or backward in file by any number of lines or blocks. Provides ability to "scroll" text at various speeds in forward or backward directions.

Vavrus, J. L.

1986-01-01

199

Autoclass: An automatic classification system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The task of inferring a set of classes and class descriptions most likely to explain a given data set can be placed on a firm theoretical foundation using Bayesian statistics. Within this framework, and using various mathematical and algorithmic approximations, the AutoClass System searches for the most probable classifications, automatically choosing the number of classes and complexity of class descriptions. A simpler version of AutoClass has been applied to many large real data sets, has discovered new independently-verified phenomena, and has been released as a robust software package. Recent extensions allow attributes to be selectively correlated within particular classes, and allow classes to inherit, or share, model parameters through a class hierarchy. The mathematical foundations of AutoClass are summarized.

Stutz, John; Cheeseman, Peter; Hanson, Robin

1991-01-01

200

Automatic differentiation bibliography  

SciTech Connect

This is a bibliography of work related to automatic differentiation. Automatic differentiation is a technique for the fast, accurate propagation of derivative values using the chain rule. It is neither symbolic nor numeric. Automatic differentiation is a fundamental tool for scientific computation, with applications in optimization, nonlinear equations, nonlinear least squares approximation, stiff ordinary differential equation, partial differential equations, continuation methods, and sensitivity analysis. This report is an updated version of the bibliography which originally appeared in Automatic Differentiation of Algorithms: Theory, Implementation, and Application.

Corliss, G.F. (comp.)

1992-07-01

201

Text chat in action  

Microsoft Academic Search

Synchronous text communication is becoming recognized as a valuable workplace communication medium yet some studies of group text chat indicate that its properties can lead to interactional incoherence. We consider this issue through a detailed analytic examination of text chat transcripts by showing how participants manage their interactions through considering multiple threads, turn taking and topic change. We reveal the

Jacki O'Neill; David Martin

2003-01-01

202

A Text Editor Design.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A design for a text editor is developed and described so that it may easily be implemented without further development of the design. The editor avoids movement of text in memory by allowing the text to be stored non-contiguously. The editor provides comm...

J. M. Kai

1974-01-01

203

Full-Text Databases.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This review of the literature on full-text databases provides information on search strategy, performance measurement, and the benefits and limitations of full text compared to bibliographic database searching. Various use studies and uses of full-text databases are also listed. (21 references) (LAE)

Siddiqui, Moid A.

1991-01-01

204

Evaluating Text Categorization I  

Microsoft Academic Search

While certain standard procedures are widely used for evalu- ating text retrieval systems and algorithms, the sarne is not true for text categorization. Omission of important data from reports is common and methods of measuring effectiveness vary widely. This )'ms m~de judging the relative merits of techniques for text categorization dif~.cult and has disguised important research is- sues. In this

David D. Lewis

1991-01-01

205

The Second Text Retrieval Conference (TREC-2) [and] Overview of the Second Text Retrieval Conference (TREC-2) [and] Reflections on TREC [and] Automatic Routing and Retrieval Using Smart: TREC-2 [and] TREC and TIPSTER Experiments with INQUIRY [and] Large Test Collection Experiments on an Operational Interactive System: Okapi at TREC [and] Efficient Retrieval of Partial Documents [and] TREC Routing Experiments with the TRW/Paracel Fast Data Finder [and] CLARIT-TREC Experiments.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents an overview of the second Text Retrieval Conference (TREC-2), an opinion paper about the program, and nine papers by participants that show a range of techniques used in TREC. Topics include traditional text retrieval and information technology, efficiency, the use of language processing techniques, unusual approaches to text retrieval,…

Harman, Donna; And Others

1995-01-01

206

Oxford Text Archive  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The well-established Oxford Text Archive can now be accessed via its new web site, a redesign intended to improve navigation, functionality, and to utilize the SGML metadata available for all texts. Users can also now conduct full text searches. Founded in 1976 and based in the Humanities Computing Unit of Oxford University Computing Services, the Oxford Text Archive houses selected academic submissions for the purpose of preserving "high-quality electronic texts for research and teaching." Scholars and other interested users have access to more than 2500 resources in over 25 different languages. The OTA encourages new submissions of quality, scholarly electronic resources.

207

Improving Text Recall with Multiple Summaries  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background. QuikScan (QS) is an innovative design that aims to improve accessibility, comprehensibility, and subsequent recall of expository text by means of frequent within-document summaries that are formatted as numbered list items. The numbers in the QS summaries correspond to numbers placed in the body of the document where the summarized

van der Meij, Hans; van der Meij, Jan

2012-01-01

208

Persian Text Watermarking  

Microsoft Academic Search

Digital watermarking applies to variety of media including image, video, audio and text. Because of the nature of digital\\u000a text, its watermarking methods are special. Moreover, these methods basically depend on the script used in the text. This\\u000a paper reviews application of digital watermarking to Farsi (Persian) and similar scripts (like Arabic, Urdu and Pashto) which\\u000a are substantially different from

Ali Asghar Khodami; Khashayar Yaghmaie

2006-01-01

209

TextImages  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Those persons who do their own website design will find TextImages most useful. Developed by Stefan Trost, this helpful tool allows users to integrate text written on images into their websites. Visitors can create single text images with this application, along with a wide range of pictures. Visitors also have the ability to precisely adjust the writing, design, format, style, colors, fonts, margins, and spacing as they see fit. The tool is particularly useful for those who want headings or other recurring text to look the same regardless of browser or available fonts. This version is compatible with Windows 7, XP, and Vista.

Trost, Stefan

2012-03-30

210

Text mining and ontologies in biomedicine: Making sense of raw text  

Microsoft Academic Search

The volume of biomedical literature is increasing at such a rate that it is becoming difficult to locate, retrieve and manage the reported information without text mining, which aims to automatically distill information, extract facts, discover implicit links and generate hypotheses relevant to user needs. Ontologies, as conceptual models, provide the necessary framework for semantic representation of textual information. The

Irena Spasic; Sophia Ananiadou; John Mcnaught; Anand Kumar

2005-01-01

211

Toward automatic program synthesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

An elementary outline of the theorem-proving approach to automatic program synthesis is given, without dwelling on technical details. The method is illustrated by the automatic construction of both recursive and iterative programs operating on natural numbers, lists, and trees.In order to construct a program satisfying certain specifications, a theorem induced by those specifications is proved, and the desired program is

Zohar Manna; Richard J. Waldinger

1971-01-01

212

Text File Comparator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

File Comparator program IFCOMP, is text file comparator for IBM OS/VScompatable systems. IFCOMP accepts as input two text files and produces listing of differences in pseudo-update form. IFCOMP is very useful in monitoring changes made to software at the source code level.

Kotler, R. S.

1983-01-01

213

Editing Images of Text.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The paper describes Image EMACS, a text editor for binary document images which illustrates an alternative to the format conversion paradigm. The goal of Image EMACS is to allow images to text to be created and manipulated as if they were conventional tex...

S. C. Bagley G. E. Kopec

1992-01-01

214

Towards Text Knowledge Engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

We introduce a methodology for automating the maintenance of domain-specific taxonomies based on natural language text understanding. A given ontology is incrementally updated as new concepts are acquired from real-world texts. The acqui- sition process is centered around the linguistic and conceptual \\

Udo Hahn; Klemens Schnattinger

1998-01-01

215

Workbook-Text Combination.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Science Work-A-Text" combines a text and workbook approach to studying/teaching grades 1-6 elementary science. Five major themes (living things; health/nutrition; planet earth; the universe; matter and energy) are covered at each grade level. Major focus of the series is on reading and content rather than process. (Author/SK)

Shaw, Eddie

1982-01-01

216

A conceptual study of automatic and semi-automatic quality assurance techniques for round image processing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report summarizes the results of a study conducted by Engineering and Economics Research (EER), Inc. under NASA Contract Number NAS5-27513. The study involved the development of preliminary concepts for automatic and semiautomatic quality assurance (QA) techniques for ground image processing. A distinction is made between quality assessment and the more comprehensive quality assurance which includes decision making and system feedback control in response to quality assessment.

1983-01-01

217

A contour-based approach to automatic and accurate registration of multitemporal and multisensor satellite imagery  

Microsoft Academic Search

An automatic approach for high accuracy registration of multisensor and multitemporal remote sensing images is presented. It avoids the use of ground control points, while exploiting the maximum reliable information in both images. Features to be used for image registration are those contours in both images that have been classified as coastline (reliable information). The automatic contour-based approach is summarized

Francisco Eugenio; Ferran Marqués; Javier Marcello

2002-01-01

218

Internet Web Text  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

_Internet Web Text_ links users to information about Internet orientation, guides, reference materials, browsing and exploring tools, subject- and word-oriented searching tools, and information about connecting with people.

219

Parallel text search methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comparison of recently proposed parallel text search methods to alternative available search strategies that use serial processing machines suggests parallel methods do not provide large-scale gains in either retrieval effectiveness or efficiency.

Gerard Salton; Chris Buckley

1988-01-01

220

Dialogue with a Text.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Argues that literature instruction should enable readers to find the connections between their experience and the literary work. Explains how discussions can be guided to focus on students' reactions, perceptions, and associations with a text. (MM)

Probst, Robert E.

1988-01-01

221

Teaching Expository Text Structures  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Many students enter high school unskilled in the art of reading to learn from science textbooks. Even students who can read full-length novels often find science books difficult to read because students have relatively little practice with the various types of expository text structures used by such textbooks. In this article, the authors present an activity using a modified form of the sentence completion or "fill-in-the-blanks" worksheet that reinforces students' fluency with expository text structure and context.

Hernandez, Anita C.; Hosking, David; Montelongo, Jose'; Berber-Jimenez, Lola

2006-02-01

222

PERSIVAL, a System for Personalized Search and Summarization over Multimedia Healthcare Information.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reports on the ongoing development of PERSIVAL (Personalized Retrieval and Summarization of Image, Video, and Language), a system designed to provide personalized access to a distributed digital library of medical literature and consumer health information. The goal for PERSIVAL is to tailor search, presentation, and summarization of…

McKeown, Kathleen R.; Chang, Shih-Fu; Cimino, James; Feiner, Steven K.; Friedman, Carol; Gravano, Luis; Hatzivassiloglou, Vasileios; Johnson, Steven; Jordan, Desmond A.; Klavans, Judith L.; Kushniruk, Andre; Patel, Vimla; Teufel, Simone

223

Linguistic summarization of video for fall detection using voxel person and fuzzy logic  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we present a method for recognizing human activity from linguistic summarizations of temporal fuzzy inference curves representing the states of a three-dimensional object called voxel per- son. A hierarchy of fuzzy logic is used, where the output from each level is summarized and fed into the next level. We present a two level model for fall detection.

Derek Anderson; Robert H. Luke III; James M. Keller; Marjorie Skubic; Marilyn Rantz; Myra Aud

2009-01-01

224

Automatic Rock Detection and Classification in Natural Scenes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Autonomous,geologic analysis of natural terrain is an important technique for science rovers exploring remote environments such as Mars. By automatically detecting and classifying rocks, rovers can efficiently survey an area, summarize results and concentrate on unusual discoveries, thus maximizing,the scientific return. Similar techniques can be used in natural settings on land and under water where characterization of context is

Heather Dunlop

225

Automatic segmentation of moving objects for video object plane generation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The new video coding standard MPEG-4 is enabling content-based functionalities. It takes advantage of a prior decomposition of sequences into video object planes (VOPs) so that each VOP represents one moving object. A comprehensive review summarizes some of the most important motion segmentation and VOP generation techniques that have been proposed. Then, a new automatic video sequence segmentation algorithm that

Thomas Meier; King N. Ngan

1998-01-01

226

Text Exchange System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Text Exchange System (TES) exchanges and maintains organized textual information including source code, documentation, data, and listings. System consists of two computer programs and definition of format for information storage. Comprehensive program used to create, read, and maintain TES files. TES developed to meet three goals: First, easy and efficient exchange of programs and other textual data between similar and dissimilar computer systems via magnetic tape. Second, provide transportable management system for textual information. Third, provide common user interface, over wide variety of computing systems, for all activities associated with text exchange.

Snyder, W. V.; Hanson, R. J.

1986-01-01

227

Reflections of Older Texts.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An overseas teaching assignment in 1961 led one educator to visit St. Patrick's Cathedral in Dublin where he came upon an effigy of Richard Whately and realized that Whately had written a text used in many American universities. The educator especially recalled that Whately had said "Encourage your students." He also wrote that the audience…

Reid, Loren

228

Visualizing Informational Text  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Visualizing is a reading comprehension strategy that can be applied to science-themed texts, according to this article from Beyond Weather and the Water Cycle, a magazine that integrates literacy and science skills instruction. The author identifies six online resources that have activities, lesson plans, and more information.

Fries-Gaither, Jessica

2011-03-01

229

Polymorphous Perversity in Texts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Here's the tricky part: If we teach ourselves and our students that texts are made to be broken apart, remixed, remade, do we lose the polymorphous perversity that brought us pleasure in the first place? Does the pleasure of transgression evaporate when the borders are opened?

Johnson-Eilola, Johndan

2012-01-01

230

Access methods for text  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper compares text retrieval methods intended for office systems. The operational requirements of the office environment are discussed, and retrieval methods from database systems and from information retrieval systems are examined. We classify these methods and examine the most interesting representatives of each class. Attempts to speed up retrieval with special purpose hardware are also presented, and issues such

Christos Faloutsos

1985-01-01

231

Evaluating Attitudes from Texts.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In this paper an example is given how the theory of knowledge graphs and the theory of social atoms can be used to evaluate the attitudes that actors have with respect to each other as far is evident from a text.

C. Hoede

1999-01-01

232

Text Steganography in chat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Invention of the Internet and its spread in the world changes various aspects of human life. In addition, Internet changed human relations. Chat is one of the new aspects which invented after the Internet and is welcomed by users, especially by young people. In chat rooms, people talk with each other using text messages. Because of the need for quick

M. Hassan Shirali-Shahreza

2007-01-01

233

STEM Careers Cursive Text  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This brief video from WPSU compares technologies from yesterday with today. Yesterday a middle school girl writes in cursive while today a girl the same age texts on her cell. The video suggests that science will bring us technologies of tomorrow.

Wpsu

2009-11-10

234

Automatic Pedestrian Counter.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Emerging sensor technologies accelerated the shift toward automatic pedestrian counting methods to acquire reliable long-term data for transportation design, planning, and safety studies. Although a number of commercial pedestrian sensors are available, t...

B. Bartin H. Yang K. Ozbay R. Walla R. Williams

2010-01-01

235

Automatic amino acid analyzer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Analyzer operates unattended or up to 15 hours. It has an automatic sample injection system and can be programmed. All fluid-flow valve switching is accomplished pneumatically from miniature three-way solenoid pilot valves.

Berdahl, B. J.; Carle, G. C.; Oyama, V. I.

1971-01-01

236

Automatic Stripe Analysis Tool.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report discusses the design and implementation of an automatic stripe analysis application for use in metrology. It has been implemented in Mathworks Matlab scripting environment and wrapped in an easy-to-use graphical user interface (GUI). The algor...

J. R. Bickford

2013-01-01

237

Automatic Fluid Dispenser.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An apparatus for dispensing fluid to test animals according to a time schedule is disclosed. Fluid automatically flows to individual dispensing units at predetermined times from a fluid supply and is available only for a predetermined interval of time aft...

P. C. Sakellaris

1975-01-01

238

Automatic Shoran Bombing System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The automatic bombing or navigation system is controlled by a digital computer which is programmed before takeoff and during flights receives other information. The system increases the number of aircraft serviced by a single group of beacons.

D. W. Burbeck E. E. Bolles W. E. Frady W. L. Exner J. D. Hogan

1964-01-01

239

Inductive Learning Algorithms and Representations for Text Categorization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Text categorization - the assignment of natural language texts to one or more predefined categories based on their content - is an important component in many information organization and management tasks. We compare the effectiveness of five different automatic learning algorithms for text categorization in terms of learning speed, real-time classification speed, and classification accuracy. We also examine training set

Susan Dumais; John Platt; David Heckerman; Mehran Sahami

1998-01-01

240

An Ontology-based Framework for Text Mining  

Microsoft Academic Search

Structuring of text document knowledge frequently appears either by ontologies and metadata or by automatic (un-)unsupervised text categorization. This paper describes our integrated framework OTTO (OnTology-based Text mining framewOrk). OTTO uses text mining to learn the target ontology from text documents and uses then the same target ontology in order to improve the effectiveness of both supervised and unsupervised text

Stephan Bloehdorn; Philipp Cimiano; Andreas Hotho; Steffen Staab

2005-01-01

241

An Adaptive Algorithm for Text Detection from Natural Scenes  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a new adaptive algorithm for automatic detection of text from a natural scene. The initial cues of text regions are first detected from the captured image\\/video. An adaptive color modeling and searching algorithm is then utilized near the initial text cues, to discriminate text\\/non-text regions. EM optimization algorithm is used for color modeling, under the constraint of text

Jiang Gao; Jie Yang

2001-01-01

242

Health Information Text Characteristics  

PubMed Central

Millions of people search online for medical text, but these texts are often too complicated to understand. Readability evaluations are mostly based on surface metrics such as character or words counts and sentence syntax, but content is ignored. We compared four types of documents, easy and difficult WebMD documents, patient blogs, and patient educational material, for surface and content-based metrics. The documents differed significantly in reading grade levels and vocabulary used. WebMD pages with high readability also used terminology that was more consumer-friendly. Moreover, difficult documents are harder to understand due to their grammar and word choice and because they discuss more difficult topics. This indicates that we can simplify many documents by focusing on word choice in addition to sentence structure, however, for difficult documents this may be insufficient.

Leroy, Gondy; Eryilmaz, Evren; Laroya, Benjamin T.

2006-01-01

243

Automatic unstructured grid generators  

Microsoft Academic Search

A review of automatic unstructured grid generators is given. These types of grids have found widespread use in computational fluid dynamics, computational structural dynamics, computational electro-magnetics and computational thermodynamics. The following topics are treated: the methods most commonly used, the specification of desired element size\\/shape and surface definition\\/meshing. Finally, the use of automatic grid generators as an enabling technology for

Rainald Löhner

1997-01-01

244

The Texting Principal  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author was appointed principal of a large, urban comprehensive high school in spring 2008. One of the first things she had to figure out was how she would develop a connection with her students when there were so many of them--nearly 2,000--and only one of her. Texts may be exchanged more quickly than having a conversation over the phone,…

Kessler, Susan Stone

2009-01-01

245

Measuring Data-Driven Ontology Changes using Text Mining  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most current ontology management systems concen- trate on detecting usage-driven changes and representing changes formally in order to maintain the consistency. In this paper, we present a semi-automatic approach for mea- suring and visualising data-driven changes through ontol- ogy learning. Terms are first generated using text mining techniques using an ontology learning module, and then classified automatically into clusters. The

Majigsuren Enkhsaikhan; Wilson Wong; Wei Liu; Mark Reynolds

2007-01-01

246

Fully automatic guardrail packed machine  

Microsoft Academic Search

An innovative fully automatic machine is presented in this paper. This machine is used to pile guardrails. Guardails are roadside safety barriers. There are two ways to control the machine, automatically and manually. Automatic control uses a programmable logic controller (PLC), and manual control uses buttons. In automatic and manual control the machine is controlled depending on the information that

M. E. V. Alvarez; C. Blanco-Viejo; J. C. Anton; F. J. Ferrero

2000-01-01

247

Wilderness Ecology: A Method of Sampling and Summarizing Data for Plant Community Classification.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report presents a flexible sampling scheme that researchers and land managers may use in surveying and classifying plant communities of forest lands. It includes methods, data sheets, and computer summarization printouts.

L. F. Ohmann R. R. Ream

1971-01-01

248

TRMM Gridded Text Products  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) has many products that contain instantaneous or gridded rain rates often among many other parameters. However, these products because of their completeness can often seem intimidating to users just desiring surface rain rates. For example one of the gridded monthly products contains well over 200 parameters. It is clear that if only rain rates are desired, this many parameters might prove intimidating. In addition, for many good reasons these products are archived and currently distributed in HDF format. This also can be an inhibiting factor in using TRMM rain rates. To provide a simple format and isolate just the rain rates from the many other parameters, the TRMM product created a series of gridded products in ASCII text format. This paper describes the various text rain rate products produced. It provides detailed information about parameters and how they are calculated. It also gives detailed format information. These products are used in a number of applications with the TRMM processing system. The products are produced from the swath instantaneous rain rates and contain information from the three major TRMM instruments: radar, radiometer, and combined. They are simple to use, human readable, and small for downloading.

Stocker, Erich Franz

2007-01-01

249

Linguistically informed digital fingerprints for text  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Digital fingerprinting, watermarking, and tracking technologies have gained importance in the recent years in response to growing problems such as digital copyright infringement. While fingerprints and watermarks can be generated in many different ways, use of natural language processing for these purposes has so far been limited. Measuring similarity of literary works for automatic copyright infringement detection requires identifying and comparing creative expression of content in documents. In this paper, we present a linguistic approach to automatically fingerprinting novels based on their expression of content. We use natural language processing techniques to generate "expression fingerprints". These fingerprints consist of both syntactic and semantic elements of language, i.e., syntactic and semantic elements of expression. Our experiments indicate that syntactic and semantic elements of expression enable accurate identification of novels and their paraphrases, providing a significant improvement over techniques used in text classification literature for automatic copy recognition. We show that these elements of expression can be used to fingerprint, label, or watermark works; they represent features that are essential to the character of works and that remain fairly consistent in the works even when works are paraphrased. These features can be directly extracted from the contents of the works on demand and can be used to recognize works that would not be correctly identified either in the absence of pre-existing labels or by verbatim-copy detectors.

Uzuner, Özlem

2006-02-01

250

DiZer: An Automatic Discourse Analyzer for Brazilian Portuguese  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents DiZer, an automatic DIscourse analyZER for Brazilian Portuguese. Given a source text, the system automatically produces its corresponding rhetorical analysis, following Rhetorical Structure Theory - RST (Mann and Thompson, 1987). A rhetorical repository, which is DiZer main component, makes the automatic analysis possible. This repository, produced by means of a corpus analysis, includes discourse analysis patterns that

Thiago Alexandre Salgueiro Pardo; Maria Das Graças Volpe Nunes; Lucia Helena Machado Rino

2004-01-01

251

A cross-collection mixture model for comparative text mining  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we define and study a novel text mining problem, which we refer to as Comparative Text Mining (CTM). Given a set of comparable text collections, the task of comparative text mining is to discover any latent common themes across all collections as well as summarize the similarity and differences of these collections along each common theme. This

ChengXiang Zhai; Atulya Velivelli; Bei Yu

2004-01-01

252

A Review of Four Text-Formatting Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author compares four formatting programs which run under CP/M: Script-80, Text Processing System (TPS), TEX, and Textwriter III. He summarizes his experience with these programs and his detailed report on 154 program characteristics. (Author/SJL)

Press, Larry

1980-01-01

253

Strategies that Improve Children's Memory and Comprehension of Text.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses strategies designed to improve elementary school children's memory and comprehension of text. The strategies include summarization, representation, mnemonic imagery, story grammar, question generation, question answering, and prior knowledge activation. (RJC)

Pressley, Michael; And Others

1989-01-01

254

Fully automatic chromosome segmentation.  

PubMed

This paper is concerned with automatic segmentation of high resolution digitized metaphases. This includes automatic detection and rejection of interphase nuclei, stain debris, and other "noise"; automatic detection and segmentation of touching and overlapping chromosome clusters; and automatic rejection of cells which are evaluated as being incomplete, or incorrectly segmented, or where the cell is otherwise unsuitable for further analysis. In this paper, a rule-based approach is described which treats the cell as a whole rather than as a series of individual chromosomes or clusters. The rules adapt classification and segmentation parameters for each cell. Initially, different sets of parameters are chosen according to the staining method of the cells, and the goal of the segmentation. A chromosome number predictor is used to guide the adaptation of the parameters and to estimate the performance. The adaptation is iterative, and the self-adjustment will stop when either a satisfactory result is achieved or if the cell is rejected. The method was implemented on both a Sun workstation and a Cytoscan, a commercial machine for chromosome analysis. Seven hundred and thirteen cells from real data have been tested. A success rate of 90-95% has been achieved. The procedure has been implemented in an automatic aberration scoring system for routine use. PMID:7851156

Ji, L

1994-11-01

255

Semi-Supervised Data Summarization: Using Spectral Libraries to Improve Hyperspectral Clustering  

Microsoft Academic Search

no1 Hyperspectral imagers produce very large images, with each pixel recorded at hundreds or thousands of different wavelengths. The ability to automatically gen- erate summaries of these data sets enables several important applications, such as quickly browsing through a large image repository or determining the best use of a limited bandwidth link (e.g., determining which images are most critical for

K. L. Wagstaff; H. P. Shu; D. Mazzoni; R. Casta

2005-01-01

256

Text mining and ontologies in biomedicine: making sense of raw text.  

PubMed

The volume of biomedical literature is increasing at such a rate that it is becoming difficult to locate, retrieve and manage the reported information without text mining, which aims to automatically distill information, extract facts, discover implicit links and generate hypotheses relevant to user needs. Ontologies, as conceptual models, provide the necessary framework for semantic representation of textual information. The principal link between text and an ontology is terminology, which maps terms to domain-specific concepts. This paper summarises different approaches in which ontologies have been used for text-mining applications in biomedicine. PMID:16212772

Spasic, Irena; Ananiadou, Sophia; McNaught, John; Kumar, Anand

2005-09-01

257

Terminology extraction from medical texts in Polish  

PubMed Central

Background Hospital documents contain free text describing the most important facts relating to patients and their illnesses. These documents are written in specific language containing medical terminology related to hospital treatment. Their automatic processing can help in verifying the consistency of hospital documentation and obtaining statistical data. To perform this task we need information on the phrases we are looking for. At the moment, clinical Polish resources are sparse. The existing terminologies, such as Polish Medical Subject Headings (MeSH), do not provide sufficient coverage for clinical tasks. It would be helpful therefore if it were possible to automatically prepare, on the basis of a data sample, an initial set of terms which, after manual verification, could be used for the purpose of information extraction. Results Using a combination of linguistic and statistical methods for processing over 1200 children hospital discharge records, we obtained a list of single and multiword terms used in hospital discharge documents written in Polish. The phrases are ordered according to their presumed importance in domain texts measured by the frequency of use of a phrase and the variety of its contexts. The evaluation showed that the automatically identified phrases cover about 84% of terms in domain texts. At the top of the ranked list, only 4% out of 400 terms were incorrect while out of the final 200, 20% of expressions were either not domain related or syntactically incorrect. We also observed that 70% of the obtained terms are not included in the Polish MeSH. Conclusions Automatic terminology extraction can give results which are of a quality high enough to be taken as a starting point for building domain related terminological dictionaries or ontologies. This approach can be useful for preparing terminological resources for very specific subdomains for which no relevant terminologies already exist. The evaluation performed showed that none of the tested ranking procedures were able to filter out all improperly constructed noun phrases from the top of the list. Careful choice of noun phrases is crucial to the usefulness of the created terminological resource in applications such as lexicon construction or acquisition of semantic relations from texts.

2014-01-01

258

On the quality of ART1 text clustering  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a large and continually growing quantity of electronic text available, which contain essential human and organization knowledge. An important research endeavor is to study and develop better ways to access this knowledge. Text clustering is a popular approach to automatically organize textual document collections by topics to help users find the information they need. Adaptive Resonance Theory (ART)

Louis Massey

2003-01-01

259

Contemporaneous text as side-information in statistical language modeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract: We propose new methods to exploit contemporaneous text, such as on-line news articles, to improvelanguage models for automatic speech recognition and other natural language processing applications. Inparticular, we investigate the use of text from a resource-rich language to sharpen language models forprocessing a news story or article in a language with scarce linguistic resources. We demonstrate that evenwith fairly

Sanjeev Khudanpur; Woosung Kim

2004-01-01

260

Text Mining with Decision Trees and Decision Rules  

Microsoft Academic Search

An important goal of text mining is to sift through large volumes of text to extract patternsand models that can then be incorporated in intelligent applications, such as automatic textcategorizers and routers. Decision rules and decision tree based approaches to learning from textare particularly appealing, since rules and trees provide explanatory insight to end-users andtext application developers. Our research has

C. Apte; F. Damerau; S. m. Weiss

1998-01-01

261

Text-mining approaches in molecular biology and biomedicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biomedical articles provide functional descriptions of bioentities such as chemical compounds and proteins. To extract relevant information using automatic techniques, text-mining and information-extraction approaches have been developed. These technologies have a key role in integrating biomedical information through analysis of scientific literature. In this article, important applications such as the identification of biologically relevant entities in free text and the

Martin Krallinger; Ramon Alonso-Allende Erhardt; Alfonso Valencia

2005-01-01

262

Translation of web queries using anchor text mining  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents an approach to automatically extracting translations of Web query terms through mining of Web anchor texts and link structures. One of the existing difficulties in cross-language information retrieval (CLIR) and Web search is the lack of appropriate translations of new terminology and proper names. The proposed approach successfully exploits the anchor-text resources and reduces the existing difficulties

Wen-Hsiang Lu; Lee-Feng Chien; Hsi-Jian Lee

2002-01-01

263

Text Mining - Knowledge extraction from unstructured textual data  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the general context of Knowledge Discovery, specific techniques, called Text Mining techniques, are necessary to extract information from unstructured textual data. The extracted information can then be used for the classification of the content of large textual bases. In this paper, we present two examples of information that can be automatically extracted from text collections: probabilistic associations of key-words

Martin Rajman

1998-01-01

264

A robust algorithm for text detection in images  

Microsoft Academic Search

Text detection in images or videos is an important step to achieve multimedia content retrieval. In this paper, an efficient algorithm which can automatically detect, localize and extract horizontally aligned text in images (and digital videos) with complex backgrounds is presented. The proposed approach is based on the application of a color reduction technique, a method for edge detection, and

Julinda Gllavata; Ralph Ewerth; Bemd Freisleben

2003-01-01

265

Snoopertrack: Text detection and tracking for outdoor videos  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work we introduced SnooperTrack, an algorithm for the automatic detection and tracking of text objects — such as store names, traffic signs, license plates, and advertisements — in videos of outdoor scenes. The purpose is to improve the performances of text detection process in still images by taking advantage of the temporal coherence in videos. We first propose

R. Minetto; N. Thome; M. Cord; N. J. Leite; J. Stolfi

2011-01-01

266

Constructing Biological Knowledge Bases by Extracting Information from Text Sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, there has been much eort in making databases for molecular biology more accessible and interoperable. However, information in text form, such as MEDLINE records, remains a greatly underutilized source of biological information. We have begun a re- search eort aimed at automatically mapping infor- mation from text sources into structured representa- tions, such as knowledge bases. Our approach to

Mark Craven; Johan Kumlien

1999-01-01

267

A novel feature selection algorithm for text categorization  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the development of the web, large numbers of documents are available on the Internet. Digital libraries, news sources and inner data of companies surge more and more. Automatic text categorization becomes more and more important for dealing with massive data. However the major problem of text categorization is the high dimensionality of the feature space. At present there are

Wenqian Shang; Houkuan Huang; Haibin Zhu; Yongmin Lin; Youli Qu; Zhihai Wang

2007-01-01

268

Linguistic Summarization of Video for Fall Detection Using Voxel Person and Fuzzy Logic  

PubMed Central

In this paper, we present a method for recognizing human activity from linguistic summarizations of temporal fuzzy inference curves representing the states of a three-dimensional object called voxel person. A hierarchy of fuzzy logic is used, where the output from each level is summarized and fed into the next level. We present a two level model for fall detection. The first level infers the states of the person at each image. The second level operates on linguistic summarizations of voxel person’s states and inference regarding activity is performed. The rules used for fall detection were designed under the supervision of nurses to ensure that they reflect the manner in which elders perform these activities. The proposed framework is extremely flexible. Rules can be modified, added, or removed, allowing for per-resident customization based on knowledge about their cognitive and physical ability.

Anderson, Derek; Luke, Robert H.; Keller, James M.; Skubic, Marjorie; Rantz, Marilyn; Aud, Myra

2009-01-01

269

A hierarchical structure for automatic meshing and adaptive FEM analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new algorithm for generating automatically, from solid models of mechanical parts, finite element meshes that are organized as spatially addressable quaternary trees (for 2-D work) or octal trees (for 3-D work) is discussed. Because such meshes are inherently hierarchical as well as spatially addressable, they permit efficient substructuring techniques to be used for both global analysis and incremental remeshing and reanalysis. The global and incremental techniques are summarized and some results from an experimental closed loop 2-D system in which meshing, analysis, error evaluation, and remeshing and reanalysis are done automatically and adaptively are presented. The implementation of 3-D work is briefly discussed.

Kela, Ajay; Saxena, Mukul; Perucchio, Renato

1987-01-01

270

Geospatial feature based automatic target recognition (ATR) using data models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a method for deriving an automatic target recognition (ATR) system using geospatial features and a Data Model populated decision architecture in the form of a self-organizing knowledge base. The goal is to derive an ATR that recognizes targets it has seen before while minimizing false alarms (zero false alarms). We present an investigation of the performance of analytical Data Models as a sensor and data fusion process for automatic target recognition (ATR), and summarize results including on a 2 km background run where no false alarms were encountered.

Jaenisch, Holger; Handley, James; Albritton, Nathaniel; Koegler, John; Murray, Steven; Maddox, Willie; Moren, Stephen; Alexander, Tom; Fieselman, William; Caspers, Robert

2010-04-01

271

Automatic Retrieval and Clustering of Similar Words  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bootstrapping semantics from text is one of the greatest challenges in natural language learning. We first define a word similarity measure based on the distributional pattern of words. The similarity measure allows us to construct a thesaurus using a parsed corpus. We then present a new evaluation methodology for the automatically constructed thesaurus. The evaluation results show that the thesaurus

Dekang Lin

1998-01-01

272

Automatic Processing of Current Affairs Queries  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The SMART system is used for the analysis, search and retrieval of news stories appearing in Time'' magazine. A comparison is made between the automatic text processing methods incorporated into the SMART system and a manual search using the classified index to Time.'' (14 references) (Author)

Salton, G.

1973-01-01

273

Automatic alignment of hieroglyphic and transliteration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Automatic alignment has important applications in philology, fa- cilitating study of texts on the basis of electronic resources produced by dierent scholars. A simple technique is presented to realise such alignment for Ancient Egyptian hieroglyphic and transliteration. Pre- liminary experiments with the technique are reported, and plans for future work are discussed.

Mark-Jan Nederhof

274

Automatic Query Expansion Using SMART: TREC 3  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Smart information retrieval project emphasizes completely automatic approaches to the understandingand retrieval of large quantities of text. We continue our work in TREC 3, performing runs in the routing,ad-hoc, and foreign language environments. Our major focus is massive query expansion: adding from 300 to530 terms to each query. These terms come from known relevant documents in the case of

Chris Buckley; Gerard Salton; James Allan; Amit Singhal

1994-01-01

275

Automatic Electronic Oxygen Supply  

PubMed Central

An automatic electronic oxygen system has been devised to supply an intensive care unit with a “fail-safe” supply of continuous oxygen. All parts of the system are fitted with alarms, as the oxygen powers gas-driven ventilators. Since the system is cheap it can be installed in hospitals where finance is limited.

Ford, Patricia; Hoodless, D. J.

1971-01-01

276

Automatic Audio Content Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the theoretic framework and applications of automatic audio content analysis. After explaining the basic properties of audio analysis, we present a toolbox being the basis for the development of audio analysis algorithms. We also describe new applications which can be developed using the toolset, among them music indexing and retrieval as well as violence detection in the

Silvia Pfeiffer; Stephan Fischer; Wolfgang Effelsberg

1996-01-01

277

Automatic Abstraction without Counterexamples  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method of automatic abstraction is presented that uses proofs of unsatisfiability derived from SAT-based bounded model check- ing as a guide to choosing an abstraction for unbounded model checking. Unlike earlier methods, this approach is not based on analysis of abstract counterexamples. The performance of this approach on benchmarks de- rived from microprocessor verification indicates that SAT solvers are

Kenneth L. Mcmillan; Nina Amla

2003-01-01

278

Automatic finite element generators  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The design and implementation of a software system for generating finite elements and related computations are described. Exact symbolic computational techniques are employed to derive strain-displacement matrices and element stiffness matrices. Methods for dealing with the excessive growth of symbolic expressions are discussed. Automatic FORTRAN code generation is described with emphasis on improving the efficiency of the resultant code.

Wang, P. S.

1984-01-01

279

Automatic Radar Waveform Recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a system for automatically recognizing radar waveforms is introduced. This type of techniques are needed in various spectrum management, surveillance and cognitive radio or radar applications. The intercepted radar signal is classified to eight classes based on the pulse compression waveform: linear frequency modulation (LFM), discrete frequency codes (Costas codes), binary phase, and Frank, P1, P2, P3,

Jarmo Lundn; Visa Koivunen

2007-01-01

280

Automatic Video Classification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Within the past few years video usage has grown in a multi-fold fashion. One of the major reasons for this explosive video growth is the rising Internet bandwidth speeds. As of today, a significant human effort is needed to categorize these video data files. A successful automatic video classification method can substantially help to reduce the growing amount of cluttered

Don Jayakody

2009-01-01

281

Automatic Threshold Circuit.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An automatic threshold circuit to establish a threshold that is a specified number of db above the input's rms frequency weighted noise value is described. The input is compared with the feedback threshold value, the result of which is coupled to a limite...

J. H. Bumgardner

1976-01-01

282

An Automatic Overlay Generator  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present an algorithm for automatically generating an overlay structure for a program, with the goal of reducing the primary storage requirements of that program. Subject to the constraints of intermodule dependences, the algorithm can either find a maximal overlay structure or find an overlay structure that, where possible, restricts the program to a specified amount of primary storage. Results

Ron Cytron; Paul G. Loewner

1986-01-01

283

Automatic Dream Sentiment Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this position paper, we propose a first step toward automatic analysis of sentiments in dreams. 100 dreams were sampled from a dream bank created for a normative study of dreams. Two human judges assigned a score to describe dream sentiments. We ran four baseline algorithms in an attempt to automate the rating of sentiments in dreams. Particularly, we compared

David Nadeau; Catherine Sabourin; Joseph De Koninck; Stan Matwin; Peter D. Turney

284

Automatic multiple applicator electrophoresis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Easy-to-use, economical device permits electrophoresis on all known supporting media. System includes automatic multiple-sample applicator, sample holder, and electrophoresis apparatus. System has potential applicability to fields of taxonomy, immunology, and genetics. Apparatus is also used for electrofocusing.

Grunbaum, B. W.

1977-01-01

285

Strategies in Automatic Microhandling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Automation is the key step for successful application of micromanipulation and microhandling technologies. Due to the challenging environment microhandling has to deal with, the success of automation in microhandling is rather limited today. This paper firstly discusses the important measures that are necessary to achieve automatic microhandling, and then reviews the challenges and status of microhandling strategies. Based on the

Quan Zhou

2007-01-01

286

Automatic soldering machine  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Fully-automatic tube-joint soldering machine can be used to make leakproof joints in aluminum tubes of 3/16 to 2 in. in diameter. Machine consists of temperature-control unit, heater transformer and heater head, vibrator, and associated circuitry controls, and indicators.

Stein, J. A.

1974-01-01

287

iBIOMES Lite: Summarizing Biomolecular Simulation Data in Limited Settings.  

PubMed

As the amount of data generated by biomolecular simulations dramatically increases, new tools need to be developed to help manage this data at the individual investigator or small research group level. In this paper, we introduce iBIOMES Lite, a lightweight tool for biomolecular simulation data indexing and summarization. The main goal of iBIOMES Lite is to provide a simple interface to summarize computational experiments in a setting where the user might have limited privileges and limited access to IT resources. A command-line interface allows the user to summarize, publish, and search local simulation data sets. Published data sets are accessible via static hypertext markup language (HTML) pages that summarize the simulation protocols and also display data analysis graphically. The publication process is customized via extensible markup language (XML) descriptors while the HTML summary template is customized through extensible stylesheet language (XSL). iBIOMES Lite was tested on different platforms and at several national computing centers using various data sets generated through classical and quantum molecular dynamics, quantum chemistry, and QM/MM. The associated parsers currently support AMBER, GROMACS, Gaussian, and NWChem data set publication. The code is available at https://github.com/jcvthibault/ibiomes . PMID:24830957

Thibault, Julien C; Cheatham, Thomas E; Facelli, Julio C

2014-06-23

288

Information Navigation on the Web by Clustering and Summarizing Query Results.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports an approach to interactive information seeking that is grounded in the idea of summarizing query results through automated document clustering. The authors' prototype acted as an intermediate layer between the user and a commercial Internet search engine. Data was processed from 36 users and it was concluded that the prototype improved…

Roussinov, Dmitri G.; Chen, Hsinchun

2001-01-01

289

Accordion summarization for end-game browsing on PDAs and cellular phones  

Microsoft Academic Search

We demonstrate a new browsing technique for devices with small displays such as PDAs or cellular phones. We concentrate on end-game browsing, where the user is close to or on the target page. We make browsing more efficient and easier by Accordion Summarization. In this technique the Web page is first represented as a short summary. The user can then

Orkut Buyukkokten; Hector Garcia-Molina; Andreas Paepcke

2001-01-01

290

ERIC Annual Report, 2000: Summarizing the Recent Accomplishments of the Educational Resources Information Center.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This 2000 annual report, summarizing the accomplishments of the Educational Resources Information Center (ERIC) system in 1999, begins with a section that highlights progress towards meeting goals, as well as selected statistics. The second section, comprising the bulk of the report, provides an overview of ERIC, including the ERIC database, user…

Smarte, Lynn

291

Summarized proceedings of a conference on solid state physics - Melbourne, August 1959  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Australian Branch of The Institute of Physics held a conference on solid state physics in Melbourne from 17-21 August, 1959. This conference was the first of its kind to be held in Australia and attracted an attendance of about one hundred and thirty. In all, 46 papers, ranging over a wide field, were presented and these are summarized; they

J F Nicholas

1960-01-01

292

Scalable Clustering for Large High-Dimensional Data Based on Data Summarization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Clustering large data sets with high dimensionality is a challenging data-mining task. This paper presents a framework to perform such a task efficiently. It is based on the notion of data space reduction, which finds high density areas, or dense cells, in the given feature space. The dense cells store summarized information of the data. A designated partitioning or hierarchical

Ying Lai; Ratko Orlandic; Wai Gen Yee; Sachin Kulkarni

2007-01-01

293

DynaMMo: mining and summarization of coevolving sequences with missing values  

Microsoft Academic Search

Given multiple time sequences with missing values, we pro- pose DynaMMo which summarizes, compresses, and finds latent variables. The idea is to discover hidden variables and learn their dynamics, making our algorithm able to function even when there are missing values. We performed experiments on both real and synthetic datasets spanning several megabytes, including motion cap- ture sequences and chlorine

Lei Li; James Mccann; Nancy S. Pollard; Christos Faloutsos

2009-01-01

294

Multi-document Summarization of Dissertation Abstracts Using a Variable-Based Framework.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Proposes a variable-based framework for multi-document summarization of dissertation abstracts in the fields of sociology and psychology that makes use of the macro- and micro-level discourse structure of dissertation abstracts as well as cross-document structure. Provides a list of indicator phrases that denote different aspects of the problem…

Ou, Shiyan; Khoo, Christopher S. G.; Goh, Dion H.

2003-01-01

295

Use of Minimal Lexical Conceptual Structures for Single-Document Summarization.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This reports provides an overview of the findings and software that have evolved from the Use of Minimal Lexical Conceptual Structures for Single-Document Summarization project over the last six months. We present the major goals that have been achieved a...

B. J. Dorr C. Monz N. Y. Habash R. Schwartz

2004-01-01

296

AlphaSum: size-constrained table summarization using value lattices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Consider a scientist who wants to explore multiple data sets to select the relevant ones for further analysis. Since the vi- sualization real estate may put a stringent constraint on how much detail can be presented to this user in a single page, ef- fective table summarization techniques are needed to create summaries that are both sufficiently small and effective

K. Selçuk Candan; Huiping Cao; Yan Qi; Maria Luisa Sapino

2009-01-01

297

An audio-video summarization scheme based on audio and video analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The availability of video files in the Internet is growing at an exceptional speed and in the near future video browsing will be a common activity. To facilitate such activity it will be necessary to have a small clip for any given video. Currently, video skimming and video summarization techniques can reduce the temporal representation of a given video. However,

Marco Furini; Vittorio Ghini

2006-01-01

298

Automatic speech recognition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Great strides have been made in the development of automatic speech recognition (ASR) technology over the past thirty years. Most of this effort has been centered around the extension and improvement of Hidden Markov Model (HMM) approaches to ASR. Current commercially-available and industry systems based on HMMs can perform well for certain situational tasks that restrict variability such as phone dialing or limited voice commands. However, the holy grail of ASR systems is performance comparable to humans-in other words, the ability to automatically transcribe unrestricted conversational speech spoken by an infinite number of speakers under varying acoustic environments. This goal is far from being reached. Key to the success of ASR is effective modeling of variability in the speech signal. This tutorial will review the basics of ASR and the various ways in which our current knowledge of speech production, speech perception and prosody can be exploited to improve robustness at every level of the system.

Espy-Wilson, Carol

2005-04-01

299

Automatic transmission control method  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a method of controlling an automatic transmission of an automotive vehicle. The transmission has a gear train which includes a brake for establishing a first lowest speed of the transmission, the brake acting directly on a ring gear which meshes with a pinion, the pinion meshing with a sun gear in a planetary gear train, the ring gear connected with an output member, the sun gear being engageable and disengageable with an input member of the transmission by means of a clutch. The method comprises the steps of: detecting that a shift position of the automatic transmission has been shifted to a neutral range; thereafter introducing hydraulic pressure to the brake if present vehicle velocity is below a predetermined value, whereby the brake is engaged to establish the first lowest speed; and exhausting hydraulic pressure from the brake if present vehicle velocity is higher than a predetermined value, whereby the brake is disengaged.

Hasegawa, H.; Ishiguro, T.

1989-07-04

300

Automatic activation analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Automatic activation analysis (AAA) is rendered possible by a unique neutron activation analysis facility for short-lived\\u000a isomeric transitions based on a fast rabbit system with sample changer and sample separation, and an adaptive digital gamma-spectrometer\\u000a for very high counting rates of up to 106 cps. The system is controlled by a computer program performing irradiation control, neutron flux monitoring, and

G. P. Westphal; F. Grass; H. Lemmel; J. Sterba; P. Schröder; Ch. Bloch

2007-01-01

301

Automatic human body detector  

SciTech Connect

A method is devised for the automatic detection of a human body. The method utilizes the near-infrared reflection bands of the skin of the human body as the identifying signature. Illumination of the body is provided by a near-infrared light source and the detection of the reflection bands. When each of the three detectors simultaneously register a signal of the proper reflection values, a coincident trigger circuit enables an indicator device which signifies a human body is detected.

Hacskaylo, M.

1985-02-19

302

Multi-document Summarization Based on Cluster Using Nonnegative Matrix Factorization  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a new summarization method, which uses non-negative matrix factorization (NMF) and K-means clustering, is introduced to extract meaningful sentences from multi-documents. The proposed method can improve the\\u000a quality of document summaries because the inherent semantics of the documents are well reflected by using the semantic features\\u000a calculated by NMF and the sentences most relevant to the given

Sun Park; Ju-hong Lee; Deok-hwan Kim; Chan-min Ahn

2007-01-01

303

Scalable Model-Based Clustering for Large Databases Based on Data Summarization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract The scalability problem,in data mining,involves the development,of methods,for handling large databases with limited computational resources such as memory and computation time. In this paper, two scalable clustering algorithms, bEMADS and gEMADS, are presented based on the Gaussian mixture model. Both summarize,data into subclusters and then generate Gaussian mixtures from their data summaries. Their core algorithm EMADS is defined on

Huidong Jin; Man-Leung Wong; Kwong-sak Leung

2005-01-01

304

Statistical summarization of content features for fast near-duplicate video detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper outlines a system for detecting near-duplicate videos based on a novel summarization of content features for each clip. It captures the dominating content and content changing trends of a video, so this representation is very compact and effective. Unlike traditional frame-to-frame comparisons that involve quadratic computational complexity, the similarity measure of our method is only linear in dimensionality

Heng Tao Shen; Xiaofang Zhou; Zi Huang; Jie Shao

2007-01-01

305

Hybrid text mining for finding abbreviations and their definitions  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a hybrid text mining method for finding abbreviations and their definitions in free format texts. To deal with the problem, this method employs pattern-based abbreviation rules in addition to text markers and cue words. The pattern-based rules describe how abbreviations are formed from definitions. Rules can be generated automatically and\\/or manually and can be augmented when the system

Roy J. Byrd

2001-01-01

306

Automatic payload deployment system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ability to precisely emplace stand-alone payloads in hostile territory has long been on the wish list of US warfighters. This type of activity is one of the main functions of special operation forces, often conducted at great danger. Such risk can be mitigated by transitioning the manual placement of payloads over to an automated placement mechanism by the use of the Automatic Payload Deployment System (APDS). Based on the Automatically Deployed Communication Relays (ADCR) system, which provides non-line-of-sight operation for unmanned ground vehicles by automatically dropping radio relays when needed, the APDS takes this concept a step further and allows for the delivery of a mixed variety of payloads. For example, payloads equipped with a camera and gas sensor in addition to a radio repeater, can be deployed in support of rescue operations of trapped miners. Battlefield applications may include delivering food, ammunition, and medical supplies to the warfighter. Covert operations may require the unmanned emplacement of a network of sensors for human-presence detection, before undertaking the mission. The APDS is well suited for these tasks. Demonstrations have been conducted using an iRobot PackBot EOD in delivering a variety of payloads, for which the performance and results will be discussed in this paper.

Pezeshkian, Narek; Nguyen, Hoa G.; Burmeister, Aaron; Holz, Kevin; Hart, Abraham

2010-04-01

307

Comparison of two methods for summarizing hydraulic conductivities of a layered soil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hydraulic conductivity data are frequently summarized using mathematical functions that quantify the relationship between water content (?) and hydraulic conductivity (K(?)). This study was done to determine the effects of the choice of the K(?) function and to determine if field data from layered profiles could be summarized using only one parameter per depth. Three K(?) functions together with a matching factor were fitted to hydraulic conductivity data from a field plot. The functions were Km(?/?m)1/?, Km[(?m-?c)/(?-?c)]1/n,and Km exp {?(?-?m)}, where ?, ?, n, Km, ?c, and ?m, are parameters to be estimated. For each function, two methods were considered. Method 1 fitted a different value to ?, ?, n, and Km for each depth while maintaining ?c at a fixed value. All hydraulic conductivity functions fit data from a Muir silt loam equally well, as evidenced by the coefficient of linearity (r2) values greater than 0.72, mean square error (MSE) values less than 0.97, and coefficient of variation (CV) values less than 50%. The fitting was accomplished using ln {K} as the dependent variable. Method 2 fitted values by depth only to Km, and all other parameters were held constant. The hydraulic conductivity functions performed equally well, with r2 values greater than 0.60, MSE values less than 1.2, and CV values of 50% or less. When some loss of precision can be tolerated, the number of parameters required to summarize data from a layered soil can be reduced.

Sisson, J. B.; Klittich, W. M.; Salem, S. B.

1988-08-01

308

Overlay Text Retrieval From Video Scene  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The rapid growth of video data leads to an urgent demand for efficient and true contentbased browsing and retrieving systems. In response to such needs, various video content analysis schemes using one or a combination of image, audio, and text information in videos have been proposed to parse, index, or abstract massive amount of data text in video is a very compact and accurate clue for video indexing and summarization. Most video text detection and extraction methods hold assumptions on text color, background contrast, and font style. Moreover, few methods can handle multilingual text well since different languages may have quite different appearances. In this paper, an efficient overlay text detection and extraction method is implemented which deals with complex backgrounds. Based on our observation that there exist transient colors between inserted text and its adjacent background. It is robust with respect to font size, style text, color, orientation and noise and can be used in a large variety of application fields such as mobile robot navigation vehicle license detection and recognition, object identification , document retrieving, etc.

Manohar, K.; Irfan, S.; Sravani, K.

2013-03-01

309

Exploring supervised and unsupervised methods to detect topics in biomedical text  

PubMed Central

Background Topic detection is a task that automatically identifies topics (e.g., "biochemistry" and "protein structure") in scientific articles based on information content. Topic detection will benefit many other natural language processing tasks including information retrieval, text summarization and question answering; and is a necessary step towards the building of an information system that provides an efficient way for biologists to seek information from an ocean of literature. Results We have explored the methods of Topic Spotting, a task of text categorization that applies the supervised machine-learning technique naïve Bayes to assign automatically a document into one or more predefined topics; and Topic Clustering, which apply unsupervised hierarchical clustering algorithms to aggregate documents into clusters such that each cluster represents a topic. We have applied our methods to detect topics of more than fifteen thousand of articles that represent over sixteen thousand entries in the Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) database. We have explored bag of words as the features. Additionally, we have explored semantic features; namely, the Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) that are assigned to the MEDLINE records, and the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) semantic types that correspond to the MeSH terms, in addition to bag of words, to facilitate the tasks of topic detection. Our results indicate that incorporating the MeSH terms and the UMLS semantic types as additional features enhances the performance of topic detection and the naïve Bayes has the highest accuracy, 66.4%, for predicting the topic of an OMIM article as one of the total twenty-five topics. Conclusion Our results indicate that the supervised topic spotting methods outperformed the unsupervised topic clustering; on the other hand, the unsupervised topic clustering methods have the advantages of being robust and applicable in real world settings.

Lee, Minsuk; Wang, Weiqing; Yu, Hong

2006-01-01

310

Recent Improvements on Microsoft's Trainable Text - to - Speech System: Whistler  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Whistler text-to-speech engine was designed so that we can automatically construct the model parameters from training data. This paper focuses on the improvements on prosody and acoustic modeling, which are all derived through the use of probabilistic learning methods. Whistler can produce synthetic speech that sounds very natural and resembles the acoustic and prosodic characteristics of the original speaker.

Xuedong Huang; Alex Acero; Hsiao-wuen Hon; J Liu; S Meredith; M Plumpe

1997-01-01

311

Learning Concept Hierarchies from Text Corpora using Formal Concept Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a novel approach to the automatic acquisition of taxonomies or concept hierarchies from a text corpus. The approach is based on Formal Concept Analysis (FCA), a method mainly used for the analysis of data, i.e. for investigating and processing explicitly given information. We follow Harris' distributional hypothesis and model the context of a certain term as a vector

Philipp Cimiano; Andreas Hotho; Steffen Staab

2005-01-01

312

Learning Concepts, Taxonomic and Nontaxonomic Relations from texts  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the knowledge extraction process in an ontology learning system called Hasti. It exploits an automatic, hybrid, symbolic approach to acquire conceptual knowledge and construct flexible and dynamic ontologies from scratch. This approach starts from a small kernel and learns concepts, taxonomic and non-taxonomic relations and axioms from natural language texts. The focus of this paper is on

Mehrnoush Shamsfard

2006-01-01

313

New Wavelet and Color Features for Text Detection in Video  

Microsoft Academic Search

Automatic text detection in video is an important task for efficient and accurate indexing and retrieval of multimedia data such as events identification, events boundary identification etc. This paper presents a new method comprising of wavelet decomposition and color features namely R, G and B. The wavelet decomposition is applied on three color bands separately to obtain three high frequency

Palaiahnakote Shivakumara; Trung Quy Phan; Chew Lim Tan

2010-01-01

314

Emotional Reading of Medical Texts Using Conversational Agents (Short Paper)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we present a prototype that helps visualizing the relative importance of sentences extracted from medical texts using Embodied Conversational Agents (ECA). We propose to map rhetorical structures automatically recognized in the documents onto a set of communicative acts controlling the expression of an ECA. As a consequence, the ECA will dramatize a sentence to reflect its perceived

Gersende Georg; Catherine Pelachaud; Marc Cavazza

2008-01-01

315

Applications of text-image editing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The most common approach to processing text which originates as a scanned document image is format conversion, in which procedures such as page segmentation and character recognition are used to convert the scanned text into a structured symbolic description which can be manipulated by a conventional text editor. While this approach is attractive in many respects, there are situations in which complete recognition and format conversion is either unnecessary or very difficult to achieve with sufficient accuracy. This paper presents several applications illustrating an alternative approach to scanned text processing in which document processing operations are performed on image elements extracted from the scanned document image. The central and novel insight is that many document processing operations may be implemented directly by geometrical operations on image blobs, without explicit knowledge of the symbolic character labels (that is, without automatic character recognition). The applications are implemented as part of image EMACS, an editor for binary document images, and include editing multilingual documents, reformatting text to a new column width, differential comparison of two versions of a document, and preprocessing an image prior to character recognition.

Bagley, Steven C.; Kopec, Gary E.

1991-08-01

316

Processing IMS data automatically: A case study of the Chelyabinsk bolide  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present automatic algorithms for detection, association, and location of infrasound events using the International Monitoring System (IMS) infrasound network. Each algorithm is based on probabilistic considerations that formally account for uncertainties at both the station and network levels. Our method is applied to two days of data that include infrasound signals from the Chelyabinsk bolide. We summarize the automatic detections, global association and localization of the bolide and discuss steps we are taking to improve the methodology based on these results.

Arrowsmith, S.; Marcillo, O. E.; Blom, P. S.; Whitaker, R. W.; Randall, G. E.

2013-12-01

317

Use of SI Metric Units Misrepresented in College Physics Texts.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Summarizes results of a survey that examined 13 textbooks claiming to use SI units. Tables present data concerning the SI and non-SI units actually used in each text in discussion of fluid pressure and thermal energy, and data concerning which texts do and do not use SI as claimed. (CS)

Hooper, William

1980-01-01

318

Making a Splash: Comparing Two Informational Texts through Read Alouds  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, students will learn to compare and contrast two informational texts through read alouds and use of a Venn diagram graphic organizer. The lesson uses Swimming by JoAnn Macken and Let's Swim by Carol Lindeen. Students will also write to summarize what they have learned about the similarities and differences between the two texts.

Judah, Heather

2012-09-20

319

Text databases: a survey of text models and systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Text models focus on the manipulation of textual data. They describe texts by their structure, operations on the texts, and constraints on both structure and operations. In this article common characteristics of machine readable texts in general are outlined. Subsequently, ten text models are introduced. They are described in terms of the datatypes that they support, and the operations defined

Arjan Loeffen

1994-01-01

320

Summarizing the motion of self-propelled cells: applications to sperm motility.  

PubMed

Proper characterization of the motion of spermatozoa is an important prerequisite for interpreting differences in sperm motility that might arise from exposure to toxicants. Patterns of sperm movement can be extremely complex. On the basis of an exponential model that relates the discretely approximated curvilinear velocity to the tracking rate, we develop a statistic that indexes the predictability of the path for individual sperm. We summarize the path of each sperm using this and two other statistics: (1) the path displacement velocity and (2) linearity of movement. We apply the method to a set of rat sperm tracks representative of both normal and abnormal motion characteristics. PMID:11318211

Dunson, D B; Weinberg, C R; Perreault, S D; Chapin, R E

1999-06-01

321

How to Summarize a 6,000-Word Paper in a Six-Minute Video Clip  

PubMed Central

As part of our research team's knowledge transfer and exchange (KTE) efforts, we created a six-minute video clip that summarizes, in plain language, a scientific paper that describes why and how three teams of academic entrepreneurs developed new health technologies. Recognizing that video-based KTE strategies can be a valuable tool for health services and policy researchers, this paper explains the constraints and sources of inspiration that shaped our video production process. Aiming to provide practical guidance, we describe the steps and tools that we used to identify, refine and package the key content of the scientific paper into an original video format.

Vachon, Patrick; Daudelin, Genevieve; Hivon, Myriam

2013-01-01

322

Text Particles Multiband Fusion for Robust Text Detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Texts in images and videos usually carry important information for visual content understanding and retrieval. Two main restrictions exist in the state-of-the-art text detection algorithms: weak contrast and text-background variance. This paper presents a robust text detection method based on text parti- cles (TP) multi-band fusion to solve there problems. Firstly, text particles are generated by their local binary pattern

Pengfei Xu; Rongrong Ji; Hongxun Yao; Xiaoshuai Sun; Tianqiang Liu; Xianming Liu

2008-01-01

323

A Video Text Detection Method Based on Key Text Points  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This paper proposes a novel video text detection method based on the key text points. For text detection, the keyframes is\\u000a decomposed by wavelet transform. The key text points (KTPs) are determined by three resulting high-frequency subbands, and\\u000a merged by the morphological operations. The anti-texture-direction-projection method is proposed for text line localization\\u000a and verification. A fast text tracking scheme is

Zhi Li; Guizhong Liu; Xueming Qian; Chen Wang; Yana Ma; Yang Yang

2010-01-01

324

Automatic breast border extraction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In computer aided mammography algorithms there are several processing steps, which must be performed. The basic segmentation procedure involves extracting the principal feature on a mammogram; the breast border. This is performed by segmenting the breast and the non-breast into distinct regions. In this paper, a method for extracting the breast border is proposed. The method has performance similar to established techniques but with higher degrees of automatization and robustness. It iteratively adapts a model of the background to ensure a robust object detection yielding a smooth outline of the breast. The main idea is to identify the "knee" in the cumulative intensity histogram of the image. The intensity value at the knee is thereafter used to automatically define a region, to be modelled by a two-dimensional polynomial surface of degree two. The modelled background is then subtracted from the original image. The procedure described is iteratively performed until the degree of non-uniformity of the grey-scale background is smaller then a certain value. Thereafter the difference image is post-processed by a flood-filling algorithm, a new threshold is estimated as above and applied to yield a binary image. Lastly morphological operations are performed to smoothen the breast border. In conclusion, the strength in the proposed method, compared to similar methods, is that it makes use of an iterative approach to reduce the effects of the background, it produces smooth edges and automatically finds thresholds. It is also evaluated on the entire MIAS database (322 images) with a performance of 94%.

Olsen, Christina M.

2005-04-01

325

Automatic level control circuit  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An automatic level control circuit for an operational amplifier for minimizing spikes or instantaneous gain of the amplifier at a low period wherein no signal is received on the input is provided. The apparatus includes a multibranch circuit which is connected between an output terminal and a feedback terminal. A pair of zener diodes are connected back to back in series with a capacitor provided in one of the branches. A pair of voltage dividing resistors are connected in another of the branches and a second capacitor is provided in the remaining branch of controlling the high frequency oscillations of the operational amplifier.

Toole, P. C.; Mccarthy, D. M. (inventors)

1983-01-01

326

Text quality estimation in video  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Text quality can significantly affect the results of text detection and recognition in digital video. In this paper we address the problem of estimating text quality. The quality of text that appears in video is often much lower than that in document images, and can be degraded by factors such as low resolution, background variation, uneven lighting, motion of the text and camera, and in the case of scene text, projection from 3D. Features based on text resolution, background noise, contrast, illumination and texture are selected to describe the text quality, normalized and fed into a trained RBF network to estimate the text quality. The performance using different training schemes are compared.

Li, Huiping; Doermann, David S.

2001-12-01

327

Text Mining with Information Extraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Text mining concerns looking for patterns in unstructured text. The related task of Informa- tion Extraction (IE) is about locating specific items in natural-language documents. This paper presents a framework for text mining, called DISCOTEX (Discovery from Text EXtraction), using a learned information extraction system to transform text into more structured data which is then mined for interesting relationships. The

Raymond J. Mooney; Un Yong Nahm

2002-01-01

328

Guiding Students through Expository Text with Text Feature Walks  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Text Feature Walk is a structure created and employed by the authors that guides students in the reading of text features in order to access prior knowledge, make connections, and set a purpose for reading expository text. Results from a pilot study are described in order to illustrate the benefits of using the Text Feature Walk over…

Kelley, Michelle J.; Clausen-Grace, Nicki

2010-01-01

329

Text segmentation and topic tracking on broadcast news via a hidden Markov model approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Continuing progress in the automatic transcriptionof broadcast speech via speech recognition has raisedthe possibility of applying information retrieval techniquesto the resulting (errorful) text. In this paperwe describe a general methodology based on HiddenMarkov Models and classical language modelingtechniques for automatically inferring story boundaries (segmentation) and for retrieving stories relatingto a specific topic (tracking). We will present in detailthe features and...

Paul van Mulbregt; Ira Carp; Lawrence Gillick; Steve Lowe; Jon Yamron

1998-01-01

330

Automatic readout micrometer  

DOEpatents

A measuring system is disclosed for surveying and very accurately positioning objects with respect to a reference line. A principal use of this surveying system is for accurately aligning the electromagnets which direct a particle beam emitted from a particle accelerator. Prior art surveying systems require highly skilled surveyors. Prior art systems include, for example, optical surveying systems which are susceptible to operator reading errors, and celestial navigation-type surveying systems, with their inherent complexities. The present invention provides an automatic readout micrometer which can very accurately measure distances. The invention has a simplicity of operation which practically eliminates the possibilities of operator optical reading error, owning to the elimination of traditional optical alignments for making measurements. The invention has an extendable arm which carries a laser surveying target. The extendable arm can be continuously positioned over its entire length of travel by either a coarse or fine adjustment without having the fine adjustment outrun the coarse adjustment until a reference laser beam is centered on the target as indicated by a digital readout. The length of the micrometer can then be accurately and automatically read by a computer and compared with a standardized set of alignment measurements. Due to its construction, the micrometer eliminates any errors due to temperature changes when the system is operated within a standard operating temperature range.

Lauritzen, Ted (Lafayette, CA)

1982-01-01

331

Automatic document navigation for digital content remastering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a novel method of automatically adding navigation capabilities to re-mastered electronic books. We first analyze the need for a generic and robust system to automatically construct navigation links into re-mastered books. We then introduce the core algorithm based on text matching for building the links. The proposed method utilizes the tree-structured dictionary and directional graph of the table of contents to efficiently conduct the text matching. Information fusion further increases the robustness of the algorithm. The experimental results on the MIT Press digital library project are discussed and the key functional features of the system are illustrated. We have also investigated how the quality of the OCR engine affects the linking algorithm. In addition, the analogy between this work and Web link mining has been pointed out.

Lin, Xiaofan; Simske, Steven J.

2003-12-01

332

Cost and Leadtime Estimates for Improved Pillar Padding, Automatic Slack Adjusters, Visual Brake Adjustment Indicators and Tractor/Trailer ABS Connections.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report summarizes the cost and weight implications of four safety improvement areas: (1) pillar padding improvements; (2) visual brake adjustment indicators; (3) automatic slack adjusters; and (4) improved tractor-trailer ABS electrical connectors. Fo...

1991-01-01

333

Mining the Text: 34 Text Features that Can Ease or Obstruct Text Comprehension and Use  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents 34 characteristics of texts and tasks ("text features") that can make continuous (prose), noncontinuous (document), and quantitative texts easier or more difficult for adolescents and adults to comprehend and use. The text features were identified by examining the assessment tasks and associated texts in the national…

White, Sheida

2012-01-01

334

Flexible Text Display with Lector  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lector, an X11 application for flexible text interaction, is described. Lector was originally devised as a simple, rapid formatter for the display of online text databases. It was then discovered that Lector exhibited useful capabilities for a wide range of text applications. The ways in which Lector distinguishes between content and tags in descriptively marked-up text and achieves flexible interaction

Darrell R. Raymond

1992-01-01

335

Text Complexity and the CCSS  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

What is meant by text complexity is a measurement of how challenging a particular text is to read. There are a myriad of different ways of explaining what makes text challenging to read, from the sophistication of the vocabulary employed to the length of its sentences to even measurements of how the text as a whole coheres. Research shows that no…

Aspen Institute, 2012

2012-01-01

336

The Challenge of Challenging Text  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Common Core State Standards emphasize the value of teaching students to engage with complex text. But what exactly makes a text complex, and how can teachers help students develop their ability to learn from such texts? The authors of this article discuss five factors that determine text complexity: vocabulary, sentence structure, coherence,…

Shanahan, Timothy; Fisher, Douglas; Frey, Nancy

2012-01-01

337

Text analysis devices, articles of manufacture, and text analysis methods  

SciTech Connect

Text analysis devices, articles of manufacture, and text analysis methods are described according to some aspects. In one aspect, a text analysis device includes processing circuitry configured to analyze initial text to generate a measurement basis usable in analysis of subsequent text, wherein the measurement basis comprises a plurality of measurement features from the initial text, a plurality of dimension anchors from the initial text and a plurality of associations of the measurement features with the dimension anchors, and wherein the processing circuitry is configured to access a viewpoint indicative of a perspective of interest of a user with respect to the analysis of the subsequent text, and wherein the processing circuitry is configured to use the viewpoint to generate the measurement basis.

Turner, Alan E; Hetzler, Elizabeth G; Nakamura, Grant C

2013-05-28

338

Systematic Characterizations of Text Similarity in Full Text Biomedical Publications  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundComputational methods have been used to find duplicate biomedical publications in MEDLINE. Full text articles are becoming increasingly available, yet the similarities among them have not been systematically studied. Here, we quantitatively investigated the full text similarity of biomedical publications in PubMed Central.Methodology\\/Principal Findings72,011 full text articles from PubMed Central (PMC) were parsed to generate three different datasets: full texts,

Zhaohui Sun; Mounir Errami; Tara Long; Chris Renard; Nishant Choradia; Harold Garner; Walter H. Curioso

2010-01-01

339

Supported eText: Assistive Technology through Text Transformations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To gain meaningful access to the curriculum, students with reading difficulties must overcome substantial barriers imposed by the printed materials they are asked to read. Technology can assist students to overcome these challenges by enabling a shift from printed text to electronic text. By electronic text it means textual material read using a…

Anderson-Inman, Lynne; Horney, Mark A.

2007-01-01

340

New Fourier-Statistical Features in RGB Space for Video Text Detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we propose new Fourier-statistical features (FSF) in RGB space for detecting text in video frames of unconstrained background, different fonts, different scripts, and different font sizes. This paper consists of two parts namely automatic classification of text frames from a large database of text and non-text frames and FSF in RGB for text detection in the classified

Palaiahnakote Shivakumara; Trung Quy Phan; Chew Lim Tan

2010-01-01

341

Automatic vehicle location system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An automatic vehicle detection system is disclosed, in which each vehicle whose location is to be detected carries active means which interact with passive elements at each location to be identified. The passive elements comprise a plurality of passive loops arranged in a sequence along the travel direction. Each of the loops is tuned to a chosen frequency so that the sequence of the frequencies defines the location code. As the vehicle traverses the sequence of the loops as it passes over each loop, signals only at the frequency of the loop being passed over are coupled from a vehicle transmitter to a vehicle receiver. The frequencies of the received signals in the receiver produce outputs which together represent a code of the traversed location. The code location is defined by a painted pattern which reflects light to a vehicle carried detector whose output is used to derive the code defined by the pattern.

Hansen, G. R., Jr. (inventor)

1973-01-01

342

Automatic routing module  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Automatic Routing Module (ARM) is a tool to partially automate Air Launched Cruise Missile (ALCM) routing. For any accessible launch point or target pair, ARM creates flyable routes that, within the fidelity of the models, are optimal in terms of threat avoidance, clobber avoidance, and adherence to vehicle and planning constraints. Although highly algorithmic, ARM is an expert system. Because of the heuristics applied, ARM generated routes closely resemble manually generated routes in routine cases. In more complex cases, ARM's ability to accumulate and assess threat danger in three dimensions and trade that danger off with the probability of ground clobber results in the safest path around or through difficult areas. The tools available prior to ARM did not provide the planner with enough information or present it in such a way that ensured he would select the safest path.

Malin, Janice A.

1987-01-01

343

Automatic alkaloid removal system.  

PubMed

This alkaloid automated removal machine was developed at Instrumentation Laboratory, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin Malaysia that purposely for removing the alkaloid toxicity from Dioscorea hispida (DH) tuber. It is a poisonous plant where scientific study has shown that its tubers contain toxic alkaloid constituents, dioscorine. The tubers can only be consumed after it poisonous is removed. In this experiment, the tubers are needed to blend as powder form before inserting into machine basket. The user is need to push the START button on machine controller for switching the water pump ON by then creating turbulence wave of water in machine tank. The water will stop automatically by triggering the outlet solenoid valve. The powders of tubers are washed for 10 minutes while 1 liter of contaminated water due toxin mixture is flowing out. At this time, the controller will automatically triggered inlet solenoid valve and the new water will flow in machine tank until achieve the desire level that which determined by ultra sonic sensor. This process will repeated for 7 h and the positive result is achieved and shows it significant according to the several parameters of biological character ofpH, temperature, dissolve oxygen, turbidity, conductivity and fish survival rate or time. From that parameter, it also shows the positive result which is near or same with control water and assuming was made that the toxin is fully removed when the pH of DH powder is near with control water. For control water, the pH is about 5.3 while water from this experiment process is 6.0 and before run the machine the pH of contaminated water is about 3.8 which are too acid. This automated machine can save time for removing toxicity from DH compared with a traditional method while less observation of the user. PMID:24783795

Yahaya, Muhammad Rizuwan; Hj Razali, Mohd Hudzari; Abu Bakar, Che Abdullah; Ismail, Wan Ishak Wan; Muda, Wan Musa Wan; Mat, Nashriyah; Zakaria, Abd

2014-01-01

344

Networked Automatic Optical Telescopes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many groups around the world are developing automated or robotic optical observatories. The coordinated operation of automated optical telescopes at diverse sites could provide observing prospects which are not otherwise available, e.g., continuous optical photometry without diurnal interruption. Computer control and scheduling also offers the prospect of effective response to transient events such as ? -ray bursts. These telescopes could also serve science education by providing high-quality CCD data for educators and students. The Automatic Telescope Network (ATN) project has been undertaken to promote networking of automated telescopes. A web site is maintained at http://gamma.bu.edu/atn/. The development of such networks will be facilitated by the existence of standards. A set of standard commands for instrument and telescope control systems will allow for the creation of software for an ``observatory control system'' which can be used at any facility which complies with the TCS and ICS standards. Also, there is a strong need for standards for the specification of observations to be done, and reports on the results and status of observations. A proposed standard for this is the Remote Telescope Markup Language (RTML), which is expected to be described in another poster in this session. It may thus be feasible for amateur-astronomers to soon buy all necessary equipment and software to field an automatic telescope. The owner/operator could make otherwise unused telescope time available to the network in exchange for the utilization of other telescopes in the network --- including occasional utilization of meter-class telescopes with research-grade CCD detectors at good sites.

Mattox, J. R.

2000-05-01

345

Automatical Geocoding of SAR Products  

Microsoft Academic Search

An automatical system for geocoding and calibration of Envisat ASAR products have been developed by NORUT IT in the Envisnow EC EESD FP 5 project. The project have used data from ESA AOE 785, Cat. 2458 and near-real time data from Kongsberg Satellite station. The software is adapted to the Envisnow snow covered area processing system, and works automatically for

Inge Lauknes; Eirik Malnes

2005-01-01

346

Automatic hot water recovery system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heat in the hot water lines of a water system is automatically recovered by providing a bridge conduit between the cold water lines and the hot water lines and by depressurizing the hot water lines relative to the cold water lines thereby to automatically direct higher pressure cold water into the hot water lines through the interconnection, which preferably is

Haws

1982-01-01

347

Tribology of automatic transmission fluid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Various properties are required in the latest ATFs (Automatic Transmission Fluids) because of the progress made in ATs (Automatic\\u000a Transmissions). In this paper, we will introduce the construction of the AT and describe the tribological issues, including\\u000a anti?shudder property, of ATF.

Takanori Kugimiya; Narihiko Yoshimura; Jun’ichi Mitsui

1998-01-01

348

Classifying Visemes for Automatic Lipreading  

Microsoft Academic Search

Automatic lipreading is automatic speech recognition that uses only visual information. The relevant data in a video signal is isola- ted and features are extracted from it. From a sequence of feature vectors, where every vector represents one video image, a sequence of higher level semantic elements is formed. These semantic elements are \\\\visemes\\

Michiel Visser; Mannes Poel; Anton Nijholt; V. Matousek; P. Mautner; J. Ocelikovi

1999-01-01

349

Text editor on a chip  

SciTech Connect

The authors propose a processor which provides useful facilities for implementing text editing commands. The processor now being developed is a component of the general front-end editing system which parses the program text and processes the text. This processor attached to a conventional microcomputer system bus executes screen editing functions. Conventional text editing is a typical application of the microprocessors. But in this paper emphasis is given to the firmware and hardware processing of texts in order that the processor can be fabricated in a single VLSI chip. To increase the overall regularity and decrease the design cost, the basic instructions are text editing oriented with short basic cycles. 6 references.

Jung Wan Cho; Heung Kyu Lee

1983-01-01

350

Meaning Representation and Text Planning  

Microsoft Academic Search

starts with a'world'state, represented by structures of an application program (e. g., an expert system) that has text generation needs and an impetus to produce a natu-ral language text. The output of generation is a natural language text. The generation process involves the tasks of a) delimiting the content of the eventual text, b) plano ning its structure, c) selecting

Christine Defrise; Sergei Nirenburg

1990-01-01

351

ParaText : scalable text analysis and visualization.  

SciTech Connect

Automated analysis of unstructured text documents (e.g., web pages, newswire articles, research publications, business reports) is a key capability for solving important problems in areas including decision making, risk assessment, social network analysis, intelligence analysis, scholarly research and others. However, as data sizes continue to grow in these areas, scalable processing, modeling, and semantic analysis of text collections becomes essential. In this paper, we present the ParaText text analysis engine, a distributed memory software framework for processing, modeling, and analyzing collections of unstructured text documents. Results on several document collections using hundreds of processors are presented to illustrate the exibility, extensibility, and scalability of the the entire process of text modeling from raw data ingestion to application analysis.

Dunlavy, Daniel M.; Stanton, Eric T.; Shead, Timothy M.

2010-07-01

352

Text Association Analysis and Ambiguity in Text Mining  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Text Mining is the process of analyzing a semantically rich document or set of documents to understand the content and meaning of the information they contain. The research in Text Mining will enhance human's ability to process massive quantities of information, and it has high commercial values. Firstly, the paper discusses the introduction of TM its definition and then gives an overview of the process of text mining and the applications. Up to now, not much research in text mining especially in concept/entity extraction has focused on the ambiguity problem. This paper addresses ambiguity issues in natural language texts, and presents a new technique for resolving ambiguity problem in extracting concept/entity from texts. In the end, it shows the importance of TM in knowledge discovery and highlights the up-coming challenges of document mining and the opportunities it offers.

Bhonde, S. B.; Paikrao, R. L.; Rahane, K. U.

2010-11-01

353

Science Learning Through Text: The Effect of Text Design and text Comprehension Skills on Conceptual Change  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined how a traditional text design, compared to a conceptual change text design, supports readers with varying\\u000a text comprehension skills in learning photosynthesis. The study is theoretically motivated by the research on conceptual change\\u000a and text comprehension. Two hundred eleven-year-old participants were first given a conceptual understanding pre-test concerning\\u000a photosynthesis and two tests on text comprehension skills. In

Mirjamaija Mikkilä-Erdmann

354

Translation and Text-Analysis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The primary goal of translation is to enable an audience in a Target Language to understand a text/discourse which was ultimately not intended for them. The primary goal of text-analysis is to further the understanding of phenomena inside one language. There are several similarities between translation and text-analysis: both translation and…

Barbe, Katharina

355

Text Mining Infrastructure in R  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the last decade text mining has become a widely used discipline utilizing sta- tistical and machine learning methods. We present the tm package which provides a framework for text mining applications within R. We give a survey on text mining facili- ties in R and explain how typical application tasks can be carried out using our framework. We present

Ingo Feinerer; Kurt Hornik; David Meyer

2008-01-01

356

Informational Text and the CCSS  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

What constitutes an informational text covers a broad swath of different types of texts. Biographies & memoirs, speeches, opinion pieces & argumentative essays, and historical, scientific or technical accounts of a non-narrative nature are all included in what the Common Core State Standards (CCSS) envisions as informational text. Also included…

Aspen Institute, 2012

2012-01-01

357

Slippery Texts and Evolving Literacies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The idea of "slippery texts" provides a useful descriptor for materials that mutate and evolve across different media. Eight adult gamers, encountering the slippery text "American McGee's Alice," demonstrate a variety of ways in which players attempt to manage their attention as they encounter a new text with many resonances. The range of their…

Mackey, Margaret

2007-01-01

358

Contextual Entropy and Text Categorization  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we describe a new approach to text categorization, our focus is in the amount of information (the entropy) in the text. The entropy is computed with the empirical distribution of words in the text. We provide the system with a manually segmented collection of documents in different categories. For each category a separate empirical distribution of words

Moises Garcia; Hugo Hidalgo; Edgar Chávez

2006-01-01

359

Text detection for video analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Textual information brings important semantic clues in video content analysis. We describe a method for detection and representation of text in video segments. The method consists of seven steps: channel separation, image enhancement, edge detection, edge filtering, character detection, text box detection, and text line detection. Our results show that this method can be applied to English as well as

Lalitha Agnihotri; Nevenka Dimitrova

1999-01-01

360

Text Categorisation Using Document Profiling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract: This paper presents an extension of prior work by Michael D. Lee on psychologically plausible text categorisation. Our approach utilises Lee's model as a pre-processing filter to generate a dense representation for a given text document (a document profile) and passes that on to an arbitrary standard propositional learning algorithm. Similarly to standard feature selection for text classification, the

Maximilien Sauban; Bernhard Pfahringer

2003-01-01

361

Device for the Automatic Control of Airplanes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report provides a description of an automatic control mechanism that consists of an automatic elevator control, aileron control, and a rudder control. Each automatic control can be independently switched on or off.

Gradenwitz, Alfred

1929-01-01

362

Automatic Weld Torch Guidance Control System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A highly reliable, fully digital, closed circuit television optical, type automatic weld seam tracking control system was developed. This automatic tracking equipment is used to reduce weld tooling costs and increase overall automatic welding reliability....

H. E. Smaith W. A. Wall M. R. Burns

1982-01-01

363

ParaText : scalable text modeling and analysis.  

SciTech Connect

Automated processing, modeling, and analysis of unstructured text (news documents, web content, journal articles, etc.) is a key task in many data analysis and decision making applications. As data sizes grow, scalability is essential for deep analysis. In many cases, documents are modeled as term or feature vectors and latent semantic analysis (LSA) is used to model latent, or hidden, relationships between documents and terms appearing in those documents. LSA supplies conceptual organization and analysis of document collections by modeling high-dimension feature vectors in many fewer dimensions. While past work on the scalability of LSA modeling has focused on the SVD, the goal of our work is to investigate the use of distributed memory architectures for the entire text analysis process, from data ingestion to semantic modeling and analysis. ParaText is a set of software components for distributed processing, modeling, and analysis of unstructured text. The ParaText source code is available under a BSD license, as an integral part of the Titan toolkit. ParaText components are chained-together into data-parallel pipelines that are replicated across processes on distributed-memory architectures. Individual components can be replaced or rewired to explore different computational strategies and implement new functionality. ParaText functionality can be embedded in applications on any platform using the native C++ API, Python, or Java. The ParaText MPI Process provides a 'generic' text analysis pipeline in a command-line executable that can be used for many serial and parallel analysis tasks. ParaText can also be deployed as a web service accessible via a RESTful (HTTP) API. In the web service configuration, any client can access the functionality provided by ParaText using commodity protocols ... from standard web browsers to custom clients written in any language.

Dunlavy, Daniel M.; Stanton, Eric T.; Shead, Timothy M.

2010-06-01

364

ACNE: a summarization method to estimate allele-specific copy numbers for Affymetrix SNP arrays  

PubMed Central

Motivation: Current algorithms for estimating DNA copy numbers (CNs) borrow concepts from gene expression analysis methods. However, single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) arrays have special characteristics that, if taken into account, can improve the overall performance. For example, cross hybridization between alleles occurs in SNP probe pairs. In addition, most of the current CN methods are focused on total CNs, while it has been shown that allele-specific CNs are of paramount importance for some studies. Therefore, we have developed a summarization method that estimates high-quality allele-specific CNs. Results: The proposed method estimates the allele-specific DNA CNs for all Affymetrix SNP arrays dealing directly with the cross hybridization between probes within SNP probesets. This algorithm outperforms (or at least it performs as well as) other state-of-the-art algorithms for computing DNA CNs. It better discerns an aberration from a normal state and it also gives more precise allele-specific CNs. Availability: The method is available in the open-source R package ACNE, which also includes an add on to the aroma.affymetrix framework (http://www.aroma-project.org/). Contact: arubio@ceit.es Supplementaruy information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

Ortiz-Estevez, Maria; Bengtsson, Henrik; Rubio, Angel

2010-01-01

365

The Summarization of Pyro-shock Testing Data and SRS Level Prediction Methodology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mechanical separation through pyrotechnic shock is widely employed in space vehicle separation. These kinds of pyrotechnic shock devices produce transient loads with high levels of acceleration at different location of satellite. The prediction of acceleration level is significant for the definition of payload shock environment in the earlier design phase and selection of proper accelerometers in the test. This paper summarizes the shock response spectrum (SRS) from the pyrotechnical testing data of several typical satellites from the view points of distance from the source, complex equipment mount structure, etc. The empirical curve for the prediction possibility of pyrotechnic shock level is discussed. At first, the SRS distribution maps at the measure points were compared to understand the shock response environment which may differ from the distance attenuation from the shock source, effects of material and size of structural components, effects of joints and inserts of structural components, etc. Then, the paper discusses the prediction methodologies related to the empirical and extrapolation model presented by NASA-HDBK-7005 is compared to the testing data distribution of several satellites.

Shi, Qinzhong; Ando, Shigemasa; Seko, Hiromi; Nagahama, Kenta; Saegusa, Hiroshi

2004-08-01

366

Text Mining: Natural Language techniques and Text Mining applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the general framework of knowledge discovery, Data Mining techniques areusually dedicated to information extraction from structured databases. TextMining techniques, on the other hand, are dedicated to information extractionfrom unstructured textual data and Natural Language Processing (NLP)can then be seen as an interesting tool for the enhancement of informationextraction procedures. In this paper, we present two examples of Text Miningtasks,

Martin Rajman; Romaric Besançon

1997-01-01

367

Automatic Layup Machines for Composite Tape: Basic types of compactors are evaluated.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This citation summarizes a one-page announcement of technology available for utilization. Automatic machines for laying graphite/epoxy tape in complex shapes on an automated tape-layup system have been evaluated. The machines were evaluated on the basis o...

1982-01-01

368

Automatic recognition and understanding of spoken language - a first step toward natural human-machine communication  

Microsoft Academic Search

The promise of a powerful computing device to help people in productivity as well as in recreation can only be realized with proper human-machine communication. Automatic recognition and understanding of spoken language is the first step toward natural human-machine interaction. Research in this field has produced remarkable results, leading to many exciting expectations and new challenges. We summarize the development

BIING-HWANG JUANG; SADAOKI FURUI

2000-01-01

369

Creating Topic-Specific Automatic Multimodal Presentation Mining the World Wide Web Information  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper describes the integration between web intel- ligence and character-based software agent manipula- tion with the notion of autonomous information ser- vices. The system, 'Auto-Presentation', builds a presen- tation automatically by parsing, summarizing and cor- relating information collected from the Internet based knowledge sources after receiving the presentation topic from the user. The system, with the help of a

Shaikh Mostafa; Mitsuru Ishizuka; Tawhidul Islam

370

Automatic Command Sequence Generation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Automatic Sequence Generator (Autogen) Version 3.0 software automatically generates command sequences for the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) and several other JPL spacecraft operated by the multi-mission support team. Autogen uses standard JPL sequencing tools like APGEN, ASP, SEQGEN, and the DOM database to automate the generation of uplink command products, Spacecraft Command Message Format (SCMF) files, and the corresponding ground command products, DSN Keywords Files (DKF). Autogen supports all the major multi-mission mission phases including the cruise, aerobraking, mapping/science, and relay mission phases. Autogen is a Perl script, which functions within the mission operations UNIX environment. It consists of two parts: a set of model files and the autogen Perl script. Autogen encodes the behaviors of the system into a model and encodes algorithms for context sensitive customizations of the modeled behaviors. The model includes knowledge of different mission phases and how the resultant command products must differ for these phases. The executable software portion of Autogen, automates the setup and use of APGEN for constructing a spacecraft activity sequence file (SASF). The setup includes file retrieval through the DOM (Distributed Object Manager), an object database used to store project files. This step retrieves all the needed input files for generating the command products. Depending on the mission phase, Autogen also uses the ASP (Automated Sequence Processor) and SEQGEN to generate the command product sent to the spacecraft. Autogen also provides the means for customizing sequences through the use of configuration files. By automating the majority of the sequencing generation process, Autogen eliminates many sequence generation errors commonly introduced by manually constructing spacecraft command sequences. Through the layering of commands into the sequence by a series of scheduling algorithms, users are able to rapidly and reliably construct the desired uplink command products. With the aid of Autogen, sequences may be produced in a matter of hours instead of weeks, with a significant reduction in the number of people on the sequence team. As a result, the uplink product generation process is significantly streamlined and mission risk is significantly reduced. Autogen is used for operations of MRO, Mars Global Surveyor (MGS), Mars Exploration Rover (MER), Mars Odyssey, and will be used for operations of Phoenix. Autogen Version 3.0 is the operational version of Autogen including the MRO adaptation for the cruise mission phase, and was also used for development of the aerobraking and mapping mission phases for MRO.

Fisher, Forest; Gladded, Roy; Khanampompan, Teerapat

2007-01-01

371

A Task-oriented Study on the Influencing Effects of Query-biased Summarization in Web Searching.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A task-oriented, comparative evaluation between four Web retrieval systems was performed; two using query-biased summarization, and two using the standard ranked titles/abstracts approach. Results indicate that query-biased summarization techniques appear to be more useful and effective in helping users gauge document relevance than the…

White, Ryen W.; Jose, Joemon M.; Ruthven, Ian

2003-01-01

372

Selective encryption technique in RSA based singular cubic curve with AVK for text based documents: Enhancement of Koyama approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyzes application of Selective Encryption with Automatic Variable Key (AVK) for text based documents in Koyama Public Key Cryptosystem (PKC). In this paper, a new robust and simple PKC based singular cubic curve cryptosystem over the ring Zn, using selective encryption with Automatic Variable Key (AVK), is proposed. In the proposed algorithm, selected parts of text document are

Kalpana Singh; S. Ghosh Samaddar

2010-01-01

373

Automatic transmission system  

SciTech Connect

An automatic transmission system is described for use in vehicles, which comprises: a clutch wheel containing a plurality of concentric rings of decreasing diameter, the clutch wheel being attached to an engine of the vehicle; a plurality of clutch gears corresponding in size to the concentric rings, the clutch gears being adapted to selectively and frictionally engage with the concentric rings of the clutch wheel; an accelerator pedal and a gear selector, the accelerator pedals being connected to one end of a substantially U-shaped frame member, the other end of the substantially U-shaped frame member selectively engaging with one end of one of wires received in a pair of apertures of the gear selector; a plurality of drive gear controllers and a reverse gear controller; means operatively connected with the gear selector and the plurality of drive gear controllers and reverse gear controller for selectively engaging one of the drive and reverse gear controllers depending upon the position of the gear selector; and means for individually connecting the drive and reverse gear controllers with the corresponding clutch gears whereby upon the selection of the gear selector, friction engagement is achieved between the clutch gear and the clutch wheels for rotating the wheel in the forward or reverse direction.

Ha, J.S.

1989-04-25

374

Automatic Welding System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Robotic welding has been of interest to industrial firms because it offers higher productivity at lower cost than manual welding. There are some systems with automated arc guidance available, but they have disadvantages, such as limitations on types of materials or types of seams that can be welded; susceptibility to stray electrical signals; restricted field of view; or tendency to contaminate the weld seam. Wanting to overcome these disadvantages, Marshall Space Flight Center, aided by Hayes International Corporation, developed system that uses closed-circuit TV signals for automatic guidance of the welding torch. NASA granted license to Combined Technologies, Inc. for commercial application of the technology. They developed a refined and improved arc guidance system. CTI in turn, licensed the Merrick Corporation, also of Nashville, for marketing and manufacturing of the new system, called the CT2 Optical Trucker. CT2 is a non-contracting system that offers adaptability to broader range of welding jobs and provides greater reliability in high speed operation. It is extremely accurate and can travel at high speed of up to 150 inches per minute.

1982-01-01

375

Automatic brain tumor segmentation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A system that automatically segments and labels complete glioblastoma-multiform tumor volumes in magnetic resonance images of the human brain is presented. The magnetic resonance images consist of three feature images (T1- weighted, proton density, T2-weighted) and are processed by a system which integrates knowledge-based techniques with multispectral analysis and is independent of a particular magnetic resonance scanning protocol. Initial segmentation is performed by an unsupervised clustering algorithm. The segmented image, along with cluster centers for each class are provided to a rule-based expert system which extracts the intra-cranial region. Multispectral histogram analysis separates suspected tumor from the rest of the intra-cranial region, with region analysis used in performing the final tumor labeling. This system has been trained on eleven volume data sets and tested on twenty-two unseen volume data sets acquired from a single magnetic resonance imaging system. The knowledge-based tumor segmentation was compared with radiologist-verified `ground truth' tumor volumes and results generated by a supervised fuzzy clustering algorithm. The results of this system generally correspond well to ground truth, both on a per slice basis and more importantly in tracking total tumor volume during treatment over time.

Clark, Matthew C.; Hall, Lawrence O.; Goldgof, Dmitry B.; Velthuizen, Robert P.; Murtaugh, F. R.; Silbiger, Martin L.

1998-06-01

376

Automatic Neural Processing of Disorder-Related Stimuli in Social Anxiety Disorder: Faces and More  

PubMed Central

It has been proposed that social anxiety disorder (SAD) is associated with automatic information processing biases resulting in hypersensitivity to signals of social threat such as negative facial expressions. However, the nature and extent of automatic processes in SAD on the behavioral and neural level is not entirely clear yet. The present review summarizes neuroscientific findings on automatic processing of facial threat but also other disorder-related stimuli such as emotional prosody or negative words in SAD. We review initial evidence for automatic activation of the amygdala, insula, and sensory cortices as well as for automatic early electrophysiological components. However, findings vary depending on tasks, stimuli, and neuroscientific methods. Only few studies set out to examine automatic neural processes directly and systematic attempts are as yet lacking. We suggest that future studies should: (1) use different stimulus modalities, (2) examine different emotional expressions, (3) compare findings in SAD with other anxiety disorders, (4) use more sophisticated experimental designs to investigate features of automaticity systematically, and (5) combine different neuroscientific methods (such as functional neuroimaging and electrophysiology). Finally, the understanding of neural automatic processes could also provide hints for therapeutic approaches.

Schulz, Claudia; Mothes-Lasch, Martin; Straube, Thomas

2013-01-01

377

TextArc: An Alternate Way to View a Text  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Textarc is an unconventional tool that gives readers the opportunity to discover patterns and concepts in texts. Still in a developmental stage, the site offers readers the opportunity to utilize human visual processing by allowing intuition to help extract meaning from a text. By exposing every word at once, the eye is able to make connections and decipher meaning otherwise overlooked by normal reading, thereby exposing the essence of a text. The site currently has Hamlet available as a full textarc text, and is in the process of exposing more literary works. Not only of value for avid readers and literary critics, the site offers librarians and archivists new approaches to cataloguing. On the whole, this new and innovative creation is at a minimum intriguing, and the site is definitely worth a visit.

2002-01-01

378

Zum Uebersetzen fachlicher Texte (On the Translation of Technical Texts)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews a 1974 East German publication on translation of scientific literature from Russian to German. Considers terminology, different standard levels of translation in East Germany, and other matters related to translation. (Text is in German.) (DH)

Friederich, Wolf

1975-01-01

379

Inductive learning algorithms and representations for text categorization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Text categorization - the assignment of natural language\\u000a texts to one or more predefined categories based on their\\u000a content - is an important component in many information\\u000a organization and management tasks. We compare the\\u000a effectiveness of five different automatic learning\\u000a algorithms for text categorization in terms of learning\\u000a speed, real-time classification speed, and classification\\u000a accuracy. We also examine training set

Susan T. Dumais; John C. Platt; David Heckerman; Mehran Sahami

1998-01-01

380

Automatically Generating Reading Comprehension Look-Back Strategy: Questions from Expository Texts.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Learning to read is an important skill for both children and adults, whether it takes place in their first language or their second language. According to the National Center for Educational Statistics 2003 Assessment (2007), 5% of adults (16 years and ol...

D. M. Gates

2008-01-01

381

A New Comparison Between Conventional Indexing (MEDLARS) and Automatic Text Processing (SMART)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A new testing process is described. The design of the test procedure is covered in detail, and the several language processing features incorporated into the SMART system are individually evaluated. (20 references) (Author)

Salton, G.

1972-01-01

382

Automatic learning of text-to-concept mappings exploiting WordNet-like lexical networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

A great jump towards the advent of the Semantic Web will take place when a critical mass of web resources is available for use in a semantic way. This goal can be reached by the creation of semantic meta-data in the publication workflow, or by the development of systems and applications able to associate semantics to resources (i.e., annotating them)

Dario Bonino; Fulvio Corno; Federico Pescarmona

2005-01-01

383

A text mining approach on automatic generation of web directories and hierarchies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The World Wide Web (WWW) has been recognized as the ultimate and unique source of information for information retrieval and knowledge discovery communities. Tremendous amount of knowledge are recorded using various types of media, producing enormous amount of web pages in the WWW. Retrieval of required information from the WWW is thus an arduous task. Different schemes for retrieving web

Hsin-chang Yang; Chung-hong Lee

2004-01-01

384

A Semi-Automatic Approach to Construct Vietnamese Ontology from Online Text  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An ontology is an effective formal representation of knowledge used commonly in artificial intelligence, semantic web, software engineering, and information retrieval. In open and distance learning, ontologies are used as knowledge bases for e-learning supplements, educational recommenders, and question answering systems that support students with…

Nguyen, Bao-An; Yang, Don-Lin

2012-01-01

385

Finite-State Transducers for Semi-Structured Text Mining  

Microsoft Academic Search

Text mining for semi-structured documents requiresinformation extractors. Programmingextractors by hand is difficult to catch up withthe amount and the variation of the documentsplaced on the World-Wide Web everyday.This paper presents our recent result onapplying machine learning techniques to automatizethe generation of the extractors. Ourgoal is to develop a domain and language independentapproach that automatically learns anextractor from training examples of

Chien-chi Chang; Chun-nan Hsu

1999-01-01

386

MindNet: Acquiring and Structuring Semantic Information from Text  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a lexical knowledge base constructed automatically from the definitions and example sentences in two machine-readable dictionaries (MRDs), MindNet embodies several features that distinguish it from prior work with MRDs. It is, however, more than this static resource alone. MindNet represents a general methodology for acquiring, structuring, accessing, and exploiting semantic information from natural language text. This paper provides an

Stephen D. Richardson; William B. Dolan; Lucy Vanderwende

1998-01-01

387

Meta-evaluation of Machine Translation Using Parallel Legal Texts  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we report our recent work on the evaluation of a number of popular automatic evaluation metrics for machine\\u000a translation using parallel legal texts. The evaluation is carried out, following a recognized evaluation protocol, to assess\\u000a the reliability, the strengths and weaknesses of these evaluation metrics in terms of their correlation with human judgment\\u000a of translation quality. The

Billy Tak-ming Wong; Chunyu Kit

2009-01-01

388

Text mining for technology monitoring  

Microsoft Academic Search

A considerable part of scientific and technological knowledge is coded in writing. In this context, automated text categorization can be regarded as a promising tool particularly for patent data analysis. In a real-life example, we show that automated text categorization can closely resemble the time-consuming categorisation job of an expert. By comparing different algorithms we reveal systematic differences in their

Thorsten Teichert; Marc-Andre Mittermayer

2002-01-01

389

TES: A Text Extraction System.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes how TES, a text extraction system, is able to electronically retrieve a set of sentences from a document to form an indicative abstract. Discusses various text abstraction techniques and related work in the area, provides an overview of the TES system, and compares system results against manually produced abstracts. (LAM)

Goh, A.; Hui, S. C.

1996-01-01

390

Full Text Database Retrieval Performance.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study compares results of searching full text of journal articles available on standard inverted file systems with searching of various parts of a document's surrogate. Relative recall and precision ratios for four search methods (full text, abstract, controlled vocabulary, bibliographic union) are reported. Search topics are appended. (14…

Tenopir, Carol

1985-01-01

391

Text, Topos, and Mental Models.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigates how readers use predication for the interpretation of referents in text and to develop a coherent model of the events described in text. Illustrates how two types of predication (scalar copredication and antipredication) induce readers to disambiguate the referents of definite noun phrases in essentially the opposite way, with…

Jarvella, Robert J.; And Others

1995-01-01

392

Text detection in video frames  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we present the state of the art for detecting text in images and video frames and propose an edge-based algorithm for artificial text detection in video frames. First, an edge map is created using the Canny edge detector. Then, morphological filtering is used, based on geometrical constraints, in order to connect the vertical edges and discard false

M. Anthimopoulos; B. Gatos; I. Pratikakis

393

Text Messaging During Simulated Driving  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: This research aims to identify the impact of text messaging on simulated driving performance. Background: In the past decade, a number of on-road, epidemiological, and simulator-based studies reported the negative impact of talking on a cell phone on driving behavior. However, the impact of text messaging on simulated driving performance is still not fully understood. Method: Forty participants engaged

Frank A. Drews; Hina Yazdani; Celeste N. Godfrey; Joel M. Cooper; David L. Strayer

2009-01-01

394

Text mining for systems biology.  

PubMed

Scientific communication in biomedicine is, by and large, still text based. Text mining technologies for the automated extraction of useful biomedical information from unstructured text that can be directly used for systems biology modelling have been substantially improved over the past few years. In this review, we underline the importance of named entity recognition and relationship extraction as fundamental approaches that are relevant to systems biology. Furthermore, we emphasize the role of publicly organized scientific benchmarking challenges that reflect the current status of text-mining technology and are important in moving the entire field forward. Given further interdisciplinary development of systems biology-orientated ontologies and training corpora, we expect a steadily increasing impact of text-mining technology on systems biology in the future. PMID:24070668

Fluck, Juliane; Hofmann-Apitius, Martin

2014-02-01

395

Automatic programming of simulation models  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objective of automatic programming is to improve the overall environment for describing the program. This improved environment is realized by a reduction in the amount of detail that the programmer needs to know and is exposed to. Furthermore, this improved environment is achieved by a specification language that is more natural to the user's problem domain and to the user's way of thinking and looking at the problem. The goal of this research is to apply the concepts of automatic programming (AP) to modeling discrete event simulation system. Specific emphasis is on the design and development of simulation tools to assist the modeler define or construct a model of the system and to then automatically write the corresponding simulation code in the target simulation language, GPSS/PC. A related goal is to evaluate the feasibility of various languages for constructing automatic programming simulation tools.

Schroer, Bernard J.; Tseng, Fan T.; Zhang, Shou X.; Dwan, Wen S.

1988-01-01

396

Automatic Classification in Information Retrieval.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Addresses the application of automatic classification methods to the problems associated with computerized document retrieval. Different kinds of classifications are described, and both document and term clustering methods are discussed. References and notes are provided. (Author/JD)

van Rijsbergen, C. J.

1978-01-01

397

Automatic Light Gas Gun Development.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Work was continued toward the development of an automatic hypervelocity weapon based on the principles and techniques of the laboratory light gas gun. With the basic feasibility of the firing scheme established by the preceding work phase, effort was aime...

1964-01-01

398

Attention, Automaticity and Priority Learning.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

It is widely held that there is a distinction between attentive and automatic cognitive processing. In research on attention using visual search tasks, the detection performance of human subjects in consistent mapping paradigms is generally regarded as in...

P. Gupta W. Schneider

1991-01-01

399

ADMAP (automatic data manipulation program)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Instructions are presented on the use of ADMAP, (automatic data manipulation program) an aerospace data manipulation computer program. The program was developed to aid in processing, reducing, plotting, and publishing electric propulsion trajectory data generated by the low thrust optimization program, HILTOP. The program has the option of generating SC4020 electric plots, and therefore requires the SC4020 routines to be available at excution time (even if not used). Several general routines are present, including a cubic spline interpolation routine, electric plotter dash line drawing routine, and single parameter and double parameter sorting routines. Many routines are tailored for the manipulation and plotting of electric propulsion data, including an automatic scale selection routine, an automatic curve labelling routine, and an automatic graph titling routine. Data are accepted from either punched cards or magnetic tape.

Mann, F. I.

1971-01-01

400

ADMAP (Automatic Data Manipulation Program).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Instructions are presented on the use of ADMAP, (automatic data manipulation program) an aerospace data manipulation computer program. The program was developed to aid in processing, reducing, plotting, and publishing electric propulsion trajectory data g...

F. I. Mann

1971-01-01

401

Suggestion overrides automatic audiovisual integration.  

PubMed

Cognitive scientists routinely distinguish between controlled and automatic mental processes. Through learning, practice, and exposure, controlled processes can become automatic; however, whether automatic processes can become deautomatized - recuperated under the purview of control - remains unclear. Here we show that a suggestion derails a deeply ingrained process involving involuntary audiovisual integration. We compared the performance of highly versus less hypnotically suggestible individuals (HSIs versus LSIs) in a classic McGurk paradigm - a perceptual illusion task demonstrating the influence of visual facial movements on auditory speech percepts. Following a posthypnotic suggestion to prioritize auditory input, HSIs but not LSIs manifested fewer illusory auditory perceptions and correctly identified more auditory percepts. Our findings demonstrate that a suggestion deautomatized a ballistic audiovisual process in HSIs. In addition to guiding our knowledge regarding theories and mechanisms of automaticity, the present findings pave the road to a more scientific understanding of top-down effects and multisensory integration. PMID:24398260

Déry, Catherine; Campbell, Natasha K J; Lifshitz, Michael; Raz, Amir

2014-02-01

402

Progress of DORIS Automatic Scaling.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A major component of the Digital Oblique Remote Ionospheric Sensing program (DORIS) is the development of an automatic oblique ionogram scaling algorithm. The nature of the variations that have been observed in oblique ionograms collected to data has requ...

B. W. Reinisch K. Chandra W. S. Kuklinski

1989-01-01

403

An Automatic Electric Annealing Furnace.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A novel technique for annealing corundum crystals consists in rapidly cooling the crystals to room temperature after growth is complete, transferring them to an automatically programmed electric furnace and reheating them to 1980 deg. C, and then cooling ...

J. A. Adamski W. A. Yasinski

1968-01-01

404

Intelligent Text Retrieval and Knowledge Acquisition from Texts for NASA Applications: Preprocessing Issues  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this contract, which is a component of a larger contract that we plan to submit in the coming months, we plan to study the preprocessing issues which arise in applying natural language processing techniques to NASA-KSC problem reports. The goals of this work will be to deal with the issues of: a) automatically obtaining the problem reports from NASA-KSC data bases, b) the format of these reports and c) the conversion of these reports to a format that will be adequate for our natural language software. At the end of this contract, we expect that these problems will be solved and that we will be ready to apply our natural language software to a text database of over 1000 KSC problem reports.

2001-01-01

405

Why is Light Text Harder to Read Than Dark Text?  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Scharff and Ahumada (2002, 2003) measured text legibility for light text and dark text. For paragraph readability and letter identification, responses to light text were slower and less accurate for a given contrast. Was this polarity effect (1) an artifact of our apparatus, (2) a physiological difference in the separate pathways for positive and negative contrast or (3) the result of increased experience with dark text on light backgrounds? To rule out the apparatus-artifact hypothesis, all data were collected on one monitor. Its luminance was measured at all levels used, and the spatial effects of the monitor were reduced by pixel doubling and quadrupling (increasing the viewing distance to maintain constant angular size). Luminances of vertical and horizontal square-wave gratings were compared to assess display speed effects. They existed, even for 4-pixel-wide bars. Tests for polarity asymmetries in display speed were negative. Increased experience might develop full letter templates for dark text, while recognition of light letters is based on component features. Earlier, an observer ran all conditions at one polarity and then switched. If dark and light letters were intermixed, the observer might use component features on all trials and do worse on the dark letters, reducing the polarity effect. We varied polarity blocking (completely blocked, alternating smaller blocks, and intermixed blocks). Letter identification responses times showed polarity effects at all contrasts and display resolution levels. Observers were also more accurate with higher contrasts and more pixels per degree. Intermixed blocks increased the polarity effect by reducing performance on the light letters, but only if the randomized block occurred prior to the nonrandomized block. Perhaps observers tried to use poorly developed templates, or they did not work as hard on the more difficult items. The experience hypothesis and the physiological gain hypothesis remain viable explanations.

Scharff, Lauren V.; Ahumada, Albert J.

2005-01-01

406

Automaticity and the anxiety disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experimental psychopathologists have increasingly relied upon the concepts and methods of cognitive psychology in their attempts to elucidate information-processing biases associated with anxiety disorders. Many of these biases presumably constitute instances of automatic, not strategic, processing. But research has shown that attributes of automaticity (i.e. capacity-free, unconsious, involuntary) do not all apply to selective processing of threat associated with anxiety.

Richard J. McNally

1995-01-01

407

Networking automatic test equipment environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Automatic test equipment (ATE) is a term that, in its broadest meaning, indicates a generic system capable of performing measurements in an automatic or semiautomated (human-assisted) way. Years ago, this term was used specifically to refer to an automated measurement system employed to test the functionality of some electronic device-under-test (DUT). Typical applications were in the manufacturing area, where ATE

L. Benetazzo; M. Bertocco; C. Narduzzi

2005-01-01

408

Operating safety of automatic objects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Operating-safety assurance for automatic objects (aircraft, spacecraft, and underwater vehicles) is considered in the framework of safety-automata theory and automatic-control considerations. The interaction between the operator and the safety-assurance facilities is considered. Methodological recommendations are presented on the specification of reliability requirements for the vehicles considered, as well as on automata synthesis and analysis considerations, test planning, and the analysis of test results.

Maiorov, Anatolii Vladimirovich; Moskatov, Genrikh Karlovich; Shibanov, Georgii Petrovich

409

Automatic safety rod for reactors  

DOEpatents

An automatic safety rod for a nuclear reactor containing neutron absorbing material and designed to be inserted into a reactor core after a loss-of-core flow. Actuation is based upon either a sudden decrease in core pressure drop or the pressure drop decreases below a predetermined minimum value. The automatic control rod includes a pressure regulating device whereby a controlled decrease in operating pressure due to reduced coolant flow does not cause the rod to drop into the core.

Germer, John H. (San Jose, CA)

1988-01-01

410

Automatic transmission apparatus  

SciTech Connect

An automatic transmission apparatus is described comprising: an input shaft, an output shaft disposed behind and coaxially with the input shaft, a counter shaft disposed substantially parallel to both of the input and output shafts, a first gear train including a first gear provided on the input shaft and a second gear provided on the counter shaft to be meshed with the first gear so as to form a first power transmitting path, first friction clutch means operative selectively to make and break the first power transmitting path, a second gear train including a third gear provided through one-way clutch means on a rear end portion of the input shaft and a fourth gear provided on the counter shaft to be meshed with the third gear so as to form a second power transmitting path, second friction clutch means provided at a front end portion of the output shaft, a third gear train including a fifth gear provided on a rear end portion of the counter shaft and a sixth gear provided on the output shaft to be meshed with the fifth gear so as to form a fourth power transmitting path, third friction clutch means operative selectively to make and break the fourth power transmitting path, fourth friction clutch means operative selectively to make and break the second power transmitting path, a fourth gear train including a seventh gear provided on the counter shaft and an eighth gear provided on the output shaft and fifth friction clutch means operative selectively to make and break the fifth power transmitting path.

Hiketa, M.

1987-10-06

411

Social Studies: Texts and Supplements.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This review of selected social studies texts, series, and supplements, mainly for the secondary level, includes a special section examining eight titles on warfare and terrorism for grades 4-12. (SJL)

Curriculum Review, 1979

1979-01-01

412

New Approach to Text Understanding.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper first briefly describes the architecture of PLUM, BBN's text processing system, and then reports on some experiments evaluating the effectiveness of the design at the component level. Three features are unusual in PLUM's architecture: a domain ...

D. Ayuso H. Fox R. Ingria R. Weischedel S. Boisen

1992-01-01

413

Evaluation of Text Retrieval Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evaluation is one of the main driving forces in studies and developments related to text retrieval. It is a basic tool for the comparison of efficiencies of alternative approaches. In this paper, the state of the art in the field of evaluation of text retrieval systems is surveyed. Two basic—system-oriented and user-oriented— paradigms, which are commonly accepted in this field,

I. E. Kuralenok; I. S. Nekrestyanov

2002-01-01

414

Text Mining in Social Networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Social networks are rich in various kinds of contents such as text and multimedia. The ability to apply text mining algorithms effectively in the context of text data is critical for a wide variety of applications. Social networks require text mining algorithms for a wide variety of applications such as keyword search, classification, and clustering. While search and classification are well known applications for a wide variety of scenarios, social networks have a much richer structure both in terms of text and links. Much of the work in the area uses either purely the text content or purely the linkage structure. However, many recent algorithms use a combination of linkage and content information for mining purposes. In many cases, it turns out that the use of a combination of linkage and content information provides much more effective results than a system which is based purely on either of the two. This paper provides a survey of such algorithms, and the advantages observed by using such algorithms in different scenarios. We also present avenues for future research in this area.

Aggarwal, Charu C.; Wang, Haixun

415

Text Format, Text Comprehension, and Related Reader Variables  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This investigation explored relationships between format of text (electronic or print-based) and reading comprehension of adolescent readers. Also in question were potential influences on comprehension from related measures including academic placement of participants, gender, prior knowledge of the content, and overall reading ability. Influences…

Nichols, Jodi L.

2009-01-01

416

Text Detection and Translation from Natural Scenes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The authors present a system for automatic extraction and interpretation of signs from a natural scene. The system is capable of capturing images, detecting and recognizing signs, and translating them into a target language. The translation can be display...

J. Gao J. Yang Y. Zhang A. Waibel

2001-01-01

417

Text Classification using String Kernels  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a novel approach for categorizing text\\u000a documents based on the use of a special kernel. The kernel\\u000a is an inner product in the feature space generated by all\\u000a subsequences of length k. A subsequence is any ordered\\u000a sequence of k characters occurring in the text though not\\u000a necessarily contiguously. The subsequences are weighted by\\u000a an exponentially decaying factor

Huma Lodhi; Craig Saunders; John Shawe-Taylor; Nello Cristianini; Christopher J. C. H. Watkins

2002-01-01

418

A comprehensive method for multilingual video text detection, localization, and extraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Text in video is a very compact and accurate clue for video indexing and summarization. Most video text detection and extraction methods hold assumptions on text color, background contrast, and font style. Moreover, few methods can handle multilingual text well since different languages may have quite different appearances. This paper performs a detailed analysis of multilingual text characteristics, including English

Michael R. Lyu; Jiqiang Song; Min Cai

2005-01-01

419

Automatic addressing of telemetry channels  

SciTech Connect

To simplify telemetry software development, a design that eliminates the use of software instructions to address telemetry channels is being implemented in our telemetry systems. By using the direct memory access function of the RCA 1802 microprocessor, once initialized, addressing of telemetry channels is automatic, requiring no software. In this report the automatic addressing of telemetry channels (AATC) scheme is compared with an earlier technique that uses software. In comparison, the automatic addressing scheme effectively increases the software capability of the microprocessor, simplifies telemetry dataset encoding, eases dataset changes, and may decrease the electronic hardware count. The software addressing technique uses at least three instructions to address each channel. The automatic addressing technique requires no software instructions. Instead, addressing is performed using a direct memory access cycle stealing technique. Application of an early version of this addressing scheme to telemetry Type 1, Dataset 3, opened up the capability to execute 400 more microprocessor instructions than could be executed using the software addressing scheme. The present version of the automatic addressing scheme uses a section of PROM reserved for telemetry channel addresses. Encoding for a dataset is accomplished by programming the PROM with channel addresses in the order they are to be monitored. The telemetry Type 2 software was written using the software addressing scheme, then rewritten using the automatic addressing scheme. While 1000 bytes of memory were required by the software addressing scheme, the automatic addressing scheme required only 396 bytes. A number of prototypes using AATC have been built and tested in a full telemetry lab unit. All have worked successfully.

Lucero, L A

1982-08-01

420

Context-sensitive keyword selection using text data mining  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Most information retrieval systems rely on the user to provide a set of keywords that the retrieved documents should contain. However, when the objective is to search for documents that is similar to a given document, the system has to choose the keywords from that document first. Automatic selection of keywords is not a trivial task as one word may be a keyword in one context but a very common word in others, and require significant domain specific knowledge. In this paper we describe a method for choosing keywords from a document within a given corpus automatically using text data-mining technique. The key idea is to score the words within the document based on the clustering result of the entire corpus. We applied the scheme to a Software Trouble Report (STR) corpus and obtained highly relevant keywords and search result.

Li, Sai-Ming; Seereeram, Sanjeev; Mehra, Raman K.; Miles, Chris

2002-03-01

421

Ontologies Improve Text Document Clustering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Text document clustering plays an important role in pro- viding intuitive navigation and browsing mechanisms by or- ganizing large sets of documents into a small number of meaningful clusters. The bag of words representation used for these clustering methods is often unsatisfactory as it ig- nores relationships between important terms that do not co- occur literally. In order to deal

Andreas Hotho; Steffen Staab; Gerd Stumme

2003-01-01

422

Predictive Encoding in Text Compression.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents three text compression methods of increasing power and evaluates each based on the trade-off between compression gain and processing time. The advantages of using hash coding for speed and optimal arithmetic coding to successor information for compression gain are discussed. (26 references) (Author/CLB)

Raita, Timo; Teuhola, Jukka

1989-01-01

423

Clustering Concept Hierarchies from Text  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a novel approach to learning taxonomies or concept hierarchies from text. The approach is based on Formal Concept Analysis, a method mainly used for the analysis of data, i.e. for investigating and processing explicitly given information. Our approach is based on the distributional hypothesis, i.e. that nouns or terms are similar to the extent to which they share

Philipp Cimiano; Andreas Hotho

424

Solar Concepts: A Background Text.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This text is designed to provide teachers, students, and the general public with an overview of key solar energy concepts. Various energy terms are defined and explained. Basic thermodynamic laws are discussed. Alternative energy production is described in the context of the present energy situation. Described are the principal contemporary solar…

Gorham, Jonathan W.

425

Tobermorite group of silicates (Text)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This document is part of Subvolume I4 'Inosilicates' of Volume 27 'Magnetic properties of non-metallic inorganic compounds based on transition elements' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group III Condensed Matter. It contains the data of the tobermorite group of silicates (Text)

Burzo, E.

426

Text Generator for Computer Tutors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intelligent Tutoring Systems (ITS) refer to computer applications that assist learners through coaching, teaching, testing, guiding exploration, and providing analysis. Though different modalities have been used to present output based on the specific domain and goals of the system, textual output remains to be predominant. Current researches in the field of ITS explore the use of text generators as the

Ethel Ong

427

Teaching Drama: Text and Performance.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Because playwrights are limited to textual elements that an audience can hear and see--dialogue and movement--much of a drama's tension and interest lie in the subtext, the characters' emotions and motives implied but not directly expressed by the text itself. The teacher must help students construct what in a novel the author may have made more…

Brown, Joanne

428

Planning Text for Advisory Dialogues  

Microsoft Academic Search

Explanation is an interactive process requiring a dialogue between advice-giver and advice-seeker. In this paper, we argue that in order to participate in a dialogue with its users, a generation system must be capable of reasoning about its own utterances and therefore must maintain a rich representation of the responses it produces. We present a text planner that constructs a

Johanna D. Moore; Cécile L. Paris

1989-01-01

429

Reviving "Walden": Mining the Text.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes how the author and her high school English students begin their study of Thoreau's "Walden" by mining the text for quotations to inspire their own writing and discussion on the topic, "How does Thoreau speak to you or how could he speak to someone you know?" (SR)

Hewitt Julia

2000-01-01

430

A Visually Oriented Text Editor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

HERMAN employs Evans & Sutherland Picture System 2 to provide screenoriented editing capability for DEC PDP-11 series computer. Text altered by visual indication of characters changed. Group of HERMAN commands provides for higher level operations. HERMAN provides special features for editing FORTRAN source programs.

Gomez, J. E.

1985-01-01

431

Text-independent speaker identification  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe current approaches to text-independent speaker identification based on probabilistic modeling techniques. The probabilistic approaches have largely supplanted methods based on comparisons of long-term feature averages. The probabilistic approaches have an important and basic dichotomy into nonparametric and parametric probability models. Nonparametric models have the advantage of being potentially more accurate models (though possibly more fragile) while parametric models

H. Gish; M. Schmidt

1994-01-01

432

Extractive summarisation of legal texts  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe research carried out as part of a text summarisation project for the legal domain for which we use a new XML corpus of judgments of the UK House of Lords. These judgments represent a particularly important part of public discourse due to the role that precedents play in English law. We present experimental results using a range of

Ben Hachey; Claire Grover

2006-01-01

433

Discovering Trends in Text Databases  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe a system we developed for identifyingtrends in text documents collected over a period oftime. Trends can be used, for example, to discoverthat a company is shifting interests from one domainto another. Our system uses several data mining techniquesin novel ways and demonstrates a method inwhich to visualize the trends. We also give experiencesfrom applying this system to the

Brian Lent; Rakesh Agrawal; Ramakrishnan Srikant

1997-01-01

434

Boosting based text and non-text region classification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Layout analysis is a crucial process for document image understanding and information retrieval. Document layout analysis depends on page segmentation and block classification. This paper describes an algorithm for extracting blocks from document images and a boosting based method to classify those blocks as machine printed text or not. The feature vector which is fed into the boosting classifier consists of a four direction run-length histogram, and connected components features in both background and foreground. Using a combination of features through a boosting classifier, we obtain an accuracy of 99.5% on our test collection.

Xie, Binqing; Agam, Gady

2011-01-01

435

An evaluation of an automatic markup system  

SciTech Connect

One predominant application of OCR is the recognition of full text documents for information retrieval. Modern retrieval systems exploit both the textual content of the document as well as its structure. The relationship between textual content and character accuracy have been the focus of recent studies. It has been shown that due to the redundancies in text, average precision and recall is not heavily affected by OCR character errors. What is not fully known is to what extent OCR devices can provide reliable information that can be used to capture the structure of the document. In this paper, the authors present a preliminary report on the design and evaluation of a system to automatically markup technical documents, based on information provided by an OCR device. The device the authors use differs from traditional OCR devices in that it not only performs optical character recognition, but also provides detailed information about page layout, word geometry, and font usage. Their automatic markup program, which they call Autotag, uses this information, combined with dictionary, lookup and content analysis, to identify structural components of the text. These include the document title, author information, abstract, sections, section titles, paragraphs, sentences, and de-hyphenated words. A visual examination of the hardcopy will be compared to the output of their markup system to determine its correctness.

Taghva, K.; Condit, A.; Borsack, J.

1995-04-01

436

Text-mining and information-retrieval services for molecular biology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Text-mining in molecular biology - defined as the automatic extraction of information about genes, proteins and their functional relationships from text documents - has emerged as a hybrid discipline on the edges of the fields of information science, bioinformatics and computational linguistics. A range of text-mining applications have been developed recently that will improve access to knowledge for biologists and

Martin Krallinger; Alfonso Valencia

2005-01-01

437

Multilingual Authoring Using Feedback Texts  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are obvious reasons for trying to automate the production of multilingual documentation, especially for routine subject-matter in restricted domains (e.g. technical instructions). Two approaches have been adopted: Machine Translation (MT) of a source text, and Multilingual Natural Language Generation (M-NLG) from a knowledge base. For MT, information extraction is a major difficulty, since the meaning must be derived by

Richard Power; Donia Scott

1998-01-01

438

Price Theory: An Intermediate Text  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

David D. Friedman, Professor of Law at Santa Clara University, has made his textbook, "Price Theory: An Intermediate Text" available on the web. The book focuses on trying to teach students the "economic way of thinking" and the "analytical core of economics -- price theory." Topics covered include consumer choice, market structure and economic efficiency. Price Theory also contains chapters on less conventional topics such as the political marketplace, the economics of law and law breaking; and the economics of love and marriage.

Friedman, David D.

1990-01-01

439

Semantic Annotation of Complex Text Structures in Problem Reports  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Text analysis is important for effective information retrieval from databases where the critical information is embedded in text fields. Aerospace safety depends on effective retrieval of relevant and related problem reports for the purpose of trend analysis. The complex text syntax in problem descriptions has limited statistical text mining of problem reports. The presentation describes an intelligent tagging approach that applies syntactic and then semantic analysis to overcome this problem. The tags identify types of problems and equipment that are embedded in the text descriptions. The power of these tags is illustrated in a faceted searching and browsing interface for problem report trending that combines automatically generated tags with database code fields and temporal information.

Malin, Jane T.; Throop, David R.; Fleming, Land D.

2011-01-01

440

Automatic solution of thermal problems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is pointed out that the engineer or scientist is interested in obtaining results with a minimum of personal effort. In this connection, much attention has been given to the development of systems for the automatic solution of partial differential equations (PDEs), taking into account also the solution of ordinary differential equations (ODEs). The state of the art of software for PDE implies that there is a need for the development of new systems. Attention is given to the development of a new iterative system for the automatic solution of nonlinear PDEs. Equations, boundary conditions, order of approximation, and special instructions are specified by the user. The system, which is called ARIEL, automatically generates, compiles, loads, and executes a new program according to the specifications. The software for the PDEs is discussed and a description for ARIEL is provided.

Mikhailov, M. D.; Aladzhem, M. A.

441

Automatic rapid attachable warhead section  

DOEpatents

Disclosed are a method and apparatus for automatically selecting warheads or reentry vehicles from a storage area containing a plurality of types of warheads or reentry vehicles, automatically selecting weapon carriers from a storage area containing at least one type of weapon carrier, manipulating and aligning the selected warheads or reentry vehicles and weapon carriers, and automatically coupling the warheads or reentry vehicles with the weapon carriers such that coupling of improperly selected warheads or reentry vehicles with weapon carriers is inhibited. Such inhibition enhances safety of operations and is achieved by a number of means including computer control of the process of selection and coupling and use of connectorless interfaces capable of assuring that improperly selected items will be rejected or rendered inoperable prior to coupling. Also disclosed are a method and apparatus wherein the stated principles pertaining to selection, coupling and inhibition are extended to apply to any item-to-be-carried and any carrying assembly. 10 figures.

Trennel, A.J.

1994-05-10

442

Automatic rapid attachable warhead section  

DOEpatents

Disclosed are a method and apparatus for (1) automatically selecting warheads or reentry vehicles from a storage area containing a plurality of types of warheads or reentry vehicles, (2) automatically selecting weapon carriers from a storage area containing at least one type of weapon carrier, (3) manipulating and aligning the selected warheads or reentry vehicles and weapon carriers, and (4) automatically coupling the warheads or reentry vehicles with the weapon carriers such that coupling of improperly selected warheads or reentry vehicles with weapon carriers is inhibited. Such inhibition enhances safety of operations and is achieved by a number of means including computer control of the process of selection and coupling and use of connectorless interfaces capable of assuring that improperly selected items will be rejected or rendered inoperable prior to coupling. Also disclosed are a method and apparatus wherein the stated principles pertaining to selection, coupling and inhibition are extended to apply to any item-to-be-carried and any carrying assembly.

Trennel, Anthony J. (Albuquerque, NM) [Albuquerque, NM

1994-05-10

443

TEXT tokamak edge turbulence modeling  

SciTech Connect

Experimental results on the Texas Experimental Tokamak (TEXT) (Nucl. Technol./Fusion {bold 1}, 479 (1982)) and the Advanced Toroidal Facility (ATF) torsatron (Fusion Technol. {bold 10}, 179 (1986)) indicate that electrostatic fluctuations can explain the edge transport of particles and perhaps energy. Certain mechanisms for drive (radiation and ionization, as well as density and temperature gradients) and stabilization (velocity shear) are suggested by these results. The experimental fluctuation levels and turbulence characteristics can be reproduced by considering the nonlinear evolution of fluid-type equations, incorporating thermal and ionization drives.

Leboeuf, J.; Lee, D.K.; Carreras, B.A.; Dominguez, N.; Harris, J.H.; Hedrick, C.L.; Hidalgo, C.; Holmes, J.A.; Ruiter, J. (Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (USA)); Diamond, P.H.; Ware, A.S. (University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093 (USA)); Ritz, C.P.; Wootton, A.J.; Rowan, W.L.; Bravenec, R.V. (Fusion Research Center, University of Texas, Austin, Texas 78712 (USA))

1991-08-01

444

Primary Students and Informational Texts  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Anyone who has spent time looking into science books with young children has no doubt experienced the endless questions that the information and visuals in the books can stimulate. Can snakes climb trees? How do frogs hide from predators? Why do volcanoes erupt? Books prompt questions, which can lead to further reading about and investigations of science topics. Whether from a textbook or a nonfiction trade book, informational text can be the fuel that sparks curiosity about and interest in science, thus contributing to the development of science attitudes.

Yopp, Hallie K.; Yopp, Ruth H.

2006-11-01

445

Enriching text with images and colored light  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present an unsupervised method to enrich textual applications with relevant images and colors. The images are collected by querying large image repositories and subsequently the colors are computed using image processing. A prototype system based on this method is presented where the method is applied to song lyrics. In combination with a lyrics synchronization algorithm the system produces a rich multimedia experience. In order to identify terms within the text that may be associated with images and colors, we select noun phrases using a part of speech tagger. Large image repositories are queried with these terms. Per term representative colors are extracted using the collected images. Hereto, we either use a histogram-based or a mean shift-based algorithm. The representative color extraction uses the non-uniform distribution of the colors found in the large repositories. The images that are ranked best by the search engine are displayed on a screen, while the extracted representative colors are rendered on controllable lighting devices in the living room. We evaluate our method by comparing the computed colors to standard color representations of a set of English color terms. A second evaluation focuses on the distance in color between a queried term in English and its translation in a foreign language. Based on results from three sets of terms, a measure of suitability of a term for color extraction based on KL Divergence is proposed. Finally, we compare the performance of the algorithm using either the automatically indexed repository of Google Images and the manually annotated Flickr.com. Based on the results of these experiments, we conclude that using the presented method we can compute the relevant color for a term using a large image repository and image processing.

Sekulovski, Dragan; Geleijnse, Gijs; Kater, Bram; Korst, Jan; Pauws, Steffen; Clout, Ramon

2008-01-01

446

Grinding Parts For Automatic Welding  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Rollers guide grinding tool along prospective welding path. Skatelike fixture holds rotary grinder or file for machining large-diameter rings or ring segments in preparation for welding. Operator grasps handles to push rolling fixture along part. Rollers maintain precise dimensional relationship so grinding wheel cuts precise depth. Fixture-mounted grinder machines surface to quality sufficient for automatic welding; manual welding with attendant variations and distortion not necessary. Developed to enable automatic welding of parts, manual welding of which resulted in weld bead permeated with microscopic fissures.

Burley, Richard K.; Hoult, William S.

1989-01-01

447

Automatic interpretation of Schlumberger soundings  

SciTech Connect

The automatic interpretation of apparent resistivity curves from horizontally layered earth models is carried out by the curve-fitting method in three steps: (1) the observed VES data are interpolated at equidistant points of electrode separations on the logarithmic scale by using the cubic spline function, (2) the layer parameters which are resistivities and depths are predicted from the sampled apparent resistivity values by SALS system program and (3) the theoretical VES curves from the models are calculated by Ghosh's linear filter method using the Zhody's computer program. Two soundings taken over Takenoyu geothermal area were chosen to test the procedures of the automatic interpretation.

Ushijima, K.

1980-09-01

448

Color aftereffect contingent on text.  

PubMed

During adaptation, two different letter strings (each five or six letters) were presented to subjects alternately, one in green and the other in magenta. The extent to which these letter strings subsequently elicited a color aftereffect was assessed. In different experiments, the chromatic letter strings consisted of words and nonwords. The results indicated that letter strings that form English words can contingently elicit a color aftereffect. This was the case even when the words were anagrams. There was no evidence that nonword letter strings could contingently elicit such an aftereffect, even when the nonwords conformed to English orthography. The results are relevant to understanding other contingent color aftereffects (McCollough effects), illusory color noted by computer operators who work at monochrome (green or amber) displays, and the processing of text. PMID:2762097

Allan, L G; Siegel, S; Collins, J C; MacQueen, G M

1989-08-01

449

Corpus of Electronic Texts (CELT)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Developed at University College Cork, the Corpus of Electronic Texts project is intended "to bring the wealth of Irish literary and historical culture (in Irish, Latin, Anglo-Norman French, and English) to the Internet in a rigorously scholarly project." Additionally, the project is designed to be utilized by a wide group of interested parties, including students, academics, and the general public. Visitors may peruse the documents by language of original publication, or by viewing a complete list of all the works currently available (many in HTML or pdf format) from the project's website. Some of the rather compelling works available here include the complete works of Oscar Wilde, the political writings of Michael Collins, and various historical documents regarding the struggle for Irish independence. [KMG

450

PEAKS - A system for the automatic evaluation of voice and speech disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a novel system for the automatic evaluation of speech and voice disorders. The system can be accessed via the internet platform-independently. The patient reads a text or names pictures. His or her speech is then analyzed by automatic speech recognition and prosodic analysis. For patients who had their larynx removed due to cancer and for children with cleft

Andreas Maier; Tino Haderlein; Ulrich Eysholdt; Frank Rosanowski; Anton Batliner; Maria Schuster; Elmar Nöth

2009-01-01

451

Problem of Automatic Thesaurus Construction (K Voprosu Ob Avtomaticheskom Postroenii Tezarusa). Subject Country: USSR.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With respect to automatic indexing and information retrieval, statistical analysis of word usages in written texts is finding broad application in the solution of a number of problems. One of these problems is compiling a thesaurus on a digital computer. Using two methods, a comparative experiment in automatic thesaurus construction is presented.…

Ivanova, I. S.

452

Old and new challenges in automatic plagiarism detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Automatic methods of measuring similarity between program code and natural language text pairs have been used for many years to assist humans in detecting plagiarism. For example, over the past thirty years or so, a vast number of approaches have been proposed for detecting likely plagiarism between programs written by Computer Science students. However, more recently, approaches to identifying similarities

Paul Clough; Regent Court

2003-01-01

453

Automatic Classification of Executable Code for Computer Virus Detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Automatic knowledge discovery methodologies has proved to be a verystrong tool which is currently widely used for the analysis of large datasets, beingproduced by organizations worldwide. However, this analysis is mostly done forrelatively simple and structured data, such as transactional or financial records.The real frontier for current KDD research seems to be analysis of unstructureddata, such as fi'eeform text, web

Pawel Kierski; Michal Okoniewski; Piotr Gawrysiak

2003-01-01

454

Automatic Labeling of Document Clusters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Automatically labeling document clusters with words which indicate their topics is difficult to do well. The most commonly used method, labeling with the most frequent words in the clusters, ends up using many words that are virtually void of descriptive power even after traditional stop words are removed. Another method, labeling with the most predictive words, often includes rather obscure

Alexandrin Popescul; Lyle H. Ungar

2000-01-01

455

Panic bars and automatic brakes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This publication illustrates the need for installation of panic bars that will permit rapid deenergization of equipment in emergencies and automatic emergency brakes on self-propelled electric face equipment used in coal mines. The publication contains drawings depicting actual fatal accidents that have occurred in underground coal mines which these safety devices could have prevented. Also included are drawings and technical

1975-01-01

456

Passive Parallel Automatic Minimalist Processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research for which the idea that many basic cognitive processes can be described as fast, parallel, and automatic is reviewed. Memory retrieval\\/decision processes have often been ignored in the cognitive literature. However, in some cases, computation- ally complex processes can be replaced with simple passive processes. Cue-dependent retrieval from memory provides a straightforward example of how encoding, memory, and retrieval

Roger Ratcliff; Gail McKoon

457

Automatic agar tray inoculation device  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Automatic agar tray inoculation device is simple in design and foolproof in operation. It employs either conventional inoculating loop or cotton swab for uniform inoculation of agar media, and it allows technician to carry on with other activities while tray is being inoculated.

Wilkins, J. R.; Mills, S. M.

1972-01-01

458

Automatic speaker verification: A review  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relation of speaker verification to other pattern-recognition problems in speech is discussed, especially the distinction between speaker verification and speaker identification. The prospects for automatic speaker verification, its settings and applications are outlined. The techniques, evaluations, and implementations of various proposed speaker recognition systems are reviewed with special emphasis on issues peculiar to speaker verification. Two large-scale operating systems

A. E. Rosenberg; L. R. Rabiner; K. N. Stevens; C. E. Williams; J. R. Carbonell; B. Woods

1976-01-01

459

Automatic precision measurement of spectrograms  

Microsoft Academic Search

A fully automatic comparator has been designed and implemented to determine precision wavelengths from high-resolution spectrograms. The system consists of a comparator, slightly modified for simultaneous data acquisition from two parallel scans of the spectrogram, interfaced to a minicomputer. The control software embodies three innovations of special interest: (1) data acquired from two parallel scans are compared and used to

B. A. Palmer; C. J. Sansonetti; K. L. Andrew

1978-01-01

460

Automatic Number Plate Recognition System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Automatic recognition of car license plate number became a very important in our daily life because of the unlimited increase of cars and transportation systems which make it impossible to be fully managed and monitored by humans, examples are so many like traffic monitoring, tracking stolen cars, managing parking toll, red-light violation enforcement, border and customs checkpoints. Yet it's a

Amr Badr; Mohamed Mahmoud Abd El-Wahab; Ahmed M. Thabet

2011-01-01

461

Automatically classifying emails into activities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Email-based activity management systems promise to give users better tools for managing increasing volumes of email, by organizing email according to a user's activities. Current activity management systems do not automatically classify incoming messages by the activity to which they belong, in- stead relying on simple heuristics (such as message threads), or asking the user to manually classify incoming messages

Mark Dredze; Tessa A. Lau; Nicholas Kushmerick

2006-01-01

462

Automatic calculation in quarkonium physics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this report, an automatic calculating package based on REDUCE and RLISP, FDC, is introduced, especially its one-loop calculation part and its special treatment for quarkonium physics. With FDC, many works have been completed, most of them are very important in solve/clarify current puzzles in quarkonium physics.

Gong, Bin; Wan, Lu-Ping; Wang, Jian-Xiong; Zhang, Hong-Fei

2014-06-01

463

Automatically Tuned Linear Algebra Software  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes an approach for the automatic generation and optimization of numericalsoftware for processors with deep memory hierarchies and pipelined functional units.The production of such software for machines ranging from desktop workstations to embeddedprocessors can be a tedious and time consuming process. The work described here canhelp in automating much of this process. We will concentrate our efforts on

R. Clint Whaley

1997-01-01

464

Automatically tuned linear algebra software  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes an approach for the automatic generation and optimization of numerical software for processors with deep memory hierarchies and pipelined functional units. The production of such software for machines ranging from desktop workstations to embedded processors can be a tedious and time consuming process. The work described here can help in automating much of this process. We will

R. Clint Whaley; Jack J. Dongarra

1998-01-01

465

On some automatic continuity theorems  

Microsoft Academic Search

We give characterizations of unital uniform topological algebras and\\u000asaturated locally multiplicatively convex algebras by means of\\u000amultiplicative linear functionals. Some automatic continuity theorems in\\u000aadvertibly complete uniform topological algebras are extended to a larger\\u000aclass of algebras. Consequences and applications are given.

M. El. Azhari

2003-01-01

466

Autopilot: automatic data center management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microsoft is rapidly increasing the number of large-scale web services that it operates. Services such as Windows Live Search and Windows Live Mail operate from data centers that contain tens or hundreds of thousands of computers, and it is essential that these data centers function reliably with minimal human intervention. This paper describes the first version of Autopilot, the automatic

Michael Isard

2007-01-01

467

Automatization research on form processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes an integrated set of solution blue print on computer aided automatic form processing. By using the linear whole block moving method in each vertical segment, a new fast algorithm is put forth to detect and rectify the slanting image. To distinguish the different form types, which is the foundation of steps of locating the form fields, filtering

Delie Ming; Yulong Tian; Jianguo Liu; Jinwen Tian

2001-01-01

468

Automatic aircraft recognition and identification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aircraft recognition remains a challenging problem despite a great deal of effort to automate the recognition process. The majority of the aircraft recognition methods assume the successful isolation of the aircraft silhouette from the background, and only a few have actually addressed real world concerns, such as occlusion, clutter and shadows. This thesis presents an automatic aircraft recognition system, which

Jijoong Kim

2005-01-01

469

Automatic recognition of film genres  

Microsoft Academic Search

Film genres in digital video can be detected automatically. In a three-step approach we analyze first the syntactic properties of digital films: color statistics, cut detection, camera motion, object motion and audio. In a second step we use these statistics to derive at a more abstract level film style attributes such as camera panning and zooming, speech and music. These

Stephan Fischer; Rainer Lienhart; Wolfgang Effelsberg

1995-01-01

470

The Virgo automatic alignment system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The automatic alignment system of the Virgo interferometer differs substantially from those used in similar experiments, since it uses a variant of the Anderson technique. This implies a completely different control topology with respect to other detectors, and the main feature is a strong coupling of different degrees of freedom in the optical signals. It also provides two extra output

F. Acernese; P. Amico; M. Al-Shourbagy; S. Aoudia; S. Avino; D. Babusci; G. Ballardin; R. Barillé; F. Barone; L. Barsotti; M. Barsuglia; F. Beauville; M. A. Bizouard; C. Boccara; F. Bondu; L. Bosi; C. Bradaschia; S. Braccini; A. Brillet; V. Brisson; L. Brocco; D. Buskulic; E. Calloni; E. Campagna; F. Cavalier; R. Cavalieri; G. Cella; E. Chassande-Mottin; C. Corda; A.-C. Clapson; F. Cleva; J.-P. Coulon; E. Cuoco; V. Dattilo; M. Davier; R. De Rosa; L. Di Fiore; A. Di Virgilio; B. Dujardin; A. Eleuteri; D. Enard; I. Ferrante; F. Fidecaro; I. Fiori; R. Flaminio; J.-D. Fournier; S. Frasca; F. Frasconi; A. Freise; L. Gammaitoni; A. Gennai; A. Giazotto; G. Giordano; L. Giordano; R. Gouaty; D. Grosjean; G. Guidi; S. Hebri; H. Heitmann; P. Hello; L. Holloway; S. Kreckelbergh; P. La Penna; V. Loriette; M. Loupias; G. Losurdo; J.-M. Mackowski; E. Majorana; C. N. Man; M. Mantovani; F. Marchesoni; F. Marion; J. Marque; F. Martelli; A. Masserot; M. Mazzoni; L. Milano; C. Moins; J. Moreau; N. Morgado; B. Mours; A. Pai; C. Palomba; F. Paoletti; S. Pardi; A. Pasqualetti; R. Passaquieti; D. Passuello; B. Perniola; F. Piergiovanni; L. Pinard; R. Poggiani; M. Punturo; P. Puppo; K. Qipiani; P. Rapagnani; V. Reita; A. Remillieux; F. Ricci; I. Ricciardi; P. Ruggi; G. Russo; S. Solimeno; A. Spallicci; R. Stanga; R. Taddei; D. Tombolato; M. Tonelli; A. Toncelli; E. Tournefier; F. Travasso; G. Vajente; D. Verkindt; F. Vetrano; A. Viceré; J.-Y. Vinet; H. Vocca; M. Yvert; Z. Zhang

2006-01-01

471

Assessment of Positive Automatic Cognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although measures of negative thinking in depression such as the Automatic Thoughts Questionnaire have been widely used, comparable measures of positive thinking have not been developed. The lack of such measures has made it difficult to examine both negative and positive change processes as a function of therapeutic interventions. The present article reports two studies designed to develop and evaluate

Rick E. Ingram; Kathleen S. Wisnicki

1988-01-01

472

Automatic extraction of face contours  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accuracy of the human face contour can help evaluate the facial orientation to retrieve facial features to identifying or verifying a human facial expression. Automatic extraction human face contour algorithm with high accuracy is necessary. In this paper, a novel flowchart of the face contour extraction algorithm was proposed for improving accuracy of face contours. Poisson Gradient Vector Flow (PGVF)

Chih-Yu Hsu; Hao-Feng Wang; Hui-Ching Wang; Kuo-Kun Tseng; Yih-Jing Tang

2010-01-01

473

Automatic Error Analysis Using Intervals  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A technique for automatic error analysis using interval mathematics is introduced. A comparison to standard error propagation methods shows that in cases involving complicated formulas, the interval approach gives comparable error estimates with much less effort. Several examples are considered, and numerical errors are computed using the INTLAB…

Rothwell, E. J.; Cloud, M. J.

2012-01-01

474

The Automatic Galaxy Collision Software  

Microsoft Academic Search

The key to understanding the physical processes that occur during galaxy interactions is dynamical modeling, and especially the detailed matching of numerical models to specific systems. To make modeling interacting galaxies more efficient, we have constructed the `Automatic Galaxy Collision' (AGC) code, which requires less human intervention in finding good matches to data. We present some preliminary results from this

B. J. Smith; D. C. Carver; P. Pfeiffer; S. Perkins; J. Barkanic; S. Fritts; D. Southerland; D. Manchikalapudi; M. Baker; J. Luckey; C. Franklin; A. Moffett; C. Struck

2010-01-01

475

Automatic Gore Panel Mapping System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Automatic Gore Mapping System is being developed to reduce the time and labor costs associated with manufacturing the External Tank. The present chem-milling processes and procedures are discussed. The down loading of the simulation of the system has ...

J. D. Shiver N. N. Phelps

1990-01-01

476

21 CFR 211.68 - Automatic, mechanical, and electronic equipment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Automatic, mechanical, and electronic equipment...211.68 Automatic, mechanical, and electronic equipment. (a) Automatic, mechanical, or electronic...Written records of those calibration checks and...

2009-04-01

477

[Automatic segmentation and annotation in radiology].  

PubMed

The technical progress and broader indications for cross-sectional imaging continuously increase the number of radiological images to be assessed. However, as the amount of image information and available resources (radiologists) do not increase at the same pace and the standards of radiological interpretation and reporting remain consistently high, radiologists have to rely on computer-based support systems. Novel semantic technologies and software relying on structured ontological knowledge are able to "understand" text and image information and interconnect both. This allows complex database queries with both the input of text and image information to be accomplished. Furthermore, semantic software in combination with automatic detection and segmentation of organs and body regions facilitates personalized supportive information in topographical accordance and generates additional information, such as organ volumes. These technologies promise improvements in workflow; however, great efforts and close cooperation between developers and users still lie ahead. PMID:24522625

Dankerl, P; Cavallaro, A; Uder, M; Hammon, M

2014-03-01

478

Auxiliary circuit enables automatic monitoring of EKG'S  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Auxiliary circuits allow direct, automatic monitoring of electrocardiograms by digital computers. One noiseless square-wave output signal for each trigger pulse from an electrocardiogram preamplifier is produced. The circuit also permits automatic processing of cardiovascular data from analog tapes.

1965-01-01

479

Machine Intelligence Technology for Automatic Target Recognition.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Automatic target recognition (ATR)-the use of computer processing to detect and identify targets (such as tanks, howitzers, and armored personnel carriers) automatically-is becoming critically important in several military applications. ATR systems can re...

J. G. Verly R. L. Delanoy D. E. Dudgeon

1989-01-01

480

Multi Sensor Information Integration and Automatic Understanding.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This program addresses Automatic Image Understanding and Automatic Integration of Disparate Sources of Information. The techniques are particularly focused on asymmetric warfare, urban warfare, guerrilla warfare, and port/base security, for which automati...

2006-01-01

481

Automatic Construction of Special Purpose Programs.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

According to the usual formulation of the automatic programming task, one starts with a specification of a programming problem, and seeks to automatically construct a program satisfying that specification. This paper concerns a different style of automati...

C. Goad

1982-01-01

482

A Technique for Evaluating Automatic Term Clustering.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reexamines the feasibility of automatic thesaurus generation by establishing a framework for analyzing the degree of correspondence between automatically generated thesauri and a thesaurus of the same terms constructed by subject specialists. (Author/FM)

Dillon, Martin; Caplan, P.

1980-01-01

483

Statement Summarizing Research Findings on the Issue of the Relationship Between Food-Additive-Free Diets and Hyperkinesis in Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The National Advisory Committee on Hyperkinesis and Food Additives paper summarized some research findings on the issue of the relationship between food-additive-free diets and hyperkinesis in children. Based on several challenge studies, it is concluded that the evidence generally refutes Dr. B. F. Feingold's claim that artificial colorings in…

Lipton, Morris; Wender, Esther

484

A Howardite-Eucrite-Diogenite (HED) Meteorite Compendium: Summarizing Samples of Asteroid 4 Vesta in Preparation for the Dawn Mission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The howardite-eucrite-diogenite (HED) suite of meteorites, thought to originate from asteroid 4 Vesta, has been summarized into a compendium; it will be made available prior to the planned arrival of the Dawn Mission at Vesta in August 2011.

Garber, J. M.; Righter, K.

2011-03-01

485

Relationship between summarizing chemical parameters like AOX, TOC, TN b , and toxicity tests for effluents from the chemical production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Therefore this study was undertaken to investigate, whether there are correlations between summarizing parameters, which potentially indicate hazardous water components, like AOX (adsorbable organic halogen), TOC (total organic carbon) and TN b (total bound nitrogen) and biological effects, observed from different bioassays conducted in the laboratory. The toxic effects were investigated on luminescent bacteria, microcrustaceans and algae in accordance with

G. Gellert

2000-01-01

486

The Effect of a Summarization-Based Cumulative Retelling Strategy on Listening Comprehension of College Students with Visual Impairments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Because students with visual impairments need auditory materials in order to access information, listening comprehension skills are important to their academic success. The present study investigated the effectiveness of summarization-based cumulative retelling strategy on the listening comprehension of four visually impaired college students. An…

Tuncer, A. Tuba; Altunay, Banu

2006-01-01

487

A RBF Network for Chinese Text Classification Based on Concept Feature Extraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The feature selection is an important part in automatic text classification. In this paper, we use a Chinese semantic dictionary -- Hownet to extract the concepts from the word as the feature set, because it can better reflect the meaning of the text. We construct a combined feature set that consists of both sememes and the Chinese words, propose a

Minghu Jiang; Lin Wang; Yinghua Lu; Shasha Liao

2006-01-01

488

Creating Knowledge Repositories from Biomedical Reports: The MEDSYNDIKATE Text Mining System  

Microsoft Academic Search

MEDSYNDIKATEis a natural language processor for automatically acquiring knowledge from medical finding reports. The content of these documents is transferred to formal representa- tion structures which constitute a corresponding text knowledge base. The system architecture integrates requirements from the analysis of single sentences, as well as those of referentially linked sentences forming cohesive texts. The strong demands MEDSYNDIKATE poses to

Udo Hahn; Martin Romacker; Stefan Schulz

2002-01-01

489

Integrating a Lexical Database and a Training Collection for Text Categorization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Automatic text categorization is a complex and useful task for many natural language processing applications. Recent approaches to text categorization focus more on algorithms than on resources involved in this operation. In contrast to this trend, we present an approach based on the integration of widely available resources as lexical databases and training collections to overcome current limitations of the

Jose Maria Gomez Hidalgo; Manuel de Buenaga Rodriguez

1997-01-01

490

Integrating a Lexical Database and a Training Collection for Text Categorization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Automatic text categorization is a complex and useful task for many natural language processing applications. Recent approaches to text cat- egorization focus more on algorithms than on resources involved in this operation. In contrast to this trend, we present an approach based on the integration of widely available resources as lexical databases and train- ing collections to overcome current limitations

Jose Mar ´ õa; Manuel de Buenaga Rodr ´ õguez

491

Differences in Text Structure and Its Implications for Assessment of Struggling Readers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One source of potential difficulty for struggling readers is the variability of texts across grade levels. This article explores the use of automatic natural language processing techniques to identify dimensions of variation within a corpus of school-appropriate texts. Specifically, we asked: Are there identifiable dimensions of lexical and…

Deane, Paul; Sheehan, Kathleen M.; Sabatini, John; Futagi, Yoko; Kostin, Irene

2006-01-01

492

Synchronization of lecture videos and electronic slides by video text analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

An essential goal of structuring lecture videos captured in live presentation is to provide a synchronized view of video clips and electronic slides. This paper presents an automatic approach to match video clips and slides based on the analysis of text embedded in lecture videos. We describe a method to reconstruct high-resolution video texts from multiple keyframes for robust OCR

Feng Wang; Chong-Wah Ngo; Ting-Chuen Pong

2003-01-01

493

A 15 Year Perspective on Automatic Programming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Automatic programming consists not only of an automatic compiler, but also some means of acquiring the high-level specification to be compiled, some means of determining that it is the intended specification, and some (interactive) means of translating this high-level specification into a lower-level one which can be automatically compiled.

Robert Balzer

1985-01-01

494

Automatic perimetry in glaucoma visual field screening  

Microsoft Academic Search

Automatic computerized perimetry was compared to careful manual selective perimetry (a variant of that proposed by Armaly) in 181 eyes of 100 patients from a glaucoma open-care unit. The results of the two methods were very similar. Thus all defects found were identified by the automatic perimeter, and one pathologic field was missed by the manual selective perimetry. The automatic

Anders Heijl

1976-01-01

495

Concept similarity analysis in Ontology's automatic extraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ontology's automatic extraction is a core problem of information integration in electronic government affair. In the process of ontology's automatic extraction, FCA method is used in analyzing relationships between concepts automatically. But this method's ability is insufficient in the analysis of the synonym relationship. This paper optimizes the FCA method and brings forward a new algorithm - SFCA. SFCA sets

Li Peng

2009-01-01

496

Learning Translation Templates From Bilingual Text  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes a two-phase example-based machine translation methodology which develops translation templates from examples and then translates using template matching. This method improves translation quality and facilitates customization of machine translation systems. This paper focuses on the automatic learning of translation templates. A translation template is a bilingual pair of sentences in which corresponding units (words and pharases) are

Hiroyuki Kaji; Yuuko Kida; Yasutsugu Morimoto

1992-01-01

497

Learning ontologies from natural language texts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research on ontology is becoming increasingly widespread in the computer science community. The major problems in building ontologies are the bottleneck of knowledge acquisition and time-consuming construction of various ontologies for various domains\\/applications. Meanwhile moving toward automation of ontology construction is a solution. We proposed an automatic ontology building approach. In this approach the system starts form a small ontology

Mehrnoush Shamsfard; Ahmad Abdollahzadeh Barforoush

2004-01-01

498

46 CFR 63.25-1 - Small automatic auxiliary boilers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false Small automatic auxiliary boilers. 63.25-1 Section 63.25-1...MARINE ENGINEERING AUTOMATIC AUXILIARY BOILERS Requirements for Specific Types of Automatic Auxiliary Boilers § 63.25-1 Small automatic...

2013-10-01

499

Automatic design of magazine covers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we propose a system for automatic design of magazine covers that quantifies a number of concepts from art and aesthetics. Our solution to automatic design of this type of media has been shaped by input from professional designers, magazine art directors and editorial boards, and journalists. Consequently, a number of principles in design and rules in designing magazine covers are delineated. Several techniques are derived and employed in order to quantify and implement these principles and rules in the format of a software framework. At this stage, our framework divides the task of design into three main modules: layout of magazine cover elements, choice of color for masthead and cover lines, and typography of cover lines. Feedback from professional designers on our designs suggests that our results are congruent with their intuition.

Jahanian, Ali; Liu, Jerry; Tretter, Daniel R.; Lin, Qian; Damera-Venkata, Niranjan; O'Brien-Strain, Eamonn; Lee, Seungyon; Fan, Jian; Allebach, Jan P.

2012-02-01

500

Automatic transmission for electric wheelchairs.  

PubMed

A new infinitely variable automatic transmission called the RESATRAN that automatically changes its speed ratio in response to load torque being transmitted is presented. A prototype has been built and tested on a conventional three-wheeled electric motor propelled wheelchair. It is shown theoretically that more than 50 percent reduction in power during hill climbing may be expected when a transmission-equipped wheelchair is compared to a direct-drive vehicle operating at the same voltage. It is suggested that with such a transmission, wheelchairs can use much smaller motors and associated electronic controls, while at the same time gaining in efficiency that results in longer operating distances for the same battery charge. Design details of the transmission and test results are presented. These results show a substantial reduction in operating current and increased distance of operation over a test course. PMID:3835264

Reswick, J B

1985-07-01