Science.gov

Sample records for automatic thoughts questionnaire

  1. Psychometric Properties of Shortened Versions of the Automatic Thoughts Questionnaire.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Netemeyer, Richard G.; Williamson, Donald A.; Burton, Scot; Biswas, Dipayan; Jindal, Supriya; Landreth, Stacy; Mills, Gregory; Primeaux, Sonya

    2002-01-01

    Derived shortened versions of the Automatic Thoughts Questionnaire (ATQ) (S. Hollon and P. Kendall, 1980) using samples of 434 and 419 adults. Cross-validation with samples of 163 and 91 adults showed support for the shortened versions. Overall, results suggest that these short forms are useful in measuring cognitions associated with depression.…

  2. Psychometric Properties of the Positive Automatic Thoughts Questionnaire.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingram, Rick E.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Original data and other studies using the Positive Automatic Thoughts Questionnaire (ATP-Q) show that the reliability and norms of the instrument appear stable and that the ATP-Q is inversely associated with negative affective states but unrelated to conditions such as medical condition not accompanied by psychological distress. (SLD)

  3. Use of the Persian language version of the Automatic Thoughts Questionnaire (ATQ) in depressed Iranian women.

    PubMed

    Sharifi, Vandad; Mojtabai, Ramin; Ghassemzadeh, Habibollah; Karamghadiri, Narges; Ebrahimkhani, Narges

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the clinical validity of a Persian language version of the Automatic Thoughts Questionnaire (ATQ-Persian). We hypothesized that patients with major depression can be clearly distinguished from non-patient members of general population regarding both frequency of negative thoughts (ATQ-F) and degree of belief in these thoughts (ATQ-B). To test this hypothesis, we used discriminant function analysis in a group of 30 female patients with major depression and 30 female non-patient volunteers. ATQ-F and ATQ-B discriminated the large majority of depressed patients from non-patient volunteers and were correlated with the severity of depression as measured by scores on the Beck Depression Inventory-second edition. The data provide preliminary evidence for clinical validity and utility of ATQ-Persian. PMID:17582613

  4. Self-Compassion and Automatic Thoughts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akin, Ahmet

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this research is to examine the relationships between self-compassion and automatic thoughts. Participants were 299 university students. In this study, the Self-compassion Scale and the Automatic Thoughts Questionnaire were used. The relationships between self-compassion and automatic thoughts were examined using correlation analysis…

  5. Anxiety, automatic negative thoughts, and unconditional self-acceptance in rheumatoid arthritis: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Paloș, Ramona; Vîșcu, Loredana

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. This research was carried out in two stages: the objectives of the first stage were (1) to identify the existing relationships between the level of anxiety, the frequency of automatic negative thoughts, and unconditional self-acceptance and (2) to capture the existing differences regarding these variables between people diagnosed with rheumatoid arthritis and those with no such medical history. Methods. The sample made up of 50 subjects filled out the following three questionnaires: the Hamilton Anxiety Scale, the Automatic Thoughts Questionnaire, and the Unconditional Self-Acceptance Questionnaire. Results. Psychological anxiety is positively correlated with automatic negative thoughts, while unconditional self-acceptance is negatively correlated with both psychological anxiety and somatic anxiety as well as with automatic negative thoughts. All studied variables were significantly different in rheumatoid arthritis as compared to the control population. Conclusions. The results showed the presence to a greater extent of anxiety and automatic negative thoughts, along with reduced unconditional self-acceptance among people with rheumatoid arthritis. Intervention on these variables through support and counseling can lead to reducing anxiety and depression, to altering the coping styles, and, implicitly, to improving the patients' quality of life. PMID:25028611

  6. The Relationship between Parents' and Children's Automatic Thoughts in a College Student Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donnelly, Reesa; Renk, Kimberly; Sims, Valerie K.; McGuire, Jack

    2011-01-01

    Research demonstrates the importance of early social interactions in the development of schemas and automatic thoughts. It does not appear, however, that the existing research examines intergenerational correlations in automatic thoughts. As a result, this study explores the relationship between the automatic thoughts of parents and those of their…

  7. Early maladaptive schemas and social anxiety in adolescents: the mediating role of anxious automatic thoughts.

    PubMed

    Calvete, Esther; Orue, Izaskun; Hankin, Benjamin L

    2013-04-01

    Cognitive models state that cognitions are organized hierarchically, so that the underlying schemas affect behavior via more automatic, superficial cognitive processes. This study aimed to demonstrate that early maladaptive schemas predict anxious automatic thoughts, and to show that such automatic thoughts act as mediators between schemas and prospective changes in social anxiety symptoms. The study also examined an alternative reverse model in which schemas acted as mediators between automatic thoughts and social anxiety. A total of 1052 adolescents (499 girls and 553 boys; M(age)=13.43; SD(age)=1.29) completed measures of early maladaptive schemas, socially anxious automatic thoughts, and social anxiety symptoms at Times 1, 2, and 3. The results revealed bidirectional longitudinal relationships among schemas and automatic thoughts that were consistent in content (e.g., the disconnection/rejection schemas and automatic thoughts of negative self-concept). Furthermore, the automatic thoughts of anticipatory negative evaluation by others at Time 2 mediated the relationship between the other-directedness schemas at Time 1 and social anxiety symptoms at Time 3. These findings are consistent with hierarchical cognitive models of social anxiety given that deeper schemas predict more surface-level thoughts. They also support that these more surface-level thoughts contribute to perpetuating schemas. Finally, results show that early maladaptive schemas of the other-directedness domain play a relevant role in the development and maintenance of social anxiety. PMID:23602941

  8. Cognitions, emotions, and sexual response: analysis of the relationship among automatic thoughts, emotional responses, and sexual arousal.

    PubMed

    Nobre, Pedro J; Pinto-Gouveia, Jos

    2008-08-01

    The relationship between automatic thoughts and emotions presented during sexual activity and their correlation with sexual arousal was investigated. A total of 491 individuals (163 women and 232 men without sexual problems and 47 women and 49 men with a DSM-IV diagnosis of sexual dysfunction) completed the Sexual Modes Questionnaire (SMQ; Nobre and Pinto-Gouveia, Journal of Sex Research, 40, 368-382, 2003). Results indicated several significant correlations among automatic thoughts, emotions, and sexual arousal. Erection concern thoughts in the men and failure/disengagement thoughts and lack of erotic thoughts in the women presented the most significant negative correlations with sexual arousal. Additionally, sadness and disillusion were positively related to these negative cognitions and negatively associated with sexual arousal in both sexes. On the other hand, pleasure and satisfaction were negatively associated with the above-mentioned negative cognitions and positively associated with subjective sexual arousal in both men and women. Overall, findings support the hypothesis that cognitive, emotional, and behavioral dimensions are closely linked and suggest a mode typical of sexual dysfunction composed of negative automatic thoughts, depressive affect, and low subjective sexual arousal. PMID:17960474

  9. Assessing Negative Automatic Thoughts: Psychometric Properties of the Turkish Version of the Cognition Checklist

    PubMed Central

    Batmaz, Sedat; Ahmet Yuncu, Ozgur; Kocbiyik, Sibel

    2015-01-01

    Background: Beck’s theory of emotional disorder suggests that negative automatic thoughts (NATs) and the underlying schemata affect one’s way of interpreting situations and result in maladaptive coping strategies. Depending on their content and meaning, NATs are associated with specific emotions, and since they are usually quite brief, patients are often more aware of the emotion they feel. This relationship between cognition and emotion, therefore, is thought to form the background of the cognitive content specificity hypothesis. Researchers focusing on this hypothesis have suggested that instruments like the cognition checklist (CCL) might be an alternative to make a diagnostic distinction between depression and anxiety. Objectives: The aim of the present study was to assess the psychometric properties of the Turkish version of the CCL in a psychiatric outpatient sample. Patients and Methods: A total of 425 psychiatric outpatients 18 years of age and older were recruited. After a structured diagnostic interview, the participants completed the hospital anxiety depression scale (HADS), the automatic thoughts questionnaire (ATQ), and the CCL. An exploratory factor analysis was performed, followed by an oblique rotation. The internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and concurrent and discriminant validity analyses were undertaken. Results: The internal consistency of the CCL was excellent (Cronbach’s α = 0.95). The test-retest correlation coefficients were satisfactory (r = 0.80, P < 0.001 for CCL-D, and r = 0.79, P < 0.001 for CCL-A). The exploratory factor analysis revealed that a two-factor solution best fit the data. This bidimensional factor structure explained 51.27 % of the variance of the scale. The first factor consisted of items related to anxious cognitions, and the second factor of depressive cognitions. The CCL subscales significantly correlated with the ATQ (rs 0.44 for the CCL-D, and 0.32 for the CCL-A) as well as the other measures of mood severity (all Ps < 0.01). To a great extent, all items of the CCL were able to distinguish the clinical and non-clinical groups, suggesting the scale has high discriminating validity. Conclusions: The current study has provided evidence that the Turkish version of the CCL is a reliable and valid instrument to assess NATs in a clinical outpatient sample. PMID:26834808

  10. The Effect of Automatic Thoughts on Hopelessness: Role of Self-Esteem as a Mediator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cakar, Firdevs Savi

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to test a theoretical model concerning the role of self-esteem as a mediator between university students' automatic thoughts and their levels of hopelessness. The participants consisted of 338 students (197 females (58.3%) and 141 males (41.7%) from various departments at the Celal Bayar University. The research…

  11. Spanish version of the Thought-Action Fusion Questionnaire and its application in eating disorders

    PubMed Central

    Jáuregui-Lobera, I; Santed-Germán, Ma; Bolaños-Ríos, P; Garrido-Casals, O

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The aims of the study were to analyze the psychometric properties of the Spanish version of the Thought-Action Fusion Questionnaire (TAF-SP), as well as to determine its validity by evaluating the relationship of the TAF-SP to different instruments. Patients and methods Two groups were studied: one comprising 146 patients with eating disorders; and another a group of 200 students. Results Three factors were obtained: TAF–Moral; TAF–Likelihood-others; and TAF–Likelihood-oneself. The internal consistency of the TAF-SP was determined by means of Cronbach’s α coefficient, with values ranging between 0.84–0.95. The correlations with other instruments refected adequate validity. The three-factor structure was tested by means of a linear structural equation model, and the structure fit satisfactorily. Differences in TAF-SP scores between the diagnostic subgroups were also analyzed. Conclusion The TAF-SP meets the psychometric requirements for measuring thought-action fusion and shows adequate internal consistency and validity. PMID:24043960

  12. The Acceptance and Action Questionnaire – Stigma (AAQ-S): Developing a measure of psychological flexibility with stigmatizing thoughts

    PubMed Central

    Levin, Michael E.; Luoma, Jason B.; Lillis, Jason; Hayes, Steven C.; Vilardaga, Roger

    2014-01-01

    The current study sought to develop and test the Acceptance and Action Questionnaire – Stigma (AAQ-S), a measure of psychological flexibility with stigmatizing thoughts. A sample of 604 undergraduate students completed an online survey, which included an initial pool of 43 AAQ-S items as well as measures related to psychological flexibility and stigma. Expert judge ratings and factor analysis were used to identify and refine two distinct subscales; psychological flexibility and psychological inflexibility relating to stigmatizing thoughts. Analyses indicated that the AAQ-S psychological flexibility and inflexibility subscales, as well as a combined total score, correlate with other measures of psychological flexibility and stigma in expected ways, and are more predictive of stigma than a general measure of psychological flexibility. Overall, the results suggest that the AAQ-S could be a useful measure in conducting future stigma research. PMID:25485230

  13. Perfectionism, Anxiety, and Depressive Distress: Evidence for the Mediating Role of Negative Automatic Thoughts and Anxiety Sensitivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pirbaglou, Meysam; Cribbie, Robert; Irvine, Jane; Radhu, Natasha; Vora, Khushboo; Ritvo, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Objective: This study assessed a mediational model in which negative automatic thoughts and anxiety sensitivity were hypothesized to mediate the relationship between perfectionism cognitions and depressive and anxiety symptoms. Participants: Participants were undergraduate students from an urban Canadian university. The data were collected from

  14. Perfectionism, Anxiety, and Depressive Distress: Evidence for the Mediating Role of Negative Automatic Thoughts and Anxiety Sensitivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pirbaglou, Meysam; Cribbie, Robert; Irvine, Jane; Radhu, Natasha; Vora, Khushboo; Ritvo, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Objective: This study assessed a mediational model in which negative automatic thoughts and anxiety sensitivity were hypothesized to mediate the relationship between perfectionism cognitions and depressive and anxiety symptoms. Participants: Participants were undergraduate students from an urban Canadian university. The data were collected from…

  15. Effect of cognitive behaviour therapy on adjustment, intensity of symptoms and automatic thoughts in schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Shriharsh, Vandana; Sippy, Ripan; Nijhawan, Arti; Bhatia, Triptish; Mukit, Sabeeha Raihan; Garg, Kapila; Veetaraghvan, V.; Deshpande, Smita N.

    2003-01-01

    Aim : This study was undertaken with the objective of assessing the effect of Cognitive Behaviour therapy (CBT) on subjects suffering from schizophrenia or schizo affective disorder and to observe the sustainability of its effects over a longest period of time. A brief study was also undertaken about changes in career attitudes after psycho education about their wards? illness. Method : Fifty-one subjects participated in the study and completed the required numbers of sessions of CBT. Evaluation was carried out before and immediately after CBT. Twenty-four subjects were followed -up again after nine months to perceive sustainability of CBT effects. One family member for each subject was administered an attitude questionnaire before and after psycho education about schizophrenia. Results : CBT sessions resulted in marked improvement in overall adjustment. Intensity of symptoms decreased from high to moderate or high to low intensity immediately after CBT. At follow-up nine months later, intensity of symptoms increased from low to moderate in most of the subjects in comparison to immediate post CBT evaluation but was still less than baseline There was marked decrease in negative thoughts and feelings immediately after CBT. During follow-up after nine months 60% subjects showed more improvement marked in negative thoughts than immediate post CBT while 40% showed less improvement than immediately after CBT. Neptive feelings increased after nine months in most of the subjects, but not to pre treatment levels. Family membets also expetienced more positive feelings about their sick wards after psycho education. Conclusion : Positive effects of CBT may not be sustained over a longer period of time and may need repeated sessions PMID:21206862

  16. Automatic single questionnaire intensity (SQI, EMS98 scale) estimation using ranking models built on the existing BCSF database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlupp, A.; Sira, C.; Schmitt, K.; Schaming, M.

    2013-12-01

    In charge of intensity estimations in France, BCSF has collected and manually analyzed more than 47000 online individual macroseismic questionnaires since 2000 up to intensity VI. These macroseismic data allow us to estimate one SQI value (Single Questionnaire Intensity) for each form following the EMS98 scale. The reliability of the automatic intensity estimation is important as they are today used for automatic shakemaps communications and crisis management. Today, the automatic intensity estimation at BCSF is based on the direct use of thumbnails selected on a menu by the witnesses. Each thumbnail corresponds to an EMS-98 intensity value, allowing us to quickly issue an intensity map of the communal intensity by averaging the SQIs at each city. Afterwards an expert, to determine a definitive SQI, manually analyzes each form. This work is time consuming and not anymore suitable considering the increasing number of testimonies at BCSF. Nevertheless, it can take into account incoherent answers. We tested several automatic methods (USGS algorithm, Correlation coefficient, Thumbnails) (Sira et al. 2013, IASPEI) and compared them with 'expert' SQIs. These methods gave us medium score (between 50 to 60% of well SQI determined and 35 to 40% with plus one or minus one intensity degree). The best fit was observed with the thumbnails. Here, we present new approaches based on 3 statistical ranking methods as 1) Multinomial logistic regression model, 2) Discriminant analysis DISQUAL and 3) Support vector machines (SVMs). The two first methods are standard methods, while the third one is more recent. Theses methods could be applied because the BCSF has already in his database more then 47000 forms and because their questions and answers are well adapted for a statistical analysis. The ranking models could then be used as automatic method constrained on expert analysis. The performance of the automatic methods and the reliability of the estimated SQI can be evaluated thanks to the fact that each definitive BCSF SQIs is determined by an expert analysis. We compare the SQIs obtained by these methods from our database and discuss the coherency and variations between automatic and manual processes. These methods lead to high scores with up to 85% of the forms well classified and most of the remaining forms classified with only a shift of one intensity degree. This allows us to use the ranking methods as the best automatic methods to fast SQIs estimation and to produce fast shakemaps. The next step, to improve the use of these methods, will be to identify explanations for the forms not classified at the correct value and a way to select the few remaining forms that should be analyzed by the expert. Note that beyond intensity VI, on-line questionnaires are insufficient and a field survey is indispensable to estimate intensity. For such survey, in France, BCSF leads a macroseismic intervention group (GIM).

  17. Achievement Goal Orientations and Self Handicapping as Mediator and Moderator of the Relationship between Intrinsic Achievement Motivation and Negative Automatic Thoughts in Adolescence Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kapikiran, Sahin

    2012-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to examine the mediator and moderator role of self-handicapping and achievement goal orientations variables on the relationship between negative automatic thoughts intrinsic achievement motivation in high school students. 586 high school students, ranging in age from 14 to 20 (M = 16.08), adolescence students…

  18. Automatism

    PubMed Central

    McCaldon, R. J.

    1964-01-01

    Individuals can carry out complex activity while in a state of impaired consciousness, a condition termed “automatism”. Consciousness must be considered from both an organic and a psychological aspect, because impairment of consciousness may occur in both ways. Automatism may be classified as normal (hypnosis), organic (temporal lobe epilepsy), psychogenic (dissociative fugue) or feigned. Often painstaking clinical investigation is necessary to clarify the diagnosis. There is legal precedent for assuming that all crimes must embody both consciousness and will. Jurists are loath to apply this principle without reservation, as this would necessitate acquittal and release of potentially dangerous individuals. However, with the sole exception of the defence of insanity, there is at present no legislation to prohibit release without further investigation of anyone acquitted of a crime on the grounds of “automatism”. PMID:14199824

  19. The Believability of Anxious Feelings and Thoughts Questionnaire (BAFT): A Psychometric Evaluation of Cognitive Fusion in a Nonclinical and Highly Anxious Community Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herzberg, Kristin N.; Sheppard, Sean C.; Forsyth, John P.; Crede, Marcus; Earleywine, Mitch; Eifert, Georg H.

    2012-01-01

    Cognitive fusion--or the tendency to buy into the literal meaning of thoughts, feelings, and bodily sensations--plays an important role in the etiology and maintenance of anxiety disorders and figures prominently in third-generation behavior therapies such as acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT). Nonetheless, there is a lack of validated

  20. The Believability of Anxious Feelings and Thoughts Questionnaire (BAFT): A Psychometric Evaluation of Cognitive Fusion in a Nonclinical and Highly Anxious Community Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herzberg, Kristin N.; Sheppard, Sean C.; Forsyth, John P.; Crede, Marcus; Earleywine, Mitch; Eifert, Georg H.

    2012-01-01

    Cognitive fusion--or the tendency to buy into the literal meaning of thoughts, feelings, and bodily sensations--plays an important role in the etiology and maintenance of anxiety disorders and figures prominently in third-generation behavior therapies such as acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT). Nonetheless, there is a lack of validated…

  1. Visualizing thought.

    PubMed

    Tversky, Barbara

    2011-07-01

    Depictive expressions of thought predate written language by thousands of years. They have evolved in communities through a kind of informal user testing that has refined them. Analyzing common visual communications reveals consistencies that illuminate how people think as well as guide design; the process can be brought into the laboratory and accelerated. Like language, visual communications abstract and schematize; unlike language, they use properties of the page (e.g., proximity and place: center, horizontal/up-down, vertical/left-right) and the marks on it (e.g., dots, lines, arrows, boxes, blobs, likenesses, symbols) to convey meanings. The visual expressions of these meanings (e.g., individual, category, order, relation, correspondence, continuum, hierarchy) have analogs in language, gesture, and especially in the patterns that are created when people design the world around them, arranging things into piles and rows and hierarchies and arrays, spatial-abstraction-action interconnections termed spractions. The designed world is a diagram. PMID:25164401

  2. Diet History Questionnaire II and Canadian Diet History Questionnaire II: Coding Guidelines

    Cancer.gov

    A questionnaire data file is an ASCII text file containing data from completed Diet History Questionnaires. If using paper forms, this file can be created by a scanner or a data entry system. If using DHQ*Web, the questionnaire data file is created automatically.

  3. Critical Thinking: Intellectual Standards Essential to Reasoning Well within Every Domain of Thought

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elder, Linda; Paul, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Students live in a world of thoughts. They accept some thoughts as true. They reject others as false. But the thoughts they perceive as true are sometimes false, unsound, or misleading. And the thoughts they perceive as false and trivial are sometimes true and significant. People don't automatically sense what is reasonable and what is…

  4. Coping with Suicidal Thoughts

    MedlinePlus

    ... don’t expect to see them again Abuse alcohol or drugs, or engage in other risky behaviors Have personality changes or mood swings What causes suicidal thoughts? Suicidal thoughts can happen to anyone – young and old, male and female – for a number ...

  5. The Association between Thoughts of Defecation and Thoughts of Death

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunkel, Curtis S.

    2009-01-01

    Three studies were conducted examining the relationship between thoughts of defecation and thoughts of death. In Study 1 and Study 3 it was found that making thoughts of feces salient reduced the accessibility of death thoughts. In Study 2 it was found that making thoughts of death salient decreased the accessibility of feces thoughts. It is…

  6. Thoughts, Emotions, and Chemo

    MedlinePlus

    ... treatment Thoughts, emotions, and chemo What about my memory and thinking? Research has shown that chemo can ... the brain’s activities that are affected are concentration, memory, comprehension (understanding), and reasoning. The changes that are ...

  7. Popper's Thought Experiment Reinvestigated

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richardson, Chris; Dowling, Jonathan

    2012-02-01

    Karl Popper posed an interesting thought experiment in 1934. With it, he meant to question the completeness of quantum mechanics. He claimed that the notion of quantum entanglement leads to absurd scenarios that cannot be true in real life and that an implementation of his thought experiment would not give the results that QM predicts. Unfortunately for Popper, it has taken until recently to perform experiments that test his claims. The results of the experiments do not refute QM as Popper predicted, but neither do they confirm what Popper claimed QM predicted. Kim and Shih implemented Popper's thought experiment in the lab. The results of the experiment are not clear and have instigated many interpretations of the results. The results show some correlation between entangled photons, but not in the way that Popper thought, nor in the way a simple application of QM might predict. A ghost-imaging experiment by Strekalov, et al. sheds light on the physics behind Popper's thought experiment, but does not try to directly test it. I will build the physics of Popper's thought experiment from the ground up and show how the results of both of these experiments agree with each other and the theory of QM, but disprove Popper.

  8. Factors Influencing Pursuit of Higher Education: Validating a Questionnaire.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Sandra M.

    This paper explains the process used to validate the construct validity of the Factors Influencing Pursuit of Higher Education Questionnaire. This questionnaire is a literature-based, researcher-developed instrument which gathers information on the factors thought to affect a person's decision to pursue higher education. The questionnaire includes…

  9. Anxiety- and Depression-Related Thoughts in Children: Development and Evaluation of a Cognition Measure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marien, Wendi E.; Bell, Debora J.

    2004-01-01

    This study examined anxiety- and depression-related cognitive content in children. We developed the Children's Thought Questionnaire (CTQ) to include anxious thoughts characterized by threat and uncertainty; depressive thoughts by loss, self-deprecation, and certainty/hopelessness; and positive thoughts by interest, pleasure, and positive

  10. Automatic Imitation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heyes, Cecilia

    2011-01-01

    "Automatic imitation" is a type of stimulus-response compatibility effect in which the topographical features of task-irrelevant action stimuli facilitate similar, and interfere with dissimilar, responses. This article reviews behavioral, neurophysiological, and neuroimaging research on automatic imitation, asking in what sense it is "automatic"…

  11. The Survey Questionnaire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritter, Lois A. Ed.; Sue, Valerie M., Ed.

    2007-01-01

    Internet-based surveys are still relatively new, and researchers are just beginning to articulate best practices for questionnaire design. Online questionnaire design has generally been guided by the principles applying to other self-administered instruments, such as paper-based questionnaires. Web-based questionnaires, however, have the potential…

  12. Some Thoughts About Thinking.

    PubMed

    Manguel, Alberto

    2015-06-01

    In this first-person case history, the writer Alberto Manguel chronicles the experience of losing his ability to write and speak during a stroke. He was reassured somewhat by his continued ability to read and to quote mentally from literature that he had memorized. Within hours after the stroke, he regained the ability to write. He remained unable to speak for a month. In this essay he ponders eloquently the relationship between thought and language, and describes how it felt not to be able to bridge the gap between thought and speech during his period of aphasia. PMID:26102993

  13. Food for Thought.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harriman, Cliff; And Others

    This document describes "Food for Thought," a multidisciplinary project for grades 5 through 8, using nutrition as a focal point. The program focuses on the popular topic of food to make the study of different cultures and historic periods more relevant. In the program students research the diets and prepare the meals of cultures they are…

  14. Comments and Thoughts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Paul; Wilson, Mark; Yao, Shih-Ying

    2011-01-01

    In this rejoinder, the authors provide their thoughts on each of the commentaries of the seven respondents to their article. They find that the response of Kyngdon differs markedly from the others in questioning some basic elements of the methods of analysis that they propose for the construction of a "road map." The authors emphasize that they…

  15. From Thoughts to Words.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glaus, Marlene

    The activities presented in this book, designed to help children translate their thoughts into spoken and written words, can supplement an elementary teacher's own language arts lessons. Objectives for each activity are listed, with the general focus of the many oral activities being to develop a rich verbal background for future written work. The…

  16. Elemental Food for Thought

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cady, Susan

    2005-01-01

    One of the first tasks students learn in chemistry is to pronounce and spell the names of elements and learn their corresponding chemical symbols. Repetitive oral recitation is commonly used to learn this information, but games and puzzles can make this task creative, variable, and fun. Elemental Food for Thought is a puzzlelike activity that…

  17. Elemental Food for Thought

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cady, Susan

    2005-01-01

    One of the first tasks students learn in chemistry is to pronounce and spell the names of elements and learn their corresponding chemical symbols. Repetitive oral recitation is commonly used to learn this information, but games and puzzles can make this task creative, variable, and fun. Elemental Food for Thought is a puzzlelike activity that

  18. Letting Thoughts Take Wing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jorgensen, Chuck; Wheeler, Kevin

    2002-01-01

    Scientists are conducting research into electroencephalograms (EEGs) of brainwave activity, and electromyography (EMG) of muscle activity, in order to develop systems which can control an aircraft with only a pilot's thoughts. This article describes some EEG and EMG signals, and how they might be analyzed and interpreted to operate an aircraft. The development of a system to detect and interpret fine muscle movements is also profiled in the article.

  19. Ruminative thought style and depressed mood.

    PubMed

    Brinker, Jay K; Dozois, David J A

    2009-01-01

    Recent research has suggested that the measure most commonly used to assess rumination, the Response Style Questionnaire (RSQ; L. D. Butler & S. Nolen-Hoeksema, 1994), may be heavily biased by depressive symptoms, thereby restricting the scope of research exploring this construct. This article offers a broader conceptualization of rumination, which includes positive, negative, and neutral thoughts as well as past and future-oriented thoughts. The first two studies describe the development and evaluation of the Ruminative Thought Style Questionnaire (RTS), a psychometrically sound measure of the general tendency to ruminate. Further, the scale is comprised of a single factor and shows high internal consistency, suggesting that rumination does encompasses the factors mentioned. The final study involved a longitudinal diary investigation of rumination and mood over time. Results suggest that the RTS assesses a related, but separate, construct than does the RSQ. RTS scores predicted future depressed mood beyond the variance accounted for by initial depressed mood whereas RSQ scores did not. The implications of these results and directions for future research are discussed. PMID:19048597

  20. Automatic transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Miura, M.; Aoki, H.

    1988-02-02

    An automatic transmission is described comprising: an automatic transmission mechanism portion comprising a single planetary gear unit and a dual planetary gear unit; carriers of both of the planetary gear units that are integral with one another; an input means for inputting torque to the automatic transmission mechanism, clutches for operatively connecting predetermined ones of planetary gear elements of both of the planetary gear units to the input means and braking means for restricting the rotation of predetermined ones of planetary gear elements of both of the planetary gear units. The clutches are disposed adjacent one another at an end portion of the transmission for defining a clutch portion of the transmission; a first clutch portion which is attachable to the automatic transmission mechanism portion for comprising the clutch portion when attached thereto; a second clutch portion that is attachable to the automatic transmission mechanism portion in place of the first clutch portion for comprising the clutch portion when so attached. The first clutch portion comprising first clutch for operatively connecting the input means to a ring gear of the single planetary gear unit and a second clutch for operatively connecting the input means to a single gear of the automatic transmission mechanism portion. The second clutch portion comprising a the first clutch, the second clutch, and a third clutch for operatively connecting the input member to a ring gear of the dual planetary gear unit.

  1. Thoughts on energy education

    SciTech Connect

    Farooqui, N.; Abidi, S.B.M.; Raza, S.M.

    1983-12-01

    The demand for energy, in fact, now threatens exhaustion of fossil fuels, particularly petroleum and natural gas. The elevation of technology and, by implication, of intellect and education, into the cockpit of modern socieities is a recurrent theme in the writing of philosophers, particularly at times of crisis. The impelling logic of the relevance of philosophical thought in science and energy education is presented. This paper will be comprised of a detailed survey of renewable energy sources in Baluchistan (Pakistan) and suggest methods for its exploitation on the basis of environmental, social and economic aspects. However, an emphasis is given to primary energy education for the working masses. The need in the face of the rising level of technology demands ''energy conservation''. The authors also propose a ''process'' of systemising and widening the energy education amongst the learned class of people.

  2. The Defense Style Questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Andrews, G; Singh, M; Bond, M

    1993-04-01

    The Defense Style Questionnaire has proven of interest as the first questionnaire to reliably describe defense styles. The 72-item DSM-III-R-labeled Defense Style Questionnaire was administered to 388 controls and 324 patients. Eight statistical and two a priori criteria were used in choosing two items to represent each of the 20 defenses. A new 40-item Defense Style Questionnaire is published together with normative and reliability data on a normal population, patients with anxiety disorders, and child-abusing parents. The scores are unaffected by the sex of the respondent, but the endorsement of immature defense styles decreases with age. PMID:8473876

  3. An Alternative to Thought Suppression?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boice, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Comments on the original article, "Setting free the bears: Escape from thought suppression," by D. M. Wegner (see record 2011-25622-008). While Wegner supposed that we might have to learn to live with bad thoughts, the present author discusses the use of imagination and guided imagery as an alternative to forced thought suppression.

  4. Wesleyan University Student Questionnaire.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haagen, C. Hess

    This questionnaire assesses marijuana use practices in college students. The 30 items (multiple choice or free response) are concerned with personal and demographic data, marijuana smoking practices, use history, effects from smoking marijuana, present attitude toward the substance, and use of other drugs. The Questionnaire is untimed and…

  5. Questionnaire for Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purdue Univ., Lafayette, IN. Educational Research Center.

    The 116-item parent questionnaire is designed for parents of elementary school children. It is intended to be used with the child's mother, or the person acting as the child's mother. The questionnaire consists of a section devoted to demographic variables and scales measuring 14 parent variables: (1) parent's achievement aspirations for the…

  6. Parental authority questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Buri, J R

    1991-08-01

    A questionnaire was developed for the purpose of measuring Baumrind's (1971) permissive, authoritarian, and authoritative parental authority prototypes. It consists of 30 items per parent and yields permissive, authoritarian, and authoritative scores for both the mother and the father; each of these scores is derived from the phenomenological appraisals of the parents' authority by their son or daughter. The results of several studies have supported the Parental Authority Questionnaire as a psychometrically sound and valid measure of Baumrind's parental authority prototypes, and they have suggested that this questionnaire has considerable potential as a valuable tool in the investigation of correlates of parental permissiveness, authoritarianism, and authoritativeness. PMID:16370893

  7. Western Scientific Thought and African Traditional Beliefs and Thought.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amuah, Isaac

    This paper explores features that are common to both modern Western scientific thought and traditional African thought. The differences between the two are enumerated. In the Western scheme of knowledge, there is a continuous quest for explanatory theory for every phenomenon investigated. The paper notes that atoms, molecules, gods, and spirits

  8. Western Scientific Thought and African Traditional Beliefs and Thought.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amuah, Isaac

    This paper explores features that are common to both modern Western scientific thought and traditional African thought. The differences between the two are enumerated. In the Western scheme of knowledge, there is a continuous quest for explanatory theory for every phenomenon investigated. The paper notes that atoms, molecules, gods, and spirits…

  9. AUTOMATIC COUNTER

    DOEpatents

    Robinson, H.P.

    1960-06-01

    An automatic counter of alpha particle tracks recorded by a sensitive emulsion of a photographic plate is described. The counter includes a source of mcdulated dark-field illumination for developing light flashes from the recorded particle tracks as the photographic plate is automatically scanned in narrow strips. Photoelectric means convert the light flashes to proportional current pulses for application to an electronic counting circuit. Photoelectric means are further provided for developing a phase reference signal from the photographic plate in such a manner that signals arising from particle tracks not parallel to the edge of the plate are out of phase with the reference signal. The counting circuit includes provision for rejecting the out-of-phase signals resulting from unoriented tracks as well as signals resulting from spurious marks on the plate such as scratches, dust or grain clumpings, etc. The output of the circuit is hence indicative only of the tracks that would be counted by a human operator.

  10. In Defence of Thought Stopping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bakker, Gary Maria

    2009-01-01

    Thought stopping (TS) has a long and established history as an effective mental control technique among the cognitive behavioural therapies (CBT). Recent claims have arisen, particularly from acceptance and mindfulness-based authors, that thought suppression--and therefore TS--is counterproductive. These claims take the syllogistic form: TS is a…

  11. Critical Thoughts on Critical Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cody, Dean E.

    2006-01-01

    Scholars in many academic areas, including librarians, devote a significant amount of thought to critical thinking. Surveying views of its use and possibility, the author considers some key librarians' thoughts on critical thinking. In conclusion, the inability to define critical thinking means that librarians need to emphasize control of…

  12. Thought Experiments: Determining Their Meaning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galili, Igal

    2009-01-01

    This paper considers thought experiment as a special scientific tool that mediates between theory and experiment by mental simulation. To clarify the meaning of thought experiment, as required in teaching science, we followed the relevant episodes throughout the history of science paying attention to the epistemological status of the performed

  13. Thought and Action in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rmer, Thomas Aastrup

    2015-01-01

    In much theory there is a tendency to place thought above action, or the opposite, action over thought. The consequence of the first option is that philosophy or scientific evidence gains the upper hand in educational thinking. The consequence of the second view is that pragmatism and relativism become the dominant features. This article discusses

  14. Bon Mots for Bad Thoughts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallin, Jason J.

    2012-01-01

    This article questions how the philosophy of Gilles Deleuze has been received and connected to the field of curriculum theory. In an effort to reconnect Deleuze-thought to its political force, this essay commences a series of arguments pertaining to the ways in which the revolutionary thought of Gilles Deleuze and Felix Guattari have been…

  15. Critical Thoughts on Critical Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cody, Dean E.

    2006-01-01

    Scholars in many academic areas, including librarians, devote a significant amount of thought to critical thinking. Surveying views of its use and possibility, the author considers some key librarians' thoughts on critical thinking. In conclusion, the inability to define critical thinking means that librarians need to emphasize control of

  16. Thought Experiments: Determining Their Meaning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galili, Igal

    2009-01-01

    This paper considers thought experiment as a special scientific tool that mediates between theory and experiment by mental simulation. To clarify the meaning of thought experiment, as required in teaching science, we followed the relevant episodes throughout the history of science paying attention to the epistemological status of the performed…

  17. Thought and Action in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rømer, Thomas Aastrup

    2015-01-01

    In much theory there is a tendency to place thought above action, or the opposite, action over thought. The consequence of the first option is that philosophy or scientific evidence gains the upper hand in educational thinking. The consequence of the second view is that pragmatism and relativism become the dominant features. This article discusses…

  18. Automatic stabilization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haus, FR

    1936-01-01

    This report concerns the study of automatic stabilizers and extends it to include the control of the three-control system of the airplane instead of just altitude control. Some of the topics discussed include lateral disturbed motion, static stability, the mathematical theory of lateral motion, and large angles of incidence. Various mechanisms and stabilizers are also discussed. The feeding of Diesel engines by injection pumps actuated by engine compression, achieves the required high speeds of injection readily and permits rigorous control of the combustible charge introduced into each cylinder and of the peak pressure in the resultant cycle.

  19. Automatic transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Miki, N.

    1988-10-11

    This patent describes an automatic transmission including a fluid torque converter, a first gear unit having three forward-speed gears and a single reverse gear, a second gear unit having a low-speed gear and a high-speed gear, and a hydraulic control system, the hydraulic control system comprising: a source of pressurized fluid; a first shift valve for controlling the shifting between the first-speed gear and the second-speed gear of the first gear unit; a second shift valve for controlling the shifting between the second-speed gear and the third-speed gear of the first gear unit; a third shift valve equipped with a spool having two positions for controlling the shifting between the low-speed gear and the high-speed gear of the second gear unit; a manual selector valve having a plurality of shift positions for distributing the pressurized fluid supply from the source of pressurized fluid to the first, second and third shift valves respectively; first, second and third solenoid valves corresponding to the first, second and third shift valves, respectively for independently controlling the operation of the respective shift valves, thereby establishing a six forward-speed automatic transmission by combining the low-speed gear and the high-speed gear of the second gear unit with each of the first-speed gear, the second speed gear and the third-speed gear of the first gear unit; and means to fixedly position the spool of the third shift valve at one of the two positions by supplying the pressurized fluid to the third shift valve when the manual selector valve is shifted to a particular shift position, thereby locking the second gear unit in one of low-speed gear and the high-speed gear, whereby the six forward-speed automatic transmission is converted to a three forward-speed automatic transmission when the manual selector valve is shifted to the particular shift position.

  20. Automatic transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Ohkubo, M.

    1988-02-16

    An automatic transmission is described combining a stator reversing type torque converter and speed changer having first and second sun gears comprising: (a) a planetary gear train composed of first and second planetary gears sharing one planetary carrier in common; (b) a clutch and requisite brakes to control the planetary gear train; and (c) a speed-increasing or speed-decreasing mechanism is installed both in between a turbine shaft coupled to a turbine of the stator reversing type torque converter and the first sun gear of the speed changer, and in between a stator shaft coupled to a reversing stator and the second sun gear of the speed changer.

  1. Narcotics Center Questionnaire, 1968.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marks, John B.; And Others

    This questionnaire assesses drug knowledge, drug use practices, and attitudes toward drugs in junior high school, senior high school, and college students. The 105 items (multiple choice, yes/no, or completion) are concerned with personal and demographic data, "book" knowledge of drugs, "street" knowledge of drugs (drug argot and the like),…

  2. Philosophy of Glasser Questionnaire.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masters, James R.; Laverty, Grace E.

    As part of the instrumentation to assess the effectiveness of the Schools Without Failure (SWF) program in 10 elementary schools in the New Castle, Pa. School District, the Philosophy of Glasser Questionnaire was developed. This 15-item scale measuring attitudes toward the philosophy of William Glasser had a coefficient alpha reliability of .77…

  3. Facilities Sharing Questionnaire Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Community Colleges, Sacramento. Office of the Chancellor.

    In order to determine the extent to which the California community colleges share and borrow facilities, a questionnaire was sent to each California community college in January 1974. Sixty-six (96 percent) of the 69 districts responded. Analysis of the data revealed that the typical campus shared 7.5 facilities and borrowed 5.6. More than 37…

  4. Satisfaction With Teaching Questionnaire.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merwin, J. C.; DiVesta , F. J.

    As part of the instrumentation to assess the effectiveness of the Schools Without Failure (SEF) program in 10 elementary schools in the New Castle, Pa. School District, the Satisfaction with Teaching Questionnaire was used. In a study by its developers this scale discriminated between students choosing to be teachers and those choosing other…

  5. The Depression Coping Questionnaire.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kleinke, Chris L.

    College students (N=396), chronic pain patients (N=319), and schizophrenic veterans (N=43) completed the Depression Coping Questionnaire (DCQ) and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Factor analysis of the DCQ identified eleven coping responses: social support, problem solving, self-blame/escape, aggression, indulgence, activities, medication,…

  6. [Dispositional mindfulness modulates automatic transference of disgust into moral judgment].

    PubMed

    Sato, Atsushi; Sugiura, Yoshinori

    2014-02-01

    Previous studies showed that incidental feelings of disgust could make moral judgments more severe. In the present study, we investigated whether individual differences in mindfulness modulated automatic transference of disgust into moral judgment. Undergraduates were divided into high- and low-mindfulness groups based on the mean score on each subscale of the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ). Participants were asked to write about a disgusting experience or an emotionally neutral experience, and then to evaluate moral (impersonal vs. high-conflict personal) and non-moral scenarios. The results showed that the disgust induction made moral judgments more severe for the low "acting with awareness" participants, whereas it did not influence the moral judgments of the high "acting with awareness" participants irrespective of type of moral dilemma. The other facets of the FFMQ did not modulate the effect of disgust on moral judgment. These findings suggest that being present prevents automatic transference of disgust into moral judgment even when prepotent emotions elicited by the thought of killing one person to save several others and utilitarian reasoning conflict. PMID:24669501

  7. Automatic transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Aoki, H.

    1989-03-21

    An automatic transmission is described, comprising: a torque converter including an impeller having a connected member, a turbine having an input member and a reactor; and an automatic transmission mechanism having first to third clutches and plural gear units including a single planetary gear unit with a ring gear and a dual planetary gear unit with a ring gear. The single and dual planetary gear units have respective carriers integrally coupled with each other and respective sun gears integrally coupled with each other, the input member of the turbine being coupled with the ring gear of the single planetary gear unit through the first clutch, and being coupled with the sun gear through the second clutch. The connected member of the impeller is coupled with the ring gear of the dual planetary gear of the dual planetary gear unit is made to be and ring gear of the dual planetary gear unit is made to be restrained as required, and the carrier is coupled with an output member.

  8. A cognitive style approach to creative thought.

    PubMed

    Noppe, L D; Gallagher, J M

    1977-02-01

    Creative thinking was explored from several approaches to further understanding of the interrelationship of perception, personality, and cognition. College students (N = 45) were administered the Group Embedded Figures Test (GEFT), the Remote Associates Test (RAT), a questionnaire concerning RAT strategy, and two self-report scales. Field independent subjects were found to be significantly (p less than .001) more creative than field dependents. Correlations between the RAT and GEFT and the self-report measures of conformity and creativity, while largely nonsignificant, were in the predicted directions. Results demonstrated that advanced strategy levels and insightful responses were significantly related to high performance on the RAT. Theoretical links between cognitive style and Piagetian concepts were discussed in regard to creative thought. Overall, these findings support the contention that the creative processes should be studied, not as isolated structures, but with relational and multifaceted emphasis. PMID:321749

  9. The relationship of thought suppression and recent rape to disordered eating in emerging adulthood.

    PubMed

    Collins, Brittany; Fischer, Sarah; Stojek, Monika; Becker, Kendra

    2014-02-01

    This study utilizes a prospective design to examine the interaction of recent rape/attempted rape with individual differences in thought suppression on increases in disordered eating symptoms during late adolescence/emerging adulthood. Thought suppression is the attempt to suppress unwanted thoughts. We propose that emerging adult women who have experienced recent rape/attempted rape and tend to use thought suppression as a coping mechanism are at risk for increases in disordered eating. 319 women completed the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire, the Sexual Experiences Survey, the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, and the White Bear Thought Suppression Inventory in their first month of college and three months later. The experience of recent rape/attempted rape in the three months prior to the assessment accounted for unique variance in disordered eating at Time 2. Levels of thought suppression assessed at Time 1 significantly moderated the influence of recent rape/attempted rape on disordered eating at Time 2. PMID:24439617

  10. The Roles of Negative Career Thoughts and Sense of Coherence in Predicting Career Decision Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austin, R. Kirk; Dahl, A. Dennis; Wagner, Bruce D.

    2010-01-01

    The relationship between sense of coherence and negative career thoughts was investigated in a non-college-based population to determine the relationship and predictive value of these factors toward career decision status. Participants completed the Orientation to Life Questionnaire, Career Thoughts Inventory, and Career Decision Profile's…

  11. Automatic transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Hamane, M.; Ohri, H.

    1989-03-21

    This patent describes an automatic transmission connected between a drive shaft and a driven shaft and comprising: a planetary gear mechanism including a first gear driven by the drive shaft, a second gear operatively engaged with the first gear to transmit speed change output to the driven shaft, and a third gear operatively engaged with the second gear to control the operation thereof; centrifugally operated clutch means for driving the first gear and the second gear. It also includes a ratchet type one-way clutch for permitting rotation of the third gear in the same direction as that of the drive shaft but preventing rotation in the reverse direction; the clutch means comprising a ratchet pawl supporting plate coaxially disposed relative to the drive shaft and integrally connected to the third gear, the ratchet pawl supporting plate including outwardly projection radial projections united with one another at base portions thereof.

  12. Assessing Academic Potential for University Admission: The Biographical Questionnaire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Enslin, P. A.; Button, A.; Chakane, M.; de Groot, M.; Dison, L.

    2006-01-01

    A Biographical Questionnaire (BQ) has been used in the Faculty of Humanities at the University of the Witwatersrand since the mid-80s, to identify potential to succeed at university among applicants who have not met the requirements for automatic admission. As the key instrument in a special admissions process, the BQ's history and assumptions are…

  13. Assessing Academic Potential for University Admission: The Biographical Questionnaire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Enslin, P. A.; Button, A.; Chakane, M.; de Groot, M.; Dison, L.

    2006-01-01

    A Biographical Questionnaire (BQ) has been used in the Faculty of Humanities at the University of the Witwatersrand since the mid-80s, to identify potential to succeed at university among applicants who have not met the requirements for automatic admission. As the key instrument in a special admissions process, the BQ's history and assumptions are

  14. Language, Thought and Memory in Linguistic Performance, A Thought View.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lado, Robert

    The contrasting views of Saussure and Bloomfield ("mentalist" versus "mechanist"), the hypotheses of Whorf showing the influence of language on certain habits of thought, and Chomsky's notion of generative transformational grammar in the context of language use are reviewed. The author notes the limits of these systems and suggests that in dealing…

  15. A penny for your thoughts: dimensions of self-generated thought content and relationships with individual differences in emotional wellbeing

    PubMed Central

    Andrews-Hanna, Jessica R.; Kaiser, Roselinde H.; Turner, Amy E. J.; Reineberg, Andrew E.; Godinez, Detre; Dimidjian, Sona; Banich, Marie T.

    2013-01-01

    A core aspect of human cognition involves overcoming the constraints of the present environment by mentally simulating another time, place, or perspective. Although these self-generated processes confer many benefits, they can come at an important cost, and this cost is greater for some individuals than for others. Here we explore the possibility that the costs and benefits of self-generated thought depend, in part, upon its phenomenological content. To test these hypotheses, we first developed a novel thought sampling paradigm in which a large sample of young adults recalled several recurring thoughts and rated each thought on multiple content variables (i.e., valence, specificity, self-relevance, etc.). Next, we examined multi-level relationships among these content variables and used a hierarchical clustering approach to partition self-generated thought into distinct dimensions. Finally, we investigated whether these content dimensions predicted individual differences in the costs and benefits of the experience, assessed with questionnaires measuring emotional health and wellbeing. Individuals who characterized their thoughts as more negative and more personally significant scored higher on constructs associated with Depression and Trait Negative Affect, whereas those who characterized their thoughts as less specific scored higher on constructs linked to Rumination. In contrast, individuals who characterized their thoughts as more positive, less personally significant, and more specific scored higher on constructs linked to improved wellbeing (Mindfulness). Collectively, these findings suggest that the content of people’s inner thoughts can (1) be productively examined, (2) be distilled into several major dimensions, and (3) account for a large portion of variability in their functional outcomes. PMID:24376427

  16. An attentional control task reduces intrusive thoughts about smoking.

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    May J; Andrade J; Willoughby K; Brown C

    2012-04-01

    INTRODUCTION: Attentional control tasks such as body scanning and following isometric exercise instructions have been shown to reduce smoking cravings, apparently by reducing stress (Ussher, M., Cropley, M., Playle, S., Mohidin, R., & West, R. [2009]. Effect of isometric exercise and body scanning on cigarette cravings and withdrawal symptoms. Addiction, 104, 1251-1257. doi:10.1111/j.1360-0443.2009.02605.x). Related work based upon elaborated intrusion theory (Kavanagh, D. J., Andrade, J., & May, J. [2005]. Imaginary relish and exquisite torture: The elaborated intrusion theory of desire. Psychological Review, 112, 446-467. doi:10.1037/0033-295X.112.2.446) has shown that similar tasks can reduce hungry participants' involuntary food-related thoughts (May, J., Andrade, J., Batey, H., Berry, L.-M., & Kavanagh, D. [2010]. Less food for thought: Impact of attentional instructions on intrusive thoughts about snack foods. Appetite, 55, 279-287. doi:10.1016/j.appet.2010.06.014). This study tests the effect of body scanning instructions upon smoking-related thoughts as well as craving.METHODS: Twenty-seven smokers took part in 2 counterbalanced sessions, on different days, having been asked to abstain from smoking for 2 hr. In each session, they followed audio instructions for three 10-min blocks during which their thoughts were probed 10 times. In the first and third blocks, they were instructed to let their mind wander; during the second block of the control session, they also let their mind wander, but in the experimental session, they followed body scanning instructions. "Smoking thought frequency" was assessed using thought probes; "Craving" was measured using Factor 1 of the Questionnaire on Smoking Urges (Tiffany, S. T., & Drobes, D. J. [1991]. The development and initial validation of a questionnaire on smoking urges. British Journal of Addiction, 86, 1467-1476. doi:10.1111/j.1360-0443.1991.tb01732.x).RESULTS: Participants reported fewer smoking-related thoughts and lower smoking cravings in the body scanning block of the experimental session, whereas they rose in the comparable mind-wandering block of the control session. The reduction in thoughts during the body scanning correlated with the corresponding reduction in craving.CONCLUSIONS: Body scanning reduces cravings and reduces the frequency or shortens the duration of smoking thoughts. Attentional control strategies may form a useful part of smoking cessation practices.

  17. Flexibility in Language and Thought

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Srinivasan, Mahesh

    2011-01-01

    Many words can be used flexibly: a book can be physically heavy, but also have provocative content, a "chicken" might live in a coop, but could also be tasty to eat. What do the uses of "polysemous" words such as these reveal about the structure of language and thought? Paper 1 examined 4-year-old children's representations of polysemous words

  18. Operant Variability: Some Random Thoughts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marr, M. Jackson

    2012-01-01

    Barba's (2012) paper is a serious and thoughtful analysis of a vexing problem in behavior analysis: Just what should count as an operant class and how do people know? The slippery issue of a "generalized operant" or functional response class illustrates one aspect of this problem, and "variation" or "novelty" as an operant appears to fall into…

  19. Gramscian Thought and Brazilian Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dore, Rosemary

    2009-01-01

    In the history of Brazilian education, it is only since the 1980s, during the redemocratization of Brazil, that proposals for public education in a socialist perspective have been presented. The past two decades have been marked by a growing interest in Gramscian thought, mainly in the educational field, making possible the elaboration of…

  20. Oral Language: Expression of Thought.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anastasiow, Nicholas

    A child's language reflects his thought processes and his level of development. Motor, emotional, and language development all have a direct relationship to the child's cognitive functioning--each follows the pattern of moving from gross and loosely differentiated states to refined and differentiated systems. Research in early childhood education…

  1. LANGUAGE IN THOUGHT AND ACTION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    HAYAKAWA, S.I.

    A SEMANTIC DISCUSSION OF LANGUAGE IN GENERAL AND OF THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE IN PARTICULAR, THIS VOLUME IS DIVIDED INTO TWO BOOKS--"THE FUNCTIONS OF LANGUAGE" AND "LANGUAGE AND THOUGHT." BOOK 1 DISCUSSES LANGUAGE AND SURVIVAL, SYMBOLS, REPORTS, INFERENCES, JUDGMENTS, CONTEXTS, INFORMATIVE AND AFFECTIVE CONNOTATION, ART AND TENSION, AND THE "LANGUAGES"…

  2. Constructive and Unconstructive Repetitive Thought

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watkins, Edward R.

    2008-01-01

    The author reviews research showing that repetitive thought (RT) can have constructive or unconstructive consequences. The main unconstructive consequences of RT are (a) depression, (b) anxiety, and (c) difficulties in physical health. The main constructive consequences of RT are (a) recovery from upsetting and traumatic events, (b) adaptive

  3. Constructive and Unconstructive Repetitive Thought

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watkins, Edward R.

    2008-01-01

    The author reviews research showing that repetitive thought (RT) can have constructive or unconstructive consequences. The main unconstructive consequences of RT are (a) depression, (b) anxiety, and (c) difficulties in physical health. The main constructive consequences of RT are (a) recovery from upsetting and traumatic events, (b) adaptive…

  4. Gramscian Thought and Brazilian Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dore, Rosemary

    2009-01-01

    In the history of Brazilian education, it is only since the 1980s, during the redemocratization of Brazil, that proposals for public education in a socialist perspective have been presented. The past two decades have been marked by a growing interest in Gramscian thought, mainly in the educational field, making possible the elaboration of

  5. Individual Differences in Thought Processes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fogliatto, Hermelinda M.

    In this research on individual differences in thought processes, the primary interest was to study the process followed by the subject in order to reach the solution of the problem. For this purpose, the performance of 38 experimental subjects was studied throughout 24 problems of the training sessions. The methods used were group norms, length of…

  6. Flexibility in Language and Thought

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Srinivasan, Mahesh

    2011-01-01

    Many words can be used flexibly: a book can be physically heavy, but also have provocative content, a "chicken" might live in a coop, but could also be tasty to eat. What do the uses of "polysemous" words such as these reveal about the structure of language and thought? Paper 1 examined 4-year-old children's representations of polysemous words…

  7. Multimedia in Education: Thought Pieces.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicol, Anne; And Others

    1986-01-01

    The six "thought pieces" presented in this document summarize the personal perspectives of conference participants on issues raised in formal or information discussions, but not part of the central themes of the conference or conference papers. They include: (1) "Assuming That..." (Anne Nicol, Apple Computer, Inc.); (2) "A Layered Theory of Design…

  8. Automatic transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Miura, M.; Inuzuka, T.

    1986-08-26

    1. An automatic transmission with four forward speeds and one reverse position, is described which consists of: an input shaft; an output member; first and second planetary gear sets each having a sun gear, a ring gear and a carrier supporting a pinion in mesh with the sun gear and ring gear; the carrier of the first gear set, the ring gear of the second gear set and the output member all being connected; the ring gear of the first gear set connected to the carrier of the second gear set; a first clutch means for selectively connecting the input shaft to the sun gear of the first gear set, including friction elements, a piston selectively engaging the friction elements and a fluid servo in which hydraulic fluid is selectively supplied to the piston; a second clutch means for selectively connecting the input shaft to the sun gear of the second gear set a third clutch means for selectively connecting the input shaft to the carrier of the second gear set including friction elements, a piston selectively engaging the friction elements and a fluid servo in which hydraulic fluid is selectively supplied to the piston; a first drive-establishing means for selectively preventing rotation of the ring gear of the first gear set and the carrier of the second gear set in only one direction and, alternatively, in any direction; a second drive-establishing means for selectively preventing rotation of the sun gear of the second gear set; and a drum being open to the first planetary gear set, with a cylindrical intermediate wall, an inner peripheral wall and outer peripheral wall and forming the hydraulic servos of the first and third clutch means between the intermediate wall and the inner peripheral wall and between the intermediate wall and the outer peripheral wall respectively.

  9. Language may indeed influence thought

    PubMed Central

    Zlatev, Jordan; Blomberg, Johan

    2015-01-01

    We discuss four interconnected issues that we believe have hindered investigations into how language may affect thinking. These have had a tendency to reappear in the debate concerning linguistic relativity over the past decades, despite numerous empirical findings. The first is the claim that it is impossible to disentangle language from thought, making the question concerning “influence” pointless. The second is the argument that it is impossible to disentangle language from culture in general, and from social interaction in particular, so it is impossible to attribute any differences in the thought patterns of the members of different cultures to language per se. The third issue is the objection that methodological and empirical problems defeat all but the most trivial version of the thesis of linguistic influence: that language gives new factual information. The fourth is the assumption that since language can potentially influence thought from “not at all” to “completely,” the possible forms of linguistic influence can be placed on a cline, and competing theories can be seen as debating the actual position on this cline. We analyze these claims and show that the first three do not constitute in-principle objections against the validity of the project of investigating linguistic influence on thought, and that the last one is not the best way to frame the empirical challenges at hand. While we do not argue for any specific theory or mechanism for linguistic influence on thought, our discussion and the reviewed literature show that such influence is clearly possible, and hence in need of further investigations. PMID:26582997

  10. Language may indeed influence thought.

    PubMed

    Zlatev, Jordan; Blomberg, Johan

    2015-01-01

    We discuss four interconnected issues that we believe have hindered investigations into how language may affect thinking. These have had a tendency to reappear in the debate concerning linguistic relativity over the past decades, despite numerous empirical findings. The first is the claim that it is impossible to disentangle language from thought, making the question concerning "influence" pointless. The second is the argument that it is impossible to disentangle language from culture in general, and from social interaction in particular, so it is impossible to attribute any differences in the thought patterns of the members of different cultures to language per se. The third issue is the objection that methodological and empirical problems defeat all but the most trivial version of the thesis of linguistic influence: that language gives new factual information. The fourth is the assumption that since language can potentially influence thought from "not at all" to "completely," the possible forms of linguistic influence can be placed on a cline, and competing theories can be seen as debating the actual position on this cline. We analyze these claims and show that the first three do not constitute in-principle objections against the validity of the project of investigating linguistic influence on thought, and that the last one is not the best way to frame the empirical challenges at hand. While we do not argue for any specific theory or mechanism for linguistic influence on thought, our discussion and the reviewed literature show that such influence is clearly possible, and hence in need of further investigations. PMID:26582997

  11. Diet History Questionnaire: Suggested Citations

    Cancer.gov

    Use of the Diet History Questionnaire and Diet*Calc Analysis Software for publication purposes should contain a citation which includes version information for the software, questionnaire, and nutrient database.

  12. Diet History Questionnaire: International Applications

    Cancer.gov

    ARP staff adapted the Diet History Questionnaire (DHQ) for use by Canadian populations in collaboration with the Alberta Cancer Board. This questionnaire takes into account the different food fortification polices of the U.S. and Canada.

  13. Constructive and Unconstructive Repetitive Thought

    PubMed Central

    Watkins, Edward R.

    2008-01-01

    The author reviews research showing that repetitive thought (RT) can have constructive or unconstructive consequences. The main unconstructive consequences of RT are (a) depression, (b) anxiety, and (c) difficulties in physical health. The main constructive consequences of RT are (a) recovery from upsetting and traumatic events, (b) adaptive preparation and anticipatory planning, (c) recovery from depression, and (d) uptake of health-promoting behaviors. Several potential principles accounting for these distinct consequences of RT are identified within this review: (a) the valence of thought content, (b) the intrapersonal and situational context in which RT occurs, and (c) the level of construal (abstract vs. concrete processing) adopted during RT. Of the existing models of RT, it is proposed that an elaborated version of the control theory account provides the best theoretical framework to account for its distinct consequences. PMID:18298268

  14. Psychiatric Thoughts in Ancient India*

    PubMed Central

    Abhyankar, Ravi

    2015-01-01

    A review of the literature regarding psychiatric thoughts in ancient India is attempted. Besides interesting reading, many of the concepts are still relevant and can be used in day-to-day practice especially towards healthy and happy living. Certain concepts are surprisingly contemporary and valid today. They can be used in psychotherapy and counselling and for promoting mental health. However, the description and classification of mental illness is not in tune with modern psychiatry. PMID:25838724

  15. The quest for better questionnaires.

    PubMed

    Wilcox, A J

    1999-12-15

    The development of questionnaires is a neglected enterprise in epidemiology. It has recently been proposed that a prestigious health authority such as the World Health Organization establish a committee to tackle issues of questionnaire quality, moving eventually toward standardized instruments. However, standardization may not be the best way to invigorate this enterprise. As an alternative, the author suggests that the first step in improving questionnaires would be to make them more accessible. Ideally, questionnaires should be as easily scrutinized as a study's methods or results. To this end, the author suggests that when a research paper is published, the entire questionnaire be made available on the worldwide web. Electronic access to questionnaires could stimulate a new era of awareness about the importance of questionnaire design. PMID:10604766

  16. Attribute centrality and imaginative thought.

    PubMed

    Ward, T B; Dodds, R A; Saunders, K N; Sifonis, C M

    2000-12-01

    Participants' representations of the concept human were examined to differentiate three types of associations between concepts and their component attributes: the capacity of concepts to cue attributes (attribute accessibility), the capacity of attributes to cue concepts (instance accessibility), and the extent to which attributes are thought of as central to concepts (attribute centrality). The findings provide information about the concept human itself and, more generally, about the functionally distinct roles those different attribute-concept associations play in guiding imaginative thought. College students listed attributes that differentiate humans from other animals, rated the centrality of those attributes, and listed animals that possess those attributes. Other students drew and described extraterrestrials that possessed some of the attributes that were found to vary across those listing and rating tasks. Rated centrality was the most important determinant of an attribute's impact on imaginative generation. When the imagined extraterrestrials were supposed to possess attributes that had been rated as central to humans (intelligence, emotional complexity, or opposable thumbs), participants projected more aspects of human form onto them than when the creatures were supposed to possess less central attributes or when attributes were unspecified. PMID:11219966

  17. Paper to Electronic Questionnaires: Effects on Structured Questionnaire Forms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trujillo, Anna C.

    2009-01-01

    With the use of computers, paper questionnaires are being replaced by electronic questionnaires. The formats of traditional paper questionnaires have been found to effect a subject's rating. Consequently, the transition from paper to electronic format can subtly change results. The research presented begins to determine how electronic questionnaire formats change subjective ratings. For formats where subjects used a flow chart to arrive at their rating, starting at the worst and middle ratings of the flow charts were the most accurate but subjects took slightly more time to arrive at their answers. Except for the electronic paper format, starting at the worst rating was the most preferred. The paper and electronic paper versions had the worst accuracy. Therefore, for flowchart type of questionnaires, flowcharts should start at the worst rating and work their way up to better ratings.

  18. Development of the Parental Psychological Flexibility Questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Burke, Kylie; Moore, Susan

    2015-08-01

    This paper describes development and validation of the Parental Psychological Flexibility (PPF) Questionnaire, a parent-report measure designed to assess psychological flexibility among parents of pre-adolescents and adolescents (aged 10-18 years). Psychological flexibility within parenting refers to parents' accepting negative thoughts, emotions and urges about one's child and still acting in ways that are consistent with effective parenting. Exploratory factor analysis (n = 178 parents) of a 43-item draft measure, resulted in a 30-item, 3-factor structure. Three subscales were created, consistent with the psychological flexibility literature: acceptance, cognitive defusion and committed action. A second sample of parents (n = 192) was then used to confirm the factor structure and reliability and validity of the PPF. Results supported the 3-factor structure, reduced the number of items to 19 and demonstrated that the PPF subscales have adequate reliability and validity and are thus suitable for researching psychological flexibility among parents of pre-adolescents and adolescents. PMID:25236325

  19. Automatic transmission adapter kit

    SciTech Connect

    Stich, R.L.; Neal, W.D.

    1987-02-10

    This patent describes, in a four-wheel-drive vehicle apparatus having a power train including an automatic transmission and a transfer case, an automatic transmission adapter kit for installation of a replacement automatic transmission of shorter length than an original automatic transmission in the four-wheel-drive vehicle. The adapter kit comprises: an extension housing interposed between the replacement automatic transmission and the transfer case; an output shaft, having a first end which engages the replacement automatic transmission and a second end which engages the transfer case; first sealing means for sealing between the extension housing and the replacement automatic transmission; second sealing means for sealing between the extension housing and the transfer case; and fastening means for connecting the extension housing between the replacement automatic transmission and the transfer case.

  20. Automatic fluid dispenser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sakellaris, P. C. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    Fluid automatically flows to individual dispensing units at predetermined times from a fluid supply and is available only for a predetermined interval of time after which an automatic control causes the fluid to drain from the individual dispensing units. Fluid deprivation continues until the beginning of a new cycle when the fluid is once again automatically made available at the individual dispensing units.

  1. Neuroticism, Life Events and Negative Thoughts in the Development of Depression in Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kercher, Amy J.; Rapee, Ronald M.; Schniering, Carolyn A.

    2009-01-01

    Theories of depression suggest that cognitive and environmental factors may explain the relationship between personality and depression. This study tested such a model in early adolescence, incorporating neuroticism, stress-generation and negative automatic thoughts in the development of depressive symptoms. Participants (896 girls, mean age 12.3…

  2. Monkeys Move Robotic Wheelchairs with Their Thoughts

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_157593.html Monkeys Move Robotic Wheelchairs With Their Thoughts Scientists say technology might ... made it possible for monkeys to operate a robotic wheelchair using only the monkey's thoughts say the ...

  3. Attitudes to smoking on submarines: results of a questionnaire study.

    PubMed

    Norris, William D; Brims, Fraser J H

    2002-07-01

    An anonymous survey to assess the attitudes to smoking of men serving on two Trident Nuclear submarines was conducted by questionnaire. A total of 244 questionnaires were completed, representing 87% of the two crews. Thirty-two percent of respondents declared themselves to be smokers, 69% were nonsmokers, and of these, 31% were ex-smokers. Attitudes of all respondents to an enforced ban of smoking on submarines indicated that 55% felt that it would be justifiable, 46% felt that it would be unfair, 42% felt that it was uncalled for, 46% thought that it would be illegal, and 47% thought that a ban was about time. The separate opinions of smokers and nonsmokers were polarized, whereas the overall results indicate indifferent attitudes of crew members. Further research into the atmospheric effects of environmental tobacco smoke on a submarine is required. PMID:12125854

  4. Language, thought, and real nouns.

    PubMed

    Barner, David; Inagaki, Shunji; Li, Peggy

    2009-06-01

    We test the claim that acquiring a mass-count language, like English, causes speakers to think differently about entities in the world, relative to speakers of classifier languages like Japanese. We use three tasks to assess this claim: object-substance rating, quantity judgment, and word extension. Using the first two tasks, we present evidence that learning mass-count syntax has little effect on the interpretation of familiar nouns between Japanese and English, and that speakers of these languages do not divide up referents differently along an individuation continuum, as claimed in some previous reports [Gentner, D., & Boroditsky, L. (2001). Individuation, relativity, and early word learning. In M. Bowerman, & S. Levinson (Eds.), Language acquisition and conceptual development (pp. 215-256). Cambridge University Press]. Instead, we argue that previous cross-linguistic differences [Imai, M., & Gentner, D. (1997). A cross-linguistic study of early word meaning: Universal ontology and linguistic influence. Cognition, 62, 169-200] are attributable to "lexical statistics" [Gleitman, L., & Papafragou, A. (2005). Language and thought. In K. Holyoak, & R. Morrison (Eds.), Cambridge handbook of thinking and reasoning (pp. 633-661). Cambridge University Press]. Speakers of English are more likely to think that a novel ambiguous expression like "the blicket" refers to a kind of object (relative to speakers of Japanese) because speakers of English are likely to assume that "blicket" is a count noun rather than a mass noun, based on the relative frequency of each kind of word in English. This is confirmed by testing Mandarin-English bilinguals with a word extension task. We find that bilinguals tested in English with mass-count ambiguous syntax extend novel words like English monolinguals (and assume that a word like "blicket" refers to a kind of object). In contrast, bilinguals tested in Mandarin are significantly more likely to extend novel words by material. Thus, online lexical statistics, rather than non-linguistic thought, mediate cross-linguistic differences in word extension. We suggest that speakers of Mandarin, English, and Japanese draw on a universal set of lexical meanings, and that mass-count syntax allows speakers of English to select among these meanings. PMID:19345937

  5. Second-to-Last Thoughts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trimble, Virginia L.

    2016-06-01

    You can’t really prepare an abstract of a concluding-remarks talk, but having spent 19 years, 8 months as a full time student (Sept. 1948, Toluca Lake Grammar School kindergarten to April 1968 Caltech Ph.D.), most of the ensuing 48 years as a teacher, and about 51 years as some sort of astronomer, I find myself woefully ignorant of astronomy education and therefore well prepared to bring a fresh and vacant mind to the ideas presented by our colleagues here. Several thoughts, however, intrude. First, as Cecilia Payne Gaposchkin said, “a woman should do astronomy only if nothing else will satisfy her, for nothing else is what she will get.” Make that “person” and “science” and it still carries much truth. Second, it is better to be a professional astronomer and an amateur alto than the converse. And third, it is better to be a professional dentist and an amateur astronomer than the converse. This, I think, leaves room for all of us to work in areas that we find attractive and that we turn out to be reasonably good at. The latter is at least as important as the former. There is a great deal of pleasure to be found as a second-rate singer or artist, but not, I hope, as a lousy astronomer or teacher.

  6. Some thoughts on Mercurian resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gillett, Stephen L.

    1991-01-01

    Virtually all scenarios on Solar System development ignore Mercury, but such inattention is probably undeserved. Once viable lunar and (probably) asteroidal facilities are established in the next century, Mercury warrants further investigation. Mercury's high solar energy density is a major potential advantage for space-based industries. Indeed, despite its higher gravity, Mercury is roughly twice as easy to leave as the Moon if the additional solar flux is taken into account. Moreover, with solar-driven technologies such as solar sails or electric propulsion, its depth in the Sun's gravity well is less important. Because Mercury is airless and almost certainly waterless, it will be an obvious place to export lunar technology, which will have been developed to deal with very similar conditions. Methods for extracting resources from anhydrous silicates will be particularly germane. Even without solar-powered propulsion, the discovery of low-delta-V access via multiple Venus and Earth encounters makes the planet easier to reach than had been thought. Technology developed for multi-year missions to asteroids and Mars should be readily adaptable to such Mercurian missions. Mercury will not be our first outpost in the Solar System. Nonetheless, as facilities are established in cis-Earth space, it probably merits attention as a next step for development.

  7. Thought experiments on gravitational forces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lynden-Bell, D.; Katz, Joseph

    2014-03-01

    Large contributions to the near closure of the Universe and to the acceleration of its expansion are due to the gravitation of components of the stress-energy tensor other than its mass density. To familiarize astronomers with the gravitation of these components we conduct thought experiments on gravity, analogous to the real experiments that our forebears conducted on electricity. By analogy to the forces due to electric currents we investigate the gravitational forces due to the flows of momentum, angular momentum and energy along a cylinder. Under tension the gravity of the cylinder decreases but the `closure' of the 3-space around it increases. When the cylinder carries a torque the flow of angular momentum along it leads to a novel helical interpretation of Levi-Civita's external metric and a novel relativistic effect. Energy currents give gravomagnetic effects in which parallel currents repel and antiparallel currents attract, though such effects must be added to those of static gravity. The gravity of beams of light give striking illustrations of these effects and a re-derivation of light bending via the gravity of the light itself. Faraday's experiments lead us to discuss lines of force of both gravomagnetic and gravity fields. A serious conundrum arises if Landau and Lifshitz's definition of gravitational force is adopted.

  8. The (perceived) meaning of spontaneous thoughts.

    PubMed

    Morewedge, Carey K; Giblin, Colleen E; Norton, Michael I

    2014-08-01

    Spontaneous thoughts, the output of a broad category of uncontrolled and inaccessible higher order mental processes, arise frequently in everyday life. The seeming randomness by which spontaneous thoughts arise might give people good reason to dismiss them as meaningless. We suggest that it is precisely the lack of control over and access to the processes by which they arise that leads people to perceive spontaneous thoughts as revealing meaningful self-insight. Consequently, spontaneous thoughts potently influence judgment. A series of experiments provides evidence supporting two hypotheses. First, we hypothesize that the more a thought is perceived to be spontaneous, the more it is perceived to provide meaningful self-insight. Participants perceived more spontaneous kinds of thought (e.g., intuition) to reveal greater self-insight than did more controlled kinds of thought in Study 1 (e.g., deliberation). In Studies 2 and 3, participants perceived thoughts with the same content and target to reveal greater self-insight when spontaneously rather than deliberately generated (i.e., childhood memories and impressions formed). Second, we hypothesize that the greater self-insight attributed to thoughts that are (perceived to be) spontaneous leads those thoughts to more potently influence judgment. Participants felt more sexually attracted to an attractive person whom they thought of spontaneously than deliberately in Study 4, and reported their commitment to a current romantic relationship would be more affected by the spontaneous rather than deliberate recollection of a good or bad experience with their romantic partner in Study 5. PMID:24820251

  9. Using Brief Cognitive Restructuring and Cognitive Defusion Techniques to Cope With Negative Thoughts.

    PubMed

    Larsson, Andreas; Hooper, Nic; Osborne, Lisa A; Bennett, Paul; McHugh, Louise

    2016-05-01

    Negative thoughts, experienced by 80% to 99% of the non-clinical population, have been linked to the development of psychopathology. The current study aimed to compare a cognitive restructuring and cognitive defusion technique for coping with a personally relevant negative thought. Over a 5-day period, participants used either a restructuring, defusion, or control strategy to manage a negative thought. Pre- and post-intervention participants reported (a) believability of the thought, (b) discomfort associated with the thought, (c) negativity associated with the thought, and (d) willingness to experience the thought. Daily online questionnaires assessing the total frequency of negative thought intrusions and their level of willingness to experience the negative thought were also used. Also, 10 positive and negative self-statements were rated on the same scales, and self-report measures of mood and psychological flexibility were completed. Findings indicated that defusion lowered believability, increased comfort and willingness to have the target thought, and increased positive affect significantly more than the control and cognitive restructuring. Within groups, cognitive restructuring also made significant gains in target thought discomfort, negativity, and "willingness to have" in the same direction as defusion but the no-instruction control did not. Negative thought frequency was reduced in the defusion group, maintained in the restructuring group, and increased in the no-instruction control group. Similar trends emerged from the secondary outcome measures, that is, the effects of the strategies on the positive and negative self-statements. The current findings support the efficacy of using defusion as a strategy for managing negative thoughts. PMID:26685210

  10. A General Questionnaire Analysis Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aiken, Lewis R.

    1978-01-01

    A general FORTRAN computer program for analyzing categorical or frequency data obtained from questionnaires is described. A variety of descriptive statistics, chi square, Kendall's tau and Cramer's statistic are provided. (Author/JKS)

  11. The MPC&A Questionnaire

    SciTech Connect

    Powell, Danny H; Elwood Jr, Robert H

    2011-01-01

    The questionnaire is the instrument used for recording performance data on the nuclear material protection, control, and accountability (MPC&A) system at a nuclear facility. The performance information provides a basis for evaluating the effectiveness of the MPC&A system. The goal for the questionnaire is to provide an accurate representation of the performance of the MPC&A system as it currently exists in the facility. Performance grades for all basic MPC&A functions should realistically reflect the actual level of performance at the time the survey is conducted. The questionnaire was developed after testing and benchmarking the material control and accountability (MC&A) system effectiveness tool (MSET) in the United States. The benchmarking exercise at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) proved extremely valuable for improving the content and quality of the early versions of the questionnaire. Members of the INL benchmark team identified many areas of the questionnaire where questions should be clarified and areas where additional questions should be incorporated. The questionnaire addresses all elements of the MC&A system. Specific parts pertain to the foundation for the facility's overall MPC&A system, and other parts pertain to the specific functions of the operational MPC&A system. The questionnaire includes performance metrics for each of the basic functions or tasks performed in the operational MPC&A system. All of those basic functions or tasks are represented as basic events in the MPC&A fault tree. Performance metrics are to be used during completion of the questionnaire to report what is actually being done in relation to what should be done in the performance of MPC&A functions.

  12. An anatomy of automatism.

    PubMed

    Mackay, R D

    2015-07-01

    The automatism defence has been described as a quagmire of law and as presenting an intractable problem. Why is this so? This paper will analyse and explore the current legal position on automatism. In so doing, it will identify the problems which the case law has created, including the distinction between sane and insane automatism and the status of the 'external factor doctrine', and comment briefly on recent reform proposals. PMID:26378105

  13. Automatic crack propagation tracking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shephard, M. S.; Weidner, T. J.; Yehia, N. A. B.; Burd, G. S.

    1985-01-01

    A finite element based approach to fully automatic crack propagation tracking is presented. The procedure presented combines fully automatic mesh generation with linear fracture mechanics techniques in a geometrically based finite element code capable of automatically tracking cracks in two-dimensional domains. The automatic mesh generator employs the modified-quadtree technique. Crack propagation increment and direction are predicted using a modified maximum dilatational strain energy density criterion employing the numerical results obtained by meshes of quadratic displacement and singular crack tip finite elements. Example problems are included to demonstrate the procedure.

  14. Automatic differentiation bibliography

    SciTech Connect

    Corliss, G.F.

    1992-07-01

    This is a bibliography of work related to automatic differentiation. Automatic differentiation is a technique for the fast, accurate propagation of derivative values using the chain rule. It is neither symbolic nor numeric. Automatic differentiation is a fundamental tool for scientific computation, with applications in optimization, nonlinear equations, nonlinear least squares approximation, stiff ordinary differential equation, partial differential equations, continuation methods, and sensitivity analysis. This report is an updated version of the bibliography which originally appeared in Automatic Differentiation of Algorithms: Theory, Implementation, and Application.

  15. Impact of Virtual Reality on Young Adults' Physiological Arousal and Aggressive Thoughts: Interaction versus Observation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calvert, Sandra L.; Tan, Siu-Lan

    1994-01-01

    Compared to college students who only watched a violent virtual reality game, those who played the game exhibited a higher heart rate after the game, reported more dizziness and nausea during the game, and exhibited more aggressive thoughts on a posttest questionnaire. Results suggest support for arousal and cognitive, but not psychoanalytic,…

  16. Impact of Virtual Reality on Young Adults' Physiological Arousal and Aggressive Thoughts: Interaction versus Observation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calvert, Sandra L.; Tan, Siu-Lan

    1994-01-01

    Compared to college students who only watched a violent virtual reality game, those who played the game exhibited a higher heart rate after the game, reported more dizziness and nausea during the game, and exhibited more aggressive thoughts on a posttest questionnaire. Results suggest support for arousal and cognitive, but not psychoanalytic,

  17. Are Automatic Imitation and Spatial Compatibility Mediated by Different Processes?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Richard P.; Catmur, Caroline; Heyes, Cecilia

    2013-01-01

    Automatic imitation or "imitative compatibility" is thought to be mediated by the mirror neuron system and to be a laboratory model of the motor mimicry that occurs spontaneously in naturalistic social interaction. Imitative compatibility and spatial compatibility effects are known to depend on different stimulus dimensions--body

  18. Are Automatic Imitation and Spatial Compatibility Mediated by Different Processes?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Richard P.; Catmur, Caroline; Heyes, Cecilia

    2013-01-01

    Automatic imitation or "imitative compatibility" is thought to be mediated by the mirror neuron system and to be a laboratory model of the motor mimicry that occurs spontaneously in naturalistic social interaction. Imitative compatibility and spatial compatibility effects are known to depend on different stimulus dimensions--body…

  19. Automatic Differentiation Package

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2007-03-01

    Sacado is an automatic differentiation package for C++ codes using operator overloading and C++ templating. Sacado provide forward, reverse, and Taylor polynomial automatic differentiation classes and utilities for incorporating these classes into C++ codes. Users can compute derivatives of computations arising in engineering and scientific applications, including nonlinear equation solving, time integration, sensitivity analysis, stability analysis, optimization and uncertainity quantification.

  20. Mediation and Automatization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutchins, Edwin

    This paper discusses the relationship between the mediation of task performance by some structure that is not inherent in the task domain itself and the phenomenon of automatization, in which skilled performance becomes effortless or phenomenologically "automatic" after extensive practice. The use of a common simple explicit mediating device, a…

  1. "Aid to Thought"--Just Simulate It!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinczkowski, Linda; Cardon, Phillip; Speelman, Pamela

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides examples of Aid-to-Thought uses in urban decision making, classroom laboratory planning, and in a ship antiaircraft defense system. Aid-to-Thought modeling and simulations are tools students can use effectively in a STEM classroom while meeting Standards for Technological Literacy Benchmarks O and R. These projects prepare…

  2. Musings: "Hasten Slowly:" Thoughtfully Planned Acceleration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gross, Miraca U. M.

    2008-01-01

    Acceleration is one of the best researched interventions for gifted students. The author is an advocate of acceleration. However, advocating for the thoughtful, carefully judged employment of a procedure with well researched effectiveness does not imply approval of cases where the procedure is used without sufficient thought--especially where it

  3. Musings: "Hasten Slowly:" Thoughtfully Planned Acceleration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gross, Miraca U. M.

    2008-01-01

    Acceleration is one of the best researched interventions for gifted students. The author is an advocate of acceleration. However, advocating for the thoughtful, carefully judged employment of a procedure with well researched effectiveness does not imply approval of cases where the procedure is used without sufficient thought--especially where it…

  4. Beyond words: Sensory properties of depressive thoughts

    PubMed Central

    Hörmann, Claudia Cecile; Schröder, Johanna; Berger, Thomas; Jacob, Gitta A.; Meyer, Björn; Holmes, Emily A.; Späth, Christina; Hautzinger, Martin; Lutz, Wolfgang; Rose, Matthias; Klein, Jan Philipp

    2013-01-01

    Verbal thoughts (such as negative cognitions) and sensory phenomena (such as visual mental imagery) are usually conceptualised as distinct mental experiences. The present study examined to what extent depressive thoughts are accompanied by sensory experiences and how this is associated with symptom severity, insight of illness and quality of life. A large sample of mildly to moderately depressed patients (N = 356) was recruited from multiple sources and asked about sensory properties of their depressive thoughts in an online study. Diagnostic status and symptom severity were established over a telephone interview with trained raters. Sensory properties of negative thoughts were reported by 56.5% of the sample (i.e., sensation in at least one sensory modality). The highest prevalence was seen for bodily (39.6%) followed by auditory (30.6%) and visual (27.2%) sensations. Patients reporting sensory properties of thoughts showed more severe psychopathological symptoms than those who did not. The degree of perceptuality was marginally associated with quality of life. The findings support the notion that depressive thoughts are not only verbal but commonly accompanied by sensory experiences. The perceptuality of depressive thoughts and the resulting sense of authenticity may contribute to the emotional impact and pervasiveness of such thoughts, making them difficult to dismiss for their holder. PMID:24359124

  5. "Aid to Thought"--Just Simulate It!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinczkowski, Linda; Cardon, Phillip; Speelman, Pamela

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides examples of Aid-to-Thought uses in urban decision making, classroom laboratory planning, and in a ship antiaircraft defense system. Aid-to-Thought modeling and simulations are tools students can use effectively in a STEM classroom while meeting Standards for Technological Literacy Benchmarks O and R. These projects prepare

  6. Dystopian Reality, Utopian Thought and Educational Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papastephanou, Marianna

    2008-01-01

    The significance of utopian thought for education can be made evident through reconceptualizing utopia and approaching it alongside the notion of dystopia. Awareness of dystopian elements of reality radicalizes the kind of critique that assists utopian thought and makes engagement with it more pressing. Awareness of the lurking danger of future…

  7. Dream bizarreness and waking thought in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Noreika, Valdas; Valli, Katja; Markkula, Juha; Seppälä, Katriina; Revonsuo, Antti

    2010-08-15

    Dream diaries and reports of daytime waking thought were collected from five schizophrenia patients and matched controls. It was more difficult for blind judges to differentiate the patients' than the controls' dream reports from reports of waking thought, and patients reported shorter but more bizarre dreams than did the controls. PMID:20471693

  8. Diet History Questionnaire: Canadian Version

    Cancer.gov

    The Diet History Questionnaire (DHQ) and the DHQ nutrient database were modified for use in Canada through the collaborative efforts of Dr. Amy Subar and staff at the Risk Factor Monitoring and Methods Branch, and Dr. Ilona Csizmadi and colleagues in the Division of Population Health and Information at the Alberta Cancer Board in Canada.

  9. College Student Services Accreditation Questionnaire.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassel, Russell N.

    1979-01-01

    This questionnaire is intended for use as one aspect in accrediting the "Student Personnel Services" which an institution of higher learning provides for students. Areas in question include personal development, health fostering, vocational preparation, effective personalized learning, economic viability, transpersonal offerings, and satisfactory…

  10. Narcotics Center Questionnaire (Spring 1969).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marks, John B.; And Others

    This questionnaire assesses drug knowledge, drug use practices, and attitudes in junior high school, senior high school, and college students. The 115 items (multiple choice, yes/no, agree/disagree, or completion) deal with personal and demographic data, general attitudes, attitudes toward institutions (police, American business, Army, etc.),…

  11. The Effects of Decision-Making Style and Cognitive Thought Patterns on Negative Career Thoughts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paivandy, Sheba; Bullock, Emily E.; Reardon, Robert C.; Kelly, F. Donald

    2008-01-01

    People's thoughts and beliefs about themselves and their career options affect their ability to make decisions. Career counselors would benefit from knowing the factors that contribute to negative career thoughts. This study examined two unexplored factors that may affect the development and maintenance of negative career thoughts, decision-making…

  12. Dreaming and personality: Wake-dream continuity, thought suppression, and the Big Five Inventory.

    PubMed

    Malinowski, Josie E

    2015-12-15

    Studies have found relationships between dream content and personality traits, but there are still many traits that have been underexplored or have had questionable conclusions drawn about them. Experimental work has found a 'rebound' effect in dreams when thoughts are suppressed prior to sleep, but the effect of trait thought suppression on dream content has not yet been researched. In the present study participants (N=106) reported their Most Recent Dream, answered questions about the content of the dream, and completed questionnaires measuring trait thought suppression and the 'Big Five' personality traits. Of these, 83 were suitably recent for analyses. A significant positive correlation was found between trait thought suppression and participants' ratings of dreaming of waking-life emotions, and high suppressors reported dreaming more of their waking-life emotions than low suppressors did. The results may lend support to the compensation theory of dreams, and/or the ironic process theory of mental control. PMID:26496477

  13. Life time suicidal thoughts in an urban community in Hanoi, Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Thanh, Huong Tran Thi; Tran, Trung Nam; Jiang, Guo-Xin; Leenaars, Antoon; Wasserman, Danuta

    2006-01-01

    Background Suicidal thought is a risk factor and a stage in the suicidal process from planning to attempting and dying by suicide. To date, studies on suicidal thought in the general population, especially in Asian communities, have been limited. Method The WHO SUPRE-MISS (the multisite intervention study on suicidal behaviours) community survey questionnaire was filled in for 2,280 randomly selected residents of the DongDa district of Hanoi, Vietnam by means of face-to-face interviews. This multi-factor questionnaire includes such variables as sociodemographic information, suicidal thought and history of suicide attempts, physical health, alcohol consumption and medication. Results Prevalence rates for life time suicidal thoughts, suicide plans and suicide attempts were 8.9%, 1.1% and 0.4% respectively. Suicidal thoughts are associated with multiple characteristics, such as female gender, single/widowed/separated/divorced marital status, low income, lifestyle (use of alcohol, sedatives and pain relief medication), but not with low education or employment status. Having no religion and being a Buddhist appear to be protective factors for suicidal thought. The ratio of suicidal thoughts, suicide plans and suicide attempts on a lifetime basis is 22.3:2.8:1. Conclusion In Vietnam, as in Western and other Asian countries, suicidal thoughts are associated with similar negative psychosocial risk factors, lifestyle and emotional problems, which implies that suicide preventive measure developed elsewhere can be adjusted to Vietnamese condition. Understanding the unique and common risks in a culture may assist in prediction and control. PMID:16563173

  14. Automatic Payroll Deposit System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidson, D. B.

    1979-01-01

    The Automatic Payroll Deposit System in Yakima, Washington's Public School District No. 7, directly transmits each employee's salary amount for each pay period to a bank or other financial institution. (Author/MLF)

  15. Tracking Visible Targets Automatically

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armstrong, R. W.

    1984-01-01

    Report summarizes techniques for automatic pointing of scientific instruments by reference to visible targets. Applications foreseen in industrial robotics. Measurement done by image analysis based on gradient edge location, image-centroid location and/or outline matching.

  16. Automatic switching matrix

    DOEpatents

    Schlecht, Martin F.; Kassakian, John G.; Caloggero, Anthony J.; Rhodes, Bruce; Otten, David; Rasmussen, Neil

    1982-01-01

    An automatic switching matrix that includes an apertured matrix board containing a matrix of wires that can be interconnected at each aperture. Each aperture has associated therewith a conductive pin which, when fully inserted into the associated aperture, effects electrical connection between the wires within that particular aperture. Means is provided for automatically inserting the pins in a determined pattern and for removing all the pins to permit other interconnecting patterns.

  17. Episodic future thought: contributions from working memory.

    PubMed

    Hill, Paul F; Emery, Lisa J

    2013-09-01

    The ability to imagine hypothetical events in one's personal future is thought to involve a number of constituent cognitive processes. We investigated the extent to which individual differences in working memory capacity contribute to facets of episodic future thought. College students completed simple and complex measures of working memory and were cued to recall autobiographical memories and imagine future autobiographical events consisting of varying levels of specificity (i.e., ranging from generic to increasingly specific and detailed events). Consistent with previous findings, future thought was related to analogous measures of autobiographical memory, likely reflecting overlapping cognitive factors supporting both past and future thought. Additionally, after controlling for autobiographical memory, residual working memory variance independently predicted future episodic specificity. We suggest that when imagining future events, working memory contributes to the construction of a single, coherent, future event depiction, but not to the retrieval or elaboration of event details. PMID:23681207

  18. Prediabetes May Damage Nerves More Than Thought

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_158274.html Prediabetes May Damage Nerves More Than Thought Early pain and tingling ... 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Prediabetes may cause more nerve damage than previously believed, researchers say. "The results of ...

  19. Sensory properties of obsessive thoughts in OCD and the relationship to psychopathology.

    PubMed

    Röhlinger, Jana; Wulf, Falk; Fieker, Martina; Moritz, Steffen

    2015-12-15

    For decades hallucinations and perception-laden thoughts were considered specific indicators of schizophrenia. This assumption has been revised over the years. Novel studies indicate that a subgroup of patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), borderline disorder or depression display hallucinations and "loud"/perceptual thoughts. The present study examined the frequency of sensory-laden obsessive thoughts and their relationship with the severity of obsessive-compulsive, paranoid and depressive symptoms in a sample of 137 OCD patients who were recruited via the Internet. Participants were asked to fill out the Sensory Properties of Obsessions Questionnaire (SPOQ), the Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory-Revised (OCI-R), the Paranoia Checklist and the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ9). In line with a prior study, a total of 72% displayed perceptual intrusions (i.e. vivid obsessions). Correlations emerged between perceptual thoughts and obsessive-compulsive, paranoid and depressive symptoms. Results further strengthen the assumption of a continuum ranging from "silent" thoughts to vivid intrusions and hallucinations. PMID:26514791

  20. Associated Factors of Suicidal Thoughts in HIV-Positive Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Dabaghzadeh, Fatemeh; Jabbari, Fatemeh; Khalili, Hossein; Abbasian, Ladan

    2015-01-01

    Objective: As a first study, suicidal ideation and its correlates have been evaluated in Iranian HIV positive population. Methods: One hundred and fifty HIV-positive individuals were recruited in this cross-sectional study. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), Positive and Negative Suicide Ideation (PANSI), Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Inventory (PSQI) and Somatization subscale of Symptom Checklist 90 (SCL 90) as self- reported questionnaires were used to assess the patients’ anxiety and depression status, suicidal thoughts, sleep quality and physiological factors, respectively. Results: Antiretroviral therapy and efavirenz intake did not show any significant effects on the patients’ suicidal ideation. Anxiety (p<0.001), depression (p<0.001), poor physical activity (P<0.001) and sleep quality (p<0.001) were significantly associated with the patients’ negative suicidal ideation. From the patients’ demographic data, unemployment (p = 0.04), living alone (p = 0.01), and lack of family support (p = 0.01) were correlated with the patients’ negative suicidal thoughts. Conclusion: Although hospitals are the main referral centers for providing care for HIV-positive individuals in Tehran, Iran, conducting a multi-center study with sufficient sample size from different areas of our country that include individuals with different behaviors and cultures is essential to confirm the results of this study. PMID:26877752

  1. Quantifying diplopia with a questionnaire

    PubMed Central

    Holmes, Jonathan M.; Liebermann, Laura; Hatt, Sarah R.; Smith, Stephen J.; Leske, David A.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To report a diplopia questionnaire (DQ) with a data-driven scoring algorithm. Design Cross-sectional study. Participants To optimize questionnaire scoring: 147 adults with diplopic strabismus completed both the DQ and the Adult Strabismus-20 (AS-20) health-related quality of life (HRQOL) questionnaire. To assess test-retest reliability: 117 adults with diplopic strabismus. To assess responsiveness to surgery: 42 adults (46 surgeries). Methods The 10-item AS-20 function subscale score (scored 0 to 100) was defined as the gold standard for severity. A range of weights was assigned to the responses and to the gaze positions (from equal weighting to greater weighting of primary and reading). Combining all response option weights with all gaze position weights yielded 382,848 scoring algorithms. We then calculated 382,848 Spearman rank correlation coefficients comparing each algorithm with the AS-20 function subscale score. Main outcome measures To optimize scoring, Spearman rank correlation coefficients (measuring agreement) between DQ scores and AS-20 function subscale scores. For test-retest reliability, 95% limits of agreement, and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). For responsiveness, change in DQ score. Results For the 382,848 possible scoring algorithms, correlations with AS-20 function subscale score ranged from −0.64 (best correlated) to −0.55. The best-correlated algorithm had response option weights of 5 for rarely, 50 for sometimes, and 75 for often, and gaze position weights of 40 for straight ahead in the distance, 40 for reading, 1 for up, 8 for down, 4 for right, 4 for left, and 3 for other, totaling 100. There was excellent test-retest reliability with an ICC of 0.89 (95% confidence interval 0.84 to 0.92) and 95% limits of agreement were 30.9 points. The DQ score was responsive to surgery with a mean change of 51 ± 34 (p<0.001). Conclusions We have developed a data-driven scoring algorithm for the diplopia questionnaire, rating diplopia symptoms from 0 to 100. Based on correlations with HRQOL, straight ahead and reading positions should be highly weighted. The DQ has excellent test-retest reliability and responsiveness, and may be useful in both clinical and research settings. PMID:23531348

  2. The Role of Peer Pressure, Automatic Thoughts and Self-Esteem on Adolescents' Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yavuzer, Yasemin; Karatas, Zeynep; Civilidag, Aydin; Gundogdu, Rezzan

    2014-01-01

    Problem Statement: Aggression is defined as any kind of behavior intended to hurt others. Aggression generally arises due to the interaction between individual (e.g., social and emotional difficulties, low self-esteem, peer rejection, academic failure) and environmental (e.g., poverty, lack of family supervision, limited social support, conflicts…

  3. Administer and collect medical questionnaires with Google documents: a simple, safe, and free system

    PubMed Central

    Rayhan, Rakib U.; Zheng, Yin; Uddin, Ebsan; Timbol, Christian; Adewuyi, Oluwatoyin; Baraniuk, James N.

    2013-01-01

    Aim Questionnaires are an invaluable resource for clinical trials. They serve to estimate disease burden and clinical parameters associated with a particular study. However, current researchers are tackling budget constraints, loss of funding opportunities, and rise of research associated fees. We aimed at exploring alternative avenues taking advantage of the free Google docs software for questionnaire administration. This presents an opportunity to reduce costs while simultaneously increasing efficiency and data fidelity. Material and Methods Google documents were used as a platform to create online questionnaires that were automatically hosted via a unique URL. Password protected access to the URL link and a unique study ID gave patients around the clock access from anywhere in the world. Unique study ID ensured confidentially of all self-reported data. Patient responses were secured using a “Cloud” database where the data was automatically sorted, scaled and scored by custom Excel formulas. Researchers downloaded real-time questionnaire responses in multiple formats (e.g. excel) which was then analyzed with a statistical software of choice. Results This simple workflow provided instant questionnaire scores that eliminated the use for paper-based responses and subsequent manual entry of data. Ease of access to online questionnaires provided convenience to patients leading to better response rates and increase in data fidelity. The system also allowed for real time monitoring of patient's progress on completing questionnaires. Online questionnaires had 100% completion rate compared to paper-based questionnaires. Conclusions Google docs can serve as an efficient and free platform to administer questionnaires to a clinical population without sacrificing quality, security, and fidelity of data. PMID:24415903

  4. Initial Psychometric Properties of the Experiences Questionnaire: Validation of a Self-Report Measure of Decentering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fresco, David M.; Moore, Michael T.; van Dulmen, Manfred H. M.; Segal, Zindel V.; Ma, S. Helen; Teasdale, John D.; Williams, J. Mark G.

    2007-01-01

    Decentering is defined as the ability to observe one's thoughts and feelings as temporary, objective events in the mind, as opposed to reflections of the self that are necessarily true. The Experiences Questionnaire (EQ) was designed to measure both decentering and rumination but has not been empirically validated. The current study investigated…

  5. Investigating the Relationship between Stable Personality Characteristics and Automatic Imitation

    PubMed Central

    Butler, Emily E.; Ward, Robert; Ramsey, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Automatic imitation is a cornerstone of nonverbal communication that fosters rapport between interaction partners. Recent research has suggested that stable dimensions of personality are antecedents to automatic imitation, but the empirical evidence linking imitation with personality traits is restricted to a few studies with modest sample sizes. Additionally, atypical imitation has been documented in autism spectrum disorders and schizophrenia, but the mechanisms underpinning these behavioural profiles remain unclear. Using a larger sample than prior studies (N=243), the current study tested whether performance on a computer-based automatic imitation task could be predicted by personality traits associated with social behaviour (extraversion and agreeableness) and with disorders of social cognition (autistic-like and schizotypal traits). Further personality traits (narcissism and empathy) were assessed in a subsample of participants (N=57). Multiple regression analyses showed that personality measures did not predict automatic imitation. In addition, using a similar analytical approach to prior studies, no differences in imitation performance emerged when only the highest and lowest 20 participants on each trait variable were compared. These data weaken support for the view that stable personality traits are antecedents to automatic imitation and that neural mechanisms thought to support automatic imitation, such as the mirror neuron system, are dysfunctional in autism spectrum disorders or schizophrenia. In sum, the impact that personality variables have on automatic imitation is less universal than initial reports suggest. PMID:26079137

  6. Holistic educational thought in K-12 education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grant, Brett Garvin

    In this interpretive study, I raise the possibility that what American public education policy needs in order to address present and future challenges is a "new guiding narrative, a new myth," (Jones, 2008, p. 104). This "new guiding narrative," I argue, is to be found in holistic educational thought. Holistic educational thought is the idea that education resides neither in the head, nor in the hands, nor in the heart, but in the aggregate of all of these. In its modern and contemporary forms, holistic educational thought emphasizes education that is academic and vocational -- not as separate tracks -- but as an integrated curriculum available to all students. At the core, holistic educational thought articulates a vision of education that is both practical and beautiful. Practical in the sense that education is able to satisfy the intellectual and ecological needs of civil society and beautiful in the sense that education is designated to delight the senses and appeal to the imagination. To articulate this relationship -- that between beauty and practicality -- is the crux of holistic educational thought. The major concepts discussed in the upcoming chapters are competitive eligibility, ecological literacy, and lifelong optimal learning.

  7. Automatic recording spectroradiometer system.

    PubMed

    Heaps, W L

    1971-09-01

    A versatile, mobile, automatic recording spectroradiometer of high precision and accuracy has been developed. The instrument is a single-beam device with an alternate reference beam intended primarily for measurements of spectral irradiance. However, it is equally useful for measurement of spectral radiance, transmittance, or reflectance. The system is programmed for automatic operation. The output is in the form of an automatic digital recording of both measurements and control data. Instrument operation integrates the following characteristics: wavelength-by-wavelength operation in intervals of 0.1 nm to 50 nm; time-integrated measurements of spectral flux; internal calibration reference source; and monitored signals for wavelength position, test source total output, and photodetector dark current. The system's operating characteristics and specifications have been determined and are set forth here. Performance for three types of sources and correction of measurements to zero-bandpass equivalence is demonstrated. PMID:20111268

  8. A thought experiment reconciling neuroscience and psychoanalysis.

    PubMed

    Falissard, Bruno

    2011-12-01

    Thought experiments have a long tradition in science. The thought experiment proposed in this article designs a brain that is compatible with a conceptual framework that integrates neuroscience and psychoanalysis. A connectionist model with emergent collective computational abilities is modified progressively and gradually to retrieve concepts such as the following: life instinct, the death instinct, the conscious, the preconscious, the unconscious, the free-association method, parapraxis, repetitive compulsion, repression, self, other, and "I". In this model, the process of memorisation is represented by a neural network with deep depressions, the bottoms of which correspond to learned configurations known as "attractors". This thought experiment could be helpful in suggesting new formulations of traditional psychoanalytic and neuroscientific constructs. PMID:21864680

  9. AUTOMATIC COUNTING APPARATUS

    DOEpatents

    Howell, W.D.

    1957-08-20

    An apparatus for automatically recording the results of counting operations on trains of electrical pulses is described. The disadvantages of prior devices utilizing the two common methods of obtaining the count rate are overcome by this apparatus; in the case of time controlled operation, the disclosed system automatically records amy information stored by the scaler but not transferred to the printer at the end of the predetermined time controlled operations and, in the case of count controlled operation, provision is made to prevent a weak sample from occupying the apparatus for an excessively long period of time.

  10. Recruitment of lateral rostral prefrontal cortex in spontaneous and task-related thoughts.

    PubMed

    Dumontheil, Iroise; Gilbert, Sam J; Frith, Christopher D; Burgess, Paul W

    2010-09-01

    Behavioural and neuroimaging studies suggest that spontaneous and task-related thought processes share common cognitive mechanisms and neural bases. Lateral rostral prefrontal cortex (RPFC) is a brain region that has been implicated both in spontaneous thought and in high-level cognitive control processes, such as goal/subgoal integration and the manipulation of self-generated thoughts. We therefore propose that the recruitment of lateral RPFC may follow a U-shaped function of cognitive demand: relatively high in low-demand situations conducive to the emergence of spontaneous thought, and in high-demand situations depending on processes supported by this brain region. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate brain activity while healthy participants performed two tasks, each with three levels of cognitive demands, in a block design. The frequency of task-unrelated thoughts, measured by questionnaire, was highest in the low cognitive demand condition. Low and high cognitive demand conditions were each compared to the intermediate level. Lateral RPFC and superior parietal cortex were recruited in both comparisons, with additional activations specific to each contrast. These results suggest that RPFC is involved both when (a) task demands are low, and the mind wanders, and (b) the task requires goal/subgoal integration and manipulation of self-generated thoughts. PMID:20221947

  11. Thought suppression predicts task switching deficits in patients with frontal lobe epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Gul, Amara; Ahmad, Hira

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To examine the relationship between task switching and thought suppression in connection with frontal lobe epilepsy (FLE). Methods: This experimental study included 30 patients with FLE admitted to the Services and Jinnah Hospital, Lahore, Pakistan between February and November 2013, and 30 healthy individuals from the local community. Participants performed a task switching experiment where they switched between emotion and age categorizations among faces. In addition, they completed a thought suppression questionnaire. Results: There were 3 important results: (i) Patients with FLE showed weaker task switching abilities than healthy individuals. This result is attributed toward executive dysfunctions in patients with FLE. (ii) Contrary to the control group, patients with FLE showed larger switch cost for the age than the emotion categorization. This result can be seen in the context of social cognition deficits and poor inhibitory control in patients with FLE. In addition, larger switch costs reflected a binding effect with facial emotion as compared to age. The integration might represent emotion as an intrusive facial dimension that interrupted task switching performance. (iii) Patients with FLE had more recurrent suppression of thoughts than controls. Thought suppression was a significant predictor for switch costs. High scores on thought suppression were correlated with task switching deficits. Conclusion: The results suggest that thought suppression causes significant cognitive decline. PMID:25864068

  12. Automatic Telescope Search for Extrasolar Planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henry, Gregory W.

    1998-01-01

    We are using automatic photoelectric telescopes at the Tennessee State University Center for Automated Space Science to search for planets around nearby stars in our galaxy. Over the past several years, wc have developed the capability to make extremely precise measurements of brightness changes in Sun-like stars with automatic telescopes. Extensive quality control and calibration measurements result in a precision of 0.l% for a single nightly observation and 0.0270 for yearly means, far better than previously thought possible with ground-based observations. We are able, for the first time, to trace brightness changes in Sun-like stars that are of similar amplitude to brightness changes in the Sun, whose changes can be observed only with space-based radiometers. Recently exciting discoveries of the first extrasolar planets have been announced, based on the detection of very small radial-velocity variations that imply the existence of planets in orbit around several Sun-like stars. Our precise brightness measurements have been crucial for the confirmation of these discoveries by helping to eliminate alternative explanations for the radial-velocity variations. With our automatic telescopes, we are also searching for transits of these planets across the disks of their stars in order to conclusively verify their existence. The detection of transits would provide the first direct measurements of the sizes, masses, and densities of these planets and, hence, information on their compositions and origins.

  13. 19 CFR 357.105 - Questionnaires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Questionnaires. 357.105 Section 357.105 Customs Duties INTERNATIONAL TRADE ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE SHORT SUPPLY PROCEDURES § 357.105 Questionnaires. For reviews conducted under section 106(b)(2), the Secretary normally will send questionnaires...

  14. 19 CFR 357.105 - Questionnaires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Questionnaires. 357.105 Section 357.105 Customs Duties INTERNATIONAL TRADE ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE SHORT SUPPLY PROCEDURES § 357.105 Questionnaires. For reviews conducted under section 106(b)(2), the Secretary normally will send questionnaires...

  15. 19 CFR 357.105 - Questionnaires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Questionnaires. 357.105 Section 357.105 Customs Duties INTERNATIONAL TRADE ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE SHORT SUPPLY PROCEDURES § 357.105 Questionnaires. For reviews conducted under section 106(b)(2), the Secretary normally will send questionnaires...

  16. Automaticity of Conceptual Magnitude

    PubMed Central

    Gliksman, Yarden; Itamar, Shai; Leibovich, Tali; Melman, Yonatan; Henik, Avishai

    2016-01-01

    What is bigger, an elephant or a mouse? This question can be answered without seeing the two animals, since these objects elicit conceptual magnitude. How is an object’s conceptual magnitude processed? It was suggested that conceptual magnitude is automatically processed; namely, irrelevant conceptual magnitude can affect performance when comparing physical magnitudes. The current study further examined this question and aimed to expand the understanding of automaticity of conceptual magnitude. Two different objects were presented and participants were asked to decide which object was larger on the screen (physical magnitude) or in the real world (conceptual magnitude), in separate blocks. By creating congruent (the conceptually larger object was physically larger) and incongruent (the conceptually larger object was physically smaller) pairs of stimuli it was possible to examine the automatic processing of each magnitude. A significant congruity effect was found for both magnitudes. Furthermore, quartile analysis revealed that the congruity was affected similarly by processing time for both magnitudes. These results suggest that the processing of conceptual and physical magnitudes is automatic to the same extent. The results support recent theories suggested that different types of magnitude processing and representation share the same core system. PMID:26879153

  17. Brut: Automatic bubble classifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beaumont, Christopher; Goodman, Alyssa; Williams, Jonathan; Kendrew, Sarah; Simpson, Robert

    2014-07-01

    Brut, written in Python, identifies bubbles in infrared images of the Galactic midplane; it uses a database of known bubbles from the Milky Way Project and Spitzer images to build an automatic bubble classifier. The classifier is based on the Random Forest algorithm, and uses the WiseRF implementation of this algorithm.

  18. Automaticity of Conceptual Magnitude.

    PubMed

    Gliksman, Yarden; Itamar, Shai; Leibovich, Tali; Melman, Yonatan; Henik, Avishai

    2016-01-01

    What is bigger, an elephant or a mouse? This question can be answered without seeing the two animals, since these objects elicit conceptual magnitude. How is an object's conceptual magnitude processed? It was suggested that conceptual magnitude is automatically processed; namely, irrelevant conceptual magnitude can affect performance when comparing physical magnitudes. The current study further examined this question and aimed to expand the understanding of automaticity of conceptual magnitude. Two different objects were presented and participants were asked to decide which object was larger on the screen (physical magnitude) or in the real world (conceptual magnitude), in separate blocks. By creating congruent (the conceptually larger object was physically larger) and incongruent (the conceptually larger object was physically smaller) pairs of stimuli it was possible to examine the automatic processing of each magnitude. A significant congruity effect was found for both magnitudes. Furthermore, quartile analysis revealed that the congruity was affected similarly by processing time for both magnitudes. These results suggest that the processing of conceptual and physical magnitudes is automatic to the same extent. The results support recent theories suggested that different types of magnitude processing and representation share the same core system. PMID:26879153

  19. Reactor component automatic grapple

    DOEpatents

    Greenaway, Paul R.

    1982-01-01

    A grapple for handling nuclear reactor components in a medium such as liquid sodium which, upon proper seating and alignment of the grapple with the component as sensed by a mechanical logic integral to the grapple, automatically seizes the component. The mechanical logic system also precludes seizure in the absence of proper seating and alignment.

  20. Automatic Transmission Vehicle Injuries

    PubMed Central

    Fidler, Malcolm

    1973-01-01

    Four drivers sustained severe injuries when run down by their own automatic cars while adjusting the carburettor or throttle linkages. The transmission had been left in the “Drive” position and the engine was idling. This accident is easily avoidable. PMID:4695693

  1. Exploring Automatization Processes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeKeyser, Robert M.

    1996-01-01

    Presents the rationale for and the results of a pilot study attempting to document in detail how automatization takes place as the result of different kinds of intensive practice. Results show that reaction times and error rates gradually decline with practice, and the practice effect is skill-specific. (36 references) (CK)

  2. Automatic multiple applicator electrophoresis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grunbaum, B. W.

    1977-01-01

    Easy-to-use, economical device permits electrophoresis on all known supporting media. System includes automatic multiple-sample applicator, sample holder, and electrophoresis apparatus. System has potential applicability to fields of taxonomy, immunology, and genetics. Apparatus is also used for electrofocusing.

  3. Automatic Program Synthesis Reports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biermann, A. W.; And Others

    Some of the major results of future goals of an automatic program synthesis project are described in the two papers that comprise this document. The first paper gives a detailed algorithm for synthesizing a computer program from a trace of its behavior. Since the algorithm involves a search, the length of time required to do the synthesis of…

  4. Automatic channel switching device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ball, M.; Olnowich, H. T.

    1967-01-01

    Automatic channel switching device operates with all three triple modular redundant channels when there are no errors. When a failure occurs, channel and module switching isolate the failure to a specific channel. Since only one must operate correctly, reliability is increased.

  5. Automatic sweep circuit

    DOEpatents

    Keefe, Donald J. (Lemont, IL)

    1980-01-01

    An automatically sweeping circuit for searching for an evoked response in an output signal in time with respect to a trigger input. Digital counters are used to activate a detector at precise intervals, and monitoring is repeated for statistical accuracy. If the response is not found then a different time window is examined until the signal is found.

  6. AUTOmatic Message PACKing Facility

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2004-07-01

    AUTOPACK is a library that provides several useful features for programs using the Message Passing Interface (MPI). Features included are: 1. automatic message packing facility 2. management of send and receive requests. 3. management of message buffer memory. 4. determination of the number of anticipated messages from a set of arbitrary sends, and 5. deterministic message delivery for testing purposes.

  7. Automatic soldering machine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stein, J. A.

    1974-01-01

    Fully-automatic tube-joint soldering machine can be used to make leakproof joints in aluminum tubes of 3/16 to 2 in. in diameter. Machine consists of temperature-control unit, heater transformer and heater head, vibrator, and associated circuitry controls, and indicators.

  8. Automatic finite element generators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, P. S.

    1984-01-01

    The design and implementation of a software system for generating finite elements and related computations are described. Exact symbolic computational techniques are employed to derive strain-displacement matrices and element stiffness matrices. Methods for dealing with the excessive growth of symbolic expressions are discussed. Automatic FORTRAN code generation is described with emphasis on improving the efficiency of the resultant code.

  9. Thought Suppression in Patients With Bipolar Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Miklowitz, David J.; Alatiq, Yousra; Geddes, John R.; Goodwin, Guy M.; Williams, J. Mark G.

    2010-01-01

    Suppression of negative thoughts has been observed under experimental conditions among patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) but has never been examined among patients with bipolar disorder (BD). Patients with BD (n = 36), patients with MDD (n = 20), and healthy controls (n = 20) completed a task that required unscrambling 6-word strings into 5-word sentences, leaving out 1 word. The extra word allowed the sentences to be completed in a negative, neutral, or “hyperpositive” (manic/goal-oriented) way. Participants completed the sentences under conditions of cognitive load (rehearsing a 6-digit number), reward (a bell tone), load and reward, or neither load nor reward. We hypothesized that patients with BD would engage in more active suppression of negative and hyperpositive thoughts than would controls, as revealed by their unscrambling more word strings into negative or hyperpositive sentences. Under conditions of load or reward and in the absence of either load or reward, patients with BD unscrambled more negative sentences than did controls. Under conditions of reward, patients with BD unscrambled more negative sentences than did patients with MDD. Patients with BD also reported more use of negative thought suppression than did controls. These group differences in negative biases were no longer significant when current mood states were controlled. Finally, the groups did not differ in the proportion of hyperpositive sentence completions in any condition. Thought suppression may provide a critical locus for psychological interventions in BD. PMID:20455608

  10. Indian Educational Thought and Experiments: A Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shukla, Sureshachandra

    1983-01-01

    Proposes a typology for examining Indian educational thought and experiments: the British period and its legacy, basic education, elementary education, higher education, adult education and literacy, and other trends. Concludes the essential prototype of education as represented by the university and the formal school system has remained India's…

  11. Tracking the Construction of Episodic Future Thoughts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Argembeau, Arnaud; Mathy, Arnaud

    2011-01-01

    The ability to mentally simulate possible futures ("episodic future thinking") is of fundamental importance for various aspects of human cognition and behavior, but precisely how humans construct mental representations of future events is still essentially unknown. We suggest that episodic future thoughts consist of transitory patterns of…

  12. Daytime intrusive thoughts and subjective insomnia symptoms.

    PubMed

    Baker, Louise D; Baldwin, David S; Garner, Matthew

    2015-10-30

    Insomnia is increasingly recognised as a 24h complaint that is associated with an increased risk of mood and anxiety disorders. However, the effects of insomnia symptoms on maladaptive daytime patterns of thinking are poorly understood. We examined the relationship between subjective insomnia symptoms, attentional control and negative thought intrusions during daytime in a large sample of undergraduates experiencing poor sleep. A total of 109 participants completed self-report measures of sleep quality, current sleepiness, anxiety and attentional control. A behavioural measure of intrusive thought required participants to control their attention during two focus periods separated by a 5min period of self-referential worry. Thought intrusions were sampled throughout the pre- and post-worry periods. Perceived insomnia severity was associated with the reduced ability to focus attention and uniquely associated with increased negative thought intrusions in the pre-worry period. These results support suggestions that acute episodes of poor sleep can dysregulate key networks involved in attentional control and emotion regulation, and that promote negative cognitive activity. PMID:26279126

  13. Emotional and Behavioral Reaction to Intrusive Thoughts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, Lisa-Marie; May, Jon; Andrade, Jackie; Kavanagh, David

    2010-01-01

    A self-report measure of the emotional and behavioral reactions to intrusive thoughts was developed. The article presents data that confirm the stability, reliability, and validity of the new seven-item measure. Emotional and behavioral reactions to intrusions emerged as separate factors on the Emotional and Behavioral Reactions to Intrusions…

  14. Some Thoughts about Teaching and Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glassman, William E.

    2010-01-01

    In this essay, the author shares some thoughts about teaching and technology and focuses on how technological changes have (or have not) changed teaching. He asserts that technology, and it's role in teaching, has been evolving throughout recorded history. Technological change is not new; if there is any significant difference in the past fifteen

  15. Beyond the Generation Gap: A Thoughtful Pedagogy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White-Hood, Marian

    1994-01-01

    Responding to the needs of estranged youth, a group of Benjamin Tasker Middle School teachers created the Thoughtful Pedagogy Model. The program allows adolescents to reconstruct images of the adult world through self-exploration; participate in field trips, assembly programs, and adult/adolescent bonding activities; and experience the love and…

  16. Tracking the Construction of Episodic Future Thoughts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Argembeau, Arnaud; Mathy, Arnaud

    2011-01-01

    The ability to mentally simulate possible futures ("episodic future thinking") is of fundamental importance for various aspects of human cognition and behavior, but precisely how humans construct mental representations of future events is still essentially unknown. We suggest that episodic future thoughts consist of transitory patterns of

  17. Thought Field Therapy: A Former Insider's Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pignotti, Monica

    2007-01-01

    Thought Field Therapy (TFT) is a novel therapy that employs finger tapping on purported acupressure points. Over the past decade, TFT, promoted on the Internet and through testimonials of fast cures, has gained popularity with therapists, including clinical social workers. Although TFT claims to cure a wide variety of psychological and physical

  18. Epilogue: Some Final Thoughts on EBP

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamhi, Alan G.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: In this afterword, I will offer some final thoughts on this clinical forum by considering a central question of EBP--how experimental validation is defined--to illustrate the difficulty involved in implementing EBP. Method: The comments draw on critical reviews I have received on my article in this forum and conversations I have had with

  19. Thought Field Therapy: A Former Insider's Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pignotti, Monica

    2007-01-01

    Thought Field Therapy (TFT) is a novel therapy that employs finger tapping on purported acupressure points. Over the past decade, TFT, promoted on the Internet and through testimonials of fast cures, has gained popularity with therapists, including clinical social workers. Although TFT claims to cure a wide variety of psychological and physical…

  20. Current Thought on Curriculum. 1985 ASCD Yearbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development, Alexandria, VA.

    Current issues and concerns facing both academic scholars and educational practitioners are presented in the following articles: (1) "Schools and Their Curriculum: A Continuing Controversy" (Alex Molnar); (2) "Three Currents of American Curriculum Thought" (Herbert M. Kliebard); (3) "Curriculum Theory/Curriculum Practice: A Gap or the Grand…

  1. Suicidal thoughts and depressive feelings amongst Estonian schoolchildren: effect of family relationship and family structure.

    PubMed

    Samm, Algi; Tooding, Liina-Mai; Sisask, Merike; Klves, Kairi; Aasvee, Katrin; Vrnik, Airi

    2010-05-01

    Depressive feelings and suicidal ideation in a non-clinical sample of adolescents in Estonia were analysed in the context of family structure, mutual relationships amongst family members and schoolchildren's preferences regarding intimate personal contacts with particular family members. Data from the WHO collaborative study 'Health Behaviour in School-aged Children 2005/2006' (HBSC) were used. A representative sample of schoolchildren aged 11, 13 and 15 years completed the semi-structured questionnaire. The analyses included only adolescents living in households with at least one birth parent. The subjects were 4,389 schoolchildren (2,178 boys and 2,211 girls), who were divided into three groups based on: (1) suicidal thoughts, with or without depressive feelings; (2) depressive feelings; and (3) neither suicidal thoughts nor depressive feelings. Multinomial logistic regression was used. The proportion of depressive feelings increased with age for both boys and girls. Girls expressed depressive feelings more frequently than boys from ages 13 and 15 years, and suicidal thoughts from age 15 years. Self-reported satisfaction with relationships in the family reduced the likelihood of depressive feelings and suicidal thoughts. Good communication with the parents reduced the likelihood of suicidal thoughts in all age groups. Adolescents who were satisfied with their family relationships suffered less frequently from depressive feelings and suicidal thoughts. The best environment for an adolescent was a family with both birth parents. Of the adolescents in 'non-intact' families, those with a step-parent in the family showed suicidal thoughts more frequently than those in single-parent families. Associations between family-related variables and suicidal thoughts were significant even after adjusting for family economic deprivation score. PMID:19946721

  2. Automatism and driving offences.

    PubMed

    Rumbold, John

    2013-10-01

    Automatism is a rarely used defence, but it is particularly used for driving offences because many are strict liability offences. Medical evidence is almost always crucial to argue the defence, and it is important to understand the bars that limit the use of automatism so that the important medical issues can be identified. The issue of prior fault is an important public safeguard to ensure that reasonable precautions are taken to prevent accidents. The total loss of control definition is more problematic, especially with disorders of more gradual onset like hypoglycaemic episodes. In these cases the alternative of 'effective loss of control' would be fairer. This article explores several cases, how the criteria were applied to each, and the types of medical assessment required. PMID:24112330

  3. Automatic carrier acquisition system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bunce, R. C. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    An automatic carrier acquisition system for a phase locked loop (PLL) receiver is disclosed. It includes a local oscillator, which sweeps the receiver to tune across the carrier frequency uncertainty range until the carrier crosses the receiver IF reference. Such crossing is detected by an automatic acquisition detector. It receives the IF signal from the receiver as well as the IF reference. It includes a pair of multipliers which multiply the IF signal with the IF reference in phase and in quadrature. The outputs of the multipliers are filtered through bandpass filters and power detected. The output of the power detector has a signal dc component which is optimized with respect to the noise dc level by the selection of the time constants of the filters as a function of the sweep rate of the local oscillator.

  4. Automatic transmission control method

    SciTech Connect

    Hasegawa, H.; Ishiguro, T.

    1989-07-04

    This patent describes a method of controlling an automatic transmission of an automotive vehicle. The transmission has a gear train which includes a brake for establishing a first lowest speed of the transmission, the brake acting directly on a ring gear which meshes with a pinion, the pinion meshing with a sun gear in a planetary gear train, the ring gear connected with an output member, the sun gear being engageable and disengageable with an input member of the transmission by means of a clutch. The method comprises the steps of: detecting that a shift position of the automatic transmission has been shifted to a neutral range; thereafter introducing hydraulic pressure to the brake if present vehicle velocity is below a predetermined value, whereby the brake is engaged to establish the first lowest speed; and exhausting hydraulic pressure from the brake if present vehicle velocity is higher than a predetermined value, whereby the brake is disengaged.

  5. Automatic vehicle monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bravman, J. S.; Durrani, S. H.

    1976-01-01

    Automatic vehicle monitoring systems are discussed. In a baseline system for highway applications, each vehicle obtains position information through a Loran-C receiver in rural areas and through a 'signpost' or 'proximity' type sensor in urban areas; the vehicle transmits this information to a central station via a communication link. In an advance system, the vehicle carries a receiver for signals emitted by satellites in the Global Positioning System and uses a satellite-aided communication link to the central station. An advanced railroad car monitoring system uses car-mounted labels and sensors for car identification and cargo status; the information is collected by electronic interrogators mounted along the track and transmitted to a central station. It is concluded that automatic vehicle monitoring systems are technically feasible but not economically feasible unless a large market develops.

  6. Automatic Abstraction in Planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christensen, J.

    1991-01-01

    Traditionally, abstraction in planning has been accomplished by either state abstraction or operator abstraction, neither of which has been fully automatic. We present a new method, predicate relaxation, for automatically performing state abstraction. PABLO, a nonlinear hierarchical planner, implements predicate relaxation. Theoretical, as well as empirical results are presented which demonstrate the potential advantages of using predicate relaxation in planning. We also present a new definition of hierarchical operators that allows us to guarantee a limited form of completeness. This new definition is shown to be, in some ways, more flexible than previous definitions of hierarchical operators. Finally, a Classical Truth Criterion is presented that is proven to be sound and complete for a planning formalism that is general enough to include most classical planning formalisms that are based on the STRIPS assumption.

  7. Memory impairment in older adults’ diversionary thoughts

    PubMed Central

    Alves, Fátima; Resende, Flávia; Salomé Pinho, Maria

    2015-01-01

    The diversion paradigm was created in the context of explaining the effect of the instruction to forget some recently encoded material in the list-method of the directed forgetting paradigm. The current study of healthy older adults employed the diversion paradigm with two main goals: to determine whether thinking about an autobiographical memory interferes with the recall of recently encoded information and to explore whether the degree of forgetting depends on the temporal distance created by the diversionary thought. Ninety non-institutionalized Portuguese older adults (47 females and 43 males), aged 65–69 years, with education levels of between 3 and 6 years participated in this study. The exclusion criteria were as follows: presence of depressive symptomatology (assessed with the Geriatric Depression Scale-30) and global cognitive deterioration (assessed with the Mini–Mental State Examination). Concerning the diversion paradigm, one group was instructed to think about an autobiographical event (remembering one’s childhood home or the last party that one had attended) after studying one word list (List 1) and before viewing the second word list (List 2). After a brief distraction task, the participant had to recall the words from both of the studied lists. In the control group, the procedure was the same, but the diversionary thought was substituted by a speed reading task. The obtained results showed the amnesic effect of diversionary thought but did not show a greater degree of forgetting when the autobiographical events in the diversionary thoughts were temporally more distant. Considering the practical implications of these results, this study alerts us to the importance of promoting strategies that enable older adults to better remember important information and effectively forget irrelevant information. PMID:26539106

  8. Memory impairment in older adults' diversionary thoughts.

    PubMed

    Alves, Fátima; Resende, Flávia; Salomé Pinho, Maria

    2015-01-01

    The diversion paradigm was created in the context of explaining the effect of the instruction to forget some recently encoded material in the list-method of the directed forgetting paradigm. The current study of healthy older adults employed the diversion paradigm with two main goals: to determine whether thinking about an autobiographical memory interferes with the recall of recently encoded information and to explore whether the degree of forgetting depends on the temporal distance created by the diversionary thought. Ninety non-institutionalized Portuguese older adults (47 females and 43 males), aged 65-69 years, with education levels of between 3 and 6 years participated in this study. The exclusion criteria were as follows: presence of depressive symptomatology (assessed with the Geriatric Depression Scale-30) and global cognitive deterioration (assessed with the Mini-Mental State Examination). Concerning the diversion paradigm, one group was instructed to think about an autobiographical event (remembering one's childhood home or the last party that one had attended) after studying one word list (List 1) and before viewing the second word list (List 2). After a brief distraction task, the participant had to recall the words from both of the studied lists. In the control group, the procedure was the same, but the diversionary thought was substituted by a speed reading task. The obtained results showed the amnesic effect of diversionary thought but did not show a greater degree of forgetting when the autobiographical events in the diversionary thoughts were temporally more distant. Considering the practical implications of these results, this study alerts us to the importance of promoting strategies that enable older adults to better remember important information and effectively forget irrelevant information. PMID:26539106

  9. The psychology of psychology: A thought experiment.

    PubMed

    Ceci, Stephen J; Williams, Wendy M

    2015-01-01

    In the target article, Duarte et al. allege that the lack of political diversity reduces research efficacy. We pose a thought experiment that could provide an empirical test by examining whether institutional review board (IRB) members, granting agencies, and journal reviewers filter scientific products based on political values, invoking scientific criteria (rigor, etc.) as their justification. When these same products are cast in terms highlighting opposite values, do these people shift their decisions? PMID:26785767

  10. On Realizing It's Worse than I Thought

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Entin, David

    2009-01-01

    It didn't end with an acceptance letter in the mail. That was the highlight of the high school to college transition, but it wasn't the finish line, far from it. In this essay, the author describes his feelings on transitioning from high school to college. He finally sees that the process is worse than he thought. Because it's not another step in

  11. Automatic digital image registration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goshtasby, A.; Jain, A. K.; Enslin, W. R.

    1982-01-01

    This paper introduces a general procedure for automatic registration of two images which may have translational, rotational, and scaling differences. This procedure involves (1) segmentation of the images, (2) isolation of dominant objects from the images, (3) determination of corresponding objects in the two images, and (4) estimation of transformation parameters using the center of gravities of objects as control points. An example is given which uses this technique to register two images which have translational, rotational, and scaling differences.

  12. Automatic thermal switches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cunningham, J. W.; Wing, L. D.

    1980-01-01

    Two automatic switches control heat flow from one thermally conductive plate to another. One switch permits heat flow to outside; other limits heat flow. In one switch, heat on conductive plate activates piston that forces saddle against plate. Heat carriers then conduct heat to second plate that radiates it away. After temperature is first plate drops, piston contracts and spring breaks thermal contact with plate. In second switch, action is reversed.

  13. Building and mining web-based questionnaires and surveys with SySQ.

    PubMed

    Sarica, Alessia; Guzzi, Pietro Hiram; Cannataro, Mario

    2013-09-01

    A questionnaire is a method for collecting data that can come from many sources such as observations, telephone interviews or documentary sources. Whatever the source of data is, the questionnaire provides a framework of questions that facilitate researcher's work. A manual approach for collecting data using questionnaire presents some limitations and introduces several sources of errors. A second issue regards the statistical and data mining of data that often is conducted using different tools than the questionnaire system, which may introduce errors in the analysis pipeline. For instance, common methods applied to data set concern the normality test, the association and correlation discovery, linear regression, classification and clustering. Usually this analysis is performed using external tools, often not free, such as SPSS, SAS, STATA, Weka, or Clementine.We present a web-based software system, to automatize the analysis pipeline and to support researchers involved in the collection of questionnaire data, such as in epidemiology, aiming to reduce the errors listed above and including some basic functions to conduct statistical analysis on collected data. Our system allows researchers to create questionnaires, adding sections and structured questions. It provides a preview of the questionnaire, the exportation of saved data into statistical software compatible formats, or it permits to analyze them directly applying statistical methods and common data mining techniques from the main interface. PMID:24307414

  14. Automatic Jet Contrail Detection and Segmentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weiss, J.; Christopher, S. A.; Welch, R. M.

    1997-01-01

    Jet contrails are an important subset of cirrus clouds in the atmosphere, and thin cirrus are thought to enhance the greenhouse effect due to their semi-transparent nature. They are nearly transparent to the solar energy reaching the surface, but they reduce the planetary emission to space due to their cold ambient temperatures. Having 'seeded' the environment, contrails often elongate and widen into cirrus-like features. However, there is great uncertainty regarding the impact of contrails on surface temperature and precipitation. With increasing numbers of subsonic aircraft operating in the upper troposphere, there is the possibility of increasing cloudiness which could lead to changes in the radiation balance. Automatic detection and seg- mentation of jet contrails in satellite imagery is important because (1) it is impractical to compile a contrail climatology by hand, and (2) with the segmented images it will be possible to retrieve contrail physical properties such as optical thickness, effective ice crystal diameter and emissivity.

  15. Starting A New Project: Thoughts from NGST

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mather, John C.; Oegerle, William (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Some key elements of the history of NGST (Next Generation Space Telescope) that made a new mission possible will be reviewed, from the very beginnings to the present moment in the middle of selecting a prime contractor. A few forecasts of the possible discoveries will be made that may precede the launch of a new UV telescope, in hopes of inspiring sufficiently ambitious goals that they will still be exciting in 15 or 20 years. We will also discuss the enabling technology for NGST and my thoughts on enabling technology for a UV telescope Flint: they are not all about detectors and Mirrors!

  16. Motor automaticity in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Wu, Tao; Hallett, Mark; Chan, Piu

    2015-10-01

    Bradykinesia is the most important feature contributing to motor difficulties in Parkinson's disease (PD). However, the pathophysiology underlying bradykinesia is not fully understood. One important aspect is that PD patients have difficulty in performing learned motor skills automatically, but this problem has been generally overlooked. Here we review motor automaticity associated motor deficits in PD, such as reduced arm swing, decreased stride length, freezing of gait, micrographia and reduced facial expression. Recent neuroimaging studies have revealed some neural mechanisms underlying impaired motor automaticity in PD, including less efficient neural coding of movement, failure to shift automated motor skills to the sensorimotor striatum, instability of the automatic mode within the striatum, and use of attentional control and/or compensatory efforts to execute movements usually performed automatically in healthy people. PD patients lose previously acquired automatic skills due to their impaired sensorimotor striatum, and have difficulty in acquiring new automatic skills or restoring lost motor skills. More investigations on the pathophysiology of motor automaticity, the effect of L-dopa or surgical treatments on automaticity, and the potential role of using measures of automaticity in early diagnosis of PD would be valuable. PMID:26102020

  17. What are patients' priorities for palliative care research? -- a questionnaire study.

    PubMed

    Perkins, Paul; Booth, Sara; Vowler, Sarah L; Barclay, Stephen

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes the questionnaire component of a two-stage study to examine the research priorities of palliative care patients. In the first stage focus groups were conducted to determine a list of priorities for future research: a questionnaire created from these themes was then used in five hospices across East Anglia. Patients thought that the focus group priorities were important and scored research into emergency care, pain control and helping doctors to understand what patients were saying as most important. Differences in priority were associated with gender, age and in-patient versus day therapy patients. PMID:18216073

  18. AUTOMATIC FREQUENCY CONTROL SYSTEM

    DOEpatents

    Hansen, C.F.; Salisbury, J.D.

    1961-01-10

    A control is described for automatically matching the frequency of a resonant cavity to that of a driving oscillator. The driving oscillator is disconnected from the cavity and a secondary oscillator is actuated in which the cavity is the frequency determining element. A low frequency is mixed with the output of the driving oscillator and the resultant lower and upper sidebands are separately derived. The frequencies of the sidebands are compared with the secondary oscillator frequency. deriving a servo control signal to adjust a tuning element in the cavity and matching the cavity frequency to that of the driving oscillator. The driving oscillator may then be connected to the cavity.

  19. Automatic level control circuit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toole, P. C.; Mccarthy, D. M. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    An automatic level control circuit for an operational amplifier for minimizing spikes or instantaneous gain of the amplifier at a low period wherein no signal is received on the input is provided. The apparatus includes a multibranch circuit which is connected between an output terminal and a feedback terminal. A pair of zener diodes are connected back to back in series with a capacitor provided in one of the branches. A pair of voltage dividing resistors are connected in another of the branches and a second capacitor is provided in the remaining branch of controlling the high frequency oscillations of the operational amplifier.

  20. A Nutritional Questionnaire for Older Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fanelli, Marie T.; Abernethy, Marilyn M.

    1986-01-01

    Describes a questionnaire assessing nutritional knowledge and eating behaviors of older adults. The questionnaire consists of six sections: demographic and personal information, food resources, food consumption patterns, dietary practices related to health, activity patterns, and nutritional knowledge. Study results demonstrating the…

  1. Development of a Cuban Ethnic Identity Questionnaire.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia, Margarita; Lega, Leonor I.

    1979-01-01

    The Cuban Behavioral Identity Questionnaire is a short, eight-item questionnaire answerable in a seven-point Likert-scale format. It inquires as to the frequency with which respondents engage in several ethnic behaviors and the degree to which they are familiar with Cuban idiomatic expressions and Cuban artists/musicians. (Author/NQ)

  2. PREDICTION OF RELIABILITY IN BIOGRAPHICAL QUESTIONNAIRES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    STARRY, ALLAN R.

    THE OBJECTIVES OF THIS STUDY WERE (1) TO DEVELOP A GENERAL CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM FOR LIFE HISTORY ITEMS, (2) TO DETERMINE TEST-RETEST RELIABILITY ESTIMATES, AND (3) TO ESTIMATE RESISTANCE TO EXAMINEE FAKING, FOR REPRESENTATIVE BIOGRAPHICAL QUESTIONNAIRES. TWO 100-ITEM QUESTIONNAIRES WERE CONSTRUCTED THROUGH RANDOM ASSIGNMENT BY CONTENT AREA OF 200…

  3. Developing a Questionnaire on Attitude towards School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seker, Hasan

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to develop a questionnaire to assess student attitudes towards school by describing the factors that affect these attitudes. For this purpose, a sample of 362 (11-13 years-old) elementary-school students was used. Both exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were carried out. The questionnaire consists of

  4. New York Community Environment Study Questionnaire.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glaser, Daniel; Snow, Mary

    This questionnaire assesses neighborhood drug problem concern, drug use practices, knowledge of drugs and agencies dealing with drugs, and views on drug education in persons aged 13 or older. The questionnaire has 31 items (multiple-choice or free response), most with several parts. The items deal with demographic and personal data, problems in…

  5. Developing a Questionnaire on Attitude towards School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seker, Hasan

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to develop a questionnaire to assess student attitudes towards school by describing the factors that affect these attitudes. For this purpose, a sample of 362 (11-13 years-old) elementary-school students was used. Both exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were carried out. The questionnaire consists of…

  6. Applying Learning Strategy Questionnaires: Problems and Possibilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schellings, Gonny

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses measuring learning strategies by means of questionnaires. In "multi-method" research, in which think-aloud measures are compared with questionnaires, low or moderate correlations are found. A conclusion often drawn is that learners are not able to verbally report on their learning activities. Alternative explanations concern…

  7. The functional anatomy and connectivity of thought insertion and alien control of movement.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Eamonn; Oakley, David A; Halligan, Peter W; Mehta, Mitul A; Deeley, Quinton

    2015-03-01

    Alien control phenomena are symptoms reported by patients with schizophrenia whereby feelings of control and ownership of thoughts and movements are lost. Comparable alien control experiences occur in culturally influenced dissociative states. We used fMRI and suggestions for automatic writing in highly hypnotically suggestible individuals to investigate the neural underpinnings of alien control. Targeted suggestions selectively reduced subjective ratings of control and ownership for both thought and movement. Thought insertion (TI) was associated with reduced activation of networks supporting language, movement, and self-related processing. In contrast, alien control of writing movement was associated with increased activity of a left-lateralised cerebellar-parietal network and decreased activity in brain regions involved in voluntary movement, including sensory-motor hand areas and the thalamus. Both experiences involved a reduction in activity of left supplementary motor area (SMA) and were associated with altered functional connectivity (FC) between SMA and brain regions involved in language processing and movement implementation. Collectively these results indicate the SMA plays a central role in alien control phenomena as a high level executive system involved in the sense that we control and own our thoughts and movements. PMID:25438744

  8. Food for thought: ego-dystonicity and fear of self in eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Purcell Lalonde, Magali; O'Connor, Kieron; Aardema, Frederick; Coelho, Jennifer S

    2015-05-01

    Degree of ego-dystonicity in obsessions is clinically relevant to the conceptualization and treatment of eating disorders (EDs). Obsessive-compulsive disorder research has suggested that the transformation of intrusive thoughts into obsessions is linked to the degree to which intrusive thoughts threaten core perceptions of the self. This study aims to explore the relationship between the ego-dystonic nature of obsessions in ED patients and a fear of self, the link between ED symptom severity and ego-dystonicity in obsessions, and differences between non-clinical and individuals with EDs in the presence of ego-dystonic thoughts and a fear of self. Ego-dystonicity (Ego-dystonicity Questionnaire (EDQ)) and feared self (Fear of Self Questionnaire (FSQ)) degrees were measured in a clinical sample (n = 57 with EDs) and a non-clinical sample (n = 45). EDQ and FSQ scores were highly correlated in both samples. EDQ scores were not significantly correlated to ED symptom severity with the exception of the EDQ Irrationality subscale, which was strongly related to compulsion severity. Participants with an ED had significantly higher EDQ and FSQ scores compared with controls. PMID:25728327

  9. [On the evolution of scientific thought].

    PubMed

    de Micheli, Alfredo; Iturralde Torres, Pedro

    2015-01-01

    The Nominalists of the XIV century, precursors of modern science, thought that science's object was not the general, vague and indeterminate but the particular, which is real and can be known directly. About the middle of the XVII Century the bases of the modern science became established thanks to a revolution fomented essentially by Galileo, Bacon and Descartes. During the XVIII Century, parallel to the development of the great current of English Empiricism, a movement of scientific renewal also arose in continental Europe following the discipline of the Dutch Physicians and of Boerhaave. In the XIX Century, Claude Bernard dominated the scientific medicine but his rigorous determinism impeded him from taking into account the immense and unforeseeable field of the random. Nowadays, we approach natural science and medicine, from particular groups of facts; that is, from the responses of Nature to specific questions, but not from the general laws. Furthermore, in recent epistemology, the concept that experimental data are not pure facts, but rather, facts interpreted within a hermeneutical context has been established. Finally a general tendency to retrieve philosophical questions concerning the understanding of essence and existence can frequently be seen in scientific inquiry. In the light of the evolution of medical thought, it is possible to establish the position of scientific medicine within the movement of ideas dominating in our time. PMID:26296626

  10. Automatic readout micrometer

    DOEpatents

    Lauritzen, T.

    A measuring system is described for surveying and very accurately positioning objects with respect to a reference line. A principle use of this surveying system is for accurately aligning the electromagnets which direct a particle beam emitted from a particle accelerator. Prior art surveying systems require highly skilled surveyors. Prior art systems include, for example, optical surveying systems which are susceptible to operator reading errors, and celestial navigation-type surveying systems, with their inherent complexities. The present invention provides an automatic readout micrometer which can very accurately measure distances. The invention has a simplicity of operation which practically eliminates the possibilities of operator optical reading error, owning to the elimination of traditional optical alignments for making measurements. The invention has an extendable arm which carries a laser surveying target. The extendable arm can be continuously positioned over its entire length of travel by either a coarse of fine adjustment without having the fine adjustment outrun the coarse adjustment until a reference laser beam is centered on the target as indicated by a digital readout. The length of the micrometer can then be accurately and automatically read by a computer and compared with a standardized set of alignment measurements. Due to its construction, the micrometer eliminates any errors due to temperature changes when the system is operated within a standard operating temperature range.

  11. Automatic readout micrometer

    DOEpatents

    Lauritzen, Ted

    1982-01-01

    A measuring system is disclosed for surveying and very accurately positioning objects with respect to a reference line. A principal use of this surveying system is for accurately aligning the electromagnets which direct a particle beam emitted from a particle accelerator. Prior art surveying systems require highly skilled surveyors. Prior art systems include, for example, optical surveying systems which are susceptible to operator reading errors, and celestial navigation-type surveying systems, with their inherent complexities. The present invention provides an automatic readout micrometer which can very accurately measure distances. The invention has a simplicity of operation which practically eliminates the possibilities of operator optical reading error, owning to the elimination of traditional optical alignments for making measurements. The invention has an extendable arm which carries a laser surveying target. The extendable arm can be continuously positioned over its entire length of travel by either a coarse or fine adjustment without having the fine adjustment outrun the coarse adjustment until a reference laser beam is centered on the target as indicated by a digital readout. The length of the micrometer can then be accurately and automatically read by a computer and compared with a standardized set of alignment measurements. Due to its construction, the micrometer eliminates any errors due to temperature changes when the system is operated within a standard operating temperature range.

  12. Comparison of automatic control systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oppelt, W

    1941-01-01

    This report deals with a reciprocal comparison of an automatic pressure control, an automatic rpm control, an automatic temperature control, and an automatic directional control. It shows the difference between the "faultproof" regulator and the actual regulator which is subject to faults, and develops this difference as far as possible in a parallel manner with regard to the control systems under consideration. Such as analysis affords, particularly in its extension to the faults of the actual regulator, a deep insight into the mechanism of the regulator process.

  13. Does response on the PHQ-9 Depression Questionnaire predict subsequent suicide attempt or suicide death?

    PubMed

    Simon, Gregory E; Rutter, Carolyn M; Peterson, Do; Oliver, Malia; Whiteside, Ursula; Operskalski, Belinda; Ludman, Evette J

    2013-12-01

    OBJECTIVE As use of standard depression questionnaires in clinical practice increases, clinicians will frequently encounter patients reporting thoughts of death or suicide. This study examined whether responses to the Patient Health Questionnaire for depression (PHQ-9) predict subsequent suicide attempt or suicide death. METHODS Electronic records from a large integrated health system were used to link PHQ-9 responses from outpatient visits to subsequent suicide attempts and suicide deaths. A total of 84,418 outpatients age ≥13 completed 207,265 questionnaires between 2007 and 2011. Electronic medical records, insurance claims, and death certificate data documented 709 subsequent suicide attempts and 46 suicide deaths in this sample. RESULTS Cumulative risk of suicide attempt over one year increased from .4% among outpatients reporting thoughts of death or self-harm "not at all" to 4% among those reporting thoughts of death or self-harm "nearly every day." After adjustment for age, sex, treatment history, and overall depression severity, responses to item 9 of the PHQ-9 remained a strong predictor of suicide attempt. Cumulative risk of suicide death over one year increased from .03% among those reporting thoughts of death or self-harm ideation "not at all" to .3% among those reporting such thoughts "nearly every day." Response to item 9 remained a moderate predictor of subsequent suicide death after the same factor adjustments. CONCLUSIONS Response to item 9 of the PHQ-9 for depression identified outpatients at increased risk of suicide attempt or death. This excess risk emerged over several days and continued to grow for several months, indicating that suicidal ideation was an enduring vulnerability rather than a short-term crisis. PMID:24036589

  14. [Personalist bioethics in the Romano Guardini's thought].

    PubMed

    Fayos Febrer, Rafael

    2014-01-01

    The present article tries to offer some elements of Romano Guardini's thought as a basis for a personalist bioethics. This paper is structured in two main parts. First we will expose the known critic of the Modern Age by Romano Guardini since at this time are set the basis and the principles that later on will bring forth the big bioethics 'questions as human cloning, in vitro fertilization, embryo transference, euthanasia, etc. The power without a guiding ethic rule, the modern human conception and the roll of the Estate will be analyzed too in this first part. This analysis brings to light the error in which modernity has fallen. Secondly, in a more positive way, we will try to deduce other principles from the Romano Guardini's anthropology, commenting his essay "The right to human life in develop". PMID:24836039

  15. Contributions of epidemiology to psychiatric thought.

    PubMed

    Leighton, A H

    1990-06-01

    As a result of trying to apply both science and humanism to psychological problems, psychiatry is exposed to a welter of confusing issues in which science and intuition are pitted against each other. A growing awareness of the importance of quantification in clinical research and theory construction is having the effect of increasing the polarization. It is suggested in this paper that Karl Jaspers' formulation of ërklaren and verstehen provide a conceptual frame by which orderly relationships can replace much of the confusion and polarization. It is further suggested that this line of thought can be implemented and developed by the use of epidemiologic strategies. Historic and recent examples from the literature are provided in order to illustrate how this can be done. PMID:2196985

  16. How emotions inform judgment and regulate thought

    PubMed Central

    Clore, Gerald L.; Huntsinger, Jeffrey R.

    2008-01-01

    Being happy or sad influences the content and style of thought. One explanation is that affect serves as information about the value of whatever comes to mind. Thus, when a person makes evaluative judgments or engages in a task, positive affect can enhance evaluations and empower potential responses. Rather than affect itself, the information conveyed by affect is crucial. Tests of the hypothesis find that affective influences can be made to disappear by changing the source to which the affect is attributed. In tasks, positive affect validates and negative affect invalidates accessible cognitions, leading to relational processing and item-specific processing, respectively. Positive affect is found to promote, and negative affect to inhibit, many textbook phenomena from cognitive psychology. PMID:17698405

  17. Can Medical Diagnosis Benefit from "Unconscious Thought"?

    PubMed

    Woolley, Amanda; Kostopoulou, Olga; Delaney, Brendan C

    2016-05-01

    The unconscious thought theory argues that making complex decisions after a period of distraction can lead to better decision quality than deciding either immediately or after conscious deliberation. Two studies have tested this unconscious thought effect (UTE) in clinical diagnosis with conflicting results. The studies used different methodologies and had methodological weaknesses. We attempted to replicate the UTE in medical diagnosis by providing favorable conditions for the effect while maintaining ecological validity. Family physicians (N= 116) diagnosed 3 complex cases in 1 of 3 thinking modes: immediate, unconscious (UT), and conscious (CT). Cases were divided into short sentences, which were presented briefly and sequentially on computer. After each case presentation, the immediate response group gave a diagnosis, the UT group performed a 2-back distraction task for 3 min before giving a diagnosis, and the CT group could take as long as necessary before giving a diagnosis. We found no differences in diagnostic accuracy between groups (P= 0.95). The CT group took a median of 7 s to diagnose, which suggests that physicians were able to diagnose "online," as information was being presented. The lack of a difference between the immediate and UT groups suggests that the distraction had no additional effect on performance. To assess the decisiveness of the evidence of this null result, we computed a Bayes factor (BF01) for the 2 comparisons of interest. We found a BF01of 5.76 for the UT versus immediate comparison and of 3.61 for the UT versus CT comparison. Both BFs provide substantial evidence in favor of the null hypothesis: physicians' diagnoses made after distraction are no better than diagnoses made either immediately or after self-paced deliberation. PMID:25852079

  18. AUTOMATIC HAND COUNTER

    DOEpatents

    Mann J.R.; Wainwright, A.E.

    1963-06-11

    An automatic, personnel-operated, alpha-particle hand monitor is described which functions as a qualitative instrument to indicate to the person using it whether his hands are cold'' or hot.'' The monitor is activated by a push button and includes several capacitor-triggered thyratron tubes. Upon release of the push button, the monitor starts the counting of the radiation present on the hands of the person. If the count of the radiation exceeds a predetermined level within a predetermined time, then a capacitor will trigger a first thyratron tube to light a hot'' lamp. If, however, the count is below such level during this time period, another capacitor will fire a second thyratron to light a safe'' lamp. (AEC)

  19. Automatic Bayesian polarity determination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pugh, D. J.; White, R. S.; Christie, P. A. F.

    2016-04-01

    The polarity of the first motion of a seismic signal from an earthquake is an important constraint in earthquake source inversion. Microseismic events often have low signal-to-noise ratios, which may lead to difficulties estimating the correct first-motion polarities of the arrivals. This paper describes a probabilistic approach to polarity picking that can be both automated and combined with manual picking. This approach includes a quantitative estimate of the uncertainty of the polarity, improving calculation of the polarity probability density function for source inversion. It is sufficiently fast to be incorporated into an automatic processing workflow. When used in source inversion, the results are consistent with those from manual observations. In some cases, they produce a clearer constraint on the range of high-probability source mechanims, and are better constrained than source mechanisms determined using a uniform probability of an incorrect polarity pick.

  20. Automatic thermal switch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wing, L. D.; Cunningham, J. W. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    An automatic thermal switch to control heat flow includes a first thermally conductive plate, a second thermally conductive plate and a thermal transfer plate pivotally mounted between the first and second plates. A phase change power unit, including a plunger connected to the transfer plate, is in thermal contact with the first thermally conductive plate. A biasing element, connected to the transfer plate, biases the transfer plate in a predetermined position with respect to the first and second plates. When the phase change power unit is actuated by an increase in heat transmitted through the first plate, the plunger extends and pivots the transfer plate to vary the thermal conduction between the first and second plates through the transfer plate. The biasing element, transfer plate and piston can be arranged to provide either a normally closed or normally open thermally conductive path between the first and second plates.

  1. Networked Automatic Optical Telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mattox, J. R.

    2000-05-01

    Many groups around the world are developing automated or robotic optical observatories. The coordinated operation of automated optical telescopes at diverse sites could provide observing prospects which are not otherwise available, e.g., continuous optical photometry without diurnal interruption. Computer control and scheduling also offers the prospect of effective response to transient events such as γ -ray bursts. These telescopes could also serve science education by providing high-quality CCD data for educators and students. The Automatic Telescope Network (ATN) project has been undertaken to promote networking of automated telescopes. A web site is maintained at http://gamma.bu.edu/atn/. The development of such networks will be facilitated by the existence of standards. A set of standard commands for instrument and telescope control systems will allow for the creation of software for an ``observatory control system'' which can be used at any facility which complies with the TCS and ICS standards. Also, there is a strong need for standards for the specification of observations to be done, and reports on the results and status of observations. A proposed standard for this is the Remote Telescope Markup Language (RTML), which is expected to be described in another poster in this session. It may thus be feasible for amateur-astronomers to soon buy all necessary equipment and software to field an automatic telescope. The owner/operator could make otherwise unused telescope time available to the network in exchange for the utilization of other telescopes in the network --- including occasional utilization of meter-class telescopes with research-grade CCD detectors at good sites.

  2. Automatic alkaloid removal system.

    PubMed

    Yahaya, Muhammad Rizuwan; Hj Razali, Mohd Hudzari; Abu Bakar, Che Abdullah; Ismail, Wan Ishak Wan; Muda, Wan Musa Wan; Mat, Nashriyah; Zakaria, Abd

    2014-01-01

    This alkaloid automated removal machine was developed at Instrumentation Laboratory, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin Malaysia that purposely for removing the alkaloid toxicity from Dioscorea hispida (DH) tuber. It is a poisonous plant where scientific study has shown that its tubers contain toxic alkaloid constituents, dioscorine. The tubers can only be consumed after it poisonous is removed. In this experiment, the tubers are needed to blend as powder form before inserting into machine basket. The user is need to push the START button on machine controller for switching the water pump ON by then creating turbulence wave of water in machine tank. The water will stop automatically by triggering the outlet solenoid valve. The powders of tubers are washed for 10 minutes while 1 liter of contaminated water due toxin mixture is flowing out. At this time, the controller will automatically triggered inlet solenoid valve and the new water will flow in machine tank until achieve the desire level that which determined by ultra sonic sensor. This process will repeated for 7 h and the positive result is achieved and shows it significant according to the several parameters of biological character ofpH, temperature, dissolve oxygen, turbidity, conductivity and fish survival rate or time. From that parameter, it also shows the positive result which is near or same with control water and assuming was made that the toxin is fully removed when the pH of DH powder is near with control water. For control water, the pH is about 5.3 while water from this experiment process is 6.0 and before run the machine the pH of contaminated water is about 3.8 which are too acid. This automated machine can save time for removing toxicity from DH compared with a traditional method while less observation of the user. PMID:24783795

  3. Extraversion and the rebound effect after thought suppression.

    PubMed

    Bourdon, N; McKelvie, S J; Stout, D

    2001-06-01

    83 participants thought about a white bear before or after trying to suppress the idea. There was no rebound effect (more expression of white-bear thoughts after than before suppression) for either introverts or extraverts. PMID:11597062

  4. Diabetic Kidney Damage May Start Earlier Than Thought

    MedlinePlus

    ... html Diabetic Kidney Damage May Start Earlier Than Thought Higher-than-normal blood sugar levels can lead ... from diabetes may begin much sooner than previously thought, according to a new study. Researchers found that ...

  5. Self-generated thoughts and depression: from daydreaming to depressive symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Marchetti, Igor; Van de Putte, Eowyn; Koster, Ernst H. W.

    2014-01-01

    Human minds often engage in thoughts and feelings that are self-generated rather than stimulus-dependent, such as daydreaming. Recent research suggests that under certain circumstances, daydreaming is associated with adverse effects on cognition and affect. Based on recent literature about the influence of resting mind in relation to rumination and depression, this questionnaire study investigated mechanisms linking daydreaming to depressive symptoms. Specifically, an indirect effect model was tested in which daydreaming influences depressive symptoms through enhancing self-focus and ruminative thought. Results were in line with the hypothesis and several alternative pathways were ruled out. The results provide initial supportive evidence that daydreaming can influence depressive symptoms through influences on self-focus and rumination. Further research should use prospective or experimental designs to further validate and strengthen these conclusions. PMID:24672458

  6. Two Sources of Evidence on the Non-Automaticity of True and False Belief Ascription

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Back, Elisa; Apperly, Ian A.

    2010-01-01

    A recent study by Apperly et al. (2006) found evidence that adults do not automatically infer false beliefs while watching videos that afford such inferences. This method was extended to examine true beliefs, which are sometimes thought to be ascribed by "default" (e.g., Leslie & Thaiss, 1992). Sequences of pictures were presented in which the…

  7. Automatic Coal-Mining System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, E. R., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    Coal cutting and removal done with minimal hazard to people. Automatic coal mine cutting, transport and roof-support movement all done by automatic machinery. Exposure of people to hazardous conditions reduced to inspection tours, maintenance, repair, and possibly entry mining.

  8. The Thought Experiment: An Imaginative Way into Civic Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zarnowski, Myra

    2009-01-01

    Thought experiments enable students to think about persistent social issues by drawing on both knowledge and imagination. In this article, the author provides examples of thought experiments found in literature for adults and middle school students, a rationale for doing thought experiments in the classroom, a step-by-step procedure to follow, and…

  9. The Reflective Thought Process: John Dewey Re-Visited.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farra, Harry

    1988-01-01

    A model of John Dewey's theory of reflective thought, as revised in 1933, is reviewed and its implications for the creative process explored. Reflective thought differs from random thought in its "chaining" feature, which entails a consecutive ordering so that each idea determines its successor while referring to its predecessor. (VW)

  10. Are students prone to depression and suicidal thoughts?

    PubMed Central

    Warchoł-Biedermann, Katarzyna; Głowacka, Maria D.; Strzelecki, Wojciech; Ziemska, Beata; Samborski, Włodzimierz

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Depression may affect up to 9.8% of adolescents and young adults and is associated with significant life-long consequences. The aim of our study was to assess the association between symptoms of depression and demographic factors such as gender, having brothers or sisters, background (rural/small town or urban permanent place of residence), perceived financial status, current living arrangements, year and major area of study. Material and methods One thousand one hundred eighty-three students of medical or similar faculties, 71% of whom were females, anonymously answered the Kutcher Adolescent Depression Scale (KADS) and completed a demographic questionnaire. Results We found that 6.5% of all participants (n = 77) had depression according to Kutcher's criteria whereas 1.5% of them (n = 18) reported suicidal thoughts. We also observed the influence of such factors as gender (p < 0.009), year (p < 0.001), major area of study (p < 0.034), and financial status (p < 0.000–0.003), on depression scores. Moreover, depressive symptomatology was most frequent in subjects who were only children, in freshmen and in students of psychology (11.5%, 13.2% and 16.7% respectively). However, we did not observe an impact of such agents as students’ permanent place of residence (p = 0.929) or current living arrangements on depressive symptoms (p = 0.940). Conclusions Susceptibility to depression fluctuates throughout the course of study and depends on factors associated with the study itself such as the student's major or year of study and other socio-demographic agents, i.e. gender or self-reported financial status. PMID:26170855

  11. The antecedents and belief-polarized effects of thought confidence.

    PubMed

    Chou, Hsuan-Yi; Lien, Nai-Hwa; Liang, Kuan-Yu

    2011-01-01

    This article investigates 2 possible antecedents of thought confidence and explores the effects of confidence induced before or during ad exposure. The results of the experiments indicate that both consumers' dispositional optimism and spokesperson attractiveness have significant effects on consumers' confidence in thoughts that are generated after viewing the advertisement. Higher levels of thought confidence will influence the quality of the thoughts that people generate, lead to either positively or negatively polarized message processing, and therefore induce better or worse advertising effectiveness, depending on the valence of thoughts. The authors posit the belief-polarization hypothesis to explain these findings. PMID:21902013

  12. Automatic Command Sequence Generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, Forest; Gladded, Roy; Khanampompan, Teerapat

    2007-01-01

    Automatic Sequence Generator (Autogen) Version 3.0 software automatically generates command sequences for the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) and several other JPL spacecraft operated by the multi-mission support team. Autogen uses standard JPL sequencing tools like APGEN, ASP, SEQGEN, and the DOM database to automate the generation of uplink command products, Spacecraft Command Message Format (SCMF) files, and the corresponding ground command products, DSN Keywords Files (DKF). Autogen supports all the major multi-mission mission phases including the cruise, aerobraking, mapping/science, and relay mission phases. Autogen is a Perl script, which functions within the mission operations UNIX environment. It consists of two parts: a set of model files and the autogen Perl script. Autogen encodes the behaviors of the system into a model and encodes algorithms for context sensitive customizations of the modeled behaviors. The model includes knowledge of different mission phases and how the resultant command products must differ for these phases. The executable software portion of Autogen, automates the setup and use of APGEN for constructing a spacecraft activity sequence file (SASF). The setup includes file retrieval through the DOM (Distributed Object Manager), an object database used to store project files. This step retrieves all the needed input files for generating the command products. Depending on the mission phase, Autogen also uses the ASP (Automated Sequence Processor) and SEQGEN to generate the command product sent to the spacecraft. Autogen also provides the means for customizing sequences through the use of configuration files. By automating the majority of the sequencing generation process, Autogen eliminates many sequence generation errors commonly introduced by manually constructing spacecraft command sequences. Through the layering of commands into the sequence by a series of scheduling algorithms, users are able to rapidly and reliably construct the desired uplink command products. With the aid of Autogen, sequences may be produced in a matter of hours instead of weeks, with a significant reduction in the number of people on the sequence team. As a result, the uplink product generation process is significantly streamlined and mission risk is significantly reduced. Autogen is used for operations of MRO, Mars Global Surveyor (MGS), Mars Exploration Rover (MER), Mars Odyssey, and will be used for operations of Phoenix. Autogen Version 3.0 is the operational version of Autogen including the MRO adaptation for the cruise mission phase, and was also used for development of the aerobraking and mapping mission phases for MRO.

  13. The Tao, psychoanalysis and existential thought.

    PubMed

    Rhee, D

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to clarify some existing misunderstandings in the area of psychotherapy, existential approach and the Eastern Tao (Zen Buddhism, Confucianism, Lao-tzu, Chuang-tzu) by showing the common elements between Eastern Tao and psychoanalysis, and existential thought. The author compared the goal of Tao practice, namely, Zen Buddhism, Confucianism etc. with that of Western psychoanalysis, humanistic psychology and transpersonal psychotherapy. He concludes that these goals are the same and that the names are different. He also compared the procedures and processes of psychoanalysis and Zen practice. Sudden enlightenment and gradual training in Zen practice were compared with insight and 'working through' in psychoanalysis. Zen emphasis on relationship, ego strength and interpretation was linked with similar topics in psychoanalysis. The results of Zen practice and the central features of every psychoanalytic treatment were examined and found the same, that is, the resolution of, or transcending of, love (dependence) and hate (hostility). The description of a mature analyst and that of a Boddhisattva were compared and found the same. A trace of neurotic motivation remains but they are not influenced by it in helping others. The problem of theory and reality was discussed and strong emphasis on reality was described; in other words, the goal is directed at reality and theory is only a means pointing at reality. If you see the reality, you should forget the theory. PMID:2290901

  14. Automatic transmission system

    SciTech Connect

    Kurihara, K.; Arai, K.

    1988-12-06

    This patent describes an automatic transmission system for a vehicle having a gear-type transmission, a clutch connected to the gear-type transmission and an actuating means responsive to an electric signal for operating the gear-type transmission and the clutch so as to shift the gear-type transmission into a target gear position. The system consists of: means for producing a first signal relating to the vehicle speed; means for producing a second signal relating to the amount of operation of an accelerator pedal; a first means responsive to the second signal for producing a rate signal indicating the rate of the operation of the accelerator pedal per unit time for each depression of the accelerator pedal; a second means responsive to the first signal for producing a maximum acceleration signal indicating the maximum acceleration of the vehicle due to the depression of the accelerator pedal; a third means responsive to the signals from the first and second means for calculating the vehicle load and producing a third signal indicating the calculating vehicle load; and a control means responsive to the first through third signals for producing a control signal for operating the actuating means so as to shift the gear-type transmission into the target gear position determined for the operating condition of the vehicle at that time.

  15. Automatic transmission system

    SciTech Connect

    Ha, J.S.

    1989-04-25

    An automatic transmission system is described for use in vehicles, which comprises: a clutch wheel containing a plurality of concentric rings of decreasing diameter, the clutch wheel being attached to an engine of the vehicle; a plurality of clutch gears corresponding in size to the concentric rings, the clutch gears being adapted to selectively and frictionally engage with the concentric rings of the clutch wheel; an accelerator pedal and a gear selector, the accelerator pedals being connected to one end of a substantially U-shaped frame member, the other end of the substantially U-shaped frame member selectively engaging with one end of one of wires received in a pair of apertures of the gear selector; a plurality of drive gear controllers and a reverse gear controller; means operatively connected with the gear selector and the plurality of drive gear controllers and reverse gear controller for selectively engaging one of the drive and reverse gear controllers depending upon the position of the gear selector; and means for individually connecting the drive and reverse gear controllers with the corresponding clutch gears whereby upon the selection of the gear selector, friction engagement is achieved between the clutch gear and the clutch wheels for rotating the wheel in the forward or reverse direction.

  16. Automatic transmission structure

    SciTech Connect

    Iwase, Y.; Morisawa, K.

    1987-03-24

    An automatic transmission is described comprising: an output shaft of the transmission including a stepped portion; a parking gear spline-connected with the output shaft on a first side of the stepped portion; a plurality of governor values mounted on a rear side of the parking gear and radially disposed around the output shaft on the first side of the stepped portion; a speed meter drive gear spline-connected with the output shaft on a second side of the stepped portion and on a rear side of the governor valves; and an annular spacer fitted on the output shaft on the second side of the stepped portion between the governor valves and the speed meter drive gear to abut on each of the governor valves and the speed meter drive gear. The annular member is constructed separately from the speed meter drive gear and has an outer diameter larger than an outer diameter of the speed meter drive gear thereby resulting in a contact area between the annular space and the speed meter drive gear which is smaller than a contact area between the annular spacer and the rear side of the governor valves; the drive gear being axially secured relative to the output shaft by a bearing thereby enabling a fixed axial positioning of the annular spacer on the output shaft.

  17. Electronically controlled automatic transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Ohkubo, M.; Shiba, H.; Nakamura, K.

    1989-03-28

    This patent describes an electronically controlled automatic transmission having a manual valve working in connection with a manual shift lever, shift valves operated by solenoid valves which are driven by an electronic control circuit previously memorizing shift patterns, and a hydraulic circuit controlled by these manual valve and shift valves for driving brakes and a clutch in order to change speed. Shift patterns of 2-range and L-range, in addition to a shift pattern of D-range, are memorized previously in the electronic control circuit, an operation switch is provided which changes the shift pattern of the electronic control circuit to any shift pattern among those of D-range, 2-range and L-range at time of the manual shift lever being in a D-range position, a releasable lock mechanism is provided which prevents the manual shift lever from entering 2-range and L-range positions, and the hydraulic circuit is set to a third speed mode when the manual shift lever is in the D-range position. The circuit is set to a second speed mode when it is in the 2-range position, and the circuit is set to a first speed mode when it is in the L-range position, respectively, in case where the shift valves are not working.

  18. Automatic EEG spike detection.

    PubMed

    Harner, Richard

    2009-10-01

    Since the 1970s advances in science and technology during each succeeding decade have renewed the expectation of efficient, reliable automatic epileptiform spike detection (AESD). But even when reinforced with better, faster tools, clinically reliable unsupervised spike detection remains beyond our reach. Expert-selected spike parameters were the first and still most widely used for AESD. Thresholds for amplitude, duration, sharpness, rise-time, fall-time, after-coming slow waves, background frequency, and more have been used. It is still unclear which of these wave parameters are essential, beyond peak-peak amplitude and duration. Wavelet parameters are very appropriate to AESD but need to be combined with other parameters to achieve desired levels of spike detection efficiency. Artificial Neural Network (ANN) and expert-system methods may have reached peak efficiency. Support Vector Machine (SVM) technology focuses on outliers rather than centroids of spike and nonspike data clusters and should improve AESD efficiency. An exemplary spike/nonspike database is suggested as a tool for assessing parameters and methods for AESD and is available in CSV or Matlab formats from the author at brainvue@gmail.com. Exploratory Data Analysis (EDA) is presented as a graphic method for finding better spike parameters and for the step-wise evaluation of the spike detection process. PMID:19780347

  19. Automatic Welding System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Robotic welding has been of interest to industrial firms because it offers higher productivity at lower cost than manual welding. There are some systems with automated arc guidance available, but they have disadvantages, such as limitations on types of materials or types of seams that can be welded; susceptibility to stray electrical signals; restricted field of view; or tendency to contaminate the weld seam. Wanting to overcome these disadvantages, Marshall Space Flight Center, aided by Hayes International Corporation, developed system that uses closed-circuit TV signals for automatic guidance of the welding torch. NASA granted license to Combined Technologies, Inc. for commercial application of the technology. They developed a refined and improved arc guidance system. CTI in turn, licensed the Merrick Corporation, also of Nashville, for marketing and manufacturing of the new system, called the CT2 Optical Trucker. CT2 is a non-contracting system that offers adaptability to broader range of welding jobs and provides greater reliability in high speed operation. It is extremely accurate and can travel at high speed of up to 150 inches per minute.

  20. Electronically controlled automatic transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, R.B.; Daubenmier, J.A.; Zielke, J.I.

    1992-01-28

    This patent describes an electronically controlled automatic transmission control system for an automotive vehicle. It comprises multiple ratio gearing and multiple pressure operated clutches and brakes adapted to establish and disestablish multiple torque flow paths through the gearing from an engine; a source of regulated line pressure, a valve circuit connecting the line pressure source to the clutches and brakes; a hydrokinetic unit having a bladed impeller adapted to be driven by the engine and a bladed turbine connected to torque input elements of the gearing; a regulator valve means in the circuit for regulating pressure of fluid in the hydrokinetic unit; throttle pressure solenoid valve means communicating with the regulator valve means for developing an engine torque signal; a throttle pressure signal passage connecting the throttle pressure solenoid valve means with the source of regulated line pressure whereby the latter responds to the torque signal to increase line pressure with increasing torque; and fail-safe valve means communicating with the regulator valve means and the throttle pressure signal passage and responding to a decrease in the torque signal below a calibrated value to distribute the regulated pressure of the regulator valve means to the line pressure source thereby preserving line pressure above a calibrated minimum value.

  1. Automatic drilling control system

    SciTech Connect

    Ball, J.W.

    1987-05-05

    An automatic drilling control system is described for a drilling apparatus having a rig with a crown block and a traveling block. A draw works include an engine, a drum powered by the engine, clutches, and controls, a drilling line wound on the drum and rolled up or fed out during drilling by the engine. The drilling line extends through the crown block and the traveling block and connects to a fixed point. The line portion from the crown block to the fixed point is the dead line. The crown block and traveling block form a pulley system for supporting a drill pipe to raise or lower the same during drilling. A hydraulic pressure sensor connects to the dead line to measure the tension. A weight indicator gauge adjacent to the controls connects to the pressure sensor by a hydraulic line. A brake, having a brake handle, controls the rate of feed out of the drilling line to determine the tension on the dead line.

  2. The CMIP5 Model Documentation Questionnaire: Development of a Metadata Retrieval System for the METAFOR Common Information Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pascoe, Charlotte; Lawrence, Bryan; Moine, Marie-Pierre; Ford, Rupert; Devine, Gerry

    2010-05-01

    The EU METAFOR Project (http://metaforclimate.eu) has created a web-based model documentation questionnaire to collect metadata from the modelling groups that are running simulations in support of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project - 5 (CMIP5). The CMIP5 model documentation questionnaire will retrieve information about the details of the models used, how the simulations were carried out, how the simulations conformed to the CMIP5 experiment requirements and details of the hardware used to perform the simulations. The metadata collected by the CMIP5 questionnaire will allow CMIP5 data to be compared in a scientifically meaningful way. This paper describes the life-cycle of the CMIP5 questionnaire development which starts with relatively unstructured input from domain specialists and ends with formal XML documents that comply with the METAFOR Common Information Model (CIM). Each development step is associated with a specific tool. (1) Mind maps are used to capture information requirements from domain experts and build a controlled vocabulary, (2) a python parser processes the XML files generated by the mind maps, (3) Django (python) is used to generate the dynamic structure and content of the web based questionnaire from processed xml and the METAFOR CIM, (4) Python parsers ensure that information entered into the CMIP5 questionnaire is output as CIM compliant xml, (5) CIM compliant output allows automatic information capture tools to harvest questionnaire content into databases such as the Earth System Grid (ESG) metadata catalogue. This paper will focus on how Django (python) and XML input files are used to generate the structure and content of the CMIP5 questionnaire. It will also address how the choice of development tools listed above provided a framework that enabled working scientists (who we would never ordinarily get to interact with UML and XML) to be part the iterative development process and ensure that the CMIP5 model documentation questionnaire reflects what scientists want to know about the models. Keywords: metadata, CMIP5, automatic information capture, tool development

  3. Emotional contagion of anger is automatic: An evolutionary explanation.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Janice R; Iannone, Nicole E; McCarty, Megan K

    2016-03-01

    Emotional contagion - the transfer of emotions between people - is thought to occur automatically. We test the prediction, based on evolutionary psychology, that negative, threat-related emotions transfer more automatically than positive emotions. We introduce a new paradigm for investigating emotional contagion where participants are exposed to videos of faces that morph from neutral to angry or happy expressions. Participants watched these videos under high or low cognitive load. Participants reported more happiness in the happy condition than the anger condition and more anger in the anger condition than the happy condition, supporting our new paradigm. Participants in the happy condition were significantly happier under low compared with high load. Participants were equally angry in high and low load conditions. PMID:26660907

  4. Altering Automatic Verbal Processes with Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Vannorsdall, Tracy D.; Schretlen, David J.; Andrejczuk, Megan; Ledoux, Kerry; Bosley, Laura V.; Weaver, Jacqueline R.; Skolasky, Richard L.; Gordon, Barry

    2012-01-01

    Background: Word retrieval during verbal fluency tasks invokes both automatic and controlled cognitive processes. A distinction has been made between the generation of words clusters and switches between such clusters on verbal fluency tasks. Clusters, defined by the reporting of contiguous words that constitute semantic or phonemic subcategories, are thought to reflect relatively automatic processing. In contrast, switching from one subcategory to another is thought to require a more controlled, effortful form of cognitive processing. Objective: In this single-blind, sham-controlled experiment, we investigated whether anodal and cathodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) can differentially modify controlled or automatic processes that support lexical retrieval, as assessed by clustering and switching on verbal fluency tasks, in 24 healthy right-handed adults. Methods: Participants were randomly assigned to receive 1 mA of either anodal (excitatory) or cathodal (inhibitory) active tDCS over the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in addition to sham stimulation over the same region in counterbalanced order. Participants engaged in various cognitive activities during the first 23 min of stimulation. Then, during the final segment of each 30-min session, they completed letter- and category-cued word fluency tasks. Results: Participants reported more words on category-cued word fluency tasks during anodal than sham stimulation (25.9 vs. 23.0 words; p = 0.055). They also showed a net increase in the number of clustered words during anodal stimulation compared to a net decrease during cathodal stimulation (1.3 vs. −1.5 words; p = 0.038). Conclusion: tDCS can selectively alter automatic aspects of speeded lexical retrieval in a polarity-dependent fashion during a category-guided fluency task. PMID:22888321

  5. Automatic transmission apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Hiketa, M.

    1987-10-06

    An automatic transmission apparatus is described comprising: an input shaft, an output shaft disposed behind and coaxially with the input shaft, a counter shaft disposed substantially parallel to both of the input and output shafts, a first gear train including a first gear provided on the input shaft and a second gear provided on the counter shaft to be meshed with the first gear so as to form a first power transmitting path, first friction clutch means operative selectively to make and break the first power transmitting path, a second gear train including a third gear provided through one-way clutch means on a rear end portion of the input shaft and a fourth gear provided on the counter shaft to be meshed with the third gear so as to form a second power transmitting path, second friction clutch means provided at a front end portion of the output shaft, a third gear train including a fifth gear provided on a rear end portion of the counter shaft and a sixth gear provided on the output shaft to be meshed with the fifth gear so as to form a fourth power transmitting path, third friction clutch means operative selectively to make and break the fourth power transmitting path, fourth friction clutch means operative selectively to make and break the second power transmitting path, a fourth gear train including a seventh gear provided on the counter shaft and an eighth gear provided on the output shaft and fifth friction clutch means operative selectively to make and break the fifth power transmitting path.

  6. Validation of the burns itch questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Van Loey, N E; Hofland, H W; Hendrickx, H; Van de Steenoven, J; Boekelaar, A; Nieuwenhuis, M K

    2016-05-01

    Itch (pruritus) is a common multidimensional complaint after burn that can persist for months to years. A questionnaire able to investigate itch and its consequences is imperative for clinical and research purposes. The current study investigated the factor structure, internal consistency and construct validity of the Burns Itch Questionnaire (BIQ), a questionnaire particularly focusing on itch in the burns population. The BIQ was completed by 195 respondents at 3 months after burn. An exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was performed to investigate the factor structure. EFA showed the BIQ comprised three latent factors: itch severity, sleep interference and daily life interference. This was re-evaluated in a confirmatory factor analysis that yielded good fit indices after removing two items. The three subscales showed to have high internal consistency (.89) and were able to distinguish between patients with severe and less severe complaints. In conclusion, the BIQ showed to be useful in persons suffering from itch following burns. PMID:26778706

  7. MIDAS questionnaire in the emergency setting.

    PubMed

    Aliprandi, A; Frigerio, R; Santoro, P; Frigo, M; Iurlaro, S; Vaccaro, M; Tremolizzo, L; Beghi, E; Ferrarese, C; Agostoni, E

    2004-10-01

    Migraine is a common disorder and is a major cause of disability and loss of working performance in western countries. Therefore, many tools have been developed to assess migraine related disability. Among these, the Migraine Disability Assessment (MIDAS) questionnaire has been shown to be of particular interest, as it is valid, reliable and useful for therapeutic decisions. In this pilot study, we address the validity of the MIDAS questionnaire in an unselected population of migraine patients in the emergency setting. We found that the MIDAS scores in the emergency room were similar to those collected in a specialised headache centre. This result suggests that the MIDAS questionnaire could be reliably used in the emergency setting, hence avoiding unnecessary delays in the treatment of migraine patients. PMID:15549558

  8. Clothes Dryer Automatic Termination Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    TeGrotenhuis, Ward E.

    2014-10-01

    Volume 2: Improved Sensor and Control Designs Many residential clothes dryers on the market today provide automatic cycles that are intended to stop when the clothes are dry, as determined by the final remaining moisture content (RMC). However, testing of automatic termination cycles has shown that many dryers are susceptible to over-drying of loads, leading to excess energy consumption. In particular, tests performed using the DOE Test Procedure in Appendix D2 of 10 CFR 430 subpart B have shown that as much as 62% of the energy used in a cycle may be from over-drying. Volume 1 of this report shows an average of 20% excess energy from over-drying when running automatic cycles with various load compositions and dryer settings. Consequently, improving automatic termination sensors and algorithms has the potential for substantial energy savings in the U.S.

  9. Automatic programming of simulation models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schroer, Bernard J.; Tseng, Fan T.; Zhang, Shou X.; Dwan, Wen S.

    1988-01-01

    The objective of automatic programming is to improve the overall environment for describing the program. This improved environment is realized by a reduction in the amount of detail that the programmer needs to know and is exposed to. Furthermore, this improved environment is achieved by a specification language that is more natural to the user's problem domain and to the user's way of thinking and looking at the problem. The goal of this research is to apply the concepts of automatic programming (AP) to modeling discrete event simulation system. Specific emphasis is on the design and development of simulation tools to assist the modeler define or construct a model of the system and to then automatically write the corresponding simulation code in the target simulation language, GPSS/PC. A related goal is to evaluate the feasibility of various languages for constructing automatic programming simulation tools.

  10. Automatic safety rod for reactors

    DOEpatents

    Germer, John H.

    1988-01-01

    An automatic safety rod for a nuclear reactor containing neutron absorbing material and designed to be inserted into a reactor core after a loss-of-core flow. Actuation is based upon either a sudden decrease in core pressure drop or the pressure drop decreases below a predetermined minimum value. The automatic control rod includes a pressure regulating device whereby a controlled decrease in operating pressure due to reduced coolant flow does not cause the rod to drop into the core.

  11. Automatic evaluations and exercise setting preference in frequent exercisers.

    PubMed

    Antoniewicz, Franziska; Brand, Ralf

    2014-12-01

    The goals of this study were to test whether exercise-related stimuli can elicit automatic evaluative responses and whether automatic evaluations reflect exercise setting preference in highly active exercisers. An adapted version of the Affect Misattribution Procedure was employed. Seventy-two highly active exercisers (26 years ± 9.03; 43% female) were subliminally primed (7 ms) with pictures depicting typical fitness center scenarios or gray rectangles (control primes). After each prime, participants consciously evaluated the "pleasantness" of a Chinese symbol. Controlled evaluations were measured with a questionnaire and were more positive in participants who regularly visited fitness centers than in those who reported avoiding this exercise setting. Only center exercisers gave automatic positive evaluations of the fitness center setting (partial eta squared = .08). It is proposed that a subliminal Affect Misattribution Procedure paradigm can elicit automatic evaluations to exercising and that, in highly active exercisers, these evaluations play a role in decisions about the exercise setting rather than the amounts of physical exercise. Findings are interpreted in terms of a dual systems theory of social information processing and behavior. PMID:25602145

  12. Automatic Collision Avoidance Technology (ACAT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swihart, Donald E.; Skoog, Mark A.

    2007-01-01

    This document represents two views of the Automatic Collision Avoidance Technology (ACAT). One viewgraph presentation reviews the development and system design of Automatic Collision Avoidance Technology (ACAT). Two types of ACAT exist: Automatic Ground Collision Avoidance (AGCAS) and Automatic Air Collision Avoidance (AACAS). The AGCAS Uses Digital Terrain Elevation Data (DTED) for mapping functions, and uses Navigation data to place aircraft on map. It then scans DTED in front of and around aircraft and uses future aircraft trajectory (5g) to provide automatic flyup maneuver when required. The AACAS uses data link to determine position and closing rate. It contains several canned maneuvers to avoid collision. Automatic maneuvers can occur at last instant and both aircraft maneuver when using data link. The system can use sensor in place of data link. The second viewgraph presentation reviews the development of a flight test and an evaluation of the test. A review of the operation and comparison of the AGCAS and a pilot's performance are given. The same review is given for the AACAS is given.

  13. Reliability of the Conflict Resolution Questionnaire: Considerations for Using and Developing Internet-Based Questionnaires

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henning, Marcus

    2004-01-01

    In the current information age, there is a growing use of and reliance on the Internet. One area of concern for educators is the communication of information using an electronic questionnaire interface. Therefore, it seems pertinent to look at the issue of dissemination of Internet questionnaire information and the integrity of this process.…

  14. 78 FR 45259 - 60-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Federal Labor Standards Questionnaire(s...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-26

    ... Questionnaire(s); Complaint Intake Form AGENCY: Office of Labor Relations, HUD. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: HUD is seeking approval from the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) for the information collection described... INFORMATION CONTACT: Colette Pollard, Reports Management Officer, QDAM, Department of Housing and...

  15. 75 FR 41876 - Federal Labor Standards Questionnaire(s); Complaint Intake Form

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-19

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Federal Labor Standards Questionnaire(s); Complaint Intake Form AGENCY: Office of the... described below has been submitted to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) for review, as required by... Officer, Office of Management and Budget, New Executive Office Building, Washington, DC 20503; fax:...

  16. 77 FR 39986 - Information Collection; Health Screening Questionnaire

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-06

    ... Forest Service Information Collection; Health Screening Questionnaire AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA... a currently approved information collection, Health Screening Questionnaire. DATES: Comments must be...: Title: Health Screening Questionnaire. OMB Number: 0596-0164. Expiration Date of Approval: January...

  17. 78 FR 65608 - Information Collection; Outreach Opportunity Questionnaire

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-01

    ... Forest Service Information Collection; Outreach Opportunity Questionnaire AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA... with revision of a currently approved information collection, Outreach Opportunity Questionnaire. DATES... INFORMATION: Title: Outreach Opportunity Questionnaire. OMB Number: 0596-0207. Expiration Date of...

  18. NHEXAS PHASE I ARIZONA STUDY--BASELINE QUESTIONNAIRE DATA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Baseline Questionnaire data set provides information about the household using the primary resident (IRN 01) and other residents who chose to participate. The information is from 1106 Baseline Questionnaires for 534 households. The Baseline Questionnaire was administered to...

  19. NHEXAS PHASE I MARYLAND STUDY--TECHNICIAN WALKTHROUGH QUESTIONNAIRE DATA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Technician Walkthrough questionnaire data set contains information about each household as determined during a walkthrough by trained technicians. The information is from 403 technician walkthrough questionnaires for 80 households across 6 cycles. The questionnaire includes...

  20. [Psychiatrist-Psychotherapist: thoughts and suggestions].

    PubMed

    Charalabaki, K; Michopoulos, I; Filippopoulou, A; Karamanolaki, H

    2014-01-01

    A basic training in psychotherapy is a necessary requirement for the speciality of psychiatry. Nevertheless, any thorough training in psychotherapy in Greece lacks planning and a credible certification system. Τraining is carried out by different psychotherapeutic societies of varying prestige, through a number of programs. There have been very few attempts until now to map this field. The Section of Psychotherapy of the Hellenic Psychiatric Association (HPA) has tried to document the characteristics of the psychiatrists practicing psychotherapy. The study aimed at all of the trainee and trained psychiatrists, members of HPA. 210 questionnaires were filled in by members of HPA in 2000 and 2009-2011. Most of them were returned by post to the Section of Psychotherapy, while some were filled in during the 21rst HPA congress. With regard to psychotherapeutic training 151 (72%) reported some kind of psychoanalytic training, 90 (42.8%) cognitive, 85 (40.5%) systemic and 38 (18%) other (interpersonal, drama therapy, existentialist, cognitive-analytic, hypnosis, group therapy of another kind, orgonotherapy, vegetotherapy, Eye Movement Desensitization Reprocessing). The average duration of the training in years was 5.26 (±3.7) for the psychoanalytic one, 2.73 (±1.6) for the cognitive, 3.83 (±2.1) for the systemic and 3.08 (±2.5) for the psychiatrists with a different type of training. Interestingly, many of the participants reported more than one types of psychotherapeutic training. Another important finding is the fact that the range of training varies from a single seminar to many years, something which underlines the considerable divergence with regard to what is considered psychotherapeutic training. Several questions arise from the above findings: A first one is if a psychiatrist should, during his/her training, also be trained in psychotherapy and what kind of training this should be. A second question is if being a trained psychiatrist entails the capacity to practice psychotherapy and to be called a psychotherapist. Should the title of psychotherapist be a general one or should a specific theoretical-clinical approach be mentioned in the title (psychoanalyst, cognitive-behavioral, systemic, etc.). One more question is which institution is appropriate for the certification of a psychotherapist: a state authority or another, possibly private, institution such as scientific societies or Non-Governmental Organizations? A final question is where professionals from different fields certified as psychotherapists could converge and how their differences could be specified. The mapping and study of the field of psychotherapy within HPA can create the basis for a fruitful discussion on the issue of the psychiatrists' training and certification in psychotherapy, thus outlining a number of questions and dilemmas. PMID:25035182

  1. Development of the Grief Experience Questionnaire.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrett, Terence W.; Scott, Thomas B.

    1989-01-01

    Developed Grief Experience Questionnaire (GEQ) to measure various components of grief. Initial results suggest GEQ's potential to differentiate grief reactions experienced by suicide survivors from those experienced by survivors of accidental death, unexpected natural death, and expected natural death. (Author/NB)

  2. Student-Outcomes Questionnaires: An Implementation Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Robert G.; And Others

    The Student Outcomes Questionnaire and the Student Outcomes Information Analysis Service (SOIS) developed by NCHEMS and the College Board are discussed. The term, "student outcomes," is defined as the consequence of a student's enrollment in an educational institution and involvement in its programs. The importance of this type of information is…

  3. College Student Satisfaction Questionnaire (CSSQ) Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starr, Ann M.; And Others

    This introductory manual for the College Student Satisfaction Questionnaire (CSSQ) includes a description of the test, tentative norms, a summary of findings to date regarding psychometric characteristics of the instrument, and suggestions for possible uses. The manual is intended to supply sufficient material for the practical needs of most test…

  4. Rasch Based Analysis of Reading Ability Questionnaire.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nakamura, Yuji

    2000-01-01

    This paper examines the results of a questionnaire on reading ability in English by Japanese college students, which was formerly analyzed using raw scores, from the viewpoint of Rasch measured scores. In the Rasch analysis, the basic requirements for measuring are the following: (1) reduction of experience to one dimensional abstraction; (2)…

  5. Construct Validity of the Social Coping Questionnaire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swiatek, Mary Ann; Cross, Tracy L.

    2007-01-01

    The Social coping Questionnaire (SCQ) measures strategies used by gifted adolescents to minimize the negative effect they believe their high ability has on their social interactions. Previous studies have supported the factor structure, internal consistency, and test-retest reliability of the SCQ. The current study provides construct validity…

  6. Utah Drop-Out Drug Use Questionnaire.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Governor's Citizen Advisory Committee on Drugs, Salt Lake City, UT.

    This questionnaire assesses drug use practices in high school drop-outs. The 79 items (multiple choice or apply/not apply) are concerned with demographic data and use, use history, reasons for use/nonuse, attitudes toward drugs, availability of drugs, and drug information with respect to narcotics, amphetamines, LSD, Marijuana, and barbiturates.

  7. Selective Mutism Questionnaire: Measurement Structure and Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Letamendi, Andrea M.; Chavira, Denise A.; Hitchcock, Carla A.; Roesch, Scott C.; Shipon-Blum, Elisa; Stein, Murray B.

    2008-01-01

    The psychometric properties of the Selective Mutism Questionnaire (SMQ) are evaluated using a clinical sample of children with selective mutism (SM). The study shows that SMQ is useful in determining the severity of a child's nonspeaking behaviors, the scope of these behaviors and necessary follow up assessment.

  8. Making Sense of the Role Category Questionnaire.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leichty, Greg

    Despite over 30 years of review and analysis, researchers still are unclear as to what W.H. Crockett's Role Category Questionnaire (RCQ) of interpersonal differentiation actually measures. Among the constructivists, at least four different explanations have been advanced. The "orthodox" interpretation holds that the RCQ constitutes a…

  9. University of Michigan Drug Education Questionnaire.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francis, John Bruce; Patch, David J.

    This questionnaire assesses attitudes toward potential drug education programs and drug use practices in college students. The 87 items (multiple choice or free response) pertain to the history and extent of usage of 27 different drugs, including two non-existent drugs which may be utilized as a validity check; attitude toward the content, format,…

  10. Structural Validity of the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tepper, Bennett J.; Percy, Paul M.

    1994-01-01

    Two studies with 290 college students and 95 business managers investigated the latent structure of items from the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ). Results support models in which transformational and transactional leadership items load on separate factors and suggest that charismatic and inspirational leadership scales converge for…

  11. Effective Schools Questionnaires, 1981-82.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austin Independent School District, TX. Office of Research and Evaluation.

    Five questionnaires based on Ronald Edmonds' work on "effective schools" were developed for elementary and secondary students, teachers, principals, and parents. They were designed to assess the perceptions of each group on the five areas identified by Edmonds as distinguishing effective and ineffective schools for students from low-income

  12. Language Usage Questionnaire, Ethiopian Schoolchildren. Draft.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, Charles A.; And Others

    The questionnaire presented here was designed to be administered to a representative sample of Ethiopian children enrolled in primary and secondary schools. Responses to be elicited pertain to --(1) personal use of language in several domains of speech behavior, (2) use of language by others in situations which the respondent has had an…

  13. Diet History Questionnaire Paper-based Forms

    Cancer.gov

    DHQ-1 is the standard version of the NCI's Diet History Questionnaire. It was originally printed in 1998, reprinted in 2002 with minor changes to the front page and the development of a Spanish translation, and reprinted again in 2007 with changes to the Today's Date field to include the years 2007-2011.

  14. Assessing Caregiver Information Needs: A Brief Questionnaire.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simonton, Linda J.; Haugland, S. M.

    A diagnostic evaluation for a person with suspected Alzheimer's disease is usually initiated by family members whose concerns go beyond strictly medical issues. To determine precisely what questions families want answered, a 15-point questionnaire was developed at a multi-disciplinary geriatric assessment clinic. Caregivers were asked to rate each…

  15. Outlier Detection in Test and Questionnaire Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zijlstra, Wobbe P.; Van Der Ark, L. Andries; Sijtsma, Klaas

    2007-01-01

    Classical methods for detecting outliers deal with continuous variables. These methods are not readily applicable to categorical data, such as incorrect/correct scores (0/1) and ordered rating scale scores (e.g., 0,..., 4) typical of multi-item tests and questionnaires. This study proposes two definitions of outlier scores suited for categorical…

  16. The Personal Attributes Questionnaire: A Conceptual Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozer, Daniel

    The rich complexity of the concepts of masculinity and femininity has been reflected in personality measures in at least two different ways: by employing a variety of subscales with comparatively homogeneous items or by using a single scale with comparatively heterogeneous items. The Personal Attributes Questionnaire (PAQ) was the subject of an…

  17. Job Evaluation with the Position Analysis Questionnaire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Alma F.; Matson, G. Albion

    1976-01-01

    Assessment of the Position Analysis Questionnaire (PAQ) at a four-year state college with 8,000 students indicates that the PAQ job evaluation method is sufficiently valid and has enough unique advantages to warrant its serious consideration for use by college and university personnel administrators. (LBH)

  18. Psychometric Properties of the Alabama Parenting Questionnaire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Essau, Cecilia A.; Sasagawa, Satoko; Frick, Paul J.

    2006-01-01

    We examined the psychometric properties of a German translation of the Child Global Report version of the Alabama Parenting Questionnaire (APQ). A total of 1219 German school-children (644 boys and 575 girls), ages 10-14 years participated in the study. The APQ was subjected to exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis. Exploratory factor…

  19. The pornography craving questionnaire: psychometric properties.

    PubMed

    Kraus, Shane; Rosenberg, Harold

    2014-04-01

    Despite the prevalence of pornography use, and recent conceptualization of problematic use as an addiction, we could find no published scale to measure craving for pornography. Therefore, we conducted three studies employing young male pornography users to develop and evaluate such a questionnaire. In Study 1, we had participants rate their agreement with 20 potential craving items after reading a control script or a script designed to induce craving to watch pornography. We dropped eight items because of low endorsement. In Study 2, we revised both the questionnaire and cue exposure stimuli and then evaluated several psychometric properties of the modified questionnaire. Item loadings from a principal components analysis, a high internal consistency reliability coefficient, and a moderate mean inter-item correlation supported interpreting the 12 revised items as a single scale. Correlations of craving scores with preoccupation with pornography, sexual history, compulsive internet use, and sensation seeking provided support for convergent validity, criterion validity, and discriminant validity, respectively. The enhanced imagery script did not impact reported craving; however, more frequent users of pornography reported higher craving than less frequent users regardless of script condition. In Study 3, craving scores demonstrated good one-week test-retest reliability and predicted the number of times participants used pornography during the following week. This questionnaire could be applied in clinical settings to plan and evaluate therapy for problematic users of pornography and as a research tool to assess the prevalence and contextual triggers of craving among different types of pornography users. PMID:24469338

  20. The Knowledge of Memory Aging Questionnaire.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cherry, Katie E.; West, Robin L.; Reese, Celinda M.; Santa Maria, Michael P.; Yassuda, Monica

    2000-01-01

    The Knowledge of Memory Aging Questionnaire was tested in a group of studies with several populations: 33 mental health professionals; 85 older adults; and 110, 32, and 46 undergraduates. Older adults and professionals knew more about pathological than normal memory aging. Instruction improved undergraduates' pathological knowledge. Instrument…

  1. Validation of the Child Sport Cohesion Questionnaire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Luc J.; Carron, Albert V.; Eys, Mark A.; Loughead, Todd

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to test the validity evidence of the Child Sport Cohesion Questionnaire (CSCQ). To accomplish this task, convergent, discriminant, and known-group difference validity were examined, along with factorial validity via confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Child athletes (N = 290, M[subscript age] = 10.73 plus or…

  2. Utah Drop-Out Drug Use Questionnaire.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Governor's Citizen Advisory Committee on Drugs, Salt Lake City, UT.

    This questionnaire assesses drug use practices in high school drop-outs. The 79 items (multiple choice or apply/not apply) are concerned with demographic data and use, use history, reasons for use/nonuse, attitudes toward drugs, availability of drugs, and drug information with respect to narcotics, amphetamines, LSD, Marijuana, and barbiturates.…

  3. Validation of the Child Sport Cohesion Questionnaire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Luc J.; Carron, Albert V.; Eys, Mark A.; Loughead, Todd

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to test the validity evidence of the Child Sport Cohesion Questionnaire (CSCQ). To accomplish this task, convergent, discriminant, and known-group difference validity were examined, along with factorial validity via confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Child athletes (N = 290, M[subscript age] = 10.73 plus or

  4. Psychometric Evaluation of the Chinese Virtues Questionnaire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duan, Wenjie; Ho, Samuel M. Y.; Bai, Yu; Tang, Xiaoqing

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: The present study examined the psychometric properties of the Chinese Virtues Questionnaire (CVQ). The reliability, factor structure, construct validity, and temporal stability of the inventory were examined. Method: A university student sample ("n" = 878) and a working adult sample ("n" = 153) were recruited.…

  5. Caregivers feeding styles questionnaire. Establishing cutoff points

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Researchers use the Caregiver's Feeding Styles Questionnaire (CFSQ) to categorize parent feeding into authoritative, authoritarian, indulgent, and uninvolved styles. The CFSQ assesses self-reported feeding and classifies parents using median splits which are used in a substantial body of parenting l...

  6. Automatic addressing of telemetry channels

    SciTech Connect

    Lucero, L A

    1982-08-01

    To simplify telemetry software development, a design that eliminates the use of software instructions to address telemetry channels is being implemented in our telemetry systems. By using the direct memory access function of the RCA 1802 microprocessor, once initialized, addressing of telemetry channels is automatic, requiring no software. In this report the automatic addressing of telemetry channels (AATC) scheme is compared with an earlier technique that uses software. In comparison, the automatic addressing scheme effectively increases the software capability of the microprocessor, simplifies telemetry dataset encoding, eases dataset changes, and may decrease the electronic hardware count. The software addressing technique uses at least three instructions to address each channel. The automatic addressing technique requires no software instructions. Instead, addressing is performed using a direct memory access cycle stealing technique. Application of an early version of this addressing scheme to telemetry Type 1, Dataset 3, opened up the capability to execute 400 more microprocessor instructions than could be executed using the software addressing scheme. The present version of the automatic addressing scheme uses a section of PROM reserved for telemetry channel addresses. Encoding for a dataset is accomplished by programming the PROM with channel addresses in the order they are to be monitored. The telemetry Type 2 software was written using the software addressing scheme, then rewritten using the automatic addressing scheme. While 1000 bytes of memory were required by the software addressing scheme, the automatic addressing scheme required only 396 bytes. A number of prototypes using AATC have been built and tested in a full telemetry lab unit. All have worked successfully.

  7. When thought suppression backfires: its moderator effect on eating psychopathology.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Cláudia; Palmeira, Lara; Trindade, Inês A; Catarino, Francisca

    2015-09-01

    Recently, several studies have pointed the importance of thought suppression as a form of experiential avoidance in different psychopathological conditions. Thought suppression may be conceptualized as an attempt to decrease or eliminate unwanted internal experiences. However, it encloses a paradoxical nature, making those thoughts hyper accessible and placing an extra burden on individuals. This avoidance process has been associated with several psychopathological conditions. However, its role in eating psychopathology remains unclear. The present study aims to explore the moderation effect of thought suppression on the associations between body image-related unwanted internal experiences (unfavorable social comparison through physical appearance and body image dissatisfaction) and eating psychopathology severity in a sample of 211 female students. Correlational analyses showed that thought suppression is associated with psychological inflexibility and eating disorders' main risk factors and symptoms. Moreover, two independent analyses revealed that thought suppression moderates, as it amplifies, the impact of unfavorable social comparisons through physical appearance (model 1) and body image dissatisfaction (model 2) on disordered eating attitudes and behaviors. Hence, for the same level of these body-related internal experiences, young females who reveal higher levels of thought suppression present higher eating psychopathology. Taken together, these findings highlight the key role of thought suppression in eating psychopathology and present important clinical implications. PMID:25663280

  8. Thought Experiments in Physics Education: A Simple and Practical Example.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lattery, Mark J.

    2001-01-01

    Uses a Galilean thought experiment to enhance learning in a college-level physical science course. Presents both modern and historical perspectives of Galileo's work. As a final project, students explored Galileo's thought experiment in the laboratory using modern detectors with satisfying results. (Contains 25 references.) (Author/ASK)

  9. Existential Thoughts in Fanon's Post-Colonialism Discourse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeh, Chuan-Rong

    2013-01-01

    Frantz Fanon, a pioneer of post-colonial theory, attempted to seek some unbeknown possibilities through a Sartrean existentialism thought toward ethnic liberation and the fighting against imperialism. This article tries to enter Fanon's short life that was full of humanism and existentialist thought and to explore the hidden theoretical context…

  10. Thought Suppression and Meaning in Life: A Longitudinal Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krause, Neal

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to see if older adults who experience problems with thought suppression tend to encounter greater difficulty deriving a sense of meaning in life. Data from a longitudinal nationwide survey of older people (N = 988) indicate that greater difficulty with thought suppression is associated with a decline in meaning over

  11. Spontaneous Repetitive Thoughts Can Be Adaptive: Postscript on "Mind Wandering"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baars, Bernard J.

    2010-01-01

    When researchers use the term "mind wandering" for task-unrelated thoughts in signal detection tasks, we may fall into the trap of believing that spontaneous thoughts are task unrelated in a deeper sense. Similar negative connotations are attached to common terms like "cognitive failures", "resting state", "rumination", "distraction", "attentional…

  12. Critical Thought within the Social Welfare Policy Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steen, Julie A.

    2012-01-01

    Critical thought is a necessary element for proficient practice in social work at both the micro and macro levels. For this reason, social work educators must seek to integrate critical thought in BSW and MSW curricula. This article provides a method for achieving this integration in the social welfare policy course. The method includes the four…

  13. Weighing Photons Using Bathroom Scales: A Thought Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huggins, Elisha

    2010-01-01

    Jay Orear, in his introductory physics text, defined the weight of a person as the reading one gets when standing on a (properly calibrated) bathroom scale. Here we will use Jay's definition of weight in a thought experiment to measure the weight of a photon. The thought experiment uses the results of the Pound-Rebka-Snider experiments, Compton…

  14. Mapping the brain's metaphor circuitry: metaphorical thought in everyday reason

    PubMed Central

    Lakoff, George

    2014-01-01

    An overview of the basics of metaphorical thought and language from the perspective of Neurocognition, the integrated interdisciplinary study of how conceptual thought and language work in the brain. The paper outlines a theory of metaphor circuitry and discusses how everyday reason makes use of embodied metaphor circuitry. PMID:25566012

  15. Analyzing Thought-related Electroencephalographic Data Using Nonlinear Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skidmore, Trent

    1990-01-01

    A unique method is presented for collecting, studying and interpreting thought-related electroencephalogram (EEG) data. The use of a chaos based nonlinear analysis technique is shown to be promising in providing insight into relating conscious thought to specific EEG data. A discussion of the practical limitations of this technique is also included.

  16. Thought Suppression and Meaning in Life: A Longitudinal Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krause, Neal

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to see if older adults who experience problems with thought suppression tend to encounter greater difficulty deriving a sense of meaning in life. Data from a longitudinal nationwide survey of older people (N = 988) indicate that greater difficulty with thought suppression is associated with a decline in meaning over…

  17. Weighing Photons Using Bathroom Scales: A Thought Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huggins, Elisha

    2010-01-01

    Jay Orear, in his introductory physics text, defined the weight of a person as the reading one gets when standing on a (properly calibrated) bathroom scale. Here we will use Jay's definition of weight in a thought experiment to measure the weight of a photon. The thought experiment uses the results of the Pound-Rebka-Snider experiments, Compton

  18. Assessing Disordered Thoughts in Preschoolers with Dysregulated Mood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutchison, Amanda K.; Beresford, Carol; Robinson, JoAnn; Ross, Randal G.

    2010-01-01

    There is rising interest in identifying precursors to bipolar disorder symptoms, including thought disorder. Thought disorder is identified in adults through self-report and in school-aged children through parent report and child story-telling. This study is an exploration to determine if preschoolers with mood dysregulation have evidence of

  19. Spatial Working Memory Is Necessary for Actions to Guide Thought

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Laura E.

    2013-01-01

    Directed actions can play a causal role in cognition, shaping thought processes. What drives this cross-talk between action and thought? I investigated the hypothesis that representations in spatial working memory mediate interactions between directed actions and problem solving. Participants attempted to solve an insight problem while

  20. Spatial Working Memory Is Necessary for Actions to Guide Thought

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Laura E.

    2013-01-01

    Directed actions can play a causal role in cognition, shaping thought processes. What drives this cross-talk between action and thought? I investigated the hypothesis that representations in spatial working memory mediate interactions between directed actions and problem solving. Participants attempted to solve an insight problem while…

  1. Mosaic of Thought: Teaching Comprehension in a Reader's Workshop.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keene, Ellin Oliver; Zimmermann, Susan

    This book explores the question of how students become thoughtful, independent readers who deeply understand what they read by examining the thought processes of proficient readers. The book then uses these processes as models for the strategies it offers--strategies intended to help children become more flexible, adaptive, independent, and…

  2. Assessing Disordered Thoughts in Preschoolers with Dysregulated Mood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutchison, Amanda K.; Beresford, Carol; Robinson, JoAnn; Ross, Randal G.

    2010-01-01

    There is rising interest in identifying precursors to bipolar disorder symptoms, including thought disorder. Thought disorder is identified in adults through self-report and in school-aged children through parent report and child story-telling. This study is an exploration to determine if preschoolers with mood dysregulation have evidence of…

  3. An Investigation into Musicians' Thoughts and Perceptions during Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Terry; Lisboa, Tânia; Williamon, Aaron

    2014-01-01

    Given the current state of understanding surrounding musicians' experiences while performing, this study sought to investigate musicians' thoughts and perceptions during performances and the perceived impact their evaluation of those thoughts and perceptions has on their subsequent musical activities. Twenty-nine student and professional classical…

  4. Spontaneous Repetitive Thoughts Can Be Adaptive: Postscript on "Mind Wandering"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baars, Bernard J.

    2010-01-01

    When researchers use the term "mind wandering" for task-unrelated thoughts in signal detection tasks, we may fall into the trap of believing that spontaneous thoughts are task unrelated in a deeper sense. Similar negative connotations are attached to common terms like "cognitive failures", "resting state", "rumination", "distraction", "attentional

  5. A Test of Chapman's Theory of Schizophrenic Thought Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamsher, Kerry de S.; Arnold, Kristin O.

    1976-01-01

    This investigation tested the validity of Loren Chapman's thoery of schizophrenic thought disorder. The vocabulary test from the Shipley-Hartford Scale served as the control task, and the multiple-choice vocabulary test used by Boland and Chapman to disclose a schizophrenic deficit related to thought disorder served as the experimental task.…

  6. A Consideration of the Nature of Thought in Childhood Play.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galenson, Eleanor; And Others

    The play behavior of young children is viewed as a behavioral manifestation of nonverbal thinking. Discussed are issues of relevance to the understanding of the development of thought in general and of the symbolic function in particular. A line of development is proposed which leads from early nonverbal thought as manifested in play, either…

  7. The Relationship of Negative Affect and Thought: Time Series Analyses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubin, Amy; And Others

    In recent years, the relationship between moods and thoughts has been the focus of much theorizing and some empirical work. A study was undertaken to examine the intraindividual relationship between negative affect and negative thoughts using a Box-Jenkins time series analysis. College students (N=33) completed a measure of negative mood and…

  8. Beta-blockers May Reduce Intrusive Thoughts in Newly Diagnosed Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Lindgren, Monica E.; Fagundes, Christopher P.; Alfano, Catherine M.; Povoski, Stephen P.; Agnese, Doreen M.; Arnold, Mark W.; Farrar, William B.; Yee, Lisa D.; Carson, William E.; Schmidt, Carl R.; Kiecolt-Glaser, Janice K.

    2012-01-01

    Objective A cancer diagnosis provokes significant levels of emotional distress, with intrusive thoughts being the most common manifestation among breast cancer survivors. Cancer-related intrusive thoughts can take the form of emotional memories, flashbacks, nightmares, and intrusive images. Emotional arousal after a severe life stressor prolongs adrenergic activation, which in turn may increase risk for posttraumatic symptomatology. However, antihypertensive beta-blockers block adrenergic activation and are known to reduce traumatic memories and related psychological distress. Thus, the current study examined the association between beta-blocker use and the severity of cancer-related intrusive thoughts and related symptoms following a cancer diagnosis. Methods The 174 breast and 36 female colorectal cancer patients who had recently undergone diagnostic screening or biopsy included 39 beta-blocker users and 171 non-users. Prior to any cancer treatment including surgery, participants completed questionnaires that included the Impact of Events Scale (IES) and the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). Analyses controlled for age, education, cancer stage, cancer type, days since diagnosis, marital status, depression, and comorbidities. Results Although the high rates of cancer-related distress in this sample were similar to those of other studies with recently diagnosed patients, beta-blocker users endorsed 32% fewer cancer-related intrusive thoughts than non-users. Conclusions Recently diagnosed cancer patients using beta-blockers reported less cancer-related psychological distress. These results suggest that beta-blocker use may benefit cancer patients psychological adjustment following diagnosis, and provide a promising direction for future investigations on the pharmacological benefits of beta-blockers for cancer-related distress. PMID:23255459

  9. Korean Translation of the AANCART Questionnaire

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Sue

    2006-01-01

    The project described herein is the preparation of a culturally and linguistically appropriate Korean version of a core questionnaire developed by the Asian American Network for Cancer Awareness, Research and Training. This version will assist in the design of interventions related to cancer for the Korean American population in the future. Following an extensive literature search, procedures recommended by various studies were incorporated into the translation process. Two final Korean versions were pilot tested to evaluate which way of asking a particular question was better, as perceived by respondents. The findings from this project helped enhance the linguistic and cultural competencies in both instruments. A cognitive walk-through interview achieved by probing after each question led respondents to offer feedback about the questions, resulting in a further review and revision of the questionnaire. The next step will be to administer the final Korean version of the two instruments to a large random sample. PMID:17344935

  10. Automatic analysis of multispectral images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desouza, R. C. M.; Mitsuo, Fernando Augusto, II; Moreira, J. C.; Dutra, L. V.

    1981-08-01

    Some ideas of automatic multispectral image analysis are introduced. Automatic multispectral image analysis plays a central role in numerically oriented remote sensing systems. It presupposes the utilization of electronic equipments, mainly computers and their peripherals, to help people to interpret the information contained in multispectral digital imagery. This necessity derives from the great amount of multispectral data gathered by remote sensors within satellites and airplanes. When the number of channels or spectral bands is increased, the interpretation becomes more complex and subjective. In some cases, for example, in harvest estimation in national or regional level, it is imperative to use computer systems to complete the work within the time required. Automatic analysis also aimes to eliminate subjective factors that appear in the human interpretation, so increasing the global precision.

  11. Automatic rapid attachable warhead section

    DOEpatents

    Trennel, A.J.

    1994-05-10

    Disclosed are a method and apparatus for automatically selecting warheads or reentry vehicles from a storage area containing a plurality of types of warheads or reentry vehicles, automatically selecting weapon carriers from a storage area containing at least one type of weapon carrier, manipulating and aligning the selected warheads or reentry vehicles and weapon carriers, and automatically coupling the warheads or reentry vehicles with the weapon carriers such that coupling of improperly selected warheads or reentry vehicles with weapon carriers is inhibited. Such inhibition enhances safety of operations and is achieved by a number of means including computer control of the process of selection and coupling and use of connectorless interfaces capable of assuring that improperly selected items will be rejected or rendered inoperable prior to coupling. Also disclosed are a method and apparatus wherein the stated principles pertaining to selection, coupling and inhibition are extended to apply to any item-to-be-carried and any carrying assembly. 10 figures.

  12. Automatic rapid attachable warhead section

    DOEpatents

    Trennel, Anthony J.

    1994-05-10

    Disclosed are a method and apparatus for (1) automatically selecting warheads or reentry vehicles from a storage area containing a plurality of types of warheads or reentry vehicles, (2) automatically selecting weapon carriers from a storage area containing at least one type of weapon carrier, (3) manipulating and aligning the selected warheads or reentry vehicles and weapon carriers, and (4) automatically coupling the warheads or reentry vehicles with the weapon carriers such that coupling of improperly selected warheads or reentry vehicles with weapon carriers is inhibited. Such inhibition enhances safety of operations and is achieved by a number of means including computer control of the process of selection and coupling and use of connectorless interfaces capable of assuring that improperly selected items will be rejected or rendered inoperable prior to coupling. Also disclosed are a method and apparatus wherein the stated principles pertaining to selection, coupling and inhibition are extended to apply to any item-to-be-carried and any carrying assembly.

  13. Automatic programming of simulation models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schroer, Bernard J.; Tseng, Fan T.; Zhang, Shou X.; Dwan, Wen S.

    1990-01-01

    The concepts of software engineering were used to improve the simulation modeling environment. Emphasis was placed on the application of an element of rapid prototyping, or automatic programming, to assist the modeler define the problem specification. Then, once the problem specification has been defined, an automatic code generator is used to write the simulation code. The following two domains were selected for evaluating the concepts of software engineering for discrete event simulation: manufacturing domain and a spacecraft countdown network sequence. The specific tasks were to: (1) define the software requirements for a graphical user interface to the Automatic Manufacturing Programming System (AMPS) system; (2) develop a graphical user interface for AMPS; and (3) compare the AMPS graphical interface with the AMPS interactive user interface.

  14. Neuropsychiatric questionnaires in systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Tani, C; Palagini, L; Moraes-Fontes, M F; Carli, L; Mauri, M; Bombardieri, S; Mosca, M

    2014-01-01

    Patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) can be affected by a multitude of neurologic and psychiatric symptoms with a wide range of prevalence and severity. Irrespectively from attribution to SLE or other causes, neuropsychiatric (NP) symptoms strongly impact short-term and long-term outcomes, thus NP evaluation during routine clinical practice in SLE should be undertaken regularly. The assessment of NP involvement in SLE patients is challenging and the available diagnostic tools fail to guarantee optimal diagnostic accuracy, sensitivity to changes as well as feasibility in routine clinical care. Standardised questionnaires (both physician-administered and self-reported) can offer valuable help to the treating physician to capture all possible NP syndromes; few SLE-specific NP questionnaire have been developed but validation in large cohort or cross-cultural adaptations are still pending. On the other hand, general instruments have been largely applied to SLE patients. Both kinds of questionnaires can address all possible NP manifestations either globally or, more frequently, focus on specific NP symptoms. These latter have been mainly used in SLE to detect and classify mild and subtle symptoms, more likely to be overlooked during routine clinical assessment such as headache, cognitive impairment and psychiatric manifestations. In conclusion, this literature review highlights a clear case for validation studies in this area and the wider implementation of questionnaires to assess NP involvement is still warranted. The broader use of such instruments could have important consequences; first of all, by standardising symptom assessment, a better definition of the prevalence of NP manifestation across different centres could be achieved. Secondly, prospective studies could allow for the evaluation of clinical significance of mild symptoms and their impact on the patient's function and quality of life. PMID:25365091

  15. Measurement Properties of a Park Use Questionnaire

    PubMed Central

    Evenson, Kelly R.; Wen, Fang; Golinelli, Daniela; Rodríguez, Daniel A.; Cohen, Deborah A.

    2012-01-01

    We determined the criterion validity and test-retest reliability of a brief park use questionnaire. From five US locations, 232 adults completed a brief survey four times and wore a global positioning system (GPS) monitor for three weeks. We assessed validity for park visits during the past week and during a usual week by examining agreement between frequency and duration of park visits reported in the questionnaire to the GPS monitor results. Spearman correlation coefficients (SCC) were used to measure agreement. For past week park visit frequency and duration, the SCC were 0.62–0.65 and 0.62–0.67, respectively. For usual week park visit frequency and duration, the SCC were 0.40–0.50 and 0.50–0.53, respectively. Usual park visit frequency reliability was 0.78–0.88 (percent agreement 69%–82%) and usual park visit duration was 0.75–0.84 (percent agreement 64%–73%). These results suggest that the questionnaire to assess usual and past week park use had acceptable validity and reliability. PMID:23853386

  16. FAMA: Fast Automatic MOOG Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magrini, Laura; Randich, Sofia; Friel, Eileen; Spina, Lorenzo; Jacobson, Heather; Cantat-Gaudin, Tristan; Donati, Paolo; Baglioni, Roberto; Maiorca, Enrico; Bragaglia, Angela; Sordo, Rosanna; Vallenari, Antonella

    2014-02-01

    FAMA (Fast Automatic MOOG Analysis), written in Perl, computes the atmospheric parameters and abundances of a large number of stars using measurements of equivalent widths (EWs) automatically and independently of any subjective approach. Based on the widely-used MOOG code, it simultaneously searches for three equilibria, excitation equilibrium, ionization balance, and the relationship between logn(FeI) and the reduced EWs. FAMA also evaluates the statistical errors on individual element abundances and errors due to the uncertainties in the stellar parameters. Convergence criteria are not fixed "a priori" but instead are based on the quality of the spectra.

  17. Algorithms for skiascopy measurement automatization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fomins, Sergejs; Trukša, Renārs; KrūmiĆa, Gunta

    2014-10-01

    Automatic dynamic infrared retinoscope was developed, which allows to run procedure at a much higher rate. Our system uses a USB image sensor with up to 180 Hz refresh rate equipped with a long focus objective and 850 nm infrared light emitting diode as light source. Two servo motors driven by microprocessor control the rotation of semitransparent mirror and motion of retinoscope chassis. Image of eye pupil reflex is captured via software and analyzed along the horizontal plane. Algorithm for automatic accommodative state analysis is developed based on the intensity changes of the fundus reflex.

  18. Traduction automatique et terminologie automatique (Automatic Translation and Automatic Terminology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dansereau, Jules

    1978-01-01

    An exposition of reasons why a system of automatic translation could not use a terminology bank except as a source of information. The fundamental difference between the two tools is explained and examples of translation and mistranslation are given as evidence of the limits and possibilities of each process. (Text is in French.) (AMH)

  19. An emotion-differentiated perspective on empathy with the emotion specific empathy questionnaire

    PubMed Central

    Olderbak, Sally; Sassenrath, Claudia; Keller, Johannes; Wilhelm, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    Empathy refers to the thoughts and feelings of one individual in response to the observed (emotional) experiences of another individual. Empathy, however, can occur toward persons experiencing a variety of emotions, raising the question of whether or not empathy can be emotion specific. This paper discusses theoretical and empirical support for the emotion specificity of empathy. We present a new measure, the Emotion Specific Empathy questionnaire, which assesses affective and cognitive empathy for the six basic emotions. This paper presents the measure's psychometric qualities and demonstrates, through a series of models, the discriminant validity between emotion specific empathies suggesting empathy is emotion specific. Results and implications are discussed. PMID:25071632

  20. Graphonomics, Automaticity and Handwriting Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucha, Oliver; Tucha, Lara; Lange, Klaus W.

    2008-01-01

    A recent review of handwriting research in "Literacy" concluded that current curricula of handwriting education focus too much on writing style and neatness and neglect the aspect of handwriting automaticity. This conclusion is supported by evidence in the field of graphonomic research, where a range of experiments have been used to investigate…

  1. Automatically Preparing Safe SQL Queries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bisht, Prithvi; Sistla, A. Prasad; Venkatakrishnan, V. N.

    We present the first sound program source transformation approach for automatically transforming the code of a legacy web application to employ PREPARE statements in place of unsafe SQL queries. Our approach therefore opens the way for eradicating the SQL injection threat vector from legacy web applications.

  2. Automatic Error Analysis Using Intervals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothwell, E. J.; Cloud, M. J.

    2012-01-01

    A technique for automatic error analysis using interval mathematics is introduced. A comparison to standard error propagation methods shows that in cases involving complicated formulas, the interval approach gives comparable error estimates with much less effort. Several examples are considered, and numerical errors are computed using the INTLAB…

  3. Automatic Error Analysis Using Intervals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothwell, E. J.; Cloud, M. J.

    2012-01-01

    A technique for automatic error analysis using interval mathematics is introduced. A comparison to standard error propagation methods shows that in cases involving complicated formulas, the interval approach gives comparable error estimates with much less effort. Several examples are considered, and numerical errors are computed using the INTLAB

  4. Bubble vector in automatic merging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pamidi, P. R.; Butler, T. G.

    1987-01-01

    It is shown that it is within the capability of the DMAP language to build a set of vectors that can grow incrementally to be applied automatically and economically within a DMAP loop that serves to append sub-matrices that are generated within a loop to a core matrix. The method of constructing such vectors is explained.

  5. Thought Experiments in Physics Education: A Simple and Practical Example

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lattery, Mark J.

    Thought experiments play a vital role in scientific argumentation. However, implications for pedagogy are generally neglected. In this article, a Galilean thought experiment is used to enhance learning in a college-level physical science course. Both modern and historical perspectives of Galileo's work are presented. As a final project, students explore Galileo's thought experiment in the laboratory using modern detectors with satisfying results. The project experience lends insight into both the content and processes of science. Extensions to other educational contexts are discussed.

  6. Reported Thought as a Stance-Taking Device in Korean Conversation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Mary Shin

    2014-01-01

    Analyses of 34 cases of direct reported thought found in ordinary Korean conversations illustrate a routine practice in the use of reported thought-reenacting a prior thought to demonstrate how the speaker's current stance originated. Often, such thoughts are not simply momentary, isolated thoughts in passing but are consequential thoughts

  7. Italian version of the defense style questionnaire.

    PubMed

    San Martini, Pietro; Roma, Paolo; Sarti, Sara; Lingiardi, Vittorio; Bond, Michael

    2004-01-01

    The Defense Style Questionnaire (DSQ) assesses defensive behavior by empirically evaluating conscious derivatives of defense and coping mechanisms in everyday life. It was developed on the assumption that defenses can be ordered along a maturity-immaturity continuum and tend to group into clusters, or defensive styles. The original factor analytical study, by Bond et al. (1983) identified four styles, called maladaptive, image-distorting, self-sacrifice, and adaptive styles. Successive studies only partially confirmed this factor structure. We present the factor structure and the main psychometric features of the Italian version of the questionnaire. The DSQ was translated into Italian by the back-translation method and administered to a sample of 294 men (mean age, 33.33 years) and 333 women (mean age, 32.38 years). An exploratory factor analysis identified three factors largely corresponding to Bond's maladaptive, image-distorting, and adaptive defensive styles and to analogous factors identified by other authors. Accordingly, three defense style scales were constructed, containing respectively 37, 17, and 12 items. These scales showed intercorrelations compatible with the hierarchical model of defensive functioning at the base of the questionnaire, acceptable, though ameliorable, test-retest reliabilities (r's = .79, .63, and .81, respectively) and, with the exception of the Adaptive Style scale, sufficient internal consistencies (alphas: .85, .72, .57). However, only the Maladaptive Style scale, probably due to its greater length, showed values of reliability and internal consistency high enough to warrant clinical use in its present form. Further investigation is required to find new items that may improve the reliability of the Image-Distorting and the Adaptive Style scales. PMID:15526260

  8. Mild hypoglycaemia and questionnaire measures of aggression.

    PubMed

    Benton, D; Kumari, N; Brain, P F

    1982-01-01

    A glucose-tolerance test was given to a group of males who did not have a history involving aggressive behaviour or abnormal glucose metabolism. In these subjects a significant correlation was found between the tendency to become mildly hypoglycaemic and scores on the Buss-Durkee Hostility Inventory and the Rosenzweig Picture Frustration Study. A factor analysis of the data found that both scores on the aggression questionnaires and the measure of hypoglycaemia were similarly weighted. These results extent to normal subjects the finding that there is a relationship between hypoglycaemia and aggressiveness, a result previously found in psychiatric patients. PMID:7104424

  9. Caregiver's Feeding Styles Questionnaire. Establishing cutoff points.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Sheryl O; Cross, Matthew B; Hennessy, Erin; Tovar, Alison; Economos, Christina D; Power, Thomas G

    2012-02-01

    Researchers use the Caregiver's Feeding Styles Questionnaire (CFSQ) to categorize parent feeding into authoritative, authoritarian, indulgent, and uninvolved styles. The CFSQ assesses self-reported feeding and classifies parents using median splits which are used in a substantial body of parenting literature and allow for direct comparison across studies on dimensions of demandingness and responsiveness. No national norms currently exist for the CFSQ. This paper establishes and recommends cutoff points most relevant for low-income, minority US samples that researchers and clinicians can use to assign parents to feeding styles. Median scores for five studies are examined and the average across these studies reported. PMID:22119478

  10. Lenguaje y Proceso de Pensamiento (Language and Thought Processes)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rimoldi, H. J. A.

    1978-01-01

    Thought processes as they are observed during problem solving are discussed. A theoretical framework is designed to establish the correspondence between the tactics the subjects use to solve problems and thinking processes. (NCR)

  11. Genetic High-Cholesterol Condition More Common Than Thought

    MedlinePlus

    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_157755.html Genetic High-Cholesterol Condition More Common Than Thought Researchers ... the United States, she said. Rates of the genetic disorder vary based on racial/ethnic background, but ...

  12. Eastern Thought and Movement Forms: Possible Implications for Western Sport.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Case, Bob

    1984-01-01

    Eastern thought and movement forms can serve as a model for Western sports. Possible implications for physical education that stem from Eastern philosophic beliefs include practical and utilitarian concerns, hidden dimensions, metaphysical concerns, competition concerns, and pedagogical concerns. (DF)

  13. Paving the Way To Algebraic Thought Using Residue Designs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Iris DeLoach

    1998-01-01

    Presents a brief definition and examples of residue designs while sharing some of the algebraic thought that a student used to form generalizations about the patterns discovered during the investigations of residue designs. (ASK)

  14. Library Use and the Development of Critical Thought.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plum, Stephen H.

    1984-01-01

    The need for a structure for the discipline of bibliographic instruction is discussed in the context of library instruction as a means of developing critical thinking skills in students, based on experiences with student patterns of thought. (MSE)

  15. Thought Processing a Concern of Parkinson's Patients, Study Says

    MedlinePlus

    ... fullstory_157856.html Thought Processing a Concern of Parkinson's Patients, Study Says Those with thinking difficulties struggle ... thinking skills could have a greater impact on Parkinson's disease patients' ability to converse than physical problems, ...

  16. Teaching thoughtful practice: narrative pedagogy in addictions education.

    PubMed

    Vandermause, Roxanne K; Townsend, Ryan P

    2010-07-01

    Preparing practitioners for this rapidly changing and demanding health care environment is challenging. A surge in knowledge development and scientific advancement has placed a priority on technical skill and a focus on content driven educational processes that prepare students for evidence-based practice. However, the most difficult health care scenarios require thinking-in-action and thoughtfulness as well as didactic knowledge. It is our contention that interpretive educational methods, like narrative pedagogy, will promote judgment-based practice that includes use of evidence and delivery of thoughtful care. In this article, we describe and interpret a narrative approach to addictions content and teaching thoughtful practice. We present our pedagogical process, including observations and field notes, to show how interpretive pedagogies can be introduced into nursing curricula. By presenting this process, the reader is invited to consider interpretive methods as a way to inspire and habituate thoughtful practice and judgment-based care. PMID:19889482

  17. Sexual behavioral abstine HIV/AIDS questionnaire: Validation study of an Iranian questionnaire

    PubMed Central

    Najarkolaei, Fatemeh Rahmati; Niknami, Shamsaddin; Shokravi, Farkhondeh Amin; Tavafian, Sedigheh Sadat; Fesharaki, Mohammad Gholami; Jafari, Mohammad Reza

    2014-01-01

    Background: This study was designed to assess the validity and reliability of the designed sexual, behavioral abstinence, and avoidance of high-risk situation questionnaire (SBAHAQ), with an aim to construct an appropriate development tool in the Iranian population. Materials and Methods: A descriptive–analytic study was conducted among female undergraduate students of Tehran University, who were selected through cluster random sampling. After reviewing the questionnaires and investigating face and content validity, internal consistency of the questionnaire was assessed by Cronbach's alpha. Explanatory and confirmatory factor analysis was conducted using SPSS and AMOS 16 Software, respectively. Results: The sample consisted of 348 female university students with a mean age of 20.69 ± 1.63 years. The content validity ratio (CVR) coefficient was 0.85 and the reliability of each section of the questionnaire was as follows: Perceived benefit (PB; 0.87), behavioral intention (BI; 0.77), and self-efficacy (SE; 0.85) (Cronbach's alpha totally was 0.83). Explanatory factor analysis showed three factors, including SE, PB, and BI, with the total variance of 61% and Kaiser–Meyer–Olkin (KMO) index of 88%. These factors were also confirmed by confirmatory factor analysis [adjusted goodness of fitness index (AGFI) = 0.939, root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA) = 0.039]. Conclusion: This study showed the designed questionnaire provided adequate construct validity and reliability, and could be adequately used to measure sexual abstinence and avoidance of high-risk situations among female students. PMID:24741650

  18. Auxiliary circuit enables automatic monitoring of EKG'S

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    Auxiliary circuits allow direct, automatic monitoring of electrocardiograms by digital computers. One noiseless square-wave output signal for each trigger pulse from an electrocardiogram preamplifier is produced. The circuit also permits automatic processing of cardiovascular data from analog tapes.

  19. Psychometric validation of the Dysexecutive Questionnaire (DEX).

    PubMed

    Shaw, Simone; Oei, Tian P S; Sawang, Sukanlaya

    2015-03-01

    This study reported on the validation of the psychometric properties, the factorability, validity, and sensitivity of the Dysexecutive Questionnaire (DEX) in 3 clinical and nonclinical samples. A mixed sample of 997 participants--community (n = 663), psychiatric (depressed [n = 92] and anxious [n = 122]), and neurologically impaired (n = 120)--completed self-report questionnaires assessing executive dysfunction, depression, anxiety, stress, general self-efficacy, and satisfaction with life. Before analyses the data were randomly split into 2 subsets (A and B). Exploratory factor analysis performed on Subset A produced a 3-factor model (Factor 1: Inhibition, Factor 2: Volition, and Factor 3: Social Regulation) in which 15 of the original 20 items provided a revised factor structure that was superior to all other structures. A series of confirmatory factor analyses performed on Subset B confirmed that this revised factor structure was valid and reliable. The revised structure, labeled the DEX-R, was found to be a reliable and valid tool for assessing behavioral symptoms of dysexecutive functioning in mixed community, psychiatric, and neurological samples. PMID:25602692

  20. Auralization studies to develop a classroom questionnaire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nocke, Christian; Hilge, Catja; Meis, Markus

    2005-04-01

    Modern, computer-based room acoustic modeling software allows apart from the calculation and visualization of sound fields also the auralization of room acoustic conditions. By these means the listening conditions in (virtual) class rooms can easily be modeled and modified. Furthermore, for each listening position a full set of room acoustical parameters is available. Corresponding measurements in real class rooms would require much effort; well-defined changes could only be reached by interior works in the building. So, computer modeling offers a larger variety of well-defined acoustic conditions. This contribution reports on the auralizations carried out for the development of a questionnaire for subjective evaluations in real class rooms. For this purpose six different virtual class rooms have been modeled. In each of the six situations auralizations at two different listening positions for male and female speakers have been deduced. The auralizations have been presented to 80 test persons. The objective room acoustic parameters have been correlated with the subjective judgements. The questionnaire has been used by Meis et al. in real life experiments on the subjective evaluation of listening conditions. Results of these experiments will be presented in another contribution to this session by M. Meis (2pAAa1).

  1. Reliability of Andreasen's thought, language and communications disorder scale.

    PubMed

    Davis, G C; Simpson, D M; Foster, D; Arison, Z; Post, M

    1986-01-01

    The study of disordered thinking has been hampered by a lack of clinical instruments aimed at the measurement of thought disorder. Andreasen has proposed a rating scale for thought disorder (TLC) and reported on its reliability and preliminary aspects of its validity. In our study, a psychiatrist and physician assistant rated 98 psychiatric inpatients using the TLC and BPRS. Interrater reliability ranged from 0.35 to 0.80 (weighted kappa) on 18 aspects of thought disorder and one global item. The order of reliability for the 18 individual items was strongly correlated between the Andreasen sample and our own (r = 0.77). While the BPRS thought disorder scale was significantly related to the global rating of thought disorder on the TLC (r = 0.71), only half of the variance in thought disorder measured by the TLC was accounted for by the BPRS factor. Thus, this study supports Andreasen's contention that the TLC is a reliable instrument and suggests that the instrument may provide additional information about thinking disorders. PMID:3744296

  2. Top-down modulation of unconscious 'automatic' processes: A gating framework

    PubMed Central

    Kiefer, Markus

    2008-01-01

    In classical theories of automaticity, automatic processes are usually thought to occur autonomously and independently of higher level top-down factors (e.g., Posner & Snyder, 1975). However, already Neumann (1984) pointed out that the cognitive system has to be configured in a certain way for automatic processes to occur. In extension of his work, I propose a gating framework to account for the influence of top-down factors such as attention, intention and task set on automatic processes such as masked response or semantic priming. It is assumed that task representations held in prefrontal cortex regulate the gain of neurons in visual and sematic association cortex thereby modulating the effects of unconsciously perceived masked stimuli on further ‘automatic’ information processing steps. In support of the postulated gating framework, recent studies demonstrated a top-down modulation of automatic processes. Behavioral and electrophysiological studies with the masked response priming and semantic priming paradigms show that masked priming effects crucially depend (i) on temporal attention to the masked prime, (ii) on intentions or action plans and (iii) on the task set active immediately before masked prime presentation. For instance, masked semantic priming was only observed when the preceding task set required the orientation to semantic word features, but not when it required orientation to perceptual word features. These results support the view that unconscious automatic processes are modulated by top-down factors. They are suggestive of a gating mechanism which orchestrates the conscious and unconscious information processing streams. PMID:20517515

  3. The Daily Activity Questionnaire: a novel questionnaire to assess patient activity after total hip arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Wollmerstedt, Nicole; Nöth, Uli; Ince, Akif; Ackermann, Hanns; Martell, John M; Hendrich, Christian

    2010-04-01

    Expensive electronic accelerometers are the only validated method to determine patient activity levels. The aim of this study was to develop a clinical questionnaire to assess patient activity. The Daily Activity Questionnaire (DAQ) was developed and evaluated using 3 groups of patients with osteoarthritis of the hip. A total of 160 patients underwent 855 days of monitoring. Practicability, reliability, and validity of the new questionnaire were assessed. The test-retest reliability of the DAQ was comparable to the electronic accelerometer StepWatch (ICC = 0.77-0.89). A significant correlation between the DAQ and the StepWatch was found (r = 0.742). The DAQ is a reliable and valid instrument to measure patient activity. PMID:19232888

  4. 8 CFR 1205.1 - Automatic revocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Automatic revocation. 1205.1 Section 1205.1 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS REVOCATION OF APPROVAL OF PETITIONS § 1205.1 Automatic revocation. (a) Reasons for automatic revocation. The approval of a petition or...

  5. 8 CFR 205.1 - Automatic revocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Automatic revocation. 205.1 Section 205.1 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS REVOCATION OF APPROVAL OF PETITIONS § 205.1 Automatic revocation. (a) Reasons for automatic revocation. The approval of a petition or self-petition made under section...

  6. 30 CFR 75.1405 - Automatic couplers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... between the ends of such equipment. All haulage equipment without automatic couplers in use in a mine on... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Automatic couplers. 75.1405 Section 75.1405... MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Hoisting and Mantrips § 75.1405 Automatic couplers....

  7. 30 CFR 75.1405 - Automatic couplers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... between the ends of such equipment. All haulage equipment without automatic couplers in use in a mine on... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Automatic couplers. 75.1405 Section 75.1405... MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Hoisting and Mantrips § 75.1405 Automatic couplers....

  8. 30 CFR 75.1405 - Automatic couplers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... between the ends of such equipment. All haulage equipment without automatic couplers in use in a mine on... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Automatic couplers. 75.1405 Section 75.1405... MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Hoisting and Mantrips § 75.1405 Automatic couplers....

  9. 30 CFR 75.1405 - Automatic couplers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... between the ends of such equipment. All haulage equipment without automatic couplers in use in a mine on... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Automatic couplers. 75.1405 Section 75.1405... MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Hoisting and Mantrips § 75.1405 Automatic couplers....

  10. 30 CFR 75.1405 - Automatic couplers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... between the ends of such equipment. All haulage equipment without automatic couplers in use in a mine on... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Automatic couplers. 75.1405 Section 75.1405... MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Hoisting and Mantrips § 75.1405 Automatic couplers....

  11. Parental separation in childhood, social capital, and suicide thoughts and suicide attempts: A population-based study.

    PubMed

    Lindström, Martin; Rosvall, Maria

    2015-09-30

    Studies of the association between parental separation in childhood and suicide thoughts and attempts are scarce. The aim of this study is to investigate associations between parental separation/divorce during childhood, and ever having had suicide thoughts and ever having made suicide attempt, adjusting for social capital and other covariates. In 2012 a cross-sectional public health survey was conducted in Scania, southern Sweden, with a postal questionnaire with 28,029 participants aged 18-80. Associations between parental separation/divorce during childhood and ever having considered suicide or having made suicide attempt were analysed by logistic regression. Overall, 12.1% of the men and 15.5% of the women had experienced suicide thoughts, and 3.2% of the men and 5.3% of the women had ever tried committing suicide. Among men, 20.4% had experienced parental separation during childhood until age 18, and among women 22.3%. Parental separation/divorce in childhood was with few exceptions significantly associated with ever having had suicide thoughts with the highest odds ratios for those who had experienced parental separation during ages 0-4 years. Parental separation/divorce in childhood was significantly associated with suicide attempts among men who had experienced parental separation/divorce at ages 0-4 and 15-18, and among women at any age 0-18. PMID:26208980

  12. Automatically scramming nuclear reactor system

    DOEpatents

    Ougouag, Abderrafi M.; Schultz, Richard R.; Terry, William K.

    2004-10-12

    An automatically scramming nuclear reactor system. One embodiment comprises a core having a coolant inlet end and a coolant outlet end. A cooling system operatively associated with the core provides coolant to the coolant inlet end and removes heated coolant from the coolant outlet end, thus maintaining a pressure differential therebetween during a normal operating condition of the nuclear reactor system. A guide tube is positioned within the core with a first end of the guide tube in fluid communication with the coolant inlet end of the core, and a second end of the guide tube in fluid communication with the coolant outlet end of the core. A control element is positioned within the guide tube and is movable therein between upper and lower positions, and automatically falls under the action of gravity to the lower position when the pressure differential drops below a safe pressure differential.

  13. Automatic design of magazine covers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jahanian, Ali; Liu, Jerry; Tretter, Daniel R.; Lin, Qian; Damera-Venkata, Niranjan; O'Brien-Strain, Eamonn; Lee, Seungyon; Fan, Jian; Allebach, Jan P.

    2012-03-01

    In this paper, we propose a system for automatic design of magazine covers that quantifies a number of concepts from art and aesthetics. Our solution to automatic design of this type of media has been shaped by input from professional designers, magazine art directors and editorial boards, and journalists. Consequently, a number of principles in design and rules in designing magazine covers are delineated. Several techniques are derived and employed in order to quantify and implement these principles and rules in the format of a software framework. At this stage, our framework divides the task of design into three main modules: layout of magazine cover elements, choice of color for masthead and cover lines, and typography of cover lines. Feedback from professional designers on our designs suggests that our results are congruent with their intuition.

  14. Automatic registration of satellite imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fonseca, Leila M. G.; Costa, Max H. M.; Manjunath, B. S.; Kenney, C.

    1997-01-01

    Image registration is one of the basic image processing operations in remote sensing. With the increase in the number of images collected every day from different sensors, automated registration of multi-sensor/multi-spectral images has become an important issue. A wide range of registration techniques has been developed for many different types of applications and data. The objective of this paper is to present an automatic registration algorithm which uses a multiresolution analysis procedure based upon the wavelet transform. The procedure is completely automatic and relies on the grey level information content of the images and their local wavelet transform modulus maxima. The registration algorithm is very simple and easy to apply because it needs basically one parameter. We have obtained very encouraging results on test data sets from the TM and SPOT sensor images of forest, urban and agricultural areas.

  15. Automatic computation of transfer functions

    DOEpatents

    Atcitty, Stanley; Watson, Luke Dale

    2015-04-14

    Technologies pertaining to the automatic computation of transfer functions for a physical system are described herein. The physical system is one of an electrical system, a mechanical system, an electromechanical system, an electrochemical system, or an electromagnetic system. A netlist in the form of a matrix comprises data that is indicative of elements in the physical system, values for the elements in the physical system, and structure of the physical system. Transfer functions for the physical system are computed based upon the netlist.

  16. Automatically-Programed Machine Tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Purves, L.; Clerman, N.

    1985-01-01

    Software produces cutter location files for numerically-controlled machine tools. APT, acronym for Automatically Programed Tools, is among most widely used software systems for computerized machine tools. APT developed for explicit purpose of providing effective software system for programing NC machine tools. APT system includes specification of APT programing language and language processor, which executes APT statements and generates NC machine-tool motions specified by APT statements.

  17. Toward automatic finite element analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kela, Ajay; Perucchio, Renato; Voelcker, Herbert

    1987-01-01

    Two problems must be solved if the finite element method is to become a reliable and affordable blackbox engineering tool. Finite element meshes must be generated automatically from computer aided design databases and mesh analysis must be made self-adaptive. The experimental system described solves both problems in 2-D through spatial and analytical substructuring techniques that are now being extended into 3-D.

  18. Automatic connector for structural beams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Von Tiessehausen, G. F.

    1980-01-01

    Lightweight connector automatically aligns beams to be jointed, and withstands torsion, tension, and compression loads. One beam has connector, other has receptor. Bracket aligns connector and receptor. When actuated, spring in connector pushes shaft into receptor. Hooks on shaft snap to lock into receptor slots. Union can be separated easily without damage. Connectors are designed for in-space assembly, but may be suited to ground assemblies as well.

  19. Automatic translation among spoken languages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walter, Sharon M.; Costigan, Kelly

    1994-02-01

    The Machine Aided Voice Translation (MAVT) system was developed in response to the shortage of experienced military field interrogators with both foreign language proficiency and interrogation skills. Combining speech recognition, machine translation, and speech generation technologies, the MAVT accepts an interrogator's spoken English question and translates it into spoken Spanish. The spoken Spanish response of the potential informant can then be translated into spoken English. Potential military and civilian applications for automatic spoken language translation technology are discussed in this paper.

  20. Automatic translation among spoken languages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walter, Sharon M.; Costigan, Kelly

    1994-01-01

    The Machine Aided Voice Translation (MAVT) system was developed in response to the shortage of experienced military field interrogators with both foreign language proficiency and interrogation skills. Combining speech recognition, machine translation, and speech generation technologies, the MAVT accepts an interrogator's spoken English question and translates it into spoken Spanish. The spoken Spanish response of the potential informant can then be translated into spoken English. Potential military and civilian applications for automatic spoken language translation technology are discussed in this paper.

  1. Extraversion and anterior vs. posterior DMN activity during self-referential thoughts.

    PubMed

    Knyazev, Gennady G

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies show that fronto-posterior electroencephalogram (EEG) spectral power distribution is associated with personality. Specifically, extraversion is associated with an increase of spectral power in posterior cortical regions that overlap with the posterior default mode network (DMN) hub and a decrease of spectral power in anterior regions that overlap with the anterior DMN hub. Although there is evidence that dopaminergic neurotransmission may be involved, psychological processes that underlie these associations remain unclear. I hypothesize that these processes may have something to do with spontaneous self-referential thoughts. Specifically, I hypothesize that in extraverts self-referential thoughts may be associated with an increase of spectral power in the posterior DMN hub, whereas in introverts they may be associated with an increase of spectral power in the anterior DMN hub. After spontaneous EEG registration, participants were asked to fill in a questionnaire describing their thoughts during the registration. An item describing self-referential positive expectations (SRPE) was used to measure individual differences in the intensity of these processes. Source localization and independent component analyses were applied to EEG data to reveal oscillatory activity associated with the anterior and the posterior DMN hubs. Hierarchical regression analysis showed a significant interaction between extraversion scores and anterior vs. posterior DMN alpha activity in predicting individual differences in SRPE scores. In extraverts, high SRPE scores were associated with an increase of alpha power in the posterior DMN hub, whereas in introverts they were associated with an increase of alpha power in the anterior DMN hub. Results are discussed in terms of differential involvement of the two DMN hubs in self-related reward processes in extraverts and introverts. PMID:23419982

  2. Extraversion and anterior vs. posterior DMN activity during self-referential thoughts

    PubMed Central

    Knyazev, Gennady G.

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies show that fronto-posterior electroencephalogram (EEG) spectral power distribution is associated with personality. Specifically, extraversion is associated with an increase of spectral power in posterior cortical regions that overlap with the posterior default mode network (DMN) hub and a decrease of spectral power in anterior regions that overlap with the anterior DMN hub. Although there is evidence that dopaminergic neurotransmission may be involved, psychological processes that underlie these associations remain unclear. I hypothesize that these processes may have something to do with spontaneous self-referential thoughts. Specifically, I hypothesize that in extraverts self-referential thoughts may be associated with an increase of spectral power in the posterior DMN hub, whereas in introverts they may be associated with an increase of spectral power in the anterior DMN hub. After spontaneous EEG registration, participants were asked to fill in a questionnaire describing their thoughts during the registration. An item describing self-referential positive expectations (SRPE) was used to measure individual differences in the intensity of these processes. Source localization and independent component analyses were applied to EEG data to reveal oscillatory activity associated with the anterior and the posterior DMN hubs. Hierarchical regression analysis showed a significant interaction between extraversion scores and anterior vs. posterior DMN alpha activity in predicting individual differences in SRPE scores. In extraverts, high SRPE scores were associated with an increase of alpha power in the posterior DMN hub, whereas in introverts they were associated with an increase of alpha power in the anterior DMN hub. Results are discussed in terms of differential involvement of the two DMN hubs in self-related reward processes in extraverts and introverts. PMID:23419982

  3. Automatic Contrail Detection and Segmentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weiss, John M.; Christopher, Sundar A.; Welch, Ronald M.

    1998-01-01

    Automatic contrail detection is of major importance in the study of the atmospheric effects of aviation. Due to the large volume of satellite imagery, selecting contrail images for study by hand is impractical and highly subject to human error. It is far better to have a system in place that will automatically evaluate an image to determine 1) whether it contains contrails and 2) where the contrails are located. Preliminary studies indicate that it is possible to automatically detect and locate contrails in Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) imagery with a high degree of confidence. Once contrails have been identified and localized in a satellite image, it is useful to segment the image into contrail versus noncontrail pixels. The ability to partition image pixels makes it possible to determine the optical properties of contrails, including optical thickness and particle size. In this paper, we describe a new technique for segmenting satellite images containing contrails. This method has good potential for creating a contrail climatology in an automated fashion. The majority of contrails are detected, rejecting clutter in the image, even cirrus streaks. Long, thin contrails are most easily detected. However, some contrails may be missed because they are curved, diffused over a large area, or present in short segments. Contrails average 2-3 km in width for the cases studied.

  4. A questionnaire to assess social stigma.

    PubMed

    Tavormina, Maurilio Giuseppe Maria; Tavormina, Romina; Nemoianni, Eugenio; Tavormina, Giuseppe

    2015-09-01

    Psychiatric patients often suffer for two reasons: due to the illness and due to the social stigma of mental illness, that increases the uneasiness and psychic pain of the person suffering from serious psychiatric disorder. This unwell person is often the object of stigma because he is "different" from others, and he also can be margenalised by society. In this study we intend to assess whether these margenalising attitudes might be also present among mental health professionals who have presented psychic problems in a previous period of their life, against sick persons suffering of the same illness even if he is a mental health professional. Two questionnaires have been developed, one for professionals and another for the patients, with the aim of identifying these marginalising attitudes. We intend that this study shall be a multicenter, observational and international study, promoted by the Mental Health Dept. of Naples (ASL Naples 3 South, Italy). PMID:26417789

  5. Junior Electronics Workshops and Their Questionnaires Reviews

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muto, Cosy; Maruta, Shuichiro; Noyori, Kazumasa; Yanaida, Masashi

    In this paper, a trial to educate electronics for both elementary pupils and junior-high students is reported. A “making your own radio” workshop for elementary kids features a paper-craft resonator made of toilet paper cores and an empty box of tissue papers as well as solder-less main radio circuit. For elder elementary and junior-high pupils, a workshop making a bat detector (an ultra-sonic receiver) is provided to help their summer vacation research. Both workshops are planned to enlarge students wishing to knock the door of electronics. Also, we report questionnaires results for those workshops and follow up research results for bat detector workshop. Those results show that both children and parents long for good experiences on science/electronics materials and these experiences are important for future human resources in scientific fields including analog electronics.

  6. Validation of a Parent Report Questionnaire

    PubMed Central

    Trabulsi, Jillian; Yao, Manjiang; Bevans, Katherine B.; DeRusso, Patricia A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate the reliability and validity of the Infant Gastrointestinal Symptom Questionnaire (IGSQ), a tool to assess feeding tolerance in infants. Methods. Qualitative methods were used to develop IGSQ content across 5 symptom clusters, yielding a 13-item index of parent-reported infant digestion and elimination behaviors over the prior 7 days. Classical psychometric methods evaluated factor structure, interrater and retest reliability, and validity in 4 prospective studies of 836 infants. Results. Interrater and retest reliability were acceptable to good. IGSQ Index score was highly correlated (r = 0.89) with daily parent reports. IGSQ scores were significantly different between infants whose parents planned to switch formulas because of perceived feeding problems and those without parental concerns. Conclusions. The IGSQ is a practical, reliable, and valid method for assessment of infant gastrointestinal-related behaviors. Its use in clinical studies can provide empirical evidence to advance parent education regarding both normal and clinically meaningful feeding-related behaviors. PMID:25758425

  7. Usual Dietary Intakes: NHANES Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ)

    Cancer.gov

    NCI developed a new instrument called the NHANES Food Frequency Questionnaire (formerly called Food Propensity Questionnaire) and supported its application in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES).

  8. NHEXAS PHASE I REGION 5 STUDY--DESCRIPTIVE QUESTIONNAIRE DATA

    EPA Science Inventory

    This data set includes responses for 459 descriptive questionnaires. The Descriptive Questionnaire was used to enumerate individuals within a household for sampling purposes (basis for selection of sample individual), to identify general characteristics of the living quarters and...

  9. NHEXAS PHASE I ARIZONA STUDY--TECHNICIAN WALKTHROUGH QUESTIONNAIRE DATA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Technician Walk-through Questionnaire data set updates information about each household from the Descriptive Questionnaire and includes relevant information regarding dwelling arrangements, as well as interior and exterior residential characteristics. The information is from...

  10. NHEXAS PHASE I MARYLAND STUDY--DESCRIPTIVE QUESTIONNAIRE DATA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Descriptive Questionnaire data set contains demographic information about each of the households and indicates the primary respondent within each residence. The information is from 380 descriptive questionnaires for 80 households across 6 cycles. The data set contains only ...

  11. Diet History Questionnaire II & Canadian Diet History Questionnaire II: Web-based DHQ

    Cancer.gov

    The Web-based versions of DHQ II and C-DHQ II are identical in content to the paper forms. By automating the DHQ II and providing versions on the Web for public use, researchers have another tool to collect and analyze food frequency questionnaire data.

  12. Polish adaptation of Bad Sobernheim Stress Questionnaire-Brace and Bad Sobernheim Stress Questionnaire-Deformity.

    PubMed

    Misterska, Ewa; Głowacki, Maciej; Harasymczuk, Jerzy

    2009-12-01

    Bad Sobernheim Stress Questionnaire-Brace and Bad Sobernheim Stress Questionnaire-Deformity are relatively new tools aimed at facilitating the evaluation of long-term results of therapy in persons with idiopathic scoliosis undergoing conservative treatment. To use these tools properly in Poland, they must be translated into Polish and adapted to the Polish cultural settings. The process of cultural adaptation of the questionnaires was compliant with the guidelines of International Quality of Life Assessment (IQOLA) Project. In the first stage, two independent translators converted the originals into Polish. Stage two, consisted of a comparison of the originals and two translated versions. During that stage, the team of two translators and authors of the project identified differences in those translations and created a combination of the two. In the third stage, two independent translators, who were native speakers of German, translated the adjusted version of the Polish translation into the language of the original document. At the last stage, a commission composed of: specialists in orthopedics, translators, a statistician and a psychologist reviewed all translations and drafted a pre-final version of the questionnaires. Thirty-five adolescent girls with idiopathic scoliosis who were treated with Cheneau brace were subjected to the questionnaire assessment. All patients were treated in an out-patient setting by a specialist in orthopedics at the Chair and Clinic of Orthopedics and Traumatology. Median age of patients was 14.8 SD 1.5, median value of the Cobb's angle was 27.8 degrees SD 7.4. 48.6% of patients had thoracic scoliosis, 31.4% had thoracolumbar scoliosis, and 20% patients had lumbar scoliosis. Median results obtained by means of the Polish version of BSSQ-Brace and BSSQ-Deformity questionnaires were 17.9 SD 5.0 and 11.3 SD 4.7, respectively. Internal consistency of BSSQ-Brace and BSSQ-Deformity was at the level of 0.80 and 0.87, whereas the value of the absolute stability factor was 0.82 and 0.88. Overall, the Polish versions of the BSSQ-Brace and BSSQ-Deformity Questionnaires are characterized by high values of internal consistency factor and absolute stability factor. Following the process of adaptation, the authors obtained a tool that is instrumental in clinical evaluations and complies with methodological criteria. PMID:19669802

  13. Parent Behavior Importance and Parent Behavior Frequency Questionnaires: Psychometric Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mowder, Barbara A.; Sanders, Michelle

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the psychometric characteristics of two parenting measures: the Parent Behavior Importance Questionnaire (PBIQ) and Parent Behavior Frequency Questionnaire (PBFQ). Both research questionnaires are based on the parent development theory (PDT) and offer parent as well as non-parent respondents the opportunity to rate 38 parenting…

  14. Reliability of Students' Views of an "Ideal" Student Questionnaire.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gadzella, Bernadette M.; And Others

    The reliability of the Students' Views of an Ideal Student Questionnaire was studied. The questionnaire consists of 26 characteristics of a quality student. The subjects were 88 volunteers (33 males and 55 females), enrolled in various classes at a state university, who responded to the questionnaire twice within 10 days. Subjects included 35…

  15. NHEXAS PHASE I MARYLAND STUDY--BASELINE QUESTIONNAIRE DATA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Baseline Questionnaire data set provides information about each household and its primary respondent. The information is from 380 baseline questionnaires for 80 households across 6 cycles. The Baseline Questionnaire was administered to the primary respondent during a face-t...

  16. NHEXAS PHASE I MARYLAND STUDY--FOLLOW-UP QUESTIONNAIRE DATA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Follow-up questionnaire data set contains information concerning the activities within the household during the sampling week. The information is from 402 follow-up questionnaires for 80 households across 6 cycles. The Follow-up Questionnaire specifically addressed the time ...

  17. Attentional Control and Suppressing Negative Thought Intrusions in Pathological Worry

    PubMed Central

    Fox, Elaine; Dutton, Kevin; Yates, Alan; Georgiou, George A.; Mouchlianitis, Elias

    2015-01-01

    Adaptive behavior relies on the ability to effectively and efficiently ignore irrelevant information, an important component of attentional control. The current research found that fundamental difficulties in ignoring irrelevant material are related to dispositional differences in trait propensity to worry, suggesting a core deficit in attentional control in high worriers. The degree of deficit in attentional control correlated with the degree of difficulty in suppressing negative thought intrusions in a worry assessment task. A cognitive training procedure utilizing a flanker task was used in an attempt to improve attentional control. Although the cognitive training was largely ineffective, improvements in attentional control were associated with improvements in the ability to suppress worry-related thought intrusions. Across two studies, the findings indicate that the inability to control worry-related negative thought intrusions is associated with a general deficiency in attentional control. PMID:26504672

  18. Thoughts of Death and Suicide in Early Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Vander Stoep, Ann; McCauley, Elizabeth; Flynn, Cynthia; Stone, Andrea

    2009-01-01

    This community-based study estimates the prevalence and persistence of thoughts of death and suicide during early adolescence. A latent class approach was used to identify distinct subgroups based on endorsements to depression items administered repeatedly over 24 months. Two classes emerged, with 75% in a LOW IDEATION class across four assessments. <2% persisted in the HIGH IDEATION class over 3+ assessments. African American and Asian American adolescents were more likely than European Americans to belong to the HIGH IDEATION class. No members of the LOW IDEATION class endorsed “thought about killing myself”, while “thoughts of death and dying” was endorsed by members of both classes. Implications for interpreting meanings of death and suicide ideation in early adolescence are discussed. PMID:20121323

  19. Reported Thought as a Stance-Taking Device in Korean Conversation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Mary Shin

    2014-01-01

    Analyses of 34 cases of direct reported thought found in ordinary Korean conversations illustrate a routine practice in the use of reported thought-reenacting a prior thought to demonstrate how the speaker's current stance originated. Often, such thoughts are not simply momentary, isolated thoughts in passing but are consequential thoughts…

  20. Young and restless: validation of the Mind-Wandering Questionnaire (MWQ) reveals disruptive impact of mind-wandering for youth

    PubMed Central

    Mrazek, Michael D.; Phillips, Dawa T.; Franklin, Michael S.; Broadway, James M.; Schooler, Jonathan W.

    2013-01-01

    Mind-wandering is the focus of extensive investigation, yet until recently there has been no validated scale to directly measure trait levels of task-unrelated thought. Scales commonly used to assess mind-wandering lack face validity, measuring related constructs such as daydreaming or behavioral errors. Here we report four studies validating a Mind-Wandering Questionnaire (MWQ) across college, high school, and middle school samples. The 5-item scale showed high internal consistency, as well as convergent validity with existing measures of mind-wandering and related constructs. Trait levels of mind-wandering, as measured by the MWQ, were correlated with task-unrelated thought measured by thought sampling during a test of reading comprehension. In both middle school and high school samples, mind-wandering during testing was associated with worse reading comprehension. By contrast, elevated trait levels of mind-wandering predicted worse mood, less life-satisfaction, greater stress, and lower self-esteem. By extending the use of thought sampling to measure mind-wandering among adolescents, our findings also validate the use of this methodology with younger populations. Both the MWQ and thought sampling indicate that mind-wandering is a pervasiveand problematicinfluence on the performance and well-being of adolescents. PMID:23986739

  1. Asymmetry questionnaire outcomes correlate with several hemisphericity measures.

    PubMed

    Morton, Bruce E

    2003-04-01

    The asymmetry questionnaire segregated subjects (n=143) into two groups. These were significantly correlated with similar groups separated, not only by three new biophysical hemisphericity protocols (Dichotic Deafness Test, Phased Mirror Tracing, Best Hand Test), but also by two preference-type measures (polarity questionnaire, preference questionnaire). Each of the 15 asymmetry questionnaire statements was significantly correlated with the outcomes of these five laterality measures. This is the third questionnaire whose outcomes correlate with those of the new biophysical measures of hemisphericity. PMID:12727192

  2. Old Dad Chiro: his thoughts, words, and deeds

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Myron D.

    2010-01-01

    Objective This article offers the author's opinions about some of the thoughts, words, and deeds of the profession's founder, Daniel David Palmer. Discussion Reviewing D.D. Palmer's writings is challenging because he was the discoverer and founder of a developing profession and therefore his thoughts and words were rapidly evolving. Statements made by Palmer without judicious consideration of context could easily be misunderstood. Conclusion D.D. Palmer was individualistic and enigmatic. This commentary provides a look at the whole in an attempt to reveal the character and spirit of the founder. PMID:22693470

  3. [Is it Possible to Experiment with Thought? Ernst Mach's Notion of Thought Experiment and its Pedagogical Context around 1900. ].

    PubMed

    Bauer, Julian

    2015-03-01

    Is it Possible to Experiment with Thought? Ernst Mach's Notion of Thought Experiment and its Pedagogical Context around 1900. The article tries to establish the crucial importance of the pedagogical dimension of Ernst Mach's ideas on experimenting with thought. The focus on contemporary pedagogics demonstrates, first, that Mach's didactic approach to physics is part of a much broader stream of pedagogical writings that transcends national and disciplinary borders and comprises a diversity of authors, e.g. Wilhelm Jerusalem, William James or Alfred N. Whitehead; second, that the much-heralded controversy between Mach and the French philosopher of science Pierre Duhem about thought experiments does not only revolve around epistemological issues but rather stems from their antagonist vision of teaching physics; and finally, third, that G. Stanley Hall's psychogenetic theory of pedagogics bears a strong resemblance with the evolutionary naturalism of Machian epistemology and helps explaining key tenets of Mach's conception of thought experiment. By establishing a broad convergence between the work of all these authors despite their different academic upbringing, background and nationality the article argues for a complex and historically fine-grained vision of the relations between natural, social and human sciences going beyond dichotomies like 'Erklären' and 'Verstehen' or the 'Two Cultures'. PMID:26140512

  4. Unification of automatic target tracking and automatic target recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schachter, Bruce J.

    2014-06-01

    The subject being addressed is how an automatic target tracker (ATT) and an automatic target recognizer (ATR) can be fused together so tightly and so well that their distinctiveness becomes lost in the merger. This has historically not been the case outside of biology and a few academic papers. The biological model of ATT∪ATR arises from dynamic patterns of activity distributed across many neural circuits and structures (including retina). The information that the brain receives from the eyes is "old news" at the time that it receives it. The eyes and brain forecast a tracked object's future position, rather than relying on received retinal position. Anticipation of the next moment - building up a consistent perception - is accomplished under difficult conditions: motion (eyes, head, body, scene background, target) and processing limitations (neural noise, delays, eye jitter, distractions). Not only does the human vision system surmount these problems, but it has innate mechanisms to exploit motion in support of target detection and classification. Biological vision doesn't normally operate on snapshots. Feature extraction, detection and recognition are spatiotemporal. When vision is viewed as a spatiotemporal process, target detection, recognition, tracking, event detection and activity recognition, do not seem as distinct as they are in current ATT and ATR designs. They appear as similar mechanism taking place at varying time scales. A framework is provided for unifying ATT and ATR.

  5. Validation of the French version of the Suicidal Ideation Questionnaire among adolescents.

    PubMed

    Potard, Catherine; Kubiszewski, Violaine; Gimenes, Guillaume; Courtois, Robert

    2014-02-28

    Teenage suicide is a major public health issue in Western societies, especially in France. An instrument to measure suicidal thoughts in French adolescents and thus identify the teenagers at risk is urgently required. The aim of this study was to validate a French version of the Suicidal Ideation Questionnaire (SIQ) for use with teenagers. Respondents (n=956, age range 14-18.0) completed the SIQ and other convergent measures (self-esteem, psychic morbidity, anxiety, and personality) for three validation steps (general and clinical samples). A confirmatory factor analysis was performed on the SIQ. The study supported a 30-item one-factor model, similar to the original questionnaire, with moderate model fit indices (χ(2)/ddl=3.21; RMSEA=0.05; CFI=0.87; GFI=0.92). Significant correlations (-0.22 to 0.74) were found with convergent measures among general (n=871) and psychiatric samples (n=38). A high internal consistency was found with a reliability coefficient of 0.91. The results confirm the psychometric qualities of the questionnaire for French adolescents. PMID:24332633

  6. Sparsity inspired automatic target recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, Vishal M.; Nasrabadi, Nasser M.; Chellappa, Rama

    2010-04-01

    In this paper, we develop a framework for using only the needed data for automatic target recognition (ATR) algorithms using the recently developed theory of sparse representations and compressive sensing (CS). We show how sparsity can be helpful for efficient utilization of data, with the possibility of developing real-time, robust target classification. We verify the efficacy of the proposed algorithm in terms of the recognition rate on the well known Comanche forward-looking infrared (FLIR) data set consisting of ten different military targets at different orientations.

  7. Commutated automatic gain control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yost, S. R.

    1982-01-01

    A commutated automatic gain control (AGC) system was designed and built for a prototype Loran C receiver. The receiver uses a microcomputer to control a memory aided phase-locked loop (MAPLL). The microcomputer also controls the input/output, latitude/longitude conversion, and the recently added AGC system. The circuit designed for the AGC is described, and bench and flight test results are presented. The AGC circuit described actually samples starting at a point 40 microseconds after a zero crossing determined by the software lock pulse ultimately generated by a 30 microsecond delay and add network in the receiver front end envelope detector.

  8. Automatic assembly of space stations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, P. K. C.

    1985-01-01

    A problem in the automatic assembly of space stations is the determination of guidance laws for the terminal rendezvous and docking of two structural components or modules. The problem involves the feedback control of both the relative attitude and translational motion of the modules. A suitable mathematical model based on rigid body dynamics was used. The basic requirements, physical constraints and difficulties associated with the control problem are discussed. An approach which bypasses some of the difficulties is proposed. A nonlinear guidance law satisfying the basic requirements is derived. The implementation requirements is discussed. The performance of the resulting feedback control system with rigid and flexible structural components is studied by computer simulation.

  9. Responsiveness of the individual work performance questionnaire

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Individual work performance is an important outcome measure in studies in the workplace. Nevertheless, its conceptualization and measurement has proven challenging. To overcome limitations of existing scales, the Individual Work Performance Questionnaire (IWPQ) was recently developed. The aim of the current study was to gain insight into the responsiveness of the IWPQ. Methods Data were used from the Be Active & Relax randomized controlled trial. The aim of the trial was to investigate the effectiveness of an intervention to stimulate physical activity and relaxation of office workers, on need for recovery. Individual work performance was a secondary outcome measure of the trial. In total, 39 hypotheses were formulated concerning correlations between changes on the IWPQ scales and changes on similar constructs (e.g., presenteeism) and distinct constructs (e.g., need for recovery) used in the trial. Results 260 Participants completed the IWPQ at both baseline and 12 months of follow-up. For the IWPQ scales, 23%, 15%, and 38%, respectively, of the hypotheses could be confirmed. In general, the correlations between change scores were weaker than expected. Nevertheless, at least 85% of the correlations were in the expected direction. Conclusions Based on results of the current study, no firm conclusions can be drawn about the responsiveness of the IWPQ. Several reasons may account for the weaker than expected correlations. Future research on the IWPQ’s responsiveness should be conducted, preferably in other populations and intervention studies, where greater changes over time can be expected. PMID:24885593

  10. The Mental Vulnerability Questionnaire: a psychometric evaluation.

    PubMed

    Eplov, Lene Falgaard; Petersen, Janne; Jørgensen, Torben; Johansen, Christoffer; Birket-Smith, Morten; Lyngberg, Ann Christine; Mortensen, Erik Lykke

    2010-12-01

    The Mental Vulnerability Questionnaire was originally a 22 item scale, later reduced to a 12 item scale. In population studies the 12 item scale has been a significant predictor of health and illness. The scale has not been psychometrically evaluated for more than 30 years, and the aim of the present study was both to evaluate the psychometric properties of the 22 and 12 item scales and of three new scales. The main study sample was a community sample comprising more than 6,000 men and women. In this sample the coefficients of homogeneity were all over 0.30 for the three new scales, but below 0.30 for the 12 and the 22 item scales. All five Mental Vulnerability scales had positively skewed score distributions which were associated significantly with both SCL-90-R symptom scores and NEO-PI-R personality scales (primarily Neuroticism and Extraversion). Coefficient alpha was highest for the 22 and 12 item scales, and the two scales also showed the highest long-term stability. The three new scales reflect relatively independent dimensions of Psychosomatic Symptoms, Mental Symptoms, and Interpersonal Problems, but because of reliability problems it remains an open question whether they will prove useful as predictors of health and morbidity. PMID:20642738

  11. Social Reward Questionnaire (SRQ): development and validation

    PubMed Central

    Foulkes, Lucy; Viding, Essi; McCrory, Eamon; Neumann, Craig S.

    2014-01-01

    Human beings seek out social interactions as a source of reward. To date, there have been limited attempts to identify different forms of social reward, and little is known about how the value of social rewards might vary between individuals. This study aimed to address both these issues by developing the Social Reward Questionnaire (SRQ), a measure of individual differences in the value of different social rewards. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was run on an initial set of 75 items (N = 305). Based on this analysis, confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was then conducted on a second sample (N = 505) with a refined 23-item scale. This analysis was used to test a six-factor structure, which resulted in good model fit (CFI = 0.96, RSMEA = 0.07). The factors represent six subscales of social reward defined as follows: Admiration; Negative Social Potency; Passivity; Prosocial Interactions; Sexual Reward; and Sociability. All subscales demonstrated good test-retest reliability and internal consistency. Each subscale also showed a distinct pattern of associations with external correlates measuring personality traits, attitudes, and goals, thus demonstrating construct validity. Taken together, the findings suggest that the SRQ is a reliable, valid measure that can be used to assess individual differences in the value experienced from different social rewards. PMID:24653711

  12. Cerebral Correlates of Automatic Associations Towards Performance Enhancing Substances

    PubMed Central

    Schindler, Sebastian; Wolff, Wanja

    2015-01-01

    The direct assessment of explicit attitudes toward performance enhancing substances, for example Neuroenhancement or doping in sports, can be affected by social desirability biases and cheating attempts. According to Dual Process Theories of cognition, indirect measures like the Implicit Association Test (IAT) measure automatic associations toward a topic (as opposed to explicit attitudes measured by self-report measures). Such automatic associations are thought to occur rapidly and to evade voluntary control. However, whether or not such indirect tests actually reflect automatic associations is difficult to validate. Electroencephalography (EEG) has a superior time resolution which can differentiate between highly automatic compared to more elaborate processing stages. We therefore used EEG to examine on which processing stages cortical differences between negative or positive attitudes to doping occur, and whether or not these differences can be related to BIAT scores. We tested 42 university students (31 females, 24.43 ± 3.17 years old), who were requested to complete a brief doping IAT (BIAT) on attitudes toward doping. Cerebral activity during doping BIAT completion was assessed using high-density EEG. Behaviorally, participants D-scores exhibited negative attitudes toward doping, represented by faster reaction times in the doping + dislike pairing task. Event-related potentials (ERPs) revealed earliest effects between 200 and 300 ms. Here, a relatively larger occipital positivity was found for the doping + dislike pairing task. Further, in the LPP time range between 400 and 600 ms a larger late positive potential was found for the doping + dislike pairing task over central regions. These LPP amplitude differences were successfully predicting participants' BIAT D-scores. Results indicate that event-related potentials differentiate between positive and negative doping attitudes at stages of mid-latency. However, it seems that IAT scores can be predicted only by the later occurring LPP. Our study is the first to investigate the cerebral correlates that contribute to test scores obtained in the indirect testing of automatic associations toward doping. The implications of our results for the broader NE concept are discussed in light of the conceptual similarity of doping and NE. PMID:26733914

  13. Cerebral Correlates of Automatic Associations Towards Performance Enhancing Substances.

    PubMed

    Schindler, Sebastian; Wolff, Wanja

    2015-01-01

    The direct assessment of explicit attitudes toward performance enhancing substances, for example Neuroenhancement or doping in sports, can be affected by social desirability biases and cheating attempts. According to Dual Process Theories of cognition, indirect measures like the Implicit Association Test (IAT) measure automatic associations toward a topic (as opposed to explicit attitudes measured by self-report measures). Such automatic associations are thought to occur rapidly and to evade voluntary control. However, whether or not such indirect tests actually reflect automatic associations is difficult to validate. Electroencephalography (EEG) has a superior time resolution which can differentiate between highly automatic compared to more elaborate processing stages. We therefore used EEG to examine on which processing stages cortical differences between negative or positive attitudes to doping occur, and whether or not these differences can be related to BIAT scores. We tested 42 university students (31 females, 24.43 ± 3.17 years old), who were requested to complete a brief doping IAT (BIAT) on attitudes toward doping. Cerebral activity during doping BIAT completion was assessed using high-density EEG. Behaviorally, participants D-scores exhibited negative attitudes toward doping, represented by faster reaction times in the doping + dislike pairing task. Event-related potentials (ERPs) revealed earliest effects between 200 and 300 ms. Here, a relatively larger occipital positivity was found for the doping + dislike pairing task. Further, in the LPP time range between 400 and 600 ms a larger late positive potential was found for the doping + dislike pairing task over central regions. These LPP amplitude differences were successfully predicting participants' BIAT D-scores. Results indicate that event-related potentials differentiate between positive and negative doping attitudes at stages of mid-latency. However, it seems that IAT scores can be predicted only by the later occurring LPP. Our study is the first to investigate the cerebral correlates that contribute to test scores obtained in the indirect testing of automatic associations toward doping. The implications of our results for the broader NE concept are discussed in light of the conceptual similarity of doping and NE. PMID:26733914

  14. Metalinguistic deficits in patients with cerebellar dysfunction: empirical support for the dysmetria of thought theory.

    PubMed

    Guell, Xavier; Hoche, Franziska; Schmahmann, Jeremy D

    2015-02-01

    The cerebellar cognitive affective syndrome (CCAS) includes disruption of linguistic processing such as verbal fluency, verbal working memory, grammar, and speech perception. We set out to examine linguistic capabilities in patients with cerebellar lesions to determine which domains are spared and which impaired and to evaluate the underlying cognitive structure of these deficits. Forty-four patients with cerebellar disease were compared to 40 healthy controls on the Oral Sentence Production Test (OSPT) which assesses production of sentences with correct syntactic structure and semantic quality. Twenty-five of these cerebellar patients and 25 controls received the Test of Language Competence-Expanded (TLC-E) that assesses metalinguistic ability. The OSPT failed to reveal differences between patients and controls. In contrast, all cerebellar patients were impaired on each of the four TLC-E subtests. Differences between isolated cerebellar and complex cerebrocerebellar patients were nonsignificant. These results confirm and extend prior observations of the TLC-E in patients with cerebellar lesions and suggest three separate but related language impairments following cerebellar dysfunction: (1) disruption in automatic adjustment of intact grammatical and semantic abilities to a linguistic context in sentence production, (2) disruption in automatic adjustment to a linguistic context in sentence interpretation, and (3) disruption of cognitive processes essential for linguistic skills, such as analysis and sequential logical reasoning. These findings are consistent with the unifying framework of the universal cerebellar transform and the dysmetria of thought theory and provide new insights into the nature of the cognitive impairments in patients with the CCAS. PMID:25503825

  15. Satan and Savior: Mass Communication in Progressive Thought.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, John Durham

    1989-01-01

    Probes the contradictory philosophical reception of mass communication in the social thought of Charles Horton Cooley, John Dewey, Walter Lippmann, Robert Park, and Josiah Royce. Shows how these progressive intellectuals conceived of mass media as an integral part of a social order whose scale and mass require systematic means of

  16. Thoughts on Surviving as Native Scholars in the Academy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hernandez-Avila, Ines

    2003-01-01

    In this article, the author offers some thoughts on life as native scholars in academia, along with some possible strategies for survival and achievement. Recognizing how hard it is every day, how crazy this life is in the twenty-first century after everything the communities, families, and nations have gone through, the author considers it a

  17. Decision-Making and Thought Processes among Poker Players

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    St. Germain, Joseph; Tenenbaum, Gershon

    2011-01-01

    This study was aimed at delineating decision-making and thought processing among poker players who vary in skill-level. Forty-five participants, 15 in each group, comprised expert, intermediate, and novice poker players. They completed the Computer Poker Simulation Task (CPST) comprised of 60 hands of No-Limit Texas Hold 'Em. During the CPST, they…

  18. Content Influence While Stage Scoring Moral Thought Statements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Napier, John D.

    1977-01-01

    Two types of test scores were analyzed to examine whether sixty teachers were unable to use Kohlberg's measurement system for determining stages of moral thought because they were stage scoring invalidly on the basis of content. This proved to be the case. (Author/JKS)

  19. The Ability of Elementary School Teachers to Assess Moral Thought.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Napier, John D.

    A published rater manual used by sixty elementary school teachers to assess moral thought statements was found ineffective. The study also examined what factors were related to their assessing ability. The subjects took a pretest using only descriptions of the six moral stages originally researched by Lawrence Kohlberg. Next the teachers were…

  20. Deafness, Thought Bubbles, and Theory-of-Mind Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wellman, Henry M.; Peterson, Candida C.

    2013-01-01

    The processes and mechanisms of theory-of-mind development were examined via a training study of false-belief conceptions in deaf children of hearing parents (N = 43). In comparison to 2 different control conditions, training based on thought-bubble instruction about beliefs was linked with improved false-belief understanding as well as progress…

  1. Satan and Savior: Mass Communication in Progressive Thought.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, John Durham

    1989-01-01

    Probes the contradictory philosophical reception of mass communication in the social thought of Charles Horton Cooley, John Dewey, Walter Lippmann, Robert Park, and Josiah Royce. Shows how these progressive intellectuals conceived of mass media as an integral part of a social order whose scale and mass require systematic means of…

  2. Confucius as a Critical Educator: Towards Educational Thoughts of Confucius

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhao, Juanjuan

    2013-01-01

    This paper is a cross-cultural comparative study in education philosophy. A comparative and philosophical approach is used to interpret texts from the Analects of Confucius and to find connections with ideas of critical educators. In comparing Confucius' educational thought with that of Paulo Freire, John Dewey and other theorists in critical…

  3. A Study of Thoughtful Literacy and the Motivation to Read

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Applegate, Anthony J.; Applegate, Mary DeKonty

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the motivation to read of children in grades two through six. All children in the study were strong in their literal comprehension of narrative text. Some were equally strong in their ability to respond thoughtfully to the text (Blue Group); others struggled to respond to questions requiring them to think about the implications

  4. The Rising Cost of Higher Education. APPA Thought Leaders 2013

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    APPA: Association of Higher Education Facilities Officers, 2013

    2013-01-01

    The 2013 Thought Leaders Symposium, sponsored in part by DTZ, a UGL company, and Jacobs, focused on the topic of the rising cost of higher education. More than three dozen higher education leaders--including presidents, provosts, business officers, consultants, association executives, and facilities professionals--participated in a facilitated…

  5. Superculture? Thoughts Prompted by Roland S. Persson's Essay

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tebbs, Trevor J.

    2012-01-01

    The author finds Roland S. Persson's (2012a) paper to be timely, fascinating, important and powerful. At risk of mixing metaphors, it provides much food for thought and a penetrating lens through which all those vested in the optimal realisation of human potential would be prudent to review their own perceptions, boundaries of belief and…

  6. Kindness in the Art Classroom: Kind Thoughts on Stephen Rowland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lampert, Nancy

    2011-01-01

    This article is a response to Stephen Rowland's article, "Kindness," which appeared in "London Review of Education," November 2009. Much to my amazement, Stephen Rowland's article was the only one I found when I did a global database search on "kindness in education". I had thought that I would find reams of information in the databases on the…

  7. An Outsider's Ethnographic Thoughts about Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agar, Michael

    2014-01-01

    This article gives Michael Agar's email responses to two questions put by Gavin Melles: "What are your thoughts on the advantages and dangers of developments in applied anthropology for ethnographic and anthropology practice?" and "What are your impressions of the potential and actual use of ethnography in design?" The…

  8. Thought-Leaders in Asynchronous Online Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waters, Jim

    2012-01-01

    The growth of online learning has exposed fundamental gaps in our knowledge, both theoretical and pragmatic. This research investigated some questions of the role of emergent leaders in online leaning and the influence of different behaviors. Firstly are there any common factors that identify thought-leaders? Secondly does the presence of…

  9. Deafness, Thought Bubbles, and Theory-of-Mind Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wellman, Henry M.; Peterson, Candida C.

    2013-01-01

    The processes and mechanisms of theory-of-mind development were examined via a training study of false-belief conceptions in deaf children of hearing parents (N = 43). In comparison to 2 different control conditions, training based on thought-bubble instruction about beliefs was linked with improved false-belief understanding as well as progress

  10. Color, Temperature and Heat: Exploring University Students Mental Thoughts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canlas, Ian Phil

    2016-01-01

    Color, temperature and heat are among the concepts in science that are interconnected. These concepts are introduced to learners even before they enter the basic education. On the other hand, in school, it is formally introduced to them not only in science but also in the humanities. The foregoing study attempted to explore the mental thoughts of…

  11. Eye Movement as an Indicator of Sensory Components in Thought.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buckner, Michael; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Investigated Neuro-Linguistic Programming eye movement model's claim that specific eye movements are indicative of specific sensory components in thought. Agreement between students' (N=48) self-reports and trained observers' records support visual and auditory portions of model; do not support kinesthetic portion. Interrater agreement supports…

  12. Addressing STEM Retention through a Scientific Thought and Methods Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koenig, Kathleen; Schen, Melissa; Edwards, Michael; Bao, Lei

    2012-01-01

    Retention of majors in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) is a national problem that continues to be the focus of bridging and first-year experience programs. This article presents an innovative course, Scientific Thought and Methods, that targets students with low math placement scores. These students are not eligible for…

  13. A Response to Glickman's "Preparing Thoughtful Educational Leaders"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Hair; Mary John; Reitzug, Ulrich C.

    2006-01-01

    This is a response to an article by Carl Glickman entitled "Across the Void: Preparing Thoughtful Educational Leaders for Today's Schools" that appeared in the September 2005 issue of the "Journal of School Leadership." In his article, Glickman argues that the preparation of educational leaders must shake the assumptions that are generally held…

  14. Thought Control Training as a Treatment for Insomnia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ribordy, Sheila C.

    College students with difficulty falling asleep were treated with either progressive relaxation, systematic desensitization, or a thought control procedure. All three treatment groups showed significant lower latency to sleep onset times than a waiting-list control group at the end of the three-week treatment period. A three-week followup revealed…

  15. Parent-Adolescent Agreement Concerning Adolescents' Suicidal Thoughts and Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klaus, Nicole M.; Mobilio, Andrea; King, Cheryl A.

    2009-01-01

    Information on history of suicidal thoughts and behaviors is critical in risk assessment, and multi-informant assessment has been recommended. Despite this, relatively little is known about parent-adolescent agreement regarding adolescent suicidality. To examine the extent and predictors of such agreement, 448 psychiatrically hospitalized…

  16. Superculture? Thoughts Prompted by Roland S. Persson's Essay

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tebbs, Trevor J.

    2012-01-01

    The author finds Roland S. Persson's (2012a) paper to be timely, fascinating, important and powerful. At risk of mixing metaphors, it provides much food for thought and a penetrating lens through which all those vested in the optimal realisation of human potential would be prudent to review their own perceptions, boundaries of belief and

  17. The History of Women's Management Thought: A Snapshot.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brouwer, Lynette F.

    The purpose of this paper is to describe and analyze women's contributions to the history and development of management concepts. The paper discusses the needs and reasons for this type of exploration and compares differences between men and women in relation to the development of management thought. A historical profile from the early 1800s which…

  18. Neurally and Mathematically Motivated Architecture for Language and Thought

    PubMed Central

    Perlovsky, L.I; Ilin, R

    2010-01-01

    Neural structures of interaction between thinking and language are unknown. This paper suggests a possible architecture motivated by neural and mathematical considerations. A mathematical requirement of computability imposes significant constraints on possible architectures consistent with brain neural structure and with a wealth of psychological knowledge. How language interacts with cognition. Do we think with words, or is thinking independent from language with words being just labels for decisions? Why is language learned by the age of 5 or 7, but acquisition of knowledge represented by learning to use this language knowledge takes a lifetime? This paper discusses hierarchical aspects of language and thought and argues that high level abstract thinking is impossible without language. We discuss a mathematical technique that can model the joint language-thought architecture, while overcoming previously encountered difficulties of computability. This architecture explains a contradiction between human ability for rational thoughtful decisions and irrationality of human thinking revealed by Tversky and Kahneman; a crucial role in this contradiction might be played by language. The proposed model resolves long-standing issues: how the brain learns correct words-object associations; why animals do not talk and think like people. We propose the role played by language emotionality in its interaction with thought. We relate the mathematical model to Humboldt’s “firmness” of languages; and discuss possible influence of language grammar on its emotionality. Psychological and brain imaging experiments related to the proposed model are discussed. Future theoretical and experimental research is outlined. PMID:21673788

  19. Leveraging Facilities for Institutional Success. APPA Thought Leaders Series 2014

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    APPA: Association of Higher Education Facilities Officers, 2014

    2014-01-01

    The 2014 Thought Leaders Symposium, sponsored in part by DTZ, a UGL company, and Jacobs, focused on the issues and challenges related to leveraging campus facility assets to achieve desired institutional outcomes. More than three dozen higher education leaders--including presidents, provosts, business officers, consultants, association executives,…

  20. A Personal Journey through the "Mosaic of Thought."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penticoff, Judith

    2002-01-01

    Describes how the book "Mosaic of Thought: Teaching Comprehension in a Reader's Workshop" by Ellin Oliver Keene and Susan Zimmerman requires teachers to examine their reading strategies. Examines essential strategies for students to become engaged and independent readers. Considers strategies such as: metacognition; activating prior knowledge;…

  1. Academic Achievement and Formal Thought in Engineering Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vazquez, Stella Maris; de Anglat, Hilda Difabio

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: Research on university-level academic performance has significantly linked failure and dropping out to formal reasoning deficiency. We have not found any papers on formal thought in Argentine university students, in spite of the obvious shortcomings observed in the classrooms. Thus, the main objective of this paper was exploring the…

  2. An Outsider's Ethnographic Thoughts about Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agar, Michael

    2014-01-01

    This article gives Michael Agar's email responses to two questions put by Gavin Melles: "What are your thoughts on the advantages and dangers of developments in applied anthropology for ethnographic and anthropology practice?" and "What are your impressions of the potential and actual use of ethnography in design?" The

  3. Moral Action as Social Capital, Moral Thought as Cultural Capital

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kang, Min Ju; Glassman, Michael

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores the idea that moral thought/reasoning and moral actions are actually two separate phenomena that have little relationship to each other. The idea that moral thinking does or can control moral action creates a difficult dualism between our knowledge about morality and our everyday actions. These differences run parallel to the…

  4. Pause for Thought: Why Bernstein Was Not a Psycholinguist

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Good, David

    2009-01-01

    Bernstein recognised that his claims about the role of language in education, and the differential success of children from different social strata were effectively claims about underlying psychological processes, and the relationship between language and thought. In attempting to bridge the gap between macro-sociological analyses and individual…

  5. Moral Action as Social Capital, Moral Thought as Cultural Capital

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kang, Min Ju; Glassman, Michael

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores the idea that moral thought/reasoning and moral actions are actually two separate phenomena that have little relationship to each other. The idea that moral thinking does or can control moral action creates a difficult dualism between our knowledge about morality and our everyday actions. These differences run parallel to the

  6. Sexism in Political Thought and Its Refutation: A Schematic Overview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Siegrun F.

    The document examines Western political thought in terms of women's and men's expected spheres of concern, the proper male and female nature, and the sex-specific allocation of social values. In addition, the author applies her conclusions to contemporary political issues in the United States. Aristotle, Cicero, Aquinas, Rousseau, and Hegel made a…

  7. Sound Not Light: Levinas and the Elements of Thought

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Emma; Standish, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Can Levinas' thought of the other be extended beyond the relation to the other human being? This article seeks to demonstrate that Levinas' philosophy can indeed be read in such a sense and that this serves to open up a new way of understanding human thinking. Key to understanding such an extension of Levinas' philosophy will be his account of the…

  8. Negative Thought Stopping. A Key to Performance Enhancement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ziegler, Susan G.

    1987-01-01

    The effects of mental training on skill acquisition and performance is currently emphasized in the study of sport psychology and motor learning. This article provides the teacher and coach with general guidelines for understanding and incorporating negative thought stopping training into athletic programs. (MT)

  9. A History of Thought and Practice in Educational Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Roald F.; And Others

    Historical reconstruction bridges the gulf between theory and practice extant in educational administration. This book characterizes evolution of administrative thought and practice in the United States. An introduction summarizes methods incorporated by this applied field from diverse administrative systems. Chapters 2 and 3 advance two of four…

  10. A Study of Thoughtful Literacy and the Motivation to Read

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Applegate, Anthony J.; Applegate, Mary DeKonty

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the motivation to read of children in grades two through six. All children in the study were strong in their literal comprehension of narrative text. Some were equally strong in their ability to respond thoughtfully to the text (Blue Group); others struggled to respond to questions requiring them to think about the implications…

  11. Decision-Making and Thought Processes among Poker Players

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    St. Germain, Joseph; Tenenbaum, Gershon

    2011-01-01

    This study was aimed at delineating decision-making and thought processing among poker players who vary in skill-level. Forty-five participants, 15 in each group, comprised expert, intermediate, and novice poker players. They completed the Computer Poker Simulation Task (CPST) comprised of 60 hands of No-Limit Texas Hold 'Em. During the CPST, they

  12. Food for Thought: Expanding School Breakfast to NJ Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen-Kyle, Portia; Parello, Nancy

    2011-01-01

    This brief marks the start of "Advocates for Children of New Jersey's Food for Thought School Breakfast Campaign", which seeks to expand innovative approaches to serving school breakfast and significantly increase students' participation rates. This report provides a closer look at the data, including identifying districts that have high…

  13. Indigenous Thought, Appropriation, and Non-Aboriginal People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haig-Brown, Celia

    2010-01-01

    In this article, I explore the question, "What is the relationship between appropriation of Indigenous thought and what might be called "deep learning" based in years of education in Indigenous contexts." Beginning with an examination of meanings ascribed to cultural appropriation, I bring texts from Gee on secondary discourses, Foucault on the…

  14. Evolution of Management Thought in the Ancient Times.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharma, C. L.

    This paper argues that although systematic management thought is a distinctly modern development, the writings of ancient scholars and records of ancient rulers infer that they understood the rudiments of management principles and concepts. To support this thesis, the author reviews the evidence of management practices and concepts in various…

  15. Intrusive Thoughts: A Primary Variable in Breakup Distress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Field, Tiffany; Diego, Miguel; Pelaez, Martha; Deeds, Osvelia; Delgado, Jeannette

    2013-01-01

    University students who were high versus low on breakup distress scores were given self-report measures to assess their intrusive thoughts about the romantic breakup and their somatic symptoms that followed the breakup as well as their extracurricular activities and social support that might alleviate their breakup distress. In a regression…

  16. Sex, Lies, and Residence Life: Delaware's Thought Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kissel, Adam

    2009-01-01

    The University of Delaware has a zero-tolerance policy for anything remotely resembling "hate speech." As such, the school implemented a mandatory training for all 7,000-odd students in its dorms. The sessions were part of a thorough thought-reform curriculum, designed by the school's Office of Residence Life, psychologically to "treat" and…

  17. Embodiment, Social Praxis and Environmental Education: Some Thoughts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grange, Lesley Le

    2004-01-01

    The body has been neglected and devalued in Western philosophy. This neglect and devaluation of the body is rooted in dualistic reasoning that has its origin in Greek philosophical thought, and reinforced by philosophers of science during the scientific revolution of 17th century Europe. Dualistic reasoning is in part the cause of current global…

  18. Thoughts on the Curriculum of the Pulse Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeley, Richard

    This paper examines the "Populorum Progressio," Pope Paul VI's 1967 encyclical on the "development of peoples," for a condensation of the chief tenets of Catholic social thought and for curricular guidelines. The author takes the word "development" to mean the concrete realizations of justice and peace. Fundamental education for peace and justice…

  19. Thoughts of Death and Suicide in Early Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vander Stoep, Ann; McCauley, Elizabeth; Flynn, Cynthia; Stone, Andrea

    2009-01-01

    The prevalence and persistence of thoughts of death and suicide during early adolescence were estimated in a community-based cohort. A latent class approach was used to identify distinct subgroups based on endorsements to depression items administered repeatedly over 24 months. Two classes emerged, with 75% in a low ideation class across four…

  20. Film as a "Thoughtful" Medium for Teaching History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoddard, Jeremy D.

    2012-01-01

    This collective case study of teachers and students in two ninth-grade US history classes examines the role that films can play as a "thoughtful" medium for teaching history. Specifically, the study focuses on the nature and range of authentic intellectual work that students are engaged in with film in the classroom (Newmann, F., B. King, and D.…

  1. Spectral analysis methods for automatic speech recognition applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parinam, Venkata Neelima Devi

    In this thesis, we evaluate the front-end of Automatic Speech Recognition (ASR) systems, with respect to different types of spectral processing methods that are extensively used. A filter bank approach for front end spectral analysis is one of the common methods used for spectral analysis. In this work we describe and evaluate spectral analysis based on Mel and Gammatone filter banks. These filtering methods are derived from auditory models and are thought to have some advantages for automatic speech recognition work. Experimentally, however, we show that direct use of FFT spectral values is just as effective as using either Mel or Gammatone filter banks, provided that the features extracted from the FFT spectral values take into account a Mel or Mel-like frequency scale. It is also shown that trajectory features based on sliding block of spectral features, computed using either FFT or filter bank spectral analysis are considerably more effective, in terms of ASR accuracy, than are delta and delta-delta terms often used for ASR. Although there is no major performance disadvantage to using a filter bank, simplicity of analysis is a reason to eliminate this step in speech processing. These assertions hold for both clean and noisy speech.

  2. A quantitative and qualitative evaluation of an automatic occlusion device for tracheoesophageal speech: the Provox FreeHands HME.

    PubMed

    Hamadé, Rachel; Hewlett, Nigel; Scanlon, Emer

    2006-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate a new automatic tracheostoma valve: the Provox FreeHands HME (manufactured by Atos Medical AB, Sweden). Data from four laryngectomee participants using automatic and also manual occlusion were subjected to acoustic and perceptual analysis. The main results were a significant decrease, from the manual to automatic occlusion condition, in maximum phonation time, mean intensity of read speech and percentage pause time. There was an increase in random noise in the speech signal and a significant increase in extraneous noise caused by the device. Perceptual analysis revealed no clear functional impact of these differences. Data from a questionnaire and diary suggested the main advantage of automatic occlusion was the freedom to speak while performing manual tasks. The principal disadvantage appeared to be a decrease in base-plate seal duration. The results suggest that, for some clients, the FreeHands valve is a useful option for use alongside manual occlusion. PMID:16428236

  3. An automatic assembly planning system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Y. F.; Lee, C. S. G.

    An automatic assembly planning system which takes the CAD description of a product as input and automatically generates an assembly plan subject to the resource constraint of a given assembly cell is presented. The system improves the flexibility and productivity of flexible manufacturing systems and is composed of five modules: world database, simulated world model, knowledge acquisition mechanism, planning knowledge base, and assembly planner. The acquired knowledge forms the planning knowledge base. The simulated world model keeps track of the current state of the assembly world. In the initial state, all the components are separated, while in the final state, all the components are assembled. The assembly planner is made up of a set of production rules which models the effects of real assembly tasks. By repeatedly applying these production rules to the simulated world state, the planner transforms the initial state into the final state. The set of rules applied during this transformation process forms the assembly plan to actually assemble the product in the given assembly cell. Examples are given to illustrate the concepts in these five modules.

  4. Automatic Computer Mapping of Terrain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smedes, H. W.

    1971-01-01

    Computer processing of 17 wavelength bands of visible, reflective infrared, and thermal infrared scanner spectrometer data, and of three wavelength bands derived from color aerial film has resulted in successful automatic computer mapping of eight or more terrain classes in a Yellowstone National Park test site. The tests involved: (1) supervised and non-supervised computer programs; (2) special preprocessing of the scanner data to reduce computer processing time and cost, and improve the accuracy; and (3) studies of the effectiveness of the proposed Earth Resources Technology Satellite (ERTS) data channels in the automatic mapping of the same terrain, based on simulations, using the same set of scanner data. The following terrain classes have been mapped with greater than 80 percent accuracy in a 12-square-mile area with 1,800 feet of relief; (1) bedrock exposures, (2) vegetated rock rubble, (3) talus, (4) glacial kame meadow, (5) glacial till meadow, (6) forest, (7) bog, and (8) water. In addition, shadows of clouds and cliffs are depicted, but were greatly reduced by using preprocessing techniques.

  5. Automatic transmission system for vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Kurihara, K.; Arai, K.

    1987-09-15

    An automatic transmission system for vehicles powered by an internal combustion engine is described which consists of: a gear-change mechanism connected to an internal combustion engine and adapted to operate in response to an electric signal; means for outputting at least one condition signal indicative of an operating condition of the internal combustion engine at each instant; a first detection means for detecting a gear position of the gear-change mechanism at each instant; a selector having at least a drive position for allowing automatic gear-change operation over a plurality of gear positions of the gear-change mechanism and a gear-holding position provided adjacent to drive position; an output means responsive to the operation of the an operation lever of the selector for outputting a command signal indicating a position at which the operation lever for selecting a desired operation mode is set; a storage means for storing a plurality of sets of map data corresponding to a plurality of gear change maps; a second detection means responsive to an output from the first detection means a map selecting means responsive to the command signal and an output from the second detection means for selecting a predetermined set of map data corresponding to the command signal; a control means responsive to the condition signal for controlling the operation of the gear-change mechanism in accordance with the set of map data selected by the map selecting means.

  6. Automatic visible watermarking of images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, A. Ravishankar; Braudaway, Gordon W.; Mintzer, Frederick C.

    1998-04-01

    Visible image watermarking has become an important and widely used technique to identify ownership and protect copyrights to images. A visible image watermark immediately identifies the owner of an image, and if properly constructed, can deter subsequent unscrupulous use of the image. The insertion of a visible watermark should satisfy two conflicting conditions: the intensity of the watermark should be strong enough to be perceptible, yet it should be light enough to be unobtrusive and not mar the beauty of the original image. Typically such an adjustment is made manually, and human intervention is required to set the intensity of the watermark at the right level. This is fine for a few images, but is unsuitable for a large collection of images. Thus, it is desirable to have a technique to automatically adjust the intensity of the watermark based on some underlying property of each image. This will allow a large number of images to be automatically watermarked, this increasing the throughput of the watermarking stage. In this paper we show that the measurement of image texture can be successfully used to automate the adjustment of watermark intensity. A linear regression model is used to predict subjective assessments of correct watermark intensity based on image texture measurements.

  7. Automatic temperature controlled retinal photocoagulation.

    PubMed

    Schlott, Kerstin; Koinzer, Stefan; Ptaszynski, Lars; Bever, Marco; Baade, Alex; Roider, Johann; Birngruber, Reginald; Brinkmann, Ralf

    2012-06-01

    Laser coagulation is a treatment method for many retinal diseases. Due to variations in fundus pigmentation and light scattering inside the eye globe, different lesion strengths are often achieved. The aim of this work is to realize an automatic feedback algorithm to generate desired lesion strengths by controlling the retinal temperature increase with the irradiation time. Optoacoustics afford non-invasive retinal temperature monitoring during laser treatment. A 75 ns/523 nm Q-switched Nd:YLF laser was used to excite the temperature-dependent pressure amplitudes, which were detected at the cornea by an ultrasonic transducer embedded in a contact lens. A 532 nm continuous wave Nd:YAG laser served for photocoagulation. The ED50 temperatures, for which the probability of ophthalmoscopically visible lesions after one hour in vivo in rabbits was 50%, varied from 63C for 20 ms to 49C for 400 ms. Arrhenius parameters were extracted as ?E=273 J mol(-1) and A=3 x 10(44) s(-1). Control algorithms for mild and strong lesions were developed, which led to average lesion diameters of 162 34 ?m and 189 34 ?m, respectively. It could be demonstrated that the sizes of the automatically controlled lesions were widely independent of the treatment laser power and the retinal pigmentation. PMID:22734753

  8. Dysautonomia in Narcolepsy: Evidence by Questionnaire Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Gilles; Vaillant, Michel; Pieri, Vannina; Fink, Gereon R.; Diederich, Nico

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose Excessive daytime sleepiness and sudden sleep attacks are the main features of narcolepsy, but rapid-eye-movement sleep behavior disorder (RBD), hyposmia, and depression can also occur. The latter symptoms are nonmotor features in idiopathic Parkinson's disease (IPD). In the present study, IPD-proven diagnostic tools were tested to determine whether they are also applicable in the assessment of narcolepsy. Methods This was a case-control study comparing 15 patients with narcolepsy (PN) and 15 control subjects (CS) using the Scales for Outcomes in Parkinson's Autonomic Test (SCOPA-AUT), Parkinson's Disease Nonmotor Symptoms (PDNMS), University of Pennsylvania Smell Test, Farnsworth-Munsell 100 Hue test, Beck Depression Inventory, and the RBD screening questionnaire. Results Both the PN and CS exhibited mild hyposmia and no deficits in visual tests. Frequent dysautonomia in all domains except sexuality was found for the PN. The total SCOPA-AUT score was higher for the PN (18.47±10.08, mean±SD) than for the CS (4.40±3.09), as was the PDNMS score (10.53±4.78 and 1.80±2.31, respectively). RBD was present in 87% of the PN and 0% of the CS. The PN were more depressed than the CS. The differences between the PN and CS for all of these variables were statistically significant (all p<0.05). Conclusions The results of this study provide evidence for the presence of dysautonomia and confirm the comorbidities of depression and RBD in narcolepsy patients. The spectrum, which is comparable to the nonmotor complex in IPD, suggests wide-ranging, clinically detectable dysfunction beyond the narcoleptic core syndrome. PMID:25324880

  9. Recording thoughts while memorizing music: a case study.

    PubMed

    Lisboa, Tania; Chaffin, Roger; Demos, Alexander P

    2014-01-01

    Musicians generally believe that memory differs from one person to the next. As a result, memorizing strategies that could be useful to almost everyone are not widely taught. We describe how an 18-years old piano student (Grade 7, ABRSM), learned to memorize by recording her thoughts, a technique inspired by studies of how experienced soloists memorize. The student, who had previously ignored suggestions that she play from memory, decided to learn to memorize, selecting Schumann's "Der Dichter Spricht" for this purpose. Rather than explicitly teaching the student how to memorize, the teacher taught her to record her thoughts while playing by marking them on copies of the score, adapting an approach used previously in research with experienced performers. Over a 6½ week period, the student recorded her thoughts during practice (five times) and while performing from memory for the teacher (three times). The student also video-recorded 3 weeks of practice, three performances, and the reconstruction of the piece from memory after a 9½-weeks break. The thoughts that the student reported were prepared during practice, stable over time, and functioned as memory retrieval cues during reconstruction. This suggests that the student memorized in the same way as the more experienced musicians who have been studied previously and that teaching student musicians to record their thoughts may be an effective way to help them memorize. The speed and durability of her memorization surprised the student, inspiring her to perform in public and to use the same technique for new pieces. PMID:25667574

  10. Recording thoughts while memorizing music: a case study

    PubMed Central

    Lisboa, Tania; Chaffin, Roger; Demos, Alexander P.

    2015-01-01

    Musicians generally believe that memory differs from one person to the next. As a result, memorizing strategies that could be useful to almost everyone are not widely taught. We describe how an 18-years old piano student (Grade 7, ABRSM), learned to memorize by recording her thoughts, a technique inspired by studies of how experienced soloists memorize. The student, who had previously ignored suggestions that she play from memory, decided to learn to memorize, selecting Schumann’s “Der Dichter Spricht” for this purpose. Rather than explicitly teaching the student how to memorize, the teacher taught her to record her thoughts while playing by marking them on copies of the score, adapting an approach used previously in research with experienced performers. Over a 6½ week period, the student recorded her thoughts during practice (five times) and while performing from memory for the teacher (three times). The student also video-recorded 3 weeks of practice, three performances, and the reconstruction of the piece from memory after a 9½-weeks break. The thoughts that the student reported were prepared during practice, stable over time, and functioned as memory retrieval cues during reconstruction. This suggests that the student memorized in the same way as the more experienced musicians who have been studied previously and that teaching student musicians to record their thoughts may be an effective way to help them memorize. The speed and durability of her memorization surprised the student, inspiring her to perform in public and to use the same technique for new pieces. PMID:25667574

  11. Translation into Portuguese of questionnaires to assess knee injuries

    PubMed Central

    Nunes, Guilherme; de Castro, Lisaura Veiga; Wageck, Bruna; Kume, Vanessa; Chiesa, Gabriela Sulzbach; de Noronha, Marcos

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this systematic review was to review the quality of the translation and the measurement properties from questionnaires that assess injuries of the knee. We included questionnaires that were developed in foreign language and have been translated and validated into Portuguese. The databases used were CINAHL, SPORTDiscus, LILACS, PUBMED and SCIELO and the final search resulted in a total of 868 studies included, from which 16 were eligible. Most included questionnaires presented all steps expected in a translation process; however there were some deficiencies in measurement properties among the questionnaires. The VISA-P Brazil was the best questionnaire when analyzing translation process and measurement properties tested. It was the only questionnaire that tested all measurement properties investigated and presented adequate values for all of them. KOS-ADLS was the best questionnaire translated to Portuguese from Portugal. Among all, the VISA-P Brazil is the best questionnaire to be used with Brazilian Portuguese speakers when the condition is related to patellar tendinopathy and the LEFS is the best questionnaire for other general conditions of the knee. For Portuguese from Portugal, the best questionnaire is the KOS-ADLS, and like the LEFS it does not target any specific injury. PMID:24453685

  12. Automatic Planning Research Applied To Orbital Construction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, William T.

    1987-02-01

    Artificial intelligence research on automatic planning could result in a new class of management aids to reduce the cost of constructing the Space Station, and would have economically important spinoffs to terrestrial industry as well. Automatic planning programs could be used to plan and schedule launch activities, material deliveries to orbit, construction procedures, and the use of machinery and tools. Numerous automatic planning programs have been written since the 1050's. We describe PARPLAN, a recently-developed experimental automatic planning program written in the AI language Prolog, that can generate plans with parallel activities.

  13. A Correspondence between Individual Differences in the Brain's Intrinsic Functional Architecture and the Content and Form of Self-Generated Thoughts

    PubMed Central

    Gorgolewski, Krzysztof J.; Lurie, Dan; Urchs, Sebastian; Kipping, Judy A.; Craddock, R. Cameron; Milham, Michael P.; Margulies, Daniel S.; Smallwood, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    Although neural activity often reflects the processing of external inputs, intrinsic fluctuations in activity have been observed throughout the brain. These may relate to patterns of self-generated thought that can occur while not performing goal-driven tasks. To understand the relationship between self-generated mental activity and intrinsic neural fluctuations, we developed the New York Cognition Questionnaire (NYC-Q) to assess the content and form of an individual's experiences during the acquisition of resting-state fMRI data. The data were collected as a part of the Nathan Kline Rockland Enhanced sample. We decomposed NYC-Q scores using exploratory factor analysis and found that self-reported thoughts clustered into distinct dimensions of content (future related, past related, positive, negative, and social) and form (words, images, and specificity). We used these components to perform an individual difference analysis exploring how differences in the types of self-generated thoughts relate to whole brain measures of intrinsic brain activity (fractional amplitude of low frequency fluctuations, regional homogeneity, and degree centrality). We found patterns of self-generated thoughts related to changes that were distributed across a wide range of cortical areas. For example, individuals who reported greater imagery exhibited greater low frequency fluctuations in a region of perigenual cingulate cortex, a region that is known to participate in the so-called default-mode network. We also found certain forms of thought were associated with other areas, such as primary visual cortex, the insula, and the cerebellum. For example, individuals who reported greater future thought exhibited less homogeneous neural fluctuations in a region of lateral occipital cortex, a result that is consistent with the claim that particular types of self-generated thought depend on processes that are decoupled from sensory processes. These data provide evidence that self-generated thought is a heterogeneous category of experience and that studying its content can be helpful in understanding brain dynamics. PMID:24824880

  14. [Inevitable contradictory relationship of psychoanalytic thought with the "Zeitgeist". A plea for reclaiming the sovereignity of psychoanalytic thought].

    PubMed

    Passett, P

    1991-03-01

    Psychoanalysis is by its nature a sturdy procedure. It does not fit into the frame of contemporary thought patterns and should not, in the author's opinion, be made into something that its conceptual basis does not allow it to become: a partisan instrument. The author extends a discussion that was opened by Paul Parin's article on social criticism in the interpretive process. PMID:2047526

  15. In What Ways Are Adolescents Who Engage in Self-Harm or Experience Thoughts of Self-Harm Different in Terms of Help-Seeking, Communication and Coping Strategies?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, E.; Hawton, K.; Rodham, K.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to ascertain whether adolescents who deliberately harmed themselves or had thoughts of self-harm differed from other adolescents in terms of help-seeking, communication and coping strategies. The participants were 6020 15-16 year-old school pupils who were surveyed using an anonymous self-report questionnaire.

  16. ANPS - AUTOMATIC NETWORK PROGRAMMING SYSTEM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schroer, B. J.

    1994-01-01

    Development of some of the space program's large simulation projects -- like the project which involves simulating the countdown sequence prior to spacecraft liftoff -- requires the support of automated tools and techniques. The number of preconditions which must be met for a successful spacecraft launch and the complexity of their interrelationship account for the difficulty of creating an accurate model of the countdown sequence. Researchers developed ANPS for the Nasa Marshall Space Flight Center to assist programmers attempting to model the pre-launch countdown sequence. Incorporating the elements of automatic programming as its foundation, ANPS aids the user in defining the problem and then automatically writes the appropriate simulation program in GPSS/PC code. The program's interactive user dialogue interface creates an internal problem specification file from user responses which includes the time line for the countdown sequence, the attributes for the individual activities which are part of a launch, and the dependent relationships between the activities. The program's automatic simulation code generator receives the file as input and selects appropriate macros from the library of software modules to generate the simulation code in the target language GPSS/PC. The user can recall the problem specification file for modification to effect any desired changes in the source code. ANPS is designed to write simulations for problems concerning the pre-launch activities of space vehicles and the operation of ground support equipment and has potential for use in developing network reliability models for hardware systems and subsystems. ANPS was developed in 1988 for use on IBM PC or compatible machines. The program requires at least 640 KB memory and one 360 KB disk drive, PC DOS Version 2.0 or above, and GPSS/PC System Version 2.0 from Minuteman Software. The program is written in Turbo Prolog Version 2.0. GPSS/PC is a trademark of Minuteman Software. Turbo Prolog is a trademark of Borland International. IBM PC and PS DOS are registered trademarks of International Business Machines Corporation.

  17. Automatic and controlled processing and the Broad Autism Phenotype.

    PubMed

    Camodeca, Amy; Voelker, Sylvia

    2016-01-30

    Research related to verbal fluency in the Broad Autism Phenotype (BAP) is limited and dated, but generally suggests intact abilities in the context of weaknesses in other areas of executive function (Hughes et al., 1999; Wong et al., 2006; Delorme et al., 2007). Controlled processing, the generation of search strategies after initial, automated responses are exhausted (Spat, 2013), has yet to be investigated in the BAP, and may be evidenced in verbal fluency tasks. One hundred twenty-nine participants completed the Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System Verbal Fluency test (D-KEFS; Delis et al., 2001) and the Broad Autism Phenotype Questionnaire (BAPQ; Hurley et al., 2007). The BAP group (n=53) produced significantly fewer total words during the 2nd 15" interval compared to the Non-BAP (n=76) group. Partial correlations indicated similar relations between verbal fluency variables for each group. Regression analyses predicting 2nd 15" interval scores suggested differentiation between controlled and automatic processing skills in both groups. Results suggest adequate automatic processing, but slowed development of controlled processing strategies in the BAP, and provide evidence for similar underlying cognitive constructs for both groups. Controlled processing was predictive of Block Design score for Non-BAP participants, and was predictive of Pragmatic Language score on the BAPQ for BAP participants. These results are similar to past research related to strengths and weaknesses in the BAP, respectively, and suggest that controlled processing strategy use may be required in instances of weak lower-level skills. PMID:26652842

  18. Utility of brief questionnaires of health-related quality of life (Airways Questionnaire 20 and Clinical COPD Questionnaire) to predict exacerbations in patients with asthma and COPD

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background There is some evidence that quality of life measured by long disease-specific questionnaires may predict exacerbations in asthma and COPD, however brief quality of life tools, such as the Airways Questionnaire 20 (AQ20) or the Clinical COPD Questionnaire (CCQ), have not yet been evaluated as predictors of hospital exacerbations. Objectives To determine the ability of brief specific health-related quality of life (HRQoL) questionnaires (AQ20 and CCQ) to predict emergency department visits (ED) and hospitalizations in patients with asthma and COPD, and to compare them to longer disease-specific questionnaires, such as the St George´s Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ), the Chronic Respiratory Disease Questionnaire (CRQ) and the Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire (AQLQ). Methods We conducted a two-year prospective cohort study of 208 adult patients (108 asthma, 100 COPD). Baseline sociodemographic, clinical, functional and psychological variables were assessed. All patients completed the AQ20 and the SGRQ. COPD patients also completed the CCQ and the CRQ, while asthmatic patients completed the AQLQ. We registered all exacerbations that required ED or hospitalizations in the follow-up period. Differences between groups (zero ED visits or hospitalizations versus ≥ 1 ED visits or hospitalizations) were tested with Pearson´s X2 or Fisher´s exact test for categorical variables, ANOVA for normally distributed continuous variables, and Mann–Whitney U test for non-normally distributed variables. Logistic regression analyses were performed to estimate the predictive ability of each HRQoL questionnaire. Results In the first year of follow-up, the AQ20 scores predicted both ED visits (OR: 1.19; p = .004; AUC 0.723) and hospitalizations (OR: 1.21; p = .04; AUC 0.759) for asthma patients, and the CCQ emerged as independent predictor of ED visits in COPD patients (OR: 1.06; p = .036; AUC 0.651), after adjusting for sociodemographic, clinical, and psychological variables. Among the longer disease-specific questionnaires, only the AQLQ emerged as predictor of ED visits in asthma patients (OR: 0.9; p = .002; AUC 0.727). In the second year of follow-up, none of HRQoL questionnaires predicted exacerbations. Conclusions AQ20 predicts exacerbations in asthma and CCQ predicts ED visits in COPD in the first year of follow-up. Their predictive ability is similar to or even higher than that of longer disease-specific questionnaires. PMID:23706146

  19. Automatic home medical product recommendation.

    PubMed

    Luo, Gang; Thomas, Selena B; Tang, Chunqiang

    2012-04-01

    Web-based personal health records (PHRs) are being widely deployed. To improve PHR's capability and usability, we proposed the concept of intelligent PHR (iPHR). In this paper, we use automatic home medical product recommendation as a concrete application to demonstrate the benefits of introducing intelligence into PHRs. In this new application domain, we develop several techniques to address the emerging challenges. Our approach uses treatment knowledge and nursing knowledge, and extends the language modeling method to (1) construct a topic-selection input interface for recommending home medical products, (2) produce a global ranking of Web pages retrieved by multiple queries, and (3) provide diverse search results. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our techniques using USMLE medical exam cases. PMID:20703712

  20. Automatic Nanodesign Using Evolutionary Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Globus, Al; Saini, Subhash (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    Many problems associated with the development of nanotechnology require custom designed molecules. We use genetic graph software, a new development, to automatically evolve molecules of interest when only the requirements are known. Genetic graph software designs molecules, and potentially nanoelectronic circuits, given a fitness function that determines which of two molecules is better. A set of molecules, the first generation, is generated at random then tested with the fitness function, Subsequent generations are created by randomly choosing two parent molecules with a bias towards high scoring molecules, tearing each molecules in two at random, and mating parts from the mother and father to create two children. This procedure is repeated until a satisfactory molecule is found. An atom pair similarity test is currently used as the fitness function to evolve molecules similar to existing pharmaceuticals.

  1. Automatic Mechetronic Wheel Light Device

    DOEpatents

    Khan, Mohammed John Fitzgerald

    2004-09-14

    A wheel lighting device for illuminating a wheel of a vehicle to increase safety and enhance aesthetics. The device produces the appearance of a "ring of light" on a vehicle's wheels as the vehicle moves. The "ring of light" can automatically change in color and/or brightness according to a vehicle's speed, acceleration, jerk, selection of transmission gears, and/or engine speed. The device provides auxiliary indicator lights by producing light in conjunction with a vehicle's turn signals, hazard lights, alarm systems, and etc. The device comprises a combination of mechanical and electronic components and can be placed on the outer or inner surface of a wheel or made integral to a wheel or wheel cover. The device can be configured for all vehicle types, and is electrically powered by a vehicle's electrical system and/or battery.

  2. Automatic thermal switch. [spacecraft applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cunningham, J. W.; Wing, L. D. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    An automatic thermal switch to control heat flow includes two thermally conductive plates and a thermally conductive switch saddle pivotally mounted to the first plate. A flexible heat carrier is connected between the switch saddle and the second plate. A phase-change power unit, including a piston coupled to the switch saddle, is in thermal contact with the first thermally conductive plate. A biasing element biases the switch saddle in a predetermined position with respect to the first plate. When the phase-change power unit is actuated by an increase in heat transmitted through the first place, the piston extends and causes the switch saddle to pivot, thereby varying the thermal conduction between the two plates through the switch saddle and flexible heat carrier. The biasing element, switch saddle, and piston can be arranged to provide either a normally closed or normally opened thermally conductive path between the two plates.

  3. Automatic interpretation of oblique ionograms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ippolito, Alessandro; Scotto, Carlo; Francis, Matthew; Settimi, Alessandro; Cesaroni, Claudio

    2015-03-01

    We present an algorithm for the identification of trace characteristics of oblique ionograms allowing determination of the Maximum Usable Frequency (MUF) for communication between the transmitter and receiver. The algorithm automatically detects and rejects poor quality ionograms. We performed an exploratory test of the algorithm using data from a campaign of oblique soundings between Rome, Italy (41.90 N, 12.48 E) and Chania, Greece (35.51 N, 24.01 E) and also between Kalkarindji, Australia (17.43 S, 130.81 E) and Culgoora, Australia (30.30 S, 149.55 E). The success of these tests demonstrates the applicability of the method to ionograms recorded by different ionosondes in various helio and geophysical conditions.

  4. Automatic Sequencing for Experimental Protocols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsieh, Paul F.; Stern, Ivan

    We present a paradigm and implementation of a system for the specification of the experimental protocols to be used for the calibration of AXAF mirrors. For the mirror calibration, several thousand individual measurements need to be defined. For each measurement, over one hundred parameters need to be tabulated for the facility test conductor and several hundred instrument parameters need to be set. We provide a high level protocol language which allows for a tractable representation of the measurement protocol. We present a procedure dispatcher which automatically sequences a protocol more accurately and more rapidly than is possible by an unassisted human operator. We also present back-end tools to generate printed procedure manuals and database tables required for review by the AXAF program. This paradigm has been tested and refined in the calibration of detectors to be used in mirror calibration.

  5. Techniques for automatic speech recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, R. K.

    1983-05-01

    A brief insight into some of the algorithms that lie behind current automatic speech recognition system is provided. Early phonetically based approaches were not particularly successful, due mainly to a lack of appreciation of the problems involved. These problems are summarized, and various recognition techniques are reviewed in the contect of the solutions that they provide. It is pointed out that the majority of currently available speech recognition equipments employ a "whole-word' pattern matching approach which, although relatively simple, has proved particularly successful in its ability to recognize speech. The concepts of time-normalizing plays a central role in this type of recognition process and a family of such algorithms is described in detail. The technique of dynamic time warping is not only capable of providing good performance for isolated word recognition, but how it is also extended to the recognition of connected speech (thereby removing one of the most severe limitations of early speech recognition equipment).

  6. Autoclass: An automatic classification system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stutz, John; Cheeseman, Peter; Hanson, Robin

    1991-01-01

    The task of inferring a set of classes and class descriptions most likely to explain a given data set can be placed on a firm theoretical foundation using Bayesian statistics. Within this framework, and using various mathematical and algorithmic approximations, the AutoClass System searches for the most probable classifications, automatically choosing the number of classes and complexity of class descriptions. A simpler version of AutoClass has been applied to many large real data sets, has discovered new independently-verified phenomena, and has been released as a robust software package. Recent extensions allow attributes to be selectively correlated within particular classes, and allow classes to inherit, or share, model parameters through a class hierarchy. The mathematical foundations of AutoClass are summarized.

  7. Automatic force balance calibration system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferris, Alice T. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    A system for automatically calibrating force balances is provided. The invention uses a reference balance aligned with the balance being calibrated to provide superior accuracy while minimizing the time required to complete the calibration. The reference balance and the test balance are rigidly attached together with closely aligned moment centers. Loads placed on the system equally effect each balance, and the differences in the readings of the two balances can be used to generate the calibration matrix for the test balance. Since the accuracy of the test calibration is determined by the accuracy of the reference balance and current technology allows for reference balances to be calibrated to within .+-.0.05%, the entire system has an accuracy of a .+-.0.2%. The entire apparatus is relatively small and can be mounted on a movable base for easy transport between test locations. The system can also accept a wide variety of reference balances, thus allowing calibration under diverse load and size requirements.

  8. Computerized automatic tip scanning operation

    SciTech Connect

    Nishikawa, K.; Fukushima, T.; Nakai, H.; Yanagisawa, A.

    1984-02-01

    In BWR nuclear power stations the Traversing Incore Probe (TIP) system is one of the most important components in reactor monitoring and control. In previous TIP systems, however, operators have suffered from the complexity of operation and long operation time required. The system presented in this paper realizes the automatic operation of the TIP system by monitoring and driving it with a process computer. This system significantly reduces the burden on customer operators and improves plant efficiency by simplifying the operating procedure, augmenting the accuracy of the measured data, and shortening operating time. The process computer is one of the PODIA (Plant Operation by Displayed Information Automation) systems. This computer transfers control signals to the TIP control panel, which in turn drives equipment by microprocessor control. The process computer contains such components as the CRT/KB unit, the printer plotter, the hard copier, and the message typers required for efficient man-machine communications. Its operation and interface properties are described.

  9. Automatic electronic fish tracking system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Osborne, P. W.; Hoffman, E.; Merriner, J. V.; Richards, C. E.; Lovelady, R. W.

    1976-01-01

    A newly developed electronic fish tracking system to automatically monitor the movements and migratory habits of fish is reported. The system is aimed particularly at studies of effects on fish life of industrial facilities which use rivers or lakes to dump their effluents. Location of fish is acquired by means of acoustic links from the fish to underwater Listening Stations, and by radio links which relay tracking information to a shore-based Data Base. Fish over 4 inches long may be tracked over a 5 x 5 mile area. The electronic fish tracking system provides the marine scientist with electronics which permit studies that were not practical in the past and which are cost-effective compared to manual methods.

  10. Automatic insulation resistance testing apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Wyant, Francis J.; Nowlen, Steven P.; Luker, Spencer M.

    2005-06-14

    An apparatus and method for automatic measurement of insulation resistances of a multi-conductor cable. In one embodiment of the invention, the apparatus comprises a power supply source, an input measuring means, an output measuring means, a plurality of input relay controlled contacts, a plurality of output relay controlled contacts, a relay controller and a computer. In another embodiment of the invention the apparatus comprises a power supply source, an input measuring means, an output measuring means, an input switching unit, an output switching unit and a control unit/data logger. Embodiments of the apparatus of the invention may also incorporate cable fire testing means. The apparatus and methods of the present invention use either voltage or current for input and output measured variables.

  11. Automatic blocking of nested loops

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schreiber, Robert; Dongarra, Jack J.

    1990-01-01

    Blocked algorithms have much better properties of data locality and therefore can be much more efficient than ordinary algorithms when a memory hierarchy is involved. On the other hand, they are very difficult to write and to tune for particular machines. The reorganization is considered of nested loops through the use of known program transformations in order to create blocked algorithms automatically. The program transformations used are strip mining, loop interchange, and a variant of loop skewing in which invertible linear transformations (with integer coordinates) of the loop indices are allowed. Some problems are solved concerning the optimal application of these transformations. It is shown, in a very general setting, how to choose a nearly optimal set of transformed indices. It is then shown, in one particular but rather frequently occurring situation, how to choose an optimal set of block sizes.

  12. Automatic transmission for a vehicle

    SciTech Connect

    Moroto, S.; Sakakibara, S.

    1986-12-09

    An automatic transmission is described for a vehicle, comprising: a coupling means having an input shaft and an output shaft; a belt type continuously-variable speed transmission system having an input pulley mounted coaxially on a first shaft, an output pulley mounted coaxially on a second shaft and a belt extending between the first and second pulleys to transfer power, each of the first and second pulleys having a fixed sheave and a movable sheave. The first shaft is disposed coaxially with and rotatably coupled with the output shaft of the coupling means, the second shaft being disposed side by side and in parallel with the first shaft; a planetary gear mechanism; a forward-reverse changeover mechanism and a low-high speed changeover mechanism.

  13. [Validation study of the Depressive Experience Questionnaire].

    PubMed

    Atger, F; Frasson, G; Loas, G; Guibourgé, S; Corcos, M; Perez Diaz, F; Speranza, M; Venisse, J-L; Lang, F; Stephan, Ph; Bizouard, P; Flament, M; Jeammet, Ph

    2003-01-01

    Sidney Blatt, considering as being insufficient the categorical-symptomatic approach of depression, has worked out a theory of depression and psychopathology that integrates the contributions of psychoanalysis as well as cognitive and developmental psychology. Within a broad psychoanalytic framework, Blatt's formulation focus on the quality of interpersonal relationship, the nature of object representation and early life experiences. Personality development is viewed as the consequence of the interaction of 2 basic developmental tasks: the establishment of the capacity to form stable, enduring, mutually satisfying interpersonal relationships and the achievement of a differentiated, realistic, essentially positive identity. The relationship between these 2 developmental lines involves a complex dialectical process during which progress in each line is essential for progress in the other and which contributes to the development of both a sense of identity and the capacity for interpersonal relatedness. These developmental lines permit not only to define an during individual's primary personality configuration but also enable to identify cognitive structures that are inherent in various forms of psychopathology, including depression. Disruptions at different developmental stages create vulnerability to different subsequent psychological disturbances. Blatt characterised as anaclitic or dependent the axis concerned with interpersonal relationship and as introjective or self-critical the axis concerned with development of the sense of self and identity. Depressive Experience Questionnaire was developed by Blatt et al. to determine the validity of this model of psychopathology which emphazises continuities between normal and pathological forms of depression. The instrument was developed by Blatt et al. by assembling a pool of items describing experiences frequently reported by depressed individual. Sixty-six items were selected and administered to a large nonclinical sample (500 female and 160 male undergraduates). Principal component analysis within sex performed on the answers to DEQ confirmed his assumption in identifying two principal depressive dimensions. The first factor involved items that are primarily externally directed and refer to a disturbance of interpersonal relationships (anaclitism); the second factor consists of items that are more internally directed and reflect concerns about self-identity (self-criticism). A third factor emerged, assessing the good functioning of subject and confidence in his resources and capacities (efficacy). Scales derived from these factors have high internal consistency and substantial test-retest reliability. The solutions for men and women were highly congruent. Factor structure has been replicated in several nonclinical and clinical samples, supporting considerable evidence to the construct validity of the DEQ Dependency and Self-criticism scales. An adolescent form of DEQ (DEQ-A) has successively been developed. Factor analysis revealed three factors that were highly congruent in female and male students and with the three factors of the original DEQ. The reliability, internal consistency and validity of DEQ-A indicate that the DEQ-A closely parallels the DEQ, especially in the articulation of Dependency and Self-criticism as two factors in depression. These formulations and clinical observations about the importance of differentiating a depression focused on issues of self-criticism from issues of dependency are consistent with the formulations of others theorists which, from very different theoretical perspectives, posit 2 types of depression, one in which either perceived loss or rejection in social relationships is central and the other in which perceived failure in achievement, guilt or lack of control serves as the precipitant of depression. These 2 types of experiences have been characterized as dominant other and dominant goal , as anxiously attached and compulsively self-reliant and as sociotropic and autonomous . Our work presents the results of a validation study of both forms of Blatt's questionnaire (for adults--DEQ--and for adolescents--DEQA) translated in French in a large population of normal subjects, aged 15 to 45 years. DEQ and DEQ-A were compared by inspection of items loading strongly on each factor and by correlation of the three factors of adults and adolescents. The exploratory factor analysis of DEQ and DEQA revealed three orthogonal factors, corresponding with Blatt's original dimensions. Consistency and external validity were adequate for all 3 factors of DEQ and DEQ-A. Anaclitism and self-criticism dimensions of DEQ and DEQ-A correlate positively with measures of depression (DSM-IV, Beck Depression Inventory), consistently with the results obtained by Blatt. Differently from this author, anaclitism appears to be less differentiated in males than in females, suggesting that the concept of dependence could assume different relevance for men and women. PMID:14615694

  14. Automatic toilet seat lowering apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Guerty, Harold G.

    1994-09-06

    A toilet seat lowering apparatus includes a housing defining an internal cavity for receiving water from the water supply line to the toilet holding tank. A descent delay assembly of the apparatus can include a stationary dam member and a rotating dam member for dividing the internal cavity into an inlet chamber and an outlet chamber and controlling the intake and evacuation of water in a delayed fashion. A descent initiator is activated when the internal cavity is filled with pressurized water and automatically begins the lowering of the toilet seat from its upright position, which lowering is also controlled by the descent delay assembly. In an alternative embodiment, the descent initiator and the descent delay assembly can be combined in a piston linked to the rotating dam member and provided with a water channel for creating a resisting pressure to the advancing piston and thereby slowing the associated descent of the toilet seat. A toilet seat lowering apparatus includes a housing defining an internal cavity for receiving water from the water supply line to the toilet holding tank. A descent delay assembly of the apparatus can include a stationary dam member and a rotating dam member for dividing the internal cavity into an inlet chamber and an outlet chamber and controlling the intake and evacuation of water in a delayed fashion. A descent initiator is activated when the internal cavity is filled with pressurized water and automatically begins the lowering of the toilet seat from its upright position, which lowering is also controlled by the descent delay assembly. In an alternative embodiment, the descent initiator and the descent delay assembly can be combined in a piston linked to the rotating dam member and provided with a water channel for creating a resisting pressure to the advancing piston and thereby slowing the associated descent of the toilet seat.

  15. Automatic AVHRR image navigation software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baldwin, Dan; Emery, William

    1992-01-01

    This is the final report describing the work done on the project entitled Automatic AVHRR Image Navigation Software funded through NASA-Washington, award NAGW-3224, Account 153-7529. At the onset of this project, we had developed image navigation software capable of producing geo-registered images from AVHRR data. The registrations were highly accurate but required a priori knowledge of the spacecraft's axes alignment deviations, commonly known as attitude. The three angles needed to describe the attitude are called roll, pitch, and yaw, and are the components of the deviations in the along scan, along track and about center directions. The inclusion of the attitude corrections in the navigation software results in highly accurate georegistrations, however, the computation of the angles is very tedious and involves human interpretation for several steps. The technique also requires easily identifiable ground features which may not be available due to cloud cover or for ocean data. The current project was motivated by the need for a navigation system which was automatic and did not require human intervention or ground control points. The first step in creating such a system must be the ability to parameterize the spacecraft's attitude. The immediate goal of this project was to study the attitude fluctuations and determine if they displayed any systematic behavior which could be modeled or parameterized. We chose a period in 1991-1992 to study the attitude of the NOAA 11 spacecraft using data from the Tiros receiving station at the Colorado Center for Astrodynamic Research (CCAR) at the University of Colorado.

  16. Aided versus automatic target recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Hair, Mark A.; Purvis, Bradley D.; Brown, Jeff

    1997-06-01

    Automatic target recognition (ATR) algorithms have offered the promise of recognizing items of military importance over the past 20 years. It is the experience of the authors that greater ATR success would be possible if the ATR were used to 'aid' the human operator instead of automatically 'direct' the operator. ATRs have failed not due to their probability of detection versus false alarm rate, but to neglect of the human component. ATRs are designed to improve overall throughput by relieving the human operator of the need to perform repetitive tasks like scanning vast quantities of imagery for possible targets. ATRs are typically inserted prior to the operator and provide cues, which are then accepted or rejected. From our experience at three field exercises and a current operational deployment to the Bosnian theater, this is not the best way to get total system performance. The human operator makes decisions based on learning, history of past events, and surrounding contextual information. Loss of these factors by providing imagery, latent with symbolic cues on top of the original imagery, actually increases the workload of the operator. This paper covers the lessons learned from the field demonstrations and the operational deployment. The reconnaissance and intelligence community's primary use of an ATR should be to establish prioritized cues of potential targets for an operator to 'pull' from and to be able to 'send' targets identified by the operator for a 'second opinion.' The Army and Air Force are modifying their exploitation workstations over the next 18 months to use ATRs, which operate in this fashion. This will be the future architecture that ATRs for the reconnaissance and intelligence community should integrate into.

  17. Using a structured questionnaire improves seizure description by medical students

    PubMed Central

    Kapadia, Saher; Shah, Hemang; McNair, Nancy; Pruitt, J. Ned; Murro, Anthony

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to evaluate a structured questionnaire for improving a medical students’ ability to identify, describe and interpret a witnessed seizure. Methods Ninety two 3rd year medical students, blinded to seizure diagnosis, viewed videos of a primary generalized seizure and a complex partial seizure.  Students next completed an unstructured questionnaire that asked the students to describe the seizure video recordings. The students then completed a structured questionnaire that asked the student to respond to 17 questions regarding specific features occurring during the seizures.  We determined the number and types of correct responses for each questionnaire. Results Overall, the structured questionnaire was more effective in eliciting an average of 9.25 correct responses compared to the unstructured questionnaire eliciting an average of 5.30 correct responses (p < 0.001). Additionally, 10 of the 17 seizure features were identified more effectively with the structured questionnaire. Potentially confounding factors, prior knowledge of someone with epilepsy or a prior experience of viewing a seizure, did not predict the student’s ability to correctly identify any of the 17 features. Conclusions A structured questionnaire significantly improves a medical student’s ability to provide an accurate clinical description of primary generalized and complex partial witnessed seizures. Our analysis identified the 10 specific features improved by using the structured questionnaire. PMID:26752118

  18. The effect of analytic and experiential modes of thought on moral judgment.

    PubMed

    Kvaran, Trevor; Nichols, Shaun; Sanfey, Alan

    2013-01-01

    According to dual-process theories, moral judgments are the result of two competing processes: a fast, automatic, affect-driven process and a slow, deliberative, reason-based process. Accordingly, these models make clear and testable predictions about the influence of each system. Although a small number of studies have attempted to examine each process independently in the context of moral judgment, no study has yet tried to experimentally manipulate both processes within a single study. In this chapter, a well-established "mode-of-thought" priming technique was used to place participants in either an experiential/emotional or analytic mode while completing a task in which participants provide judgments about a series of moral dilemmas. We predicted that individuals primed analytically would make more utilitarian responses than control participants, while emotional priming would lead to less utilitarian responses. Support was found for both of these predictions. Implications of these findings for dual-process theories of moral judgment will be discussed. PMID:23317833

  19. [The establishment of research inherit mode of famous academic thoughts].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xue-ping; Wu, Mian-hua; Guo, Wei-feng

    2011-12-01

    To study and summarize the academic thoughts of famous Chinese medicine doctors is the main pathway of developing Chinese medicine theories. It is of important significance in enriching and developing the Chinese medicine theories by combining traditional and modern research methods, merging multiple disciples to study the research inherit mode of famous academic thoughts. The major study links include: (1) To refine scientific hypotheses from huge amount of clinical case records; (2) To find the literature sources; (3) To embody the practice significance of the innovative theories by clinical studies; (4) To reveal the scientific connotation of Chinese medicine theories by experimental studies. We hope to reach the goal of innovating and developing Chinese medicine theories on the basis of inheritance by integrating clinical case records, tracing the literature sources, clinical and experimental studies. PMID:22384561

  20. Interference with electrons: from thought to real experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matteucci, Giorgio

    2013-11-01

    The two-slit interference experiment is usually adopted to discuss the superposition principle applied to radiation and to show the peculiar wave behaviour of material particles. Diffraction and interference of electrons have been demonstrated using, as interferometry devices, a hole, a slit, double hole, two-slits, an electrostatic biprism etc. A number of books, short movies and lectures on the web try to popularize the mysterious behaviour of electrons on the basis of Feynman thought experiment which consists of a Young two-hole interferometer equipped with a detector to reveal single electrons. A short review is reported regarding, i) the pioneering attempts carried out to demonstrate that interference patterns could be obtained with single electrons through an interferometer and, ii) recent experiments, which can be considered as the realization of the thought electron interference experiments adopted by Einstein-Bohr and subsequently by Feynman to discuss key features of quantum physics.

  1. Thought beyond language: neural dissociation of algebra and natural language.

    PubMed

    Monti, Martin M; Parsons, Lawrence M; Osherson, Daniel N

    2012-08-01

    A central question in cognitive science is whether natural language provides combinatorial operations that are essential to diverse domains of thought. In the study reported here, we addressed this issue by examining the role of linguistic mechanisms in forging the hierarchical structures of algebra. In a 3-T functional MRI experiment, we showed that processing of the syntax-like operations of algebra does not rely on the neural mechanisms of natural language. Our findings indicate that processing the syntax of language elicits the known substrate of linguistic competence, whereas algebraic operations recruit bilateral parietal brain regions previously implicated in the representation of magnitude. This double dissociation argues against the view that language provides the structure of thought across all cognitive domains. PMID:22760883

  2. Integrative change model in psychotherapy: Perspectives from Indian thought

    PubMed Central

    Manickam, L. S. S

    2013-01-01

    Different psychotherapeutic approaches claim positive changes in patients as a result of therapy. Explanations related to the change process led to different change models. Some of the change models are experimentally oriented whereas some are theoretical. Apart from the core models of behavioral, psychodynamic, humanistic, cognitive and spiritually oriented models there are specific models, within psychotherapy that explains the change process. Integrative theory of a person as depicted in Indian thought provides a common ground for the integration of various therapies. Integrative model of change based on Indian thought, with specific reference to psychological concepts in Upanishads, Ayurveda, Bhagavad Gita and Yoga are presented. Appropriate psychological tools may be developed in order to help the clinicians to choose the techniques that match the problem and the origin of the dimension. Explorations have to be conducted to develop more techniques that are culturally appropriate and clinically useful. Research has to be initiated to validate the identified concepts. PMID:23858275

  3. Ethics in Thought. Gian-Carlo Rota and Philosophy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonicalzi, Francesca

    Discrete Thoughts - Pensieri discreti, where "discreti" means both discrete and discreet: the title announces, with surprising clearness, and simultaneously conceals, with ingenious ambivalence, the gigantic feat Rota intends to perform: "to tell the truth". Although it is, classically, the philosopher's task, telling the truth is proclaimed from the outset as the - difficult/impossible? - enterprise of the mathematician. "In mathematics, as anywhere today, it is becoming more difficult to tell the truth" (Rota, 1986, p. IX): these are the first words of the preface to Discrete Thoughts, and they ring out as a provocation and a challenge that presents itself as particularly difficult due to the complexity of the wealth of knowledge that mathematics represents, but also due to the persistence in the sciences of a reductive conception of truth.

  4. Risky Music Listening, Permanent Tinnitus and Depression, Anxiety, Thoughts about Suicide and Adverse General Health

    PubMed Central

    Vogel, Ineke; van de Looij-Jansen, Petra M.; Mieloo, Cathelijne L.; Burdorf, Alex; de Waart, Frouwkje

    2014-01-01

    Objective To estimate the extent to which exposure to music through earphones or headphones with MP3 players or at discotheques and pop/rock concerts exceeded current occupational safety standards for noise exposure, to examine the extent to which temporary and permanent hearing-related symptoms were reported, and to examine whether the experience of permanent symptoms was associated with adverse perceived general and mental health, symptoms of depression, and thoughts about suicide. Methods A total of 943 students in Dutch inner-city senior-secondary vocational schools completed questionnaires about their sociodemographics, music listening behaviors and health. Multiple logistic regression analyses were used to examine associations. Results About 60% exceeded safety standards for occupational noise exposure; about one third as a result of listening to MP3 players. About 10% of the participants experienced permanent hearing-related symptoms. Temporary hearing symptoms that occurred after using an MP3 player or going to a discotheque or pop/rock concert were associated with exposure to high-volume music. However, compared to participants not experiencing permanent hearing-related symptoms, those experiencing permanent symptoms were less often exposed to high volume music. Furthermore, they reported at least two times more often symptoms of depression, thoughts about suicide and adverse self-assessed general and mental health. Conclusions Risky music-listening behaviors continue up to at least the age of 25 years. Permanent hearing-related symptoms are associated with people’s health and wellbeing. Participants experiencing such symptoms appeared to have changed their behavior to be less risky. In order to induce behavior change before permanent and irreversible hearing-related symptoms occur, preventive measurements concerning hearing health are needed. PMID:24897078

  5. From Earth to Heaven: Using `Newton's Cannon' Thought Experiment for Teaching Satellite Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velentzas, Athanasios; Halkia, Krystallia

    2013-10-01

    Thought Experiments are powerful tools in both scientific thinking and in the teaching of science. In this study, the historical Thought Experiment (TE) `Newton's Cannon' was used as a tool to teach concepts relating to the motion of satellites to students at upper secondary level. The research instruments were: (a) a teaching-interview designed and implemented according to the Teaching Experiment methodology and (b) an open-ended questionnaire administered to students 2 weeks after the teaching-interview. The sample consisted of forty students divided into eleven groups. The teaching and learning processes which occurred during the teaching-interview were recorded and analyzed. The findings of the present study show that the use of the TE helped students to mentally construct a physical system which has nothing to do with their everyday experience (i.e. they had to imagine themselves as observers in a context in which the whole Earth was visible) and to draw conclusions about phenomena within this system. Specifically, students managed (1) to conclude that if an object is appropriately launched, it may be placed in an orbit around the Earth and to support this conclusion by giving necessary arguments, and (2) to realize that the same laws of physics describe, on the one hand, the motion of the Moon around the Earth (and the motion of other celestial bodies as well) and, on the other hand, the motion of `terrestrial' objects (i.e. objects on the Earth, such as a tennis ball). The main difficulties students met were caused by their idea that there is no gravity in the vacuum (i.e. the area outside of the Earth's atmosphere) and also by their everyday experience, according to which it is impossible for a projectile to move continuously parallel to the ground.

  6. Thoughts Occasioned by the `Big Bang' Model of the Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunning-Davies, Jeremy

    2013-09-01

    For many years now, the so-called `Big Bang' model for the beginning and evolution of the Universe has been accepted almost without question. In fact, any who have dared question its authenticity has been condemned to a sort of scientific outer darkness. However, what is the truth in this matter? Here some brief thoughts on this problem will be laid out for people to ponder at leisure.

  7. Automatic Grading of Spreadsheet and Database Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kovacic, Zlatko J.; Green, John Steven

    2012-01-01

    Growing enrollment in distance education has increased student-to-lecturer ratios and, therefore, increased the workload of the lecturer. This growing enrollment has resulted in mounting efforts to develop automatic grading systems in an effort to reduce this workload. While research in the design and development of automatic grading systems has a

  8. Automatic Contour Tracking in Ultrasound Images

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Min; Kambhamettu, Chandra; Stone, Maureen

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, a new automatic contour tracking system, EdgeTrak, for the ultrasound image sequences of human tongue is presented. The images are produced by a head and transducer support system (HATS). The noise and unrelated high-contrast edges in ultrasound images make it very difficult to automatically detect the correct tongue surfaces. In…

  9. An Experiment in Automatic Hierarchical Document Classification.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garland, Kathleen

    1983-01-01

    Describes method of automatic document classification in which documents classed as QA by Library of Congress classification system were clustered at six thresholds by keyword using single link technique. Automatically generated clusters were compared to Library of Congress subclasses, and partial classified hierarchy was formed. Twelve references…

  10. ANNUAL REPORT-AUTOMATIC INDEXING AND ABSTRACTING.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lockheed Missiles and Space Co., Palo Alto, CA. Electronic Sciences Lab.

    THE INVESTIGATION IS CONCERNED WITH THE DEVELOPMENT OF AUTOMATIC INDEXING, ABSTRACTING, AND EXTRACTING SYSTEMS. BASIC INVESTIGATIONS IN ENGLISH MORPHOLOGY, PHONETICS, AND SYNTAX ARE PURSUED AS NECESSARY MEANS TO THIS END. IN THE FIRST SECTION THE THEORY AND DESIGN OF THE "SENTENCE DICTIONARY" EXPERIMENT IN AUTOMATIC EXTRACTION IS OUTLINED. SOME OF…

  11. Annual Report: Automatic Informative Abstracting and Extracting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Earl, L. L.; And Others

    The development of automatic indexing, abstracting, and extracting systems is investigated. Part I describes the development of tools for making syntactic and semantic distinctions of potential use in automatic indexing and extracting. One of these tools is a program for syntactic analysis (i.e., parsing) of English, the other is a dictionary of…

  12. 32 CFR 2001.30 - Automatic declassification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Automatic declassification. 2001.30 Section 2001... Declassification § 2001.30 Automatic declassification. (a) General. All departments and agencies that have original... originating agency as described in § 2001.34. (g) Unscheduled records. Classified information in records...

  13. 32 CFR 2001.30 - Automatic declassification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Automatic declassification. 2001.30 Section 2001... Declassification § 2001.30 Automatic declassification. (a) General. All departments and agencies that have original... originating agency as described in § 2001.34. (g) Unscheduled records. Classified information in records...

  14. Automaticity Training for Dyslexics: An Experimental Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holt-Ochsner, Liana K.; Manis, Franklin R.

    1992-01-01

    This study used computer word games to train 35 dyslexic readers (mean age 13 years) in automaticity (speed and accuracy) of word recognition. After training, reaction time on the word vocalization and sentence comprehension tasks improved significantly for both trained and untrained stimuli. Results support the automaticity hypothesis. (DB)

  15. Annual Report: Automatic Informative Abstracting and Extracting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Earl, L. L.; And Others

    The development of automatic indexing, abstracting, and extracting systems is investigated. Part I describes the development of tools for making syntactic and semantic distinctions of potential use in automatic indexing and extracting. One of these tools is a program for syntactic analysis (i.e., parsing) of English, the other is a dictionary of

  16. ANNUAL REPORT-AUTOMATIC INDEXING AND ABSTRACTING.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lockheed Missiles and Space Co., Palo Alto, CA. Electronic Sciences Lab.

    THE INVESTIGATION IS CONCERNED WITH THE DEVELOPMENT OF AUTOMATIC INDEXING, ABSTRACTING, AND EXTRACTING SYSTEMS. BASIC INVESTIGATIONS IN ENGLISH MORPHOLOGY, PHONETICS, AND SYNTAX ARE PURSUED AS NECESSARY MEANS TO THIS END. IN THE FIRST SECTION THE THEORY AND DESIGN OF THE "SENTENCE DICTIONARY" EXPERIMENT IN AUTOMATIC EXTRACTION IS OUTLINED. SOME OF

  17. Automatic Grading of Spreadsheet and Database Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kovacic, Zlatko J.; Green, John Steven

    2012-01-01

    Growing enrollment in distance education has increased student-to-lecturer ratios and, therefore, increased the workload of the lecturer. This growing enrollment has resulted in mounting efforts to develop automatic grading systems in an effort to reduce this workload. While research in the design and development of automatic grading systems has a…

  18. Automatic Contour Tracking in Ultrasound Images

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Min; Kambhamettu, Chandra; Stone, Maureen

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, a new automatic contour tracking system, EdgeTrak, for the ultrasound image sequences of human tongue is presented. The images are produced by a head and transducer support system (HATS). The noise and unrelated high-contrast edges in ultrasound images make it very difficult to automatically detect the correct tongue surfaces. In

  19. The Automaticity of Visual Statistical Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turk-Browne, Nicholas B.; Junge, Justin; Scholl, Brian J.

    2005-01-01

    The visual environment contains massive amounts of information involving the relations between objects in space and time, and recent studies of visual statistical learning (VSL) have suggested that this information can be automatically extracted by the visual system. The experiments reported in this article explore the automaticity of VSL in…

  20. Neural reactivation links unconscious thought to decision-making performance.

    PubMed

    Creswell, John David; Bursley, James K; Satpute, Ajay B

    2013-12-01

    Brief periods of unconscious thought (UT) have been shown to improve decision making compared with making an immediate decision (ID). We reveal a neural mechanism for UT in decision making using blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) functional magnetic resonance imaging. Participants (N = 33) encoded information on a set of consumer products (e.g. 48 attributes describing four different cars), and we manipulated whether participants (i) consciously thought about this information (conscious thought), (ii) completed a difficult 2-back working memory task (UT) or (iii) made an immediate decision about the consumer products (ID) in a within-subjects blocked design. To differentiate UT neural activity from 2-back working memory neural activity, participants completed an independent 2-back task and this neural activity was subtracted from neural activity occurring during the UT 2-back task. Consistent with a neural reactivation account, we found that the same regions activated during the encoding of complex decision information (right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and left intermediate visual cortex) continued to be activated during a subsequent 2-min UT period. Moreover, neural reactivation in these regions was predictive of subsequent behavioral decision-making performance after the UT period. These results provide initial evidence for post-encoding unconscious neural reactivation in facilitating decision making. PMID:23314012