Science.gov

Sample records for automobiles by motive power

  1. AMBIENT TEMPERATURE AND DRIVING CYCLE EFFECTS FROM AN AUTOMOBILE POWERED BY LIQUIFIED PETROLEUM GAS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper describes an emissions study of a 1991 Chevrolet Lumina, powered by liquefied petroleum gas. he study was designed to obtain emissions information to predict how liquid petroleum gas usage impacts ambient air quality and air toxics concentrations. he study was also des...

  2. Operational characteristics of a liquid nitrogen powered automobile

    SciTech Connect

    Vitt, P.D.

    1998-08-04

    The University of Washington is studying a zero-emission vehicle concept, the cryogenic automobile. This propulsion concept uses a cryogenic liquid as its energy storage medium, and offers environmental and economic benefits over current alternative vehicles. The University of Washington is investigating the use of nitrogen, stored in liquid state, as the working fluid in an open Rankine cycle. The liquid nitrogen is first pressurized, then vaporized and superheated in an ambient air heat exchanger. The resulting high pressure gas is injected into an expander which produces the system`s motive work. The spent, low pressure gas is exhausted to the atmosphere. A test vehicle was assembled and is being used to learn about liquid nitrogen propulsion. The road performance of cryogenic automobiles was predicted using a mathematical model. The model can be modified for a variety of design choices and configurations. The performance of the test vehicle validates the heat exchanger concept and directs future efforts toward development of a better nitrogen expansion motor. This thesis describes the construction and operation of a liquid nitrogen powered automobile. Operational characteristics like road performance, maintenance, cost, and environmental impact are also explored.

  3. Power is the Great Motivator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClelland, David C.; Burnham, David H.

    1976-01-01

    Empirical research shows good managers are motivated by a need for power, tempered by maturity and self-control. Workshops can help a manager discover whether he has the correct motivation profile and can help him become a better manager. (JG)

  4. Ignition of an automobile engine by high-peak power Nd:YAG/Cr⁴⁺:YAG laser-spark devices.

    PubMed

    Pavel, Nicolaie; Dascalu, Traian; Salamu, Gabriela; Dinca, Mihai; Boicea, Niculae; Birtas, Adrian

    2015-12-28

    Laser sparks that were built with high-peak power passively Q-switched Nd:YAG/Cr(4+):YAG lasers have been used to operate a Renault automobile engine. The design of such a laser spark igniter is discussed. The Nd:YAG/Cr(4+):YAG laser delivered pulses with energy of 4 mJ and 0.8-ns duration, corresponding to pulse peak power of 5 MW. The coefficients of variability of maximum pressure (COV(Pmax)) and of indicated mean effective pressure (COV(IMEP)) and specific emissions like hydrocarbons (HC), carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NO(x)) and carbon dioxide (CO2) were measured at various engine speeds and high loads. Improved engine stability in terms of COV(Pmax) and COV(Pmax) and decreased emissions of CO and HC were obtained for the engine that was run by laser sparks in comparison with classical ignition by electrical spark plugs. PMID:26831972

  5. Solar powered automobile automation for heatstroke prevention

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Navtej Swaroop; Sharma, Ishan; Jangid, Santosh

    2016-03-01

    Heatstroke inside a car has been critical problem in every part of the world. Non-exertional heat stroke results from exposure to a high environmental temperature. Exertional heat stroke happens from strenuous exercise. This paper presents a solution for this fatal problem and proposes an embedded solution, which is cost effective and shows the feasibility in implementation. The proposed system consists of information sharing platform, interfacing of sensors, Global System Mobile (GSM), real time monitoring system and the system is powered by the solar panel. The system has been simulated and tested with experimental setup.

  6. Solar Powered Automobile Interior Climate Control System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, Richard T. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    There is provided a climate control system for a parked vehicle that includes a solar panel, thermostatic switch, fans, and thermoelectric coolers. The solar panel can serve as the sole source of electricity for the system. The system affords convenient installation and removal by including solar panels that are removably attached to the exterior of a vehicle. A connecting wire electrically connects the solar panels to a housing that is removably mounted to a partially opened window on the vehicle. The thermostatic switch, fans, and thermoelectric coolers are included within the housing. The thermostatic switch alternates the direction of the current flow through the thermoelectric coolers to selectively heat or cool the interior of the vehicle. The interior surface of the thermoelectric coolers are in contact with interior heat sinks that have air circulated across them by an interior fan. Similarly, the exterior surface of the thermoelectric coolers are in contact with exterior heat sinks that have air circulated across them by an exterior fan.

  7. Thermal energy storage for the Stirling engine powered automobile

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, D. T. (Editor)

    1979-01-01

    A thermal energy storage (TES) system developed for use with the Stirling engine as an automotive power system has gravimetric and volumetric storage densities which are competitive with electric battery storage systems, meets all operational requirements for a practical vehicle, and can be packaged in compact sized automobiles with minimum impact on passenger and freight volume. The TES/Stirling system is the only storage approach for direct use of combustion heat from fuel sources not suitable for direct transport and use on the vehicle. The particular concept described is also useful for a dual mode TES/liquid fuel system in which the TES (recharged from an external energy source) is used for short duration trips (approximately 10 miles or less) and liquid fuel carried on board the vehicle used for long duration trips. The dual mode approach offers the potential of 50 percent savings in the consumption of premium liquid fuels for automotive propulsion in the United States.

  8. 29 CFR 570.129 - Limited driving of automobiles and trucks by 17-year-olds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Limited driving of automobiles and trucks by 17-year-olds... Amended Exemptions § 570.129 Limited driving of automobiles and trucks by 17-year-olds. Section 13(c)(6... employment, perform the occasional and incidental driving of automobiles and trucks on public highways...

  9. 29 CFR 570.129 - Limited driving of automobiles and trucks by 17-year-olds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Limited driving of automobiles and trucks by 17-year-olds... Amended Exemptions § 570.129 Limited driving of automobiles and trucks by 17-year-olds. Section 13(c)(6... employment, perform the occasional and incidental driving of automobiles and trucks on public highways...

  10. 29 CFR 570.129 - Limited driving of automobiles and trucks by 17-year-olds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Limited driving of automobiles and trucks by 17-year-olds... Amended Exemptions § 570.129 Limited driving of automobiles and trucks by 17-year-olds. Section 13(c)(6... employment, perform the occasional and incidental driving of automobiles and trucks on public highways...

  11. 29 CFR 570.129 - Limited driving of automobiles and trucks by 17-year-olds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Limited driving of automobiles and trucks by 17-year-olds... Amended Exemptions § 570.129 Limited driving of automobiles and trucks by 17-year-olds. Section 13(c)(6... employment, perform the occasional and incidental driving of automobiles and trucks on public highways...

  12. The Spatial Power Motivation Scale: a semi-implicit measure of situational power motivation.

    PubMed

    Schoel, Christiane; Zimmer, Katharina; Stahlberg, Dagmar

    2015-01-01

    We introduce a new nonverbal and unobtrusive measure to assess power motive activation, the Spatial Power Motivation Scale (SPMS). The unique features of this instrument are that it is (a) very simple and economical, (b) reliable and valid, and (c) sensitive to situational changes. Study 1 demonstrates the instrument's convergent and discriminant validity with explicit measures. Study 2 demonstrates the instrument's responsiveness to situational power motive salience: anticipating and winning competition versus losing competition and watching television. Studies 3 and 4 demonstrate that thoughts of competition result in higher power motivation specifically for individuals with a high dispositional power motive. PMID:24815377

  13. Photovoltaics and the automobile

    SciTech Connect

    Young, W.R. Jr.

    1994-12-31

    For years people have been in love with the automobile. Some people just enjoy using the automobile as transportation while others also enjoy the workings and operation of this fascinating machine. The automobile is not without problems of pollution and energy consumption. These problems are changing its design and construction. New clean energy sources are being analyzed and applied to power the modern automobile. A space age energy source now being considered by some and used by others to power the automobile is photovoltaics. Photovoltaics (PV) is the direct conversion of sunlight to electricity. There are a number of devices in the modern car that are electrically powered. PV could provide a clean endless supply of electricity for air conditioning, radios and other electrical components of a car. Most people have never heard of photovoltaics (PV). There has been a great deal of research in PV among energy experts. The automobile is known the world over in both use and operation. The author describes how the merging of these two technologies will benefit mankind and without damaging the environment. 12 refs.

  14. Maximum Power Point Tracking with Dichotomy and Gradient Method for Automobile Exhaust Thermoelectric Generators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, W.; Quan, S. H.; Xie, C. J.; Tang, X. F.; Wang, L. L.; Huang, L.

    2016-03-01

    In this study, a direct-current/direct-current (DC/DC) converter with maximum power point tracking (MPPT) is developed to down-convert the high voltage DC output from a thermoelectric generator to the lower voltage required to charge batteries. To improve the tracking accuracy and speed of the converter, a novel MPPT control scheme characterized by an aggregated dichotomy and gradient (ADG) method is proposed. In the first stage, the dichotomy algorithm is used as a fast search method to find the approximate region of the maximum power point. The gradient method is then applied for rapid and accurate tracking of the maximum power point. To validate the proposed MPPT method, a test bench composed of an automobile exhaust thermoelectric generator was constructed for harvesting the automotive exhaust heat energy. Steady-state and transient tracking experiments under five different load conditions were carried out using a DC/DC converter with the proposed ADG and with three traditional methods. The experimental results show that the ADG method can track the maximum power within 140 ms with a 1.1% error rate when the engine operates at 3300 rpm@71 NM, which is superior to the performance of the single dichotomy method, the single gradient method and the perturbation and observation method from the viewpoint of improved tracking accuracy and speed.

  15. Employee motivation: a powerful new model.

    PubMed

    Nohria, Nitin; Groysberg, Boris; Lee, Linda-Eling

    2008-01-01

    Motivating employees begins with recognizing that to do their best work, people must be in an environment that meets their basic emotional drives to acquire, bond, comprehend, and defend. So say Nohria and Groysberg, of Harvard Business School, and Lee, of the Center for Research on Corporate Performance. Using the results of surveys they conducted with employees at a wide range of Fortune 500 and other companies, they developed a model for how to increase workplace motivation dramatically. The authors identify the organizational levers that companies and frontline managers have at their disposal as they try to meet workers' deep needs. Reward systems that truly value good performance fulfill the drive to acquire. The drive to bond is best met by a culture that promotes collaboration and openness. Jobs that are designed to be meaningful and challenging meet the need to comprehend. Processes for performance management and resource allocation that are fair, trustworthy, and transparent address the drive to defend. Equipped with real-world company examples, the authors articulate how to apply these levers in productive ways. That application should not be selective, they argue, because a holistic approach gets you more than a piecemeal one. By using all four levers simultaneously, and thereby tackling all four drives, organizations can improve motivation levels by leaps and bounds. For example, a company that falls in the 50th percentile on employee motivation improves only to the 56th by boosting performance on one drive, but way up to the 88th percentile by doing better on all four drives. That's a powerful gain in competitive advantage that any business would relish. PMID:18681299

  16. Solar-Powered Cooler and Heater for an Automobile Interior

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, Richard T.

    2006-01-01

    The apparatus would include a solar photovoltaic panel mounted on the roof and a panellike assembly mounted in a window opening. The window-mounted assembly would include a stack of thermoelectric devices sandwiched between two heat sinks. A fan would circulate interior air over one heat sink. Another fan would circulate exterior air over the other heat sink. The fans and the thermoelectric devices would be powered by the solar photovoltaic panel. By means of a double-pole, double-throw switch, the panel voltage fed to the thermoelectric stack would be set to the desired polarity: For cooling operation, the chosen polarity would be one in which the thermoelectric devices transport heat from the inside heat sink to the outside one; for heating operation, the opposite polarity would be chosen. Because thermoelectric devices are more efficient in heating than in cooling, this apparatus would be more effective as a heater than as a cooler. However, if the apparatus were to include means to circulate air between the outside and the inside without opening the windows, then its effectiveness as a cooler in a hot, sunny location would be increased.

  17. Wind power demonstration and siting problems. [for recharging electrically driven automobiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bergey, K. H.

    1973-01-01

    Technical and economic feasibility studies on a small windmill to provide overnight charging for an electrically driven car are reported. The auxiliary generator provides power for heating and cooling the vehicle which runs for 25 miles on battery power alone, and for 50 miles with the onboard charger operating. The blades for this windmill have a diameter of 12 feet and are coupled through to a conventional automobile alternator so that they are able to completely recharge car batteries in 8 hours. Optimization of a windmill/storage system requires detailed wind velocity information which permits rational sitting of wind power system stations.

  18. Fuel economy and range estimates for fuel cell powered automobiles

    SciTech Connect

    Steinbugler, M.; Ogden, J.

    1996-12-31

    While a number of automotive fuel cell applications have been demonstrated, including a golf cart, buses, and a van, these systems and others that have been proposed have utilized differing configurations ranging from direct hydrogen fuel cell-only power plants to fuel cell/battery hybrids operating on reformed methanol. To date there is no clear consensus on which configuration, from among the possible combinations of fuel cell, peaking device, and fuel type, is the most likely to be successfully commercialized. System simplicity favors direct hydrogen fuel cell vehicles, but infrastructure is lacking. Infrastructure favors a system using a liquid fuel with a fuel processor, but system integration and performance issues remain. A number of studies have analyzed particular configurations on either a system or vehicle scale. The objective of this work is to estimate, within a consistent framework, fuel economies and ranges for a variety of configurations using flexible models with the goal of identifying the most promising configurations and the most important areas for further research and development.

  19. Energy Efficiency I: Automobiles

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, Peter M.

    2003-11-15

    Most of us probably are not aware of all that's going on to improve the efficiency of energy usage in vehicles, residential climate control, manufacturing, and power management. The bulk of the energy consumption in the US during 2000 was apportioned as 34% for residential and commercial uses, 36.5% for industrial uses, and 26% for transportation. Automobiles in particular are the focus of intense energy conservation efforts. Only a surprising 25% of the fuel consumed by an automobile is converted to useful shalf work. The rest goes to the exhaust gases, coolant, friction and wear.

  20. 19 CFR 123.51 - Commercial samples transported by automobile through Canada between ports in the United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Commercial samples transported by automobile... Commercial samples transported by automobile through Canada between ports in the United States. (a) General... samples by automobile through Canada to another place in the United States without displaying the...

  1. 19 CFR 123.51 - Commercial samples transported by automobile through Canada between ports in the United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Commercial samples transported by automobile... Commercial samples transported by automobile through Canada between ports in the United States. (a) General... samples by automobile through Canada to another place in the United States without displaying the...

  2. 19 CFR 123.51 - Commercial samples transported by automobile through Canada between ports in the United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Commercial samples transported by automobile... Commercial samples transported by automobile through Canada between ports in the United States. (a) General... samples by automobile through Canada to another place in the United States without displaying the...

  3. 19 CFR 123.51 - Commercial samples transported by automobile through Canada between ports in the United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Commercial samples transported by automobile... Commercial samples transported by automobile through Canada between ports in the United States. (a) General... samples by automobile through Canada to another place in the United States without displaying the...

  4. 19 CFR 123.51 - Commercial samples transported by automobile through Canada between ports in the United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Commercial samples transported by automobile... Commercial samples transported by automobile through Canada between ports in the United States. (a) General... samples by automobile through Canada to another place in the United States without displaying the...

  5. 19 CFR 123.52 - Commercial samples transported by automobile through the United States between ports in Canada.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Commercial samples transported by automobile... Commercial samples transported by automobile through the United States between ports in Canada. (a) General... sealed samples in his automobile without further sealing in the United States, upon compliance with...

  6. 19 CFR 123.52 - Commercial samples transported by automobile through the United States between ports in Canada.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Commercial samples transported by automobile... Commercial samples transported by automobile through the United States between ports in Canada. (a) General... sealed samples in his automobile without further sealing in the United States, upon compliance with...

  7. 19 CFR 123.52 - Commercial samples transported by automobile through the United States between ports in Canada.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Commercial samples transported by automobile... Commercial samples transported by automobile through the United States between ports in Canada. (a) General... sealed samples in his automobile without further sealing in the United States, upon compliance with...

  8. 19 CFR 123.52 - Commercial samples transported by automobile through the United States between ports in Canada.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Commercial samples transported by automobile... Commercial samples transported by automobile through the United States between ports in Canada. (a) General... sealed samples in his automobile without further sealing in the United States, upon compliance with...

  9. 19 CFR 123.52 - Commercial samples transported by automobile through the United States between ports in Canada.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Commercial samples transported by automobile... Commercial samples transported by automobile through the United States between ports in Canada. (a) General... sealed samples in his automobile without further sealing in the United States, upon compliance with...

  10. Model of automobile emission checking by wireless technology.

    PubMed

    Manikumar, R; Sivasundhararaja, D; Kumar, R Anand

    2010-07-01

    Air contains a lot of pollutants and most of these pollutants are toxic. Carbon monoxide (CO) is one of the five primary pollutants, which together contributes more than 90% of global atmospheric pollution. Therefore, CO has been chosen for this analytical study. The main source of CO is the exhaust from automobiles only. In the present situation, the usage of motor vehicles rapidly expanded. The number of vehicles cannot be reduced but their emission (which is a cause for pollution) can be effectively controlled. In this direction, a model has been developed in this study to sense the level of carbon monoxide emitted from the automobiles. When the exhaust reaches a harmful level it sends the data about the vehicle number and the concentration of CO to the emission-testing centre (PC). As a result the government can take necessary action to seize the particular vehicle emitting more carbon monoxide than the permitted level. PMID:21391394

  11. Hydrogen Fuel Cell Automobiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feldman, Bernard J.

    2005-11-01

    With gasoline now more than 2.00 a gallon, alternate automobile technologies will be discussed with greater interest and developed with more urgency. For our government, the hydrogen fuel cell-powered automobile is at the top of the list of future technologies. This paper presents a simple description of the principles behind this technology and a brief discussion of the pros and cons. It is also an extension on my previous paper on the physics of the automobile engine.

  12. Assessing achievement, affiliation, and power motives all at once: the Multi-Motive Grid (MMG).

    PubMed

    Sokolowski, K; Schmalt, H D; Langens, T A; Puca, R M

    2000-02-01

    In this article, we introduce the Multi-Motive Grid (MMG), a new diagnostic tool to measure motives with respect to their hope and fear components. The MMG combines features of the Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) with features of self-report questionnaires. Similar to the TAT, a set of 14 pictures representing a balanced set of achievement-arousing, affiliation-arousing, and power-arousing situations is presented together with a set of statements representing important motivational states. Six motive scores can be calculated: hope of success (HS) and fear of failure (FF) for the achievement motive, hope of affiliation (HA) and fear of rejection (FR) for the affiliation motive, and hope of power (HP) and fear of power (FP) for the power motive. Results of factor analyses suggest a 3-factor solution, with a general fear factor (FF, FR, FP), a factor combining the hope components of achievement and power (HS and HP), and a third factor representing HA, but the 6 a priori factors also reflect a sound structural model. Reliability data show that the internal consistency and retest reliability of the MMG scales satisfy traditional standards. External validity of the MMG has been established in all 3 motive domains. Three separate studies document that (a) individuals high in resultant achievement motivation perform better and report more flow experience, (b) individuals high in resultant power motivation profit more from a leadership training program, and (c) individuals high in resultant affiliation motivation recollect more highly memorable affiliative themes. PMID:10779937

  13. Stirling engines for automobiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beremand, D. G.

    1979-01-01

    The results of recent and ongoing automobile Stirling engine development efforts are reviewed and technology status and requirements are identified. Key technology needs include those for low cost, high temperature (1300 - 1500 F) metal alloys for heater heads, and reliable long-life, low-leakage shaft seals. Various fuel economy projections for Stirling powered automobiles are reviewed and assessed.

  14. Energy and the Automobile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waring, Gene

    1980-01-01

    Discussed is the automobile in terms of the Otto cycle, engine heat losses, internal engine losses, drive train losses, road power, and driving habits. Each of these topics is described and calculations are shown to aid the physics teacher in the use of the automobile in the physics classroom. (Author/DS)

  15. Evaluation of malodor for automobile air conditioner evaporator by using laboratory-scale test cooling bench.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyung Hwan; Kim, Sun Hwa; Jung, Young Rim; Kim, Man Goo

    2008-09-12

    As one of the measures to improve the environment in an automobile, malodor caused by the automobile air-conditioning system evaporator was evaluated and analyzed using laboratory-scale test cooling bench. The odor was simulated with an evaporator test cooling bench equipped with an airflow controller, air temperature and relative humidity controller. To simulate the same odor characteristics that occur from automobiles, one previously used automobile air conditioner evaporator associated with unpleasant odors was selected. The odor was evaluated by trained panels and collected with aluminum polyester bags. Collected samples were analyzed by thermal desorption into a cryotrap and subsequent gas chromatographic separation, followed by simultaneous olfactometry, flame ionization detector and identified by atomic emission detection and mass spectrometry. Compounds such as alcohols, aldehydes, and organic acids were identified as responsible odor-active compounds. Gas chromatography/flame ionization detection/olfactometry combined sensory method with instrumental analysis was very effective as an odor evaluation method in an automobile air-conditioning system evaporator. PMID:18701113

  16. [Motivation effect on EEG spectral power and heart rate parameters in students during examination stress].

    PubMed

    Dzhebrailova, T D; Korobeĭnikova, I I; Rudneva, L P

    2014-09-01

    EEG spectral power was calculated in 24 students (18-21 years) with different levels of motivation and anxiety (tested by Spielberger) in two experimental conditions: during the common educational process and the examination stress. Before examination tests, in subjects with high motivation and anxiety level the relative delta activity power increased in right frontal (F4) brain areas. In students with medium motivation immediately before an examination the relative beta2-activity power increased in right frontal (F4) brain areas. It is suggested that delta oscillati- ons reflect activity of the defensive motivational system, whereas beta2 oscillations may be associated with the achievement motivation. PMID:25697016

  17. [Team motivation and motivational strategies adopted by nurses].

    PubMed

    Bezerra, Felipa Daiana; Andrade, Marta Francisca da Conceição; Andrade, Joseilze Santos de; Vieira, Maria Jésia; Pimentel, Deborah

    2010-01-01

    Qualitative study held in an emergency hospital in Aracaju-SE, which aimed to know the perception of nurses about what is a motivated nursing team, to identify possible motivational policies used by them and if they are consistent with the policies proposed by Frederick Herzberg in his theory. Of the 20 nurses participants, the most understood the motivation as a set of techniques possible to shape the behavior of the individual at work, linking it to extrinsic factors and 60% did not consider his team motivated. The types of motivational policies that usually apply realized that these correspond to intrinsic factors aimed at self recovery and self realization of individuals in the tasks running. PMID:20339752

  18. Power hand tool kinetics associated with upper limb injuries in an automobile assembly plant.

    PubMed

    Ku, Chia-Hua; Radwin, Robert G; Karsh, Ben-Tzion

    2007-06-01

    This study investigated the relationship between pneumatic nutrunner handle reactions, workstation characteristics, and prevalence of upper limb injuries in an automobile assembly plant. Tool properties (geometry, inertial properties, and motor characteristics), fastener properties, orientation relative to the fastener, and the position of the tool operator (horizontal and vertical distances) were measured for 69 workstations using 15 different pneumatic nutrunners. Handle reaction response was predicted using a deterministic mechanical model of the human operator and tool that was previously developed in our laboratory, specific to the measured tool, workstation, and job factors. Handle force was a function of target torque, tool geometry and inertial properties, motor speed, work orientation, and joint hardness. The study found that tool target torque was not well correlated with predicted handle reaction force (r=0.495) or displacement (r=0.285). The individual tool, tool shape, and threaded fastener joint hardness all affected predicted forces and displacements (p<0.05). The average peak handle force and displacement for right-angle tools were twice as great as pistol grip tools. Soft-threaded fastener joints had the greatest average handle forces and displacements. Upper limb injury cases were identified using plant OSHA 200 log and personnel records. Predicted handle forces for jobs where injuries were reported were significantly greater than those jobs free of injuries (p<0.05), whereas target torque and predicted handle displacement did not show statistically significant differences. The study concluded that quantification of handle reaction force, rather than target torque alone, is necessary for identifying stressful power hand tool operations and for controlling exposure to forces in manufacturing jobs involving power nutrunners. Therefore, a combination of tool, work station, and task requirements should be considered. PMID:17474028

  19. Monitoring trace elements generated by automobiles: air pollutants with possible health impacts.

    PubMed

    Anwar, Khaleeq; Ejaz, Sohail; Ashraf, Muhammad; Ahmad, Nisar; Javeed, Aqeel

    2013-07-01

    Major transformations in the environmental composition are principally attributable to the combustion of fuels by automobiles. Motorized gasoline-powered two-stroke auto-rickshaws (TSA) and compressed natural gas (CNG)-powered four-stroke auto-rickshaws (FSA) are potential source of air pollution in south Asia and produce toxic amount of particulate matter (PM) to the environment. In this study, we attempted to characterize elemental pollutants from the PM of TSA and FSA using proton-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) analysis. The observations of the existing investigation recognized significant increase in Al (P < 0.05), P (P < 0.01), and Zn (P < 0.01) from the PM samples of FSA. In addition, the concentrations of Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Na and S were also observed exceeding the recommended National Institute for Environmental Studies limits. On the contrary, increased concentration of Sr and V were observed in the PM samples from TSA. It is generally believed that FSA generates smaller amount of PM but data obtained from FSA are clearly describing that emissions from FSA comprised potentially more toxic substances than TSA. The current research is specific to metropolitan population and has evidently revealed an inconsistent burden of exposure to air pollutants engendered by FSA in urban communities, which could lead to the disruption of several biological activities and may cause severe damage to entire ecological system. PMID:23263758

  20. Need for power and women's careers over 14 years: structural power, job satisfaction, and motive change.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, S R

    1994-01-01

    Previous findings by D. G. Winter (1988) relating the need for Power to choice and attainment of power-relevant careers (teaching, including college; psychotherapy; journalism; and business management) were successfully replicated among 118 female collage seniors, 69 of whom returned mailed questionnaires 14 years later. High n Power women reported both more power-relevant job satisfaction and dissatisfaction; n Power predicted career progression only for women in power-relevant careers. Those women holding relational power jobs and those in structural power roles who reported higher overall job satisfaction increased in n Power over 14 years. Power-motivated women in different structural power roles reported contrasting satisfactions and career progression. PMID:8126645

  1. Feasibility study of advanced technology hov systems. Volume 2B. Emissions impact of roadway-powered electric buses, light-duty vehicles, and automobiles. Research report

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, M.A.; Dato, V.; Chira-Chavala, T.

    1992-12-01

    Changes in pollutant emissions as a result of adopting roadway-powered electric buses, Light Duty Vehicles (LDV's), and automobiles in California are analyzed. The analysis involves comparing emissions of hydrocarbons (HC), carbon monoxide (CO), oxides of nitrogen (NOx), oxides of sulfur (SOx), and particulate matter (PM), in grams per vehicle-mile of travel, between roadway-powered electric vehicles (RPEV's) and existing internal-combustion-engine vehicles (ICEV's). Findings indicate that significant reductions in emissions of HC and CO can be expected from the adoption of RPEV's, while fluctuations between emission increases and reductions are likely for NOx, SOx, and PM depending on energy consumption by vehicle type, the split between roadway/battery power usage, power flow efficiencies from the power plant to the roadway, and the mix of fuel sources and processing technologies assumed for electricity generation.

  2. Motives and Power of School Board Members: Implications for School Board-Superintendent Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mountford, Meredith

    2004-01-01

    The qualitative study presented in this article explores motivations for school board membership and conceptions of power held by school board members. The findings of the study suggest a relationship exists between the way board members define power and the type of motivation board members have for service. The implications of these findings for…

  3. Influence of particulate trap oxidizers on emission of mutagenic compounds by diesel automobiles.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, R E; Devillez, G; Smith, L R

    1989-06-01

    Diesel exhaust particles are known to contain mutagenic and carcinogenic chemicals. The aim of this study was to determine whether, and to what extent, catalytic particulate trap oxidizers on light-duty diesel engines may reduce the emission of particle-associated mutagenic chemicals into the environment. Exhaust particles were collected from Mercedes Benz and Volkswagen diesel automobiles, equipped with or without the manufacturer's exhaust traps, while running on a chassis dynamometer under specified load conditions. Exhaust particles were collected from a dilution tunnel onto 20" X 20" Teflon-coated fiberglass filters. Mutagenesis tests of dichloromethane (DCM) extracts of the particles were conducted using the Ames Salmonella bacterial test system. The mutation rate was calculated in terms of histidine revertants per mile of travel during a set of standard test cycles. With both vehicles the traps produced an 87-92% reduction in the total amount of particulate material collected by the filters. There was no significant change in the specific mutagenic activity (revertants per microgram of DCM particle extract) with or without the traps. These studies support the notion that installation of exhaust traps which reduce particulate emission on diesel-powered vehicles will also reduce the emission of particle-associated mutagenic and carcinogenic materials into the environment. PMID:2473105

  4. Automobile accessories: Assessment and improvement

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, M.

    1995-11-01

    With mandates and regulatory policies to meet both the California Air Resources Board (CARB) and the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles (PNGV), designing vehicles of the future will become a difficult task. As we look into the use of electric and hybrid vehicles, reduction of the required power demand by influential automobile components is necessary in order to obtain performance and range goals. Among those automobile components are accessories. Accessories have a profound impact on the range and mileage of future vehicles with limited amounts of energy or without power generating capabilities such as conventional vehicles. Careful assessment of major power consuming accessories helps us focus on those that need improvement and contributes to attainment of mileage and range goals for electric and hybrid vehicles.

  5. Power Versus Affiliation in Political Ideology: Robust Linguistic Evidence for Distinct Motivation-Related Signatures.

    PubMed

    Fetterman, Adam K; Boyd, Ryan L; Robinson, Michael D

    2015-09-01

    Posited motivational differences between liberals and conservatives have historically been controversial. This motivational interface has recently been bridged, but the vast majority of studies have used self-reports of values or motivation. Instead, the present four studies investigated whether two classic social motive themes--power and affiliation--vary by political ideology in objective linguistic analysis terms. Study 1 found that posts to liberal chat rooms scored higher in standardized affiliation than power, whereas the reverse was true of posts to conservative chat rooms. Study 2 replicated this pattern in the context of materials posted to liberal versus conservative political news websites. Studies 3 and 4, finally, replicated a similar interactive (ideology by motive type) pattern in State of the State and State of the Union addresses. Differences in political ideology, these results suggest, are marked by, and likely reflective of, mind-sets favoring affiliation (liberal) or power (conservative). PMID:26101445

  6. Physico-chemical and optical properties of combustion-generated particles from coal-fired power plant, automobile and ship engine and charcoal kiln.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hwajin

    2015-04-01

    Similarities and differences in physico-chemical and optical properties of combustion generated particles from various sources were investigated. Coal-fired power plant, charcoal kiln, automobile and ship engine were major sources, representing combustions of coal, biomass and two different types of diesel, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) equipped with both SEM and HRTEM were used for physico-chemical analysis. Light absorbing properties were assessed using a spectrometer equipped with an integrating sphere. Particles generated from different combustion sources and conditions demonstrate great variability in their morphology, structure and composition. From coal-fired power plant, both fly ash and flue gas were mostly composed of heterogeneously mixed mineral ash spheres, suggesting that the complete combustion was occurred releasing carbonaceous species out at high temperature (1200-1300 °C). Both automobile and ship exhausts from diesel combustions show typical features of soot: concentric circles comprised of closely-packed graphene layers. However, heavy fuel oil (HFO) combusted particles from ship exhaust demonstrate more complex compositions containing different morphology of particles other than soot, e.g., spherical shape of char particles composed of minerals and carbon. Even for the soot aggregates, particles from HFO burning have different chemical compositions; carbon is dominated but Ca (29.8%), S (28.7%), Na(1%), and Mg(1%) are contained, respectively which were not found from particles of automobile emission. This indicates that chemical compositions and burning conditions are significant to determine the fate of particles. Finally, from biomass burning, amorphous and droplet-like carbonaceous particles with no crystallite structure are observed and they are generally formed by the condensation of low volatile species at low

  7. 19 CFR 148.39 - Rented automobiles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Rented automobiles. 148.39 Section 148.39 Customs... automobiles. (a) Importation for temporary period. An automobile rented by a resident of the United States... (HTSUS) (19 U.S.C. 1202), without payment of duty. The automobile shall be used for the transportation...

  8. 19 CFR 148.39 - Rented automobiles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Rented automobiles. 148.39 Section 148.39 Customs... automobiles. (a) Importation for temporary period. An automobile rented by a resident of the United States... (HTSUS) (19 U.S.C. 1202), without payment of duty. The automobile shall be used for the transportation...

  9. 19 CFR 148.39 - Rented automobiles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Rented automobiles. 148.39 Section 148.39 Customs... automobiles. (a) Importation for temporary period. An automobile rented by a resident of the United States... (HTSUS) (19 U.S.C. 1202), without payment of duty. The automobile shall be used for the transportation...

  10. 19 CFR 148.39 - Rented automobiles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Rented automobiles. 148.39 Section 148.39 Customs... automobiles. (a) Importation for temporary period. An automobile rented by a resident of the United States... (HTSUS) (19 U.S.C. 1202), without payment of duty. The automobile shall be used for the transportation...

  11. 19 CFR 148.39 - Rented automobiles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Rented automobiles. 148.39 Section 148.39 Customs... automobiles. (a) Importation for temporary period. An automobile rented by a resident of the United States... (HTSUS) (19 U.S.C. 1202), without payment of duty. The automobile shall be used for the transportation...

  12. Achievement Motivation Revisited: New Longitudinal Data to Demonstrate Its Predictive Power

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hustinx, Paul W. J.; Kuyper, Hans; van der Werf, Margaretha P. C.; Dijkstra, Pieternel

    2009-01-01

    During recent decades, the classical one-dimensional concept of achievement motivation has become less popular among motivation researchers. This study aims to revive the concept by demonstrating its predictive power using longitudinal data from two cohort samples, each with 20,000 Dutch secondary school students. Two measures of achievement…

  13. Novel technique to ensure battery reliability in 42-V PowerNets for new-generation automobiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lam, L. T.; Haigh, N. P.; Phyland, C. G.; Huynh, T. D.

    The proposed 42-V PowerNet in automobiles requires the battery to provide a large number of shallow discharge-charge cycles at a high rate. High-rate discharge is necessary for engine cranking, while high-rate charge is associated with regenerative braking. The battery will therefore operate at these high rates in a partial-state-of-charge condition — 'HRPSoC duty'. Under simulated HRPSoC duty, it is found that the valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) battery fails prematurely due to the progressive accumulation of lead sulfate mainly on the surfaces of the negative plates. This is because the lead sulfate layer cannot be converted efficiently back to sponge lead during charging either from the engine or from the regenerative braking. Eventually, this layer of lead sulfate develops to such extent that the effective surface area of the plate is reduced markedly and the plate can no longer deliver the high-cranking current demanded by the automobile. The objective of this study is to develop and optimize a pulse-generation technique to minimize the development of lead sulfate layers on negative plates of VRLA batteries subjected to HRPSoC duty. The technique involves the application of sets of charging pulses of different frequency. It is found that the cycle-life performance of VRLA batteries is enhanced markedly when d.c. pulses of high frequency are used. For example, battery durability is raised from ˜10 600 cycles (no pulses) to 32 000 cycles with pulses of high frequency. Two key factors contribute to this improvement. The first factor is localization of the charging current on the surfaces of the plates — the higher the frequency, the greater is the amount of current concentrated on the plate surface. This phenomenon is known as the 'skin effect' as only the outer 'skin' of the plate is effectively carrying the current. The second factor is delivery of sufficient charge to the Faradaic resistance of the plate to compensate for the energy loss to inductance

  14. Effects of affiliation and power motivation arousal on salivary progesterone and testosterone.

    PubMed

    Schultheiss, Oliver C; Wirth, Michelle M; Stanton, Steven J

    2004-12-01

    Following up on earlier research suggesting a link between implicit affiliation motivation and progesterone (P) and implicit power motivation and testosterone [T; Schultheiss, O.C., Dargel, A., Rohde, W., 2003. Implicit motives and gonadal steroid hormones: Effects of menstrual cycle phase, oral contraceptive use, and relationship status. Horm. Behav. 43, 293-301.], we tested whether arousal of affiliation motivation increases P levels and whether arousal of power motivation increases T levels. Sixty subjects were randomly assigned to watch 30 min of either Bridges of Madison County (affiliation arousal) or The Godfather II (power arousal), or a documentary about the Amazon (control condition). Levels of P and T were assessed in saliva samples taken before (T1), immediately after (T2), and 45 min after the movie (T3). The efficacy of experimental conditions to differentially arouse motives was verified by assessment of changes in affiliation and power motive imagery expressed in imaginative stories written before and after the movie. After the movie, salivary P levels (T2 and T3) in the affiliation-arousal group were significantly higher than in the control group and marginally higher than in the power-arousal group. Subjects' postmovie T responses (T3) depended on premovie T levels: in men, higher premovie T levels predicted a greater likelihood of postmovie T increases in the Power Arousal condition but not in the other conditions, whereas in women, higher premovie T levels tended to be associated with postmovie T decreases in the Power Arousal condition but not in the other conditions. These findings suggest that aroused affiliation motivation has a specific stimulatory effect on P, whereas aroused power motivation has a specific stimulatory effect on T in men, but not in women, with high baseline T levels. PMID:15555501

  15. The role of the dorsoanterior striatum in implicit motivation: the case of the need for power

    PubMed Central

    Schultheiss, Oliver C.; Schiepe-Tiska, Anja

    2013-01-01

    Implicit motives like the need for power (nPower) scale affective responses to need-specific rewards or punishments and thereby influence activity in motivational-brain structures. In this paper, we review evidence specifically supporting a role of the striatum in nPower. Individual differences in nPower predict (1) enhanced implicit learning accuracy, but not speed, on serial-response tasks that are reinforced by power-related incentives (e.g., winning or losing a contest; dominant or submissive emotional expressions) in behavioral studies and (2) activation of the anterior caudate in response to dominant emotional expressions in brain imaging research. We interpret these findings on the basis of Hikosaka et al.'s (2002a) model of central mechanisms of motor skill learning. The model assigns a critical role to the dorsoanterior striatum in dopamine-driven learning of spatial stimulus sequences. Based on this model, we suggest that the dorsoanterior striatum is the locus of nPower-dependent reinforcement. However, given the centrality of this structure in a wide range of motivational pursuits, we also propose that activity in the dorsoanterior striatum may not only reflect individual differences in nPower, but also in other implicit motives, like the need for achievement or the need for affiliation, provided that the proper incentives for these motives are present during reinforcement learning. We discuss evidence in support of such a general role of the dorsoanterior striatum in implicit motivation. PMID:23626531

  16. Prolonging the life of motive power batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmad, W.

    1995-11-06

    Most industrial equipment begins to decline in its capacity to perform work the day it is placed in service. However, the lead-acid battery -- the type used to power fork lift trucks -- undergoes a normal life cycle comparable to that of a human being. Physical work capacity increases from infancy through youth, after which there is a gradual decline in vigor up to the inevitable end of life. A life of neglect or abuse, however, shortens the life cycle. Most lift truck batteries are delivered with the ability to function at about 90% of rated capacity. For the first three to six months of operation, capacity gradually grows until it reaches 100%. From that point on, every battery naturally loses capacity. This slow, natural capacity loss continues until the battery inevitably reaches the end of its service life. But in the manner of human life, premature demise can occur from unnatural causes. This article discusses criteria affecting capacity, factors contributing to loss of capacity, and factors resulting in loss of capacity.

  17. Improving temporal cognition by enhancing motivation.

    PubMed

    Avlar, Billur; Kahn, Julia B; Jensen, Greg; Kandel, Eric R; Simpson, Eleanor H; Balsam, Peter D

    2015-10-01

    Increasing motivation can positively impact cognitive performance. Here we employed a cognitive timing task that allows us to detect changes in cognitive performance that are not influenced by general activity or arousal factors such as the speed or persistence of responding. This approach allowed us to manipulate motivation using three different methods; molecular/genetic, behavioral and pharmacological. Increased striatal D2Rs resulted in deficits in temporal discrimination. Switching off the transgene improved motivation in earlier studies, and here partially rescued the temporal discrimination deficit. To manipulate motivation behaviorally, we altered reward magnitude and found that increasing reward magnitude improved timing in control mice and partially rescued timing in the transgenic mice. Lastly, we manipulated motivation pharmacologically using a functionally selective 5-HT2C receptor ligand, SB242084, which we previously found to increase incentive motivation. SB242084 improved temporal discrimination in both control and transgenic mice. Thus, while there is a general intuitive belief that motivation can affect cognition, we here provide a direct demonstration that enhancing motivation, in a variety of ways, can be an effective strategy for enhancing temporal cognition. Understanding the interaction of motivation and cognition is of clinical significance since many psychiatric disorders are characterized by deficits in both domains. PMID:26371378

  18. Automobile Course. Progress Record and Theory Outline.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connecticut State Dept. of Education, Hartford. Div. of Vocational-Technical Schools.

    This combination progress record and course outline is designed for use by individuals teaching a course in automobile repair. Included among the topics addressed in the course are the following: shop safety, engines, fuel and exhaust systems, electrical systems, crankcase lubrication systems, cooling systems, power transmission systems, steering…

  19. Motivating voter turnout by invoking the self.

    PubMed

    Bryan, Christopher J; Walton, Gregory M; Rogers, Todd; Dweck, Carol S

    2011-08-01

    Three randomized experiments found that subtle linguistic cues have the power to increase voting and related behavior. The phrasing of survey items was varied to frame voting either as the enactment of a personal identity (e.g., "being a voter") or as simply a behavior (e.g., "voting"). As predicted, the personal-identity phrasing significantly increased interest in registering to vote (experiment 1) and, in two statewide elections in the United States, voter turnout as assessed by official state records (experiments 2 and 3). These results provide evidence that people are continually managing their self-concepts, seeking to assume or affirm valued personal identities. The results further demonstrate how this process can be channeled to motivate important socially relevant behavior. PMID:21768362

  20. Motivating voter turnout by invoking the self

    PubMed Central

    Bryan, Christopher J.; Walton, Gregory M.; Rogers, Todd; Dweck, Carol S.

    2011-01-01

    Three randomized experiments found that subtle linguistic cues have the power to increase voting and related behavior. The phrasing of survey items was varied to frame voting either as the enactment of a personal identity (e.g., “being a voter”) or as simply a behavior (e.g., “voting”). As predicted, the personal-identity phrasing significantly increased interest in registering to vote (experiment 1) and, in two statewide elections in the United States, voter turnout as assessed by official state records (experiments 2 and 3). These results provide evidence that people are continually managing their self-concepts, seeking to assume or affirm valued personal identities. The results further demonstrate how this process can be channeled to motivate important socially relevant behavior. PMID:21768362

  1. Energizing porters by proton-motive force.

    PubMed

    Nelson, N

    1994-11-01

    It is generally accepted that the chemistry of water was the most crucial determinant in shaping life on earth. Among the more important chemical features of water is its dissociation into protons and hydroxyl ions. The presence of relatively high proton concentrations in the ambient solution resulted in the evolution of proton pumps during the dawn of life on earth. These proton pumps maintained neutral pH inside the cells and generated electrochemical gradients of protons (proton-motive force) across their membranes. The existence of proton-motive force enabled the evolution of porters driven by it that are most probably among the more primitive porters in the world. The directionality of the substrate transport by the porters could be to both sides of the membranes because they can serve as proton symporters or antiporters. One of the most important subjects of this meeting is the mechanism by which proton-motive and other ion-motive forces drive the transport processes through porters. Is there a common mechanism of action for all proton-driven porters? Is there some common partial reaction by which we can identify the way that porters are energized by proton-motive force? Is there a common coupling between proton movement and uptake or secretion of certain molecules? Even a partial answer to one of these questions would advance our knowledge... or confusion. As my mentor Efraim Racker used to say: 'If you are not totally confused you do not understand the issue'. PMID:7823046

  2. Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, William H.

    1975-01-01

    A systematic approach to the motivation of employees involves two-way communication, involvement, commitment, training, participation, and job enrichment. Demotivation is a pitfall which may occur when motivation is lacking. (BP)

  3. 49 CFR 1242.60 - Locomotive fuel, electric power purchased/produced for motive power and servicing locomotives...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Locomotive fuel, electric power purchased/produced for motive power and servicing locomotives (accounts XX-51-67, XX-51-68 and XX-51-69). 1242.60 Section...-Transportation § 1242.60 Locomotive fuel, electric power purchased/produced for motive power and...

  4. 49 CFR 1242.60 - Locomotive fuel, electric power purchased/produced for motive power and servicing locomotives...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Locomotive fuel, electric power purchased/produced for motive power and servicing locomotives (accounts XX-51-67, XX-51-68 and XX-51-69). 1242.60 Section...-Transportation § 1242.60 Locomotive fuel, electric power purchased/produced for motive power and...

  5. A process to recover plastics from obsolete automobiles by using solvents at ambient pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Jody, B.J.; Daniels, E.J.; Bonsignore, P.V.; Brockmeier, N.F.

    1993-08-01

    Recycling of the metal content of obsolete vehicles has been actively pursued since the 1950s; today, obsolete automobiles are the single largest source of scrap iron. They contribute over 25% of the 36 metric tonnes (40 million short tons) of ferrous scrap recovered annually by the secondary metals industry and used in the production of finished steel products. They also contribute over one million metric tonnes (1.1 million short tons) of nonferrous metallic scrap a year for recycling. For each ton of metals recovered, about 500 lb of nonmetallic residue or waste is co-produced. Auto shredder residue (ASR) is a very heterogeneous mixture of solids and liquids. Table I lists most of the materials that are commonly present in the ASR are listed. We have developed and tested in the laboratory a three-step process to separate thermoplastics, and other potentially recyclable products, from ASR. The process involves a drying step followed by a mechanical separation step to concentrate the thermoplastics by separating the polyurethane foam and the fines, which are mostly metal oxides and other inert materials that are smaller than 0.62 cm (0.25 in.) in size. The concentrated plastics stream is then treated with organic solvents at ambient pressure and elevated temperatures to dissolve the desired plastics. The salient features of the process are described.

  6. Treatment of an automobile effluent from heavy metals contamination by an eco-friendly montmorillonite

    PubMed Central

    Akpomie, Kovo G.; Dawodu, Folasegun A.

    2014-01-01

    Unmodified montmorillonite clay was utilized as a low cost adsorbent for the removal of heavy metals from a contaminated automobile effluent. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy were used to characterize the adsorbent. Batch sorption experiments were performed at an optimum effluent pH of 6.5, adsorbent dose of 0.1 g, particle size of 100 μm and equilibrium contact time of 180 min. Thermodynamic analysis was also conducted. Equilibrium data were analyzed by the Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin and Dubinin–Radushkevich models. A heterogeneous surface of the adsorbent was indicated by the Freundlich model. The Langmuir maximum adsorption capacity of the montmorillonite for metals was found in the following order: Zn (5.7 mg/g) > Cu (1.58 mg/g) > Mn (0.59 mg/g) > Cd (0.33 mg/g) > Pb (0.10 mg/g) ≡ Ni (0.10 mg/g). This was directly related to the concentration of the metal ions in solution. The pseudo-first order, pseudo-second order, intraparticle diffusion and liquid film diffusion models were applied for kinetic analysis. The mechanism of sorption was found to be dominated by the film diffusion mechanism. The results of this study revealed the potential of the montmorillonite for treatment of heavy metal contaminated effluents. PMID:26644939

  7. Suicidal asphyxiation by inhalation of automobile emission without carbon monoxide poisoning.

    PubMed

    deRoux, Stephen J

    2006-09-01

    Reported herein is the suicidal asphyxiation of a young man due to exhaustion of oxygen in the interior of a sealed automobile into which the exhaust emissions were diverted. His blood carboxyhemaglobin concentration was less than 5% saturation. The car was equipped with a catalytic converter and when tested, the exhaust carbon monoxide concentration was 0.01%. PMID:17018100

  8. Recycling of a fine, heavy fluff automobile shredder residue by density and differential fragmentation.

    PubMed

    Gent, M R; Menéndez, M; Muñiz, H; Torno, S

    2015-09-01

    A compilation of the physical properties of materials which might typically occur in automobile shredder residue and an analysis of their suitability for the separation of materials in fine (<15mm) heavy fluff ASR (fhf-ASR) is presented. Differences in density and resistance to crushing of fhf-ASR materials were identified as potentially the most suitable low cost, technologically simple means for the separating this waste into its three principal components - metals, minerals (glass/stones) and organics (plastics). Results presented of laboratory scale tests demonstrate that fhf-ASR can in large part be separated into three principal components. Tests were conducted with 0.63-2.0mm and 2-10mm fractions. Recovery of plastics by density separations were conducted with water only jigs for the 2-10mm fraction and shaker tables for the 0.63-2mm fraction. Comparisons are presented of the separations of glass and stones from metals obtained by linear screening and vibratory screening of roller mill and impact mill crushing products of the high density 2-10mm fraction. Equipment used for these tests are of a laboratory or demonstrative scale. It is reasonable to anticipate that industrial scale processing would produce significantly better results. The 2-15mm fraction was found to constitute 91.6% of the fhf-ASR sampled. The metals content of the 2-10mm portion of this fraction was upgraded from 2.5% to 31% and 76.9% with recoveries varying inversely with grade from 91.9% to 40.1%. From 63.6% to 17.1% with a recovery of 93.5% of the organic materials. A residual product of fine sand of crushed glass/stones of 99.4% purity recovered 71.3% of these. PMID:26119010

  9. Visible–infrared achromatic imaging by wavefront coding with wide-angle automobile camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohta, Mitsuhiko; Sakita, Koichi; Shimano, Takeshi; Sugiyama, Takashi; Shibasaki, Susumu

    2016-09-01

    We perform an experiment of achromatic imaging with wavefront coding (WFC) using a wide-angle automobile lens. Our original annular phase mask for WFC was inserted to the lens, for which the difference between the focal positions at 400 nm and at 950 nm is 0.10 mm. We acquired images of objects using a WFC camera with this lens under the conditions of visible and infrared light. As a result, the effect of the removal of the chromatic aberration of the WFC system was successfully determined. Moreover, we fabricated a demonstration set assuming the use of a night vision camera in an automobile and showed the effect of the WFC system.

  10. [Environmental pollution by products of wear and tear automobile-road complex].

    PubMed

    Levanchuk, A V

    2014-01-01

    North-West State Medical University named after I.I. Mechnikov, Saint Petersburg, Russian Federation, 191015. There is supposed the method for the assessment of amounts of pollutants released into the environment during the operational wear of tyre treads, brake system of cars and the road pavement. There are presented results of chemical analysis of residues of combustion. The necessity of control of products of work wear of automobile-road complex has been substantiated. PMID:25950039

  11. Restructuring the Indian power sector with energy conservation as the motive for economic and environmental benefits

    SciTech Connect

    Palanichamy, C.; Chelvan, R.K.; Babu, N.S.; Nadarajan, C.

    1999-12-01

    India's strong economic performance of recent years requires continuing effort from the newly formed Government to widen the ambit of economic reform. Though the Government has given higher priority for the power development projects, the Indian Power sector is struggling with formidable difficulties of meeting the heavy demands of electricity due to higher amount of power losses and energy thefts. To give a supporting hand to the Government, this paper suggests restructuring of the Power sector with energy conservation as the main motive to achieve economical and environmental benefits. The capabilities of the Energy Conservation Policies developed are illustrated via tests by three distinct ways on a State Grid alike Test System and the test results confirm the suitability of the proposed policies for real-time implementation on the Indian Power Sector.

  12. [Influence of embient air pollution by automobile transport on malignancies development in population of Kemerovo city].

    PubMed

    Larin, S A; Bykov, A A

    2015-01-01

    To reveal relationship between automobile transport emissions and oncologic morbidity among Kemerovo population, the authors selected crossroads and parts of highways with intense traffic. Two groups were observed among the residents of houses near the main crossroads and along highways. As a reference group, residents of houses distant from highways were selected. The study proved that oncologic morbidity is statistically reliably higher among the residents of houses near the crossroads and highways, if compared to that among the residents in houses distant from highways. PMID:26336727

  13. Recovery of nonferrous metals from scrap automobiles by magnetic fluid levitation.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mir, L.; Simard, C.; Grana, D.

    1973-01-01

    Ferrofluids are colloidal dispersions of subdomain magnetic solids in carrier liquids. In the presence of a non-homogeneous magnetic field, ferrofluids exert a pressure on immersed nonmagnetic objects in the opposite sense of the field gradient. This pressure force can, when opposite to gravity, levitate objects of higher density than the ferrofluid. This levitation technique can be used to separate solids according to density. Its application to the separation of nonferrous metals from shredded automobiles has been demonstrated on a prototype of a full-scale separator. Its use to recover nonferrous metals from municipal solid wastes also seems practical.

  14. Platinum levels in natural and urban soils from Rome and Latium (Italy): significance for pollution by automobile catalytic converter.

    PubMed

    Cinti, D; Angelone, M; Masi, U; Cremisini, C

    2002-07-01

    Platinum concentrations in topsoil samples collected in 1992 (48) and in 2001 (16) from the urban area of Rome have been determined by ICP-MS. Concentrations in 47 soil samples collected in 1992 from natural sites of Latium (an area around Rome) have been determined for a first assessment of natural background levels. The Pt concentrations in Rome urban soils collected in 1992 range from 0.8 to 6.3 ng/g (mean = 3.8 +/- 1.0) overlapping the concentration range of natural soils from Latium (mean = 3.1 +/- 2.1 ng/g). No significant correlation has generally been found between Pt contents in the 'natural' soils and related bedrock or major pedogenetic parameters. These results suggest that there is no evidence of Pt pollution in Rome urban soils at that time, because the massive use of the automobile catalytic converter has only just started. Higher (up to six times more) Pt concentrations, than those measured in the 1992 samples, have been measured, in some cases, in Rome urban soils collected in 2001, suggesting a possible start of Pt accumulation because of the large-scale use in the last decade of automobile catalytic converters. At the same time, a clear decrease of lead levels in Rome urban soils with respect to the levels measured in 1992 has been observed, paralleling the decreasing number of lead gasoline-fuelled cars. Here we present one of the first systematic studies for defining background levels of Pt in Italian natural soils, thus allowing for monitoring, in the future, should any possible Pt pollution caused by the use of automobile catalytic converter, especially in urban soils, occur. PMID:12109480

  15. Political Skill as Moderator of Personality--Job Performance Relationships in Socioanalytic Theory: Test of the Getting Ahead Motive in Automobile Sales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blickle, Gerhard; Wendel, Stephanie; Ferris, Gerald R.

    2010-01-01

    Based on the socioanalytic perspective of performance prediction ([Hogan, 1991] and [Hogan and Shelton, 1998]), this study tests whether the motive to get ahead produces greater performance when interactively combined with social effectiveness. Specifically, we investigated whether interactions of the five-factor model constructs of extraversion…

  16. Is motivation influenced by geomagnetic activity?

    PubMed

    Starbuck, S; Cornélissen, G; Halberg, F

    2002-01-01

    To eventually build a scientific bridge to religion by examining whether non-photic, non-thermic solar effects may influence (religious) motivation, invaluable yearly world wide data on activities from 1950 to 1999 by Jehovah's Witnesses on behalf of their church were analyzed chronobiologically. The time structure (chronome) of these archives, insofar as it is able to be evaluated in yearly means for up to half a century, was assessed. Least squares spectra in a frequency range from one cycle in 42 to one in 2.1 years of data on the average number of hours per month spent in work for the church, available from 103 different geographic locations, as well as grand totals also including other sites, revealed a large peak at one cycle in about 21 years. The non-linear least squares fit of a model consisting of a linear trend and a cosine curve with a trial period of 21.0 years, numerically approximating that of the Hale cycle, validated the about 21.0-year component in about 70% of the data series, with the non-overlap of zero by the 95% confidence interval of the amplitude estimate. Estimates of MESOR (midline-estimating statistic of rhythm, a rhythm (or chronome) adjusted mean), amplitude and period were further regressed with geomagnetic latitude. The period estimate did not depend on geomagnetic latitude. The about 21.0-year amplitude tends to be larger at low and middle than at higher latitudes and the resolution of the about 21.0-year cycle, gauged by the width of 95% confidence intervals for the period and amplitude, is higher (the 95% confidence intervals are statistically significantly smaller) at higher than at lower latitudes. Near-matches of periods in solar activity and human motivation hint that the former may influence the latter, while the dependence on latitude constitutes evidence that geomagnetic activity may affect certain brain areas involved in motivation, just as it was earlier found that it is associated with effects on the electrocardiogram

  17. Automobile maneuvering device

    SciTech Connect

    Ricciardi, R.

    1987-08-18

    An automobile maneuvering device is described which consists of: a chassis comprising transport wheels for permitting movement of the device along the ground, a drive wheel operably rotatably connected to the chassis, and means for rotating the drive wheel, clamp means operably connected to the chassis and spaced from and opposed to the drive wheel, the chassis including means to move the clamp means to engage one portion of an automobile tire with the drive wheel engaged at another portion of the automobile tire, and means to actuate the rotating means, so that with rotation of the drive wheel the automobile tire is rotated and the automobile and device moved along the ground.

  18. Motivation and the Power of Not Giving Up

    MedlinePlus

    ... up. Let's say you want to run a marathon. If you try to run the entire distance ... bummed out that you'll give up your marathon dreams — and running — altogether. Part of staying motivated ...

  19. The new pyramid: laying the groundwork with motivational power.

    PubMed

    Lombardi, D

    1991-06-01

    To successfully implement a comprehensive, progressive management system, a manager must incorporate daily administrative or executive principles and duties with an array of motivational tactics. Various motivational strategies have been discussed since the generation of industrial psychological research, which is generally conceded to have had its genesis with Abraham Maslow. Maslow's simple premise regarding man's needs for self-esteem, security and affiliation is at the root of many theories and practicums in vogue today. PMID:10111474

  20. Promoting Reading Motivation by Reading Together

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monteiro, Vera

    2013-01-01

    In the present project we tested the hypothesis that tutorial situations with peers would benefit children's reading motivation. Participants were from elementary school--80 fourth-graders and 80 second-graders. We used a questionnaire to assess reading motivation. In the tutorial sessions we developed a Paired Reading Program. The children who…

  1. Anti-Rolling Suspension for an Automobile by Coupled Electromagnetic Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayashi, Ryuzo; Suda, Yoshihiro; Nakano, Kimihiko

    Nowadays, various suspension control technologies have been developed such as active suspensions, semi-active suspensions and active stabilizers. As an alternative to a hydraulic actuator for suspension, electromagnetic devices have been developed. Electromagnetic devices are attracting much interest due to their high responsiveness, controllability, energy saving performance, and so on. Besides these advantages, electromagnetic devices can be connected to each other very easily. Therefore, the authors focus on this characteristic of the electromagnetic device and propose two methods to use coupled electromagnetic devices as an anti-rolling control device as well as vertical shock absorbers. The automobile experiences anti-rolling effects, such as roll damping and roll stabilization, without affecting the bouncing motion. Through basic experiments with two motors and control circuits, the performance of the proposed system is examined. The results indicate the coupled electromagnetic devices can be operated as a variable roll damper or a roll stabilizer. Numerical simulations of the turning automobile are carried out, and the results indicate the proposed system is effective.

  2. Effects of motivation on car-following

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boesser, T.

    1982-01-01

    Speed- and distance control by automobile-drivers is described best by linear models when the leading vehicles speed varies randomly and when the driver is motivated to keep a large distance. A car-following experiment required subjects to follow at 'safe' or at 'close' distance. Transfer-characteristics of the driver were extended by 1 octave when following 'closely'. Nonlinear properties of drivers control-movements are assumed to reflect different motivation-dependent control strategies.

  3. The type of implicit motive enactment is modulated by sex hormones in naturally cycling women.

    PubMed

    Ball, Anna; Wolf, Claudia C; Ocklenburg, Sebastian; Brüne, Martin; Wolf, Oliver T; Güntürkün, Onur; Pinnow, Marlies

    2014-01-17

    Sex hormones have been reported to dynamically modulate the expression of implicit motives, a concept that has previously been thought to be relatively stable over time. This study investigates to what extent the need for affiliation, power, and achievement, as well as the form of enactment of these needs as measured with the Operant Motive Test (OMT), is affected by cycle-phase dependent sex hormone fluctuations. In addition to measuring the strength of motive expression, the OMT also captures different forms of motive enactment. In an intra-subject design with repeated measures, no evidence for cycle-phase related variation in overall motive scores was found. However, when different forms of motive enactment were considered, an effect of menstrual cycle was observed. The incentive-based inhibition of the power motive was significantly reduced at the time of ovulation, compared to the menstrual and to the mid-luteal phase, in naturally cycling women. In women with relatively stable hormone concentrations (due to using hormonal contraceptives), no significant changes in the form of motive enactment were evident. The results indicate a specific hormonal influence on motive-related cognitive processes that are related to inhibitive processes in behavior control. PMID:24113170

  4. Your Automobile Dollar, [Revised.] Money Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baran, Nancy H., Ed.; Law, Jean L., Ed.

    This booklet on automobile purchasing and maintenance, 1 in a series of 12, covers all the basic aspects of personal- and family-money management. Suitable for use by high school and college students as well as adults, this handbook discusses buying, maintaining, and operating cars. Section 1 discusses managing automobile dollars. Topics include…

  5. Motivated explanation

    PubMed Central

    Patterson, Richard; Operskalski, Joachim T.; Barbey, Aron K.

    2015-01-01

    Although motivation is a well-established field of study in its own right, and has been fruitfully studied in connection with attribution theory and belief formation under the heading of “motivated thinking,” its powerful and pervasive influence on specifically explanatory processes is less well explored. Where one has a strong motivation to understand some event correctly, one is thereby motivated to adhere as best one can to normative or “epistemic” criteria for correct or accurate explanation, even if one does not consciously formulate or apply such criteria. By contrast, many of our motivations to explain introduce bias into the processes involved in generating, evaluating, or giving explanations. Non-epistemic explanatory motivations, or following Kunda's usage, “directional” motivations, include self-justification, resolution of cognitive dissonance, deliberate deception, teaching, and many more. Some of these motivations lead to the relaxation or violation of epistemic norms; others enhance epistemic motivation, so that one engages in more careful and thorough generational and evaluative processes. We propose that “real life” explanatory processes are often constrained by multiple goals, epistemic and directional, where these goals may mutually reinforce one another or may conflict, and where our explanations emerge as a matter of weighing and satisfying those goals. We review emerging evidence from psychology and neuroscience to support this framework and to elucidate the central role of motivation in human thought and explanation. PMID:26528166

  6. Motivated explanation.

    PubMed

    Patterson, Richard; Operskalski, Joachim T; Barbey, Aron K

    2015-01-01

    Although motivation is a well-established field of study in its own right, and has been fruitfully studied in connection with attribution theory and belief formation under the heading of "motivated thinking," its powerful and pervasive influence on specifically explanatory processes is less well explored. Where one has a strong motivation to understand some event correctly, one is thereby motivated to adhere as best one can to normative or "epistemic" criteria for correct or accurate explanation, even if one does not consciously formulate or apply such criteria. By contrast, many of our motivations to explain introduce bias into the processes involved in generating, evaluating, or giving explanations. Non-epistemic explanatory motivations, or following Kunda's usage, "directional" motivations, include self-justification, resolution of cognitive dissonance, deliberate deception, teaching, and many more. Some of these motivations lead to the relaxation or violation of epistemic norms; others enhance epistemic motivation, so that one engages in more careful and thorough generational and evaluative processes. We propose that "real life" explanatory processes are often constrained by multiple goals, epistemic and directional, where these goals may mutually reinforce one another or may conflict, and where our explanations emerge as a matter of weighing and satisfying those goals. We review emerging evidence from psychology and neuroscience to support this framework and to elucidate the central role of motivation in human thought and explanation. PMID:26528166

  7. Automobile Politics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paterson, Matthew

    2006-11-01

    The car, and the range of social and political institutions which sustain its dominance, play an important role in many of the environmental problems faced by contemporary society. But in order to understand the possibilities for moving towards sustainability and 'greening cars', it is first necessary to understand the political forces that have made cars so dominant. This book identifies these forces as a combination of political economy and cultural politics. From the early twentieth century, the car became central to the organization of capitalism and deeply embedded in individual identities, providing people with a source of value and meaning but in a way which was broadly consistent with social imperatives for mobility. Projects for sustainability to reduce the environmental impacts of cars are therefore constrained by these forces but must deal with them in order to shape and achieve their goals. Addresses the increasingly controversial debate on the place of the car in contemporary society and its contribution to environmental problems Questions whether automobility is sustainable and what political, social and economic forces might prevent this Will appeal to scholars and advanced students from a wide range of disciplines including environmental politics, political economy, environmental studies, cultural studies and geography

  8. 49 CFR 529.4 - Requirements for incomplete automobile manufacturers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... determined by the incomplete automobile manufacturer for the automobile in accordance with 40 CFR part 600... economy label specified in paragaph (b)(2) of this section to that automobile in accordance with 40 CFR... take into account the presence of air conditioning. (2) A fuel economy label conforming with 40...

  9. 49 CFR 529.4 - Requirements for incomplete automobile manufacturers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... determined by the incomplete automobile manufacturer for the automobile in accordance with 40 CFR part 600... economy label specified in paragaph (b)(2) of this section to that automobile in accordance with 40 CFR... take into account the presence of air conditioning. (2) A fuel economy label conforming with 40...

  10. 49 CFR 529.4 - Requirements for incomplete automobile manufacturers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... determined by the incomplete automobile manufacturer for the automobile in accordance with 40 CFR part 600... economy label specified in paragaph (b)(2) of this section to that automobile in accordance with 40 CFR... take into account the presence of air conditioning. (2) A fuel economy label conforming with 40...

  11. 49 CFR 529.4 - Requirements for incomplete automobile manufacturers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... determined by the incomplete automobile manufacturer for the automobile in accordance with 40 CFR part 600... economy label specified in paragaph (b)(2) of this section to that automobile in accordance with 40 CFR... take into account the presence of air conditioning. (2) A fuel economy label conforming with 40...

  12. 49 CFR 529.4 - Requirements for incomplete automobile manufacturers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... determined by the incomplete automobile manufacturer for the automobile in accordance with 40 CFR part 600... economy label specified in paragaph (b)(2) of this section to that automobile in accordance with 40 CFR... take into account the presence of air conditioning. (2) A fuel economy label conforming with 40...

  13. Electrical drive for automobile

    SciTech Connect

    Fobbs, H.

    1980-09-16

    Electrical apparatus for driving an automobile is described that is comprised of a dc motor operationally connected to the rear axle through a drive shaft with the motor energized from storage batteries and recharged from alternators coupled to the drive shaft adjacent a clutch at the rear end of the automobile through an auxiliary drive shaft.

  14. Unstable power threatens the powerful and challenges the powerless: evidence from cardiovascular markers of motivation

    PubMed Central

    Scheepers, Daan; Röell, Charlotte; Ellemers, Naomi

    2015-01-01

    Possessing social power has psychological and biological benefits. For example, during task interactions, people high in power are more likely to display a benign cardiovascular (CV) response pattern indicative of “challenge” whereas people low in power are more likely to display a maladaptive CV pattern indicative of “threat” (Scheepers et al., 2012). Challenge is marked by high cardiac output (CO) and low total peripheral resistance (TPR), while threat is marked by low CO and high TPR (Blascovich and Mendes, 2010). In the current work we addressed a possible moderator of the power-threat/challenge relationship, namely the stability of power. We examined the influence of the stability of power (roles could or could not change) on CV responses during a dyadic task where one person was the “chief designer” (high power) and one person was the “assistant” (low power). During the task, different CV-measures were taken [CO, TPR, heart rate, pre-ejection period). Whereas participants in the unstable low power condition showed a stronger tendency toward challenge, participants in the unstable high power condition showed a stronger tendency toward threat. Moreover, participants in the stable low power condition showed CV signs of task disengagement. Results are discussed in terms of the importance of contextual variables in shaping the relationship between power and benign/maladaptive physiological responses. PMID:26074860

  15. Learning-by-Teaching: Designing Teachable Agents with Intrinsic Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhao, Guopeng; Ailiya; Shen, Zhiqi

    2012-01-01

    Teachable agent is a type of pedagogical agent which instantiates Learning-by-Teaching theory through simulating a "naive" learner in order to motivate students to teach it. This paper discusses the limitation of existing teachable agents and incorporates intrinsic motivation to the agent model to enable teachable agents with initiative behaviors…

  16. Control of carbon monoxide (CO) from automobile exhaust by a dealuminated zeolite supported regenerative MnCo2O4 catalyst.

    PubMed

    Arun, P S; Ranjith, B P; Shibli, S M A

    2013-03-19

    We synthesized MnCo(2)O(4) catalyst with very high porosity on the surface of dealuminated zeolite molecular sieves (DAZMS) for CO oxidation under actual automobile conditions. The MnCo(2)O(4) catalyst was selected on the basis of preliminary DFT study using the software ADF BAND. The MnCo(2)O(4) catalyst had comparatively higher CO adsorption energy and very low oxygen vacancy formation energy. The synthesized MnCo(2)O(4)/DAZMS catalyst was characterized by XRD, XRF, BET, SEM, and Confocal Microscopy. The Confocal microscopic analysis revealed that porosity of the dealuminated zeolite surface was significantly enhanced after the catalyst loading process. The completely precious metal free and DAZMS-supported catalyst exhibited excellent CO oxidation ability with renewed activity for seven months under actual automobile conditions with reference to normal and cold start conditions. The synthesized MnCo(2)O(4)/DAZMS not only exhibited surprisingly high catalytic activity for CO oxidation at a temperature resembling a cold start period but was also sufficiently stable/active under actual automobile conditions and ambient conditions containing large amounts of CO,H(2)O,CO(2), and NO(x) at 155-715 °C. These significant results revealed the flexible use of the present catalyst system for a wide variety of automobiles from a small gasoline-fuelled vehicle to a large diesel-fuelled vehicle that may produce high CO-content exhaust. PMID:23406461

  17. Achieving deep cuts in the carbon intensity of U.S. automobile transportation by 2050: complementary roles for electricity and biofuels.

    PubMed

    Scown, Corinne D; Taptich, Michael; Horvath, Arpad; McKone, Thomas E; Nazaroff, William W

    2013-08-20

    Passenger cars in the United States (U.S.) rely primarily on petroleum-derived fuels and contribute the majority of U.S. transportation-related greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Electricity and biofuels are two promising alternatives for reducing both the carbon intensity of automotive transportation and U.S. reliance on imported oil. However, as standalone solutions, the biofuels option is limited by land availability and the electricity option is limited by market adoption rates and technical challenges. This paper explores potential GHG emissions reductions attainable in the United States through 2050 with a county-level scenario analysis that combines ambitious plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) adoption rates with scale-up of cellulosic ethanol production. With PHEVs achieving a 58% share of the passenger car fleet by 2050, phasing out most corn ethanol and limiting cellulosic ethanol feedstocks to sustainably produced crop residues and dedicated crops, we project that the United States could supply the liquid fuels needed for the automobile fleet with an average blend of 80% ethanol (by volume) and 20% gasoline. If electricity for PHEV charging could be supplied by a combination of renewables and natural-gas combined-cycle power plants, the carbon intensity of automotive transport would be 79 g CO2e per vehicle-kilometer traveled, a 71% reduction relative to 2013. PMID:23906086

  18. Illustrating Newton's Second Law with the Automobile Coast-Down Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryan, Ronald A.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Describes a run test of automobiles for applying Newton's second law of motion and the concept of power. Explains some automobile thought-experiments and provides the method and data of an actual coast-down test. (YP)

  19. Changing patterns of materials use in the US Automobile industry

    SciTech Connect

    Eggert, R.G.

    1986-01-01

    The material mix of a typical US passenger car has changed enormously over the last several decades, as have the total quantities of various materials used in automobile production. Over the last ten years, the dramatic increases in aluminum, plastics, and high strength steel - as well as the decline in plain carbon steel - are due largely to material substitution motivated by the desire for weight reduction, which was an important component of car-manufacturer strategies to satisfy consumer tastes and government regulations concerning fuel economy. Even though automotive material substitution has been, in effect, revolutionary over the last ten years or so, significant changes in automobile composition had been occurring much earlier, albeit at a slower pace. This earlier, slower period of change was part of an ongoing evolution of automobile design, in which materials compete with one another to provide certain physical and chemical properties at the lowest cost. As for the role of the passenger car in understanding the slowdown in western world consumption of metals since about 1974, conclusions from this paper must be limited to steel and aluminum in the United States. The total amount of plain carbon steel contained in new US cars has been much lower in the 1980s than in the middle and late 1970s, contributing significantly to stagnating steel consumption. 27 references, 14 figures, 7 tables.

  20. The Surprisingly Low Motivational Power of Future Rewards: Comparing Conventional Money-Based Measures of Discounting with Motivation-Based Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ebert, Jane E. J.

    2010-01-01

    Temporal discount rates are often poor predictors of behaviors that we expect will be motivated by the future. The current research suggests this may be because conventional discounting measures are poor measures of the motivational value of future rewards. In six studies, I develop motivation-based measures of the present value (PV) of future…

  1. Recent trends in automobile recycling: An energy and economic assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Curlee, T.R.; Das, S.; Rizy, C.G.; Schexanyder, S.M.

    1994-03-01

    Recent and anticipated trends in the material composition of domestic and imported automobiles and the increasing cost of landfilling the non-recyclable portion of automobiles (automobile shredder residue or ASR) pose questions about the future of automobile recycling. This report documents the findings of a study sponsored by the US Department of Energy`s Office of Environmental Analysis to examine the impacts of these and other relevant trends on the life-cycle energy consumption of automobiles and on the economic viability of the domestic automobile recycling industry. More specifically, the study (1) reviewed the status of the automobile recycling industry in the United States, including the current technologies used to process scrapped automobiles and the challenges facing the automobile recycling industry; (2) examined the current status and future trends of automobile recycling in Europe and Japan, with the objectives of identifying ``lessons learned`` and pinpointing differences between those areas and the United States; (3) developed estimates of the energy system impacts of the recycling status quo and projections of the probable energy impacts of alternative technical and institutional approaches to recycling; and (4) identified the key policy questions that will determine the future economic viability of automobile shredder facilities in the United States.

  2. The rolling and skidding of automobile tyres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tabor, D.

    1994-09-01

    This article deals in simple terms with the rolling and skidding of automobile tyres. It shows that skid resistance on slippery road surfaces may be significantly increased by using tyre treads of high hysteresis loss.

  3. Point by Point: Adding up Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marchionda, Denise

    2010-01-01

    Students often view their course grades as a mysterious equation of teacher-given grades, teacher-given grace, and some other ethereal components based on luck. However, giving students the power to earn points based on numerous daily/weekly assignments and attendance makes the grading process objective and personal, freeing the instructor to…

  4. Power and Roots by Recursion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aieta, Joseph F.

    1987-01-01

    This article illustrates how questions from elementary finance can serve as motivation for studying high order powers, roots, and exponential functions using Logo procedures. A second discussion addresses a relatively unknown algorithm for the trigonometric exponential and hyperbolic functions. (PK)

  5. Gearshift apparatus for an automobile

    SciTech Connect

    Makita, F.

    1986-01-21

    This patent describes a gearshift apparatus for an automobile with an electromagnetic clutch and a transmission operatively connected to the clutch and having four forward gear trains and an output shaft. This apparatus consists of a first synchronizing means for selectively engaging a second speed gear train and a fourth speed gear train respectively with transmission output shaft. The second speed gear train has a gear ratio such that sufficient torque is produced to start the automobile on an ordinary road. Another feature of the apparatus is a second synchronizing means for selectively engaging a first speed gear train and a third speed gear train respectively with the output shaft. The first gear has a gear ratio producing sufficient torque to start the automobile on an uphill and heavy road. A shift lever means for operating the first and second synchronization means is characterized in the patent. This shaft lever is described as being rotated to a first or second plane for the operation of the respective synchronizing means and as being responsive a means elucidated in the patent for holding it in the respective plane for proper operation. The last component of the apparatus described is a gear select means including a select lever specifically operationally engageable with one of the synchronizing means by rotation of the shift lever to the respective plane and an actuating rod connecting it to the proper shift lever for respective synchronization device operation.

  6. Estimation of absorption of aromatic hydrocarbons diffusing from interior materials in automobile cabins by inhalation toxicokinetic analysis in rats.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Toshiaki

    2010-08-01

    Aromatic hydrocarbons, as well as aliphatic hydrocarbons, diffusing from interior materials in automotive cabins are the most common compounds contributing to interior air pollution. In this study, the amounts of seven selected aromatic hydrocarbons absorbed by a car driver were estimated by evaluating their inhalation toxicokinetics in rats. Measured amounts of these substances were injected into a closed chamber system containing a rat, and the concentration changes in the chamber were examined. The toxicokinetics of the substances were evaluated on the basis of the concentration-time course using a nonlinear compartment model. The amounts absorbed in humans at actual concentrations in automobile cabins without ventilation were extrapolated from the results obtained from rats. The absorbed amounts estimated for a driver during a 2 h drive were as follows (per 60 kg of human body weight): 30 microg for toluene (interior median concentration, 40 microg m(-3) in our previous study), 10 microg for ethylbenzene (12 microg m(-3)), 6 microg for o-xylene (10 microg m(-3)), 8 microg for m-xylene (11 microg m(-3)), 9 microg for p-xylene (11 microg m(-3)), 11 microg for styrene (11 microg m(-3)) and 27 microg for 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene (24 microg m(-3)). Similarly, in a cabin where air pollution was marked, the absorbed amount of styrene (654 microg for 2 h in a cabin with an interior maximum concentration of 675 microg m(-3)) was estimated to be much higher than those of other substances. This amount (654 microg) was approximately 1.5 times the tolerable daily intake of styrene (7.7 microg kg(-1) per day) recommended by the World Health Organization. PMID:20809541

  7. Analytical description of the modern steam automobile

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peoples, J. A.

    1974-01-01

    The sensitivity of operating conditions upon performance of the modern steam automobile is discussed. The word modern has been used in the title to indicate that emphasis is upon miles per gallon rather than theoretical thermal efficiency. This has been accomplished by combining classical power analysis with the ideal Pressure-Volume diagram. Several parameters are derived which characterize performance capability of the modern steam car. The report illustrates that performance is dictated by the characteristics of the working medium, and the supply temperature. Performance is nearly independent of pressures above 800 psia. Analysis techniques were developed specifically for reciprocating steam engines suitable for automotive application. Specific performance charts have been constructed on the basis of water as a working medium. The conclusions and data interpretation are therefore limited within this scope.

  8. Recycling and the automobile

    SciTech Connect

    Holt, D.J.

    1993-10-01

    This article examines the current status of automobile recycling and contains a summary of a survey which points out the major drivers and their impacts on automotive recycling. The topics of the article include computerized dismantling, polyurethane, sheet molding compound, polyester, thermoplastic polyester, recycling salvaged parts, vinyl and automotive shredder residue.

  9. Dissolution kinetics of Pd and Pt from automobile catalysts by naturally occurring complexing agents.

    PubMed

    Sebek, Ondřej; Mihaljevič, Martin; Strnad, Ladislav; Ettler, Vojtěch; Ježek, Josef; Stědrý, Robin; Drahota, Petr; Ackerman, Lukáš; Adamec, Vladimír

    2011-12-30

    Powder samples prepared from gasoline (Pt, Pd, Rh, new GN/old GO) and diesel (Pt, new DN/old DO) catalysts and recycled catalyst NIST 2556 were tested using kinetic leaching experiments following 1, 12, 24, 48, 168, 360, 720 and 1440-h interactions with solutions of 20mM citric acid (CA), 20 mM Na(2)P(4)O(7) (NaPyr), 1 g L(-1) NaCl (NaCl), a fulvic acid solution (FA-DOC 50 mg L(-1)) and 20 mM CA at pH 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 and 9. The mobilisation of platinum group elements (PGEs) was fastest in solutions of CA and NaPyr. In the other interactions (NaCl, FA), the release of PGEs was probably followed by immobilisation processes, and the interactions were not found to correspond to the simple release of PGEs into solution. Because of their low concentrations, the individual complexing agents did not have any effect on the speciation of Pd and Pt in the extracts; both metals are present in solution as the complexes Me(OH)(2), Me(OH)(+). Immobilisation can take place through the adsorption of the positively charged hydroxyl complexes or flocculation of fulvic acid, complexing the PGEs on the surface of the extracted catalysts. The calculated normalised bulk released NRi values are similar to the reaction rate highest in the solutions of CA and NaPyr. PMID:22078491

  10. Energy recycling by co-combustion of coal and recovered paint solids from automobile paint operations

    SciTech Connect

    Achariya Suriyawong; Rogan Magee; Ken Peebles; Pratim Biswas

    2009-05-15

    This paper presents the results of an experimental study of particulate emission and the fate of 13 trace elements (arsenic (As), barium (Ba), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), cobalt (Co), manganese (Mn), molybdenum (Mo), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), mercury (Hg), vanadium (V), and zinc (Zn)) during combustion tests of recovered paint solids (RPS) and coal. The emissions from combustions of coal or RPS alone were compared with those of co-combustion of RPS with subbituminous coal. The distribution/partitioning of these toxic elements between a coarse-mode ash (particle diameter (d{sub p}) > 0.5 {mu}m), a submicrometer-mode ash (d{sub p} < 0.5 {mu}m), and flue gases was also evaluated. Submicrometer particles generated by combustion of RPS alone were lower in concentration and smaller in size than that from combustion of coal. However, co-combustion of RPS and coal increased the formation of submicrometer-sized particles because of the higher reducing environment in the vicinity of burning particles and the higher volatile chlorine species. Hg was completely volatilized in all cases; however, the fraction in the oxidized state increased with co-combustion. Most trace elements, except Zn, were retained in ash during combustion of RPS alone. Mo was mostly retained in all samples. The behavior of elements, except Mn and Mo, varied depending on the fuel samples. As, Ba, Cr, Co, Cu, and Pb were vaporized to a greater extent from cocombustion of RPS and coal than from combustion of either fuel. Evidence of the enrichment of certain toxic elements in submicrometer particles has also been observed for As, Cd, Cr, Cu, and Ni during co-combustion. 27 refs., 6 figs., 5 tabs.

  11. The motivation behind serial sexual homicide: is it sex, power, and control, or anger?

    PubMed

    Myers, Wade C; Husted, David S; Safarik, Mark E; O'Toole, Mary Ellen

    2006-07-01

    Controversy exists in the literature and society regarding what motivates serial sexual killers to commit their crimes. Hypotheses range from the seeking of sexual gratification to the achievement of power and control to the expression of anger. The authors provide theoretical, empirical, evolutionary, and physiological support for the argument that serial sexual murderers above all commit their crimes in pursuit of sadistic pleasure. The seeking of power and control over victims is believed to serve the two secondary purposes of heightening sexual arousal and ensuring victim presence for the crime. Anger is not considered a key component of these offenders' motivation due to its inhibitory physiological effect on sexual functioning. On the contrary, criminal investigations into serial sexual killings consistently reveal erotically charged crimes, with sexual motivation expressed either overtly or symbolically. Although anger may be correlated with serial sexual homicide offenders, as it is with criminal offenders in general, it is not causative. The authors further believe serial sexual murderers should be considered sex offenders. A significant proportion of them appear to have paraphilic disorders within the spectrum of sexual sadism. "sexual sadism, homicidal type" is proposed as a diagnostic subtype of sexual sadism applicable to many of these offenders, and a suggested modification of DSM criteria is presented. PMID:16882237

  12. Asbestos-related diseases in automobile mechanics

    PubMed Central

    Ameille, Jacques; Rosenberg, Nicole; Matrat, Mireille; Descatha, Alexis; Mompoint, Dominique; Hamzi, Lounis; Atassi, Catherine; Vasile, Manuela; Garnier, Robert; Pairon, Jean-Claude

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Automobile mechanics have been exposed to asbestos in the past, mainly due to the presence of chrysotile asbestos in brakes and clutches. Despite the large number of automobile mechanics, little is known about the non-malignant respiratory diseases observed in this population. The aim of this retrospective multicenter study was to analyze the frequency of pleural and parenchymal abnormalities on HRCT in a population of automobile mechanics. Methods The study population consisted of 103 automobile mechanics with no other source of occupational exposure to asbestos, referred to three occupational health departments in the Paris area for systematic screening of asbestos–related diseases. All subjects were examined by HRCT and all images were reviewed separately by two independent readers, with further consensus in the case of disagreement. Multiple logistic regression models were constructed to investigate factors associated with pleural plaques. Results Pleural plaques were observed in 5 cases (4.9%) and interstitial abnormalities consistent with asbestosis were observed in 1 case. After adjustment for age, smoking status, and a history of non-asbestos-related respiratory diseases, multiple logistic regression models showed a significant association between the duration of exposure to asbestos and pleural plaques. Conclusions The asbestos exposure experienced by automobile mechanics may lead to pleural plaques. The low prevalence of non-malignant asbestos-related diseases, using a very sensitive diagnostic tool, is in favor of a low cumulative exposure to asbestos in this population of workers. PMID:21965465

  13. Public speaking in front of an unreceptive audience increases implicit power motivation and its endocrine arousal signature.

    PubMed

    Wiemers, Uta S; Schultheiss, Oliver C; Wolf, Oliver T

    2015-05-01

    The present study explored the motivational characteristics of the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST; Kirschbaum, Pirke, & Hellhammer, 1993). Seventy-two participants either completed the public-speaking component of the TSST or, as a control condition, the friendly TSST (Wiemers, Schoofs, & Wolf, 2013) and wrote picture stories both before and after treatment. Stories were coded for motivational imagery related to power, achievement, and affiliation as well as for activity inhibition, a marker of functional brain lateralization during stress. The TSST had a specific arousing effect on power motivation, but not on other motivational needs, on activity inhibition, or on story length. TSST-elicited increases in power imagery, but not in achievement or affiliation imagery, were associated with a relatively greater salivary alpha-amylase response and with a relatively lesser salivary cortisol response. These findings suggest that the TSST specifically induces power-related stress. PMID:25913901

  14. 49 CFR 523.4 - Passenger automobile.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Passenger automobile. 523.4 Section 523.4... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION VEHICLE CLASSIFICATION § 523.4 Passenger automobile. A passenger automobile is any automobile (other than an automobile capable of off-highway operation)...

  15. 49 CFR 523.4 - Passenger automobile.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Passenger automobile. 523.4 Section 523.4... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION VEHICLE CLASSIFICATION § 523.4 Passenger automobile. A passenger automobile is any automobile (other than an automobile capable of off-highway operation)...

  16. 49 CFR 523.4 - Passenger automobile.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Passenger automobile. 523.4 Section 523.4... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION VEHICLE CLASSIFICATION § 523.4 Passenger automobile. A passenger automobile is any automobile (other than an automobile capable of off-highway operation)...

  17. 49 CFR 523.4 - Passenger automobile.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Passenger automobile. 523.4 Section 523.4... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION VEHICLE CLASSIFICATION § 523.4 Passenger automobile. A passenger automobile is any automobile (other than an automobile capable of off-highway operation)...

  18. 49 CFR 523.4 - Passenger automobile.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Passenger automobile. 523.4 Section 523.4... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION VEHICLE CLASSIFICATION § 523.4 Passenger automobile. A passenger automobile is any automobile (other than an automobile capable of off-highway operation)...

  19. The comparison of performance by using alternative refrigerant R152a in automobile climate system with different artificial neural network models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalkisim, A. T.; Hasiloglu, A. S.; Bilen, K.

    2016-04-01

    Due to the refrigerant gas R134a which is used in automobile air conditioning systems and has greater global warming impact will be phased out gradually, an alternative gas is being desired to be used without much change on existing air conditioning systems. It is aimed to obtain the easier solution for intermediate values on the performance by creating a Neural Network Model in case of using a fluid (R152a) in automobile air conditioning systems that has the thermodynamic properties close to each other and near-zero global warming impact. In this instance, a network structure giving the most accurate result has been established by identifying which model provides the best education with which network structure and makes the most accurate predictions in the light of the data obtained after five different ANN models was trained with three different network structures. During training of Artificial Neural Network, Quick Propagation, Quasi-Newton, Levenberg-Marquardt and Conjugate Gradient Descent Batch Back Propagation methodsincluding five inputs and one output were trained with various network structures. Over 1500 iterations have been evaluated and the most appropriate model was identified by determining minimum error rates. The accuracy of the determined ANN model was revealed by comparing with estimates made by the Multi-Regression method.

  20. Modeling of Electromagnetic Damper for Automobile Suspension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawamoto, Yasuhiro; Suda, Yoshihiro; Inoue, Hirofumi; Kondo, Takuhiro

    In this paper, the modeling of the electromagnetic damper (EMD) for automobile suspension is presented and the validation of the model is demonstrated by comparing the numerical results with the experimental results obtained using shaker tests. EMD is used as an active suspension and controlled to have output force calculated from velocities of sprung and unsprung masses. The formulation of EMD system for active suspensions is first developed, and the validation of the EMD model is demonstrated by experiments of the EMD for automobile suspensions. The validity of the formulation of the EMD developed in this investigation is shown for the frequency responses as well as energy balance for its active use.

  1. First report on the uptake of automobile catalyst emitted palladium by European eels (Anguilla anguilla) following experimental exposure to road dust.

    PubMed

    Sures, B; Zimmermann, S; Messerschmidt, J; von Bohlen, A; Alt, F

    2001-01-01

    Following the introduction of automobile catalysts in the middle of the 1980s in Germany there is an increasing emission of the platinum-group-metals platinum, palladium (Pd) and rhodium. Still, it remains unclear if these metals are bioavailable for aquatic animals and to which extent they become accumulated by the aquatic biosphere. Because of analytical problems in detecting Pd in small biological samples the present investigation concentrates on the bioavailability of this metal. To answer the question of a Pd uptake by aquatic organisms experimental studies were conducted with European eels maintained in water containing road dust at a concentration of 10 kg/100 l. Following an exposure period of four weeks, samples of liver and kidney were analysed by total-reflection X-ray fluorescence analysis after co-precipitation of Pd with mercury. These experiments revealed an uptake of traffic related Pd by European eels which showed a mean liver Pd concentration of 0.18 +/- 0.05 ng/g (wet wt.), whereas the Pd concentration in the kidney ranged below the detection limit. Thus, in this study we can demonstrate for the first time that automobile catalyst emitted Pd is bioavailable for aquatic animals. PMID:11428142

  2. ASE Program Certification Standards for Automobile Technician Training Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Automotive Technicians Education Foundation, Herndon, VA.

    This publication provides the evaluation policies, procedures, and standards to which an automobile technician training program must adhere to be granted certification by the National Institute for Automotive Service Excellence. The policies section has three parts: the automobile areas that may be certified and minimum requirements for…

  3. 40 CFR 600.315-82 - Classes of comparable automobiles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... accordance with 49 CFR part 523. (1) The Administrator will classify passenger automobiles by car line into..., Department of Transportation (DOT), 49 CFR 571.3. (ii) Minicompact cars. Interior volume index less than 85... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Classes of comparable automobiles....

  4. 40 CFR 600.315-82 - Classes of comparable automobiles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... accordance with 49 CFR part 523. (1) The Administrator will classify passenger automobiles by car line into..., Department of Transportation (DOT), 49 CFR 571.3. (ii) Minicompact cars. Interior volume index less than 85... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Classes of comparable automobiles....

  5. 40 CFR 600.315-08 - Classes of comparable automobiles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... accordance with 49 CFR part 523. (1) The Administrator will classify passenger automobiles by car line into... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, Department of Transportation (DOT), 49 CFR 571.3. (ii... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Classes of comparable automobiles....

  6. The Training Needs of Michigan Automobile Suppliers: Initial Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, James

    In June 1985, a survey was sent by the Industrial Technology Institute to 397 Michigan automobile supplier firms concerning their industrial training in modern manufacturing technologies. The purposes of this survey were to investigate the training needs of Michigan automobile suppliers, with particular emphasis on how they met their training…

  7. Sexual Motivation in the Female and Its Opposition by Stress.

    PubMed

    Magariños, Ana Maria; Pfaff, Donald

    2016-01-01

    A well worked-out motivational system in laboratory animals produces estrogen-dependent female sex behavior. Here, we review (a) the logical definition of sexual motivation and (b) the basic neuronal and molecular mechanisms that allow the behavior to occur. Importantly, reproductive mechanisms in the female can be inhibited by stress. This is interesting because, in terms of the specificity of neuroendocrine dynamics in space and time, the two families of phenomena, sex and stress, are the opposite of each other. We cover papers that document stress effects on the underlying processes of reproductive endocrinology in the female. Not all of the mechanisms for such inhibition have been clearly laid out. Finally, as a current topic of investigation, this system offers several avenues for new investigation which we briefly characterize. PMID:26650839

  8. Speech intelligibility index predictions for young and old listeners in automobile noise: Can the index be improved by incorporating factors other than absolute threshold?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saweikis, Meghan; Surprenant, Aimée M.; Davies, Patricia; Gallant, Don

    2003-10-01

    While young and old subjects with comparable audiograms tend to perform comparably on speech recognition tasks in quiet environments, the older subjects have more difficulty than the younger subjects with recognition tasks in degraded listening conditions. This suggests that factors other than an absolute threshold may account for some of the difficulty older listeners have on recognition tasks in noisy environments. Many metrics, including the Speech Intelligibility Index (SII), used to measure speech intelligibility, only consider an absolute threshold when accounting for age related hearing loss. Therefore these metrics tend to overestimate the performance for elderly listeners in noisy environments [Tobias et al., J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 83, 859-895 (1988)]. The present studies examine the predictive capabilities of the SII in an environment with automobile noise present. This is of interest because people's evaluation of the automobile interior sound is closely linked to their ability to carry on conversations with their fellow passengers. The four studies examine whether, for subjects with age related hearing loss, the accuracy of the SII can be improved by incorporating factors other than an absolute threshold into the model. [Work supported by Ford Motor Company.

  9. Uptake and bioaccumulation of platinum group metals (Pd, Pt, Rh) from automobile catalytic converter materials by the zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha).

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, Sonja; Messerschmidt, Jürgen; von Bohlen, Alex; Sures, Bernd

    2005-06-01

    The uptake and bioaccumulation of the platinum group metals (PGM) platinum (Pt), palladium (Pd), and rhodium (Rh) by the zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) were investigated in exposure studies using ground material from unused automobile catalytic converters as metal source. The mussels were exposed to the metals in tap water or humic water. In the soft tissue samples of exposed mussels mean Pt levels ranged in dependence on the type of tank water and the exposure period (6, 9, or 18 weeks) between 780 and 4300 ng/g, the Pd levels ranged between 720 and 6300 ng/g, and the Rh levels ranged between 270 and 1900 ng/g. In contrast, the control mussels had metal concentrations of <20 ng/g (Pt), <50 ng/g (Pd), and <40 ng/g (Rh). Considerably higher PGM levels were found in the exposed mussels of the humic water group than in those of the tap water group. Although there is a cumulative increase of the PGM concentrations in the environment since the introduction of the automobile catalyst more than 20 years ago, only little information about the PGM contamination in the biosphere, especially the fauna, is available. Due to the high capacity of D. polymorpha to accumulate PGM, this bivalve could be used as a potential sentinel for monitoring the noble metals in aquatic ecosystems. PMID:15820726

  10. The recycling dilemma for advanced materials use: Automobile materials substitution

    SciTech Connect

    Field, F.R. III; Clark, J.P. )

    1991-01-01

    This paper discusses the difficulties associated with imposing recycling imperatives upon advanced materials development by examining the case of automotive materials substitution and its impacts upon the recyclability of the automobile. Parallels are drawn between today's issues, which focus upon the recyclability of the increasing polymeric fraction in automobile shredder fluff, and the junked automobile problem of the 1960's, when the problem of abandoned automobiles became a part of the environmental and legislative agenda in the US and overseas. In the 1960's, both the source and the resolution of the junk automobile problem arose through a confluence of technological and economic factors, rather than through any set of regulatory influences. The rise of electric arc furnace steelmaking and the development of the automobile shredder were sufficient to virtually eliminate the problem - so much so that today's problems are incorrectly viewed as novelties. Today's automobile recycling problem again derives from technological and economic factors, but regulatory influences have spurred some of them. While there are no lack of technological solutions to the problem of automobile shredder fluff, none of these solutions yet provides scrap processors with the kind of profit opportunity necessary to implement them. In some ways, it is implicit in advanced materials markets that there is little to no demand for recycled forms of these materials, and, in the absence of these markets, there are few reasons to expect that the solution to today's problems will be quite so neat.

  11. 17 CFR 256.309 - Automobiles, other vehicles, and related garage equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Automobiles, other vehicles... § 256.309 Automobiles, other vehicles, and related garage equipment. This account shall include the delivered cost of all service company owned automobiles, vans, trucks, and other vehicles used by...

  12. 26 CFR 48.4061(a)-5 - Sale of automobile truck bodies and chassis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sale of automobile truck bodies and chassis. 48..., Tread Rubber, and Taxable Fuel Automotive and Related Items § 48.4061(a)-5 Sale of automobile truck bodies and chassis. (a) Sale of completed vehicle. An automobile truck (as defined by §...

  13. 17 CFR 256.309 - Automobiles, other vehicles, and related garage equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Automobiles, other vehicles... § 256.309 Automobiles, other vehicles, and related garage equipment. This account shall include the delivered cost of all service company owned automobiles, vans, trucks, and other vehicles used by...

  14. 26 CFR 48.4061(a)-5 - Sale of automobile truck bodies and chassis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sale of automobile truck bodies and chassis. 48..., Tread Rubber, and Taxable Fuel Automotive and Related Items § 48.4061(a)-5 Sale of automobile truck bodies and chassis. (a) Sale of completed vehicle. An automobile truck (as defined by §...

  15. 26 CFR 48.4061(a)-5 - Sale of automobile truck bodies and chassis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sale of automobile truck bodies and chassis. 48..., Tread Rubber, and Taxable Fuel Automotive and Related Items § 48.4061(a)-5 Sale of automobile truck bodies and chassis. (a) Sale of completed vehicle. An automobile truck (as defined by §...

  16. 26 CFR 48.4061(a)-5 - Sale of automobile truck bodies and chassis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Sale of automobile truck bodies and chassis. 48..., Tread Rubber, and Taxable Fuel Automotive and Related Items § 48.4061(a)-5 Sale of automobile truck bodies and chassis. (a) Sale of completed vehicle. An automobile truck (as defined by §...

  17. Client Common Factors Represented by Client Motivation and Autonomy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheel, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    Ryan and colleagues are applauded for elevating client factors in the form of motivation and autonomy to equal status with the alliance as common factors in psychotherapy. Next, client motivation and autonomy are explained to be inextricably linked with one promoting the other. Motivational methods are summarized for the major approaches, making…

  18. The Energy Cost of Automobiles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, R. Stephen; Fels, Margaret F.

    1973-01-01

    Presents two respective comparisons between ideal and real energy cost for the manufacture of a new automobile and between free energy savings from processing the old automobile into low and high grade scraps. Suggests the wasted thermodynamic potential should be considered in making decisions about energy savings. (CC)

  19. How Do Motivational Regulation Strategies Affect Achievement: Mediated by Effort Management and Moderated by Intelligence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwinger, Malte; Steinmayr, Ricarda; Spinath, Birgit

    2009-01-01

    It was assumed that the effect of motivational regulation strategies on achievement is mediated by effort management and moderated by intelligence. A sample of 231 11th and 12th grade German high-school students provided self-reports on their use of motivational regulation strategies and effort management and completed an intelligence test.…

  20. Teachers Environmental Resource Unit: The Automobile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bemiss, Clair W.

    Environmental problems created by the automobile and intensified rapidly over the past three decades are studied in this teacher's guide. The resource unit is intended to provide the teacher with basic information that will aid classroom review of these problems. With efficient and effective transportation as a goal, topics focus on transportation…

  1. Judging Thieves of Attention: Commentary on "Assessing Cognitive Distraction in the Automobile," by Strayer, Turrill, Cooper, Coleman, Medeiros-Ward, and Biondi (2015).

    PubMed

    Hancock, Peter A; Sawyer, Ben D

    2015-12-01

    The laudable effort by Strayer and his colleagues to derive a systematic method to assess forms of cognitive distraction in the automobile is beset by the problem of nonstationary in driver response capacity. At the level of the overall goal of driving, this problem conflates actual on-road behavior; characterized by underspecified task satisficing, with our own understandable, scientifically inspired aspiration for measuring deterministic performance optimization. Measures of response conceived under this latter imperative are, at best, only shadowy reflections of the actual phenomenological experience involved in real-world vehicle control. Whether we, as a research community, can resolve this issue remains uncertain. However, we believe we can mount a positive attack on what is arguably another equally important dimension of the collision problem. PMID:26534852

  2. Power spectrum oscillations from Planck-suppressed operators in effective field theory motivated monodromy inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, Layne C.

    2015-11-01

    We consider a phenomenological model of inflation where the inflaton is the phase of a complex scalar field Φ . Planck-suppressed operators of O (f5/Mpl) modify the geometry of the vev ⟨Φ ⟩ at first order in the decay constant f , which adds a first-order periodic term to the definition of the canonically normalized inflaton ϕ . This correction to the inflaton induces a fixed number of extra oscillatory terms in the potential V ˜θp. We derive the same result in a toy scenario where the vacuum ⟨Φ ⟩ is an ellipse with an arbitrarily large eccentricity. These extra oscillations change the form of the power spectrum as a function of scale k and provide a possible mechanism for differentiating effective field theory motivated inflation from models where the angular shift symmetry is a gauge symmetry.

  3. Victim blame in a hate crime motivated by sexual orientation.

    PubMed

    Plumm, Karyn M; Terrance, Cheryl A; Henderson, Vanessa R; Ellingson, Heather

    2010-01-01

    A jury simulation paradigm was employed for two studies exploring levels of victim blame in a case of bias-motivated assault based on sexual orientation. In the first study, participants were grouped according to their score on the Index of Homophobia (IHP) scale as either reporting high or low support for gay and lesbian community members. The label of the crime (i.e., bias-motivated assault versus first-degree assault) as well as the gender of the victim were systematically varied. Results indicated that attributions of blame against the victim varied as a function of participants' attitudes toward minority sexual orientation. As extra-legal factors likely contribute to victim blame in these cases, the second study explored such factors as location and "provocation." Jurors in the second study read a transcript depicting an attack on a gay man by a man in either a local bar (i.e., not a gay bar) or a gay bar. Within location conditions, jurors were presented with either "provocation" by the victim (i.e., asking the perpetrator to dance and putting his arm around him) or alternatively no provocation was presented. Results revealed significant differences of victim blame depending on condition. Participants in both the local bar and provocation present conditions were more likely to blame the victim for the attack than those in the gay bar or provocation-absent conditions. Implications for hate crime law and attribution theory within the courtroom are discussed. PMID:20390993

  4. a Study on the Mechanism of OCCUPANT'S Cervical Injury by Low Speed Rear-End Collision of Automobiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Wonhak; Kim, Yongchul; Choi, Hyeonki

    Neck injury in rear-end car collisions is an increasing concern in the field of traffic safety. This injury commonly occurs at rear-end impact, however the injury mechanisms for whiplash remain a mystery. The purpose of this study is to quantitatively analyze the head and neck kinematics during the low-speed rear-end impact of automobiles. It is important to produce data that is related as closely as possible to the in vivo situation. So, we performed a sled test which simulated rear-end impacts with a velocity of 0.6 m/s with five normal healthy male subjects. 3-D motion analysis system was used to document motion data of two situations. When we compare the values of angular velocity and acceleration of head and neck, the peak magnitudes of inclined seated posture were smaller than those of upright seated posture. The result of this study is expected to provide insight that will aid in determining the mechanism of whiplash which is crucial to the identification of possible injury mechanisms.

  5. 49 CFR 523.3 - Automobile.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Automobile. 523.3 Section 523.3 Transportation..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION VEHICLE CLASSIFICATION § 523.3 Automobile. (a) An automobile is any 4-wheeled... pounds and less than 10,000 pounds gross vehicle weight are determined to be automobiles: (1)...

  6. 49 CFR 523.3 - Automobile.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Automobile. 523.3 Section 523.3 Transportation..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION VEHICLE CLASSIFICATION § 523.3 Automobile. (a) An automobile is any 4-wheeled... pounds and less than 10,000 pounds gross vehicle weight are determined to be automobiles: (1)...

  7. 49 CFR 523.3 - Automobile.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Automobile. 523.3 Section 523.3 Transportation..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION VEHICLE CLASSIFICATION § 523.3 Automobile. (a) An automobile is any 4-wheeled... pounds and less than 10,000 pounds gross vehicle weight are determined to be automobiles: (1)...

  8. 49 CFR 523.3 - Automobile.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Automobile. 523.3 Section 523.3 Transportation..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION VEHICLE CLASSIFICATION § 523.3 Automobile. (a) An automobile is any 4-wheeled... pounds and less than 10,000 pounds gross vehicle weight are determined to be automobiles: (1)...

  9. 49 CFR 523.3 - Automobile.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Automobile. 523.3 Section 523.3 Transportation..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION VEHICLE CLASSIFICATION § 523.3 Automobile. (a) An automobile is any 4-wheeled... pounds and less than 10,000 pounds gross vehicle weight are determined to be automobiles: (1)...

  10. Turning Kids on to Research: The Power of Motivation. Information Literacy Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Small, Ruth V.; Arnone, Marilyn P.

    Taking into consideration the motivational needs of different students, the book discusses both internal and external motivators such as attaining a sense of achievement or leadership versus earning a physical reward such as candy or a field trip. These and other motivating factors are then incorporated into discussions of how to create productive…

  11. Promoting Quality in China's Higher Education by Motivating Students Attending the British Culture Survey Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, Weihua

    2005-01-01

    This article discusses an intervention project by means of motivational approaches in a British culture survey course for English majors in mainland China's university classroom context. The intervention uses such motivational theories as attribution and task orientation to motivate the teaching and learning of the EFL course so as to create a…

  12. The Identification of Online Learning Motives in Use by Undergraduate Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laszlo, Frank, Jr.; Kupritz, Virginia W.

    2003-01-01

    Human resource development students in online courses (n=45) completed the Instructional Material Motivation Survey and Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire. Course relevance was the strongest motivator, followed by material that arouses curiosity, encourages frequent instructor feedback, facilitates completion, and supports the belief…

  13. Motivational Distortion on 16 PF Primaries by Male Felons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallbrown, Fred H.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Investigated motivational distortion using the 16 Personality Factor Questionnaire (16 PF) for male (n=331) criminal offenders. Results indicated that ego-strength, free-floating anxiety, ability to bind anxiety, boldness, dominance, emotional sensitivity and suspiciousness contributed most to the motivational distortion scale predictions.…

  14. Motivational Responses to Fitness Testing by Award Status and Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Domangue, Elizabeth; Solmon, Melinda

    2010-01-01

    Fitness testing is a prominent element in many physical education programs, but there has been limited investigation concerning motivation constructs associated with the testing. This study investigated the relationships among physical education students' award status and gender to achievement goals, intrinsic motivation, and intentions. After…

  15. Help Motivate the Amotivated by Being a Supportive Teacher

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perlman, Dana J.

    2015-01-01

    Background: A major goal within physical education is to develop a student who will engage in a lifetime of physical activity. A concept deemed critical and strongly associated with engagement in physical activity is motivation. As such, a number of research studies have been focused on elements that facilitate student motivation in physical…

  16. The honeymoon effect in job performance - Temporal increases in the predictive power of achievement motivation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helmreich, Robert L.; Sawin, Linda L.; Carsrud, Alan L.

    1986-01-01

    Correlations between a job performance criterion and personality measures reflecting achievement motivation and an interpersonal orientation were examined at three points in time after completion of job training for a sample of airline reservations agents. Although correlations between the personality predictors and performance were small and nonsignificant for the 3-month period after beginning the job, by the end of six and eight months a number of significant relationships had emerged. Implications for the utility of personality measures in selection and performance prediction are discussed.

  17. Automobile air-conditioning unit. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Schaetzle, W.J.

    1982-12-01

    In this study the refrigerant in the automobile air-conditioner is compressed by thermal energy in a unique compression system rather than by work in a standard compressor. The compression uses an intermittent compression process with a solid absorbent. The vapor is absorbed by an absorbent at relatively low temperature and ejected as the absorbent temperature is raised. A set of one way valves limits flow to one direction. Major contributions are heat transfer requirements, molecular sieve-refrigerant matching, minimizing non-producing mass, solving thermal fatigue and shock problems, and applying this to automobile air-conditioning. The performance study shows energy savings up to fifty percent are possible, depending on engine load. A twenty percent energy savings with the vehicle tested with the air-conditioner in operation is average. The study also showed that less fuel is used with the windows open than with the air-conditioner operating.

  18. New developments in aluminum for aircraft and automobiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petit, Jocelyn I.

    1994-01-01

    A common bond for the aircraft and automobile industry is the need for cost-efficient, lightweight structures such as provided by aluminum based materials. The topics are presented in viewgraph form and cover the following: new developments in aluminum for aircraft and automobiles; forces shaping future automotive materials needs; aluminum strength/weakness versus competitive materials; evolution of aluminum aerospace alloys; forces shaping future aircraft materials needs; fiber/metal structural laminates; and property requirements for jetliner and military transport applications.

  19. Dark energy parametrization motivated by scalar field dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de la Macorra, Axel

    2016-05-01

    We propose a new dark energy (DE) parametrization motivated by the dynamics of a scalar field ϕ. We use an equation of state w parametrized in terms of two functions L and y, closely related to the dynamics of scalar fields, which is exact and has no approximation. By choosing an appropriate ansatz for L we obtain a wide class of behavior for the evolution of DE without the need to specify the scalar potential V. We parametrize L and y in terms of only four parameters, giving w a rich structure and allowing for a wide class of DE dynamics. Our w can either grow and later decrease, or it can happen the other way around; the steepness of the transition is not fixed and it contains the ansatz w={w}o+{w}a(1-a). Our parametrization follows closely the dynamics of a scalar field, and the function L allows us to connect it with the scalar potential V(φ ). While the Universe is accelerating and the slow roll approximation is valid, we get L≃ {({V}\\prime /V)}2. To determine the dynamics of DE we also calculate the background evolution and its perturbations, since they are important to discriminate between different DE models.

  20. How to Create Nonreaders: Reflections on Motivation, Learning, and Sharing Power

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kohn, Alfie

    2010-01-01

    The author suggests that it is impossible to motivate students. He said that in fact, it's not really possible to motivate anyone, except perhaps oneself. What a teacher "can" do--"all" a teacher can do--is work with students to create a classroom culture, a climate, a curriculum that will nourish and sustain the fundamental inclinations that…

  1. Suicidal hanging within an automobile.

    PubMed

    Blanco Pampin, J M; López-Abajo Rodriguez, B A

    2001-12-01

    Accidental asphyxia related to cars has been described in different reports, but suicidal hanging in an automobile is very unusual. Two cases of suicidal hanging inside an automobile are described, illustrating an unusual form of hanging. In one case, the deceased used his belt as a ligature, and the point of attachment was the window of the car. The second victim used the safety belt of the passenger seat. In both cases, the automobile engine was turned off, all the windows were closed, and the door locks were blocked. The medicolegal cause of hanging was based on the scene of the investigation, police and witness reports, social history, autopsy findings, and toxicologic examinations. PMID:11764903

  2. Automobile Finance, Warranty, and Insurance Extras.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deneen, Daniel

    1994-01-01

    Most consumers are relatively unaware of how automobile dealerships profit from automobile finance, insurance, and warranty arrangements. Consumers should consult an attorney when buying a car--one of the largest expenditures a person will ever make. (JOW)

  3. A comparison of alternative energy storage systems for automobiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The performance potentials of primary batteries, fuel cells, and flywheel-transmission systems in comparison with secondary batteries as alternates to conventional internal combustion engine automobile power systems are discussed. A number of areas of research that are recommended for attention as part of a well-rounded investigation of alternatives are outlined.

  4. In situ deposition of silver and palladium nanoparticles prepared by the polyol process, and their performance as catalytic converters of automobile exhaust gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonet, F.; Grugeon, S.; Herrera Urbina, R.; Tekaia-Elhsissen, K.; Tarascon, J.-M.

    2002-04-01

    In situ deposition of silver particles onto alumina and palladium particles onto mixed CeZr oxides has been achieved upon chemical reduction of the corresponding metal species (AgNO 3 and PdCl 2) by ethylene glycol in the presence of polyvinylpyrrolidone. The support oxide powders were found to keep their crystalline structure and morphology after treatment with hot ethylene glycol while the BET surface area decreased after metal deposition. Microprobe maps obtained from energy dispersive X-ray analysis revealed a homogeneous distribution of metal nanoparticles on the surfaces of alumina and of the mixed CeZr oxides. Supported silver and palladium were tested as catalytic converters of simulated exhaust automobile gases. The catalytic activity of silver-loaded alumina powder catalyst for CO and hydrocarbon oxidation as well as NO and NO x reduction, was found to be higher than that of a reference silver catalyst. Palladium-loaded mixed CeZr oxides powder catalyst showed a similar performance to that of a reference palladium catalyst as a three-way catalyst converter.

  5. Cost Vs. Carnage in Automobile Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, George James

    This research report investigates the need for improved automobile design and safety equipment, what the manufacturers have done about automobile safety, and what could be done. Data were collected from the three major American automobile manufacturers, from federal regulatory agencies, and from insurance companies and others interested in auto…

  6. The Hybrid Automobile and the Atkinson Cycle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldman, Bernard J.

    2008-01-01

    The hybrid automobile is a strikingly new automobile technology with a number of new technological features that dramatically improve energy efficiency. This paper will briefly describe how hybrid automobiles work; what are these new technological features; why the Toyota Prius hybrid internal combustion engine operates on the Atkinson cycle…

  7. 49 CFR 176.90 - Private automobiles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Private automobiles. 176.90 Section 176.90 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... § 176.90 Private automobiles. A private automobile which is carrying any Class 1 (explosive)...

  8. 49 CFR 176.90 - Private automobiles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Private automobiles. 176.90 Section 176.90 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... § 176.90 Private automobiles. A private automobile which is carrying any Class 1 (explosive)...

  9. 49 CFR 176.90 - Private automobiles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Private automobiles. 176.90 Section 176.90 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... § 176.90 Private automobiles. A private automobile which is carrying any Class 1 (explosive)...

  10. 49 CFR 176.90 - Private automobiles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Private automobiles. 176.90 Section 176.90 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... § 176.90 Private automobiles. A private automobile which is carrying any Class 1 (explosive)...

  11. 49 CFR 176.90 - Private automobiles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Private automobiles. 176.90 Section 176.90 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... § 176.90 Private automobiles. A private automobile which is carrying any Class 1 (explosive)...

  12. ORGANIC EMISSIONS FROM AUTOMOBILE INTERIORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of an evaluation of six subcompact automobiles for the emission of vinyl chloride monomer (VCM) and other organics into the passenger compartment. Evaluated were a Ford Pinto, AMC Gremlin, GMC Vega, GMC Chevette, NMC Datsun 710, and VW Rabbit. VCM was qua...

  13. Predicting Mathematics Achievement by Motivation and Self-Efficacy across Gender and Achievement Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sartawi, AbdelAziz; Alsawaie, Othman N.; Dodeen, Hamzeh; Tibi, Sana; Alghazo, Iman M.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the extent to which self-efficacy and motivation served as a predictor for mathematics achievement of fifth grade students in United Arab Emirates (UAE) across gender and achievement levels. Self-efficacy was measured by two scales, which differed in levels of specificity--Category Specific and Task Specific. Motivation was…

  14. Motivational Factors in Career Decisions Made by Chinese Science Museum Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ji, Jiao; Anderson, David; Wu, Xinchun

    2016-01-01

    Conceptualized by the self-determination theory, this interpretive study examined 23 museum educators' perspectives from five Chinese science museums to understand their work motivation in relation to their professional practice of working in museums. Research outcomes showed that, Chinese science museum educators' work motivation followed a…

  15. Approach to estimation of absorption of aliphatic hydrocarbons diffusing from interior materials in an automobile cabin by inhalation toxicokinetic analysis in rats.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Toshiaki

    2010-01-01

    The interior air of an automobile cabin has been demonstrated in our previous studies to be contaminated by high concentrations of a large variety of aliphatic hydrocarbons diffusing from the interior materials. In the present study, the amounts of seven selected aliphatic hydrocarbons absorbed by the car driver were estimated by evaluating their inhalation toxicokinetics in rats. Measured amounts of the substances were injected into a closed chamber system in which a rat had been placed, and the concentration changes in the chamber were examined. The toxicokinetics of the substances were evaluated based on concentration-time courses using a nonlinear compartment model. Their absorption amounts in humans at the levels of actual concentrations in the cabins without ventilation were extrapolated from the results found with the rats. The absorption amounts estimated for a driver during a 2 h drive were as follows: 6 microg/60 kg of human body weight for methylcyclopentane (interior concentration 23 microg/m(3) as median value in previous study), 5 microg for 2-methylpentane (36 microg/m(3)), 13 microg for n-hexane (65 microg/m(3)), 51 microg for n-heptane (150 microg/m(3)), 26 microg for 2,4-dimethylheptane (97 microg/m(3)), 17 microg for n-nonane (25 microg/m(3)) and 49 microg for n-decane (68 microg/m(3)). An inverse relationship was found between the exposure and absorption among the substances (e.g. between n-decane and 2,4-dimethylheptane). These findings suggest that not only the exposure concentrations but also the absorption amounts should be taken into account to evaluate the health effects of exposure to low concentrations of volatile compounds as environmental contaminants. PMID:19743389

  16. Photocatalytic destruction of automobile exhaust emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Kaviranta, P.D.; Peden, C.H.F.

    1996-10-01

    Hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, and nitrogen oxides contained in automobile exhaust emissions are among the major atmospheric air pollutants. During the first few minutes of a cold start of the engine, the emission levels of unburned hydrocarbon and CO pollutants are very high due to the inefficiency of the cold engine and the poor activity of the catalysts lower temperatures. Therefore, it is necessary to provide an alternative approach to deal with this specific problem in order to meet near-term regulatory requirements. Our approach has been to use known photocatalytic reactions obtainable on semiconducting powders such as titanium dioxide. In this presentation we describe our recent studies aimed at the photocatalytic reduction of unburned hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide in automobile exhaust emissions. Our results demonstrate the effective destruction of propylene into water and carbon dioxide. The conversion was found to be dependent on the propylene flow rate. The reaction rate was studied as a function of time, humidity and temperature. The effect of the power of the UV source on conversion will also be presented.

  17. Inequality, discrimination, and the power of the status quo: Direct evidence for a motivation to see the way things are as the way they should be.

    PubMed

    Kay, Aaron C; Gaucher, Danielle; Peach, Jennifer M; Laurin, Kristin; Friesen, Justin; Zanna, Mark P; Spencer, Steven J

    2009-09-01

    How powerful is the status quo in determining people's social ideals? The authors propose (a) that people engage in injunctification, that is, a motivated tendency to construe the current status quo as the most desirable and reasonable state of affairs (i.e., as the most representative of how things should be); (b) that this tendency is driven, at least in part, by people's desire to justify their sociopolitical systems; and (c) that injunctification has profound implications for the maintenance of inequality and societal change. Four studies, across a variety of domains, provided supportive evidence. When the motivation to justify the sociopolitical system was experimentally heightened, participants injunctified extant (a) political power (Study 1), (b) public funding policies (Study 2), and (c) unequal gender demographics in the political and business spheres (Studies 3 and 4, respectively). It was also demonstrated that this motivated phenomenon increased derogation of those who act counter to the status quo (Study 4). Theoretical implications for system justification theory, stereotype formation, affirmative action, and the maintenance of inequality are discussed. PMID:19685999

  18. On-line measurements of nitro organic compounds emitted from automobiles by proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry: Laboratory experiments and a field measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inomata, S.; Tanimoto, H.; Fujitani, Y.; Fushimi, A.; Sato, K.; Sekimoto, K.; Yamada, H.; Hori, S.; Shimono, A.; Hikida, T.

    2011-12-01

    On-line measurements of nitro organic compounds in automobile exhaust were carried out by proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) with a chassis dynamometer. Diesel vehicles with oxidation catalyst system (diesel vehicle A) and with diesel PM-NOx reduction system ((diesel vehicle B) and a gasoline vehicle were used as a test vehicle. In the case of the diesel vehicle A, the emissions of nitromethane, nitrophenol (NPh), C7-, C8-, C9-, and C10-nitrophenols, and dihydroxynitrobenzenes (DHNB) were observed in the diesel exhaust from the experiment under the constant driving at 60 km hr-1. Temporal variations of mixing ratios for nitromethane, NPh, and DHNB along with related volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were measured during a transient driving cycle. The time-resolved measurement revealed that the nitromethane emission was strongly correlated with the emissions of CO, benzene, and acetone, which are relatively quickly produced in acceleration processes and appeared as sharp peaks. On the other hand, the NPh emission was moderately correlated with the emissions of acetic acid and phenol, which peaks were broad. The emission of nitromethane was observed from the exhaust of the diesel vehicle B but the emission of other nitro organic compounds was not observed. This suggests that the emission of nitro organic compounds besides nitromethane may depend on the diesel exhaust aftertreatment devices. The emission of nitromethane was also observed from the exhaust of the gasoline vehicle with cold start. An in-situ measurement of nitro organic compounds and their related VOCs was carried out at the crossing of an urban city, Kawasaki. Nitromethane was observed at the crossing and we found that the concentration of nitrometane varied rapidly. During the measurement, the maximum of the concentration of nitrometane reached 5 ppbv. Not only nitrophenols but also nitroaromatics were sometimes detected in the field measurement.

  19. Optimizing the Power of Choice: Supporting Student Autonomy to Foster Motivation and Engagement in Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Miriam; Boucher, Alyssa R.

    2015-01-01

    Choice plays a critical role in promoting students' intrinsic motivation and deep engagement in learning. Across a range of academic outcomes and student populations, positive impacts have been seen when student autonomy is promoted through meaningful and personally relevant choice. This article presents a theoretical perspective on the…

  20. The Power of Social and Motivational Relationships for Test-Anxious Adolescents' Academic Self-Regulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raufelder, Diana; Hoferichter, Frances; Schneeweiss, David; Wood, Megan A.

    2015-01-01

    Based on cognitive evaluation theory (CET) and organismic integration theory (OIT)--both sub-theories of self-determination theory (SDT)--the present study examined whether the academic self-regulation of youth with test anxiety can be strengthened through social and motivational relationships with peers and teachers. This study employed a large…

  1. Promoting intergroup contact by changing beliefs: group malleability, intergroup anxiety, and contact motivation.

    PubMed

    Halperin, Eran; Crisp, Richard J; Husnu, Shenel; Trzesniewski, Kali H; Dweck, Carol S; Gross, James J

    2012-12-01

    Intergroup contact plays a crucial role in moderating long-term conflicts. Unfortunately, the motivation to make contact with outgroup members is usually very low in such conflicts. We hypothesized that one limiting factor is the belief that groups cannot change, which leads to increased intergroup anxiety and decreased contact motivation. To test this hypothesis, we experimentally manipulated beliefs about group malleability in the context of the conflict between Greek and Turkish Cypriots and then assessed intergroup anxiety and motivation to engage in intergroup contact. Turkish Cypriots who were led to believe that groups can change (with no mention of the specific groups involved) reported lower levels of intergroup anxiety and higher motivation to interact and communicate with Greek Cypriots in the future, compared with those who were led to believe that groups cannot change. This effect of group malleability manipulation on contact motivation was mediated by intergroup anxiety. PMID:22642339

  2. Life cycle models of conventional and alternative-fueled automobiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maclean, Heather Louise

    development for the combinations. Overall, none of the alternatives emerges as a clear winner, lowering the externalities and improving sustainability, while considering technology issues and vehicle attributes. The majority of the alternatives are not likely to displace the baseline automobile. However, the attractiveness of the alternatives depends on the focus of future regulations, government priorities, and technology development. If long-term global sustainability is the principal concern, then improvements in fuel economy alone will not provide the level of reduction in impact required. A switch to renewable fuels (e.g., alcohols or diesel produced from biomass) to power the vehicles will likely be necessary. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

  3. Are health workers motivated by income? Job motivation of Cambodian primary health workers implementing performance-based financing

    PubMed Central

    Khim, Keovathanak

    2016-01-01

    Background Financial incentives are widely used in performance-based financing (PBF) schemes, but their contribution to health workers’ incomes and job motivation is poorly understood. Cambodia undertook health sector reform from the middle of 2009 and PBF was employed as a part of the reform process. Objective This study examines job motivation for primary health workers (PHWs) under PBF reform in Cambodia and assesses the relationship between job motivation and income. Design A cross-sectional self-administered survey was conducted on 266 PHWs, from 54 health centers in the 15 districts involved in the reform. The health workers were asked to report all sources of income from public sector jobs and provide answers to 20 items related to job motivation. Factor analysis was conducted to identify the latent variables of job motivation. Factors associated with motivation were identified through multivariable regression. Results PHWs reported multiple sources of income and an average total income of US$190 per month. Financial incentives under the PBF scheme account for 42% of the average total income. PHWs had an index motivation score of 4.9 (on a scale from one to six), suggesting they had generally high job motivation that was related to a sense of community service, respect, and job benefits. Regression analysis indicated that income and the perception of a fair distribution of incentives were both statistically significant in association with higher job motivation scores. Conclusions Financial incentives used in the reform formed a significant part of health workers’ income and influenced their job motivation. Improving job motivation requires fixing payment mechanisms and increasing the size of incentives. PBF is more likely to succeed when income, training needs, and the desire for a sense of community service are addressed and institutionalized within the health system. PMID:27319575

  4. Situating Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nolen, Susan Bobbitt; Horn, Ilana Seidel; Ward, Christopher J.

    2015-01-01

    This article describes a situative approach to studying motivation to learn in social contexts. We begin by contrasting this perspective to more prevalent psychological approaches to the study of motivation, describing epistemological and methodological differences that have constrained conversation between theoretical groups. We elaborate on…

  5. Development of automobile tyre lateral runout measurement sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Xie; Ye, Lingjian; Yao, Guanghui; Wang, Di; Zhi, Xiongfei

    2013-10-01

    Automobile tyre lateral runout is one of the important indexes to measure the quality of the tyre, it will affect the safety of the automobile in moving. This paper introduces a sensor for automobile tyre lateral runout measurement. The variation of the automobile tyre lateral runout causes the change of guide rod probe displacement and deforms of the cantilever beam which connects with the guide bar. The deformation of the cantilever beam leads to the change of the resistance value of strain gauge which is pasted on the cantilever beam. Through measuring circuit, the resistance value of the strain gauge is converted into output voltage that has a certain relationship with automobile tyre lateral runout. Then, the voltage signal is transformed by A/D convertor and send to SCM to process and display the value of runout. Meanwhile, SCM output control signal to control the actuator and adjust the equipment running status in real time so as to ensure the tyre lateral runout is within the allowed range.

  6. Optimization of Thermoelectric Components for Automobile Waste Heat Recovery Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Sumeet; Heister, Stephen D.; Xu, Xianfan; Salvador, James R.

    2015-10-01

    For a typical spark ignition engine approximately 40% of available thermal energy is lost as hot exhaust gas. To improve fuel economy, researchers are currently evaluating technology which exploits exhaust stream thermal power by use of thermoelectric generators (TEGs) that operate on the basis of the Seebeck effect. A 5% improvement in fuel economy, achieved by use of TEG output power, is a stated objective for light-duty trucks and personal automobiles. System modeling of thermoelectric (TE) components requires solution of coupled thermal and electric fluxes through the n and p-type semiconductor legs, given appropriate thermal boundary conditions at the junctions. Such applications have large thermal gradients along the semiconductor legs, and material properties are highly dependent on spatially varying temperature profiles. In this work, one-dimensional heat flux and temperature variations across thermoelectric legs were solved by using an iterative numerical approach to optimize both TE module and TEG designs. Design traits were investigated by assuming use of skutterudite as a thermoelectric material with potential for automotive applications in which exhaust gas and heat exchanger temperatures typically vary from 100°C to over 600°C. Dependence of leg efficiency, thermal fluxes and electric power generation on leg geometry, fill fractions, electric current, thermal boundary conditions, etc., were studied in detail. Optimum leg geometries were computed for a variety of automotive exhaust conditions.

  7. Opportunities for energy harvesting in automobile factories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adegoke, E. I.; Edwards, R. M.; Whittow, Will; Bindel, Axel; Peca, Marco

    2016-04-01

    This paper investigates the opportunities of deploying distributed sensors within the manufacturing environment of a large scale automobile plant using energy harvesting techniques. Measurements were taken in three domains at the plant in order to characterize ambient energy. Due to the location of the plant, the RF power density for radio access technologies present varied between -127 dBm/cm2 and -113 dBm/cm2. The maximum temperature difference measured within accessible distance from machine parts on the production lines surveyed was 10°C. Indoor lighting was dominant at the plant via fluorescent tubes, with average irradiance of 1 W/m2. The results obtained from this measurement campaign showed that indoor lighting was the most suitable ambient source for energy harvesting.

  8. Future of the world's automobile industry

    SciTech Connect

    Kagawa, T.

    1989-03-01

    The author feels that the Japanese automobile industry is approaching a turning point. But it is not enough to refer only to the changing structure of the Japanese automobile industry when similar structural changes are taking place on a worldwide scale. Therefore he first comments on the current state of the automobile industry of the world, and then reviews the reasons for the gap between automobile production and demand and the historical background of this phenomenon. Then, finally, he discusses the current progress of and future challenges in the structural adjustment of the global automobile industry. He notes the very close relation of the battery industry to the automobile industry, and hopes the former will prosper hand in hand with the latter. 6 tables.

  9. 49 CFR 523.5 - Non-passenger automobile.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Non-passenger automobile. 523.5 Section 523.5... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION VEHICLE CLASSIFICATION § 523.5 Non-passenger automobile. A non-passenger automobile means an automobile that is not a passenger automobile or a work truck and...

  10. 49 CFR 523.5 - Non-passenger automobile.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Non-passenger automobile. 523.5 Section 523.5... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION VEHICLE CLASSIFICATION § 523.5 Non-passenger automobile. A non-passenger automobile means an automobile that is not a passenger automobile or a work truck and...

  11. 49 CFR 523.5 - Non-passenger automobile.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Non-passenger automobile. 523.5 Section 523.5... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION VEHICLE CLASSIFICATION § 523.5 Non-passenger automobile. A non-passenger automobile means an automobile that is not a passenger automobile or a work truck and...

  12. 49 CFR 523.5 - Non-passenger automobile.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Non-passenger automobile. 523.5 Section 523.5... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION VEHICLE CLASSIFICATION § 523.5 Non-passenger automobile. A non-passenger automobile means an automobile that is not a passenger automobile or a work truck and...

  13. 49 CFR 523.5 - Non-passenger automobile.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Non-passenger automobile. 523.5 Section 523.5... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION VEHICLE CLASSIFICATION § 523.5 Non-passenger automobile. A non-passenger automobile means an automobile that is not a passenger automobile or a work truck and...

  14. La Securite des Enfants vs. la Circulation - Auto. (Children's Safety vs. Automobile Traffic).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canada Mortgage and Housing Corp., Ottawa (Ontario).

    This report, the sixteenth in a series of twenty reports undertaken by the Children's Environments Advisory Service for the 1979 International Year of the Child, analyzes the difficulties of designing automobile traffic patterns for areas in which children reside. Automobile traffic and play patterns in 21 multiple-housing projects in the…

  15. Apprenticeship and Training Standards for Automobile Mechanic, Body Repairman and Painter.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Independent Garage Owners of America, Inc., Chicago, IL.

    The national apprenticeship standards developed by the Independent Garage Owners of America provide guidelines for establishing local programs of apprenticeship for automobile mechanics, body and fender mechanics, and painters. The apprenticeship term is specified as 4 years for the automobile mechanics and body nd fender mechanics and 3 years for…

  16. Regulating automobile pollution under certainty, competition, and imperfect information

    SciTech Connect

    Innes, R.

    1996-09-01

    This paper studies an integrated economic model of automobile emissions that incorporates consumer mileage, automobile features, and fuel content choices. Optimal regulatory policies are shown to include fuel content standards, gasoline taxes, and direct automobile regulation or taxation.

  17. Motivating pharmacists.

    PubMed

    Donehew, G R

    1979-01-01

    Although pharmacists are developing interest in many types of pharmacy practice, they are still spending the bulk of their time in the prescription dispensing process. Any effort to provide motivation must consider the prescription dispensing process. The pharmacy literature includes only a few studies that dealt with pharmacists as people. The studies usually showed that pharmacists basically were unhappy with their jobs. In developing a motivational climate for pharmacists, pharmacy supervisors have several concepts to consider: the hierarchy of needs by Maslow; the expectancy theory by Hampton; the gygiene-motivator theory by Herzberg; and the Theory Y management approach by McGregor. Because pharmacists must be induced to enter and remain in an organization, supervisors should be aware of the need to use any technique available in developing a motivational climate. PMID:10244538

  18. Effect of Motivation by "Instagram" on Adherence to Physical Activity among Female College Students.

    PubMed

    Al-Eisa, Einas; Al-Rushud, Asma; Alghadir, Ahmad; Anwer, Shahnawaz; Al-Harbi, Bashayer; Al-Sughaier, Noha; Al-Yoseef, Noha; Al-Otaibi, Reem; Al-Muhaysin, Hanadi Ali

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To investigate the efficacy of using "Instagram application" with a "home-exercise program" as a motivational stimulus in improving physical activity (PA) adherence levels among female college students. Methods. Fifty-eight female undergraduate students with the mean age 20.3 ± 0.96 years participated. Participants were divided into two groups: intervention and the control group; both the groups received an exercise program and the intervention group was additionally motivated by "Instagram." Adherence to PA was measured by using an adherence sheet. The Exercise Motivation Inventory (EMI-2) was used to assess the motivational factors. Results. The most frequent motivational factors were extrinsic as assessed using the EMI-2. "Positive health" was the most frequent factor mentioned of the two types with 47% of the sample. The intervention group adhered with 17% more to the activity program compared to the control group. Moreover, 72% of the participants in the intervention and control groups found the activity program flexible enough to be performed at home; they agreed about its effectiveness on adherence (53%). Conclusions. The use of Instagram with the home exercise program as a motivational modality could be attractive and effective to reinforce adherence and maintain an appropriate PA level. PMID:27034927

  19. Effect of Motivation by “Instagram” on Adherence to Physical Activity among Female College Students

    PubMed Central

    Al-Eisa, Einas; Al-Rushud, Asma; Alghadir, Ahmad; Al-Harbi, Bashayer; Al-Sughaier, Noha; Al-Yoseef, Noha; Al-Otaibi, Reem; Al-Muhaysin, Hanadi Ali

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To investigate the efficacy of using “Instagram application” with a “home-exercise program” as a motivational stimulus in improving physical activity (PA) adherence levels among female college students. Methods. Fifty-eight female undergraduate students with the mean age 20.3 ± 0.96 years participated. Participants were divided into two groups: intervention and the control group; both the groups received an exercise program and the intervention group was additionally motivated by “Instagram.” Adherence to PA was measured by using an adherence sheet. The Exercise Motivation Inventory (EMI-2) was used to assess the motivational factors. Results. The most frequent motivational factors were extrinsic as assessed using the EMI-2. “Positive health” was the most frequent factor mentioned of the two types with 47% of the sample. The intervention group adhered with 17% more to the activity program compared to the control group. Moreover, 72% of the participants in the intervention and control groups found the activity program flexible enough to be performed at home; they agreed about its effectiveness on adherence (53%). Conclusions. The use of Instagram with the home exercise program as a motivational modality could be attractive and effective to reinforce adherence and maintain an appropriate PA level. PMID:27034927

  20. Two results in topology, motivated by quantum computation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alagic, Gorjan

    2015-03-01

    The field of quantum computation is built on the foundation of physics, mathematics, and computer science. While it has taken much from these fields, there are also interesting examples where it has given back. I will discuss two new results of this kind. In both cases, we use very basic ideas from quantum computation to prove an interesting fact about low-dimensional topology. First, we use the Solovay-Kitaev universality theorem with exponential precision to give a simple proof of the #P-hardness of certain 3-manifold invariants. We then apply this result to show the existence of rather exotic 3-manifold diagrams. Second, we show a relationship between the distinguishing power of a link invariant, and the entangling power of the linear operator associated to braiding. More precisely, we show that link invariants derived from non-entangling solutions to the Yang-Baxter equation are trivial. The former is joint work with Catharine Lo (Caltech), and the latter is joint work with Stephen Jordan and Michael Jarett (UMD).

  1. Automobile Service Information in the Public Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pankl, Robert R.

    1992-01-01

    Advocates providing automobile repair and service information in public libraries, and discusses collection development issues, reference services, and problems in making repair manuals available. Describes the collection and services for patrons in Tacoma Public Library and results of a survey of other public libraries holding automobile repair…

  2. ASE Program Certification Standards for Automobile Technician Training Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Automotive Technicians Education Foundation, Herndon, VA.

    This document presents and explains the development and application of the National Institute for Automotive Service Excellence (ASE) program certification standards that were developed to improve the quality of secondary- and postsecondary-level automobile technician training by implementing a certification program that certifies programs in…

  3. Automobile Mechanic Second Year: Service and Repair. Student's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Notgrass, Troy

    This student manual on auto service and repair is intended for second-year students in industrial cooperative training who have studied "Automobile Mechanic Fundamentals" during the first year. Based on "Auto Service and Repair," by Martin W. Stockel, this manual is designed for individualized instruction under supervision of a coordinator or…

  4. Study on Micro Wind Generator System for Automobile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujimoto, Koji; Washizu, Shinsuke; Ichikawa, Tomohiko; Yukita, Kazuto; Goto, Yasuyuki; Ichiyanagi, Katsuhiro; Oshima, Takamitsu; Hayashi, Niichi; Tobi, Nobuo

    This paper proposes the micro wind generator system for automobile. This proposes system is composed of the deflector, the micro windmill, the generator, and electric storage device. Then, the effectiveness is confirmed from an examination using air blower. Therefore, new energy can be expected to be obtained by installing this system in the truck.

  5. 40 CFR 600.315-08 - Classes of comparable automobiles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... vehicles (such as battery electric vehicles, fuel cell vehicles, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles and... accordance with 49 CFR part 523. (1) The Administrator will classify passenger automobiles by car line into... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, Department of Transportation (DOT), 49 CFR 571.3....

  6. Carbon monoxide oxidation rates computed for automobile thermal reactor conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brokaw, R. S.; Bittker, D. A.

    1972-01-01

    Carbon monoxide oxidation rates in thermal reactors for exhaust manifolds are computed by integrating differential equations for system of twenty-nine reversible chemical reactions. Reactors are noncatalytic replacements for conventional exhaust manifolds and are a system for reducing carbon monoxide and hydrocarbons in automobile exhausts.

  7. Learning Motivation Mediates Gene-by-Socioeconomic Status Interaction on Mathematics Achievement in Early Childhood.

    PubMed

    Tucker-Drob, Elliot M; Harden, K Paige

    2012-02-01

    There is accumulating evidence that genetic influences on achievement are more pronounced among children living in higher socioeconomic status homes, and that these gene-by-environment interactions occur prior to children's entry into formal schooling. We hypothesized that one pathway through which socioeconomic status promotes genetic influences on early achievement is by facilitating the processes by which children select, evoke, and attend to learning experiences that are consistent with genetically influenced individual differences in their motivation to learn. We examined this hypothesis in a nationally representative sample of approximately 650 pairs of four-year old identical and fraternal twins who were administered a measure of math achievement, and rated by their parents on a broad set of items assessing learning motivation. Results indicated a genetic link between learning motivation and math achievement that varied positively with family socioeconomic status: Genetic differences in learning motivation contributed to math achievement more strongly in more advantaged homes. Once this effect of learning motivation was controlled for, gene-by-socioeconomic status interaction on math achievement was reduced from previously significant levels, to nonsignificant levels. PMID:22611326

  8. 49 CFR 212.213 - Motive power and equipment (MP&E) inspector.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... of determining compliance with all sections of the Freight Car Safety Standards (49 CFR part 215), Safety Glazing Standards (49 CFR part 223), Locomotive Safety Standards (49 CFR part 229), Safety Appliance Standards (49 CFR part 231), and Power Brake Standards (49 CFR part 232), to make reports of...

  9. 49 CFR 212.213 - Motive power and equipment (MP&E) inspector.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... of determining compliance with all sections of the Freight Car Safety Standards (49 CFR part 215), Safety Glazing Standards (49 CFR part 223), Locomotive Safety Standards (49 CFR part 229), Safety Appliance Standards (49 CFR part 231), and Power Brake Standards (49 CFR part 232), to make reports of...

  10. 49 CFR 212.213 - Motive power and equipment (MP&E) inspector.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... of determining compliance with all sections of the Freight Car Safety Standards (49 CFR part 215), Safety Glazing Standards (49 CFR part 223), Locomotive Safety Standards (49 CFR part 229), Safety Appliance Standards (49 CFR part 231), and Power Brake Standards (49 CFR part 232), to make reports of...

  11. 49 CFR 212.213 - Motive power and equipment (MP&E) inspector.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... of determining compliance with all sections of the Freight Car Safety Standards (49 CFR part 215), Safety Glazing Standards (49 CFR part 223), Locomotive Safety Standards (49 CFR part 229), Safety Appliance Standards (49 CFR part 231), and Power Brake Standards (49 CFR part 232), to make reports of...

  12. 49 CFR 212.213 - Motive power and equipment (MP&E) inspector.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... of determining compliance with all sections of the Freight Car Safety Standards (49 CFR part 215), Safety Glazing Standards (49 CFR part 223), Locomotive Safety Standards (49 CFR part 229), Safety Appliance Standards (49 CFR part 231), and Power Brake Standards (49 CFR part 232), to make reports of...

  13. Skewed by Cues? The Motivational Role of Audiovisual Stimuli in Modelling Substance Use and Gambling Disorders.

    PubMed

    Barrus, Michael M; Cherkasova, Mariya; Winstanley, Catharine A

    2016-01-01

    The similarity between gambling disorder (GD) and drug addiction has recently been recognized at the diagnostic level. Understanding the core cognitive processes involved in these addiction disorders, and in turn their neurobiological mechanisms, remains a research priority due to the enormous benefits such knowledge would have in enabling effective treatment design. Animal models can be highly informative in this regard. Although numerous rodent behavioural paradigms that capture different facets of gambling-like behaviour have recently been developed, the motivational power of cues in biasing individuals towards risky choice has so far received little attention despite the central role played by drug-paired cues in successful laboratory models of chemical dependency. Here, we review some of the comparatively simple paradigms in which reward-paired cues are known to modulate behaviour in rodents, such as sign-tracking, Pavlovian-to-instrumental transfer and conditioned reinforcement. Such processes are thought to play an important role in mediating responding for drug reward, and the need for future studies to address whether similar processes contribute to cue-driven risky choice is highlighted. PMID:26531068

  14. Automobile inspection system based on wireless communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miao, Changyun; Ye, Chunqing

    2010-07-01

    This paper aims to research the Automobile Inspection System based on Wireless Communication, and suggests an overall design scheme which uses GPS for speed detection and Bluetooth and GPRS for communication. The communication between PDA and PC was realized by means of GPRS and TCP/IP; and the hardware circuit and software for detection terminal were devised by means of JINOU-3264 Bluetooth Module after analyzing the Bluetooth and its communication protocol. According to the results of debugging test, this system accomplished GPRS based data communication and management as well as the real-time detection on auto safety performance parameters in crash test via PC, whereby the need for mobility and reliability was met and the efficiency and level of detection was improved.

  15. Perception of risk from automobile safety defects.

    PubMed

    Slovic, P; MacGregor, D; Kraus, N N

    1987-10-01

    Descriptions of safety engineering defects of the kind that compel automobile manufacturers to initiate a recall campaign were evaluated by individuals on a set of risk characteristic scales that included overall vehicle riskiness, manufacturer's ability to anticipate the defect, importance for vehicle operation, severity of consequences and likelihood of compliance with a recall notice. A factor analysis of the risk characteristics indicated that judgments could be summarized in terms of two composite scales, one representing the uncontrollability of the damage the safety defect might cause and the other representing the foreseeability of the defect by the manufacturer. Motor vehicle defects were found to be highly diverse in terms of the perceived qualities of their risks. Location of individual defects within the factor space was closely associated with perceived riskiness, perceived likelihood of purchasing another car from the same manufacturer, perceived likelihood of compliance with a recall notice, and actual compliance rates. PMID:3675807

  16. Intrinsically motivated oculomotor exploration guided by uncertainty reduction and conditioned reinforcement in non-human primates.

    PubMed

    Daddaoua, Nabil; Lopes, Manuel; Gottlieb, Jacqueline

    2016-01-01

    Intelligent animals have a high degree of curiosity--the intrinsic desire to know--but the mechanisms of curiosity are poorly understood. A key open question pertains to the internal valuation systems that drive curiosity. What are the cognitive and emotional factors that motivate animals to seek information when this is not reinforced by instrumental rewards? Using a novel oculomotor paradigm, combined with reinforcement learning (RL) simulations, we show that monkeys are intrinsically motivated to search for and look at reward-predictive cues, and that their intrinsic motivation is shaped by a desire to reduce uncertainty, a desire to obtain conditioned reinforcement from positive cues, and individual variations in decision strategy and the cognitive costs of acquiring information. The results suggest that free-viewing oculomotor behavior reveals cognitive and emotional factors underlying the curiosity driven sampling of information. PMID:26838344

  17. Intrinsically motivated oculomotor exploration guided by uncertainty reduction and conditioned reinforcement in non-human primates

    PubMed Central

    Daddaoua, Nabil; Lopes, Manuel; Gottlieb, Jacqueline

    2016-01-01

    Intelligent animals have a high degree of curiosity – the intrinsic desire to know – but the mechanisms of curiosity are poorly understood. A key open question pertains to the internal valuation systems that drive curiosity. What are the cognitive and emotional factors that motivate animals to seek information when this is not reinforced by instrumental rewards? Using a novel oculomotor paradigm, combined with reinforcement learning (RL) simulations, we show that monkeys are intrinsically motivated to search for and look at reward-predictive cues, and that their intrinsic motivation is shaped by a desire to reduce uncertainty, a desire to obtain conditioned reinforcement from positive cues, and individual variations in decision strategy and the cognitive costs of acquiring information. The results suggest that free-viewing oculomotor behavior reveals cognitive and emotional factors underlying the curiosity driven sampling of information. PMID:26838344

  18. Motivational Influences on Performance Maintained by Food Reinforcement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North, Stephen T.; Iwata, Brian A.

    2005-01-01

    In Study 1, we examined the independent effects of reinforcer consumption during sessions and meal consumption prior to sessions on performance maintained by food reinforcement. Nine individuals with developmental disabilities participated. On alternate days, a preferred edible item was delivered during (a) seven sessions conducted before lunch…

  19. Experimental considerations motivated by the diphoton excess at the LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agrawal, Prateek; Fan, JiJi; Heidenreich, Ben; Reece, Matthew; Strassler, Matthew

    2016-06-01

    We consider the immediate or near-term experimental opportunities offered by some scenarios that could explain the new diphoton excess at the LHC. If the excess is due to a new particle X s at 750 GeV, additional new particles are required, providing further signals. If connected with naturalness, the X s may be produced in top partner decays. Then a t^'overline{t}^' } signal, with t ' → tX s and X s → gg dominantly, might be discovered by reinterpreting 13 TeV SUSY searches in multijet events with low MET and/or a lepton. If X s is a bound state of quirks, the signal events may be accompanied by an unusual number of soft tracks or soft jets. Other resonances including dilepton and photon+jet as well as dijet may lie at or above this mass, and signatures of hidden glueballs might also be observable. If the "photons" in the excess are actually long-lived particles decaying to photon pairs or to electron pairs, there are opportunities for detecting overlapping photons and/or unusual patterns of apparent photon-conversions in either X s or 125 GeV Higgs decays. There is also the possibility of events with a hard "photon" recoiling against a narrow isolated HCAL-only "jet", which, after the jet's energy is corrected for its electromagnetic origin, would show a peak at 750 GeV.

  20. Pushed by Symptoms, Pulled by Values: Promotion Goals Increase Motivation in Therapeutic Tasks.

    PubMed

    Katz, Benjamin A; Catane, Sara; Yovel, Iftah

    2016-03-01

    While many therapies focus on the reduction of disturbing symptoms, others pursue behavior consistent with personally held values. Based on regulatory focus theory (Higgins, 1997), reducing symptoms is a type of prevention goal while pursuing values is a promotion goal. In the current study, 123 undergraduate students elicited a negative, self-focused emotion-laden cognition. They were then randomly assigned to construe their negative thought as either (a) an impediment to valued behaviors, (b) a cause of unpleasant symptoms, or to one of two control conditions: (c) distraction or (d) no intervention. Then, participants in all groups completed a series of repetitive therapeutic tasks that targeted their elicited negative cognitions. Results showed that participants who construed treatment in terms of valued behavior promotion spent more time on a therapeutic task than all other groups. The group in the unpleasant symptom promotion condition did not differ from either control group. The motivational advantage of value promotion was not accounted for by differences in mood. The present findings suggest that clients may be better motivated through value promotion goals, as opposed to symptom prevention goals. PMID:26956655

  1. Motivation in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ray, Nancy L.

    This paper presents basic principles and theories of motivation, attempts to provide a better understanding of the concept, and explores the role motivation plays in learning. Basic theories of motivation are reviewed including: Freud's belief in motivation by the id, unconscious forces, and sexual stages; Jung and Adler's belief that people are…

  2. A Theoretical Study on Airflow Motive Force and Heat Transfer by the Water Spray

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakai, Yasuyuki

    On assuming the abscissa moving uniformly with the horizontal airflow in disregard of gravity, airflow motive force and heat transfer by the water spray have been easily analyzed theoretically. Here main results are as follows. The theoretical maximum airflow motive pressure is proportional to both the initial relative velocity of waterdrop and the relative water flow per unit cross-sectional area of the apparatus to the airflow or the moving abscissa but unrelated to the size of waterdrop. The airflow motive pressure approaches to the above maximum with an increase in the length of the apparatus. Making the waterdrop size smaller has an effect on the aparatus to get longer virtually. The initial velocity of waterdrop or the spraying nozzle pressure has little effect on the heat transfer between the air and the water.

  3. Electricity Demand Evolution Driven by Storm Motivated Population Movement

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, Melissa R; Fernandez, Steven J; Fu, Joshua S; Walker, Kimberly A

    2014-01-01

    Managing the risks posed by climate change to energy production and delivery is a challenge for communities worldwide. Sea Level rise and increased frequency and intensity of natural disasters due to sea surface temperature rise force populations to move locations, resulting in changing patterns of demand for infrastructure services. Thus, Infrastructures will evolve to accommodate new load centers while some parts of the network are underused, and these changes will create emerging vulnerabilities. Combining climate predictions and agent based population movement models shows promise for exploring the universe of these future population distributions and changes in coastal infrastructure configurations. In this work, we created a prototype agent based population distribution model and developed a methodology to establish utility functions that provide insight about new infrastructure vulnerabilities that might result from these patterns. Combining climate and weather data, engineering algorithms and social theory, we use the new Department of Energy (DOE) Connected Infrastructure Dynamics Models (CIDM) to examine electricity demand response to increased temperatures, population relocation in response to extreme cyclonic events, consequent net population changes and new regional patterns in electricity demand. This work suggests that the importance of established evacuation routes that move large populations repeatedly through convergence points as an indicator may be under recognized.

  4. 20 CFR 416.1218 - Exclusion of the automobile.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Exclusion of the automobile. 416.1218 Section..., BLIND, AND DISABLED Resources and Exclusions § 416.1218 Exclusion of the automobile. (a) Automobile; defined. As used in this section, the term automobile includes, in addition to passenger cars,...

  5. 10 CFR 611.207 - Small automobile and component manufacturers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Small automobile and component manufacturers. 611.207... VEHICLES MANUFACTURER ASSISTANCE PROGRAM Facility/Funding Awards § 611.207 Small automobile and component... individuals; and (2) Manufactures automobiles or components of automobiles. (b) Set Aside—Of the amount...

  6. 10 CFR 611.207 - Small automobile and component manufacturers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Small automobile and component manufacturers. 611.207... VEHICLES MANUFACTURER ASSISTANCE PROGRAM Facility/Funding Awards § 611.207 Small automobile and component... individuals; and (2) Manufactures automobiles or components of automobiles. (b) Set Aside—Of the amount...

  7. 20 CFR 416.1218 - Exclusion of the automobile.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Exclusion of the automobile. 416.1218 Section..., BLIND, AND DISABLED Resources and Exclusions § 416.1218 Exclusion of the automobile. (a) Automobile; defined. As used in this section, the term automobile includes, in addition to passenger cars,...

  8. 10 CFR 611.207 - Small automobile and component manufacturers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Small automobile and component manufacturers. 611.207... VEHICLES MANUFACTURER ASSISTANCE PROGRAM Facility/Funding Awards § 611.207 Small automobile and component... individuals; and (2) Manufactures automobiles or components of automobiles. (b) Set Aside—Of the amount...

  9. 20 CFR 416.1218 - Exclusion of the automobile.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exclusion of the automobile. 416.1218 Section..., BLIND, AND DISABLED Resources and Exclusions § 416.1218 Exclusion of the automobile. (a) Automobile; defined. As used in this section, the term automobile includes, in addition to passenger cars,...

  10. 20 CFR 416.1218 - Exclusion of the automobile.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Exclusion of the automobile. 416.1218 Section..., BLIND, AND DISABLED Resources and Exclusions § 416.1218 Exclusion of the automobile. (a) Automobile; defined. As used in this section, the term automobile includes, in addition to passenger cars,...

  11. 10 CFR 611.207 - Small automobile and component manufacturers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Small automobile and component manufacturers. 611.207... VEHICLES MANUFACTURER ASSISTANCE PROGRAM Facility/Funding Awards § 611.207 Small automobile and component... individuals; and (2) Manufactures automobiles or components of automobiles. (b) Set Aside—Of the amount...

  12. 20 CFR 416.1218 - Exclusion of the automobile.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Exclusion of the automobile. 416.1218 Section..., BLIND, AND DISABLED Resources and Exclusions § 416.1218 Exclusion of the automobile. (a) Automobile; defined. As used in this section, the term automobile includes, in addition to passenger cars,...

  13. 10 CFR 611.207 - Small automobile and component manufacturers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Small automobile and component manufacturers. 611.207... VEHICLES MANUFACTURER ASSISTANCE PROGRAM Facility/Funding Awards § 611.207 Small automobile and component... individuals; and (2) Manufactures automobiles or components of automobiles. (b) Set Aside—Of the amount...

  14. Preliminary Physics Motivation and Engineering Design Assessment of the National High Power Torus

    SciTech Connect

    Robert D. Woolley

    2009-06-11

    In April 2006, Dr. Ray Orbach, Director of the DOE Office of Science, challenged the fusion community to "propose a new facility... which will put the U.S. at the lead in world fusion science." Analysis of the gaps between expected ITER performance and the requirements of a demonstration power plant (Demo) pointed to the critical and urgent need to develop fusion-relvant plasma-material interface (PMI) solutions consistent with sustained high plasma performance. A survey of world fusion program indicated that present and planned experimental devices do not advance the PMI issue beyond ITER, and a major dedicated experimental facility is warranted. Such a facility should provide the flexibility and access needed to solve plasma boundary challenges related to divertor heat flux and particle exhaust while also developing methods to minimize hydrogenic isotope retention and remaining compatible with high plasma performance.

  15. Environmental practices of the auxiliary companies to the Spanish automobile industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González-Torre, Pilar L.; González, Beatriz A.; Gupta, Surendra M.

    2005-11-01

    The automobile manufacturing industry plays a very important role in a country's economy. The importance of automobile manufacturing industry lies in its sheer size and complexity in terms of the direct and indirect influence it commands across many other industries. While millions of people are employed in the automobile manufacturing industry, it is estimated that more than two and half times that number are employed in the auxiliary companies that supply parts to the automobile manufacturing companies. The auxiliary companies represent a group of businesses of various sizes, types, and geographical locations, producing a vast variety of products ranging from the very simple to the extremely intricate. In this study, the current environmental practices of management in the core Spanish auxiliary companies that do business with the automobile manufacturing industry (and thus form a large part of the automobile manufacturing industry's supply chain) are investigated. We show that while automobile manufacturing companies are under scrutiny to become more and more environmentally friendly, not only at their manufacturing stage but also at their products' useful and EOL stages, there appears to be no such burden on the auxiliary companies. Our conclusion is based on an elaborate survey conducted during the fall of 2004 of Spanish auxiliary companies with questions about the characteristics, environmental practices and reverse logistics related activities carried out by the companies.

  16. By All Available Means: Cameron and Pierce's Defense of Extrinsic Motivators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kohn, Alfie

    1996-01-01

    The meta-analysis of J. Cameron and W. D. Pierce (1994), which purports to demonstrate that extrinsic rewards may not undermine intrinsic motivation, is unpersuasive by virtue of its methodologies, its tendency to ignore important distinctions, and its failure to include certain evidence. (Author/SLD)

  17. Measuring Adjunct Instructor Job Satisfaction by Using Herzberg's Motivation-Hygiene Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickens, Durrell

    2011-01-01

    This study was designed to use Herzberg's motivation-hygiene theory to investigate the different levels of job satisfaction among adjunct college instructors at eight institutions of higher education located in southeast Texas. Differences in job satisfaction were measured by instructor gender, ethnicity, age, teaching experience, type of…

  18. Management-by-Results and Performance Measurement in Universities--Implications for Work Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kallio, Kirsi-Mari; Kallio, Tomi J.

    2014-01-01

    The article focuses on the effects of management-by-results from the perspective of the work motivation of university employees. The study is based on extensive survey data among employees at Finnish universities. According to the results, performance measurement is based on quantitative rather than qualitative measures, and the current…

  19. Weight Penalty Incurred in Thermoelectric Recovery of Automobile Exhaust Heat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rowe, D. M.; Smith, J.; Thomas, G.; Min, G.

    2011-05-01

    Thermoelectric recovery of automobile waste exhaust heat has been identified as having potential for reducing fuel consumption and environmentally unfriendly emissions. Around 35% of combustion energy is discharged as heat through the exhaust system, at temperatures which depend upon the engine's operation and range from 800°C to 900°C at the outlet port to less than 50°C at the tail-pipe. Beneficial reduction in fuel consumption of 5% to 10% is widely quoted in the literature. However, comparison between claims is difficult due to nonuniformity of driving conditions. In this paper the available waste exhaust heat energy produced by a 1.5 L family car when undergoing the new European drive cycle was measured and the potential thermoelectric output estimated. The work required to power the vehicle through the drive cycle was also determined and used to evaluate key parameters. This enabled an estimate to be made of the engine efficiency and additional work required by the engine to meet the load of a thermoelectric generating system. It is concluded that incorporating a thermoelectric generator would attract a penalty of around 12 W/kg. Employing thermoelectric modules fabricated from low-density material such as magnesium silicide would considerably reduce the generator weight penalty.

  20. Topology Explains Why Automobile Sunshades Fold Oddly

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feist, Curtis; Naimi, Ramin

    2009-01-01

    Automobile sunshades always fold into an "odd" number of loops. The explanation why involves elementary topology (braid theory and linking number, both explained in detail here with definitions and examples), and an elementary fact from algebra about symmetric group.

  1. High power laser apparatus and system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, J. C., Jr.; Brandhorst, H. W., Jr. (Inventor)

    1975-01-01

    A high-power, continuous-wave laser was designed for use in power transmission and energy-collecting systems, and for producing incoherent light for pumping a laser material. The laser has a high repetitive pulsing rate per unit time, resulting in a high-power density beam. The laser is composed of xenon flash tubes powered by fast-charging capacitors flashed in succession by a high-speed motor connected to an automobile-type distributor.

  2. Sediment detachment by rain power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabet, Emmanuel J.; Dunne, Thomas

    2003-01-01

    In interrill areas, overland flow is often incapable of detaching soil particles so detachment is primarily by raindrop impact. We derive a mathematical expression, rain power (R, W m-2), relating the energy expenditure of raindrops impacting a soil surface to the rate of detachment of soil particles. Rain power incorporates rainfall, hillslope, and vegetation characteristics and is modulated by flow depths. Rainfall simulation experiments on natural hillslopes were performed to measure detachment rates and across-slope flow depth distributions in surface runoff. Our results indicate that flow depths follow a Poisson distribution, and this observation is used to develop a dimensionless function, A(?, d), that accounts for the interaction of flow depths (h) and raindrop diameter (d) in moderating detachment rates. Rain power correlates well with the detachment rate of fine-grained particles (ψ, g m-2 s-1) so that ψ = 0.011R1.4A(?, d) (n = 44, R2 = 0.88, p < 0.005). We generalize this result to represent natural rainfall conditions and present a method for modeling sediment detachment rates and sediment discharge along entire lengths of hillslopes under the range of conditions where detached sediment is transported as wash load. Modeling simulations demonstrate the temporal and spatial variation in detachment rates caused by increases in flow depth.

  3. Future trends in power generation cost by power resource

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1992-08-01

    The Japan Energy Economy Research Institute has been evaluating power generation cost by each power resource every year focusing on nuclear power generation. The Institute is surveying the cost evaluations by power resources in France, Britain and the U.S.A., the nuclear generation advanced nations. The OECD is making power generation cost estimation using a hypothesis which uniforms basically the conditions varying in different member countries. In model power generation cost calculations conducted by the Ministry of International Trade and Industry of Japan, nuclear power generation is the most economical system in any fiscal year. According to recent calculations performed by the Japan Energy Economy Research Institute, the situation is such that it is difficult to distinguish the economical one from others among the power generation systems in terms of generation costs except for thermal power generation. Economic evaluations are given on estimated power generation costs based on construction costs for nuclear and thermal power plants, nuclear fuel cycling cost, and fuel cost data on petroleum, LNG and coal. With regard to the future trends, scenario analyses are made on generation costs, that assume fluctuations in fuel prices and construction costs, the important factors to give economic influence on power generation.

  4. Motivation by potential gains and losses affects control processes via different mechanisms in the attentional network.

    PubMed

    Paschke, Lena M; Walter, Henrik; Steimke, Rosa; Ludwig, Vera U; Gaschler, Robert; Schubert, Torsten; Stelzel, Christine

    2015-05-01

    Attentional control in demanding cognitive tasks can be improved by manipulating the motivational state. Motivation to obtain gains and motivation to avoid losses both usually result in faster reaction times and stronger activation in relevant brain areas such as the prefrontal cortex, but little is known about differences in the underlying neurocognitive mechanisms of these types of motivation in an attentional control context. In the present functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study, we tested whether potential gain and loss as motivating incentives lead to overlapping or distinct neural effects in the attentional network, and whether one of these conditions is more effective than the other. A Flanker task with word stimuli as targets and distracters was performed by 115 healthy participants. Using a mixed blocked and event-related design allowed us to investigate transient and sustained motivation-related effects. Participants could either gain money (potential gain) or avoid losing money (potential loss) in different task blocks. Participants showed a congruency effect with increased reaction times for incongruent compared to congruent trials. Potential gain led to generally faster responses compared to the neutral condition and to stronger improvements than potential loss. Potential loss also led to shorter response times compared to the neutral condition, but participants improved mainly during incongruent and not during congruent trials. The event-related fMRI data revealed a main effect of congruency with increased activity in the left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) and inferior frontal junction area (IFJ), the pre-supplementary motor area (pre-SMA), bilateral insula, intraparietal sulcus (IPS) and visual word form area (VWFA). While potential gain led to increased activity in a cluster of the IFJ and the VWFA only during incongruent trials, potential loss was linked to activity increases in these regions during incongruent and congruent trials. The

  5. Micromotors Powered by Enzyme Catalysis.

    PubMed

    Dey, Krishna K; Zhao, Xi; Tansi, Benjamin M; Méndez-Ortiz, Wilfredo J; Córdova-Figueroa, Ubaldo M; Golestanian, Ramin; Sen, Ayusman

    2015-12-01

    Active biocompatible systems are of great current interest for their possible applications in drug or antidote delivery at specific locations. Herein, we report the synthesis and study of self-propelled microparticles powered by enzymatic reactions and their directed movement in substrate concentration gradient. Polystyrene microparticles were functionalized with the enzymes urease and catalase using a biotin-streptavidin linkage procedure. The motion of the enzyme-coated particles was studied in the presence of the respective substrates, using optical microscopy and dynamic light scattering analysis. The diffusion of the particles was found to increase in a substrate concentration dependent manner. The directed chemotactic movement of these enzyme-powered motors up the substrate gradient was studied using three-inlet microfluidic channel architecture. PMID:26587897

  6. Gearshift system for an automobile

    SciTech Connect

    Makita, F.

    1986-02-04

    This patent describes a gearshift system for an automobile with an automatic clutch and a transmission having four forward-gear sets. The system consists of: a first synchronizing device for selectively engaging a second speed gear and a fourth speed gear with an output shaft of the transmission; a second synchronizing device for selectively engaging a first speed gear and a third speed gear with the output shaft; a first shifter for operating the first synchronizing device; a second shifter means for operating the second synchronizing device; a select lever adapted to engage one of the first and second shifter; a manually operated shift lever; means for transmitting the shift of the shift lever to the select lever for shifting one of the shifter means; an electrical select device for operating the select lever to engage with one of the shifter; switch for producing signals representing a selection of one of the synchronizing devices; a thermo switch responsive to the temperature of the automatic clutch for producing an output signal when the temperature exceeds a predetermined temperature; and control circuit responsive to the signals of the switch for operating the electrical select device to select one of the synchronizing devices.

  7. [Utilization of anonymous HIV testing by the federal health office--developments and motives].

    PubMed

    Scheibner, J; Waldvogel, B

    1993-01-01

    In the state-run health office in Ulm a survey of the frequency of anonymous HIV-antibody tests was taken between 1985 to 1991, of the age and gender representation from 1988 to 1991, of the test motives from 1.1.1990 to 1.3.1991. The result was a regressive trend following the test boom of 1987 and 1988, which is becoming more and more stable. The relation of men and women has been amounting to 6:4 in the last four years; the proportion of women receding slightly but constantly. The main motive of being tested was finding out about a high-risk or potentially high-risk sexual contact, mostly at the beginning of a new partnership. The motive ranking second in frequency was the investigation of the consequences of blood exposure, mostly relating to medical work. The third place was taken by irrational anxieties as a test motive. The article discusses the fact that test at the beginning of a new partnership frequently have the meaning of a sacrifice and a symbol of bondage in combination with a vow to be faithful. In case of irrational anxieties about AIDS the test-counsellor gets a chance to diagnose a possibly neurotic development at a very early stage, so that painful and expensive chronification and generalisation could be stopped or eased. PMID:8435542

  8. Empathy, motivation, and P300 BCI performance

    PubMed Central

    Kleih, Sonja C.; Kübler, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    Motivation moderately influences brain–computer interface (BCI) performance in healthy subjects when monetary reward is used to manipulate extrinsic motivation. However, the motivation of severely paralyzed patients, who are potentially in need for BCI, could mainly be internal and thus, an intrinsic motivator may be more powerful. Also healthy subjects who participate in BCI studies could be internally motivated as they may wish to contribute to research and thus extrinsic motivation by monetary reward would be less important than the content of the study. In this respect, motivation could be defined as “motivation-to-help.” The aim of this study was to investigate, whether subjects with high motivation for helping and who are highly empathic would perform better with a BCI controlled by event-related potentials (P300-BCI). We included N = 20 healthy young participants naïve to BCI and grouped them according to their motivation for participating in a BCI study in a low and highly motivated group. Motivation was further manipulated with interesting or boring presentations about BCI and the possibility to help patients. Motivation for helping did neither influence BCI performance nor the P300 amplitude. Post hoc, subjects were re-grouped according to their ability for perspective taking. We found significantly higher P300 amplitudes on parietal electrodes in participants with a low ability for perspective taking and therefore, lower empathy, as compared to participants with higher empathy. The lack of an effect of motivation on BCI performance contradicts previous findings and thus, requires further investigation. We speculate that subjects with higher empathy who are good perspective takers with regards to patients in potential need of BCI, may be more emotionally involved and therefore, less able to allocate attention on the BCI task at hand. PMID:24146640

  9. Social Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veroff, Joseph

    1978-01-01

    Summarizes different types of social motivation that have interested social psychologists within a developmental paradigm. Currently, cognition is a central aspect of motivational psychology. Individuals' motive patterns are seen to change over the life cycle. (Author/AV)

  10. The power of competition: Effects of social motivation on attention, sustained physical effort, and learning

    PubMed Central

    DiMenichi, Brynne C.; Tricomi, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Competition has often been implicated as a means to improve effort-based learning and attention. Two experiments examined the effects of competition on effort and memory. In Experiment 1, participants completed a physical effort task in which they were rewarded for winning an overall percentage, or for winning a competition they believed was against another player. In Experiment 2, participants completed a memory task in which they were rewarded for remembering an overall percentage of shapes, or more shapes than a “competitor.” We found that, in the physical effort task, participants demonstrated faster reaction times (RTs)—a previous indicator of increased attention—in the competitive environment. Moreover, individual differences predicted the salience of competition’s effect. Furthermore, male participants showed faster RTs and greater sustained effort as a result of a competitive environment, suggesting that males may be more affected by competition in physical effort tasks. However, in Experiment 2, participants remembered fewer shapes when competing, and later recalled less of these shapes during a post-test, suggesting that competition was harmful in our memory task. The different results from these two experiments suggest that competition can improve attention in a physical effort task, yet caution the use of competition in memory tasks. PMID:26388801