Science.gov

Sample records for automotive exhaust gases

  1. Automotive Fuel and Exhaust Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irby, James F.; And Others

    Materials are provided for a 14-hour course designed to introduce the automotive mechanic to the basic operations of automotive fuel and exhaust systems incorporated on military vehicles. The four study units cover characteristics of fuels, gasoline fuel system, diesel fuel systems, and exhaust system. Each study unit begins with a general…

  2. Automotive Fuel and Exhaust Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marine Corps Inst., Washington, DC.

    This correspondence course, originally developed for the Marine Corps, is designed to provide mechanics with an understanding of the construction, operation, malfunction, diagnosis, maintenance, and repair of the fuel and exhaust systems used in automobiles. The course contains five study units covering fundamentals of gasoline engine fuel…

  3. Localized corrosion resistance of automotive exhaust alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Sabata, A.; Brossia, C.S.; Behling, M.

    1998-12-31

    Corrosion in automotive exhaust systems can be broadly classified as (a) cold end corrosion and (b) hot end corrosion. For the cold end, the requirements include inside-out perforation corrosion resistance and cosmetic corrosion resistance. Perforation corrosion causes noticeable degradation in noise quality and may even affect the back pressure. For the hot end, the key concern has been perforation corrosion resistance. With the use of oxygen sensors in catalytic converters, the failure criteria will become more stringent. Numerous accelerated corrosion tests have been used to rank materials for the Hot End and the Cold End. These include (a) Continuous Test, (b) Cyclic Tests -- Hot End, (c) Cyclic Tests -- Cold End, (d) Electrochemical Ranking. In this paper the authors evaluate some of the commonly used exhaust materials in these accelerated tests. These accelerated tests are easy to use, inexpensive to run as compared to proving ground testing or trailer testing and can provide information in a relatively short time. Here they report lab work to date on some of the accelerated corrosion testing for perforation corrosion resistance. Note that these tests are useful for ranking materials only. Life expectancy of the material can be given only after a correlation is established between the accelerated tests and field performance. The electrochemical tests were designed to gain insight into pit growth kinetics in the accelerated tests.

  4. Measuring soot particles from automotive exhaust emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andres, Hanspeter; Lüönd, Felix; Schlatter, Jürg; Auderset, Kevin; Jordan-Gerkens, Anke; Nowak, Andreas; Ebert, Volker; Buhr, Egbert; Klein, Tobias; Tuch, Thomas; Wiedensohler, Alfred; Mamakos, Athanasios; Riccobono, Francesco; Discher, Kai; Högström, Richard; Yli-Ojanperä, Jaakko; Quincey, Paul

    2014-08-01

    The European Metrology Research Programme participating countries and the European Union jointly fund a three year project to address the need of the automotive industry for a metrological sound base for exhaust measurements. The collaborative work on particle emissions involves five European National Metrology Institutes, the Tampere University of Technology, the Joint Research Centre for Energy and Transport and the Leibniz Institute for Tropospheric Research. On one hand, a particle number and size standard for soot particles is aimed for. Eventually this will allow the partners to provide accurate and comparable calibrations of measurement instruments for the type approval of Euro 5b and Euro 6 vehicles. Calibration aerosols of combustion particles, silver and graphite proof partially suitable. Yet, a consensus choice together with instrument manufactures is pending as the aerosol choice considerably affects the number concentration measurement. Furthermore, the consortium issued consistent requirements for novel measuring instruments foreseen to replace today's opacimeters in regulatory periodic emission controls of soot and compared them with European legislative requirements. Four partners are conducting a metrological validation of prototype measurement instruments. The novel instruments base on light scattering, electrical, ionisation chamber and diffusion charging sensors and will be tested at low and high particle concentrations. Results shall allow manufacturers to further improve their instruments to comply with legal requirements.

  5. Inerting Aircraft Fuel Systems Using Exhaust Gases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hehemann, David G.

    2002-01-01

    Our purpose in this proposal was to determine the feasibility of using carbon dioxide, possibly obtained from aircraft exhaust gases as a substance to inert the fuel contained in fuel tanks aboard aircraft. To do this, we decided to look at the effects carbon dioxide has upon commercial Jet-A aircraft fuel. In particular, we looked at the solubility of CO2 in Jet-A fuel, the pumpability of CO2-saturated Jet-A fuel, the flashpoint of Jet-A fuel under various mixtures of air and CO2, the static outgassing of CO2-Saturated Jet-A fuel and the dynamic outgassing of Jet-A fuel during pumping of Jet-A fuel.

  6. 49 CFR 229.43 - Exhaust and battery gases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Exhaust and battery gases. 229.43 Section 229.43... § 229.43 Exhaust and battery gases. (a) Products of combustion shall be released entirely outside the... conditions. (b) Battery containers shall be vented and batteries kept from gassing excessively....

  7. 49 CFR 229.43 - Exhaust and battery gases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Exhaust and battery gases. 229.43 Section 229.43... § 229.43 Exhaust and battery gases. (a) Products of combustion shall be released entirely outside the... conditions. (b) Battery containers shall be vented and batteries kept from gassing excessively....

  8. 49 CFR 229.43 - Exhaust and battery gases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Exhaust and battery gases. 229.43 Section 229.43... § 229.43 Exhaust and battery gases. (a) Products of combustion shall be released entirely outside the... conditions. (b) Battery containers shall be vented and batteries kept from gassing excessively....

  9. 49 CFR 229.43 - Exhaust and battery gases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Exhaust and battery gases. 229.43 Section 229.43... § 229.43 Exhaust and battery gases. (a) Products of combustion shall be released entirely outside the... conditions. (b) Battery containers shall be vented and batteries kept from gassing excessively....

  10. 49 CFR 229.43 - Exhaust and battery gases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Exhaust and battery gases. 229.43 Section 229.43... § 229.43 Exhaust and battery gases. (a) Products of combustion shall be released entirely outside the... conditions. (b) Battery containers shall be vented and batteries kept from gassing excessively....

  11. Fast automotive diesel exhaust measurement using quantum cascade lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herbst, J.; Brunner, R.; Lambrecht, A.

    2013-12-01

    Step by step, US and European legislations enforce the further reduction of atmospheric pollution caused by automotive exhaust emissions. This is pushing automotive development worldwide. Fuel efficient diesel engines with SCRtechnology can impede NO2-emission by reduction with NH3 down to the ppm range. To meet the very low emission limits of the Euro6 resp. US NLEV (National Low Emission Vehicle) regulations, automotive manufacturers have to optimize continuously all phases of engine operation and corresponding catalytic converters. Especially nonstationary operation holds a high potential for optimizing gasoline consumption and further reducing of pollutant emissions. Test equipment has to cope with demanding sensitivity and speed requirements. In the past Fraunhofer IPM has developed a fast emission analyzer called DEGAS (Dynamic Exhaust Gas Analyzer System), based on cryogenically cooled lead salt lasers. These systems have been used at Volkswagen AG`s test benches for a decade. Recently, IPM has developed DEGAS-Next which is based on cw quantum cascade lasers and thermoelectrically cooled detectors. The system is capable to measure three gas components (i.e. NO, NO2, NH3) in two channels with a time resolution of 20 ms and 1 ppm detection limits. We shall present test data and a comparison with fast FTIR measurements.

  12. Non-thermal plasma for exhaust gases treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alva R., Elvia; Pacheco P., Marquidia; Gómez B., Fernando; Pacheco P., Joel; Colín C., Arturo; Sánchez-Mendieta, Víctor; Valdivia B., Ricardo; Santana D., Alfredo; Huertas C., José; Frías P., Hilda

    2015-09-01

    This article describes a study on a non-thermal plasma device to treat exhaust gases in an internal combustion engine. Several tests using a plasma device to treat exhaust gases are conducted on a Honda GX200-196 cm3 engine at different rotational speeds. A plasma reactor could be efficient in degrading nitrogen oxides and particulate matter. Monoxide and carbon dioxide treatment is minimal. However, achieving 1%-3% degradation may be interesting to reduce the emission of greenhouse gases.

  13. Recent advances in investigations of toxicity of automotive exhaust

    PubMed Central

    Stupfel, Maurice

    1976-01-01

    The influence of auto exhaust on man's health is difficult to gauge considering the intricacy of human environmental urban stresses and particularly of other air polluting (industrial, domestic) emissions. Epidemiological surveys made in road tunnel employees and in traffic officers have not demonstrated specific effects and have often been complicated by cigarette smoking as a factor. Long-term animal experiments run mostly on small rodents give evidence of little effect of the pathological actions of dilutions such as those encountered in high polluted cities. However the acute toxicity of gasoline exhaust emission is well known and mostly due to carbon monoxide. Considering the different types of cycles and operating conditions of vehicles (gasoline and diesel), auto exhaust gases constitute no more a chemical entity than they show, a definite toxicity. A great number of substances that they contain (nitrogen oxides, aldehydes, antiknock additives, heavy metals, possible catalysts are highly toxic as shown by in vivo and in vitro (mutagenic) tests. Interactions of the components are for the moment ignored or poorly understood. Besides, the evolution of the physicochemical properties and natures of the auto exhaust emission in the gaseous biotope of man under determined conditions of ultraviolet irradiation, temperature, and hygrometry provoke the formation of secondary products such as oxidants and ozone. Several experiments show clearly that irradiation increases the toxicity of auto exhaust significantly. For these reasons, geographical, meteorological, and chronological (circadian and seasonal) factors should be taken into consideration, especially with regard to emission standards. PMID:67944

  14. Combustion control system adding a liquid, exhaust gases, and PCV gases

    SciTech Connect

    Lindberg, J.E.

    1980-01-15

    A combustion control system is disclosed that adds a fluid and heat energy to the air-fuel mixture of the induction system of an internal combustion engine in response to engine need to improve combustion, to increase power, to improve efficiency, and to reduce emissions. The system incorporates fluidic control mechanisms which provide the control functions without any moving parts. The system incorporates one or more variable impedance flow control mechanisms, each of which produces an impedance to flow through the control mechanism which varies in a controlled relationship to the pressure differential across the control mechanism. In one embodiment, the main variable impedance control mechanism is a vortex chamber. The outlet of the vortex chamber is connected to the positive crankcase ventilation (PCV) inlet to intake manifold downstream of the butterfly valve. The vortex chamber has inputs for supplying air, the liquid, exhaust gases, and PCV gases for mixing within the vortex chamber. The incoming liquid, air, exhaust gases, and PCV gases are transmitted into the main vortex chamber by input constructions which, in themselves, provide for controlled regulation of both the relative proportions and total amounts of the incoming liquid and gases. In a specific embodiment, the input constructions include a liquid-exhaust gas acceleration chamber for mixing liquid with exhaust gases and a PCV-exhaust gas vortex chamber for mixing exhaust gases with PCV gases and air and swirl producing devices for causing controlled choking of the inlets of one or more of the vortex chambers. The system also incorporates a variable impedance syphon break in the line connecting the liquid source with the liquid-exhaust gas acceleration chamber.

  15. Influence of MTBE addition into gasoline on automotive exhaust emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poulopoulos, S.; Philippopoulos, C.

    The effect of methyl-t-butyl ether (MTBE) addition into gasoline on the exhaust emissions from internal combustion engines was studied. A four-cylinder OPEL 1.6 l engine equipped with a hydraulic brake dynamometer was used in all the experiments. Fuels containing 0.0-11.0% MTBE were used in a wide range of engine operations, and the exhaust gases were analyzed for CO, HC (total unburned hydrocarbons, methane, ethylene) and MTBE, before and after their catalytic treatment by a three-way catalytic converter. The addition of MTBE into gasoline resulted in a decrease in CO and HC emissions only at high engine loading. During cold-start up of the engine, MTBE, HC, CO emissions were significant and increased with MTBE addition into fuel. At the catalytic converter outlet MTBE was detected when its concentration in fuels was greater than 8% and only as long as the catalytic converter operates at low temperatures. Methane and ethylene emissions were comparable for all fuels tested at engine outlet, but methane emissions remained almost at the same level while ethylene emissions were significantly decreased by the catalytic converter.

  16. Removal of main exhaust gases of vehicles by a double dielectric barrier discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pacheco, M.; Alva, E.; Valdivia, R.; Pacheco, J.; Rivera, C.; Santana, A.; Huertas, J.; Lefort, B.; Estrada, N.

    2012-06-01

    Because the health effects and their contribution to climate change, the emissions of toxic gases are becoming more controlled. In order to improve the diminution of toxic gases to the atmosphere, several techniques have been developed; here it will be focus only to automotive emissions. This work deals about the treatment of toxic gases emitted from vehicles by a non-thermal plasma. Several tests were done in a 4-cylinder 2002/Z16SE motor to characterize the vehicle emissions. With these results gas mixture simulating the exhaust gases vehicles, was used in experiments at different conditions employing a double dielectric barrier reactor for their treatment. The removal efficiencies superior to 90% show the competence of the non-thermal plasma reactor to treat these gases. Experimental results are explained with the aid of a simple chemical model that suggests a possible mechanism of degradation of toxic gases. The plasma reactor employed could works at 12V supplied without difficulty by a vehicle battery.

  17. AUTOMOTIVE EXHAUST AND MOUSE ACTIVITY: RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN POLLUTANT CONCENTRATIONS AND DECREASES IN WHEEL RUNNING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Groups of male and female mice inhaled either clean air, 100 ppm carbon monoxide, or light-irradiated and nonirridiated automotive exhaust containing nominally 25, 50, 75, or 100 ppm carbon monoxide in three tests with exposure lasting from 4 to 7 days. Exhaust from a factory or ...

  18. Cleaning of exhaust gases in the mold core industry

    SciTech Connect

    Balabanov, V.P.

    1988-05-01

    Methods for detoxifying the exhaust gases in the core-making sections of the casting industry were studied. The gases generated when making cores from sand-resin mixtures based on oil-free binders and synthetic resins were evaluated. Tests were conducted on activated carbon AR-3, catalysts containing precious and nonprecious metals, and on solutions of sulfuric acid, hydrogen peroxide, and sodium hypochlorate. The absorption, adsorption, and catalytic methods of cleaning the gas discharges from toxic substances were comparatively assessed. Results show that sorption methods were unsuitable while catalytic methods achieved near-total detoxification.

  19. Method for treating exhaust gases with an improved catalyst composition

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, K. M.; Gandhi, H. S.

    1985-04-02

    There is disclosed a method of using an exhaust gas catalyst for treatment of exhaust gases developed by burning a hydrocarbon fuel or a fuel containing hydrocarbon and alcohol blends in an internal combustion engine. These exhaust gases contain varying amounts of unburned hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide and oxides of nitrogen depending upon the operating conditions of an internal combustion engine. This specification teaches a method of using an improved catalyst composition in which a support medium is provided for supporting the catalyst system. This support medium has deposited thereon palladium and finely divided tungsten. Tungsten is present on the support media in a quantity such that tungsten is available to substantially all of the palladium on the support medium. In this manner, the palladium/tungsten combination is effective in the catalytic oxidation of unburned hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide and the catalytic reduction of oxides of nitrogen without production of significant amounts of ammonia when the internal combustion engine is operating under fuel rich conditions.

  20. Promoted decomposition of NOx in automotive diesel-like exhausts by electro-catalytic honeycombs.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ta-Jen; Chiang, De-Yi; Shih, Chi; Lee, Cheng-Chin; Mao, Chih-Wei; Wang, Bo-Chung

    2015-03-17

    NO and NO2 (collectively called NOx) are major air pollutants in automotive emissions. More effective and easier treatments of NOx than those achieved by the present methods can offer better protection of human health and higher fuel efficiency that can reduce greenhouse gas emissions. However, currently commercialized technologies for automotive NOx emission control cannot effectively treat diesel-like exhausts with high NOx concentrations. Thus, exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) has been used extensively, which reduces fuel efficiency and increases particulate emission considerably. Our results show that the electro-catalytic honeycomb (ECH) promotes the decomposition of NOx to nitrogen and oxygen, without consuming reagents or other resources. NOx can be converted to nitrogen and oxygen almost completely. The ECHs are shown to effectively remove NOx from gasoline-fueled diesel-like exhausts. A very high NO concentration is preferred in the engine exhaust, especially during engine cold-start. Promoted NOx decomposition (PND) technology for real-world automotive applications is established in this study by using the ECH. With PND, EGR is no longer needed. Diesel-like engines can therefore achieve superior fuel efficiency, and all major automotive pollutants can be easily treated due to high concentration of oxygen in the diesel-like exhausts, leading to zero pollution. PMID:25719390

  1. Spectral measurements of exhaust gases using a Fourier transform spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schruefer, Elmar; Lindermeir, Erwin; Palme, Frank; Wuelbern, K.

    1993-09-01

    In recent years environmental issues have become increasingly important. Especially the impact of gaseous emissions on the atmosphere is of great interest. As a consequence a group of several coworkers was established at the Institute for Electrical Measurement of the Technical University of Munich, Germany) with the task to develop and investigate spectroscopic methods and instruments for the analysis of the chemical compsition of exhaust gases. This article describes the advantages of the application of Fourier transform spectroscopy against conventional gas analysis devices. Moreover results of measurements of the exhaust of a smokestack of a coal fired power plant and of an aircraft engine are presented. The last section deals with the development of a Fourier transform spectrometer which is not equipped with any moving parts. This design was made especially for applications in harsh environments.

  2. Hot exhaust gases with passive FTIR emission spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heland, Joerg; Schaefer, Klaus; Haus, Rainer

    1998-12-01

    Passive FTIR emission spectroscopy using a commercial medium resolution instrument with a telescope has been applied to analyze the hot exhaust gases of various combustion sources, such as industrial and building smoke stacks, aircraft engines, flares, and forest fires. To interpret the remotely measured spectra a multi-layer, line-by-line spectra retrieval software using the molecular spectral databases HITRAN and HITEMP has been developed, validated and successfully used to determine the exhaust gas temperatures and the concentrations of CO2, H2O, CO, N2O, CH4, NO, NO2, SO2, and HCl for different combustion conditions of the sources. In this paper the feasibility and the setup of passive IR measurements, the basic theory of radiative transfer and special features of the commercially available spectra analysis code are described. In addition, the results of the different measurement applications are summarized.

  3. Acoustic Optimization of Automotive Exhaust Heat Thermoelectric Generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, C. Q.; Ye, B. Q.; Guo, X.; Hui, P.

    2012-06-01

    The potential for thermoelectric exhaust heat recovery in vehicles has been increasing with recent advances in the efficiency of thermoelectric generators (TEGs). This study analyzes the acoustic attenuation performance of exhaust-based TEGs. The acoustic characteristics of two different thermal designs of exhaust gas heat exchanger in TEGs are discussed in terms of transmission loss and acoustic insertion loss. GT-Power simulations and bench tests on a dynamometer with a high-performance production engine are carried out. Results indicate that the acoustic attenuation of TEGs could be determined and optimized. In addition, the feasibility of integration of exhaust-based TEGs and engine mufflers into the exhaust line is tested, which can help to reduce space and improve vehicle integration.

  4. Corrosion of muffler materials in automotive exhaust gas condensates

    SciTech Connect

    Ujiro, Takumi; Kitazawa, Makoto; Togashi, Fusao . Iron and Steel Research Lab.)

    1994-12-01

    The corrosion of automotive mufflers collected in North America was investigated. Aluminum (Al)-plated steels corroded severely in the substrate under the Al plating. Type 409 (UNS S40900) stainless steels sustained a large number of pits. The effects of ions in the condensate and activated carbon on the corrosion resistance of muffler materials were studied with a newly developed condensate corrosion test.

  5. Treatment of industrial exhaust gases by a dielectric barrier discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Michael; Hołub, Marcin; Jõgi, Indrek; Sikk, Martin

    2016-08-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in industrial exhaust gases were treated by a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) operated with two different mobile power supplies. Together with the plasma source various gas diagnostics were used, namely fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, flame ionization detector (FID) and GC-MS. The analysis revealed that some exhaust gases consist of a rather complex mixture of hydrocarbons and inorganic compounds and also vary in pollutants concentration and flow rate. Thus, analysis of removal efficiencies and byproduct concentrations is more demanding than under laboratory conditions. This contribution presents the experimental apparatus used under the harsh conditions of industrial exhaust systems as well as the mobile power source used. Selected results obtained in a shale oil processing plant, a polymer concrete production facility and a yacht hull factory are discussed. In the case of total volatile organic compounds in oil processing units, up to 60% were removed at input energy of 21-37 J/L when the concentrations were below 500 mg/m3. In the yacht hull factory up to 74% of styrene and methanol were removed at specific input energies around 300 J/L. In the polymer concrete production site 195 ppm of styrene were decomposed with the consumption of 1.8 kJ/L. These results demonstrate the feasibility of plasma assisted methods for treatment of VOCs in the investigated production processes but additional analysis is needed to improve the energy efficiency. Contribution to the topical issue "6th Central European Symposium on Plasma Chemistry (CESPC-6)", edited by Nicolas Gherardi, Ester Marotta and Cristina Paradisi

  6. Controlling automotive exhaust emissions: successes and underlying science.

    PubMed

    Twigg, Martyn V

    2005-04-15

    Photochemical reactions of vehicle exhaust pollutants were responsible for photochemical smog in many cities during the 1960s and 1970s. Engine improvements helped, but additional measures were needed to achieve legislated emissions levels. First oxidation catalysts lowered hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide, and later nitrogen oxides were reduced to nitrogen in a two-stage process. By the 1980s, exhaust gas could be kept stoichiometric and hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide and nitrogen oxides were simultaneously converted over a single 'three-way catalyst'. Today, advanced three-way catalyst systems emissions are exceptionally low. NOx control from lean-burn engines demands an additional approach because NO cannot be dissociated under lean conditions. Current lean-burn gasoline engine NOx control involves forming a nitrate phase and periodically enriching the exhaust to reduce it to nitrogen, and this is being modified for use on diesel engines. Selective catalytic reduction with ammonia is an alternative that can be very efficient, but it requires ammonia or a compound from which it can be obtained. Diesel engines produce particulate matter, and, because of health concerns, filtration processes are being introduced to control these emissions. On heavy duty diesel engines the exhaust gas temperature is high enough for NO in the exhaust to be oxidised over a catalyst to NO2 that smoothly oxidises particulate material (PM) in the filter. Passenger cars operate at lower temperatures, and it is necessary to periodically burn the PM in air at high temperatures. PMID:15901550

  7. Automotive exhaust and mouse activity: relationships between pollutant concentrations and decreases in wheel running.

    PubMed

    Gage, M I

    1979-01-01

    Groups of male and female mice inhaled either clean air, 100 ppm carbon monoxide, or light-irradiated and nonirradiated automotive exhaust containing nominally 25, 50, 75, or 100 ppm carbon monoxide in three tests with exposure lasting from 4 to 7 days. Exhaust from a factory or lean-tuned engine in the first and third tests reversibly suppressed activity wheel running during exposure in mice of both sexes by as much as 78.3 and 83.1%, respectively. Light-irradiated exhaust suppressed running more than nonirradiated exhaust. For the second test, when the engine was tuned to be low in pollutants other than carbon monoxide, exhaust did not suppress running. Exposure to carbon monoxide alone only slightly decreased running in male mice, but increased running in female mice. PMID:88208

  8. Treatment of tritiated exhaust gases at the Tritium Laboratory Karlsruhe

    SciTech Connect

    Hutter, E.; Besserer, U.; Jacqmin, G.

    1995-02-01

    The Tritium Laboratory Karlsruhe (TLK) accomplished commissioning; tritium involving activities will start this year. The laboratory is destined mainly to investigating processing of fusion reactor fuel and to developing analytic devices for determination of tritium and tritiated species in view of control and accountancy requirements. The area for experimental work in the laboratory is about 800 m{sup 2}. The tritium infrastructure including systems for tritium storage, transfer within the laboratory and processing by cleanup and isotope separation methods has been installed on an additional 400 m{sup 2} area. All tritium processing systems (=primary systems), either of the tritium infrastructure or of the experiments, are enclosed in secondary containments which consist of gloveboxes, each of them connected to the central depressurization system, a part integrated in the central detritiation system. The atmosphere of each glovebox is cleaned in a closed cycle by local detritiation units controlled by two tritium monitors. Additionally, the TLK is equipped with a central detritiation system in which all gases discharged from the primary systems and the secondary systems are processed. All detritiation units consist of a catalyst for oxidizing gaseous tritium or tritiated hydrocarbons to water, a heat exchanger for cooling the catalyst reactor exhaust gas to room temperature, and a molecular sieve bed for adsorbing the water. Experiments with tracer amounts of tritium have shown that decontamination factors >3000 can be achieved with the TLK detritiation units. The central detritiation system was carefully tested and adjusted under normal and abnormal operation conditions. Test results and the behavior of the tritium barrier preventing tritiated exhaust gases from escaping into the atmosphere will be reported.

  9. Enhancement of automotive exhaust heat recovery by thermoelectric devices

    SciTech Connect

    Ibrahim, Essam; Szybist, James P; Parks, II, James E

    2010-01-01

    In an effort to improve automobile fuel economy, an experimental study is undertaken to explore practical aspects of implementing thermoelectric devices for exhaust gas energy recovery. A highly instrumented apparatus consisting of a hot (exhaust gas) and a cold (coolant liquid) side rectangular ducts enclosing the thermoelectric elements has been built. Measurements of thermoelectric voltage output and flow and surface temperatures were acquired and analyzed to investigate the power generation and heat transfer properties of the apparatus. Effects of inserting aluminum wool packing material inside the hot side duct on augmentation of heat transfer from the gas stream to duct walls were studied. Data were collected for both the unpacked and packed cases to allow for detection of packing influence on flow and surface temperatures. Effects of gas and coolant inlet temperatures as well as gas flow rate on the thermoelectric power output were examined. The results indicate that thermoelectric power production is increased at higher gas inlet temperature or flow rate. However, thermoelectric power generation decreases with a higher coolant temperature as a consequence of the reduced hot-cold side temperature differential. For the hot-side duct, a large temperature gradient exists between the gas and solid surface temperature due to poor heat transfer through the gaseous medium. Adding the packing material inside the exhaust duct enhanced heat transfer and hence raised hot-side duct surface temperatures and thermoelectric power compared to the unpacked duct, particularly where the gas-to-surface temperature differential is highest. Therefore it is recommended that packing of exhaust duct becomes common practice in thermoelectric waste energy harvesting applications.

  10. Process for the removal of acid forming gases from exhaust gases

    DOEpatents

    Chang, S.G.; Liu, D.K.

    1992-11-17

    Exhaust gases are treated to remove NO or NO[sub x] and SO[sub 2] by contacting the gases with an aqueous emulsion or suspension of yellow phosphorus preferably in a wet scrubber. The pressure is not critical, and ambient pressures are used. Hot water temperatures are best, but economics suggest about 50 C is attractive. The amount of yellow phosphorus used will vary with the composition of the exhaust gas, less than 3% for small concentrations of NO, and 10% or higher for concentrations above say 1000 ppm. Similarly, the pH will vary with the composition being treated, and it is adjusted with a suitable alkali. For mixtures of NO[sub x] and SO[sub 2], alkalis that are used for flue gas desulfurization are preferred. With this process, 100% of the by-products created are usable, and close to 100% of the NO or NO[sub x] and SO[sub 2] can be removed in an economic fashion. 9 figs.

  11. Process for the removal of acid forming gases from exhaust gases

    DOEpatents

    Chang, Shih-Ger; Liu, David K.

    1992-01-01

    Exhaust gases are treated to remove NO or NO.sub.x and SO.sub.2 by contacting the gases with an aqueous emulsion or suspension of yellow phosphorus preferably in a wet scrubber. The pressure is not critical, and ambient pressures are used. Hot water temperatures are best, but economics suggest about 50.degree. C. are attractive. The amount of yellow phosphorus used will vary with the composition of the exhaust gas, less than 3% for small concentrations of NO, and 10% or higher for concentrations above say 1000 ppm. Similarly, the pH will vary with the composition being treated, and it is adjusted with a suitable alkali. For mixtures of NO.sub.x and SO.sub.2, alkalis that are used for flue gas desulfurization are preferred. With this process, 100% of the by-products created are usable, and close to 100% of the NO or NO and SO.sub.2 can be removed in an economic fashion.

  12. Process for the removal of acid forming gases from exhaust gases and production of phosphoric acid

    DOEpatents

    Chang, Shih-Ger; Liu, David K.

    1992-01-01

    Exhaust gases are treated to remove NO or NO.sub.x and SO.sub.2 by contacting the gases with an aqueous emulsion or suspension of yellow phosphorous preferably in a wet scrubber. The addition of yellow phosphorous in the system induces the production of O.sub.3 which subsequently oxidizes NO to NO.sub.2. The resulting NO.sub.2 dissolves readily and can be reduced to form ammonium ions by dissolved SO.sub.2 under appropriate conditions. In a 20 acfm system, yellow phosphorous is oxidized to yield P.sub.2 O.sub.5 which picks up water to form H.sub.3 PO.sub.4 mists and can be collected as a valuable product. The pressure is not critical, and ambient pressures are used. Hot water temperatures are best, but economics suggest about 50.degree. C. The amount of yellow phosphorus used will vary with the composition of the exhaust gas, less than 3% for small concentrations of NO, and 10% or higher for concentrations above say 1000 ppm. Similarly, the pH will vary with the composition being treated, and it is adjusted with a suitable alkali. For mixtures of NO.sub.x and SO.sub.2, alkalis that are used for flue gas desulfurization are preferred. With this process, better than 90% of SO.sub.2 and NO in simulated flue gas can be removed. Stoichiometric ratios (P/NO) ranging between 0.6 and 1.5 were obtained.

  13. Intergranular corrosion of Type 409 stainless steel used in automotive exhaust applications

    SciTech Connect

    Brossia, C.S.; Martin, K.L.

    1998-12-31

    Automotive exhaust systems must meet increasingly stringent lifetime requirements, and thus the incorporation of stainless steels (primarily ferritic) has increased. One of the failure mechanisms that is rarely encountered, but does occur, is intergranular corrosion. Intergranular corrosion of ferritic stainless steels is believed to occur via a similar mechanism as is observed in austenitic stainless, namely precipitation of chromium-carbon nitride (Cr-C/N) particles at the grain boundaries leading to Cr-depleted regions. In the present study, the effect of thermal history (including heat treatment, welding and post-weld heat treatment) and alloy chemistry on the level of sensitization of Type 409SS were examined.

  14. Relation of Hydrogen and Methane to Carbon Monoxide in Exhaust Gases from Internal-Combustion Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gerrish, Harold C; Tessmann, Arthur M

    1935-01-01

    The relation of hydrogen and methane to carbon monoxide in the exhaust gases from internal-combustion engines operating on standard-grade aviation gasoline, fighting-grade aviation gasoline, hydrogenated safety fuel, laboratory diesel fuel, and auto diesel fuel was determined by analysis of the exhaust gases. Two liquid-cooled single-cylinder spark-ignition, one 9-cylinder radial air-cooled spark-ignition, and two liquid-cooled single-cylinder compression-ignition engines were used.

  15. Catalysts as sensors--a promising novel approach in automotive exhaust gas aftertreatment.

    PubMed

    Moos, Ralf

    2010-01-01

    Sensors that detect directly and in situ the status of automotive exhaust gas catalysts by monitoring the electrical properties of the catalyst coating itself are overviewed. Examples included in this review are the in-situ determination of the electrical impedance of three-way catalysts based on ceria-zirconia solutions and of lean NO(x) traps of earth-alkaline based coatings, as well as approaches to determine the ammonia loading in Fe-SCR-zeolites with electrical ac measurements. Even more sophisticated approaches based on interactions with electromagnetic waves are also reviewed. For that purpose, metallic stick-like antennas are inserted into the exhaust pipe. The catalyst properties are measured in a contactless manner, directly indicating the catalyst status. The radio frequency probes gauge the oxygen loading degree of three-way catalysts, the NO(x)-loading of lean NO(x) traps, and the soot loading of Diesel particulate filters. PMID:22163575

  16. Bithermal Low-Cycle Fatigue Evaluation of Automotive Exhaust System Alloy SS409

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lu, Gui-Ying; Behling, Mike B.; Halford, Gary R.

    2000-01-01

    This investigation provides, for the first time, cyclic strainrange-controlled, thermomechanical fatigue results for the ferritic stainless steel alloy SS409. The alloy has seen extensive application for automotive exhaust system components. The data were generated to calibrate the Total Strain Version of the Strainrange Partitioning (TS-SRP) method for eventual application to the design and durability assessment of automotive exhaust systems. The thermomechanical cyclic lifetime and cyclic stress-strain constitutive behavior for alloy SS409 were measured using bithermal tests cycling between isothermal extremes of 400 and 800 C. Lives ranged up to 10,000 cycles to failure with hold-times of 0.33 to 2.0 minutes. The bithermal fatigue behavior is compared to isothermal, strain-controlled fatigue behavior at both 400 and 800 C. Thermomechanical cycling was found to have a profound detrimental influence on the fatigue failure resistance of SS409 compared to isothermal cycling. Supplementary bithermal cyclic stress-strain constitutive tests with hold-times ranging from 40 seconds up to 1.5 hours were conducted to calibrate the TS-SRP equation for extrapolation to longer lifetime predictions. Observed thermomechanical (bithermal) fatigue lives correlated well with lives calculated using the calibrated TS-SRP equations: 70% of the bithermal fatigue data fall within a factor of 1.2 of calculated life; 85% within a factor of 1.4; and 100% within a factor of 1.8.

  17. Generation of microwave-induced plasmas in automotive exhaust gas mixtures using pulsed microwave energy.

    PubMed

    Destefani, Carlos A; Siores, Elias; Murphy, Anthony B

    2003-01-01

    Microwave energy at 2.45 GHz was applied to a mixture of exhaust gases from a petrol engine at atmospheric pressure. It was found that by pulsing the microwave energy with a 50% duty cycle, the average power required to sustain a microwave-induced plasma discharge was decreased by about 40%. The ratio of absorbed to incident power was unaffected. These findings were confirmed for pulse frequencies from 10 to 300 Hz. PMID:15007864

  18. Method of removing oxides of sulfur and oxides of nitrogen from exhaust gases

    DOEpatents

    Walker, Richard J.

    1986-01-01

    A continuous method is presented for removing both oxides of sulfur and oxides of nitrogen from combustion or exhaust gases with the regeneration of the absorbent. Exhaust gas is cleaned of particulates and HCl by a water scrub prior to contact with a liquid absorbent that includes an aqueous solution of bisulfite and sulfite ions along with a metal chelate, such as, an iron or zinc aminopolycarboxylic acid. Following contact with the combustion gases the spent absorbent is subjected to electrodialysis to transfer bisulfite ions into a sulfuric acid solution while splitting water with hydroxide and hydrogen ion migration to equalize electrical charge. The electrodialysis stack includes alternate layers of anion selective and bipolar membranes. Oxides of nitrogen are removed from the liquid absorbent by air stripping at an elevated temperature and the regenerated liquid absorbent is returned to contact with exhaust gases for removal of sulfur oxides and nitrogen oxides.

  19. Studies on health effects of automotive exhaust emissions. How dangerous are diesel emissions?

    PubMed

    Klingenberg, H; Winneke, H

    1990-04-01

    The following paper indicates that current results of research conducted on the effects of intentionally increased concentrations of diesel engine exhaust emissions, particularly the results of animal experiments, do not lead scientifically to final conclusions. According to the current level of knowledge, we must continue to assume that the risk of cancer, possibly due to diesel particles, is negligible, particularly under real environmental conditions. The preventive measures taken by governments are of course supported by the automotive industry, an additional research outlay, however, is necessary not only to clear up contradictions and answer new questions arising from current test results, but also to take positive, and not merely precautionary, action in the future. Due to its links to other influences on humans and plants, research conducted on the effects of motor vehicle emissions is a task that lies very much in the public interest. At the same time, the overview of concluded and ongoing research objectives presented in this paper indicates that the automotive industry is greatly committed to this issue and will meet well-justified expectations. PMID:1694306

  20. OPTIONS FOR ABATING GREENHOUSE GASES FROM EXHAUST STREAMS.

    SciTech Connect

    FTHENAKIS,V.

    2001-12-01

    This report examines different alternatives for replacing, treating, and recycling greenhouse gases. It is concluded that treatment (abatement) is the only viable short-term option. Three options for abatement that were tested for use in semiconductor facilities are reviewed, and their performance and costs compared. This study shows that effective abatement options are available to the photovoltaic (PV) industry, at reasonable cost.

  1. Effect of Thermoelectric Modules' Topological Connection on Automotive Exhaust Heat Recovery System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Y. D.; Zheng, S. J.; Su, C. Q.; Yuan, X. H.; Yu, C. G.; Wang, Y. P.

    2016-03-01

    In automotive exhaust-based thermoelectric generators (AETEGs), a certain number of thermoelectric modules are connected in series and/or parallel to recover energy from exhaust gas, which provides a way to improve fuel efficiency of the vehicle. Because of the temperature distribution on the surfaces of heat exchanger, several types of modules are planned for use in an AETEG; however, property disparities among modules exist and wire resistance cannot be neglected in practical application, so experiments have been carried out to research effects of the two factors on the maximum output power of series and parallel connection. The performance of series and parallel connections have been characterized, and mathematic models have been built to analyze and predict the performance of each connection. Experiments and theoretical analysis reveal that parallel connection shows a better performance than series connection when large differences of Seebeck coefficient and resistivity exist. However, wire resistance will cause more significant power dissipation in parallel connection. The authors believe the research presented in this paper is the first to carry out an examination of the impact of module property disparity and wire resistance on the output power of an array of thermoelectric modules connected in series and parallel, which provides a reference for choosing module connection in AETEGs.

  2. Simulation and Optimization of the Heat Exchanger for Automotive Exhaust-Based Thermoelectric Generators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, C. Q.; Huang, C.; Deng, Y. D.; Wang, Y. P.; Chu, P. Q.; Zheng, S. J.

    2016-03-01

    In order to enhance the exhaust waste heat recovery efficiency of the automotive exhaust-based thermoelectric generator (TEG) system, a three-segment heat exchanger with folded-shaped internal structure for the TEG system is investigated in this study. As the major effect factors of the performance for the TEG system, surface temperature, and thermal uniformity of the heat exchanger are analyzed in this research, pressure drop along the heat exchanger is also considered. Based on computational fluid dynamics simulations and temperature distribution, the pressure drop along the heat exchanger is obtained. By considering variable length and thickness of folded plates in each segment of the heat exchanger, response surface methodology and optimization by a multi-objective genetic algorithm is applied for surface temperature, thermal uniformity, and pressure drop for the folded-shaped heat exchanger. An optimum design based on the optimization is proposed to improve the overall performance of the TEG system. The performance of the optimized heat exchanger in different engine conditions is discussed.

  3. SENSOR FOR MONITORING OF PARTICULATE EMISSIONS IN DIESEL EXHAUST GASES - PHASE I

    EPA Science Inventory

    Active Spectrum, Inc., proposes a novel, low-cost soot sensor for on-board measurement of soot emissions in diesel exhaust gases. The proposed technology is differentiated from existing methods by excellent sensitivity, high specificity to carbon particulates, and robustness ...

  4. Method of removing oxides of sulfur and oxides of nitrogen from exhaust gases

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, R.J.

    1986-10-07

    A method is described of removing oxides of sulfur and oxides of nitrogen from an exhaust gas, the method comprising: contacting the exhaust gas with a liquid absorbent including a metal chelate for oxide of nitrogen absorption and a solution of sulfite and bisulfite ions for oxide of sulfur absorption; regenerating the liquid absorbent capacity for oxide of sulfur gases by electrodialysis in a cell containing at least two bipolar membranes, an anion selective membrane and compartments bounded by the membranes; stripping oxides of nitrogen from the liquid absorbent into a gas flow to regenerate the capacity of the liquid absorbent for oxide of nitrogen gases; and recycling the regenerated liquid absorbent into contact with the exhaust gas.

  5. Positive Streamers and Glows in Air and Exhaust Gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrow, R.

    1998-10-01

    Theoretical and experimental studies have been made of the effects of sub-microsecond voltage pulses on the plasma chemistry of real flue gases in a test cell. Chemical analysis shows that, for real flue gases, the pulsed system can remove up to 90 % of NO, and 30 % of SO_2, if a residence time of ~ 30s is used. We also find that (i) water vapour is essential to the removal of SO_2, but not for the removal of NO or NO_2; and (ii) that small quantities of N_2O are produced. The removal of SO2 is primarily due to reactions with OH radicals from water vapour, producing sulphuric acid, whereas nitrogen oxides are reduced by N atoms. When a positive voltage is abruptly applied to a point in air at atmospheric pressure, positive streamers are produced. A theory is presented for the development of the first such streamer by solving the continuity equations for electrons, positive ions and negative ions, including the effects of ionisation, attachment, recombination, electron diffusion, and photoionisation, simultaneously with Poisson's equation. With an applied voltage of 20 kV across a 50 mm gap, the streamer does not reach the cathode. When the voltage is sustained in the presence of free electrons, the electric field at the anode starts to recover until positive glow pulses develop at the anode. The presence of the positive glow corona precludes any further streamer formation; this limits the number of chemical reactions stimulated by the discharge because the positive glow is confined close to the anode. Thus, a limit is set for the voltage pulse width. A theory is also presented for the current and light pulses of positive glow corona from a point in air; results are obtained by solving the continuity equations, described above, in concentric sphere geometry. A series of ``saw--toothed'' current pulses of period ~ 1 μs are predicted with a dc current level. Accompanying the current peaks are discrete 30 ns wide pulses of light. It is found that if, in the presence

  6. Modelling of CO2 Adsorption from Exhaust Gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panowski, Marcin; Klainy, Roman; Sztelder, Karol

    World tendencies in environmental protection points out necessity of reduction of CO2 emission to atmosphere. The one of the main sources of CO2 emission is placed in energy sector where electric energy and heat are produced based on fossil fuels combustion. Therefore, it seems to be necessary to perform research on CO2 emission reduction in this sector. The main aim of work presented in this paper was focused on the analysis and assessment of CO2 separation from flue gases on the total efficiency of conventional power station. The paper shows the numerical calculations performed with IPSEpro simulation software by SimTech.For the CO2 separation the PTSA (pressure-Temperature Swing Adsorption) process was chosen and the numerical as well as simulation model of such process was formulated. The calculations were made for few different adsorbents taking into account varying values of such thermodynamic parameters of separation process like temperature or pressure. Results obtained from calculations point out that mixed PTSA technology is not very energy consuming process. Owing to utilisation of waste heat for sorbent regeneration, it does not decrease the total efficiency for more than 0.6%. However, that is caused by separation only, while after that CO2 must be compressed for further treatment.

  7. Precious metal-free catalyst for purification of automotive exhausts: NO dissociation on Cu oxide surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasai, Hideaki; Padama, Allan Abraham; Moreno, Joaquin Lorenzo

    2014-03-01

    The dissociation of NOx molecule on catalysts is the rate-limiting step for its reduction process and is the subject of recent investigations related to exhaust gas purification. Three-way catalysts which are composed of Rh, Pd and Pt, are known to work well for such purpose; however, their expensive cost hinders their applicability. In this work, Computational Materials Design based on density functional theory was employed to test the efficiency of Cu-based catalysts for NO dissociation. It was found that the dissociation path of NO on Cu-terminated Cu2O(111) and CuO(110) surfaces is comparable with Rh(111). This is attributed to the modified electronic structure of the surface Cu atoms of Cu oxides in comparison with Cu(111). The calculated NO dissociation barriers are lower and the binding energies of co-adsorbed N and O atoms are weaker on Cu oxides than on Rh(111), which is favorable for subsequent reactions. Our experimental collaborator had also verified that Cu oxides can be better catalysts than Rh, Pd and Pt for the purification of exhaust gases. The details of this work and the oxidation of CO in the presence of dissociated NO will be discussed in the meeting.

  8. Fast and quantitative measurement of benzene, toluene and C 2-benzenes in automotive exhaust during transient engine operation with and without catalytic exhaust gas treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heeb, Norbert V.; Forss, Anna-Maria; Bach, Christian

    Time-Resolved Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometry (CIMS) has been used to investigate the emission profiles of benzene, toluene and the C 2-benzenes (xylenes and ethyl benzene) in automotive exhaust during transient engine operation. On-line emission measurements with a frequency of 1-5 Hz clearly identified the critical driving conditions that are mainly responsible for the overall aromatic hydrocarbon emissions. The passenger car, equipped with a catalytic converter showed significant BTXE-emissions only in the first part of the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC) due to sub-optimal catalyst temperature. On the same car without a catalytic converter, emissions of aromatic hydrocarbons were detected over the entire test run and the benzene-toluene mixing ratios of the exhaust gas were rather constant. With catalytic exhaust gas treatment the observed benzene-toluene mixing ratios varied to a greater extent reflecting predominantly different catalytic converter conditions. The average molar ratio of benzene over toluene rose from 0.33 to 0.53 upon exhaust gas treatment. With catalytic converter the emissions during extra urban (EUDC) driving repeatedly showed benzene-toluene mixing ratios >1 and an average molar benzene/toluene ratio of 0.74 was detected during the EUDC part of the driving cycle. Whereas the total hydrocarbon (T.HC) emissions were decreased by 83% upon exhaust gas treatment the overall reduction of the benzene emissions was only 70%.

  9. Synergistic effect of Brønsted acid and platinum on purification of automobile exhaust gases.

    PubMed

    Fu, Wei; Li, Xin-Hao; Bao, Hong-Liang; Wang, Kai-Xue; Wei, Xiao; Cai, Yi-Yu; Chen, Jie-Sheng

    2013-01-01

    The catalytic purification of automobile exhaust gases (CO, NOx and hydrocarbons) is one of the most practiced conversion processes used to lower the emissions and to reduce the air pollution. Nevertheless, the good performance of exhaust gas purification catalysts often requires the high consumption of noble metals such as platinum. Here we report that the Brønsted acid sites on the external surface of a microporous silicoaluminophosphate (SAPO) act as a promoter for exhaust gas purification, effectively cutting the loading amount of platinum in the catalyst without sacrifice of performance. It is revealed that in the Pt-loaded SAPO-CHA catalyst, there exists a remarkable synergistic effect between the Brønsted acid sites and the Pt nanoparticles, the former helping to adsorb and activate the hydrocarbon molecules for NO reduction during the catalytic process. The thermal stability of SAPO-CHA also makes the composite catalyst stable and reusable without activity decay. PMID:23907148

  10. Synergistic effect of Brønsted acid and platinum on purification of automobile exhaust gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Wei; Li, Xin-Hao; Bao, Hong-Liang; Wang, Kai-Xue; Wei, Xiao; Cai, Yi-Yu; Chen, Jie-Sheng

    2013-08-01

    The catalytic purification of automobile exhaust gases (CO, NOx and hydrocarbons) is one of the most practiced conversion processes used to lower the emissions and to reduce the air pollution. Nevertheless, the good performance of exhaust gas purification catalysts often requires the high consumption of noble metals such as platinum. Here we report that the Brønsted acid sites on the external surface of a microporous silicoaluminophosphate (SAPO) act as a promoter for exhaust gas purification, effectively cutting the loading amount of platinum in the catalyst without sacrifice of performance. It is revealed that in the Pt-loaded SAPO-CHA catalyst, there exists a remarkable synergistic effect between the Brønsted acid sites and the Pt nanoparticles, the former helping to adsorb and activate the hydrocarbon molecules for NO reduction during the catalytic process. The thermal stability of SAPO-CHA also makes the composite catalyst stable and reusable without activity decay.

  11. Synergistic effect of Brønsted acid and platinum on purification of automobile exhaust gases

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Wei; Li, Xin-Hao; Bao, Hong-Liang; Wang, Kai-Xue; Wei, Xiao; Cai, Yi-Yu; Chen, Jie-Sheng

    2013-01-01

    The catalytic purification of automobile exhaust gases (CO, NOx and hydrocarbons) is one of the most practiced conversion processes used to lower the emissions and to reduce the air pollution. Nevertheless, the good performance of exhaust gas purification catalysts often requires the high consumption of noble metals such as platinum. Here we report that the Brønsted acid sites on the external surface of a microporous silicoaluminophosphate (SAPO) act as a promoter for exhaust gas purification, effectively cutting the loading amount of platinum in the catalyst without sacrifice of performance. It is revealed that in the Pt-loaded SAPO-CHA catalyst, there exists a remarkable synergistic effect between the Brønsted acid sites and the Pt nanoparticles, the former helping to adsorb and activate the hydrocarbon molecules for NO reduction during the catalytic process. The thermal stability of SAPO-CHA also makes the composite catalyst stable and reusable without activity decay. PMID:23907148

  12. Combined remediation and lipid production using Chlorella sorokiniana grown on wastewater and exhaust gases.

    PubMed

    Lizzul, A M; Hellier, P; Purton, S; Baganz, F; Ladommatos, N; Campos, L

    2014-01-01

    Substitution of conventional feedstock with waste based alternatives is one route towards both remediation and reducing costs associated with production of algal biomass. This work explores whether exhaust gases and wastewater can replace conventional feedstock in the production of biomass from Chlorella sorokiniana. Exhaust gases were used to augment production in final effluent, anaerobic digester centrate or in standard medium. Cultures were grown in 1L bottles under illumination of 80 μmol m(-2) s(-1). The results showed an average μmax ranging between 0.04 and 0.07 h(-1), whilst the final biomass yield in different media ranged between 220 and 330 mg L(-1). Lipid yield was increased over time to 31 mg L(-1). CO2 addition resulted in complete nitrogen removal between 48 and 96 h in both final effluent and centrate. The results also indicated that levels of carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide and nitrogen oxides in the exhaust gases can be reduced by between 20% and 95%. PMID:24189380

  13. Efficiency of automotive cabin air filters to reduce acute health effects of diesel exhaust in human subjects

    PubMed Central

    Rudell, B.; Wass, U.; Horstedt, P.; Levin, J. O.; Lindahl, R.; Rannug, U.; Sunesson, A. L.; Ostberg, Y.; Sandstrom, T.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the efficiency of different automotive cabin air filters to prevent penetration of components of diesel exhaust and thereby reduce biomedical effects in human subjects. Filtered air and unfiltered diluted diesel exhaust (DDE) were used as negative and positive controls, respectively, and were compared with exposure to DDE filtered with four different filter systems. METHODS: 32 Healthy non- smoking subjects (age 21-53) participated in the study. Each subject was exposed six times for 1 hour in a specially designed exposure chamber: once to air, once to unfiltered DDE, and once to DDE filtered with the four different cabin air filters. Particle concentrations during exposure to unfiltered DDE were kept at 300 micrograms/m3. Two of the filters were particle filters. The other two were particle filters combined with active charcoal filters that might reduce certain gaseous components. Subjective symptoms were recorded and nasal airway lavage (NAL), acoustic rhinometry, and lung function measurements were performed. RESULTS: The two particle filters decreased the concentrations of diesel exhaust particles by about half, but did not reduce the intensity of symptoms induced by exhaust. The combination of active charcoal filters and a particle filter significantly reduced the symptoms and discomfort caused by the diesel exhaust. The most noticable differences in efficacy between the filters were found in the reduction of detection of an unpleasant smell from the diesel exhaust. In this respect even the two charcoal filter combinations differed significantly. The efficacy to reduce symptoms may depend on the abilities of the filters investigated to reduce certain hydrocarbons. No acute effects on NAL, rhinometry, and lung function variables were found. CONCLUSIONS: This study has shown that the use of active charcoal filters, and a particle filter, clearly reduced the intensity of symptoms induced by diesel exhaust. Complementary studies on vehicle

  14. Nitride precipitation during high temperature corrosion of ductile cast irons in synthetic exhaust gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tholence, F.; Norell, M.

    2005-02-01

    Internal nitrides form in two ductile cast irons (SiMo and Ni-Resist) intended for exhaust systems in vehicles. Samples oxidised at 650 1050 °C for 50 h in modified synthetic exhaust gases were analysed by using AES and FEG-SEM. No nitrides formed in absence of NOx. In dry petrol gas coarse nitrides (<20 μm) precipitated heterogeneously deep (600 μm at 950 °C) into SiMo. It is argued that the accommodation of volume change, preferential diffusion paths and increased N solubility as Si was depleted contribute to a self-accelerating process. The Si depletion around the coarse nitrides lowered the microhardness and the corrosion resistance of the alloy. In diesel and in normal petrol gases μ-sized MgSiN2 form in SiMo in cell boundaries where Mg segregates. This also occurs in Ni-Resist in both dry and normal petrol whereas no nitrides were observed in Ni-Resist exposed to diesel gases.

  15. Non-thermal plasma based technologies for the after-treatment of automotive exhaust particulates and marine diesel exhaust NOx

    SciTech Connect

    McAdams, R; Beech, P; Gillespie, R; Guy, C; Jones,S; Liddell, T; Morgan, R; Shawcross, J; Weeks, D; Hughes, D; Oesterle, J; Eberspdcher,

    2003-08-24

    The trend in environmental legislation is such that primary engine modifications will not be sufficient to meet all future emissions requirements and exhaust aftertreatment technologies will need to be employed. One potential solution that is well placed to meet those requirements is non-thermal plasma technology. This paper will describe our work with some of our partners in the development of a plasma based diesel particulate filter (DPF) and plasma assisted catalytic reduction (PACR) for NOx removal. This paper describes the development of non-thermal plasma technology for the aftertreatment of particulates from a passenger car engine and NOx from a marine diesel exhaust application.

  16. Research on Integration of an Automotive Exhaust-Based Thermoelectric Generator and a Three-Way Catalytic Converter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Y. D.; Chen, Y. L.; Chen, S.; Xianyu, W. D.; Su, C. Q.

    2015-06-01

    A key research topic related to thermoelectric generators (TEGs) for automotive applications is to improve their compatibility with the original vehicle exhaust system, which determines the quality of the exhaust gas treatment and the realization of energy conservation and emission reduction. A new TEG integrated with a three-way catalytic converter (CTEG) by reshaping the converter as the heat exchanger is proposed. A heat-flux coupling simulation model of the integrated TEG is established at the light-off stage of the original three-way catalytic converter (TWC). Temperature distribution maps of the integrated heat exchanger, thermoelectric modules, and cooling-water tank are obtained to present the process of energy flow among the parts of the CTEG. Based on the simulation results, the output power of the CTEG is calculated by a mathematical model. A minimum output power of 31.93 W can be obtained by conversion when the TWC starts working at steady conditions. Theoretically, this case study demonstrates the great potential for use of CTEGs in vehicles.

  17. Analysis of petrol and diesel vapour and vehicle engine exhaust gases using selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Smith, David; Cheng, Ping; Spanel, Patrik

    2002-01-01

    We have used selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry (SIFT-MS) to analyse the vapours emitted by petrol and diesel fuels and the exhaust gases from petrol (spark ignition) and diesel (compression ignition) engine vehicles fitted with catalytic converters. Only those components of these media that have significant vapour pressures at ambient temperatures were analysed and thus particulates were obviously not detected. These media have been analysed using the full scope of SIFT-MS, i.e., with the three available precursor ions H3O+, NO+ and O2+. The combination of the H3O+ and NO+ analyses is seen to be essential to distinguish between different product ions at the same mass-to-charge ratio (m/z) especially in identifying aldehydes in the exhaust gases. The O2+ precursor ions are used to detect and quantify the large amount of nitric oxide present in the exhaust gases from both engine types. The petrol and diesel vapours consist almost exclusively of aliphatic alkanes, alkenes and alkynes (and dienes) and aromatic hydrocarbons. Some of these compounds appear in the exhaust gases together with several aldehydes, viz. formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, pentanal, pentenal (acrolein), butenal, and also methanol and ethanol. Acetone, nitric oxide and ammonia are also present, acetone and nitric oxide being much more abundant in the diesel exhaust gas than in the petrol exhaust gas. These data were obtained from samples collected into pre-evacuated stainless steel vessels. Trapping of the volatile compounds from the gas samples is not required and analysis was completed a few minutes later. All the above compounds are detected simultaneously, which demonstrates the value of SIFT-MS in this area of research. PMID:11992517

  18. Thermal Optimization of the Heat Exchanger in an Automotive Exhaust-Based Thermoelectric Generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Y. D.; Liu, X.; Chen, S.; Tong, N. Q.

    2013-07-01

    Recent advances in thermoelectric technologies have made exhaust-based thermoelectric generators (TEGs) promising to recover waste heat. The thermal performance of the heat exchanger in exhaust-based TEGs is studied in this work. In terms of interface temperature and thermal uniformity, the thermal characteristics of heat exchangers with different internal structures, lengths, and materials are discussed. Following computational fluid dynamics simulations, infrared experiments are carried out on a high-performance production engine with a dynamometer. Simulation and experimental results show that a plate-shaped heat exchanger made of brass with fishbone-shaped internal structure and length of 600 mm achieves a relatively ideal thermal performance, which is practically helpful to enhance the thermal performance of the TEG.

  19. Thermoelectric Generators for the Integration into Automotive Exhaust Systems for Passenger Cars and Commercial Vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frobenius, Fabian; Gaiser, Gerd; Rusche, Ulrich; Weller, Bernd

    2016-03-01

    A special thermoelectric generator system design and the setup of a thermoelectric generator for the integration into the exhaust line of combustion engine-driven vehicles are described. A prototype setup for passenger cars and the effects on the measured power output are shown. Measurement results using this setup show the potential and the limitations of a setup based on thermoelectric modules commercially available today. In a second step, a short outline of the detailed mathematical modeling of the thermoelectric generator and simulation studies based on this model are presented. By this means, it can be shown by which measures an improvement of the system power output can be achieved—even if today's modules are used. Furthermore, simulation studies show how the exhaust gas conditions of diesel- and Otto-engines significantly affect the requirements on thermoelectric materials as well as the potential and the design of the thermoelectric generator. In a further step, the design and the setup of a thermoelectric generator for an application in a commercial vehicle are presented. This thermoelectric generator is designed to be integrated into the exhaust aftertreatment box of the vehicle. Experimental results with this setup are performed and presented. The results show that thermoelectric generators can become an interesting technology for exhaust waste heat recovery due to the fact that they comprise non-moving parts. However, the efficiency of the modules commercially available today is still far from what is required. Hence, modules made of new materials known from laboratory samples are urgently required. With regard to future CO2 regulations, a large market opportunity for modules with a high efficiency can be expected.

  20. Certification of Pd and Pt single spikes and application to the quantification of Pt and Pd in automotive exhaust emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogl, Jochen; Meyer, Christian; Noordmann, Janine; Rienitz, Olaf; Geilert, Sonja

    2014-05-01

    Numerous epidemiological studies show the effect of increased ambient pollution. Therefore measurement networks for air quality have been installed worldwide and legislation requires the monitoring of air pollution. Besides monitoring it is also important to be able to identify, to quantify and finally to regulate the emission of distinct sources in order to improve the quality of life. Automotive vehicles are a major source of environmental pollution especially through contaminants such as CO, NOX, SOX and hydrocarbons which derive from petrol combustion, while for example Platinum Group Elements (PGE) can be present from catalytic converters. The release of PGE into the environment, however, may be damaging in terms of public health, ecological and economic interests. In order to reliably assess the risks from PGEs, traceable and thus comparable data on the release rates of PGE from automotive catalysers are needed. As no Certified Reference Materials (CRM) are available for such samples the development of analytical procedures enabling SI-traceable results will be challenging. Therefore reference procedures for Pd and Pt in automotive exhaust emissions based on isotope dilution mass spectrometry (IDMS) have been developed and applied to specifically sampled automotive exhaust emissions. Due to the commonly known advantages, IDMS often is applied for quantification PGEs, as is the case within this work. The main reasons here are the required accuracy and the low PGE mass fractions in the sample. In order to perform IDMS analysis the analyte element must be available in an isotopically enriched form as so-called spike material or solution thereof, which is mixed with the sample. Unfortunately, no certified PGE spike solutions are available yet. To fill this gap two single PGE spikes, one 106Pd and one 194Pt spike, have been produced and characterized. The selection of the isotopes, the production of the solutions and the ampoulation will be described in this

  1. Optimization of Cooling Unit Design for Automotive Exhaust-Based Thermoelectric Generators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, C. Q.; Xu, M.; Wang, W. S.; Deng, Y. D.; Liu, X.; Tang, Z. B.

    2015-06-01

    Integrating a thermoelectric cooler (TEC) into the engine cooling system has various advantages including reducing additional mechanical parts, and saving energy and space for automotive applications. Based on performance parameters of the engine and thermoelectric modules, three different TEC configurations called plate-shape, stripe-shape, and diamond-shape are constructed with development of simulations of the different TECs and the performance of the circulating coolant. Based on these simulations, the velocity, pressure, and temperature fields of the coolant are obtained for further research. Besides, the temperature of the TEC and the output power of the thermoelectric generator (TEG) are acquired experimentally. Comparing the working performance of the different TECs, the simulation and experimental results show that the TEG using the diamond-shaped TEC achieves a relatively ideal performance. Finally, some measures are proposed to improve the cooling system, providing guidelines for future research.

  2. Selective Transformation of Various Nitrogen-Containing Exhaust Gases toward N2 over Zeolite Catalysts.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Runduo; Liu, Ning; Lei, Zhigang; Chen, Biaohua

    2016-03-23

    In this review we focus on the catalytic removal of a series of N-containing exhaust gases with various valences, including nitriles (HCN, CH3CN, and C2H3CN), ammonia (NH3), nitrous oxide (N2O), and nitric oxides (NO(x)), which can cause some serious environmental problems, such as acid rain, haze weather, global warming, and even death. The zeolite catalysts with high internal surface areas, uniform pore systems, considerable ion-exchange capabilities, and satisfactory thermal stabilities are herein addressed for the corresponding depollution processes. The sources and toxicities of these pollutants are introduced. The important physicochemical properties of zeolite catalysts, including shape selectivity, surface area, acidity, and redox ability, are described in detail. The catalytic combustion of nitriles and ammonia, the direct catalytic decomposition of N2O, and the selective catalytic reduction and direct catalytic decomposition of NO are systematically discussed, involving the catalytic behaviors as well as mechanism studies based on spectroscopic and kinetic approaches and molecular simulations. Finally, concluding remarks and perspectives are given. In the present work, emphasis is placed on the structure-performance relationship with an aim to design an ideal zeolite-based catalyst for the effective elimination of harmful N-containing compounds. PMID:26889565

  3. Multi-Objective Optimization Design for Cooling Unit of Automotive Exhaust-Based Thermoelectric Generators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiang, J. W.; Yu, C. G.; Deng, Y. D.; Su, C. Q.; Wang, Y. P.; Yuan, X. H.

    2016-03-01

    In order to improve the performance of cooling units for automotive thermoelectric generators, a study is carried out to optimize the cold side and the fin distributions arranged on its inner faces. Based on the experimental measurements and numerical simulations, a response surface model of different internal structures is built to analyze the heat transfer and pressure drop characteristics of fluid flow in the cooling unit. For the fin distributions, five independent variables including height, length, thickness, space and distance from walls are considered. An experimental study design incorporating the central composite design method is used to assess the influence of fin distributions on the temperature field and the pressure drop in the cooling units. The archive-based micro genetic algorithm (AMGA) is used for multi-objective optimization to analyze the sensitivity of the design variables and to build a database from which to construct the surrogate model. Finally, improvement measures are proposed for optimization of the cooling system and guidelines are provided for future research.

  4. A comparison of genotoxicity of automotive exhaust particles from laboratory and environmental sources.

    PubMed

    Brooks, A L; Li, A P; Dutcher, J S; Clark, C R; Rothenberg, S J; Kiyoura, R; Bechtold, W E; McClellan, R O

    1984-01-01

    This research (1) ranked the genotoxicity of methylene chloride extracts of laboratory and environmentally collected particles and (2) evaluated the role of collection location and sample composition on genotoxic potency. Samples of exhaust from a spark-ignition automobile, light-duty diesel automobile, and a heavy-duty diesel engine operated in a laboratory on a dynamometer were studied, as well as samples taken in a highway tunnel and outside the same tunnel. The tunnel samples were collected 30 m inside or 56 m outside the exit portal at times when between 70%-95% of the traffic consisted of diesel trucks. In the Ames Salmonella mutagenicity assay, each extract produced a dose-dependent increase in mutagenicity in strain TA-98 without addition of liver S-9 fraction. Extracts from two tunnel samples collected 1 yr apart, and extracts of particles collected outside the tunnel had similar mutagenic activity. The order of mutagenic activity per microgram of extract in TA-98 without S-9 from the lowest to the highest was environmental sample less than or equal to tunnel less than heavy-duty diesel less than light-duty diesel less than spark ignition. Addition of S-9 or testing in Salmonella strains resistant to the mutagenicity of nitroaromatic compounds (TA-98 NR and TA-98 1,8-DNP6) decreased the mutagenic response. With cell killing, sister chromatid exchanges, and mutations as endpoints in Chinese hamster ovary cells (CHO), the order of potency was tunnel less than light-duty less than spark-ignition samples. All three extracts induced a similar amount of mitotic delay per microgram with or without S-9. Enhanced chromosome aberration frequency was detected only in cells exposed to extracts from spark-ignition exhaust. The data indicated that genotoxic activity was detected in each particle extract, that the potency ranking was similar using different genetic endpoints, and that the magnitude of the genotoxic potency was similar. PMID:6207015

  5. Comparison of genotoxicity of automotive exhaust particles from laboratory and environmental sources

    SciTech Connect

    Brooks, A.L.; Li, A.P.; Dutcher, J.S.; Clark, C.R.; Rothenberg, S.J.; Kiyoura, R.; Bechtold, W.E.; McClellan, R.O.

    1984-01-01

    This research (1) ranked the genotoxicity of methylene chloride extracts of laboratory and environmentally collected particles and (2) evaluated the role of collection location and sample composition on genotoxic potency. Samples of exhaust from a spark-ignition automobile, light-duty diesel automobile, and a heavy-duty diesel engine operated in a laboratory on a dynamometer were studied, as well as samples taken in a highway tunnel and outside the same tunnel. In the Ames Salmonella mutagenicity assay, each extract produced a dose-dependent increase in mutagenicity in strain TA-98 without addition of liver S-9 fraction. The order of mutagenic activity per ..mu..g of extract in TA-98 without S-9 from the lowest to the highest was environmental sample less than or equal to tunnel < heavy-duty diesel < light-duty diesel < spark ignition. With cell killing, sister chromatid exchanges, and mutations as endpoints in Chinese hamster ovary cells (CHO), the order of potency was tunnel < light-duty < spark-ignition samples. The data indicated that genotoxic activity was detected in each particle extract, that the potency ranking was similar using different genetic endpoints, and that the magnitude of the genotoxic potency was similar.

  6. Histological examination of the rat after long-term exposure to subtoxic automotive exhaust gas.

    PubMed

    Roggendorf, W; Neumann, H; Thron, H L; Schneider, H; Sarasa-Corral, J L

    1981-07-01

    Regarding the potential impact of traffic-born air pollutants on public health, in recent years attention has increasingly been focused on the possible effects on the cardiovascular system. In order to investigate this problem further, the influence of long-term exhaust gas exposure on rats has been studied. One hundred Wistar rats of either sex were exposed 5 X 8 h/week up to 28 months to an atmosphere polluted by the emissions of an idling Otto engine, CO concentrations held constant at 90 ppm. A second group (50 rats) was exposed to 250 ppm for 6 months. Blood parameters and body weight were controlled. Specimens of CNS, heart, vessels, kidney etc. were investigated light microscopically. Focal necroses of the myocardium with inflammatory reactions as well as interstitial fibrosis were found in the heart muscle of the 90 ppm group. In the 250 ppm group endothelial proliferations, edema of the intima and deposits of proteoglycanes in the media were observed. We conclude that subtoxic concentrations of CO which only lead to slight morphologic changes may aggravate preexisting lesions caused by high risk conditions, e.g., hypertension or hypercholesteremia. PMID:7271450

  7. Factors affecting cleanup of exhaust gases from a pressurized, fluidized-bed coal combustor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rollbuhler, R. J.; Kobak, J. A.

    1980-03-01

    The cleanup of effluent gases from the fluidized-bed combustion of coal is examined. Testing conditions include the type and feed rate of the coal and the sulfur sorbent, the coal-sorbent ratio, the coal-combustion air ratio, the depth of the reactor fluidizing bed, and the technique used to physically remove fly ash from the reactor effluent gases. Tests reveal that the particulate loading matter in the effluent gases is a function not only of the reactor-bed surface gas velocity, but also of the type of coal being burnt and the time the bed is operating. At least 95 percent of the fly ash particules in the effluent gas are removed by using a gas-solids separator under controlled operating conditions. Gaseous pollutants in the effluent (nitrogen and sulfur oxides) are held within the proposed Federal limits by controlling the reactor operating conditions and the type and quantity of sorbent material.

  8. Factors affecting cleanup of exhaust gases from a pressurized, fluidized-bed coal combustor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rollbuhler, R. J.; Kobak, J. A.

    1980-01-01

    The cleanup of effluent gases from the fluidized-bed combustion of coal is examined. Testing conditions include the type and feed rate of the coal and the sulfur sorbent, the coal-sorbent ratio, the coal-combustion air ratio, the depth of the reactor fluidizing bed, and the technique used to physically remove fly ash from the reactor effluent gases. Tests reveal that the particulate loading matter in the effluent gases is a function not only of the reactor-bed surface gas velocity, but also of the type of coal being burnt and the time the bed is operating. At least 95 percent of the fly ash particules in the effluent gas are removed by using a gas-solids separator under controlled operating conditions. Gaseous pollutants in the effluent (nitrogen and sulfur oxides) are held within the proposed Federal limits by controlling the reactor operating conditions and the type and quantity of sorbent material.

  9. Superplastic forming of stainless steel automotive components

    SciTech Connect

    Bridges, B.; Elmer, J.; Carol, L.

    1997-02-06

    Exhaust emission standards are governmentally controlled standards, which are increasingly stringent, forcing alternate strategies to meet these standards. One approach to improve the efficiency of the exhaust emission equipment is to decrease the time required to get the catalytic converter to optimum operating temperature. To accomplish this, automotive manufacturers are using double wall stainless steel exhaust manifolds to reduce heat loss of the exhaust gases to the converter. The current method to manufacture double wall stainless steel exhaust components is to use a low-cost alloy with good forming properties and extensively form, cut, assemble, and weld the pieces. Superplastic forming (SPF) technology along with alloy improvements has potential at making this process more cost effective. Lockheed Martin Energy Systems (LMES), Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and USCAR Low Emission Partnership (LEP) worked under a Cooperative Research And Development Agreement (CRADA) to evaluate material properties, SPF behavior, and welding behavior of duplex stainless steel alloy for automotive component manufacturing. Battelle Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has a separate CRADA with the LEP to use SPF technology to manufacture a double wall stainless steel exhaust component. As a team these CRADAs developed and demonstrated a technical plan to accomplish making double wall stainless steel exhaust manifolds.

  10. A flow calorimeter for determining combustion efficiency from residual enthalpy of exhaust gases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, Albert; Hibbard, Robert R

    1954-01-01

    A flow calorimeter for determining the combustion efficiency of turbojet and ram-jet combustors from measurement of the residual enthalpy of combustion of the exhaust gas is described. Briefly, the calorimeter catalytically oxidizes the combustible constituents of exhaust-gas samples, and the resultant temperature rise is measured. This temperature rise is related to the residual enthalpy of combustion of the sample by previous calibration of the calorimeter. Combustion efficiency can be calculated from a knowledge of the residual enthalpy of the exhaust gas and the combustor input enthalpy. An accuracy of +-0.2 Btu per cubic foot was obtained with prepared fuel-air mixtures, and the combustion efficiencies of single turbojet combustors measured by both the flow-calorimeter and heat-balance methods compared within 3 percentage units. Flow calorimetry appears to be a suitable method for determining combustion efficiencies at high combustor temperatures where ordinary thermocouples cannot be used. The method is fundamentally more accurate than heat-balance methods at high combustion efficiencies and can be used to verify near-100-percent efficiency data.

  11. High-Performance Decomposition and Fixation of Dry Etching Exhaust Perfluoro-Compound Gases and Study of Their Mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hattori, Kei; Osato, Masaaki; Maeda, Takeshi; Okumura, Katsuya; Sekine, Makoto; Hori, Masaru

    2011-11-01

    We report on the high-performance decomposition and fixation of perfluoro compounds (PFCs) exhausted from dry etching processes and their reaction mechanism with the fixation material prepared from Ca(OH)2 and Al(OH)3 mixture. Using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and other analysis methods, it was found that PFCs were successfully decomposed and fixated by the reaction only with calcium compounds, resulting in calcium fluoride (CaF2). Aluminum compounds existing very close to calcium compounds work as a catalyst so that the reaction progresses at much lower temperatures, in the range of 650 to 750 °C, compared with the direct decomposition by combustion. The reaction mechanism is discussed on the basis of the proposed microscopic reaction model. These results are useful for the development of more efficient abatement systems for the greenhouse gases in the exhaust of dry etching processes.

  12. Anode supported single chamber solid oxide fuel cells operating in exhaust gases of thermal engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briault, Pauline; Rieu, Mathilde; Laucournet, Richard; Morel, Bertrand; Viricelle, Jean-Paul

    2014-12-01

    This project deals with the development and the electrochemical characterization of anode supported single chamber SOFC in a simulated environment of thermal engine exhaust gas. In the present work, a gas mixture representative of exhaust conditions is selected. It is composed of hydrocarbons (HC: propane and propene), oxygen, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, hydrogen and water. Only oxygen content is varied leading to different gas mixtures characterized by three ratios R = HC/O2. Concerning the cell components, a cermet made of nickel and an electrolyte material, Ce0.9Gd0.1O1.95 (CGO) is used as anode and two cathode materials, La0.6Sr0.4Co0.2Fe0.8O3-δ (LSCF) and Pr2NiO4+δ (PNO), are evaluated. The prepared cells are investigated in the various gas mixtures for temperatures ranging from 450 °C to 600 °C. Ni-CGO/CGO/LSCF-CGO cell has delivered a maximum power density of 15 mW cm-2 at 500 °C with R = HC/O2 = 0.21, while lower power densities are obtained for the other ratios, R = 0.44 and R = 0.67. Afterwards, LSCF and PNO cathode materials are compared and LSCF is found to deliver the highest power densities. Finally, by improving the electrolyte microstructure, some cells presenting a maximum power density of 25 mW cm-2 at 550 °C are produced. Moreover, up to 17% of initial HC are eliminated in the gas mixture.

  13. The trapping system for the recirculated gases at different locations of the exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) pipe of a homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piperel, A.; Montagne, X.; Dagaut, P.

    2008-10-01

    Nowadays, in diesel engines, it is typical to recycle exhaust gases (EGR) in order to decrease pollutant emissions. However, few studies report the precisely measured composition of the recycled gases. Indeed, in order to know precisely the composition of the EGR gases, they have to be sampled hot and not diluted, in contrast to the usual practice. Thus, a new system to collect such samples was developed. With this new trapping system, it is possible to measure the concentrations of NOx, CO, CO2, O2, hydrocarbons (HCs) in the range C1-C9, aldehydes, ketones and PAHs. The trapping system and the analytical protocol used are described in this paper.

  14. System and method for selective catalytic reduction of nitrogen oxides in combustion exhaust gases

    DOEpatents

    Sobolevskiy, Anatoly; Rossin, Joseph A

    2014-04-08

    A multi-stage selective catalytic reduction (SCR) unit (32) provides efficient reduction of NOx and other pollutants from about 50-550.degree. C. in a power plant (19). Hydrogen (24) and ammonia (29) are variably supplied to the SCR unit depending on temperature. An upstream portion (34) of the SCR unit catalyzes NOx+NH.sub.3 reactions above about 200.degree. C. A downstream portion (36) catalyzes NOx+H.sub.2 reactions below about 260.degree. C., and catalyzes oxidation of NH.sub.3, CO, and VOCs with oxygen in the exhaust above about 200.degree. C., efficiently removing NOx and other pollutants over a range of conditions with low slippage of NH.sub.3. An ammonia synthesis unit (28) may be connected to the SCR unit to provide NH.sub.3 as needed, avoiding transport and storage of ammonia or urea at the site. A carbonaceous gasification plant (18) on site may supply hydrogen and nitrogen to the ammonia synthesis unit, and hydrogen to the SCR unit.

  15. Experiments and Simulations on a Heat Exchanger of an Automotive Exhaust Thermoelectric Generation System Under Coupling Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, X.; Yu, C. G.; Chen, S.; Wang, Y. P.; Su, C. Q.

    2014-06-01

    The present experimental and computational study investigates an exhaust gas waste heat recovery system for vehicles, using thermoelectric modules and a heat exchanger to produce electric power. It proposes a new plane heat exchanger of a thermoelectric generation (TEG) system, producing electricity from a limited hot surface area. To investigate the new plane heat exchanger, we make a coupling condition of heat-flow and flow-solid coupling analysis on it to obtain the temperature, heat, and pressure field of the heat exchanger, and compared it with the old heat exchanger. These fields couple together to solve the multi-field coupling of the flow, solid, and heat, and then the simulation result is compared with the test bench experiment of TEG, providing a theoretical and experimental basis for the present exhaust gas waste heat recovery system.

  16. Characteristics of aerosol particles and trace gases in ship exhaust plumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drewnick, F.; Diesch, J.; Borrmann, S.

    2011-12-01

    Gaseous and particulate matter from marine vessels gain increasing attention due to their significant contribution to the anthropogenic burden of the atmosphere, implying the change of the atmospheric composition and the impact on local and regional air quality and climate (Eyring et al., 2010). As ship emissions significantly affect air quality of onshore regions, this study deals with various aspects of gas and particulate plumes from marine traffic measured near the Elbe river mouth in northern Germany. In addition to a detailed investigation of the chemical and physical particle properties from different types of commercial marine vessels, we will focus on the chemistry of ship plumes and their changes while undergoing atmospheric processing. Measurements of the ambient aerosol, various trace gases and meteorological parameters using a mobile laboratory (MoLa) were performed on the banks of the Lower Elbe which is passed on average, daily by 30 ocean-going vessels reaching the port of Hamburg, the second largest freight port of Europe. During 5 days of sampling from April 25-30, 2011 170 commercial marine vessels were probed at a distance of about 1.5-2 km with high temporal resolution. Mass concentrations in PM1, PM2.5 and PM10 and number as well as PAH and black carbon (BC) concentrations in PM1 were measured; size distribution instruments covered the size range from 6 nm up to 32 μm. The chemical composition of the non-refractory aerosol in the submicron range was measured by means of an Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (Aerodyne HR-ToF-AMS). Gas phase species analyzers monitored various trace gas concentrations in the air and a weather station provided meteorological parameters. Additionally, a wide spectrum of ship information for each vessel including speed, size, vessel type, fuel type, gross tonnage and engine power was recorded via Automatic Identification System (AIS) broadcasts. Although commercial marine vessels powered by diesel engines consume high

  17. Power plant including an exhaust gas recirculation system for injecting recirculated exhaust gases in the fuel and compressed air of a gas turbine engine

    DOEpatents

    Anand, Ashok Kumar; Nagarjuna Reddy, Thirumala Reddy; Shaffer, Jason Brian; York, William David

    2014-05-13

    A power plant is provided and includes a gas turbine engine having a combustor in which compressed gas and fuel are mixed and combusted, first and second supply lines respectively coupled to the combustor and respectively configured to supply the compressed gas and the fuel to the combustor and an exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) system to re-circulate exhaust gas produced by the gas turbine engine toward the combustor. The EGR system is coupled to the first and second supply lines and configured to combine first and second portions of the re-circulated exhaust gas with the compressed gas and the fuel at the first and second supply lines, respectively.

  18. General Motors Corporation and Pacific Northwest Laboratory Staff Exchange: Instrumentation for rapid measurement of automotive exhaust emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Griffin, J.W.; Sharpe, S.W.; Sloane, T.M.

    1995-07-01

    Information in this report on the staff exchange of Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) staff with the AIGER Consortium (General Motors, Ford, Chrysler, Navistar, the environmental protection Agency, and the California Air Resources Board) includes the purpose and objectives, a summary of activities, significant accomplishments, significant problems, industry benefits realized, recommended follow-on work and potential benefits from that work, and two appendices. Appendix A is a brief description of the fast gas chromatography and infrared spectroscopy chemometric technologies and their application to the rapid characterization of automobile exhaust emissions. Appendix B is a list of key contacts and the schedule of activities pertaining to the staff exchange.

  19. Investigation of the Performance of HEMT-Based NO, NO2 and NH3 Exhaust Gas Sensors for Automotive Antipollution Systems

    PubMed Central

    Halfaya, Yacine; Bishop, Chris; Soltani, Ali; Sundaram, Suresh; Aubry, Vincent; Voss, Paul L.; Salvestrini, Jean-Paul; Ougazzaden, Abdallah

    2016-01-01

    We report improved sensitivity to NO, NO2 and NH3 gas with specially-designed AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMT) that are suitable for operation in the harsh environment of diesel exhaust systems. The gate of the HEMT device is functionalized using a Pt catalyst for gas detection. We found that the performance of the sensors is enhanced at a temperature of 600 °C, and the measured sensitivity to 900 ppm-NO, 900 ppm-NO2 and 15 ppm-NH3 is 24%, 38.5% and 33%, respectively, at 600 °C. We also report dynamic response times as fast as 1 s for these three gases. Together, these results indicate that HEMT sensors could be used in a harsh environment with the ability to control an anti-pollution system in real time. PMID:26907298

  20. High temperature corrosion performance of automotive coupling alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, G.D.; Crum, J.R.; Flower, H.L.

    1998-12-31

    Key to the satisfactory performance of automotive exhaust couplings is adequate high temperature corrosion resistance. This is becoming especially critical as service life is being extended by government legislation and as service temperatures are increasing due to the need for increased fuel efficiency and faster catalyst light-off. Currently employed and candidate coupling alloys, including 409, 304, 316Ti and 321 stainless steels (SS) and alloys 600, 800, 864 and 625, are selectively evaluated for resistance to road salt spray corrosion, oxidation in air and engine exhaust gases and under cyclic burner rig conditions, These laboratory results are compared with alloy performance of couplings subjected to test track and field exposure.

  1. Exhaust emission control apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Eng, J.W.

    1991-09-24

    This patent describes an exhaust control apparatus for muffling noise and treating odors and pollutants, including solid particulate and gases in the exhaust of an internal combustion engine. It comprises an exhaust inlet tube for receiving the exhaust generated by an internal combustion engine; a cyclone barrier concentrically surrounding the exhaust inlet tube, a ring cavity between the cyclone tube and exhaust inlet tube defining a cyclone chamber in which the exhaust is treated; means for directing the exhaust from the exhaust inlet tube into the cyclone chamber; electrode means having small openings through which the exhaust passes to enter the cyclone chamber, the electrode means generating electrostatic forces which charge the solid particulate in the exhaust, ionize air and generate ozone in the cyclone chamber near the electrode; means for injecting air into the cyclone chamber causing centrifugal flow of the air and the exhausted within the cyclone chamber and increasing a dwell time of the exhaust within the cyclone chamber.

  2. Effect of varying the combustion parameters on the emissions of carbon monoxide and nitrogen oxides in the exhaust gases from propane-fueled vehicles.

    PubMed

    Roberge, B

    2000-05-01

    Propane-fueled forklifts are one source of carbon monoxide (CO) contamination of workplace air. The previous study carried out by the Quebec Occupational Health and Safety Research Institute dealt with worker exposure to CO during forklift use in buildings. It recommends that exhaust gas emissions be kept below a 1 percent concentration. However, this control has not produced a significant reduction in worker exposure to CO, when factors (ventilation, type of work tasks, and management of vehicle fleet) specific to companies are taken into account. Consequently, a reduction in CO emissions below the threshold of 0.3 percent should be considered. The experience acquired with propane-fueled ice resurfacers can be used to determine the effect of combustion parameters on exhaust gas emissions. It is known that a reduction in CO emissions from ice resurfacers resulted in the appearance of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and eventually in nitrogen dioxide (NO2) poisoning. Few publications present NOx results in relation to the CO measured in the exhaust gases of propane-fueled vehicles. The objective of this study is to define the level to which CO emissions can be reduced without increasing NOx concentrations. This real-situation study quantified the CO, NO, and NOx in the exhaust gases of a fleet of propane-fueled forklifts in relation to the mixture ratio. The results show the impact of the motor speed and mixture ratio on the CO, NO, and NO2 concentrations. They confirm an increase in NOx concentrations when CO concentrations are reduced. They also show that proper maintenance of forklifts combined with optimal adjustments can reduce CO and NOx emissions. The study proposes a compromise between CO and NOx emissions by taking into account worker health and safety as well as vehicle performance. Monitoring must be done to control air quality in work areas and worker exposure to CO and NO2. A forklift preventive maintenance program and general building ventilation are the favored

  3. Automotive Thermoelectric Waste Heat Recovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meisner, Gregory P.

    2015-03-01

    Considerable fuel energy, as much as 70%, is not converted to useful work by internal combustion engines but is instead rejected as waste heat, and more than half of the waste heat, nearly 40% of fuel energy, is contained in vehicle exhaust gas. This provides an opportunity to recover some of the wasted fuel energy and convert it from heat into useful work, subject to the laws of thermodynamics, and thereby improve vehicle energy efficiency. Thermoelectric (TE) materials have been extensively researched and TE devices are now being developed for operation at high temperatures corresponding to automotive exhaust gases for direct solid-state conversion of heat into electricity. This has stimulated substantial progress in the development of practical TE generator (TEG) systems for large-scale commercialization. A significant enabler of this progress has been the US Department of Energy's Vehicle Technologies Program through funding for low cost solutions for automotive TE waste heat recovery to improve fuel economy. Our current project at General Motors has culminated in the identification of the potential supply chain for all components and assembly of an automotive TEG. A significant focus has been to develop integrated and iterative modeling tools for a fully optimized TEG design that includes all components and subsystems (TE modules, heat exchangers, thermal interfaces, electrical interconnects, power conditioning, and vehicle integration for maximal use of TEG power). We have built and tested a new, low-cost Initial TEG prototype based on state-of-the-art production-scale skutterudite TE modules, novel heat exchanger designs, and practical solutions to the many technical challenges for optimum TEG performance. We will use the results for our Initial TEG prototype to refine our modeling and design tools for a Final automotive TEG system prototype. Our recent results will be presented. Thanks to: J.R. Salvador, E.R. Gundlach, D. Thompson, N.K. Bucknor, M

  4. Measurement of aromatic compounds in automobile exhaust gases with membrane inlet mass spectrometry equipped with an on-line-probe and an automatic Tenax-Sampler

    SciTech Connect

    Matz, G.; Walte, A.; Muenchmeyer, W.; Rikeit, H.E.

    1996-09-01

    A novel membrane inlet mass spectrometer is used to monitor organic compounds in combustion emissions. Different gas probes, which can be changed in minutes, have been developed for use in combination with the mobile mass spectrometer. With the On-Line-Probe, volatile organic compounds (BTXE) can be measured down to the ppm range with a cycle rate of one analysis per second. Time resolved measurements of aromatic compounds together with other exhaust gases can be done. By sampling with a polymer adsorbent, analysis with thermal desorption and GC/MS down to the ppb concentration range can be achieved. A six-fold Tenax-Sampler, connected to the mobile GC/MS system, is capable of taking and transferring the samples automatically. Because sampling with this device is independent from the analysis, measurements of narrow time windows in a dynamical process can be done easily. The whole analytical equipment was evaluated on-site through measurements on an engine test stand, a dynamometer and on the road during real traffic. It is shown, that time resolved quantitative measurements give information on the influence of special driving conditions (warm up, congestion) on the amount of aromatic compounds emitted by automobile exhausts.

  5. Space shuttle SRM plume expansion sensitivity analysis. [flow characteristics of exhaust gases from solid propellant rocket engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, S. D.; Tevepaugh, J. A.; Penny, M. M.

    1975-01-01

    The exhaust plumes of the space shuttle solid rocket motors can have a significant effect on the base pressure and base drag of the shuttle vehicle. A parametric analysis was conducted to assess the sensitivity of the initial plume expansion angle of analytical solid rocket motor flow fields to various analytical input parameters and operating conditions. The results of the analysis are presented and conclusions reached regarding the sensitivity of the initial plume expansion angle to each parameter investigated. Operating conditions parametrically varied were chamber pressure, nozzle inlet angle, nozzle throat radius of curvature ratio and propellant particle loading. Empirical particle parameters investigated were mean size, local drag coefficient and local heat transfer coefficient. Sensitivity of the initial plume expansion angle to gas thermochemistry model and local drag coefficient model assumptions were determined.

  6. A case study for removal of sulphur-di-oxide from exhaust flue gases at thermal power plant, Rajasthan (India).

    PubMed

    Sharma, Rashmi; Acharya, Shveta; Sharma, Arun Kumar

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study is to reduce the percent SO2 in environment and to produce a byproduct with SO2, to control air pollution. The present work envisages a situation that compares the efficiency of three different reagents, viz. sodium hydroxide, calcium hydroxide and waste product of water treatment plant containing CaO in removal of SO2 that would be generated in this situation. Various parameters were also observed with variation involving percent concentration of reactants, pH of the solution, time for reaction , temperature of solution and flow of flue gas in impingers. Pet coke with lime stone is being used for power generation in power plant during the experiment, the pet coke having 6% sulphur resulting in emission of SO2. Hence experiments have been conducted to trap these gases to produce sulphates. Waste product of water treatment plant, calcium hydroxide, and sodium hydroxide in various permutation and combination have been used with control flow by SO2 monitoring kit for preparation of calcium sulphate and sodium sulphate. Thus sodium hydroxide turned out to be better as compared to calcium hydroxide and sludge. It is also concluded that pH of the solution should be alkaline for good absorption of SO2 and maximum absorption of SO2 found in direct passing of SO2 in impinger as compared to indirect passing of SO2 in impingers. Good absorption of SO2 found at temperature range between 20-25 degrees C and it seems to be optimum. Maximum recovery of SO2 was obtained when the reaction took place for long time period. PMID:22324143

  7. In situ deposition of silver and palladium nanoparticles prepared by the polyol process, and their performance as catalytic converters of automobile exhaust gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonet, F.; Grugeon, S.; Herrera Urbina, R.; Tekaia-Elhsissen, K.; Tarascon, J.-M.

    2002-04-01

    In situ deposition of silver particles onto alumina and palladium particles onto mixed CeZr oxides has been achieved upon chemical reduction of the corresponding metal species (AgNO 3 and PdCl 2) by ethylene glycol in the presence of polyvinylpyrrolidone. The support oxide powders were found to keep their crystalline structure and morphology after treatment with hot ethylene glycol while the BET surface area decreased after metal deposition. Microprobe maps obtained from energy dispersive X-ray analysis revealed a homogeneous distribution of metal nanoparticles on the surfaces of alumina and of the mixed CeZr oxides. Supported silver and palladium were tested as catalytic converters of simulated exhaust automobile gases. The catalytic activity of silver-loaded alumina powder catalyst for CO and hydrocarbon oxidation as well as NO and NO x reduction, was found to be higher than that of a reference silver catalyst. Palladium-loaded mixed CeZr oxides powder catalyst showed a similar performance to that of a reference palladium catalyst as a three-way catalyst converter.

  8. Automotive Wastes.

    PubMed

    Guigard, Selma E; Shariaty, Pooya; Niknaddaf, Saeid; Lashaki, Masoud Jahandar; Atkinson, John D; Hashisho, Zaher

    2015-10-01

    A review of the literature from 2014 related to automotive wastes is presented. Topics include solid wastes from autobodies and tires as well as vehicle emissions to soil and air as a result of the use of conventional and alternative fuels. Potential toxicological and health risks related to automotive wastes are also discussed. PMID:26420089

  9. Gas sensing using porous materials for automotive applications.

    PubMed

    Wales, Dominic J; Grand, Julien; Ting, Valeska P; Burke, Richard D; Edler, Karen J; Bowen, Chris R; Mintova, Svetlana; Burrows, Andrew D

    2015-07-01

    Improvements in the efficiency of combustion within a vehicle can lead to reductions in the emission of harmful pollutants and increased fuel efficiency. Gas sensors have a role to play in this process, since they can provide real time feedback to vehicular fuel and emissions management systems as well as reducing the discrepancy between emissions observed in factory tests and 'real world' scenarios. In this review we survey the current state-of-the-art in using porous materials for sensing the gases relevant to automotive emissions. Two broad classes of porous material - zeolites and metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) - are introduced, and their potential for gas sensing is discussed. The adsorptive, spectroscopic and electronic techniques for sensing gases using porous materials are summarised. Examples of the use of zeolites and MOFs in the sensing of water vapour, oxygen, NOx, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide, hydrocarbons and volatile organic compounds, ammonia, hydrogen sulfide, sulfur dioxide and hydrogen are then detailed. Both types of porous material (zeolites and MOFs) reveal great promise for the fabrication of sensors for exhaust gases and vapours due to high selectivity and sensitivity. The size and shape selectivity of the zeolite and MOF materials are controlled by variation of pore dimensions, chemical composition (hydrophilicity/hydrophobicity), crystal size and orientation, thus enabling detection and differentiation between different gases and vapours. PMID:25982991

  10. I. Textural/Structural tuning and nanoparticle stabilization of copper-containing nanocomposite materials. II. Generation of reducing agents for automotive exhaust gas purification via the processing of hydrocarbons in a PACT (plasma and catalysis integrated technologies) reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xing, Yu

    This research consists of two parts. The first part deals with the preparation and properties of copper-containing nanocomposite materials. For studies of textural tuning, structural tuning, or material sintering, copper/aluminum and copper/zinc nanocomposites were prepared via various inorganic synthesis methods including conventional coprecipitation methods and a novel urea-gelation/thermal-modification method that produces narrow distributions of pore sizes, high surface areas, and significantly higher specific metal loadings. Solid-solid reaction analysis and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis were developed for the determination of the mixing homogeneities of the copper/aluminum nanocomposites. A sintering experiment at 250-600°C for 350 h under methanol-steam reforming conditions was carried out to compare the stability of supported Cu0 nanoparticles. The mixing homogeneities of CuO/Al2O3 nanocomposites significantly affected the thermal stability of their reduced Cu0 crystallites. Creation of relatively narrow distributions of pore sizes with relatively small major pore diameters (e.g., 3.5 nm) can also be used for the stabilization of supported Cu0 nanoparticles. The supported nanoparticles with a relatively small initial size cannot ensure good thermal stability. A "hereditary" character on the homogeneity of copper/aluminum nanocomposites was revealed. Stepwise reduction and reoxidation were studied for the structural tuning and purification of Cu-Al-O spinels with isotropic and gradual unit-cell contractions. The second part of the research deals with the processing of hydrocarbons. Conversion of a model hydrocarbon (n-hexane or n-octane) in an AC discharge PACT (plasma and catalysis integrated technologies) reactor was verified to be an effective method to instantly produce reducing agents (e.g., hydrogen or/and light alkanes and alkenes), at room temperature and atmospheric pressure for automotive exhaust gas purification. Effects of

  11. General Mechanical Repair. Minor Automotive Maintenance. Volume 1. Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    East Texas State Univ., Commerce. Occupational Curriculum Lab.

    Fourteen units on minor automotive maintenance are presented in this teacher's guide. The units are the following: introduction to minor automotive maintenance, shop safety, engine principles, fuel system operation and repair, electrical system, ignition system, lubrication system, engine cooling system, exhaust system, wheel bearings and tires,…

  12. Automotive Mechanics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Desmond

    This curriculum guide provides materials for a competency-based course in automotive mechanics at the secondary level. The curriculum design uses the curriculum infused model for the teaching of basic skills as part of vocational education and demonstrates the relationship of vocationally related skills to communication, mathematics, and science…

  13. Particulate trap system for engine exhaust using electrically powered regeneration

    SciTech Connect

    Rao, V.D.N.; Wade, W.R.; Aimone, M.G.

    1986-01-07

    This patent describes an apparatus for removing oxidizable particulates from an automotive engine having a driven output part, and consists of: a) a particulate filter trap disposed in such stream; b) electrically heated elements proximate to the filter to promote oxidation of particulates collected in the filter; c) an alternator for converting the motion of the engine driven output part to a supply of electrical energy which can be connected to the elements and effective to heat the elements to at least the incineration temperature of the particulates while the engine is at least at an idle condition; d) electrically actuated means for diverting the stream of exhaust gases away from at least a portion of the filter trap and for delayedly admitting a flow of a fluid medium effective to transfer heat between the elements and collected particulates and to supply oxygen for supporting oxidation of the particulates.

  14. Abating exhaust noises in jet engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwartz, I. R. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    A noise abating improvement for jet engines including turbojets, turbofans, turboprops, ramjets, scramjets, and hybrid jets is introduced. A provision is made for an apparatus in the primary and/or secondary flow streams of the engines; the apparatus imparts to the exhaust gases a component rotation or swirl about the engine's longitudinal axis. The rotary component in the exhaust gases causes a substantial suppression of sound energy build up normally produced by an axial flow exhaust system.

  15. Silicon Carbide Transistor For Detecting Hydrocarbon Gases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shields, Virgil B.; Ryan, Margaret A.; Williams, Roger M.

    1996-01-01

    Proposed silicon carbide variable-potential insulated-gate field-effect transistor specially designed for use in measuring concentrations of hydrocarbon gases. Devices like this prove useful numerous automotive, industrial, aeronautical, and environmental monitoring applications.

  16. Analysis of an Increase in the Efficiency of a Spark Ignition Engine Through the Application of an Automotive Thermoelectric Generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merkisz, Jerzy; Fuc, Pawel; Lijewski, Piotr; Ziolkowski, Andrzej; Galant, Marta; Siedlecki, Maciej

    2016-05-01

    We have analyzed the increase of the overall efficiency of a spark ignition engine through energy recovery following the application of an automotive thermoelectric generator (ATEG) of our own design. The design of the generator was developed following emission investigations during vehicle driving under city traffic conditions. The measurement points were defined by actual operation conditions (engine speed and load), subsequently reproduced on an engine dynamometer. Both the vehicle used in the on-road tests and the engine dynamometer were fit with the same, downsized spark ignition engine (with high effective power-to-displacement ratio). The thermodynamic parameters of the exhaust gases (temperature and exhaust gas mass flow) were measured on the engine testbed, along with the fuel consumption and electric current generated by the thermoelectric modules. On this basis, the power of the ATEG and its impact on overall engine efficiency were determined.

  17. Analysis of an Increase in the Efficiency of a Spark Ignition Engine Through the Application of an Automotive Thermoelectric Generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merkisz, Jerzy; Fuc, Pawel; Lijewski, Piotr; Ziolkowski, Andrzej; Galant, Marta; Siedlecki, Maciej

    2016-08-01

    We have analyzed the increase of the overall efficiency of a spark ignition engine through energy recovery following the application of an automotive thermoelectric generator (ATEG) of our own design. The design of the generator was developed following emission investigations during vehicle driving under city traffic conditions. The measurement points were defined by actual operation conditions (engine speed and load), subsequently reproduced on an engine dynamometer. Both the vehicle used in the on-road tests and the engine dynamometer were fit with the same, downsized spark ignition engine (with high effective power-to-displacement ratio). The thermodynamic parameters of the exhaust gases (temperature and exhaust gas mass flow) were measured on the engine testbed, along with the fuel consumption and electric current generated by the thermoelectric modules. On this basis, the power of the ATEG and its impact on overall engine efficiency were determined.

  18. Automotive radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rohling, Hermann

    2004-07-01

    Radar networks for automtovie short-range applications (up to 30m) based on powerful but inexpensive 24GHz high range resolution pulse or FMCW radar systems have been developed at the Technical University of Hamburg-Harburg. The described system has been integrated in to an experimental vehicle and tested in real street environment. This paper considers the general network design, the individual pulse or FMCW radar sensors, the network signal processing scheme, the tracking procedure and possible automotive applications, respectively. Object position estimation is accomplished by the very precise range measurement of each individual sensor and additional trilateration procedures. The paper concludes with some results obtained in realistic traffic conditions with multiple target situations using 24 GHz radar network.

  19. Resonant microcavity light emitters for onboard exhaust emissions IR sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levy, Francois; Picard, Emmanuel; Rothmann, Johan; Mottin, Eric; Hadji, Emmanuel; Duhr, Joel

    2005-02-01

    A sensor based on selective optical absorption allows monitoring of hazardous engine exhaust emissions such as gaseous hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide. The IR components presented here offer the potential to develop a compact, fast and selective sensor reaching the technical and cost requirements for on-board automotive applications. Optical gas monitoring requires light sources above 3&mum since most of the gas species have their fundamental absorption peaks between 3 and 6 &mum. We report here on resonant microcavity light sources emitting at room temperature between 3 and 5&mum. The emitter combines a CdxHg1-xTe light emitting heterostructure and two dielectric multilayered mirrors. It is optically pumped by a commercial III-V laser diode. The principle of the resonant microcavity emitter allows tailoring of the emission wavelength and the line width to fit the absorption band of a specific gas, ensuring a very good selectivity between species. Moreover, this kind of emitter allows fast modulation enabling high detectivity and short response time. We report performances of light sources in the range 3-5&mum allowing the detection of hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide. Association of emitters peaking at different characteristic wavelengths with a single broad band detector allows designing of an optical sensor for several gas species. Sensitivity and time response issues have been characterized: detection of less than 50ppm of CH4 on a 15cm path has been demonstrated on synthetic gas; analysis of exhaust gases from a vehicle has allowed cylinder to cylinder resolution. This optical sensor offers the potential of various on-board automotive applications.

  20. Investigation of degradation effects in polymer electrolyte fuel cells under automotive-related operating conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enz, S.; Dao, T. A.; Messerschmidt, M.; Scholta, J.

    2015-01-01

    The influence of artificial starvation effects during automotive-related operating conditions is investigated within a polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC) using non-dispersive infrared sensors and a current scan shunt. Driving cycles (DC) and single load change experiments are performed with specific fuel and oxidant starvation conditions. Within the DC experiments, a maximal CO2 amount of 4.67 μmol per cycle is detected in the cathode and 0.97 μmol per cycle in the anode exhaust without reaching fuel starvation conditions during the DC. Massive cell reversal conditions occur within the single load change experiments as a result of anodic fuel starvation. As soon as a fuel starvation appears, the emitted CO2 increases exponentially in the anode and cathode exhaust. A maximal CO2 amount of 143.8 μmol CO2 on the anode side and 5.8 μmol CO2 on the cathode side is detected in the exhaust gases. The critical cell reversal conditions only occur by using hydrogen reformate as anode reactant. The influence of the starvation effects on the PEFC performance is investigated via polarization curves, cyclic and linear sweep voltammetry as well as electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The PEFC performance is reduced by 47% as a consequence of the dynamic operation.

  1. Catalytic reduction of nitrogen oxides from waste gases. (Latest citations from the US Patent bibliographic file with exemplary claims). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-01

    The bibliography contains citations of selected patents concerning catalytic reduction of nitrogen oxides from waste gases. Preparation, properties, and regeneration of catalysts used to reduce nitrogen oxides are discussed. Topics also include cleanup and reduction technologies for flue gas; automotive exhaust gas; and air pollutants resulting from fluidized bed combustion, incinerators, and other waste gas producing systems. Citations of selected foreign patents concerning nitrogen oxide reduction are examined in a related bibliography. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  2. Catalytic reduction of nitrogen oxides from waste gases. (Latest citations from the US Patent bibliographic file with exemplary claims). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-01

    The bibliography contains citations of selected patents concerning catalytic reduction of nitrogen oxides from waste gases. Preparation, properties, and regeneration of catalysts used to reduce nitrogen oxides are discussed. Topics also include cleanup and reduction technologies for flue gas; automotive exhaust gas; and air pollutants resulting from fluidized bed combustion, incinerators, and other waste gas producing systems. Citations of selected foreign patents concerning nitrogen oxide reduction are examined in a related bibliography. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  3. Automotive vehicle sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Sheen, S.H.; Raptis, A.C.; Moscynski, M.J.

    1995-09-01

    This report is an introduction to the field of automotive vehicle sensors. It contains a prototype data base for companies working in automotive vehicle sensors, as well as a prototype data base for automotive vehicle sensors. A market analysis is also included.

  4. Processes to remove acid forming gases from exhaust gases

    DOEpatents

    Chang, S.G.

    1994-09-20

    The present invention relates to a process for reducing the concentration of NO in a gas, which process comprises: (A) contacting a gas sample containing NO with a gaseous oxidizing agent to oxidize the NO to NO[sub 2]; (B) contacting the gas sample of step (A) comprising NO[sub 2] with an aqueous reagent of bisulfite/sulfite and a compound selected from urea, sulfamic acid, hydrazinium ion, hydrazoic acid, nitroaniline, sulfanilamide, sulfanilic acid, mercaptopropanoic acid, mercaptosuccinic acid, cysteine or combinations thereof at between about 0 and 100 C at a pH of between about 1 and 7 for between about 0.01 and 60 sec; and (C) optionally contacting the reaction product of step (A) with conventional chemical reagents to reduce the concentrations of the organic products of the reaction in step (B) to environmentally acceptable levels. Urea or sulfamic acid are preferred, especially sulfamic acid, and step (C) is not necessary or performed. 16 figs.

  5. Processes to remove acid forming gases from exhaust gases

    DOEpatents

    Chang, Shih-Ger

    1994-01-01

    The present invention relates to a process for reducing the concentration of NO in a gas, which process comprises: (A) contacting a gas sample containing NO with a gaseous oxidizing agent to oxidize the NO to NO.sub.2 ; (B) contacting the gas sample of step (A) comprising NO.sub.2 with an aqueous reagent of bisulfite/sulfite and a compound selected from urea, sulfamic acid, hydrazinium ion, hydrazoic acid, nitroaniline, sulfanilamide, sulfanilic acid, mercaptopropanoic acid, mercaptosuccinic acid, cysteine or combinations thereof at between about 0.degree. and 100.degree. C. at a pH of between about 1 and 7 for between about 0.01 and 60 sec; and (C) optionally contacting the reaction product of step (A) with conventional chemical reagents to reduce the concentrations of the organic products of the reaction in step (B) to environ-mentally acceptable levels. Urea or sulfamic acid are preferred, especially sulfamic acid, and step (C) is not necessary or performed.

  6. DESIGN CRITERIA FOR ROCKET EXHAUST SCRUBBERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of an engineering study and design of methods for scrubbing the exhaust of static-tested solid rockets. Pollutants of major concern were hydrogen chloride and hydrogen fluoride gases. The best process for removing these gases was found to be a gas-atomize...

  7. Recovery of exhaust waste heat for a hybrid car using steam turbine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ababatin, Yasser

    A number of car engines operate with an efficiency rate of approximately 22% to 25% [1]. The remainder of the energy these engines generate is wasted through heat escape out of the exhaust pipe. There is now an increasing desire to reuse this heat energy, which would improve the overall efficiency of car engines by reducing their consumption of fuel. Another benefit is that such reuse would minimize harmful greenhouse gases that are emitted into the environment. Therefore, the purpose of this project is to examine how the wasted heat energy can be reused and/or recovered by use of a heat recovery system that would store this energy in a hybrid car battery. Green turbines will be analyzed as a possible solution to recycle the lost energy in a way that will also improve the overall automotive energy efficiency.

  8. Modeling a Thermoelectric Generator Applied to Diesel Automotive Heat Recovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Espinosa, N.; Lazard, M.; Aixala, L.; Scherrer, H.

    2010-09-01

    Thermoelectric generators (TEGs) are outstanding devices for automotive waste heat recovery. Their packaging, lack of moving parts, and direct heat to electrical conversion are the main benefits. Usually, TEGs are modeled with a constant hot-source temperature. However, energy in exhaust gases is limited, thus leading to a temperature decrease as heat is recovered. Therefore thermoelectric properties change along the TEG, affecting performance. A thermoelectric generator composed of Mg2Si/Zn4Sb3 for high temperatures followed by Bi2Te3 for low temperatures has been modeled using engineering equation solver (EES) software. The model uses the finite-difference method with a strip-fins convective heat transfer coefficient. It has been validated on a commercial module with well-known properties. The thermoelectric connection and the number of thermoelements have been addressed as well as the optimum proportion of high-temperature material for a given thermoelectric heat exchanger. TEG output power has been estimated for a typical commercial vehicle at 90°C coolant temperature.

  9. SECONDARY ORGANIC AEROSOL FORMATION FROM THE IRRADIATION OF SIMULATED AUTOMOBILE EXHAUST

    EPA Science Inventory

    A laboratory study was conducted to evaluate the potential for secondary organic aerosol formation from emissions from automotive exhaust. The goal was to determine to what extent photochemical oxidation products of these hydrocarbons contribute to secondary organic aerosol (SO...

  10. Method and means for diesel exhaust particulate emission control

    SciTech Connect

    Ludecke, O.A.

    1983-04-19

    A method and means for controlling diesel particulate emissions involves providing an exhaust trap filter to collect exhaust particulates at a point near the engine exhaust ports and providing means to periodically vent burning combustion chamber gases to the exhaust filter to initiate combustion and incineration of the collected particulates. Various means for conducting burning mixture to ignite the particulates in the filter are disclosed.

  11. Kentucky's Automotive Certification Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kentucky State Dept. of Education, Frankfort. Office of Vocational Education.

    The state of Kentucky recognized a need to standardize automotive mechanics training throughout the state and to establish minimum guidelines for the quality of instruction in such programs. To meet these needs, the Office of Vocational Education selected the National Institute for Automotive Service Excellence (ASE) and began the certification…

  12. Automotive Technology Skill Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrett, Tom; Asay, Don; Evans, Richard; Barbie, Bill; Herdener, John; Teague, Todd; Allen, Scott; Benshoof, James

    2009-01-01

    The standards in this document are for Automotive Technology programs and are designed to clearly state what the student should know and be able to do upon completion of an advanced high-school automotive program. Minimally, the student will complete a three-year program to achieve all standards. Although these exit-level standards are designed…

  13. Automotive Diagnostic Technologies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Columbus State Community Coll., OH.

    This document contains materials developed for and about the automotive diagnostic technologies tech prep program of the South-Western City Schools in Ohio. Part 1 begins with a map of the program, which begins with an automotive/diagnostic technologies program in grades 11 and 12 that leads to entry-level employment or a 2-year automotive…

  14. NOBLE GASES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Noble Gases symposium, on which this report is based, provided comprehensive coverage of the noble gases. The coverage included, but was not limited to, the properties, biokinetics, bioeffects, production and release to the environment, detection techniques, standards, and ap...

  15. Effects of jet exhaust gas properties on exhaust simulation and afterbody drag

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Compton, W. B., III

    1975-01-01

    The effect of varying the jet exhaust's ratio of specific heats, gas constant, and temperature on airplane afterbody drag was investigated. Jet exhaust simulation parameters were evaluated also. Subsonic and transonic tests were made using a single nacelle model with afterbodies having boattail angles of 10 deg and 20 deg. Besides air, three other jet exhaust gases were investigated. The ratios of specific heats, gas constants, and total temperatures of the four exhaust gases ranged from 1.40 to 1.26, 287 to 376 J/kg-K, and 300 to 1013 K, respectively. For steep boattail angles, and transonic speeds and typical turbojet pressure ratios, the current data indicate that the use of air to simulate a dry turbojet exhaust can result in an overprediction of afterbody drag as high as 17 percent of the dry turbojet value.

  16. Thermoelectric Technology for Automotive Waste Heat Recovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meisner, Gregory

    2011-03-01

    Essential to the long term success of advanced thermoelectric (TE) technology for practical waste heat recovery is fundamental physics and materials research aimed at discovering and understanding new high performance TE materials. Applications of such new materials require their development into efficient and robust TE modules for incorporation into real devices such as a TE generator (TEG) for automotive exhaust gas waste heat recovery. Our work at GM Global R&D includes a continuing investigation of Skutterudite-based material systems and new classes of compounds that have potential for TE applications. To assess and demonstrate the viability of a TEG using state-of-the-art materials and modules, we have designed, fabricated, installed, and integrated a working prototype TEG to recover exhaust gas waste heat from a production test vehicle. Preliminary results provide important data for the operation and validation of the mechanical, thermal, and electrical systems of the TEG in combination with the various vehicle systems (e.g., exhaust bypass valve and controls, thermocouples, gas and coolant flow and pressure sensors, TE voltage and output power). Recent results from our materials research work and our functioning automotive TEG will be presented. This work is supported by US DOE Grant # DE-FC26-04NT 42278.

  17. Performance evaluation of an automotive thermoelectric generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubitsky, Andrei O.

    Around 40% of the total fuel energy in typical internal combustion engines (ICEs) is rejected to the environment in the form of exhaust gas waste heat. Efficient recovery of this waste heat in automobiles can promise a fuel economy improvement of 5%. The thermal energy can be harvested through thermoelectric generators (TEGs) utilizing the Seebeck effect. In the present work, a versatile test bench has been designed and built in order to simulate conditions found on test vehicles. This allows experimental performance evaluation and model validation of automotive thermoelectric generators. An electrically heated exhaust gas circuit and a circulator based coolant loop enable integrated system testing of hot and cold side heat exchangers, thermoelectric modules (TEMs), and thermal interface materials at various scales. A transient thermal model of the coolant loop was created in order to design a system which can maintain constant coolant temperature under variable heat input. Additionally, as electrical heaters cannot match the transient response of an ICE, modelling was completed in order to design a relaxed exhaust flow and temperature history utilizing the system thermal lag. This profile reduced required heating power and gas flow rates by over 50%. The test bench was used to evaluate a DOE/GM initial prototype automotive TEG and validate analytical performance models. The maximum electrical power generation was found to be 54 W with a thermal conversion efficiency of 1.8%. It has been found that thermal interface management is critical for achieving maximum system performance, with novel designs being considered for further improvement.

  18. Diesel engine dual path exhaust cleaner and burner system

    SciTech Connect

    Stark, T.L.

    1983-02-15

    A dual filter element exhaust cleaner and burner system for diesel engines provides for the trapping of particulates in the engine exhaust gases by their passage through filter elements, as selectively controlled by means of a four-way valve. Collected particulates in a non-active particulate filter element are incinerated by means of a heater, with this filter element, during incineration, being supplied with exhaust gases through a constant flow exhaust gas regulator whereby incineration of the particulates will occur at a controlled rate independent of engine speed.

  19. The AGT 101 advanced automotive gas turbine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rackley, R. A.; Kidwell, J. R.

    1982-01-01

    A development program is described whose goal is the accumulation of the technology base needed by the U.S. automotive industry for the production of automotive gas turbine powertrains. Such gas turbine designs must exhibit reduced fuel consumption, a multi-fuel capability, and low exhaust emissions. The AGT101 powertrain described is a 74.6 kW, regenerated single-shaft gas turbine, operating at a maximum inlet temperature of 1644 K and coupled to a split differential gearbox and automatic overdrive transmission. The engine's single stage centrifugal compressor and single stage radial inflow turbine are mounted on a common shaft, and will operate at a maximum rotor speed of 100,000 rpm. All high temperature components, including the turbine rotor, are ceramic.

  20. Exhaust system for an internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect

    Ikenoya, Y.; Otani, J.

    1982-10-19

    An exhaust system for an engine of a motorcycle is disclosed having catalytic and silencing mufflers arranged in adjacent side -by-side series flow relationship, the catalytic muffler extending rearwardly of the motorcycle, and, adjacent its rear end, being interconnected with the silencing muffler, the silencing muffler including plural expansion chambers which are interconnected in flow reversal relationship for gases to be exhausted rearwardly of the motorcycle.

  1. Acoustics of automotive catalytic converter assemblies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dickey, Nolan S.; Selamet, Ahmet; Parks, Steve J.; Tallio, Kevin V.; Miazgowicz, Keith D.; Radavich, Paul M.

    2003-10-01

    In an automotive exhaust system, the purpose of the catalytic converter is to reduce pollutant emissions. However, catalytic converters also affect the engine and exhaust system breathing characteristics; they increase backpressure, affect exhaust system acoustic characteristics, and contribute to exhaust manifold tuning. Thus, radiated sound models should include catalytic converters since they can affect both the source characteristics and the exhaust system acoustic behavior. A typical catalytic converter assembly employs a ceramic substrate to carry the catalytically active noble metals. The substrate has numerous parallel tubes and is mounted in a housing with swelling mat or wire mesh around its periphery. Seals at the ends of the substrate can be used to help force flow through the substrate and/or protect the mat material. Typically, catalytic converter studies only consider sound propagation in the small capillary tubes of the substrate. Investigations of the acoustic characteristics of entire catalytic converter assemblies (housing, substrate, seals, and mat) do not appear to be available. This work experimentally investigates the acoustic behavior of catalytic converter assemblies and the contributions of the separate components to sound attenuation. Experimental findings are interpreted with respect to available techniques for modeling sound propagation in ceramic substrates.

  2. Chemical kinetic modeling of exhaust hydrocarbon oxidation

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, K.C.; Hochgreb, S.; Norris, M.B. . Dept. of Mechanical Engineering)

    1995-01-01

    Numerical simulations of the oxidation of unburned hydrocarbons from spark ignition engines were made based on full-chemistry, zero-dimensional models and compared with experiments for engine-out hydrocarbons and exhaust port oxidation. Simple correlations can be drawn between calculated results for hydrocarbon oxidation half-lives in plug or stirred reactors and measured hydrocarbon emissions. the extent of reaction through the exhaust port was simulated using calculated temperature histories for each burned gas mass element leaving the cylinder, coupled to detailed chemical kinetic rate equations. The results show that, for the fuels considered, the extent of oxidation of the remaining unburned fuel measured through the exhaust can be bracketed by the calculated results for the well-mixed (average) and core (adiabatically expanded) temperatures in the exhaust. Most of the oxidation is shown to occur at the very early exhaust times. For the paraffins considered, comparisons of simulations and experiments suggest that fuel oxidation is partially controlled by the mixing of cold gases at the initial stages of exhaust, where temperatures are high and the cold unburned mixture emerges from the wall layers into the exhaust jet. These conclusions are supported by the relatively small measured dependence on fuel type of the extent of oxidation in the exhaust, and by the resulting ratio of fuel to nonfuel hydrocarbons in the exhaust port exit.

  3. A Technique for the Analysis of Auto Exhaust.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sothern, Ray D.; And Others

    Developed for presentation at the 12th Conference on Methods in Air Pollution and Industrial Hygiene Studies, University of Southern California, April, 1971, this outline explains a technique for separating the complex mixture of hydrocarbons contained in automotive exhausts. A Golay column and subambient temperature programming technique are…

  4. 102. Giullotine type gate (inclosed position to regulate furnace exhaust ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    102. Giullotine type gate (inclosed position to regulate furnace exhaust gases to stoves during heating cycle. - Sloss-Sheffield Steel & Iron, First Avenue North Viaduct at Thirty-second Street, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  5. Analysis of a Temperature-Controlled Exhaust Thermoelectric Generator During a Driving Cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brito, F. P.; Alves, A.; Pires, J. M.; Martins, L. B.; Martins, J.; Oliveira, J.; Teixeira, J.; Goncalves, L. M.; Hall, M. J.

    2016-03-01

    Thermoelectric generators can be used in automotive exhaust energy recovery. As car engines operate under wide variable loads, it is a challenge to design a system for operating efficiently under these variable conditions. This means being able to avoid excessive thermal dilution under low engine loads and being able to operate under high load, high temperature events without the need to deflect the exhaust gases with bypass systems. The authors have previously proposed a thermoelectric generator (TEG) concept with temperature control based on the operating principle of the variable conductance heat pipe/thermosiphon. This strategy allows the TEG modules’ hot face to work under constant, optimized temperature. The variable engine load will only affect the number of modules exposed to the heat source, not the heat transfer temperature. This prevents module overheating under high engine loads and avoids thermal dilution under low engine loads. The present work assesses the merit of the aforementioned approach by analysing the generator output during driving cycles simulated with an energy model of a light vehicle. For the baseline evaporator and condenser configuration, the driving cycle averaged electrical power outputs were approximately 320 W and 550 W for the type-approval Worldwide harmonized light vehicles test procedure Class 3 driving cycle and for a real-world highway driving cycle, respectively.

  6. High speed exhaust gas recirculation valve

    DOEpatents

    Fensom, Rod; Kidder, David J.

    2005-01-18

    In order to minimize pollutants such as Nox, internal combustion engines typically include an exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) valve that can be used to redirect a portion of exhaust gases to an intake conduit, such as an intake manifold, so that the redirected exhaust gases will be recycled. It is desirable to have an EGR valve with fast-acting capabilities, and it is also desirable to have the EGR valve take up as little space as possible. An exhaust gas recirculation valve is provided that includes an exhaust passage tube, a valve element pivotally mounted within the exhaust passage tube, a linear actuator; and a gear train. The gear train includes a rack gear operatively connected to the linear actuator, and at least one rotatable gear meshing with the rack gear and operatively connected to the valve element to cause rotation of the valve element upon actuation of the linear actuator. The apparatus provides a highly compact package having a high-speed valve actuation capability.

  7. Making aerospace technology work for the automotive industry - Introduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olson, W. T.

    1978-01-01

    In many cases it has been found that advances made in one technical field can contribute to other fields. An investigation is in this connection conducted concerning subjects from contemporary NASA programs and projects which might have relevance and potential usefulness to the automotive industry. Examples regarding aerospace developments which have been utilized by the automotive industry are related to electronic design, computer systems, quality control experience, a NASA combustion scanner and television display, exhaust gas analyzers, and a device for suppressing noise propagated through ducts. Projects undertaken by NASA's center for propulsion and power research are examined with respect to their value for the automotive industry. As a result of some of these projects, a gas turbine engine and a Stirling engine might each become a possible alternative to the conventional spark ignition engine.

  8. Conductometric soot sensor for automotive exhausts: initial studies.

    PubMed

    Hagen, Gunter; Feistkorn, Constanze; Wiegärtner, Sven; Heinrich, Andreas; Brüggemann, Dieter; Moos, Ralf

    2010-01-01

    In order to reduce the tailpipe particulate matter emissions of Diesel engines, Diesel particulate filters (DPFs) are commonly used. Initial studies using a conductometric soot sensor to monitor their filtering efficiency, i.e., to detect a malfunction of the DPF, are presented. The sensors consist of a planar substrate equipped with electrodes on one side and with a heater on the other. It is shown that at constant speed-load points, the time until soot percolation occurs or the resistance itself are reproducible means that can be well correlated with the filtering efficiency of a DPF. It is suggested to use such a sensor setup for the detection of a DPF malfunction. PMID:22294888

  9. Approaches to risk assessment of automotive engine exhausts.

    PubMed

    Törnqvist, M; Ehrenberg, L

    1990-01-01

    Contributions of alkenes to cancer risk from urban air pollution were estimated on the basis of radiation dose equivalent of target dose. The latter was inferred from the incremental carboxyhaemoglobin (COHb) level in urban areas, the ratio of epoxide-haemoglobin adducts to COHb levels in smokers and the alkenes/CO level ratios in cigarette smoke and urban air. This model predicts some 200 and 5 cancer cases annually in Sweden from ethene and propene, respectively. This indicates that the risk from alkenes is of the same order of magnitude as that from the particulate fraction of the pollution. PMID:1699889

  10. Magnesium for automotive applications

    SciTech Connect

    VanFleteren, R.

    1996-05-01

    Die cast magnesium parts are rapidly replacing steel and aluminum structural components in automotive applications, as design engineers seek to reduce assembly costs, raise fuel efficiency, and improve safety. Dozens of automotive components are now die cast from magnesium alloys, including seat stanchions, valve covers, steering wheels, and a variety of steering column components. Because of their excellent castability, complex magnesium die castings can sometimes consolidate several components and eliminate assembly steps. Highly ductile magnesium alloys such as AM60B (6% aluminum) and AM50A (5% aluminum) are important in helping to meet automotive industry crash-energy requirements for car seating and steering components. AZ91D (9% aluminum, 1% zinc) alloys are making removable rear seats in new minivans much easier to handle.

  11. LEDs in automotive lighting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eichhorn, Karsten

    2006-02-01

    Light emitting diodes (LED) are becoming more and more significant in interior and exterior automotive lighting. The long service life, energy and space savings, shock and vibration resistance and new styling potential are the main advantages of using LEDs in automotive applications. Today, most central high mounted stop lamps use LEDs. In rear combination lamps the number of LEDs in amber and red is increasing rapidly. This year, a first rear combination lamp using LEDs for all functionalities including the back-up lamp function was realized. In addition, first signal functions in headlamps using white High Power LEDs were launched onto the market. The long service life characteristic makes LEDs especially predestined for the DRL function combined with the position/parking light. Exterior automotive applications, including requirements and performance will be discussed and an outlook will be given on future scenarios.

  12. Greenhouse Gases

    MedlinePlus

    ... Greenhouse Gases Come From Outlook for Future Emissions Recycling and Energy Nonrenewable Sources Oil and Petroleum Products ... Power Wave Power Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Biomass Wood and Wood Waste Waste-to-Energy (MSW) Landfill ...

  13. AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE. PROGRAM OUTLINE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Human Engineering Inst., Cleveland, OH.

    INFORMATIONAL TOPICS COVERED IN THE TEXT MATERIALS AND SELF-INSTRUCTIONAL BRANCH PROGRAMED TRAINING FILMS FOR A 2-YEAR, 55 MODULE PROGRAM IN AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE ARE GIVEN. THE 30 MODULES FOR "AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE 1" ARE AVAILABLE AS VT 005 655 - VT 005 684, AND THE 25 MODULES FOR "AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE 2" ARE AVAILABLE…

  14. Standardized Curriculum for Automotive Mechanics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mississippi State Dept. of Education, Jackson. Office of Vocational, Technical and Adult Education.

    Standardized curricula are provided for two courses for the secondary vocational education program in Mississippi: automotive mechanics I and II. The six units in automotive mechanics I are as follows: orientation and safety; tools, equipment, and manuals; measurement; automotive engines; basic electrical systems; and fuel systems. Automotive…

  15. Effluent sampling of Scout D and Delta launch vehicle exhausts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hulten, W. C.; Storey, R. W.; Gregory, G. L.; Woods, D. C.; Harris, F. S., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    Characterization of engine-exhaust effluents (hydrogen chloride, aluminum oxide, carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide) has been attempted by conducting field experiments monitoring the exhaust cloud from a Scout-Algol III vehicle launch and a Delta-Thor vehicle launch. The exhaust cloud particulate size number distribution (total number of particles as a function of particle diameter), mass loading, morphology, and elemental composition have been determined within limitations. The gaseous species in the exhaust cloud have been identified. In addition to the ground-based measurements, instrumented aircraft flights through the low-altitude, stabilized-exhaust cloud provided measurements which identified CO and HCI gases and Al2O3 particles. Measurements of the initial exhaust cloud during formation and downwind at several distances have established sampling techniques which will be used for experimental verification of model predictions of effluent dispersion and fallout from exhaust clouds.

  16. Bringing Excellence to Automotive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Večeřa, Pavel; Paulová, Iveta

    2012-12-01

    Market situation and development in recent years shows, that organization's ability to meet customer requirements is not enough. Successful organizations are able to exceed the expectations of all stakeholders. They are building their excellence systematically. Our contribution basically how the excellence in automotive is created using EFQM Excellence Model in Total Quality Management.

  17. Automotive Pollution Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raudenbush, David B.

    Intended for a 1- or 2-month curriculum in auto mechanics, this student manual on automotive pollution control was developed by a subject matter specialist at an area vocational school and tested in a vocational auto shop. Intended either for use in an integrated curriculum or for use in teaching pollution control as a separate course, these 12…

  18. Automotive power steering system

    SciTech Connect

    VanGorder, D.H.; Wilson, K.R.

    1991-04-23

    This patent describes improvement in an automotive power steering system including a pump, a servo-valve, a steering assist fluid motor, a reservoir having a reservoir chamber therein, fluid ducts; a volume of hydraulic oil; a fluid level. The improvement comprises: means defining a fill port; a cover; means connect a gas accumulator.

  19. Personal Achievement Mathematics: Automotive.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baenziger, Betty

    Utilizing word problems relevant to automotive mechanics, this workbook presents a concept-oriented approach to competency development in 13 areas of basic mathematics: (1) the expression of numbers as figures and words; (2) the addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division of whole numbers, fractions, and decimals; (3) scientific notation;…

  20. Automotive energy management system

    SciTech Connect

    Shiber, S.

    1980-09-23

    A hydromechanical/hydrostatic automotive energy management system is described that is comprised of two hydraulic units, the system adapted to provide: an efficient, continuously variable optimal transmission ratio, an intermittent optimal engine operation in city traffic and regenerative braking, thereby, the system is able to reduce a car's fuel consumption by as much as one half while improving drivability.

  1. Automotive Power Trains.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marine Corps Inst., Washington, DC.

    This correspondence course, originally developed for the Marine Corps, is designed to provide mechanics with an understanding of the operation, maintenance, and troubleshooting of automotive power trains and certain auxiliary equipment. The course contains six study units covering basic power trains; clutch principles and operations; conventional…

  2. Automotive Technology Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Idaho State Dept. of Education, Boise. Div. of Vocational Education.

    This Idaho state curriculum guide provides lists of tasks, performance objectives, and enabling objectives for instruction in automotive technology. The document begins with a list of all tasks covered by the curriculum, a short course outline, and a curriculum framework that explains major content, laboratory activities, and intended outcomes.…

  3. Automotive Emission Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Billy D.; And Others

    This publication contains instructional materials for both teachers and students for a course in automotive emission control. Instructional materials in this publication are written in terms of student performance using measurable objectives. The course includes 16 units. Each instructional unit includes some or all of the basic components of a…

  4. Automotive Emission Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Billy D.; Ragazzi, Ronald

    This guide designed to assist teachers in improving instruction in the area of automotive emission control curriculum includes four areas. Each area consists of one or more units of instruction, with each instructional unit including some or all of the following basic components: Performance objectives, suggested activities for teacher and…

  5. Automotive Brake Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marine Corps Inst., Washington, DC.

    This correspondence course, orginally developed for the Marine Corps, is designed to provide mechanics with an understanding of the basic operations of automotive brake systems on military vehicles. The course contains four study units covering hydraulic brakes, air brakes, power brakes, and auxiliary brake systems. A troubleshooting guide for…

  6. 78 FR 58518 - Notification of Proposed Production Activity; Benteler Automotive Corporation (Automotive...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-24

    ... Foreign-Trade Zones Board Notification of Proposed Production Activity; Benteler Automotive Corporation (Automotive Suspension and Body Components); Duncan, South Carolina Benteler Automotive Corporation (Benteler... produce automotive suspension components and subassemblies using certain foreign-status components....

  7. Heat Exhaustion, First Aid

    MedlinePlus

    ... rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Heat Exhaustion, First Aid A A A Heat exhaustion signs and symptoms ... specific to the other stages of heat illness. First Aid Guide Use a combination of the following measures ...

  8. Integrating Phase-Change Materials into Automotive Thermoelectric Generators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klein Altstedde, Mirko; Rinderknecht, Frank; Friedrich, Horst

    2014-06-01

    Because the heat emitted by conventional combustion-engine vehicles during operation has highly transient properties, automotive thermoelectric generators (TEG) are intended for a particular operating state (design point). This, however, leads to two problems. First, whenever the combustion engine runs at low load, the maximum operating temperature cannot be properly utilised; second, a combustion engine at high load requires partial diversion of exhaust gas away from the TEG to protect the thermoelectric modules. An attractive means of stabilising dynamic exhaust behaviour (thereby keeping the TEG operating status at the design point for as long as possible) is use of latent heat storage, also known as phase-change materials (PCM). By positioning PCM between module and exhaust heat conduit, and choosing a material with a phase-change temperature matching the module's optimum operating temperature, it can be used as heat storage. This paper presents results obtained during examination of the effect of integration of latent heat storage on the potential of automotive TEG to convert exhaust heat. The research resulted in the development of a concept based on the initial integration idea, followed by proof of concept by use of a specially created prototype. In addition, the potential amount of energy obtained by use of a PCM-equipped TEG was calculated. The simulations indicated a significant increase in electrical energy was obtained in the selected test cycle.

  9. Determination of aldehydes and ketones with high atmospheric reactivity on diesel exhaust using a biofuel from animal fats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballesteros, R.; Monedero, E.; Guillén-Flores, J.

    2011-05-01

    Biodiesel from animal fats appears as an alternative for conventional diesel in automotive consumption. Animal fats are classified into three categories, although only one of them can be used for biodiesel production, according to regulation. Due to its novelty, researchers testing animal-fat biodiesel on diesel engines focus only on regulated emissions. In this paper, the experiments carried out analyze carbonyl compounds emissions, due to its highly atmospheric reactivity, to complete the characterization of the total emissions in this kind of biofuel. Two fuels, a reference petro-diesel and a pure animal-fat biodiesel, were tested in a 4-cylinder, direct injection, diesel engine Nissan Euro 5 M1D-Bk. Samples were collected in 4 different operating modes and 3 points along the exhaust line. The analyses of samples were made in a high performance liquid chromatography, following the method recommended by the CARB to analyze air quality. Results show, on the one hand, a significant rise in carbonyl emissions, almost three times at the mode with highest hydrocarbon emissions, when biodiesel is used. On the other hand, on average, a reduction of 90% of carbonyl emissions when exhaust gases go through the different post-treatment systems installed. Despite this reduction, specific reactivity does not decrease substantially.

  10. Recent advances in automotive catalysis for NOx emission control by small-pore microporous materials.

    PubMed

    Beale, A M; Gao, F; Lezcano-Gonzalez, I; Peden, C H F; Szanyi, J

    2015-10-21

    The ever increasing demand to develop highly fuel efficient engines coincides with the need to minimize air pollution originating from the exhaust gases of internal combustion engines. Dramatically improved fuel efficiency can be achieved at air-to-fuel ratios much higher than stoichiometric. In the presence of oxygen in large excess, however, traditional three-way catalysts are unable to reduce NOx. Among the number of lean-NOx reduction technologies, selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NOx by NH3 over Cu- and Fe-ion exchanged zeolite catalysts has been extensively studied over the past 30+ years. Despite the significant advances in developing a viable practical zeolite-based catalyst for lean NOx reduction, the insufficient hydrothermal stabilities of the zeolite structures considered cast doubts about their real-world applicability. During the past decade renewed interest in zeolite-based lean NOx reduction was spurred by the discovery of the very high activity of Cu-SSZ-13 (and the isostructural Cu-SAPO-34) in the NH3-SCR of NOx. These new, small-pore zeolite-based catalysts not only exhibited very high NOx conversion and N2 selectivity, but also exhibited exceptionally high hydrothermal stability at high temperatures. In this review we summarize the key discoveries of the past ∼5 years that led to the introduction of these catalysts into practical applications. This review first briefly discusses the structure and preparation of the CHA structure-based zeolite catalysts, and then summarizes the key learnings of the rather extensive (but not complete) characterisation work. Then we summarize the key findings of reaction kinetic studies, and provide some mechanistic details emerging from these investigations. At the end of the review we highlight some of the issues that still need to be addressed in automotive exhaust control catalysis. PMID:25913215

  11. 40 CFR 600.108-08 - Analytical gases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Analytical gases. 600.108-08 Section 600.108-08 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy and Carbon-Related Exhaust Emission Test Procedures § 600.108-08...

  12. A Method for Reducing the Temperature of Exhaust Manifolds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schey, Oscar W; Young, Alfred W

    1931-01-01

    This report describes tests conducted at the Langley Memorial Aeronautical Laboratory on an "air-inducting" exhaust manifold for aircraft engines. The exhaust gases from each cylinder port are discharged into the throat of an exhaust pipe which has a frontal bellmouth. Cooling air is drawn into the pipe, where it surrounds and mixes with the exhaust gases. Temperatures of the manifold shell and of the exhaust gases were obtained in flight for both a conventional manifold and the air-inducting manifold. The air-inducting manifold was installed on an engine which was placed on a test stand. Different fuels were sprayed on and into the manifold to determine whether the use of this manifold reduced the fire hazard. The flight tests showed reductions in manifold temperatures of several hundred degrees, to values below the ignition point of aviation gasoline. On the test stand when the engine was run at idling speeds fuels sprayed into the manifold ignited. It is believed that at low engine speeds the fuel remained in the manifold long enough to become thoroughly heated, and was then ignited by the exhaust gas which had not mixed with cooling air. The use of the air-inducting exhaust manifold must reduce the fire hazard by virtue of its lower operating temperature, but it is not a completely satisfactory solution of the problem.

  13. [Remote passive sensing of aeroengine exhausts using FTIR system].

    PubMed

    Xia, Qing; Zuo, Hong-Fu; Li, Shao-Cheng; Wen, Zhen-Hua; Li, Yao-Hua

    2009-03-01

    The traditional method of measuring the aeroengine exhausts is intrusive gas sampling analysis techniques. The disadvantages of the techniques include complex system, difficult operation, high costs and potential danger because of back-pressure effects. The non-intrusive methods have the potential to overcome these problems. So the remote FTIR passive sensing is applied to monitor aeroengine exhausts and determine the concentration of the exhausts gases of aeroengines. The principle of FTIR remote passive sensing is discussed. The model algorithm for the calibration of FTIR system, the radiance power distribution and gas concentration are introduced. TENSOR27 FTIR-system was used to measure the spectra of infrared radiation emitted by the hot gases of exhausts in a test rig. The emission spectra of exhausts were obtained under different thrusts. By analyzing the spectra, the concentrations of CO2, CO and NO concentration were calculated under 4 thrusts. Researches on the determination of concentration of the exhausts gases of aeroengines by using the remote FTIR sensing are still in early stage in the domestic aeronautics field. The results of the spectra and concentration in the aeroengine test are published for the first time. It is shown that the remote FTIR passive sensing techniques have a great future in monitoring the hot gas of the aeroengines exhausts. PMID:19455785

  14. Advanced automotive diesel engine system study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    A conceptual study of an advanced automotive diesel engine is discussed. The engine concept selected for vehicle installation was a supercharged 1.4 liter, 4 cylinder spark assisted diesel of 14:1 compression ratio. A compounding unit consisting of a Lysholm compressor and expander is connected to the engine crankshaft by a belt drive. The inlet air charge is heated by the expander exhaust gas via a heat exchanger. Four levels of technology achievement on the selected engine concept were evaluated, from state-of-the-art to the ideal case. This resulted in the fuel economy increasing from 53.2 mpg to 81.7 mpg, and the 0-60 mph time decreasing from 17.6 seconds to 10.9 seconds.

  15. Particle analysis of car exhaust by ETV-ICP-MS.

    PubMed

    Lüdke, C; Hoffmann, E; Skole, J; Artelt, S

    1996-06-01

    Particulates of platinum group elements (Pt, Rh, Pd, Ir) emitted in automotive catalyst exhaust were measured down to the pg/m(3) level. Samples were taken from a standard type three-way catalyst equipped gasoline engine, running on a computer controlled dynamometer. Particulates in catalyzed car exhaust were sampled fractionated according to size by using the cascade impactor with separate targets mounted underneath each nozzle. The targets, small flat discs made of pure graphite, were subsequently analyzed by ETV-ICP-MS without any preparatory steps. PMID:15045379

  16. Get Your Automotive Program Nationally Certified!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lundquist, Patricia A.

    2000-01-01

    Automotive programs that nationally certified enhance student recruitment and give students better employment opportunities. Technicians who earn the Automotive Service Excellence credential have joined the ranks of professionals in the automotive service industry. (Author/JOW)

  17. International forensic automotive paint database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bishea, Gregory A.; Buckle, Joe L.; Ryland, Scott G.

    1999-02-01

    The Technical Working Group for Materials Analysis (TWGMAT) is supporting an international forensic automotive paint database. The Federal Bureau of Investigation and the Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP) are collaborating on this effort through TWGMAT. This paper outlines the support and further development of the RCMP's Automotive Paint Database, `Paint Data Query'. This cooperative agreement augments and supports a current, validated, searchable, automotive paint database that is used to identify make(s), model(s), and year(s) of questioned paint samples in hit-and-run fatalities and other associated investigations involving automotive paint.

  18. Toxic gases.

    PubMed Central

    Matthews, G.

    1989-01-01

    An overview of the widespread use of gases and some volatile solvents in modern society is given. The usual circumstances in which undue exposure may occur are described. The most prominent symptoms and general principles of diagnosis and treatment are given and are followed by more specific information on the commoner, more toxic materials. While acute poisonings constitute the greater part of the paper, some indication of chronic disorders arising from repeated or prolonged exposure is also given. PMID:2687827

  19. Noble Gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podosek, F. A.

    2003-12-01

    The noble gases are the group of elements - helium, neon, argon, krypton, xenon - in the rightmost column of the periodic table of the elements, those which have "filled" outermost shells of electrons (two for helium, eight for the others). This configuration of electrons results in a neutral atom that has relatively low electron affinity and relatively high ionization energy. In consequence, in most natural circumstances these elements do not form chemical compounds, whence they are called "noble." Similarly, much more so than other elements in most circumstances, they partition strongly into a gas phase (as monatomic gas), so that they are called the "noble gases" (also, "inert gases"). (It should be noted, of course, that there is a sixth noble gas, radon, but all isotopes of radon are radioactive, with maximum half-life a few days, so that radon occurs in nature only because of recent production in the U-Th decay chains. The factors that govern the distribution of radon isotopes are thus quite different from those for the five gases cited. There are interesting stories about radon, but they are very different from those about the first five noble gases, and are thus outside the scope of this chapter.)In the nuclear fires in which the elements are forged, the creation and destruction of a given nuclear species depends on its nuclear properties, not on whether it will have a filled outermost shell when things cool off and nuclei begin to gather electrons. The numerology of nuclear physics is different from that of chemistry, so that in the cosmos at large there is nothing systematically special about the abundances of the noble gases as compared to other elements. We live in a very nonrepresentative part of the cosmos, however. As is discussed elsewhere in this volume, the outstanding generalization about the geo-/cosmochemistry of the terrestrial planets is that at some point thermodynamic conditions dictated phase separation of solids from gases, and that the

  20. Introduction to Automotive Service. Teacher Edition. Automotive Service Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This document provides instruction for high-priority competencies on task lists developed by the National Institute of Automotive Service Excellence. Contained in this teacher's guide are the materials necessary to teach 11 competency-based instructional units related to the automotive service industry. The following instructional units are…

  1. Automotive Engines; Automotive Mechanics I: 9043.03.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    This automotive engines course studies and demonstrates the theory and principles of operation of the automotive four stroke cycle engine. The student will develop an understanding of the systems necessary to make the engine perform as designed, such as cooling, fuel, ignition and lubrication. This is a one or two quinmester credit course of 45…

  2. Automotive Electricity: Automotive Mechanics Instructional Program. Block 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Brien, Ralph D.

    The third of six instructional blocks in automotive mechanics, the lessons and supportive information in the document provide a guide for teachers in planning an instructional program in automotive electricity at the secondary and post secondary level. The material, as organized, is a suggested sequence of instruction within each block. Each…

  3. Method for generating a highly reactive plasma for exhaust gas aftertreatment and enhanced catalyst reactivity

    DOEpatents

    Whealton, John H.; Hanson, Gregory R.; Storey, John M.; Raridon, Richard J.; Armfield, Jeffrey S.; Bigelow, Timothy S.; Graves, Ronald L.

    2002-01-01

    A method for non-thermal plasma aftertreatment of exhaust gases the method comprising the steps of providing short risetime, high frequency, high power bursts of low-duty factor microwaves sufficient to generate a plasma discharge and passing a gas to be treated through the discharge so as to cause dissociative reduction of the exhaust gases and enhanced catalyst reactivity through application of the pulsed microwave fields directly to the catalyst material sufficient to cause a polarizability catastrophe and enhanced heating of the metal crystallite particles of the catalyst, and in the presence or absence of the plasma. The invention also includes a reactor for aftertreatment of exhaust gases.

  4. Automotive Technology. Career Education Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dependents Schools (DOD), Washington, DC. European Area.

    The curriculum guide is designed to provide students with realistic training in automotive technology theory and practice within the secondary educational framework and to prepare them for entry into an occupation or continuing postsecondary education. The learning modules are grouped into three areas: small engines, automotive technology, and…

  5. Automotive Engine Maintenance and Repair.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marine Corps Inst., Washington, DC.

    This correspondence course, originally developed for the Marine Corps, is designed to provide students with an understanding of automotive engine maintenance and repair. The course contains six study units covering automotive engine maintenance and repair; design classification; engine malfunction, diagnosis, and repair; engine disassembly; engine…

  6. Removal of sulfur compounds from combustion product exhaust

    DOEpatents

    Cheng, Dah Y.

    1982-01-01

    A method and device are disclosed for removing sulfur containing contaminents from a combustion product exhaust. The removal process is carried out in two stages wherein the combustion product exhaust is dissolved in water, the water being then heated to drive off the sulfur containing contaminents. The sulfur containing gases are then resolublized in a cold water trap to form a concentrated solution which can then be used as a commercial product.

  7. The Automotive Ignition Coil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Darnell, T H

    1932-01-01

    This report gives the results of a series of measurements on the secondary voltage induced in an ignition coil of typical construction under a variety of operating conditions. These results show that the theoretical predictions hitherto made as to the behavior of this type of apparatus are in satisfactory agreement with the observed facts. The large mass of data obtained is here published both for the use of other investigators who may wish to compare them with other theoretical predictions and for the use of automotive engineers who will here find definite experimental results showing the effect of secondary capacity and resistance on the crest voltage produced by ignition apparatus.

  8. Exhaust gas purification device

    SciTech Connect

    Fujiwara, H.; Hibi, T.; Sayo, S.; Sugiura, Y.; Ueda, K.

    1980-02-19

    The exhaust gas purification device includes an exhaust manifold , a purification cylinder connected with the exhaust manifold through a first honey-comb shaped catalyst, and a second honeycomb shaped catalyst positioned at the rear portion of the purification cylinder. Each catalyst is supported by steel wool rings including coarse and dense portions of steel wool. The purification device further includes a secondary air supplying arrangement.

  9. Making aerospace technology work for the automotive industry, introduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olson, W. T.

    1978-01-01

    NASA derived technology already in use in the automotive industry include: (1) developments in electronics design, computer systems, and quality control methods for line testing of cars and trucks; (2) a combustion analysis computer program for automotive engine research and development; (3) an infrared scanner and television display for analyzing tire design and performance, and for studying the effects of heat on the service life of V-belts, shock mounts, brakes, and rubber bearings; (4) exhaust gas analyzers for trouble shooting and emissions certification; (5) a device for reducing noise from trucks; and (6) a low cost test vehicle for measuring highway skid resistance. Services offered by NASA to facilitate access to its technology are described.

  10. Suicidal carbon monoxide inhalation of exhaust fumes. Investigation of cases

    SciTech Connect

    Tsunenari, S.; Yonemitsu, K.; Kanda, M.; Yoshida, S.

    1985-09-01

    The inhalation of automobile exhaust gases is a relatively frequent suicidal method. Two such cases of special interest to forensic pathology and toxicology have been introduced. In case 1, a suicide note disclosed the victim's mental state, the inside conditions of the car, and toxic effects of automobile exhaust. In case 2, a reconstruction experiment has revealed important factors for the investigation of the scene, such as the size of a vinyl hose, the conditions of connecting site of the hose with the exhaust pipe, etc.

  11. Immune Exhaustion and Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Sanchez-Fueyo, A; Markmann, J F

    2016-07-01

    Exhaustion of lymphocyte function through chronic exposure to a high load of foreign antigen is well established for chronic viral infection and antitumor immunity and has been found to be associated with a distinct molecular program and characteristic cell surface phenotype. Although exhaustion has most commonly been studied in the context of CD8 viral responses, recent studies indicate that chronic antigen exposure may affect B cells, NK cells and CD4 T cells in a parallel manner. Limited information is available regarding the extent of lymphocyte exhaustion development in the transplant setting and its impact on anti-graft alloreactivity. By analogy to the persistence of a foreign virus, the large mass of alloantigen presented by an allograft in chronic residence could provide an ideal setting for exhausting donor-reactive T cells. The extent of T cell exhaustion occurring with various allografts, the kinetics of its development, whether exhaustion is influenced positively or negatively by different immunosuppressants, and the impact of exhaustion on graft survival and tolerance development remains a fertile area for investigation. Harnessing or encouraging the natural processes of exhaustion may provide a novel means to promote graft survival and transplantation tolerance. PMID:26729653

  12. Duplex tab exhaust nozzle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gutmark, Ephraim Jeff (Inventor); Martens, Steven (nmn) (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    An exhaust nozzle includes a conical duct terminating in an annular outlet. A row of vortex generating duplex tabs are mounted in the outlet. The tabs have compound radial and circumferential aft inclination inside the outlet for generating streamwise vortices for attenuating exhaust noise while reducing performance loss.

  13. Diesel engine exhaust oxidizer

    SciTech Connect

    Kammel, R.A.

    1992-06-16

    This patent describes a diesel engine exhaust oxidizing device. It comprises: an enclosure having an inlet for receiving diesel engine exhaust, a main flow path through the enclosure to an outlet of the enclosure, a by-ass through the enclosure, and a microprocessor control means.

  14. Exhaust purification apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Shinzawa, M.; Ushimura, S.

    1987-05-05

    An exhaust purification apparatus is described for use in an internal combustion engine having an exhaust conduit through which exhaust particles are discharged together with exhaust gas to the atmosphere. Included is an outer shell having an inlet connected to the exhaust conduit and an outlet connected to the atmosphere. The outer shell contains a trap element and a regenerative burner located upstream of the trap element, the regenerative burner comprising: a cylindrical hollow member fixed to the liner and extending within a combustion chamber to define an evaporation chamber, a glow plug for igniting the mixture supplied into the evaporated chamber when actuated; and a control unit responsive to a regeneration requirement for actuating the glow plug and supplying an air-fuel mixture into the evaporation chamber through the mixture conduit.

  15. Effect of timed secondary-air injection on automotive emissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coffin, K. P.

    1973-01-01

    A single cylinder of an automotive V-8 engine was fitted with an electronically timed system for the pulsed injection of secondary air. A straight-tube exhaust minimized any mixing other than that produced by secondary-air pulsing. The device was operated over a range of engine loads and speeds. Effects attributable to secondary-air pulsing were found, but emission levels were generally no better than using the engine's own injection system. Under nontypical fast-idle, no-load conditions, emission levels were reduced by roughly a factor of 2.

  16. Tank-automotive robotics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lane, Gerald R.

    1999-07-01

    To provide an overview of Tank-Automotive Robotics. The briefing will contain program overviews & inter-relationships and technology challenges of TARDEC managed unmanned and robotic ground vehicle programs. Specific emphasis will focus on technology developments/approaches to achieve semi- autonomous operation and inherent chassis mobility features. Programs to be discussed include: DemoIII Experimental Unmanned Vehicle (XUV), Tactical Mobile Robotics (TMR), Intelligent Mobility, Commanders Driver Testbed, Collision Avoidance, International Ground Robotics Competition (ICGRC). Specifically, the paper will discuss unique exterior/outdoor challenges facing the IGRC competing teams and the synergy created between the IGRC and ongoing DoD semi-autonomous Unmanned Ground Vehicle and DoT Intelligent Transportation System programs. Sensor and chassis approaches to meet the IGRC challenges and obstacles will be shown and discussed. Shortfalls in performance to meet the IGRC challenges will be identified.

  17. Method for generating a highly reactive plasma for exhaust gas aftertreatment and enhanced catalyst reactivity

    DOEpatents

    Whealton, John H.; Hanson, Gregory R.; Storey, John M.; Raridon, Richard J.; Armfield, Jeffrey S.; Bigelow, Timothy S.; Graves, Ronald L.

    2001-01-01

    A method for non-thermal plasma aftertreatment of exhaust gases the method comprising the steps of providing short risetime (about 40 ps), high frequency (about 5G hz), high power bursts of low-duty factor microwaves sufficient to generate a dielectric barrier discharge and passing a gas to treated through the discharge so as to cause dissociative reduction of the exhaust gases. The invention also includes a reactor for generating the non-thermal plasma.

  18. Handbook of infrared radiation from combustion gases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ludwig, C. B.; Malkmus, W.; Reardon, J. E.; Thomson, J. A. L.; Goulard, R. (Editor)

    1973-01-01

    The treatment of radiant emission and absorption by combustion gases are discussed. Typical applications include: (1) rocket combustion chambers and exhausts, (2) turbojet engines and exhausts, and (3) industrial furnaces. Some mention is made of radiant heat transfer problems in planetary atmospheres, in stellar atmospheres, and in reentry plasmas. Particular consideration is given to the temperature range from 500K to 3000K and the pressure range from 0.001 atmosphere to 30 atmospheres. Strong emphasis is given to the combustion products of hydrocarbon fuels with oxygen, specifically to carbon dioxide, water vapor, and carbon monoxide. In addition, species such as HF, HC1, CN, OH, and NO are treated.

  19. Exhaust gas afterburner

    SciTech Connect

    Hudson, S.J. Jr.

    1986-12-23

    This patent describes an exhaust gas afterburner device adapted for installation between an exhaust manifold and a corresponding portion of the engine block of an internal combustion engine. The device comprises: a spacer sandwiched between portions of two sheet metal members forming a gasket section of the device, the gasket section surrounding at least one exhaust gas port, a plenum section formed by remaining portions of the members, and wall sections defining passageways extending from the interior of the plenum section to the port and an air supply inlet on the plenum.

  20. Ceramic Automotive Stirling Engine Program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-08-01

    The Ceramic Automotive Stirling Engine Program evaluated the application of advanced ceramic materials to an automotive Stirling engine. The objective of the program was to evaluate the technical feasibility of utilizing advanced ceramics to increase peak engine operating temperature, and to evaluate the performance benefits of such an increase. Manufacturing cost estimates were also developed for various ceramic engine components and compared with conventional metallic engine component costs.

  1. Ceramic automotive Stirling engine program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    The Ceramic Automotive Stirling Engine Program evaluated the application of advanced ceramic materials to an automotive Stirling engine. The objective of the program was to evaluate the technical feasibility of utilizing advanced ceramics to increase peak engine operating temperature, and to evaluate the performance benefits of such an increase. Manufacturing cost estimates were also developed for various ceramic engine components and compared with conventional metallic engine component costs.

  2. PHYSIOLOGICAL, CELLULAR, AND BIOCHEMICAL EFFECTS OF DIESEL EXHAUST IN HEALTHY YOUNG ADULTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Diesel exhaust is a major source of pollution especially in urban areas. The contribution of the diesel exhaust particles and gases to increases in deaths, asthma symptoms, lung infections, and other health effects is unclear. This study will examine the lung, blood, heart, and o...

  3. ATP for the portable 500 CFM exhauster POR-005 skid C

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, C.M.

    1997-06-27

    This Acceptance Test Plan is for a 500 CFM Portable Exhauster POR-005 to be used for saltwell pumping. The Portable Exhauster System will be utilized to eliminate potential flammable gases that may exist within the dome space of the tank. This Acceptance Plan will test and verify that the exhauster meets the specified design criteria, safety requirements, operations requirements, and will provide a record of the functional test results.

  4. ATP for the portable 500 CFM exhauster POR-006 skid D

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, C.M.

    1997-07-29

    This Acceptance Test Plan is for a 500 CFM Portable Exhauster POR-006 to be used for saltwell pumping. The Portable Exhauster System will be utilized to eliminate potential flammable gases that may exist within the dome space of the tank. This Acceptance Plan will test and verify that the exhauster meets the specified design criteria, safety requirements, operations requirements, and will provide a record of the functional test results.

  5. ATP for the portable 500 CFM exhauster POR-004 skid B

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, C.M.

    1997-05-06

    This Acceptance Test Plan is for a 500 CFM Portable Exhauster POR-004 to be used for saltwell pumping. The Portable Exhauster System will be utilized to eliminate potential flammable gases that may exist within the dome space of the tank. This Acceptance Plan will test and verify that the exhauster meets the specified design criteria, safety requirements, operations requirements, and will provide a record of the functional test results.

  6. Atmospheric scavenging exhaust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fenton, D. L.; Purcell, R. Y.

    1977-01-01

    Solid propellant rocket exhaust was directly utilized to ascertain raindrop scavenging rates for hydrogen chloride. The airborne HCl concentration varied from 0.2 to 10.0 ppm and the raindrop sizes tested included 0.55 mm, 1.1 mm, and 3.0 mm. Two chambers were used to conduct the experiments. A large, rigid walled, spherical chamber stored the exhaust constituents while the smaller chamber housing all the experiments was charged as required with rocket exhaust HCl. Surface uptake experiments demonstrated an HCl concentration dependence for distilled water. Sea water and brackish water HCl uptake was below the detection limit of the chlorine-ion analysis technique employed. Plant life HCl uptake experiments were limited to corn and soybeans. Plant age effectively correlated the HCl uptake data. Metallic corrosion was not significant for single 20 minute exposures to the exhaust HCl under varying relative humidity.

  7. Diesel engine exhaust trap particulate distribution and incineration balancing system

    SciTech Connect

    Mann, G. S.; Parker, W. J.; Tendulkar, D. V.

    1981-09-22

    A diesel particulate trapping and incineration system is disclosed that includes a porous wall monolithic ceramic filter element having dual openended inlet passages separated from adjacent exhaust passages by particulate filtering porous walls. A balancing system for the distribution and incineration of particulates is provided including dual inlet ducts feeding exhaust gases to both ends of the inlet passages and valve means for controlling the amount of inlet gas flow entering the open opposite ends of the inlet ducts. In this way control is obtained of distribution of particulates over the length of the inlet duct walls as well as of the incineration of particulates upon heating of the exhaust gases to incineration temperature.

  8. Propagation of light through ship exhaust plumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Iersel, M.; Mack, A.; van Eijk, A. M. J.; Schleijpen, H. M. A.

    2014-10-01

    Looking through the atmosphere, it is sometimes difficult to see the details of an object. Effects like scintillation and blur are the cause of these difficulties. Exhaust plumes of e.g. a ship can cause extreme scintillation and blur, making it even harder to see the details of what lies behind the plume. Exhaust plumes come in different shapes, sizes, and opaqueness and depending on atmospheric parameters like wind speed and direction, as well as engine settings (power, gas or diesel, etc.). A CFD model is used to determine the plume's flow field outside the stack on the basis of exhaust flow properties, the interaction with the superstructure of the ship, the meteorological conditions and the interaction of ship's motion and atmospheric wind fields. A modified version of the NIRATAM code performs the gas radiation calculations and provides the radiant intensity of the (hot) exhaust gases and the transmission of the atmosphere around the plume is modeled with MODTRAN. This allows assessing the irradiance of a sensor positioned at some distance from the ship and its plume, as function of the conditions that influence the spatial distribution and thermal properties of the plume. Furthermore, an assessment can be made of the probability of detecting objects behind the plume. This plume module will be incorporated in the TNO EOSTAR-model, which provides estimates of detection range and image quality of EO-sensors under varying meteorological conditions.

  9. Lethal methemoglobinemia and automobile exhaust inhalation.

    PubMed

    Vevelstad, Merete; Morild, Inge

    2009-05-30

    Inhalation of automobile exhaust gas often leads to death by CO intoxication. In some cases the measured carbon monoxide hemoglobin saturation level (COHb) is considerably below what is considered to be lethal. The death in such cases has been attributed to a combination of a high CO2 and a low O2 tension. In a recent case the deceased was found dead in a car equipped with a catalytic converter, with a hose leading exhaust from the engine to the interior of the car. Analysis revealed a moderately elevated COHb and a high methemoglobin saturation level (MetHb) in peripheral blood. No ethanol, narcotics or drugs were detected. Reports mentioning MetHb or methemoglobinemia in post-mortem cases are surprisingly scarce, and very few have related exhaust gas deaths to methemoglobinemia. High-degree methemoglobinemia causes serious tissue hypoxia leading to unconsciousness, arrhythmia and death. The existing literature in this field and the knowledge that exhaust fumes contain nitrogen oxide gases (NOx) that by inhalation and absorption can result in severe methemoglobinemia, led us to postulate that this death could possibly be attributed to a combination of methemoglobinemia and a moderately high COHb concentration. PMID:19261402

  10. Interrelation of exhaust-gas constituents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gerrish, Harold C; Voss, Fred

    1938-01-01

    This report presents the results of an investigation conducted to determine the interrelation of the constituents of the exhaust gases of internal-combustion engines and the effect of engine performance on these relations. Six single-cylinder, liquid-cooled tests engines and one 9-cylinder radial air-cooled engine were tested. Various types of combustion chambers were used and the engines were operated at compression ratios from 5.1 to 7.0 using spark ignition and from 13.5 to 15.6 using compression ignition. The investigation covered a range of engine speeds from 1,500 to 2,100 r.p.m. The fuels used were two grades of aviation gasoline, auto diesel fuel, and laboratory diesel fuel. Power, friction, and fuel-consumption data were obtained from the single-cylinder engines at the same time that the exhaust-gas samples were collected.

  11. Automotive sulfate emission data.

    PubMed Central

    Somers, J H

    1975-01-01

    This paper discusses automotive sulfate emission results obtained by the Office of Mobile Source Air Pollution Control of EPA, General Motors, Ford, Chrysler, and Esso. This work has been directed towards obtaining sulfate emission factors for cars with and without catalyst. While the EPA and Chrysler investigations have found significant sulfate formation in noncatalyst cars, GM, Ford, and Esso have found only trace levels from noncatalyst cars. All of these investigators agree that much higher quantities of sulfate are emitted from catalyst cars. The work done to date shows pelleted catalysts to have much lower sulfate emissions over the low speed-EPA Federal Test Procedures than monolith catalysts. This is probably due to temporary storage of sulfates on the catalyst due to chemical interaction with the alumina pellets. The sulfate compounds are, to a large degree, emitted later under higher speed conditions which result in higher catalyst temperatures which decompose the alumina salt. Future work will be directed towards further elucidation of this storage mechanism as well as determining in detail how factors such as air injection rate and catalyst location affect sulfate emissions. PMID:50932

  12. Chemical hydrogen storage material property guidelines for automotive applications

    SciTech Connect

    Semelsberger, Troy; Brooks, Kriston P.

    2015-04-01

    Chemical hydrogen storage is the sought after hydrogen storage media for automotive applications because of the expected low pressure operation (<20 atm), moderate temperature operation (<200 C), system gravimetric capacities (>0.05 kg H2/kg system), and system volumetric capacities (>0.05 kg H2/L system). Currently, the primary shortcomings of chemical hydrogen storage are regeneration efficiency, fuel cost and fuel phase (i.e., solid or slurry phase). Understanding the required material properties to meet the DOE Technical Targets for Onboard Hydrogen Storage Systems is a critical knowledge gap in the hydrogen storage research community. This study presents a set of fluid-phase chemical hydrogen storage material property guidelines for automotive applications meeting the 2017 DOE technical targets. Viable material properties were determined using a boiler-plate automotive system design. The fluid phase chemical hydrogen storage media considered in this study were neat liquids, solutions, and non-settling homogeneous slurries. Material properties examined include kinetics, heats of reaction, fuel-cell impurities, gravimetric and volumetric hydrogen storage capacities, and regeneration efficiency. The material properties, although not exhaustive, are an essential first step in identifying viable chemical hydrogen storage material propertiesdand most important, their implications on system mass, system volume and system performance.

  13. Chemical hydrogen storage material property guidelines for automotive applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semelsberger, Troy A.; Brooks, Kriston P.

    2015-04-01

    Chemical hydrogen storage is the sought after hydrogen storage media for automotive applications because of the expected low pressure operation (<20 atm), moderate temperature operation (<200 °C), system gravimetric capacities (>0.05 kg H2/kgsystem), and system volumetric capacities (>0.05 kg H2/Lsystem). Currently, the primary shortcomings of chemical hydrogen storage are regeneration efficiency, fuel cost and fuel phase (i.e., solid or slurry phase). Understanding the required material properties to meet the DOE Technical Targets for Onboard Hydrogen Storage Systems is a critical knowledge gap in the hydrogen storage research community. This study presents a set of fluid-phase chemical hydrogen storage material property guidelines for automotive applications meeting the 2017 DOE technical targets. Viable material properties were determined using a boiler-plate automotive system design. The fluid-phase chemical hydrogen storage media considered in this study were neat liquids, solutions, and non-settling homogeneous slurries. Material properties examined include kinetics, heats of reaction, fuel-cell impurities, gravimetric and volumetric hydrogen storage capacities, and regeneration efficiency. The material properties, although not exhaustive, are an essential first step in identifying viable chemical hydrogen storage material properties-and most important, their implications on system mass, system volume and system performance.

  14. Measurement of Automotive Catalyst Washcoat Loading Parameters by Microscopy Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plummer, H. K.; J., R., Jr.; Baird, R. H.; Hammerle, A. A.; Adamczyk, J. D.

    1999-07-01

    : Washcoat loading on automotive exhaust catalysts is normally determined, in production, by a weight gain procedure, which gives an accurate measure of washcoat weight present on an individual catalyst but does not address such parameters as uniformity of washcoat loading and geometric surface area within the monolith. Both issues are important factors that affect the catalytic activity (especially during catalyst lightoff) and catalyst cost (due to a thick, less functional washcoat) in an automotive exhaust system. Washcoat loading also plays a role in post-use analysis to determine possible reasons for changes (i.e., loss) in catalytic activity. For the post-use examinations weighing techniques are not useful since the washcoat cannot be preferentially removed and part of the weight gain is due to contamination from the combustion process. In the present work a combination of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) X-ray mapping, light microscopy, and digital image processing was used. Two methods have been demonstrated for the determination of the density of calcined alumina washcoats. Additionally, a method has been developed to determine catalyst washcoat loading, either on a sampling basis after manufacture or in studies of catalysts after use. Methods also have been developed to determine other important parameters such as monolith wall thickness, percent open area in a catalyst monolith, geometric surface area, and hydraulic diameter. A linear correlation has been shown between hydrocarbon conversion efficiency and measured geometric surface area, with a coefficient of determination (R2) of 0.84.

  15. Measurement of Automotive Catalyst Washcoat Loading Parameters by Microscopy Techniques.

    PubMed

    Plummer; Baird; Hammerle; Adamczyk; Pakko

    1999-07-01

    : Washcoat loading on automotive exhaust catalysts is normally determined, in production, by a weight gain procedure, which gives an accurate measure of washcoat weight present on an individual catalyst but does not address such parameters as uniformity of washcoat loading and geometric surface area within the monolith. Both issues are important factors that affect the catalytic activity (especially during catalyst lightoff) and catalyst cost (due to a thick, less functional washcoat) in an automotive exhaust system. Washcoat loading also plays a role in post-use analysis to determine possible reasons for changes (i.e., loss) in catalytic activity. For the post-use examinations weighing techniques are not useful since the washcoat cannot be preferentially removed and part of the weight gain is due to contamination from the combustion process. In the present work a combination of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) X-ray mapping, light microscopy, and digital image processing was used. Two methods have been demonstrated for the determination of the density of calcined alumina washcoats. Additionally, a method has been developed to determine catalyst washcoat loading, either on a sampling basis after manufacture or in studies of catalysts after use. Methods also have been developed to determine other important parameters such as monolith wall thickness, percent open area in a catalyst monolith, geometric surface area, and hydraulic diameter. A linear correlation has been shown between hydrocarbon conversion efficiency and measured geometric surface area, with a coefficient of determination (r(2)) of 0.84. PMID:10421811

  16. Automotive Sensors and MEMS Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nonomura, Yutaka

    - Automotive sensors are used for emission gas purification, energy conservation, car kinematic performance, safety and ITS (intelligent transportation system). The comparison of the sensor characteristics was made for their application area. Many kinds of the principles are applied for the sensors. There are two types of sensors, such as physical and chemical one. Many of the automotive sensors are physical type such as mechanical sensors. And a gas sensor is a chemical type. The sensors have been remarkably developed with the advancement of the MEMS (Micro Electro Mechanical Systems) technology. In this paper, gas, pressure, combustion pressure, acceleration, magnetic, and angular rate sensors for automotive use are explained with their features. The sensors are key devices to control cars in the engine, power train, chassis and safety systems. The environment resistance, long term reliability, and low cost are required for the automotive sensors. They are very hard to be resolved. However, the sensor technology contributes greatly to improving global environment, energy conservation, and safety. The applications of automotive sensors will be expanded with the automobile developments.

  17. Laser technology in automotive lighting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altingöz, Ceren

    2014-03-01

    The last few years have seen something of a revolution in automotive lighting facilitated by a range of new photonics advances. The lighting industry as a whole is moving rapidly from the incandescent and gas discharge based technologies that dominated the 20th century to solid state technology in the form of Light Emitting Diodes (LED) which are a point source light, Organic Light Emitting Diodes (OLED) which are an area source light and at the edge the increasing use of lasers with different functional applications. In this paper I will focus on this edge technology of lasers as they are still trying to find their right place in automotive lighting. To better analyze their potential, the working principle of a laser will be explained, laser types used in automotive lighting, their application methods, advantages and disadvantages of their usage will be declared, application examples from the current trials of some leading automotive industry research groups will be given and finalization will be with an overall view of the possible future laser applications in the field of automotive lighting.

  18. An automotive transmission for automotive gas turbine power plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polak, J. C.

    1980-01-01

    A joint government-industry program was initiated to investigate the two-shaft gas turbine concept as an alternative to present-day automotive powerplants. Both were examined, compared and evaluated on the basis of the federal automotive driving cycle in terms of specific fuel/power/speed characteristics of the engine and the efficiency and performance of the transmission. The results showed that an optimum match of vehicle, gas turbine engine, and conventional automatic transmission is capable of a significant improvement in fuel economy. This system offers many advantages that should lead to its wide acceptance in future vehicles.

  19. The exhausted horse syndrome.

    PubMed

    Foreman, J H

    1998-04-01

    Exhaustion occurs in most equestrian sports, but it is more frequent in events that require sustained endurance work such as endurance racing, three-day eventing, trial riding, and hunting. Exhaustion is also more likely when an unfit, unacclimatized, or unsound horse is exercised. Mechanisms that contribute to exhaustion include heat retention, fluid and electrolyte loss, acid-base imbalance, and intramuscular glycogen depletion. Clinical signs include elevated temperature, pulse, and respiratory rate; depression; anorexia; unwillingness to continue to exercise; dehydration; weakness; stiffness; hypovolemic shock; exertional myopathy; synchronous diaphragmatic flutter; atrial fibrillation; diarrhea; colic; and laminitis. Treatment includes stopping exercise; rapid cooling; rapid large volume intravenous or oral fluid administration; and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug administration. PMID:9561696

  20. Action Handbook for Automotive Service Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Motor Vehicle Manufacturers Association of the U.S., Inc., Detroit, MI.

    The document is a handbook for a vocational automotive service education program which was formulated as a result of a four-day series of intensive workshops called the National Automotive Service Vocational Education Conference. The handbook discusses the major components of an automotive service vocational education program and aspects of their…

  1. Hyperventilation and exhaustion syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ristiniemi, Heli; Perski, Aleksander; Lyskov, Eugene; Emtner, Margareta

    2014-12-01

    Chronic stress is among the most common diagnoses in Sweden, most commonly in the form of exhaustion syndrome (ICD-10 classification - F43.8). The majority of patients with this syndrome also have disturbed breathing (hyperventilation). The aim of this study was to investigate the association between hyperventilation and exhaustion syndrome. Thirty patients with exhaustion syndrome and 14 healthy subjects were evaluated with the Nijmegen Symptom Questionnaire (NQ). The participants completed questionnaires about exhaustion, mental state, sleep disturbance, pain and quality of life. The evaluation was repeated 4 weeks later, after half of the patients and healthy subjects had engaged in a therapy method called 'Grounding', a physical exercise inspired by African dance. The patients reported significantly higher levels of hyperventilation as compared to the healthy subjects. All patients' average score on NQ was 26.57 ± 10.98, while that of the healthy subjects was 15.14 ± 7.89 (t = -3.48, df = 42, p < 0.001). The NQ scores correlated strongly with two measures of exhaustion (Karolinska Exhaustion Scale KES r = 0.772, p < 0.01; Shirom Melamed Burnout Measure SMBM r = 0.565, p < 0.01), mental status [Hospital Anxiety and Depression Score (HADS) depression r = 0.414, p < 0.01; HADS anxiety r = 0.627, p < 0.01], sleep disturbances (r = -0.514, p < 0.01), pain (r = -.370, p < 0.05) and poor well-being (Medical Outcomes Survey Short Form 36 questionnaire- SR Health r = -0.529, p < 0.05). In the logistic regression analysis, the variance in the scores from NQ were explained to a high degree (R(2) = 0.752) by scores in KES and HADS. The brief Grounding training contributed to a near significant reduction in hyperventilation (F = 2.521, p < 0.124) and to significant reductions in exhaustion scores and scores of depression and anxiety. The conclusion is that hyperventilation is common in exhaustion syndrome patients and that it can be reduced by systematic physical therapy

  2. Recent advances in automotive catalysis for NOx emission control by small-pore microporous materials

    SciTech Connect

    Beale, Andrew M.; Gao, Feng; Lezcano-Gonzalez, Ines; Peden, Charles HF; Szanyi, Janos

    2015-10-05

    The ever increasing demand to develop highly fuel efficient engines coincides with the need to minimize air pollution originating from the exhaust gases of internal combustion engines. Dramatically improved fuel efficiency can be achieved at air-to-fuel ratios much higher than stoichiometric. In the presence of oxygen in large excess, however, traditional three-way catalysts are unable to reduce NOx. Among the number of lean-NOx reduction technologies, selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NOx by NH3 over Cu- and Fe-ion exchanged zeolite catalysts has been extensively studied over the past 30+ years. Despite the significant advances in developing a viable practical zeolite-based catalyst for lean NOx reduction, the insufficient hydrothermal stabilities of the zeolite structures considered cast doubts about their real-world applicability. During the past decade a renewed interest in zeolite-based lean NOx reduction was spurred by the discovery of the very high activity of Cu-SSZ-13 (and the isostructural Cu-SAPO-34) in the NH3 SCR of NOx. These new, small-pore zeolite-based catalysts not only exhibited very high NOx conversion and N2 selectivity, but also exhibited exceptional high hydrothermal stability at high temperatures. In this review we summarize the key discoveries of the past ~5 years that lead to the introduction of these catalysts into practical application. The review first briefly discusses the structure and preparation of the CHA structure-based zeolite catalysts, and then summarizes the key learnings of the rather extensive (but not complete) characterisation work. Then we summarize the key findings of reaction kinetics studies, and provide some mechanistic details emerging from these investigations. At the end of the review we highlight some of the issues that are still need to be addressed in automotive exhaust control catalysis. Funding A.M.B. and I.L.G. would like to thank EPSRC for funding. F.G., C.H.F.P. and J.Sz. gratefully acknowledge

  3. Greenhouse gases: What is their role in climate change

    SciTech Connect

    Edmonds, J.A.; Chandler, W.U. ); Wuebbles, D. )

    1990-12-01

    This paper summarizes information relevant to understanding the role of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. It examines the nature of the greenhouse effect, the Earth's radiation budget, the concentrations of these gases in the atmosphere, how these concentrations have been changing, natural processes which regulate these concentrations of greenhouse gases, residence times of these gases in the atmosphere, and the rate of release of gases affecting atmospheric composition by human activities. We address the issue of the greenhouse effect itself in the first section. In the second section we examine trends in atmospheric concentration of greenhouse gases and emissions sources. In the third section, we examine the natural carbon cycle and its role in determining the atmospheric residence time of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}). In the fourth section, we examine the role atmospheric chemistry plays in the determining the concentrations of greenhouse gases. This paper is not intended to be an exhaustive treatment of these issues. Exhaustive treatments can be found in other volumes, many of which are cited throughout this paper. Rather, this paper is intended to summarize some of the major findings, unknowns, and uncertainties associated with the current state of knowledge regarding the role of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. 57 refs., 11 figs., 11 tabs.

  4. Exhaust bypass flow control for exhaust heat recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Reynolds, Michael G.

    2015-09-22

    An exhaust system for an engine comprises an exhaust heat recovery apparatus configured to receive exhaust gas from the engine and comprises a first flow passage in fluid communication with the exhaust gas and a second flow passage in fluid communication with the exhaust gas. A heat exchanger/energy recovery unit is disposed in the second flow passage and has a working fluid circulating therethrough for exchange of heat from the exhaust gas to the working fluid. A control valve is disposed downstream of the first and the second flow passages in a low temperature region of the exhaust heat recovery apparatus to direct exhaust gas through the first flow passage or the second flow passage.

  5. Hybrid Exhaust Component

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pelletier, Gerard D. (Inventor); Logan, Charles P. (Inventor); McEnerney, Bryan William (Inventor); Haynes, Jeffrey D. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    An exhaust includes a wall that has a first composite material having a first coefficient of thermal expansion and a second composite material having a second coefficient of the thermal expansion that is less than the first coefficient of thermal expansion.

  6. Diesel engine exhaust

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Diesel engine exhaust ; CASRN N.A . Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Ef

  7. Investigation of NO(x) Removal from Small Engine Exhaust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Akyurtlu, Ates; Akyurtlu, Jale F.

    1999-01-01

    Contribution of emissions from small engines to the air pollution is significant. Due to differences in operating conditions and economics, the pollution control systems designed for automobiles will be neither suitable nor economically feasible for use on small engines. The objective of this project was to find a catalyst for the removal of NOx from the exhaust of small engines which use a rich air to fuel ratio. The desired catalyst should be inexpensive so that the cost of the pollution control unit will be only a small fraction of the total equipment cost. The high cost of noble metals makes them too expensive for use as NOx catalyst for small engines. Catalytic reduction of NO can also be accomplished by base-metal oxide catalysts. The main disadvantage of base-metal catalysts is their deactivation by poisons and high temperatures. Requirements for the length of the life of the small engine exhaust catalysts are much less than those for automobile exhaust catalysts. Since there is no oxygen in the exhaust gases, reduction selectivity is not a problem. Also, the reducing exhaust gases might help prevent the harmful interactions of the catalyst with the support. For these reasons only the supported metal oxide catalysts were investigated in this project.

  8. Investigation of NOx Removal from Small Engine Exhaust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Akyurtlu, Ates; Akyurtlu, Jale F.

    1999-01-01

    Contribution of emissions from small engines to the air pollution is significant. Due to differences in operating conditions and economics, the pollution control systems designed for automobiles will be neither suitable nor economically feasible for use on small engines. The objective of this project was to find a catalyst for the removal of NOx from the exhaust of small engines which use a rich air to fuel ratio. The desired catalyst should be inexpensive so that the cost of the pollution control unit will be only a small fraction of the total equipment cost. The high cost of noble metals makes them too expensive for use as NOx catalyst for small engines. Catalytic reduction of Nitrogen Oxide (NO) can also be accomplished by base-metal oxide catalysts. The main disadvantage of base-metal catalysts is their deactivation by poisons and high temperatures. Requirements for the length of the life of the small engine exhaust catalysts are much less than those for automobile exhaust catalysts. Since there is no oxygen in the exhaust gases, reduction selectivity is not a problem. Also, the reducing exhaust gases might help prevent the harmful interactions of the catalyst with the support. For these reasons only the supported metal oxide catalysts were investigated in this project.

  9. Automotive gas turbine fuel control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gold, H. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    A fuel control system is reported for automotive-type gas turbines and particulary advanced gas turbines utilizing variable geometry components to improve mileage and reduce pollution emission. The fuel control system compensates for fuel density variations, inlet temperature variations, turbine vane actuation, acceleration, and turbine braking. These parameters are utilized to control various orifices, spool valves and pistons.

  10. Automotive Mechanics. Student Learning Guides.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ridge Vocational-Technical Center, Winter Haven, FL.

    These 33 learning guides are self-instructional packets for 33 tasks identified as essential for performance on an entry-level job in automotive mechanics. Each guide is based on a terminal performance objective (task) and 1-9 enabling objectives. For each enabliing objective, some or all of these materials may be presented: learning steps…

  11. Automotive Technologies. State Competency Profile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio Board of Regents, Columbus.

    This document, which lists the technical automotive technologies competencies identified by representatives from business, industry, and labor as well as technical educators throughout Ohio, is intended to assist individuals and organizations in developing college tech prep programs that will prepare students from secondary through post-secondary…

  12. Innovative Technology in Automotive Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, John

    2007-01-01

    Automotive Technology combines hands-on training along with a fully integrated, interactive, computerized multistationed facility. Our program is a competency based, true open-entry/open-exit program that utilizes flexible self-paced course outlines. It is designed around an industry partnership that promotes community and economic development,…

  13. Automotive Cooling and Lubricating Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marine Corps Inst., Washington, DC.

    This correspondence course, originally developed for the Marine Corps, is designed to provide new mechanics with a source of study materials to assist them in becoming more proficient in their jobs. The course contains four study units covering automotive cooling system maintenance, cooling system repair, lubricating systems, and lubrication…

  14. Automotive Electronics. Teacher Edition (Revised).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mackert, Howard C.; Heiserman, Russell L.

    This learning module addresses computers and their applications in contemporary automobiles. The text provides students with information on automotive microcomputers and hands-on activities that will help them see how semiconductors and digital logic devices fit into the modern repair facility. The module contains nine instructional units that…

  15. Automotive Stirling Engine Development Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, M. (Editor)

    1980-01-01

    Progress is reported in the following: the Stirling reference engine system design; components and subsystems; F-40 baseline Stirling engine installation and test; the first automotive engine to be built on the program; computer development activities; and technical assistance to the Government. The overall program philosophy is outlined, and data and results are given.

  16. Readings in the Automotive Trade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiGise, Joe

    Designed for reluctant readers in vocational high school, this selection of readings emphasizes general information about the automotive trade. Articles have been selected from a variety of auto magazines and trade journals. Each article is followed by an assortment of exercises designed to enable the student to further develop vocabulary and…

  17. Automotive Technology. Technical Committee Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Idaho State Dept. of Education, Boise. Div. of Vocational Education.

    This Technical Committee Report prepared by industry representatives in Idaho lists the skills currently necessary for an employee in that state to obtain a job in automotive technology, retain a job once hired, and advance in that occupational field. (Task lists are grouped according to duty areas generally used in industry settings, and are used…

  18. An investigation into the passive acoustic effect of the turbine in an automotive turbocharger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peat, K. S.; Torregrosa, A. J.; Broatch, A.; Fernández, T.

    2006-08-01

    The turbine of an automotive turbocharger is one of many elements in the exhaust line which lie between the primary noise source, namely the gas pulsations through the exhaust valves, and the primary noise radiation element, the exhaust tailpipe orifice. Like every other element of the exhaust system, it has a passive acoustic effect on the propagation of the primary exhaust noise. Thus knowledge of the passive acoustic effect of the turbine is essential to an understanding of the overall acoustic effectiveness of an exhaust system. In particular, if a comprehensive model of the acoustic propagation through the entire exhaust system of a turbocharged engine is sought, an acoustic model of the turbine is a prerequisite. This paper presents such a model as well as an experimental technique from which measured data can be obtained to verify the model and to characterise the acoustic behaviour of the turbine in a more general sense. In the first instance, the one-dimensional nonlinear equations of the fluid flow are solved for steady flow, to determine the background conditions for acoustic propagation including the mean convective flow distribution. The nonlinear time-domain flow equations are then linearised and solved for a single frequency of sound. At low frequencies, there is good agreement between measured and predicted results. System resonances that are observed at high frequencies can also be explained by the model.

  19. Carbon footprint of automotive ignition coil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Huey-Ling; Chen, Chih-Ming; Sun, Chin-Huang; Lin, Hung-Di

    2015-07-01

    In recent years, environmental issues, such as climate change and global warming due to the excessive development of industry, have attracted increasing attention of citizens worldwide. It is known that CO2 accounts for the largest proportion of greenhouse gases. Therefore, how to reduce CO2 emissions during the life cycle of a product to lessen its impact on environment is an important topic in the industrial society. Furthermore, it is also of great significance to cut down the required energy so as to lower its production costs during the manufacturing process nowadays. This study presents the carbon footprint of an automotive ignition coil and its partial materials are defined to explore their carbon emissions and environmental impact. The model IPCC GWP100a calculates potential global greenhouse effect by converting them into CO2 equivalents. In this way, the overall carbon footprint of an ignition coil can be explored. By using IPCC GWP100a, the results display that the shell has the most carbon emissions. The results can help the industry reduce the carbon emissions of an ignition coil product.

  20. Payload dose rate from direct beam radiation and exhaust gas fission products. [for nuclear engine for rocket vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Capo, M. A.; Mickle, R.

    1975-01-01

    A study was made to determine the dose rate at the payload position in the NERVA System (1) due to direct beam radiation and (2) due to the possible effect of fission products contained in the exhaust gases for various amounts of hydrogen propellant in the tank. Results indicate that the gamma radiation is more significant than the neutron flux. Under different assumptions the gamma contribution from the exhaust gases was 10 to 25 percent of total gamma flux.

  1. Material and system for catalytic reduction of nitrogen oxide in an exhaust stream of a combustion process

    DOEpatents

    Gardner, Timothy J.; Lott, Stephen E.; Lockwood, Steven J.; McLaughlin, Linda I.

    1998-01-01

    A catalytic material of activated hydrous metal oxide doped with platinum, palladium, or a combination of these, and optionally containing an alkali or alkaline earth metal, that is effective for NO.sub.X reduction in an oxidizing exhaust stream from a combustion process is disclosed. A device for reduction of nitrogen oxides in an exhaust stream, particularly an automotive exhaust stream, the device having a substrate coated with the activated noble-metal doped hydrous metal oxide of the invention is also provided.

  2. Partially integrated exhaust manifold

    DOEpatents

    Hayman, Alan W; Baker, Rodney E

    2015-01-20

    A partially integrated manifold assembly is disclosed which improves performance, reduces cost and provides efficient packaging of engine components. The partially integrated manifold assembly includes a first leg extending from a first port and terminating at a mounting flange for an exhaust gas control valve. Multiple additional legs (depending on the total number of cylinders) are integrally formed with the cylinder head assembly and extend from the ports of the associated cylinder and terminate at an exit port flange. These additional legs are longer than the first leg such that the exit port flange is spaced apart from the mounting flange. This configuration provides increased packaging space adjacent the first leg for any valving that may be required to control the direction and destination of exhaust flow in recirculation to an EGR valve or downstream to a catalytic converter.

  3. 40 CFR 600.108-08 - Analytical gases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Analytical gases. 600.108-08 Section 600.108-08 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy and Carbon-Related...

  4. 40 CFR 600.108-08 - Analytical gases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Analytical gases. 600.108-08 Section 600.108-08 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy and Carbon-Related...

  5. 40 CFR 86.1314-94 - Analytical gases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Regulations for New Otto-Cycle and Diesel Heavy-Duty Engines; Gaseous and Particulate Exhaust Test Procedures... CO2. respectively, using nitrogen as the diluent. (b) Gases for the hydrocarbon analyzer shall be: (1... named as NOX with a maximum NO2 concentration of five percent of the nominal value using nitrogen as...

  6. 40 CFR 86.1314-94 - Analytical gases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Regulations for New Otto-Cycle and Diesel Heavy-Duty Engines; Gaseous and Particulate Exhaust Test Procedures... CO2. respectively, using nitrogen as the diluent. (b) Gases for the hydrocarbon analyzer shall be: (1... named as NOX with a maximum NO2 concentration of five percent of the nominal value using nitrogen as...

  7. 40 CFR 86.1314-94 - Analytical gases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Regulations for New Otto-Cycle and Diesel Heavy-Duty Engines; Gaseous and Particulate Exhaust Test Procedures... CO2. respectively, using nitrogen as the diluent. (b) Gases for the hydrocarbon analyzer shall be: (1... named as NOX with a maximum NO2 concentration of five percent of the nominal value using nitrogen as...

  8. 40 CFR 86.1314-94 - Analytical gases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Regulations for New Otto-Cycle and Diesel Heavy-Duty Engines; Gaseous and Particulate Exhaust Test Procedures... CO2. respectively, using nitrogen as the diluent. (b) Gases for the hydrocarbon analyzer shall be: (1... named as NOX with a maximum NO2 concentration of five percent of the nominal value using nitrogen as...

  9. Separation of polar gases from nonpolar gases

    DOEpatents

    Kulprathipanja, S.; Kulkarni, S.S.

    1986-08-26

    Polar gases such as hydrogen sulfide, sulfur dioxide and ammonia may be separated from nonpolar gases such as methane, nitrogen, hydrogen or carbon dioxide by passing a mixture of polar and nonpolar gases over the face of a multicomponent membrane at separation conditions. The multicomponent membrane which is used to effect the separation will comprise a mixture of a glycol plasticizer having a molecular weight of from about 200 to about 600 and an organic polymer cast on a porous support. The use of such membranes as exemplified by polyethylene glycol and silicon rubber composited on polysulfone will permit greater selectivity accompanied by a high flux rate in the separation process.

  10. Separation of polar gases from nonpolar gases

    DOEpatents

    Kulprathipanja, Santi; Kulkarni, Sudhir S.

    1986-01-01

    Polar gases such as hydrogen sulfide, sulfur dioxide and ammonia may be separated from nonpolar gases such as methane, nitrogen, hydrogen or carbon dioxide by passing a mixture of polar and nonpolar gases over the face of a multicomponent membrane at separation conditions. The multicomponent membrane which is used to effect the separation will comprise a mixture of a glycol plasticizer having a molecular weight of from about 200 to about 600 and an organic polymer cast on a porous support. The use of such membranes as exemplified by polyethylene glycol and silicon rubber composited on polysulfone will permit greater selectivity accompanied by a high flux rate in the separation process.

  11. Separation of polar gases from nonpolar gases

    DOEpatents

    Kulprathipanja, S.

    1986-08-19

    The separation of polar gases from nonpolar gases may be effected by passing a mixture of nonpolar gases over the face of a multicomponent membrane at separation conditions. The multicomponent membrane which is used to effect the separation will comprise a mixture of a glycol plasticizer having a molecular weight of from about 200 to about 600 and an organic polymer cast on a porous support. The porous support is pretreated prior to casting of the mixture thereon by contact with a polyhydric alcohol whereby the pores of the support are altered, thus adding to the increased permeability of the polar gas.

  12. Separation of polar gases from nonpolar gases

    DOEpatents

    Kulprathipanja, Santi

    1986-01-01

    The separation of polar gases from nonpolar gases may be effected by passing a mixture of nonpolar gases over the face of a multicomponent membrane at separation conditions. The multicomponent membrane which is used to effect the separation will comprise a mixture of a glycol plasticizer having a molecular weight of from about 200 to about 600 and an organic polymer cast on a porous support. The porous support is pretreated prior to casting of the mixture thereon by contact with a polyhydric alcohol whereby the pores of the support are altered, thus adding to the increased permeability of the polar gas.

  13. 500 CFM portable exhauster temperature and humidity analysis

    SciTech Connect

    BIELICKI, B.E.

    1999-05-20

    500 cfm portable exhausters will be utilized on single shell tanks involved in saltwell pumping. This will be done, in part, to remove flammable gases from the tank vapor space. The exhaust filter train, fan, stack, and associated instrumentation and equipment are mounted on a portable skid. The design analysis and basis for the skid system design are documented in reference 1. A pumped drainage collection system is being added to the existing portable exhausters. Additional equipment and instrumentation are also being added to the exhausters, including a vacuum pump cabinet and a generic effluent monitoring system (GEMS). The GEMS will provide sampling and monitoring capabilities. The purpose of this analysis is three fold. First, to determine the maximum saltwell tank vapor space temperature. Second, to determine an allowable exhauster inlet air temperature increase to ensure the humidity is less than 70%. Third, to assess potential adverse temperature effects to the continuous air monitor (CAM) sample head. The results of this analysis will be used to ensure that air stream temperatures in the portable exhausters are increased sufficiently to prevent condensation from forming on either the pre or HEPA filters without adversely effecting the CAM.

  14. Gas separation process using membranes with permeate sweep to remove CO.sub.2 from gaseous fuel combustion exhaust

    DOEpatents

    Wijmans Johannes G.; Merkel, Timothy C.; Baker, Richard W.

    2012-05-15

    A gas separation process for treating exhaust gases from the combustion of gaseous fuels, and gaseous fuel combustion processes including such gas separation. The invention involves routing a first portion of the exhaust stream to a carbon dioxide capture step, while simultaneously flowing a second portion of the exhaust gas stream across the feed side of a membrane, flowing a sweep gas stream, usually air, across the permeate side, then passing the permeate/sweep gas back to the combustor.

  15. Ceramic automotive Stirling engine study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Musikant, S.; Chiu, W.; Darooka, D.; Mullings, D. M.; Johnson, C. A.

    1985-01-01

    A conceptual design study for a Ceramic Automotive Stirling Engine (CASE) is performed. Year 1990 structural ceramic technology is assumed. Structural and performance analyses of the conceptual design are performed as well as a manufacturing and cost analysis. The general conclusions from this study are that such an engine would be 10-26% more efficient over its performance map than the current metal Automotive Stirling Reference Engine (ASRE). Cost of such a ceramic engine is likely to be somewhat higher than that of the ASRE but engine cost is very sensitive to the ultimate cost of the high purity, ceramic powder raw materials required to fabricate high performance parts. When the design study is projected to the year 2000 technology, substantinal net efficiency improvements, on the order of 25 to 46% over the ASRE, are computed.

  16. Automotive Stirling engine systems development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richey, A. E.

    1984-01-01

    The objective of the Automotive Stirling Engine (ASE) program is to develop a Stirling engine for automotive use that provides a 30 percent improvement in fuel economy relative to a comparable internal-combustion engine while meeting emissions goals. This paper traces the engine systems' development efforts focusing on: (1) a summary of engine system performance for all Mod I engines; (2) the development, program conducted for the upgraded Mod I; and (3) vehicle systems work conducted to enhance vehicle fuel economy. Problems encountered during the upgraded Mod I test program are discussed. The importance of the EPA driving cycle cold-start penalty and the measures taken to minimize that penalty with the Mod II are also addressed.

  17. Advanced Materials for Automotive Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tisza, M.

    2013-12-01

    In this paper some recent material developments will be overviewed mainly from the point of view of automotive industry. In car industry, metal forming is one of the most important manufacturing processes imposing severe restrictions on materials; these are often contradictory requirements, e.g. high strength simultaneously with good formability, etc. Due to these challenges and the ever increasing demand new material classes have been developed; however, the more and more wide application of high strength materials meeting the requirements stated by the mass reduction lead to increasing difficulties concerning the formability which requires significant technological developments as well. In this paper, the recent materials developments will be overviewed from the point of view of the automotive industry.

  18. Rejuvenation of automotive fuel cells

    DOEpatents

    Kim, Yu Seung; Langlois, David A.

    2016-08-23

    A process for rejuvenating fuel cells has been demonstrated to improve the performance of polymer exchange membrane fuel cells with platinum/ionomer electrodes. The process involves dehydrating a fuel cell and exposing at least the cathode of the fuel cell to dry gas (nitrogen, for example) at a temperature higher than the operating temperature of the fuel cell. The process may be used to prolong the operating lifetime of an automotive fuel cell.

  19. Ceramic foam substrates for automotive catalyst applications: fluid mechanic analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimopoulos Eggenschwiler, Panayotis; Tsinoglou, Dimitrios N.; Seyfert, Jacqueline; Bach, Christian; Vogt, Ulrich; Gorbar, Michal

    2009-08-01

    Several properties of ceramic foams render them promising substrates for various industrial processes. For automotive applications, the foam properties that need to be further studied include the substrate impact on the exhaust gas flow, in terms of pressure drop and flow uniformity. In this paper, pressure drop measurements are performed with different honeycomb and ceramic foam substrates, and pressure drop correlations are discussed. The flow uniformity upstream and downstream of the substrates is evaluated using particle image velocimetry. The results show that ceramic foam substrates induce higher pressure drop, while increasing the uniformity of the flow. In contrast to honeycomb monoliths, the flow uniformity downstream of ceramic foams does not decrease with increasing flow velocity. The higher flow uniformity of ceramic foams is not only caused by their higher pressure drop, but also by flow homogenization that occurs inside the ceramic foam structure, as a result of the momentum exchange perpendicular to the main flow direction.

  20. AUTOMOTIVE REPAIR SHOP, DETAIL OF FABRICATING PRESS IN EAST END ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    AUTOMOTIVE REPAIR SHOP, DETAIL OF FABRICATING PRESS IN EAST END OF MAIN WING, WITH SCALE. - Cedar City Automotive Repair Shop, Automotive Repair Shop, 820 North Main Street, Cedar City, Iron County, UT

  1. AUTOMOTIVE REPAIR SHOP, DETAIL OF MILLS COAL BOILER WITH SCREWFEED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    AUTOMOTIVE REPAIR SHOP, DETAIL OF MILLS COAL BOILER WITH SCREW-FEED COAL HOPPER ON RIGHT SIDE. - Cedar City Automotive Repair Shop, Automotive Repair Shop, 820 North Main Street, Cedar City, Iron County, UT

  2. AUTOMOTIVE REPAIR SHOP, INTERIOR VIEW TO SOUTHEAST, DOORWAYS TO SHOP ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    AUTOMOTIVE REPAIR SHOP, INTERIOR VIEW TO SOUTHEAST, DOORWAYS TO SHOP OFFICE AND SOUTH WING. - Cedar City Automotive Repair Shop, Automotive Repair Shop, 820 North Main Street, Cedar City, Iron County, UT

  3. AUTOMOTIVE REPAIR SHOP, INTERIOR VIEW TO SOUTHEAST, DOORWAYS TO SHOP ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    AUTOMOTIVE REPAIR SHOP, INTERIOR VIEW TO SOUTHEAST, DOORWAYS TO SHOP OFFICE AND SOUTH WING, WITH SCALE. - Cedar City Automotive Repair Shop, Automotive Repair Shop, 820 North Main Street, Cedar City, Iron County, UT

  4. AUTOMOTIVE REPAIR SHOP, SLIDING DOOR LEADING TO BOILER ROOM ON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    AUTOMOTIVE REPAIR SHOP, SLIDING DOOR LEADING TO BOILER ROOM ON SOUTH SIDE OF SOUTH WING, WITH SCALE. - Cedar City Automotive Repair Shop, Automotive Repair Shop, 820 North Main Street, Cedar City, Iron County, UT

  5. AUTOMOTIVE REPAIR SHOP, DETAIL OF BUILDING CORNER (MAIN WING) SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    AUTOMOTIVE REPAIR SHOP, DETAIL OF BUILDING CORNER (MAIN WING) SHOWING WOOD EAVE AND STUCCO RAKEBOARD ON GABLE END. - Cedar City Automotive Repair Shop, Automotive Repair Shop, 820 North Main Street, Cedar City, Iron County, UT

  6. AUTOMOTIVE REPAIR SHOP, DETAIL OF MILLS COAL BOILER WITH SCREWFEED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    AUTOMOTIVE REPAIR SHOP, DETAIL OF MILLS COAL BOILER WITH SCREW-FEED COAL HOPPER ON RIGHT SIDE, WITH SCALE. - Cedar City Automotive Repair Shop, Automotive Repair Shop, 820 North Main Street, Cedar City, Iron County, UT

  7. AUTOMOTIVE REPAIR SHOP, DETAIL OF BUILDING CORNER (MAIN WING) SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    AUTOMOTIVE REPAIR SHOP, DETAIL OF BUILDING CORNER (MAIN WING) SHOWING WOOD EAVE AND STUCCO RAKEBOARD ON GABLE END, WITH SCALE. - Cedar City Automotive Repair Shop, Automotive Repair Shop, 820 North Main Street, Cedar City, Iron County, UT

  8. AUTOMOTIVE REPAIR SHOP, SLIDING DOOR LEADING TO BOILER ROOM ON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    AUTOMOTIVE REPAIR SHOP, SLIDING DOOR LEADING TO BOILER ROOM ON SOUTH SIDE OF SOUTH WING. - Cedar City Automotive Repair Shop, Automotive Repair Shop, 820 North Main Street, Cedar City, Iron County, UT

  9. Remote passive detection of aircraft exhausts at airports

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaefer, Klaus P.; Jahn, Carsten; Harig, Roland; Aleyt, Christian; Rusch, Peter

    Emissions from vented sources are often important inputs for the development of emission inventories and contribute to local air pollution and global enhancement of greenhouse gases. Aircraft engines are part of these emission sources. A passive measurement technique such as FTIR emission spectrometry is more cost effective and faster in operation for the determination of the composition of hot exhausts of this kind than other measurement systems as e.g. in situ techniques. Within the scope of aircraft emission investigations the measurements were performed from a measurement van which is equipped with an FTIR spectrometer of high spectral resolution coupled with a telescope and a two-axis movable mirror for rapid orientation towards the emission sources. At airports the emission indices of CO2, CO and NO of main engines and auxiliary power units of standing aircraft were determined. The measurement time is about one minute. The accuracy is better than 30 % as found from burner experiments with calibration gases (CO and NO). The method is also applied to detect exhausts of flares and smoke stacks. Currently, a new scanning FTIR-system is developed. The system allows imaging of the exhaust gas and rapid automated alignment of the field of view. The goal of the new development is to measure aircraft exhausts during normal operations at the airport. The spectrometer is coupled with a camera giving an image of the scenery so that a rapid selection of the hottest exhaust area is possible. It is planned to equip the system with an infrared camera for automatic tracking of this area with the scanning mirror so that measurements of the exhausts of a moving aircraft are possible.

  10. Exhaust gas ignition

    SciTech Connect

    1996-04-01

    This article describes a system developed for rapid light-off of underbody catalysts that has shown potential to meet Euro Stage III emissions targets and to be more cost-effective than some alternatives. Future emissions legislation will require SI engine aftertreatment systems to approach full operating efficiency within the first few seconds after starting to reduce the high total-emissions fraction currently contributed by the cold phase of driving. A reduction of cold-start emissions during Phase 1 (Euro) or Bag 1 (FTP), which in many cases can be as much as 80% of the total for the cycle, has been achieved by electrical heating of the catalytic converter. But electrically heated catalyst (EHC) systems require high currents (100--200 A) to heat the metallic substrate to light-off temperatures over the first 15--20 seconds. Other viable approaches to reducing cold-start emissions include use of a fuel-powered burner upstream of the catalyst. However, as with EHC, the complexity of parts and the introduction of raw fuel into the exhaust system make this device unsatisfactory. Still another approach, an exhaust gas ignition (EGI) system, was first demonstrated in 1991. The operation of a system developed by engineers at Ford Motor Co., Ltd., Cambustion Ltd., and Tickford Ltd. is described here.

  11. Natural Cycles, Gases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Douglass, Anne R.; Jackman, Charles H.; Rood, R. B.; Aikin, A. C.; Stolarski, R. S.; Mccormick, M. P.; Fahey, David W.

    1992-01-01

    The major gaseous components of the exhaust of stratospheric aircraft are expected to be the products of combustion (CO2 and H2O), odd nitrogen (NO, NO2 HNO3), and products indicating combustion inefficiencies (CO and total unburned hydrocarbons). The species distributions are produced by a balance of photochemical and transport processes. A necessary element in evaluating the impact of aircraft exhaust on the lower stratospheric composition is to place the aircraft emissions in perspective within the natural cycles of stratospheric species. Following are a description of mass transport in the lower stratosphere and a discussion of the natural behavior of the major gaseous components of the stratospheric aircraft exhaust.

  12. Exhaust powered drive shaft torque enhancer

    SciTech Connect

    Koch, A.B.

    1986-09-30

    This patent describes a power producing combination including an internal combustion engine and a mounting frame therefor, and power transmission means including rotating drive shaft means connected to the engine. The improvement described here is a drive shaft torque enhancing device, the device comprising: a multiplicity of blades secured to the drive shaft, equally spaced therearound, each generally lying in a plane containing the axis of the drive shaft; torque enhancer feed duct means for selectively directing a stream of exhaust gases from the engine to impact against the blades to impart torque to the drive shaft; and wherein the power producing combination is used in a vehicle, the vehicle having braking means including a brake pedal; and the power producing combination further comprising torque enhancer disengagement means responsive to motion of the brake pedal.

  13. Biofilters remove VOCs from stack gases

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-01

    Weyerhaeuser's strandboard plant in Grayling, Mich., is using biofiltration to remove volatile organic compounds (VOCs) at the site. Primary constituents in the Weyerhaeuser stack gases are alcohols, aldehydes, organic acids, benzene and toluene. The alternative to biofiltration is incineration, but because the concentration of VOCs in the stack gases is so dilute, natural gas would be required. Incineration would be costly, and could introduce pollution problems by generating excess carbon dioxide (CO[sub 2]) and possibly nitrogen oxides. Two pilot biofilters, each about 20ft by 100ft in area, with 4-ft thick media of bark and ground trim ends, are using naturally occurring bacteria to destroy VOCs emanating from a wood panel press and a wood flake dryer. The press offgas biofilter, activated February 1993, had risen to 93% efficiency in removing VOCs by mid-May. The flake dryer exhaust biofilter, placed in service in April, already was more than 80% efficient.

  14. Using Technology to Enhance an Automotive Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashton, Denis

    2009-01-01

    Denis Ashton uses technology in his automotive technology program at East Valley Institute of Technology (EVIT) to positively impact student outcomes. Ashton, the department chair for the automotive programs at EVIT, in Mesa, Arizona, says that using an interactive PowerPoint curriculum makes learning fun for students and provides immediate…

  15. An Analysis of the Automotive Service Occupation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winfrey, Prince J.; Morse, David L.

    The general purpose of the occupational analysis is to provide workable, basic information dealing with the many and varied duties performed in the automotive service advisor occupation. The automotive service advisor is responsible primarily for sales and services and at the same time may be called upon to supervise other service center…

  16. Petroleum Marketing. Selling Automotive Products and Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luter, Robert R.

    This textbook contains material for the individualized instruction of students training for careers in service stations; automotive, tire, battery, and accessory retail stores; oil jobbers and petroleum product wholesalers, or any wholesale or retail establishment that sells automotive products and services. Included among the topics addressed in…

  17. Variable area exhaust nozzle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, E. A. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    An exhaust nozzle for a gas turbine engine comprises a number of arcuate flaps pivotally connected to the trailing edge of a cylindrical casing which houses the engine. Seals disposed within the flaps are spring biased and extensible beyond the side edges of the flaps. The seals of adjacent flaps are maintained in sealing engagement with each other when the flaps are adjusted between positions defining minimum nozzle flow area and the cruise position. Extensible, spring biased seals are also disposed within the flaps adjacent to a supporting pylon to thereby engage the pylon in a sealing arrangement. The flaps are hinged to the casing at the central portion of the flaps' leading edges and are connected to actuators at opposed outer portions of the leading edges to thereby maximize the mechanical advantage in the actuation of the flaps.

  18. Aircraft exhaust sulfur emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, R. C.; Anderson, M. R.; Miake-Lye, R. C.; Kolb, C. E.; Sorokin, A. A.; Buriko, Y. Y.

    The conversion of fuel sulfur to S(VI) (SO3 + H2SO4) in supersonic and subsonic aircraft engines is estimated numerically. Model results indicate between 2% and 10% of the fuel sulfur is emitted as S(VI). It is also shown that, for a high sulfur mass loading, conversion in the turbine is kinetically limited by the level of atomic oxygen. This results in a higher oxidation efficiency at lower sulfur loadings. SO3 is the primary S(VI) oxidation product and calculated H2SO4 emission levels were less than 1% of the total fuel sulfur. This source of S(VI) can exceed the S(VI) source due to gas phase oxidation in the exhaust wake.

  19. Transport of Trace Gases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schoeberl, Mark R.

    2005-01-01

    Trace gases measurements are used to diagnose both the chemistry and transport of the atmosphere. These lectures emphasize the interpretation of trace gases measurements and techniques used to untangle chemistry and transport effects. I will discuss PV transform, trajectory techniques, and age-of-air as far as the circulation of the stratosphere.

  20. 14 CFR 27.1123 - Exhaust piping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Exhaust piping. 27.1123 Section 27.1123... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Exhaust System § 27.1123 Exhaust piping. (a) Exhaust piping... operating temperatures. (b) Exhaust piping must be supported to withstand any vibration and inertia loads...

  1. 14 CFR 29.1123 - Exhaust piping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Exhaust piping. 29.1123 Section 29.1123... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Exhaust System § 29.1123 Exhaust piping. (a) Exhaust... by operating temperatures. (b) Exhaust piping must be supported to withstand any vibration...

  2. Treatment of power utilities exhaust

    DOEpatents

    Koermer, Gerald

    2012-05-15

    Provided is a process for treating nitrogen oxide-containing exhaust produced by a stationary combustion source by the catalytic reduction of nitrogen oxide in the presence of a reductant comprising hydrogen, followed by ammonia selective catalytic reduction to further reduce the nitrogen oxide level in the exhaust.

  3. Experimental hydrogen-fueled automotive engine design data-base project. Volume 1. Executive summary report

    SciTech Connect

    Swain, M.R.; Adt, R.R. Jr.; Pappas, J.M.

    1983-05-01

    A preliminary hydrogen-fueled automotive piston engine design data-base now exists as a result of a research project at the University of Miami. The effort, which is overviewed here, encompassed the testing of 19 different configurations of an appropriately-modified, 1.6-liter displacement, light-duty automotive piston engine. The design data base includes engine performance and exhaust emissions over the entire load range, generally at a fixed speed (1800 rpm) and best efficiency spark timing. This range was sometimes limited by intake manifold backfiring and lean-limit restrictions; however, effective measures were demonstrated for obviating these problems. High efficiency, competitive specific power, and low emissions were conclusively demonstrated.

  4. Space Software for Automotive Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    John Thousand of Wolverine Western Corp. put his aerospace group to work on an unfamiliar job, designing a brake drum using computer design techniques. Computer design involves creation of a mathematical model of a product and analyzing its effectiveness in simulated operation. Technique enables study of performance and structural behavior of a number of different designs before settling on a final configuration. Wolverine employees attacked a traditional brake drum problem, the sudden buildup of heat during fast and repeated braking. Part of brake drum not confined tends to change its shape under combination of heat, physical pressure and rotational forces, a condition known as bellmouthing. Since bellmouthing is a major factor in braking effectiveness, a solution of problem would be a major advance in automotive engineering. A former NASA employee, now a Wolverine employee, knew of a series of NASA computer programs ideally suited to confronting bellmouthing. Originally developed as aids to rocket engine nozzle design, it's capable of analyzing problems generated in a rocket engine or automotive brake drum by heat, expansion, pressure and rotational forces. Use of these computer programs led to new brake drum concept featuring a more durable axle, and heat transfer ribs, or fins, on hub of drum.

  5. Lightweight materials for automotive applications

    SciTech Connect

    Cole, G.S.; Sherman, A.M.

    1995-07-01

    As a result of more stringent requirements for improved fuel economy and emissions, there is a growing tend to substitute Al and Mg for conventional steel and cast irons in vehicles. this article describes some of the technical issues that must be considered if the automotive industry is to utilize these lightweight materials in larger volumes. Lightweight metals may be used in the vehicle in both wrought and cast forms. Aluminum, in the form of stamped sheet, has the potential to be used extensively in vehicle structures and closures. However, compared to steel, aluminum is more difficult to stamp and spot weld. Current research is exploring ways of improving the formability of Al alloys and developing alternate joining methods including adhesive bonding and fasteners. Mg, Al, and metal-matrix composite casting have the potential to be used as replacements for many ferrous castings in power-train and chassis components. However, because of their different tribology, strength, and ductility, light-metal castings require improved foundry procedures and more sophisticated design rules before product engineers will use them in larger quantities. A major challenge for lightweight materials is the ability to produce a functional component at an acceptable price. The presentation concludes with a cost-benefit perspective for typical light-metal applications in the automotive industry.

  6. Biodiesel exhaust-induced cytotoxicity and proinflammatory mediator production in human airway epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Mullins, Benjamin J; Kicic, Anthony; Ling, Kak-Ming; Mead-Hunter, Ryan; Larcombe, Alexander N

    2016-01-01

    Increasing use of biodiesel has prompted research into the potential health effects of biodiesel exhaust exposure. Few studies directly compare the health consequences of mineral diesel, biodiesel, or blend exhaust exposures. Here, we exposed human epithelial cell cultures to diluted exhaust generated by the combustion of Australian ultralow-sulfur-diesel (ULSD), unprocessed canola oil, 100% canola biodiesel (B100), and a blend of 20% canola biodiesel mixed with 80% ULSD. The physicochemical characteristics of the exhaust were assessed and we compared cellular viability, apoptosis, and levels of interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, and Regulated on Activation, Normal T cell Expressed and Secreted (RANTES) in exposed cultured cells. Different fuel types produced significantly different amounts of exhaust gases and different particle characteristics. All exposures resulted in significant apoptosis and loss of viability when compared with control, with an increasing proportion of biodiesel being correlated with a decrease in viability. In most cases, exposure to exhaust resulted in an increase in mediator production, with the greatest increases most often in response to B100. Exposure to pure canola oil (PCO) exhaust did not increase mediator production, but resulted in a significant decrease in IL-8 and RANTES in some cases. Our results show that canola biodiesel exhaust exposure elicits inflammation and reduces viability of human epithelial cell cultures in vitro when compared with ULSD exhaust exposure. This may be related to an increase in particle surface area and number in B100 exhaust when compared with ULSD exhaust. Exposure to PCO exhaust elicited the greatest loss of cellular viability, but virtually no inflammatory response, likely due to an overall increase in average particle size. PMID:25045158

  7. Hydrophobic Catalysts For Removal Of NOx From Flue Gases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharma, Pramod K.; Hickey, Gregory S.; Voecks, Gerald E.

    1995-01-01

    Improved catalysts for removal of nitrogen oxides (NO and NO2) from combustion flue gases formulated as composites of vanadium pentoxide in carbon molecular sieves. Promotes highly efficient selective catalytic reduction of NOx at relatively low temperatures while not being adversely affected by presence of water vapor and sulfur oxide gases in flue gas. Apparatus utilizing catalyst of this type easily integrated into exhaust stream of power plant to remove nitrogen oxides, generated in combustion of fossil fuels and contribute to formation of acid rain and photochemical smog.

  8. Automotive Stirling engine development program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ernst, W.; Richey, A.; Farrell, R.; Riecke, G.; Smith, G.; Howarth, R.; Cronin, M.; Simetkosky, M.; Meacher, J.

    1986-01-01

    This is the ninth Semiannual Technical Progress Report prepared under the Automotive Stirling Engine Development Program. It covers the twenty-eighth and twenty-ninth quarters of activity after award of the contract. Quarterly Technical Progress Reports related program activities from the first through the thirteenth quarters; thereafter, reporting was changed to a Semiannual format. This report summarizes the study of higher-power kinematic Stirling engines for transportation use, development testing of Mod I Stirling engines, and component development activities. Component development testing included successful conical fuel nozzle testing and functional checkout of Mod II controls and auxiliaries on Mod I engine test beds. Overall program philosophy is outlined and data and test results are presented.

  9. Photochemistry of biogenic gases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, Joel S.

    1989-01-01

    The relationship between the biosphere and the atmosphere is examined, emphasizing the composition and photochemistry and chemistry of the troposphere and stratosphere. The reactions of oxygen, ozone, and hydroxyl are reviewed and the fate of the biogenic gases ammonia, methane, reduced sulfur species, reduced halogen species, carbon monoxide, nitric oxide, nitrous oxide, nitrogen, and carbon dioxide are described. A list is given of the concentration and sources of the various gases.

  10. Supporting design information for portable exhauster installation at tanks S-109, SX-102/103, BY-105/106, S-101/102, S-107

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, C.M.

    1997-10-09

    This document provides supporting calculations and equipment dedication plans for portable exhausters and ductwork installed on tanks S-109, SX-102/103, BY-105/106, S-101/102, and S-107. The exhausters will ventilate the tanks during saltwell pumping to prevent the potential accumulation of flammable gases.

  11. Treating exhaust gas from a pressurized fluidized bed reaction system

    DOEpatents

    Isaksson, J.; Koskinen, J.

    1995-08-22

    Hot gases from a pressurized fluidized bed reactor system are purified. Under super atmospheric pressure conditions hot exhaust gases are passed through a particle separator, forming a filtrate cake on the surface of the separator, and a reducing agent--such as an NO{sub x} reducing agent (like ammonia)--is introduced into the exhaust gases just prior to or just after particle separation. The retention time of the introduced reducing agent is enhanced by providing a low gas velocity (e.g. about 1--20 cm/s) during passage of the gas through the filtrate cake while at super atmospheric pressure. Separation takes place within a distinct pressure vessel, the interior of which is at a pressure of about 2--100 bar, and introduction of reducing agent can take place at multiple locations (one associated with each filter element in the pressure vessel), or at one or more locations just prior to passage of clean gas out of the pressure vessel (typically passed to a turbine). 8 figs.

  12. Treating exhaust gas from a pressurized fluidized bed reaction system

    DOEpatents

    Isaksson, Juhani; Koskinen, Jari

    1995-01-01

    Hot gases from a pressurized fluidized bed reactor system are purified. Under superatmospheric pressure conditions hot exhaust gases are passed through a particle separator, forming a flitrate cake on the surface of the separator, and a reducing agent--such as an NO.sub.x reducing agent (like ammonia), is introduced into the exhaust gases just prior to or just after particle separation. The retention time of the introduced reducing agent is enhanced by providing a low gas velocity (e.g. about 1-20 cm/s) during passage of the gas through the filtrate cake while at superatmospheric pressure. Separation takes place within a distinct pressure vessel the interior of which is at a pressure of about 2-100 bar, and-introduction of reducing agent can take place at multiple locations (one associated with each filter element in the pressure vessel), or at one or more locations just prior to passage of clean gas out of the pressure vessel (typically passed to a turbine).

  13. Diesel Exhaust-Induced Pulmonary and Cardiovascular Impairment: The Role of Hypertension Intervention

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background–Exposure to diesel exhaust (DE) particles and associated gases is linked to cardiovascular impairments; however the susceptibility of hypertensive individuals is less well understood. Objective–1) To determine cardiopulmonary effects of gas-phase versus whole-DE, and 2...

  14. Divergent Electrocardiographic Responses to Whole and Particle-Free Diesel Exhaust Inhalation in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats

    EPA Science Inventory

    Diesel exhaust (DE) is a major contributor to traffic-related fine PM2.5. While inroads have been made in understanding the mechanisms of PM related health effects, DE’s complex mixture of PM, gases and volatile organics makes it difficult to determine how the constituents contri...

  15. Fact Program - distributed exhaust nozzle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Futuristic Airframe Concepts & Technology (FACT): Distributed exhaust nozzle mounted in the Low Speed Aeroacoustic Wind Tunnel. Angle is zero degrees with respect to microphones. Photographed in the Low Speed Aeroacoustic Wind Tunnel, Jet Noise Lab, building 1221-A.

  16. Automotive applications for advanced composite materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deutsch, G. C.

    1978-01-01

    A description is presented of nonaerospace applications for advanced composite materials with special emphasis on the automotive applications. The automotive industry has to satisfy exacting requirements to reduce the average fuel consumption of cars. A feasible approach to accomplish this involves the development of composites cars with a total weight of 2400 pounds and a fuel consumption of 33 miles per gallon. In connection with this possibility, the automotive companies have started to look seriously at composite materials. The aerospace industry has over the past decade accumulated a considerable data base on composite materials and this is being made available to the nonaerospace sector. However, the automotive companies will place prime emphasis on low cost resins which lend themselves to rapid fabrication techniques.

  17. Hybrid Automotive Engine Using Ethanol-Burning Miller Cycle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weinstein, Leonard

    2004-01-01

    power needed for cooling and thereby further contributing to efficiency. An electrical resistance air preheater might be needed to ensure autoignition at startup and during a short warmup period. Because of the autoignition, the engine could operate without either spark plugs or glow plugs. Ethanol burns relatively cleanly and has been used as a motor fuel since the invention of internal-combustion engines. However, the energy content of ethanol per unit weight of ethanol is less than that of Diesel fuel or gasoline, and ethanol has a higher heat of vaporization. Because the Miller cycle offers an efficiency close to that of the Diesel cycle, burning ethanol in a Miller-cycle engine gives about as much usable output energy per unit volume of fuel as does burning gasoline in a conventional gasoline automotive engine. Because of the combination of preheating, running lean, and the use of ethyl alcohol, the proposed engine would generate less power per unit volume than does a conventional automotive gasoline engine. Consequently, for a given power level, the main body of the proposed engine would be bulkier. However, because little or no exhaust cleanup would be needed, the increase in bulk of the engine could be partially offset by the decrease in bulk of the exhaust system. The regenerative preheating also greatly reduces the external engine cooling requirement, and would translate to reduced engine bulk. It may even be possible to accomplish the remaining cooling of the engine by use of air only, eliminating the bulk and power consumption of a water cooling system. The combination of a Miller-cycle engine with regenerative air preheating, ethyl alcohol fuel, and hybrid operation could result in an automotive engine system that satisfies the need for a low pollution, high efficiency, and simple engine with a totally renewable fuel.

  18. Biodiesel exhaust: the need for a systematic approach to health effects research.

    PubMed

    Larcombe, Alexander N; Kicic, Anthony; Mullins, Benjamin J; Knothe, Gerhard

    2015-10-01

    Biodiesel is a generic term for fuel that can be made from virtually any plant or animal oil via transesterification of triglycerides with an alcohol (and usually a catalyst). Biodiesel has received considerable scientific attention in recent years, as it is a renewable resource that is directly able to replace mineral diesel in many engines. Additionally, some countries have mandated a minimum biodiesel content in all diesel fuel sold on environmental grounds. When combusted, biodiesel produces exhaust emissions containing particulate matter, adsorbed chemicals and a range of gases. In many cases, absolute amounts of these pollutants are lower in biodiesel exhaust compared with mineral diesel exhaust, leading to speculation that biodiesel exhaust may be less harmful to health. Additionally, engine performance studies show that the concentrations of these pollutants vary significantly depending on the renewable oil used to make the biodiesel and the ratio of biodiesel to mineral diesel in the fuel mix. Given the strategic and legislative push towards the use of biodiesel in many countries, a concerning possibility is that certain biodiesels may produce exhaust emissions that are more harmful to health than others. This variation suggests that a comprehensive, systematic and comparative approach to assessing the potential for a range of different biodiesel exhausts to affect health is urgently required. Such an assessment could inform biodiesel production priorities, drive research and development into new exhaust treatment technologies, and ultimately minimize the health impacts of biodiesel exhaust exposure. PMID:26179557

  19. Stratospheric aircraft exhaust plume and wake chemistry studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miake-Lye, R. C.; Martinez-Sanchez, M.; Brown, R. C.; Kolb, C. E.; Worsnop, D. R.; Zahniser, M. S.; Robinson, G. N.; Rodriguez, J. M.; Ko, M. K. W.; Shia, R-L.

    1992-01-01

    This report documents progress to date in an ongoing study to analyze and model emissions leaving a proposed High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) from when the exhaust gases leave the engine until they are deposited at atmospheric scales in the stratosphere. Estimates are given for the emissions, summarizing relevant earlier work (CIAP) and reviewing current propulsion research efforts. The chemical evolution and the mixing and vortical motion of the exhaust are analyzed to track the exhaust and its speciation as the emissions are mixed to atmospheric scales. The species tracked include those that could be heterogeneously reactive on the surfaces of the condensed solid water (ice) particles and on exhaust soot particle surfaces. Dispersion and reaction of chemical constituents in the far wake are studied with a Lagrangian air parcel model, in conjunction with a radiation code to calculate the net heating/cooling. Laboratory measurements of heterogeneous chemistry of aqueous sulfuric acid and nitric acid hydrates are also described. Results include the solubility of HCl in sulfuric acid which is a key parameter for modeling stratospheric processing. We also report initial results for condensation of nitric acid trihydrate from gas phase H2O and HNO3.

  20. Development of detergent additives for automotive fuels in other countries

    SciTech Connect

    Zakharova, E.L.; Emel`yanov, V.E.; Deineko, P.S.

    1994-09-01

    With increasing demands on environmental protection and with the production of reformulated unleaded motor fuels, new and effective detergent additives are urgently needed. A number of monographs and scientific works have been devoted to problems involved in the development and application of such additives. Since the mid-1980s in the United States and certain other countries, a crisis has been noted in the application of detergent additives. It has been found that certain types of detergents not only fail to give the required cleaning effect, but even promote the formation of deposits. This situation can be attributed primarily to the development of automotive gasoline engines with direct fuel injection. In the United States in 1989, about 90% of all automotive vehicles were equipped with such engines, which have very definite advantages in fuel economy, less smoking, and a number of other areas. However, after a few thousand kilometers of travel, the characteristics of these engines deteriorate, and undesirable changes are observed, including excessive fuel consumption, a reduction of the vehicle speed, and increased contents of carbon monoxide in the exhaust. These changes occur because of deposit formation in the fuel intake system, particularly on the intake valves. As the deposits continue to accumulate, the engines gradually experience an increase in octane number demand for engine operation without knocking. This phenomenon, which is known in American publications as {open_quotes}octane requirement increase{close_quotes} or ORI (Russian initialism RTOCh, literal translation, {open_quotes}increase of requirements for octane number{close_quotes}), continues until a certain equilibrium octane number is reached. This equilibrium value may change, depending on the engine design and other factors. In all cases, however, the ORI of modern engines is significant, amount to 2-14 octane numbers.

  1. 14 CFR 25.1123 - Exhaust piping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Exhaust piping. 25.1123 Section 25.1123... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Exhaust System § 25.1123 Exhaust piping. For powerplant and auxiliary power unit installations, the following apply: (a) Exhaust piping must be heat...

  2. 14 CFR 23.1123 - Exhaust system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Exhaust system. 23.1123 Section 23.1123... STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Exhaust System § 23.1123 Exhaust system. (a) Each exhaust system must be fireproof and corrosion-resistant, and must have means...

  3. Stratospheric aircraft exhaust plume and wake chemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miake-Lye, R. C.; Martinez-Sanchez, M.; Brown, R. C.; Kolb, C. E.; Worsnop, D. R.; Zahniser, M. S.; Robinson, G. N.; Rodriguez, J. M.; Ko, M. K. W.; Shia, R-L.

    1993-01-01

    Progress to date in an ongoing study to analyze and model emissions leaving a proposed High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) from when the exhaust gases leave the engine until they are deposited at atmospheric scales in the stratosphere is documented. A kinetic condensation model was implemented to predict heterogeneous condensation in the plume regime behind an HSCT flying in the lower stratosphere. Simulations were performed to illustrate the parametric dependence of contrail droplet growth on the exhaust condensation nuclei number density and size distribution. Model results indicate that the condensation of water vapor is strongly dependent on the number density of activated CN. Incorporation of estimates for dilution factors into a Lagrangian box model of the far-wake regime with scale-dependent diffusion indicates negligible decrease in ozone and enhancement of water concentrations of 6-13 times background, which decrease rapidly over 1-3 days. Radiative calculations indicate a net differential cooling rate of the plume about 3K/day at the beginning of the wake regime, with a total subsidence ranging between 0.4 and 1 km. Results from the Lagrangian plume model were used to estimate the effect of repeated superposition of aircraft plumes on the concentrations of water and NO(y) along a flight corridor. Results of laboratory studies of heterogeneous chemistry are also described. Kinetics of HCl, N2O5 and ClONO2 uptake on liquid sulfuric acid were measured as a function of composition and temperature. Refined measurements of the thermodynamics of nitric acid hydrates indicate that metastable dihydrate may play a role in the nucleation of more stable trihydrates PSC's.

  4. Hydrocarbon emissions speciation in diesel and biodiesel exhausts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Payri, Francisco; Bermúdez, Vicente R.; Tormos, Bernardo; Linares, Waldemar G.

    Diesel engine emissions are composed of a long list of organic compounds, ranging from C 2 to C 12+, and coming from the hydrocarbons partially oxidized in combustion or produced by pyrolisis. Many of these are considered as ozone precursors in the atmosphere, since they can interact with nitrogen oxides to produce ozone under atmospheric conditions in the presence of sunlight. In addition to problematic ozone production, Brookes, P., and Duncan, M. [1971. Carcinogenic hydrocarbons and human cells in culture. Nature.] and Heywood, J. [1988. Internal Combustion Engine Fundamentals.Mc Graw-Hill, ISBN 0-07-1000499-8.] determined that the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons present in exhaust gases are dangerous to human health, being highly carcinogenic. The aim of this study was to identify by means of gas chromatography the amount of each hydrocarbon species present in the exhaust gases of diesel engines operating with different biodiesel blends. The levels of reactive and non-reactive hydrocarbons present in diesel engine exhaust gases powered by different biodiesel fuel blends were also analyzed. Detailed speciation revealed a drastic change in the nature and quantity of semi-volatile compounds when biodiesel fuels are employed, the most affected being the aromatic compounds. Both aromatic and oxygenated aromatic compounds were found in biodiesel exhaust. Finally, the conservation of species for off-side analysis and the possible influence of engine operating conditions on the chemical characterization of the semi-volatile compound phase are discussed. The use of oxygenated fuel blends shows a reduction in the Engine-Out emissions of total hydrocarbons. But the potential of the hydrocarbon emissions is more dependent on the compositions of these hydrocarbons in the Engine-Out, to the quantity; a large percent of hydrocarbons existing in the exhaust, when biodiesel blends are used, are partially burned hydrocarbons, and are interesting as they have the maximum

  5. Automotive Refinishing II; Automotive Body Repair and Refinishing 2: 9035.05.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    Part of the Dade County Public School (Florida)Quinmester Program, the automotive refinishing course outline is a continuation of automotive refinishing 1 and emphasizes the practical application of color coating and sheet metal refinishing. Overall refinishing with enamels, lacquers, and acrylics are included as well as spot repair painting and…

  6. Automotive Electrical and Electronic System II; Automotive Mechanics-Intermediate: 9045.04.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    This automotive electrical and electronic system course is an intermediate course designed for the student who has completed automotive Electrical and Electronic System I. The theory and principles of operation of the components of the starting and charging systems and other electrical accessory systems in the automobile will be learned by the…

  7. Secondary-Postsecondary Curriculum Development in Automotive Mechanics. Automotive Electrical Competencies. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoepner, Ronald

    Developed as part of a competency-based curriculum in automotive mechanics which is usable by students at both the secondary and postsecondary levels, this learning package focuses on automotive electrical systems. It is the first unit to be published in a series of eight which will cover the eight subject areas on the national certification…

  8. 75 FR 34170 - Plastic Omnium Automotive Exteriors, LLC, Anderson, SC; Plastic Omnium Automotive Exteriors, LLC...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-16

    ... Assistance on March 18, 2010, applicable to workers of Plastic Omnium Automotive Exteriors, LLC, Anderson, South Carolina. The notice was published in the Federal Register April 23, 2010 (75 FR 21356). The... Employment and Training Administration Plastic Omnium Automotive Exteriors, LLC, Anderson, SC; Plastic...

  9. Effect of Heat Exchanger Material and Fouling on Thermoelectric Exhaust Heat Recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Love, Norman; Szybist, James P; Sluder, Scott

    2011-01-01

    This study is conducted in an effort to better understand and improve the performance of thermoelectric heat recovery systems for automotive use. For this purpose an experimental investigation of thermoelectrics in contact with clean and fouled heat exchangers of different materials is performed. The thermoelectric devices are tested on a bench-scale thermoelectric heat recovery apparatus that simulates automotive exhaust. The thermoelectric apparatus consists of a series of thermoelectric generators contacting a hot-side and a cold-side heat exchanger. The thermoelectric devices are tested with two different hot-side heat exchanger materials, stainless steel and aluminum, and at a range of simulated exhaust gas flowrates (40 to 150 slpm), exhaust gas temperatures (240 C and 280 C), and coolant-side temperatures (40 C and 80 C). It is observed that for higher exhaust gas flowrates, thermoelectric power output increases while overall system efficiency decreases. Degradation of the effectiveness of the EGR-type heat exchangers over a period of driving is also simulated by exposing the heat exchangers to diesel engine exhaust under thermophoretic conditions to form a deposit layer. For the fouled EGR-type heat exchangers, power output and system efficiency is observed to be significantly lower for all conditions tested. The study found, however, that heat exchanger material is the dominant factor in the ability of the system to convert heat to electricity with thermoelectric generators. This finding is thought to be unique to the heat exchangers used for this study, and not a universal trend for all system configurations.

  10. Planetary noble gases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zahnle, Kevin

    1993-01-01

    An overview of the history and current status of research on planetary noble gases is presented. The discovery that neon and argon are vastly more abundant on Venus than on earth points to the solar wind rather than condensation as the fundamental process for placing noble gases in the atmospheres of the terrestrial planets; however, solar wind implantation may not be able to fully reproduce the observed gradient, nor does it obviously account for similar planetary Ne/Ar ratios and dissimilar planetary Ar/Kr ratios. More recent studies have emphasized escape rather than accretion. Hydrodynamic escape, which is fractionating, readily accounts for the difference between atmospheric neon and isotopically light mantle neon. Atmospheric cratering, which is nearly nonfractionating, can account for the extreme scarcity of nonradiogenic noble gases (and other volatiles) on Mars.

  11. Thermoelectric Generators for Automotive Waste Heat Recovery Systems Part I: Numerical Modeling and Baseline Model Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Sumeet; Heister, Stephen D.; Xu, Xianfan; Salvador, James R.; Meisner, Gregory P.

    2013-04-01

    A numerical model has been developed to simulate coupled thermal and electrical energy transfer processes in a thermoelectric generator (TEG) designed for automotive waste heat recovery systems. This model is capable of computing the overall heat transferred, the electrical power output, and the associated pressure drop for given inlet conditions of the exhaust gas and the available TEG volume. Multiple-filled skutterudites and conventional bismuth telluride are considered for thermoelectric modules (TEMs) for conversion of waste heat from exhaust into usable electrical power. Heat transfer between the hot exhaust gas and the hot side of the TEMs is enhanced with the use of a plate-fin heat exchanger integrated within the TEG and using liquid coolant on the cold side. The TEG is discretized along the exhaust flow direction using a finite-volume method. Each control volume is modeled as a thermal resistance network which consists of integrated submodels including a heat exchanger and a thermoelectric device. The pressure drop along the TEG is calculated using standard pressure loss correlations and viscous drag models. The model is validated to preserve global energy balances and is applied to analyze a prototype TEG with data provided by General Motors. Detailed results are provided for local and global heat transfer and electric power generation. In the companion paper, the model is then applied to consider various TEG topologies using skutterudite and bismuth telluride TEMs.

  12. HUBBLE SEES SUPERSONIC EXHAUST FROM NEBULA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    2-9 is a striking example of a 'butterfly' or a bipolar planetary nebula. Another more revealing name might be the 'Twin Jet Nebula.' If the nebula is sliced across the star, each side of it appears much like a pair of exhausts from jet engines. Indeed, because of the nebula's shape and the measured velocity of the gas, in excess of 200 miles per second, astronomers believe that the description as a super-super-sonic jet exhaust is quite apt. Ground-based studies have shown that the nebula's size increases with time, suggesting that the stellar outburst that formed the lobes occurred just 1,200 years ago. The central star in M2-9 is known to be one of a very close pair which orbit one another at perilously close distances. It is even possible that one star is being engulfed by the other. Astronomers suspect the gravity of one star pulls weakly bound gas from the surface of the other and flings it into a thin, dense disk which surrounds both stars and extends well into space. The disk can actually be seen in shorter exposure images obtained with the Hubble telescope. It measures approximately 10 times the diameter of Pluto's orbit. Models of the type that are used to design jet engines ('hydrodynamics') show that such a disk can successfully account for the jet-exhaust-like appearance of M2-9. The high-speed wind from one of the stars rams into the surrounding disk, which serves as a nozzle. The wind is deflected in a perpendicular direction and forms the pair of jets that we see in the nebula's image. This is much the same process that takes place in a jet engine: The burning and expanding gases are deflected by the engine walls through a nozzle to form long, collimated jets of hot air at high speeds. M2-9 is 2,100 light-years away in the constellation Ophiucus. The observation was taken Aug. 2, 1997 by the Hubble telescope's Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2. In this image, neutral oxygen is shown in red, once-ionized nitrogen in green, and twice-ionized oxygen in

  13. Automotive Stirling Engine Development Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The third quarter (April-June, 1978) effort of the Ford/DOE Automotive Stirling Engine Development Program is reported, specifically Task 1 of that effort, which is Fuel Economy Assessment. At the end of this quarter the total fourth generation fuel economy projection was 26.12 MPG (gasoline) with a confidence level of 44%. This represents an improvement of 66.4% over the baseline M-H fuel economy of 15.7 MPG. The confidence level for the original 20.6 MPG goal has been increased from 53% to 57%. Engine 3X17 has accumulated a total of 213 hours of variable speed running. A summary of the individual sub-tasks of Task 1 are given. The sub-tasks are grouped into two categories: Category 1 consists of those sub-tasks which are directly related to fuel economy and Category 2 consists of those sub-tasks which are not directly related to fuel economy but are an integral part of the Task 1 effort.

  14. User discrimination in automotive systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makrushin, Andrey; Dittmann, Jana; Vielhauer, Claus; Leich, Marcus

    2011-03-01

    The recently developed dual-view touch screens, which are announced to be installed in cars in a near future, give rise to completely new challenges in human-machine interaction. The automotive system should be able to identify if the driver or the passenger is currently interacting with the touch screen to provide a correct response to the touch. The optical devices, due to availability, acceptance by the users and multifunctional usage, approved to be the most appropriate sensing technology for driver/passenger discrimination. In this work the prototypic optical user discrimination system is implemented in the car simulator and evaluated in the laboratory environment with entirely controlled illumination. Three tests were done for this research. One of them examined if the near-infrared illumination should be switched on around the clock, the second one if there is a difference in discrimination performance between day, twilight and night conditions, and the third one examined how the intensive directional lighting influences the performance of the implemented user discrimination algorithm. Despite the high error rates, the evaluation results show that very simple computer vision algorithms are able to solve complicated user discrimination task. The average error rate of 10.42% (daytime with near-infrared illumination) is a very promising result for optical systems.

  15. Automotive Stirling Engine Development Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ernst, William D.; Shaltens, Richard K.

    1997-01-01

    The development and verification of automotive Stirling engine (ASE) component and system technology is described as it evolved through two experimental engine designs: the Mod 1 and the Mod 2. Engine operation and performance and endurance test results for the Mod 1 are summarized. Mod 2 engine and component development progress is traced from the original design through hardware development, laboratory test, and vehicle installation. More than 21,000 hr of testing were accomplished, including 4800 hr with vehicles that were driven more dm 59,000 miles. Mod 2 engine dynamometer tests demonstrated that the engine system configuration had accomplished its performance goals for power (60 kW) and efficiency (38.5%) to within a few percent. Tests with the Mod 2 engine installed in a delivery van demonstrated combined metro-highway fuel economy improvements consistent with engine performance goals and the potential for low emission levels. A modified version of the Mod 2 has been identified as a manufacturable design for an ASE. As part of the ASE project, the Industry Test and Evaluation Program (ITEP), NASA Technology Utilization (TU) project, and the industry-funded Stirling Natural Gas Engine program were undertaken to transfer ASE technology to end users. The results of these technology transfer efforts are also summarized.

  16. Advanced automotive diesel assessment program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sekar, R.; Tozzi, L.

    1983-01-01

    Cummins Engine Company completed an analytical study to identify an advanced automotive (light duty) diesel (AAD) power plant for a 3,000-pound passenger car. The study resulted in the definition of a revolutionary diesel engine with several novel features. A 3,000-pound car with this engine is predicted to give 96.3, 72.2, and 78.8 MPG in highway, city, and combined highway-city driving, respectively. This compares with current diesel powered cars yielding 41.7, 35.0, and 37.7 MPG. The time for 0-60 MPH acceleration is 13.9 sec. compared to the baseline of 15.2 sec. Four technology areas were identified as crucial in bringing this concept to fruition. They are: (1) part-load preheating, (2) positive displacement compounding, (3) spark assisted diesel combustion system, and (4) piston development for adiabatic, oilless diesel engine. Marketing and planning studies indicate that an aggressive program with significant commitment could result in a production car in 10 years from the date of commencement.

  17. Tribopolymerization: An advanced lubrication concept for automotive engines and systems of the future

    SciTech Connect

    Furey, M.J.; Kajdas, C.; Kaltenbach, K.W.

    1997-12-31

    Advanced lubrication technologies based on the concept of tribopolymerization as a mechanism of boundary lubrication are described. Advantages of this approach as well as potential applications which could have an impact on the design, manufacture, and performance of existing and future automotive engines are presented and discussed. Tribopolymerization, a novel concept of molecular design developed by Furey and Kajdas, involves the continuous formation of thin polymeric films on rubbing surfaces; the protective films formed are self-replenishing. The antiwear compounds developed from this technology are effective with metals as well as ceramics and in the liquid as well as vapor phases. Furthermore, they are ashless and contain no harmful phosphorus or sulfur; and many are biodegradable. Thus, potential applications of this technology are diverse and include a variety of cost/performance/energy/environmental advantages. Examples include the following: (a) machining and cutting applications using thin films to reduce friction and ceramic tool wear; (b) the lubrication of ceramic engines (e.g., low heat rejection diesel engines) or ceramic components; (c) the development of ashless lubricants for existing and future automotive engines to reduce exhaust catalyst poisoning and environmental emissions; (d) ashless antiwear or ``lubricity`` additives for fuels, including gasoline, diesel and jet fuel; (e) vapor phase applications of this technology to high temperature gaseous systems or to fuel injector wear problems associated with the use of natural gas engines; and (f) the use of the concept of tribopolymerization as an enabling technology in the development of new engines and new automotive propulsion systems.

  18. Magnetic analyses of powders from exhausted cabin air filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winkler, Aldo; Sagnotti, Leonardo

    2013-04-01

    The automotive cabin air filter is a pleated-paper filter placed in the outside-air intake for the car's passenger compartment. Dirty and saturated cabin air filters significantly reduce the airflow from the outside and introduce particulate matter (PM) and allergens (for example, pollen) into the cabin air stream. Magnetic measurements and analyses have been carried out on powders extracted from exhausted cabin air filters to characterize their magnetic properties and to compare them to those already reported for powders collected from disk brakes, gasoline exhaust pipes and Quercus ilex leaves. This study is also aimed at the identification and quantification of the contribution of the ultrafine fraction, superparamagnetic (SP) at room temperature, to the overall magnetic properties of these powders. This contribution was estimated by interpreting and comparing data from FORCs, isothermal remanent magnetization vs time decay curves, frequency and field dependence of the magnetic susceptibility and out-of-phase susceptibility. The magnetic properties and the distribution of the SP particles are generally homogenous and independent of the brand of the car, of the model of the filter and of its level of usage. The relatively high concentration of magnetic PM trapped in these filters poses relevant questions about the air quality inside a car.

  19. Understanding Automotive Exhaust Catalysts Using a Surface Science Approach: Model NOx Storage Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Szanyi, Janos; Yi, Cheol-Woo W.; Mudiyanselage, Kumudu K.; Kwak, Ja Hun

    2013-11-01

    The structure-reactivity relationships of model BaO-based NOx storage/reduction catalysts were investigated under well controlled experimental conditions using surface science analysis techniques. The reactivity of BaO toward NO2, CO2, and H2O was studied as a function of BaO layer thickness [0\\hBaO\\30 monolayer (ML)], sample temperature, reactant partial pressure, and the nature of the substrate the NOx storage material was deposited onto. Most of the efforts focused on understanding the mechanism of NO2 storage either on pure BaO, or on BaO exposed to CO2 or H2O prior to NO2 exposure. The interaction of NO2 with a pure BaO film results in the initial formation of nitrite/nitrate ion pairs by a cooperative adsorption mechanism predicted by prior theoretical calculations. The nitrites are then further oxidized to nitrates to produce a fully nitrated surface. The mechanism of NO2 uptake on thin BaO films (\\4 ML), BaO clusters (\\1 ML) and mixed BaO/Al2O3 layers are fundamentally different: in these systems initially nitrites are formed only, and then converted to nitrates at longer NO2 exposure times. These results clarify the contradicting mechanisms presented in prior studies in the literature. After the formation of a nitrate layer the further conversion of the underlying BaO is slow, and strongly depends on both the sample temperature and the NO2 partial pressure. At 300 K sample temperature amorphous Ba(NO3)2 forms that then can be converted to crystalline nitrates at elevated temperatures. The reaction between BaO and H2O is facile, a series of Ba(OH)2 phases form under the temperature and H2O partial pressure regimes studied. Both amorphous and crystalline Ba(OH)2 phases react with NO2, and initially form nitrites only that can be converted to nitrates. The NO2 adsorption capacities of BaO and Ba(OH)2 are identical, i.e., both of these phases can completely be converted to Ba(NO3)2. In contrast, the interaction of CO2 with pure BaO results in the formation of a BaCO3 layer that prevents to complete carbonation of the entire BaO film under the experimental conditions applied in these studies. However, these ‘‘carbonated’’ BaO layers readily react with NO2, and at elevated sample temperature even the carbonate layer is converted to nitrates. The importance of the metal oxide/metal interface in the chemistry on NOx storage-reduction catalysts was studied on BaO(\\1 ML)/Pt(111) reverse model catalysts. In comparison to the clean Pt(111), new oxygen adsorption phases were identified on the BaO/Pt(111) surface that can be associated with oxygen atoms strongly adsorbed on Pt atoms at the peripheries of BaO particles. A simple kinetic model developed helped explain the observed thermal desorption results. The role of the oxide/metal interface in the reduction of Ba(NO3)2 was also substantiated in experiments where Ba(NO3)2/O/Pt(111) samples were exposed to CO at elevated sample temperature. The catalytic decomposition of the nitrate phase occurred as soon as metal sites opened up by the removal of interfacial oxygen via CO oxidation from the O/Pt(111) surface. The temperature for catalytic nitrate reduction was found to be significantly lower than the onset temperature of thermal nitrate decomposition. We gratefully acknowledge the US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Science, Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences, and Biosciences for the support of this work. The research described in this paper was performed at the Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory (EMSL), a national user facility sponsored by the DOE Office of Biological and Environmental Research and located at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). PNNL is operated for the US DOE by Battelle under contract number DE-AC05-76RL01830.

  20. Gases in Tektite Bubbles.

    PubMed

    O'keefe, J A; Lowman, P D; Dunning, K L

    1962-07-20

    Spectroscopic analysis of light produced by electrodeless discharge in a tektite bubble showed the main gases in the bubble to be neon, helium, and oxygen. The neon and helium have probably diffused in from the atmosphere, while the oxygen may be atmospheric gas incorporated in the tektite during its formation. PMID:17801113

  1. Platinum availability for future automotive technologies.

    PubMed

    Alonso, Elisa; Field, Frank R; Kirchain, Randolph E

    2012-12-01

    Platinum is an excellent catalyst, can be used at high temperatures, and is stable in many aggressive chemical environments. Consequently, platinum is used in many current industrial applications, notably automotive catalytic converters, and prospective vehicle fuel cells are expected to rely upon it. Between 2005 and 2010, the automotive industry used approximately 40% of mined platinum. Future automotive industry growth and automotive sales shifts toward new technologies could significantly alter platinum demand. The potential risks for decreased platinum availability are evaluated, using an analysis of platinum market characteristics that describes platinum's geophysical constraints, institutional efficiency, and dynamic responsiveness. Results show that platinum demand for an automotive fleet that meets 450 ppm greenhouse gas stabilization goals would require within 10% of historical growth rates of platinum supply before 2025. However, such a fleet, due largely to sales growth in fuel cell vehicles, will more strongly constrain platinum supply in the 2050 time period. While current platinum reserves are sufficient to satisfy this increased demand, decreasing platinum ore grade and continued concentration of platinum supply in a single geographic area are availability risk factors to platinum end-users. PMID:23088692

  2. View of automotive repair and gas station, facing southwest from ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of automotive repair and gas station, facing southwest from across Pope Street. Garage built for storage of employee automobiles in left background - Automotive Repair & Gas Station, Southwest corner of Pope Street & Olympic Avenue, Port Gamble, Kitsap County, WA

  3. View of south elevation of Automotive and Tractor Repair Shops ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of south elevation of Automotive and Tractor Repair Shops with the Warehouse Fabrication Shop and Stack in the background, looking from the southwest - Kekaha Sugar Company, Automotive and Tractor Repair Shops, 8315 Kekaha Road, Kekaha, Kauai County, HI

  4. Lube rack of Automotive and Tractor Repair Shops with Warehousefield ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Lube rack of Automotive and Tractor Repair Shops with Warehouse-field Equipment Repair Shop Building's wall to the right, looking from the south - Kekaha Sugar Company, Automotive and Tractor Repair Shops, 8315 Kekaha Road, Kekaha, Kauai County, HI

  5. Use of gas-turbine exhaust for the direct drying of food products. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-06-01

    This report describes an investigation of the use of gas-turbine exhaust as a substitute for conventional burners in the direct drying of food products. Four different equipment configurations were examined, including: diluting exhaust gases with air to achieve suitable temperatures; directing exhaust through a heat exchanger; moving the exhaust through a heat recovery boiler and then a drying system; and utilizing a conventional gas turbine cogeneration system. The study determined that diluting exhaust with air and the heat recovery boiler/drying system were economically attractive. The concern with direct drying using gas turbine exhaust is that the presence of elevated nitrogen oxides in the gas may be found in the food products or cause the formation of nitrosamines (a potent carcinogen) in these products. The study concluded that for direct drying using turbine exhaust to be commercialized for food products, either methods for reducing nitrogren oxides levels must be developed for the turbines of pilot tests combined with food-product analysis have to be performed.

  6. Mercaptans emissions in diesel and biodiesel exhaust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corrêa, Sérgio Machado; Arbilla, Graciela

    Biodiesel and ethanol are fuels in clear growth and evidence, basically due to its relation with the greenhouse effect reduction. There are several works regarding regulated pollutants emissions, but there is a lack of reports in non-regulated emissions. In a previous paper (Corrêa and Arbilla, 2006) the emissions of aromatic hydrocarbons were reported and in 2007 another paper was published in 2008 focusing carbonyls emissions (Corrêa and Arbilla, 2008). In this work four mercaptans (methyl, ethyl, n-propyl and n-butyl mercaptans) were evaluated for a heavy-duty diesel engine, fueled with pure diesel (D) and biodiesel blends (v/v) of 2% (B2), 5% (B5), 10% (B10), and 20% (B20). The tests were carried using a six cylinder heavy-duty engine, typical of the Brazilian fleet of urban buses, during a real use across the city. The exhaust gases were diluted near 20 times and the mercaptans were sampled with glass fiber filters impregnated with mercuric acetate. The chemical analyses were performed by gas chromatography with mass spectrometry detection. The results indicated that the mercaptans emissions exhibit a reduction with the increase of biodiesel content, but this reduction is lower as the mercaptan molar mass increases. For B20 results the emission reduction was 18.4% for methyl mercaptan, 18.1% for ethyl mercaptan, 16.3% for n-propyl mercaptan, and 9.6% for n-butyl mercaptan.

  7. Fumigation of Alcohol in a Light Duty Automotive Diesel Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Broukhiyan, E. M. H.; Lestz, S. S.

    1981-01-01

    A light-duty automotive Diesel engine was fumigated with methanol in amounts up to 35% and 50% of the total fuel energy respectively in order to determine the effect of alcohol fumigation on engine performance at various operating conditons. Engine fuel efficiency, emissions, smoke, and the occurrence of severe knock were the parameters used to evaluate performance. Raw exhaust particulate and its soluble organic extract were screened for biological activity using the Ames Salmonella typhimurium assay. Results are given for a test matrix made up of twelve steady-state operating conditions. For all conditions except the 1/4 rack (light load) condition, modest thermal efficiency gains were noted upon ethanol fumigation. Methanol showed the same increase at 3/4 and full rack (high load) conditions. However, engine roughness or the occurrence of severe knock limited the maximum amount of alcohol that could be fumigated. Brake specific nitrogen oxide concentrations were found to decrease for all ethanol conditions tested. Oxides of nitrogen emissions, on a volume basis, decreased for all alcohol conditions tested. Based on the limited particulate data analyzed, it appears that ethanol fumigation, like methanol fumigation, while lowering the mass of particulated emitted, does enhance the biological activity of that particulate.

  8. Air admixture to exhaust jets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanger, Eugen

    1953-01-01

    The problem of thrust increase by air admixture to exhaust jets of rockets, turbojet, ram- and pulse-jet engines is investigated theoretically. The optimum ratio of mixing chamber pressure to ambient pressure and speed range for thrust increase due to air admixture is determined for each type of jet engine.

  9. BIOMARKERS OF DIESEL EXHAUST PARTICLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this project is to examine the detectability of some chemical components of diesel exhaust particles (DEP) in human urine following controlled human diesel exposures (IRB-approved). Ultimately, and upon validation, we propose to apply these components as biomarke...

  10. Best Practices in School-to-Careers: The Automotive Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Employer Leadership Council, Washington, DC.

    This document highlights the school-to-careers (STC) partnerships connecting workplace experiences to classroom learning to prepare students for successful employment in the automotive industry. First, the current state of the automotive industry is reviewed and the role of STC in addressing automotive service needs is explained. Next, the…

  11. Can Distance Learning Be Used to Teach Automotive Management Skills?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noto, Teresa L.

    2011-01-01

    Today's automotive college students will shape the future of the automobile industry. The success of college-level automotive programs has long been dependent on the students' ability to participate in hands-on classroom based interactions. In this article, distance learning and how it can be used to teach automotive management skills, as well as…

  12. Engine Performance Specialist. Instructor's Manual. Automotive Service Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This curriculum guide is one of a series automotive service specialty publications that continues students' training in the automotive service trade by providing instruction in the engine performance specialty. It is based on the National Institute of Automotive Service Excellence task lists. Each of the 16 units includes some or all of the basic…

  13. 25 CFR 117.10 - Purchase of automotive equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Purchase of automotive equipment. 117.10 Section 117.10... COMPETENCY § 117.10 Purchase of automotive equipment. The superintendent may disburse from the surplus funds of an adult Indian not to exceed $2,000 for the purchase of automotive equipment when the...

  14. 16 CFR 306.10 - Automotive fuel rating posting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Automotive fuel rating posting. 306.10 Section 306.10 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS AUTOMOTIVE FUEL RATINGS, CERTIFICATION AND POSTING Duties of Retailers § 306.10 Automotive fuel rating posting. (a) If you are a retailer, you...

  15. 16 CFR 306.5 - Automotive fuel rating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Automotive fuel rating. 306.5 Section 306.5 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS AUTOMOTIVE FUEL RATINGS, CERTIFICATION AND POSTING Duties of Refiners, Importers and Producers § 306.5 Automotive fuel rating. If you are a refiner,...

  16. 16 CFR 306.5 - Automotive fuel rating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Automotive fuel rating. 306.5 Section 306.5 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS AUTOMOTIVE FUEL RATINGS, CERTIFICATION AND POSTING Duties of Refiners, Importers and Producers § 306.5 Automotive fuel rating. If you are a refiner,...

  17. 16 CFR 306.10 - Automotive fuel rating posting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Automotive fuel rating posting. 306.10 Section 306.10 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS AUTOMOTIVE FUEL RATINGS, CERTIFICATION AND POSTING Duties of Retailers § 306.10 Automotive fuel rating posting. (a) If you are a retailer, you...

  18. Electrical Systems Specialist. Teacher Edition. Automotive Service Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This curriculum guide is one of a series of automotive service specialty publications that continues students' training in the automotive service trade by providing instruction in the electrical systems speciality. It is based on the National Institute of Automotive Service Excellence tasks lists. It contains nine units. Each unit includes some or…

  19. 25 CFR 117.10 - Purchase of automotive equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Purchase of automotive equipment. 117.10 Section 117.10... COMPETENCY § 117.10 Purchase of automotive equipment. The superintendent may disburse from the surplus funds of an adult Indian not to exceed $2,000 for the purchase of automotive equipment when the...

  20. 25 CFR 117.10 - Purchase of automotive equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Purchase of automotive equipment. 117.10 Section 117.10... COMPETENCY § 117.10 Purchase of automotive equipment. The superintendent may disburse from the surplus funds of an adult Indian not to exceed $2,000 for the purchase of automotive equipment when the...

  1. 25 CFR 117.10 - Purchase of automotive equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Purchase of automotive equipment. 117.10 Section 117.10... COMPETENCY § 117.10 Purchase of automotive equipment. The superintendent may disburse from the surplus funds of an adult Indian not to exceed $2,000 for the purchase of automotive equipment when the...

  2. 7 CFR 3201.101 - Automotive care products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Automotive care products. 3201.101 Section 3201.101... Designated Items § 3201.101 Automotive care products. (a) Definition. Products such as waxes, buffing..., and fragrances that are formulated for cleaning and protecting automotive surfaces. (b)...

  3. 25 CFR 117.10 - Purchase of automotive equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Purchase of automotive equipment. 117.10 Section 117.10... COMPETENCY § 117.10 Purchase of automotive equipment. The superintendent may disburse from the surplus funds of an adult Indian not to exceed $2,000 for the purchase of automotive equipment when the...

  4. Chemical kinetic simulation of hydrocarbon oxidation through the exhaust port of a spark ignition engine

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, K.C.; Hochgreb, S.

    1996-12-01

    The oxidation of unburned hydrocarbons, remaining in the cylinder of a spark-ignited engine after the main combustion event, takes place both in-cylinder and in the exhaust port. Hydrocarbons emerging from engine tailpipes consist of unburned fuel as well as products of incomplete combustion. This paper addresses the extent of oxidation and the production of nonfuel species in the exhaust port of a single-cylinder spark-ignition engine. Simulations of the unsteady thermal and composition state of the gases emerging from the cylinder were coupled to detailed chemistry models of the oxidation of hydrocarbons (propane, isooctane, methane, and ethane) to determine the change in the average composition of the gas as it passes through the exhaust port. The results are compared to previously measured speciated compositions of the exhaust gases at the exhaust port inlet and outlet. A stratification parameter to represent the growth of the thermal boundary layer due to heat transfer is added to the simplified unsteady plug flow simulation. Comparisons between model and experiment show that the concentration of products of incomplete combustion can only be adequately reproduced if stratification effects are taken into account.

  5. The effect of exhaust plume/afterbody interaction on installed Scramjet performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, Thomas Alan

    1988-01-01

    Newly emerging aerospace technology points to the feasibility of sustained hypersonic flight. Designing a propulsion system capable of generating the necessary thrust is now the major obstacle. First-generation vehicles will be driven by air-breathing scramjet (supersonic combustion ramjet) engines. Because of engine size limitations, the exhaust gas leaving the nozzle will be highly underexpanded. Consequently, a significant amount of thrust and lift can be extracted by allowing the exhaust gases to expand along the underbody of the vehicle. Predicting how these forces influence overall vehicle thrust, lift, and moment is essential to a successful design. This work represents an important first step toward that objective. The UWIN code, an upwind, implicit Navier-Stokes computer program, has been applied to hypersonic exhaust plume/afterbody flow fields. The capability to solve entire vehicle geometries at hypersonic speeds, including an interacting exhaust plume, has been demonstrated for the first time. Comparison of the numerical results with available experimental data shows good agreement in all cases investigated. For moderately underexpanded jets, afterbody forces were found to vary linearly with the nozzle exit pressure, and increasing the exit pressure produced additional nose-down pitching moment. Coupling a species continuity equation to the UWIN code enabled calculations indicating that exhaust gases with low isentropic exponents (gamma) contribute larger afterbody forces than high-gamma exhaust gases. Moderately underexpanded jets, which remain attached to unswept afterbodies, underwent streamwise separation on upswept afterbodies. Highly underexpanded jets produced altogether different flow patterns, however. The highly underexpanded jet creates a strong plume shock, and the interaction of this shock with the afterbody was found to produce complicated patterns of crossflow separation. Finally, the effect of thrust vectoring on vehicle balance has

  6. Separating aluminum from shredded automotive scrap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Ching-Hwa; Cheau, Tei-Chih; Chen, Sang-Teh

    1994-05-01

    The metals recovered from automotive scrap can provide important resources for industrial development. Thus, the construction of a new plant was undertaken to help recycle valuable metals from nonferrous auto scrap in Taiwan. The main purpose of this project was to establish an automated heavy medium separation technique to cull aluminum from automotive scrap, and thus to replace the labor-intensive hand-picking process. The design capacity of the resulting heavy medium separation plant is two tonnes per hour and the completion of this plant will reduce hand-picking labor by 80%.

  7. Mod I automotive Stirling engine mechanical development

    SciTech Connect

    Simetkosky, M.

    1984-01-01

    The Mod I Stirling engine was the first automotive Stirling engine designed specifically for automotive application. Testing of these engines has revealed several deficiencies in engine mechanical integrity which have been corrected by redesign or upgrade. The main deficiencies uncovered during the Mod I program lie in the combustion, auxiliary, main seal, and heater head areas. This paper will address each of the major area deficiencies in detail, and describe the corrective actions taken as they apply to the Mod I and the next Stirling-engine design, the Upgraded Mod I (a redesign to incorporate new materials for cost/weight reduction and improved performance).

  8. Status and Trend of Automotive Power Packaging

    SciTech Connect

    Liang, Zhenxian

    2012-01-01

    Comprehensive requirements in aspects of cost, reliability, efficiency, form factor, weight, and volume for power electronics modules in modern electric drive vehicles have driven the development of automotive power packaging technology intensively. Innovation in materials, interconnections, and processing techniques is leading to enormous improvements in power modules. In this paper, the technical development of and trends in power module packaging are evaluated by examining technical details with examples of industrial products. The issues and development directions for future automotive power module packaging are also discussed.

  9. Nanotechnology impact on the automotive industry.

    PubMed

    Wong, Kaufui V; Paddon, Patrick A

    2014-01-01

    Nanotechnology has been implemented widely in the automotive industry. This technology is particularly useful in coatings, fabrics, structural materials, fluids, lubricants, tires, and preliminary applications in smart glass/windows and video display systems. A special sub-class of improved materials, alternative energy, has also seen a boost from advances in nanotechnology, and continues to be an active research area. A correlation exists in the automotive industry between the areas with increased nanotechnology incorporation and those with increased profit margins via improvements and customer demands. PMID:25360613

  10. Secondary organic aerosol formation from the irradiation of simulated automobile exhaust.

    PubMed

    Kleindienst, T E; Corse, E W; Li, W; McIver, C D; Conver, T S; Edney, E O; Driscoll, D J; Speer, R E; Weathers, W S; Tejada, S B

    2002-03-01

    A laboratory study was conducted to evaluate the potential for secondary organic aerosol formation from emissions from automotive exhaust. The goal was to determine to what extent photochemical oxidation products of these hydrocarbons contribute to secondary organic aerosol (SOA) and how well their formation is described by recently developed models for SOA formation. The quality of a surrogate was tested by comparing its reactivity with that from irradiations of authentic automobile exhaust. Experiments for secondary particle formation using the surrogate were conducted in a fixed volume reactor operated in a dynamic mode. The mass concentration of the aerosol was determined from measurements of organic carbon collected on quartz filters and was corrected for the presence of hydrogen, nitrogen, and oxygen atoms in the organic species. A functional group analysis of the aerosol made by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy indicated PMID:11924857

  11. Automotive airborne brake wear debris nanoparticles and cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay in peripheral blood lymphocytes: A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Kazimirova, Alena; Peikertova, Pavlina; Barancokova, Magdalena; Staruchova, Marta; Tulinska, Jana; Vaculik, Miroslav; Vavra, Ivo; Kukutschova, Jana; Filip, Peter; Dusinska, Maria

    2016-07-01

    Motor vehicle exhaust and non-exhaust processes play a significant role in environmental pollution, as they are a source of the finest particulate matter. Emissions from non-exhaust processes include wear-products of brakes, tires, automotive hardware, road surface, and traffic signs, but still are paid little attention to. Automotive friction composites for brake pads are composite materials which may consist of potentially hazardous materials and there is a lack of information regarding the potential influence of the brake wear debris (BWD) on the environment, especially on human health. Thus, we focused our study on the genotoxicity of the airborne fraction of BWD using a brake pad model representing an average low-metallic formulation available in the EU market. BWD was generated in the laboratory by a full-scale brake dynamometer and characterized by Raman microspectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy showing that it contains nano-sized crystalline metal-based particles. Genotoxicity tested in human lymphocytes in different testing conditions showed an increase in frequencies of micronucleated binucleated cells (MNBNCs) exposed for 48h to BWD nanoparticles (NPs) (with 10% of foetal calf serum in culture medium) compared with lymphocytes exposed to medium alone, statistically significant only at the concentration 3µg/cm(2) (p=0.032). PMID:27131798

  12. CFD modeling of thermoelectric generators in automotive EGR-coolers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Högblom, Olle; Andersson, Ronnie

    2012-06-01

    A large amount of the waste heat in the exhaust gases from diesel engines is removed in the exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) cooler. Introducing a thermoelectric generator (TEG) in an EGR cooler requires a completely new design of the heat exchanger. To accomplish that a model of the TEG-EGR system is required. In this work, a transient 3D CFD model for simulation of gas flow, heat transfer and power generation has been developed. This model allows critical design parameters in the TEG-EGR to be identified and design requirements for the systems to be specified. Besides the prediction of Seebeck, Peltier, Thomson and Joule effects, the simulations also give detailed insight to the temperature gradients in the gas-phase and inside the thermoelectric (TE) elements. The model is a very valuable tool to identify bottlenecks, improve design, select optimal TE materials and operating conditions. The results show that the greatest heat transfer resistance is located in the gas phase and it is critical to reduce this in order to achieve a large temperature difference over the thermoelectric elements without compromising on the maximum allowable pressure drop in the system. Further results from an investigation of the thermoelectric performance during a vehicle test cycle is presented.

  13. 19 CFR 10.84 - Automotive vehicles and articles for use as original equipment in the manufacture of automotive...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Automotive vehicles and articles for use as original equipment in the manufacture of automotive vehicles. 10.84 Section 10.84 Customs Duties U.S... CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. General Provisions Automotive Products § 10.84...

  14. Exhaust gas treatment in testing nuclear rocket engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zweig, Herbert R.; Fischler, Stanley; Wagner, William R.

    1993-01-01

    With the exception of the last test series of the Rover program, Nuclear Furnace 1, test-reactor and rocket engine hydrogen gas exhaust generated during the Rover/NERVA program was released directly to the atmosphere, without removal of the associated fission products and other radioactive debris. Current rules for nuclear facilities (DOE Order 5480.6) are far more protective of the general environment; even with the remoteness of the Nevada Test Site, introduction of potentially hazardous quantities of radioactive waste into the atmosphere must be scrupulously avoided. The Rocketdyne treatment concept features a diffuser to provide altitude simulation and pressure recovery, a series of heat exchangers to gradually cool the exhaust gas stream to 100 K, and an activated charcoal bed for adsorption of inert gases. A hydrogen-gas fed ejector provides auxiliary pumping for startup and shutdown of the engine. Supplemental filtration to remove particulates and condensed phases may be added at appropriate locations in the system. The clean hydrogen may be exhausted to the atmosphere and flared, or the gas may be condensed and stored for reuse in testing. The latter approach totally isolates the working gas from the environment.

  15. Exhaust gas treatment in testing nuclear rocket engines

    SciTech Connect

    Zweig, H.R.; Fischler, S.; Wagner, W.R. )

    1993-01-15

    With the exception of the last test series of the Rover program, Nuclear Furnace 1, test-reactor and rocket engine hydrogen gas exhaust generated during the Rover/NERVA program was released directly to the atmosphere, without removal of the associated fission products and other radioactive debris. Current rules for nuclear facilities (DOE Order 5480.6) are far more protective of the general environment; even with the remoteness of the Nevada Test Site, introduction of potentially hazardous quantities of radioactive waste into the atmosphere must be scrupulously avoided. The Rocketdyne treatment concept features a diffuser to provide altitude simulation and pressure recovery, a series of heat exchangers to gradually cool the exhaust gas stream to 100 K, and an activated charcoal bed for adsorption of inert gases. A hydrogen-gas fed ejector provides auxiliary pumping for startup and shutdown of the engine. Supplemental filtration to remove particulates and condensed phases may be added at appropriate locations in the system. The clean hydrogen may be exhausted to the atmosphere and flared, or the gas may be condensed and stored for reuse in testing. The latter approach totally isolates the working gas from the environment.

  16. Diesel exhaust and asthma: hypotheses and molecular mechanisms of action.

    PubMed Central

    Pandya, Robert J; Solomon, Gina; Kinner, Amy; Balmes, John R

    2002-01-01

    Several components of air pollution have been linked to asthma. In addition to the well-studied critera air pollutants, such as nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, and ozone, diesel exhaust and diesel exhaust particles (DEPs) also appear to play a role in respiratory and allergic diseases. Diesel exhaust is composed of vapors, gases, and fine particles emitted by diesel-fueled compression-ignition engines. DEPs can act as nonspecific airway irritants at relatively high levels. At lower levels, DEPs promote release of specific cytokines, chemokines, immunoglobulins, and oxidants in the upper and lower airway. Release of these mediators of the allergic and inflammatory response initiates a cascade that can culminate in airway inflammation, mucus secretion, serum leakage into the airways, and bronchial smooth muscle contraction. DEPs also may promote expression of the T(subscript)H(/subscript)2 immunologic response phenotype that has been associated with asthma and allergic disease. DEPs appear to have greater immunologic effects in the presence of environmental allergens than they do alone. This immunologic evidence may help explain the epidemiologic studies indicating that children living along major trucking thoroughfares are at increased risk for asthmatic and allergic symptoms and are more likely to have objective evidence of respiratory dysfunction. PMID:11834468

  17. Diesel exhaust and asthma: hypotheses and molecular mechanisms of action.

    PubMed

    Pandya, Robert J; Solomon, Gina; Kinner, Amy; Balmes, John R

    2002-02-01

    Several components of air pollution have been linked to asthma. In addition to the well-studied critera air pollutants, such as nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, and ozone, diesel exhaust and diesel exhaust particles (DEPs) also appear to play a role in respiratory and allergic diseases. Diesel exhaust is composed of vapors, gases, and fine particles emitted by diesel-fueled compression-ignition engines. DEPs can act as nonspecific airway irritants at relatively high levels. At lower levels, DEPs promote release of specific cytokines, chemokines, immunoglobulins, and oxidants in the upper and lower airway. Release of these mediators of the allergic and inflammatory response initiates a cascade that can culminate in airway inflammation, mucus secretion, serum leakage into the airways, and bronchial smooth muscle contraction. DEPs also may promote expression of the T(subscript)H(/subscript)2 immunologic response phenotype that has been associated with asthma and allergic disease. DEPs appear to have greater immunologic effects in the presence of environmental allergens than they do alone. This immunologic evidence may help explain the epidemiologic studies indicating that children living along major trucking thoroughfares are at increased risk for asthmatic and allergic symptoms and are more likely to have objective evidence of respiratory dysfunction. PMID:11834468

  18. 46 CFR 169.609 - Exhaust systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Electrical Internal Combustion Engine Installations § 169.609 Exhaust systems. Engine exhaust installations... separate from the engine cooling system, a suitable warning device must be provided to indicate a...

  19. 46 CFR 169.609 - Exhaust systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Electrical Internal Combustion Engine Installations § 169.609 Exhaust systems. Engine exhaust installations... separate from the engine cooling system, a suitable warning device must be provided to indicate a...

  20. 46 CFR 169.609 - Exhaust systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Electrical Internal Combustion Engine Installations § 169.609 Exhaust systems. Engine exhaust installations... separate from the engine cooling system, a suitable warning device must be provided to indicate a...

  1. 46 CFR 169.609 - Exhaust systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Electrical Internal Combustion Engine Installations § 169.609 Exhaust systems. Engine exhaust installations... separate from the engine cooling system, a suitable warning device must be provided to indicate a...

  2. 46 CFR 169.609 - Exhaust systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Electrical Internal Combustion Engine Installations § 169.609 Exhaust systems. Engine exhaust installations... separate from the engine cooling system, a suitable warning device must be provided to indicate a...

  3. 49 CFR 325.91 - Exhaust systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... the visual exhaust system inspection requirements, 40 CFR 202.22, of the Interstate Motor Carrier... or deterioration of muffler elements, (small traces of soot on flexible exhaust pipe sections...

  4. 49 CFR 325.91 - Exhaust systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... the visual exhaust system inspection requirements, 40 CFR 202.22, of the Interstate Motor Carrier... or deterioration of muffler elements, (small traces of soot on flexible exhaust pipe sections...

  5. 49 CFR 325.91 - Exhaust systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... the visual exhaust system inspection requirements, 40 CFR 202.22, of the Interstate Motor Carrier... or deterioration of muffler elements, (small traces of soot on flexible exhaust pipe sections...

  6. 49 CFR 325.91 - Exhaust systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... the visual exhaust system inspection requirements, 40 CFR 202.22, of the Interstate Motor Carrier... or deterioration of muffler elements, (small traces of soot on flexible exhaust pipe sections...

  7. Engine Would Recover Exhaust Energy More Efficiently

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dimpelfeld, Philip M.

    1993-01-01

    Exhaust energy used for supercharging and extra shaft power. Flow of exhaust apportioned by waste gate to meet demand of turbocharger, and portion not fed to turbocharger sent to power-recovery turbine. Expected to increase fuel efficiency.

  8. Injection of Nuclear Rocket Engine Exhaust into Deep Unsaturated Zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, C. A.; Decker, D.

    2008-05-01

    Nuclear rocket engine technology is being considered as a means of interplanetary vehicle propulsion for a manned mission to Mars. To achieve this, a test and development facility must be constructed to safely run nuclear engines. The testing of nuclear engines in the 1950's and 1960's was accomplished by exhausting the engine gases into the atmosphere, a practice that is no longer acceptable. Injection into deep unsaturated zones of radioactive exhaust gases and water vapor associated with the testing of nuclear rocket engines is being considered as a way of sequestering radionuclides from the environment. Numerical simulations were conducted to determine the ability of an unsaturated zone with the hydraulic properties of Frenchman Flat alluvium at the Nevada Test Site to contain gas-phase radionuclides. Gas and water vapor were injected for two hours at rates of 14.5 kg s-1 and 15 kg s-1, respectively, in an interval between 100 and 430 m below the land surface into alluvium with an intrinsic permeability of 10-11 m2 and porosity of 0.35. The results show that during a test of an engine, radionuclides with at least greater than 10-year half-lives may reach the land surface within several years after injection. Radionuclide transport is primarily controlled by the upward pressure gradient from the point of injection to the lower (atmospheric) pressure boundary condition at the land surface. Radionuclides with half-lives on the order of days should undergo enough decay prior to reaching the land surface. A cooling water vapor injected into the unsaturated zone simultaneously with the exhaust gas will condense within several meters of the injection point and drain downward toward the water table. However, the nearly horizontal hydraulic groundwater gradient present in several of the basins at NTS should limit lateral migration of radionuclides away from the vicinity of injection.

  9. Helicopter engine exhaust rotor downwash effects on laser beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henriksson, Markus; Sjöqvist, Lars; Seiffer, Dirk

    2015-10-01

    The hot exhaust gases from engines on helicopters are pushed down by the rotor in a turbulent flow. When the optical path of a laser beam or optical sensor passes through this region severe aberrations of the optical field may result. These perturbations will lead to beam wander and beam distortions that can limit the performance of optical countermeasure systems. To quantify these effects the Italian Air Force Flight Test Centre hosted a trial for the "Airborne platform effects on lasers and warning sensors" (ALWS) EDA-project. Laser beams were propagated from the airport control tower to a target screen in a slant path with the helicopter hovering over this path. Collimated laser beams at 1.55-, 2- and 4.6-μm wavelength were imaged with high speed cameras. Large increases in beam wander and beam divergence were found, with beam wander up to 200 μrad root-mean-square and increases in beam divergence up to 1 mrad. To allow scaling to other laser beam parameters and geometries formulas for propagation in atmospheric turbulence were used even though the turbulence may not follow Kolmogorov statistics. By assuming that the plume is short compared to the total propagation distance the integrated structure parameter through the plume could be calculated. Values in the range 10-10 to 10-8 m1/3 were found when the laser beams passed through the exhaust gases below the helicopter tail. The integrated structure parameter values calculated from beam wander were consistently lower than those calculated from long term spot size, indicating that the method is not perfect but provides information about order of magnitudes. The measured results show that the engine exhaust for worst case beam directions will dominate over atmospheric turbulence even for kilometer path lengths from a helicopter at low altitude. How severe the effect is on system performance will depend on beam and target parameters.

  10. 46 CFR 128.320 - Exhaust systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Exhaust systems. 128.320 Section 128.320 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS MARINE ENGINEERING: EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Main and Auxiliary Machinery § 128.320 Exhaust systems. No diesel-engine exhaust...

  11. 14 CFR 23.1123 - Exhaust system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Exhaust system. 23.1123 Section 23.1123 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS... Exhaust system. (a) Each exhaust system must be fireproof and corrosion-resistant, and must have means...

  12. 14 CFR 23.1123 - Exhaust system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Exhaust system. 23.1123 Section 23.1123 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS... Exhaust system. (a) Each exhaust system must be fireproof and corrosion-resistant, and must have means...

  13. 14 CFR 23.1123 - Exhaust system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Exhaust system. 23.1123 Section 23.1123 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS... Exhaust system. (a) Each exhaust system must be fireproof and corrosion-resistant, and must have means...

  14. 14 CFR 23.1123 - Exhaust system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Exhaust system. 23.1123 Section 23.1123 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS... Exhaust system. (a) Each exhaust system must be fireproof and corrosion-resistant, and must have means...

  15. 40 CFR 1065.130 - Engine exhaust.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ....130 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS... exhaust tubing that has either a wall thickness of less than 2 mm or is air gap-insulated to minimize... balance of fuel, intake air, and exhaust according to § 1065.655 to verify exhaust system integrity....

  16. 40 CFR 1065.130 - Engine exhaust.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ....130 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS... exhaust tubing that has either a wall thickness of less than 2 mm or is air gap-insulated to minimize... balance of fuel, intake air, and exhaust according to § 1065.655 to verify exhaust system integrity....

  17. 40 CFR 1065.130 - Engine exhaust.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ....130 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS... exhaust tubing that has either a wall thickness of less than 2 mm or is air gap-insulated to minimize..., intake air, and exhaust according to § 1065.655 to verify exhaust system integrity. (f)...

  18. 40 CFR 1065.130 - Engine exhaust.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ....130 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS... exhaust tubing that has either a wall thickness of less than 2 mm or is air gap-insulated to minimize... balance of fuel, intake air, and exhaust according to § 1065.655 to verify exhaust system integrity....

  19. 40 CFR 1065.130 - Engine exhaust.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ....130 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS... exhaust tubing that has either a wall thickness of less than 2 mm or is air gap-insulated to minimize... balance of fuel, intake air, and exhaust according to § 1065.655 to verify exhaust system integrity....

  20. 46 CFR 128.320 - Exhaust systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Exhaust systems. 128.320 Section 128.320 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS MARINE ENGINEERING: EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Main and Auxiliary Machinery § 128.320 Exhaust systems. No diesel-engine exhaust...

  1. 46 CFR 128.320 - Exhaust systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Exhaust systems. 128.320 Section 128.320 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS MARINE ENGINEERING: EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Main and Auxiliary Machinery § 128.320 Exhaust systems. No diesel-engine exhaust...

  2. 46 CFR 128.320 - Exhaust systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Exhaust systems. 128.320 Section 128.320 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS MARINE ENGINEERING: EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Main and Auxiliary Machinery § 128.320 Exhaust systems. No diesel-engine exhaust...

  3. 46 CFR 128.320 - Exhaust systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Exhaust systems. 128.320 Section 128.320 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS MARINE ENGINEERING: EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Main and Auxiliary Machinery § 128.320 Exhaust systems. No diesel-engine exhaust...

  4. Automotive Stirling Engine Development Program: A success

    SciTech Connect

    Tabata, W.K.

    1987-01-01

    The original 5 y Automotive Stirling Engine Development Program has been stretched to a 10 y program due to reduced annual funding levels. With an estimated completion date of April 1988, the technical achievements and the prospectives of meeting the original program objectives are reviewed. Various other applications of this developed Stirling engine technology are also discussed.

  5. Basic Automotive Responsibilities. Life Skills. Teacher Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This teacher's guide is designed for use in presenting a four-unit course in basic automotive responsibilities that is part of a life skills series intended to help students become more self-sufficient in their personal and professional lives. The course's four instructional units cover these topics: purchasing a motor vehicle, maintaining a motor…

  6. PHYSICS AND CHEMISTRY FOR THE AUTOMOTIVE TRADES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WORTHING, ROBERT

    DESIGNED FOR STUDENT USE, THIS MANUAL PRESENTS RELATED INFORMATION AND LABORATORY EXPERIMENTS FOR A 1-YEAR COURSE IN APPLIED PHYSICS AND CHEMISTRY. IT WAS DEVELOPED BY ESSEX COUNTY AUTOMOTIVE TEACHERS. CONTENT HEADINGS ARE -- (1) MATTER AND ITS PROPERTIES (15 EXPERIMENTS), (2) MECHANICS (4 EXPERIMENTS), (3) HEAT (3 EXPERIMENTS), (4) ELECTRICITY (8…

  7. Solidification studies of automotive heat exchanger materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlberg, T.; Jaradeh, M.; Kamgou Kamaga, H.

    2006-11-01

    Modifications of the aluminum alloy AA 3003 have been studied to improve and tailorits properties for applications in automotive heat exchangers. Laboratory techniques have been applied to simulate industrial direct-chill casting, and some basic solidification studies have been conducted. The results are coupled to structures observed in industrial-size ingots and discussed in terms of structure-property relations.

  8. Techno-economic requirements for automotive composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnold, Scot

    1993-01-01

    New technology generally serves two main goals of the automotive industry: one is to enable vehicles to comply with various governmental regulations and the other is to provide a competitive edge in the market. The latter goal can either be served through improved manufacturing and design capabilities, such as computer aided design and computer aided manufacturing, or through improved product performance, such as anti-lock braking (ABS). Although safety features are sometimes customer driven, such as the increasing use of airbags and ABS, most are determined by regulations as outlined by the Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards (FMVSS). Other standards, set by the Environmental Protection Agency, determine acceptable levels of emissions and fuel consumption. State governments, such as in California, are also setting precedent standards, such as requiring manufacturers to offer zero-emission vehicles as a certain fraction of their sales in the state. The drive to apply new materials in the automobile stems from the need to reduce weight and improve fuel efficiency. Topics discussed include: new lightweight materials; types of automotive materials; automotive composite applications; the role for composite materials in automotive applications; advantages and disadvantages of composite materials; material substitution economics; economic perspective; production economics; and composite materials production economics.

  9. Plastic optical fibers for automotive applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suganuma, Heiroku; Matsunaga, Tadayo

    1991-12-01

    High heat resistant optical fibers (POFs) have been developed for various automotive applications. Plastic chips with POF light guide have been used in place of a clearance monitor lamp. POF cords and cables have been used in the car-audio system, car-navigation system, and other data communication systems. This paper describes the structures, properties, and reliabilities of POFs for these applications.

  10. Automotive Stirling engine development program - A success

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tabata, William K.

    1987-01-01

    The original 5-year Automotive Stirling Engine Development Program has been extended to 10 years due to reduced annual funding levels. With an estimated completion date of April 1988, the technical achievements and the prospectives of meeting the original program objectives are reviewed. Various other applications of this developed Stirling engine technology are also discussed.

  11. Automotive Stirling engine development program: A success

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tabata, W. K.

    1987-01-01

    The original 5-yr Automotive Stirling Engine Development Program has been extended to 10 years due to reduced annual funding levels. With an estimated completion date of April 1988, the technical achievements and the prospectives of meeting the original program objectives are reviewed. Various other applications of this developed Stirling engine technology are also discussed.

  12. Automotive gear oil lubricant from soybean oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The use of lubricants that are based on renewable materials is rapidly increasing. Vegetable oils have good lubricity, wear protection and low volatility which are desired properties for automotive gear lubricant applications. Soybean oil is used widely in the lubricant industry due to its properti...

  13. Automotive Body Repair. Performance Objectives. Basic Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lang, Thomas

    Several intermediate performance objectives and corresponding criterion measures are listed for each of 15 terminal objectives for a basic automotive body repair and refinishing course. The materials were developed for a two-semester (2 hours daily) course for organized classroom and shop experiences designed to enable the student to develop…

  14. Automotive Body Repair. Performance Objectives. Intermediate Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lang, Thomas

    Several intermediate performance objectives and corresponding criterion measures are listed for each of 10 terminal objectives for an intermediate automotive body repair and refinishing course. The materials were developed for a two-semester (3 hours daily) course for specialized classrooms, shop, and practical experiences designed to enable the…

  15. Illinois Occupational Skill Standards: Automotive Technician Cluster.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois Occupational Skill Standards and Credentialing Council, Carbondale.

    This document, which is intended as a guide for work force preparation program providers, details the Illinois occupational skill standards for programs preparing students for employment in occupations in the automotive technician cluster. The document begins with overviews of the Illinois perspective on occupational skill standards and…

  16. National Apprenticeship Standards for Automotive Machinist.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manpower Administration (DOL), Washington, DC. Bureau of Apprenticeship and Training.

    These 24 standards have been adopted by the Automotive Service Industry Association to provide well-planned, properly supervised training for apprentices to develop into competent machinists. The goal of the standards is to establish and maintain high criteria of workmanship, to develop knowledge by workers of technical and theoretical aspects of…

  17. Orientation: Automotive Mechanics Instructional Program. Block 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Brien, Ralph D.

    The first six instructional blocks in automotive mechanics, the lessons and supportive information in the document provide a guide for teachers in planning an instructional program in the basic theory and practice of a beginning course at the secondary and post-secondary level. The material, as organized, is a suggested sequence of instruction…

  18. Energy Cost Reduction for Automotive Service Facilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Energy Administration, Washington, DC.

    This handbook on energy cost reduction for automotive service facilities consists of four sections. The importance and economic benefits of energy conservation are discussed in the first section. In the second section six energy cost reduction measures are discussed: relamping interior areas; relamping and reducing interior lighting; setting back…

  19. Automotive Technology. Florida Vocational Program Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    University of South Florida, Tampa. Dept. of Adult and Vocational Education.

    This program guide identifies primary concerns in the organization, operation, and evaluation of an automotive technology program. It is designed for local school district and community college administrators, instructors, program advisory committees, and regional coordinating councils. The guide begins with the Dictionary of Occupational Titles…

  20. Automotive Service Technology. Florida Vocational Program Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    University of South Florida, Tampa. Dept. of Adult and Vocational Education.

    This program guide identifies primary concerns in the organization, operation, and evaluation of an automotive service technology program. It is designed for local school district and community college administrators, instructors, program advisory committees, and regional coordinating councils. The guide begins with the Dictionary of Occupational…

  1. Basic Automotive Mechanics. Florida Vocational Program Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    University of South Florida, Tampa. Dept. of Adult and Vocational Education.

    This program guide identifies primary concerns in the organization, operation, and evaluation of a basic automotive mechanics program. It is designed for local school district and community college administrators, instructors, program advisory committees, and regional coordinating councils. The guide begins with the Dictionary of Occupational…

  2. Metrics for Automotive Merchandising, Petroleum Marketing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Gloria S., Ed.; Magisos, Joel H., Ed.

    Designed to meet the job-related metric measurement needs of students in automotive merchandising and petroleum marketing classes, this instructional package is one of five for the marketing and distribution cluster, part of a set of 55 packages for metric instruction in different occupations. The package is intended for students who already know…

  3. Exhaust emission control and diagnostics

    DOEpatents

    Mazur, Christopher John; Upadhyay, Devesh

    2006-11-14

    A diesel engine emission control system uses an upstream oxidation catalyst and a downstream SCR catalyst to reduce NOx in a lean exhaust gas environment. The engine and upstream oxidation catalyst are configured to provide approximately a 1:1 ratio of NO to NO2 entering the downstream catalyst. In this way, the downstream catalyst is insensitive to sulfur contamination, and also has improved overall catalyst NOx conversion efficiency. Degradation of the system is determined when the ratio provided is no longer near the desired 1:1 ratio. This condition is detected using measurements of engine operating conditions such as from a NOx sensor located downstream of the catalysts. Finally, control action to adjust an injected amount of reductant in the exhaust gas based on the actual NO to NO2 ratio upstream of the SCR catalyst and downstream of the oxidation catalyst.

  4. Space shuttle exhaust cloud properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, B. J.; Keller, V. W.

    1983-01-01

    A data base describing the properties of the exhaust cloud produced by the launch of the Space Transportation System and the acidic fallout observed after each of the first four launches was assembled from a series of ground and aircraft based measurements made during the launches of STS 2, 3, and 4. Additional data were obtained from ground-based measurements during firings of the 6.4 percent model of the Solid Rocket Booster at the Marshall Center. Analysis indicates that the acidic fallout is produced by atomization of the deluge water spray by the rocket exhaust on the pad followed by rapid scavening of hydrogen chloride gas aluminum oxide particles from the Solid Rocket Boosters. The atomized spray is carried aloft by updrafts created by the hot exhaust and deposited down wind. Aircraft measurements in the STS-3 ground cloud showed an insignificant number of ice nuclei. Although no measurements were made in the column cloud, the possibility of inadvertent weather modification caused by the interaction of ice nuclei with natural clouds appears remote.

  5. Reducing drag of a commuter train, using engine exhaust momentum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ha, Dong Keun

    The objective of this thesis was to perform numerical investigations of two different methods of injecting fluid momentum into the air flow above a commuter train to reduce its drag. Based on previous aerodynamic modifications of heavy duty trucks in improving fuel efficiency, two structural modifications were designed and applied to a Metrolink Services commuter train in the Los Angeles (LA) County area to reduce its drag and subsequently improve fuel efficiency. The first modification was an L-shaped channel, added to the exhaust cooling fan above the locomotive roof to divert and align the exhaust gases in the axial direction. The second modification was adding an airfoil shaped lid over the L-shape channel, to minimize the drag of the perturbed structure, and thus reduce the overall drag. The computational fluid dynamic (CFD) software CCM+ from CD-Adapco with the ?-? turbulence model was used for the simulations. A single train set which consists of three vehicles: one locomotive, one trailer car and one cab car were used. All the vehicles were modeled based on the standard Metrolink fleet train size. The wind speed was at 90 miles per hour (mph), which is the maximum speed for the Orange County Metrolink line. Air was used as the exhaust gas in the simulation. The temperature of the exhausting air emitting out of the cooling fan on the roof was 150 F and the average fan speed was 120 mph. Results showed that with the addition of the lid, momentum injection results in reduced flow separation and pressure recovery behind the locomotive, which reduces the overall drag by at least 30%.

  6. RE-ENTRAINMENT AND DISPERSION OF EXHAUSTS FROM INDOOR RADON REDUCTION SYSTEMS: ANALYSIS OF TRACER GAS DATA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Tracer gas studies were conducted around four model houses in a wind tunnel, and around one house in the field, to quantify re-entrainment and dispersion of exhaust gases released from residential indoor radon reduction systems. Re-entrainment tests in the field suggest that acti...

  7. Pulmonary function in workers exposed to diesel exhausts: The effect of control measures

    SciTech Connect

    Ulfvarson, U.; Alexandersson, R.; Dahlqvist, M.; Ekholm, U.; Bergstroem, B. )

    1991-01-01

    To assess the protective effect of exhausts pipe filters or respirators on pulmonary function, 15 workers in a tunnel construction site, truck and loading machine drivers, rock workers, and others were studied. The total and respirable dust, combustible matter in respirable dust, carbon monoxide, nitrogen monoxide and nitrogen dioxide were measured for each subject during entire work shifts. The effect of the exposure on the lung function variables was measured by dynamic spirometry, carbon monoxide single breath technique, and nitrogen single breath wash-out. The exhaust pipe filtering had a protective effect, directly discernible in the drivers on vital capacity and FEV1.0 and for the whole group on FEV% and TLco. The dust respirators had no effect, probably because of the difficulties in correctly using personal protection under the circumstances in the tunnel. In the absence of a true exposure assessment, control measures for diesel exhausts can be tested by medical effect studies. Catalytic particle filters of diesel exhausts are one method of rendering the emissions less irritant, although they will not remove irritant gases. An indicator of diesel exhaust exposure should include the particle fraction of the diesel exhausts, but a discrimination between different sources of organic dust must be possible.

  8. Real-time exhaust gas modular flowmeter and emissions reporting system for mobile apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breton, Leo Alphonse Gerard (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    A real-time emissions reporting system includes an instrument module adapted to be detachably connected to the exhaust pipe of a combustion engine to provide for flow of exhaust gas therethrough. The instrument module includes a differential pressure probe which allows for determination of flow rate of the exhaust gas and a gas sampling tube for continuously feeding a sample of the exhaust gas to a gas analyzer or a mounting location for a non-sampling gas analyzer. In addition to the module, the emissions reporting system also includes an elastomeric boot for detachably connecting the module to the exhaust pipe of the combustion engine, a gas analyzer for receiving and analyzing gases sampled within the module and a computer for calculating pollutant mass flow rates based on concentrations detected by the gas analyzer and the detected flowrate of the exhaust gas. The system may also include a particulate matter detector with a second gas sampling tube feeding same mounted within the instrument module.

  9. Equilibration of quantum gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farrelly, Terry

    2016-07-01

    Finding equilibration times is a major unsolved problem in physics with few analytical results. Here we look at equilibration times for quantum gases of bosons and fermions in the regime of negligibly weak interactions, a setting which not only includes paradigmatic systems such as gases confined to boxes, but also Luttinger liquids and the free superfluid Hubbard model. To do this, we focus on two classes of measurements: (i) coarse-grained observables, such as the number of particles in a region of space, and (ii) few-mode measurements, such as phase correlators. We show that, in this setting, equilibration occurs quite generally despite the fact that the particles are not interacting. Furthermore, for coarse-grained measurements the timescale is generally at most polynomial in the number of particles N, which is much faster than previous general upper bounds, which were exponential in N. For local measurements on lattice systems, the timescale is typically linear in the number of lattice sites. In fact, for one-dimensional lattices, the scaling is generally linear in the length of the lattice, which is optimal. Additionally, we look at a few specific examples, one of which consists of N fermions initially confined on one side of a partition in a box. The partition is removed and the fermions equilibrate extremely quickly in time O(1/N).

  10. Urban haze: the extent of automotive contribution.

    PubMed

    Buchan, W E; Charlson, R J

    1968-01-12

    Observation of the correlation between nitrogen oxides and the extinction coefficient of atmospheric air suggests that the automobile exhaust aerosol (nonphotochemical) may be important to visibility in cities. PMID:4169351

  11. Exhaust Nozzle for a Multitube Detonative Combustion Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bratkovich, Thomas E.; Williams, Kevin E.; Bussing, Thomas R. A.; Lidstone, Gary L.; Hinkey, John B.

    2004-01-01

    expansion of the pulsed combustion gases from the multiple combustion tubes into a common exhaust stream, in such a manner as to enhance performance in two ways: (1) It reduces the cyclic variations of pressure at the outlets of the combustion tubes so as to keep the pressure approximately constant near the optimum level needed for filling the tubes, regardless of atmospheric pressure at the altitude of operation; and (2) It maximizes the transfer of momentum from the exhaust gas to the engine, thereby maximizing thrust. The figure depicts a typical engine equipped with a nozzle according to the invention. The nozzle includes an interface section comprising multiple intake ports that couple the outlets of the combustion tubes to a common plenum. Proceeding from its upstream to its downstream end, the interface section tapers to a larger cross-sectional area for flow. This taper fosters expansion of the exhaust gases flowing from the outlets of the combustion tubes and contributes to the desired equalization of exhaust combustion pressure. The cross-sectional area for flow in the common plenum is greater than, or at least equal to, the combined cross-sectional flow areas of the combustor tubes. In the common plenum, the exhaust streams from the individual combustion tubes mix to form a single compound subsonic exhaust stream. Downstream of the common plenum is the throat that tapers to a smaller flow cross section. In this throat, the exhaust gases become compressed to form a compound sonic gas stream. Downstream of the throat is an expansion section, which typically has a bell or a conical shape. (The expansion section can be truncated or even eliminated in the case of an air-breathing engine.) After entering the expansion section, the exhaust gases expand rapidly from compound sonic to compound supersonic speeds and are then vented to the environment. The basic invention admits of numerous variations. For example, the combustion tubes can be arranged around the central

  12. SiO2/TiO2 Composite for Removing Hg from Combustion Exhaust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mazyck, David; Londeree, Danielle; Wu, Chang-Yu; Powers, Kevin; Pitoniak, Erik

    2008-01-01

    Pellets made of a high-surface-area composite of silica and titania have shown promise as means of removing elemental mercury from flue gases. With further technical development and commercialization, this material could become economically attractive as a more effective, less-expensive alternative to activated carbons for removing mercury from exhaust streams of coal-burning power plants, which are the sources of more than 90 percent of all anthropogenic airborne mercury.

  13. Simulation of hypersonic scramjet exhaust. [pressure distribution on afterbody/nozzle sections of vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oman, R. A.; Foreman, K. M.; Leng, J.; Hopkins, H. B.

    1975-01-01

    A plan and some preliminary analysis for the accurate simulation of pressure distributions on the afterbody/nozzle portions of a hypersonic scramjet vehicle are described. The objectives fulfilled were to establish the standards of similitude for a hydrogen/air scramjet exhaust interacting with a vehicle afterbody, determine an experimental technique for validation of the procedures that will be used in conventional wind tunnel facilities, suggest a program of experiments for proof of the concept, and explore any unresolved problems in the proposed simulation procedures. It is shown that true enthalpy, Reynolds number, and nearly exact chemistry can be provided in the exhaust flow for the flight regime from Mach 4 to 10 by a detonation tube simulation. A detailed discussion of the required similarity parameters leads to the conclusion that substitute gases can be used as the simulated exhaust gas in a wind tunnel to achieve the correct interaction forces and moments.

  14. Effects on symptoms and lung function in humans experimentally exposed to diesel exhaust.

    PubMed Central

    Rudell, B; Ledin, M C; Hammarström, U; Stjernberg, N; Lundbäck, B; Sandström, T

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Diesel exhaust is a common air pollutant made up of several gases, hydrocarbons, and particles. An experimental study was carried out which was designed to evaluate if a particle trap on the tail pipe of an idling diesel engine would reduce effects on symptoms and lung function caused by the diesel exhaust, compared with exposure to unfiltered exhaust. METHODS: Twelve healthy non-smoking volunteers (aged 20-37) were investigated in an exposure chamber for one hour during light work on a bicycle ergometer at 75 W. Each subject underwent three separate double blind exposures in a randomised sequence: to air and to diesel exhaust with the particle trap at the tail pipe and to unfiltered diesel exhaust. Symptoms were recorded according to the Borg scale before, every 10 minutes during, and 30 minutes after the exposure. Lung function was measured with a computerised whole body plethysmograph. RESULTS: The ceramic wall flow particle trap reduced the number of particles by 46%, whereas other compounds were relatively constant. It was shown that the most prominent symptoms during exposure to diesel exhaust were irritation of the eyes and nose and an unpleasant smell increasing during exposure. Both airway resistance (R(aw)) and specific airway resistance (SR(aw)) increased significantly during the exposures to diesel exhaust. Despite the 46% reduction in particle numbers by the trap effects on symptoms and lung function were not significantly attenuated. CONCLUSION: Exposure to diesel exhaust caused symptoms and bronchoconstriction which were not significantly reduced by a particle trap. PMID:8943829

  15. Development of naval diesel engine duty cycles for air exhaust emission environmental impact analysis. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Markle, S.P.

    1994-05-01

    A strategy for testing naval diesel engines for exhaust emissions was developed. A survey of existing international and national standard diesel engine duty cycles was conducted. All were found to be inadequate for testing and certification of engine exhaust emissions from naval diesel powered ships. Naval ship data covering 11,500 hours of engine operation of four U.S. Navy LSD 41 Class amphibious ships was analyzed to develop a 27 point class operating profile. A procedure combining ship hull form characteristics, ship propulsion plant parameters, and ship operating profile was detailed to derive an 11-Mode duty cycle representative for testing LSD 41 Class propulsion diesel engines. A similar procedure was followed for ship service diesel engines. Comparisons with industry accepted duty cycles were conducted using exhaust emission contour plots for the Colt-Pielstick PC-4B diesel engines. Results showed the 11-Mode LSD 41 Class Duty Cycle best predicted ship propulsion engine emissions compared to the 27 point operating profile propeller curve. The procedure was applied to T-AO 187 Class with similar results. The application of civilian industry standards to measure naval diesel ship propulsion engine exhaust emissions was found to be inadequate. Engine exhaust flow chemistry post turbocharger was investigated using the SANDIA Lab computer tool CHEMKIN. Results showed oxidation and reduction reactions within exhaust gases are quenched in the exhaust stack. Since the exhaust stream in the stack is unreactive, emission sampling may be performed where most convenient. A proposed emission measurement scheme for LSD 41 Class ships was presented.

  16. Short-term exposure of rodents to diesel exhausts: usefulness for studies of genotoxic and immunotoxic effects.

    PubMed

    Nilsen, A; Trønnes, T; Westerholm, R; Rannug, U; Nilsen, O G; Helleberg, H; Kautiainen, A; Hedenskog, M; Törnqvist, M

    1999-03-01

    An exposure facility was tested with regard to the information obtainable from short-term animal experiments for the assessment of health hazards from automotive engine exhausts. Indicators of immunotoxicity and genotoxicity were studied in guinea pigs and mice, respectively, exposed for 2 weeks, 8 h/day, to ten times diluted exhausts from a one-cylinder research diesel engine running at constant load. Regulated and non-regulated pollutants were determined. Besides increased number of lavageable cells in the airways, exposed guinea pigs exhibited, after immunization and challenge to ovalbumin, reduced leukotrienes B4 and C4 in lavage fluid and reduced anti-ovalbumin IgG in serum. Absence of increased CYP1A activity indicated that the exposure was below the threshold for induction of these enzymes. Instead a certain reduction of this activity indicated interaction with active enzyme sites. In vivo doses of some reactive metabolites of low molecular mass were measured by adducts to hemoglobin. Doses from aliphatic epoxides were low, in accordance with low hydrocarbon levels in the exhaust. The levels of hemoglobin adducts from aldehydes showed no clearcut influences of exposure. Genetic effects determined by DNA fingerprint analysis were indicated. It is concluded that repeated dose inhalation exposure of small numbers of animals is a useful mode of exposure for studying parameters that may elucidate toxic effects of air pollutants emitted from automotive engines, with a possibility to evaluate engine and fuel with regard to health hazards. PMID:10227576

  17. Exhaust gas clean up process

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, R.J.

    1989-04-11

    A method of cleaning an exhaust gas containing particulates, SO/sub 2/ and NO/sub x/ includes prescrubbing with water to remove HCl and most of the particulates, scrubbing with an aqueous absorbent containing a metal chelate and dissolved sulfite salt to remove NO/sub x/ and SO/sub 2/. and regenerating the absorbent solution by controlled heating, electrodialysis and carbonate salt addition. The NO/sub x/ is removed as N/sub 2/ or nitrogen-sulfonate ions and the oxides of sulfur are removed as a valuable sulfate salt.

  18. Diesel exhaust filter-incinerator

    SciTech Connect

    Martyniuk, E.T.

    1981-08-11

    A diesel engine exhaust particulate filter-incinerator comprising an enclosed filter panel having particulate deposition surfaces bordered by electrodes of a high voltage power supply. Periodic incineration is accomplished by the collection on the surfaces of particulates in amounts sufficient to conduct sufficient electric current along paths through the particulates to heat them to incineration temperature. Ignition and burn off of particulates may be automatically accomplished by maintaining a suitable voltage across the electrodes at the edges of the collection surfaces to initiate arc-like current flow before the collected particulates reach a level that would plug the filter. Specific embodiments of exemplary filter constructions are disclosed.

  19. Getting older can be exhausting.

    PubMed

    Mittal, Rohit; Ford, Mandy L; Coopersmith, Craig M

    2014-01-01

    Sepsis is a disease that affects primarily the aged. Although mortality is higher in both older septic patients and aged septic mice, the mechanisms underlying decreased survival in older hosts are incompletely understood. New work by Inoue and colleagues demonstrates persistent inflammation and T-cell exhaustion in older septic patients and aged septic mice. The clinical significance of these findings is manifested not only in increased mortality but also in a marked difference in secondary infections in older patients as long as a month following ICU admission. PMID:25184737

  20. Exhaust gas clean up process

    DOEpatents

    Walker, Richard J.

    1989-01-01

    A method of cleaning an exhaust gas containing particulates, SO.sub.2 and NO.sub.x includes prescrubbing with water to remove HCl and most of the particulates, scrubbing with an aqueous absorbent containing a metal chelate and dissolved sulfite salt to remove NO.sub.x and SO.sub.2, and regenerating the absorbent solution by controlled heating, electrodialysis and carbonate salt addition. The NO.sub.x is removed as N.sub.2 or nitrogen-sulfonate ions and the oxides of sulfur are removed as a vaulable sulfate salt.

  1. Exhaust gas clean up process

    DOEpatents

    Walker, R.J.

    1988-06-16

    A method of cleaning an exhaust gas containing particulates, SO/sub 2/ and NO/sub x/ is described. The method involves prescrubbing with water to remove HCl and most of the particulates, scrubbing with an aqueous absorbent containing a metal chelate and dissolved sulfite salt to remove NO/sub x/ and SO/sub 2/, and regenerating the absorbent solution by controlled heating, electrodialysis and carbonate salt addition. The NO/sub x/ is removed as N/sub 2/ gas or nitrogen sulfonate ions and the oxides of sulfur are removed as a valuable sulfate salt. 4 figs.

  2. Tribocharging behaviour of automotive powder coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Aline; Saleh, Khashayar; Guigon, Pierre; Czechowski, Claire

    2008-12-01

    The aim of this work was to build a device allowing the measurement of tribocharging during the fluidization and pneumatic transport of automotive powder coatings. The experimental setup included a fluidization unit, a transport pipe and two 'Faraday cups' allowing continuous monitoring of particle charge. Two batches of industrial automotive powder primers, as well as several other types of powders were tested: alumina, silica... The experimental variables were the length of the conveying pipe and the air flow rate. The results showed that the net amount of acquired tribocharge increases with the length of conveying pipe. The experimental device and procedure allowed to well classify tested powders according to their rate of tribocharging and their maximum charge. More specially, this study pointed out a net difference between electrostatic properties of two powder primers, which behave very differently in the industrial application unit.

  3. Autonomic Middleware for Automotive Embedded Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anthony, Richard; Chen, Dejiu; Törngren, Martin; Scholle, Detlef; Sanfridson, Martin; Rettberg, Achim; Naseer, Tahir; Persson, Magnus; Feng, Lei

    This chapter describes DySCAS: an advanced autonomic platform-independent middleware framework for automotive embedded systems. The concepts and architecture are motivated and described in detail, focusing on the need for, and achievement of, high flexibility and automatic run-time reconfiguration. The design of the middleware is positioned with respect to the way it overcomes the specific technical, environmental, and performance challenges of the automotive domain. Self-management is achieved in terms of automatic configuration for context-aware behavior, resource-use efficiency, and self-healing to handle run-time detected faults. The self-management is governed by the use of policies distributed throughout the middleware components. The simulation techniques that have been used for extensive validation are described and some key results presented. A reference implementation is presented, illustrating the way in which the various concepts and mechanisms can be realized and orchestrated.

  4. Lightweight Steel Solutions for Automotive Industry

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Hong Woo; Kim, Gyosung; Park, Sung Ho

    2010-06-15

    Recently, improvement in fuel efficiency and safety has become the biggest issue in worldwide automotive industry. Although the regulation of environment and safety has been tightened up more and more, the majority of vehicle bodies are still manufactured from stamped steel components. This means that the optimized steel solutions enable to demonstrate its ability to reduce body weight with high crashworthiness performance instead of expensive light weight materials such as Al, Mg and composites. To provide the innovative steel solutions for automotive industry, POSCO has developed AHSS and its application technologies, which is directly connected to EVI activities. EVI is a technical cooperation program with customer covering all stages of new car project from design to mass production. Integrated light weight solutions through new forming technologies such as TWB, hydroforming and HPF are continuously developed and provided for EVI activities. This paper will discuss the detailed status of these technologies especially light weight steel solutions based on innovative technologies.

  5. The intelligent automotive battery, "CYBOX ®"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, Keizo; Yamada, Yoshifumi; Otsu, Koji; Machiyama, Yoshiaki; Emori, Akihiko; Okoshi, Teturo

    An intelligent battery to monitor battery states for an automotive use was newly developed. A main parameter to monitor battery states are based on the measurement of voltage variations that are to fluctuate immediately after an engine ignition. The developed monitoring unit is embedded into the lead-acid battery "CYBOX ®" which does not have a current monitoring unit. The monitoring unit that has an alarm system which is compact and highly reliable essentially diagnoses the state of charge and the state of health of battery states in order to inform automotive user of the adequate timing of replace, recharge, and the hazardous state of overcharge of batteries. The battery-monitoring unit has an optical data transfer system to extract internal data from external device. The battery-monitoring unit also has a data acquisition instrument which receives more detailed monitored historical data from the optical data transfer system of the monitoring unit.

  6. Ultrahigh carbon steel for automotive applications

    SciTech Connect

    Lesuer, D.R.; Syn, C.K.; Sherby, O.D.

    1995-12-04

    Ultrahigh carbon steels (UHCSs), which contain 1--2.1% carbon, have remarkable structural properties for automotive application when processed to achieve fine ferrite grains with fine spheroidized carbides. When processed for high room temperature ductility, UHCS can have good tensile ductility but significantly higher strength than current automotive high strength steels. The material can also be made superplastic at intermediate temperatures and exhibits excellent die fill capability. Furthermore, they can be made hard with high compression ductility. In wire form it is projected that UHCS can exhibit extremely high strengths (5,000 MPa) for tire cord applications. Examples of structural components that have been formed from fine-grained spheroidized UHCSs are illustrated.

  7. Automotion of domain walls for spintronic interconnects

    SciTech Connect

    Nikonov, Dmitri E.; Manipatruni, Sasikanth; Young, Ian A.

    2014-06-07

    We simulate “automotion,” the transport of a magnetic domain wall under the influence of demagnetization and magnetic anisotropy, in nanoscale spintronic interconnects. In contrast to spin transfer driven magnetic domain wall motion, the proposed interconnects operate without longitudinal charge current transfer, with only a transient current pulse at domain wall creation and have favorable scaling down to the 20 nm dimension. Cases of both in-plane and out-of-plane magnetization are considered. Analytical dependence of the velocity of domain walls on the angle of magnetization are compared with full micromagnetic simulations. Deceleration, attenuation and disappearance, and reflection of domain walls are demonstrated through simulation. Dependences of the magnetization angle on the current pulse parameters are studied. The energy and delay analysis suggests that automotion is an attractive option for spintronic logic interconnects.

  8. Automotive Stirling engine: Mod 2 design report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nightingale, Noel P.

    1986-01-01

    The design of an automotive Stirling engine that achieves the superior fuel economy potential of the Stirling cycle is described. As the culmination of a 9-yr development program, this engine, designated the Mod 2, also nullifies arguments that Stirling engines are heavy, expensive, unreliable, demonstrating poor performance. Installed in a General Motors Chevrolet Celebrity car, this engine has a predicted combined fuel economy on unleaded gasoline of 17.5 km/l (41 mpg)- a value 50% above the current vehicle fleet average. The Mod 2 Stirling engine is a four-cylinder V-drive design with a single crankshaft. The engine is also equipped with all the controls and auxiliaries necessary for automotive operation.

  9. Lightweight Steel Solutions for Automotive Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hong Woo; Kim, Gyosung; Park, Sung Ho

    2010-06-01

    Recently, improvement in fuel efficiency and safety has become the biggest issue in worldwide automotive industry. Although the regulation of environment and safety has been tightened up more and more, the majority of vehicle bodies are still manufactured from stamped steel components. This means that the optimized steel solutions enable to demonstrate its ability to reduce body weight with high crashworthiness performance instead of expensive light weight materials such as Al, Mg and composites. To provide the innovative steel solutions for automotive industry, POSCO has developed AHSS and its application technologies, which is directly connected to EVI activities. EVI is a technical cooperation program with customer covering all stages of new car project from design to mass production. Integrated light weight solutions through new forming technologies such as TWB, hydroforming and HPF are continuously developed and provided for EVI activities. This paper will discuss the detailed status of these technologies especially light weight steel solutions based on innovative technologies.

  10. Automotion of domain walls for spintronic interconnects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikonov, Dmitri E.; Manipatruni, Sasikanth; Young, Ian A.

    2014-06-01

    We simulate "automotion," the transport of a magnetic domain wall under the influence of demagnetization and magnetic anisotropy, in nanoscale spintronic interconnects. In contrast to spin transfer driven magnetic domain wall motion, the proposed interconnects operate without longitudinal charge current transfer, with only a transient current pulse at domain wall creation and have favorable scaling down to the 20 nm dimension. Cases of both in-plane and out-of-plane magnetization are considered. Analytical dependence of the velocity of domain walls on the angle of magnetization are compared with full micromagnetic simulations. Deceleration, attenuation and disappearance, and reflection of domain walls are demonstrated through simulation. Dependences of the magnetization angle on the current pulse parameters are studied. The energy and delay analysis suggests that automotion is an attractive option for spintronic logic interconnects.

  11. The AGT101 technology - An automotive alternative

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rackley, R. A.; Davis, K. A.

    1981-01-01

    The Advanced Gas Turbine Powertrain System Development Project is oriented at providing the United States automotive industry the technology base necessary to produce gas turbine powertrains for automotive applications that will have: (1) reduced fuel consumption, (2) the ability to use a variety of fuels, (3) low emissions, and (4) competitive cost/performance. The AGT101 powertrain being developed consists of a regenerated single-shaft gas turbine engine flat rated at 74.6 kW (100 hp) coupled to a split-differential gearbox and a Ford automatic overdrive production transmission. Performance predictions for the AGT101 powertrain represent a 59-percent improvement in mileage estimates over a 1985 conventionally-powered automobile for the combined federal driving cycle.

  12. Selection of composite stabilizer for automotive gasolines

    SciTech Connect

    Golubeva, I.A.; Klinaeva, E.V.; Kharitonov, V.V.

    1995-03-01

    An important and very promising approach in expanding the volume of automotive gasoline production is the incorporation of products from secondary processes, namely, pyrolysis, coking, catalytic cracking and thermal cracking. Naturally, the addition of such components gives a very sharp reduction of the gasoline`s oxidation resistance. To stabilize this sort of blended gasoline, new and highly efficient antioxidants, are required. The selection of antioxidants for this purpose is hampered by the lack of information on the mechanisms of mixed-fuel oxidation and the action of stabilizers under these conditions. Since the investigation of oxidation processes involves extended test periods, it becomes important to obtain an objective evaluation of stabilizer efficiency by standard methods, and to improve these methods. The work reported here was aimed at finding and evaluating (by standard methods) a new stabilizer for A-76 automotive gasoline containing unstable catalytic naphtha; the work was also aimed at improving the standard methods. This program consisted of several stages.

  13. Friction of Materials for Automotive Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Blau, Peter Julian

    2013-01-01

    This brief overview of friction-related issues in materials for automobiles is invited for a special issue on automotive materials in the ASM journal AM&P. It describes a range of areas in a ground vehicle in which friction must be controlled or minimized. Applications range from piston rings to tires, and from brakes to fuel injector components. A perspective on new materials and lubricants, and the need for validation testing is presented.

  14. General Motors automotive fuel cell program

    SciTech Connect

    Fronk, M.H.

    1995-08-01

    The objectives of the second phase of the GM/DOE fuel cell program is to develop and test a 30 kW fuel cell powerplant. This powerplant will be based on a methanol fuel processor and a proton exchange membrane PM fuel cell stack. In addition, the 10 kW system developed during phase I will be used as a {open_quotes}mule{close_quotes} to test automotive components and other ancillaries, needed for transient operation.

  15. Directions for computational mechanics in automotive crashworthiness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennett, James A.; Khalil, T. B.

    1993-01-01

    The automotive industry has used computational methods for crashworthiness since the early 1970's. These methods have ranged from simple lumped parameter models to full finite element models. The emergence of the full finite element models in the mid 1980's has significantly altered the research direction. However, there remains a need for both simple, rapid modeling methods and complex detailed methods. Some directions for continuing research are discussed.

  16. Applied optics in the automotive industry.

    PubMed

    Preston, B W

    1969-09-01

    A general discussion of the interrelated subjects of vision, illumination, marking systems, signaling devices, materials, and components as found in the automotive industry is included in this article. Optics as applied in supporting industries, such as the lighting, metal, glass, paint, plastics, and fabrics industries are also discussed. A few examples of optics in these industries as applied to product development and productioncontrol are presented and illustrated. PMID:20072517

  17. Automotive headlighting: effect of foreground illumination.

    PubMed

    Olson, P L; Sivak, M

    1983-12-01

    Described are studies of the relationship between the level of foreground illumination provided by automotive headlamps and the driver's eye-fixation pattern and ability to identify objects ahead of the car. Analysis indicates that the driver's eye fixations tended to move further from the car at high levels of foreground illumination. There were no differences in distance of target identification as a function of level of foreground illumination. PMID:6664782

  18. Aerodynamic Flow Field Measurements for Automotive Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hepner, Timothy E.

    1999-01-01

    The design of a modern automotive air handling system is a complex task. The system is required to bring the interior of the vehicle to a comfortable level in as short a time as possible. A goal of the automotive industry is to predict the interior climate of an automobile using advanced computational fluid dynamic (CFD) methods. The development of these advanced prediction tools will enable better selection of engine and accessory components. The goal of this investigation was to predict methods used by the automotive industry. To accomplish this task three separate experiments were performed. The first was a laboratory setup where laser velocimeter (LV) flow field measurements were made in the heating and air conditioning unit of a Ford Windstar. The second involved flow field measurements in the engine compartment of a Ford Explorer, with the engine running idle. The third mapped the flow field exiting the center dashboard panel vent inside the Explorer, while the circulating fan operated at 14 volts. All three experiments utilized full-coincidence three-component LV systems. This enabled the mean and fluctuating velocities to be measured along with the Reynolds stress terms.

  19. Characterization of three-way automotive catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Kenik, E.A.; More, K.L.; LaBarge, W.

    1997-04-01

    The CRADA between Delphi Automotive Systems (Delphi; formerly General Motors - AC Delco, Systems) and Lockheed Martin Energy Research (LMER) on automotive catalysts was completed at the end of FY96, after a ten month, no-cost extension. The CRADA was aimed at improved performance and lifetime of noble metal based three-way-catalysts (TWC), which are the primary catalytic system for automotive emission control systems. While these TWC can meet the currently required emission standards, higher than optimum noble metal loadings are often required to meet lifetime requirements. In addition, more stringent emission standards will be imposed in the near future, demanding improved performance and service life from these catalysts. Understanding the changes of TWC conversion efficiency with ageing is a critical need in improving these catalysts. Initially in a fresh catalyst, the active material is often distributed on a very fine scale, approaching single atoms or small atomic clusters. As such, a wide range of analytical techniques have been employed to provide high spatial resolution characterization of the evolving state of the catalytic material.

  20. Multispectral imaging of aircraft exhaust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berkson, Emily E.; Messinger, David W.

    2016-05-01

    Aircraft pollutants emitted during the landing-takeoff (LTO) cycle have significant effects on the local air quality surrounding airports. There are currently no inexpensive, portable, and unobtrusive sensors to quantify the amount of pollutants emitted from aircraft engines throughout the LTO cycle or to monitor the spatial-temporal extent of the exhaust plume. We seek to thoroughly characterize the unburned hydrocarbon (UHC) emissions from jet engine plumes and to design a portable imaging system to remotely quantify the emitted UHCs and temporally track the distribution of the plume. This paper shows results from the radiometric modeling of a jet engine exhaust plume and describes a prototype long-wave infrared imaging system capable of meeting the above requirements. The plume was modeled with vegetation and sky backgrounds, and filters were selected to maximize the detectivity of the plume. Initial calculations yield a look-up chart, which relates the minimum amount of emitted UHCs required to detect the presence of a plume to the noise-equivalent radiance of a system. Future work will aim to deploy the prototype imaging system at the Greater Rochester International Airport to assess the applicability of the system on a national scale. This project will help monitor the local pollution surrounding airports and allow better-informed decision-making regarding emission caps and pollution bylaws.

  1. Time Resolved FTIR Analysis of Tailpipe Exhaust for Several Automobiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Allen R.; Allen, James; Devasher, Rebecca B.

    2011-06-01

    The automotive catalytic converter reduces or eliminates the emission of various chemical species (e.g. CO, hydrocarbons, etc.) that are the products of combustion from automobile exhaust. However, these units are only effective once they have reached operating temperature. The design and placement of catalytic converters has changed in order to reduce both the quantity of emissions and the time that is required for the converter to be effective. In order to compare the effectiveness of catalytic converters, time-resolved measurements were performed on several vehicles, including a 2010 Toyota Prius, a 2010 Honda Fit, a 1994 Honda Civic, and a 1967 Oldsmobile 442 (which is not equipped with a catalytic converter but is used as a baseline). The newer vehicles demonstrate bot a reduced overall level of CO and hydrocarbon emissions but are also effective more quickly than older units. The time-resolved emissions will be discussed along with the impact of catalytic converter design and location on the measured emissions.

  2. 40 CFR 426.70 - Applicability; description of the automotive glass laminating subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... automotive glass laminating subcategory. 426.70 Section 426.70 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GLASS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Automotive Glass Laminating Subcategory § 426.70 Applicability; description of the automotive...

  3. 40 CFR 426.70 - Applicability; description of the automotive glass laminating subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... automotive glass laminating subcategory. 426.70 Section 426.70 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GLASS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Automotive Glass Laminating Subcategory § 426.70 Applicability; description of the automotive...

  4. 75 FR 11938 - Meridian Automotive Systems, Grand Rapids, MI; Notice of Termination of Investigation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration Meridian Automotive Systems, Grand Rapids, MI; Notice of Termination... Meridian Automotive Systems, Grand Rapids, Michigan (Meridian Automotive). The petitioning group of...

  5. Gases in Seawater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nightingale, P. D.; Liss, P. S.

    2003-12-01

    The annual gross and net primary productivity of the surface oceans is similar in size to that on land (IPCC, 2001). Marine productivity drives the cycling of gases such as oxygen (O2), dimethyl sulfide (DMS), carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), and methyl iodide (CH3I) which are of fundamental importance in studies of marine productivity, biogeochemical cycles, atmospheric chemistry, climate, and human health, respectively. For example, ˜30% of the world's population (1,570 million) is thought to be at risk of iodine-deficiency disorders that impair mental development (WHO, 1996). The main source of iodine to land is the supply of volatile iodine compounds produced in the ocean and then transferred to the atmosphere via the air-surface interface. The flux of these marine iodine species to the atmosphere is also thought to be important in the oxidation capacity of the troposphere by the production of the iodine oxide radical ( Alicke et al., 1999). A further example is that the net flux of CO2 from the atmosphere to the ocean, ˜1.7±0.5 Gt C yr-1, represents ˜30% of the annual release of anthropogenic CO2 to the atmosphere (IPCC, 2001). This net flux is superimposed on a huge annual flux (90 Gt C yr-1) of CO2 that is cycled "naturally" between the ocean and the atmosphere. The long-term sink for anthropogenic CO2 is recognized as transfer to the ocean from the atmosphere. A final example is the emission of volatile sulfur, in the form of DMS, from the oceans. Not only is an oceanic flux from the oceans needed to balance the loss of sulfur (a bioessential element) from the land via weathering, it has also been proposed as having a major control on climate due to the formation of cloud condensation nuclei (Charlson et al., 1987). Indeed, the existence of DMS and CH3I has been used as evidence in support of the Gaia hypothesis (Lovelock, 1979).There are at least four main processes that affect the concentration of gases in the water column: biological

  6. Final report: U.S. competitive position in automotive technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Albert, Michael B.; Cheney, Margaret; Thomas, Patrick; Kroll, Peter

    2002-09-30

    Patent data are presented and analyzed to assess the U.S. competitive position in eleven advanced automotive technology categories, including automotive fuel cells, hydrogen storage, advanced batteries, hybrid electric vehicles and others. Inventive activity in most of the technologies is found to be growing at a rapid pace, particularly in advanced batteries, automotive fuel cells and ultracapacitors. The U.S. is the clear leader in automotive fuel cells, on-board hydrogen storage and light weight materials. Japan leads in advanced batteries, hybrid electric vehicles, ultracapacitors, and appears to be close to overtaking the U.S. in other areas of power electronics.

  7. Evaluation of dissociated and steam-reformed methanol as automotive engine fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lalk, T. R.; Mccall, D. M.; Mccanlies, J. M.

    1984-01-01

    Dissociated and steam reformed methanol were evaluated as automotive engine fuels. Advantages and disadvantages in using methanol in the reformed rather than liquid state were discussed. Engine dynamometer tests were conducted with a four cylinder, 2.3 liter, spark ignition automotive engine to determine performance and emission characteristics operating on simulated dissociated and steam reformed methanol (2H2 + CO and 3H2 + CO2 respectively), and liquid methanol. Results are presented for engine performance and emissions as functions of equivalence ratio, at various throttle settings and engine speeds. Operation on dissociated and steam reformed methanol was characterized by flashback (violent propagation of a flame into the intake manifold) which limited operation to lower power output than was obtainable using liquid methanol. It was concluded that: an automobile could not be operated solely on dissociated or steam reformed methanol over the entire required power range - a supplementary fuel system or power source would be necessary to attain higher powers; the use of reformed mechanol, compared to liquid methanol, may result in a small improvement in thermal efficiency in the low power range; dissociated methanol is a better fuel than steam reformed methanol for use in a spark ignition engine; and use of dissociated or steam reformed methanol may result in lower exhaust emissions compared to liquid methanol.

  8. Future Automotive Aftertreatment Solutions: The 150°C Challenge Workshop Report

    SciTech Connect

    Zammit, Michael; DiMaggio, Craig L.; Kim, Chang H.; Lambert, Christine; Muntean, George G.; Peden, Charles HF; Parks, James E.; Howden, Ken

    2013-10-15

    With future fuel economy standards enacted, the U.S. automotive manufacturers (OEMs) are committed to pursuing a variety of high risk/highly efficient stoichiometric and lean combustion strategies to achieve superior performance. In recognition of this need, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has partnered with domestic automotive manufacturers through U.S. DRIVE to develop these advanced technologies. However, before these advancements can be introduced into the U.S. market, they must also be able to meet increasingly stringent emissions requirements. A significant roadblock to this implementation is the inability of current catalyst and aftertreatment technologies to provide the required activity at the much lower exhaust temperatures that will accompany highly efficient combustion processes and powertrain strategies. Therefore, the goal of this workshop and report is to create a U.S. DRIVE emission control roadmap that will identify new materials and aftertreatment approaches that offer the potential for 90% conversion of emissions at low temperature (150°C) and are consistent with highly efficient combustion technologies currently under investigation within U.S. DRIVE Advanced Combustion and Emission Control (ACEC) programs.

  9. Exhaust gas bypass valve control for thermoelectric generator

    SciTech Connect

    Reynolds, Michael G; Yang, Jihui; Meisner, Greogry P.; Stabler, Francis R.; De Bock, Hendrik Pieter Jacobus; Anderson, Todd Alan

    2012-09-04

    A method of controlling engine exhaust flow through at least one of an exhaust bypass and a thermoelectric device via a bypass valve is provided. The method includes: determining a mass flow of exhaust exiting an engine; determining a desired exhaust pressure based on the mass flow of exhaust; comparing the desired exhaust pressure to a determined exhaust pressure; and determining a bypass valve control value based on the comparing, wherein the bypass valve control value is used to control the bypass valve.

  10. Effects of rocket exhaust products in the thermosphere and ionsphere

    SciTech Connect

    Zinn, J.; Sutherland, C.D.

    1980-02-01

    This paper reviews the current state of understanding of the problem of ionospheric F-layer depletions produced by chemical effects of the exhaust gases from large rockets, with particular emphasis on the Heavy Lift Launch Vehicles (HLLV) proposed for use in the construction of solar power satellites. The currently planned HLLV flight profile calls for main second-stage propulsion confined to altitudes below 124 km, and a brief orbit circularization maneuver at apogee. The second stage engines deposit 9 x 10/sup 31/ H/sub 2/O and H/sub 2/ molecules between 74 and 124 km. Model computations show that they diffuse gradually into the ionospheric F region, where they lead to weak but widespread and persistent depletions of ionization and continuous production of H atoms. The orbit circularization burn deposits 9 x 10/sup 29/ exhaust molecules at about 480-km altitude. These react rapidly with the F2 region 0/sup +/ ions, leading to a substantial (factor-of-three) reduction in plasma density, which extends over a 1000- by 2000-km region and persists for four to five hours. For purposes of computer model verification, a computation is included representing the Skylab I launch, for which observational data exist. The computations and data are compared, and the computer model is described.

  11. 75 FR 52587 - 2009 Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS)/National Automotive Sampling System General...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-26

    ... Automotive Sampling System General Estimates System (NASS GES) Updates AGENCY: National Highway Traffic... Automotive Sampling System General Estimates System (NASS GES) Updates--Grand Rounds Electronic...

  12. Studies on exhaust emissions of catalytic coated spark ignition engine with adulterated gasoline.

    PubMed

    Muralikrishna, M V S; Kishor, K; Venkata Ramana Reddy, Ch

    2006-04-01

    Adulteration of automotive fuels, especially, gasoline with cheaper fuels is widespread throughout south Asia. Some adulterants decrease the performance and life of the engine and increase the emission of harmful pollutants causing environmental and health problems. The present investigation is carried out to study the exhaust emissions from a single cylinder spark ignition (SI) engine with kerosene blended gasoline with different versions of the engine, such as conventional engine and catalytic coated engine with different proportions of the kerosene ranging from 0% to 40% by volume in steps of 10% in the kerosene-gasoline blend. The catalytic coated engine used in the study has copper coating of thickness 400 microns on piston and inner surface of the cylinder head. The pollutants in the exhaust, carbon monoxide (CO) and unburnt hydrocarbons (UBHC) are measured with Netel Chromatograph CO and HC analyzer at peak load operation of the engine. The engine is provided with catalytic converter with sponge iron as a catalyst to control the pollutants from the exhaust of the engine. An air injection is also provided to the catalytic converter to further reduce the pollutants. The pollutants found to increase drastically with adulterated gasoline. Copper-coated engine with catalytic converter significantly reduced pollutants, when compared to conventional engine. PMID:17913184

  13. Automotive Air Conditioning and Heating; Automotive Mechanics (Advanced): 9047.04.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    This document presents an outline for a 135-hour course designed to provide the student with all the foundations necessary to become employable in the automotive air conditioning and heating trade. The course of study includes an orientation to the world of work, the elementary physics of air conditioning and heating, and laboratory experiments…

  14. Mountain Plains Learning Experience Guide: Automotive Repair. Course: Automotive Fuel Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osland, Walt

    One of twelve individualized courses included in an automotive repair curriculum, this course covers the theory, operation, and repair of the carburetor, fuel pump, and other related fuel system components and parts. The course is comprised of six units: (1) Fundamentals of Fuel Systems, (2) Fuel Pumps, (3) Fuel Lines and Filters, (4) Carburetors,…

  15. Automotive Tune-up and Performance; Automotive Mechanics 3: 9047.02.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    This document presents an outline for a 135-hour course designed to help students become employable and provide them with the skills, knowledge, attitudes, and values necessary for performing the required services in automotive tune up and performance. Such services are critical and must be exact to meet Federal Emission Control Standards. The…

  16. Automotive Service Occupations. A Suggested Outline of Services and Levels for the Automotive Industries Occupations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Secondary Curriculum Development.

    Designed to help teachers of automotive services select the body of knowledge and experiences leading to the development of salable skills which might be necessary at various levels of complexity, this guide suggests an alignment of content, with teaching suggestions, for use in developing a vocational program to prepare youth and adults for…

  17. 78 FR 14546 - Seagull Maritime Agencies Private Ltd. v. Gren Automotive, Inc., Centrus Automotive Distributors...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-06

    ... Liu Shao, Individually; Notice of Filing of Complaint and Assignment Notice is given that a complaint... Automotive Distributors Inc. (``Centrus'') and Mr. Liu Shao hereinafter ``Respondents.'' Complainant states... holding that the Respondents, Centrus, Gren, and Mr. Liu Shao individually violated Sec. 41102(a) of...

  18. THE USE OF RECYCLED SOLID AUTOMOTIVE PAINT WASTES AS INGREDIENTS IN AUTOMOTIVE SEALANT PRODUCTS - PHASE I

    EPA Science Inventory

    About 75,000,000 lbs. of paint sludge is generated by the U.S. automotive industry each year. This type of waste (and similar streams in other industries) make a significant contribution to landfills. A proposed solution is to recycle the paint sludge into compounding ingredients...

  19. THE USE OF RECYCLED SOLID AUTOMOTIVE PAINT WASTES AS INGREDIENTS IN AUTOMOTIVE SEALANT PRODUCTS - PHASE II

    EPA Science Inventory

    About 75,000,000 lbs of paint sludge is generated by the U.S. automotive industry each year. This type of waste and (similar streams from other industries) make significant contributions to landfills. The solution proposed by ASTER, Inc., proven feasible during the Phase I of thi...

  20. 40 CFR 89.416 - Raw exhaust gas flow.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... procedure has been incorporated by reference. See § 89.6.) and calculation of the exhaust gas flow as follows: GEXHW = GAIRW + GFUEL(for wet exhaust mass) or VEXHD = VAIRD + (−.767) × GFUEL(for dry exhaust volume) or VEXHW = VAIRW + .749 × GFUEL(for wet exhaust volume) (b) Exhaust mass calculation from...

  1. 40 CFR 89.416 - Raw exhaust gas flow.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... procedure has been incorporated by reference. See § 89.6.) and calculation of the exhaust gas flow as follows: GEXHW = GAIRW + GFUEL(for wet exhaust mass) or VEXHD = VAIRD + (−.767) × GFUEL(for dry exhaust volume) or VEXHW = VAIRW + .749 × GFUEL(for wet exhaust volume) (b) Exhaust mass calculation from...

  2. 49 CFR 393.83 - Exhaust systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... combustible part of the motor vehicle. (b) No exhaust system shall discharge to the atmosphere at a location... gasoline engine shall discharge to the atmosphere at or within 6 inches forward of the rearmost part of the bus. (d) The exhaust system of a bus using fuels other than gasoline shall discharge to the...

  3. Motorcycle with closeable engine intake exhaust passages

    SciTech Connect

    Kazuta, H.; Kawai, Y.; Tsuchida, N.

    1984-03-06

    An intake and exhaust system for a compact motorcycle including a valve arrangement for closing both the intake and exhaust systems so as to preclude the excape of fuel vapors to the surrounding area when the motorcycle is not in use.

  4. Controlled human exposures to diesel exhaust

    EPA Science Inventory

    Diesel exhaust (DE) is a complex mixture of gaseous and particulate compounds resulting from an incomplete combustion of diesel fuel. Controlled human exposures to DE and diesel exhaust particles (DEP) have contributed to understanding health effects. Such exposure studies of h...

  5. Device for removing particulates in exhaust gas

    SciTech Connect

    Shinsei, K.; Takada, H.

    1986-11-18

    A device is described for removing particulates from a flow of exhaust has exhausted from a diesel engine before the flow of exhaust gas is exhausted to the outside atmosphere, comprising: a particulate filter having a filter inlet; a regenerative burner for producing combustion gas, having a burner outlet, the regenerating burner including a housing having a first closed end and a second open end and defining a combustion chamber therein. An injection nozzle is disposed at the closed end to inject a fuel and air mixture into the combustion chamber, and an ignition plug is disposed at the closed end to be adjacent to the injection nozzle; and means, including only one exhaust gas conduit connected to the filter inlet for directing the flow of exhaust gas thereto, for concurrently directing the flow of exhaust gas, and all of the combustion gas produced by the regenerating burner from the burner outlet into the filter through the exhaust gas conduit and the filter inlet.

  6. 49 CFR 393.83 - Exhaust systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... combustible part of the motor vehicle. (b) No exhaust system shall discharge to the atmosphere at a location... gasoline engine shall discharge to the atmosphere at or within 6 inches forward of the rearmost part of the bus. (d) The exhaust system of a bus using fuels other than gasoline shall discharge to the...

  7. 49 CFR 393.83 - Exhaust systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... combustible part of the motor vehicle. (b) No exhaust system shall discharge to the atmosphere at a location... gasoline engine shall discharge to the atmosphere at or within 6 inches forward of the rearmost part of the bus. (d) The exhaust system of a bus using fuels other than gasoline shall discharge to the...

  8. Correlates of Work Exhaustion for Medical Technologists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blau, Gary; Tatum, Donna Surges; Ward-Cook, Kory

    2003-01-01

    Medical technologists (n=196) were followed over 4 years. Higher levels of work exhaustion were related to perceived work interference with family, task load, and lower organizational support. Distributive justice partly mediated the effects of work interference and support on exhaustion. Distributive justice mediated the impact of procedural…

  9. Physics of Hyperpolarized Noble Gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Happer, William

    1999-11-01

    The production of highly spin-polarized (hyperpolarized) gases by optical pumping with lasers involves spin-dependent interactions of atoms in gases, liquids, solids and on surfaces. Although enough is understood about these interactions to allow large quantities of hyperpolarized gas to be prepared, some of the basic physics is still mysterious. A better understanding of the physics would lead to worthwhile improvements in the performance of polarization systems. The most important physics involved in the production of hyperpolarized gases will be reviewed, with particular emphasis on areas where the physics is still not understood.

  10. Environmental implications of anesthetic gases.

    PubMed

    Yasny, Jeffrey S; White, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    For several decades, anesthetic gases have greatly enhanced the comfort and outcome for patients during surgery. The benefits of these agents have heavily outweighed the risks. In recent years, the attention towards their overall contribution to global climate change and the environment has increased. Anesthesia providers have a responsibility to minimize unnecessary atmospheric pollution by utilizing techniques that can lessen any adverse effects of these gases on the environment. Moreover, health care facilities that use anesthetic gases are accountable for ensuring that all anesthesia equipment, including the scavenging system, is effective and routinely maintained. Implementing preventive practices and simple strategies can promote the safest and most healthy environment. PMID:23241038

  11. Feshbach resonances in ultracold gases

    SciTech Connect

    Chin Cheng; Grimm, Rudolf; Julienne, Paul; Tiesinga, Eite

    2010-04-15

    Feshbach resonances are the essential tool to control the interaction between atoms in ultracold quantum gases. They have found numerous experimental applications, opening up the way to important breakthroughs. This review broadly covers the phenomenon of Feshbach resonances in ultracold gases and their main applications. This includes the theoretical background and models for the description of Feshbach resonances, the experimental methods to find and characterize the resonances, a discussion of the main properties of resonances in various atomic species and mixed atomic species systems, and an overview of key experiments with atomic Bose-Einstein condensates, degenerate Fermi gases, and ultracold molecules.

  12. Noble gases in the moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manuel, O. K.; Srinivasan, B.; Hennecke, E. W.; Sinclair, D. E.

    1972-01-01

    The abundance and isotopic composition of helium, neon, argon, krypton, and xenon which were released by stepwise heating of lunar fines (15601.64) and (15271.65) were measured spectrometrically. The results of a composition of noble gases released from the lunar fines with noble gases in meteorites and in the earth are presented along with the isotopic composition of noble gases in lunar fines, in meteorites, and in the atmosphere. A study of two isotopically distinct components of trapped xenon in carbonaceous chondrites is also included.

  13. Nanofluids with CNTs for automotive applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srinivas, V.; Moorthy, Ch. V. K. N. S. N.; Dedeepya, V.; Manikanta, P. V.; Satish, V.

    2016-04-01

    This paper summarizes a recent work on anti-corrosive and enhanced heat transfer properties of carboxylated water based nanofluids. DI water mixed with Sebacic acid (C10H18O4) as carboxylate additive is dispersed with multi walled carbon nanotubes and tested for corrosion and heat transfer characteristics. Corrosion studies made as per ASTM D 1384 show that carboxylate water dispersed with MWCNTs is resistant to corrosion and hence suitable for automotive environment. In addition to MWCNTs, carboxylated water dispersed with nano sized silver, copper and Aluminium oxide are also tested for corrosion performance but found to be giving considerable corrosion in automotive environment. The stability of MWCNT based nanofluids in terms of zeta potential is found to be good with carboxylated water compared to DI water. Significant improvement is observed in the thermal conductivity of nanofluids dispersed with MWCNTs. There is a slight increase in viscosity and marginal decrease in the specific heat of nanofluids with addition of carboxylate as well as MWCNTs. The carboxylated water is dispersed with very low mass concentration of multi walled carbon nano tubes at 0.025, 0.05 and 0.1 % and tested for heat transfer performance. The heat transfer studies are made in Reynolds number range of 2500-6000 in the developing flow regime. The heat transfer performance of nanofluids is carried out on an air cooled heat exchanger similar to an automotive radiator with incoming air velocities across radiator maintained at 5, 10 and 15 m/s. The coolant side overall heat transfer coefficient and overall heat transfer coefficient have improved markedly. It is also found that the velocity of air and flow rate of coolant plays an important role in enhancement of overall heat transfer coefficient. Stanton number correlation for the entire data has been developed. It is found that the wall temperature gradients play an important role in the enhancement of heat transfer when nanofluids are

  14. Validation of scramjet exhaust simulation technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hopkins, H. B.; Konopka, W.; Leng, J.

    1976-01-01

    Scramjet/airframe integration design philosophy for hypersonic aircraft results in configurations having lower aft surfaces that serve as exhaust nozzles. There is a strong coupling between the exhaust plume and the aerodynamics of the vehicle, making accurate simulation of the engine exhaust mandatory. The experimental verification of the simulation procedure is described. The detonation tube simulator was used to produce an exact simulation of the scramjet exhaust for a Mach 8 flight condition. The pressure distributions produced by the exact exhaust flow were then duplicated by a cool mixture Argon and Freon 13B1. Such a substitute gas mixture validated by the detonation tube technique could be used in conventional wind tunnel tests. The results presented show the substitute gas simulation technique to be valid for shockless expansions.

  15. Effect of gasoline composition on exhaust hydrocarbon

    SciTech Connect

    Kameoka, Atsushi; Akiyama, Ken-ichi; Hosoi, Kenzo

    1994-10-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the characteristics of individual hydrocarbons in gasoline and to clarify the effect of the gasoline composition on engine-out exhaust hydrocarbons. Experiments were performed on a single cylinder research engine operating under steady state condition. The test fuels were blended gasolines of alkylate, catalytic reformate and fluid catalytic cracking gasoline. Chemically defined binary fuel mixtures of isooctane, benzene, toluene, xylene, and ethylbenzene were used as variables to study their impact on exhaust hydrocarbons. The individual exhaust hydrocarbon species were analyzed using a gas chromatograph with flame ionization detector. The results of tests with blended gasoline indicated that the exhaust hydrocarbons were classified into the unburned fuel and the cracked products such as methane, ethane and various olefins. The production coefficients of benzene were 5% for toluene, 4% for xylene and 6% for ethylbenzene. These values suggested that alkylbenzene in the fuel produced benzene in the exhaust. 8 refs., 16 figs., 5 tabs.

  16. Carbonyl emissions in diesel and biodiesel exhaust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machado Corrêa, Sérgio; Arbilla, Graciela

    With the use of biodiesel in clear growth, it is important to quantify any potential emission benefits or liabilities of this fuel. Several researches are available concerning the regulated emissions of biodiesel/diesel blends, but there is a lack of information about non-regulated emissions. In a previous paper [Corrêa, S.M., Arbilla, G., 2006. Emissões de formaldeído e acetaldeído de misturas biodiesel/diesel. Periódico Tchê Química, 3, 54-68], the emissions of aromatic hydrocarbons were reported. In this work, seven carbonyl emissions (formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acrolein, acetone, propionaldehyde, butyraldehyde, and benzaldehyde) were evaluated by a heavy-duty diesel engine fueled with pure diesel (D) and biodiesel blends (v/v) of 2% (B2), 5% (B5), 10% (B10), and 20% (B20). The tests were conducted using a six cylinder heavy-duty engine, typical of the Brazilian fleet of urban buses, in a steady-state condition under 1000, 1500, and 2000 rpm. The exhaust gases were diluted nearly 20 times and the carbonyls were sampled with SiO 2-C18 cartridges, impregnated with acid solution of 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine. The chemical analyses were performed by high performance liquid chromatography using UV detection. Using average values for the three modes of operation (1000, 1500, and 2000 rpm) benzaldehyde showed a reduction on the emission (-3.4% for B2, -5.3% for B5, -5.7% for B10, and -6.9% for B20) and all other carbonyls showed a significative increase: 2.6, 7.3, 17.6, and 35.5% for formaldehyde; 1.4, 2.5, 5.4, and 15.8% for acetaldehyde; 2.1, 5.4, 11.1, and 22.0% for acrolein+acetone; 0.8, 2.7, 4.6, and 10.0% for propionaldehyde; 3.3, 7.8, 16.0, and 26.0% for butyraldehyde.

  17. An Overview of NASA Automotive Component Reliability Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sampson, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    The results of NASAs studies into the appropriateness of using US Automotive electronic parts in NASA spaceflight systems will be presented. The first part of the presentation provides an overview of the United States Automotive Electronics Councils AECQ standardization program, the second part provides a summary of the results of NASAs procurement and testing experiences and other lessons learned along with preliminary test results.

  18. Steering and Suspension Specialist. Teacher Edition. Automotive Service Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This instructor's guide contains materials for teaching the steering and suspension specialist component of a competency-based instructional program for students preparing for employment in the automotive service trade. It is based on National Institute of Automotive Service Excellence task lists. The six instructional units contain materials…

  19. AUTOMOTIVE SERVICE SPECIALIST, A SUGGESTED GUIDE FOR A TRAINING COURSE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OETTMEIER, ARTHUR J.; AND OTHERS

    THE PURPOSE OF THIS TEACHING GUIDE IS TO SERVE AS A REFERENCE AND COURSE OUTLINE FOR THE INSTRUCTOR. IT WAS DEVELOPED BY A COLLEGE AUTOMOTIVE DEPARTMENT HEAD AND REPRESENTATIVES OF AUTOMOTIVE SERVICE INDUSTRIES, PETROLEUM INDUSTRIES, AND GARAGES. THIS COURSE IS ADAPTABLE TO PREPARATORY, UPGRADING, OR RETRAINING PURPOSES. UNITS ARE SERVICE…

  20. Mountain Plains Learning Experience Guide: Automotive Repair. Course: Emission Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schramm, C.; Osland, Walt

    One of twelve individualized courses included in an automotive repair curriculum, this course covers the theory, testing, and servicing of automotive emission control systems. The course is comprised of one unit, Fundamentals of Emission Systems. The unit begins with a Unit Learning Experience Guide that gives directions for unit completion. The…

  1. An Overview Of NASA Automotive Component Reliability Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sampson, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    The results of NASAs studies into the appropriateness of using US Automotive electronic parts in NASA spaceflight systems will be presented. The first part of the presentation provides an overview of the United States Automotive Electronics Councils AECQ standardization program, the second part provides a summary of the results of NASAs procurement and testing experiences and other lessons learned along with preliminary test results.

  2. Heating and Air Conditioning Specialist. Teacher Edition. Automotive Service Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This instructor's guide contains materials for teaching the heating and air conditioning specialist component of a competency-based instructional program for students preparing for employment in the automotive service trade. It is based on the National Institute of Automotive Service Excellence task lists. The six instructional units presented…

  3. Electrohydraulic Forming of Near Net Shape Automotive Panels

    SciTech Connect

    2009-01-01

    This factsheet describes a research project whose goal is to develop the electrohydraulic forming (EHF) process as a near net shape automotive panel manufacturing technology that simultaneously reduces the energy embedded in vehicles and the energy consumed while producing automotive structures.

  4. Manual Drivetrain and Axles Specialist. Teacher Edition. Automotive Service Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This instructor's guide contains materials for teaching the manual drive trains and axle specialist component of a competency-based instructional program for students preparing for employment in the automotive service trade. It is based on National Institute of Automotive Service Excellence task lists. Six instructional units contain materials…

  5. Mountain Plains Learning Experience Guide: Automotive Repair. Course: Electrical Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schramm, C.; Osland, Walt

    One of twelve individualized courses included in an automotive repair curriculum, this course covers the theory, diagnosis, repair, and adjustment of automotive electrical systems. The course is comprised of six units: (1) Fundamentals of Electrical Systems, (2) Battery Servicing, (3) Starting Systems, (4) Charging Systems, (5) Ignition Systems,…

  6. Women and Black Students in College Automotive Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greer, Jack; Collard, Rod

    1999-01-01

    In a survey of 17 female and black students majoring in automotive technology, 51% said high school teachers and family influenced them to choose automotive technology as a career; 66.6% identified involvement with other students and faculty encouragement as factors contributing to their success. (Author/JOW)

  7. Career Development Standards for Vocational Automotive Service Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Motor Vehicle Manufacturers Association of the U.S., Inc., Detroit, MI.

    The book, prepared for educators and industry, was designed as a complete guide to establishing an automotive training program. The 10 sections describe the following aspects of program planning and implementation: (1) career opportunities in automotive service; (2) guidance, counseling, placement, and followup; (3) school, parent, emPloyer,…

  8. Automotive Workforce Transition: Implications for Cooperative Education Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varty, James; Jacobs, James

    1986-01-01

    Reviews the direction that labor and industry are taking to meet the transition that is occurring within the US automotive industry. Specific implications for cooperative education in supporting further training and development for both the displaced and the current automotive work force are presented. (CT)

  9. DISTANCE VIEW, AUTOMOTIVE REPAIR SHOP ON LEFT AND UTILITY BUILDING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DISTANCE VIEW, AUTOMOTIVE REPAIR SHOP ON LEFT AND UTILITY BUILDING "B" ON RIGHT. HOSE WINDING SHED ADJACENT TO SHED-ROOFED ADDITION ON THE UTILITY BUILDING, BLM SEED SHED AND TACK SHED VISIBLE IN FAR DISTANCE. VIEW TO EAST, WITH SCALE. - Cedar City Automotive Repair Shop, 820 North Main Street, Cedar City, Iron County, UT

  10. DISTANT VIEW, AUTOMOTIVE REPAIR SHOP ON LEFT AND UTILITY BUILDING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DISTANT VIEW, AUTOMOTIVE REPAIR SHOP ON LEFT AND UTILITY BUILDING "B" ON RIGHT. HOSE WINDING SHED ADJACENT TO SHED-ROOFED ADDITION ON THE UTILITY BUILDING, BLM SEED SHED AND TACK SHED VISIBLE IN FAR DISTANCE. VIEW TO EAST/ - Cedar City Automotive Repair Shop, 820 North Main Street, Cedar City, Iron County, UT

  11. Mountain Plains Learning Experience Guide: Automotive Repair. Course: Engine Repair.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schramm, C.; Osland, Walt

    One of twelve individualized courses included in an automotive repair curriculum, this course covers theory and construction, inspection diagnoses, and service and overhaul of automotive engines. The course is comprised of five units: (1) Fundamentals of Four-Cycle Engines, (2) Engine Construction, (3) Valve Train, (4) Lubricating Systems, and (5)…

  12. Cooling System: Automotive Mechanics Instructional Program. Block 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Brien, Ralph D.

    The last of six instructional blocks in automotive mechanics, the lessons and supportive information in the document provide a guide for teachers in planning an instructional program in the automotive cooling system at the secondary and post secondary level. The material, as organized, is a suggested sequence of instruction within each block. Each…

  13. Safeguarding teleoperation using automotive radar sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giesbrecht, Jared; Fairbrother, Blaine

    2011-05-01

    The Multi-Agent Tactical Sentry Unmanned Ground Vehicle, developed at Defence R&D Canada - Suffield, has been in service with the Canadian Forces for six years. This tele-operated wheeled vehicle provides a capability for point detection of chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear agents. During the service life of this system, it has become apparent that a means of automatically detecting obstacles in tele-operated and semi-autonomous modes would greatly increase the safety and reliability of the vehicle in cluttered or human occupied operating environments. This paper documents the design of such a system based on a 24 GHz automotive radar.

  14. Directions in automotive engine research and development

    SciTech Connect

    Samuels, G.

    1980-01-01

    The advent of high fuel costs and automotive fuel economy and emission regulations has cast doubt on the economic superiority and even the technical feasibility of conventional spark ignition and diesel engines, and has opened the field to other concepts. The emission regulations and their effect on the design and efficiency of conventional engines are reviewed, the research and development effort to improve the performance of conventional engines and to develop advanced engines is discussed, and the current status of these engines is presented.

  15. Baseline automotive gas turbine engine development program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wagner, C. E. (Editor); Pampreen, R. C. (Editor)

    1979-01-01

    Tests results on a baseline engine are presented to document the automotive gas turbine state-of-the-art at the start of the program. The performance characteristics of the engine and of a vehicle powered by this engine are defined. Component improvement concepts in the baseline engine were evaluated on engine dynamometer tests in the complete vehicle on a chassis dynamometer and on road tests. The concepts included advanced combustors, ceramic regenerators, an integrated control system, low cost turbine material, a continuously variable transmission, power-turbine-driven accessories, power augmentation, and linerless insulation in the engine housing.

  16. Choosing An Alloy For Automotive Stirling Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephens, Joseph R.

    1988-01-01

    Report describes study of chemical compositions and microstructures of alloys for automotive Stirling engines. Engines offer advantages of high efficiency, low pollution, low noise, and ability to use variety of fuels. Twenty alloys evaluated for resistance to corrosion permeation by hydrogen, and high temperature. Iron-based alloys considered primary candidates because of low cost. Nickel-based alloys second choice in case suitable iron-based alloy could not be found. Cobalt-based alloy included for comparison but not candidate, because it is expensive strategic material.

  17. Characterization of three-way automotive catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Kenik, E.A.; More, K.L.; LaBarge, W.

    1995-05-01

    This has been the second year of a CRADA between General Motors - AC Delco Systems (GM-ACDS) and Martin Marietta Energy Systems (MMES) aimed at improved performance/lifetime of platinum-rhodium based three-way-catalysts (TWC) for automotive emission control systems. While current formulations meet existing emission standards, higher than optimum Pt-Rh loadings are often required. In additionk, more stringent emission standards have been imposed for the near future, demanding improved performance and service life from these catalysts. Understanding the changes of TWC conversion efficiency with ageing is a critical need in improving these catalysts.

  18. Emotionally exhausting factors in general practitioners’ work

    PubMed Central

    Torppa, M.A.; Kuikka, L.; Nevalainen, M.; Pitkälä, K.H.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Emotional exhaustion is central in burnout syndrome and signals its development. General practitioners’ (GP) work is emotionally challenging but research on these aspects is lacking. Objective. To study the prevalence of emotional exhaustion among GPs and to evaluate how their characteristics and work experiences are associated with emotional exhaustion. Design and methods. A questionnaire survey was carried out among GPs in Finland in 2011 in which questions were posed regarding their experience of emotional exhaustion and items related to their work experiences and professional identity. A statement “I feel burnt out from my job” (never, seldom, sometimes, quite often, or often) enquired about emotional exhaustion. Those responding quite often or often were categorized as emotionally exhausted. Results. Among the GPs, 68% responded (165/244). Of the respondents, 18% were emotionally exhausted. Emotional exhaustion was associated with older age, longer working history, experiences of having too much work, fear and reports of having committed a medical error, low tolerance of uncertainty in their work, and feeling alone at work. No differences in positive work experiences were found. In logistic regression analysis working experience > 5 years (OR 4.1, 95% CI 1.6–10.8; p = 0.0036) and feeling alone at work (OR 2.9, 95% CI 1.2–7.1; p = 0.020) predicted emotional exhaustion, having committed a medical error in the past three months predicted it marginally significantly (OR 2.4, 95% CI 1.0–5.9, p = 0.057), whereas tolerating uncertainty well protected against it (OR 0.2, 95% CI 0.09–0.7; p = 0.0098). Conclusions. Emotional exhaustion among GPs was common and associated with longer working history, having committed a medical error, and feelings of isolation at work. GPs should receive more support throughout their careers. PMID:26311207

  19. Low Cost Advanced Thermoelectric (TE) Technology for Automotive Waste Heat Recovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meisner, G. P.

    2014-03-01

    Low cost, fully integrated TE generators (TEGs) to recover waste heat from vehicle exhaust will reduce transportation sector energy consumption and emissions. TEGs will be the first application of high-temperature TE materials for high-volume use and establish new industrial sectors with scaled up production capability of TEG materials and components. We will create a potential supply chain for practical automotive TEGs and identify manufacturing and assembly processes for large scale production of TEG materials and components. Our work focusses on several innovative R&D paths: (1) enhanced TE material performance by doping and compositional tuning, (2) optimized TE material fabrication and processing to reduce thermal conductivity and improve fracture strength, (3) high volume production for successful skutterudite commercialization, (4) new material, nanostructure, and nanoscale approaches to reduce thermal interface and electrical contact resistances, (5) innovative heat exchangers for high efficiency heat flows and optimum temperature profiles despite highly variable exhaust gas operating conditions, (6) new modeling and simulation tools, and (7) inexpensive materials for thermal insulation and coatings for TE encapsulation. Recent results will be presented. Supported by the U.S. DOE Vehicle Technology Program.

  20. Alloy chemistry and microstructural control to meet the demands of the automotive Stirling engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephens, J. R.

    1986-01-01

    The automotive Stirling engine now under development by DOE/NASA as an alternative to the internal combustion engine, imposes severe materials requirements for the hot portion of the engine. Materials selected must be low cost and contain a minimum of strategic elements so that availability is not a problem. Heater head tubes contain high pressure hydrogen on the inside and are exposed to hot combustion gases on the outside surface. The cylinders and regenerator housings must be readily castable into complex shapes having varying wall thicknesses and be amenable to brazing and welding operations. Also, high strength, oxidation resistance, resistance to hydrogen permeation, cyclic operation, and long-life are required. A research program conducted by NASA Lewis focused on alloy chemistry and microstructural control to achieve the desired properties over the life of the engine. Results of alloy selection, characterization, evaluation, and actual engine testing of selected materials are presented.

  1. Alloy chemistry and microstructural control to meet the demands of the automotive Stirling engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephens, Joseph R.

    1988-01-01

    The automotive Stirling engine now under development by DOE/NASA as an alternative to the internal combustion engine, imposes severe materials requirements for the hot portion of the engine. Materials selected must be low cost and contain a minimum of strategic elements so that availability is not a problem. Heater head tubes contain high pressure hydrogen on the inside and are exposed to hot combustion gases on the outside surface. The cylinders and regenerator housings must be readily castable into complex shapes having varying wall thicknesses and be amenable to brazing and welding operations. Also, high strength, oxidation resistance, resistance to hydrogen permeation, cyclic operation, and long-life are required. A research program conducted by NASA Lewis focused on alloy chemistry and microstructural control to achieve the desired properties over the life of the engine. Results of alloy selection, characterization, evaluation, and actual engine testing of selected materials are presented.

  2. 19 CFR 10.84 - Automotive vehicles and articles for use as original equipment in the manufacture of automotive...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... original equipment in the manufacture of automotive vehicles. 10.84 Section 10.84 Customs Duties U.S... vehicles and articles for use as original equipment in the manufacture of automotive vehicles. (a)(1... his declaration that the articles are being imported for use as original equipment in the...

  3. 19 CFR 10.84 - Automotive vehicles and articles for use as original equipment in the manufacture of automotive...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... original equipment in the manufacture of automotive vehicles. 10.84 Section 10.84 Customs Duties U.S... vehicles and articles for use as original equipment in the manufacture of automotive vehicles. (a)(1... his declaration that the articles are being imported for use as original equipment in the...

  4. 19 CFR 10.84 - Automotive vehicles and articles for use as original equipment in the manufacture of automotive...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... original equipment in the manufacture of automotive vehicles. 10.84 Section 10.84 Customs Duties U.S... vehicles and articles for use as original equipment in the manufacture of automotive vehicles. (a)(1... his declaration that the articles are being imported for use as original equipment in the...

  5. 19 CFR 10.84 - Automotive vehicles and articles for use as original equipment in the manufacture of automotive...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... original equipment in the manufacture of automotive vehicles. 10.84 Section 10.84 Customs Duties U.S... vehicles and articles for use as original equipment in the manufacture of automotive vehicles. (a)(1... his declaration that the articles are being imported for use as original equipment in the...

  6. 40 CFR 90.407 - Engine inlet and exhaust systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... exhaust emission compliance over the full range of air inlet filter systems and exhaust muffler systems. (b) The air inlet filter system and exhaust muffler system combination used on the test engine...

  7. 40 CFR 90.407 - Engine inlet and exhaust systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... exhaust emission compliance over the full range of air inlet filter systems and exhaust muffler systems. (b) The air inlet filter system and exhaust muffler system combination used on the test engine...

  8. 40 CFR 90.407 - Engine inlet and exhaust systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... exhaust emission compliance over the full range of air inlet filter systems and exhaust muffler systems. (b) The air inlet filter system and exhaust muffler system combination used on the test engine...

  9. 40 CFR 90.407 - Engine inlet and exhaust systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... exhaust emission compliance over the full range of air inlet filter systems and exhaust muffler systems. (b) The air inlet filter system and exhaust muffler system combination used on the test engine...

  10. Exhaust gas recirculation system for an internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Ko-Jen

    2013-05-21

    An exhaust gas recirculation system for an internal combustion engine comprises an exhaust driven turbocharger having a low pressure turbine outlet in fluid communication with an exhaust gas conduit. The turbocharger also includes a low pressure compressor intake and a high pressure compressor outlet in communication with an intake air conduit. An exhaust gas recirculation conduit fluidly communicates with the exhaust gas conduit to divert a portion of exhaust gas to a low pressure exhaust gas recirculation branch extending between the exhaust gas recirculation conduit and an engine intake system for delivery of exhaust gas thereto. A high pressure exhaust gas recirculation branch extends between the exhaust gas recirculation conduit and the compressor intake and delivers exhaust gas to the compressor for mixing with a compressed intake charge for delivery to the intake system.

  11. [Measurement of exhaust gases of cars in the neighbourhood of roads (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Wanner, H U; Deuber, A; Satish, J; Meier, M; Sommer, H

    1976-07-01

    Air samples were collected in plastic bags simultaneously at various measuring points in the close range of streets. When examining the various bag materials, Teflon bags showed the smallest deviations in direct analyses and in analyses of up to two hours after the drawing of samples. The following methods were used for the analysis of the air samples collected in the bags: coulometry for CO and SO2, chemiluminescence for NO/NO2, chromotropic acid for CH2O and flame ionization for hydrocarbon. The various components were measured close to a highway and near streets in residential and business areas. PMID:63198

  12. Requirements for future automotive batteries - a snapshot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karden, Eckhard; Shinn, Paul; Bostock, Paul; Cunningham, James; Schoultz, Evan; Kok, Daniel

    Introduction of new fuel economy, performance, safety, and comfort features in future automobiles will bring up many new, power-hungry electrical systems. As a consequence, demands on automotive batteries will grow substantially, e.g. regarding reliability, energy throughput (shallow-cycle life), charge acceptance, and high-rate partial state-of-charge (HRPSOC) operation. As higher voltage levels are mostly not an economically feasible alternative for the short term, the existing 14 V electrical system will have to fulfil these new demands, utilizing advanced 12 V energy storage devices. The well-established lead-acid battery technology is expected to keep playing a key role in this application. Compared to traditional starting-lighting-ignition (SLI) batteries, significant technological progress has been achieved or can be expected, which improve both performance and service life. System integration of the storage device into the vehicle will become increasingly important. Battery monitoring systems (BMS) are expected to become a commodity, penetrating the automotive volume market from both highly equipped premium cars and dedicated fuel-economy vehicles (e.g. stop/start). Battery monitoring systems will allow for more aggressive battery operating strategies, at the same time improving the reliability of the power supply system. Where a single lead-acid battery cannot fulfil the increasing demands, dual-storage systems may form a cost-efficient extension. They consist either of two lead-acid batteries or of a lead-acid battery plus another storage device.

  13. Potential automotive uses of wrought magnesium alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Gaines, L.; Cuenca, R.; Wu, S.; Stodolsky, F. |

    1996-06-01

    Vehicle weight reduction is one of the major means available to improve automotive fuel efficiency. High-strength steels, aluminum (Al), and polymers are already being used to reduce weight significantly, but substantial additional reductions could be achieved by greater use of low-density magnesium (Mg) and its alloys. Mg alloys are currently used in relatively small quantities for auto parts, generally limited to die castings (e.g., housings). Argonne National Laboratory`s Center for Transportation Research has performed a study for the Lightweight Materials Program within DOE`s Office of Transportation Materials to evaluate the suitability of wrought Mg and its alloys to replace steel/aluminum for automotive structural and sheet applications. Mg sheet could be used in body nonstructural and semi-structural applications, while extrusions could be used in such structural applications as spaceframes. This study identifies high cost as the major barrier to greatly increased Mg use in autos. Two technical R and D areas, novel reduction technology and better hot-forming technology, could enable major cost reductions.

  14. Crashworthiness simulation of composite automotive structures

    SciTech Connect

    Botkin, M E; Johnson, N L; Simunovic, S; Zywicz, E

    1998-06-01

    In 1990 the Automotive Composites Consortium (ACC) began the investigation of crash worthiness simulation methods for composite materials. A contract was given to Livermore Software Technology Corporation (LSTC) to implement a new damage model in LS-DYNA3DTM specifically for composite structures. This model is in LS-DYNA3DTM and is in use by the ACC partners. In 1994 USCAR, a partnership of American auto companies, entered into a partnership called SCAAP (Super Computing Automotive Applications Partnership) for the express purpose of working with the National Labs on computational oriented research. A CRADA (Cooperative Research and Development Agreement) was signed with Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Sandia National Laboratory, Argonne National Laboratory, and Los Alamos National Laboratory to work in three distinctly different technical areas, one of which was composites material modeling for crash worthiness. Each Laboratory was assigned a specific modeling task. The ACC was responsible for the technical direction of the composites project and provided all test data for code verification. All new models were to be implemented in DYNA3D and periodically distributed to all partners for testing. Several new models have been developed and implemented. Excellent agreement has been shown between tube crush simulation and experiments.

  15. Graduate Automotive Technology Education (GATE) Center

    SciTech Connect

    Jeffrey Hodgson; David Irick

    2005-09-30

    The Graduate Automotive Technology Education (GATE) Center at the University of Tennessee, Knoxville has completed its sixth year of operation. During this period the Center has involved thirteen GATE Fellows and ten GATE Research Assistants in preparing them to contribute to advanced automotive technologies in the center's focus area: hybrid drive trains and control systems. Eighteen GATE students have graduated, and three have completed their course work requirements. Nine faculty members from three departments in the College of Engineering have been involved in the GATE Center. In addition to the impact that the Center has had on the students and faculty involved, the presence of the center has led to the acquisition of resources that probably would not have been obtained if the GATE Center had not existed. Significant industry interaction such as internships, equipment donations, and support for GATE students has been realized. The value of the total resources brought to the university (including related research contracts) exceeds $4,000,000. Problem areas are discussed in the hope that future activities may benefit from the operation of the current program.

  16. REVIEW ARTICLE: Sensors for automotive telematics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner, J. D.; Austin, L.

    2000-02-01

    This article reviews the current practice in sensors and sensor applications for automotive and traffic-control systems. Sensors to control engine fuelling, ignition and transmission (known as the powertrain) are reviewed and the likely course of future development is discussed in the light of regulatory and market requirements as well as trends in sensor design and manufacture. Sensor needs for suspension, braking and control of traction are also reviewed and the likely introduction of wheel and tyre sensors to enhance driving safety is discussed. The recent trend towards vehicle-mounted devices to sense the vehicle's environment (such as radar, optical, ultrasound, capacitive and image-based systems) and the implications of the introduction of safety-critical automotive systems such as adaptive cruise control are discussed. Sensors for initiating the deployment of safety systems such as airbags, together with transducers for disconnecting fuel pumps and vehicle batteries in the event of a crash, are reviewed. The paper includes a brief discussion of highway-based sensors for measuring vehicle speed and presence and concludes with a discussion of the likely future developments in the field.

  17. Collection and analysis of organic acids in exhaust gas. Comparison of different methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zervas, E.; Montagne, X.; Lahaye, J.

    This paper reports the development of a specific method to identify organic acids in exhaust gases. The organic acids are collected in two impingers containing liquids (pure water or Na 2CO 3 1% aqueous solution) and four cartridges containing solids (silica, fluorisil, alumina B and alumina N). Once collected, the acids are eluted of the solids by a hot water stream. These traps performances, in terms of organic acids collection and elution efficiency, are evaluated and compared. Two sources are used to produce the gas flow containing organic acids: one generates a flow whose concentration is known and stable, the other produces organic acids among other combustion products. For eluted solutions analysis, two methods are used: isocratic ionic chromatography/conductivity detection and GC/FID. Their efficiency in separating 10 aliphatic acids are compared. Their characteristics such as detection limits, detection linearity, repeatability and possible interferences with other components found in exhaust gases are determined. The stability of the organic acids solutions is also studied. Lastly, the use of these methods is illustrated by the analysis of the gas-phase organic acids exhausted by a spark ignition and by a diesel engine.

  18. Exhaustion and the Pathologization of Modernity.

    PubMed

    Schaffner, Anna Katharina

    2016-09-01

    This essay analyses six case studies of theories of exhaustion-related conditions from the early eighteenth century to the present day. It explores the ways in which George Cheyne, George Beard, Richard von Krafft-Ebing, Sigmund Freud, Alain Ehrenberg and Jonathan Crary use medical ideas about exhaustion as a starting point for more wide-ranging cultural critiques related to specific social and technological transformations. In these accounts, physical and psychological symptoms are associated with particular external developments, which are thus not just construed as pathology-generators but also pathologized. The essay challenges some of the persistently repeated claims about exhaustion and its unhappy relationship with modernity. PMID:25096856

  19. Emission of carcinogenic components with automobile exhausts.

    PubMed Central

    Stenberg, U; Alsberg, T; Westerholm, R

    1983-01-01

    Different sampling methods for mutagenic polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are described. These methods involve either direct sampling of raw exhausts which prior to filtering are cooled in a condenser, or filter sampling of exhausts diluted in a tunnel. The relevance of gas-phase PAHs of samples from diluted exhausts is discussed; methods used are either adsorbents (XAD-2) or cryogenic condensation. The emission of benzo(a)pyrene and certain other PAHs is reported from vehicles using different fuels (gasoline, diesel, LPG, alcohols) or different emission control systems. The emission of some volatiles, such as benzene, ethylene and alkylnitrites, is also presented from different types of fuels used. PMID:6186483

  20. Automotive Mechanics Curriculum Outline for Secondary Schools. Vocational Education Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Louisiana State Dept. of Education, Baton Rouge. Div. of Vocational Education.

    This curriculum outline for secondary automotive mechanics is structured around Louisiana's Vocational-Technical Automotive Mechanics Curriculum. The curriculum is composed of 16 units of instruction, covering the following topics: benchwork, fundamentals of automotive engines, preventive maintenance, automotive brakes, steering and front…