Science.gov

Sample records for automobiles by motive power

  1. AMBIENT TEMPERATURE AND DRIVING CYCLE EFFECTS FROM AN AUTOMOBILE POWERED BY LIQUIFIED PETROLEUM GAS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper describes an emissions study of a 1991 Chevrolet Lumina, powered by liquefied petroleum gas. he study was designed to obtain emissions information to predict how liquid petroleum gas usage impacts ambient air quality and air toxics concentrations. he study was also des...

  2. Operational characteristics of a liquid nitrogen powered automobile

    SciTech Connect

    Vitt, P.D.

    1998-08-04

    The University of Washington is studying a zero-emission vehicle concept, the cryogenic automobile. This propulsion concept uses a cryogenic liquid as its energy storage medium, and offers environmental and economic benefits over current alternative vehicles. The University of Washington is investigating the use of nitrogen, stored in liquid state, as the working fluid in an open Rankine cycle. The liquid nitrogen is first pressurized, then vaporized and superheated in an ambient air heat exchanger. The resulting high pressure gas is injected into an expander which produces the system`s motive work. The spent, low pressure gas is exhausted to the atmosphere. A test vehicle was assembled and is being used to learn about liquid nitrogen propulsion. The road performance of cryogenic automobiles was predicted using a mathematical model. The model can be modified for a variety of design choices and configurations. The performance of the test vehicle validates the heat exchanger concept and directs future efforts toward development of a better nitrogen expansion motor. This thesis describes the construction and operation of a liquid nitrogen powered automobile. Operational characteristics like road performance, maintenance, cost, and environmental impact are also explored.

  3. Power is the Great Motivator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClelland, David C.; Burnham, David H.

    1976-01-01

    Empirical research shows good managers are motivated by a need for power, tempered by maturity and self-control. Workshops can help a manager discover whether he has the correct motivation profile and can help him become a better manager. (JG)

  4. Ignition of an automobile engine by high-peak power Nd:YAG/Cr⁴⁺:YAG laser-spark devices.

    PubMed

    Pavel, Nicolaie; Dascalu, Traian; Salamu, Gabriela; Dinca, Mihai; Boicea, Niculae; Birtas, Adrian

    2015-12-28

    Laser sparks that were built with high-peak power passively Q-switched Nd:YAG/Cr(4+):YAG lasers have been used to operate a Renault automobile engine. The design of such a laser spark igniter is discussed. The Nd:YAG/Cr(4+):YAG laser delivered pulses with energy of 4 mJ and 0.8-ns duration, corresponding to pulse peak power of 5 MW. The coefficients of variability of maximum pressure (COV(Pmax)) and of indicated mean effective pressure (COV(IMEP)) and specific emissions like hydrocarbons (HC), carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NO(x)) and carbon dioxide (CO2) were measured at various engine speeds and high loads. Improved engine stability in terms of COV(Pmax) and COV(Pmax) and decreased emissions of CO and HC were obtained for the engine that was run by laser sparks in comparison with classical ignition by electrical spark plugs. PMID:26831972

  5. Solar powered automobile automation for heatstroke prevention

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Navtej Swaroop; Sharma, Ishan; Jangid, Santosh

    2016-03-01

    Heatstroke inside a car has been critical problem in every part of the world. Non-exertional heat stroke results from exposure to a high environmental temperature. Exertional heat stroke happens from strenuous exercise. This paper presents a solution for this fatal problem and proposes an embedded solution, which is cost effective and shows the feasibility in implementation. The proposed system consists of information sharing platform, interfacing of sensors, Global System Mobile (GSM), real time monitoring system and the system is powered by the solar panel. The system has been simulated and tested with experimental setup.

  6. Solar Powered Automobile Interior Climate Control System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, Richard T. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    There is provided a climate control system for a parked vehicle that includes a solar panel, thermostatic switch, fans, and thermoelectric coolers. The solar panel can serve as the sole source of electricity for the system. The system affords convenient installation and removal by including solar panels that are removably attached to the exterior of a vehicle. A connecting wire electrically connects the solar panels to a housing that is removably mounted to a partially opened window on the vehicle. The thermostatic switch, fans, and thermoelectric coolers are included within the housing. The thermostatic switch alternates the direction of the current flow through the thermoelectric coolers to selectively heat or cool the interior of the vehicle. The interior surface of the thermoelectric coolers are in contact with interior heat sinks that have air circulated across them by an interior fan. Similarly, the exterior surface of the thermoelectric coolers are in contact with exterior heat sinks that have air circulated across them by an exterior fan.

  7. Thermal energy storage for the Stirling engine powered automobile

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, D. T. (Editor)

    1979-01-01

    A thermal energy storage (TES) system developed for use with the Stirling engine as an automotive power system has gravimetric and volumetric storage densities which are competitive with electric battery storage systems, meets all operational requirements for a practical vehicle, and can be packaged in compact sized automobiles with minimum impact on passenger and freight volume. The TES/Stirling system is the only storage approach for direct use of combustion heat from fuel sources not suitable for direct transport and use on the vehicle. The particular concept described is also useful for a dual mode TES/liquid fuel system in which the TES (recharged from an external energy source) is used for short duration trips (approximately 10 miles or less) and liquid fuel carried on board the vehicle used for long duration trips. The dual mode approach offers the potential of 50 percent savings in the consumption of premium liquid fuels for automotive propulsion in the United States.

  8. 29 CFR 570.129 - Limited driving of automobiles and trucks by 17-year-olds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Limited driving of automobiles and trucks by 17-year-olds... Amended Exemptions § 570.129 Limited driving of automobiles and trucks by 17-year-olds. Section 13(c)(6... employment, perform the occasional and incidental driving of automobiles and trucks on public highways...

  9. 29 CFR 570.129 - Limited driving of automobiles and trucks by 17-year-olds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Limited driving of automobiles and trucks by 17-year-olds... Amended Exemptions § 570.129 Limited driving of automobiles and trucks by 17-year-olds. Section 13(c)(6... employment, perform the occasional and incidental driving of automobiles and trucks on public highways...

  10. 29 CFR 570.129 - Limited driving of automobiles and trucks by 17-year-olds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Limited driving of automobiles and trucks by 17-year-olds... Amended Exemptions § 570.129 Limited driving of automobiles and trucks by 17-year-olds. Section 13(c)(6... employment, perform the occasional and incidental driving of automobiles and trucks on public highways...

  11. 29 CFR 570.129 - Limited driving of automobiles and trucks by 17-year-olds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Limited driving of automobiles and trucks by 17-year-olds... Amended Exemptions § 570.129 Limited driving of automobiles and trucks by 17-year-olds. Section 13(c)(6... employment, perform the occasional and incidental driving of automobiles and trucks on public highways...

  12. The Spatial Power Motivation Scale: a semi-implicit measure of situational power motivation.

    PubMed

    Schoel, Christiane; Zimmer, Katharina; Stahlberg, Dagmar

    2015-01-01

    We introduce a new nonverbal and unobtrusive measure to assess power motive activation, the Spatial Power Motivation Scale (SPMS). The unique features of this instrument are that it is (a) very simple and economical, (b) reliable and valid, and (c) sensitive to situational changes. Study 1 demonstrates the instrument's convergent and discriminant validity with explicit measures. Study 2 demonstrates the instrument's responsiveness to situational power motive salience: anticipating and winning competition versus losing competition and watching television. Studies 3 and 4 demonstrate that thoughts of competition result in higher power motivation specifically for individuals with a high dispositional power motive. PMID:24815377

  13. Photovoltaics and the automobile

    SciTech Connect

    Young, W.R. Jr.

    1994-12-31

    For years people have been in love with the automobile. Some people just enjoy using the automobile as transportation while others also enjoy the workings and operation of this fascinating machine. The automobile is not without problems of pollution and energy consumption. These problems are changing its design and construction. New clean energy sources are being analyzed and applied to power the modern automobile. A space age energy source now being considered by some and used by others to power the automobile is photovoltaics. Photovoltaics (PV) is the direct conversion of sunlight to electricity. There are a number of devices in the modern car that are electrically powered. PV could provide a clean endless supply of electricity for air conditioning, radios and other electrical components of a car. Most people have never heard of photovoltaics (PV). There has been a great deal of research in PV among energy experts. The automobile is known the world over in both use and operation. The author describes how the merging of these two technologies will benefit mankind and without damaging the environment. 12 refs.

  14. Maximum Power Point Tracking with Dichotomy and Gradient Method for Automobile Exhaust Thermoelectric Generators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, W.; Quan, S. H.; Xie, C. J.; Tang, X. F.; Wang, L. L.; Huang, L.

    2016-03-01

    In this study, a direct-current/direct-current (DC/DC) converter with maximum power point tracking (MPPT) is developed to down-convert the high voltage DC output from a thermoelectric generator to the lower voltage required to charge batteries. To improve the tracking accuracy and speed of the converter, a novel MPPT control scheme characterized by an aggregated dichotomy and gradient (ADG) method is proposed. In the first stage, the dichotomy algorithm is used as a fast search method to find the approximate region of the maximum power point. The gradient method is then applied for rapid and accurate tracking of the maximum power point. To validate the proposed MPPT method, a test bench composed of an automobile exhaust thermoelectric generator was constructed for harvesting the automotive exhaust heat energy. Steady-state and transient tracking experiments under five different load conditions were carried out using a DC/DC converter with the proposed ADG and with three traditional methods. The experimental results show that the ADG method can track the maximum power within 140 ms with a 1.1% error rate when the engine operates at 3300 rpm@71 NM, which is superior to the performance of the single dichotomy method, the single gradient method and the perturbation and observation method from the viewpoint of improved tracking accuracy and speed.

  15. Employee motivation: a powerful new model.

    PubMed

    Nohria, Nitin; Groysberg, Boris; Lee, Linda-Eling

    2008-01-01

    Motivating employees begins with recognizing that to do their best work, people must be in an environment that meets their basic emotional drives to acquire, bond, comprehend, and defend. So say Nohria and Groysberg, of Harvard Business School, and Lee, of the Center for Research on Corporate Performance. Using the results of surveys they conducted with employees at a wide range of Fortune 500 and other companies, they developed a model for how to increase workplace motivation dramatically. The authors identify the organizational levers that companies and frontline managers have at their disposal as they try to meet workers' deep needs. Reward systems that truly value good performance fulfill the drive to acquire. The drive to bond is best met by a culture that promotes collaboration and openness. Jobs that are designed to be meaningful and challenging meet the need to comprehend. Processes for performance management and resource allocation that are fair, trustworthy, and transparent address the drive to defend. Equipped with real-world company examples, the authors articulate how to apply these levers in productive ways. That application should not be selective, they argue, because a holistic approach gets you more than a piecemeal one. By using all four levers simultaneously, and thereby tackling all four drives, organizations can improve motivation levels by leaps and bounds. For example, a company that falls in the 50th percentile on employee motivation improves only to the 56th by boosting performance on one drive, but way up to the 88th percentile by doing better on all four drives. That's a powerful gain in competitive advantage that any business would relish. PMID:18681299

  16. Solar-Powered Cooler and Heater for an Automobile Interior

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, Richard T.

    2006-01-01

    The apparatus would include a solar photovoltaic panel mounted on the roof and a panellike assembly mounted in a window opening. The window-mounted assembly would include a stack of thermoelectric devices sandwiched between two heat sinks. A fan would circulate interior air over one heat sink. Another fan would circulate exterior air over the other heat sink. The fans and the thermoelectric devices would be powered by the solar photovoltaic panel. By means of a double-pole, double-throw switch, the panel voltage fed to the thermoelectric stack would be set to the desired polarity: For cooling operation, the chosen polarity would be one in which the thermoelectric devices transport heat from the inside heat sink to the outside one; for heating operation, the opposite polarity would be chosen. Because thermoelectric devices are more efficient in heating than in cooling, this apparatus would be more effective as a heater than as a cooler. However, if the apparatus were to include means to circulate air between the outside and the inside without opening the windows, then its effectiveness as a cooler in a hot, sunny location would be increased.

  17. Wind power demonstration and siting problems. [for recharging electrically driven automobiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bergey, K. H.

    1973-01-01

    Technical and economic feasibility studies on a small windmill to provide overnight charging for an electrically driven car are reported. The auxiliary generator provides power for heating and cooling the vehicle which runs for 25 miles on battery power alone, and for 50 miles with the onboard charger operating. The blades for this windmill have a diameter of 12 feet and are coupled through to a conventional automobile alternator so that they are able to completely recharge car batteries in 8 hours. Optimization of a windmill/storage system requires detailed wind velocity information which permits rational sitting of wind power system stations.

  18. Fuel economy and range estimates for fuel cell powered automobiles

    SciTech Connect

    Steinbugler, M.; Ogden, J.

    1996-12-31

    While a number of automotive fuel cell applications have been demonstrated, including a golf cart, buses, and a van, these systems and others that have been proposed have utilized differing configurations ranging from direct hydrogen fuel cell-only power plants to fuel cell/battery hybrids operating on reformed methanol. To date there is no clear consensus on which configuration, from among the possible combinations of fuel cell, peaking device, and fuel type, is the most likely to be successfully commercialized. System simplicity favors direct hydrogen fuel cell vehicles, but infrastructure is lacking. Infrastructure favors a system using a liquid fuel with a fuel processor, but system integration and performance issues remain. A number of studies have analyzed particular configurations on either a system or vehicle scale. The objective of this work is to estimate, within a consistent framework, fuel economies and ranges for a variety of configurations using flexible models with the goal of identifying the most promising configurations and the most important areas for further research and development.

  19. Energy Efficiency I: Automobiles

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, Peter M.

    2003-11-15

    Most of us probably are not aware of all that's going on to improve the efficiency of energy usage in vehicles, residential climate control, manufacturing, and power management. The bulk of the energy consumption in the US during 2000 was apportioned as 34% for residential and commercial uses, 36.5% for industrial uses, and 26% for transportation. Automobiles in particular are the focus of intense energy conservation efforts. Only a surprising 25% of the fuel consumed by an automobile is converted to useful shalf work. The rest goes to the exhaust gases, coolant, friction and wear.

  20. 19 CFR 123.51 - Commercial samples transported by automobile through Canada between ports in the United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Commercial samples transported by automobile... Commercial samples transported by automobile through Canada between ports in the United States. (a) General... samples by automobile through Canada to another place in the United States without displaying the...

  1. 19 CFR 123.51 - Commercial samples transported by automobile through Canada between ports in the United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Commercial samples transported by automobile... Commercial samples transported by automobile through Canada between ports in the United States. (a) General... samples by automobile through Canada to another place in the United States without displaying the...

  2. 19 CFR 123.51 - Commercial samples transported by automobile through Canada between ports in the United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Commercial samples transported by automobile... Commercial samples transported by automobile through Canada between ports in the United States. (a) General... samples by automobile through Canada to another place in the United States without displaying the...

  3. 19 CFR 123.51 - Commercial samples transported by automobile through Canada between ports in the United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Commercial samples transported by automobile... Commercial samples transported by automobile through Canada between ports in the United States. (a) General... samples by automobile through Canada to another place in the United States without displaying the...

  4. 19 CFR 123.51 - Commercial samples transported by automobile through Canada between ports in the United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Commercial samples transported by automobile... Commercial samples transported by automobile through Canada between ports in the United States. (a) General... samples by automobile through Canada to another place in the United States without displaying the...

  5. 19 CFR 123.52 - Commercial samples transported by automobile through the United States between ports in Canada.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Commercial samples transported by automobile... Commercial samples transported by automobile through the United States between ports in Canada. (a) General... sealed samples in his automobile without further sealing in the United States, upon compliance with...

  6. 19 CFR 123.52 - Commercial samples transported by automobile through the United States between ports in Canada.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Commercial samples transported by automobile... Commercial samples transported by automobile through the United States between ports in Canada. (a) General... sealed samples in his automobile without further sealing in the United States, upon compliance with...

  7. 19 CFR 123.52 - Commercial samples transported by automobile through the United States between ports in Canada.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Commercial samples transported by automobile... Commercial samples transported by automobile through the United States between ports in Canada. (a) General... sealed samples in his automobile without further sealing in the United States, upon compliance with...

  8. 19 CFR 123.52 - Commercial samples transported by automobile through the United States between ports in Canada.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Commercial samples transported by automobile... Commercial samples transported by automobile through the United States between ports in Canada. (a) General... sealed samples in his automobile without further sealing in the United States, upon compliance with...

  9. 19 CFR 123.52 - Commercial samples transported by automobile through the United States between ports in Canada.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Commercial samples transported by automobile... Commercial samples transported by automobile through the United States between ports in Canada. (a) General... sealed samples in his automobile without further sealing in the United States, upon compliance with...

  10. Model of automobile emission checking by wireless technology.

    PubMed

    Manikumar, R; Sivasundhararaja, D; Kumar, R Anand

    2010-07-01

    Air contains a lot of pollutants and most of these pollutants are toxic. Carbon monoxide (CO) is one of the five primary pollutants, which together contributes more than 90% of global atmospheric pollution. Therefore, CO has been chosen for this analytical study. The main source of CO is the exhaust from automobiles only. In the present situation, the usage of motor vehicles rapidly expanded. The number of vehicles cannot be reduced but their emission (which is a cause for pollution) can be effectively controlled. In this direction, a model has been developed in this study to sense the level of carbon monoxide emitted from the automobiles. When the exhaust reaches a harmful level it sends the data about the vehicle number and the concentration of CO to the emission-testing centre (PC). As a result the government can take necessary action to seize the particular vehicle emitting more carbon monoxide than the permitted level. PMID:21391394

  11. Hydrogen Fuel Cell Automobiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feldman, Bernard J.

    2005-11-01

    With gasoline now more than 2.00 a gallon, alternate automobile technologies will be discussed with greater interest and developed with more urgency. For our government, the hydrogen fuel cell-powered automobile is at the top of the list of future technologies. This paper presents a simple description of the principles behind this technology and a brief discussion of the pros and cons. It is also an extension on my previous paper on the physics of the automobile engine.

  12. Assessing achievement, affiliation, and power motives all at once: the Multi-Motive Grid (MMG).

    PubMed

    Sokolowski, K; Schmalt, H D; Langens, T A; Puca, R M

    2000-02-01

    In this article, we introduce the Multi-Motive Grid (MMG), a new diagnostic tool to measure motives with respect to their hope and fear components. The MMG combines features of the Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) with features of self-report questionnaires. Similar to the TAT, a set of 14 pictures representing a balanced set of achievement-arousing, affiliation-arousing, and power-arousing situations is presented together with a set of statements representing important motivational states. Six motive scores can be calculated: hope of success (HS) and fear of failure (FF) for the achievement motive, hope of affiliation (HA) and fear of rejection (FR) for the affiliation motive, and hope of power (HP) and fear of power (FP) for the power motive. Results of factor analyses suggest a 3-factor solution, with a general fear factor (FF, FR, FP), a factor combining the hope components of achievement and power (HS and HP), and a third factor representing HA, but the 6 a priori factors also reflect a sound structural model. Reliability data show that the internal consistency and retest reliability of the MMG scales satisfy traditional standards. External validity of the MMG has been established in all 3 motive domains. Three separate studies document that (a) individuals high in resultant achievement motivation perform better and report more flow experience, (b) individuals high in resultant power motivation profit more from a leadership training program, and (c) individuals high in resultant affiliation motivation recollect more highly memorable affiliative themes. PMID:10779937

  13. Stirling engines for automobiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beremand, D. G.

    1979-01-01

    The results of recent and ongoing automobile Stirling engine development efforts are reviewed and technology status and requirements are identified. Key technology needs include those for low cost, high temperature (1300 - 1500 F) metal alloys for heater heads, and reliable long-life, low-leakage shaft seals. Various fuel economy projections for Stirling powered automobiles are reviewed and assessed.

  14. Energy and the Automobile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waring, Gene

    1980-01-01

    Discussed is the automobile in terms of the Otto cycle, engine heat losses, internal engine losses, drive train losses, road power, and driving habits. Each of these topics is described and calculations are shown to aid the physics teacher in the use of the automobile in the physics classroom. (Author/DS)

  15. Evaluation of malodor for automobile air conditioner evaporator by using laboratory-scale test cooling bench.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyung Hwan; Kim, Sun Hwa; Jung, Young Rim; Kim, Man Goo

    2008-09-12

    As one of the measures to improve the environment in an automobile, malodor caused by the automobile air-conditioning system evaporator was evaluated and analyzed using laboratory-scale test cooling bench. The odor was simulated with an evaporator test cooling bench equipped with an airflow controller, air temperature and relative humidity controller. To simulate the same odor characteristics that occur from automobiles, one previously used automobile air conditioner evaporator associated with unpleasant odors was selected. The odor was evaluated by trained panels and collected with aluminum polyester bags. Collected samples were analyzed by thermal desorption into a cryotrap and subsequent gas chromatographic separation, followed by simultaneous olfactometry, flame ionization detector and identified by atomic emission detection and mass spectrometry. Compounds such as alcohols, aldehydes, and organic acids were identified as responsible odor-active compounds. Gas chromatography/flame ionization detection/olfactometry combined sensory method with instrumental analysis was very effective as an odor evaluation method in an automobile air-conditioning system evaporator. PMID:18701113

  16. [Motivation effect on EEG spectral power and heart rate parameters in students during examination stress].

    PubMed

    Dzhebrailova, T D; Korobeĭnikova, I I; Rudneva, L P

    2014-09-01

    EEG spectral power was calculated in 24 students (18-21 years) with different levels of motivation and anxiety (tested by Spielberger) in two experimental conditions: during the common educational process and the examination stress. Before examination tests, in subjects with high motivation and anxiety level the relative delta activity power increased in right frontal (F4) brain areas. In students with medium motivation immediately before an examination the relative beta2-activity power increased in right frontal (F4) brain areas. It is suggested that delta oscillati- ons reflect activity of the defensive motivational system, whereas beta2 oscillations may be associated with the achievement motivation. PMID:25697016

  17. [Team motivation and motivational strategies adopted by nurses].

    PubMed

    Bezerra, Felipa Daiana; Andrade, Marta Francisca da Conceição; Andrade, Joseilze Santos de; Vieira, Maria Jésia; Pimentel, Deborah

    2010-01-01

    Qualitative study held in an emergency hospital in Aracaju-SE, which aimed to know the perception of nurses about what is a motivated nursing team, to identify possible motivational policies used by them and if they are consistent with the policies proposed by Frederick Herzberg in his theory. Of the 20 nurses participants, the most understood the motivation as a set of techniques possible to shape the behavior of the individual at work, linking it to extrinsic factors and 60% did not consider his team motivated. The types of motivational policies that usually apply realized that these correspond to intrinsic factors aimed at self recovery and self realization of individuals in the tasks running. PMID:20339752

  18. Power hand tool kinetics associated with upper limb injuries in an automobile assembly plant.

    PubMed

    Ku, Chia-Hua; Radwin, Robert G; Karsh, Ben-Tzion

    2007-06-01

    This study investigated the relationship between pneumatic nutrunner handle reactions, workstation characteristics, and prevalence of upper limb injuries in an automobile assembly plant. Tool properties (geometry, inertial properties, and motor characteristics), fastener properties, orientation relative to the fastener, and the position of the tool operator (horizontal and vertical distances) were measured for 69 workstations using 15 different pneumatic nutrunners. Handle reaction response was predicted using a deterministic mechanical model of the human operator and tool that was previously developed in our laboratory, specific to the measured tool, workstation, and job factors. Handle force was a function of target torque, tool geometry and inertial properties, motor speed, work orientation, and joint hardness. The study found that tool target torque was not well correlated with predicted handle reaction force (r=0.495) or displacement (r=0.285). The individual tool, tool shape, and threaded fastener joint hardness all affected predicted forces and displacements (p<0.05). The average peak handle force and displacement for right-angle tools were twice as great as pistol grip tools. Soft-threaded fastener joints had the greatest average handle forces and displacements. Upper limb injury cases were identified using plant OSHA 200 log and personnel records. Predicted handle forces for jobs where injuries were reported were significantly greater than those jobs free of injuries (p<0.05), whereas target torque and predicted handle displacement did not show statistically significant differences. The study concluded that quantification of handle reaction force, rather than target torque alone, is necessary for identifying stressful power hand tool operations and for controlling exposure to forces in manufacturing jobs involving power nutrunners. Therefore, a combination of tool, work station, and task requirements should be considered. PMID:17474028

  19. Monitoring trace elements generated by automobiles: air pollutants with possible health impacts.

    PubMed

    Anwar, Khaleeq; Ejaz, Sohail; Ashraf, Muhammad; Ahmad, Nisar; Javeed, Aqeel

    2013-07-01

    Major transformations in the environmental composition are principally attributable to the combustion of fuels by automobiles. Motorized gasoline-powered two-stroke auto-rickshaws (TSA) and compressed natural gas (CNG)-powered four-stroke auto-rickshaws (FSA) are potential source of air pollution in south Asia and produce toxic amount of particulate matter (PM) to the environment. In this study, we attempted to characterize elemental pollutants from the PM of TSA and FSA using proton-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) analysis. The observations of the existing investigation recognized significant increase in Al (P < 0.05), P (P < 0.01), and Zn (P < 0.01) from the PM samples of FSA. In addition, the concentrations of Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Na and S were also observed exceeding the recommended National Institute for Environmental Studies limits. On the contrary, increased concentration of Sr and V were observed in the PM samples from TSA. It is generally believed that FSA generates smaller amount of PM but data obtained from FSA are clearly describing that emissions from FSA comprised potentially more toxic substances than TSA. The current research is specific to metropolitan population and has evidently revealed an inconsistent burden of exposure to air pollutants engendered by FSA in urban communities, which could lead to the disruption of several biological activities and may cause severe damage to entire ecological system. PMID:23263758

  20. Need for power and women's careers over 14 years: structural power, job satisfaction, and motive change.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, S R

    1994-01-01

    Previous findings by D. G. Winter (1988) relating the need for Power to choice and attainment of power-relevant careers (teaching, including college; psychotherapy; journalism; and business management) were successfully replicated among 118 female collage seniors, 69 of whom returned mailed questionnaires 14 years later. High n Power women reported both more power-relevant job satisfaction and dissatisfaction; n Power predicted career progression only for women in power-relevant careers. Those women holding relational power jobs and those in structural power roles who reported higher overall job satisfaction increased in n Power over 14 years. Power-motivated women in different structural power roles reported contrasting satisfactions and career progression. PMID:8126645

  1. Feasibility study of advanced technology hov systems. Volume 2B. Emissions impact of roadway-powered electric buses, light-duty vehicles, and automobiles. Research report

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, M.A.; Dato, V.; Chira-Chavala, T.

    1992-12-01

    Changes in pollutant emissions as a result of adopting roadway-powered electric buses, Light Duty Vehicles (LDV's), and automobiles in California are analyzed. The analysis involves comparing emissions of hydrocarbons (HC), carbon monoxide (CO), oxides of nitrogen (NOx), oxides of sulfur (SOx), and particulate matter (PM), in grams per vehicle-mile of travel, between roadway-powered electric vehicles (RPEV's) and existing internal-combustion-engine vehicles (ICEV's). Findings indicate that significant reductions in emissions of HC and CO can be expected from the adoption of RPEV's, while fluctuations between emission increases and reductions are likely for NOx, SOx, and PM depending on energy consumption by vehicle type, the split between roadway/battery power usage, power flow efficiencies from the power plant to the roadway, and the mix of fuel sources and processing technologies assumed for electricity generation.

  2. Motives and Power of School Board Members: Implications for School Board-Superintendent Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mountford, Meredith

    2004-01-01

    The qualitative study presented in this article explores motivations for school board membership and conceptions of power held by school board members. The findings of the study suggest a relationship exists between the way board members define power and the type of motivation board members have for service. The implications of these findings for…

  3. Influence of particulate trap oxidizers on emission of mutagenic compounds by diesel automobiles.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, R E; Devillez, G; Smith, L R

    1989-06-01

    Diesel exhaust particles are known to contain mutagenic and carcinogenic chemicals. The aim of this study was to determine whether, and to what extent, catalytic particulate trap oxidizers on light-duty diesel engines may reduce the emission of particle-associated mutagenic chemicals into the environment. Exhaust particles were collected from Mercedes Benz and Volkswagen diesel automobiles, equipped with or without the manufacturer's exhaust traps, while running on a chassis dynamometer under specified load conditions. Exhaust particles were collected from a dilution tunnel onto 20" X 20" Teflon-coated fiberglass filters. Mutagenesis tests of dichloromethane (DCM) extracts of the particles were conducted using the Ames Salmonella bacterial test system. The mutation rate was calculated in terms of histidine revertants per mile of travel during a set of standard test cycles. With both vehicles the traps produced an 87-92% reduction in the total amount of particulate material collected by the filters. There was no significant change in the specific mutagenic activity (revertants per microgram of DCM particle extract) with or without the traps. These studies support the notion that installation of exhaust traps which reduce particulate emission on diesel-powered vehicles will also reduce the emission of particle-associated mutagenic and carcinogenic materials into the environment. PMID:2473105

  4. Automobile accessories: Assessment and improvement

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, M.

    1995-11-01

    With mandates and regulatory policies to meet both the California Air Resources Board (CARB) and the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles (PNGV), designing vehicles of the future will become a difficult task. As we look into the use of electric and hybrid vehicles, reduction of the required power demand by influential automobile components is necessary in order to obtain performance and range goals. Among those automobile components are accessories. Accessories have a profound impact on the range and mileage of future vehicles with limited amounts of energy or without power generating capabilities such as conventional vehicles. Careful assessment of major power consuming accessories helps us focus on those that need improvement and contributes to attainment of mileage and range goals for electric and hybrid vehicles.

  5. Power Versus Affiliation in Political Ideology: Robust Linguistic Evidence for Distinct Motivation-Related Signatures.

    PubMed

    Fetterman, Adam K; Boyd, Ryan L; Robinson, Michael D

    2015-09-01

    Posited motivational differences between liberals and conservatives have historically been controversial. This motivational interface has recently been bridged, but the vast majority of studies have used self-reports of values or motivation. Instead, the present four studies investigated whether two classic social motive themes--power and affiliation--vary by political ideology in objective linguistic analysis terms. Study 1 found that posts to liberal chat rooms scored higher in standardized affiliation than power, whereas the reverse was true of posts to conservative chat rooms. Study 2 replicated this pattern in the context of materials posted to liberal versus conservative political news websites. Studies 3 and 4, finally, replicated a similar interactive (ideology by motive type) pattern in State of the State and State of the Union addresses. Differences in political ideology, these results suggest, are marked by, and likely reflective of, mind-sets favoring affiliation (liberal) or power (conservative). PMID:26101445

  6. Physico-chemical and optical properties of combustion-generated particles from coal-fired power plant, automobile and ship engine and charcoal kiln.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hwajin

    2015-04-01

    Similarities and differences in physico-chemical and optical properties of combustion generated particles from various sources were investigated. Coal-fired power plant, charcoal kiln, automobile and ship engine were major sources, representing combustions of coal, biomass and two different types of diesel, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) equipped with both SEM and HRTEM were used for physico-chemical analysis. Light absorbing properties were assessed using a spectrometer equipped with an integrating sphere. Particles generated from different combustion sources and conditions demonstrate great variability in their morphology, structure and composition. From coal-fired power plant, both fly ash and flue gas were mostly composed of heterogeneously mixed mineral ash spheres, suggesting that the complete combustion was occurred releasing carbonaceous species out at high temperature (1200-1300 °C). Both automobile and ship exhausts from diesel combustions show typical features of soot: concentric circles comprised of closely-packed graphene layers. However, heavy fuel oil (HFO) combusted particles from ship exhaust demonstrate more complex compositions containing different morphology of particles other than soot, e.g., spherical shape of char particles composed of minerals and carbon. Even for the soot aggregates, particles from HFO burning have different chemical compositions; carbon is dominated but Ca (29.8%), S (28.7%), Na(1%), and Mg(1%) are contained, respectively which were not found from particles of automobile emission. This indicates that chemical compositions and burning conditions are significant to determine the fate of particles. Finally, from biomass burning, amorphous and droplet-like carbonaceous particles with no crystallite structure are observed and they are generally formed by the condensation of low volatile species at low

  7. Achievement Motivation Revisited: New Longitudinal Data to Demonstrate Its Predictive Power

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hustinx, Paul W. J.; Kuyper, Hans; van der Werf, Margaretha P. C.; Dijkstra, Pieternel

    2009-01-01

    During recent decades, the classical one-dimensional concept of achievement motivation has become less popular among motivation researchers. This study aims to revive the concept by demonstrating its predictive power using longitudinal data from two cohort samples, each with 20,000 Dutch secondary school students. Two measures of achievement…

  8. 19 CFR 148.39 - Rented automobiles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Rented automobiles. 148.39 Section 148.39 Customs... automobiles. (a) Importation for temporary period. An automobile rented by a resident of the United States... (HTSUS) (19 U.S.C. 1202), without payment of duty. The automobile shall be used for the transportation...

  9. 19 CFR 148.39 - Rented automobiles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Rented automobiles. 148.39 Section 148.39 Customs... automobiles. (a) Importation for temporary period. An automobile rented by a resident of the United States... (HTSUS) (19 U.S.C. 1202), without payment of duty. The automobile shall be used for the transportation...

  10. 19 CFR 148.39 - Rented automobiles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Rented automobiles. 148.39 Section 148.39 Customs... automobiles. (a) Importation for temporary period. An automobile rented by a resident of the United States... (HTSUS) (19 U.S.C. 1202), without payment of duty. The automobile shall be used for the transportation...

  11. 19 CFR 148.39 - Rented automobiles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Rented automobiles. 148.39 Section 148.39 Customs... automobiles. (a) Importation for temporary period. An automobile rented by a resident of the United States... (HTSUS) (19 U.S.C. 1202), without payment of duty. The automobile shall be used for the transportation...

  12. 19 CFR 148.39 - Rented automobiles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Rented automobiles. 148.39 Section 148.39 Customs... automobiles. (a) Importation for temporary period. An automobile rented by a resident of the United States... (HTSUS) (19 U.S.C. 1202), without payment of duty. The automobile shall be used for the transportation...

  13. Novel technique to ensure battery reliability in 42-V PowerNets for new-generation automobiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lam, L. T.; Haigh, N. P.; Phyland, C. G.; Huynh, T. D.

    The proposed 42-V PowerNet in automobiles requires the battery to provide a large number of shallow discharge-charge cycles at a high rate. High-rate discharge is necessary for engine cranking, while high-rate charge is associated with regenerative braking. The battery will therefore operate at these high rates in a partial-state-of-charge condition — 'HRPSoC duty'. Under simulated HRPSoC duty, it is found that the valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) battery fails prematurely due to the progressive accumulation of lead sulfate mainly on the surfaces of the negative plates. This is because the lead sulfate layer cannot be converted efficiently back to sponge lead during charging either from the engine or from the regenerative braking. Eventually, this layer of lead sulfate develops to such extent that the effective surface area of the plate is reduced markedly and the plate can no longer deliver the high-cranking current demanded by the automobile. The objective of this study is to develop and optimize a pulse-generation technique to minimize the development of lead sulfate layers on negative plates of VRLA batteries subjected to HRPSoC duty. The technique involves the application of sets of charging pulses of different frequency. It is found that the cycle-life performance of VRLA batteries is enhanced markedly when d.c. pulses of high frequency are used. For example, battery durability is raised from ˜10 600 cycles (no pulses) to 32 000 cycles with pulses of high frequency. Two key factors contribute to this improvement. The first factor is localization of the charging current on the surfaces of the plates — the higher the frequency, the greater is the amount of current concentrated on the plate surface. This phenomenon is known as the 'skin effect' as only the outer 'skin' of the plate is effectively carrying the current. The second factor is delivery of sufficient charge to the Faradaic resistance of the plate to compensate for the energy loss to inductance

  14. Effects of affiliation and power motivation arousal on salivary progesterone and testosterone.

    PubMed

    Schultheiss, Oliver C; Wirth, Michelle M; Stanton, Steven J

    2004-12-01

    Following up on earlier research suggesting a link between implicit affiliation motivation and progesterone (P) and implicit power motivation and testosterone [T; Schultheiss, O.C., Dargel, A., Rohde, W., 2003. Implicit motives and gonadal steroid hormones: Effects of menstrual cycle phase, oral contraceptive use, and relationship status. Horm. Behav. 43, 293-301.], we tested whether arousal of affiliation motivation increases P levels and whether arousal of power motivation increases T levels. Sixty subjects were randomly assigned to watch 30 min of either Bridges of Madison County (affiliation arousal) or The Godfather II (power arousal), or a documentary about the Amazon (control condition). Levels of P and T were assessed in saliva samples taken before (T1), immediately after (T2), and 45 min after the movie (T3). The efficacy of experimental conditions to differentially arouse motives was verified by assessment of changes in affiliation and power motive imagery expressed in imaginative stories written before and after the movie. After the movie, salivary P levels (T2 and T3) in the affiliation-arousal group were significantly higher than in the control group and marginally higher than in the power-arousal group. Subjects' postmovie T responses (T3) depended on premovie T levels: in men, higher premovie T levels predicted a greater likelihood of postmovie T increases in the Power Arousal condition but not in the other conditions, whereas in women, higher premovie T levels tended to be associated with postmovie T decreases in the Power Arousal condition but not in the other conditions. These findings suggest that aroused affiliation motivation has a specific stimulatory effect on P, whereas aroused power motivation has a specific stimulatory effect on T in men, but not in women, with high baseline T levels. PMID:15555501

  15. The role of the dorsoanterior striatum in implicit motivation: the case of the need for power

    PubMed Central

    Schultheiss, Oliver C.; Schiepe-Tiska, Anja

    2013-01-01

    Implicit motives like the need for power (nPower) scale affective responses to need-specific rewards or punishments and thereby influence activity in motivational-brain structures. In this paper, we review evidence specifically supporting a role of the striatum in nPower. Individual differences in nPower predict (1) enhanced implicit learning accuracy, but not speed, on serial-response tasks that are reinforced by power-related incentives (e.g., winning or losing a contest; dominant or submissive emotional expressions) in behavioral studies and (2) activation of the anterior caudate in response to dominant emotional expressions in brain imaging research. We interpret these findings on the basis of Hikosaka et al.'s (2002a) model of central mechanisms of motor skill learning. The model assigns a critical role to the dorsoanterior striatum in dopamine-driven learning of spatial stimulus sequences. Based on this model, we suggest that the dorsoanterior striatum is the locus of nPower-dependent reinforcement. However, given the centrality of this structure in a wide range of motivational pursuits, we also propose that activity in the dorsoanterior striatum may not only reflect individual differences in nPower, but also in other implicit motives, like the need for achievement or the need for affiliation, provided that the proper incentives for these motives are present during reinforcement learning. We discuss evidence in support of such a general role of the dorsoanterior striatum in implicit motivation. PMID:23626531

  16. Prolonging the life of motive power batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmad, W.

    1995-11-06

    Most industrial equipment begins to decline in its capacity to perform work the day it is placed in service. However, the lead-acid battery -- the type used to power fork lift trucks -- undergoes a normal life cycle comparable to that of a human being. Physical work capacity increases from infancy through youth, after which there is a gradual decline in vigor up to the inevitable end of life. A life of neglect or abuse, however, shortens the life cycle. Most lift truck batteries are delivered with the ability to function at about 90% of rated capacity. For the first three to six months of operation, capacity gradually grows until it reaches 100%. From that point on, every battery naturally loses capacity. This slow, natural capacity loss continues until the battery inevitably reaches the end of its service life. But in the manner of human life, premature demise can occur from unnatural causes. This article discusses criteria affecting capacity, factors contributing to loss of capacity, and factors resulting in loss of capacity.

  17. Improving temporal cognition by enhancing motivation.

    PubMed

    Avlar, Billur; Kahn, Julia B; Jensen, Greg; Kandel, Eric R; Simpson, Eleanor H; Balsam, Peter D

    2015-10-01

    Increasing motivation can positively impact cognitive performance. Here we employed a cognitive timing task that allows us to detect changes in cognitive performance that are not influenced by general activity or arousal factors such as the speed or persistence of responding. This approach allowed us to manipulate motivation using three different methods; molecular/genetic, behavioral and pharmacological. Increased striatal D2Rs resulted in deficits in temporal discrimination. Switching off the transgene improved motivation in earlier studies, and here partially rescued the temporal discrimination deficit. To manipulate motivation behaviorally, we altered reward magnitude and found that increasing reward magnitude improved timing in control mice and partially rescued timing in the transgenic mice. Lastly, we manipulated motivation pharmacologically using a functionally selective 5-HT2C receptor ligand, SB242084, which we previously found to increase incentive motivation. SB242084 improved temporal discrimination in both control and transgenic mice. Thus, while there is a general intuitive belief that motivation can affect cognition, we here provide a direct demonstration that enhancing motivation, in a variety of ways, can be an effective strategy for enhancing temporal cognition. Understanding the interaction of motivation and cognition is of clinical significance since many psychiatric disorders are characterized by deficits in both domains. PMID:26371378

  18. Automobile Course. Progress Record and Theory Outline.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connecticut State Dept. of Education, Hartford. Div. of Vocational-Technical Schools.

    This combination progress record and course outline is designed for use by individuals teaching a course in automobile repair. Included among the topics addressed in the course are the following: shop safety, engines, fuel and exhaust systems, electrical systems, crankcase lubrication systems, cooling systems, power transmission systems, steering…

  19. Motivating voter turnout by invoking the self.

    PubMed

    Bryan, Christopher J; Walton, Gregory M; Rogers, Todd; Dweck, Carol S

    2011-08-01

    Three randomized experiments found that subtle linguistic cues have the power to increase voting and related behavior. The phrasing of survey items was varied to frame voting either as the enactment of a personal identity (e.g., "being a voter") or as simply a behavior (e.g., "voting"). As predicted, the personal-identity phrasing significantly increased interest in registering to vote (experiment 1) and, in two statewide elections in the United States, voter turnout as assessed by official state records (experiments 2 and 3). These results provide evidence that people are continually managing their self-concepts, seeking to assume or affirm valued personal identities. The results further demonstrate how this process can be channeled to motivate important socially relevant behavior. PMID:21768362

  20. Motivating voter turnout by invoking the self

    PubMed Central

    Bryan, Christopher J.; Walton, Gregory M.; Rogers, Todd; Dweck, Carol S.

    2011-01-01

    Three randomized experiments found that subtle linguistic cues have the power to increase voting and related behavior. The phrasing of survey items was varied to frame voting either as the enactment of a personal identity (e.g., “being a voter”) or as simply a behavior (e.g., “voting”). As predicted, the personal-identity phrasing significantly increased interest in registering to vote (experiment 1) and, in two statewide elections in the United States, voter turnout as assessed by official state records (experiments 2 and 3). These results provide evidence that people are continually managing their self-concepts, seeking to assume or affirm valued personal identities. The results further demonstrate how this process can be channeled to motivate important socially relevant behavior. PMID:21768362

  1. Energizing porters by proton-motive force.

    PubMed

    Nelson, N

    1994-11-01

    It is generally accepted that the chemistry of water was the most crucial determinant in shaping life on earth. Among the more important chemical features of water is its dissociation into protons and hydroxyl ions. The presence of relatively high proton concentrations in the ambient solution resulted in the evolution of proton pumps during the dawn of life on earth. These proton pumps maintained neutral pH inside the cells and generated electrochemical gradients of protons (proton-motive force) across their membranes. The existence of proton-motive force enabled the evolution of porters driven by it that are most probably among the more primitive porters in the world. The directionality of the substrate transport by the porters could be to both sides of the membranes because they can serve as proton symporters or antiporters. One of the most important subjects of this meeting is the mechanism by which proton-motive and other ion-motive forces drive the transport processes through porters. Is there a common mechanism of action for all proton-driven porters? Is there some common partial reaction by which we can identify the way that porters are energized by proton-motive force? Is there a common coupling between proton movement and uptake or secretion of certain molecules? Even a partial answer to one of these questions would advance our knowledge... or confusion. As my mentor Efraim Racker used to say: 'If you are not totally confused you do not understand the issue'. PMID:7823046

  2. Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, William H.

    1975-01-01

    A systematic approach to the motivation of employees involves two-way communication, involvement, commitment, training, participation, and job enrichment. Demotivation is a pitfall which may occur when motivation is lacking. (BP)

  3. 49 CFR 1242.60 - Locomotive fuel, electric power purchased/produced for motive power and servicing locomotives...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Locomotive fuel, electric power purchased/produced for motive power and servicing locomotives (accounts XX-51-67, XX-51-68 and XX-51-69). 1242.60 Section...-Transportation § 1242.60 Locomotive fuel, electric power purchased/produced for motive power and...

  4. 49 CFR 1242.60 - Locomotive fuel, electric power purchased/produced for motive power and servicing locomotives...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Locomotive fuel, electric power purchased/produced for motive power and servicing locomotives (accounts XX-51-67, XX-51-68 and XX-51-69). 1242.60 Section...-Transportation § 1242.60 Locomotive fuel, electric power purchased/produced for motive power and...

  5. A process to recover plastics from obsolete automobiles by using solvents at ambient pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Jody, B.J.; Daniels, E.J.; Bonsignore, P.V.; Brockmeier, N.F.

    1993-08-01

    Recycling of the metal content of obsolete vehicles has been actively pursued since the 1950s; today, obsolete automobiles are the single largest source of scrap iron. They contribute over 25% of the 36 metric tonnes (40 million short tons) of ferrous scrap recovered annually by the secondary metals industry and used in the production of finished steel products. They also contribute over one million metric tonnes (1.1 million short tons) of nonferrous metallic scrap a year for recycling. For each ton of metals recovered, about 500 lb of nonmetallic residue or waste is co-produced. Auto shredder residue (ASR) is a very heterogeneous mixture of solids and liquids. Table I lists most of the materials that are commonly present in the ASR are listed. We have developed and tested in the laboratory a three-step process to separate thermoplastics, and other potentially recyclable products, from ASR. The process involves a drying step followed by a mechanical separation step to concentrate the thermoplastics by separating the polyurethane foam and the fines, which are mostly metal oxides and other inert materials that are smaller than 0.62 cm (0.25 in.) in size. The concentrated plastics stream is then treated with organic solvents at ambient pressure and elevated temperatures to dissolve the desired plastics. The salient features of the process are described.

  6. Treatment of an automobile effluent from heavy metals contamination by an eco-friendly montmorillonite

    PubMed Central

    Akpomie, Kovo G.; Dawodu, Folasegun A.

    2014-01-01

    Unmodified montmorillonite clay was utilized as a low cost adsorbent for the removal of heavy metals from a contaminated automobile effluent. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy were used to characterize the adsorbent. Batch sorption experiments were performed at an optimum effluent pH of 6.5, adsorbent dose of 0.1 g, particle size of 100 μm and equilibrium contact time of 180 min. Thermodynamic analysis was also conducted. Equilibrium data were analyzed by the Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin and Dubinin–Radushkevich models. A heterogeneous surface of the adsorbent was indicated by the Freundlich model. The Langmuir maximum adsorption capacity of the montmorillonite for metals was found in the following order: Zn (5.7 mg/g) > Cu (1.58 mg/g) > Mn (0.59 mg/g) > Cd (0.33 mg/g) > Pb (0.10 mg/g) ≡ Ni (0.10 mg/g). This was directly related to the concentration of the metal ions in solution. The pseudo-first order, pseudo-second order, intraparticle diffusion and liquid film diffusion models were applied for kinetic analysis. The mechanism of sorption was found to be dominated by the film diffusion mechanism. The results of this study revealed the potential of the montmorillonite for treatment of heavy metal contaminated effluents. PMID:26644939

  7. Suicidal asphyxiation by inhalation of automobile emission without carbon monoxide poisoning.

    PubMed

    deRoux, Stephen J

    2006-09-01

    Reported herein is the suicidal asphyxiation of a young man due to exhaustion of oxygen in the interior of a sealed automobile into which the exhaust emissions were diverted. His blood carboxyhemaglobin concentration was less than 5% saturation. The car was equipped with a catalytic converter and when tested, the exhaust carbon monoxide concentration was 0.01%. PMID:17018100

  8. Recycling of a fine, heavy fluff automobile shredder residue by density and differential fragmentation.

    PubMed

    Gent, M R; Menéndez, M; Muñiz, H; Torno, S

    2015-09-01

    A compilation of the physical properties of materials which might typically occur in automobile shredder residue and an analysis of their suitability for the separation of materials in fine (<15mm) heavy fluff ASR (fhf-ASR) is presented. Differences in density and resistance to crushing of fhf-ASR materials were identified as potentially the most suitable low cost, technologically simple means for the separating this waste into its three principal components - metals, minerals (glass/stones) and organics (plastics). Results presented of laboratory scale tests demonstrate that fhf-ASR can in large part be separated into three principal components. Tests were conducted with 0.63-2.0mm and 2-10mm fractions. Recovery of plastics by density separations were conducted with water only jigs for the 2-10mm fraction and shaker tables for the 0.63-2mm fraction. Comparisons are presented of the separations of glass and stones from metals obtained by linear screening and vibratory screening of roller mill and impact mill crushing products of the high density 2-10mm fraction. Equipment used for these tests are of a laboratory or demonstrative scale. It is reasonable to anticipate that industrial scale processing would produce significantly better results. The 2-15mm fraction was found to constitute 91.6% of the fhf-ASR sampled. The metals content of the 2-10mm portion of this fraction was upgraded from 2.5% to 31% and 76.9% with recoveries varying inversely with grade from 91.9% to 40.1%. From 63.6% to 17.1% with a recovery of 93.5% of the organic materials. A residual product of fine sand of crushed glass/stones of 99.4% purity recovered 71.3% of these. PMID:26119010

  9. Visible–infrared achromatic imaging by wavefront coding with wide-angle automobile camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohta, Mitsuhiko; Sakita, Koichi; Shimano, Takeshi; Sugiyama, Takashi; Shibasaki, Susumu

    2016-09-01

    We perform an experiment of achromatic imaging with wavefront coding (WFC) using a wide-angle automobile lens. Our original annular phase mask for WFC was inserted to the lens, for which the difference between the focal positions at 400 nm and at 950 nm is 0.10 mm. We acquired images of objects using a WFC camera with this lens under the conditions of visible and infrared light. As a result, the effect of the removal of the chromatic aberration of the WFC system was successfully determined. Moreover, we fabricated a demonstration set assuming the use of a night vision camera in an automobile and showed the effect of the WFC system.

  10. [Environmental pollution by products of wear and tear automobile-road complex].

    PubMed

    Levanchuk, A V

    2014-01-01

    North-West State Medical University named after I.I. Mechnikov, Saint Petersburg, Russian Federation, 191015. There is supposed the method for the assessment of amounts of pollutants released into the environment during the operational wear of tyre treads, brake system of cars and the road pavement. There are presented results of chemical analysis of residues of combustion. The necessity of control of products of work wear of automobile-road complex has been substantiated. PMID:25950039

  11. Restructuring the Indian power sector with energy conservation as the motive for economic and environmental benefits

    SciTech Connect

    Palanichamy, C.; Chelvan, R.K.; Babu, N.S.; Nadarajan, C.

    1999-12-01

    India's strong economic performance of recent years requires continuing effort from the newly formed Government to widen the ambit of economic reform. Though the Government has given higher priority for the power development projects, the Indian Power sector is struggling with formidable difficulties of meeting the heavy demands of electricity due to higher amount of power losses and energy thefts. To give a supporting hand to the Government, this paper suggests restructuring of the Power sector with energy conservation as the main motive to achieve economical and environmental benefits. The capabilities of the Energy Conservation Policies developed are illustrated via tests by three distinct ways on a State Grid alike Test System and the test results confirm the suitability of the proposed policies for real-time implementation on the Indian Power Sector.

  12. [Influence of embient air pollution by automobile transport on malignancies development in population of Kemerovo city].

    PubMed

    Larin, S A; Bykov, A A

    2015-01-01

    To reveal relationship between automobile transport emissions and oncologic morbidity among Kemerovo population, the authors selected crossroads and parts of highways with intense traffic. Two groups were observed among the residents of houses near the main crossroads and along highways. As a reference group, residents of houses distant from highways were selected. The study proved that oncologic morbidity is statistically reliably higher among the residents of houses near the crossroads and highways, if compared to that among the residents in houses distant from highways. PMID:26336727

  13. Recovery of nonferrous metals from scrap automobiles by magnetic fluid levitation.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mir, L.; Simard, C.; Grana, D.

    1973-01-01

    Ferrofluids are colloidal dispersions of subdomain magnetic solids in carrier liquids. In the presence of a non-homogeneous magnetic field, ferrofluids exert a pressure on immersed nonmagnetic objects in the opposite sense of the field gradient. This pressure force can, when opposite to gravity, levitate objects of higher density than the ferrofluid. This levitation technique can be used to separate solids according to density. Its application to the separation of nonferrous metals from shredded automobiles has been demonstrated on a prototype of a full-scale separator. Its use to recover nonferrous metals from municipal solid wastes also seems practical.

  14. Platinum levels in natural and urban soils from Rome and Latium (Italy): significance for pollution by automobile catalytic converter.

    PubMed

    Cinti, D; Angelone, M; Masi, U; Cremisini, C

    2002-07-01

    Platinum concentrations in topsoil samples collected in 1992 (48) and in 2001 (16) from the urban area of Rome have been determined by ICP-MS. Concentrations in 47 soil samples collected in 1992 from natural sites of Latium (an area around Rome) have been determined for a first assessment of natural background levels. The Pt concentrations in Rome urban soils collected in 1992 range from 0.8 to 6.3 ng/g (mean = 3.8 +/- 1.0) overlapping the concentration range of natural soils from Latium (mean = 3.1 +/- 2.1 ng/g). No significant correlation has generally been found between Pt contents in the 'natural' soils and related bedrock or major pedogenetic parameters. These results suggest that there is no evidence of Pt pollution in Rome urban soils at that time, because the massive use of the automobile catalytic converter has only just started. Higher (up to six times more) Pt concentrations, than those measured in the 1992 samples, have been measured, in some cases, in Rome urban soils collected in 2001, suggesting a possible start of Pt accumulation because of the large-scale use in the last decade of automobile catalytic converters. At the same time, a clear decrease of lead levels in Rome urban soils with respect to the levels measured in 1992 has been observed, paralleling the decreasing number of lead gasoline-fuelled cars. Here we present one of the first systematic studies for defining background levels of Pt in Italian natural soils, thus allowing for monitoring, in the future, should any possible Pt pollution caused by the use of automobile catalytic converter, especially in urban soils, occur. PMID:12109480

  15. Motivation and the Power of Not Giving Up

    MedlinePlus

    ... up. Let's say you want to run a marathon. If you try to run the entire distance ... bummed out that you'll give up your marathon dreams — and running — altogether. Part of staying motivated ...

  16. Political Skill as Moderator of Personality--Job Performance Relationships in Socioanalytic Theory: Test of the Getting Ahead Motive in Automobile Sales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blickle, Gerhard; Wendel, Stephanie; Ferris, Gerald R.

    2010-01-01

    Based on the socioanalytic perspective of performance prediction ([Hogan, 1991] and [Hogan and Shelton, 1998]), this study tests whether the motive to get ahead produces greater performance when interactively combined with social effectiveness. Specifically, we investigated whether interactions of the five-factor model constructs of extraversion…

  17. The new pyramid: laying the groundwork with motivational power.

    PubMed

    Lombardi, D

    1991-06-01

    To successfully implement a comprehensive, progressive management system, a manager must incorporate daily administrative or executive principles and duties with an array of motivational tactics. Various motivational strategies have been discussed since the generation of industrial psychological research, which is generally conceded to have had its genesis with Abraham Maslow. Maslow's simple premise regarding man's needs for self-esteem, security and affiliation is at the root of many theories and practicums in vogue today. PMID:10111474

  18. Automobile maneuvering device

    SciTech Connect

    Ricciardi, R.

    1987-08-18

    An automobile maneuvering device is described which consists of: a chassis comprising transport wheels for permitting movement of the device along the ground, a drive wheel operably rotatably connected to the chassis, and means for rotating the drive wheel, clamp means operably connected to the chassis and spaced from and opposed to the drive wheel, the chassis including means to move the clamp means to engage one portion of an automobile tire with the drive wheel engaged at another portion of the automobile tire, and means to actuate the rotating means, so that with rotation of the drive wheel the automobile tire is rotated and the automobile and device moved along the ground.

  19. Is motivation influenced by geomagnetic activity?

    PubMed

    Starbuck, S; Cornélissen, G; Halberg, F

    2002-01-01

    To eventually build a scientific bridge to religion by examining whether non-photic, non-thermic solar effects may influence (religious) motivation, invaluable yearly world wide data on activities from 1950 to 1999 by Jehovah's Witnesses on behalf of their church were analyzed chronobiologically. The time structure (chronome) of these archives, insofar as it is able to be evaluated in yearly means for up to half a century, was assessed. Least squares spectra in a frequency range from one cycle in 42 to one in 2.1 years of data on the average number of hours per month spent in work for the church, available from 103 different geographic locations, as well as grand totals also including other sites, revealed a large peak at one cycle in about 21 years. The non-linear least squares fit of a model consisting of a linear trend and a cosine curve with a trial period of 21.0 years, numerically approximating that of the Hale cycle, validated the about 21.0-year component in about 70% of the data series, with the non-overlap of zero by the 95% confidence interval of the amplitude estimate. Estimates of MESOR (midline-estimating statistic of rhythm, a rhythm (or chronome) adjusted mean), amplitude and period were further regressed with geomagnetic latitude. The period estimate did not depend on geomagnetic latitude. The about 21.0-year amplitude tends to be larger at low and middle than at higher latitudes and the resolution of the about 21.0-year cycle, gauged by the width of 95% confidence intervals for the period and amplitude, is higher (the 95% confidence intervals are statistically significantly smaller) at higher than at lower latitudes. Near-matches of periods in solar activity and human motivation hint that the former may influence the latter, while the dependence on latitude constitutes evidence that geomagnetic activity may affect certain brain areas involved in motivation, just as it was earlier found that it is associated with effects on the electrocardiogram

  20. Promoting Reading Motivation by Reading Together

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monteiro, Vera

    2013-01-01

    In the present project we tested the hypothesis that tutorial situations with peers would benefit children's reading motivation. Participants were from elementary school--80 fourth-graders and 80 second-graders. We used a questionnaire to assess reading motivation. In the tutorial sessions we developed a Paired Reading Program. The children who…

  1. Anti-Rolling Suspension for an Automobile by Coupled Electromagnetic Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayashi, Ryuzo; Suda, Yoshihiro; Nakano, Kimihiko

    Nowadays, various suspension control technologies have been developed such as active suspensions, semi-active suspensions and active stabilizers. As an alternative to a hydraulic actuator for suspension, electromagnetic devices have been developed. Electromagnetic devices are attracting much interest due to their high responsiveness, controllability, energy saving performance, and so on. Besides these advantages, electromagnetic devices can be connected to each other very easily. Therefore, the authors focus on this characteristic of the electromagnetic device and propose two methods to use coupled electromagnetic devices as an anti-rolling control device as well as vertical shock absorbers. The automobile experiences anti-rolling effects, such as roll damping and roll stabilization, without affecting the bouncing motion. Through basic experiments with two motors and control circuits, the performance of the proposed system is examined. The results indicate the coupled electromagnetic devices can be operated as a variable roll damper or a roll stabilizer. Numerical simulations of the turning automobile are carried out, and the results indicate the proposed system is effective.

  2. Effects of motivation on car-following

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boesser, T.

    1982-01-01

    Speed- and distance control by automobile-drivers is described best by linear models when the leading vehicles speed varies randomly and when the driver is motivated to keep a large distance. A car-following experiment required subjects to follow at 'safe' or at 'close' distance. Transfer-characteristics of the driver were extended by 1 octave when following 'closely'. Nonlinear properties of drivers control-movements are assumed to reflect different motivation-dependent control strategies.

  3. The type of implicit motive enactment is modulated by sex hormones in naturally cycling women.

    PubMed

    Ball, Anna; Wolf, Claudia C; Ocklenburg, Sebastian; Brüne, Martin; Wolf, Oliver T; Güntürkün, Onur; Pinnow, Marlies

    2014-01-17

    Sex hormones have been reported to dynamically modulate the expression of implicit motives, a concept that has previously been thought to be relatively stable over time. This study investigates to what extent the need for affiliation, power, and achievement, as well as the form of enactment of these needs as measured with the Operant Motive Test (OMT), is affected by cycle-phase dependent sex hormone fluctuations. In addition to measuring the strength of motive expression, the OMT also captures different forms of motive enactment. In an intra-subject design with repeated measures, no evidence for cycle-phase related variation in overall motive scores was found. However, when different forms of motive enactment were considered, an effect of menstrual cycle was observed. The incentive-based inhibition of the power motive was significantly reduced at the time of ovulation, compared to the menstrual and to the mid-luteal phase, in naturally cycling women. In women with relatively stable hormone concentrations (due to using hormonal contraceptives), no significant changes in the form of motive enactment were evident. The results indicate a specific hormonal influence on motive-related cognitive processes that are related to inhibitive processes in behavior control. PMID:24113170

  4. Your Automobile Dollar, [Revised.] Money Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baran, Nancy H., Ed.; Law, Jean L., Ed.

    This booklet on automobile purchasing and maintenance, 1 in a series of 12, covers all the basic aspects of personal- and family-money management. Suitable for use by high school and college students as well as adults, this handbook discusses buying, maintaining, and operating cars. Section 1 discusses managing automobile dollars. Topics include…

  5. Motivated explanation.

    PubMed

    Patterson, Richard; Operskalski, Joachim T; Barbey, Aron K

    2015-01-01

    Although motivation is a well-established field of study in its own right, and has been fruitfully studied in connection with attribution theory and belief formation under the heading of "motivated thinking," its powerful and pervasive influence on specifically explanatory processes is less well explored. Where one has a strong motivation to understand some event correctly, one is thereby motivated to adhere as best one can to normative or "epistemic" criteria for correct or accurate explanation, even if one does not consciously formulate or apply such criteria. By contrast, many of our motivations to explain introduce bias into the processes involved in generating, evaluating, or giving explanations. Non-epistemic explanatory motivations, or following Kunda's usage, "directional" motivations, include self-justification, resolution of cognitive dissonance, deliberate deception, teaching, and many more. Some of these motivations lead to the relaxation or violation of epistemic norms; others enhance epistemic motivation, so that one engages in more careful and thorough generational and evaluative processes. We propose that "real life" explanatory processes are often constrained by multiple goals, epistemic and directional, where these goals may mutually reinforce one another or may conflict, and where our explanations emerge as a matter of weighing and satisfying those goals. We review emerging evidence from psychology and neuroscience to support this framework and to elucidate the central role of motivation in human thought and explanation. PMID:26528166

  6. Motivated explanation

    PubMed Central

    Patterson, Richard; Operskalski, Joachim T.; Barbey, Aron K.

    2015-01-01

    Although motivation is a well-established field of study in its own right, and has been fruitfully studied in connection with attribution theory and belief formation under the heading of “motivated thinking,” its powerful and pervasive influence on specifically explanatory processes is less well explored. Where one has a strong motivation to understand some event correctly, one is thereby motivated to adhere as best one can to normative or “epistemic” criteria for correct or accurate explanation, even if one does not consciously formulate or apply such criteria. By contrast, many of our motivations to explain introduce bias into the processes involved in generating, evaluating, or giving explanations. Non-epistemic explanatory motivations, or following Kunda's usage, “directional” motivations, include self-justification, resolution of cognitive dissonance, deliberate deception, teaching, and many more. Some of these motivations lead to the relaxation or violation of epistemic norms; others enhance epistemic motivation, so that one engages in more careful and thorough generational and evaluative processes. We propose that “real life” explanatory processes are often constrained by multiple goals, epistemic and directional, where these goals may mutually reinforce one another or may conflict, and where our explanations emerge as a matter of weighing and satisfying those goals. We review emerging evidence from psychology and neuroscience to support this framework and to elucidate the central role of motivation in human thought and explanation. PMID:26528166

  7. Automobile Politics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paterson, Matthew

    2006-11-01

    The car, and the range of social and political institutions which sustain its dominance, play an important role in many of the environmental problems faced by contemporary society. But in order to understand the possibilities for moving towards sustainability and 'greening cars', it is first necessary to understand the political forces that have made cars so dominant. This book identifies these forces as a combination of political economy and cultural politics. From the early twentieth century, the car became central to the organization of capitalism and deeply embedded in individual identities, providing people with a source of value and meaning but in a way which was broadly consistent with social imperatives for mobility. Projects for sustainability to reduce the environmental impacts of cars are therefore constrained by these forces but must deal with them in order to shape and achieve their goals. Addresses the increasingly controversial debate on the place of the car in contemporary society and its contribution to environmental problems Questions whether automobility is sustainable and what political, social and economic forces might prevent this Will appeal to scholars and advanced students from a wide range of disciplines including environmental politics, political economy, environmental studies, cultural studies and geography

  8. 49 CFR 529.4 - Requirements for incomplete automobile manufacturers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... determined by the incomplete automobile manufacturer for the automobile in accordance with 40 CFR part 600... economy label specified in paragaph (b)(2) of this section to that automobile in accordance with 40 CFR... take into account the presence of air conditioning. (2) A fuel economy label conforming with 40...

  9. 49 CFR 529.4 - Requirements for incomplete automobile manufacturers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... determined by the incomplete automobile manufacturer for the automobile in accordance with 40 CFR part 600... economy label specified in paragaph (b)(2) of this section to that automobile in accordance with 40 CFR... take into account the presence of air conditioning. (2) A fuel economy label conforming with 40...

  10. 49 CFR 529.4 - Requirements for incomplete automobile manufacturers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... determined by the incomplete automobile manufacturer for the automobile in accordance with 40 CFR part 600... economy label specified in paragaph (b)(2) of this section to that automobile in accordance with 40 CFR... take into account the presence of air conditioning. (2) A fuel economy label conforming with 40...

  11. 49 CFR 529.4 - Requirements for incomplete automobile manufacturers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... determined by the incomplete automobile manufacturer for the automobile in accordance with 40 CFR part 600... economy label specified in paragaph (b)(2) of this section to that automobile in accordance with 40 CFR... take into account the presence of air conditioning. (2) A fuel economy label conforming with 40...

  12. 49 CFR 529.4 - Requirements for incomplete automobile manufacturers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... determined by the incomplete automobile manufacturer for the automobile in accordance with 40 CFR part 600... economy label specified in paragaph (b)(2) of this section to that automobile in accordance with 40 CFR... take into account the presence of air conditioning. (2) A fuel economy label conforming with 40...

  13. Electrical drive for automobile

    SciTech Connect

    Fobbs, H.

    1980-09-16

    Electrical apparatus for driving an automobile is described that is comprised of a dc motor operationally connected to the rear axle through a drive shaft with the motor energized from storage batteries and recharged from alternators coupled to the drive shaft adjacent a clutch at the rear end of the automobile through an auxiliary drive shaft.

  14. Unstable power threatens the powerful and challenges the powerless: evidence from cardiovascular markers of motivation

    PubMed Central

    Scheepers, Daan; Röell, Charlotte; Ellemers, Naomi

    2015-01-01

    Possessing social power has psychological and biological benefits. For example, during task interactions, people high in power are more likely to display a benign cardiovascular (CV) response pattern indicative of “challenge” whereas people low in power are more likely to display a maladaptive CV pattern indicative of “threat” (Scheepers et al., 2012). Challenge is marked by high cardiac output (CO) and low total peripheral resistance (TPR), while threat is marked by low CO and high TPR (Blascovich and Mendes, 2010). In the current work we addressed a possible moderator of the power-threat/challenge relationship, namely the stability of power. We examined the influence of the stability of power (roles could or could not change) on CV responses during a dyadic task where one person was the “chief designer” (high power) and one person was the “assistant” (low power). During the task, different CV-measures were taken [CO, TPR, heart rate, pre-ejection period). Whereas participants in the unstable low power condition showed a stronger tendency toward challenge, participants in the unstable high power condition showed a stronger tendency toward threat. Moreover, participants in the stable low power condition showed CV signs of task disengagement. Results are discussed in terms of the importance of contextual variables in shaping the relationship between power and benign/maladaptive physiological responses. PMID:26074860

  15. Learning-by-Teaching: Designing Teachable Agents with Intrinsic Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhao, Guopeng; Ailiya; Shen, Zhiqi

    2012-01-01

    Teachable agent is a type of pedagogical agent which instantiates Learning-by-Teaching theory through simulating a "naive" learner in order to motivate students to teach it. This paper discusses the limitation of existing teachable agents and incorporates intrinsic motivation to the agent model to enable teachable agents with initiative behaviors…

  16. Control of carbon monoxide (CO) from automobile exhaust by a dealuminated zeolite supported regenerative MnCo2O4 catalyst.

    PubMed

    Arun, P S; Ranjith, B P; Shibli, S M A

    2013-03-19

    We synthesized MnCo(2)O(4) catalyst with very high porosity on the surface of dealuminated zeolite molecular sieves (DAZMS) for CO oxidation under actual automobile conditions. The MnCo(2)O(4) catalyst was selected on the basis of preliminary DFT study using the software ADF BAND. The MnCo(2)O(4) catalyst had comparatively higher CO adsorption energy and very low oxygen vacancy formation energy. The synthesized MnCo(2)O(4)/DAZMS catalyst was characterized by XRD, XRF, BET, SEM, and Confocal Microscopy. The Confocal microscopic analysis revealed that porosity of the dealuminated zeolite surface was significantly enhanced after the catalyst loading process. The completely precious metal free and DAZMS-supported catalyst exhibited excellent CO oxidation ability with renewed activity for seven months under actual automobile conditions with reference to normal and cold start conditions. The synthesized MnCo(2)O(4)/DAZMS not only exhibited surprisingly high catalytic activity for CO oxidation at a temperature resembling a cold start period but was also sufficiently stable/active under actual automobile conditions and ambient conditions containing large amounts of CO,H(2)O,CO(2), and NO(x) at 155-715 °C. These significant results revealed the flexible use of the present catalyst system for a wide variety of automobiles from a small gasoline-fuelled vehicle to a large diesel-fuelled vehicle that may produce high CO-content exhaust. PMID:23406461

  17. Achieving deep cuts in the carbon intensity of U.S. automobile transportation by 2050: complementary roles for electricity and biofuels.

    PubMed

    Scown, Corinne D; Taptich, Michael; Horvath, Arpad; McKone, Thomas E; Nazaroff, William W

    2013-08-20

    Passenger cars in the United States (U.S.) rely primarily on petroleum-derived fuels and contribute the majority of U.S. transportation-related greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Electricity and biofuels are two promising alternatives for reducing both the carbon intensity of automotive transportation and U.S. reliance on imported oil. However, as standalone solutions, the biofuels option is limited by land availability and the electricity option is limited by market adoption rates and technical challenges. This paper explores potential GHG emissions reductions attainable in the United States through 2050 with a county-level scenario analysis that combines ambitious plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) adoption rates with scale-up of cellulosic ethanol production. With PHEVs achieving a 58% share of the passenger car fleet by 2050, phasing out most corn ethanol and limiting cellulosic ethanol feedstocks to sustainably produced crop residues and dedicated crops, we project that the United States could supply the liquid fuels needed for the automobile fleet with an average blend of 80% ethanol (by volume) and 20% gasoline. If electricity for PHEV charging could be supplied by a combination of renewables and natural-gas combined-cycle power plants, the carbon intensity of automotive transport would be 79 g CO2e per vehicle-kilometer traveled, a 71% reduction relative to 2013. PMID:23906086

  18. Illustrating Newton's Second Law with the Automobile Coast-Down Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryan, Ronald A.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Describes a run test of automobiles for applying Newton's second law of motion and the concept of power. Explains some automobile thought-experiments and provides the method and data of an actual coast-down test. (YP)

  19. Changing patterns of materials use in the US Automobile industry

    SciTech Connect

    Eggert, R.G.

    1986-01-01

    The material mix of a typical US passenger car has changed enormously over the last several decades, as have the total quantities of various materials used in automobile production. Over the last ten years, the dramatic increases in aluminum, plastics, and high strength steel - as well as the decline in plain carbon steel - are due largely to material substitution motivated by the desire for weight reduction, which was an important component of car-manufacturer strategies to satisfy consumer tastes and government regulations concerning fuel economy. Even though automotive material substitution has been, in effect, revolutionary over the last ten years or so, significant changes in automobile composition had been occurring much earlier, albeit at a slower pace. This earlier, slower period of change was part of an ongoing evolution of automobile design, in which materials compete with one another to provide certain physical and chemical properties at the lowest cost. As for the role of the passenger car in understanding the slowdown in western world consumption of metals since about 1974, conclusions from this paper must be limited to steel and aluminum in the United States. The total amount of plain carbon steel contained in new US cars has been much lower in the 1980s than in the middle and late 1970s, contributing significantly to stagnating steel consumption. 27 references, 14 figures, 7 tables.

  20. The Surprisingly Low Motivational Power of Future Rewards: Comparing Conventional Money-Based Measures of Discounting with Motivation-Based Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ebert, Jane E. J.

    2010-01-01

    Temporal discount rates are often poor predictors of behaviors that we expect will be motivated by the future. The current research suggests this may be because conventional discounting measures are poor measures of the motivational value of future rewards. In six studies, I develop motivation-based measures of the present value (PV) of future…

  1. Recent trends in automobile recycling: An energy and economic assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Curlee, T.R.; Das, S.; Rizy, C.G.; Schexanyder, S.M.

    1994-03-01

    Recent and anticipated trends in the material composition of domestic and imported automobiles and the increasing cost of landfilling the non-recyclable portion of automobiles (automobile shredder residue or ASR) pose questions about the future of automobile recycling. This report documents the findings of a study sponsored by the US Department of Energy`s Office of Environmental Analysis to examine the impacts of these and other relevant trends on the life-cycle energy consumption of automobiles and on the economic viability of the domestic automobile recycling industry. More specifically, the study (1) reviewed the status of the automobile recycling industry in the United States, including the current technologies used to process scrapped automobiles and the challenges facing the automobile recycling industry; (2) examined the current status and future trends of automobile recycling in Europe and Japan, with the objectives of identifying ``lessons learned`` and pinpointing differences between those areas and the United States; (3) developed estimates of the energy system impacts of the recycling status quo and projections of the probable energy impacts of alternative technical and institutional approaches to recycling; and (4) identified the key policy questions that will determine the future economic viability of automobile shredder facilities in the United States.

  2. The rolling and skidding of automobile tyres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tabor, D.

    1994-09-01

    This article deals in simple terms with the rolling and skidding of automobile tyres. It shows that skid resistance on slippery road surfaces may be significantly increased by using tyre treads of high hysteresis loss.

  3. Point by Point: Adding up Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marchionda, Denise

    2010-01-01

    Students often view their course grades as a mysterious equation of teacher-given grades, teacher-given grace, and some other ethereal components based on luck. However, giving students the power to earn points based on numerous daily/weekly assignments and attendance makes the grading process objective and personal, freeing the instructor to…

  4. Power and Roots by Recursion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aieta, Joseph F.

    1987-01-01

    This article illustrates how questions from elementary finance can serve as motivation for studying high order powers, roots, and exponential functions using Logo procedures. A second discussion addresses a relatively unknown algorithm for the trigonometric exponential and hyperbolic functions. (PK)

  5. Gearshift apparatus for an automobile

    SciTech Connect

    Makita, F.

    1986-01-21

    This patent describes a gearshift apparatus for an automobile with an electromagnetic clutch and a transmission operatively connected to the clutch and having four forward gear trains and an output shaft. This apparatus consists of a first synchronizing means for selectively engaging a second speed gear train and a fourth speed gear train respectively with transmission output shaft. The second speed gear train has a gear ratio such that sufficient torque is produced to start the automobile on an ordinary road. Another feature of the apparatus is a second synchronizing means for selectively engaging a first speed gear train and a third speed gear train respectively with the output shaft. The first gear has a gear ratio producing sufficient torque to start the automobile on an uphill and heavy road. A shift lever means for operating the first and second synchronization means is characterized in the patent. This shaft lever is described as being rotated to a first or second plane for the operation of the respective synchronizing means and as being responsive a means elucidated in the patent for holding it in the respective plane for proper operation. The last component of the apparatus described is a gear select means including a select lever specifically operationally engageable with one of the synchronizing means by rotation of the shift lever to the respective plane and an actuating rod connecting it to the proper shift lever for respective synchronization device operation.

  6. Estimation of absorption of aromatic hydrocarbons diffusing from interior materials in automobile cabins by inhalation toxicokinetic analysis in rats.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Toshiaki

    2010-08-01

    Aromatic hydrocarbons, as well as aliphatic hydrocarbons, diffusing from interior materials in automotive cabins are the most common compounds contributing to interior air pollution. In this study, the amounts of seven selected aromatic hydrocarbons absorbed by a car driver were estimated by evaluating their inhalation toxicokinetics in rats. Measured amounts of these substances were injected into a closed chamber system containing a rat, and the concentration changes in the chamber were examined. The toxicokinetics of the substances were evaluated on the basis of the concentration-time course using a nonlinear compartment model. The amounts absorbed in humans at actual concentrations in automobile cabins without ventilation were extrapolated from the results obtained from rats. The absorbed amounts estimated for a driver during a 2 h drive were as follows (per 60 kg of human body weight): 30 microg for toluene (interior median concentration, 40 microg m(-3) in our previous study), 10 microg for ethylbenzene (12 microg m(-3)), 6 microg for o-xylene (10 microg m(-3)), 8 microg for m-xylene (11 microg m(-3)), 9 microg for p-xylene (11 microg m(-3)), 11 microg for styrene (11 microg m(-3)) and 27 microg for 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene (24 microg m(-3)). Similarly, in a cabin where air pollution was marked, the absorbed amount of styrene (654 microg for 2 h in a cabin with an interior maximum concentration of 675 microg m(-3)) was estimated to be much higher than those of other substances. This amount (654 microg) was approximately 1.5 times the tolerable daily intake of styrene (7.7 microg kg(-1) per day) recommended by the World Health Organization. PMID:20809541

  7. Analytical description of the modern steam automobile

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peoples, J. A.

    1974-01-01

    The sensitivity of operating conditions upon performance of the modern steam automobile is discussed. The word modern has been used in the title to indicate that emphasis is upon miles per gallon rather than theoretical thermal efficiency. This has been accomplished by combining classical power analysis with the ideal Pressure-Volume diagram. Several parameters are derived which characterize performance capability of the modern steam car. The report illustrates that performance is dictated by the characteristics of the working medium, and the supply temperature. Performance is nearly independent of pressures above 800 psia. Analysis techniques were developed specifically for reciprocating steam engines suitable for automotive application. Specific performance charts have been constructed on the basis of water as a working medium. The conclusions and data interpretation are therefore limited within this scope.

  8. Recycling and the automobile

    SciTech Connect

    Holt, D.J.

    1993-10-01

    This article examines the current status of automobile recycling and contains a summary of a survey which points out the major drivers and their impacts on automotive recycling. The topics of the article include computerized dismantling, polyurethane, sheet molding compound, polyester, thermoplastic polyester, recycling salvaged parts, vinyl and automotive shredder residue.

  9. Dissolution kinetics of Pd and Pt from automobile catalysts by naturally occurring complexing agents.

    PubMed

    Sebek, Ondřej; Mihaljevič, Martin; Strnad, Ladislav; Ettler, Vojtěch; Ježek, Josef; Stědrý, Robin; Drahota, Petr; Ackerman, Lukáš; Adamec, Vladimír

    2011-12-30

    Powder samples prepared from gasoline (Pt, Pd, Rh, new GN/old GO) and diesel (Pt, new DN/old DO) catalysts and recycled catalyst NIST 2556 were tested using kinetic leaching experiments following 1, 12, 24, 48, 168, 360, 720 and 1440-h interactions with solutions of 20mM citric acid (CA), 20 mM Na(2)P(4)O(7) (NaPyr), 1 g L(-1) NaCl (NaCl), a fulvic acid solution (FA-DOC 50 mg L(-1)) and 20 mM CA at pH 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 and 9. The mobilisation of platinum group elements (PGEs) was fastest in solutions of CA and NaPyr. In the other interactions (NaCl, FA), the release of PGEs was probably followed by immobilisation processes, and the interactions were not found to correspond to the simple release of PGEs into solution. Because of their low concentrations, the individual complexing agents did not have any effect on the speciation of Pd and Pt in the extracts; both metals are present in solution as the complexes Me(OH)(2), Me(OH)(+). Immobilisation can take place through the adsorption of the positively charged hydroxyl complexes or flocculation of fulvic acid, complexing the PGEs on the surface of the extracted catalysts. The calculated normalised bulk released NRi values are similar to the reaction rate highest in the solutions of CA and NaPyr. PMID:22078491

  10. Energy recycling by co-combustion of coal and recovered paint solids from automobile paint operations

    SciTech Connect

    Achariya Suriyawong; Rogan Magee; Ken Peebles; Pratim Biswas

    2009-05-15

    This paper presents the results of an experimental study of particulate emission and the fate of 13 trace elements (arsenic (As), barium (Ba), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), cobalt (Co), manganese (Mn), molybdenum (Mo), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), mercury (Hg), vanadium (V), and zinc (Zn)) during combustion tests of recovered paint solids (RPS) and coal. The emissions from combustions of coal or RPS alone were compared with those of co-combustion of RPS with subbituminous coal. The distribution/partitioning of these toxic elements between a coarse-mode ash (particle diameter (d{sub p}) > 0.5 {mu}m), a submicrometer-mode ash (d{sub p} < 0.5 {mu}m), and flue gases was also evaluated. Submicrometer particles generated by combustion of RPS alone were lower in concentration and smaller in size than that from combustion of coal. However, co-combustion of RPS and coal increased the formation of submicrometer-sized particles because of the higher reducing environment in the vicinity of burning particles and the higher volatile chlorine species. Hg was completely volatilized in all cases; however, the fraction in the oxidized state increased with co-combustion. Most trace elements, except Zn, were retained in ash during combustion of RPS alone. Mo was mostly retained in all samples. The behavior of elements, except Mn and Mo, varied depending on the fuel samples. As, Ba, Cr, Co, Cu, and Pb were vaporized to a greater extent from cocombustion of RPS and coal than from combustion of either fuel. Evidence of the enrichment of certain toxic elements in submicrometer particles has also been observed for As, Cd, Cr, Cu, and Ni during co-combustion. 27 refs., 6 figs., 5 tabs.

  11. The motivation behind serial sexual homicide: is it sex, power, and control, or anger?

    PubMed

    Myers, Wade C; Husted, David S; Safarik, Mark E; O'Toole, Mary Ellen

    2006-07-01

    Controversy exists in the literature and society regarding what motivates serial sexual killers to commit their crimes. Hypotheses range from the seeking of sexual gratification to the achievement of power and control to the expression of anger. The authors provide theoretical, empirical, evolutionary, and physiological support for the argument that serial sexual murderers above all commit their crimes in pursuit of sadistic pleasure. The seeking of power and control over victims is believed to serve the two secondary purposes of heightening sexual arousal and ensuring victim presence for the crime. Anger is not considered a key component of these offenders' motivation due to its inhibitory physiological effect on sexual functioning. On the contrary, criminal investigations into serial sexual killings consistently reveal erotically charged crimes, with sexual motivation expressed either overtly or symbolically. Although anger may be correlated with serial sexual homicide offenders, as it is with criminal offenders in general, it is not causative. The authors further believe serial sexual murderers should be considered sex offenders. A significant proportion of them appear to have paraphilic disorders within the spectrum of sexual sadism. "sexual sadism, homicidal type" is proposed as a diagnostic subtype of sexual sadism applicable to many of these offenders, and a suggested modification of DSM criteria is presented. PMID:16882237

  12. Asbestos-related diseases in automobile mechanics

    PubMed Central

    Ameille, Jacques; Rosenberg, Nicole; Matrat, Mireille; Descatha, Alexis; Mompoint, Dominique; Hamzi, Lounis; Atassi, Catherine; Vasile, Manuela; Garnier, Robert; Pairon, Jean-Claude

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Automobile mechanics have been exposed to asbestos in the past, mainly due to the presence of chrysotile asbestos in brakes and clutches. Despite the large number of automobile mechanics, little is known about the non-malignant respiratory diseases observed in this population. The aim of this retrospective multicenter study was to analyze the frequency of pleural and parenchymal abnormalities on HRCT in a population of automobile mechanics. Methods The study population consisted of 103 automobile mechanics with no other source of occupational exposure to asbestos, referred to three occupational health departments in the Paris area for systematic screening of asbestos–related diseases. All subjects were examined by HRCT and all images were reviewed separately by two independent readers, with further consensus in the case of disagreement. Multiple logistic regression models were constructed to investigate factors associated with pleural plaques. Results Pleural plaques were observed in 5 cases (4.9%) and interstitial abnormalities consistent with asbestosis were observed in 1 case. After adjustment for age, smoking status, and a history of non-asbestos-related respiratory diseases, multiple logistic regression models showed a significant association between the duration of exposure to asbestos and pleural plaques. Conclusions The asbestos exposure experienced by automobile mechanics may lead to pleural plaques. The low prevalence of non-malignant asbestos-related diseases, using a very sensitive diagnostic tool, is in favor of a low cumulative exposure to asbestos in this population of workers. PMID:21965465

  13. Public speaking in front of an unreceptive audience increases implicit power motivation and its endocrine arousal signature.

    PubMed

    Wiemers, Uta S; Schultheiss, Oliver C; Wolf, Oliver T

    2015-05-01

    The present study explored the motivational characteristics of the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST; Kirschbaum, Pirke, & Hellhammer, 1993). Seventy-two participants either completed the public-speaking component of the TSST or, as a control condition, the friendly TSST (Wiemers, Schoofs, & Wolf, 2013) and wrote picture stories both before and after treatment. Stories were coded for motivational imagery related to power, achievement, and affiliation as well as for activity inhibition, a marker of functional brain lateralization during stress. The TSST had a specific arousing effect on power motivation, but not on other motivational needs, on activity inhibition, or on story length. TSST-elicited increases in power imagery, but not in achievement or affiliation imagery, were associated with a relatively greater salivary alpha-amylase response and with a relatively lesser salivary cortisol response. These findings suggest that the TSST specifically induces power-related stress. PMID:25913901

  14. 49 CFR 523.4 - Passenger automobile.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Passenger automobile. 523.4 Section 523.4... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION VEHICLE CLASSIFICATION § 523.4 Passenger automobile. A passenger automobile is any automobile (other than an automobile capable of off-highway operation)...

  15. 49 CFR 523.4 - Passenger automobile.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Passenger automobile. 523.4 Section 523.4... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION VEHICLE CLASSIFICATION § 523.4 Passenger automobile. A passenger automobile is any automobile (other than an automobile capable of off-highway operation)...

  16. 49 CFR 523.4 - Passenger automobile.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Passenger automobile. 523.4 Section 523.4... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION VEHICLE CLASSIFICATION § 523.4 Passenger automobile. A passenger automobile is any automobile (other than an automobile capable of off-highway operation)...

  17. 49 CFR 523.4 - Passenger automobile.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Passenger automobile. 523.4 Section 523.4... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION VEHICLE CLASSIFICATION § 523.4 Passenger automobile. A passenger automobile is any automobile (other than an automobile capable of off-highway operation)...

  18. 49 CFR 523.4 - Passenger automobile.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Passenger automobile. 523.4 Section 523.4... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION VEHICLE CLASSIFICATION § 523.4 Passenger automobile. A passenger automobile is any automobile (other than an automobile capable of off-highway operation)...

  19. The comparison of performance by using alternative refrigerant R152a in automobile climate system with different artificial neural network models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalkisim, A. T.; Hasiloglu, A. S.; Bilen, K.

    2016-04-01

    Due to the refrigerant gas R134a which is used in automobile air conditioning systems and has greater global warming impact will be phased out gradually, an alternative gas is being desired to be used without much change on existing air conditioning systems. It is aimed to obtain the easier solution for intermediate values on the performance by creating a Neural Network Model in case of using a fluid (R152a) in automobile air conditioning systems that has the thermodynamic properties close to each other and near-zero global warming impact. In this instance, a network structure giving the most accurate result has been established by identifying which model provides the best education with which network structure and makes the most accurate predictions in the light of the data obtained after five different ANN models was trained with three different network structures. During training of Artificial Neural Network, Quick Propagation, Quasi-Newton, Levenberg-Marquardt and Conjugate Gradient Descent Batch Back Propagation methodsincluding five inputs and one output were trained with various network structures. Over 1500 iterations have been evaluated and the most appropriate model was identified by determining minimum error rates. The accuracy of the determined ANN model was revealed by comparing with estimates made by the Multi-Regression method.

  20. Modeling of Electromagnetic Damper for Automobile Suspension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawamoto, Yasuhiro; Suda, Yoshihiro; Inoue, Hirofumi; Kondo, Takuhiro

    In this paper, the modeling of the electromagnetic damper (EMD) for automobile suspension is presented and the validation of the model is demonstrated by comparing the numerical results with the experimental results obtained using shaker tests. EMD is used as an active suspension and controlled to have output force calculated from velocities of sprung and unsprung masses. The formulation of EMD system for active suspensions is first developed, and the validation of the EMD model is demonstrated by experiments of the EMD for automobile suspensions. The validity of the formulation of the EMD developed in this investigation is shown for the frequency responses as well as energy balance for its active use.

  1. First report on the uptake of automobile catalyst emitted palladium by European eels (Anguilla anguilla) following experimental exposure to road dust.

    PubMed

    Sures, B; Zimmermann, S; Messerschmidt, J; von Bohlen, A; Alt, F

    2001-01-01

    Following the introduction of automobile catalysts in the middle of the 1980s in Germany there is an increasing emission of the platinum-group-metals platinum, palladium (Pd) and rhodium. Still, it remains unclear if these metals are bioavailable for aquatic animals and to which extent they become accumulated by the aquatic biosphere. Because of analytical problems in detecting Pd in small biological samples the present investigation concentrates on the bioavailability of this metal. To answer the question of a Pd uptake by aquatic organisms experimental studies were conducted with European eels maintained in water containing road dust at a concentration of 10 kg/100 l. Following an exposure period of four weeks, samples of liver and kidney were analysed by total-reflection X-ray fluorescence analysis after co-precipitation of Pd with mercury. These experiments revealed an uptake of traffic related Pd by European eels which showed a mean liver Pd concentration of 0.18 +/- 0.05 ng/g (wet wt.), whereas the Pd concentration in the kidney ranged below the detection limit. Thus, in this study we can demonstrate for the first time that automobile catalyst emitted Pd is bioavailable for aquatic animals. PMID:11428142

  2. ASE Program Certification Standards for Automobile Technician Training Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Automotive Technicians Education Foundation, Herndon, VA.

    This publication provides the evaluation policies, procedures, and standards to which an automobile technician training program must adhere to be granted certification by the National Institute for Automotive Service Excellence. The policies section has three parts: the automobile areas that may be certified and minimum requirements for…

  3. 40 CFR 600.315-82 - Classes of comparable automobiles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... accordance with 49 CFR part 523. (1) The Administrator will classify passenger automobiles by car line into..., Department of Transportation (DOT), 49 CFR 571.3. (ii) Minicompact cars. Interior volume index less than 85... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Classes of comparable automobiles....

  4. 40 CFR 600.315-82 - Classes of comparable automobiles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... accordance with 49 CFR part 523. (1) The Administrator will classify passenger automobiles by car line into..., Department of Transportation (DOT), 49 CFR 571.3. (ii) Minicompact cars. Interior volume index less than 85... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Classes of comparable automobiles....

  5. 40 CFR 600.315-08 - Classes of comparable automobiles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... accordance with 49 CFR part 523. (1) The Administrator will classify passenger automobiles by car line into... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, Department of Transportation (DOT), 49 CFR 571.3. (ii... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Classes of comparable automobiles....

  6. The Training Needs of Michigan Automobile Suppliers: Initial Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, James

    In June 1985, a survey was sent by the Industrial Technology Institute to 397 Michigan automobile supplier firms concerning their industrial training in modern manufacturing technologies. The purposes of this survey were to investigate the training needs of Michigan automobile suppliers, with particular emphasis on how they met their training…

  7. Sexual Motivation in the Female and Its Opposition by Stress.

    PubMed

    Magariños, Ana Maria; Pfaff, Donald

    2016-01-01

    A well worked-out motivational system in laboratory animals produces estrogen-dependent female sex behavior. Here, we review (a) the logical definition of sexual motivation and (b) the basic neuronal and molecular mechanisms that allow the behavior to occur. Importantly, reproductive mechanisms in the female can be inhibited by stress. This is interesting because, in terms of the specificity of neuroendocrine dynamics in space and time, the two families of phenomena, sex and stress, are the opposite of each other. We cover papers that document stress effects on the underlying processes of reproductive endocrinology in the female. Not all of the mechanisms for such inhibition have been clearly laid out. Finally, as a current topic of investigation, this system offers several avenues for new investigation which we briefly characterize. PMID:26650839

  8. Speech intelligibility index predictions for young and old listeners in automobile noise: Can the index be improved by incorporating factors other than absolute threshold?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saweikis, Meghan; Surprenant, Aimée M.; Davies, Patricia; Gallant, Don

    2003-10-01

    While young and old subjects with comparable audiograms tend to perform comparably on speech recognition tasks in quiet environments, the older subjects have more difficulty than the younger subjects with recognition tasks in degraded listening conditions. This suggests that factors other than an absolute threshold may account for some of the difficulty older listeners have on recognition tasks in noisy environments. Many metrics, including the Speech Intelligibility Index (SII), used to measure speech intelligibility, only consider an absolute threshold when accounting for age related hearing loss. Therefore these metrics tend to overestimate the performance for elderly listeners in noisy environments [Tobias et al., J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 83, 859-895 (1988)]. The present studies examine the predictive capabilities of the SII in an environment with automobile noise present. This is of interest because people's evaluation of the automobile interior sound is closely linked to their ability to carry on conversations with their fellow passengers. The four studies examine whether, for subjects with age related hearing loss, the accuracy of the SII can be improved by incorporating factors other than an absolute threshold into the model. [Work supported by Ford Motor Company.

  9. Uptake and bioaccumulation of platinum group metals (Pd, Pt, Rh) from automobile catalytic converter materials by the zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha).

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, Sonja; Messerschmidt, Jürgen; von Bohlen, Alex; Sures, Bernd

    2005-06-01

    The uptake and bioaccumulation of the platinum group metals (PGM) platinum (Pt), palladium (Pd), and rhodium (Rh) by the zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) were investigated in exposure studies using ground material from unused automobile catalytic converters as metal source. The mussels were exposed to the metals in tap water or humic water. In the soft tissue samples of exposed mussels mean Pt levels ranged in dependence on the type of tank water and the exposure period (6, 9, or 18 weeks) between 780 and 4300 ng/g, the Pd levels ranged between 720 and 6300 ng/g, and the Rh levels ranged between 270 and 1900 ng/g. In contrast, the control mussels had metal concentrations of <20 ng/g (Pt), <50 ng/g (Pd), and <40 ng/g (Rh). Considerably higher PGM levels were found in the exposed mussels of the humic water group than in those of the tap water group. Although there is a cumulative increase of the PGM concentrations in the environment since the introduction of the automobile catalyst more than 20 years ago, only little information about the PGM contamination in the biosphere, especially the fauna, is available. Due to the high capacity of D. polymorpha to accumulate PGM, this bivalve could be used as a potential sentinel for monitoring the noble metals in aquatic ecosystems. PMID:15820726

  10. The recycling dilemma for advanced materials use: Automobile materials substitution

    SciTech Connect

    Field, F.R. III; Clark, J.P. )

    1991-01-01

    This paper discusses the difficulties associated with imposing recycling imperatives upon advanced materials development by examining the case of automotive materials substitution and its impacts upon the recyclability of the automobile. Parallels are drawn between today's issues, which focus upon the recyclability of the increasing polymeric fraction in automobile shredder fluff, and the junked automobile problem of the 1960's, when the problem of abandoned automobiles became a part of the environmental and legislative agenda in the US and overseas. In the 1960's, both the source and the resolution of the junk automobile problem arose through a confluence of technological and economic factors, rather than through any set of regulatory influences. The rise of electric arc furnace steelmaking and the development of the automobile shredder were sufficient to virtually eliminate the problem - so much so that today's problems are incorrectly viewed as novelties. Today's automobile recycling problem again derives from technological and economic factors, but regulatory influences have spurred some of them. While there are no lack of technological solutions to the problem of automobile shredder fluff, none of these solutions yet provides scrap processors with the kind of profit opportunity necessary to implement them. In some ways, it is implicit in advanced materials markets that there is little to no demand for recycled forms of these materials, and, in the absence of these markets, there are few reasons to expect that the solution to today's problems will be quite so neat.

  11. 17 CFR 256.309 - Automobiles, other vehicles, and related garage equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Automobiles, other vehicles... § 256.309 Automobiles, other vehicles, and related garage equipment. This account shall include the delivered cost of all service company owned automobiles, vans, trucks, and other vehicles used by...

  12. 26 CFR 48.4061(a)-5 - Sale of automobile truck bodies and chassis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sale of automobile truck bodies and chassis. 48..., Tread Rubber, and Taxable Fuel Automotive and Related Items § 48.4061(a)-5 Sale of automobile truck bodies and chassis. (a) Sale of completed vehicle. An automobile truck (as defined by §...

  13. 17 CFR 256.309 - Automobiles, other vehicles, and related garage equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Automobiles, other vehicles... § 256.309 Automobiles, other vehicles, and related garage equipment. This account shall include the delivered cost of all service company owned automobiles, vans, trucks, and other vehicles used by...

  14. 26 CFR 48.4061(a)-5 - Sale of automobile truck bodies and chassis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sale of automobile truck bodies and chassis. 48..., Tread Rubber, and Taxable Fuel Automotive and Related Items § 48.4061(a)-5 Sale of automobile truck bodies and chassis. (a) Sale of completed vehicle. An automobile truck (as defined by §...

  15. 26 CFR 48.4061(a)-5 - Sale of automobile truck bodies and chassis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sale of automobile truck bodies and chassis. 48..., Tread Rubber, and Taxable Fuel Automotive and Related Items § 48.4061(a)-5 Sale of automobile truck bodies and chassis. (a) Sale of completed vehicle. An automobile truck (as defined by §...

  16. 26 CFR 48.4061(a)-5 - Sale of automobile truck bodies and chassis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Sale of automobile truck bodies and chassis. 48..., Tread Rubber, and Taxable Fuel Automotive and Related Items § 48.4061(a)-5 Sale of automobile truck bodies and chassis. (a) Sale of completed vehicle. An automobile truck (as defined by §...

  17. Client Common Factors Represented by Client Motivation and Autonomy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheel, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    Ryan and colleagues are applauded for elevating client factors in the form of motivation and autonomy to equal status with the alliance as common factors in psychotherapy. Next, client motivation and autonomy are explained to be inextricably linked with one promoting the other. Motivational methods are summarized for the major approaches, making…

  18. The Energy Cost of Automobiles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, R. Stephen; Fels, Margaret F.

    1973-01-01

    Presents two respective comparisons between ideal and real energy cost for the manufacture of a new automobile and between free energy savings from processing the old automobile into low and high grade scraps. Suggests the wasted thermodynamic potential should be considered in making decisions about energy savings. (CC)

  19. Teachers Environmental Resource Unit: The Automobile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bemiss, Clair W.

    Environmental problems created by the automobile and intensified rapidly over the past three decades are studied in this teacher's guide. The resource unit is intended to provide the teacher with basic information that will aid classroom review of these problems. With efficient and effective transportation as a goal, topics focus on transportation…

  20. How Do Motivational Regulation Strategies Affect Achievement: Mediated by Effort Management and Moderated by Intelligence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwinger, Malte; Steinmayr, Ricarda; Spinath, Birgit

    2009-01-01

    It was assumed that the effect of motivational regulation strategies on achievement is mediated by effort management and moderated by intelligence. A sample of 231 11th and 12th grade German high-school students provided self-reports on their use of motivational regulation strategies and effort management and completed an intelligence test.…

  1. Judging Thieves of Attention: Commentary on "Assessing Cognitive Distraction in the Automobile," by Strayer, Turrill, Cooper, Coleman, Medeiros-Ward, and Biondi (2015).

    PubMed

    Hancock, Peter A; Sawyer, Ben D

    2015-12-01

    The laudable effort by Strayer and his colleagues to derive a systematic method to assess forms of cognitive distraction in the automobile is beset by the problem of nonstationary in driver response capacity. At the level of the overall goal of driving, this problem conflates actual on-road behavior; characterized by underspecified task satisficing, with our own understandable, scientifically inspired aspiration for measuring deterministic performance optimization. Measures of response conceived under this latter imperative are, at best, only shadowy reflections of the actual phenomenological experience involved in real-world vehicle control. Whether we, as a research community, can resolve this issue remains uncertain. However, we believe we can mount a positive attack on what is arguably another equally important dimension of the collision problem. PMID:26534852

  2. Power spectrum oscillations from Planck-suppressed operators in effective field theory motivated monodromy inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, Layne C.

    2015-11-01

    We consider a phenomenological model of inflation where the inflaton is the phase of a complex scalar field Φ . Planck-suppressed operators of O (f5/Mpl) modify the geometry of the vev ⟨Φ ⟩ at first order in the decay constant f , which adds a first-order periodic term to the definition of the canonically normalized inflaton ϕ . This correction to the inflaton induces a fixed number of extra oscillatory terms in the potential V ˜θp. We derive the same result in a toy scenario where the vacuum ⟨Φ ⟩ is an ellipse with an arbitrarily large eccentricity. These extra oscillations change the form of the power spectrum as a function of scale k and provide a possible mechanism for differentiating effective field theory motivated inflation from models where the angular shift symmetry is a gauge symmetry.

  3. Victim blame in a hate crime motivated by sexual orientation.

    PubMed

    Plumm, Karyn M; Terrance, Cheryl A; Henderson, Vanessa R; Ellingson, Heather

    2010-01-01

    A jury simulation paradigm was employed for two studies exploring levels of victim blame in a case of bias-motivated assault based on sexual orientation. In the first study, participants were grouped according to their score on the Index of Homophobia (IHP) scale as either reporting high or low support for gay and lesbian community members. The label of the crime (i.e., bias-motivated assault versus first-degree assault) as well as the gender of the victim were systematically varied. Results indicated that attributions of blame against the victim varied as a function of participants' attitudes toward minority sexual orientation. As extra-legal factors likely contribute to victim blame in these cases, the second study explored such factors as location and "provocation." Jurors in the second study read a transcript depicting an attack on a gay man by a man in either a local bar (i.e., not a gay bar) or a gay bar. Within location conditions, jurors were presented with either "provocation" by the victim (i.e., asking the perpetrator to dance and putting his arm around him) or alternatively no provocation was presented. Results revealed significant differences of victim blame depending on condition. Participants in both the local bar and provocation present conditions were more likely to blame the victim for the attack than those in the gay bar or provocation-absent conditions. Implications for hate crime law and attribution theory within the courtroom are discussed. PMID:20390993

  4. a Study on the Mechanism of OCCUPANT'S Cervical Injury by Low Speed Rear-End Collision of Automobiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Wonhak; Kim, Yongchul; Choi, Hyeonki

    Neck injury in rear-end car collisions is an increasing concern in the field of traffic safety. This injury commonly occurs at rear-end impact, however the injury mechanisms for whiplash remain a mystery. The purpose of this study is to quantitatively analyze the head and neck kinematics during the low-speed rear-end impact of automobiles. It is important to produce data that is related as closely as possible to the in vivo situation. So, we performed a sled test which simulated rear-end impacts with a velocity of 0.6 m/s with five normal healthy male subjects. 3-D motion analysis system was used to document motion data of two situations. When we compare the values of angular velocity and acceleration of head and neck, the peak magnitudes of inclined seated posture were smaller than those of upright seated posture. The result of this study is expected to provide insight that will aid in determining the mechanism of whiplash which is crucial to the identification of possible injury mechanisms.

  5. 49 CFR 523.3 - Automobile.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Automobile. 523.3 Section 523.3 Transportation..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION VEHICLE CLASSIFICATION § 523.3 Automobile. (a) An automobile is any 4-wheeled... pounds and less than 10,000 pounds gross vehicle weight are determined to be automobiles: (1)...

  6. 49 CFR 523.3 - Automobile.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Automobile. 523.3 Section 523.3 Transportation..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION VEHICLE CLASSIFICATION § 523.3 Automobile. (a) An automobile is any 4-wheeled... pounds and less than 10,000 pounds gross vehicle weight are determined to be automobiles: (1)...

  7. 49 CFR 523.3 - Automobile.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Automobile. 523.3 Section 523.3 Transportation..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION VEHICLE CLASSIFICATION § 523.3 Automobile. (a) An automobile is any 4-wheeled... pounds and less than 10,000 pounds gross vehicle weight are determined to be automobiles: (1)...

  8. 49 CFR 523.3 - Automobile.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Automobile. 523.3 Section 523.3 Transportation..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION VEHICLE CLASSIFICATION § 523.3 Automobile. (a) An automobile is any 4-wheeled... pounds and less than 10,000 pounds gross vehicle weight are determined to be automobiles: (1)...

  9. 49 CFR 523.3 - Automobile.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Automobile. 523.3 Section 523.3 Transportation..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION VEHICLE CLASSIFICATION § 523.3 Automobile. (a) An automobile is any 4-wheeled... pounds and less than 10,000 pounds gross vehicle weight are determined to be automobiles: (1)...

  10. Turning Kids on to Research: The Power of Motivation. Information Literacy Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Small, Ruth V.; Arnone, Marilyn P.

    Taking into consideration the motivational needs of different students, the book discusses both internal and external motivators such as attaining a sense of achievement or leadership versus earning a physical reward such as candy or a field trip. These and other motivating factors are then incorporated into discussions of how to create productive…

  11. Promoting Quality in China's Higher Education by Motivating Students Attending the British Culture Survey Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, Weihua

    2005-01-01

    This article discusses an intervention project by means of motivational approaches in a British culture survey course for English majors in mainland China's university classroom context. The intervention uses such motivational theories as attribution and task orientation to motivate the teaching and learning of the EFL course so as to create a…

  12. The Identification of Online Learning Motives in Use by Undergraduate Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laszlo, Frank, Jr.; Kupritz, Virginia W.

    2003-01-01

    Human resource development students in online courses (n=45) completed the Instructional Material Motivation Survey and Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire. Course relevance was the strongest motivator, followed by material that arouses curiosity, encourages frequent instructor feedback, facilitates completion, and supports the belief…

  13. Help Motivate the Amotivated by Being a Supportive Teacher

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perlman, Dana J.

    2015-01-01

    Background: A major goal within physical education is to develop a student who will engage in a lifetime of physical activity. A concept deemed critical and strongly associated with engagement in physical activity is motivation. As such, a number of research studies have been focused on elements that facilitate student motivation in physical…

  14. Motivational Responses to Fitness Testing by Award Status and Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Domangue, Elizabeth; Solmon, Melinda

    2010-01-01

    Fitness testing is a prominent element in many physical education programs, but there has been limited investigation concerning motivation constructs associated with the testing. This study investigated the relationships among physical education students' award status and gender to achievement goals, intrinsic motivation, and intentions. After…

  15. Motivational Distortion on 16 PF Primaries by Male Felons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallbrown, Fred H.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Investigated motivational distortion using the 16 Personality Factor Questionnaire (16 PF) for male (n=331) criminal offenders. Results indicated that ego-strength, free-floating anxiety, ability to bind anxiety, boldness, dominance, emotional sensitivity and suspiciousness contributed most to the motivational distortion scale predictions.…

  16. The honeymoon effect in job performance - Temporal increases in the predictive power of achievement motivation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helmreich, Robert L.; Sawin, Linda L.; Carsrud, Alan L.

    1986-01-01

    Correlations between a job performance criterion and personality measures reflecting achievement motivation and an interpersonal orientation were examined at three points in time after completion of job training for a sample of airline reservations agents. Although correlations between the personality predictors and performance were small and nonsignificant for the 3-month period after beginning the job, by the end of six and eight months a number of significant relationships had emerged. Implications for the utility of personality measures in selection and performance prediction are discussed.

  17. Automobile air-conditioning unit. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Schaetzle, W.J.

    1982-12-01

    In this study the refrigerant in the automobile air-conditioner is compressed by thermal energy in a unique compression system rather than by work in a standard compressor. The compression uses an intermittent compression process with a solid absorbent. The vapor is absorbed by an absorbent at relatively low temperature and ejected as the absorbent temperature is raised. A set of one way valves limits flow to one direction. Major contributions are heat transfer requirements, molecular sieve-refrigerant matching, minimizing non-producing mass, solving thermal fatigue and shock problems, and applying this to automobile air-conditioning. The performance study shows energy savings up to fifty percent are possible, depending on engine load. A twenty percent energy savings with the vehicle tested with the air-conditioner in operation is average. The study also showed that less fuel is used with the windows open than with the air-conditioner operating.

  18. New developments in aluminum for aircraft and automobiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petit, Jocelyn I.

    1994-01-01

    A common bond for the aircraft and automobile industry is the need for cost-efficient, lightweight structures such as provided by aluminum based materials. The topics are presented in viewgraph form and cover the following: new developments in aluminum for aircraft and automobiles; forces shaping future automotive materials needs; aluminum strength/weakness versus competitive materials; evolution of aluminum aerospace alloys; forces shaping future aircraft materials needs; fiber/metal structural laminates; and property requirements for jetliner and military transport applications.

  19. How to Create Nonreaders: Reflections on Motivation, Learning, and Sharing Power

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kohn, Alfie

    2010-01-01

    The author suggests that it is impossible to motivate students. He said that in fact, it's not really possible to motivate anyone, except perhaps oneself. What a teacher "can" do--"all" a teacher can do--is work with students to create a classroom culture, a climate, a curriculum that will nourish and sustain the fundamental inclinations that…

  20. Dark energy parametrization motivated by scalar field dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de la Macorra, Axel

    2016-05-01

    We propose a new dark energy (DE) parametrization motivated by the dynamics of a scalar field ϕ. We use an equation of state w parametrized in terms of two functions L and y, closely related to the dynamics of scalar fields, which is exact and has no approximation. By choosing an appropriate ansatz for L we obtain a wide class of behavior for the evolution of DE without the need to specify the scalar potential V. We parametrize L and y in terms of only four parameters, giving w a rich structure and allowing for a wide class of DE dynamics. Our w can either grow and later decrease, or it can happen the other way around; the steepness of the transition is not fixed and it contains the ansatz w={w}o+{w}a(1-a). Our parametrization follows closely the dynamics of a scalar field, and the function L allows us to connect it with the scalar potential V(φ ). While the Universe is accelerating and the slow roll approximation is valid, we get L≃ {({V}\\prime /V)}2. To determine the dynamics of DE we also calculate the background evolution and its perturbations, since they are important to discriminate between different DE models.

  1. Suicidal hanging within an automobile.

    PubMed

    Blanco Pampin, J M; López-Abajo Rodriguez, B A

    2001-12-01

    Accidental asphyxia related to cars has been described in different reports, but suicidal hanging in an automobile is very unusual. Two cases of suicidal hanging inside an automobile are described, illustrating an unusual form of hanging. In one case, the deceased used his belt as a ligature, and the point of attachment was the window of the car. The second victim used the safety belt of the passenger seat. In both cases, the automobile engine was turned off, all the windows were closed, and the door locks were blocked. The medicolegal cause of hanging was based on the scene of the investigation, police and witness reports, social history, autopsy findings, and toxicologic examinations. PMID:11764903

  2. A comparison of alternative energy storage systems for automobiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The performance potentials of primary batteries, fuel cells, and flywheel-transmission systems in comparison with secondary batteries as alternates to conventional internal combustion engine automobile power systems are discussed. A number of areas of research that are recommended for attention as part of a well-rounded investigation of alternatives are outlined.

  3. Automobile Finance, Warranty, and Insurance Extras.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deneen, Daniel

    1994-01-01

    Most consumers are relatively unaware of how automobile dealerships profit from automobile finance, insurance, and warranty arrangements. Consumers should consult an attorney when buying a car--one of the largest expenditures a person will ever make. (JOW)

  4. In situ deposition of silver and palladium nanoparticles prepared by the polyol process, and their performance as catalytic converters of automobile exhaust gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonet, F.; Grugeon, S.; Herrera Urbina, R.; Tekaia-Elhsissen, K.; Tarascon, J.-M.

    2002-04-01

    In situ deposition of silver particles onto alumina and palladium particles onto mixed CeZr oxides has been achieved upon chemical reduction of the corresponding metal species (AgNO 3 and PdCl 2) by ethylene glycol in the presence of polyvinylpyrrolidone. The support oxide powders were found to keep their crystalline structure and morphology after treatment with hot ethylene glycol while the BET surface area decreased after metal deposition. Microprobe maps obtained from energy dispersive X-ray analysis revealed a homogeneous distribution of metal nanoparticles on the surfaces of alumina and of the mixed CeZr oxides. Supported silver and palladium were tested as catalytic converters of simulated exhaust automobile gases. The catalytic activity of silver-loaded alumina powder catalyst for CO and hydrocarbon oxidation as well as NO and NO x reduction, was found to be higher than that of a reference silver catalyst. Palladium-loaded mixed CeZr oxides powder catalyst showed a similar performance to that of a reference palladium catalyst as a three-way catalyst converter.

  5. Cost Vs. Carnage in Automobile Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, George James

    This research report investigates the need for improved automobile design and safety equipment, what the manufacturers have done about automobile safety, and what could be done. Data were collected from the three major American automobile manufacturers, from federal regulatory agencies, and from insurance companies and others interested in auto…

  6. The Hybrid Automobile and the Atkinson Cycle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldman, Bernard J.

    2008-01-01

    The hybrid automobile is a strikingly new automobile technology with a number of new technological features that dramatically improve energy efficiency. This paper will briefly describe how hybrid automobiles work; what are these new technological features; why the Toyota Prius hybrid internal combustion engine operates on the Atkinson cycle…

  7. 49 CFR 176.90 - Private automobiles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Private automobiles. 176.90 Section 176.90 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... § 176.90 Private automobiles. A private automobile which is carrying any Class 1 (explosive)...

  8. 49 CFR 176.90 - Private automobiles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Private automobiles. 176.90 Section 176.90 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... § 176.90 Private automobiles. A private automobile which is carrying any Class 1 (explosive)...

  9. 49 CFR 176.90 - Private automobiles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Private automobiles. 176.90 Section 176.90 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... § 176.90 Private automobiles. A private automobile which is carrying any Class 1 (explosive)...

  10. 49 CFR 176.90 - Private automobiles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Private automobiles. 176.90 Section 176.90 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... § 176.90 Private automobiles. A private automobile which is carrying any Class 1 (explosive)...

  11. 49 CFR 176.90 - Private automobiles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Private automobiles. 176.90 Section 176.90 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... § 176.90 Private automobiles. A private automobile which is carrying any Class 1 (explosive)...

  12. ORGANIC EMISSIONS FROM AUTOMOBILE INTERIORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of an evaluation of six subcompact automobiles for the emission of vinyl chloride monomer (VCM) and other organics into the passenger compartment. Evaluated were a Ford Pinto, AMC Gremlin, GMC Vega, GMC Chevette, NMC Datsun 710, and VW Rabbit. VCM was qua...

  13. Motivational Factors in Career Decisions Made by Chinese Science Museum Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ji, Jiao; Anderson, David; Wu, Xinchun

    2016-01-01

    Conceptualized by the self-determination theory, this interpretive study examined 23 museum educators' perspectives from five Chinese science museums to understand their work motivation in relation to their professional practice of working in museums. Research outcomes showed that, Chinese science museum educators' work motivation followed a…

  14. Predicting Mathematics Achievement by Motivation and Self-Efficacy across Gender and Achievement Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sartawi, AbdelAziz; Alsawaie, Othman N.; Dodeen, Hamzeh; Tibi, Sana; Alghazo, Iman M.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the extent to which self-efficacy and motivation served as a predictor for mathematics achievement of fifth grade students in United Arab Emirates (UAE) across gender and achievement levels. Self-efficacy was measured by two scales, which differed in levels of specificity--Category Specific and Task Specific. Motivation was…

  15. Approach to estimation of absorption of aliphatic hydrocarbons diffusing from interior materials in an automobile cabin by inhalation toxicokinetic analysis in rats.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Toshiaki

    2010-01-01

    The interior air of an automobile cabin has been demonstrated in our previous studies to be contaminated by high concentrations of a large variety of aliphatic hydrocarbons diffusing from the interior materials. In the present study, the amounts of seven selected aliphatic hydrocarbons absorbed by the car driver were estimated by evaluating their inhalation toxicokinetics in rats. Measured amounts of the substances were injected into a closed chamber system in which a rat had been placed, and the concentration changes in the chamber were examined. The toxicokinetics of the substances were evaluated based on concentration-time courses using a nonlinear compartment model. Their absorption amounts in humans at the levels of actual concentrations in the cabins without ventilation were extrapolated from the results found with the rats. The absorption amounts estimated for a driver during a 2 h drive were as follows: 6 microg/60 kg of human body weight for methylcyclopentane (interior concentration 23 microg/m(3) as median value in previous study), 5 microg for 2-methylpentane (36 microg/m(3)), 13 microg for n-hexane (65 microg/m(3)), 51 microg for n-heptane (150 microg/m(3)), 26 microg for 2,4-dimethylheptane (97 microg/m(3)), 17 microg for n-nonane (25 microg/m(3)) and 49 microg for n-decane (68 microg/m(3)). An inverse relationship was found between the exposure and absorption among the substances (e.g. between n-decane and 2,4-dimethylheptane). These findings suggest that not only the exposure concentrations but also the absorption amounts should be taken into account to evaluate the health effects of exposure to low concentrations of volatile compounds as environmental contaminants. PMID:19743389

  16. Inequality, discrimination, and the power of the status quo: Direct evidence for a motivation to see the way things are as the way they should be.

    PubMed

    Kay, Aaron C; Gaucher, Danielle; Peach, Jennifer M; Laurin, Kristin; Friesen, Justin; Zanna, Mark P; Spencer, Steven J

    2009-09-01

    How powerful is the status quo in determining people's social ideals? The authors propose (a) that people engage in injunctification, that is, a motivated tendency to construe the current status quo as the most desirable and reasonable state of affairs (i.e., as the most representative of how things should be); (b) that this tendency is driven, at least in part, by people's desire to justify their sociopolitical systems; and (c) that injunctification has profound implications for the maintenance of inequality and societal change. Four studies, across a variety of domains, provided supportive evidence. When the motivation to justify the sociopolitical system was experimentally heightened, participants injunctified extant (a) political power (Study 1), (b) public funding policies (Study 2), and (c) unequal gender demographics in the political and business spheres (Studies 3 and 4, respectively). It was also demonstrated that this motivated phenomenon increased derogation of those who act counter to the status quo (Study 4). Theoretical implications for system justification theory, stereotype formation, affirmative action, and the maintenance of inequality are discussed. PMID:19685999

  17. Photocatalytic destruction of automobile exhaust emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Kaviranta, P.D.; Peden, C.H.F.

    1996-10-01

    Hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, and nitrogen oxides contained in automobile exhaust emissions are among the major atmospheric air pollutants. During the first few minutes of a cold start of the engine, the emission levels of unburned hydrocarbon and CO pollutants are very high due to the inefficiency of the cold engine and the poor activity of the catalysts lower temperatures. Therefore, it is necessary to provide an alternative approach to deal with this specific problem in order to meet near-term regulatory requirements. Our approach has been to use known photocatalytic reactions obtainable on semiconducting powders such as titanium dioxide. In this presentation we describe our recent studies aimed at the photocatalytic reduction of unburned hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide in automobile exhaust emissions. Our results demonstrate the effective destruction of propylene into water and carbon dioxide. The conversion was found to be dependent on the propylene flow rate. The reaction rate was studied as a function of time, humidity and temperature. The effect of the power of the UV source on conversion will also be presented.

  18. The Power of Social and Motivational Relationships for Test-Anxious Adolescents' Academic Self-Regulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raufelder, Diana; Hoferichter, Frances; Schneeweiss, David; Wood, Megan A.

    2015-01-01

    Based on cognitive evaluation theory (CET) and organismic integration theory (OIT)--both sub-theories of self-determination theory (SDT)--the present study examined whether the academic self-regulation of youth with test anxiety can be strengthened through social and motivational relationships with peers and teachers. This study employed a large…

  19. Optimizing the Power of Choice: Supporting Student Autonomy to Foster Motivation and Engagement in Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Miriam; Boucher, Alyssa R.

    2015-01-01

    Choice plays a critical role in promoting students' intrinsic motivation and deep engagement in learning. Across a range of academic outcomes and student populations, positive impacts have been seen when student autonomy is promoted through meaningful and personally relevant choice. This article presents a theoretical perspective on the…

  20. On-line measurements of nitro organic compounds emitted from automobiles by proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry: Laboratory experiments and a field measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inomata, S.; Tanimoto, H.; Fujitani, Y.; Fushimi, A.; Sato, K.; Sekimoto, K.; Yamada, H.; Hori, S.; Shimono, A.; Hikida, T.

    2011-12-01

    On-line measurements of nitro organic compounds in automobile exhaust were carried out by proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) with a chassis dynamometer. Diesel vehicles with oxidation catalyst system (diesel vehicle A) and with diesel PM-NOx reduction system ((diesel vehicle B) and a gasoline vehicle were used as a test vehicle. In the case of the diesel vehicle A, the emissions of nitromethane, nitrophenol (NPh), C7-, C8-, C9-, and C10-nitrophenols, and dihydroxynitrobenzenes (DHNB) were observed in the diesel exhaust from the experiment under the constant driving at 60 km hr-1. Temporal variations of mixing ratios for nitromethane, NPh, and DHNB along with related volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were measured during a transient driving cycle. The time-resolved measurement revealed that the nitromethane emission was strongly correlated with the emissions of CO, benzene, and acetone, which are relatively quickly produced in acceleration processes and appeared as sharp peaks. On the other hand, the NPh emission was moderately correlated with the emissions of acetic acid and phenol, which peaks were broad. The emission of nitromethane was observed from the exhaust of the diesel vehicle B but the emission of other nitro organic compounds was not observed. This suggests that the emission of nitro organic compounds besides nitromethane may depend on the diesel exhaust aftertreatment devices. The emission of nitromethane was also observed from the exhaust of the gasoline vehicle with cold start. An in-situ measurement of nitro organic compounds and their related VOCs was carried out at the crossing of an urban city, Kawasaki. Nitromethane was observed at the crossing and we found that the concentration of nitrometane varied rapidly. During the measurement, the maximum of the concentration of nitrometane reached 5 ppbv. Not only nitrophenols but also nitroaromatics were sometimes detected in the field measurement.

  1. Promoting intergroup contact by changing beliefs: group malleability, intergroup anxiety, and contact motivation.

    PubMed

    Halperin, Eran; Crisp, Richard J; Husnu, Shenel; Trzesniewski, Kali H; Dweck, Carol S; Gross, James J

    2012-12-01

    Intergroup contact plays a crucial role in moderating long-term conflicts. Unfortunately, the motivation to make contact with outgroup members is usually very low in such conflicts. We hypothesized that one limiting factor is the belief that groups cannot change, which leads to increased intergroup anxiety and decreased contact motivation. To test this hypothesis, we experimentally manipulated beliefs about group malleability in the context of the conflict between Greek and Turkish Cypriots and then assessed intergroup anxiety and motivation to engage in intergroup contact. Turkish Cypriots who were led to believe that groups can change (with no mention of the specific groups involved) reported lower levels of intergroup anxiety and higher motivation to interact and communicate with Greek Cypriots in the future, compared with those who were led to believe that groups cannot change. This effect of group malleability manipulation on contact motivation was mediated by intergroup anxiety. PMID:22642339

  2. Life cycle models of conventional and alternative-fueled automobiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maclean, Heather Louise

    development for the combinations. Overall, none of the alternatives emerges as a clear winner, lowering the externalities and improving sustainability, while considering technology issues and vehicle attributes. The majority of the alternatives are not likely to displace the baseline automobile. However, the attractiveness of the alternatives depends on the focus of future regulations, government priorities, and technology development. If long-term global sustainability is the principal concern, then improvements in fuel economy alone will not provide the level of reduction in impact required. A switch to renewable fuels (e.g., alcohols or diesel produced from biomass) to power the vehicles will likely be necessary. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

  3. Are health workers motivated by income? Job motivation of Cambodian primary health workers implementing performance-based financing

    PubMed Central

    Khim, Keovathanak

    2016-01-01

    Background Financial incentives are widely used in performance-based financing (PBF) schemes, but their contribution to health workers’ incomes and job motivation is poorly understood. Cambodia undertook health sector reform from the middle of 2009 and PBF was employed as a part of the reform process. Objective This study examines job motivation for primary health workers (PHWs) under PBF reform in Cambodia and assesses the relationship between job motivation and income. Design A cross-sectional self-administered survey was conducted on 266 PHWs, from 54 health centers in the 15 districts involved in the reform. The health workers were asked to report all sources of income from public sector jobs and provide answers to 20 items related to job motivation. Factor analysis was conducted to identify the latent variables of job motivation. Factors associated with motivation were identified through multivariable regression. Results PHWs reported multiple sources of income and an average total income of US$190 per month. Financial incentives under the PBF scheme account for 42% of the average total income. PHWs had an index motivation score of 4.9 (on a scale from one to six), suggesting they had generally high job motivation that was related to a sense of community service, respect, and job benefits. Regression analysis indicated that income and the perception of a fair distribution of incentives were both statistically significant in association with higher job motivation scores. Conclusions Financial incentives used in the reform formed a significant part of health workers’ income and influenced their job motivation. Improving job motivation requires fixing payment mechanisms and increasing the size of incentives. PBF is more likely to succeed when income, training needs, and the desire for a sense of community service are addressed and institutionalized within the health system. PMID:27319575

  4. Situating Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nolen, Susan Bobbitt; Horn, Ilana Seidel; Ward, Christopher J.

    2015-01-01

    This article describes a situative approach to studying motivation to learn in social contexts. We begin by contrasting this perspective to more prevalent psychological approaches to the study of motivation, describing epistemological and methodological differences that have constrained conversation between theoretical groups. We elaborate on…

  5. Development of automobile tyre lateral runout measurement sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Xie; Ye, Lingjian; Yao, Guanghui; Wang, Di; Zhi, Xiongfei

    2013-10-01

    Automobile tyre lateral runout is one of the important indexes to measure the quality of the tyre, it will affect the safety of the automobile in moving. This paper introduces a sensor for automobile tyre lateral runout measurement. The variation of the automobile tyre lateral runout causes the change of guide rod probe displacement and deforms of the cantilever beam which connects with the guide bar. The deformation of the cantilever beam leads to the change of the resistance value of strain gauge which is pasted on the cantilever beam. Through measuring circuit, the resistance value of the strain gauge is converted into output voltage that has a certain relationship with automobile tyre lateral runout. Then, the voltage signal is transformed by A/D convertor and send to SCM to process and display the value of runout. Meanwhile, SCM output control signal to control the actuator and adjust the equipment running status in real time so as to ensure the tyre lateral runout is within the allowed range.

  6. Optimization of Thermoelectric Components for Automobile Waste Heat Recovery Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Sumeet; Heister, Stephen D.; Xu, Xianfan; Salvador, James R.

    2015-10-01

    For a typical spark ignition engine approximately 40% of available thermal energy is lost as hot exhaust gas. To improve fuel economy, researchers are currently evaluating technology which exploits exhaust stream thermal power by use of thermoelectric generators (TEGs) that operate on the basis of the Seebeck effect. A 5% improvement in fuel economy, achieved by use of TEG output power, is a stated objective for light-duty trucks and personal automobiles. System modeling of thermoelectric (TE) components requires solution of coupled thermal and electric fluxes through the n and p-type semiconductor legs, given appropriate thermal boundary conditions at the junctions. Such applications have large thermal gradients along the semiconductor legs, and material properties are highly dependent on spatially varying temperature profiles. In this work, one-dimensional heat flux and temperature variations across thermoelectric legs were solved by using an iterative numerical approach to optimize both TE module and TEG designs. Design traits were investigated by assuming use of skutterudite as a thermoelectric material with potential for automotive applications in which exhaust gas and heat exchanger temperatures typically vary from 100°C to over 600°C. Dependence of leg efficiency, thermal fluxes and electric power generation on leg geometry, fill fractions, electric current, thermal boundary conditions, etc., were studied in detail. Optimum leg geometries were computed for a variety of automotive exhaust conditions.

  7. Opportunities for energy harvesting in automobile factories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adegoke, E. I.; Edwards, R. M.; Whittow, Will; Bindel, Axel; Peca, Marco

    2016-04-01

    This paper investigates the opportunities of deploying distributed sensors within the manufacturing environment of a large scale automobile plant using energy harvesting techniques. Measurements were taken in three domains at the plant in order to characterize ambient energy. Due to the location of the plant, the RF power density for radio access technologies present varied between -127 dBm/cm2 and -113 dBm/cm2. The maximum temperature difference measured within accessible distance from machine parts on the production lines surveyed was 10°C. Indoor lighting was dominant at the plant via fluorescent tubes, with average irradiance of 1 W/m2. The results obtained from this measurement campaign showed that indoor lighting was the most suitable ambient source for energy harvesting.

  8. Future of the world's automobile industry

    SciTech Connect

    Kagawa, T.

    1989-03-01

    The author feels that the Japanese automobile industry is approaching a turning point. But it is not enough to refer only to the changing structure of the Japanese automobile industry when similar structural changes are taking place on a worldwide scale. Therefore he first comments on the current state of the automobile industry of the world, and then reviews the reasons for the gap between automobile production and demand and the historical background of this phenomenon. Then, finally, he discusses the current progress of and future challenges in the structural adjustment of the global automobile industry. He notes the very close relation of the battery industry to the automobile industry, and hopes the former will prosper hand in hand with the latter. 6 tables.

  9. 49 CFR 523.5 - Non-passenger automobile.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Non-passenger automobile. 523.5 Section 523.5... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION VEHICLE CLASSIFICATION § 523.5 Non-passenger automobile. A non-passenger automobile means an automobile that is not a passenger automobile or a work truck and...

  10. 49 CFR 523.5 - Non-passenger automobile.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Non-passenger automobile. 523.5 Section 523.5... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION VEHICLE CLASSIFICATION § 523.5 Non-passenger automobile. A non-passenger automobile means an automobile that is not a passenger automobile or a work truck and...

  11. 49 CFR 523.5 - Non-passenger automobile.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Non-passenger automobile. 523.5 Section 523.5... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION VEHICLE CLASSIFICATION § 523.5 Non-passenger automobile. A non-passenger automobile means an automobile that is not a passenger automobile or a work truck and...

  12. 49 CFR 523.5 - Non-passenger automobile.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Non-passenger automobile. 523.5 Section 523.5... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION VEHICLE CLASSIFICATION § 523.5 Non-passenger automobile. A non-passenger automobile means an automobile that is not a passenger automobile or a work truck and...

  13. 49 CFR 523.5 - Non-passenger automobile.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Non-passenger automobile. 523.5 Section 523.5... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION VEHICLE CLASSIFICATION § 523.5 Non-passenger automobile. A non-passenger automobile means an automobile that is not a passenger automobile or a work truck and...

  14. Apprenticeship and Training Standards for Automobile Mechanic, Body Repairman and Painter.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Independent Garage Owners of America, Inc., Chicago, IL.

    The national apprenticeship standards developed by the Independent Garage Owners of America provide guidelines for establishing local programs of apprenticeship for automobile mechanics, body and fender mechanics, and painters. The apprenticeship term is specified as 4 years for the automobile mechanics and body nd fender mechanics and 3 years for…

  15. La Securite des Enfants vs. la Circulation - Auto. (Children's Safety vs. Automobile Traffic).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canada Mortgage and Housing Corp., Ottawa (Ontario).

    This report, the sixteenth in a series of twenty reports undertaken by the Children's Environments Advisory Service for the 1979 International Year of the Child, analyzes the difficulties of designing automobile traffic patterns for areas in which children reside. Automobile traffic and play patterns in 21 multiple-housing projects in the…

  16. Regulating automobile pollution under certainty, competition, and imperfect information

    SciTech Connect

    Innes, R.

    1996-09-01

    This paper studies an integrated economic model of automobile emissions that incorporates consumer mileage, automobile features, and fuel content choices. Optimal regulatory policies are shown to include fuel content standards, gasoline taxes, and direct automobile regulation or taxation.

  17. Motivating pharmacists.

    PubMed

    Donehew, G R

    1979-01-01

    Although pharmacists are developing interest in many types of pharmacy practice, they are still spending the bulk of their time in the prescription dispensing process. Any effort to provide motivation must consider the prescription dispensing process. The pharmacy literature includes only a few studies that dealt with pharmacists as people. The studies usually showed that pharmacists basically were unhappy with their jobs. In developing a motivational climate for pharmacists, pharmacy supervisors have several concepts to consider: the hierarchy of needs by Maslow; the expectancy theory by Hampton; the gygiene-motivator theory by Herzberg; and the Theory Y management approach by McGregor. Because pharmacists must be induced to enter and remain in an organization, supervisors should be aware of the need to use any technique available in developing a motivational climate. PMID:10244538

  18. Effect of Motivation by "Instagram" on Adherence to Physical Activity among Female College Students.

    PubMed

    Al-Eisa, Einas; Al-Rushud, Asma; Alghadir, Ahmad; Anwer, Shahnawaz; Al-Harbi, Bashayer; Al-Sughaier, Noha; Al-Yoseef, Noha; Al-Otaibi, Reem; Al-Muhaysin, Hanadi Ali

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To investigate the efficacy of using "Instagram application" with a "home-exercise program" as a motivational stimulus in improving physical activity (PA) adherence levels among female college students. Methods. Fifty-eight female undergraduate students with the mean age 20.3 ± 0.96 years participated. Participants were divided into two groups: intervention and the control group; both the groups received an exercise program and the intervention group was additionally motivated by "Instagram." Adherence to PA was measured by using an adherence sheet. The Exercise Motivation Inventory (EMI-2) was used to assess the motivational factors. Results. The most frequent motivational factors were extrinsic as assessed using the EMI-2. "Positive health" was the most frequent factor mentioned of the two types with 47% of the sample. The intervention group adhered with 17% more to the activity program compared to the control group. Moreover, 72% of the participants in the intervention and control groups found the activity program flexible enough to be performed at home; they agreed about its effectiveness on adherence (53%). Conclusions. The use of Instagram with the home exercise program as a motivational modality could be attractive and effective to reinforce adherence and maintain an appropriate PA level. PMID:27034927

  19. Effect of Motivation by “Instagram” on Adherence to Physical Activity among Female College Students

    PubMed Central

    Al-Eisa, Einas; Al-Rushud, Asma; Alghadir, Ahmad; Al-Harbi, Bashayer; Al-Sughaier, Noha; Al-Yoseef, Noha; Al-Otaibi, Reem; Al-Muhaysin, Hanadi Ali

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To investigate the efficacy of using “Instagram application” with a “home-exercise program” as a motivational stimulus in improving physical activity (PA) adherence levels among female college students. Methods. Fifty-eight female undergraduate students with the mean age 20.3 ± 0.96 years participated. Participants were divided into two groups: intervention and the control group; both the groups received an exercise program and the intervention group was additionally motivated by “Instagram.” Adherence to PA was measured by using an adherence sheet. The Exercise Motivation Inventory (EMI-2) was used to assess the motivational factors. Results. The most frequent motivational factors were extrinsic as assessed using the EMI-2. “Positive health” was the most frequent factor mentioned of the two types with 47% of the sample. The intervention group adhered with 17% more to the activity program compared to the control group. Moreover, 72% of the participants in the intervention and control groups found the activity program flexible enough to be performed at home; they agreed about its effectiveness on adherence (53%). Conclusions. The use of Instagram with the home exercise program as a motivational modality could be attractive and effective to reinforce adherence and maintain an appropriate PA level. PMID:27034927

  20. Two results in topology, motivated by quantum computation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alagic, Gorjan

    2015-03-01

    The field of quantum computation is built on the foundation of physics, mathematics, and computer science. While it has taken much from these fields, there are also interesting examples where it has given back. I will discuss two new results of this kind. In both cases, we use very basic ideas from quantum computation to prove an interesting fact about low-dimensional topology. First, we use the Solovay-Kitaev universality theorem with exponential precision to give a simple proof of the #P-hardness of certain 3-manifold invariants. We then apply this result to show the existence of rather exotic 3-manifold diagrams. Second, we show a relationship between the distinguishing power of a link invariant, and the entangling power of the linear operator associated to braiding. More precisely, we show that link invariants derived from non-entangling solutions to the Yang-Baxter equation are trivial. The former is joint work with Catharine Lo (Caltech), and the latter is joint work with Stephen Jordan and Michael Jarett (UMD).

  1. Automobile Service Information in the Public Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pankl, Robert R.

    1992-01-01

    Advocates providing automobile repair and service information in public libraries, and discusses collection development issues, reference services, and problems in making repair manuals available. Describes the collection and services for patrons in Tacoma Public Library and results of a survey of other public libraries holding automobile repair…

  2. Study on Micro Wind Generator System for Automobile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujimoto, Koji; Washizu, Shinsuke; Ichikawa, Tomohiko; Yukita, Kazuto; Goto, Yasuyuki; Ichiyanagi, Katsuhiro; Oshima, Takamitsu; Hayashi, Niichi; Tobi, Nobuo

    This paper proposes the micro wind generator system for automobile. This proposes system is composed of the deflector, the micro windmill, the generator, and electric storage device. Then, the effectiveness is confirmed from an examination using air blower. Therefore, new energy can be expected to be obtained by installing this system in the truck.

  3. 40 CFR 600.315-08 - Classes of comparable automobiles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... vehicles (such as battery electric vehicles, fuel cell vehicles, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles and... accordance with 49 CFR part 523. (1) The Administrator will classify passenger automobiles by car line into... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, Department of Transportation (DOT), 49 CFR 571.3....

  4. Carbon monoxide oxidation rates computed for automobile thermal reactor conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brokaw, R. S.; Bittker, D. A.

    1972-01-01

    Carbon monoxide oxidation rates in thermal reactors for exhaust manifolds are computed by integrating differential equations for system of twenty-nine reversible chemical reactions. Reactors are noncatalytic replacements for conventional exhaust manifolds and are a system for reducing carbon monoxide and hydrocarbons in automobile exhausts.

  5. ASE Program Certification Standards for Automobile Technician Training Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Automotive Technicians Education Foundation, Herndon, VA.

    This document presents and explains the development and application of the National Institute for Automotive Service Excellence (ASE) program certification standards that were developed to improve the quality of secondary- and postsecondary-level automobile technician training by implementing a certification program that certifies programs in…

  6. Automobile Mechanic Second Year: Service and Repair. Student's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Notgrass, Troy

    This student manual on auto service and repair is intended for second-year students in industrial cooperative training who have studied "Automobile Mechanic Fundamentals" during the first year. Based on "Auto Service and Repair," by Martin W. Stockel, this manual is designed for individualized instruction under supervision of a coordinator or…

  7. Learning Motivation Mediates Gene-by-Socioeconomic Status Interaction on Mathematics Achievement in Early Childhood.

    PubMed

    Tucker-Drob, Elliot M; Harden, K Paige

    2012-02-01

    There is accumulating evidence that genetic influences on achievement are more pronounced among children living in higher socioeconomic status homes, and that these gene-by-environment interactions occur prior to children's entry into formal schooling. We hypothesized that one pathway through which socioeconomic status promotes genetic influences on early achievement is by facilitating the processes by which children select, evoke, and attend to learning experiences that are consistent with genetically influenced individual differences in their motivation to learn. We examined this hypothesis in a nationally representative sample of approximately 650 pairs of four-year old identical and fraternal twins who were administered a measure of math achievement, and rated by their parents on a broad set of items assessing learning motivation. Results indicated a genetic link between learning motivation and math achievement that varied positively with family socioeconomic status: Genetic differences in learning motivation contributed to math achievement more strongly in more advantaged homes. Once this effect of learning motivation was controlled for, gene-by-socioeconomic status interaction on math achievement was reduced from previously significant levels, to nonsignificant levels. PMID:22611326

  8. 49 CFR 212.213 - Motive power and equipment (MP&E) inspector.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... of determining compliance with all sections of the Freight Car Safety Standards (49 CFR part 215), Safety Glazing Standards (49 CFR part 223), Locomotive Safety Standards (49 CFR part 229), Safety Appliance Standards (49 CFR part 231), and Power Brake Standards (49 CFR part 232), to make reports of...

  9. 49 CFR 212.213 - Motive power and equipment (MP&E) inspector.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... of determining compliance with all sections of the Freight Car Safety Standards (49 CFR part 215), Safety Glazing Standards (49 CFR part 223), Locomotive Safety Standards (49 CFR part 229), Safety Appliance Standards (49 CFR part 231), and Power Brake Standards (49 CFR part 232), to make reports of...

  10. 49 CFR 212.213 - Motive power and equipment (MP&E) inspector.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... of determining compliance with all sections of the Freight Car Safety Standards (49 CFR part 215), Safety Glazing Standards (49 CFR part 223), Locomotive Safety Standards (49 CFR part 229), Safety Appliance Standards (49 CFR part 231), and Power Brake Standards (49 CFR part 232), to make reports of...

  11. 49 CFR 212.213 - Motive power and equipment (MP&E) inspector.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... of determining compliance with all sections of the Freight Car Safety Standards (49 CFR part 215), Safety Glazing Standards (49 CFR part 223), Locomotive Safety Standards (49 CFR part 229), Safety Appliance Standards (49 CFR part 231), and Power Brake Standards (49 CFR part 232), to make reports of...

  12. 49 CFR 212.213 - Motive power and equipment (MP&E) inspector.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... of determining compliance with all sections of the Freight Car Safety Standards (49 CFR part 215), Safety Glazing Standards (49 CFR part 223), Locomotive Safety Standards (49 CFR part 229), Safety Appliance Standards (49 CFR part 231), and Power Brake Standards (49 CFR part 232), to make reports of...

  13. Skewed by Cues? The Motivational Role of Audiovisual Stimuli in Modelling Substance Use and Gambling Disorders.

    PubMed

    Barrus, Michael M; Cherkasova, Mariya; Winstanley, Catharine A

    2016-01-01

    The similarity between gambling disorder (GD) and drug addiction has recently been recognized at the diagnostic level. Understanding the core cognitive processes involved in these addiction disorders, and in turn their neurobiological mechanisms, remains a research priority due to the enormous benefits such knowledge would have in enabling effective treatment design. Animal models can be highly informative in this regard. Although numerous rodent behavioural paradigms that capture different facets of gambling-like behaviour have recently been developed, the motivational power of cues in biasing individuals towards risky choice has so far received little attention despite the central role played by drug-paired cues in successful laboratory models of chemical dependency. Here, we review some of the comparatively simple paradigms in which reward-paired cues are known to modulate behaviour in rodents, such as sign-tracking, Pavlovian-to-instrumental transfer and conditioned reinforcement. Such processes are thought to play an important role in mediating responding for drug reward, and the need for future studies to address whether similar processes contribute to cue-driven risky choice is highlighted. PMID:26531068

  14. Automobile inspection system based on wireless communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miao, Changyun; Ye, Chunqing

    2010-07-01

    This paper aims to research the Automobile Inspection System based on Wireless Communication, and suggests an overall design scheme which uses GPS for speed detection and Bluetooth and GPRS for communication. The communication between PDA and PC was realized by means of GPRS and TCP/IP; and the hardware circuit and software for detection terminal were devised by means of JINOU-3264 Bluetooth Module after analyzing the Bluetooth and its communication protocol. According to the results of debugging test, this system accomplished GPRS based data communication and management as well as the real-time detection on auto safety performance parameters in crash test via PC, whereby the need for mobility and reliability was met and the efficiency and level of detection was improved.

  15. Perception of risk from automobile safety defects.

    PubMed

    Slovic, P; MacGregor, D; Kraus, N N

    1987-10-01

    Descriptions of safety engineering defects of the kind that compel automobile manufacturers to initiate a recall campaign were evaluated by individuals on a set of risk characteristic scales that included overall vehicle riskiness, manufacturer's ability to anticipate the defect, importance for vehicle operation, severity of consequences and likelihood of compliance with a recall notice. A factor analysis of the risk characteristics indicated that judgments could be summarized in terms of two composite scales, one representing the uncontrollability of the damage the safety defect might cause and the other representing the foreseeability of the defect by the manufacturer. Motor vehicle defects were found to be highly diverse in terms of the perceived qualities of their risks. Location of individual defects within the factor space was closely associated with perceived riskiness, perceived likelihood of purchasing another car from the same manufacturer, perceived likelihood of compliance with a recall notice, and actual compliance rates. PMID:3675807

  16. Intrinsically motivated oculomotor exploration guided by uncertainty reduction and conditioned reinforcement in non-human primates.

    PubMed

    Daddaoua, Nabil; Lopes, Manuel; Gottlieb, Jacqueline

    2016-01-01

    Intelligent animals have a high degree of curiosity--the intrinsic desire to know--but the mechanisms of curiosity are poorly understood. A key open question pertains to the internal valuation systems that drive curiosity. What are the cognitive and emotional factors that motivate animals to seek information when this is not reinforced by instrumental rewards? Using a novel oculomotor paradigm, combined with reinforcement learning (RL) simulations, we show that monkeys are intrinsically motivated to search for and look at reward-predictive cues, and that their intrinsic motivation is shaped by a desire to reduce uncertainty, a desire to obtain conditioned reinforcement from positive cues, and individual variations in decision strategy and the cognitive costs of acquiring information. The results suggest that free-viewing oculomotor behavior reveals cognitive and emotional factors underlying the curiosity driven sampling of information. PMID:26838344

  17. Intrinsically motivated oculomotor exploration guided by uncertainty reduction and conditioned reinforcement in non-human primates

    PubMed Central

    Daddaoua, Nabil; Lopes, Manuel; Gottlieb, Jacqueline

    2016-01-01

    Intelligent animals have a high degree of curiosity – the intrinsic desire to know – but the mechanisms of curiosity are poorly understood. A key open question pertains to the internal valuation systems that drive curiosity. What are the cognitive and emotional factors that motivate animals to seek information when this is not reinforced by instrumental rewards? Using a novel oculomotor paradigm, combined with reinforcement learning (RL) simulations, we show that monkeys are intrinsically motivated to search for and look at reward-predictive cues, and that their intrinsic motivation is shaped by a desire to reduce uncertainty, a desire to obtain conditioned reinforcement from positive cues, and individual variations in decision strategy and the cognitive costs of acquiring information. The results suggest that free-viewing oculomotor behavior reveals cognitive and emotional factors underlying the curiosity driven sampling of information. PMID:26838344

  18. Motivational Influences on Performance Maintained by Food Reinforcement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North, Stephen T.; Iwata, Brian A.

    2005-01-01

    In Study 1, we examined the independent effects of reinforcer consumption during sessions and meal consumption prior to sessions on performance maintained by food reinforcement. Nine individuals with developmental disabilities participated. On alternate days, a preferred edible item was delivered during (a) seven sessions conducted before lunch…

  19. Experimental considerations motivated by the diphoton excess at the LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agrawal, Prateek; Fan, JiJi; Heidenreich, Ben; Reece, Matthew; Strassler, Matthew

    2016-06-01

    We consider the immediate or near-term experimental opportunities offered by some scenarios that could explain the new diphoton excess at the LHC. If the excess is due to a new particle X s at 750 GeV, additional new particles are required, providing further signals. If connected with naturalness, the X s may be produced in top partner decays. Then a t^'overline{t}^' } signal, with t ' → tX s and X s → gg dominantly, might be discovered by reinterpreting 13 TeV SUSY searches in multijet events with low MET and/or a lepton. If X s is a bound state of quirks, the signal events may be accompanied by an unusual number of soft tracks or soft jets. Other resonances including dilepton and photon+jet as well as dijet may lie at or above this mass, and signatures of hidden glueballs might also be observable. If the "photons" in the excess are actually long-lived particles decaying to photon pairs or to electron pairs, there are opportunities for detecting overlapping photons and/or unusual patterns of apparent photon-conversions in either X s or 125 GeV Higgs decays. There is also the possibility of events with a hard "photon" recoiling against a narrow isolated HCAL-only "jet", which, after the jet's energy is corrected for its electromagnetic origin, would show a peak at 750 GeV.

  20. Pushed by Symptoms, Pulled by Values: Promotion Goals Increase Motivation in Therapeutic Tasks.

    PubMed

    Katz, Benjamin A; Catane, Sara; Yovel, Iftah

    2016-03-01

    While many therapies focus on the reduction of disturbing symptoms, others pursue behavior consistent with personally held values. Based on regulatory focus theory (Higgins, 1997), reducing symptoms is a type of prevention goal while pursuing values is a promotion goal. In the current study, 123 undergraduate students elicited a negative, self-focused emotion-laden cognition. They were then randomly assigned to construe their negative thought as either (a) an impediment to valued behaviors, (b) a cause of unpleasant symptoms, or to one of two control conditions: (c) distraction or (d) no intervention. Then, participants in all groups completed a series of repetitive therapeutic tasks that targeted their elicited negative cognitions. Results showed that participants who construed treatment in terms of valued behavior promotion spent more time on a therapeutic task than all other groups. The group in the unpleasant symptom promotion condition did not differ from either control group. The motivational advantage of value promotion was not accounted for by differences in mood. The present findings suggest that clients may be better motivated through value promotion goals, as opposed to symptom prevention goals. PMID:26956655

  1. Motivation in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ray, Nancy L.

    This paper presents basic principles and theories of motivation, attempts to provide a better understanding of the concept, and explores the role motivation plays in learning. Basic theories of motivation are reviewed including: Freud's belief in motivation by the id, unconscious forces, and sexual stages; Jung and Adler's belief that people are…

  2. A Theoretical Study on Airflow Motive Force and Heat Transfer by the Water Spray

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakai, Yasuyuki

    On assuming the abscissa moving uniformly with the horizontal airflow in disregard of gravity, airflow motive force and heat transfer by the water spray have been easily analyzed theoretically. Here main results are as follows. The theoretical maximum airflow motive pressure is proportional to both the initial relative velocity of waterdrop and the relative water flow per unit cross-sectional area of the apparatus to the airflow or the moving abscissa but unrelated to the size of waterdrop. The airflow motive pressure approaches to the above maximum with an increase in the length of the apparatus. Making the waterdrop size smaller has an effect on the aparatus to get longer virtually. The initial velocity of waterdrop or the spraying nozzle pressure has little effect on the heat transfer between the air and the water.

  3. Electricity Demand Evolution Driven by Storm Motivated Population Movement

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, Melissa R; Fernandez, Steven J; Fu, Joshua S; Walker, Kimberly A

    2014-01-01

    Managing the risks posed by climate change to energy production and delivery is a challenge for communities worldwide. Sea Level rise and increased frequency and intensity of natural disasters due to sea surface temperature rise force populations to move locations, resulting in changing patterns of demand for infrastructure services. Thus, Infrastructures will evolve to accommodate new load centers while some parts of the network are underused, and these changes will create emerging vulnerabilities. Combining climate predictions and agent based population movement models shows promise for exploring the universe of these future population distributions and changes in coastal infrastructure configurations. In this work, we created a prototype agent based population distribution model and developed a methodology to establish utility functions that provide insight about new infrastructure vulnerabilities that might result from these patterns. Combining climate and weather data, engineering algorithms and social theory, we use the new Department of Energy (DOE) Connected Infrastructure Dynamics Models (CIDM) to examine electricity demand response to increased temperatures, population relocation in response to extreme cyclonic events, consequent net population changes and new regional patterns in electricity demand. This work suggests that the importance of established evacuation routes that move large populations repeatedly through convergence points as an indicator may be under recognized.

  4. 20 CFR 416.1218 - Exclusion of the automobile.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Exclusion of the automobile. 416.1218 Section..., BLIND, AND DISABLED Resources and Exclusions § 416.1218 Exclusion of the automobile. (a) Automobile; defined. As used in this section, the term automobile includes, in addition to passenger cars,...

  5. 10 CFR 611.207 - Small automobile and component manufacturers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Small automobile and component manufacturers. 611.207... VEHICLES MANUFACTURER ASSISTANCE PROGRAM Facility/Funding Awards § 611.207 Small automobile and component... individuals; and (2) Manufactures automobiles or components of automobiles. (b) Set Aside—Of the amount...

  6. 10 CFR 611.207 - Small automobile and component manufacturers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Small automobile and component manufacturers. 611.207... VEHICLES MANUFACTURER ASSISTANCE PROGRAM Facility/Funding Awards § 611.207 Small automobile and component... individuals; and (2) Manufactures automobiles or components of automobiles. (b) Set Aside—Of the amount...

  7. 20 CFR 416.1218 - Exclusion of the automobile.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Exclusion of the automobile. 416.1218 Section..., BLIND, AND DISABLED Resources and Exclusions § 416.1218 Exclusion of the automobile. (a) Automobile; defined. As used in this section, the term automobile includes, in addition to passenger cars,...

  8. 10 CFR 611.207 - Small automobile and component manufacturers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Small automobile and component manufacturers. 611.207... VEHICLES MANUFACTURER ASSISTANCE PROGRAM Facility/Funding Awards § 611.207 Small automobile and component... individuals; and (2) Manufactures automobiles or components of automobiles. (b) Set Aside—Of the amount...

  9. 20 CFR 416.1218 - Exclusion of the automobile.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exclusion of the automobile. 416.1218 Section..., BLIND, AND DISABLED Resources and Exclusions § 416.1218 Exclusion of the automobile. (a) Automobile; defined. As used in this section, the term automobile includes, in addition to passenger cars,...

  10. 20 CFR 416.1218 - Exclusion of the automobile.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Exclusion of the automobile. 416.1218 Section..., BLIND, AND DISABLED Resources and Exclusions § 416.1218 Exclusion of the automobile. (a) Automobile; defined. As used in this section, the term automobile includes, in addition to passenger cars,...

  11. 10 CFR 611.207 - Small automobile and component manufacturers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Small automobile and component manufacturers. 611.207... VEHICLES MANUFACTURER ASSISTANCE PROGRAM Facility/Funding Awards § 611.207 Small automobile and component... individuals; and (2) Manufactures automobiles or components of automobiles. (b) Set Aside—Of the amount...

  12. 20 CFR 416.1218 - Exclusion of the automobile.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Exclusion of the automobile. 416.1218 Section..., BLIND, AND DISABLED Resources and Exclusions § 416.1218 Exclusion of the automobile. (a) Automobile; defined. As used in this section, the term automobile includes, in addition to passenger cars,...

  13. 10 CFR 611.207 - Small automobile and component manufacturers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Small automobile and component manufacturers. 611.207... VEHICLES MANUFACTURER ASSISTANCE PROGRAM Facility/Funding Awards § 611.207 Small automobile and component... individuals; and (2) Manufactures automobiles or components of automobiles. (b) Set Aside—Of the amount...

  14. Preliminary Physics Motivation and Engineering Design Assessment of the National High Power Torus

    SciTech Connect

    Robert D. Woolley

    2009-06-11

    In April 2006, Dr. Ray Orbach, Director of the DOE Office of Science, challenged the fusion community to "propose a new facility... which will put the U.S. at the lead in world fusion science." Analysis of the gaps between expected ITER performance and the requirements of a demonstration power plant (Demo) pointed to the critical and urgent need to develop fusion-relvant plasma-material interface (PMI) solutions consistent with sustained high plasma performance. A survey of world fusion program indicated that present and planned experimental devices do not advance the PMI issue beyond ITER, and a major dedicated experimental facility is warranted. Such a facility should provide the flexibility and access needed to solve plasma boundary challenges related to divertor heat flux and particle exhaust while also developing methods to minimize hydrogenic isotope retention and remaining compatible with high plasma performance.

  15. Environmental practices of the auxiliary companies to the Spanish automobile industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González-Torre, Pilar L.; González, Beatriz A.; Gupta, Surendra M.

    2005-11-01

    The automobile manufacturing industry plays a very important role in a country's economy. The importance of automobile manufacturing industry lies in its sheer size and complexity in terms of the direct and indirect influence it commands across many other industries. While millions of people are employed in the automobile manufacturing industry, it is estimated that more than two and half times that number are employed in the auxiliary companies that supply parts to the automobile manufacturing companies. The auxiliary companies represent a group of businesses of various sizes, types, and geographical locations, producing a vast variety of products ranging from the very simple to the extremely intricate. In this study, the current environmental practices of management in the core Spanish auxiliary companies that do business with the automobile manufacturing industry (and thus form a large part of the automobile manufacturing industry's supply chain) are investigated. We show that while automobile manufacturing companies are under scrutiny to become more and more environmentally friendly, not only at their manufacturing stage but also at their products' useful and EOL stages, there appears to be no such burden on the auxiliary companies. Our conclusion is based on an elaborate survey conducted during the fall of 2004 of Spanish auxiliary companies with questions about the characteristics, environmental practices and reverse logistics related activities carried out by the companies.

  16. Weight Penalty Incurred in Thermoelectric Recovery of Automobile Exhaust Heat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rowe, D. M.; Smith, J.; Thomas, G.; Min, G.

    2011-05-01

    Thermoelectric recovery of automobile waste exhaust heat has been identified as having potential for reducing fuel consumption and environmentally unfriendly emissions. Around 35% of combustion energy is discharged as heat through the exhaust system, at temperatures which depend upon the engine's operation and range from 800°C to 900°C at the outlet port to less than 50°C at the tail-pipe. Beneficial reduction in fuel consumption of 5% to 10% is widely quoted in the literature. However, comparison between claims is difficult due to nonuniformity of driving conditions. In this paper the available waste exhaust heat energy produced by a 1.5 L family car when undergoing the new European drive cycle was measured and the potential thermoelectric output estimated. The work required to power the vehicle through the drive cycle was also determined and used to evaluate key parameters. This enabled an estimate to be made of the engine efficiency and additional work required by the engine to meet the load of a thermoelectric generating system. It is concluded that incorporating a thermoelectric generator would attract a penalty of around 12 W/kg. Employing thermoelectric modules fabricated from low-density material such as magnesium silicide would considerably reduce the generator weight penalty.

  17. Measuring Adjunct Instructor Job Satisfaction by Using Herzberg's Motivation-Hygiene Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickens, Durrell

    2011-01-01

    This study was designed to use Herzberg's motivation-hygiene theory to investigate the different levels of job satisfaction among adjunct college instructors at eight institutions of higher education located in southeast Texas. Differences in job satisfaction were measured by instructor gender, ethnicity, age, teaching experience, type of…

  18. Management-by-Results and Performance Measurement in Universities--Implications for Work Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kallio, Kirsi-Mari; Kallio, Tomi J.

    2014-01-01

    The article focuses on the effects of management-by-results from the perspective of the work motivation of university employees. The study is based on extensive survey data among employees at Finnish universities. According to the results, performance measurement is based on quantitative rather than qualitative measures, and the current…

  19. By All Available Means: Cameron and Pierce's Defense of Extrinsic Motivators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kohn, Alfie

    1996-01-01

    The meta-analysis of J. Cameron and W. D. Pierce (1994), which purports to demonstrate that extrinsic rewards may not undermine intrinsic motivation, is unpersuasive by virtue of its methodologies, its tendency to ignore important distinctions, and its failure to include certain evidence. (Author/SLD)

  20. Topology Explains Why Automobile Sunshades Fold Oddly

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feist, Curtis; Naimi, Ramin

    2009-01-01

    Automobile sunshades always fold into an "odd" number of loops. The explanation why involves elementary topology (braid theory and linking number, both explained in detail here with definitions and examples), and an elementary fact from algebra about symmetric group.

  1. Sediment detachment by rain power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabet, Emmanuel J.; Dunne, Thomas

    2003-01-01

    In interrill areas, overland flow is often incapable of detaching soil particles so detachment is primarily by raindrop impact. We derive a mathematical expression, rain power (R, W m-2), relating the energy expenditure of raindrops impacting a soil surface to the rate of detachment of soil particles. Rain power incorporates rainfall, hillslope, and vegetation characteristics and is modulated by flow depths. Rainfall simulation experiments on natural hillslopes were performed to measure detachment rates and across-slope flow depth distributions in surface runoff. Our results indicate that flow depths follow a Poisson distribution, and this observation is used to develop a dimensionless function, A(?, d), that accounts for the interaction of flow depths (h) and raindrop diameter (d) in moderating detachment rates. Rain power correlates well with the detachment rate of fine-grained particles (ψ, g m-2 s-1) so that ψ = 0.011R1.4A(?, d) (n = 44, R2 = 0.88, p < 0.005). We generalize this result to represent natural rainfall conditions and present a method for modeling sediment detachment rates and sediment discharge along entire lengths of hillslopes under the range of conditions where detached sediment is transported as wash load. Modeling simulations demonstrate the temporal and spatial variation in detachment rates caused by increases in flow depth.

  2. High power laser apparatus and system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, J. C., Jr.; Brandhorst, H. W., Jr. (Inventor)

    1975-01-01

    A high-power, continuous-wave laser was designed for use in power transmission and energy-collecting systems, and for producing incoherent light for pumping a laser material. The laser has a high repetitive pulsing rate per unit time, resulting in a high-power density beam. The laser is composed of xenon flash tubes powered by fast-charging capacitors flashed in succession by a high-speed motor connected to an automobile-type distributor.

  3. Future trends in power generation cost by power resource

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1992-08-01

    The Japan Energy Economy Research Institute has been evaluating power generation cost by each power resource every year focusing on nuclear power generation. The Institute is surveying the cost evaluations by power resources in France, Britain and the U.S.A., the nuclear generation advanced nations. The OECD is making power generation cost estimation using a hypothesis which uniforms basically the conditions varying in different member countries. In model power generation cost calculations conducted by the Ministry of International Trade and Industry of Japan, nuclear power generation is the most economical system in any fiscal year. According to recent calculations performed by the Japan Energy Economy Research Institute, the situation is such that it is difficult to distinguish the economical one from others among the power generation systems in terms of generation costs except for thermal power generation. Economic evaluations are given on estimated power generation costs based on construction costs for nuclear and thermal power plants, nuclear fuel cycling cost, and fuel cost data on petroleum, LNG and coal. With regard to the future trends, scenario analyses are made on generation costs, that assume fluctuations in fuel prices and construction costs, the important factors to give economic influence on power generation.

  4. Micromotors Powered by Enzyme Catalysis.

    PubMed

    Dey, Krishna K; Zhao, Xi; Tansi, Benjamin M; Méndez-Ortiz, Wilfredo J; Córdova-Figueroa, Ubaldo M; Golestanian, Ramin; Sen, Ayusman

    2015-12-01

    Active biocompatible systems are of great current interest for their possible applications in drug or antidote delivery at specific locations. Herein, we report the synthesis and study of self-propelled microparticles powered by enzymatic reactions and their directed movement in substrate concentration gradient. Polystyrene microparticles were functionalized with the enzymes urease and catalase using a biotin-streptavidin linkage procedure. The motion of the enzyme-coated particles was studied in the presence of the respective substrates, using optical microscopy and dynamic light scattering analysis. The diffusion of the particles was found to increase in a substrate concentration dependent manner. The directed chemotactic movement of these enzyme-powered motors up the substrate gradient was studied using three-inlet microfluidic channel architecture. PMID:26587897

  5. Motivation by potential gains and losses affects control processes via different mechanisms in the attentional network.

    PubMed

    Paschke, Lena M; Walter, Henrik; Steimke, Rosa; Ludwig, Vera U; Gaschler, Robert; Schubert, Torsten; Stelzel, Christine

    2015-05-01

    Attentional control in demanding cognitive tasks can be improved by manipulating the motivational state. Motivation to obtain gains and motivation to avoid losses both usually result in faster reaction times and stronger activation in relevant brain areas such as the prefrontal cortex, but little is known about differences in the underlying neurocognitive mechanisms of these types of motivation in an attentional control context. In the present functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study, we tested whether potential gain and loss as motivating incentives lead to overlapping or distinct neural effects in the attentional network, and whether one of these conditions is more effective than the other. A Flanker task with word stimuli as targets and distracters was performed by 115 healthy participants. Using a mixed blocked and event-related design allowed us to investigate transient and sustained motivation-related effects. Participants could either gain money (potential gain) or avoid losing money (potential loss) in different task blocks. Participants showed a congruency effect with increased reaction times for incongruent compared to congruent trials. Potential gain led to generally faster responses compared to the neutral condition and to stronger improvements than potential loss. Potential loss also led to shorter response times compared to the neutral condition, but participants improved mainly during incongruent and not during congruent trials. The event-related fMRI data revealed a main effect of congruency with increased activity in the left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) and inferior frontal junction area (IFJ), the pre-supplementary motor area (pre-SMA), bilateral insula, intraparietal sulcus (IPS) and visual word form area (VWFA). While potential gain led to increased activity in a cluster of the IFJ and the VWFA only during incongruent trials, potential loss was linked to activity increases in these regions during incongruent and congruent trials. The

  6. Gearshift system for an automobile

    SciTech Connect

    Makita, F.

    1986-02-04

    This patent describes a gearshift system for an automobile with an automatic clutch and a transmission having four forward-gear sets. The system consists of: a first synchronizing device for selectively engaging a second speed gear and a fourth speed gear with an output shaft of the transmission; a second synchronizing device for selectively engaging a first speed gear and a third speed gear with the output shaft; a first shifter for operating the first synchronizing device; a second shifter means for operating the second synchronizing device; a select lever adapted to engage one of the first and second shifter; a manually operated shift lever; means for transmitting the shift of the shift lever to the select lever for shifting one of the shifter means; an electrical select device for operating the select lever to engage with one of the shifter; switch for producing signals representing a selection of one of the synchronizing devices; a thermo switch responsive to the temperature of the automatic clutch for producing an output signal when the temperature exceeds a predetermined temperature; and control circuit responsive to the signals of the switch for operating the electrical select device to select one of the synchronizing devices.

  7. [Utilization of anonymous HIV testing by the federal health office--developments and motives].

    PubMed

    Scheibner, J; Waldvogel, B

    1993-01-01

    In the state-run health office in Ulm a survey of the frequency of anonymous HIV-antibody tests was taken between 1985 to 1991, of the age and gender representation from 1988 to 1991, of the test motives from 1.1.1990 to 1.3.1991. The result was a regressive trend following the test boom of 1987 and 1988, which is becoming more and more stable. The relation of men and women has been amounting to 6:4 in the last four years; the proportion of women receding slightly but constantly. The main motive of being tested was finding out about a high-risk or potentially high-risk sexual contact, mostly at the beginning of a new partnership. The motive ranking second in frequency was the investigation of the consequences of blood exposure, mostly relating to medical work. The third place was taken by irrational anxieties as a test motive. The article discusses the fact that test at the beginning of a new partnership frequently have the meaning of a sacrifice and a symbol of bondage in combination with a vow to be faithful. In case of irrational anxieties about AIDS the test-counsellor gets a chance to diagnose a possibly neurotic development at a very early stage, so that painful and expensive chronification and generalisation could be stopped or eased. PMID:8435542

  8. Empathy, motivation, and P300 BCI performance

    PubMed Central

    Kleih, Sonja C.; Kübler, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    Motivation moderately influences brain–computer interface (BCI) performance in healthy subjects when monetary reward is used to manipulate extrinsic motivation. However, the motivation of severely paralyzed patients, who are potentially in need for BCI, could mainly be internal and thus, an intrinsic motivator may be more powerful. Also healthy subjects who participate in BCI studies could be internally motivated as they may wish to contribute to research and thus extrinsic motivation by monetary reward would be less important than the content of the study. In this respect, motivation could be defined as “motivation-to-help.” The aim of this study was to investigate, whether subjects with high motivation for helping and who are highly empathic would perform better with a BCI controlled by event-related potentials (P300-BCI). We included N = 20 healthy young participants naïve to BCI and grouped them according to their motivation for participating in a BCI study in a low and highly motivated group. Motivation was further manipulated with interesting or boring presentations about BCI and the possibility to help patients. Motivation for helping did neither influence BCI performance nor the P300 amplitude. Post hoc, subjects were re-grouped according to their ability for perspective taking. We found significantly higher P300 amplitudes on parietal electrodes in participants with a low ability for perspective taking and therefore, lower empathy, as compared to participants with higher empathy. The lack of an effect of motivation on BCI performance contradicts previous findings and thus, requires further investigation. We speculate that subjects with higher empathy who are good perspective takers with regards to patients in potential need of BCI, may be more emotionally involved and therefore, less able to allocate attention on the BCI task at hand. PMID:24146640

  9. The power of competition: Effects of social motivation on attention, sustained physical effort, and learning

    PubMed Central

    DiMenichi, Brynne C.; Tricomi, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Competition has often been implicated as a means to improve effort-based learning and attention. Two experiments examined the effects of competition on effort and memory. In Experiment 1, participants completed a physical effort task in which they were rewarded for winning an overall percentage, or for winning a competition they believed was against another player. In Experiment 2, participants completed a memory task in which they were rewarded for remembering an overall percentage of shapes, or more shapes than a “competitor.” We found that, in the physical effort task, participants demonstrated faster reaction times (RTs)—a previous indicator of increased attention—in the competitive environment. Moreover, individual differences predicted the salience of competition’s effect. Furthermore, male participants showed faster RTs and greater sustained effort as a result of a competitive environment, suggesting that males may be more affected by competition in physical effort tasks. However, in Experiment 2, participants remembered fewer shapes when competing, and later recalled less of these shapes during a post-test, suggesting that competition was harmful in our memory task. The different results from these two experiments suggest that competition can improve attention in a physical effort task, yet caution the use of competition in memory tasks. PMID:26388801

  10. Social Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veroff, Joseph

    1978-01-01

    Summarizes different types of social motivation that have interested social psychologists within a developmental paradigm. Currently, cognition is a central aspect of motivational psychology. Individuals' motive patterns are seen to change over the life cycle. (Author/AV)

  11. Improved automobile gas turbine engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kofskey, M. G.; Katsanis, T.; Roelke, R. J.; Mclallin, K. L.; Wong, R. Y.; Schumann, L. F.; Galvas, M. R.

    1976-01-01

    Upgraded engine delivers 100 hp in 3500 lb vehicle. Improved fuel economy is due to combined effects of reduced weight, reduced power-to-weight ratio, increased turbine inlet pressure, and improved component efficiencies at part power.

  12. Design of MEMS accelerometer based acceleration measurement system for automobiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venkatesh, K. Arun; Mathivanan, N.

    2012-10-01

    Design of an acceleration measurement system using a MEMS accelerometer to measure acceleration of automobiles in all the three axes is presented. Electronic stability control and anti-lock breaking systems in automobiles use the acceleration measurements to offer safety in driving. The system uses an ARM microcontroller to quantize the outputs of accelerometer and save the measurement data on a microSD card. A LabVIEW program has been developed to analyze the longitudinal acceleration measurement data and test the measurement system. Random noises generated and added with measurement data during measurement are filtered by a Kalman filter implemented in LabVIEW. Longitudinal velocity of the vehicle is computed from the measurement data and displayed on a graphical chart. Typical measurement of velocity of a vehicle at different accelerations and decelerations is presented.

  13. Closed-loop carrier phase synchronization techniques motivated by likelihood functions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsou, H.; Hinedi, S.; Simon, M.

    1994-01-01

    This article reexamines the notion of closed-loop carrier phase synchronization motivated by the theory of maximum a posteriori phase estimation with emphasis on the development of new structures based on both maximum-likelihood and average-likelihood functions. The criterion of performance used for comparison of all the closed-loop structures discussed is the mean-squared phase error for a fixed-loop bandwidth.

  14. Investigating a New Model of Time-Related Academic Behavior: Procrastination and Timely Engagement by Motivational Orientation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strunk, Kamden K.

    2012-01-01

    Scope and Method of Study: The purpose of this study was to examine the nature of time-related academic behavior (i.e., procrastination and timely engagement) in the academic context. Specifically, this study aimed to build a new model for understanding these behaviors in a motivational framework by using motivational orientation to frame these…

  15. Attitudes, Motivation, and Second Language Learning: A Meta-Analysis of Studies Conducted by Gardner and Associates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masgoret, Anne-Marie; Gardner, Robert C.

    2003-01-01

    Examined the magnitude of the contributions that motivation and attitudes make to achievement in the second language in he research conducted by Gardner and associates. Meta-analysis indicates the relationship of second language achievement to the five attitude/motivation variables from Gardner's socioeductional model. (Author/VWL)

  16. Romance, risk, and replication: Can consumer choices and risk-taking be primed by mating motives?

    PubMed

    Shanks, David R; Vadillo, Miguel A; Riedel, Benjamin; Clymo, Ashley; Govind, Sinita; Hickin, Nisha; Tamman, Amanda J F; Puhlmann, Lara M C

    2015-12-01

    Interventions aimed at influencing spending behavior and risk-taking have considerable practical importance. A number of studies motivated by the costly signaling theory within evolutionary psychology have reported that priming inductions (such as looking at pictures of attractive opposite sex members) designed to trigger mating motives increase males' stated willingness to purchase conspicuous consumption items and to engage in risk-taking behaviors, and reduce loss aversion. However, a meta-analysis of this literature reveals strong evidence of either publication bias or p-hacking (or both). We then report 8 studies with a total sample of over 1,600 participants which sought to reproduce these effects. None of the studies, including one that was fully preregistered, was successful. The results question the claim that romantic primes can influence risk-taking and other potentially harmful behaviors. PMID:26501730

  17. Understanding Employee Motivation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindner, James R.

    1998-01-01

    Extension employees (n=23) ranked the following as the most important motivational factors: interesting work, good wages, appreciation, job security, and good working conditions. The findings were related to theories of motivation formulated by Herzberg, Adams, and Vroom. (SK)

  18. Territoriality evidenced by asymmetric intruder-holder motivation in an amblypygid.

    PubMed

    Chapin, Kenneth James; Hill-Lindsay, Sloan

    2016-01-01

    Territoriality has an extensive and thorough history of research, but has been difficult to impossible to test empirically in most species. We offer a method for testing for territoriality by measuring the motivation of territory intruders to win contests in controlled trials. We demonstrated this approach by staging paired trials of the Amblypygi Phrynus longipes (Chelicerata: Arachnida). Amblypygids engaged in agonistic interactions after the opportunity to establish a putative territory on one side of an arena. We found that intruders of putative territories had lower motivation to win contests, thus evidencing territoriality. Physical components of individuals (i.e. energy stores) increased the probability of winning the contest for holders but not intruders, thereby providing insight into the differing decision rules opponents use in territory contests. We discuss why alternative hypotheses, including loser-initiator covariation and home field bourgeois advantage, fail empirical tests. We demonstrated that analyzing animal motivation in territorial contests is tractable even for animals where territories are inconspicuous and cues are outside the normal perceptions of researchers. PMID:26616673

  19. Motivational Influences on Transfer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pugh, Kevin J.; Bergin, David A.

    2006-01-01

    Both transfer and motivation are important constructs accompanied by extensive bodies of literature. However, there is a lack of integration of the 2 constructs. This article analyzes the potential indirect influence of motivational factors on transfer by reviewing studies that examine the influence of motivation on cognitive processes related to…

  20. Direct Numerical Simulation of Automobile Cavity Tones

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurbatskii, Konstantin; Tam, Christopher K. W.

    2000-01-01

    The Navier Stokes equation is solved computationally by the Dispersion-Relation-Preserving (DRP) scheme for the flow and acoustic fields associated with a laminar boundary layer flow over an automobile door cavity. In this work, the flow Reynolds number is restricted to R(sub delta*) < 3400; the range of Reynolds number for which laminar flow may be maintained. This investigation focuses on two aspects of the problem, namely, the effect of boundary layer thickness on the cavity tone frequency and intensity and the effect of the size of the computation domain on the accuracy of the numerical simulation. It is found that the tone frequency decreases with an increase in boundary layer thickness. When the boundary layer is thicker than a certain critical value, depending on the flow speed, no tone is emitted by the cavity. Computationally, solutions of aeroacoustics problems are known to be sensitive to the size of the computation domain. Numerical experiments indicate that the use of a small domain could result in normal mode type acoustic oscillations in the entire computation domain leading to an increase in tone frequency and intensity. When the computation domain is expanded so that the boundaries are at least one wavelength away from the noise source, the computed tone frequency and intensity are found to be computation domain size independent.

  1. Lethal methemoglobinemia and automobile exhaust inhalation.

    PubMed

    Vevelstad, Merete; Morild, Inge

    2009-05-30

    Inhalation of automobile exhaust gas often leads to death by CO intoxication. In some cases the measured carbon monoxide hemoglobin saturation level (COHb) is considerably below what is considered to be lethal. The death in such cases has been attributed to a combination of a high CO2 and a low O2 tension. In a recent case the deceased was found dead in a car equipped with a catalytic converter, with a hose leading exhaust from the engine to the interior of the car. Analysis revealed a moderately elevated COHb and a high methemoglobin saturation level (MetHb) in peripheral blood. No ethanol, narcotics or drugs were detected. Reports mentioning MetHb or methemoglobinemia in post-mortem cases are surprisingly scarce, and very few have related exhaust gas deaths to methemoglobinemia. High-degree methemoglobinemia causes serious tissue hypoxia leading to unconsciousness, arrhythmia and death. The existing literature in this field and the knowledge that exhaust fumes contain nitrogen oxide gases (NOx) that by inhalation and absorption can result in severe methemoglobinemia, led us to postulate that this death could possibly be attributed to a combination of methemoglobinemia and a moderately high COHb concentration. PMID:19261402

  2. Automobile Collisions, Kinematics and Related Injury Patterns

    PubMed Central

    Siegel, A. W.

    1972-01-01

    It has been determined clinically that fatalities and injury severity resulting from automobile collisions have decreased during the last five years for low impact speeds. This reduction is a direct result of the application of biomechanics and occupant kinematics, as well as changes in automobile design. The paper defines terminology used in the field of mechanics and develops examples and illustrations of the physical concepts of acceleration, force strength, magnitude duration, rate of onset and others, as they apply to collision phenomena and injury. The mechanism of injury pattern reduction through the use of restraint systems is illustrated. PMID:5059661

  3. Summary of semi-initiative and initiative control automobile engine vibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qu, Wei; Qu, Zhou

    2009-07-01

    Engine vibration accounts for around 55% of automobile vibration, separating the engine vibration from transmitting to automobile to the utmost extent is significant for improving NVH performance. Semi-initiative and initiative control of engine vibration is one of the hot spots of technical research in domestic and foreign automobile industry, especially luxury automobiles which adopt this technology to improve amenity and competitiveness. This article refers to a large amount of domestic and foreign related materials, fully introduces the research status of semi-initiative and initiative control suspension of engine vibration suspension and many kinds of structural style, and provides control policy and method of semi-initiative and initiative control suspension system. Compare and analyze the structural style of semi-initiative and initiative control and merits and demerits of current structures of semi-initiative and initiative control of mechanic electrorheological, magnetorheological, electromagnetic actuator, piezoelectric ceramics, electrostriction material, pneumatic actuator etc. Models of power assembly mounting system was classified.Calculation example indicated that reasonable selection of engine mounting system parameters is useful to reduce engine vibration transmission and to increase ride comfort. Finally we brought forward semi-initiative and initiative suspension which might be applied for automobiles, and which has a promising future.

  4. [Motivational interview: supporting change].

    PubMed

    Fond, Guillaume; Ducasse, Déborah

    2015-01-01

    The motivational interview aims to help patients to resolve their ambivalence regarding problematic behaviors and to guide them into change. It differs from other therapeutic approaches mainly through the attitude of the therapist. In motivational interviewing, the therapist defends the statu quo. By reactance, the patient defends the change and enhance her/his motivation. This article provides a summary of the other concepts of motivational interviewing and its applications in the psychiatric daily practice. PMID:26143220

  5. Motivating pharmacy employees.

    PubMed

    White, S J; Generali, J A

    1984-07-01

    Concepts from theories of motivation are used to suggest methods for improving the motivational environment of hospital pharmacy departments. Motivation--the state of being stimulated to take action to achieve a goal or to satisfy a need--comes from within individuals, but hospital pharmacy managers can facilitate motivation by structuring the work environment so that it satisfies employees' needs. Concepts from several theories of motivation are discussed, including McGregor's theory X and theory Y assumptions, Maslow's hierarchy of needs theory, Herzberg's motivation hygiene theory, and Massey's value system theory. Concepts from the Japanese style of management that can be used to facilitate motivation, such as quality circles, also are described. The autocratic, participative, and laissez faire styles of leadership are discussed in the context of the motivation theories, and suggested applications of theoretical concepts to practice are presented. PMID:6465152

  6. 77 FR 63917 - WTO Dispute Settlement Proceeding Regarding China-Certain Measures Affecting the Automobile and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-17

    ... Automobile and Automobile-Parts Industries AGENCY: Office of the United States Trade Representative. ACTION... export performance to ] automobile and automobile-parts enterprises in China. These measures appear to be... automobile and automobile-parts enterprises in China. Specifically, the United States is challenging...

  7. 38 CFR 17.156 - Eligibility for automobile adaptive equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... automobile adaptive equipment. 17.156 Section 17.156 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS MEDICAL Automotive Equipment and Driver Training § 17.156 Eligibility for automobile adaptive equipment. Automobile adaptive equipment may be authorized if the Under Secretary for Health...

  8. 38 CFR 3.808 - Automobiles or other conveyances; certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Automobiles or other....808 Automobiles or other conveyances; certification. (a) Entitlement. A certificate of eligibility for financial assistance in the purchase of one automobile or other conveyance in an amount not exceeding...

  9. 38 CFR 17.156 - Eligibility for automobile adaptive equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... automobile adaptive equipment. 17.156 Section 17.156 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS MEDICAL Automotive Equipment and Driver Training § 17.156 Eligibility for automobile adaptive equipment. Automobile adaptive equipment may be authorized if the Under Secretary for Health...

  10. 38 CFR 17.156 - Eligibility for automobile adaptive equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... automobile adaptive equipment. 17.156 Section 17.156 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS MEDICAL Automotive Equipment and Driver Training § 17.156 Eligibility for automobile adaptive equipment. Automobile adaptive equipment may be authorized if the Under Secretary for Health...

  11. 38 CFR 3.808 - Automobiles or other conveyances; certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Automobiles or other....808 Automobiles or other conveyances; certification. (a) Entitlement. A certificate of eligibility for financial assistance in the purchase of one automobile or other conveyance in an amount not exceeding...

  12. 38 CFR 3.808 - Automobiles or other conveyances; certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Automobiles or other....808 Automobiles or other conveyances; certification. (a) Entitlement. A certificate of eligibility for financial assistance in the purchase of one automobile or other conveyance in an amount not exceeding...

  13. 38 CFR 17.156 - Eligibility for automobile adaptive equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... automobile adaptive equipment. 17.156 Section 17.156 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS MEDICAL Automotive Equipment and Driver Training § 17.156 Eligibility for automobile adaptive equipment. Automobile adaptive equipment may be authorized if the Under Secretary for Health...

  14. 38 CFR 17.156 - Eligibility for automobile adaptive equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... automobile adaptive equipment. 17.156 Section 17.156 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS MEDICAL Automotive Equipment and Driver Training § 17.156 Eligibility for automobile adaptive equipment. Automobile adaptive equipment may be authorized if the Under Secretary for Health...

  15. 38 CFR 3.808 - Automobiles or other conveyances; certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Automobiles or other....808 Automobiles or other conveyances; certification. (a) Entitlement. A certificate of eligibility for financial assistance in the purchase of one automobile or other conveyance in an amount not exceeding...

  16. Rethinking the Role of the Automobile. Worldwatch Paper No. 84.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renner, Michael

    In 1987, a record 126,000 automobiles rolled off assembly lines each working day, and close to 400 million vehicles are used on the world's roads today. Prior to the 1970s the automobile's utility and sustainability were hardly questioned. A decade of oil price increases and worries about future fuel availability slowed automobile use somewhat,…

  17. College Students' Academic Motivation: Differences by Gender, Class, and Source of Payment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brouse, Corey H.; Basch, Charles E.; LeBlanc, Michael; McKnight, Kelly R.; Lei, Ting

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe college students' (n = 856) gender, year in school and source of tuition funding in relation to their academic motivation. The design was cross-sectional and used cluster sampling. The Academic Motivation Scale was used to measure students' intrinsic and extrinsic motivations as well as amotivation. Three…

  18. An Exploration of Students' Motivation to Lead: An Analysis by Race, Gender, and Student Leadership Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosch, David M.; Collier, Daniel; Thompson, Sara E.

    2015-01-01

    This exploratory study examined the motivation to lead of a random sample of 1,338 undergraduate students to determine the degree to which motivation to lead can predict leadership behaviors. Results suggested that students' internal self-identity as a leader positively predicted behavior, while their "social normative" motivation to…

  19. Principles of motivation revealed by the diverse functions of neuropharmacological and neuroanatomical substrates underlying feeding behavior

    PubMed Central

    Baldo, Brian A.; Pratt, Wayne E.; Will, Matthew J.; Hanlon, Erin C.; Bakshi, Vaishali P.; Cador, Martine

    2013-01-01

    Circuits that participate in specific subcomponents of feeding (e.g., gustatory perception, peripheral feedback relevant to satiety and energy balance, reward coding, etc.) are found at all levels of the neural axis. Further complexity is conferred by the wide variety of feeding-modulatory neurotransmitters and neuropeptides that act within these circuits. An ongoing challenge has been to refine the understanding of the functional specificity of these neurotransmitters and circuits, and there have been exciting advances in recent years. We focus here on foundational work of Dr. Ann Kelley that identified distinguishable actions of striatal opioid peptide modulation and dopamine transmission in subcomponents of reward processing. We also discuss her work in overlaying these neuropharmacological effects upon anatomical pathways that link the telencephalon (cortex and basal ganglia) with feeding-control circuits in the hypothalamus. Using these seminal contributions as a starting point, we will discuss new findings that expand our understanding of (1) the specific, differentiable motivational processes that are governed by central dopamine and opioid transmission, (2) the manner in which other striatal neuromodulators, specifically acetylcholine, endocannabinoids and adenosine, modulate these motivational processes (including via interactions with opioid systems), and (3) the organization of the cortical-subcortical network that subserves opioid-driven feeding. The findings discussed here strengthen the view that incentive-motivational properties of food are coded by substrates and neural circuits that are distinguishable from those that mediate the acute hedonic experience of food reward. Striatal opioid transmission modulates reward processing by engaging frontotemporal circuits, possibly via a hypothalamic-thalamic axis, that ultimately impinges upon hypothalamic modules dedicated to autonomic function and motor pattern control. We will conclude by discussing

  20. [Selective feeding in fish: Effect of feeding and defensive motivations evoked by natural odors].

    PubMed

    Kasumyan, A O; Marusov, E A

    2015-01-01

    The effect of feeding and defensive motivations evoked by natural olfactory signals (the food odor, the alarm pheromone) on choice and consumption of food items different in color and taste, and the manifestation of foraging behavior were examined in fish (koi Cyprinus carpio, roach Rutilus rutilus). The agar-agar pellets of red and green color having one of the amino acids (glycine, L-proline, L-alanine; all in concentration of 0.1 M) were simultaneously offered to single fishes in pure water, and in water extract of Chironomidae larvae or in water extract of fish skin. It was found out that odors used have different effects on fish foraging activity and on pellet selection for both pellet choice and consumption. On background of food odor, fish grasped pellets more often than in pure water. The equal choice of red and green pellets in pure water shifted to the preference of red ones in the presence of food odor. Despite the increase in the absolute number of pellets grasped, the relative consumption reduced and was replaced by selective consumption of pellets with glycine regardless of their color. Increasing demand for the food quality, due to the increased feeding motivation in response to food odor, is an important adaptation enhancing selection and consumption of food with more appropriate sensory qualities for fish. Defensive motivation caused by alarm pheromone suppressed predisposition. of fish to feed. Fish grasped pellets several times less often than in pure water and refused most of them. Any changes in the color or taste preferences were absent. Feeding behavior of fish of both species was characterized by repeated intraoral pellet testing, but in koi handling was less typical than in roach. In both species, handling activity was higher in those cases when the pellet was finally rejected. This activity was enhanced also on the background of food odor. PMID:26201217

  1. Response analysis of an automobile shipping container

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hua, L.; Lee, S. H.; Johnstone, B.

    1973-01-01

    The design and development of automobile shipping containers to reduce enroute damage are discussed. Vibration tests were conducted to determine the system structural integrity. A dynamic analysis was made using NASTRAN and the results of the test and the analysis are compared.

  2. American Automobile and Light Truck Statistics Update

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldman, Bernard J.

    2014-01-01

    Given that transportation is an essential topic in any Physics and Society or Energy course, it is necessary to have useful statistics on transportation in order to have a reasoned discussion on this topic. And a major component of the transportation picture is the automobile. This paper presents updated transportation statistics for American…

  3. Active Engine Mount Technology for Automobiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rahman, Z.; Spanos, J.

    1996-01-01

    We present a narrow-band tracking control using a variant of the Least Mean Square (LMS) algorithm [1,2,3] for supressing automobile engine/drive-train vibration disturbances. The algorithm presented here has a simple structure and may be implemented in a low cost micro controller.

  4. OUTDOOR SMOG CHAMBER EXPERIMENTS USING AUTOMOBILE EXHAUST

    EPA Science Inventory

    Outdoor smog chamber experiments using automobile exhaust were performed in this study. The purpose of the study was to provide a data base that modelers could use to develop new, improved mechanisms for use in the Empirical Kinetics Modeling Approach (EKMA). Thirty-three dual sm...

  5. Antifrictionizing. the metamorphosis of the American automobile

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-07-01

    The redesign of automobiles over the past several years has presented many challenging problems in the reduction of friction. Today's cars are generally smaller and lighter, feature modified shape, and the engines operate with greater efficiency. Efforts of auto manufacturers to lessen friction as the car moves through the air and to reduce engine friction are discussed.

  6. Modification of Male Courtship Motivation by Olfactory Habituation via the GABAA Receptor in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Tachibana, Shin-Ichiro; Touhara, Kazushige; Ejima, Aki

    2015-01-01

    A male-specific component, 11-cis-vaccenyl acetate (cVA) works as an anti-aphrodisiac pheromone in Drosophila melanogaster. The presence of cVA on a male suppresses the courtship motivation of other males and contributes to suppression of male-male homosexual courtship, while the absence of cVA on a female stimulates the sexual motivation of nearby males and enhances the male-female interaction. However, little is known how a male distinguishes the presence or absence of cVA on a target fly from either self-produced cVA or secondhand cVA from other males in the vicinity. In this study, we demonstrate that male flies have keen sensitivity to cVA; therefore, the presence of another male in the area reduces courtship toward a female. This reduced level of sexual motivation, however, could be overcome by pretest odor exposure via olfactory habituation to cVA. Real-time imaging of cVA-responsive sensory neurons using the neural activity sensor revealed that prolonged exposure to cVA decreased the levels of cVA responses in the primary olfactory center. Pharmacological and genetic screening revealed that signal transduction via GABAA receptors contributed to this olfactory habituation. We also found that the habituation experience increased the copulation success of wild-type males in a group. In contrast, transgenic males, in which GABA input in a small subset of local neurons was blocked by RNAi, failed to acquire the sexual advantage conferred by habituation. Thus, we illustrate a novel phenomenon in which olfactory habituation positively affects sexual capability in a competitive environment. PMID:26252206

  7. Deficits in Discrimination after Experimental Frontal Brain Injury Are Mediated by Motivation and Can Be Improved by Nicotinamide Administration

    PubMed Central

    Vonder Haar, Cole; Maass, William R.; Jacobs, Eric A.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract One of the largest challenges in experimental neurotrauma work is the development of models relevant to the human condition. This includes both creating similar pathophysiology as well as the generation of relevant behavioral deficits. Recent studies have shown that there is a large potential for the use of discrimination tasks in rats to detect injury-induced deficits. The literature on discrimination and TBI is still limited, however. The current study investigated motivational and motor factors that could potentially contribute to deficits in discrimination. In addition, the efficacy of a neuroprotective agent, nicotinamide, was assessed. Rats were trained on a discrimination task and motivation task, given a bilateral frontal controlled cortical impact TBI (+3.0 AP, 0.0 ML from bregma), and then reassessed. They were also assessed on motor ability and Morris water maze (MWM) performance. Experiment 1 showed that TBI resulted in large deficits in discrimination and motivation. No deficits were observed on gross motor measures; however, the vehicle group showed impairments in fine motor control. Both injured groups were impaired on the reference memory MWM, but only nicotinamide-treated rats were impaired on the working memory MWM. Nicotinamide administration improved performance on discrimination and motivation measures. Experiment 2 evaluated retraining on the discrimination task and suggested that motivation may be a large factor underlying discrimination deficits. Retrained rats improved considerably on the discrimination task. The tasks evaluated in this study demonstrate robust deficits and may improve the detection of pharmaceutical effects by being very sensitive to pervasive cognitive deficits that occur after frontal TBI. PMID:24934504

  8. Deficits in discrimination after experimental frontal brain injury are mediated by motivation and can be improved by nicotinamide administration.

    PubMed

    Vonder Haar, Cole; Maass, William R; Jacobs, Eric A; Hoane, Michael R

    2014-10-15

    One of the largest challenges in experimental neurotrauma work is the development of models relevant to the human condition. This includes both creating similar pathophysiology as well as the generation of relevant behavioral deficits. Recent studies have shown that there is a large potential for the use of discrimination tasks in rats to detect injury-induced deficits. The literature on discrimination and TBI is still limited, however. The current study investigated motivational and motor factors that could potentially contribute to deficits in discrimination. In addition, the efficacy of a neuroprotective agent, nicotinamide, was assessed. Rats were trained on a discrimination task and motivation task, given a bilateral frontal controlled cortical impact TBI (+3.0 AP, 0.0 ML from bregma), and then reassessed. They were also assessed on motor ability and Morris water maze (MWM) performance. Experiment 1 showed that TBI resulted in large deficits in discrimination and motivation. No deficits were observed on gross motor measures; however, the vehicle group showed impairments in fine motor control. Both injured groups were impaired on the reference memory MWM, but only nicotinamide-treated rats were impaired on the working memory MWM. Nicotinamide administration improved performance on discrimination and motivation measures. Experiment 2 evaluated retraining on the discrimination task and suggested that motivation may be a large factor underlying discrimination deficits. Retrained rats improved considerably on the discrimination task. The tasks evaluated in this study demonstrate robust deficits and may improve the detection of pharmaceutical effects by being very sensitive to pervasive cognitive deficits that occur after frontal TBI. PMID:24934504

  9. Student Motivation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Practitioner, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Although ability partly explains why some students are eager to learn in school whereas others are disinterested, motivation is another significant factor. This newsletter discusses factors that affect students' motivation to learn, considers techniques that can increase motivation, and identifies schools that have developed activities to enhance…

  10. Emission rate modeling and risk assessment at an automobile plant from painting operations

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, A.; Shrivastava, A.; Kulkarni, A.

    1999-07-01

    Pollution from automobile plants from painting operations has been addressed in the Clean Act Amendments (1990). The estimation of pollutant emissions from automobile painting operation were done mostly by approximate procedures than by actual calculations. The purpose of this study was to develop a methodology for calculating the emissions of the pollutants from painting operation in an automobile plant. Five scenarios involving an automobile painting operation, located in Columbus (Ohio), were studied for pollutant emission and concomitant risk associated with that. In the study of risk, a sensitivity analysis was done using Crystal Ball{reg{underscore}sign} on the parameters involved in risk. This software uses the Monte Carlo principle. The most sensitive factor in the risk analysis was the ground level concentration of the pollutants. All scenarios studied met the safety goal (a risk value of 1 x 10{sup {minus}6}) with different confidence levels. The highest level of confidence in meeting the safety goal was displayed by Scenario 1 (Alpha Industries). The results from the scenarios suggest that risk is associated with the quantity of released toxic pollutants. The sensitivity analysis of the various parameter shows that average spray rate of paint is the most important parameter in the estimation of pollutants from the painting operations. The entire study is a complete module that can be used by the environmental pollution control agencies for estimation of pollution levels and estimation of associated risk. The study can be further extended to other operations in an automobile industry or to different industries.

  11. Motivational profile of astronauts at the International Space Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brcic, Jelena

    2010-11-01

    Research has demonstrated that the motive triad of needs for achievement, power, and affiliation can predict variables such as occupational success and satisfaction, innovation, aggressiveness, susceptibility to illness, cooperation, conformity, and many others. The present study documents the motivational profiles of astronauts at three stages of their expedition. Thematic content analysis was employed for references to Winter's well-established motive markers in narratives (media interviews, journals, and oral histories) of 46 astronauts participating in International Space Station (ISS) expeditions. Significant pre-flight differences were found in relation to home agency and job status. NASA astronauts, compared with those from the Russian Space Agency, are motivated by higher need for power, as are commanders in comparison to flight engineers. The need for affiliation motive showed a significant change from pre-flight to in-flight stages. The implications of the relationship between the motivational profile of astronauts and the established behavioural correlates of such profiles are discussed.

  12. Understanding beef-cattle farming management strategies by identifying motivations behind farmers' priorities.

    PubMed

    Magne, M A; Cerf, M; Ingrand, S

    2012-06-01

    This study aimed to identify and better understand management strategies that help livestock farmers adapt to changes in their production contexts, a fundamental challenge. A total of nine beef-cattle farmers were interviewed three times over 1 year to discuss 13 dimensions of livestock farming (e.g. reproduction, feeding, sales, etc.). Characterisation of management strategies rested on three main factors: (i) ranking of the dimensions according to the degree to which farmers desired to control them, (ii) reasons for the ranking and (iii) management guidelines. Although farmers agreed upon the rank of certain dimensions, such as herd management, they differed on that of others, such as sales and administration/regulations. Four motivation categories were identified: risk, pleasure, efficiency and ability to control the dimension. Three management guidelines were identified, which indicated that farmers managed for future survival of their farms at different scales (animal/herd v. whole-farm), involving different resources (biological v. financial) and based on different animal categories (reproductive cows v. animals sold). These results improve understanding of individual livestock farmers and their current management strategies by integrating the motivations behind their strategies. For this reason, they constitute methodological elements that agricultural advisors can use to provide relevant information to farmers while accommodating differences in farm management. PMID:22558968

  13. Empirical Analysis of Green Supply Chain Management Practices in Indian Automobile Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luthra, S.; Garg, D.; Haleem, A.

    2014-04-01

    Environmental sustainability and green environmental issues have an increasing popularity among researchers and supply chain practitioners. An attempt has been made to identify and empirically analyze green supply chain management (GSCM) practices in Indian automobile industry. Six main GSCM practices (having 37 sub practices) and four expected performance outcomes (having 16 performances) have been identified by implementing GSCM practices from literature review. Questionnaire based survey has been made to validate these practices and performance outcomes. 123 complete questionnaires were collected from Indian automobile organizations and used for empirical analysis of GSCM practices in Indian automobile industry. Descriptive statistics have been used to know current implementation status of GSCM practices in Indian automobile industry and multiple regression analysis has been carried out to know the impact on expected organizational performance outcomes by current GSCM practices adopted by Indian automobile industry. The results of study suggested that environmental, economic, social and operational performances improve with the implementation of GSCM practices. This paper may play an important role to understand various GSCM implementation issues and help practicing managers to improve their performances in the supply chain.

  14. Cognitive-motivational model of obesity. Motivational mechanisms and cognitive biases underlying the processing of food-related images by people with excess body weight.

    PubMed

    Pawłowska, Monika; Kalka, Dorota

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is a constantly escalating problem in all age groups. In the face of ubiquitous images of food, colourful advertisements of high-calorie meals and beverages, it is necessary to examine the role of the memory and attention mechanism in the processing of these stimuli. Knowledge regarding this subject will surely significantly contribute to the improvement of prevention and management of obesity programs designed to prevent secondary psychological difficulties, including depression. This paper presents cognitive-motivational model of obesity, according to which the description of mechanisms of eating disorders occurrence should include not only motivational factors but also the cognitive ones. The paper shows theoretical perspectives on the problem of obesity irrespective of its origin, as well as the latest empirical reports in this field. The presented survey demonstrates the lack of explicit research findings related to the processing of high and low-calorie food images by persons with excess weight. It seems that the knowledge of the basic mechanisms involved in the processing of these stimuli and the exploration of this phenomenon will allow to improve programs whose objective is to prevent obesity. PMID:26688848

  15. Transport of amino acids in Lactobacillus casei by proton-motive-force-dependent and non-proton-motive-force-dependent mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Strobel, H J; Russell, J B; Driessen, A J; Konings, W N

    1989-01-01

    Lactobacillus casei 393 cells which were energized with glucose (pH 6.0) took up glutamine, asparagine, glutamate, aspartate, leucine, and phenylalanine. Little or no uptake of several essential amino acids (valine, isoleucine, arginine, cysteine, tyrosine, and tryptophan) was observed. Inhibition studies indicated that there were at least five amino acid carriers, for glutamine, asparagine, glutamate/aspartate, phenylalanine, or branched-chain amino acids. Transport activities had pH optima between 5.5 and 6.0, but all amino acid carriers showed significant activity even at pH 4.0. Leucine and phenylalanine transport decreased markedly when the pH was increased to 7.5. Inhibitors which decreased proton motive force (delta p) nearly eliminated leucine and phenylalanine uptake, and studies with de-energized cells and membrane vesicles showed that an artificial electrical potential (delta psi) of at least -100 mV was needed for rapid uptake. An artificial delta p was unable to drive glutamine, asparagine, or glutamate uptake, and transport of these amino acids was sensitive to a decline in intracellular pH. When intracellular pH was greater than 7.7, glutamine, asparagine, or glutamate was transported rapidly even though the proton motive force had been abolished by inhibitors. PMID:2492498

  16. New perspectives for advanced automobile diesel engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tozzi, L.; Sekar, R.; Kamo, R.; Wood, J. C.

    1983-01-01

    Computer simulation results are presented for advanced automobile diesel engine performance. Four critical factors for performance enhancement were identified: (1) part load preheating and exhaust gas energy recovery, (2) fast heat release combustion process, (3) reduction in friction, and (4) air handling system efficiency. Four different technology levels were considered in the analysis. Simulation results are compared in terms of brake specific fuel consumption and vehicle fuel economy in km/liter (miles per gallon). Major critical performance sensitivity areas are: (1) combustion process, (2) expander and compressor efficiency, and (3) part load preheating and compound system. When compared to the state of the art direct injection, cooled, automobile diesel engine, the advanced adiabatic compound engine concept showed the unique potential of doubling the fuel economy. Other important performance criteria such as acceleration, emissions, reliability, durability and multifuel capability are comparable to or better than current passenger car diesel engines.

  17. An automobile air conditioner design model

    SciTech Connect

    Kyle, D M; Mei, V C; Chen, F C

    1992-12-01

    A computer program has been developed to predict the steady-state performance of vapor compression automobile air conditioners and heat pumps. The code is based on the residential heat pump model developed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Most calculations are based on fundamental physical principles, in conjunction with generalized correlations available in the research literature. Automobile air conditioning components that can be specified as input to the program include open and hermetic compressors; finned tube condensers; finned tube and plate-fin style evaporators; thermostatic expansion valves (TXV), capillary tube, and short tube expansion devices; refrigerant mass; and evaporator pressure regulator and all interconnecting tubing. Pressure drop, heat transfer rates, and latent capacity ratio for the new plate-fin evaporator submodel are shown to agree well with laboratory data. The program can be used with a variety of refrigerants, including R-134a.

  18. Measuring motivation in schizophrenia: is a general state of motivation necessary for task-specific motivation?

    PubMed

    Choi, Jimmy; Choi, Kee-Hong; Felice Reddy, L; Fiszdon, Joanna M

    2014-03-01

    Despite the important role of motivation in rehabilitation and functional outcomes in schizophrenia, to date, there has been little emphasis on how motivation is assessed. This is important, since different measures may tap potentially discrete motivational constructs, which in turn may have very different associations to important outcomes. In the current study, we used baseline data from 71 schizophrenia spectrum outpatients enrolled in a rehabilitation program to examine the relationship between task-specific motivation, as measured by the Intrinsic Motivation Inventory (IMI), and a more general state of volition/initiation, as measured by the three item Quality of Life (QLS) motivation index. We also examined the relationship of these motivation measures to demographic, clinical and functional variables relevant to rehabilitation outcomes. The two motivation measures were not correlated, and participants with low general state motivation exhibited a full range of task-specific motivation. Only the QLS motivation index correlated with variables relevant to rehabilitation outcomes. The lack of associations between QLS motivation index and IMI subscales suggests that constructs tapped by these measures may be divergent in schizophrenia, and specifically that task-specific intrinsic motivation is not contingent on a general state of motivation. That is, even in individuals with a general low motivational state (i.e. amotivation), interventions aimed at increasing task-specific motivation may still be effective. Moreover, the pattern of interrelationships between the QLS motivation index and variables relevant to psychosocial rehabilitation supports its use in treatment outcome studies. PMID:24529609

  19. Measuring motivation in schizophrenia: Is a general state of motivation necessary for task-specific motivation?

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jimmy; Choi, Kee-Hong; Reddy, Felice; Fiszdon, Joanna M.

    2014-01-01

    Despite the important role of motivation in rehabilitation and functional outcomes in schizophrenia, to date, there has been little emphasis on how motivation is assessed. This is important, since different measures may tap potentially discrete motivational constructs, which in turn may have very different associations to important outcomes. In the current study, we used baseline data from 71 schizophrenia spectrum outpatients enrolled in a rehabilitation program to examine the relationship between task-specific motivation, as measured by the Intrinsic Motivation Inventory (IMI), and a more general state of volition/initiation, as measured by the three item Quality of Life (QLS) motivation index. We also examined the relationship of these motivation measures to demographic, clinical and functional variables relevant to rehabilitation outcomes. The two motivation measures were not correlated, and participants with low general state motivation exhibited a full range of task-specific motivation. Only the QLS motivation index correlated with variables relevant to rehabilitation outcomes. The lack of associations between QLS motivation index and IMI subscales suggests that constructs tapped by these measures may be divergent in schizophrenia, and specifically that task-specific intrinsic motivation is not contingent on a general state of motivation. That is, even in individuals with a general low motivational state (i.e. amotivation), interventions aimed at increasing task-specific motivation may still be effective. Moreover, the pattern of interrelationships between the QLS motivation index and variables relevant to psychosocial rehabilitation supports its use in treatment outcome studies. PMID:24529609

  20. Statistics of Measurements of Automobile Fuel Efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartlett, Albert A.

    2003-11-01

    In these days, with the growing need to worry about petroleum and the efficiency of our automobiles, there should be an increased interest, especially among physics students, in the miles per gallon (MPG) of cars. There should also be interest in the accuracy of single and multiple measurements of the MPG of a car. These topics are covered here in this report of a series of measurements that span 16 years.

  1. High-temperature ceramics for automobile gas turbines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walzer, P.

    1978-01-01

    The employment of the high operational temperatures makes it necessary to use, for the construction of the turbines, ceramic materials such as silicon nitride or silicon carbide. Investigations concerning the development of turbine components made of such materials are conducted by a German automobile manufacturer and the ceramics industry. The current status of these investigations is reviewed. Flame tubes and guide-vane rings have successfully passed tests lasting 20 hours. Prototype turbine wheels have withstood the effects of peripheral speeds of 450 m/s. They also showed resistance to thermal shocks which were as high as 6-0 K/s.

  2. Design and evaluation of experimental ceramic automobile thermal reactors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, P. L.; Blankenship, C. P.

    1974-01-01

    The results obtained in an exploratory evaluation of ceramics for automobile thermal reactors are summarized. Candidate ceramic materials were evaluated in several reactor designs by using both engine-dynamometer and vehicle road tests. Silicon carbide contained in a corrugated-metal support structure exhibited the best performance, lasting 1100 hr in engine-dynamometer tests and more than 38,600 km (24000 miles) in vehicle road tests. Although reactors containing glass-ceramic components did not perform as well as those containing silicon carbide, the glass-ceramics still offer good potential for reactor use with improved reactor designs.

  3. Horizontally progressive mirror for blind spot detection in automobiles.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hocheol; Kim, Dohyun; Yi, Sung

    2013-02-01

    The blind spot of automobiles has been a critical issue in driving safety performance. Side mirrors that use an aspheric shape to achieve a wider angle rather than conventional spherical or flat mirrors have been recently permitted from European Union safety regulations. However, these mirrors also cause difficulty in perceiving the speed and distance of an approaching vehicle in the aspheric mirror zones with their decreasing radii of curvature. We demonstrated new side mirrors showing a stable vehicle image by inserting a horizontally progressive zone between the two outer spherical zones used for the far and near views. PMID:23381423

  4. Predicting College Students' Mathematics Anxiety By Motivational Beliefs and Self-Regulated Learning Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kesici, Sahin; Erdogan, Ahmet

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine whether motivational beliefs and self-regulated learning strategies are significant predictors of college students' mathematics anxiety. The subscales for the motivation scale are intrinsic goal orientation, extrinsic goal orientation, task value, control of learning beliefs, self-efficacy for learning and…

  5. Treatment Fidelity of Motivational Interviewing Delivered by a School Nurse to Increase Girls' Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robbins, Lorraine B.; Pfeiffer, Karin A.; Maier, Kimberly S.; LaDrig, Stacey M.; Berg-Smith, Steven Malcolm

    2012-01-01

    Motivational interviewing, which involves the use of person-centered, directive counseling techniques, shows promise for changing adolescent behaviors. The purpose of this article was to describe the methodology and findings related to the treatment fidelity of three face-to-face motivational interviewing sessions involving middle school girls and…

  6. Promoting Female Students' Learning Motivation towards Science by Exercising Hands-On Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wen-jin, Kuo; Chia-ju, Liu; Shi-an, Leou

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to design different hands-on science activities and investigate which activities could better promote female students' learning motivation towards science. This study conducted three types of science activities which contains nine hands-on activities, an experience scale and a learning motivation scale for data…

  7. AGT100 turbomachinery. [for automobiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tipton, D. L.; Mckain, T. F.

    1982-01-01

    High-performance turbomachinery components have been designed and tested for the AGT100 automotive engine. The required wide range of operation coupled with the small component size, compact packaging, and low cost of production provide significant aerodynamic challenges. Aerodynamic design and development testing of the centrifugal compressor and two radial turbines are described. The compressor achieved design flow, pressure ratio, and surge margin on the initial build. Variable inlet guide vanes have proven effective in modulating flow capacity and in improving part-speed efficiency. With optimum use of the variable inlet guide vanes, the initial efficiency goals have been demonstrated in the critical idle-to-70% gasifier speed range. The gasifier turbine exceeded initial performance goals and demonstrated good performance over a wide range. The radial power turbine achieved 'developed' efficiency goals on the first build.

  8. Motivating students' participation in a computer networks course by means of magic, drama and games.

    PubMed

    Hilas, Constantinos S; Politis, Anastasios

    2014-01-01

    The recent economic crisis has forced many universities to cut down expenses by packing students into large lecture groups. The problem with large auditoria is that they discourage dialogue between students and faculty and they burden participation. Adding to this, students in computer science courses usually find the field to be full of theoretical and technical concepts. Lack of understanding leads them to lose interest and / or motivation. Classroom experience shows that the lecturer could employ alternative teaching methods, especially for early-year undergraduate students, in order to grasp their interest and introduce basic concepts. This paper describes some of the approaches that may be used to keep students interested and make them feel comfortable as they comprehend basic concepts in computer networks. The lecturing procedure was enriched with games, magic tricks and dramatic representations. This approach was used experimentally for two semesters and the results were more than encouraging. PMID:25105085

  9. Biologically Motivated Novel Localization Paradigm by High-Level Multiple Object Recognition in Panoramic Images

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sungho; Shim, Min-Sheob

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the novel paradigm of a global localization method motivated by human visual systems (HVSs). HVSs actively use the information of the object recognition results for self-position localization and for viewing direction. The proposed localization paradigm consisted of three parts: panoramic image acquisition, multiple object recognition, and grid-based localization. Multiple object recognition information from panoramic images is utilized in the localization part. High-level object information was useful not only for global localization, but also for robot-object interactions. The metric global localization (position, viewing direction) was conducted based on the bearing information of recognized objects from just one panoramic image. The feasibility of the novel localization paradigm was validated experimentally. PMID:26457323

  10. Modulation of meso-limbic reward processing by motivational tendencies in young adolescents and adults.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Jane E; Zhu, Xun; Lynam, Donald; Kelly, Thomas H

    2016-04-01

    Adolescence is a particularly vulnerable period for the onset of substance use disorders and other psychopathology. Individual variability in motivational tendencies and temperament and significant changes in functional brain organization during adolescence are important factors to consider in the development of substance use and dependence. Recent conceptualizations suggest that sensitivity to reward is heightened in adolescence and that this motivation tendency may precipitate subsequent substance abuse. The present study examined the role of personality traits in mesolimbic neurobehavioral response on a monetary incentive delay (MID) task in young adolescents (11-14years) and emerging adults (18-25years) using functional magnetic resonance imaging. As a group, adolescents were not more sensitive to gains than losses compared to adults during either anticipatory and feedback phases; instead, compared to adults they showed less sensitivity to incentive magnitude in mesolimbic circuitry during anticipation and feedback stages. However, personality modulated this response such that adolescents high in impulsivity or low in avoidance tendencies showed greater gain sensitivity and adolescents high in avoidance showed greater loss sensitivity during cue anticipation. In adults, mesolimbic response was modulated by the impulsivity construct such that high-impulsive adults showed reduced magnitude sensitivity during both anticipation and feedback compared to low impulsive adults. The present findings suggest that impulsive personality significantly modulates mesolimbic reward response during both adolescence and adulthood but avoidance and approach tendencies also modulate this response in adolescents. Moreover, personality modulated incentive valence in adolescents but incentive magnitude in adults. Collectively, these findings suggest that mesolimbic reward circuitry function is modulated by somewhat different parameters in adolescence than in adulthood. PMID:26690806

  11. Congruence and predictive power of mothers' and teachers' ratings of mastery motivation in children with mental retardation.

    PubMed

    Hauser-Cram, P; Krauss, M W; Warfield, M E; Steele, A

    1997-10-01

    The congruence between mothers' and teachers' ratings of mastery motivation among 3-year-old children with mental retardation was investigated. The extent to which maternal and teacher ratings of task persistence at entry to preschool are predictive of observed mastery behaviors at age 5 was tested. Results indicate that mothers rated their children's task persistence behaviors higher than did teachers. Further, once the child's cognitive level and teacher ratings were controlled for statistically, maternal ratings of the child's mastery behaviors were predictive of the child's task mastery performance 2 years subsequent. Implications for educational planning were discussed. PMID:9339064

  12. Effects of automobile steering characteristics on driver vehicle system dynamics in regulation tasks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcruer, D. T.; Klein, R.

    1975-01-01

    A regulation task which subjected the automobile to a random gust disturbance which is countered by driver control action is used to study the effects of various automobile steering characteristics on the driver/vehicle system. The experiments used a variable stability automobile specially configured to permit insertion of the simulated gust disturbance and the measurement of the driver/vehicle system characteristics. Driver/vehicle system dynamics were measured and interpreted as an effective open loop system describing function. Objective measures of system bandwidth, stability, and time delays were deduced and compared. These objective measures were supplemented by driver ratings. A tentative optimum range of vehicle dynamics for the directional regulation task was established.

  13. Computer simulations and experimental study on crash box of automobile in low speed collision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yanjie; Ding, Lin; Yan, Shengyuan; Yang, Yongsheng

    2008-11-01

    Based on the problems of energy-absorbing components in the automobile low speed collision process, according to crash box frontal crash test in low speed as the example, the simulation analysis of crash box impact process was carried out by Hyper Mesh and LS-DYNA. Each parameter on the influence modeling was analyzed by mathematics analytical solution and test comparison, which guaranteed that the model was accurate. Combination of experiment and simulation result had determined the weakness part of crash box structure crashworthiness aspect, and improvement method of crash box crashworthiness was discussed. Through numerical simulation of the impact process of automobile crash box, the obtained analysis result was used to optimize the design of crash box. It was helpful to improve the vehicles structure and decrease the collision accident loss at most. And it was also provided a useful method for the further research on the automobile collision.

  14. CHARGING OF DEVICES BY MICROWAVE POWER BEAMING

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landis, Geoffrey A. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    A system for providing wireless, charging power and/or primary power to electronic/electrical devices is described whereby microwave energy is employed. Microwave energy is focused by a power transmitter comprising one or more adaptively-phased microwave array emitters onto a device to be charged. Rectennas within the device to be charged receive and rectify the microwave energy and use it for battery charging and/or for primary power. A locator signal generated by the device to be charged is analyzed by the system to determine the location of the device to be charged relative to the microwave array emitters, permitting thc microwave energy to be directly specifically towards the device to be charged. Backscatter detectors respond to backscatter energy reflected off of any obstacle between the device to be charged and the microwave array emitters. Power to any obstructed microwave array emitter is reduced until the obstruction is removed. Optionally, data can be modulated onto microwave energy beams produced by the array emitter and demodulated by the device, thereby providing means of data communication from the power transmitter to the device. Similarly, data can be modulated onto the locator signal and demodulated in the power transmitter, thereby providing means of data communication from the device to the power transmitter.

  15. Contribution of Road Grade to the Energy Use of Modern Automobiles Across Large Datasets of Real-World Drive Cycles: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, E.; Burton, E.; Duran, A.; Gonder, J.

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the real-world power demand of modern automobiles is of critical importance to engineers using modeling and simulation to inform the intelligent design of increasingly efficient powertrains. Increased use of global positioning system (GPS) devices has made large scale data collection of vehicle speed (and associated power demand) a reality. While the availability of real-world GPS data has improved the industry's understanding of in-use vehicle power demand, relatively little attention has been paid to the incremental power requirements imposed by road grade. This analysis quantifies the incremental efficiency impacts of real-world road grade by appending high fidelity elevation profiles to GPS speed traces and performing a large simulation study. Employing a large real-world dataset from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Transportation Secure Data Center, vehicle powertrain simulations are performed with and without road grade under five vehicle models. Aggregate results of this study suggest that road grade could be responsible for 1% to 3% of fuel use in light-duty automobiles.

  16. Microwave power generation by magnetic superlattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Littlejohn, S.; Nogaret, A.; Davies, S. R.; Henini, M.; Beere, H. E.; Ritchie, D. A.

    2011-12-01

    We report on microwave power emission by ballistic electrons as they cross a region of spatially inhomogeneous magnetic field. Magnetic finger gates were fabricated at the surface of high mobility GaAs/AlGaAs Hall bars embedded in a coplanar waveguide. By modulating the current injected through the Hall bar and measuring the second harmonic of the signal rectified by a Schottky detector, we obtain the microwave power emitted by the superlattice. This power (˜6 W m-2) is compared to the fluorescence of electron spins that undergo spin resonance as they cross domains of opposite magnetic field.

  17. Loudness determined by power summation.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howes, W. L.

    1971-01-01

    The predicted overall loudness of steady, broad-band noise is usually computed by summing weighted loudnesses of sub-bands of the noise intensity (mean-square pressure) spectrum. It is proposed, instead, that the overall loudness should be computed by summing weighted intensities of sub-bands ('critical bands') of noise and then obtaining the loudness of the sum. This method seems to yield better agreement with published loudness judgments than does the usual method. It appears that the proposed method should also yield better agreement with annoyance judgments than does the 'perceived noise' method of Kryter.

  18. Empathy: a motivated account.

    PubMed

    Zaki, Jamil

    2014-11-01

    Empathy features a tension between automaticity and context dependency. On the one hand, people often take on each other's internal states reflexively and outside of awareness. On the other hand, empathy shifts with characteristics of empathizers and situations. These 2 characteristics of empathy can be reconciled by acknowledging the key role of motivation in driving people to avoid or approach engagement with others' emotions. In particular, at least 3 phenomena-suffering, material costs, and interference with competition-motivate people to avoid empathy, and at least 3 phenomena-positive affect, affiliation, and social desirability-motivate them to approach empathy. Would-be empathizers carry out these motives through regulatory strategies including situation selection, attentional modulation, and appraisal, which alter the course of empathic episodes. Interdisciplinary evidence highlights the motivated nature of empathy, and a motivated model holds wide-ranging implications for basic theory, models of psychiatric illness, and intervention efforts to maximize empathy. PMID:25347133

  19. Sexual motivation is reflected by stimulus-dependent motor cortex excitability

    PubMed Central

    Schecklmann, Martin; Engelhardt, Kristina; Konzok, Julian; Rupprecht, Rainer; Greenlee, Mark W.; Mokros, Andreas; Langguth, Berthold

    2015-01-01

    Sexual behavior involves motivational processes. Findings from both animal models and neuroimaging in humans suggest that the recruitment of neural motor networks is an integral part of the sexual response. However, no study so far has directly linked sexual motivation to physiologically measurable changes in cerebral motor systems in humans. Using transcranial magnetic stimulation in hetero- and homosexual men, we here show that sexual motivation modulates cortical excitability. More specifically, our results demonstrate that visual sexual stimuli corresponding with one’s sexual orientation, compared with non-corresponding visual sexual stimuli, increase the excitability of the motor cortex. The reflection of sexual motivation in motor cortex excitability provides evidence for motor preparation processes in sexual behavior in humans. Moreover, such interrelationship links theoretical models and previous neuroimaging findings of sexual behavior. PMID:25556214

  20. Individual and Sex Differences in the Consequences of Victimization: Moderation by Approach and Avoidance Motivation

    PubMed Central

    Llewellyn, Nicole; Rudolph, Karen D.

    2015-01-01

    Peer victimization is a known risk factor for various forms of maladjustment; however, the specific type of maladjustment may depend on individual differences in youth. This 2-wave longitudinal study examined the hypothesis that social approach–avoidance motivation, together with sex, would moderate the contribution of 3rd-grade victimization to 4th-grade maladjustment. Children (N = 574, M age = 8.94, SD = 0.37) reported on their victimization exposure, social approach–avoidance motivation, and depressive symptoms. Teachers reported on students’ victimization exposure and aggressive behavior. Victimization predicted aggressive behavior only in boys with moderate to high approach motivation; victimization predicted depressive symptoms only in girls with moderate to high avoidance motivation. This research elucidates the diverse consequences associated with peer victimization and informs efforts to address these consequences in a targeted manner. PMID:25019947

  1. Advice of the Italian CCTN on the health risk assessment relative to exposure to automobile emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Camoni, I.; Mucci, N.; Foa, V.

    1998-01-01

    Three recommendations expressed by the Italian National Toxicological Committee (CCTN) in the period 1990-1995 are reported; they concern the health impact of exposure to benzene and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), resulting from automobile exhaust products, for Italian general and occupationally exposed populations. The first recommendation takes into consideration the possible long-term effects of the unleaded gasoline, recently introduced in Italy. The latter two recommendations concern the quantitative evaluations of the risk of leukemia and of the risk of lung cancer from exposure to benzene and PAHs, resulting from automobile exhaust.

  2. Effect of a curved duct upstream on performance of small centrifugal compressors for automobile turbochargers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kikuchi, Shigeta; Yamasaki, Nobuhiko; Yamagata, Akihiro

    2013-02-01

    Since the automobile turbochargers are installed in an engine compartment with limited space, the ducts upstream of the turbocharger compressor may be curved in a complex manner. In the present paper, the effect of a curved duct upstream on performance of small centrifugal compressors for automobile turbochargers is discussed. The computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis of a turbocharger compressor validated for the compressor model with the straight pipe applied to the compressor with the curved pipe are executed, and the deterioration of the performance for the curved pipe is confirmed. It is also found that the deterioration of compressor performance is caused by the interaction of the secondary flow and the impeller.

  3. Ergonomic and usability analysis on a sample of automobile dashboards.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Raíssa; Soares, Marcelo

    2012-01-01

    This is a research study based on an analysis which sets out to identify and pinpoint ergonomic and usability problems found in a sample of automobile dashboards. The sample consisted of three dashboards, of three different makes and characterized as being a popular model, an average model and a luxury model. The examination was conducted by observation, with the aid of photography, notes and open interview, questionnaires and performing tasks with users, the bases of which are on the principles laid down by methodologies. From this it was possible to point to the existence of problems such as: complaints about the layout, lighting, colors, available area, difficult access to points of interaction, such as buttons, and the difficult nomenclature of dials. Later, the findings and recommendations presented show the need for a further, deeper study, using more accurate tools, a larger sample of users, and an anthropometric study focused on the dashboard, since reading and understanding it have to be done quickly and accurately, and that more attention be given to the study of automobile dashboards, particularly in the most popular vehicles in order to maintain the standards of usability, and drivers' comfort and safety. PMID:22316929

  4. Motivating Students through Music and Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Towell, Janet H.

    2000-01-01

    Argues that music is a powerful way to motivate students to read. Discusses reading picture books made from songs or written by musicians; using music to set the mood; combining poetry with music; and using instruments or sound effects. Lists picture books made from songs or written by musicians, books for mood music, and books with musical…

  5. Formaldehyde monitor for automobile exhausts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Easley, W. C.

    1973-01-01

    Device makes use of microwave spectral absorption in low-Q resonant Stark cell, and indications are that ultimate sensitivity of instrument is within 100 parts per billion of formaldehyde. Microwave source is very small and requires only six-volt dc bias for operation. Coarse tuning is accomplished mechanically and fine tuning by adjusting dc-bias voltage.

  6. A HIGHWAY MODEL FOR THE ADVECTION, DIFFUSION AND CHEMICAL REACTION OF POLLUTANTS RELEASED BY AUTOMOBILES: PART I. ADVECTION AND DIFFUSION OF SF6 TRACER GAS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A two-dimensional, finite-difference model simulating a highway has been developed which is able to handle linear and nonlinear chemical reactions. Transport of the pollutants is accomplished by use of an upstream-flux-corrected algorithm developed at the Naval Research Laborator...

  7. Your Automobile Dollar. Money Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baran, Nancy H., Ed.

    This booklet is designed to help first-time car buyers determine if they can or should buy a car and how to get the most from their car-buying dollar. Leasing and renting options also are discussed. The booklet outlines the process of buying a new car, starting with a review of sizes, types, and features. This is followed by a rundown on showroom…

  8. Recycling scheme for scrapped automobiles in Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Suzuki, Masao; Nakajima, Akira; Taya, Sadao

    1995-12-31

    Over 5 million cars are scrapped yearly in Japan. After dismantling scrapped automobiles, they are put into a shredder for differential recovery of ferrous and nonferrous metals. The residue, which is called shredder dust, runs over 1.2 million tons per year. This paper reports a entire sequence of scrapping cars in Japan with the following sections: (1) production and scrapped car management, (2) material composition, (3) dismantling, (4) shredder plant, (5) differential recovery of metals including specific gravity and newly developed color separation.

  9. Information, complexity and efficiency: The automobile model

    SciTech Connect

    Allenby, B. |

    1996-08-08

    The new, rapidly evolving field of industrial ecology - the objective, multidisciplinary study of industrial and economic systems and their linkages with fundamental natural systems - provides strong ground for believing that a more environmentally and economically efficient economy will be more information intensive and complex. Information and intellectual capital will be substituted for the more traditional inputs of materials and energy in producing a desirable, yet sustainable, quality of life. While at this point this remains a strong hypothesis, the evolution of the automobile industry can be used to illustrate how such substitution may, in fact, already be occurring in an environmentally and economically critical sector.

  10. 76 FR 44402 - Proposed Information Collection (Application for Automobile or Other Conveyance and Adaptive...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-25

    ... AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection (Application for Automobile or Other Conveyance and Adaptive...' eligibility for automobile adaptation equipment or other conveyance allowance. DATES: Written comments and... techniques or the use of other forms of information technology. Title: Application for Automobile or...

  11. The effect of motivation on loose thinking in schizophrenics as measured by the Bannister-Fransella Grid Test.

    PubMed

    Higgins, K; Sherman, M

    1978-07-01

    Administered the Bannister-Fransella Grid Test of Schizophrenic Thought Disorder to 40 male schizophrenics. Half of them received a monetary reward for their performance, and half did not. The efficacy of this motivation-enhancing manipulation was verified by the fact that the group that was working for the money completed a card sorting task significantly faster than the group that received no compensation. However, the former group also exhibited more thought disorder on the grid test. The results were interpreted in terms of drive theory. It was argued that the rewarded group was more motivated and therefore more highly aroused and that this high arousal level disrupted performance on the more complex task. The findings do not support the hypothesis that lack of motivation contributes to schizophrenic cognitive deficit. PMID:690198

  12. Instructional Language Policy in Ethiopia: Motivated by Politics or the Educational Needs of Children?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alemu, Daniel S.; Tekleselassie, Abebayehu A.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explain the formulation, implementation, and outcome of Ethiopia's instructional language policy in light of the PRINCE system of power analysis as adapted by Fowler (2004), along with several literature references pertinent to the issue. After providing a brief background on Ethiopia and its education and language…

  13. Fuel injection apparatus for automobile

    SciTech Connect

    De Grazia, T.W. Jr.

    1987-09-22

    This patent describes a fuel injection adapter for use on a vehicle including a carburetor having a throat, a fuel pump, a throttle and a throttle control lever. In consists of: chamber means adapted for mounting adjacent the carburetor; metering jet means, including an orifice with different size internal diameters and a longitudinal needle movable within the orifice for varying the volume of fuel delivered. Fuel inlet means on the chamber means adapted for connection to the fuel pump; adjustment means mechanically coupled to the throttle lever and responsive to movement to control movement of the metering jet means to vary the amount of fuel delivered by the nozzle means. The adjustment includes an operating lever coupled to the throttle lever, a needle plate coupled to the operating lever and means on the needle plate for engaging the needle; and fuel shutoff means coupled in series with the fuel inlet means for cutting off fuel to the chamber means when the operating lever is moved to a position corresponding to a throttle wide-open position.

  14. Effects of autonomous motivational priming on motivation and affective responses towards high-intensity interval training.

    PubMed

    Brown, Denver M Y; Teseo, Amanda J; Bray, Steven R

    2016-08-01

    This study examined the effect of autonomous motivational priming on motivation, attitudes and intentions towards high-intensity interval training (HIT). Participants (N = 42) performed a graded exercise test to determine their peak aerobic power (WPEAK). At a subsequent testing session, participants were randomised to complete either an autonomous or neutral motivational priming task followed by a 10 × 1 HIT exercise protocol, alternating 1-min bouts of hard (70% WPEAK) and light (12.5% WPEAK) exercises for 20 min. Participants primed with autonomous motivation reported greater enjoyment, P = .009, ηp(2) = .16, and perceived competence, P = .005, ηp(2) = .18, post-exercise compared to those in the neutral priming condition. Participants in the autonomous motivational priming condition also reported more positive attitudes, P = .014, ηp(2) = .14, towards HIT; however, there was no difference between the conditions for task motivation during HIT or intentions, P = .53, ηp(2) = .01, to engage in HIT. These findings highlight autonomous motivational priming as a method of enhancing affective and motivational experiences regarding HIT. PMID:26634389

  15. Power oscillation suppression by robust SMES in power system with large wind power penetration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ngamroo, Issarachai; Cuk Supriyadi, A. N.; Dechanupaprittha, Sanchai; Mitani, Yasunori

    2009-01-01

    The large penetration of wind farm into interconnected power systems may cause the severe problem of tie-line power oscillations. To suppress power oscillations, the superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) which is able to control active and reactive powers simultaneously, can be applied. On the other hand, several generating and loading conditions, variation of system parameters, etc., cause uncertainties in the system. The SMES controller designed without considering system uncertainties may fail to suppress power oscillations. To enhance the robustness of SMES controller against system uncertainties, this paper proposes a robust control design of SMES by taking system uncertainties into account. The inverse additive perturbation is applied to represent the unstructured system uncertainties and included in power system modeling. The configuration of active and reactive power controllers is the first-order lead-lag compensator with single input feedback. To tune the controller parameters, the optimization problem is formulated based on the enhancement of robust stability margin. The particle swarm optimization is used to solve the problem and achieve the controller parameters. Simulation studies in the six-area interconnected power system with wind farms confirm the robustness of the proposed SMES under various operating conditions.

  16. Four-wheel dual braking for automobiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, H. B.

    1981-01-01

    Each master cylinder applies braking power to all four wheels unlike conventional systems where cylinder operates only two wheels. If one master system fails because of fluid loss, other stops car by braking all four wheels although at half force.

  17. Restrictive loads powered by separate or by common electrical sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Appelbaum, J.

    1989-01-01

    In designing a multiple load electrical system, the designer may wish to compare the performance of two setups: a common electrical source powering all loads, or separate electrical sources powering individual loads. Three types of electrical sources: an ideal voltage source, an ideal current source, and solar cell source powering resistive loads were analyzed for their performances in separate and common source systems. A mathematical proof is given, for each case, indicating the merit of the separate or common source system. The main conclusions are: (1) identical resistive loads powered by ideal voltage sources perform the same in both system setups, (2) nonidentical resistive loads powered by ideal voltage sources perform the same in both system setups, (3) nonidentical resistive loads powered by ideal current sources have higher performance in separate source systems, and (4) nonidentical resistive loads powered by solar cells have higher performance in a common source system for a wide range of load resistances.

  18. Can Goals Motivate Students?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Usher, Alexandra; Kober, Nancy

    2012-01-01

    This is the third in a series of six papers by the Center on Education Policy exploring issues related to students' motivation to learn. This paper examines various programs that use test performance or postsecondary attendance as motivational goals and the effects of these goals on students. How do policies surrounding assessments and college…

  19. Varieties of Achievement Motivation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kukla, Andre; Scher, Hal

    1986-01-01

    A recent article by Nicholls on achievement motivation is criticized on three points: (1) definitions of achievement motives are ambiguous; (2) behavioral consequences predicted do not follow from explicit theoretical assumptions; and (3) Nicholls's account of the relation between his theory and other achievement theories is factually incorrect.…

  20. The Physiology of Motivation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stellar, Eliot

    1994-01-01

    A theory of the physiology of motivation is presented. The basic assumption is that the amount of motivated behavior is a direct function of the amount of activity in certain excitatory centers of the hypothalamus. Activities of these centers are determined by factors in four general classes. (SLD)

  1. It's not all about me: motivating hand hygiene among health care professionals by focusing on patients.

    PubMed

    Grant, Adam M; Hofmann, David A

    2011-12-01

    Diseases often spread in hospitals because health care professionals fail to wash their hands. Research suggests that to increase health and safety behaviors, it is important to highlight the personal consequences for the actor. However, because people (and health care professionals in particular) tend to be overconfident about personal immunity, the most effective messages about hand hygiene may be those that highlight its consequences for other people. In two field experiments in a hospital, we compared the effectiveness of signs about hand hygiene that emphasized personal safety ("Hand hygiene prevents you from catching diseases") or patient safety ("Hand hygiene prevents patients from catching diseases"). We assessed hand hygiene by measuring the amount of soap and hand-sanitizing gel used from dispensers (Experiment 1) and conducting covert, independent observations of health care professionals' hand-hygiene behaviors (Experiment 2). Results showed that changing a single word in messages motivated meaningful changes in behavior: The hand hygiene of health care professionals increased significantly when they were reminded of the implications for patients but not when they were reminded of the implications for themselves. PMID:22075239

  2. Progress in recycling of automobile shredder residue

    SciTech Connect

    Jody, B.J.; Daniels, E.J.; Pomykala, J.A. Jr.

    1996-03-01

    At Argonne National Laboratory, we have been developing a potentially economical process to recycle automobile shredder residue (ASR). We identified three potentially marketable materials that can be recovered from ASR and developed technologies to recover and upgrade these materials. We build and tested a field-demonstration plant for recycling polyurethane foam and produced about 2000 lb of recycled foam. Several 300-lb samples were sent for evaluation and were found to be of marketable quality. We are also preparing for a large-scale test in which about 200 tons of ASR-derived fines will be used as a raw material in cement making. A major cement company has evaluated small samples of fines prepared in the laboratory and found that they meet its requirements as a substitute for iron ore or mill scale. We also produced about 50 lb of recycled acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) from obsolete automobiles and found that it has properties that could be readily upgraded to meet the specifications of the automotive industry. In this paper, we briefly discuss the process as a whole and summarize the results obtained from the field work on foam and fines recycling.

  3. Catalytic pyrolysis of automobile shredder residue

    SciTech Connect

    Arzoumanidis, G.G.; McIntosh, M.J.; Steffensen, E.J.

    1995-07-01

    In the United States, approximately 10 million automobiles are scrapped and shredded each year. The mixture of plastics and other materials remaining after recovery of the metals is known as Automobile Shredder Residue (ASR). In 1994, about 3.5 million tons of ASR was produced and disposed of in landfills. However, environmental, legislative, and economic considerations are forcing the industry to search for recycling or other alternatives to disposal. Numerous studies have been done relating the ASR disposal problem to possible recycling treatments such as pyrolysis, gasification, co-liquefaction of ASR with coal, chemical recovery of plastics from ASR, catalytic pyrolysis, reclamation in molten salts, and vacuum pyrolysis. These and other possibilities have been studied intensively, and entire symposia have been devoted to the problem. Product mix, yields, toxicology issues, and projected economics of conceptual plant designs based on experimental results are among the key elements of past studies. Because the kinds of recycling methods that may be developed, along with their ultimate economic value, depend on a very large number of variables, these studies have been open-ended. It is hoped that it may be useful to explore some of these previously studied areas from fresh perspectives. One such approach, currently under development at Argonne National Laboratory, is the catalytic pyrolysis of ASR.

  4. 40 CFR 600.315-08 - Classes of comparable automobiles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... advanced technology vehicles (such as battery electric vehicles, fuel cell vehicles, plug-in hybrid..., Department of Transportation (DOT), 49 CFR 571.3. (ii) Minicompact cars. Interior volume index less than 85... automobiles or light trucks (nonpassenger automobiles) in accordance with 49 CFR part 523. (1)...

  5. 40 CFR 600.315-08 - Classes of comparable automobiles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... advanced technology vehicles (such as battery electric vehicles, fuel cell vehicles, plug-in hybrid..., Department of Transportation (DOT), 49 CFR 571.3. (ii) Minicompact cars. Interior volume index less than 85... automobiles or light trucks (nonpassenger automobiles) in accordance with 49 CFR part 523. (1)...

  6. 40 CFR 600.315-08 - Classes of comparable automobiles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... advanced technology vehicles (such as battery electric vehicles, fuel cell vehicles, plug-in hybrid..., Department of Transportation (DOT), 49 CFR 571.3. (ii) Minicompact cars. Interior volume index less than 85... automobiles or light trucks (nonpassenger automobiles) in accordance with 49 CFR part 523. (1)...

  7. Feedback Effects on Performance, Motivation and Mood: Are They Moderated by the Learner's Self-Concept?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baadte, Christiane; Schnotz, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    This study tested the assumption that the effectiveness of feedback with regard to performance, motivation, and affect is moderated by the learners' self-concept. A total of 72 sixth-graders completed a web-based interactive learning program. Half of the sample received feedback and the other half received no feedback. Differential feedback…

  8. Identifying Future Sacred Heart Administrators by Examining the Characteristics, Commonalities, and Personal Motivations of Current School Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teixeira, Julie Brill

    2012-01-01

    Since their inception, all schools of the Sacred Heart have been headed by nuns of the Religious of the Sacred Heart of Jesus [RSCJ]. As the years have passed, many RSCJ nuns have aged and retired leaving vacancies that have proven difficult to fill. In this qualitative study, the characteristics, commonalities, and personal motivations of Sacred…

  9. Why Start a Higher Degree by Research? An Exploratory Factor Analysis of Motivations to Undertake Doctoral Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guerin, Cally; Jayatilaka, Asangi; Ranasinghe, Damith

    2015-01-01

    Despite the increasing numbers of candidates embarking on higher degrees by research (HDRs, e.g., PhD, professional doctorate, practice-based doctorate), we still have limited knowledge about why they are choosing this path. What are the factors that motivate students to embark on research degrees? Given that many of those who succeed in…

  10. College Attendance by Working Adults and Its Effects on the Educational Motivations of Their Children. Occasional Papers 11.2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fenster, Eric

    The effects of college attendance by working adults on educational motivations of their children were studied. A total of 740 parents in the Detroit area who attended a college program combining in-home televised instruction with weekend decentralized seminars were surveyed along with 211 of their children and 75 respondents from Kansas City. Many…

  11. Environmental implications of alternative-fueled automobiles: Air quality and greenhouse gas tradeoffs

    SciTech Connect

    MaClean, H.L.; Lave, L.B.

    2000-01-15

    The authors analyze alternative fuel-powerstrain options for internal combustion engine automobiles. Fuel/engine efficiency, energy use, pollutant discharges, and greenhouse gas emissions are estimated for spark and compression ignited, direct injected (DI), and indirect injected (II) engines fueled by conventional and reformulated gasoline, reformulated diesel, compressed natural gas (CNG), and alcohols. Since comparisons of fuels and technologies in dissimilar vehicles are misleading, the authors hold emissions level, range, vehicle size class, and style constant. At present, CNG vehicles have the best exhaust emissions performance while DI diesels have the worst. Compared to a conventional gasoline fueled II automobile, greenhouse gases could be reduced by 40% by a DI CNG automobile and by 25% by a DI diesel. Gasoline- and diesel-fueled automobiles are able to attain long ranges with little weight or fuel economy penalty. CNG vehicles have the highest penalty for increasing range, due to their heavy fuel storage systems, but are the most attractive for a 160-km range. DI engines, particularly diesels, may not be able to meet strict emissions standards, at least not without lowering efficiency.

  12. Harnessing motivational forces in the promotion of physical activity: the Community Health Advice by Telephone (CHAT) project.

    PubMed

    King, Abby C; Friedman, Robert; Marcus, Bess; Castro, Cynthia; Forsyth, LeighAnn; Napolitano, Melissa; Pinto, Bernardine

    2002-10-01

    Physical inactivity among middle- and older-aged adults is pervasive, and is linked with numerous chronic conditions that diminish health and functioning. Counselor-directed physical activity programs may enhance extrinsic motivation (reflected in social influence theories, such as self-presentation theory) and, in turn, physical activity adherence, while the counselor is in charge of program delivery. However, external influences can undermine intrinsic motivation, making it more difficult to maintain physical activity once counselor-initiated contact ends. In contrast, programs that diminish the socially evaluative and controlling aspects of the counseling interchange may promote intrinsic motivation (described in cognitive evaluation theory), and, thus, physical activity maintenance, even when counselor-initiated contact ceases. The objective of the Community Health Advice by Telephone (CHAT) project is to compare these two theories by conducting a randomized controlled trial evaluating the effects of a telephone-administered counseling program delivered by a person (social influence enhancement) or computer (cognitive evaluation enhancement) on physical activity adoption and maintenance over 18 months. Healthy, sedentary adults (n = 225) aged 55 years and older are randomized to one of these programs or to a control arm. This study will contribute to advancing motivational theory as well as provide information on the sustained effectiveness of interventions with substantial public health applicability. PMID:12408207

  13. The Effect of Automobile Safety on Vehicle Type Choice: An Empirical Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarthy, Patrick S.

    An analysis was made of the extent to which the safety characteristics of new vehicles affect consumer purchase decisions. Using an extensive data set that combines vehicle data collected by the Automobile Club of Southern California Target Car Program with the responses from a national household survey of new car buyers, a statistical model of…

  14. THE PHOTOOXIDATION OF AUTOMOBILE EMISSIONS: MEASUREMENTS OF THE TRANSFORMATION PRODUCTS AND THEIR MUTAGENIC ACTIVITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Dilute mixtures of automobile emissions were irradiated in a smog chamber and tested for mutagenic activity by using a variant of the Salmonella test. he exhaust was taken from single vehicle, a 1977 Ford Mustang, equipped with a catalytic converter. rradiated and nonirradiate ga...

  15. Using a partner's facial emotion to elucidate social dominance motivation induced by an SSRI.

    PubMed

    Tse, Wai S; Chow, H; Wing, Y K; Bond, Alyson J

    2014-10-01

    Previous studies independently showed that acute treatment with a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) enhanced happy face recognition, and dominance behaviors which might reflect enhancement of reward sensitivity. The present study aimed to determine whether such a mechanism would be related to social resource acquisition induced by an SSRI. Forty healthy subjects were recruited for the experiment. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover nested within confederate type (happy, fearful, or sad) trial of a single-dose of 10mg escitalopram versus placebo was conducted with a two-week washout period. In each of the treatment groups, the subjects interacted socially with one of the three types of confederate in a waiting room for 3-minute. Then, they went to an individual laboratory and were led to believe that they played the Mixed-motive game with the confederate. The game measures punitive/cooperative behaviors by how participants allocate higher/lower game scores to the confederate and communicate cooperation/ingratiation/helplessness/sadness/blaming/extrapunitive, messages to the confederate. Significant treatment-by-confederate type interactions were observed through game score distributions and ingratiation messages to the confederate and attentive eye gaze. In the happy confederate condition, escitalopram increased ingratiation messages and lowered points awarded to the confederate. In the fearful confederate condition, escitalopram increased ingratiation messages and reduced time spent looking away from the confederate. No changes in these measures were found in the sad confederate condition. Therefore acute escitalopram treatment enhances reward sensitivity to the facial emotions of social partners which in turn increases social resource acquisition and social dominance towards happy but not fearful social partners. PMID:25169642

  16. 32 CFR 220.11 - Special rules for automobile liability insurance and no-fault automobile insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... regarding tort liability. In addition, the provisions of 28 CFR part 43 (Department of Justice regulations... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Special rules for automobile liability insurance and no-fault automobile insurance. 220.11 Section 220.11 National Defense Department of...

  17. 32 CFR 220.11 - Special rules for automobile liability insurance and no-fault automobile insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... regarding tort liability. In addition, the provisions of 28 CFR part 43 (Department of Justice regulations... 32 National Defense 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Special rules for automobile liability insurance and no-fault automobile insurance. 220.11 Section 220.11 National Defense Department of...

  18. 32 CFR 220.11 - Special rules for automobile liability insurance and no-fault automobile insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... regarding tort liability. In addition, the provisions of 28 CFR part 43 (Department of Justice regulations... 32 National Defense 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Special rules for automobile liability insurance and no-fault automobile insurance. 220.11 Section 220.11 National Defense Department of...

  19. 32 CFR 220.11 - Special rules for automobile liability insurance and no-fault automobile insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... regarding tort liability. In addition, the provisions of 28 CFR part 43 (Department of Justice regulations... 32 National Defense 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Special rules for automobile liability insurance and no-fault automobile insurance. 220.11 Section 220.11 National Defense Department of...

  20. 32 CFR 220.11 - Special rules for automobile liability insurance and no-fault automobile insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... regarding tort liability. In addition, the provisions of 28 CFR part 43 (Department of Justice regulations... 32 National Defense 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Special rules for automobile liability insurance and no-fault automobile insurance. 220.11 Section 220.11 National Defense Department of...

  1. Motivator-manager.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Angelic P

    2009-01-01

    The radiologic career field has undergone radical changes in technology, regulatory compliance, and customer expectation.These changes often require dramatic alterations to processes,which can break down communication, create stress, and have a negative effect on department productivity. Motivation itself is a frequently analyzed and reported topic in professional publications. For this purpose, this literature review specifically researches motivation as identified by radiology administrators through Radiology Management. Three key elements surfaced as those with the most impact: (1) motivation is an intrinsic factor which can be influenced but not created, (2) clear attainable goals are an essential component of motivation,and (3) motivation begins with identification of employee needs. PMID:22276390

  2. Motivating Students. Staff and Educational Development Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Sally, Ed.; Armstrong, Steve, Ed.; Thompson, Gail, Ed.

    Twenty papers on motivating college students are grouped into four sections: (1) the impact of teaching on student motivation; (2) motivating diverse students; (3) the impact of university practices on motivation; and (4) the impact of assessment on motivation. After an introductory selection by Sally Brown, Steve Armstrong, and Gail Thompson, the…

  3. Engaging Online Adult Learners in Higher Education: Motivational Factors Impacted by Gender, Age, and Prior Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoo, Sun Joo; Huang, Wenhao David

    2013-01-01

    As the number of online degree programs continues to grow among higher education institutions in the United States, engaging online adult learners to online degree programs is getting more difficult than before. Therefore, this study, situated in a land grant university, investigated the motivational factors that contribute to adult learners'…

  4. The Influence of Motivating Operations on Generalization Probes of Specific Mands by Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fragale, Christina L.; O'Reilly, Mark F.; Aguilar, Jeannie; Pierce, Nigel; Lang, Russell; Sigafoos, Jeff; Lancioni, Giulio

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the influence of motivating operations on the generalization of newly taught mands across settings and communication partners for 3 children with autism. Two conditions were implemented prior to generalization probes. In the first condition, participants were given access to a preferred item until they rejected the item (i.e.,…

  5. Relationship between Learning Strategies and Motivation by Using Structural Equation Modeling Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adnan, Mohamad Azrien Mohamed; Nordin, Mohd Sahari; Ibrahim, Mohd Burhan

    2013-01-01

    This paper aimed at examining the learning strategies constructs and to investigate the relationship between learning strategies and motivation in Arabic courses. The study uses a questionnaire as the information-gathering instrument, and the participants comprised students from two public universities in Peninsular Malaysia who are studying…

  6. Motivational Factors Affecting the Integration of a Learning Management System by Faculty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gautreau, Cynthia

    2011-01-01

    Online courses taught using a learning management system are common in higher education. Teaching online requires a new set of skills, knowledge, and professional growth. Faculty development programs often overlook factors that promote or inhibit the use of technologies among professors. This study identified the motivation factors that faculty…

  7. Individual and Sex Differences in the Consequences of Victimization: Moderation by Approach and Avoidance Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Llewellyn, Nicole; Rudolph, Karen D.

    2014-01-01

    Peer victimization is a known risk factor for various forms of maladjustment; however, the specific type of maladjustment may depend on individual differences in youth. This 2-wave longitudinal study examined the hypothesis that social approach-avoidance motivation, together with sex, would moderate the contribution of 3rd-grade victimization to…

  8. Intriguing structures in iterative maps motivated by N-body problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mittal, Ashok Kumar; Gupta, Ashok Kumar

    2011-03-01

    Conventional approaches to modeling any system try to incorporate increasingly realistic features into the model, thereby making it more and more complex. An opposite approach seeks to build simpler and simpler conceptual models capable of capturing some observed features of a system. This trend began with Lorenz, who simplified models of the atmosphere to obtain the Lorenz model consisting of a system of only three equations. Despite the simplicity of these equations, this system displayed surprisingly rich properties, and has been used as a conceptual model in diverse disciplines. Poincare maps help study ordinary differential equations from a qualitative perspective. Several investigators like Henon and Feigenbaum followed this simplification approach. Instead of investigating Poincare maps of realistic systems, they, along with several others, investigated simple maps for their own sake. Despite lack of realism, this approach proved to be very fruitful. A map, as simple as the Logistic map, became an important conceptual modeling paradigm. It provided a tool for understanding bifurcation routes to chaos, which were verified experimentally through various experiments in diverse fields. Coupled map lattices (CML) help explore partial differential equations (PDE). Further simplification led to the introduction of Cellular Automata (CA). These fields continue to be explored with vigor and have given rise to a rich body of knowledge, conceptually useful over a wide spectrum of disciplines. In this paper, we follow the simplification approach for modeling the N-body problem. N-body simulations, say in Gravitation, give rise to filamentary structures. Such structures are observed in the actual observed Galactic distribution. The mechanism for creation of such structures is not well understood. We present a simple iterative dynamical model, motivated by the N-body problem, which, though unrealistic, produces such filamentary structures. This model also exhibits a

  9. Microwave power transmission system wherein level of transmitted power is controlled by reflections from receiver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, W. J., Jr. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    A microwave, wireless, power transmission system is described in which the transmitted power level is adjusted to correspond with power required at a remote receiving station. Deviations in power load produce an antenna impedance mismatch causing variations in energy reflected by the power receiving antenna employed by the receiving station. The variations in reflected energy are sensed by a receiving antenna at the transmitting station and used to control the output power of a power transmitter.

  10. Bidirectional power stroke by ncd kinesin.

    PubMed

    Butterfield, Anthony E; Stewart, Russell J; Schmidt, Christoph F; Skliar, Mikhail

    2010-12-15

    Optical trapping experiments reveal details of molecular motor dynamics. In noisy data, temporal structure within the power stroke of motors can be analyzed by ensemble averaging, but this obscures infrequent subcategories of events. We have here developed an analysis method that uses Kalman filtering of measurements, model-based estimation of the power strokes produced by the motor head, and automatic event classification to discriminate between different types of motor events. This method was applied to optical trap measurements of power strokes of the Drosophila kinesin-14 ncd in a three-bead geometry. We found the majority of events to be consistent with the previously discovered minus-end directed power stroke of ncd, occurring with ATP binding. Unexpectedly, 30% of apparent power strokes were plus-directed and 6% of binding events did not terminate in a discernible stroke. Ensemble averaging for each event category revealed that plus- and minus-directed strokes have different size and occur at different instants within the ncd-MT attachment sequence. PMID:21156132

  11. Thermal valorisation of automobile shredder residue: injection in blast furnace.

    PubMed

    Mirabile, Daphne; Pistelli, Maria Ilaria; Marchesini, Marina; Falciani, Roberta; Chiappelli, Lisa

    2002-01-01

    Wastes with residual heating value, according to the trend of the world legislation, could be thermally reused. The present study is conducted to verify the possibility of thermal valorisation of a waste, denominated fluff, by injection in blast furnace. The fluff, arising from the automobile shredder operations, is a waste characterised by a high organic matrix and is potentially dangerous due to the heavy metals, oils filter and halogenated plastics content. The first step of the work is the chemical, physical and toxicological characterisation of this material. Then the fluff injection in a blast furnace tuyere is theoretically analysed with a mathematical model. Finally, experimental trials are conducted in a pilot plant, simulating the most important part of the blast furnace: the raceway, in order to analyse process and industrial aspects. In view of an industrial application a first economical evaluation is carried out on the basis of model and experimental results. PMID:12423043

  12. Pulmonary adverse effects of welding fume in automobile assembly welders.

    PubMed

    Sharifian, Seyed Akbar; Loukzadeh, Ziba; Shojaoddiny-Ardekani, Ahmad; Aminian, Omid

    2011-01-01

    Welding is one of the key components of numerous manufacturing industries, which has potential physical and chemical health hazards. Many components of welding fumes can potentially affect the lung function. This study investigates the effects of welding fumes on lung function and respiratory symptoms among welders of an automobile manufacturing plant in Iran. This historical cohort study assesses 43 male welders and 129 office workers by a questionnaire to record demographic data, smoking habits, work history and respiratory symptoms as well as lung function status by spirometry. The average pulmonary function values of welders were lower relative to controls with dose-effect relationship between work duration and pulmonary function impairment. The prevalence of chronic bronchitis was higher in welders than controls. Our findings suggest that welders are at risk for pulmonary disease. PMID:21598218

  13. Stability analysis of automobile driver steering control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, R. W.

    1981-01-01

    In steering an automobile, the driver must basically control the direction of the car's trajectory (heading angle) and the lateral deviation of the car relative to a delineated pathway. A previously published linear control model of driver steering behavior which is analyzed from a stability point of view is considered. A simple approximate expression for a stability parameter, phase margin, is derived in terms of various driver and vehicle control parameters, and boundaries for stability are discussed. A field test study is reviewed that includes the measurement of driver steering control parameters. Phase margins derived for a range of vehicle characteristics are found to be generally consistent with known adaptive properties of the human operator. The implications of these results are discussed in terms of driver adaptive behavior.

  14. Enhancing work motivation for Japanese female nurses in small to medium-sized private hospitals by analyzing job satisfaction.

    PubMed

    Kudo, Yasushi; Kido, Shigeri; Shahzad, Machiko Taruzuka; Shida, Kyoko; Satoh, Toshihiko; Aizawa, Yoshiharu

    2010-03-01

    Proper work environments are important for nurses to feel motivated. We examined the associations between work motivation and job satisfaction among Japanese nurses to improve their motivation. In Japan, relatively small and medium-sized private hospitals play a central role in the healthcare industry. In the present study, the subjects were nurses working in 23 small and medium-sized private hospitals that had 65 to 326 beds. We analyzed 1,116 registered and licensed practical female nurses (average age, 38.3 years; standard deviation, 11.3 years). Many nurses with their specialized nursing skills dedicate themselves to patient care. However, many of these nurses may not be interested in contributing to their hospitals. Nurses may have different opinions regarding dedication to patient care and contribution to their hospitals. Therefore, concerning work motivation, we produced these two different items, "Nurses' dedication to patients" and "Nurses' contribution to their hospitals." We also produced our own original new job satisfaction questionnaire. We found 7 facets of job satisfaction: "Work as specialists," "Workplace safety," "Relationships with superiors," "Work-life balance," "Relationships among nurses," "Communications with physicians," and "Salary." Multiple linear regression analyses show that both "Nurses' dedication to patients" and "Nurses' contribution to their hospitals" were significantly associated with "Work as specialists." Nurses feel their jobs of protecting people's lives and health are valuable. They do not feel motivated only by money. They value the intrinsic nature of their jobs. Creating proper work environments is important for nurses to be able to work as specialists. PMID:20208420

  15. Ionospheric disturbances produced by powerful explosives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagorskii, P. M.; Tarashchuk, Yu. E.

    1992-09-01

    Results of a study of wave-like ionospheric disturbances initiated by powerful explosives are presented and analyzed. Three types of wave processes with differing physical natures which propagate in the upper atmosphere and ionosphere to distances of thousands of kilometers are distinguished. The effect of shock-acoustic waves on indirect short wave radio propagation is considered.

  16. Correlation Analysis of Automobile Crash Responses Based on Wavelet Decompositions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Z. Q.; Pellettiere, J. A.

    2003-11-01

    Wavelets are used to analyse automobile crash responses. Crash signals are decomposed into a wavelet or wavelet packet basis, which provide an intuitive vision of impact behaviour of the vehicle structure and occupants. The decomposed signals are further divided into segments that represent vibrations occurring in certain time spans. A correlation analysis is then performed on the decomposed and segmented signals in order to determine the dynamic relationship between different parts of the structure or different segments of the body. The structural responses and the occupant responses in a full frontal impact test are analysed. It is shown that when the gross motions of the structural components are superimposed with significant short time vibrations, the occupant forward motion is basically a rigid body motion. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd.

  17. Influence of Motivation on Wayfinding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Srinivas, Samvith

    2010-01-01

    This research explores the role of affect in the domain of human wayfinding by asking if increased motivation will alter the performance across various routes of increasing complexity. Participants were asked to perform certain navigation tasks within an indoor Virtual Reality (VR) environment under either motivated and not-motivated instructions.…

  18. Student Motivation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lumsden, Linda S.

    1994-01-01

    Following a brief introduction, five reports, books, and articles that examine the issues of engendering, maintaining, or regaining student motivation are summarized. While some offer specific strategies that can be used at the classroom level, others address issues beyond the classroom, recognizing that schoolwide policies and practices can also…

  19. A wireless sensor enabled by wireless power.

    PubMed

    Lee, Da-Sheng; Liu, Yu-Hong; Lin, Chii-Ruey

    2012-01-01

    Through harvesting energy by wireless charging and delivering data by wireless communication, this study proposes the concept of a wireless sensor enabled by wireless power (WPWS) and reports the fabrication of a prototype for functional tests. One WPWS node consists of wireless power module and sensor module with different chip-type sensors. Its main feature is the dual antenna structure. Following RFID system architecture, a power harvesting antenna was designed to gather power from a standard reader working in the 915 MHz band. Referring to the Modbus protocol, the other wireless communication antenna was integrated on a node to send sensor data in parallel. The dual antenna structure integrates both the advantages of an RFID system and a wireless sensor. Using a standard UHF RFID reader, WPWS can be enabled in a distributed area with a diameter up to 4 m. Working status is similar to that of a passive tag, except that a tag can only be queried statically, while the WPWS can send dynamic data from the sensors. The function is the same as a wireless sensor node. Different WPWSs equipped with temperature and humidity, optical and airflow velocity sensors are tested in this study. All sensors can send back detection data within 8 s. The accuracy is within 8% deviation compared with laboratory equipment. A wireless sensor network enabled by wireless power should be a totally wireless sensor network using WPWS. However, distributed WPWSs only can form a star topology, the simplest topology for constructing a sensor network. Because of shielding effects, it is difficult to apply other complex topologies. Despite this limitation, WPWS still can be used to extend sensor network applications in hazardous environments. Further research is needed to improve WPWS to realize a totally wireless sensor network. PMID:23443370

  20. A Wireless Sensor Enabled by Wireless Power

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Da-Sheng; Liu, Yu-Hong; Lin, Chii-Ruey

    2012-01-01

    Through harvesting energy by wireless charging and delivering data by wireless communication, this study proposes the concept of a wireless sensor enabled by wireless power (WPWS) and reports the fabrication of a prototype for functional tests. One WPWS node consists of wireless power module and sensor module with different chip-type sensors. Its main feature is the dual antenna structure. Following RFID system architecture, a power harvesting antenna was designed to gather power from a standard reader working in the 915 MHz band. Referring to the Modbus protocol, the other wireless communication antenna was integrated on a node to send sensor data in parallel. The dual antenna structure integrates both the advantages of an RFID system and a wireless sensor. Using a standard UHF RFID reader, WPWS can be enabled in a distributed area with a diameter up to 4 m. Working status is similar to that of a passive tag, except that a tag can only be queried statically, while the WPWS can send dynamic data from the sensors. The function is the same as a wireless sensor node. Different WPWSs equipped with temperature and humidity, optical and airflow velocity sensors are tested in this study. All sensors can send back detection data within 8 s. The accuracy is within 8% deviation compared with laboratory equipment. A wireless sensor network enabled by wireless power should be a totally wireless sensor network using WPWS. However, distributed WPWSs only can form a star topology, the simplest topology for constructing a sensor network. Because of shielding effects, it is difficult to apply other complex topologies. Despite this limitation, WPWS still can be used to extend sensor network applications in hazardous environments. Further research is needed to improve WPWS to realize a totally wireless sensor network. PMID:23443370

  1. Evidence for motivational effects elicited by activation of GABA-A or dopamine receptors in the nucleus accumbens shell

    PubMed Central

    Wirtshafter, David; Stratford, Thomas R.

    2011-01-01

    Microinjections of the inhibitory GABA-A receptor agonist muscimol into the shell region of the nucleus accumbens (AcbSh) have been reported to induce large increases in food intake, but the effect of these injections on motivational processes is less clear. In the current study, bilateral injections of saline, muscimol (50 ng/side) or D-amphetamine (10 μg/side) were made into the AcbSh of rats trained to lever press on a progressive ratio schedule for food reward. Injections of both muscimol and amphetamine were found to produce a large increase in the breaking point relative to saline injections. This result suggests that inactivation of the AcbSh does not simply drive ingestive behavior, but also affects motivational processes assessed by the progressive ratio schedule. Breaking points were also increased by injections of amphetamine into the AcbSh. PMID:20598739

  2. Evaluating motivational interviewing to promote breastfeeding by rural Mexican-American mothers: the challenge of attrition.

    PubMed

    Wilhelm, Susan L; Aguirre, Trina M; Koehler, Ann E; Rodehorst, T Kim

    2015-03-01

    Although most Hispanic/Latino-American mothers initiate breastfeeding, duration and exclusivity of breastfeeding remain low. We explored whether a motivational interviewing (MI) intervention could help rural Mexican-American mothers continue breastfeeding. We used a two-group (MI intervention n = 26, attention control [AC] n = 27) repeated measures experimental design. Assessments and interventions occurred at 3 days, 2 weeks, and 6 weeks postpartum (time points when mothers are particularly vulnerable to discontinuing breastfeeding), with a final phone assessment at 6 months postpartum. We collected demographic data and measured intent to breastfeed for 6 months (intent question), self-efficacy (Breastfeeding Self-Efficacy Scale-Short Form), and collected breastfeeding information (breastfeeding assessment questionnaire). Independent t-tests and Mann Whitney U non-parametric tests were used to evaluate group differences (α = 0.05). High levels of attrition by week 6 impaired our ability to evaluate the potential of our MI intervention. No significant differences were found between groups for any of the outcome variables (intent to breastfeed for 6 months, breastfeeding self-efficacy, and duration of breastfeeding). Though the mothers intended to breastfeed for 6 months and were confident in their ability to do so, most did not breastfeed for 6 months. At 6 months, mothers receiving the MI intervention had breastfed an average of 90 days compared to 82 days for those receiving the AC sessions and 22% of the mothers in each group were still breastfeeding at some level. Because of the impact of attrition during this study, we discuss factors that contributed to attrition and approaches to lessen this problem in future studies. Such efforts may require a greater investment of time and resources and should be budgeted accordingly. Culturally appropriate interventions are needed to help rural Mexican-American mothers meet their breastfeeding goals, thus

  3. Utilizing Response to Intervention (RtI) as a Means of Studying Capacity Building and Motivation of Staff by School Leadership Teams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahoney, Brian J.

    2013-01-01

    This research study explored the concept of capacity building and motivation of staff by school leadership teams in the successful development and implementation of educational initiatives, specifically Response to Intervention (RtI). A great deal of scholarship has addressed leadership and its effect on motivation, but few studies have…

  4. Measurement and analysis to DIW of chassis dynamometers for automobile emissions testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Weimin; Wang, Dayong; Qi, Fang; Yang, Dengcai

    2010-12-01

    DIW (Dynamometer Inertia Weight) of 'chassis dynamometers for automobile emissions testing' is a total inertia weight of all rotating components in the chassis dynamometer. Total Inertia weight is a inertia device simulates translational and rotational kinetic energy of a traveling vehicle which is equivalent to the mass of the car. DIW is an important technical indicator, whether it is accurate or not will affect the calibration of all technical characteristics of 'chassis dynamometers for automobile emissions testing'. In this paper,first of all, we introduce a new method to measure the Dynamometer Inertia Weight, that is, coast-down testing with twice constant-force loading method, and we derivate a formula to calculate the Dynamometer Inertia Weight from kinetic energy conservation law. Secondly, we have done a lot of coast-down testings with twice constant-force load method. After analyzing the data, we found out the factors that affect the testing processes and the accuracy of testing results. Finally, after comparing twice constant-force loading method with the take-down flywheel method and twice constant-power loading method, we know that this coast-down testing with twice constant-force loading method is better than other methods in stability and repeatability and testing data will be more accurate. It's a accurate and convenient way to measure the DIW of 'chassis dynamometers for automobile emissions testing'.

  5. Expanding Science Knowledge: Enabled by Nuclear Power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, Karla B.

    2011-01-01

    The availability of Radioisotope Power Sources (RPSs) power opens up new and exciting mission concepts (1) New trajectories available (2) Power for long term science and operations Astonishing science value associated with these previously non-viable missions

  6. Motivational interviewing by podiatric physicians: a method for improving patient self-care of the diabetic foot.

    PubMed

    Gabbay, Robert A; Kaul, Shailja; Ulbrecht, Jan; Scheffler, Neil M; Armstrong, David G

    2011-01-01

    Foot ulceration and lower-extremity amputation are devastating end-stage complications of diabetes. Despite agreement that diabetic foot self-care is a key factor in prevention of ulcers and amputation, there has only been limited success in influencing these behaviors among patients with diabetes. While most efforts have focused on increasing patient knowledge, knowledge and behavior are poorly correlated. Knowledge is necessary but rarely sufficient for behavior change. A key determinant to adherence to self-care behavior is clinician counseling style. Podiatrists are the ideal providers to engage in a brief behavioral intervention with a patient. Motivational interviewing is a well-accepted, evidence-based teachable approach that enhances self-efficacy and increases intrinsic motivation for change and adherence to treatment. This article summarizes some key strategies that can be employed by podiatrists to improve foot self-care. PMID:21242475

  7. Evaluation of Ash Toxicity Generated From the Thermal Plasma Pyrolysis of Used Automobile Tires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, J. S.; Novog, D. R.; Jamal, S.

    1996-10-01

    The disposal of used tires represents a severe environmental problem. As the heat content of the rubber tires is even higher than that of coal it should be considered as a future source of alternate fuel for power generation. There have been attempts to burn old tires directly in cofired boilers for production of electricity. However, there are several environmental concerns since the combustion flue gas may contain a significant concentration heavy metals (Fe, Zn, Cd, As, etc.). One technique currently being developed is the pyrolyzation of rubber tires by a thermal plasma to produce combustible gases. In this work, ashes generated during the plasma pyrolysis of used automobile tires using a DC Argon thermal plasma were analyzed using Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) and produced syngas composition was analyzed by FT-IR.. The gas analysis indicates a significant quantity of combustible gases (CH4, C2H2, C2H4, CO, H2 etc..) was produced from the thermal plasma pyrolysis of used tires. The results also indicate that a majority of the heavy metals present in used tires were concentrated in the ashes deposited in reaction chamber wall and in the two-stage filtering system. Furthermore the heavy metal concentration decreases significantly with increasing distance from the plasma torch. Toxic components such as Zn, As and Cl were also collected in the filtering process.

  8. Clustering Teachers' Motivations for Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Visser-Wijnveen, Gerda J.; Stes, Ann; Van Petegem, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The motivation to teach is a powerful, yet neglected, force in teaching at institutes of higher education. A better understanding of academics' motivations for teaching is necessary. The aim of this mixed-method study was to identify groups with distinctively different motivations for teaching. Six clusters were identified: expertise, duty,…

  9. Exploring Japanese University EFL Teacher Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsutsumi, Rie

    2014-01-01

    Current studies show that it is becoming clear that language teachers give significant importance to learners' motivation level, interest levels, and attitudes toward their learning. Motivated teachers can have a powerful influence on students' career directions, and positively impact learners' motivations and interests. However,…

  10. 13. WEST ELEVATION, POWERHOUSE, WITH FIGURES AND AUTOMOBILES Historic photograph ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. WEST ELEVATION, POWERHOUSE, WITH FIGURES AND AUTOMOBILES Historic photograph no. 1646, no date, held at Media Arts and Services Department, Pacific Gas & Electric Co., San Francisco, CA. - Centerville Hydroelectric System, Powerhouse, Butte Creek, Centerville, Butte County, CA

  11. 15. Historic American Buildings Survey California Automobile Association Original: 1932 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. Historic American Buildings Survey California Automobile Association Original: 1932 Re-photo: January 1940 CONVENTO - VIEW FROM NORTHWEST - Mission San Jose de Guadalupe, Mission & Washington Boulevards, Fremont, Alameda County, CA

  12. VIEW OF STACK WITH AUTOMOBILE AND TRACTOR REPAIR SHOP TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF STACK WITH AUTOMOBILE AND TRACTOR REPAIR SHOP TO THE FAR RIGHT. WAREHOUSE WITH ITS RIDGELINE ROTARY VENTS TO RIGHT OF STACK. VIEW FROM THE WEST - Kekaha Sugar Company, Sugar Mill Building, 8315 Kekaha Road, Kekaha, Kauai County, HI

  13. Learning Activities: Students and Recycling. [and] Automobile Aerodynamics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLaughlin, Charles H., Jr.; Schieber, Rich

    1994-01-01

    The first learning activity is intended to heighten students' awareness of the need for recycling, reuse, and reduction of materials; the second explores the aerodynamics of automobiles. Both include context, concept, objectives, procedure, and materials needed. (SK)

  14. The Automobile: A Designer's Dream. Resources in Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryson, George Y.; Deal, Walter F., III

    1996-01-01

    Sketches the history of automobile design, current design considerations, and social/cultural aspects of car design. Provides a design brief that challenges students to develop an electric vehicle. (SK)

  15. Legislative Committee Simulation: Regulation in the Automobile Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Alan J.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Examined are ways to overcome obstacles which often prevent creative teaching of legislative decision-making processes to high school students. A simulation dealing with regulation in the automobile industry is used for illustrative purposes. (RM)

  16. Active micromachines: Microfluidics powered by mesoscale turbulence

    PubMed Central

    Thampi, Sumesh P.; Doostmohammadi, Amin; Shendruk, Tyler N.; Golestanian, Ramin; Yeomans, Julia M.

    2016-01-01

    Dense active matter, from bacterial suspensions and microtubule bundles driven by motor proteins to cellular monolayers and synthetic Janus particles, is characterized by mesoscale turbulence, which is the emergence of chaotic flow structures. By immersing an ordered array of symmetric rotors in an active fluid, we introduce a microfluidic system that exploits spontaneous symmetry breaking in mesoscale turbulence to generate work. The lattice of rotors self-organizes into a spin state where neighboring discs continuously rotate in permanent alternating directions due to combined hydrodynamic and elastic effects. Our virtual prototype demonstrates a new research direction for the design of micromachines powered by the nematohydrodynamic properties of active turbulence. PMID:27419229

  17. Active micromachines: Microfluidics powered by mesoscale turbulence.

    PubMed

    Thampi, Sumesh P; Doostmohammadi, Amin; Shendruk, Tyler N; Golestanian, Ramin; Yeomans, Julia M

    2016-07-01

    Dense active matter, from bacterial suspensions and microtubule bundles driven by motor proteins to cellular monolayers and synthetic Janus particles, is characterized by mesoscale turbulence, which is the emergence of chaotic flow structures. By immersing an ordered array of symmetric rotors in an active fluid, we introduce a microfluidic system that exploits spontaneous symmetry breaking in mesoscale turbulence to generate work. The lattice of rotors self-organizes into a spin state where neighboring discs continuously rotate in permanent alternating directions due to combined hydrodynamic and elastic effects. Our virtual prototype demonstrates a new research direction for the design of micromachines powered by the nematohydrodynamic properties of active turbulence. PMID:27419229

  18. Moonbase night power by laser illumination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landis, Geoffrey A.

    1992-01-01

    Moonbase solar-power concepts must somehow address the energy storage problem posed by the 354-hour lunar night. Attention is presently given to the feasibility of laser-array illumination of a lunar base, using technology that is projected to be available in the near term. Beam-spreading due to atmospheric distortions could be reduced through the use of adaptive optics to compensate for atmospheric turbulence.

  19. Discrepancies between implicit and explicit motivation and unhealthy eating behavior.

    PubMed

    Job, Veronika; Oertig, Daniela; Brandstätter, Veronika; Allemand, Mathias

    2010-08-01

    Many people change their eating behavior as a consequence of stress. One source of stress is intrapersonal psychological conflict as caused by discrepancies between implicit and explicit motives. In the present research, we examined whether eating behavior is related to this form of stress. Study 1 (N=53), a quasi-experimental study in the lab, showed that the interaction between the implicit achievement motive disposition and explicit commitment toward an achievement task significantly predicts the number of snacks consumed in a consecutive taste test. In cross-sectional Study 2 (N=100), with a sample of middle-aged women, overall motive discrepancy was significantly related to diverse indices of unsettled eating. Regression analyses revealed interaction effects specifically for power and achievement motivation and not for affiliation. Emotional distress further partially mediated the relationship between the overall motive discrepancy and eating behavior. PMID:20545817

  20. Recyclable automobiles. (Latest citations from Engineered Materials abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1995-01-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the technology and characteristics of non-metal, recyclable components used in automobiles. Existing polymer, plastic, and composite technology and materials are discussed. The citations also examine design and development of new recyclable materials that are durable. Design features and constraints are included. Some citations address future trends leading to the 100 percent recyclable automobile. (Contains a minimum of 77 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  1. Recyclable automobiles. (Latest citations from Engineered Materials abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1997-01-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the technology and characteristics of non-metal, recyclable components used in automobiles. Existing polymer, plastic, and composite technology and materials are discussed. The citations also examine design and development of new recyclable materials that are durable. Design features and constraints are included. Some citations address future trends leading to the 100 percent recyclable automobile. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  2. Recyclable automobiles. (Latest citations from Engineered Materials Abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the technology and characteristics of non-metal, recyclable components used in automobiles. Existing polymer, plastic, and composite technology and materials are discussed. The citations also examine design and development of new recyclable materials that are durable. Design features and constraints are included. Some citations address future trends leading to the 100 percent recyclable automobile. (Contains a minimum of 58 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  3. Recyclable automobiles. (Latest citations from Engineered Materials abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1996-01-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the technology and characteristics of non-metal, recyclable components used in automobiles. Existing polymer, plastic, and composite technology and materials are discussed. The citations also examine design and development of new recyclable materials that are durable. Design features and constraints are included. Some citations address future trends leading to the 100 percent recyclable automobile. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  4. Titanium in the family automobile: The cost challenge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Froes, F. H.; Friedrich, H.; Kiese, J.; Bergoint, D.

    2004-02-01

    With advances in extraction/fabrication techniques and ever-increasing gasoline prices, the advantage of using lightweight materials such as aluminum, magnesium, and titanium in automobiles continues to increase, particularly for the first two metals. The major drawback for titanium, much more so than the other light metals, is high cost. However, innovative extraction and fabrication approaches are leading to decreased cost. This paper discusses the present status and future potential for titanium use in the family automobile.

  5. Patterns of injury associated with automobile airbag use.

    PubMed Central

    Mohamed, A. A.; Banerjee, A.

    1998-01-01

    The wide use of automobile airbags has undoubtedly reduced the mortality and the incidence of serious injuries from motor vehicle accidents. However, automobile airbags appear to be associated with a variety of injuries including fatal injuries, ocular injuries, upper limb and chest injuries. Further improvements in airbag design together with education of the general public in their use should help reduce airbag-related injuries. PMID:9926118

  6. Automobile shredder residue: Process developments for recovery of recyclable constituents

    SciTech Connect

    Daniels, E.J.; Jody, B.J.; Bonsignore, P.V.; Shoemaker, E.L.

    1990-01-01

    The objectives of this paper are threefold: (1) to briefly outline the structure of the automobile shredder industry as a supplier of ferrous scrap, (2) to review the previous research that has been conducted for recycling automobile shredder residue (ASR), and (3) to present the results and implications of the research being conducted at ANL on the development of a process for the selective recovery and recycling of the thermoplastics content of ASR. 15 refs., 5 figs.

  7. Flasher Powered by Photovoltaic Cells and Ultracapacitors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eichenberg, Dennis J.; Soltis, Richard F.

    2003-01-01

    A unique safety flasher powered by photovoltaic cells and ultracapacitors has been developed. Safety flashers are used wherever there are needs to mark actually or potentially hazardous locations. Examples of such locations include construction sites, highway work sites, and locations of hazardous operations. Heretofore, safety flashers have been powered by batteries, the use of which entails several disadvantages: Batteries must be kept adequately charged, and must not be allowed to become completely discharged. Batteries have rather short cycle lives, and their internal constituents that react chemically to generate electricity deteriorate (and hence power-generating capacities decrease) over time. The performances of batteries are very poor at low temperatures, which often occur in the circumstances in which safety flashers are most needed. The disposal of batteries poses a threat to the environment. The development of the present photovoltaic/ultracapacitor- powered safety flasher, in which the ultracapacitors are used to store energy, overcomes the aforementioned disadvantages of using batteries to store energy. The ultracapacitors in this flasher are electrochemical units that have extremely high volumetric capacitances because they contain large-surface-area electrodes separated by very small gaps. Ultracapacitors have extremely long cycle lives, as compared to batteries; consequently, it will never be necessary to replace the ultracapacitors in the safety flasher. The reliability of the flasher is correspondingly increased, and the life-of-system cost and the adverse environmental effects of the flasher are correspondingly reduced. Moreover, ultracapacitors have excellent low-temperature characteristics, are maintenance-free, and provide consistent performance over time.

  8. A qualitative analysis of power take-off driveline shields: barriers and motivators to shield use for New York State farmers.

    PubMed

    Weil, R; Mellors, P; Fiske, T; Sorensen, J A

    2014-01-01

    Machinery entanglements are one of the top three causes of death in farming. Education on the risks of unshielded power take-off (PTO) equipment does not appear to significantly alter farmers' willingness to replace missing or broken shielding. Different assessments conducted in various regions of the U.S. indicate that as many as one-third to one-half of PTOs are inadequately shielded. Qualitative research was conducted with New York farmers to identify the factors that influence the decision to replace damaged or missing PTO driveline shields. Interview topics included: knowledge of entanglement risks, decisions regarding safety in general, decisions relating to PTO driveline shielding specifically, and the barriers and motivators to replacing missing or broken PTO driveline shields. Interviews with 38 farmers revealed the following themes: (1) farmers are fully aware of PTO entanglement risk, (2) insufficient time and money are primary barriers to purchasing or replacing damaged or missing PTO driveline shields, (3) PTO driveline shield designs are problematic and have led to negative experiences with shielding, and (4) risk acceptance and alternate work strategies are preferred alternatives to replacing shields. Our findings indicate that more innovative approaches will be required to make PTO driveline shield use a viable and attractive choice for farmers. New shield designs that address the practical barriers farmers face, as well as the provision of logistical and financial assistance for shield replacement, may alter the decision environment sufficiently to make replacing PTO driveline shielding a more attractive option for farmers. PMID:24804464

  9. Why achievement motivation predicts success in business but failure in politics: the importance of personal control.

    PubMed

    Winter, David G

    2010-12-01

    Several decades of research have established that implicit achievement motivation (n Achievement) is associated with success in business, particularly in entrepreneurial or sales roles. However, several political psychology studies have shown that achievement motivation is not associated with success in politics; rather, implicit power motivation often predicts political success. Having versus lacking control may be a key difference between business and politics. Case studies suggest that achievement-motivated U.S. presidents and other world leaders often become frustrated and thereby fail because of lack of control, whereas power-motivated presidents develop ways to work with this inherent feature of politics. A reevaluation of previous research suggests that, in fact, relationships between achievement motivation and business success only occur when control is high. The theme of control is also prominent in the development of achievement motivation. Cross-national data are also consistent with this analysis: In democratic industrialized countries, national levels of achievement motivation are associated with strong executive control. In countries with low opportunity for education (thus fewer opportunities to develop a sense of personal control), achievement motivation is associated with internal violence. Many of these manifestations of frustrated achievement motivation in politics resemble authoritarianism. This conclusion is tested by data from a longitudinal study of 113 male college students, showing that high initial achievement motivation combined with frustrated desires for control is related to increases in authoritarianism (F-scale scores) during the college years. Implications for the psychology of leadership and practical politics are discussed. PMID:21039527

  10. Management styles and motivation.

    PubMed

    Shearer, Dana Ann

    2012-01-01

    According to a review of the current literature, common managerial styles are transformational, transactional, and laissez-faire. When managers expand their leadership skills to improve the staff's morale, they must use a combination of transformational leadership behaviors and transactional contingent rewards to maximize their effectiveness on employees. A motivation theory such as Herzberg and Maslow enhances employees' motivation, morale, and satisfaction. Being able to motivate, empower, and influence staff improves satisfaction and retention levels among the team. A manager's leadership style influences motivation, morale, and retention in staff. Leaders are influenced by their educational development and the organizational culture. Organizational culture has an impact on a manager's style, which is forwarded to their followers. PMID:23130386

  11. Measuring adolescent science motivation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schumm, Maximiliane F.; Bogner, Franz X.

    2016-02-01

    To monitor science motivation, 232 tenth graders of the college preparatory level ('Gymnasium') completed the Science Motivation Questionnaire II (SMQ-II). Additionally, personality data were collected using a 10-item version of the Big Five Inventory. A subsequent exploratory factor analysis based on the eigenvalue-greater-than-one criterion, extracted a loading pattern, which in principle, followed the SMQ-II frame. Two items were dropped due to inappropriate loadings. The remaining SMQ-II seems to provide a consistent scale matching the findings in literature. Nevertheless, also possible shortcomings of the scale are discussed. Data showed a higher perceived self-determination in girls which seems compensated by their lower self-efficacy beliefs leading to equality of females and males in overall science motivation scores. Additionally, the Big Five personality traits and science motivation components show little relationship.

  12. A web-based survey of the motivations and challenges faced by emerging researchers in the chiropractic profession

    PubMed Central

    de Luca, Katie; Tuchin, Peter; Bonello, Rod

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the motivations, challenges and perceptions of the educational environment of emerging researchers in chiropractic. Methods A descriptive web-based survey of higher-degree chiropractic research students was performed between October and November 2013. The survey consisted of open and closed questions and the Dundee Ready Education Environment Measure. Results Twenty-two students currently enrolled in a higher-degree research program participated. Students were most commonly enrolled in a doctor of philosophy program at a part-time rate. Motivations of research were desire to improve the clinical care aspects of chiropractic for the public and belief that chiropractic research is lacking. The greatest challenges were the negative attitudes towards chiropractic, finding enough time to do everything required, and feelings of isolation. The higher-degree research educational environment was perceived to be more positive than negative, with the stimulating nature of research a positive feature. A negative feature of the educational environment was poor undergraduate preparation for higher-degree research. Conclusion This study is the first study to describe higher-degree chiropractic research students. Primary motivations included building research, while challenges included not only negative attitudes toward the chiropractic profession but also negative attitudes toward researchers from within the profession. The higher-degree research educational environment was perceived to be positive. By acknowledging the issues that surround emerging researchers in chiropractic, the profession is better placed to foster academics and build research capacity. PMID:26090697

  13. Is love right? Prefrontal resting brain asymmetry is related to the affiliation motive

    PubMed Central

    Quirin, Markus; Gruber, Thomas; Kuhl, Julius; Düsing, Rainer

    2013-01-01

    Previous research on relationships between affective-motivational traits and hemispheric asymmetries in resting frontal alpha band power as measured by electroencephalography (EEG) focused on individual differences in motivational direction (approach vs. withdrawal) or behavioral activation. The present study investigated resting frontal alpha asymmetries in 72 participants as a function of individual differences in the implicit affiliation motive as measured with the operant motive test (OMT) and explored the brain source thereof. Decreased relative right frontal activity as indexed by increased alpha band power was related to low levels of the implicit affiliation motive. No relationships were found for explicit personality measures. Intracranial current density distributions of alpha based on Variable Resolution Electromagnetic Tomography (VARETA) source estimations suggests that the source of cortical alpha distribution is located within the right ventromedial prefrontal cortex (PFC). The present results are discussed with respect to differential roles of the two hemispheres in social motivation. PMID:24416007

  14. Sawtooth period control by power modulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lauret, Menno; Schuster, Eugenio; de Baar, Marco; Felici, Federico; Heemels, Maurice; Gomes, Alexander; Goodman, Tim; Kim, Doohyun; Sauter, Olivier; Vandersteen, Gerd; Witvoet, Gert; Lennholm, Morten

    2015-11-01

    It is foreseen that long sawtooth oscillations will occur during ITER H-mode scenarios leading to confinement loss and even disruptions. Sawtooth period control is therefore crucial. Most sawtooth period control approaches depend on changing the deposition location of electron-cyclotron current drive (ECCD) near r(q =1). In contrast to this, several TCV and AUG experiments with fixed ECCD deposition location show that ECCD power modulation, either periodic or feedback controlled, can lead to fast and reliable period control. To understand this nonlinear phenomenon, a reduced and `hybrid' reset model has been derived that models the nonlinear dynamics. Analysis reveals that the sawtooth period can be controlled by power modulation, even in the case of significant model uncertainties or when there is a significant lengthening effect of the fast particles on the sawtooth period, as there will be in ITER. The model can also be used to design period control using ICRH influencing this fast particle effect.

  15. Development of goal-directed action selection guided by intrinsic motivations: an experiment with children.

    PubMed

    Taffoni, Fabrizio; Tamilia, Eleonora; Focaroli, Valentina; Formica, Domenico; Ricci, Luca; Di Pino, Giovanni; Baldassarre, Gianluca; Mirolli, Marco; Guglielmelli, Eugenio; Keller, Flavio

    2014-07-01

    Action selection is extremely important, particularly when the accomplishment of competitive tasks may require access to limited motor resources. The spontaneous exploration of the world plays a fundamental role in the development of this capacity, providing subjects with an increasingly diverse set of opportunities to acquire, practice and refine the understanding of action-outcome connection. The computational modeling literature proposed a number of specific mechanisms for autonomous agents to discover and target interesting outcomes: intrinsic motivations hold a central importance among those mechanisms. Unfortunately, the study of the acquisition of action-outcome relation was mostly carried out with experiments involving extrinsic tasks, either based on rewards or on predefined task goals. This work presents a new experimental paradigm to study the effect of intrinsic motivation on action-outcome relation learning and action selection during free exploration of the world. Three- and four-year-old children were observed during the free exploration of a new toy: half of them were allowed to develop the knowledge concerning its functioning; the other half were not allowed to learn anything. The knowledge acquired during the free exploration of the toy was subsequently assessed and compared. PMID:24691755

  16. Estimation of automobile-driver describing function from highway tests using the double steering wheel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delp, P.; Crossman, E. R. F. W.; Szostak, H.

    1972-01-01

    The automobile-driver describing function for lateral position control was estimated for three subjects from frequency response analysis of straight road test results. The measurement procedure employed an instrumented full size sedan with known steering response characteristics, and equipped with a lateral lane position measuring device based on video detection of white stripe lane markings. Forcing functions were inserted through a servo driven double steering wheel coupling the driver to the steering system proper. Random appearing, Gaussian, and transient time functions were used. The quasi-linear models fitted to the random appearing input frequency response characterized the driver as compensating for lateral position error in a proportional, derivative, and integral manner. Similar parameters were fitted to the Gabor transformed frequency response of the driver to transient functions. A fourth term corresponding to response to lateral acceleration was determined by matching the time response histories of the model to the experimental results. The time histories show evidence of pulse-like nonlinear behavior during extended response to step transients which appear as high frequency remnant power.

  17. Personality Types and Motivational Characteristics of Academics versus Professionals in Industry in the Same Occupational Discipline.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erez, Miriam; Shneorson, Zehava

    1980-01-01

    Academics scored higher on the artistic type and significantly lower on the enterprising type. Academics are motivated by the opportunity for scientific contribution, for autonomy, and for the high status attained in their jobs. Professionals in industry are highly motivated by the opportunity for exercising power. (Author)

  18. Experimental characterization of railgun-driven supersonic plasma jets motivated by high energy density physics applications

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, S. C.; Moser, A. L.; Awe, T. J.; Davis, J. S.; Dunn, J. P.; Merritt, E. C.; Adams, C. S.; Brockington, S. J. E.; Case, A.; Messer, S. J.; Witherspoon, F. D.; Cassibry, J. T.; Gilmore, M. A.; Lynn, A. G.

    2012-12-15

    We report experimental results on the parameters, structure, and evolution of high-Mach-number (M) argon plasma jets formed and launched by a pulsed-power-driven railgun. The nominal initial average jet parameters in the data set analyzed are density Almost-Equal-To 2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 16} cm{sup -3}, electron temperature Almost-Equal-To 1.4 eV, velocity Almost-Equal-To 30 km/s, M Almost-Equal-To 14, ionization fraction Almost-Equal-To 0.96, diameter Almost-Equal-To 5 cm, and length Almost-Equal-To 20 cm. These values approach the range needed by the Plasma Liner Experiment, which is designed to use merging plasma jets to form imploding spherical plasma liners that can reach peak pressures of 0.1-1 Mbar at stagnation. As these jets propagate a distance of approximately 40 cm, the average density drops by one order of magnitude, which is at the very low end of the 8-160 times drop predicted by ideal hydrodynamic theory of a constant-M jet.

  19. Earthquake Triggering by High Power Electric Pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novikov, Victor; Konev, Yuri; Zeigarnik, Vladimir

    2010-05-01

    The study carried out by the Joint Institute for High Temperatures in cooperation with the Institute of Physics of the Earth and the Research Station in Bishkek of Russian Academy of Sciences in 1999-2008 showed a response of weak seismicity at field experiments with electric pulsed power systems, as well as acoustic emission of rock specimens under laboratory conditions on high-power electric current pulses applied to the rocks. It was suggested that the phenomenon discovered may be used in practice for partial release of tectonic stresses in the Earth crust for earthquake hazard mitigation. Nevertheless, the mechanism of the influence of man-made electromagnetic field on the regional seismicity is not clear yet. One of possible cause of the phenomenon may be pore fluid pressure increase in the rocks under stressed conditions due to Joule heat generation by electric current injected into the Earth crust. It is known that increase of pore fluid pressure in the fault zone over a critical pressure of about 0.05 MPa is sufficient to trigger an earthquake if the fault is near the critical state due to accumulated tectonic deformations. Detailed 3D-calculaton of electric current density in the Earth crust of the Northern Tien Shan provided by pulsed electric high-power system connected to grounded electric dipole showed that at the depth of earthquake epicenters (over 5 km) the electric current density is lower than 10-7 A/m2 that is not sufficient for increase of pressure in the fluid-saturated porous geological medium due to Joule heat generation, which may provide formation of cracks resulting in the fault propagation and release of tectonic stresses in the Earth crust. Nevertheless, under certain conditions, when electric current will be injected into the fault through the casing pipes of two deep wells with preliminary injection of conductive fluid into the fault, the current density may be high enough for significant increase of mechanic pressure in the porous two

  20. Predicting private and public helping behaviour by implicit attitudes and the motivation to control prejudiced reactions.

    PubMed

    Gabriel, Ute; Banse, Rainer; Hug, Florian

    2007-06-01

    The role of individual differences in implicit attitudes toward homosexuals and motivation to control prejudiced reactions (MCPR) in predicting private and public helping behaviour was investigated. After assessing the predictor variables, 69 male students were informed about a campaign of a local gay organization. They were provided with an opportunity to donate money and sign a petition in the presence (public setting) or absence (private setting) of the experimenter. As expected, more helping behaviour was shown in the public than in the private setting. However, while the explicit cognitive attitude accounted for helping behaviour in both settings, an implicit attitude x MCPR interaction accounted for additional variability of helping in the public setting only. Three different mediating processes are discussed as possible causes of the observed effects. PMID:17565787

  1. [Reply to “Wasting public money?” by Judith Totman] Politically motivated request?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradley, Raymond S.

    Judith Totman Parrish (Forum,Eos, 86(32), 9 August 2005, p. 294) asks Thomas Crowley to provide evidence that the U.S. Rep. Joe Barton's (R.-N.Y) request for information from me, and from my colleagues Michael Mann and Malcolm Hughes, was politically motivated.Among a host of items, here are some of the things Barton specifically asked for: “…all financial support you have received related to your research, including, but not limited to, all private, state, and federal assistance, grants, contracts (including subgrants or subcontracts), or other financial awards or honoraria…the location of all data archives relating to each published study for which you were an author or co-author… [a list of all] requests…you or your co-authors [have] received for data relating to the climate change studies, what was your response, and why?”

  2. Exploring and Challenging Pupil Disaffection: An Evaluation of a Motivational Interviewing-Based Intervention Delivered by Paraprofessionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snape, Laura; Atkinson, Cathy

    2015-01-01

    Research suggests motivational interviewing (MI) techniques can be useful in educational settings for improving motivation in disaffected pupils. This exploratory mixed methods study sought to investigate whether implementing an MI-based programme through school-based paraprofessionals would be effective in improving pupil motivation. Five pupils…

  3. Investigation of the Forces Acting on Gliders in Automobile-pulley-winch and Airplane Towed Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klemperer, W B

    1942-01-01

    The magnitude, the direction, and the fluctuation of towing forces exerted upon gliders by towing them aloft behind an automobile, by means of a winch, and by airplane were measured under a variety of conditions covering a range from gentle to severe types of operation. For these tests the towing forces did not exceed 92 percent of the gross weight of the glider. The results indicate that in pulley and winch towing the towing forces are of about the same magnitude as in automobile towing. Speed increases in the accelerated phases of the towing jerks encountered in airplane towing can readily become critical as speeds in excess of placard speeds can be attained. Passage through the slipstream of the towing airplane can be equivalent to a severe gust that, at high speed, may impose high wing loads and require large control moments.

  4. The roots of physics students' motivations: Fear and integrity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Dusen, Ben

    Too often, physics students are beset by feelings of failure and isolation rather than experiencing the creative joys of discovery that physics has to offer. This dissertation research was founded on the desire of a teacher to make physics class exciting and motivating to his students. This work explores how various aspects of learning environments interact with student motivation. This work uses qualitative and quantitative methods to explore how students are motivated to engage in physics and how they feel about themselves while engaging in physics. The collection of four studies in this dissertation culminates in a sociocultural perspective on motivation and identity. This perspective uses two extremes of how students experience physics as a lens for understanding motivation: fear and self-preservation versus integrity and self-expression. Rather than viewing motivation as a property of the student, or viewing students as inherently interested or disinterested in physics, the theoretical perspective on motivation and identity helps examine features of the learning environments that determine how students' experience themselves through physics class. This perspective highlights the importance of feeling a sense of belonging in the context of physics and the power that teachers have in shaping students' motivation through the construction of their classroom learning environments. Findings demonstrate how different ways that students experience themselves in physics class impact their performance and interest in physics. This dissertation concludes with a set of design principles that can foster integration and integrity among students in physics learning environments.

  5. Motives in American Men and Women across the Adult Life Span.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veroff, Joseph; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Investigates stability and change in four social motives (achievement, affiliation, fear of weakness, hope of power) over the adult life cycle. Motives were assessed in 1957 and 1976 by coding thematic apperceptive content in stories told about six pictures. Some age differences and cohort stability were evident for both sexes. (Author/CB)

  6. Autonomous artificial nanomotor powered by sunlight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balzani, Vincenzo; Clemente-León, Miguel; Credi, Alberto; Ferrer, Belén; Venturi, Margherita; Flood, Amar H.; Fraser Stoddart, J.

    2006-01-01

    Light excitation powers the reversible shuttling movement of the ring component of a rotaxane between two stations located at a 1.3-nm distance on its dumbbell-shaped component. The photoinduced shuttling movement, which occurs in solution, is based on a "four-stroke" synchronized sequence of electronic and nuclear processes. At room temperature the deactivation time of the high-energy charge-transfer state obtained by light excitation is 10 μs, and the time period required for the ring-displacement process is on the order of 100 μs. The rotaxane behaves as an autonomous linear motor and operates with a quantum efficiency up to 12%. The investigated system is a unique example of an artificial linear nanomotor because it gathers together the following features: (i) it is powered by visible light (e.g., sunlight); (ii) it exhibits autonomous behavior, like motor proteins; (iii) it does not generate waste products; (iv) its operation can rely only on intramolecular processes, allowing in principle operation at the single-molecule level; (v) it can be driven at a frequency of 1 kHz; (vi) it works in mild environmental conditions (i.e., fluid solution at ambient temperature); and (vii) it is stable for at least 103 cycles. molecular machine | nanoscience | photochemistry | rotaxane | supramolecular chemistry


  7. High Power Microwave Production by Gyroharmonic Conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lapointe, M. A.; Ganguly, A. K.; Yoder, R. B.; Wang, Changbiao; Hirshfield, J. L.

    1996-11-01

    Recent progress on the production of third and fourth harmonic microwave radiation from a high power, axis-encircling beam will be presented. The 4--10 MW beam is produced by cyclotron autoresonance acceleration (CARA) which is described in detail elsewhere.(M. A. LaPointe, R. B. Yoder, C. Wang, A. K. Ganguly and J. L. Hirshfield, Phys. Rev. Lett. 76), 2718 (1996); J. L. Hirshfield, M. A. LaPointe, A. K. Ganguly, R. B. Yoder and C. Wang, Phys. Plasmas 3, 2163 (1996). The output section consists of an open cylindrical cavity whose radius is beyond cutoff at the third harmonic of the drive frequency in the TE_31 mode but resonant in the TE_41 mode. Results to date have shown strong third harmonic but only weak fourth harmonic output. One explanation for the presence of the third harmonic could be reactive pulling of the TE_31 cutoff by the high current (25--30 A) beam. Descriptions of the output cavities as well as frequency spectra and calorimetric power measurements will be presented.

  8. Profiles of Reading Motivation among African American and Caucasian Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guthrie, John T.; Coddington, Cassandra S.; Wigfield, Allan

    2009-01-01

    Previous research has investigated motivations for reading by examining positive or affirming motivations, including intrinsic motivation and self-efficacy. Related to them, we examined two negative, or undermining, motivations consisting of avoidance and perceived difficulty. We proposed that the motivations of intrinsic motivation and avoidance…

  9. Are implicit motives revealed in mere words? Testing the marker-word hypothesis with computer-based text analysis

    PubMed Central

    Schultheiss, Oliver C.

    2013-01-01

    Traditionally, implicit motives (i.e., non-conscious preferences for specific classes of incentives) are assessed through semantic coding of imaginative stories. The present research tested the marker-word hypothesis, which states that implicit motives are reflected in the frequencies of specific words. Using Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count (LIWC; Pennebaker et al., 2001), Study 1 identified word categories that converged with a content-coding measure of the implicit motives for power, achievement, and affiliation in picture stories collected in German and US student samples, showed discriminant validity with self-reported motives, and predicted well-validated criteria of implicit motives (gender difference for the affiliation motive; in interaction with personal-goal progress: emotional well-being). Study 2 demonstrated LIWC-based motive scores' causal validity by documenting their sensitivity to motive arousal. PMID:24137149

  10. Neuroscientific Model of Motivational Process

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sung-il

    2013-01-01

    Considering the neuroscientific findings on reward, learning, value, decision-making, and cognitive control, motivation can be parsed into three sub processes, a process of generating motivation, a process of maintaining motivation, and a process of regulating motivation. I propose a tentative neuroscientific model of motivational processes which consists of three distinct but continuous sub processes, namely reward-driven approach, value-based decision-making, and goal-directed control. Reward-driven approach is the process in which motivation is generated by reward anticipation and selective approach behaviors toward reward. This process recruits the ventral striatum (reward area) in which basic stimulus-action association is formed, and is classified as an automatic motivation to which relatively less attention is assigned. By contrast, value-based decision-making is the process of evaluating various outcomes of actions, learning through positive prediction error, and calculating the value continuously. The striatum and the orbitofrontal cortex (valuation area) play crucial roles in sustaining motivation. Lastly, the goal-directed control is the process of regulating motivation through cognitive control to achieve goals. This consciously controlled motivation is associated with higher-level cognitive functions such as planning, retaining the goal, monitoring the performance, and regulating action. The anterior cingulate cortex (attention area) and the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (cognitive control area) are the main neural circuits related to regulation of motivation. These three sub processes interact with each other by sending reward prediction error signals through dopaminergic pathway from the striatum and to the prefrontal cortex. The neuroscientific model of motivational process suggests several educational implications with regard to the generation, maintenance, and regulation of motivation to learn in the learning environment. PMID:23459598

  11. Neuroscientific model of motivational process.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sung-Il

    2013-01-01

    Considering the neuroscientific findings on reward, learning, value, decision-making, and cognitive control, motivation can be parsed into three sub processes, a process of generating motivation, a process of maintaining motivation, and a process of regulating motivation. I propose a tentative neuroscientific model of motivational processes which consists of three distinct but continuous sub processes, namely reward-driven approach, value-based decision-making, and goal-directed control. Reward-driven approach is the process in which motivation is generated by reward anticipation and selective approach behaviors toward reward. This process recruits the ventral striatum (reward area) in which basic stimulus-action association is formed, and is classified as an automatic motivation to which relatively less attention is assigned. By contrast, value-based decision-making is the process of evaluating various outcomes of actions, learning through positive prediction error, and calculating the value continuously. The striatum and the orbitofrontal cortex (valuation area) play crucial roles in sustaining motivation. Lastly, the goal-directed control is the process of regulating motivation through cognitive control to achieve goals. This consciously controlled motivation is associated with higher-level cognitive functions such as planning, retaining the goal, monitoring the performance, and regulating action. The anterior cingulate cortex (attention area) and the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (cognitive control area) are the main neural circuits related to regulation of motivation. These three sub processes interact with each other by sending reward prediction error signals through dopaminergic pathway from the striatum and to the prefrontal cortex. The neuroscientific model of motivational process suggests several educational implications with regard to the generation, maintenance, and regulation of motivation to learn in the learning environment. PMID:23459598

  12. Airport electric vehicle powered by fuel cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fontela, Pablo; Soria, Antonio; Mielgo, Javier; Sierra, José Francisco; de Blas, Juan; Gauchia, Lucia; Martínez, Juan M.

    Nowadays, new technologies and breakthroughs in the field of energy efficiency, alternative fuels and added-value electronics are leading to bigger, more sustainable and green thinking applications. Within the Automotive Industry, there is a clear declaration of commitment with the environment and natural resources. The presence of passenger vehicles of hybrid architecture, public transport powered by cleaner fuels, non-aggressive utility vehicles and an encouraging social awareness, are bringing to light a new scenario where conventional and advanced solutions will be in force. This paper presents the evolution of an airport cargo vehicle from battery-based propulsion to a hybrid power unit based on fuel cell, cutting edge batteries and hydrogen as a fuel. Some years back, IBERIA (Major Airline operating in Spain) decided to initiate the replacement of its diesel fleet for battery ones, aiming at a reduction in terms of contamination and noise in the surrounding environment. Unfortunately, due to extreme operating conditions in airports (ambient temperature, intensive use, dirtiness, …), batteries suffered a very severe degradation, which took its toll in terms of autonomy. This reduction in terms of autonomy together with the long battery recharge time made the intensive use of this fleet impractical in everyday demanding conditions.

  13. Photovoltaic cost reduction powered by nuclear spending

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Timothy; Deinert, Mark

    2013-04-01

    Between 1975 to 2010, Japan has spent an average of 2700 Million per year on nuclear R&D and 74 Million per year on solar energy R&D (2010 dollars). While the cost of photovoltaics dropped by a factor of 30 during that time, the overnight cost to build a nuclear power plant has doubled between 2003 and 2009. The price of commercially available photovoltaics has been shown to follow a power law reduction with the number of units produced. This begs the question as to what the current price of these systems would be had some of the available funds used for nuclear R&D been spent on the acquisition of photovoltaics. Here we show the reduction in price for single crystal photovoltaic panels if the Japanese government spent some of their nuclear R&D funds on the installation of these systems. We use historical cost and cumulative production for the world and Japan to build a learning curve model for PV. If the government had spent only 0.07% of its nuclear R&D budget toward PV technology since 1975, photovoltaics would now have reached 1/Watt, the point at which they are cost competitive with conventional resources.

  14. Frequency resolving power measured by rippled noise.

    PubMed

    Supin AYa; Popov, V V; Milekhina, O N; Tarakanov, M B

    1994-07-01

    Frequency resolving power (FRP) was measured in normal humans using rippled noise with a phase-reversal test. The principle of the test was to find the highest ripple density at which an interchange of mutual peak and trough position (the phase reversal) in the rippled spectrum is detectable. In the frequency range below 0.5 kHz FRP was found to be about 21 ripples per kHz when tested by both broad-band and narrow-band rippled noise. In the frequency range above 2 kHz, FRP measured by the narrow-band rippled noise was 22 to 23 relative units (relation of the noise central frequency to the ripple frequency spacing). PMID:7961175

  15. A Treasure Trove of Physics from a Common Source-Automobile Acceleration Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graney, Christopher M.

    2005-11-01

    What is better than interesting, challenging physics with good data free for the taking to which everyone can relate? That's what is available to anyone who digs into the reams of automobile performance tests that have been available in popular magazines since the 1950s. Opportunities to do and teach interesting physics abound, as evidenced by the frequent appearance of "physics of cars" articles in The Physics Teacher.1-6

  16. Unstructured 3D Delaunay mesh generation applied to planes, trains and automobiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blake, Kenneth R.; Spragle, Gregory S.

    1993-01-01

    Technical issues associated with domain-tessellation production, including initial boundary node triangulation and volume mesh refinement, are presented for the 'TGrid' 3D Delaunay unstructured grid generation program. The approach employed is noted to be capable of preserving predefined triangular surface facets in the final tessellation. The capabilities of the approach are demonstrated by generating grids about an entire fighter aircraft configuration, a train, and a wind tunnel model of an automobile.

  17. Random vibrations of quadratic damping systems. [optimum damping analysis for automobile suspension system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sireteanu, T.

    1974-01-01

    An oscillating system with quadratic damping subjected to white noise excitation is replaced by a nonlinear, statistically equivalent system for which the associated Fokker-Planck equation can be exactly solved. The mean square responses are calculated and the optimum damping coefficient is determined with respect to the minimum mean square acceleration criteria. An application of these results to the optimization of automobile suspension damping is given.

  18. College students with tattoos and piercings: motives, family experiences, personality factors, and perception by others.

    PubMed

    Forbes, G B

    2001-12-01

    The motives, family experiences, and personality characteristics of 341 college students with and without tattoos or piercings were studied. Participants completed Lippa's 1991 measures of the Big Five personality factors, a shortened version of the Body Cathexis Scale, a series of questions about their childhood experiences, and questions about risk-taking behaviors. In addition, reasons to have or not have body modifications and the perceptions of people with body modifications were investigated. Of the 116 men and 186 women, 25% and 33%, respectively, had at least one tattoo or body piercing. There were very few differences in the childhood experiences or personality characteristics of people with or without body modifications. Although people with body modifications did not differ from people without modifications on the Big Five personality measures, people without modifications perceived people with modifications as much different from themselves on these measures. These results indicate that tattoos and piercings in college students are associated with significantly more risk-taking behavior, greater use of alcohol and marijuana, and less social conformity. However, the traditional stereotype that body modifications are indicators of social or personal pathology does not describe contemporary college students. PMID:11824749

  19. Evaluating therapist adherence in motivational interviewing by comparing performance with standardized and real patients

    PubMed Central

    Imel, Zac E.; Baldwin, Scott A.; Baer, John; Hartzler, Bryan; Dunn, Christopher; Rosengren, David; Atkins, David C.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The goal of measuring therapist adherence is to determine if a therapist can perform a given treatment. Yet the evaluation of therapist behaviors in most clinical trials is limited. Typically, randomized trials have few therapists and minimize therapist variability through training and supervision. Furthermore, therapist adherence is confounded with uncontrolled differences in patients across therapists. Consequently, the extent to which adherence measures capture differences in actual therapist adherence versus other sources of variance is unclear. Method We estimated intra-class correlations (ICCs) for therapist adherence in sessions with real and standardized patients (RPs and SPs), using ratings from a motivational interviewing (MI) dissemination trial (Baer et al., 2009) in which 189 therapists recorded 826 sessions with both patient types. We also examined the correlations of therapist adherence between SP and RP sessions, and the reliability of therapist level adherence scores with generalizability coefficients (GCs). Results ICC’s for therapist adherence were generally large (average ICC for SPs = 0.44, RPs = 0.40), meaning that a given therapist’s adherence scores were quite similar across their sessions. Both ICCs and GCs were larger for SP sessions as compared to RPs on global measures of MI adherence, such as Empathy and MI Spirit. Correlations between therapist adherence with real and standardized patients were moderate to large on three of five adherence measures. Conclusion Differences in therapist-level adherence ratings were substantial, and standardized patients have promise as tools to evaluate therapist behavior. PMID:24588405

  20. The occurrence and persistence of mixed biofilms in automobile air conditioning systems.

    PubMed

    Simmons, R B; Rose, L J; Crow, S A; Ahearn, D G

    1999-09-01

    Twelve automobile air conditioner systems from six manufacturers and three countries, selected mostly because of complaints of unpleasant odors in the passenger compartment, were examined for microbial growth by direct microscopy and enrichment culture. Mixed populations of fungi and bacteria (with occasional protozoa) were observed in biofilms in at least some of the components from all used units. The aluminum heat exchanger fins from ten evaporators demonstrated bacterial biofilms that yielded Methylobacterium mesophilicum. Penicillium viridicatum colonized components from four units. These bacteria and fungi were recoverable repeatedly from these units during 'dry' storage of up to 27 months. This report associates a bacterial-fungal community with disagreeable air quality in some automobiles. PMID:10441727

  1. Phenazine redox cycling enhances anaerobic survival in Pseudomonas aeruginosa by facilitating generation of ATP and a proton-motive force

    PubMed Central

    Glasser, Nathaniel R.; Kern, Suzanne E.

    2014-01-01

    Summary While many studies have explored the growth of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, comparatively few have focused on its survival. Previously, we reported that endogenous phenazines support the anaerobic survival of P. aeruginosa, yet the physiological mechanism underpinning survival was unknown. Here, we demonstrate that phenazine redox cycling enables P. aeruginosa to oxidize glucose and pyruvate into acetate, which promotes survival by coupling acetate and ATP synthesis through the activity of acetate kinase. By measuring intracellular NAD(H) and ATP concentrations, we show that survival is correlated with ATP synthesis, which is tightly coupled to redox homeostasis during pyruvate fermentation but not during arginine fermentation. We also show that ATP hydrolysis is required to generate a proton-motive force using the ATP synthase complex during fermentation. Together, our results suggest that phenazines enable maintenance of the proton-motive force by promoting redox homeostasis and ATP synthesis. This work demonstrates the more general principle that extracellular redox-active molecules, such as phenazines, can broaden the metabolic versatility of microorganisms by facilitating energy generation. PMID:24612454

  2. How to help the patient motivate himself?

    PubMed

    Grimaldi, A

    2012-03-01

    In order to help a patient with a chronic disease motivate himself, caregivers spontaneously make use of reason with a view to having the patient share the caregivers' point of view, in other words, to some extent, transforming the care recipient into a caregiver. However, it is not unusual for a caregiver suffering from the disease in which he specializes not to treat himself in compliance with the rules he recommends to his patients. Man is a trinity with three instances of the self. In addition to the "rational self" that tends towards the universal, there is also an "animal self" subject to powerful, frequently imperious, primary needs which may be compared to impulsions, compulsions and addictions. Lastly, there is an "identity self", an irreducible singularity, governed by the law of optimizing pleasure or, in any event, avoiding moral distress. The patient has to learn to navigate between objectives oriented by reason, more or less imperious urges and the striving for well-being and avoidance of moral distress. These various instances of the "self" have a distinct relationship with the norm and with time. Psychologists recognize two types of motivation: intrinsic motivation, an activity implemented for itself, and extrinsic motivation, an activity practiced for its secondary beneficial effects. Clearly, caring for oneself derives from an extrinsic motivation. This motivation may be very powerful but is frequently of limited duration. Helping a patient suffering from a chronic disease motivate himself over time thus consists in helping the patient take on board an extrinsic motivation in order for the treatment to become a routine or a source of satisfaction or even pleasure. The physician has to promote the acquisition of self-care skills and a feeling of success in the patient. The physician is also to help the patient negotiate the optimum compromise between his "rational self" and his "identity self" by acting as the advocate of the two parties, while not

  3. Public avenues to private spaces: Democratic politics and the control of automobile pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Rajan, S.C.

    1994-01-01

    Automobile pollution policy is an institutional concern because it represents the political problem of addressing one of the ill-effects of mass driving within urban regions. In the United States, where automobility is most pervasive, the social and cultural institutions that make driving an ineluctable feature of everyday life tend to be taken for granted. On the one hand, an idealogy of individualism appears to forestall critical discussion on these aspects within civil society; on the other, reliance on technological solutions and a prevailing culture of interest-group politics help contract the space for normative reasoning within policy discourse. Ironically, though, the more people drive, the more [open quotes]auto[close quotes]-inflicted the problems of air pollution, and the more likely it is that the contradictions of these non-participatory and technocratic forms could generate crises of policy. The predicament of automobile pollution policy then comprises a paralysis in the state's continued capacity to response to what it perceives to be a double-gesture made by its citizens; they demand clean air but are unwilling to take responsibility for achieving it, especially if it involves setting limits on automobile usage. Using both theoretical arguments and empirical and historical evidence from California, this dissertation argues that official readings of automobile pollution control are constricted because they rely on an individualist metaphor which only generates elaborate techniques of risk management in response, thus moving away from a shared public effort towards normative discourse. Yet, it its also critical of approaches that would shift the blame to individual motorists and their vehicles by implying that the problem arises from the employment of a few [open quotes]gross emitters[close quotes] that need to be selectively targeted.

  4. 49 CFR 536.9 - Use of credits with regard to the domestically manufactured passenger automobile minimum standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... manufactured passenger automobile minimum standard. 536.9 Section 536.9 Transportation Other Regulations... domestically manufactured passenger automobile minimum standard. (a) Each manufacturer is responsible for..., the domestically manufactured passenger automobile compliance category credit excess or shortfall...

  5. 49 CFR 536.9 - Use of credits with regard to the domestically manufactured passenger automobile minimum standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... manufactured passenger automobile minimum standard. 536.9 Section 536.9 Transportation Other Regulations... domestically manufactured passenger automobile minimum standard. (a) Each manufacturer is responsible for..., the domestically manufactured passenger automobile compliance category credit excess or shortfall...

  6. 49 CFR 536.9 - Use of credits with regard to the domestically manufactured passenger automobile minimum standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... manufactured passenger automobile minimum standard. 536.9 Section 536.9 Transportation Other Regulations... domestically manufactured passenger automobile minimum standard. (a) Each manufacturer is responsible for..., the domestically manufactured passenger automobile compliance category credit excess or shortfall...

  7. Optimal Dispatch of Competitive Power Markets by Using PowerWorld Simulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Dong; Li, Shuhui

    2013-10-01

    The transition to competitive and retail markets for electric utilities around the world has been a difficult and controversial process. One of the difficulties that hindered the development and growth of competitive power markets is the absence of efficient computational tools to assist the design, analysis, and operation of competitive power markets. PowerWorld simulator is a software package that has strong analytical and visualization functions suitable for extensive power flow study of an electric power system. However, like many other power flow simulators, PowerWorld cannot be used directly for analysis and evaluation of a competitive power market. This article investigates mathematical models associated with a competitive power market and how these models can be converted and transformed in such a way that makes it possible to use PowerWorld for the competitive power market study. To validate the effectiveness of the proposed strategy, models of several small-scale competitive power markets are built in MatLab by using conventional approaches. Results generated by both PowerWorld and MatLab are compared. Finally, the article demonstrates how the PowerWorld simulator is used to investigate a larger and practical competitive power system.

  8. Saying "no" to temptation: Want-to motivation improves self-regulation by reducing temptation rather than by increasing self-control.

    PubMed

    Milyavskaya, Marina; Inzlicht, Michael; Hope, Nora; Koestner, Richard

    2015-10-01

    Self-regulation has been conceptualized as the interplay between controlled and impulsive processes; however, most research has focused on the controlled side (i.e., effortful self-control). The present studies focus on the effects of motivation on impulsive processes, including automatic preferences for goal-disruptive stimuli and subjective reports of temptations and obstacles, contrasting them with effects on controlled processes. This is done by examining people's implicit affective reactions in the face of goal-disruptive "temptations" (Studies 1 and 2), subjective reports of obstacles (Studies 2 and 3) and expended effort (Study 3), as well as experiences of desires and self-control in real-time using experience sampling (Study 4). Across these multiple methods, results show that want-to motivation results in decreased impulsive attraction to goal-disruptive temptations and is related to encountering fewer obstacles in the process of goal pursuit. This, in turn, explains why want-to goals are more likely to be attained. Have-to motivation, on the other hand, was unrelated to people's automatic reactions to temptation cues but related to greater subjective perceptions of obstacles and tempting desires. The discussion focuses on the implications of these findings for self-regulation and motivation. PMID:25984785

  9. Death and injury from automobile collisions: an overlooked epidemic.

    PubMed

    Forman, Jason L; Watchko, Aileen Y; Segui-Gomez, Maria

    2011-05-01

    Automobile collisions are a major source of injury, death, and disability worldwide. Roadway injuries are affected by societal and cultural influences as much as any other health-related event, but have historically received relatively little attention from the medical anthropology community. The development of safety intervention strategies is affected by notions of responsibility for preventive care, including a balance between regulation, technology, and personal choice. This balance may be affected by perceptions of the risks associated with roadway use, potentially related to notions of individual control and the portrayal of collisions in the popular media and lexicon. Prevention efforts are also affected by the definition of injury as a disease-a biological phenomenon requiring research and intervention efforts from the medical and public health communities. Injury prevention priorities and strategies also differ across cultures and locales, dependent in part on economic constraints, native mobility practices, and the quality and expediency of post-trauma care. Progressing injury prevention worldwide requires multidisciplinary action, including an examination of these various cultural and societal influences. We believe that future efforts will benefit from the expertise and analysis of the medical anthropology community. PMID:21590580

  10. Sens. John Rockefeller (D-W. Va. ), John Danforth (R-Mo. ), and Pete Wilson (R-Calif. ) want to see more methanol-powered cars

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-10-01

    This article reviews a senate bill designed to promote the manufacture of automobiles powered by methanol and other alternative fuels. These fuels are considered desirable because they produce lower emissions of nitrogen oxides and hydrocarbons. This legislation has been introduced by John Rockefeller (D-W. Va.), John Danforth (R-Mo.), and Pete Wilson (R-Calif.).

  11. Ideas on Staff Motivation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Child Care Information Exchange, 1991

    1991-01-01

    Suggests the use of timely communication through feedback for the purpose of boosting staff morale. Managers can cause employees to motivate themselves by restructuring jobs to satisfy employees' needs, by using artful criticism, and by asking employees about morale. Includes a list of key ingredients of a satisfying job. (SH)

  12. Superpenumbral fibrils powered by sunspot oscillations

    SciTech Connect

    Chae, Jongchul; Yang, Heesu; Park, Hyungmin; Maurya, Ram Ajor; Cho, Kyung-Suk; Yurchysyn, Vasyl

    2014-07-10

    It is still a mystery how the solar chromosphere can stand high above the photosphere. The dominant portion of this layer must be dynamically supported, as is evident by the common occurrence of jets such as spicules and mottles in quiet regions, and fibrils and surges in active regions. Hence, revealing the driving mechanism of these chromospheric jets is crucial for our understanding of how the chromosphere itself exists. Here, we report our observational finding that fibrils in the superpenumbra of a sunspot are powered by sunspot oscillations. We find patterns of outward propagation that apparently originate from inside the sunspot, propagate like running penumbral waves, and develop into the fibrils. Redshift ridges seen in the time-distance plots of velocity often merge, forming a fork-like pattern. The predominant period of these shock waves increases, often jumping with distance, from 3 minutes to 10 minutes. This short-to-long period transition seems to result from the selective suppression of shocks by the falling material of their preceding shocks. Based on our results, we propose that the fibrils are driven by slow shock waves with long periods that are produced by the merging of shock waves with shorter periods propagating along the magnetic canopy.

  13. Message Framing for Health: Moderation by Perceived Susceptibility and Motivational Orientation in a Diverse Sample of Americans

    PubMed Central

    Updegraff, John A.; Brick, Cameron; Emanuel, Amber S.; Mintzer, Roy E.; Sherman, David K.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The present study examined how gain- and loss-framed informational videos about oral health influence self-reported flossing behavior over a 6-month period, as well as the roles of perceived susceptibility to oral health problems and approach/avoidance motivational orientation in moderating these effects. Method An age and ethnically diverse sample of 855 American adults were randomized to receive no health message, or either a gain-framed or loss-framed video presented on the Internet. Self-reported flossing was assessed longitudinally at 2 and 6 months. Results Among the entire sample, susceptibility interacted with frame to predict flossing. Participants who watched a video where the frame (gain/loss) matched perceived susceptibility (low/high) had significantly greater likelihood of flossing at recommended levels at the 6-month follow-up, compared with those who viewed a mismatched video or no video at all. However, young adults (18–24) showed stronger moderation by motivational orientation than by perceived susceptibility, in line with previous work largely conducted with young adult samples. Conclusion Brief informational interventions can influence long-term health behavior, particularly when the gain- or loss-frame of the information matches the recipient’s beliefs about their health outcome risks. PMID:25020153

  14. Natural hazards and motivation for mitigation behavior: people cannot predict the affect evoked by a severe flood.

    PubMed

    Siegrist, Michael; Gutscher, Heinz

    2008-06-01

    Past research indicates that personal flood experience is an important factor in motivating mitigation behavior. It is not fully clear, however, why such experience is so important. This study tested the hypothesis that people without flooding experience underestimate the negative affect evoked by such an event. People who were affected by a severe recent flood disaster were compared with people who were not affected, but who also lived in flood-prone areas. Face-to-face interviews with open and closed questions were conducted (n= 201). Results suggest that people without flood experience envisaged the consequences of a flood differently from people who had actually experienced severe losses due to a flood. People who were not affected strongly underestimated the negative affect associated with a flood. Based on the results, it can be concluded that risk communication must not focus solely on technical aspects; in order to trigger motivation for mitigation behavior, successful communication must also help people to envisage the negative emotional consequences of natural disasters. PMID:18643832

  15. Relationships between implicit motives, self-attributed motives, and personal goal commitments

    PubMed Central

    Rawolle, Maika; Schultheiss, Maria; Schultheiss, Oliver C.

    2013-01-01

    This research examined the relationships between measures of the implicit and the explicit motivational systems. We analyzed the relationships between picture-story measures of implicit motives, questionnaire measures of self-attributed motives, and ideographically assessed personal goal commitments within the domains achievement, affiliation, and power through a reanalysis of three data sets from the USA and Germany (total N = 309). No significant positive within-domain correlations of implicit motives with self-attributed motives or personal goal commitments were found, and self-attributed motives correlated substantially and positively with personal goals. Results did not systematically differ between data sets. PMID:24367351

  16. Study on the strategies of waste solvent minimization in automobile production industry

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, C.T.; Lin, K.L.; Wu, Y.P.; Lan, W.L.; Jeng, F.T.

    1998-12-31

    There are six automobile manufacturers who produce several kinds of vehicles in Taiwan. To meet the consumer`s needs, the automobile coating processes are necessary for the basic functions of anti-rust protection, weatherproofing and appearance. Some kinds of solvents are added as thinners and additives to avoid excessive viscosity of the coating materials and to increase facility productivity. The total consumption of volatile organic solvents is about 407,000 ton/year of which about 100,700 ton/year is used in surface coating. It is worthy of attention that solvents used in automobile industries account for 7,200 ton/year in major coating processes, including electrodeposition coating, primer coating, top coating, and bar coating, according to statistics of VOCs emission rate calculated from the data of consumption provided by each automobile plant. The amount of solvents used for washing spray gun and base coating are about 3,350 ton/year; and about 1,700 ton/year for primer coat and clear coat. The species of organic solvents include toluene, xylene, ethylacetate, n-butyl acetate, ketone, etc. VOCs emission factor from each plant lies between 500 to 650 g-VOCs/L coating. To reduce the amount of coating and waste liquor, the suggested methods include increasing gun spray efficiency, lengthening same colors painting period, reducing the solvent content in paint, and adding treatment equipment. The high solid content painting, waterborne coat, and powder coat should be used for traditional painting. Additionally, a carbon adsorption bed and zeolite rotator recovery system can replace scrubbers since they can be used as solvent recovery equipment.

  17. Tools and Equipment Modeling for Automobile Interactive Assembling Operating Simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Wu Dianliang; Zhu Hongmin

    2010-05-21

    Tools and equipment play an important role in the simulation of virtual assembly, especially in the assembly process simulation and plan. Because of variety in function and complexity in structure and manipulation, the simulation of tools and equipments remains to be a challenge for interactive assembly operation. Based on analysis of details and characteristics of interactive operations for automobile assembly, the functional requirement for tools and equipments of automobile assembly is given. Then, a unified modeling method for information expression and function realization of general tools and equipments is represented, and the handling methods of manual, semi-automatic, automatic tools and equipments are discussed. Finally, the application in assembly simulation of rear suspension and front suspension of Roewe 750 automobile is given. The result shows that the modeling and handling methods are applicable in the interactive simulation of various tools and equipments, and can also be used for supporting assembly process planning in virtual environment.

  18. Tools and Equipment Modeling for Automobile Interactive Assembling Operating Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Dianliang; Zhu, Hongmin

    2010-05-01

    Tools and equipment play an important role in the simulation of virtual assembly, especially in the assembly process simulation and plan. Because of variety in function and complexity in structure and manipulation, the simulation of tools and equipments remains to be a challenge for interactive assembly operation. Based on analysis of details and characteristics of interactive operations for automobile assembly, the functional requirement for tools and equipments of automobile assembly is given. Then, a unified modeling method for information expression and function realization of general tools and equipments is represented, and the handling methods of manual, semi-automatic, automatic tools and equipments are discussed. Finally, the application in assembly simulation of rear suspension and front suspension of Roewe 750 automobile is given. The result shows that the modeling and handling methods are applicable in the interactive simulation of various tools and equipments, and can also be used for supporting assembly process planning in virtual environment.

  19. Space power by laser illumination of PV arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landis, Geoffrey A.

    1991-01-01

    There has recently been a resurgence of interest in the use of beamed power to support space exploration activities. The utility is examined of photovoltaics and problem and research areas are identified for photovoltaics in two beamed-power applications: to convert incident laser radiation to power at a remote receiving station, and as a primary power source on space based power station transmitting power to a remote user. A particular application of recent interest is to use a ground-based free electron laser as a power source for space applications. Specific applications include: night power for a moonbase by laser illumination of the moonbase solar arrays; use of a laser to provide power for satellites in medium and geosynchronous Earth orbit, and a laser powered system for an electrical propulsion orbital transfer vehicle. These and other applications are currently being investigated at NASA Lewis as part of a new program to demonstrate the feasibility of laser transmission of power for space.

  20. Enhanced motivation for food reward induced by stress and attenuation by corticotrophin-releasing factor receptor antagonism in rats: implications for overeating and obesity

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiu

    2014-01-01

    Rationale Overeating beyond individuals’ homeostatic needs critically contributes to obesity. The neurobehavioral mechanisms underlying the motivation to consume excessive foods with high calories are not fully understood. Objective The present study examined whether a pharmacological stressor, yohimbine enhances the motivation to procure food reward with an emphasis on comparisons between standard lab chow and high-fat foods. The effects of corticotropin-releasing factor receptor (CRF1) blockade by a CFR1 selective antagonist NBI on the stress-enhanced motivation for food reward were also assessed. Methods Male Sprague-Dawley rats with chow available ad libitum in their home cages were trained to press a lever under a progressive-ratio schedule for deliveries of either standard or high-fat food pellets. For testing yohimbine stress effects, rats received an intraperitoneal administration of yohimbine 10 min before start of the test sessions. For testing effects of CRF1 receptor blockade on stress responses, NBI was administered 20 min prior to yohimbine challenge. Results The rats emitted higher levels of lever responses to procure the high-fat food pellets compared with their counterparts on standard food pellets. Yohimbine challenge facilitated lever responses for the reward in all of the rats, whereas the effect was more robust in the rats on high-fat food pellets compared with their counterparts on standard food pellets. An inhibitory effect of pretreatment with NBI was observed on the enhancing effect of yohimbine challenge but not on the responses under baseline condition without yohimbine administration. Conclusions Stress challenge significantly enhanced the motivation of satiated rats to procure extra food reward, especially the high-fat food pellets. Activation of CRF1 receptors is required for the stress-enhanced motivation for food reward. These results may have implications for our better understanding of the biobehavioral mechanisms of overeating

  1. Psychological performance of accident-prone automobile drivers in China: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Jin, H Q; Araki, S; Wu, X K; Zhang, Y W; Yokoyama, K

    1991-03-01

    To evaluate the role of neurobehavioural factors in the aetiology of recurrent automobile accidents, we administered the Revised Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS-R), the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ), and choice and simple reaction time tests to 31 accident-prone automobile drivers. These drivers who had caused three or more traffic accidents during the years 1980-1984, were selected from records of 2723 traffic accidents registered by Hefei Traffic Police Department during the years 1980-1984. The same tests were administered to an equal number of sex- and age-matched control drivers who had no reported involvement in automobile accidents. None of the subjects had suffered from any neuropsychiatric illness or head injury. Comparisons between the two groups indicated that for accident-prone drivers scores on picture completion and block design subtests of the WAIS-R were significantly lowered (p less than 0.05); scores for neurosis extrovert behaviour and psychosis (EPQ) were significantly higher (p less than 0.05); and the number of errors in the choice reaction time test was significantly higher (p less than 0.01). It is suggested that accident-prone drivers have lower psychological performance, poorer judgement and a higher tendency than safe drivers to be neurotic, extrovert and psychotic. PMID:2066226

  2. Physiological changes in certain test plants under automobile exhaust pollution.

    PubMed

    Mandal, Madhumanjari

    2006-01-01

    Plants are the only living organisms which have to suffer a lot from automobile exhaust pollution because they remain static at their habitat. But such roadside plants like Nerium indicum Mill., Boerhaavia diffusa L., Amaranthus spinosus L., Cephalandra indica Naud., and Tabemaemontana divaricata L. can easily avoid the effects of air pollution by altering their physiological pathways pertaining to photosynthesis and respiration. Stomatal closure in Boerhaavia, Amaranthus, Cephlandra and stomatal clogging in Nerium and Tabemaemontana help these plants in preventing the entry of poisonous gases. The increased activity of the enzyme Phosphoenol Pyruvate Carboxylase (PEPCase) belonging to C4 pathway helps Nerium and Boerhaavia (both C3 plants) in carbon fixation under stress condition. Photorespiration is favoured in Amaranthus, Cephalandra and Tabernaemontana to compensate for the over production of ATP in them. Owing an inefficient gaseous exchange in Boerhaavia and Tabemaemontana, the activity of Glucose 6--Phosphate Dehydrogenase (G6-PD) also increases for the preferential shift to Pentose Phosphate Pathway to produce excess NADPH+H+ which are likely to re-oxidize by metabolic reactions not linked to electron transport chain. PMID:16850874

  3. Ratchet transport powered by chiral active particles

    PubMed Central

    Ai, Bao-quan

    2016-01-01

    We numerically investigate the ratchet transport of mixtures of active and passive particles in a transversal asymmetric channel. A big passive particle is immersed in a ‘sea’ of active particles. Due to the chirality of active particles, the longitudinal directed transport is induced by the transversal asymmetry. For the active particles, the chirality completely determines the direction of the ratchet transport, the counterclockwise and clockwise particles move to the opposite directions and can be separated. However, for the passive particle, the transport behavior becomes complicated, the direction is determined by competitions among the chirality, the self-propulsion speed, and the packing fraction. Interestingly, within certain parameters, the passive particle moves to the left, while active particles move to the right. In addition, there exist optimal parameters (the chirality, the height of the barrier, the self-propulsion speed and the packing fraction) at which the rectified efficiency takes its maximal value. Our findings could be used for the experimental pursuit of the ratchet transport powered by chiral active particles. PMID:26795952

  4. Ratchet transport powered by chiral active particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ai, Bao-Quan

    2016-01-01

    We numerically investigate the ratchet transport of mixtures of active and passive particles in a transversal asymmetric channel. A big passive particle is immersed in a ‘sea’ of active particles. Due to the chirality of active particles, the longitudinal directed transport is induced by the transversal asymmetry. For the active particles, the chirality completely determines the direction of the ratchet transport, the counterclockwise and clockwise particles move to the opposite directions and can be separated. However, for the passive particle, the transport behavior becomes complicated, the direction is determined by competitions among the chirality, the self-propulsion speed, and the packing fraction. Interestingly, within certain parameters, the passive particle moves to the left, while active particles move to the right. In addition, there exist optimal parameters (the chirality, the height of the barrier, the self-propulsion speed and the packing fraction) at which the rectified efficiency takes its maximal value. Our findings could be used for the experimental pursuit of the ratchet transport powered by chiral active particles.

  5. Ratchet transport powered by chiral active particles.

    PubMed

    Ai, Bao-quan

    2016-01-01

    We numerically investigate the ratchet transport of mixtures of active and passive particles in a transversal asymmetric channel. A big passive particle is immersed in a 'sea' of active particles. Due to the chirality of active particles, the longitudinal directed transport is induced by the transversal asymmetry. For the active particles, the chirality completely determines the direction of the ratchet transport, the counterclockwise and clockwise particles move to the opposite directions and can be separated. However, for the passive particle, the transport behavior becomes complicated, the direction is determined by competitions among the chirality, the self-propulsion speed, and the packing fraction. Interestingly, within certain parameters, the passive particle moves to the left, while active particles move to the right. In addition, there exist optimal parameters (the chirality, the height of the barrier, the self-propulsion speed and the packing fraction) at which the rectified efficiency takes its maximal value. Our findings could be used for the experimental pursuit of the ratchet transport powered by chiral active particles. PMID:26795952

  6. Motivational Needs of Students Enrolled in Agricultural Education Programs in Georgia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Jeff; Herren, Ray V.

    1997-01-01

    Agricultural education students in Georgia (n=1,952) were mostly motivated by achievement need. Future Farmers of America members had greater needs for achievement, affiliation, and power; females had higher affiliation and power needs; and African Americans had higher achievement and power needs. Differences in age and urban/rural settings were…

  7. The Evolvement of Automobile Steering System Based on TRIZ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Xinjun; Zhang, Shuang

    Products and techniques pass through a process of birth, growth, maturity, death and quit the stage like biological evolution process. The developments of products and techniques conform to some evolvement rules. If people know and hold these rules, they can design new kind of products and forecast the develop trends of the products. Thereby, enterprises can grasp the future technique directions of products, and make product and technique innovation. Below, based on TRIZ theory, the mechanism evolvement, the function evolvement and the appearance evolvement of automobile steering system had been analyzed and put forward some new ideas about future automobile steering system.

  8. Environmental change and hedonic cost functions for automobiles

    PubMed Central

    Berry, Steven; Kortum, Samuel; Pakes, Ariel

    1996-01-01

    This paper focuses on how changes in the economic and regulatory environment have affected production costs and product characteristics in the automobile industry. We estimate “hedonic cost functions” that relate product-level costs to their characteristics. Then we examine how this cost surface has changed over time and how these changes relate to changes in gas prices and in emission standard regulations. We also briefly consider the related questions of how changes in automobile characteristics, and in the rate of patenting, are related to regulations and gas prices. PMID:8917486

  9. Keep the driver in control: Automating automobiles of the future.

    PubMed

    Banks, Victoria A; Stanton, Neville A

    2016-03-01

    Automated automobiles will be on our roads within the next decade but the role of the driver has not yet been formerly recognised or designed. Rather, the driver is often left in a passive monitoring role until they are required to reclaim control from the vehicle. This research aimed to test the idea of driver-initiated automation, in which the automation offers decision support that can be either accepted or ignored. The test case examined a combination of lateral and longitudinal control in addition to an auto-overtake system. Despite putting the driver in control of the automated systems by enabling them to accept or ignore behavioural suggestions (e.g. overtake), there were still issues associated with increased workload and decreased trust. These issues are likely to have arisen due to the way in which the automated system has been designed. Recommendations for improvements in systems design have been made which are likely to improve trust and make the role of the driver more transparent concerning their authority over the automated system. PMID:26141907

  10. Does intrinsic motivation fuel the prosocial fire? Motivational synergy in predicting persistence, performance, and productivity.

    PubMed

    Grant, Adam M

    2008-01-01

    Researchers have obtained conflicting results about the role of prosocial motivation in persistence, performance, and productivity. To resolve this discrepancy, I draw on self-determination theory, proposing that prosocial motivation is most likely to predict these outcomes when it is accompanied by intrinsic motivation. Two field studies support the hypothesis that intrinsic motivation moderates the association between prosocial motivation and persistence, performance, and productivity. In Study 1, intrinsic motivation strengthened the relationship between prosocial motivation and the overtime hour persistence of 58 firefighters. In Study 2, intrinsic motivation strengthened the relationship between prosocial motivation and the performance and productivity of 140 fundraising callers. Callers who reported high levels of both prosocial and intrinsic motivations raised more money 1 month later, and this moderated association was mediated by a larger number of calls made. I discuss implications for theory and research on work motivation. PMID:18211134

  11. Analyzing panel acoustic contributions toward the sound field inside the passenger compartment of a full-size automobile.

    PubMed

    Wu, Sean F; Moondra, Manmohan; Beniwal, Ravi

    2015-04-01

    The Helmholtz equation least squares (HELS)-based nearfield acoustical holography (NAH) is utilized to analyze panel acoustic contributions toward the acoustic field inside the interior region of an automobile. Specifically, the acoustic power flows from individual panels are reconstructed, and relative contributions to sound pressure level and spectrum at any point of interest are calculated. Results demonstrate that by correlating the acoustic power flows from individual panels to the field acoustic pressure, one can correctly locate the panel allowing the most acoustic energy transmission into the vehicle interior. The panel on which the surface acoustic pressure amplitude is the highest should not be used as indicative of the panel responsible for the sound field in the vehicle passenger compartment. Another significant advantage of this HELS-based NAH is that measurements of the input data only need to be taken once by using a conformal array of microphones in the near field, and ranking of panel acoustic contributions to any field point can be readily performed. The transfer functions between individual panels of any vibrating structure to the acoustic pressure anywhere in space are calculated not measured, thus significantly reducing the time and effort involved in panel acoustic contributions analyses. PMID:25920860

  12. From W7-X to a HELIAS fusion power plant: motivation and options for an intermediate-step burning-plasma stellarator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warmer, F.; Beidler, C. D.; Dinklage, A.; Wolf, R.; The W7-X Team

    2016-07-01

    As a starting point for a more in-depth discussion of a research strategy leading from Wendelstein 7-X to a HELIAS power plant, the respective steps in physics and engineering are considered from different vantage points. The first approach discusses the direct extrapolation of selected physics and engineering parameters. This is followed by an examination of advancing the understanding of stellarator optimisation. Finally, combining a dimensionless parameter approach with an empirical energy confinement time scaling, the necessary development steps are highlighted. From this analysis it is concluded that an intermediate-step burning-plasma stellarator is the most prudent approach to bridge the gap between W7-X and a HELIAS power plant. Using a systems code approach in combination with transport simulations, a range of possible conceptual designs is analysed. This range is exemplified by two bounding cases, a fast-track, cost-efficient device with low magnetic field and without a blanket and a device similar to a demonstration power plant with blanket and net electricity power production.

  13. Satellites Would Transmit Power By Laser Beams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, M. D.; Walker, Gilbert H.; HUMES D. H.; Kwon, J. H.

    1995-01-01

    Arrays of diode lasers concentrate power into narrow beams. Baseline design of system formulated with regard to two particular missions that differ greatly in power requirements, thus showing scalability and attributes of basic system. Satellite system features large-scale array amplifier of high efficiency, injection-locked amplifiers, coherent combination of beams, and use of advanced lithographic technology to fabricate diode lasers in array. Extremely rapid development of applicable technologies make features realizable within decade.

  14. ON-ROAD REMOTE SENSING OF AUTOMOBILE EMISSIONS IN THE RESEARCH TRIANGLE PARK, NORTH CAROLINA AREA: 1997-2001

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report describes automobile exhaust remote sensing data collected by EPA at a number of sites in the Research Triangle Park, NC area during 1997. Data were also collected at one site in Raleigh, NC from 1998 through 2001 for the Coordinating Research Council (CRC) study of re...

  15. Intrinsic Motivation in Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, Benjamin; Nambiar, Nathan; Hemphill, Caroline; Devietti, Elizabeth; Massengale, Alexandra; McCredie, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    This article describes ways in which educators can use Harter's perceived competence motivation theory, the achievement goal theory, and self-determination theory to develop students' intrinsic motivation to maintain physical fitness, as demonstrated by the Sound Body Sound Mind curriculum and proven effective by the 2013 University of…

  16. Motivational and neuroanatomical specificity of hypodipsia for aversive solutions produced by medial preoptic injury to the rat.

    PubMed

    Carey, R J; Goodall, E B

    1975-06-01

    Bilateral medial preoptic lesions in rats dramatically lowered the rejection threshold for quinine-adulterated water but not for food in 24-hr forced-choice tests. The detection threshold for quinine in a two-bottle choice test, however, was unaffected by the medial preoptic lesion. Bilateral septal and lateral preoptic lesions had no effect on any quinine-adulteration tests. The enhanced rejection of quinine-adulterated water in a forced-choice test by medial-preoptic-damaged rats was also observed after 24-hr of water deprivation. Furthermore, the plasma osmolality of medial preoptic rats was significantly elevated above controls after 24-hr of water deprivation. These findings were interpreted as suggesting that a medial preoptic lesion produces a deficit in thirst-motivated behavior. PMID:1176656

  17. AC electrokinetic drug delivery in dentistry using an interdigitated electrode assembly powered by inductive coupling.

    PubMed

    Ivanoff, Chris S; Wu, Jie Jayne; Mirzajani, Hadi; Cheng, Cheng; Yuan, Quan; Kevorkyan, Stepan; Gaydarova, Radostina; Tomlekova, Desislava

    2016-10-01

    AC electrokinetics (ACEK) has been shown to deliver certain drugs into human teeth more effectively than diffusion. However, using electrical wires to power intraoral ACEK devices poses risks to patients. The study demonstrates a novel interdigitated electrode arrays (IDE) assembly powered by inductive coupling to induce ACEK effects at appropriate frequencies to motivate drugs wirelessly. A signal generator produces the modulating signal, which multiplies with the carrier signal to produce the amplitude modulated (AM) signal. The AM signal goes through the inductive link to appear on the secondary coil, then rectified and filtered to dispose of its carrier signal, and the positive half of the modulating signal appears on the load. After characterizing the device, the device is validated under light microscopy by motivating carboxylate-modified microspheres, tetracycline, acetaminophen, benzocaine, lidocaine and carbamide peroxide particles with induced ACEK effects. The assembly is finally tested in a common dental bleaching application. After applying 35 % carbamide peroxide to human teeth topically or with the IDE at 1200 Hz, 5 Vpp for 20 min, spectrophotometric analysis showed that compared to diffusion, the IDE enhanced whitening in specular optic and specular optic excluded modes by 215 % and 194 % respectively. Carbamide peroxide absorbance by the ACEK group was two times greater than diffusion as measured by colorimetric oxidation-reduction and UV-Vis spectroscopy at 550 nm. The device motivates drugs of variable molecular weight and structure wirelessly. Wireless transport of drugs to intraoral targets under ACEK effects may potentially improve the efficacy and safety of drug delivery in dentistry. PMID:27565821

  18. 41 CFR 102-34.45 - How are passenger automobiles classified?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... automobiles classified? 102-34.45 Section 102-34.45 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property... MANAGEMENT Obtaining Fuel Efficient Motor Vehicles § 102-34.45 How are passenger automobiles classified? Passenger automobiles are classified in the following table: Sedan class Station wagon class...

  19. 41 CFR 102-34.45 - How are passenger automobiles classified?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... automobiles classified? 102-34.45 Section 102-34.45 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property... MANAGEMENT Obtaining Fuel Efficient Motor Vehicles § 102-34.45 How are passenger automobiles classified? Passenger automobiles are classified in the following table: Sedan class Station wagon class...

  20. 38 CFR 3.808 - Automobiles or other conveyances and adaptive equipment; certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Automobiles or other... Special Benefits § 3.808 Automobiles or other conveyances and adaptive equipment; certification. (a) Entitlement. A certificate of eligibility for financial assistance in the purchase of one automobile or...

  1. 49 CFR 393.128 - What are the rules for securing automobiles, light trucks and vans?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false What are the rules for securing automobiles, light... automobiles, light trucks and vans? (a) Applicability. The rules in this section apply to the transportation of automobiles, light trucks, and vans which individually weigh 4,536 kg. (10,000 lb) or...

  2. 40 CFR 600.311-86 - Range of fuel economy for comparable automobiles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... automobiles. 600.311-86 Section 600.311-86 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year Automobiles-Labeling § 600.311-86 Range of fuel economy for comparable automobiles. (a) The Administrator will determine the range of city and the range of highway...

  3. 40 CFR 600.311-08 - Range of fuel economy for comparable automobiles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... automobiles. 600.311-08 Section 600.311-08 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year Automobiles-Labeling § 600.311-08 Range of fuel economy for comparable automobiles. (a) The Administrator will determine the range of combined fuel economy values...

  4. 40 CFR 600.311-86 - Range of fuel economy for comparable automobiles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... automobiles. 600.311-86 Section 600.311-86 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year Automobiles-Labeling § 600.311-86 Range of fuel economy for comparable automobiles. (a) The Administrator will determine the range of city and the range of highway...

  5. 40 CFR 600.311-08 - Range of fuel economy for comparable automobiles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... automobiles. 600.311-08 Section 600.311-08 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Labeling § 600.311-08 Range of fuel economy for comparable automobiles. (a) The Administrator will determine the range of combined fuel economy values for each class of comparable automobiles comprising...

  6. 76 FR 61779 - Agency Information Collection (Application for Automobile or Other Conveyance and Adaptive...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-05

    ... AFFAIRS Agency Information Collection (Application for Automobile or Other Conveyance and Adaptive... refer to ``OMB Control No. 2900-0067.'' SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: Application for Automobile or..., servicepersons and their survivors complete VA Form 21-4502 to apply for automobile or other conveyance...

  7. 40 CFR 600.311-08 - Range of fuel economy for comparable automobiles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... automobiles. 600.311-08 Section 600.311-08 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Labeling § 600.311-08 Range of fuel economy for comparable automobiles. (a) The Administrator will determine the range of combined fuel economy values for each class of comparable automobiles comprising...

  8. 25 CFR 11.419 - Unauthorized use of automobiles and other vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Unauthorized use of automobiles and other vehicles. 11.419... OFFENSES AND LAW AND ORDER CODE Criminal Offenses § 11.419 Unauthorized use of automobiles and other vehicles. A person commits a misdemeanor if he or she operates another person's automobile,...

  9. 41 CFR 102-34.45 - How are passenger automobiles classified?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... automobiles classified? 102-34.45 Section 102-34.45 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property... MANAGEMENT Obtaining Fuel Efficient Motor Vehicles § 102-34.45 How are passenger automobiles classified? Passenger automobiles are classified in the following table: Sedan class Station wagon class...

  10. 49 CFR 393.128 - What are the rules for securing automobiles, light trucks and vans?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false What are the rules for securing automobiles, light... automobiles, light trucks and vans? (a) Applicability. The rules in this section apply to the transportation of automobiles, light trucks, and vans which individually weigh 4,536 kg. (10,000 lb) or...

  11. 49 CFR 393.128 - What are the rules for securing automobiles, light trucks and vans?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What are the rules for securing automobiles, light... automobiles, light trucks and vans? (a) Applicability. The rules in this section apply to the transportation of automobiles, light trucks, and vans which individually weigh 4,536 kg. (10,000 lb) or...

  12. 49 CFR 393.128 - What are the rules for securing automobiles, light trucks and vans?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false What are the rules for securing automobiles, light... automobiles, light trucks and vans? (a) Applicability. The rules in this section apply to the transportation of automobiles, light trucks, and vans which individually weigh 4,536 kg. (10,000 lb) or...

  13. 40 CFR 600.311-08 - Range of fuel economy for comparable automobiles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... automobiles. 600.311-08 Section 600.311-08 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year Automobiles-Labeling § 600.311-08 Range of fuel economy for comparable automobiles. (a) The Administrator will determine the range of combined fuel economy values...

  14. 49 CFR 393.128 - What are the rules for securing automobiles, light trucks and vans?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false What are the rules for securing automobiles, light... automobiles, light trucks and vans? (a) Applicability. The rules in this section apply to the transportation of automobiles, light trucks, and vans which individually weigh 4,536 kg. (10,000 lb) or...

  15. 41 CFR 102-34.45 - How are passenger automobiles classified?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... automobiles classified? 102-34.45 Section 102-34.45 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property... MANAGEMENT Obtaining Fuel Efficient Motor Vehicles § 102-34.45 How are passenger automobiles classified? Passenger automobiles are classified in the following table: Sedan class Station wagon class...

  16. 41 CFR 102-34.45 - How are passenger automobiles classified?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... automobiles classified? 102-34.45 Section 102-34.45 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property... MANAGEMENT Obtaining Fuel Efficient Motor Vehicles § 102-34.45 How are passenger automobiles classified? Passenger automobiles are classified in the following table: Sedan class Station wagon class...

  17. Entrepreneurship and Student Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vorholt, Julie; Harris, Erica

    2014-01-01

    This article describes a three-week project-based unit on entrepreneurship conducted with students in communications classes in an Academic English context. A detailed road map of the project is given, starting with an introduction and ending with final presentations and poster sessions. Students were motivated by their own interests in business…

  18. Academic Motivation in Calculus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Asia R.; Hoessler, Carolyn; Jonker, Leo; Stockley, Denise

    2013-01-01

    Research exists on the role of motivation in student learning, especially with subjects in the humanities and social sciences (e.g., Deci, Vallerand, Pelletier, & Ryan, 1991; Vallerand, Pelletier, Blais, Briere, Senecal, & Vallieres, 1992). This body of research would be well served by broadening current understandings of students of the natural…

  19. Individual differences in fundamental social motives.

    PubMed

    Neel, Rebecca; Kenrick, Douglas T; White, Andrew Edward; Neuberg, Steven L

    2016-06-01

    Motivation has long been recognized as an important component of how people both differ from, and are similar to, each other. The current research applies the biologically grounded fundamental social motives framework, which assumes that human motivational systems are functionally shaped to manage the major costs and benefits of social life, to understand individual differences in social motives. Using the Fundamental Social Motives Inventory, we explore the relations among the different fundamental social motives of Self-Protection, Disease Avoidance, Affiliation, Status, Mate Seeking, Mate Retention, and Kin Care; the relationships of the fundamental social motives to other individual difference and personality measures including the Big Five personality traits; the extent to which fundamental social motives are linked to recent life experiences; and the extent to which life history variables (e.g., age, sex, childhood environment) predict individual differences in the fundamental social motives. Results suggest that the fundamental social motives are a powerful lens through which to examine individual differences: They are grounded in theory, have explanatory value beyond that of the Big Five personality traits, and vary meaningfully with a number of life history variables. A fundamental social motives approach provides a generative framework for considering the meaning and implications of individual differences in social motivation. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26371400

  20. New-generation low-power radiation survey instruments. [Powered by capacitor

    SciTech Connect

    Waechter, D.A.; Bjarke, G.O.; Wolf, M.A.; Trujillo, F.; Umbarger, C.J.

    1983-01-01

    A number of new, ultra-low-powered radiation instruments have recently been developed at Los Alamos. Among these are two instruments which use a novel power source to eliminate costly batteries. The newly developed gamma detecting radiac, nicknamed the Firefly, and the alpha particle detecting instrument, called the Simple Cordless Alpha Monitor, both use recent advances in miniaturization and power-saving electronics to yield devices which are small, rugged, and very power-frugal. The two instruments consume so little power that the need for batteries to run them is eliminated. They are, instead, powered by a charged capacitor which will operate the instruments for an hour or more. Both line power and mechanical sources are used to charge the storage capacitors which power the instruments.