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1

The Effect of Automotive Fuel Conservation Measures on Air Pollution.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A number of policies have been designed to reduce gasoline consumption by automobiles, including: gasoline rationing; increases in the federal excise tax on gasoline; excise taxes on new cars, in inverse proportion to their fuel economy; and regulations t...

R. Landis

1976-01-01

2

THE EFFECT OF AUTOMOTIVE FUEL CONSERVATION MEASURES ON AIR POLLUTION  

EPA Science Inventory

A number of policies have been designed to reduce gasoline consumption by automobiles, including: gasoline rationing; increases in the federal excise tax on gasoline; excise taxes on new cars, in inverse proportion to their fuel economy; and regulations to set minimum levels on a...

3

Alternative automotive fuels  

Microsoft Academic Search

A survey of the current state of the art throughout the world in the use of alternative fuels in automotive engines. The fuels discussed are propane, compressed natural gas, liquid natural gas, alcohols, and hydrogen. Knowles covers the equipment necessary to utilize the fuel, including bulk storage, transfer to vehicles, and vehicle fuel tanks. He also includes the vehicle hardware

Knowles

1984-01-01

4

Alternative automotive fuels  

SciTech Connect

A survey of the current state of the art throughout the world in the use of alternative fuels in automotive engines. The fuels discussed are propane, compressed natural gas, liquid natural gas, alcohols, and hydrogen. Knowles covers the equipment necessary to utilize the fuel, including bulk storage, transfer to vehicles, and vehicle fuel tanks. He also includes the vehicle hardware and engine modifications necessary to use the alternative fuels. Advantages, disadvantages, cost, safety precautions, and applicable regulations are also discussed.

Knowles, D.

1984-01-01

5

Review and evaluation of automotive fuel conservation technologies. Volume I: summary. Final report Mar 79Sep 81  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of research tasks were instituted to assess the impact of automotive technologies and the manufacturer's overall product plans on existing and future fuel economy requirements. Supported by NHTSA's Technology Assessment Division, this program provided analytical capabilities in the areas of automotive technology, manufacturing costs, and industry assessments. Specific subject areas of investigation include: potential fuel economy improvements from

T. Jr

1981-01-01

6

Automotive Fuel and Exhaust Systems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Materials are provided for a 14-hour course designed to introduce the automotive mechanic to the basic operations of automotive fuel and exhaust systems incorporated on military vehicles. The four study units cover characteristics of fuels, gasoline fuel system, diesel fuel systems, and exhaust system. Each study unit begins with a general…

Irby, James F.; And Others

7

Automotive gas turbine fuel control  

Microsoft Academic Search

A fuel control useful for automotive-type gas turbines and particularly advanced gas turbines utilizing variable geometry components to improve mileage and reduce pollution emission is disclosed. The fuel control described compensates for fuel density variations, inlet temperature variations, turbine vane actuation, acceleration, and turbine breaking. These parameters are utilized to control various orifices, spool valves and pistons in a desired

Gold

1976-01-01

8

Hydrogen as Fuel: Automotive Uses  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This presentation introduces the use of hydrogen as an automotive fuel. The content includes details on how hydrogen is produced, emissions, storage of hydrogen and information about the BMW H2R hydrogen car.This presentation may be downloaded in PowerPoint file format.

2012-10-08

9

Energy Conservation Measures at an Automotive Instructional Facility  

E-print Network

Energy consumption and costs to operate an automotive technical training facility at Texas State Technical Institute in Waco have been significantly reduced through implementation of several energy conservation measures. This paper reviews building...

Godsey, F. W.

1989-01-01

10

GATE Center for Automotive Fuel Cell Systems at Virginia Tech  

SciTech Connect

The Virginia Tech GATE Center for Automotive Fuel Cell Systems (CAFCS) achieved the following objectives in support of the domestic automotive industry: â?¢ Expanded and updated fuel cell and vehicle technologies education programs; â?¢ Conducted industry directed research in three thrust areas â?? development and characterization of materials for PEM fuel cells; performance and durability modeling for PEM fuel cells; and fuel cell systems design and optimization, including hybrid and plug-in hybrid fuel cell vehicles; â?¢ Developed MS and Ph.D. engineers and scientists who are pursuing careers related to fuel cells and automotive applications; â?¢ Published research results that provide industry with new knowledge which contributes to the advancement of fuel cell and vehicle systems commercialization. With support from the Dept. of Energy, the CAFCS upgraded existing graduate course offerings; introduced a hands-on laboratory component that make use of Virginia Techâ??s comprehensive laboratory facilities, funded 15 GATE Fellowships over a five year period; and expanded our program of industry interaction to improve student awareness of challenges and opportunities in the automotive industry. GATE Center graduate students have a state-of-the-art research experience preparing them for a career to contribute to the advancement fuel cell and vehicle technologies.

Nelson, Douglas

2011-05-31

11

Direct and Collisional Excitation of Automotive Fuel Components)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adding energy directly into the vibrational modes of automotive fuel may reduce the threshold energy required for combustion, without raising the combustion charge temperature. This energy can be supplied either directly via incident laser radiation or indirectly through collision with directly excited molecules. The most common chemical in commercial gasoline, isooctane, does not absorb infrared radiation sufficiently at any wavelength

Allen R. White; Kyle Wilson; Stephen Sakai; Rebecca B. Devasher

2010-01-01

12

Fuel Cells for Non-automotive Uses: Status and Prospects  

SciTech Connect

Fuel cells are in varying stages ofcommercialization for both automotive and non-automotive applications. The fuel cell industry has made substantial progress but still needs to reduce costs and improve performance to compete successfully with established technologies. In just 5 years, costs have been reduced by a factor of two while improving efficiency and durability. Based on interviews with fuel cell manufacturers in the U.S., Japan and the EU and information from published sources, a model of non-automotive fuel cell markets is constructed and used to estimate the impacts of government policies and to project the potential evolution of the industry to 2025. The model includes the effects of learning-by-doing, scale economies and exogenous technological progress on component and system costs, estimates customer choices between fuel cell and competing established technologies, and attempts to measure the impacts of government policies. With continued policy support it appears likely that the industry can become self-sustaining within the next decade.

Upreti, Girish [ORNL; Greene, David L [ORNL; Duleep, K. G. [ICF International; Sawhney, Rupinder S [ORNL

2012-01-01

13

Light-Duty Automotive Technology and Fuel Economy Trends  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Website offers technical reports on US light duty automotive technology and fuel economy trends for model years 1975 through the present model year. A Fact Sheet, the main body of the report, and appendices are available in .pdf format. The latter two can also be downloaded as zipped WordPerfect files. Among other things, the report reveals that average fuel economy has declined consistently since the late 1980s and now stands at its lowest level since 1980. The primary source of this decline, the report states, is the increasing market share of light trucks, which have a lower average fuel economy than cars.

1999-01-01

14

Start-up analysis for automotive PEM fuel cell systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The development of fuel cell cars can play an important role in resolving transport problems, due to the high environmental compatibility and high efficiency of this kind of vehicle. Among the different types of fuel cells, proton-exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) are considered the best solution for automotive applications at the moment. In this work, constructive criteria are discussed with the aim of obtaining a power generation module adaptable to a wide range of cars. A particular problem in accomplishing the overall project is represented by the definition of the compressor system for air feeding. In this work, the design approach to the problem will be delineated: some options are reviewed and the best solution is analysed. The transient response of the system (fuel cell and compressor) is investigated in order to optimise the start-up running through a model of a fuel cell stack and a compressor simulation. The model and its results are proposed as a work procedure to solve the problem, by varying external conditions: in fact, to perform the system start-up under stable conditions, the air relative humidity and temperature must be maintained in a proper range of values. The approach here presented has been utilised for the definition of the characteristics of the power module and layout of a middle-size hybrid city bus in the framework of a project promoted by the European Union.

De Francesco, M.; Arato, E.

15

A survey of processes for producing hydrogen fuel from different sources for automotive-propulsion fuel cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seven common fuels are compared for their utility as hydrogen sources for proton-exchange-membrane fuel cells used in automotive propulsion. Methanol, natural gas, gasoline, diesel fuel, aviation jet fuel, ethanol, and hydrogen are the fuels considered. Except for the steam reforming of methanol and using pure hydrogen, all processes for generating hydrogen from these fuels require temperatures over 1000 K at

1996-01-01

16

Automotive Stirling engine development program. [fuel economy assessment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Ford/DOE automotive Stirling engine development program is directed towards establishing the technological and developmental base that would enable a decision on whether an engineering program should be directed at Stirling engine production. The fuel economy assessment aims to achieve, with a high degree of confidence, the ERDA proposal estimate of 20.6 MPG (gasoline) for a 4500 lb 1WC Stirling engine passenger car. The current M-H fuel economy projection for the 170 HP Stirling engine is 15.7 MPG. The confidence level for this projection is 32%. A confidence level of 29% is projected for a 22.1 MPG estimate. If all of the planned analyses and test work is accomplished at the end of the one year effort, and the projected improvements are substantiated, the confidence levels would rise to 59% for the 20.6 MPG projection and 54% for the 22.1 MPG projection. Progress achieved thus far during the fuel economy assessment is discussed.

Kitzner, E. W.

1978-01-01

17

Automobile air pollution: Automotive fuels. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the use of fuels and fuel additives for the reduction of automotive air pollution. Alternative fuels discussed include gasohol, methane, natural gas, and hydrogen. Improvements to gasoline and its properties which affect air pollution are considered, as well as lead and other fuel additives. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

NONE

1995-01-01

18

Automobile air pollution: Automotive fuels. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the use of fuels and fuel additives for the reduction of automotive air pollution. Alternative fuels discussed include gasohol, methane, natural gas, and hydrogen. Improvements to gasoline and its properties which affect air pollution are considered, as well as lead and other fuel additives. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1994-01-01

19

Compatibility of alternative fuels with advanced automotive gas turbine and stirling engines. A literature survey  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The application of alternative fuels in advanced automotive gas turbine and Stirling engines is discussed on the basis of a literature survey. These alternative engines are briefly described, and the aspects that will influence fuel selection are identified. Fuel properties and combustion properties are discussed, with consideration given to advanced materials and components. Alternative fuels from petroleum, coal, oil shale, alcohol, and hydrogen are discussed, and some background is given about the origin and production of these fuels. Fuel requirements for automotive gas turbine and Stirling engines are developed, and the need for certain reseach efforts is discussed. Future research efforts planned at Lewis are described.

Cairelli, J.; Horvath, D.

1981-01-01

20

USEtox relevance as an impact indicator for automotive fuels. Application on diesel fuel, gasoline and hard coal electricity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  In order to provide more sustainable fuels and address the depletion of oil as a feedstock, the automotive industry must adapt\\u000a to a growing market share of alternative fuels. The environmental impacts of the automotive industry to date would suggest\\u000a that these alternatives will be more environmentally friendly than petroleum-based fuels. This is nonetheless an assumption\\u000a that cannot be confirmed

Florent Querini; Stéphane Morel; Valérie Boch; Patrick Rousseaux

21

An automotive engine model for air-fuel ratio control using cylinder pressure information  

E-print Network

Increasingly strict emission standards require very accurate and fast air-fuel ratio (AFR) control in combustion engines. This thesis addresses the design methodology currently used for synthesizing a control system for an automotive internal...

Nana, Emmanuel Tomdio

2012-06-07

22

Economic & commercial viability of hydrogen fuel cell vehicles from an automotive manufacturer perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ford Motor Company's experience with Fuel Cell Vehicle (FCV) technology began over ten years ago with the P2000 concept. Development of this vehicle demonstrated technological feasibility of, and revealed a number of challenges to, automotive fuel cell commercialization. By 2005, Ford launched the Focus FCV fleet in partnership with the U.S. Department of Energy, Fuel Cells Canada (now Hydrogen and

Greg Frenette; Daniel Forthoffer

2009-01-01

23

Direct and Collisional Excitation of Automotive Fuel Components)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Adding energy directly into the vibrational modes of automotive fuel may reduce the threshold energy required for combustion, without raising the combustion charge temperature. This energy can be supplied either directly via incident laser radiation or indirectly through collision with directly excited molecules. The most common chemical in commercial gasoline, isooctane, does not absorb infrared radiation sufficiently at any wavelength for which an infrared laser is readily available. However, CO2 lasers are relatively cheap, and are available at wavelengths which are absorbed by isopropanol as well as ethanol, which is also a component of commercial gasoline. In this study, the infrared absorption of isopropanol and ethanol in balance isooctane were measured at three wavelengths (10.6 m, 10.2 m, and 9.3 m) of incident CO2 laser radiation. Additional time-resolved emission measurements were performed for these mixtures. The data support the existence of the proposed collisional pathway for energy transfer from ethanol and isopropanol to isooctane.

White, Allen R.; Wilson, Kyle; Sakai, Stephen; Devasher, Rebecca B.

2010-06-01

24

Automobile air pollution: Automotive fuels. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the use of fuels and fuel additives for the reduction of automotive air pollution. Alternative fuels discussed include gasohol, methane, natural gas, and hydrogen. Improvements to gasoline and its properties which affect air pollution are considered, as well as lead and other fuel additives. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

NONE

1996-04-01

25

Automobile air pollution: Automotive fuels. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the use of fuels and fuel additives for the reduction of automotive air pollution. Alternative fuels discussed include gasohol, methane, natural gas, and hydrogen. Improvements to gasoline and its properties which affect air pollution are considered, as well as lead and other fuel additives. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

NONE

1997-06-01

26

How "Green" Is Your Fuel? Creation and Comparison of Automotive Biofuels  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In recent years, biofuel development and use has risen significantly. This undergraduate laboratory experiment educates students on the various alternative fuels that are being developed for automotive applications and the advantages and disadvantages of each. Students replicate commercially available alternative fuels, E85 and biodiesel, as well…

Wagner, Eugene P.; Koehle, Maura A.; Moyle, Todd M.; Lambert, Patrick D.

2010-01-01

27

Assessing total and renewable energy in Brazilian automotive fuels. A life cycle inventory (LCI) approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article uses a first approach LCI procedure to evaluate total and renewable energy and CO2 emissions in Brazilian automotive fuels life cycle (LC). The LC model is structured and modular, capable of being successively refined if necessary. The procedure is applied to passenger car use in urban traffic, comparing three fuels used in Brazil (gasoline with 25% ethanol, pure

Márcio de Almeida D’Agosto; Suzana Kahn Ribeiro

2009-01-01

28

Engine Tune-Up Service. Unit 5: Fuel and Carburetion Systems. Student Guide. Automotive Mechanics Curriculum.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This student guide is for Unit 5, Fuel and Carburetion Systems, in the Engine Tune-Up Service portion of the Automotive Mechanics Curriculum. It deals with inspecting and servicing the fuel and carburetion systems. A companion review exercise book and posttests are available separately as CE 031 218-219. An introduction tells how this unit fits…

Goodson, Ludy

29

Ethanol-containing automotive fuels – a safety concept for petrol stations in Germany  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to the promotion of renewable energy sources, the demand for ethanol\\/automotive fuels has increased,\\u000a whereby the ethanol is produced from biomass. As these fuels are flammable liquids, explosion protection\\u000a concepts are needed for their transport, use and storage and for the operation of petrol stations. Safety\\u000a characteristics are the basis of such concepts. Since the data for ethanol, on

E. Brandes; D.-H. Frobese

2009-01-01

30

The individual contribution of automotive components to vehicle fuel consumption  

E-print Network

Fuel consumption has grown to become a major point of interest as oil reserves are depleted. The purpose of this study is to determine the key components that cause variation in the instantaneous fuel consumption of vehicles ...

Napier, Parhys L

2011-01-01

31

Fuel economy screening study of advanced automotive gas turbine engines  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Fuel economy potentials were calculated and compared among ten turbomachinery configurations. All gas turbine engines were evaluated with a continuously variable transmission in a 1978 compact car. A reference fuel economy was calculated for the car with its conventional spark ignition piston engine and three speed automatic transmission. Two promising engine/transmission combinations, using gasoline, had 55 to 60 percent gains over the reference fuel economy. Fuel economy sensitivities to engine design parameter changes were also calculated for these two combinations.

Klann, J. L.

1980-01-01

32

Dynamic PEM fuel cell modeling for automotive applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a static and dynamic modeling of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) for transportation applications. Electrochemical analysis is performed to get an equivalent circuit of the fuel cell, which can be used, in the simulation of the power generator (association of the fuel cell and its converter). Experimental polarization curves and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) are

James GARNIER; Marie-Cécile PERA; Daniel HISSEL; Fabien HAREL; Denis CANDUSSO; Nicolas GLANDUT; J. P. Diard; Alexandre DE BERNARDINIS; Jean-Marie KAUFFMANN; Gérard COQUERY

2003-01-01

33

Fuel-conservative engine technology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Aircraft fuel consumption is discussed in terms of its efficient use, and the conversion of energy from sources other than petroleum. Topics discussed include: fuel from coal and oil shale, hydrogen deficiency of alternate sources, alternate fuels evaluation program, and future engines.

Dugan, J. F., Jr.; Mcaulay, J. E.; Reynolds, T. W.; Strack, W. C.

1975-01-01

34

Fuel conservation integrated into airline economics  

SciTech Connect

Fuel conservation efforts at most major airlines involve close scrutiny and intensive analysis in all areas - flight, maintenance and ground handling. Yet, despite the concern and attention devoted, the fundamental question of fuel saving versus time trade-offs remains unanswered. This paper introduces and defines the concept ''The value of an airplane to an airline is that airplane's earning power.

Ferguson, D.R.

1981-01-01

35

16 CFR 306.5 - Automotive fuel rating.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...fuels other than biodiesel blends and biomass-based diesel blends, you must...contained in the fuel, and in the case of biomass-based diesel blends, you must possess...reliable evidence, for the percentage of biomass-based diesel contained in the...

2010-01-01

36

Fuel economy of automotive vehicles - some statistical approaches  

SciTech Connect

Subjects covered by the paper include: interpolation, extrapolation and smoothing of time-series data; curvilinearity in the regression analysis of fuel-economy data; an approach to the regionalization of fuel-economy shortfall; and the effect of transformations of variables on the coefficient of determination (R/sup 2/) in regression analysis.

McAdams, H.T.

1981-12-01

37

Design and Analysis of Fuel-Cell Hybrid Systems Oriented to Automotive Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hybridization with high specific energy-storage devices such as supercapacitors (SCs) has important advantages in fuel-cell (FC)-based systems. This paper presents an approach for the design and analysis of FC hybrid systems (FCHSs) oriented to automotive applications. The FCHS is considered to be the most attractive long-term option for propulsion of passenger cars. The design stage includes the determination of the

Diego Feroldi; Maria Serra; Jordi Riera

2009-01-01

38

Performance and cost of automotive fuel cell systems with ultra-low platinum loadings  

Microsoft Academic Search

An automotive polymer-electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC) system with ultra-low platinum loading (0.15mg-Ptcm?2) has been analyzed to determine the relationship between its design-point efficiency and the system efficiency at part loads, efficiency over drive cycles, stack and system costs, and heat rejection. The membrane electrode assemblies in the reference PEFC stack use nanostructured, thin-film ternary catalysts supported on organic whiskers and

R. K. Ahluwalia; X. Wang; J. Kwon; A. Rousseau; J. Kalinoski; B. James; J. Marcinkoski

2011-01-01

39

Fuel-conservation efforts of Texas municipal  

SciTech Connect

Based on survey findings, several conclusions can be made about how Texas police departments perceive and react to high and rising fuel costs. Responses received from all departments indicated some programatic efforts to conserve fuel, which demonstrates that Texas police departments have dealt with and are concerned about the rising cost of fuel. However, the problem of meeting fuel bills was apparently not a paralyzing one in 1981. For example, only about one in five departments claimed that fuel costs were second only to salaries in their budgets. In addition, although some departments have been relying on the more popular conservation plans for years, the majority had instituted such plans within two or three years. Among the most frequently used programs, two clusters of program choices appear. The first cluster includes more frequent tune-ups, increased maintenance, and reminders to offiers to conserve fuel. The second cluster includes shutting-off engines at given intervals, regular use of fixed position patrol, and reminders to officers to conserve fuel.

Crouch, B.M.

1982-05-01

40

Magnesium and its alloys applications in automotive industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study is to review and evaluate the applications of magnesium in the automotive industry that can significantly\\u000a contribute to greater fuel economy and environmental conservation. In the study, the current advantages, limitations, technological\\u000a barriers and future prospects of Mg alloys in the automotive industry are given. The usage of magnesium in automotive applications\\u000a is also assessed

Mustafa Kemal Kulekci

2008-01-01

41

Electrocatalyst approaches and challenges for automotive fuel cells.  

PubMed

Fuel cells powered by hydrogen from secure and renewable sources are the ideal solution for non-polluting vehicles, and extensive research and development on all aspects of this technology over the past fifteen years has delivered prototype cars with impressive performances. But taking the step towards successful commercialization requires oxygen reduction electrocatalysts--crucial components at the heart of fuel cells--that meet exacting performance targets. In addition, these catalyst systems will need to be highly durable, fault-tolerant and amenable to high-volume production with high yields and exceptional quality. Not all the catalyst approaches currently being pursued will meet those demands. PMID:22678278

Debe, Mark K

2012-06-01

42

Fuel-efficient energy storage automotive drive system  

SciTech Connect

A fuel-saving energy storage vehicle drive system which saves fuel, primarily under stop-and-go driving conditions, by collecting, storing and using energy normally lost in the braking or deceleration of the vehicle, by automatically controlled operation of the engine under certain conditions, and by automatically controlled use of the stored energy and engine respectively as alternative or supplemental prime movers for each other for driving the vehicle. Subsystems for preventing waste of deceleration energy and stored energy are provided, and compact transmission layout and packaging are provided which facilitate installation of the new system in existing vehicles.

Anderson, D.H.; Lucas, E.F.

1983-02-08

43

Fuel-efficient energy storage automotive drive system  

SciTech Connect

A fuel-saving energy storage vehicle drive system which saves fuel, primarily under stop-and-go driving conditions, by collecting, storing and using energy normally lost in the braking or deceleration of the vehicle, by automatically controlled operation of the engine under certain conditions, and by automatically controlled use of the stored energy and engine respectively as alternative or supplemental prime movers for each other for driving the vehicle. Subsystems for preventing waste of deceleration energy and stored energy are provided, and compact transmission layout and packaging are provided which facilitate installation of the new system in existing vehicles.

Carman, V.E.

1983-06-14

44

Fuel-efficient energy storage automotive drive system  

SciTech Connect

A fuel-saving energy storage vehicle drive system which saves fuel, primarily under stop-and-go driving conditions, by collecting, storing and using energy normally lost in the braking or deceleration of the vehicle, by automatically controlled operation of the engine under certain conditions, and by automatically controlled use of the stored energy and engine respectively as alternative or supplemental prime movers for each other for driving the vehicle. Subsystems for preventing waste of deceleration energy and stored energy are provided, and compact transmission layout and packaging are provided which facilitate installation of the new system in existing vehicles.

Anderson, D.H.; Babbage, T.F.; Lucas, E.F.

1983-05-10

45

Fuel conservative aircraft engine technology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Technology developments for more fuel-efficiency subsonic transport aircraft are reported. Three major propulsion projects were considered: (1) engine component improvement - directed at current engines; (2) energy efficient engine - directed at new turbofan engines; and (3) advanced turboprops - directed at technology for advanced turboprop-powered aircraft. Each project is reviewed and some of the technologies and recent accomplishments are described.

Nored, D. L.

1978-01-01

46

Advanced Automotive Fuels Research, Development, and Commercialization Cluster (OH)  

SciTech Connect

Technical aspects of producing alternative fuels that may eventually supplement or replace conventional the petroleum-derived fuels that are presently used in vehicular transportation have been investigated. The work was centered around three projects: 1) deriving butanol as a fuel additive from bacterial action on sugars produced from decomposition of aqueous suspensions of wood cellulose under elevated temperature and pressure; 2) using highly ordered, openly structured molecules known as metal-organic framework (MOF) compounds as adsorbents for gas separations in fuel processing operations; and 3) developing a photocatalytic membrane for solar-driven water decomposition to generate pure hydrogen fuel. Several departments within the STEM College at YSU contributed to the effort: Chemistry, Biology, and Chemical Engineering. In the butanol project, sawdust was blended with water at variable pH and temperature (150 – 250{degrees}C), and heated inside a pressure vessel for specified periods of time. Analysis of the extracts showed a wide variety of compounds, including simple sugars that bacteria are known to thrive upon. Samples of the cellulose hydrolysate were fed to colonies of Clostridium beijerinckii, which are known to convert sugars to a mixture of compounds, principally butanol. While the bacteria were active toward additions of pure sugar solutions, the cellulose extract appeared to inhibit butanol production, and furthermore encouraged the Clostridium to become dormant. Proteomic analysis showed that the bacteria had changed their genetic code to where it was becoming sporulated, i.e., the bacteria were trying to go dormant. This finding may be an opportunity, as it may be possible to genetically engineer bacteria that resist the butanol-driven triggering mechanism to stop further fuel production. Another way of handling the cellulosic hydrolysates was to simply add the enzymes responsible for butanol synthesis to the hydrolytic extract ex-vivo. These enzymes are generally not available commercially, however, and those that are can be quite expensive. Accordingly, the genes responsible for enzyme synthesis were inserted into other microorganisms in order to accelerate enzyme production. This was demonstrated for two of the required enzymes in the overall series. In the MOF project, a number of new MOF compounds were synthesized and characterized, as well as some common MOFs well-known for their adsorption properties. Selectivity for specific gases such as CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2} was demonstrated, although it was seen that water vapor would frequently act as an interferent. This work underscored the need to test MOF compounds under real world conditions, i.e., room temperature and above instead of liquid N{sub 2} temperature, and testing adsorption using blends of gases instead of pure components. In the solar membrane project, thin films of CdTe and WO{sub 3} were applied to steel substrates and used as p-type and n-type semiconductors, respectively, in the production of H{sub 2} and O{sub 2}. Testing with {sup 2}H and {sup 18}O isotopically labeled water enabled substantiation of net water-splitting.

Linkous, Clovis; Hripko, Michael; Abraham, Martin; Balendiran, Ganesaratnam; Hunter, Allen; Lovelace-Cameron, Sherri; Mette, Howard; Price, Douglas; Walker, Gary; Wang, Ruigang

2013-08-31

47

Collisional Excitation of Automotive Fuel Components (ethanol and Isooctane)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is possible to excite fuel components indirectly via a 10.6 um CO2 laser. A 9% solution of isopropanol in ethanol was used, as it has a strong absorption cross section at 10.6 um. CO2 laser excitation of pure ethanol caused little or no change in absorption in the C-H stretch region. However, the ethanol/isopropanol mixture did show a response proportional to laser excitation. Further studies indicate that excitation of isooctane/isopropanol mixture is also possible via collisional energy transfer between the laser excited isopropanol and isooctane.

Cobb, Rachelle H.; White, Allen R.; Devasher, Rebecca B.

2009-06-01

48

Effect of automotive electrical system changes on fuel consumption using incremental efficiency methodology  

E-print Network

There has been a continuous increase in automotive electric power usage. Future projections show no sign of it decreasing. Therefore, the automotive industry has a need to either improve the current 12 Volt automotive ...

Hardin, Christopher William

2004-01-01

49

Next Generation Bipolar Plates for Automotive PEM Fuel Cells  

SciTech Connect

The results of a successful U.S. Department of Energy (DoE) funded two-year $2.9 MM program lead by GrafTech International Inc. (GrafTech) are reported and summarized. The program goal was to develop the next generation of high temperature proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell bipolar plates for use in transportation fuel cell applications operating at temperatures up to 120 °C. The bipolar plate composite developed during the program is based on GrafTech’s GRAFCELL? resin impregnated flexible graphite technology and makes use of a high temperature Huntsman Advanced Materials resin system which extends the upper use temperature of the composite to the DoE target. High temperature performance of the new composite is achieved with the added benefit of improvements in strength, modulus, and dimensional stability over the incumbent resin systems. Other physical properties, including thermal and electrical conductivity of the new composite are identical to or not adversely affected by the new resin system. Using the new bipolar plate composite system, machined plates were fabricated and tested in high temperature single-cell fuel cells operating at 120 °C for over 1100 hours by Case Western Reserve University. Final verification of performance was done on embossed full-size plates which were fabricated and glued into bipolar plates by GrafTech. Stack testing was done on a 10-cell full-sized stack under a simulated drive cycle protocol by Ballard Power Systems. Freeze-thaw performance was conducted by Ballard on a separate 5-cell stack and shown to be within specification. A third stack was assembled and shipped to Argonne National Laboratory for independent performance verification. Manufacturing cost estimate for the production of the new bipolar plate composite at current and high volume production scenarios was performed by Directed Technologies Inc. (DTI). The production cost estimates were consistent with previous DoE cost estimates performed by DTI for the DoE on metal plates. The final result of DTI’s analysis for the high volume manufacturing scenario ($6.85 /kW) came in slightly above the DoE target of $3 to $5/kW. This estimate was derived using a “Best Case Scenario” for many of the production process steps and raw material costs with projections to high volumes. Some of the process improvements assumed in this “Best Case Scenario” including high speed high impact forming and solvent-less resins, have not yet been implemented, but have a high probability of potential success.

Orest Adrianowycz; Julian Norley; David J. Stuart; David Flaherty; Ryan Wayne; Warren Williams; Roger Tietze; Yen-Loan H. Nguyen; Tom Zawodzinski; Patrick Pietrasz

2010-04-15

50

Effects of Mn deposits from MMT on automotive catalysts in the absence and presence of other fuel additives  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chemical effects of deposits from methylcyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl (MMT) on three-way catalysts were investigated. Automotive exhaust was simulated by the combustion of isooctane. Depending on the experiment, MMT and\\/or other fuel additives were introduced. Two formulations on monolithic supports did not show any chemical poisoning beyond that caused by the same fuels without MMT. In addition, no effect of

K. Otto; R. J. Sulak

1978-01-01

51

The fuel conservation potential of Texas vanpools  

E-print Network

. The State of Texas Energy Conservation Plan estimates 1, 500 gallons per year. With the large and constantly increasing number of vans on the road, it is important that a reasonably ac- curate assessment of the savings be known. Questionnaires were sent... the pre-vanpool auto roundtrip length, auto fuel ef- ficiency and the use of the vehicles formerly used for commuting, a more detailed questionnaire was se. . t to selected vanpool riders. Two programs, ARAMCO Services in Houston, and Texas Instruments...

Williamson, Dennis Vernon

2012-06-07

52

Survey Evidence on the Willingness of U.S. Consumers to Pay for Automotive Fuel Economy  

SciTech Connect

Prospect theory, which was awarded the Nobel Prize in Economics in 2002, holds that human beings faced with a risky bet will tend to value potential losses about twice as much as potential gains. Previous research has demonstrated that prospect theory could be sufficient to explain an energy paradox in the market for automotive fuel economy. This paper analyzes data from four random sample surveys of 1,000 U.S. households each in 2004, 2011, 2012 and 2013. Households were asked about willingness to pay for future fuel savings as well as the annual fuel savings necessary to justify a given upfront payment. Payback periods inferred from household responses are consistent over time and across different formulations of questions. Mean calculated payback periods are short, about 3 years, but there is substantial dispersion among individual responses. Calculated payback periods do not appear to be correlated with the attributes of respondents. Respondents were able to quantitatively describe their uncertainty about both vehicle fuel economy and future fuel prices. Simulation of loss averse behavior based on this stated uncertainty illustrate how loss aversion could lead consumers to substantially undervalue future fuel savings relative to their expected value.

Greene, David L [ORNL; Evans, David H [Sewanee, The University of the South; Hiestand, John [Indiana University

2013-01-01

53

Costs and benefits of automotive fuel economy improvement: A partial analysis  

SciTech Connect

This paper is an exercise in estimating the costs and benefits of technology-based fuel economy improvements for automobiles and light trucks. Benefits quantified include vehicle cots, fuel savings, consumer's surplus effects, the effect of reduced weight on vehicle safety, impacts on emissions of CO{sub 2} and criteria pollutants, world oil market and energy security benefits, and the transfer of wealth from US consumes to oil producers. A vehicle stock model is used to capture sales, scrappage, and vehicle use effects under three fuel price scenarios. Three alternative fuel economy levels for 2001 are considered, ranging from 32.9 to 36.5 MPG for cars and 24.2 to 27.5 MPG for light trucks. Fuel economy improvements of this size are probably cost-effective. The size of the benefit, and whether there is a benefit, strongly depends on the financial costs of fuel economy improvement and judgments about the values of energy security, emissions, safety, etc. Three sets of values for eight parameters are used to define the sensitivity of costs and benefits to key assumptions. The net present social value (1989$) of costs and benefits ranges from a cost of $11 billion to a benefit of $286 billion. The critical parameters being the discount rate (10% vs. 3%) and the values attached to externalities. The two largest components are always the direct vehicle costs and fuel savings, but these tend to counterbalance each other for the fuel economy levels examined here. Other components are the wealth transfer, oil cost savings, CO{sub 2} emissions reductions, and energy security benefits. Safety impacts, emissions of criteria pollutants, and consumer's surplus effects are relatively minor components. The critical issues for automotive fuel economy are therefore: (1) the value of present versus future costs and benefits, (2) the values of external costs and benefits, and (3) the financially cost-effective level of MPG achievable by available technology. 53 refs.

Greene, D.L. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Duleep, K.G. (Energy and Environmental Analysis, Inc., Arlington, VA (United States))

1992-03-01

54

Costs and benefits of automotive fuel economy improvement: A partial analysis  

SciTech Connect

This paper is an exercise in estimating the costs and benefits of technology-based fuel economy improvements for automobiles and light trucks. Benefits quantified include vehicle cots, fuel savings, consumer`s surplus effects, the effect of reduced weight on vehicle safety, impacts on emissions of CO{sub 2} and criteria pollutants, world oil market and energy security benefits, and the transfer of wealth from US consumes to oil producers. A vehicle stock model is used to capture sales, scrappage, and vehicle use effects under three fuel price scenarios. Three alternative fuel economy levels for 2001 are considered, ranging from 32.9 to 36.5 MPG for cars and 24.2 to 27.5 MPG for light trucks. Fuel economy improvements of this size are probably cost-effective. The size of the benefit, and whether there is a benefit, strongly depends on the financial costs of fuel economy improvement and judgments about the values of energy security, emissions, safety, etc. Three sets of values for eight parameters are used to define the sensitivity of costs and benefits to key assumptions. The net present social value (1989$) of costs and benefits ranges from a cost of $11 billion to a benefit of $286 billion. The critical parameters being the discount rate (10% vs. 3%) and the values attached to externalities. The two largest components are always the direct vehicle costs and fuel savings, but these tend to counterbalance each other for the fuel economy levels examined here. Other components are the wealth transfer, oil cost savings, CO{sub 2} emissions reductions, and energy security benefits. Safety impacts, emissions of criteria pollutants, and consumer`s surplus effects are relatively minor components. The critical issues for automotive fuel economy are therefore: (1) the value of present versus future costs and benefits, (2) the values of external costs and benefits, and (3) the financially cost-effective level of MPG achievable by available technology. 53 refs.

Greene, D.L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Duleep, K.G. [Energy and Environmental Analysis, Inc., Arlington, VA (United States)

1992-03-01

55

Standardized Curriculum for Automotive Mechanics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Standardized curricula are provided for two courses for the secondary vocational education program in Mississippi: automotive mechanics I and II. The six units in automotive mechanics I are as follows: orientation and safety; tools, equipment, and manuals; measurement; automotive engines; basic electrical systems; and fuel systems. Automotive

Mississippi State Dept. of Education, Jackson. Office of Vocational, Technical and Adult Education.

56

2013 CAR Breakfast Briefing Series - Automotive Fuels and Emissions - Policies Compliance and Potential Impact of Future Technologies  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource contains presentations from one of the Center for Automotive Researchâs (CARâs) breakfast briefings titled âAutomotive Fuels and Emissions: Policies, Compliance, & Potential Impact of Future Technologies.â This briefing occurred on 12/5/13 at Robert Bosch LLC in Farmington Hills, MI. At the briefing presenters discussed the strategic implications of Tier 3 regulations which will soon be finalized and may impact future technology decisions in a multitude of ways. The impact of Tier 3 emission regulations is expected to be far reaching as they have the potential to influence the quality of fuel, as well as usage of alternative fuels and powertrains. Further, the regulations will have a direct influence on the technologies, such as diesel and gasoline direct injection, that automakers will utilize to meet the fuel economy standards through MY2025. Included in this resource are the presentations from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Volkswagen, and Bosch utilized at the briefing.

Center for Automotive Research (CAR)

57

Technology development goals for automotive fuel cell power systems. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This report determines cost and performance requirements for Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cell vehicles carrying pure H{sub 2} fuel, to achieve parity with internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicles. A conceptual design of a near term FCEV (fuel cell electric vehicle) is presented. Complete power system weight and cost breakdowns are presented for baseline design. Near term FCEV power system weight is 6% higher than ICE system, mid-term FCEV projected weights are 29% lower than ICE`s. There are no inherently high-cost components in FCE, and at automotive production volumes, near term FCEV cost viability is closer at hand than at first thought. PEM current vs voltage performance is presented for leading PEM manufacturers and researchers. 5 current and proposed onboard hydrogen storage techniques are critically compared: pressurized gas, cryogenic liquid, combined pressurized/cryogenic, rechargeable hydride, adsorption. Battery, capacitor, and motor/controller performance is summarized. Fuel cell power system component weight and cost densities (threshold and goal) are tabulated.

James, B.D.; Baum, G.N.; Kuhn, I.F. Jr. [Directed Technologies, Inc., Arlington, VA (United States)

1994-08-01

58

Emissions and fuel economy of the Automotive Cylinder Deactivator System (ACDS). Technical report  

SciTech Connect

The deactivation of one or more engine cylinders is a method that has been proposed as offering potential for vehicle fuel economy improvements. At low power output the throttle is nearly closed. This introduces a 'throttling loss', which is the energy the engine must expend to draw the fuel-air mixture through the carburetor throttle opening. By operating an engine on a reduced number of cylinders and operating these at high power levels, the throttling losses are appreciably reduced. The operating cylinders are therefore run at a high brake-mean-effective pressure (BMEP) and therefore potentially more efficiently. EPA received a request from Automotive Cylinder Deactivator System (ACDS) to perform a 511 evaluation of their cylinder deactivator. Section 511 of the Motor Vehicle Information and Cost Savings Act (15 USC 2011) requires EPA to evaluate fuel economy. Retrofit devices with regard to both emissions and fuel economy, and to publish the results in the Federal Register. Such an evaluation is based upon valid test data submitted by the manufacturer and, if required, EPA testing.

Barth, E.A.

1980-10-01

59

Life cycle analysis and choice of natural gas-based automotive alternative fuels in Chongqing Municipality, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Road transport produces significant amounts of emissions by using crude oil as the primary energy source. A reduction of emissions\\u000a can be achieved by implementing alternative fuel chains. The objective of this study is to carry out an economic, environmental\\u000a and energy (EEE) life cycle study on natural gas-based automotive fuels with conventional gasoline in an abundant region of\\u000a China.

Rui Wu; Guangyi Li; Zongyi Zhang; Yulong Ren; Weijian Han

2007-01-01

60

Analysis of a Planar Solid Oxide Fuel Cell based Automotive Auxiliary Power Unit  

SciTech Connect

The solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) system has emerged as an important technology for automotive and stationary applications. Modeling and simulation of the SOFC system have been utilized as an integral tool in an accelerated joint SOFC system development program. Development of unique modeling approaches and their results are discussed and compared with experimental performance. One dimensional system level analysis using Aspen with an embedded stack electro-chemical model was performed resulting in effective sub-system partitioning and requirements definition. Further, a three-dimensional integrated electro-chemical/thermal/computational fluid dynamics analysis of steady-state operation was employed. The combination of one-dimensional and three-dimensional environments led to effective performance projection at all levels in the system, resulting in optimization of overall system performance early in the design cycle.

Keegan, Kevin R. (Delphi Automative Systems); Khaleel, Mohammad A. (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Chick, Lawrence A. (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Recknagle, Kurtis P. (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Simner, Steve P. (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Deibler, John E. (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB))

2003-07-01

61

Preliminary characterization of anhydrous ethanol used in Brazil as automotive fuel.  

PubMed

This work reports preliminary studies on the characterisation of anhydrous ethanol (AEA) used as an automotive fuel mixed with gasoline in Porto Alegre (South Brazil). Pre-concentration of the impurities contained in 1000 ml of AEA was carried on through solid-phase extraction using XAD4 resin. The main compounds in the extract were identified by means of spectral data from the library of the equipment. The concentrate was then fractionated using a preparative liquid chromatographic column filled with activated silica gel and the elution procedure was carried out with, n-hexane, n-hexane-benzene (1:1, v/v) and dichloromethane. Prior to analysis by GC-MS, each fraction was reduced to 1 ml with a gentle stream of nitrogen. Saturated linear hydrocarbons and aromatic hydrocarbons eluted in the first fraction and oxygenated compounds such as aldehydes. ketones and alcohols, eluted in the second one. were the main compounds detected in the sample. PMID:12580505

Vilar, Rossana B C; da Silva, Rosângela; Schossler, Patricia; Cataluña Veses, Renato; Piatnicki, Clarisse; Samios, Dimitrios; Caramão, Elina B

2003-01-24

62

Engine performance comparison associated with carburetor icing during aviation grade fuel and automotive grade fuel operation. Final report Jan-Jul 82  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comprehensive sea-level-static test cell data collection and evaluation effort to review operational characteristics of 'off-the-shelf' carburetor ice detection\\/warning devices for general aviation piston engine aircraft during operation on aviation grade fuel and automotive grade fuel. Presented herein are results, observations and conclusions drawn from over 250 hours of test cell engine operation on 100LL aviation grade fuel, unleaded premium

W. Cavage; J. Newcomb; K. Biehl

1983-01-01

63

Performance and cost of automotive fuel cell systems with ultra-low platinum loadings.  

SciTech Connect

An automotive polymer-electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC) system with ultra-low platinum loading (0.15 mg-Pt cm{sup -2}) has been analyzed to determine the relationship between its design-point efficiency and the system efficiency at part loads, efficiency over drive cycles, stack and system costs, and heat rejection. The membrane electrode assemblies in the reference PEFC stack use nanostructured, thin-film ternary catalysts supported on organic whiskers and a modified perfluorosulfonic acid membrane. The analyses show that the stack Pt content can be reduced by 50% and the projected high-volume manufacturing cost by >45% for the stack and by 25% for the system, if the design-point system efficiency is lowered from 50% to 40%. The resulting penalties in performance are a <1% reduction in the system peak efficiency; a 2-4% decrease in the system efficiency on the urban, highway, and LA92 drive cycles; and a 6.3% decrease in the fuel economy of the modeled hybrid fuel-cell vehicle on the combined cycle used by EPA for emission and fuel economy certification. The stack heat load, however, increases by 50% at full power (80 kW{sub e}) but by only 23% at the continuous power (61.5 kW{sub e}) needed to propel the vehicle on a 6.5% grade at 55 mph. The reduced platinum and system cost advantages of further lowering the design-point efficiency from 40% to 35% are marginal. The analyses indicate that thermal management in the lower efficiency systems is very challenging and that the radiator becomes bulky if the stack temperature cannot be allowed to increase to 90-95 C under driving conditions where heat rejection is difficult.

Ahluwalia, R.; Wang, X.; Kwon, K.; Rousseau, A.; Kalinoski, J.; James, B.; Marcinkoski, J. (Energy Systems); ( NE); (Directed Technologies Inc.); (ED)

2011-05-15

64

Performance and cost of automotive fuel cell systems with ultra-low platinum loadings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An automotive polymer-electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC) system with ultra-low platinum loading (0.15 mg-Pt cm-2) has been analyzed to determine the relationship between its design-point efficiency and the system efficiency at part loads, efficiency over drive cycles, stack and system costs, and heat rejection. The membrane electrode assemblies in the reference PEFC stack use nanostructured, thin-film ternary catalysts supported on organic whiskers and a modified perfluorosulfonic acid membrane. The analyses show that the stack Pt content can be reduced by 50% and the projected high-volume manufacturing cost by >45% for the stack and by 25% for the system, if the design-point system efficiency is lowered from 50% to 40%. The resulting penalties in performance are a <1% reduction in the system peak efficiency; a 2-4% decrease in the system efficiency on the urban, highway, and LA92 drive cycles; and a 6.3% decrease in the fuel economy of the modeled hybrid fuel-cell vehicle on the combined cycle used by EPA for emission and fuel economy certification. The stack heat load, however, increases by 50% at full power (80 kWe) but by only 23% at the continuous power (61.5 kWe) needed to propel the vehicle on a 6.5% grade at 55 mph. The reduced platinum and system cost advantages of further lowering the design-point efficiency from 40% to 35% are marginal. The analyses indicate that thermal management in the lower efficiency systems is very challenging and that the radiator becomes bulky if the stack temperature cannot be allowed to increase to 90-95 °C under driving conditions where heat rejection is difficult.

Ahluwalia, R. K.; Wang, X.; Kwon, J.; Rousseau, A.; Kalinoski, J.; James, B.; Marcinkoski, J.

2011-05-01

65

Lightweighting Automotive Materials for Increased Fuel Efficiency and Delivering Advanced Modeling and Simulation Capabilities to U.S. Manufacturers  

SciTech Connect

Abstract The National Center for Manufacturing Sciences (NCMS) worked with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), to bring together research and development (R&D) collaborations to develop and accelerate the knowledgebase and infrastructure for lightweighting materials and manufacturing processes for their use in structural and applications in the automotive sector. The purpose/importance of this DOE program: • 2016 CAFÉ standards. • Automotive industry technology that shall adopt the insertion of lightweighting material concepts towards manufacturing of production vehicles. • Development and manufacture of advanced research tools for modeling and simulation (M&S) applications to reduce manufacturing and material costs. • U.S. competitiveness that will help drive the development and manufacture of the next generation of materials. NCMS established a focused portfolio of applied R&D projects utilizing lightweighting materials for manufacture into automotive structures and components. Areas that were targeted in this program: • Functionality of new lightweighting materials to meet present safety requirements. • Manufacturability using new lightweighting materials. • Cost reduction for the development and use of new lightweighting materials. The automotive industry’s future continuously evolves through innovation, and lightweight materials are key in achieving a new era of lighter, more efficient vehicles. Lightweight materials are among the technical advances needed to achieve fuel/energy efficiency and reduce carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions: • Establish design criteria methodology to identify the best materials for lightweighting. • Employ state-of-the-art design tools for optimum material development for their specific applications. • Match new manufacturing technology to production volume. • Address new process variability with new production-ready processes.

Hale, Steve

2013-09-11

66

Assessment of institutional barriers to the use of natural gas fuel in automotive vehicle fleets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Institutional barriers to the use of natural gas as a fuel for motor vehicle fleets were identified. Recommendations for barrier removal were developed. Eight types of institutional barriers were assessed: (1) lack of a national standard for the safe design and certification of natural gas vehicles and refueling stations; (2) excessively conservative or misapplied state and local regulations, including bridge and tunnel restrictions, restrictions on types of vehicles that may be fueled by natural gas, zoning regulations that prohibit operation of refueling stations, parking restrictions, application of LPG standards to LNG vehicles, and unintentionally unsafe vehicle or refueling station requirements; (3) need for clarification of EPA's tampering enforcement policy; (4) the U.S. hydrocarbon standard; (5) uncertainty concerning state utility commission jurisdiction; (6) sale for resale prohibitions imposed by natural gas utility companies or state utility commissions; (7) uncertainty of the effects of conversions to natural gas on vehicle manufactures warranties; and (8) need for a natural gas to gasoline equivalent units conversion factor for use in calculation of state road use taxes.

Jablonski, J.; Lent, L.; Lawrence, M.; White, L.

1983-08-01

67

Algorithm for Fuel-Conservative Airplane Descents  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Federal Aviation Administration implementing automated, time-based metering form of air-traffic control (ATC) with profile-descent procedures for arrivals into terminal area. Measures provide fuel savings by matching arrival of airplanes to airport acceptance rate through time-control computations and allowing pilot to descend at his discretion from cruise altitude to designated metering-fix altitude in idle-thrust clean configuration. Airborne descent algorithm developed compatible with time-based metering and profile-descent procedures and designed to improve accuracy of delivering airplane during fuel-efficient descent to metering fix at time designated by the ATC system.

Knox, C. E.; Vicroy, D. D.; Simmon, D. A.

1986-01-01

68

Hydrogen Storage for Automotive Vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hydrogen fuel cells represent a strong potential alternative to internal combustion engines relying on fossil fuels. The benefits and hurdles to hydrogen mobility are discussed, with particular emphasis on methods and materials for storing hydrogen in automotive vehicles.

Herbst, J. F.

2008-09-01

69

AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE 1. UNIT III, MAINTAINING THE FUEL SYSTEM--DETROIT DIESEL ENGINE.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THIS MODULE OF A 30-MODULE COURSE IS DESIGNED TO DEVELOP AN UNDERSTANDING OF THE OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE OF THE DIESEL ENGINE FUEL SYSTEM. TOPICS ARE (1) PURPOSE OF THE FUEL SYSTEM, (2) TRACING THE FUEL FLOW, (3) MINOR COMPONENTS OF THE FUEL SYSTEM, (4) MAINTENANCE TIPS, (5) CONSTRUCTION AND FUNCTION OF THE FUEL INJECTORS, AND (6)…

Human Engineering Inst., Cleveland, OH.

70

Working towards a future on alternative fuels : the role of the automotive industry  

E-print Network

Complementarity of vehicles and fuels has posed significant barrier for increasing the use of alternative fuels in place of traditional ones. An initial positive number of either alternative fuel vehicle (AFV) users or ...

Chen, Cuicui

2012-01-01

71

CONTROL-ORIENTED MODELING AND ANALYSIS FOR AUTOMOTIVE FUEL CELL SYSTEMS  

E-print Network

this alternative energy conversion concept. To compete with existing internal combustion engines, fuel cell systems for the success of fuel cell vehicles. Efficient fuel cell system power production depends on proper air and hydrogen feed, and heat and water management. During transients, the fuel cell stack breathing control

Peng, Huei

72

General aviation fuel conservation in the 1980's  

SciTech Connect

General aviation aircraft manufacturers are helping pilots save fuel by issuing rules of good practice and by revising the formats for performance data to highlight the tradeoffs between fuel economy and speed. Meanwhile drag clean-up programs improved the flight efficiencies of several models. Now flight planning innovations (some exploiting the latest computer technology) help pilots more easily determine the optimum altitudes and power settings for various winds and trip lengths. Additional flight testing will more clearly identify optimum climb and descent schedules. And, for airplanes of the future, new design criteria will place more emphasis on fuel economy than on top speed or STOL-like performance. This paper urges general aviation flight test engineers to maintain a leadership role in aviation fuel conservation.

Bromley, G.R.

1980-01-01

73

Technology development goals for automotive fuel cell power systems. Final report, Appendix B-2  

SciTech Connect

Directed Technologies, Inc. has previously submitted a detailed technical assessment and concept design for a mid-size, five-passenger fuel cell electric vehicle (FCEV), under contract to the Argonne National Laboratory. As a supplement to that contract, DTI has reviewed the literature and conducted a preliminary evaluation of two energy carriers for the FCEV: hydrogen and methanol. This report compares the estimated fuel efficiency, cost of producing and delivering the fuel, and the resultant life cycle costs of the FCEV when fueled directly by hydrogen and when fueled by methanol with on-board reforming to produce the required hydrogen-rich gas for the fuel cell. This work will be supplemented and expanded under the Ford contract with the Department of Energy to develop the FCEV and its fuel infrastructure.

Thomas, C.E.; James, B.D.

1995-07-01

74

A fuel conservation study for transport aircraft utilizing advanced technology and hydrogen fuel  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The conservation of fossil fuels in commercial aviation was investigated. Four categories of aircraft were selected for investigation: (1) conventional, medium range, low take-off gross weight; (2) conventional, long range, high take-off gross weights; (3) large take-off gross weight aircraft that might find future applications using both conventional and advanced technology; and (4) advanced technology aircraft of the future powered with liquid hydrogen fuel. It is concluded that the hydrogen fueled aircraft can perform at reduced size and gross weight the same payload/range mission as conventionally fueled aircraft.

Berry, W.; Calleson, R.; Espil, J.; Quartero, C.; Swanson, E.

1972-01-01

75

Fuel cells for automotive powertrains—A techno-economic assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the objective of identifying the hurdles currently preventing a widespread application of fuel cell technology in passenger cars an assessment of technical and economic parameters is carried out. Patent and publication analysis is used to assess current status of fuel cell technology regarding its position on technology life cycle. S-curve methodology leads to the conclusion that further scientific activity

Peter Mock; Stephan A. Schmid

2009-01-01

76

Biofuels in Spain: Market penetration analysis and competitiveness in the automotive fuel market  

Microsoft Academic Search

For several years the European Union (E.U.) has been promoting the use of biofuels due to their potential benefits such as the reduction of dependence on foreign energy imports (the raw materials can be produced within the E.U.), the more stable fossil fuel prices (they can replace fossil fuels on the market), the greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction (biofuels’ raw materials

Fernando Hernández Sobrino; Carlos Rodríguez Monroy; José Luís Hernández Pérez

2010-01-01

77

Emissions and fuel economy of the Automotive Cylinder Deactivator System (ACDS). Technical report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The deactivation of one or more engine cylinders is a method that has been proposed as offering potential for vehicle fuel economy improvements. At low power output the throttle is nearly closed. This introduces a 'throttling loss', which is the energy the engine must expend to draw the fuel-air mixture through the carburetor throttle opening. By operating an engine on

1980-01-01

78

Fuel conservation capability and effort by commercial air carriers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Computer capability weather input data, performance data, and ATC interface are discussed in terms of their role in preflight and inflight planning for commercial flights. The effect of preflight and inflight planning on fuel efficient operation was evaluated along with the impact of avionics. It was found that there is a potential for saving fuel through use of avionics, especially in the area of vertical guidance in all phases of flight. Other results of the study indicate: (1) preflight planning as it now stands is adequate with the exception that more accurate and up-to-date weather information is desirable; (2) better inflight information about existing weather conditions is needed; and (3) ATC can aid in fuel conservation.

1974-01-01

79

Enhanced air/fuel mixing for automotive stirling engine turbulator-type combustors  

DOEpatents

The invention relates to the improved combustion of fuel in a combustion chamber of a stirling engine and the like by dividing combustion into primary and secondary combustion zones through the use of a diverter plate.

Riecke, George T. (Ballston Spa, NY); Stotts, Robert E. (Newark, NY)

1992-01-01

80

Light-duty automotive technology and fuel economy trends through 1996. Technical report, 1975-1996  

SciTech Connect

;Table of Contents: Introduction; General Car and Truck Trends; Technology Trends; Trends by Market Segment; Fuel Economy Improvement Potential; Conclusions; Acknowledgements; References; Vehicle Classification System; 1994, 1995, 1996 Nameplate MPG Listings; Relative Importance of Light Truck Fuel Consumption; Data Stratified by Cylinder Count; Data Stratified by Domestic, European, and Asian Source; Data Stratified by Transmission Type; Data Stratified by Size Class; Data Stratified by Valves Per Cylinder; and Data Stratified by Weight Class.

Heavenrich, R.M.; Hellman, K.H.

1996-08-07

81

Automotive energy management system  

SciTech Connect

A hydromechanical/hydrostatic automotive energy management system is described that is comprised of two hydraulic units, the system adapted to provide: an efficient, continuously variable optimal transmission ratio, an intermittent optimal engine operation in city traffic and regenerative braking, thereby, the system is able to reduce a car's fuel consumption by as much as one half while improving drivability.

Shiber, S.

1980-09-23

82

Experimental evaluation of fuel preparation systems for an automotive gas turbine catalytic combustor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Spatial fuel distributions, degree of vaporization, pressure drop and air velocity profiles were measured. Three airblast injectors and an air-assist nozzle were tested. Air swirlers were used to improve the spatial fuel-air distribution. The work was done in a 12 cm tubular duct. Test conditions were: a pressure of 0.3 and 0.5 MPa, inlet air temperatures up to 800 K, air velocities of 10 20 m/s and fuel-air ratios up to 0.020. The fuel was Jet A. The best results were obtained with an airblast configuration that used multiple cones to provide high velocity air for atomization and also straightened the inlet airflow. With this configuration, uniform spatial fuel-air distributions were obtained with mixing lengths greater than 17.8 cm. In this length, vaporization of the fuel was 98.5 percent complete at an inlet air temperature of 700 K. The total pressure loss was 1.0 percent with a reference velocity of 20 m/s and 0.25 percent at 10m/s. The air velocity was uniform across the duct and no autoignition reactions were observed.

Tacina, R. R.

1977-01-01

83

Automotive Maintenance  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Weekly Article assignment Read an article about automotive and write a half page double space summery. This assignment is due each Monday when class start. You can use any online site listed below. In each site there are many different article from different automotive manufactures. Choose anyone that you would like to learn and ...

Call, Mr.

2007-02-27

84

Demonstration of Energy Efficient Steam Reforming in Microchannels for Automotive Fuel Processing  

SciTech Connect

A compact, energy efficient microchannel steam reforming system has been demonstrated. The unit generates sufficient reformate to provide H2 to a 10 kWe PEM fuel cell (when coupled with a water-gas shift and CO cleanup reactors). The overall volume of the reactor is 4.9 liters while that of the supporting network of heat exchangers is 1.7 liters . Use of a microchannel configuration in the steam reforming reactor produces rapid heat and mass transport which enables fast kinetics for the highly endothermic reaction. Heat is provided to the reactor by a combustion gas flowing in interleaved microchannels in cross flow with the reaction channels. A network of microchannel heat exchangers allows recovery of heat in the reformate product and combustion exhaust streams for use in vaporizing water and fuel, preheating reactants to reactor temperature and preheating combustion air. The microchannel architecture enables very compact and highly effective heat exchangers to be constructed. As a result of the heat exchange network, the system exhaust temperatures are typically ~50?C for the combustion gas and ~130?C for the reformate product while the reactor is operated at 750?C. While reforming isooctane at a rate sufficient to supply a 13.7 kWe fuel cell the system achieved 98.6% conversion with an estimated overall system efficiency after integration with WGS and PEM fuel cell of 44% (electrical output / LHV fuel). The efficiency estimate assumes integration with a WGS reactor (90% conversion CO to CO2 with 100% selectivity) and a PEM fuel cell (64% power conversion effectiveness with 85% H2 utilization for an overall 54% efficiency) and does not include parasitic losses for compression of combustion air. Acknowledgement The work described here was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Transportation Technology as part of the OTT Fuel Cells Program.

Whyatt, Greg A.; TeGrotenhuis, Ward E.; Geeting, John GH; Davis, James M.; Wegeng, Robert S.; Pederson, Larry R.

2002-01-01

85

Evaluation and modelling of a CO selective oxidation reactor for solid polymer fuel cell automotive applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On-board methanol reforming is an attractive alternative to direct hydrogen storage for solid polymer fuel cell (SPFC) powered vehicles, due to the increased volumetric energy storage density of methanol. Unfortunately, carbon monoxide is always produced during the reforming reaction. CO rapidly de-activates the platinum electro-catalyst in the fuel cell and must be reduced to levels typically less than 20 ppm. In this paper, the development of a precious metal based catalytic CO oxidation reactor developed by the Fuel Cell Research Group at Loughborough University is reported. A simplified simulation model has also been developed, based upon measured catalyst activity and CO oxidation selectivity. Experimental results from reactor studies show that CO concentrations can be reduced from a typical steam reformer output of 7000 ppm input to ?15 ppm in the presence of approximately 75% hydrogen. Experimental results have shown good agreement with the simulation model.

Dudfield, C. D.; Chen, R.; Adcock, P. L.

86

LIGHT-DUTY AUTOMOTIVE TECHNOLOGY AND FUEL ECONOMY TRENDS 1975 THROUGH 2006  

EPA Science Inventory

This report summarizes key fuel economy and technology usage trends related to model year 1975 to 2006 light vehicles sold in the United States. Light vehicles include those vehicles that EPA and DOT classify as cars or light trucks with gross vehicle weight ratings of less than...

87

Experimental hydrogen-fueled automotive engine design data-base project. Volume 2. Main technical report  

SciTech Connect

Operational performance and emissions characteristics of hydrogen-fueled engines are reviewed. The project activities are reviewed including descriptions of the test engine and its components, the test apparatus, experimental techniques, experiments performed and the results obtained. Analyses of other hydrogen engine project data are also presented and compared with the results of the present effort.

Swain, M.R.; Adt, R.R. Jr.; Pappas, J.M.

1983-05-01

88

Considerations for Using Composite Pressure Vessels (CPVs) in Fuel Storage for Automotive Applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Ongoing initiative to get high energy capacity "green fuel" containers to market quickly and cost effectively. The United States has decided to invest in "green energy" technology, to become energy independent, and to "Innovate Our Way to a Clean Energy Future."

Cone, Darren; Greene, Nathanael; Beeson, Harold; McCloskey, David

2013-01-01

89

Determination of trace elements in automotive fuels by filter furnace atomic absorption spectrometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The determination of Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb and Ni was performed in gasoline and diesel fuel samples by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry using the Transverse Heated Filter Atomizer (THFA). Thermal conditions were experimentally defined for the investigated elements. The elements were analyzed without addition of chemical modifiers, using organometallic standards for the calibration. Forty-microliter samples were injected into the THFA. Gasoline samples were analyzed directly, while diesel fuel samples were diluted 1:4 with n-heptane. The following characteristic masses were obtained: 0.8 pg Cd, 6.4 pg Cr, 12 pg Cu, 17 pg Pb and 27 pg Ni. The limits of determination for gasoline samples were 0.13 ?g/kg Cd, 0.4 ?g/kg Cr, 0.9 ?g/kg Cu, 1.5 ?g/kg Pb and 2.5 ?g/kg Ni. The corresponding limit of determination for diesel fuel samples was approximately four times higher for all elements. The element recovery was performed using the addition of organometallic compounds to gasoline and diesel fuel samples and was between 85 and 105% for all elements investigated.

Anselmi, Anna; Tittarelli, Paolo; Katskov, Dmitri A.

2002-03-01

90

Assessment of methane-related fuels for automotive fleet vehicles: technical, supply, and economic assessments  

SciTech Connect

The use of methane-related fuels, derived from a variety of sources, in highway vehicles is assessed. Methane, as used here, includes natural gas (NG) as well as synthetic natural gas (SNG). Methanol is included because it can be produced from NG or the same resources as SNG, and because it is a liquid fuel at normal ambient conditions. Technological, operational, efficiency, petroleum displacement, supply, safety, and economic issues are analyzed. In principle, both NG and methanol allow more efficient engine operation than gasoline. In practice, engines are at present rarely optimized for NG and methanol. On the basis of energy expended from resource extraction to end use, only optimized LNG vehicles are more efficient than their gasoline counterparts. By 1985, up to 16% of total petroleum-based highway vehicle fuel could be displaced by large fleets with central NG fueling depots. Excluding diesel vehicles, which need technology advances to use NG, savings of 8% are projected. Methanol use by large fleets could displace up to 8% of petroleum-based highway vehicle fuel from spark-ignition vehicles and another 9% from diesel vehicles with technology advances. The US NG supply appears adequate to accommodate fleet use. Supply projections, future price differential versus gasoline, and user economics are uncertain. In many cases, attractive paybacks can occur. Compressed NG now costs on average about $0.65 less than gasoline, per energy-equivalent gallon. Methanol supply projections, future prices, and user economics are even more uncertain. Current and projected near-term methanol supplies are far from adequate to support fleet use. Methanol presently costs more than gasoline on an equal-energy basis, but is projected to cost less if produced from coal instead of NG or petroleum.

Not Available

1982-02-01

91

Fuel-Conservation Guidance System for Powered-Lift Aircraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A technique is described for the design of fuel-conservative guidance systems and is applied to a system that was flight tested on board NASA's sugmentor wing jet STOL research aircraft. An important operational feature of the system is its ability to rapidly synthesize fuel-efficient trajectories for a large set of initial aircraft positions, altitudes, and headings. This feature allows the aircraft to be flown efficiently under conditions of changing winds and air traffic control vectors. Rapid synthesis of fuel-efficient trajectories is accomplished in the airborne computer by fast-time trajectory integration using a simplified dynamic performance model of the aircraft. This technique also ensures optimum flap deployment and, for powered-lift STOL aircraft, optimum transition to low-speed flight. Also included in the design is accurate prediction of touchdown time for use in four-dimensional guidance applications. Flight test results have demonstrated that the automatically synthesized trajectories produce significant fuel savings relative to manually flown conventional approaches.

Erzberger, Heinz; McLean, John D.

1981-01-01

92

Aircraft fuel conservation. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning means to conserve fuel in airline operations. Included are abstracts dealing with aircraft design, engine design, propulsion efficiency, fuels, and operating procedures which conserve fuel. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1994-05-01

93

Aircraft fuel conservation. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning means to conserve fuel in airline operations. Included are abstracts dealing with aircraft design, engine design, propulsion efficiency, fuels, and operating procedures which conserve fuel.(Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

NONE

1997-04-01

94

Aircraft fuel conservation. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning means to conserve fuel in airline operations. Included are abstracts dealing with aircraft design, engine design, propulsion efficiency, fuels, and operating procedures which conserve fuel.(Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

NONE

1995-12-01

95

Development of a Hybrid Compressor/Expander Module for Automotive Fuel Cell Applications  

SciTech Connect

In this program TIAX LLC conducted the development of an advanced technology compressor/expander for supplying compressed air to Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cells in transportation applications. The overall objective of this program was to develop a hybrid compressor/expander module, based on both scroll and high-speed turbomachinery technologies, which will combine the strengths of each technology to create a concept with superior performance at minimal size and cost. The resulting system was expected to have efficiency and pressure delivery capability comparable to that of a scroll-only machine, at significantly reduced system size and weight when compared to scroll-only designs. Based on the results of detailed designs and analyses of the critical system elements, the Hybrid Compressor/Expander Module concept was projected to deliver significant improvements in weight, volume and manufacturing cost relative to previous generation systems.

McTaggart, Paul

2004-12-31

96

Center for Advanced Automotive Technology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Center for Advanced Automotive Technology (CAAT) is a National Science Foundation (NSF) funded Advanced Technological Education (ATE) center located at Macomb Community College, and among many other efforts, houses a comprehensive, up-to-date educational resource library available to the public. This library contains resources as small as a single presentation or assignment, to complete modules and courses taught at community colleges and universities in the fields of automotive, engineering, and technology. The scope of this library includes advanced automotive technology, alternative fuels, the smart grid interface, and related industry reports.

2013-06-26

97

Reducing fuel usage through applications of conservation and solar energy  

SciTech Connect

Solar thermal technology, coupled with aggressive conservation measures, offers the prospect of greatly reducing the dependence of industry on oil and natural gas. The near-term market for solar technology is largely in industrial processes operating at temperatures below 288/sup 0/C (550/sup 0/F). Such process heat can be supplied by the relatively unsophisticated solar equipment available today. The number and diversity of industrial plants using process heat at this temperature allows favorable matches between solar technologies and industrial processes. The problems involved with the installation and maintenance of conservation and solar equipment are similar. Both compete for scarce investment capital, and each complicates industrial operations and increases maintenance requirements. Technological innovations requiring new types of equipment and reducing the temperature requirements of industrial processes favor the introduction of solar hardware. The industrial case studies program at the Solar Energy Research Institute has examined technical, economic, and other problems facing the near-term application of solar thermal technology to provide industrial process heat. The plant engineer is in the front line of any measure to reduce energy consumption or to supplement existing fuel supplies. The conditions most favorable to the integration of solar technology are presented and illustrated with examples from actual industrial plants.

May, E. K.; Hooker, D. W.

1980-04-01

98

Examination of the costs, benefits and enery conservation aspects of the NASA aircraft fuel conservation technology program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The costs and benefits of the NASA Aircraft Fuel Conservation Technology Program are discussed. Consideration is given to a present worth analysis of the planned program expenditures, an examination of the fuel savings to be obtained by the year 2005 and the worth of this fuel savings relative to the investment required, a comparison of the program funding with that planned by other Federal agencies for energy conservation, an examination of the private industry aeronautical research and technology financial posture for the period FY 76 - FY 85, and an assessment of the potential impacts on air and noise pollution. To aid in this analysis, a computerized fleet mix forecasting model was developed. This model enables the estimation of fuel consumption and present worth of fuel expenditures for selected commerical aircraft fleet mix scenarios.

1975-01-01

99

Automotive Mechanics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This curriculum guide, which was validated by vocational teachers and mechanics in the field, describes the competencies needed by entry-level automotive mechanics. This guide lists 15 competencies; for each competency, various tasks with their performance objective, student learning experiences, suggested instructional techniques, instructional…

Linder, Ralph C.; And Others

100

Simulation study of the operational effects of fuel-conservative approaches  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Fuel-conservative procedures have been investigated using real-time air traffic control simulations linked to two piloted simulators. The fuel-conservative procedures studied were profile descents and two types of landing approaches, delayed flap and IATA. The investigation determined the effect of these procedures on the ATC system operation. It examined the mixing of aircraft executing fuel-conservative approaches with those executing conventional approaches. The most difficult approach type mix of traffic was found to be 50% conventional and 50% delayed flap. However, for the test scenario chosen, arrival rates of at least 30 aircraft per hour were feasible and resulted in a net average fuel saving, even for the most difficult mix. Also, there is a fuel savings and reduced controller workload for the profile descent procedures.

Tobias, L.; Palmer, E. A.; Obrien, P. J.

1979-01-01

101

Potential impact of energy farming for conserving the fossil-fuel energy requirements of food production  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potential of supplying the energy requirements for food production by utilizing waste biomass was investigated. It was found that the energy available was more than sufficient even after conversion of waste biomass to more versatile fuel forms. The concept of utilizing waste biomass has the potential for conserving fossil fuels. Only the energy balance aspects of utilizing waste biomass

R. C. Bailie; D. M. Doner; J. D. Henry

1976-01-01

102

ECAS Phase I fuel cell results. [Energy Conservation Alternatives Study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper summarizes and discusses the fuel cell system results of Phase I of the Energy Conversion Alternatives Study (ECAS). Ten advanced electric powerplant systems for central-station baseload generation using coal were studied by NASA in ECAS. Three types of low-temperature fuel cells (solid polymer electrolyte, SPE, aqueous alkaline, and phosphoric acid) and two types of high-temperature fuel cells (molten carbonate, MC, and zirconia solid electrolyte, SE) were studied. The results indicate that (1) overall efficiency increases with fuel cell temperature, and (2) scale-up in powerplant size can produce a significant reduction in cost of electricity (COE) only when it is accompanied by utilization of waste fuel cell heat through a steam bottoming cycle and/or integration with a gasifier. For low-temperature fuel cell systems, the use of hydrogen results in the highest efficiency and lowest COE. In spite of higher efficiencies, because of higher fuel cell replacement costs integrated SE systems have higher projected COEs than do integrated MC systems. Present data indicate that life can be projected to over 30,000 hr for MC fuel cells, but data are not yet sufficient for similarly projecting SE fuel cell life expectancy.

Warshay, M.

1978-01-01

103

Final report: U.S. competitive position in automotive technologies  

SciTech Connect

Patent data are presented and analyzed to assess the U.S. competitive position in eleven advanced automotive technology categories, including automotive fuel cells, hydrogen storage, advanced batteries, hybrid electric vehicles and others. Inventive activity in most of the technologies is found to be growing at a rapid pace, particularly in advanced batteries, automotive fuel cells and ultracapacitors. The U.S. is the clear leader in automotive fuel cells, on-board hydrogen storage and light weight materials. Japan leads in advanced batteries, hybrid electric vehicles, ultracapacitors, and appears to be close to overtaking the U.S. in other areas of power electronics.

Albert, Michael B.; Cheney, Margaret; Thomas, Patrick; Kroll, Peter

2002-09-30

104

Aircraft fuel conservation technology. Task force report, September 10, 1975  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An advanced technology program is described for reduced fuel consumption in air transport. Cost benefits and estimates are given for improved engine design and components, turboprop propulsion systems, active control systems, laminar flow control, and composite primary structures.

1975-01-01

105

Fuel conservation possibilities for terminal area compatible aircraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Design features and operational procedures are identified, which would reduce fuel consumption of future transport aircraft. The fuel-saving potential can be realized during the last decade of this century only if the necessary research and technology programs are implemented in the areas of composite primary structure, airfoil/wing design, and stability augmentation systems. The necessary individual R and T programs are defined. The sensitivity to fuel usage of several design parameters (wing geometry, cruise speed, propulsion) is investigated, and the results applied to a candidate 18, 140-kg (40,000-lb) payload, 5556-km (3000-nmi) transport design. Technical and economic comparisons are made with current commercial aircraft and other advanced designs.

1975-01-01

106

Fuel conservation through active control of rotor clearances  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Under the NASA-sponsored Energy Efficient Engine (EEE) Project, technology is being developed which will significantly reduce the fuel consumption of turbofan engines for subsonic transport aircraft. One technology concept being pursued is active control of rotor tip clearances. Attention is given to rotor tip clearance considerations and an overview of preliminary study results as well as the General Electric EEE clearance control approach is presented. Finally, potential fuel savings with active control of rotor clearances for a typical EEE mission are predicted.

Beitler, R. S.; Saunders, A. A.; Wanger, R. P.

1980-01-01

107

Energy efficient engine program contributions to aircraft fuel conservation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Significant advances in high bypass turbofan technologies that enhance fuel efficiency have been demonstrated in the NASA Energy Efficient Engine Program. This highly successful second propulsion element of the NASA Aircraft Energy Efficiency Program included major contract efforts with both General Electric and Pratt & Whitney. Major results of these efforts will be presented including highlights from the NASA/General Electric E3 research turbofan engine test. Direct application of all the E3 technologies could result in fuel savings of over 18% compared to the CF6-50 and JT9D-7. Application of the E3 technologies to new and derivative engines such as the CF6-80C and PW 2037, as well as others, will be discussed. Significant portions of the fuel savings benefit for these new products can be directly related to the E3 technology program. Finally, results of a study looking at far term advanced turbofan engines will be briefly described. The study shows that substantial additional fuel savings over E3 are possible with additional turbofan technology programs.

Batterton, P. G.

1984-01-01

108

Evaluation of low wing-loading fuel conservative, short-haul transports  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Fuel conservation that could be attained with two technology advancements, Q fan propulsion system and active control technology (ACT) was studied. Aircraft incorporating each technology were sized for a Federal Aviation Regulation (FAR) field length of 914 meters (3,000 feet), 148 passengers, and a 926 kilometer (500 nautical mile) mission. The cruise Mach number was .70 at 10100 meter (33,000 foot) altitude. The improvement resulting from application of the Q fan propulsion system was computed relative to an optimized fuel conservative transport design. The performance improvements resulting from application of ACT technology were relative to the optimized Q fan propulsion system configuration.

Pasley, L. H.; Waldeck, T. A.

1976-01-01

109

Simulation study of the effect of fuel-conservative approaches on ATC procedures and terminal area capacity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Fuel-conservative procedures have been investigated using real-time air traffic control simulations linked to two piloted simulators. The fuel-conservative procedures studied were profile descents and two types of landing approaches. The investigation determined the effect of these procedures on the ATC system and terminal area capacity. It examined the mixing of aircraft executing fuel-conservative approaches with those executing conventional approaches. The results indicate a systems fuel savings for the landing approaches under all tested conditions except at, or near, maximum system capacity. Also, there is a fuel savings and reduced controller workload for the profile descent procedures.

Tobias, L.; Palmer, E. A.; Obrien, P. J.

1978-01-01

110

77 FR 19000 - Foreign-Trade Zone 99-Wilmington, DE: Application for Manufacturing Authority; Fisker Automotive...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Wilmington, DE: Application for Manufacturing Authority; Fisker Automotive, Inc...Office, grantee of FTZ 99, requesting manufacturing authority on behalf of Fisker Automotive...and fluids, welding compounds, fuel additives, anti-freeze, chemical...

2012-03-29

111

Delayed flap approach procedures for noise abatement and fuel conservation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA/Ames Research Center is currently investigating the delayed flap approach during which pilot actions are determined and prescribed by an onboard digital computer. The onboard digital computer determines the proper timing for the deployment of the landing gear and flaps based on the existing winds and airplane gross weight. Advisory commands are displayed to the pilot. The approach is flown along the conventional ILS glide slope but is initiated at a higher airspeed and in a clean aircraft configuration that allows for low thrust and results in reduced noise and fuel consumption. Topics discussed include operational procedures, pilot acceptability of these procedures, and fuel/noise benefits resulting from flight tests and simulation.

Edwards, F. G.; Bull, J. S.; Foster, J. D.; Hegarty, D. M.; Drinkwater, F. J., III

1976-01-01

112

Flight-Management Algorithm for Fuel-Conservative Descents  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Federal Aviation Administration has developed an automated time-based metering form of air traffic control for arrivals into terminal area called local flow management/profile descent (LFM/PD). LFM/PD saves fuel by matching airplane arrival flow to airport acceptance rate through time-control computations and by allowing pilot to descend at his discretion from cruise altitude to metering fix in an idle-thrust, clean configuration (landing gear up, flaps zero, speed brakes retracted).

Knox, C. E.; Cannon, D. G.

1982-01-01

113

Automotive electronics business  

E-print Network

In the automotive industry, due to the trend to introduce active safety systems, concerns about protecting the environment, and advances in information technology, key automotive manufacturers are eager to acquire new ...

Hase, Yoshiko, M.B.A. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2007-01-01

114

Fuel-conservative guidance system for powered-lift aircraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A concept for automatic terminal area guidance, comprising two modes of operation, was developed and evaluated in flight tests. In the predictive mode, fuel efficient approach trajectories are synthesized in fast time. In the tracking mode, the synthesized trajectories are reconstructed and tracked automatically. An energy rate performance model derived from the lift, drag, and propulsion system characteristics of the aircraft is used in the synthesis algorithm. The method optimizes the trajectory for the initial aircraft position and wind and temperature profiles encountered during each landing approach. The design theory and the results of simulations and flight tests using the Augmentor Wing Jet STOL Research Aircraft are described.

Erzberger, H.; Mclean, J. D.

1979-01-01

115

Automotive Diagnostic Technologies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document contains materials developed for and about the automotive diagnostic technologies tech prep program of the South-Western City Schools in Ohio. Part 1 begins with a map of the program, which begins with an automotive/diagnostic technologies program in grades 11 and 12 that leads to entry-level employment or a 2-year automotive

Columbus State Community Coll., OH.

116

Energy Storage Systems for Automotive Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fuel efficiency and performance of novel vehicles with electric propulsion capability are largely limited by the performance of the energy storage system (ESS). This paper reviews state-of-the-art ESSs in automotive applications. Battery technology options are considered in detail, with emphasis on methods of battery monitoring, managing, protecting, and balancing. Furthermore, other ESS candidates such as ultracapacitors, flywheels and fuel

Srdjan M. Lukic; Jian Cao; Ramesh C. Bansal; Fernando Rodriguez; Ali Emadi

2008-01-01

117

Thermal comfort, energy conservation and fuel substitution: An economic-engineering approach  

SciTech Connect

This paper introduces an economic-engineering model for space heating. This framework departs from the following observations: an individual consumer is concerned about a service - thermal comfort - which is the output from two different types of input, durable and non-durables (fuel); important energy conservation measures, i.e. adoptions of the stock of durables, are imperfectly divisible in financial terms although they may be perfectly divisible in physical units, e.g. insulations. These characteristics are intrinsically related to fuel demand and lead to some interesting and partly surprising results, e.g.: the possibility of negative income elasticities, discontinuous, unstable and asymmetric fuel demand relations.

Wirl, F.

1987-01-01

118

Effectiveness of advanced fuel-conservative procedures in the transitional ATC environment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The real time simulation (involving both the pilot and the air traffic controller) of fuel conservative approaches, profile descents, and four dimensional area navigation to assess the effectiveness of the procedures is discussed. Generally, results indicate some difficulties with the procedures tested in a mixed traffic environment and point to the need for computer assistance for effective implementation of candidate procedures.

Tobias, L.; Obrien, P. J.

1980-01-01

119

WET/DRY COOLING SYSTEMS FOR FOSSIL-FUELED POWER PLANTS: WATER CONSERVATION AND PLUME ABATEMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of a study of technical and economic feasibilities of wet/dry cooling towers for water conservation and vapor plume abatement. Results of cost optimizations of wet/dry cooling for 1000-MWe fossil-fueled power plants are presented. Five sites in the wester...

120

Fuel System Services. An Instructor's Guide for a Program in Trade and Technical Education. Automotive Industries Occupations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed to assist instructors in preparing secondary and adult students for employment in the field of fuel system services, this guide outlines eight units of instruction. The eight unit titles are (1) Introduction (overview of course content and requirements, and work/safety habits), (2) Minor Components, (3) Carburetor Fundamentals, (4)…

New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Secondary Curriculum Development.

121

National Fuel Cell Vehicle Learning Demonstration: Gen 2 Progress. California Air Resources Board 2009 ZEV Symposium. Session 2: Automotive Fuel Cell Vehicle Technologies.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Partial Contents: Fuel Cell Vehicle Learning Demonstration Project Objectives and Targets; Industry Partners: Four Automaker/Energy-Supplier Teams; Vehicle Deployment Complete at 140 FCVs, Some Early Vehicles Retired; DOE Learning Demo Fleet Has Surpassed...

J. Garbak, J. Kurtz, K. Wipke, S. Sprik, T. Ramsden

2009-01-01

122

New Insights on the Use of Ethanol in Automotive Fuels: A Stable Isotopic Tracer for Fossil Fuel Combustion Inputs to the Atmosphere  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ethanol's use as an alternative fuel or fuel additive has been receiving increased attention due to its potential impact on air quality. Stable isotopic ratio measurements of 13C\\/12C in ethanol emitted directly from vehicle exhaust and a small group of tropical plants were used to establish ethanol's delta13C source signatures. Ethanol emitted from vehicle exhaust is distinctly different than that

B. M. Giebel; P. K. Swart; D. D. Riemer

2010-01-01

123

User's manual for a fuel-conservative descent planning algorithm implemented on a small programmable calculator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A simplified flight management descent algorithm was developed and programmed on a small programmable calculator. It was designed to aid the pilot in planning and executing a fuel conservative descent to arrive at a metering fix at a time designated by the air traffic control system. The algorithm may also be used for planning fuel conservative descents when time is not a consideration. The descent path was calculated for a constant Mach/airspeed schedule from linear approximations of airplane performance with considerations given for gross weight, wind, and nonstandard temperature effects. An explanation and examples of how the algorithm is used, as well as a detailed flow chart and listing of the algorithm are contained.

Vicroy, D. D.

1984-01-01

124

Automotive Design and Production  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This web site is the "Field Guide to Automotive Technology" and contains a great deal of information for automotive engineers, or for those teaching and studying in the field. Here, visitors will find all issues of the Automotive Design and Production monthly magazine going back to 1997. The "Industry Focus" section contains articles on electronics, and tools and practices in the automotive supply chain. The "Resources" section supplies information about automotive industry events, a database of links to useful automotive sites, as well as reports and books. The tabs on the top of the page take users to various forums and articles from the site, categorized as "On Cars," "Equip & Apps," "Materials," "Supply Side," and "Digital Domain."

2007-09-27

125

77 FR 55898 - Request for Comments on a Renewal of a Previously Approved Information Collection: Automotive...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Information Collection: Automotive Fuel Economy Reports ACTION: Notice and request for...INFORMATION CONTACT: Kenneth R. Katz, Fuel Economy Division, Office of International Policy, Fuel Economy and Consumer Programs, NVS-132,...

2012-09-11

126

New Insights on the Use of Ethanol in Automotive Fuels: A Stable Isotopic Tracer for Fossil Fuel Combustion Inputs to the Atmosphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ethanol’s use as an alternative fuel or fuel additive has been receiving increased attention due to its potential impact on air quality. Stable isotopic ratio measurements of 13C/12C in ethanol emitted directly from vehicle exhaust and a small group of tropical plants were used to establish ethanol’s ?13C source signatures. Ethanol emitted from vehicle exhaust is distinctly different than that emitted from tropical plants and as a result, serves as a unique stable isotopic tracer for transportation related inputs to the atmosphere. The exhaust ethanol is substantially enriched in 13C and reflects ethanol’s corn origins. Owing to a lack of isotopic data for ethanol we estimated a kinetic isotope effect (KIE) for ethanol’s oxidative loss in the atmosphere and made assumptions with respect to the fractionation that may occur during episodes of dry and wet deposition. A small number of interpretive model calculations were used for source apportionment of ethanol and to understand the associated effects resulting from atmospheric removal. The models incorporated our source signatures and ambient measurements of ethanol, known or estimated source strengths and removal rates, and estimated KIEs associated with atmospheric removal processes for ethanol. We compared transportation related ethanol signatures to those from biogenic sources and used a set of ambient measurements to apportion each source contribution in Miami, Florida - a moderately polluted, but well ventilated urban location. Finally, we estimated the amount of ethanol potentially emitted to the atmosphere from vehicle exhaust using the U.S. Energy Information Agency’s 2009 value of ethanol fuel production and physical emission data for late model vehicles using various blends of ethanol fuel. Ethanol’s emission estimate, along with its isotopic characterization could perhaps bring closer agreement to present and future modeling and budget studies of ethanol and its atmospheric oxidation product, acetaldehyde.

Giebel, B. M.; Swart, P. K.; Riemer, D. D.

2010-12-01

127

Jump start: The new automotive revolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

For half a century, automotive technology has been subservient to the demands of performance and style. Now,the first generation of environmentally responsible cars is on the way. Experimental low-emission cars that run on methane, hydrogen, or electricity and have exceptional fuel economy are being build by more than a dozen companies. Growing numbers of automobiles in recent year have offset

Flavin

1993-01-01

128

Destruction and formation of PCDD/Fs in a fluidised bed combustor co-incinerating automotive shredder residue with refuse derived fuel and wastewater treatment sludge.  

PubMed

During an eight day trial automotive shredder residue (ASR) was added to the usual waste feed of a Fluidized Bed Combustor (FBC) for waste-to-energy conversion; the input waste mix consisted of 25% ASR, 25% refuse-derived fuel (RDF) and 50% wastewater treatment (WWT) sludge. All inputs and outputs were sampled and the concentration of the 17 PCDD/Fs with TEF-values was determined in order to obtain "PCDD/F fingerprints". The ASR contained approximately 9000 ng PCDD/Fs/kg(DW), six times more than the RDF and 10 times more than the WWT sludge. The fingerprint of ASR and RDF was dominated by HpCDD and OCDD, which accounted for 90% of the total PDDD/F content, whereas the WWT sludge contained relatively more HpCDFs and OCDF (together 70%). The flue gas cleaning residue (FGCR) and fly and boiler ash contained approximately 30,000 and 2500 ng PCDD/Fs/kg(DW), respectively. The fingerprints of these outputs were also dominated by HpCDFs and OCDF. The bottom ash contained only OCDD and OCDF, in total 8 ng PCDD/Fs/kg (DW). From the comparison of the bottom ash fingerprints with the fingerprints of the other output fractions and of the inputs, it could be concluded that the PCDD/Fs in the waste were destroyed and new PCDD/Fs were formed in the post combustion process by de novo synthesis. During the ASR-co-incineration, the PCDD/F congener concentrations in the fly and boiler ash, FGCR and flue gas were 1.25-10 times higher compared to the same output fractions generated during incineration of the usual waste mix (70% RDF and 30% WWT sludge). The concentration of the higher chlorinated PCDD/Fs increased most. As these congeners have the lowest TEF-factors, the total PCDD/F output, expressed in kg TEQ/year, of the FBC did not increase significantly when ASR was co-incinerated. Due to the relatively high copper levels in the ASR, the copper concentrations in the FBCs outputs increased. As copper catalysis the de novo syntheses, this could explain the increase in PCDD/F concentrations in these outputs. PMID:21621915

Van Caneghem, J; Vermeulen, I; Block, C; Van Brecht, A; Van Royen, P; Jaspers, M; Wauters, G; Vandecasteele, C

2012-03-15

129

Automotive Manufacturing Employment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page from the Consortium for Alabama Regional Center for Automotive Manufacturing (CARCAM) provides a number of links to the websites of automotive manufacturers and suppliers. The list focuses on locations in the Southern United States, and it would be useful for students in this region looking for employment.

2011-01-31

130

Automotive Technology Skill Standards  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The standards in this document are for Automotive Technology programs and are designed to clearly state what the student should know and be able to do upon completion of an advanced high-school automotive program. Minimally, the student will complete a three-year program to achieve all standards. Although these exit-level standards are designed…

Garrett, Tom; Asay, Don; Evans, Richard; Barbie, Bill; Herdener, John; Teague, Todd; Allen, Scott; Benshoof, James

2009-01-01

131

Automotive Repair Shops Case Study ME 4171 Automotive Repair Shops  

E-print Network

generated through welding? To repair both minor and major auto body damage, hydraulic equipment and handAutomotive Repair Shops Case Study ­ ME 4171 ­ 1 ­ Automotive Repair Shops In the following, you generated by automotive repair shops in California. A lot of you will have had experience with automotive

132

Fuel conservative guidance for shipboard landing of powered-lift STOL aircraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A computer-simulation study was undertaken to investigate the application of Fuel Conservative Guidance (FCG) techniques, developed at NASA Ames Research Center, to improve the fuel efficiency and minimize recovery time of powered-lift short-takeoff-and-landing (STOL) airplanes operating from aircraft carriers at sea. The FCG system consists of a set of algorithms whose coefficients and parameters limits match those of the Quiet Short-Haul Research Aircraft. When a flightpath is specified by a set of initial conditions for the aircraft and a set of positional waypoints with associated airspeeds, the FCG synthesizes the necessary guidance commands to capture the specified path at any specified waypoint and to optimize fuel consumption and time fo fly along the path. Closed-form expressions are developed for calculating the altitude profile synthesized by the algorithm. Results of this simulation study show that when restrictions on the approach flightpath imposed for manual operation are removed completely, fuel consumption during the approach was reduced by as much as 38 percent (434 lb of fuel) and the time required to fly the flightpath was reduced by as much as 28 percent (209 sec). Savings because of FCG were produced by: (1) shortening the total flight time and distance, and (2) keeping the airspeed high as long as possible to minimize time spent flying in a powered-lift mode.

Warner, D. N., Jr.; Mcgee, L. A.; Mclean, J. D.; Schmidt, G. K.

1985-01-01

133

Status and Prospects of the Global Automotive Fuel Cell Industry and Plans for Deployment of Fuel Cell Vehicles and Hydrogen Refueling Infrastructure  

SciTech Connect

Automobile manufacturers leading the development of mass-market fuel cell vehicles (FCVs) were interviewed in Japan, Korea, Germany and the United States. There is general agreement that the performance of FCVs with respect to durability, cold start, packaging, acceleration, refueling time and range has progressed to the point where vehicles that could be brought to market in 2015 will satisfy customer expectations. However, cost and the lack of refueling infrastructure remain significant barriers. Costs have been dramatically reduced over the past decade, yet are still about twice what appears to be needed for sustainable market success. While all four countries have plans for the early deployment of hydrogen refueling infrastructure, the roles of government, industry and the public in creating a viable hydrogen refueling infrastructure remain unresolved. The existence of an adequate refueling infrastructure and supporting government policies are likely to be the critical factors that determine when and where hydrogen FCVs are brought to market.

Greene, David L [ORNL; Duleep, Gopal [HD Systems

2013-06-01

134

An assessment of the benefits of the use of NASA developed fuel conservative technology in the US commercial aircraft fleet  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Cost and benefits of a fuel conservative aircraft technology program proposed by NASA are estimated. NASA defined six separate technology elements for the proposed program: (a) engine component improvement (b) composite structures (c) turboprops (d) laminar flow control (e) fuel conservative engine and (f) fuel conservative transport. There were two levels postulated: The baseline program was estimated to cost $490 million over 10 years with peak funding in 1980. The level two program was estimated to cost an additional $180 million also over 10 years. Discussions with NASA and with representatives of the major commercial airframe manufacturers were held to estimate the combinations of the technology elements most likely to be implemented, the potential fuel savings from each combination, and reasonable dates for incorporation of these new aircraft into the fleet.

1975-01-01

135

Automotive BBW AWB Dispulsion  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Automotive vehicle manufacturers are currently developing some innovative BBW AWB dispulsion mechatronic control systems that\\u000a incorporate different levels of mechatronics into braking to produce several advantages. Through superior mechatronic brake\\u000a engineering, some automotive vehicle manufacturers are moving very quickly to advance the technical potential of conventional\\u000a fluido-mechanical brake (FMB) or pneumo-mechanical brake (PMB) systems to an electro-mechanical brake (EMB) system

B. T. Fijalkowski

136

Automotive Vehicle Driving Performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The automotive vehicle dynamics is related to the movements of automotive vehicles - automobiles, vans, trucks, buses, coaches,\\u000a and special-purpose vehicles – on on\\/off-road surfaces. The movements of relevance are ride and turning as well as acceleration\\u000a (driving) and deceleration (braking). The forces affecting on the vehicle from the tyres, gravity, and aerodynamics, resolve\\u000a dynamic behaviour.

B. T. Fijalkowski

137

Fuel conservative guidance concept for shipboard landing of powered-life aircraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A simulation study was undertaken to investigate the application of energy conservative guidance (ECG) software, developed at NASA Ames Research Center, to improve the time and fuel efficiency of powered lift airplanes operating from aircraft carriers at sea. When a flightpath is indicated by a set of initial conditions for the aircraft and a set of positional waypoints with associated airspeeds, the ECG software synthesizes the necessary guidance commands to optimize fuel and time along the specified path. A major feature of the ECG system is the ability to synthesize a trajectory that will allow the aircraft to capture the specified path at any waypoint with the desired heading and airspeed from an arbitrary set of initial conditions. Five paths were identified and studied. These paths demonstrate the ECG system's ability to save flight time and fuel by more efficiently managing the aircraft's capabilities. Results of this simulation study show that when restrictions on the approach flightpath imposed for manual operation are removed completely, fuel consumption during the approach was reduced by as much as 49% (610 lb fuel) and the time required to fly the flightpath was reduced by as much as 41% (5 min). Savings due to ECG were produced by: (1) shortening the total flight time; (2) keeping the airspeed high as long as possible to minimize time spent flying in a regime in which more engine thrust is required for lift to aid the aerodynamic lift; (3) minimizing time spent flying at constant altitude at slow airspeeds; and (4) synthesizing a path from any location for a direct approach to landing without entering a holding pattern or other fixed approach path.

Warner, D. N., Jr.; Mcghee, L. A.; Mclean, J. D.; Schmidt, G. K.

1984-01-01

138

Automotive Stirling Engine Development Program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The third quarter (April-June, 1978) effort of the Ford/DOE Automotive Stirling Engine Development Program is reported, specifically Task 1 of that effort, which is Fuel Economy Assessment. At the end of this quarter the total fourth generation fuel economy projection was 26.12 MPG (gasoline) with a confidence level of 44%. This represents an improvement of 66.4% over the baseline M-H fuel economy of 15.7 MPG. The confidence level for the original 20.6 MPG goal has been increased from 53% to 57%. Engine 3X17 has accumulated a total of 213 hours of variable speed running. A summary of the individual sub-tasks of Task 1 are given. The sub-tasks are grouped into two categories: Category 1 consists of those sub-tasks which are directly related to fuel economy and Category 2 consists of those sub-tasks which are not directly related to fuel economy but are an integral part of the Task 1 effort.

1978-01-01

139

AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE 1. UNIT XIII, I--MAINTAINING THE FUEL SYSTEM (PART III), CUMMINS DIESEL ENGINES, II--RADIATOR SHUTTER SYSTEM.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THIS MODULE OF A 30-MODULE COURSE IS DESIGNED TO DEVELOP AN UNDERSTANDING OF THE CONSTRUCTION, OPERATION, AND MAINTENANCE OF THE DIESEL ENGINE FUEL AND RADIATOR SHUTTER SYSTEMS. TOPICS ARE (1) MORE ABOUT THE CUMMINS FUEL SYSTEM, (2) CALIBRATING THE PT FUEL PUMP, (3) CALIBRATING THE FUEL INJECTORS, (4) UNDERSTANDING THE SHUTTER SYSTEM, (5) THE…

Human Engineering Inst., Cleveland, OH.

140

AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE 1. UNIT XXII, I--MAINTAINING THE FUEL SYSTEM (PART I)--CUMMINS DIESEL ENGINE, II--UNDERSTANDING THE DIFFERENTIAL.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THIS MODULE OF A 30-MODULE COURSE IS DESIGNED TO DEVELOP AN UNDERSTANDING OF THE FUNCTION AND MAINTENANCE OF THE DIESEL ENGINE FUEL SYSTEM AND DIFFERENTIAL DRIVE UNITS USED IN DIESEL POWERED VEHICLES. TOPICS ARE (1) FUEL SYSTEM COMPARISONS, (2) FUEL SYSTEM SUPPLY COMPONENTS, (3) FUEL SUPPLY SECTION MAINTENANCE, (4) FUNCTION OF THE DIFFERENTIAL,…

Minnesota State Dept. of Education, St. Paul. Div. of Vocational and Technical Education.

141

Aeronautical fuel conservation possibilities for advanced subsonic transports. [application of aeronautical technology for drag and weight reduction  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The anticipated growth of air transportation is in danger of being constrained by increased prices and insecure sources of petroleum-based fuel. Fuel-conservation possibilities attainable through the application of advances in aeronautical technology to aircraft design are identified with the intent of stimulating NASA R and T and systems-study activities in the various disciplinary areas. The material includes drag reduction; weight reduction; increased efficiency of main and auxiliary power systems; unconventional air transport of cargo; and operational changes.

Braslow, A. L.; Whitehead, A. H., Jr.

1973-01-01

142

Friction of Materials for Automotive Applications  

SciTech Connect

This brief overview of friction-related issues in materials for automobiles is invited for a special issue on automotive materials in the ASM journal AM&P. It describes a range of areas in a ground vehicle in which friction must be controlled or minimized. Applications range from piston rings to tires, and from brakes to fuel injector components. A perspective on new materials and lubricants, and the need for validation testing is presented.

Blau, Peter Julian [ORNL

2013-01-01

143

AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE. PROGRAM OUTLINE.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

INFORMATIONAL TOPICS COVERED IN THE TEXT MATERIALS AND SELF-INSTRUCTIONAL BRANCH PROGRAMED TRAINING FILMS FOR A 2-YEAR, 55 MODULE PROGRAM IN AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE ARE GIVEN. THE 30 MODULES FOR "AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE 1" ARE AVAILABLE AS VT 005 655 - VT 005 684, AND THE 25 MODULES FOR "AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE 2" ARE AVAILABLE…

Human Engineering Inst., Cleveland, OH.

144

Experimental study on automotive cooling and heating air conditioning system using CO 2 as a refrigerant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, as one of the countermeasures against the global warming and energy conservation problems, natural refrigerants such as CO2 are now paid attention as substitutes for HFCs in automotive air conditioning systems. Also, in recent years because the heat release from the eco-car's engine decreases, there is a problem that the present automotive heating air conditioning system cannot provide sufficient

Tomoichiro Tamura; Yuuichi Yakumaru; Fumitoshi Nishiwaki

2005-01-01

145

Automotive Brake Systems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This correspondence course, orginally developed for the Marine Corps, is designed to provide mechanics with an understanding of the basic operations of automotive brake systems on military vehicles. The course contains four study units covering hydraulic brakes, air brakes, power brakes, and auxiliary brake systems. A troubleshooting guide for…

Marine Corps Inst., Washington, DC.

146

Automotive Pollution Control.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Intended for a 1- or 2-month curriculum in auto mechanics, this student manual on automotive pollution control was developed by a subject matter specialist at an area vocational school and tested in a vocational auto shop. Intended either for use in an integrated curriculum or for use in teaching pollution control as a separate course, these 12…

Raudenbush, David B.

147

Automotive Technology Curriculum Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Idaho state curriculum guide provides lists of tasks, performance objectives, and enabling objectives for instruction in automotive technology. The document begins with a list of all tasks covered by the curriculum, a short course outline, and a curriculum framework that explains major content, laboratory activities, and intended outcomes.…

Idaho State Dept. of Education, Boise. Div. of Vocational Education.

148

Bringing Excellence to Automotive  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Market situation and development in recent years shows, that organization's ability to meet customer requirements is not enough. Successful organizations are able to exceed the expectations of all stakeholders. They are building their excellence systematically. Our contribution basically how the excellence in automotive is created using EFQM Excellence Model in Total Quality Management.

Ve?e?a, Pavel; Paulová, Iveta

2012-12-01

149

Automotive Emission Control.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide designed to assist teachers in improving instruction in the area of automotive emission control curriculum includes four areas. Each area consists of one or more units of instruction, with each instructional unit including some or all of the following basic components: Performance objectives, suggested activities for teacher and…

Lee, Billy D.; Ragazzi, Ronald

150

Adhesive Bonding of Polymeric Materials for Automotive Applications  

SciTech Connect

In 1992, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) began a cooperative research program with the Automotive Composites Consortium (ACC) to develop technologies that would overcome obstacles to the adhesive bonding of current and future automotive materials. This effort is part of a larger Department of Energy (DOE) program to promote the use of lighter weight materials in automotive structures. By reducing the weight of current automobiles, greater fuel economy and reduced emissions can be achieved. The bonding of similar and dissimilar materials was identified as being of primary importance since this enabling technology gives designers the freedom to choose from an expanded menu of low-mass materials for structural component weight reduction. Early in the project`s conception, five key areas were identified as being of primary importance to the automotive industry.

Warren, C.D., Boeman, R.G., Paulauskas, F.L.

1994-11-18

151

1985 primary heating fuel use and switching: Assessment of the market for conservation in the Northwest: Phase 2  

SciTech Connect

This report presents information on the types of primary heating fuels used in residences in the Pacific Northwest region and how the heating fuels affect the level of investment in energy conservation measures (ECMs) by occupants of the residences. The types of heating fuel switching that occurred during the past two years (1983-1985) is also presented. The information was collected from random telephone surveys of households in Idaho, Oregon, Washington, and western Montana. The Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) conducted analyses of the survey results for the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) to obtain a better understanding of consumer attitudes and behaviors and to facilitate conservation program planning, design, and marketing. This report covers the following hypotheses: (1) there is no relationship between investing in ECMs and the type of primary heating fuel used in a residence; and (2) there is no relationship between the decision to switch to a new primary heating fuel during 1983-1985 and the original type of primary heating fuel used in the residence.

Hattrup, M.P.; Nordi, R.T.; Ivey, D.L.

1987-05-01

152

AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE 1. UNIT XXIV, I--MAINTAINING THE FUEL SYSTEM PART III--CATERPILLAR DIESEL ENGINE, II--UNDERSTANDING THE VOLTAGE REGULATOR/ALTERNATOR.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THIS MODULE OF A 30-MODULE COURSE IS DESIGNED TO DEVELOP AN UNDERSTANDING OF THE OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE OF THE DIESEL ENGINE FUEL AND BATTERY CHARGING SYSTEM. TOPICS ARE (1) INJECTION TIMING CONTROLS, (2) GOVERNOR, (3) FUEL SYSTEM MAINTENANCE TIPS, (4) THE CHARGING SYSTEM, (5) REGULATING THE GENERATOR/ALTERNATOR, AND (6) CHARGING SYSTEM SERVICE…

Minnesota State Dept. of Education, St. Paul. Div. of Vocational and Technical Education.

153

AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE 1. UNIT XXIII, I--MAINTAINING THE FUEL SYSTEM, PART II--CATERPILLAR DIESEL ENGINE, II--UNDERSTANDING STEERING SYSTEMS.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THIS MODULE OF A 30-MODULE COURSE IS DESIGNED TO DEVELOP AN UNDERSTANDING OF THE OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE OF THE DIESEL ENGINE FUEL INJECTION SYSTEM AND THE STEERING SYSTEM OF DIESEL POWERED VEHICLES. TOPICS ARE FUEL INJECTION SECTION, AND DESCRIPTION OF THE STEERING SYSTEM. THE MODULE CONSISTS OF A SELF-INSTRUCTIONAL BRANCH PROGRAMED TRAINING…

Minnesota State Dept. of Education, St. Paul. Div. of Vocational and Technical Education.

154

General Mechanical Repair. Minor Automotive Maintenance, Small Engine [Repair, and] Welding: Student Manual.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document is a student manual for a general mechanical repair course. Following a list of common essential elements of trade and industrial education, the manual is divided into three sections. The first section, on minor automotive maintenance, contains 13 units: automotive shop safety; engine principles; fuel system operation and repair;…

Hamlin, Larry

155

Lightweight Steel Solutions for Automotive Industry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, improvement in fuel efficiency and safety has become the biggest issue in worldwide automotive industry. Although the regulation of environment and safety has been tightened up more and more, the majority of vehicle bodies are still manufactured from stamped steel components. This means that the optimized steel solutions enable to demonstrate its ability to reduce body weight with high crashworthiness performance instead of expensive light weight materials such as Al, Mg and composites. To provide the innovative steel solutions for automotive industry, POSCO has developed AHSS and its application technologies, which is directly connected to EVI activities. EVI is a technical cooperation program with customer covering all stages of new car project from design to mass production. Integrated light weight solutions through new forming technologies such as TWB, hydroforming and HPF are continuously developed and provided for EVI activities. This paper will discuss the detailed status of these technologies especially light weight steel solutions based on innovative technologies.

Lee, Hong Woo; Kim, Gyosung; Park, Sung Ho

2010-06-01

156

Lightweight Steel Solutions for Automotive Industry  

SciTech Connect

Recently, improvement in fuel efficiency and safety has become the biggest issue in worldwide automotive industry. Although the regulation of environment and safety has been tightened up more and more, the majority of vehicle bodies are still manufactured from stamped steel components. This means that the optimized steel solutions enable to demonstrate its ability to reduce body weight with high crashworthiness performance instead of expensive light weight materials such as Al, Mg and composites. To provide the innovative steel solutions for automotive industry, POSCO has developed AHSS and its application technologies, which is directly connected to EVI activities. EVI is a technical cooperation program with customer covering all stages of new car project from design to mass production. Integrated light weight solutions through new forming technologies such as TWB, hydroforming and HPF are continuously developed and provided for EVI activities. This paper will discuss the detailed status of these technologies especially light weight steel solutions based on innovative technologies.

Lee, Hong Woo; Kim, Gyosung; Park, Sung Ho [Technical Research Laboratories, POSCO, 699, Gumho-dong, Gwangyang-si, Jeonnam, 545-090 (Korea, Republic of)

2010-06-15

157

Current Automotive Holometry Studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Holometry studies of automotive body and powertrain components have become a very useful high resolution test methodology to knowledgeable Ford engineering personnel. Current examples of studies that represent the static or dynamic operational conditions of the automotive test component are presented. Continuous wave laser holometry, computer aided holometry (CAH) and pulsed laser holometry were the holometric techniques used to study the following subjects: (1) body in prime (BIP) vibration modes, (2) transmission flexplate stud-torque converter deformation due to engine torque pulses, (3) engine cylinder head and camshaft support structure deformation due to cylinder pressure and (4) engine connecting rod/cap lift-off. Static and dynamic component loading and laboratory techniques required to produce usable and valid test results are discussed along with possible conclusions for the engineering concerns.

Marchi, Mitchell M.; Snyder, D. S.

1990-04-01

158

International forensic automotive paint database  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Technical Working Group for Materials Analysis (TWGMAT) is supporting an international forensic automotive paint database. The Federal Bureau of Investigation and the Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP) are collaborating on this effort through TWGMAT. This paper outlines the support and further development of the RCMP's Automotive Paint Database, `Paint Data Query'. This cooperative agreement augments and supports a current, validated, searchable, automotive paint database that is used to identify make(s), model(s), and year(s) of questioned paint samples in hit-and-run fatalities and other associated investigations involving automotive paint.

Bishea, Gregory A.; Buckle, Joe L.; Ryland, Scott G.

1999-02-01

159

78 FR 36633 - National Automotive Sampling System  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...National Automotive Sampling System AGENCY: National...National Automotive Sampling System (NASS) or Data...any of the following methods: Federal eRulemaking...National Automotive Sampling System (NASS) by improving...improving data collection methods and quality...

2013-06-18

160

77 FR 37471 - National Automotive Sampling System  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...National Automotive Sampling System AGENCY: National...National Automotive Sampling System (NASS) research...and data collection methods as part of a major effort...National Automotive Sampling System (NASS) by improving...improving data collection methods and quality...

2012-06-21

161

Automotive Electricity: Automotive Mechanics Instructional Program. Block 3.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The third of six instructional blocks in automotive mechanics, the lessons and supportive information in the document provide a guide for teachers in planning an instructional program in automotive electricity at the secondary and post secondary level. The material, as organized, is a suggested sequence of instruction within each block. Each…

O'Brien, Ralph D.

162

Reformulated diesel fuel  

DOEpatents

Reformulated diesel fuels for automotive diesel engines which meet the requirements of ASTM 975-02 and provide significantly reduced emissions of nitrogen oxides (NO.sub.x) and particulate matter (PM) relative to commercially available diesel fuels.

McAdams, Hiramie T [Carrollton, IL; Crawford, Robert W [Tucson, AZ; Hadder, Gerald R [Oak Ridge, TN; McNutt, Barry D [Arlington, VA

2006-03-28

163

A design strategy applied to sulfur resistant lean NOx̳ automotive catalysts  

E-print Network

Catalyst poisoning due to sulfur compounds derived from fuel sulfur presents a major challenge, intractable thus far, to development of many advanced technologies for automotive catalysts such as the lean NOx, trap. Under ...

Tang, Hairong

2005-01-01

164

Some Characteristics of Automotive Gasolines and their Performance in a Light Aircraft Engine.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The primary purpose of this extensive test effort was to observe real-time operational performance characteristics associated with automotive grade fuel utilized by piston engine powered light general aviation aircraft. In fulfillment of this effort, base...

K. M. Morrison, N. W. Sung, D. J. Patterson

1984-01-01

165

AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE 1. UNIT XI, PART I--MAINTAINING THE FUEL SYSTEM (PART I), CUMMINS DIESEL ENGINES, PART II--UNIT REPLACEMENT (ENGINE).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THIS MODULE OF A 30-MODULE COURSE IS DESIGNED TO DEVELOP AN UNDERSTANDING OF DIFFERENCES BETWEEN TWO AND FOUR CYCLE ENGINES, THE OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE OF THE DIESEL ENGINE FUEL SYSTEM, AND THE PROCEDURES FOR DIESEL ENGINE REMOVAL. TOPICS ARE (1) REVIEW OF TWO CYCLE AND FOUR CYCLE CONCEPT, (2) SOME BASIC CHARACTERISTICS OF FOUR CYCLE ENGINES,…

Human Engineering Inst., Cleveland, OH.

166

Automotive Technology. Career Education Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The curriculum guide is designed to provide students with realistic training in automotive technology theory and practice within the secondary educational framework and to prepare them for entry into an occupation or continuing postsecondary education. The learning modules are grouped into three areas: small engines, automotive technology, and…

Dependents Schools (DOD), Washington, DC. European Area.

167

International forensic automotive paint database  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Technical Working Group for Materials Analysis (TWGMAT) is supporting an international forensic automotive paint database. The Federal Bureau of Investigation and the Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP) are collaborating on this effort through TWGMAT. This paper outlines the support and further development of the RCMP's Automotive Paint Database, `Paint Data Query'. This cooperative agreement augments and supports a current,

Gregory A. Bishea; Joe L. Buckle; Scott G. Ryland

1999-01-01

168

DYNAMICS OF AUTOMOTIVE SULFATE EMISSIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

A preliminary assessment of the potential environmental impact of automotive sulfuric acid (or sulfate) aerosol has been made by analyzing the aerosol dynamics. This analysis leads to the prediction of ambient automotive sulfuric acid aerosol concentrations over and around a larg...

169

United States Council for Automotive Research  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The United States Council for Automotive Research (USCAR) is a joint operation between Ford, DaimlerChrysler, and General Motors. The council lets the companies combine their resources to develop better non-competitive technologies, such as safety, fuel efficiency, and emissions. Many new innovations in vehicle design are described on the USCAR Web site. For example, the 21st Century section outlines some major advances that will shape the future of the automobile, while Specific Technologies examines various new manufacturing practices and vehicle components. There are also many articles and technical accomplishments listed on the site, giving some insight into what is currently being done to make driving a better experience.

170

49 CFR 537.9 - Determination of fuel economy values and average fuel economy.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false Determination of fuel economy values and average fuel economy. 537.9 Section 537.9 Transportation...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AUTOMOTIVE FUEL ECONOMY REPORTS § 537.9 Determination of fuel...

2012-10-01

171

49 CFR 537.9 - Determination of fuel economy values and average fuel economy.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false Determination of fuel economy values and average fuel economy. 537.9 Section 537.9 Transportation...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AUTOMOTIVE FUEL ECONOMY REPORTS § 537.9 Determination of fuel...

2013-10-01

172

49 CFR 537.9 - Determination of fuel economy values and average fuel economy.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false Determination of fuel economy values and average fuel economy. 537.9 Section 537.9 Transportation...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AUTOMOTIVE FUEL ECONOMY REPORTS § 537.9 Determination of fuel...

2011-10-01

173

Evaluation of advanced lift concepts and fuel conservative short-haul aircraft, volume 1  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The performance and economics of a twin-engine augmentor wing airplane were evaluated in two phases. Design aspects of the over-the-wing/internally blown flap hybrid, augmentor wing, and mechanical flap aircraft were investigated for 910 m. field length with parametric extension to other field lengths. Fuel savings achievable by application of advanced lift concepts to short-haul aircraft were evaluated and the effect of different field lengths, cruise requirements, and noise levels on fuel consumption and airplane economics at higher fuel prices were determined. Conclusions and recommendations are presented.

Renshaw, J. H.; Bowden, M. K.; Narucki, C. W.; Bennett, J. A.; Smith, P. R.; Ferrill, R. S.; Randall, C. C.; Tibbetts, J. G.; Patterson, R. W.; Meyer, R. T.

1974-01-01

174

Automotive Maintenance Equipment in Thailand.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The study contains the market potential in Thailand for mechanical equipment and hand tools used in the testing and repairing of automotive equipment. No attempt has been made for a definitive survey outside the capital city, but motor vehicle registratio...

1965-01-01

175

Ceramic Automotive Stirling Engine Program  

SciTech Connect

The Ceramic Automotive Stirling Engine Program evaluated the application of advanced ceramic materials to an automotive Stirling engine. The objective of the program was to evaluate the technical feasibility of utilizing advanced ceramics to increase peak engine operating temperature, and to evaluate the performance benefits of such an increase. Manufacturing cost estimates were also developed for various ceramic engine components and compared with conventional metallic engine component costs.

Not Available

1986-08-01

176

Ceramic automotive Stirling engine program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Ceramic Automotive Stirling Engine Program evaluated the application of advanced ceramic materials to an automotive Stirling engine. The objective of the program was to evaluate the technical feasibility of utilizing advanced ceramics to increase peak engine operating temperature, and to evaluate the performance benefits of such an increase. Manufacturing cost estimates were also developed for various ceramic engine components and compared with conventional metallic engine component costs.

1986-01-01

177

United States Automotive Materials Partnership LLC (USAMP)  

SciTech Connect

The United States Automotive Materials Partnership LLC (USAMP) was formed in 1993 as a partnership between Chrysler Corporation, Ford Motor Company, and General Motors Corporation. Since then the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has supported its activities with funding and technical support. The mission of the USAMP is to conduct vehicle-oriented research and development in materials and materials processing to improve the competitiveness of the U.S. Auto Industry. Its specific goals are: (1) To conduct joint research to further the development of lightweight materials for improved automotive fuel economy; and (2) To work with the Federal government to explore opportunities for cooperative programs with the national laboratories, Federal agencies such as the DOE and universities. As a major component of the DOE's Office of FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies Program (FCVT) collaboration with the USAMP, the Automotive Lightweighting Materials (ALM) program focuses on the development and validation of advanced materials and manufacturing technologies to significantly reduce automotive vehicle body and chassis weight without compromising other attributes such as safety, performance, recyclability, and cost. The FCVT was announced in FY 2002 and implemented in FY 2003, as a successor of the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles (PNGV), largely addressed under the first Cooperative Agreement. This second USAMP Cooperative Agreement with the DOE has expanded a unique and valuable framework for collaboratively directing industry and government research efforts toward the development of technologies capable of solving important societal problems related to automobile transportation. USAMP efforts are conducted by the domestic automobile manufacturers, in collaboration with materials and manufacturing suppliers, national laboratories, universities, and other technology or trade organizations. These interactions provide a direct route for implementing newly developed materials and technologies, and have resulted in significant technical successes to date, as discussed in the individual project summary final reports. Over 70 materials-focused projects have been established by USAMP, in collaboration with participating suppliers, academic/non-profit organizations and national laboratories, and executed through its original three divisions: the Automotive Composites Consortium (ACC), the Automotive Metals Division (AMD), and Auto/Steel Partnership (A/SP). Two new divisions were formed by USAMP in 2006 to drive research emphasis on integration of structures incorporating dissimilar lightweighting materials, and on enabling technology for nondestructive evaluation of structures and joints. These new USAMP divisions are: Multi-Material Vehicle Research and Development Initiative (MMV), and the Non-Destructive Evaluation Steering Committee (NDE). In cooperation with USAMP and the FreedomCAR Materials Technical Team, a consensus process has been established to facilitate the development of projects to help move leveraged research to targeted development projects that eventually migrate to the original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) as application engineering projects. Research projects are assigned to one of three phases: concept feasibility, technical feasibility, and demonstration feasibility. Projects are guided through ongoing monitoring and USAMP offsite reviews, so as to meet the requirements of each phase before they are allowed to move on to the next phase. As progress is made on these projects, the benefits of lightweight construction and enabling technologies will be transferred to the supply base and implemented in production vehicles. The single greatest barrier to automotive use of lightweight materials is their high cost; therefore, priority is given to activities aimed at reducing costs through development of new materials, forming technologies, and manufacturing processes. The emphasis of the research projects reported in this document was largely on applied research and evaluation of mass savings opportunities thro

United States Automotive Materials Partnership

2011-01-31

178

Con-fuels alternative. [Conservation seen far superior to Synfuels program to reduce oil imports  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Synfuels program proposed by the Administration is first briefly reviewed. The author then explains an alternative plan involving saving energy by saving waste heat - in effect, a massive conservation plan. Infrared photographs show enormous amounts of wasted oil and gas escaping in the form of heat from millions of structures as a result of our inefficient use of

Rauch

1979-01-01

179

Energy Conservation Potential in Natural Gas Fueled Reciprocating Engines - A Preliminary Market Evaluation  

E-print Network

296 Proceedings from the First Industrial Energy Technology Conference Houston, TX, April 22-25, 1979 Residential $1.98/Mcf Extraction Loss 5.051 Tcf $0.95/Mcf ~ ---... ~ ,854 Bcf Well Head Commercial $0. 58/Mcf $1.69/Mcf ~....... (20.8 Tcf...) 2.382 Tcf Consumers Lease &Plant Fuel $1.46/Mcf ~ 17.763 Tcf $0.57/Mcf ~ Industrial~ 1,634 Tcf $1.24/Mcf ~ 6.966 Tcf ti e~ $0.98/Mcf Electric Util ~ Pipeline Fuel 3.078 Tcf $0.51/Mcf ~L.......+ 548.3 Bcf Other Consumers $1 .21...

Johnson, D. M.

1979-01-01

180

Evaluation of advanced lift concepts and potential fuel conservation for short-haul aircraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effect of different field lengths, cruise requirements, noise level, and engine cycle characteristics on minimizing fuel consumption and minimizing operating cost at high fuel prices were evaluated for some advanced short-haul aircraft. The conceptual aircraft were designed for 148 passengers using the upper surface-internally blown jet flap, the augmentor wing, and the mechanical flap lift systems. Advanced conceptual STOL engines were evaluated as well as a near-term turbofan and turboprop engine. Emphasis was given to designs meeting noise levels equivalent to 95-100 EPNdB at 152 m (500 ft) sideline.

Sweet, H. S.; Renshaw, J. H.; Bowden, M. K.

1975-01-01

181

Automotive Drum Brakes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Do you know when the first car was built? Do you know who built the first automobile? Would you guess, Henry Ford? Try again. Do you know by what means they used to stop that car? We know the brakes on the vehicles we drive today are quite different from those back in the 1800s. While knowing the history of the automobile is interesting, knowing how they work is also interesting. The automotive brake or to be more specific, the drum brake is what this instruction is designed to review. In this instruction, we will begin by briefly looking at the history of automobile brakes and then learn how drum brakes work. While disk brakes can be easier to understand, are becoming more and more popular, especially on the rear tires, drum brakes, to some can be a challenge. The purpose of this lesson is to provide you with resources and encourage you to search more additional resources that will help you gain a mental moving picture of how the drum brake works. OBJECTIVES: In this instructional module, you will: Know a brief history of automobile brakes. Have a minimum of 8 web resources that provide instructions of drum brakes. Develop a mental moving picture of how drum brakes work. MATERIALS: To complete this learning activity, each student will need: Access to a computer with internet connection capabilities. A strong desire ...

Hjorten, Mr.

2006-02-03

182

Draft Fourth Northwest Conservation and Electric Power Plan, Appendix C FUEL PRICE FORECASTS  

E-print Network

. Figure C-1 illustrates this for world oil prices, and similar patterns apply to natural gas. The last has resulted in increased estimates of energy supplies, increased success rates in oil and gas exploration, and lower expected costs of finding and producing these fuels. The theories of oil and gas supply

183

Automotive emission standards. (Latest citations from Pollution Abstracts). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning emission standards and air quality standards applied to automobile emissions. Included are federal and state regulations and policies regarding these emission standards. Techniques to meet emission standards are also addressed, involving fuel injection, catalysts, alternate engines, and automotive fuel refinery operations. Studies concerning implementation of automobile emission standards explore economic and environmental effects, testing and inspection procedures, and the automobile industry point of view. Most of the citations refer to gasoline engines, but a few pertain to diesel and other fuels. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

NONE

1993-07-01

184

Wet\\/dry cooling systems for fossil-fueled power plants: water conservation and plume abatement. Final report Jun 75Sep 77  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results of a study of technical and economic feasibilities of wet\\/dry cooling towers for water conservation and vapor plume abatement are given. Results of cost optimizations of wet\\/dry cooling for 1000-MWe fossil-fueled power plants are presented. Five sites in the western coal region and one in New York are evaluated for water conservation; four urban sites (Seattle, Cleveland, Newark, and

M. C. Hu; G. A. Englesson

1977-01-01

185

R&D portfolios in environmentally friendly automotive propulsion: Variety, competition and policy implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, we analyze R&D portfolios in environmentally friendly automotive propulsion including alternative fuel options. We argue that at the current stage of development, substitution of conventional car technology by a new automotive propulsion technology may lead to premature lock-in of suboptimal technology. To avoid such lock-in, one should value the variety of current R&D activity that enables organizations

Koen Frenken; Marko Hekkert; Per Godfroij

2004-01-01

186

Advanced high temperature materials for the energy efficient automotive stirling engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Stirling engine is under investigation jointly by the Department of Energy and NASA Lewis as an alternative to the internal\\u000a combustion engine for automotive applications. The Stirling engine is an external combustion engine that offers the advantage\\u000a of high fuel economy, low emissions, low noise, and low vibrations compared to current internal combustion automotive engines.\\u000a The most critical component

R. H. Titran; J. R. Stephens

1984-01-01

187

REVIEW ARTICLE: Sensors for automotive telematics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article reviews the current practice in sensors and sensor applications for automotive and traffic-control systems. Sensors to control engine fuelling, ignition and transmission (known as the powertrain) are reviewed and the likely course of future development is discussed in the light of regulatory and market requirements as well as trends in sensor design and manufacture. Sensor needs for suspension, braking and control of traction are also reviewed and the likely introduction of wheel and tyre sensors to enhance driving safety is discussed. The recent trend towards vehicle-mounted devices to sense the vehicle's environment (such as radar, optical, ultrasound, capacitive and image-based systems) and the implications of the introduction of safety-critical automotive systems such as adaptive cruise control are discussed. Sensors for initiating the deployment of safety systems such as airbags, together with transducers for disconnecting fuel pumps and vehicle batteries in the event of a crash, are reviewed. The paper includes a brief discussion of highway-based sensors for measuring vehicle speed and presence and concludes with a discussion of the likely future developments in the field.

Turner, J. D.; Austin, L.

2000-02-01

188

Potential automotive uses of wrought magnesium alloys  

SciTech Connect

Vehicle weight reduction is one of the major means available to improve automotive fuel efficiency. High-strength steels, aluminum (Al), and polymers are already being used to reduce weight significantly, but substantial additional reductions could be achieved by greater use of low-density magnesium (Mg) and its alloys. Mg alloys are currently used in relatively small quantities for auto parts, generally limited to die castings (e.g., housings). Argonne National Laboratory`s Center for Transportation Research has performed a study for the Lightweight Materials Program within DOE`s Office of Transportation Materials to evaluate the suitability of wrought Mg and its alloys to replace steel/aluminum for automotive structural and sheet applications. Mg sheet could be used in body nonstructural and semi-structural applications, while extrusions could be used in such structural applications as spaceframes. This study identifies high cost as the major barrier to greatly increased Mg use in autos. Two technical R and D areas, novel reduction technology and better hot-forming technology, could enable major cost reductions.

Gaines, L.; Cuenca, R.; Wu, S. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Stodolsky, F. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)]|[Argonne National Lab., Washington, DC (United States)

1996-06-01

189

Laser technology in automotive lighting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The last few years have seen something of a revolution in automotive lighting facilitated by a range of new photonics advances. The lighting industry as a whole is moving rapidly from the incandescent and gas discharge based technologies that dominated the 20th century to solid state technology in the form of Light Emitting Diodes (LED) which are a point source light, Organic Light Emitting Diodes (OLED) which are an area source light and at the edge the increasing use of lasers with different functional applications. In this paper I will focus on this edge technology of lasers as they are still trying to find their right place in automotive lighting. To better analyze their potential, the working principle of a laser will be explained, laser types used in automotive lighting, their application methods, advantages and disadvantages of their usage will be declared, application examples from the current trials of some leading automotive industry research groups will be given and finalization will be with an overall view of the possible future laser applications in the field of automotive lighting.

Altingöz, Ceren

2014-03-01

190

DOE/NASA Automotive Stirling Engine Project overview '83  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An overview of the DOE/NASA Automotive Stirling Engine Project is presented. The background and objectives of the project are reviewed. Project activities are described and technical progress and status are presented and assessed. Prospects for achieving the objective 30% fuel economy improvement are considered good. The key remaining technology issues are primarily related to life, reliability and cost, such as piston rod seals, and low cost heat exchanges.

Beremand, D. G.

1982-01-01

191

Automotive Stirling Engine Development Program. RESD Summary report  

SciTech Connect

This is the final report compiling a summary of the information presented and discussed at the May 1983 Automotive Stirling Engine (AES) Reference Engine System Design (RESD) review held at the NASA Lewis Research Center. The design of the engine and its auxiliaries and controls is described. Manufacturing costs in production quantity are also presented. Engine system performance predictions are discussed and vehicle integration is developed, along with projected fuel economy levels.

Not Available

1984-05-01

192

CFD-based Optimization for Automotive Aerodynamics  

E-print Network

Chapter 1 CFD-based Optimization for Automotive Aerodynamics Laurent Dumas Abstract The car drag- ments. An overview of the main characteristics of automotive aerodynamics and a detailed presentation.dumas@upmc.fr) 1 #12;2 Laurent Dumas 1.1 Introducing Automotive Aerodynamics 1.1.1 A Major Concern for Car

Dumas, Laurent

193

Study of art of automotive active suspensions  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, research and development of automotive active suspensions are reviewed. Structures and models of various automotive suspensions are described. Furthermore, typical commercial products of automotive suspensions are illustrated. Based on the reported studies and development, the authors discus the comparisons between various vehicular suspensions from the aspects of structure, weight, cost, ride comfort, handling performance, reliability, dynamic performance,

X. D. Xue; K. W. E. Cheng; Z. Zhang; J. K. Lin; D. H. Wang; Y. J. Bao; M. K. Wong; N. Cheung

2011-01-01

194

Automotive friction-induced noises A. Elmaiana  

E-print Network

Automotive friction-induced noises A. Elmaiana , J.-M. Duffala , F. Gautiera , C. Pezeratb and J, France 3143 #12;Friction-induced noises are numerous in the automotive field. They also involve a large friction-induced noises with simple structures and automotive materials. Qualitative sensitivity studies

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

195

Action Handbook for Automotive Service Instruction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The document is a handbook for a vocational automotive service education program which was formulated as a result of a four-day series of intensive workshops called the National Automotive Service Vocational Education Conference. The handbook discusses the major components of an automotive service vocational education program and aspects of their…

Motor Vehicle Manufacturers Association of the U.S., Inc., Detroit, MI.

196

Jump start: The new automotive revolution  

SciTech Connect

For half a century, automotive technology has been subservient to the demands of performance and style. Now,the first generation of environmentally responsible cars is on the way. Experimental low-emission cars that run on methane, hydrogen, or electricity and have exceptional fuel economy are being build by more than a dozen companies. Growing numbers of automobiles in recent year have offset cars made cleaner by air pollution laws, and small modifications have not met the needs to have a major technology change. The plan to reduce air pollution in the Los Angeles basin has engineering minds beginning to take up the challenge. This article discusses new automobile technology as it is evolving: solar cars; light-electric vehicles; manufacturing of electric vehicles; light weight composites for vehicle bodies; hybrid gasoline-electric cars; other transportation modes. The critical role of governments and financial incentives in encouraging the development of new auto technologies is also discussed.

Flavin, C.

1993-08-01

197

Automotive Stirling Engine Development Program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Progress is reported in the following: the Stirling reference engine system design; components and subsystems; F-40 baseline Stirling engine installation and test; the first automotive engine to be built on the program; computer development activities; and technical assistance to the Government. The overall program philosophy is outlined, and data and results are given.

Allen, M. (editor)

1980-01-01

198

Automotive Technology. Technical Committee Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Technical Committee Report prepared by industry representatives in Idaho lists the skills currently necessary for an employee in that state to obtain a job in automotive technology, retain a job once hired, and advance in that occupational field. (Task lists are grouped according to duty areas generally used in industry settings, and are used…

Idaho State Dept. of Education, Boise. Div. of Vocational Education.

199

Automotive Electronics. Teacher Edition (Revised).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This learning module addresses computers and their applications in contemporary automobiles. The text provides students with information on automotive microcomputers and hands-on activities that will help them see how semiconductors and digital logic devices fit into the modern repair facility. The module contains nine instructional units that…

Mackert, Howard C.; Heiserman, Russell L.

200

Automotive power generation and control  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes some new developments in the application of power electronics to automotive power generation and control. A new load-matching technique is introduced that uses a simple switched-mode rectifier to achieve dramatic increases in peak and average power output from a conventional Lundell alternator, along with substantial improvements in efficiency. Experimental results demonstrate these capability improvements. Additional performance and

David J. Perreault; Vahe Caliskan

2004-01-01

201

Automotive Mechanics. Student Learning Guides.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

These 33 learning guides are self-instructional packets for 33 tasks identified as essential for performance on an entry-level job in automotive mechanics. Each guide is based on a terminal performance objective (task) and 1-9 enabling objectives. For each enabliing objective, some or all of these materials may be presented: learning steps…

Ridge Vocational-Technical Center, Winter Haven, FL.

202

Automotive Technologies. State Competency Profile.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document, which lists the technical automotive technologies competencies identified by representatives from business, industry, and labor as well as technical educators throughout Ohio, is intended to assist individuals and organizations in developing college tech prep programs that will prepare students from secondary through post-secondary…

Ohio Board of Regents, Columbus.

203

Advanced Gas Turbine (AGT) powertrain system development for automotive applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An automotive gas turbine powertrain system which, when installed in a 1985 production vehicle (3000 pounds inertia weight), is being developed with a CFDC fuel economy of 42.8 miles per gallon based on Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) test procedures and diesel No. 2 fuel. The AGT-powered vehicle shall give substantially the same overall vehicle driveability and performance as a comparable 1985 production vehicle powered by a conventional spark ignition powertrain system (baseline system). Gaseous emissions and particulate levels less than: NOx = 0.4 gm/mile, HC = 0.41 gm/mile, and CO = 3.4 gm/mile, and a total particulate of 0.2 gm/mile, using the same fuel as used for fuel economy measurements is expected, along with the ability to use a variety of alternate fuels.

1981-01-01

204

EPA evaluation of the automotive cylinder deactivator system (ACDS) under section 511 of the Motor Vehicle Information and Cost Savings Act. Technical report  

Microsoft Academic Search

This document announces the conclusions of the EPA evaluation of the 'Automotive Cylinder Deactivator System' device under provisions of section 511 of the Motor Vehicle Information and Cost Savings Act. On October 2, 1979, the EPA received a request from ACDS, Inc. for evaluation of a fuel saving device termed 'Automotive Cylinder Deactivator System (ACDS).' This device is designed to

1981-01-01

205

Development of simplified airborne computations for fuel conservative descents in a time-based metered air traffic environment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA has developed and flight-tested a simple flight management descent algorithm designed to improve the accuracy of delivering an airplane in a fuel-conservative manner to a metering fix at a time designated by air traffic control. This algorithm provides a three-dimensional path with terminal area time constraints (four-dimensional) for an airplane to make an idle-thrust, clean-configured (landing gear up, flaps zero, and speed brakes retracted) descent to arrive at the metering fix at a predetermined time, altitude, and airspeed. The descent path is calculated for a constant Mach/airspeed schedule from linear approximations of airplane performance with considerations given for gross weight, wind, and nonstandard pressure and temperature effects. Applications of the four-dimensional and descent planning capabilities of the algorithm to conventional airplanes is being investigated. This report describes the flight management descent algorithm and presents the results of the flight tests flown with the Terminal Configured Vehicle airplane.

Knox, C. E.

1981-01-01

206

Ceramic automotive Stirling engine study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A conceptual design study for a Ceramic Automotive Stirling Engine (CASE) is performed. Year 1990 structural ceramic technology is assumed. Structural and performance analyses of the conceptual design are performed as well as a manufacturing and cost analysis. The general conclusions from this study are that such an engine would be 10-26% more efficient over its performance map than the current metal Automotive Stirling Reference Engine (ASRE). Cost of such a ceramic engine is likely to be somewhat higher than that of the ASRE but engine cost is very sensitive to the ultimate cost of the high purity, ceramic powder raw materials required to fabricate high performance parts. When the design study is projected to the year 2000 technology, substantinal net efficiency improvements, on the order of 25 to 46% over the ASRE, are computed.

Musikant, S.; Chiu, W.; Darooka, D.; Mullings, D. M.; Johnson, C. A.

1985-01-01

207

Basics of Automotive Vehicle Braking  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a It is necessary to have knowledge of the technology correlated with contemporary auto-motive vehicles’ BBW AWB dispulsion\\u000a to understand the wheel-tyre to on\\/off-road interface, vehicle dynamics during braking, and the components of a BBW AWB dispulsion\\u000a mechatronic control system. This section examines these issues to enhance the level of that knowledge.

B. T. Fijalkowski

208

Trends in Automotive Communication Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of networks for communications between the electronic control units (ECU) of a vehicle in production cars dates from the beginning of the 1990s. The specific requirements of the different car domains have led to the development of a large number of automotive networks such as Local Interconnect Network, J1850, CAN, TTP\\/C, FlexRay, media-oriented system transport, IDB1394, etc. This

NICOLAS NAVET; YEQIONG SONG; FRANÇOISE SIMONOT-LION; CÉDRIC WILWERT

2005-01-01

209

Planning fuel-conservative descents with or without time constraints using a small programmable calculator: Algorithm development and flight test results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A simplified flight-management descent algorithm, programmed on a small programmable calculator, was developed and flight tested. It was designed to aid the pilot in planning and executing a fuel-conservative descent to arrive at a metering fix at a time designated by the air traffic control system. The algorithm may also be used for planning fuel-conservative descents when time is not a consideration. The descent path was calculated for a constant Mach/airspeed schedule from linear approximations of airplane performance with considerations given for gross weight, wind, and nonstandard temperature effects. The flight-management descent algorithm is described. The results of flight tests flown with a T-39A (Sabreliner) airplane are presented.

Knox, C. E.

1983-01-01

210

AUTOMOTIVE REPAIR SHOP, INTERIOR VIEW TO SOUTHEAST, DOORWAYS TO SHOP ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

AUTOMOTIVE REPAIR SHOP, INTERIOR VIEW TO SOUTHEAST, DOORWAYS TO SHOP OFFICE AND SOUTH WING, WITH SCALE. - Cedar City Automotive Repair Shop, Automotive Repair Shop, 820 North Main Street, Cedar City, Iron County, UT

211

AUTOMOTIVE REPAIR SHOP, INTERIOR VIEW TO SOUTHEAST, DOORWAYS TO SHOP ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

AUTOMOTIVE REPAIR SHOP, INTERIOR VIEW TO SOUTHEAST, DOORWAYS TO SHOP OFFICE AND SOUTH WING. - Cedar City Automotive Repair Shop, Automotive Repair Shop, 820 North Main Street, Cedar City, Iron County, UT

212

Conceptual design study of an improved automotive gas turbine powertrain  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Automotive gas turbine concepts with significant technological advantages over the spark ignition (SI) engine were assessed. Possible design concepts were rated with respect to fuel economy and near-term application. A program plan which outlines the development of the improved gas turbine (IGT) concept that best met the goals and objectives of the study identifies the research and development work needed to meet the goal of entering a production engineering phase by 1983. The fuel economy goal is to show at least a 20% improvement over a conventional 1976 SI engine/vehicle system. On the basis of achieving the fuel economy goal, of overall suitability to mechanical design, and of automotive mass production cost, the powertrain selected was a single-shaft engine with a radial turbine and a continuously variable transmission (CVT). Design turbine inlet temperature was 1150 C. Reflecting near-term technology, the turbine rotor would be made of an advanced superalloy, and the transmission would be a hydromechanical CVT. With successful progress in long-lead R&D in ceramic technology and the belt-drive CVT, the turbine inlet temperature would be 1350 C to achieve near-maximum fuel economy.

Wagner, C. E. (editor); Pampreen, R. C. (editor)

1979-01-01

213

Fracture testing and analysis of adhesively bonded joints for automotive applications  

SciTech Connect

In 1992, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) began a cooperative effort with the Automotive Composites Consortium (ACC) to conduct research and development that would overcome technological hurdles to the adhesive bonding of current and future automotive materials. This effort is part of a larger Department of Energy (DOE) program to promote the use of lighter weight materials in automotive structures for the purpose of increasing fuel efficiency and reducing environmental pollutant emissions. In accomplishing this mission, the bonding of similar and dissimilar materials was identified as being of primary importance to the automotive industry since this enabling technology would give designers the freedom to choose from an expanded menu of low mass materials for component weight reduction. This paper concentrates on the details of developing accurate fracture test methods for adhesively bonded joints in the automotive industry. The test methods being developed are highly standardized and automated so that industry suppliers will be able to pass on reliable data to automotive designers in a timely manner. Mode I fracture tests have been developed that are user friendly and automated for easy data acquisition, data analysis, test control and test repeatability. The development of this test is discussed. In addition, materials and manufacturing issues are addressed which are of particular importance when designing adhesive and composite material systems.

Boeman, R.G.; Warren, C.D. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Engineering Technology Div.

1994-12-31

214

Fast automotive diesel exhaust measurement using quantum cascade lasers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Step by step, US and European legislations enforce the further reduction of atmospheric pollution caused by automotive exhaust emissions. This is pushing automotive development worldwide. Fuel efficient diesel engines with SCRtechnology can impede NO2-emission by reduction with NH3 down to the ppm range. To meet the very low emission limits of the Euro6 resp. US NLEV (National Low Emission Vehicle) regulations, automotive manufacturers have to optimize continuously all phases of engine operation and corresponding catalytic converters. Especially nonstationary operation holds a high potential for optimizing gasoline consumption and further reducing of pollutant emissions. Test equipment has to cope with demanding sensitivity and speed requirements. In the past Fraunhofer IPM has developed a fast emission analyzer called DEGAS (Dynamic Exhaust Gas Analyzer System), based on cryogenically cooled lead salt lasers. These systems have been used at Volkswagen AG`s test benches for a decade. Recently, IPM has developed DEGAS-Next which is based on cw quantum cascade lasers and thermoelectrically cooled detectors. The system is capable to measure three gas components (i.e. NO, NO2, NH3) in two channels with a time resolution of 20 ms and 1 ppm detection limits. We shall present test data and a comparison with fast FTIR measurements.

Herbst, J.; Brunner, R.; Lambrecht, A.

2013-12-01

215

Cold start dynamics and temperature sliding observer design of an automotive SOFC APU  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a dynamic model for studying the cold start dynamics and observer design of an auxiliary power unit (APU) for automotive applications. The APU is embedded with a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) stack which is a quiet and pollutant-free electric generator; however, it suffers from slow start problem from ambient conditions. The SOFC APU system equips with

Po-Hsu Lin; Che-Wun Hong

2009-01-01

216

Virtual ESD testing of automotive electronic systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

ESD events can cause numerous destruction effects in automotive electronic circuits. A prediction of ESD stress on system level is difficult and numerous iteration loops in the development process are necessary to fulfill the demands of automotive customers. A concept for system level ESD simulation is presented to predict robustness against ESD. Independent models of the different system components were

B. Arndt; F. zur Nieden; F. Mueller; J. Edenhofer; S. Frei

2010-01-01

217

Challenges for automotive battery separator development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increased energy content, higher cold-cranking performance and improved quality level have driven the transition of automotive battery construction to the pocketing technology. Emphasis of future automotive battery development will be the adaptation to elevated ambient temperatures and continuously more demanding productivity requirements. Translated into a profile of separator requirements, this means improved oxidation resistance (especially at higher temperature), further increased

W. Böhnstedt

1997-01-01

218

Rare earth metals for automotive exhaust catalysts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The usage of rare earth metals for automotive exhaust catalysts is demonstrated in this paper. Rare earth metals have been widely used in automotive catalysts. In particular, three-way catalysts require the use of ceria compounds as oxygen storage materials, and lanthana as both a stabilizer of alumina and a promoter. The application for diesel catalysts is also illustrated. Effects of

Hirohumi Shinjoh

2006-01-01

219

Standardized Curriculum for Automotive Body Repair.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Standardized curricula are provided for two courses for the secondary vocational education program in Mississippi: automotive body repair I and II. The nine units in automotive body repair I are as follows: introduction; related information; basic tool usage and safety; body and frame construction; basic sheet metal repair; preparing for…

Mississippi State Dept. of Education, Jackson. Office of Vocational, Technical and Adult Education.

220

Brakes Specialist. Teacher Edition. Automotive Service Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document contains teacher's materials for a course on becoming an automotive brakes specialist, based on the National Institute of Automotive Service Excellence task lists. The course consists of three instructional units: service brake hydraulic system and wheel bearings, service drum brakes, and service disc brakes. Depending on the…

Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

221

Industrial motivations: Conceptual Automotive Styling Tools (CAST)  

E-print Network

Industrial motivations: Conceptual Automotive Styling Tools (CAST) Karan Singh #12;Conceptual. · Sweeps. · Steels. · Paint box. · Whats missing? A refinable digital 3D model. An automotive designers Freeform Local Global #12;Modeling interfaces · Tape Drawing. · ShapeTape. · Steels, Sweeps. · Pen, puck

Toronto, University of

222

Petroleum Marketing. Selling Automotive Products and Services.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This textbook contains material for the individualized instruction of students training for careers in service stations; automotive, tire, battery, and accessory retail stores; oil jobbers and petroleum product wholesalers, or any wholesale or retail establishment that sells automotive products and services. Included among the topics addressed in…

Luter, Robert R.

223

Global sustainability and key needs in future automotive design.  

PubMed

The number of light vehicle registrations is forecast to increase worldwide by a factor of 3-5 over the next 50 years. This will dramatically increase environmental impacts worldwide of automobiles and light trucks. If light vehicles are to be environmentally sustainable globally, the automotive industry must implement fundamental changes in future automotive design. Important factors in assessing automobile design needs include fuel economy and reduced emissions. Many design parameters can impact vehicle air emissions and energy consumption including alternative fuel or engine technologies, rolling resistance, aerodynamics, drive train design, friction, and vehicle weight. Of these, vehicle weight is key and will translate into reduced energy demand across all energy distribution elements. A new class of vehicles is needed that combines ultra-light design with a likely hybrid or fuel cell engine technology. This could increase efficiency by a factor of 3-5 and reduce air emissions as well. Advanced lightweight materials, such as plastics or composites, will need to overtake the present metal-based infrastructure. Incorporating design features to facilitate end-of-life recycling and recovery is also important. The trend will be towards fewer materials and parts in vehicle design, combined with ease of disassembly. Mono-material construction can create vehicle design with improved recyclability as well as reduced numbers of parts and weight. PMID:14700327

McAuley, John W

2003-12-01

224

NASA/DOE automotive Stirling engine project: Overview 1986  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The DOE/NASA Automotive Stirling Engine Project is reviewed and its technical progress and status are presented. Key technologies in materials, seals, and piston rings are progressing well. Seven first-generation engines, and modifications thereto, have accumulated over 15,000 hr of test time, including 1100hr of in-vehicle testing. Results indicate good progress toward the program goals. The first second-generation engine is now undergoing initial testing. It is expected that the program goal of a 30-percent improvement in fuel economy will be achieved in tests of a second-generation engine in a Celebrity vehicle.

Beremand, D. G.; Shaltens, R. K.

1986-01-01

225

Drawn arc aluminum stud welding for automotive applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Federal regulations have been enacted to significantly reduce atmospheric pollution caused by motor vehicles. This forced the automotive manufacturers to improve fuel efficiency of cars and light trucks by using lightweight materials such as aluminum. The focus of the current study is to develop welding procedures using the drawn arc process for 5754-0 and 6061-T6 aluminum alloys. The mechanical and macrostructural characteristics of the welded joints were evaluated using tensile tests, torque tests, and optical microscopy. Preliminary study indicates that these alloys can be welded with a minimal amount of porosity and good mechanical properties.

Ramasamy, S.

2002-08-01

226

Single shaft automotive gas turbine engine characterization test  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An automotive gas turbine incorporating a single stage centrifugal compressor and a single stage radial inflow turbine is described. Among the engine's features is the use of wide range variable geometry at the inlet guide vanes, the compressor diffuser vanes, and the turbine inlet vanes to achieve improved part load fuel economy. The engine was tested to determine its performance in both the variable geometry and equivalent fixed geometry modes. Testing was conducted without the originally designed recuperator. Test results were compared with the predicted performance of the nonrecuperative engine based on existing component rig test maps. Agreement between test results and the computer model was achieved.

Johnson, R. A.

1979-01-01

227

Ceramics for the AGT101 automotive gas turbine  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An advanced gas turbine powertrain for automotive application is being developed. Objectives of the program include a fuel consumption of 42.8 mpg on No. 2 diesel fuel in a 3000 pound car, same overall vehicle performance as obtained with a conventional spark ignition internal combustion engine, low emission, multiple fuel capacity, reliability, and competitive cost. The AGT101 powertrain consists of a power section, gearbox and transmission, and the design and analysis conducted thus far support the initial engine concept, as no significant design changes have been required. The ceramic rotor design approach and component materials are discussed, and it is projected that the AGT powertrain will be competitive with any other alternative powertrain in meeting the design objectives.

Kreiner, D. M.; Wimmer, J. M.

1981-01-01

228

Direct and indirect conservation of fossil-fuel energy: the influence of financial and philosophical motivators and available human resources  

Microsoft Academic Search

The research was conducted as a secondary analysis of data collected during the evaluation of a statewide household energy audit conducted at Michigan State University. Energy-consumption data from utility and oil companies served as the measure of direct conservation. Indirect conservation was investigated through the analysis of self-reported participation in a variety of behaviors collectively defined as voluntary simplicity. The

1982-01-01

229

Automotive Applications of Physics and Materials Research: Permanent Magnets, Thermoelectrics, and Hydrogen Storage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Advances in the research and development of new materials continue to have a major impact on the automotive industry and on many other technologies today. A physics background in materials provides a research scientist with many opportunities to pursue a very satisfying and successful career doing industrial and applied physics, ranging from discovering and characterizing new and technologically useful materials to always learning something new in science. For example, the use of permanent magnets in the auto industry was revolutionized by the discovery at General Motors Research and Development Center of a new iron based magnetic material Nd2Fe14B. Moreover, this material rapidly became the state-of-the-art permanent magnet in a wide range of applications across many technologies beyond automotive. More recently, with growing pressure to improve efficiencies of automobiles and other energy consumers, thermoelectrics are a very exciting class of energy conversion materials that have seen dramatic advances in performance. General Motors is at the leading edge of research and development on automotive waste heat recovery using thermoelectric materials. Today, the very promising fuel cell future of the auto industry relies, in part, on advances in on-board alternative fuel storage. New materials and schemes for hydrogen storage that will help bring automotive fuel cell technology to fruition is a rapidly advancing field of physics and materials research. In this presentation, I will discuss my work in these areas during my career at General Motors Research and Development Center.

Meisner, Gregory

2007-03-01

230

Analysis of the potential for new automotive uses of wrought magnesium  

SciTech Connect

The Center for Transportation Research at Argonne National Laboratory has performed a study for the Lightweight Materials Program within the US Department of Energy`s Office of Transportation Materials to evaluate the suitability of wrought magnesium and its alloys to replace steel or aluminum for automotive structural and sheet applications. Vehicle weight reduction is one of the major means available for improving automotive fuel efficiency. Although high-strength steels, Al, and polymers are already being used to achieve significant weight reductions, substantial additional weight reductions could be achieved by increased use of Mg (whose density is less than one-fourth that of steel and only two-thirds that of Al). This study shows that Mg sheet could be used in automotive body nonstructural and semistructural applications, whereas extrusions could be used in such structural applications as spaceframes. The primary barrier to such uses of wrought Mg is high cost.

Gaines, L.; Cuenca, R.; Wu, S. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Stodolsky, F. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); [Argonne National Lab., Washington, DC (United States)

1996-02-01

231

Strategic frameworks in automotive systems architecting  

E-print Network

More often than not, large-scale engineering concepts such as those used by creative automotive manufacturing companies require the incorporation of significant capital outlays and resources for the purposes of implementation ...

Tampi, Mahesh

2012-01-01

232

Complexity reduction in automotive design and development  

E-print Network

Automobiles are complex products. High product complexity drives high levels of design and process complexity and complicatedness. This thesis attempts to reduce complicatedness in the automotive vehicle design and development ...

Ziegler, Ronald J., 1965-

2005-01-01

233

Advanced Gas Turbine (AGT) powertrain system development for automotive applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Progress in the development of a gas turbine engine to improve fuel economy, reduce gaseous emissions and particulate levels, and compatible with a variety of alternate fuels is reported. The powertrain is designated AGT101 and consists of a regenerated single shaft gas turbine engine, a split differential gearbox and a Ford Automatic Overdrive production transmission. The powertrain is controlled by an electronic digital microprocessor and associated actuators, instrumentation, and sensors. Standard automotive accessories are driven by engine power provided by an accessory pad on the gearbox. Component/subsystem development progress is reported in the following areas: compressor, turbine, combustion system, regenerator, gearbox/transmission, structures, ceramic components, foil gas bearing, bearings and seals, rotor dynamics, and controls and accessories.

1980-01-01

234

Hybrid Automotive Engine Using Ethanol-Burning Miller Cycle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A proposed hybrid (internal-combustion/ electric) automotive engine system would include as its internal-combustion subsystem, a modified Miller-cycle engine with regenerative air preheating and with autoignition like that of a Diesel engine. The fuel would be ethanol and would be burned lean to ensure complete combustion. Although the proposed engine would have a relatively low power-to-weight ratio compared to most present engines, this would not be the problem encountered if this engine were used in a non-hybrid system since hybrid systems require significantly lower power and thus smaller engines than purely internal-combustion-engine-driven vehicles. The disadvantage would be offset by the advantages of high fuel efficiency, low emission of nitrogen oxides and particulate pollutants, and the fact that ethanol is a renewable fuel. The original Miller-cycle engine, named after its inventor, was patented in the 1940s and is the basis of engines used in some modern automobiles, but is not widely known. In somewhat oversimplified terms, the main difference between a Miller-cycle engine and a common (Otto-cycle) automobile engine is that the Miller-cycle engine has a longer expansion stroke while retaining the shorter compression stroke. This is accomplished by leaving the intake valve open for part of the compression stroke, whereas in the Otto cycle engine, the intake valve is kept closed during the entire compression stroke. This greater expansion ratio makes it possible to extract more energy from the combustion process without expending more energy for compression. The net result is greater efficiency. In the proposed engine, the regenerative preheating would be effected by running the intake air through a heat exchanger connected to the engine block. The regenerative preheating would offer two advantages: It would ensure reliable autoignition during operation at low ambient temperature and would help to cool the engine, thereby reducing the remainder of the power needed for cooling and thereby further contributing to efficiency. An electrical resistance air preheater might be needed to ensure autoignition at startup and during a short warmup period. Because of the autoignition, the engine could operate without either spark plugs or glow plugs. Ethanol burns relatively cleanly and has been used as a motor fuel since the invention of internal-combustion engines. However, the energy content of ethanol per unit weight of ethanol is less than that of Diesel fuel or gasoline, and ethanol has a higher heat of vaporization. Because the Miller cycle offers an efficiency close to that of the Diesel cycle, burning ethanol in a Miller-cycle engine gives about as much usable output energy per unit volume of fuel as does burning gasoline in a conventional gasoline automotive engine. Because of the combination of preheating, running lean, and the use of ethyl alcohol, the proposed engine would generate less power per unit volume than does a conventional automotive gasoline engine. Consequently, for a given power level, the main body of the proposed engine would be bulkier. However, because little or no exhaust cleanup would be needed, the increase in bulk of the engine could be partially offset by the decrease in bulk of the exhaust system. The regenerative preheating also greatly reduces the external engine cooling requirement, and would translate to reduced engine bulk. It may even be possible to accomplish the remaining cooling of the engine by use of air only, eliminating the bulk and power consumption of a water cooling system. The combination of a Miller-cycle engine with regenerative air preheating, ethyl alcohol fuel, and hybrid operation could result in an automotive engine system that satisfies the need for a low pollution, high efficiency, and simple engine with a totally renewable fuel.

Weinstein, Leonard

2004-01-01

235

International automotive research and testing centers guide  

SciTech Connect

Automotive Engineering`s Guide can help identify organizations throughout the world offering automotive research and testing assistance. These independent partners offer their services for aerodynamics testing, environmental testing, electronic and instrumentation testing, engine and emissions testing, material testing, mechanical testing, noise and acoustics testing, safety testing, structural testing, and vehicle dynamics testing. Companies offering vehicle design services, prototype build services, and test track facilities are also highlighted.

NONE

1996-03-01

236

Hybrid and Fuel Cell Systems for Transportation  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the requirements for reducing the emissions and improving the fuel economy, the automotive companies are developing vehicles based on electric, hybrid, and fuel cell technologies. In this paper, the hybrid and fuel cell based propulsion system architectures, use of fuel cells for on-board power generation, and the power electronics systems requirements are presented. The paper also discusses the types

Kaushik Rajashekara

237

Secondary-Postsecondary Curriculum Development in Automotive Mechanics. Automotive Electrical Competencies. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Developed as part of a competency-based curriculum in automotive mechanics which is usable by students at both the secondary and postsecondary levels, this learning package focuses on automotive electrical systems. It is the first unit to be published in a series of eight which will cover the eight subject areas on the national certification…

Hoepner, Ronald

238

Energy: Conservation, Energy Briefs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A comprehensive energy conservation program at College of the Holy Cross has saved nearly one-third of the fuel oil and one-fifth of the electricity used at the college; briefs on boilers, lights, design. (Author/MLF)

Nation's Schools and Colleges, 1975

1975-01-01

239

Advanced automotive diesel assessment program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Cummins Engine Company completed an analytical study to identify an advanced automotive (light duty) diesel (AAD) power plant for a 3,000-pound passenger car. The study resulted in the definition of a revolutionary diesel engine with several novel features. A 3,000-pound car with this engine is predicted to give 96.3, 72.2, and 78.8 MPG in highway, city, and combined highway-city driving, respectively. This compares with current diesel powered cars yielding 41.7, 35.0, and 37.7 MPG. The time for 0-60 MPH acceleration is 13.9 sec. compared to the baseline of 15.2 sec. Four technology areas were identified as crucial in bringing this concept to fruition. They are: (1) part-load preheating, (2) positive displacement compounding, (3) spark assisted diesel combustion system, and (4) piston development for adiabatic, oilless diesel engine. Marketing and planning studies indicate that an aggressive program with significant commitment could result in a production car in 10 years from the date of commencement.

Sekar, R.; Tozzi, L.

1983-01-01

240

Laser metrology — a diagnostic tool in automotive development processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Laser measurement techniques are widely used in automotive development processes. Applications at Volkswagen are presented where laser metrology works as a diagnostic tool for analysing and optimising complex coupled processes inside and between automotive components and structures such as the reduction of a vehicle's interior or outer acoustic noise, including brake noise, and the combustion analysis for diesel and gasoline engines to further reduce fuel consumption and pollution. Pulsed electronic speckle pattern interferometry (ESPI) and holographic interferometry are used for analysing the knocking behaviour of modern engines and for correct positioning of knocking sensors. Holographic interferometry shows up the vibrational behaviour of brake components and their interaction during braking, and allows optimisation for noise-free brake systems. Scanning laser vibrometry analyses structure-born noise of a whole car body for the optimisation of its interior acoustical behaviour.Modern engine combustion concepts such as in direct-injection (DI) gasoline and diesel engines benefit from laser diagnostic tools which permit deeper insight into the in-cylinder processes such as flow generation, fuel injection and spray formation, atomisation and mixing, ignition and combustion, and formation and reduction of pollutants. The necessary optical access inside a cylinder is realised by so-called 'transparent engines' allowing measurements nearly during the whole engine cycle. Measurement techniques and results on double-pulse particle image velocimetry (PIV) with a frequency-doubled YAG laser for in-cylinder flow analysis are presented, as well as Mie-scattering on droplets using a copper vapour laser combined with high-speed filming, and laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) with an excimer laser for spray and fuel vapour analysis.

Beeck, Manfred-Andreas; Hentschel, Werner

2000-08-01

241

Future Automotive Aftertreatment Solutions: The 150°C Challenge Workshop Report  

SciTech Connect

With future fuel economy standards enacted, the U.S. automotive manufacturers (OEMs) are committed to pursuing a variety of high risk/highly efficient stoichiometric and lean combustion strategies to achieve superior performance. In recognition of this need, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has partnered with domestic automotive manufacturers through U.S. DRIVE to develop these advanced technologies. However, before these advancements can be introduced into the U.S. market, they must also be able to meet increasingly stringent emissions requirements. A significant roadblock to this implementation is the inability of current catalyst and aftertreatment technologies to provide the required activity at the much lower exhaust temperatures that will accompany highly efficient combustion processes and powertrain strategies. Therefore, the goal of this workshop and report is to create a U.S. DRIVE emission control roadmap that will identify new materials and aftertreatment approaches that offer the potential for 90% conversion of emissions at low temperature (150°C) and are consistent with highly efficient combustion technologies currently under investigation within U.S. DRIVE Advanced Combustion and Emission Control (ACEC) programs.

Zammit, Michael; DiMaggio, Craig L.; Kim, Chang H.; Lambert, Christine; Muntean, George G.; Peden, Charles HF; Parks, James E.; Howden, Ken

2013-10-15

242

Smog control fuel additives  

SciTech Connect

A method is described of controlling, reducing or eliminating, ozone and related smog resulting from photochemical reactions between ozone and automotive or industrial gases comprising the addition of iodine or compounds of iodine to hydrocarbon-base fuels prior to or during combustion in an amount of about 1 part iodine per 240 to 10,000,000 parts fuel, by weight, to be accomplished by: (a) the addition of these inhibitors during or after the refining or manufacturing process of liquid fuels; (b) the production of these inhibitors for addition into fuel tanks, such as automotive or industrial tanks; or (c) the addition of these inhibitors into combustion chambers of equipment utilizing solid fuels for the purpose of reducing ozone.

Lundby, W.

1993-06-29

243

U.S. Automotive Parts Industry Annual Assessment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The big story of 2008 was the continued economic struggle of an automotive industry hit hard by deepening economic recession, like so many industries. Automotive parts suppliers continued to experience heavy debt and overcapacity caused by production cuts...

2009-01-01

244

Life cycle cost modeling of automotive paint systems  

E-print Network

Vehicle coating is an important component of automotive manufacturing. The paint shop constitutes the plurality of initial investment in an automotive assembly plant, consumes the majority of energy used in the plant's ...

Leitz, Christopher W. (Christopher William), 1976-

2007-01-01

245

Engine Performance Specialist. Instructor's Manual. Automotive Service Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This curriculum guide is one of a series automotive service specialty publications that continues students' training in the automotive service trade by providing instruction in the engine performance specialty. It is based on the National Institute of Automotive Service Excellence task lists. Each of the 16 units includes some or all of the basic…

Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

246

Reliability and Throughput in Future Automotive Communication Networks  

E-print Network

Star. This action created a new industry called automotive telematics, helping to save lives and providing, the automotive telematics industry has experienced a healthy growth in North America. During the current economic downturn, the automotive telematics industry has grown worldwide surprisingly faster than prediction

Rajkumar, Ragunathan "Raj"

247

Design and fabrication of freeform reflector for automotive headlamp  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modern automotive illumination systems require higher efficiency, safety, and good aesthetic features. The design, fabrication and measurement are critical issues for automotive illumination systems. The non-imaging optical design for the automotive lighting system, which departs from the methods of traditional optical design, is an arisen interdisciplinary field. In order to meet the traffic regulations, unique freeform shapes and geometries should

J. B. Jiang; C. E. Cheung; S. To; K. W. Cheng; K. Wang; W. B. Lee

2006-01-01

248

Can Distance Learning Be Used to Teach Automotive Management Skills?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Today's automotive college students will shape the future of the automobile industry. The success of college-level automotive programs has long been dependent on the students' ability to participate in hands-on classroom based interactions. In this article, distance learning and how it can be used to teach automotive management skills, as well as…

Noto, Teresa L.

2011-01-01

249

Nanotechnology impact on the automotive industry.  

PubMed

Nanotechnology has been implemented widely in the automotive industry. This technology is particularly useful in coatings, fabrics, structural materials, fluids, lubricants, tires, and preliminary applications in smart glass/windows and video display systems. A special sub-class of improved materials, alternative energy, has also seen a boost from advances in nanotechnology, and continues to be an active research area. A correlation exists in the automotive industry between the areas with increased nanotechnology incorporation and those with increased profit margins via improvements and customer demands. PMID:25360613

Wong, Kaufui V; Paddon, Patrick A

2014-01-01

250

Status and Trend of Automotive Power Packaging  

SciTech Connect

Comprehensive requirements in aspects of cost, reliability, efficiency, form factor, weight, and volume for power electronics modules in modern electric drive vehicles have driven the development of automotive power packaging technology intensively. Innovation in materials, interconnections, and processing techniques is leading to enormous improvements in power modules. In this paper, the technical development of and trends in power module packaging are evaluated by examining technical details with examples of industrial products. The issues and development directions for future automotive power module packaging are also discussed.

Liang, Zhenxian [ORNL

2012-01-01

251

Mod I automotive Stirling engine mechanical development  

SciTech Connect

The Mod I Stirling engine was the first automotive Stirling engine designed specifically for automotive application. Testing of these engines has revealed several deficiencies in engine mechanical integrity which have been corrected by redesign or upgrade. The main deficiencies uncovered during the Mod I program lie in the combustion, auxiliary, main seal, and heater head areas. This paper will address each of the major area deficiencies in detail, and describe the corrective actions taken as they apply to the Mod I and the next Stirling-engine design, the Upgraded Mod I (a redesign to incorporate new materials for cost/weight reduction and improved performance).

Simetkosky, M.

1984-01-01

252

Past experiences with automotive external combustion engines  

SciTech Connect

GMR (General Motors Research Laboratories, now GM R and D Center) has a history of improving the internal combustion engine, especially as it relates to automotive use. During the quarter century from 1950--75, considerable effort was devoted to evaluating alternative powerplants based on thermodynamic cycles different from those on which the established spark-ignition and diesel engines are founded. Two of these, the steam engine and the Stirling engine, incorporated external combustion. Research on those two alternatives is reviewed. Both were judged to fall short of current needs for commercial success as prime movers for conventional automotive vehicles.

Amann, C.A.

1999-07-01

253

Tribopolymerization: An advanced lubrication concept for automotive engines and systems of the future  

SciTech Connect

Advanced lubrication technologies based on the concept of tribopolymerization as a mechanism of boundary lubrication are described. Advantages of this approach as well as potential applications which could have an impact on the design, manufacture, and performance of existing and future automotive engines are presented and discussed. Tribopolymerization, a novel concept of molecular design developed by Furey and Kajdas, involves the continuous formation of thin polymeric films on rubbing surfaces; the protective films formed are self-replenishing. The antiwear compounds developed from this technology are effective with metals as well as ceramics and in the liquid as well as vapor phases. Furthermore, they are ashless and contain no harmful phosphorus or sulfur; and many are biodegradable. Thus, potential applications of this technology are diverse and include a variety of cost/performance/energy/environmental advantages. Examples include the following: (a) machining and cutting applications using thin films to reduce friction and ceramic tool wear; (b) the lubrication of ceramic engines (e.g., low heat rejection diesel engines) or ceramic components; (c) the development of ashless lubricants for existing and future automotive engines to reduce exhaust catalyst poisoning and environmental emissions; (d) ashless antiwear or ``lubricity`` additives for fuels, including gasoline, diesel and jet fuel; (e) vapor phase applications of this technology to high temperature gaseous systems or to fuel injector wear problems associated with the use of natural gas engines; and (f) the use of the concept of tribopolymerization as an enabling technology in the development of new engines and new automotive propulsion systems.

Furey, M.J. [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ., Blacksburg, VA (United States); Kajdas, C. [Warsaw Univ. of Technology, Plock (Poland); Kaltenbach, K.W. [Triad Investors Corp., Baltimore, MD (United States)

1997-12-31

254

Energy Efficiency for Automotive Instructors.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Intended primarily but not solely for use at the postsecondary level, this curriculum guide contains six units on energy efficiency that were designed to be incorporated into an existing program in automobile mechanics. The following topics are examined: drivers and public awareness (relationship between driving and fuel consumption); ignition…

Scharmann, Larry, Ed.; Lay, Gary, Ed.

255

Anti-air pollution & energy conservation system for automobiles using leaded or unleaded gasoline, diesel or alternate fuel  

DOEpatents

Exhaust gases from an internal combustion engine operating with leaded or unleaded gasoline or diesel or natural gas, are used for energizing a high-speed gas turbine. The convoluting gas discharge causes a first separation stage by stratifying of heavier and lighter exhaust gas components that exit from the turbine in opposite directions, the heavier components having a second stratifying separation in a vortex tube to separate combustible pollutants from non-combustible components. The non-combustible components exit a vortex tube open end to atmosphere. The lighter combustible, pollutants effected in the first separation are bubbled through a sodium hydroxide solution for dissolving the nitric oxide, formaldehyde impurities in this gas stream before being piped to the engine air intake for re-combustion, thereby reducing the engine's exhaust pollution and improving its fuel economy. The combustible, heavier pollutants from the second separation stage are piped to air filter assemblies. This gas stream convoluting at a high-speed through the top stator-vanes of the air filters, centrifugally separates the coalescent water, aldehydes, nitrogen dioxides, sulfates, sulfur, lead particles which collect at the bottom of the bowl, wherein it is periodically released to the roadway. Whereas, the heavier hydrocarbon, carbon particles are piped through the air filter's porous element to the engine air intake for re-combustion, further reducing the engine's exhaust pollution and improving its fuel economy.

Bose, Ranendra K. (14346 Jacob La., Centreville, VA 20120-3305)

2002-06-04

256

Creep and creep-rupture behavior of a continuous strand, swirl mat reinforced polymer composite in automotive environments  

SciTech Connect

Creep and creep-rupture behavior of an isocyanurate based polyurethane matrix with a continuous strand, swirl mat E-glass reinforcement was investigated for automotive applications. The material under stress was exposed to various automobile service environments. Results show that environment has substantial effects on its creep and creep-rupture properties. Proposed design guide lines and stress reduction factors were developed for various automotive environments. These composites are considered candidate structural materials for light weight and fuel efficient automobiles of the future.

Ren, W.; Brinkman, C.R. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Metals and Ceramics Div.

1998-12-31

257

Effect of alternative fuels on aftertreatment device  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is no doubt that globally, alternative fuels have attained the center of attention in order to reduce the dependency on fossil fuels. A lot of research has been conducted on the alternative fuels in the automotive industry pertaining to the sustainability, engine performance and the emission characteristics. ^ The focus of this study is to investigate the effect of

Bunpreet Singh

2010-01-01

258

Energy Management and Conservation Plan  

E-print Network

Institute (TTI) has been committed to reducing energy consumption, conserving water and recycling since and Conservation Plan documents various initiatives implemented which have reduced energy, water and fuelEnergy Management and Conservation Plan December 2005 #12;Texas Transportation Institute December

259

Technological improvements in automotive battery recycling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recycling of automotive batteries for the recovery of secondary lead is extremely important in Brazil, for the country does not possess large reserves of this metal. Lead is one of the most widely used metals in the world, but it is highly toxic, posing risks for humans and for the environment if not utilized or treated adequately. Industrial waste containing

M. A. Kreusch; M. J. J. S. Ponte; H. A. Ponte; N. M. S. Kaminari; C. E. B. Marino; V. Mymrin

2007-01-01

260

Illinois Occupational Skill Standards: Automotive Technician Cluster.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document, which is intended as a guide for work force preparation program providers, details the Illinois occupational skill standards for programs preparing students for employment in occupations in the automotive technician cluster. The document begins with overviews of the Illinois perspective on occupational skill standards and…

Illinois Occupational Skill Standards and Credentialing Council, Carbondale.

261

Automotive Body Repair. Performance Objectives. Intermediate Course.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Several intermediate performance objectives and corresponding criterion measures are listed for each of 10 terminal objectives for an intermediate automotive body repair and refinishing course. The materials were developed for a two-semester (3 hours daily) course for specialized classrooms, shop, and practical experiences designed to enable the…

Lang, Thomas

262

Automotive non-pressure cooling system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes a non-pressure automotive engine cooling system comprising: a radiator containing a liquid coolant, coupling hoses that intercouple the radiator to the engine, pump means associated with the engine for circulating coolant through the engine and radiator. The pump means has a suction side, a radiator cap sealed on the radiator, an expansion tank disposed in the engine

1987-01-01

263

Automotive supply chain logistics cost management research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Automobile enterprises must be based on the survival of the entire supply chain's competitive edge relies on strengthening the supply chain, logistics cost management for enterprises increasingly become a priority project. In this paper, by using of supply chain management and logistics cost management theoretical knowledge, from the view of overall situation of automotive industry supply chain in China, logistics

Tang Liansheng; Xu Huajie; Nong Xia

2010-01-01

264

Automotive Body Repair. Performance Objectives. Basic Course.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Several intermediate performance objectives and corresponding criterion measures are listed for each of 15 terminal objectives for a basic automotive body repair and refinishing course. The materials were developed for a two-semester (2 hours daily) course for organized classroom and shop experiences designed to enable the student to develop…

Lang, Thomas

265

PRODUCTIVITY SIMULATION IN THE AUTOMOTIVE INDUSTRY  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper discusses the role of process and robotics simulation in the automotive industry. Real-world applications of simulation in the body shop, paint shop and general assembly areas of a vehicle assembly plant are given in addition to Business Process Reengineering (BPR) and supply chain logistics applications. Uses of simulation during the different phases of an engineering project are addressed.

Onur M. Ülgen; Sanjay S. Upendram

266

Requirements for Automotive System Engineering Tools  

Microsoft Academic Search

The requirements to system and software development tools brought up by the automotive industry differ from the requirements that other customers have. The important catchwords here are heterogeneity of suppliers, tools, tech- nical background of the engineers, and - partially resulting from the just mentioned - the overall complexity of the sys- tems that are built up. There are multiple

Joachim Schlosser; BMW AG

2002-01-01

267

Automotive Stirling engine development program: A success  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The original 5-yr Automotive Stirling Engine Development Program has been extended to 10 years due to reduced annual funding levels. With an estimated completion date of April 1988, the technical achievements and the prospectives of meeting the original program objectives are reviewed. Various other applications of this developed Stirling engine technology are also discussed.

Tabata, W. K.

1987-01-01

268

Automotive Stirling Engine Development Program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Mod I engine testing and test results, the test of a Mod I engine in the United States, Mod I engine characterization and analysis, Mod I Transient Test Bed fuel economy, Mod I-A engine performance are discussed. Stirling engine reference engine manufacturing and reduced size studies, components and subsystems, and the study and test of low-cost casting alloys are also covered. The overall program philosophy is outlined, and data and results are presented.

Nightingale, N.; Ernst, W.; Richey, A.; Simetkosky, M.; Smith, G.; Antonelli, M. (editor)

1983-01-01

269

Development of Model Fuels Experimental Engine Data Base and Kinetic Modeling Parameter Sets.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The automotive and engine industries are in a period of very rapid change being driven by new emission standards, new types of after treatment, new combustion strategies, the introduction of new fuels, and drive for increased fuel economy and efficiency. ...

B. G. Bunting

2012-01-01

270

Graduate Automotive Technology Education (GATE) Center for Hybrid Electric Drivetrains and Control Strategies  

SciTech Connect

Beginning the fall semester of 1999, The University of Maryland, Departments of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering and the Institute for Systems Research served as a U.S. Department of Energy (USDOE) Graduate Automotive Technology Education (GATE) Center for Hybrid Electric Drivetrains and Control Strategies. A key goal was to produce a graduate level education program that educated and prepared students to address the technical challenges of designing and developing hybrid electric vehicles, as they progressed into the workforce. A second goal was to produce research that fostered the advancement of hybrid electric vehicles, their controls, and other related automotive technologies. Participation ended at the University of Maryland after the 2004 fall semester. Four graduate courses were developed and taught during the course of this time, two of which evolved into annually-taught undergraduate courses, namely Vehicle Dynamics and Control Systems Laboratory. Five faculty members from Mechanical Engineering, Electrical Engineering, and the Institute for Systems Research participated. Four Ph.D. degrees (two directly supported and two indirectly supported) and seven Master's degrees in Mechanical Engineering resulted from the research conducted. Research topics included thermoelectric waste heat recovery, fuel cell modeling, pre- and post-transmission hybrid powertrain control and integration, hybrid transmission design, H{sub 2}-doped combustion, and vehicle dynamics. Many of the participating students accepted positions in the automotive industry or government laboratories involved in automotive technology work after graduation. This report discusses the participating faculty, the courses developed and taught, research conducted, the students directly and indirectly supported, and the publication list. Based on this collection of information, the University of Maryland firmly believes that the key goal of the program was met and that the majority of the participating students are now contributing to the advancement of automotive technology in this country.

David Holloway

2005-09-30

271

Technoeconomic evaluation of efficiency of utilization of alternate motor fuels  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors review the advantages and disadvantages of using several alternative motor fuels, including petroleum-derived automotive gasolines, methanol, liquefied propane\\/butane gas, compressed and liquefied natural gas, and synthetic fuel. Two large tables data gathered on these fuels, and a chart shows prorated costs in production and use of alternate fuels as a function of prorated costs in production of raw

G. A. Terentev; E. E. Arsenov; B. P. Konstantinov; F. V. Smal; V. M. Tyukov

1985-01-01

272

Triangle Alternative Transportation Fuels First Responder Training Workshop  

E-print Network

Transportation Fuels First Responder Training Workshop Day 1--September 17, 2013 7:30a--4:30p Gaseous Fuels: Natural Gas and Propane--Rich Cregar, Automotive Technology Expert What is a Gaseous Fuel? Propane (LPG Technology Gaseous Fuel Pressures-Where They Are, How to Deal with Them Safely Basic 1st Responder Procedures

273

AGT-102 automotive gas turbine  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Development of a gas turbine powertrain with a 30% fuel economy improvement over a comparable S1 reciprocating engine, operation within 0.41 HC, 3.4 CO, and 0.40 NOx grams per mile emissions levels, and ability to use a variety of alternate fuels is summarized. The powertrain concept consists of a single-shaft engine with a ceramic inner shell for containment of hot gasses and support of twin regenerators. It uses a fixed-geometry, lean, premixed, prevaporized combustor, and a ceramic radial turbine rotor supported by an air-lubricated journal bearing. The engine is coupled to the vehicle through a widerange continuously variable transmission, which utilizes gearing and a variable-ratio metal compression belt. A response assist flywheel is used to achieve acceptable levels of engine response. The package offers a 100 lb weight advantage in a Chrysler K Car front-wheel-drive installation. Initial layout studies, preliminary transient thermal analysis, ceramic inner housing structural analysis, and detailed performance analysis were carried out for the basic engine.

1981-01-01

274

Rotary capacitance transducers for automotive environments  

SciTech Connect

Rotary transducers for automotive use are briefly discussed. A transducer based on differential capacitance is described that is robust and simple to manufacture. It has the potential to meet cost targets for automotive use. The design is based on a dielectrically coated rotor with a 240-degree conductive segment, turning over a stator with three 120-degree segments. One of these segments is used to supply drive to the isolated rotor segment. The other two segments act as differential capacitors, driven by the rotor. Linearity over about 105 degrees of rotation is within 4%, although special shaping of the plates can reduce this to less than 1%. A full custom CMOS integrated circuit was designed and implemented to interface to the sensor. It mounts on the back of the stator plate. The combination of a single chip and simple mechanical construction leads to a part which may become cost competitive with present resistive sensors.

Bauer, M.L.; Christopher, A.M.; Ericson, M.N.; Kennedy, E.J.; Ramsey, J.A.

1994-07-27

275

Driver expectancy in locating automotive controls  

E-print Network

's automotive market has become a confusing array of different car makes and models. It is obvious with the increasing numbers of automobile manufacturers on the scene that there be some sort of agreement as to the general location of secondary controls.... Comparison of Present Survey Results to McGrath's Survey Results. . . . . . . . . 20 26 27 55 60 65 CONCLUSIONS. 73 RECOMMENDATIONS. 77 REFERENCES. APPENDIX 80 A. EXPECTANCY SURVEY QUESTIONNAIRE. 83 APPENDIX Page B. CAR MAKES AND MODELS...

Francis, Dawn Suzette

2012-06-07

276

Future Automotive BBW AWB Dispulsion Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a So what is the future of the BBW AWB dispulsion mechatronic control system? Some vehicle manufacturers and other OEM supplyr\\u000a companies have all developed next-generation BBW AWB dispulsion mechatronic control systems for potential use on future automotive\\u000a vehicles. Innovative BBW AWB dispulsion mechatronic control systems that have been developed to date, essentially fall into\\u000a one of two categories: electro-fluido-mechanical brake

B. T. Fijalkowski

277

New UV curing systems for automotive applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent developments of new UV curable resins, which meet the high demands of automotive applications (e.g. weather stability), in combination with a new lamp technology offer extremely fast drying of paints, giving complete curing within less than 2min (in some cases even within seconds). Since the capacity of the painting\\/drying booth is the bottleneck in most body shops and OEM

K. Maag; W. Lenhard; Helmut Löffles

2000-01-01

278

Directions for computational mechanics in automotive crashworthiness  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The automotive industry has used computational methods for crashworthiness since the early 1970's. These methods have ranged from simple lumped parameter models to full finite element models. The emergence of the full finite element models in the mid 1980's has significantly altered the research direction. However, there remains a need for both simple, rapid modeling methods and complex detailed methods. Some directions for continuing research are discussed.

Bennett, James A.; Khalil, T. B.

1993-01-01

279

Automotive coatings with improved environmental performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

The automotive coating processes contribute significantly to the environmental burden compared to other stages of vehicle manufacturing. Efforts are being made to reduce this impact through legislation, resulting in the introduction of new coating formulations and application technologies. Water?borne, powder and UV?cured coatings are seen as alternatives to solvent?borne coatings. It is not clear which type of coating is superior

Lindita Prendi; Paul Henshaw; Edwin K. L. Tam

2006-01-01

280

Aerodynamic Flow Field Measurements for Automotive Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The design of a modern automotive air handling system is a complex task. The system is required to bring the interior of the vehicle to a comfortable level in as short a time as possible. A goal of the automotive industry is to predict the interior climate of an automobile using advanced computational fluid dynamic (CFD) methods. The development of these advanced prediction tools will enable better selection of engine and accessory components. The goal of this investigation was to predict methods used by the automotive industry. To accomplish this task three separate experiments were performed. The first was a laboratory setup where laser velocimeter (LV) flow field measurements were made in the heating and air conditioning unit of a Ford Windstar. The second involved flow field measurements in the engine compartment of a Ford Explorer, with the engine running idle. The third mapped the flow field exiting the center dashboard panel vent inside the Explorer, while the circulating fan operated at 14 volts. All three experiments utilized full-coincidence three-component LV systems. This enabled the mean and fluctuating velocities to be measured along with the Reynolds stress terms.

Hepner, Timothy E.

1999-01-01

281

Industrial waste recycling at an automotive component manufacturing facility  

SciTech Connect

The AC Rochester Division of General Motors Corporation (GM) develops and manufacturers automotive components for engine management systems at nine facilities in the US. Its largest facility is located in flint, Michigan, and is known as the Flint East site. The Flint East site covers nearly two square miles and consists of several plants housing manufacturing operations for spark plugs, glow plugs, oil filters, air filters, air cleaner assemblies, fuel pumps, fuel level sensors, cruise control systems, and other components. The volume and diversity of the scrap and wastes generated from these operations require skillful waste management to provide environmentally safe and cost-effective disposal options. Over time, a full-scale recycling and waste disposal operation evolved at Flint East. The operation has grown over the past thirty years to handle over 68,000 tons of material annually. Flint East`s program is regarded as a model industrial waste reduction and recycling operation. Elements of the program are presented here as a guide to establishing a successful industrial recycling program.

Jaffurs, J.A.; Hubler, R.L.; Behaylo, D.P. [General Motors Corp., Flint, MI (United States). AC Rochester Div.

1995-09-01

282

Fumigation of Alcohol in a Light Duty Automotive Diesel Engine  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A light-duty automotive Diesel engine was fumigated with methanol in amounts up to 35% and 50% of the total fuel energy respectively in order to determine the effect of alcohol fumigation on engine performance at various operating conditons. Engine fuel efficiency, emissions, smoke, and the occurrence of severe knock were the parameters used to evaluate performance. Raw exhaust particulate and its soluble organic extract were screened for biological activity using the Ames Salmonella typhimurium assay. Results are given for a test matrix made up of twelve steady-state operating conditions. For all conditions except the 1/4 rack (light load) condition, modest thermal efficiency gains were noted upon ethanol fumigation. Methanol showed the same increase at 3/4 and full rack (high load) conditions. However, engine roughness or the occurrence of severe knock limited the maximum amount of alcohol that could be fumigated. Brake specific nitrogen oxide concentrations were found to decrease for all ethanol conditions tested. Oxides of nitrogen emissions, on a volume basis, decreased for all alcohol conditions tested. Based on the limited particulate data analyzed, it appears that ethanol fumigation, like methanol fumigation, while lowering the mass of particulated emitted, does enhance the biological activity of that particulate.

Broukhiyan, E. M. H.; Lestz, S. S.

1981-01-01

283

Outsourcing in the automotive industry: From JIT to Modular Consortia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Modular Consortia approach to production being implemented by such leading-edge automotive manufacturers as Skoda and Volkswagen, is one of the latest experiments in manufacturer-supplier relationships. Competitive pressures and the on-going search for increased efficiencies and greater profits are driving automotive manufacturers and suppliers to reevaluate their respective supply chain activities and relationships. Automotive manufacturers are rationalizing the supply base,

Silvio Pires; Kimberly Bechler

1997-01-01

284

76 FR 13227 - Syncreon USA, Formerly Known as TDS US Automotive, Belvidere, IL; Amended Certification Regarding...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...433] Syncreon USA, Formerly Known as TDS US Automotive, Belvidere, IL; Amended...insurance (UI) tax account under the name TDS US Automotive. Accordingly, the Department...workers of Syncreon USA, formerly known as TDS US Automotive, Belvidere, Illinois,...

2011-03-10

285

40 CFR 721.10636 - Slimes and sludges, automotive coating, wastewater treatment, solid waste.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Slimes and sludges, automotive coating, wastewater treatment, solid waste. 721.10636...Slimes and sludges, automotive coating, wastewater treatment, solid waste. (a) Chemical...slimes and sludges, automotive coating, wastewater treatment, solid waste (PMN...

2013-07-01

286

77 FR 34854 - Prevailing Rate Systems; Special Wage Schedules for Nonappropriated Fund Automotive Mechanics  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Schedules for Nonappropriated Fund Automotive Mechanics AGENCY: U.S. Office of Personnel...nonappropriated fund (NAF) automotive mechanics. These special wage schedules would...practice covering DOD's NAF automotive mechanics with a flat rate pay system....

2012-06-12

287

Airport electric vehicle powered by fuel cell  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nowadays, new technologies and breakthroughs in the field of energy efficiency, alternative fuels and added-value electronics are leading to bigger, more sustainable and green thinking applications. Within the Automotive Industry, there is a clear declaration of commitment with the environment and natural resources. The presence of passenger vehicles of hybrid architecture, public transport powered by cleaner fuels, non-aggressive utility vehicles

Pablo Fontela; Antonio Soria; Javier Mielgo; José Francisco Sierra; Juan de Blas; Lucia Gauchia; Juan M. Martínez

2007-01-01

288

Advanced high temperature materials for the energy efficient automotive Stirling engine  

SciTech Connect

The Stirling engine is under investigation jointly by the Department of Energy and NASA Lewis as an alternative to the internal combustion engine for automotive applications. The Stirling engine is an external combustion engine that offers the advantage of high fuel economy, low emissions, low noise, and low vibrations compared to current internal combustion automotive engines. The most critical component from a materials viewpoint is the heater head consisting of the cylinders, heating tubes, and regenerator housing. Materials requirements for the heater head include compatibility with hydrogen, resistance to hydrogen permeation, high temperature oxidation/corrosion resistance and high temperature creep-rupture and fatigue properties. A continuing supporting materials research and technology program has identified the wrought alloys CG-27 and 12RN72 and the cast alloys XF-818 and NASAUT 4G-A1 as candidate replacements for the cobalt containing alloys used in current prototype engines. Based on the materials research program in support of the automotive Stirling engine it is concluded that manufacture of the engine is feasible from low cost iron-base alloys rather than the cobalt alloys used in prototype engines. This paper will present results of research that led to this conclusion.

Titran, R.H.; Stephens, J.R.

1984-01-01

289

Advanced high temperature materials for the energy efficient automotive Stirling engine  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Stirling Engine is under investigated jointly by the Department of Energy and NASA Lewis as an alternative to the internal combustion engine for automotive applications. The Stirling Engine is an external combustion engine that offers the advantage of high fuel economy, low emissions, low noise, and low vibrations compared to current internal combustion automotive engines. The most critical component from a materials viewpoint is the heater head consisting of the cylinders, heating tubes, and regenerator housing. Materials requirements for the heater head include compatibility with hydrogen, resistance to hydrogen permeation, high temperature oxidation/corrosion resistance and high temperature creep-rupture and fatigue properties. A continuing supporting materials research and technology program has identified the wrought alloys CG-27 and 12RN72 and the cast alloys XF-818 and NASAUT 4G-A1 as candidate replacements for the cobalt containing alloys used in current prototype engines. Based on the materials research program in support of the automotive Stirling engine it is concluded that manufacture of the engine is feasible from low cost iron-base alloys rather than the cobalt alloys rather than the cobalt alloys used in prototype engines. This paper will present results of research that led to this conclusion.

Titran, R. H.; Stephens, J. R.

1984-01-01

290

Advanced high temperature materials for the energy efficient automotive Stirling engine  

SciTech Connect

The Stirling engine is under investigation jointly by the Department of Energy and NASA Lewis as an alternative to the internal combustion engine for automotive applications. The Stirling engine is an external combustion engine that offers the advantage of high fuel economy, low emissions, low noise, and low vibrations compared to current internal combustion automotive engines. The most critical component from a materials viewpoint is the heater head consisting of the cylinders, heating tubes, and regenerator housing. Materials requirements for the heater head include compatibility with hydrogen, resistance to hydrogen permeation, high temperature oxidation/corrosion resistance, and high temperature creep-rupture and fatigue properties. A continuing supporting materials research and technology program has identified the wrought alloys CG-27 and 12RN72, and the cast alloys XF-818 and NASAUT 4G-A1 as candidate replacements for the cobalt containing alloys used in current prototype engines. Based on the materials research program in support of the automotive Stirling engine it is concluded that manufacture of the engine is feasible from low cost iron-base alloys rather than the cobalt alloys used in prototype engines. This paper presents results of research that led to this conclusion.

Titran, R.H.; Stephens, J.R.

1984-09-01

291

Thermography for Preventive Maintenance and Conservation  

E-print Network

With fuel prices soaring, more and more companies are looking at energy management as a means to curb energy costs. Let's face it, our energy supply picture is improving but new energy will be expensive. Conservation, energy management, fuel...

Lopez, T.

1979-01-01

292

Automotive Body Trim and Glass; Automotive Mechanics 2: 9045.05.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document presents an outline for a 135-hour course designed to help students become employable with skills, knowledge, attitudes, and values necessary for performing the required service of the automotive trim and glass mechanic. The course of study includes an orientation to the course, service tools and bench skills development, and a study…

Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

293

Automotive Tune-up and Performance; Automotive Mechanics 3: 9047.02.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document presents an outline for a 135-hour course designed to help students become employable and provide them with the skills, knowledge, attitudes, and values necessary for performing the required services in automotive tune up and performance. Such services are critical and must be exact to meet Federal Emission Control Standards. The…

Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

294

THE USE OF RECYCLED SOLID AUTOMOTIVE PAINT WASTES AS INGREDIENTS IN AUTOMOTIVE SEALANT PRODUCTS - PHASE II  

EPA Science Inventory

About 75,000,000 lbs of paint sludge is generated by the U.S. automotive industry each year. This type of waste and (similar streams from other industries) make significant contributions to landfills. The solution proposed by ASTER, Inc., proven feasible during the Phase I of thi...

295

Foundry energy conservation workbook  

SciTech Connect

This report discusses methods for promoting energy conservation in foundries. Use of electric power, natural gas, and coke are evaluated. Waste heat recovery systems are considered. Energy consumption in the specific processes of electric melting, natural gas melting, heat treatments, ladle melting, and coke fuel melting is described. An example energy analysis is included. (GHH)

Not Available

1990-12-31

296

76 FR 19684 - Automotive Fuel Ratings Certification and Posting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Institute (``API''), ConocoPhillips, Marathon Petroleum Company, LLC (``Marathon''), and the National Petrochemical & Refiners...All supported the proposal, though API and Marathon noted that the ASTM standards referenced...

2011-04-08

297

Evaluation of reformed methanol as an automotive engine fuel  

E-print Network

Kubenka, and John Mojica. Special thanks go to Mr. Ed Kranz and Mr. D. G. Stanton for tneir technical assistance on the project. I give thanks to my parents who provided a loving home in which to grow up and supported me in all my activities. And last... Procedures Specific to Individual Tests 4 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 20 23 26 30 4. 1 4. 2 4. 4 4. 5 4. 6 Comparison of Reformed Methanol to Liquid Methanol 4. 1. 1 Brake Power 4. 1. 2 Brake Thermal Efficiency 4. 1. 3 Exhaust Emissions Comparison...

McCall, David M

2012-06-07

298

16 CFR 306.10 - Automotive fuel rating posting.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... (7) “B-20 Biodiesel Blend/contains biomass-based diesel or biodiesel in quantities between 5 percent and 20 percent” (8) “20% Biomass-Based Diesel Blend/contains biomass-based diesel or biodiesel in quantities...

2010-01-01

299

16 CFR 306.10 - Automotive fuel rating posting.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... (7) “B-20 Biodiesel Blend/contains biomass-based diesel or biodiesel in quantities between 5 percent and 20 percent” (8) “20% Biomass-Based Diesel Blend/contains biomass-based diesel or biodiesel in quantities...

2012-01-01

300

16 CFR 306.10 - Automotive fuel rating posting.  

... (7) “B-20 Biodiesel Blend/contains biomass-based diesel or biodiesel in quantities between 5 percent and 20 percent” (8) “20% Biomass-Based Diesel Blend/contains biomass-based diesel or biodiesel in quantities...

2014-01-01

301

16 CFR 306.10 - Automotive fuel rating posting.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... (7) “B-20 Biodiesel Blend/contains biomass-based diesel or biodiesel in quantities between 5 percent and 20 percent” (8) “20% Biomass-Based Diesel Blend/contains biomass-based diesel or biodiesel in quantities...

2011-01-01

302

Adapting geothermal energy to produce ethanol for automotive fuel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper describes a conceptual alcohol production facility which can convert wheat, sugar beets, and potatoes to 76 million liters/yr of anhydrous ethanol using flashed geothermal liquid as the primary energy source. Three levels of geothermal steam are extracted from the assumed 138 C fluid resource; the steam is used indirectly except for a small amount of cooking steam. Economic analyses show that alcohol production is very sensitive to the feed crop costs; reasonable returns on investment can be obtained with an alcohol price of less than $0.53/liter. The cost of geothermal-derived steam is equivalent to about 8.5 mills/kJ.

Stenzel, R. A.; Yu, J.; Houle, E. H.

303

Adapting geothermal energy to produce ethanol for automotive fuel  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper describes a conceptual alcohol production facility which can convert wheat, sugar beets, and potatoes to 76 million liters\\/yr of anhydrous ethanol using flashed geothermal liquid as the primary energy source. Three levels of geothermal steam are extracted from the assumed 138 C fluid resource; the steam is used indirectly except for a small amount of cooking steam. Economic

R. A. Stenzel; J. Yu; E. H. Houle

1980-01-01

304

A Conservation Practices for Conserving  

E-print Network

to water resources. The Catalog also describes conservation practices that provide other benefits to soilA Conservation Catalog Practices for Conserving Pennsylvania's Natural Resources #12;#12;A Conservation Catalog 1 Introduction P ennsylvania is a land of great natural resources and Pennsylvania

Kaye, Jason P.

305

Reformulated diesel fuel and method  

DOEpatents

A method for mathematically identifying at least one diesel fuel suitable for combustion in an automotive diesel engine with significantly reduced emissions and producible from known petroleum blendstocks using known refining processes, including the use of cetane additives (ignition improvers) and oxygenated compounds.

McAdams, Hiramie T [Carrollton, IL; Crawford, Robert W [Tucson, AZ; Hadder, Gerald R [Oak Ridge, TN; McNutt, Barry D [Arlington, VA

2006-08-22

306

A Scroll Compressor With a High-Performance Induction Motor Drive for the Air Management of a PEMFC System for Automotive Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes a technological solution with a scroll compressor driven by a high-performance induction machine drive for the air management of proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFC) for automotive applications. The torque-speed characteristics of a real scroll compressor have been measured and then emulated by a brushless internal mounted permanent magnets machine controlled in torque. This emulated scroll compressor

Benjamin Blunier; Marcello Pucci; Giansalvo Cirrincione; Abdellatif Miraoui

2008-01-01

307

Waste audit study: Automotive paint shops  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the results of a waste-audit study of automotive paint shops. The study focuses on the types and quantities of wastes generated, treatment and disposal alternatives, and the potential for reducing the amount and/or toxicity of waste generated. The analysis of solvent waste minimization focused primarily on in-plant modifications (e.g., source reduction) to reduce the generation of solvent waste. Strict inventory control is the most-readily implementable approach. While in-house recycling is viable, it is usually only cost-effective for larger firms. Specific recommendations for waste reduction were made.

Not Available

1987-01-01

308

Framework for Security and Privacy in Automotive Telematics  

E-print Network

Framework for Security and Privacy in Automotive Telematics Sastry Duri, Marco Gruteser, Xuan Liu Skyline Drive Hawthorne, New York 10532 ABSTRACT Automotive telematics may be defined as the information and computing technology. Telematics by its nature requires the capture of sensor data, storage and exchange

Gruteser, Marco

309

Framework for security and privacy in automotive telematics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Automotive telematics may be defined as the information-intensive applications that are being enabled for vehicles by a combination of telecommunications and computing technology. Telematics by its nature requires the capture of sensor data, storage and exchange of data to obtain remote services. In order for automotive telematics to grow to its full potential, telematics data must be protected. Data protection

Sastry Duri; Marco Gruteser; Xuan Liu; Paul Moskowitz; Ronald Perez; Moninder Singh; Jung-Mu Tang

2002-01-01

310

Brakes Specialist. Teacher Edition. Automotive Service Series. Second Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This curriculum guide for automatic brakes service is one in a series of automotive service speciality publications that is based on the National Institute of Automotive Service Excellence task lists. The curriculum is composed of four units. Each unit of instruction may contain some or all of the following components: objective sheet, suggested…

Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

311

Engine-Building Contest Inspires Future Automotive Technicians  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics, the requirement for automotive technicians will increase 17 percent by 2008 from the 10-year period starting in 1998. In numbers, this translates to the need for an additional 132,000 technicians over the 790,000 that existed in 1998. The nation is currently losing 10 percent of its automotive

Kraft, Thomas; Morphew, Rick; Norris, Gerald

2004-01-01

312

Neuro-Predictive Control for Automotive Air Conditioning System  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a neuro-predictive controller for temperature control of automotive air conditioning system. A numerical model for the automotive refrigeration cycle, which includes transient operating conditions, has been employed in simulations. In this model, which has been created from numerous laboratory tests on a typical passenger car, the vehicle is divided into two linked modules representing the air conditioning

M. Razi; M. Farrokhi; M. H. Saeidi; A. R. Faghih Khorasani

2006-01-01

313

Supplier risk assessment and monitoring for the automotive industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This research aims to develop a supplier risk assessment methodology for measuring, tracking, and analyzing supplier and part specific risk over time for an automotive manufacturer. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Supply chain risk literature is analyzed and used in conjunction with interviews from the automotive manufacturer to identify risks in the supply base. These risks are incorporated into the development

Jennifer V. Blackhurst; Kevin P. Scheibe; Danny J. Johnson

2008-01-01

314

Computer Graphic Tools for Automotive Paint Engineering Gary W. Meyer  

E-print Network

graphics programs that can be used to solve automotive paint engineering problems. New surface reflection computer graphic programs have been written that demonstrate the potential of using the new software allows the color appearance of new metallic and pearlescent automotive paints to be designed, the second

Minnesota, University of

315

Quantification of line tracking solutions for automotive applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Unlike line tracking in automotive painting applications, line tracking for automotive general assembly applications requires position tracking in order to perform assembly operations to a required assembly tolerance. Line tracking quantification experiments have been conducted for a total of 16 test cases for two line tracking scenarios with three types of line tracking solutions: encoder based tracking, encoder plus static

Jane Shi; Rick F. Rourke; Dave Groll; Peter W. Tavora

2008-01-01

316

Paint deposition modeling for trajectory planning on automotive surfaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research is focused on developing trajectory planning tools for the automotive painting industry. The geometric complexity of automotive surfaces and the complexity of the spray patterns produced by modern paint atomizers combine to make this a challenging and interesting problem. This paper documents our efforts to develop computationally tractable analytic deposition models for electrostatic rotating bell (ESRB) atomizers, which

David C. Conner; Aaron Greenfield; Prasad N. Atkar; Alfred A. Rizzi; Howie Choset

2005-01-01

317

Quantification of Line Tracking Solutions for Automotive Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Unlike line tracking in automotive painting applications, line tracking for automotive general assembly applications requires position tracking in order to perform assembly operations to a required assembly tolerance. Line tracking quantification experiments have been designed and conducted for a total of 16 test cases for two line tracking scenarios with three types of line tracking solutions: encoder based tracking, encoder

Jane Shi; Rick F. Rourke; Dave Groll; Peter W. Tavora

2009-01-01

318

Fuels for fuel cells: Fuel and catalyst effects on carbon formation  

SciTech Connect

The goal of this research is to explore the effects of fuels, fuel constituents, additives and impurities on the performance of on-board hydrogen generation devices and consequently on the overall performance of fuel cell systems using reformed hydrocarbon fuels. Different fuels and components have been tested in automotive scale, adiabatic autothermal reactors to observe their relative reforming characteristics with various operating conditions. Carbon formation has been modeled and was experimentally monitored in situ during operation by laser measurements of the effluent reformate. Ammonia formation was monitored, and conditions varied to observe under what conditions N H 3 is made.

Borup, R. L. (Rodney L.); Inbody, M. A. (Michael A.); Perry, W. L. (William Lee); Parkinson, W. J. (William Jerry),

2002-01-01

319

Automotive shredder residue (ASR) characterization for a valuable management.  

PubMed

Car fluff is the waste produced after end-of-life-vehicles (ELVs) shredding and metal recovery. It is made of plastics, rubber, glass, textiles and residual metals and it accounts for almost one-third of a vehicle mass. Due to the approaching of Directive 2000/53/EC recycling targets, 85% recycling rate and 95% recovery rate in 2015, the implementation of automotive shredder residue (ASR) sorting and recycling technologies appears strategic. The present work deals with the characterization of the shredder residue coming from an industrial plant, representative of the Italian situation, as for annual fluxes and technologies involved. The aim of this study is to characterize ASR in order to study and develop a cost effective and environmentally sustainable recycling system. Results show that almost half of the residue is made of fines and the remaining part is mainly composed of polymers. Fine fraction is the most contaminated by mineral oils and heavy metals. This fraction produces also up to 40% ashes and its LHV is lower than the plastic-rich one. Foam rubber represents around half of the polymers share in car fluff. Moreover, some chemical-physical parameters exceed the limits of some parameters fixed by law to be considered refuse derived fuel (RDF). As a consequence, ASR needs to be pre-treated in order to follow the energy recovery route. PMID:20566277

Morselli, Luciano; Santini, Alessandro; Passarini, Fabrizio; Vassura, Ivano

2010-11-01

320

A volumetric flow sensor for automotive injection systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For further optimization of the automotive power train of diesel engines, advanced combustion processes require a highly flexible injection system, provided e.g. by the common rail (CR) injection technique. In the past, the feasibility to implement injection nozzle volumetric flow sensors based on the thermo-resistive measurement principle has been demonstrated up to injection pressures of 135 MPa (1350 bar). To evaluate the transient behaviour of the system-integrated flow sensors as well as an injection amount indicator used as a reference method, hydraulic simulations on the system level are performed for a CR injection system. Experimentally determined injection timings were found to be in good agreement with calculated values, especially for the novel sensing element which is directly implemented into the hydraulic system. For the first time pressure oscillations occurring after termination of the injection pulse, predicted theoretically, could be verified directly in the nozzle. In addition, the injected amount of fuel is monitored with the highest resolution ever reported in the literature.

Schmid, U.; Krötz, G.; Schmitt-Landsiedel, D.

2008-04-01

321

Pedestrian recognition using automotive radar sensors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The application of modern series production automotive radar sensors to pedestrian recognition is an important topic in research on future driver assistance systems. The aim of this paper is to understand the potential and limits of such sensors in pedestrian recognition. This knowledge could be used to develop next generation radar sensors with improved pedestrian recognition capabilities. A new raw radar data signal processing algorithm is proposed that allows deep insights into the object classification process. The impact of raw radar data properties can be directly observed in every layer of the classification system by avoiding machine learning and tracking. This gives information on the limiting factors of raw radar data in terms of classification decision making. To accomplish the very challenging distinction between pedestrians and static objects, five significant and stable object features from the spatial distribution and Doppler information are found. Experimental results with data from a 77 GHz automotive radar sensor show that over 95% of pedestrians can be classified correctly under optimal conditions, which is compareable to modern machine learning systems. The impact of the pedestrian's direction of movement, occlusion, antenna beam elevation angle, linear vehicle movement, and other factors are investigated and discussed. The results show that under real life conditions, radar only based pedestrian recognition is limited due to insufficient Doppler frequency and spatial resolution as well as antenna side lobe effects.

Bartsch, A.; Fitzek, F.; Rasshofer, R. H.

2012-09-01

322

Primary Magnesium Production Costs for Automotive Applications  

SciTech Connect

This paper updates an earlier paper (Das 2003) and focuses on primary magnesium production cost estimates to provide a sound forecast of the long-term competitiveness of magnesium in automotive applications. Competing magnesium production technologies are considered in this assessment, with particular emphasis on the long-term viability of the cheap supplies using the Chinese production technology. Also considered in the comparative production cost analysis are two yet-to-be commercialized production processes. Production cost estimates of competing technologies are disaggregated by major cost categories using the most recent information available from the literature. We consider first the recent price trend and the weight-savings potential of competing materials to determine what the primary magnesium production costs need to be for magnesium to be a viable material/technology option now and in the coming decade. This paper closes with a discussion of the future viability of magnesium use in automotive applications based on the potential sources of magnesium for the U.S. market, the recent supply trend, production cost estimates, and potential demand.

Das, Sujit [ORNL

2008-01-01

323

Superplastic forming of stainless steel automotive components  

SciTech Connect

Exhaust emission standards are governmentally controlled standards, which are increasingly stringent, forcing alternate strategies to meet these standards. One approach to improve the efficiency of the exhaust emission equipment is to decrease the time required to get the catalytic converter to optimum operating temperature. To accomplish this, automotive manufacturers are using double wall stainless steel exhaust manifolds to reduce heat loss of the exhaust gases to the converter. The current method to manufacture double wall stainless steel exhaust components is to use a low-cost alloy with good forming properties and extensively form, cut, assemble, and weld the pieces. Superplastic forming (SPF) technology along with alloy improvements has potential at making this process more cost effective. Lockheed Martin Energy Systems (LMES), Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and USCAR Low Emission Partnership (LEP) worked under a Cooperative Research And Development Agreement (CRADA) to evaluate material properties, SPF behavior, and welding behavior of duplex stainless steel alloy for automotive component manufacturing. Battelle Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has a separate CRADA with the LEP to use SPF technology to manufacture a double wall stainless steel exhaust component. As a team these CRADAs developed and demonstrated a technical plan to accomplish making double wall stainless steel exhaust manifolds.

Bridges, B. [Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Elmer, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Carol, L. [AC Delco Systems World Headquarters, Flint, MI (United States). USCAR Low Emissions Technology Research and Development Partnership

1997-02-06

324

Skutterudites: Thermoelectric Materials for Automotive Applications?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The power output of a thermoelectric generator (TEG) was investigated under engine partial-load operation based on measured exhaust gas temperatures and mass flow rates. Materials with properties required for highend temperature TE couples (>500°C) were evaluated. Various possible material combinations for p- and n-legs of these couples as well as the conflicting targets of high efficiency and low cost as required for automotive mass production are discussed. New skutterudite materials for both p- and n-legs as identified during a joint research project are presented, which can help to overcome this conflict. Efficiencies >10% were achieved with these new materials, which have potentially twofold lower production costs than telluride-based materials due to the price of their elements. Some potential for improvement in efficiency and costs has been identified by developing highly integrated TEG units, specifically designed for automotive applications. These initial results of the material development and the evaluation of different integration concepts will be applied in a subsequent step for the fabrication of a pilot number of TEG modules/units.

Salzgeber, K.; Prenninger, P.; Grytsiv, A.; Rogl, P.; Bauer, E.

2010-09-01

325

Graduate Automotive Technology Education (GATE) Center  

SciTech Connect

The Graduate Automotive Technology Education (GATE) Center at the University of Tennessee, Knoxville has completed its sixth year of operation. During this period the Center has involved thirteen GATE Fellows and ten GATE Research Assistants in preparing them to contribute to advanced automotive technologies in the center's focus area: hybrid drive trains and control systems. Eighteen GATE students have graduated, and three have completed their course work requirements. Nine faculty members from three departments in the College of Engineering have been involved in the GATE Center. In addition to the impact that the Center has had on the students and faculty involved, the presence of the center has led to the acquisition of resources that probably would not have been obtained if the GATE Center had not existed. Significant industry interaction such as internships, equipment donations, and support for GATE students has been realized. The value of the total resources brought to the university (including related research contracts) exceeds $4,000,000. Problem areas are discussed in the hope that future activities may benefit from the operation of the current program.

Jeffrey Hodgson; David Irick

2005-09-30

326

Essays on the dynamics of alternative fuel vehicle adoption : insights from the market for hybrid-electric vehicles in the United States  

E-print Network

Despite growing energy security and environmental concerns about dependence on oil as a transportation fuel, gasoline remains the overwhelmingly dominant fuel used by the US automotive fleet. Numerous previous efforts to ...

Keith, David Ross

2012-01-01

327

Collections Conservation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Collections conservation is an approach to the preservation treatment of books and book-like materials that is conceptualized and organized in terms of large groups of materials. This guide is intended to enable a library to evaluate its current collections conservation activities. The introduction describes collections conservation and gives…

DeCandido, Robert

328

Probing anode degradation in automotive Li-ion batteries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The lithium-ion battery is drawing attention as a power source for future clean and fuel-efficient vehicles. Although the Li-ion battery presently shows best performance for energy density and power density compared to other rechargeable batteries, some degradation problems still remain as key challenges for long-term durability in automotive applications. Among those problems, Li deposition is well known for causing permanent capacity loss. Fundamental mechanisms of Li deposition in the carbon anode are, however, not fully understood, especially at subzero temperature and/or under high rate charge. This dissertation introduces comprehensive study of Li deposition using automotive 18650 Li-ion cells. The mechanism and relevant diagnostic methods as well as preventive charging protocol are discussed. In part one, a new diagnostic tool is introduced utilizing 3-electrode cell system, which measures thermodynamic and kinetic parameters of cathode and anode, respectively, as a function of temperature and SOC (state of charge): open circuit potential (OCP); Li diffusion coefficient in active particles; and internal resistance. These data are employed to understand electrochemical reaction and its thermal interaction under charging conditions that result in Li deposition. Part two provides a threshold parameter for the onset of Li deposition, which is not commonly used anode potential but charge capacity, or more specifically the amount of Li+ ions participating in intercalation reaction without Li deposition at given charging circumstances. This is called the critical charge capacity in this thesis, beyond which capacity loss at normal operating condition is observed, which becomes more serious as temperature is lowered and/or charge C-rate increases. Based on these experimental results, the mechanism of Li deposition is proposed as the concept of anode particle surface saturation, meaning that once the anode particle surface is saturated with Li in any charging circumstances, no more Li+ ions can be intercalated but should be reduced to metallic form on the anode particle surface. This is validated by calculating the distribution of Li concentration inside the anode particle with electrochemical modeling. In part three, a novel pulse charge protocol is developed, which consists of two steps. First high current charge/discharge pulses increase the cell temperature from a subzero temperature up to above room temperature in a short time, and next, high current charge provides the net charge capacity. Sluggish Li diffusion at low temperature becomes fast thanks to cell temperature elevation by high current pulses (1st step), which plays a role of preventing surface saturation during high current charge (2nd step). Thus, this charge protocol is not only Li deposition-free but also leads to rapid charge at subzero temperatures.

Kwon, Ou Jung

329

A Consortium of the United States Council for Automotive Research Nondestructive Evaluation Steering Committee  

E-print Network

in an automotive assembly plant. Each of the two robots visible in the photograph is equipped with a pairA Consortium of the United States Council for Automotive Research Nondestructive Evaluation Automotive Industry September 6, 2006 United States Automotive Materials Partnership, A Consortium

Knowles, David William

330

TWA800 fuel tank flammability-an analytical investigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mission was to identify the conditions of atmospheric pressure and ambient temperature under which a so-called empty-fuel-tank, containing residual fuel, could contain hazardous air\\/fuel mixtures. The issues are limited to two applications: explosion safety concerns in gasoline fueled automotive vehicles and explosion safety in jet fueled jet aircraft. In general, we concluded that flammable mixtures, under certain conditions, may

F. A. Wyczalek

1998-01-01

331

Timing verification of automotive communicationTiming verification of automotive communication architecture using quantile estimation  

E-print Network

, February 5-7, 2014. February 07, 2014 1 Outline Early-stage timing verification of wired automotive buses Q5 100 000 17mn 13h 53mn 07/02/2014 - 13 Q6 1000 000 2h 46mn 5d 19h ... ... ... Warning (Renault), Sergio CAMPOY-MARTINEZ (Renault) and Jörn MIGGE (RealTime-at-Work). ERTSS'2014 - Toulouse

Navet, Nicolas

332

High-Performance Computing in the Automotive Industry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Computer modeling and simulation are integral to the automotive industry. Computer-aided vehicle design, crash simulation, modal analyses of vehicle vibrations, computational fluid dynamics, and air quality modeling represent a few applications that are important today. Tomorrow's more powerful computers will lead to entirely new applications. Ultimately, production- and manufacturing-prototypes will rely completely on simulation. Economic globalization will demand simulation of products and processes specifically tailored for local markets. Distributed computer systems will link a distributed automotive workforce. The talk will highlight applications and trends. It will focus on future challenges and opportunities for computational physicists in tomorrow's automotive industry.

McTague, John P.

1997-08-01

333

Quantification of Line Tracking Solutions for Automotive Applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Unlike line tracking in automotive painting applications, line tracking for automotive general assembly applications requires position tracking in order to perform assembly operations to a required assembly tolerance. Line tracking quantification experiments have been designed and conducted for a total of 16 test cases for two line tracking scenarios with three types of line tracking solutions: encoder based tracking, encoder plus static vision based tracking, and the analog sensor-based tracking for general assembly robotic automation. This chapter presents the quantification results, identifies key performance drivers, and illustrates their implications for automotive assembly applications.

Shi, Jane; Rourke, Rick F.; Groll, Dave; Tavora, Peter W.

334

Electromagnetic interference filter for automotive electrical systems  

DOEpatents

A filter for an automotive electrical system includes a substrate having first and second conductive members. First and second input terminals are mounted to the substrate. The first input terminal is electrically connected to the first conductive member, and the second input terminal is electrically connected to the second conductive member. A plurality of capacitors are mounted to the substrate. Each of the capacitors is electrically connected to at least one of the first and second conductive members. First and second power connectors are mounted to the substrate. The first power connector is electrically connected to the first conductive member, and the second power connector is electrically connected to the second conductive member. A common mode choke is coupled to the substrate and arranged such that the common mode choke extends around at least a portion of the substrate and the first and second conductive members.

Herron, Nicholas Hayden; Carlson, Douglas S; Tang, David; Korich, Mark D

2013-07-02

335

Patterns of automotive emissions in Muscat atmosphere  

SciTech Connect

This paper investigates the dispersion of automotive emissions in Muscat atmosphere. The rates of emitted pollutants were calculated on the basis of traffic data. A three-dimensional, time-dependent computer model was developed and used for predicting the patterns of emitted pollutants and their effects on residential areas. The influence zone developed by the simulated cases indicates that residential areas within 200 m from the roundabouts suffer an emission concentration of 30% relative to the source concentration. Locations as far as 5 km from the roundabouts receive concentrations in the order of 0.5%. The predicted concentrations of CO and NOX constitute a warning of possible hazardous situations in the coming few years, unless emission-control regulations are enforced.

El-Zawahry, A.E.M.; Saeed, M.N.; Al-Futaisi, A. [Sultan Qaboos Univ., Muscat (Oman)

1995-12-31

336

Multi-channel automotive night vision system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A four-channel automotive night vision system is designed and developed .It is consist of the four active near-infrared cameras and an Mulit-channel image processing display unit,cameras were placed in the automobile front, left, right and rear of the system .The system uses near-infrared laser light source?the laser light beam is collimated, the light source contains a thermoelectric cooler (TEC),It can be synchronized with the camera focusing, also has an automatic light intensity adjustment, and thus can ensure the image quality. The principle of composition of the system is description in detail,on this basis, beam collimation,the LD driving and LD temperature control of near-infrared laser light source,four-channel image processing display are discussed.The system can be used in driver assistance, car BLIS, car parking assist system and car alarm system in day and night.

Lu, Gang; Wang, Li-jun; Zhang, Yi

2013-09-01

337

Conservation Online  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Started as a germ of an idea back in 1987 (on a real, live bulletin board, as opposed to an electronic one), Conservation Online (CoOL) has been providing online resources for conservation professionals since 1993. As its website announces, it is a "full text library of conservation information," covering a wide array of topics ranging from digital imaging to reprographics, and quite a bit of material in between. By clicking on any given topic, visitors will receive a brief overview of the subject, its terminology, and then a list of general online resources for consideration. Another nice feature of the site is the mailing list archive, which contain the archives of various queries submitted to different professional conservation groups, such as the Association of Moving Image Archivists, the Textiles Conservation Discussion List, and the Conservation Framer's Mailing List. The site is rounded out by a timeline that traces the CoOL's history from the summer of 1987 to July 2003.

338

The dynamics of supply chains in the automotive industry  

E-print Network

This thesis looks at how supply chains in the automotive industry operate from the perspective of the manufacturers. The study includes the industry structure, the top players in the industry, factors that drive the industry, ...

Braese, Niklas

2005-01-01

339

GUIDES TO POLLUTION PREVENTION: THE AUTOMOTIVE REFINISHING INDUSTRY  

EPA Science Inventory

Automotive refinishing shops generate a variety of wastes while performing typical auto body repair and refinishing operations such as welding, filling dents, body section adjustments, alignments, sanding and painting. pportunities for waste reduction exist for the waste thinners...

340

EVALUATION OF A PROPORTIONAL SAMPLER FOR AUTOMOTIVE EXHAUST EMISSIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

A test program was conducted to evaluate a proportional sampler for use in automotive exhaust gas emissions research. Automobile emissions test results obtained using the proportional sampler were compared with results obtained using the conventional constant volume sampler. Meas...

341

Electrical build issues in automotive product development : an analysis  

E-print Network

To be competitive and successful within the automotive industry the Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs) have to bring new products with features fast to market. The OEMs need to reduce the Product Development cycle ...

Chacko, John

2008-01-01

342

INVESTIGATION OF CLEANER TECHNOLOGIES TO MINIMIZE AUTOMOTIVE COOLANT WASTES  

EPA Science Inventory

The US Environmental Protection Agency in cooperation with the State of New Jersey evaluated chemical filtration and distillation technologies designed to recycle automotive and heavy-duty engine coolants. These evaluations addressed the product quality, waste reduction and econo...

343

COMPOSITION CHANGES IN REFRIGERANT BLENDS FOR AUTOMOTIVE AIR CONDITIONING  

EPA Science Inventory

Three refrigerant blends used to replace CFC-12 in automotive air conditioners were evaluated for composition changes due to typical servicing and leakage. When recommended service procedures were followed, changes in blend compositions were relatively small. Small changes in b...

344

Enhancing the conceptual design process of automotive exterior systems  

E-print Network

Product development cycles in the automotive industry are being reduced and competition is more demanding than ever before. To be successful in this environment, Original Equipment Manufacturers need a product development ...

Diaz Dominguez, David

2011-01-01

345

Green automotive supply chain for an emerging market  

E-print Network

Green Supply Chain Management (GSCM) within the automotive industry is largely based on combining lean manufacturing with mandated supplier adoption of ISO 14001-compliant Environmental Management Systems (EMS). This ...

Fisch, Gene (Gene Joseph)

2008-01-01

346

Applications of color powder paint in the automotive industry  

E-print Network

Both color keyed and color specific liquid primers have been used successfully in automotive paint application, reducing the use of costly topcoat materials. Generally, color keyed primer is close in color to the topcoat ...

Barberich, Bevin, 1975-

2004-01-01

347

Case Study- Steam System Improvements at Dupont Automotive Marshall Laboratory  

E-print Network

Dupont's Marshall Laboratory is an automotive paint research and development facility in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. The campus is comprised of several buildings that are served by Trigen-Philadelphia Energy Corporation's district steam loop...

Larkin, A.

348

Paint robots in the automotive industry – process and cost optimization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reviews the current use of paint robots in the automotive industry and looks at the further development of robot control which has extended its reach into the area of process control. Summarizes the potential of the developing technologies.

Udo Grohmann

1996-01-01

349

AUTOMOTIVE CRANKCASE OIL: DETECTION IN A COASTAL WETLANDS ENVIRONMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

Samples from four sewage treatment facilities which discharge into Jamaica Bay, New York, were analyzed for the presence of waste automotive oil products. UV-fluorescence spectroscopic techniques were utilized to qualitatively identify waste petroleum hydrocarbons in effluents of...

350

Automotive Stirling engine Market and Industrial Readiness Program (MIRP), phase 1  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A program, begun in 1978, has the goal of transferring Stirling engine technology from United Stirling of Sweden to the US and, then, following design, fabrication, and prototype testing, to secure US manufacturers for the engine. The ultimate objective is the large-scale commercial use of the Automotive Stirling Engine (ASE) by the year 2000. The fist phase of the Market and Industrial Readiness Program for the ASE was concerned with defining the market, product, economic and technical factors necessary to be addressed to assure a reasonable chance of ultimate commercial acceptance. Program results for this first phase are reported and discussed. These results pertain to licensing strategy development, economic analysis, market factors, product planning, market growth, cost studies, and engine performance as measured by fuel economy using conventional fuels and by vehicle speed and acceleration characteristics.

1982-05-01

351

Separation and recovery process R&D to enhance automotive materials recycling  

SciTech Connect

Since 1976, the sales-weighted curb-weight of cars and light trucks sold in the United States has decreased by almost 800 pounds. Vehicle weight reduction has, of course, provided for a significant increase in US fleet fuel economy, from 17 to 27 miles per gallon. However, achievement of the weight reduction and concomitant increase in fuel economy was brought about, in part, by the substitution of lighter-weight materials, such as thinner-gauge coated sheet-steels replacing heavy-gauge noncoated sheet-steels and new aluminum alloys replacing steel as well as the increased use of plastics replacing metals. Each of these new materials has created the need for new technology for materials recycling. This paper highlights some of the R&D being conducted at Argonne National Laboratory to develop technology that will enhance and minimize the cost of automotive materials recycling.

Daniels, E.J.

1994-05-01

352

Modeling automotive gas-exchange solenoid valve actuators  

Microsoft Academic Search

We develop a finite-element analysis (FEA) model to describe transient and static operation of gas-exchange valves. Such valves, directly controlled by solenoids, are a promising method for enhancing automotive engine efficiency. The FEA model is validated by experimental testing on an actual automotive prototype valve. We show that a nonlinear lumped-parameter model that uses FEA results also closely matches experimental

Ryan R. Chladny; Charles Robert Koch; Alan F. Lynch

2005-01-01

353

Design of automotive gateway based on FlexRay  

Microsoft Academic Search

In view of the FlexRay bus and the other bus can not share the problem, The paper designed a automotive gateway which based on FlexRay by research, analysis of a automotive bus. The gateway hardware based on a single chip includes bus interfaces, such as LIN, CAN, FlexRay, etc. Software's design designed for static network routing table based on the

Xin Chen; Guixiang Zhang

2011-01-01

354

Narrow and broadband sound reduction in automotive panels  

Microsoft Academic Search

The possibility of using active control to reduce the sound radiated from a thin automotive panel between 30 and 250 Hz was explored. A steel panel representing a typical automotive application was selected, and QuickPack piezoceramic actuators were bonded on one side of the panel as a disturbance source, with inputs ranging from single-frequency sine wave to broadband band-limited white

Marco Giovanardi; Knut Schmidt; Holger Kunze

2001-01-01

355

Texas Transportation Institute Energy Management and Conservation Plan  

E-print Network

Texas Transportation Institute Energy Management and Conservation Plan Quarterly Report ­ April 14 and Conservation Plan documents various initiatives implemented which have reduced energy, water and fuel to respective energy management and conservation plans to reduce energy consumption at tenant facilities. Fuel

356

MIT and Automotive Industries MIT Industry Brief  

E-print Network

,fuels,andemissionsmanagement · Motorvehicledesign,manufacturing,recycling,and economics · Transportationsystemsandsupplychainmanagement, and technolo- gies including: electronic materials; batteries and fuel cells; polymers; advanced ceramics recycling, opto-electronic devices, as well as working with bio-polymers, and supply chain studies. Faculty

Ceder, Gerbrand

357

Progress on the Development of a Microchannel Steam Reformer for Automotive Applications  

SciTech Connect

A compact, energy efficient steam reforming system for automotive applications has been under development at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. At the IMRET 5 conference, results were presented describing the operation of a thermally integrated, energy efficient, compact, microchannel steam reforming system capable of converting a liquid hydrocarbon fuel (isooctane) into a reformate stream sufficient for a PEM fuel cell with >10 kWe capacity (Whyatt et al., 2001). Since this demonstration, the project has focused on performing testing in smaller scale steam reforming reactors to further reduce the reforming reactor volume, demonstrate fuel flexibility and address other issues. A test stand, nominally 1/20th the scale of the previous steam reforming demonstration, was constructed and smaller scale reactors have been used in testing. Significant gains have been made with respect to increasing the volumetric productivity of the reactor, suggesting that the 10 kWe reactor could now be made considerably smaller than the previous prototype. In addition the reformer has been demonstrated on a variety of fuels including methane, methanol, ethanol, propane, butane, isooctane, and a benchmark fuel mix intended to simulate a sulfur-free gasoline. The development effort is being funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Transportation Technology.

Whyatt, Greg A.; Fischer, Christopher M.; Davis, James M.

2002-03-15

358

Advanced Automotive Diesel Assessment Program, executive summary  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objectives of this analytical study were: to select one advanced automotive diesel engine (AAD) concept which would increase the tank mileage of a 3,000 pound passenger car from the present 35 mpg to at least 52 mpg; to identify long term component research and development work required to bring the selected concept to fruition; and to prepare a development strategy that will bring the selected concept to a prototype testing phase. Cummins Engine Company has completed this study. The selected concept is a 4 stroke cycle, direct injection, spark assisted, advanced adiabatic diesel engine with positive displacement compounding plus expander and part load air preheating. The engine does not use a liquid coolant nor liquid lubricants. It is a 4 cylinder, in-line, 77 mm bore x 77 mm stroke, 1.434 liters displacement engine weighing 300 lb, and rated at 70 BHP at 3000 rpm. Installation dimensions are 621 mm length x 589 mm width x 479 mm height (24.4 inch x 22 inch x 18.9 inch).

1983-01-01

359

Measuring soot particles from automotive exhaust emissions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The European Metrology Research Programme participating countries and the European Union jointly fund a three year project to address the need of the automotive industry for a metrological sound base for exhaust measurements. The collaborative work on particle emissions involves five European National Metrology Institutes, the Tampere University of Technology, the Joint Research Centre for Energy and Transport and the Leibniz Institute for Tropospheric Research. On one hand, a particle number and size standard for soot particles is aimed for. Eventually this will allow the partners to provide accurate and comparable calibrations of measurement instruments for the type approval of Euro 5b and Euro 6 vehicles. Calibration aerosols of combustion particles, silver and graphite proof partially suitable. Yet, a consensus choice together with instrument manufactures is pending as the aerosol choice considerably affects the number concentration measurement. Furthermore, the consortium issued consistent requirements for novel measuring instruments foreseen to replace today's opacimeters in regulatory periodic emission controls of soot and compared them with European legislative requirements. Four partners are conducting a metrological validation of prototype measurement instruments. The novel instruments base on light scattering, electrical, ionisation chamber and diffusion charging sensors and will be tested at low and high particle concentrations. Results shall allow manufacturers to further improve their instruments to comply with legal requirements.

Andres, Hanspeter; Lüönd, Felix; Schlatter, Jürg; Auderset, Kevin; Jordan-Gerkens, Anke; Nowak, Andreas; Ebert, Volker; Buhr, Egbert; Klein, Tobias; Tuch, Thomas; Wiedensohler, Alfred; Mamakos, Athanasios; Riccobono, Francesco; Discher, Kai; Högström, Richard; Yli-Ojanperä, Jaakko; Quincey, Paul

2014-08-01

360

Reverse shift mechanism for automotive manual transmission  

SciTech Connect

A reverse shift mechanism is described for an automotive manual transmission of a type having a reverse idler gear which is movable to selectively complete a reverse gear train, the reverse shift mechanism comprising: a reverse shift arm having a portion disposed adjacent the reverse idler gear and pivotally carried with respect to a transmission casing so that the portion rocks along a direction of axis of the reverse idler gear in response to shifting operation. The portion of the reverse shift arm is provided with a blind hole which is open at a first end toward the reverse idler gear and is closed at a second end away from the reverse idler gear; and a shift arm shoe carried by the portion of the reverse shift arm adjacent the reverse idler gear for pushing the reverse idler gear. The shift arm shoe has an end adapted to engage with a circumferential groove formed in the reverse idler gear and an opposing end shaped to fit in the blind hole of the reverse shift arm; whereby the shift arm shoe is prevented from coming off during assembly by virtue of a vacuum effect created by air confined in the blind hole by fitting engagement between the opposing end and the blind hole, and is held in place after assembly by being clamped between the groove of the reverse idler gear and the blind hole of the reverse shift arm.

Inui, M.; Ogawa, S.

1987-03-03

361

Speech recognition system for an automotive vehicle  

SciTech Connect

A speech recognition system is described for an automotive vehicle for activating vehicle actuators in response to predetermined spoken instructions supplied to the system via a microphone, which comprises: (a) a manually controlled record switch for deriving a record signal when activated; (b) a manually controlled recognition switch for deriving a recognition signal when activated; (c) a speech recognizer for sequentially recording reference spoken instructions whenever one reference spoken instruction is supplied to the system through the microphone while the record switch is activated, a memory having a storage area for each spoken instruction, and means for shifting access to each storage area for each spoken instruction has been recorded in the storage area provided therefore. A means is included for activating vehicle actuators sequentially whenever one recognition spoken instruction is supplied to the system via the microphone while the recognition switch is activated and when the spoken instruction to be recognized is similar to the reference spoken instruction; and (d) means for deriving skip instruction signal and for coupling the skip instruction signal to the speech recognizer to shift access from a currently accessed storage area for recording a current reference spoken instruction to a succeeding storage area for recording a succeeding reference spoken instruction even when the current reference spoken instruction is not supplied to the system through the microphone.

Noso, K.; Futami, T.

1987-01-13

362

Water Conservation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity was developed to get students thinking about the many ways that people use freshwater and how we can conserve this precious and fundamental natural resource. Students will watch a short documentary describing issues related to clean water availability, analyze water-use data and start to think about how they consume and can conserve water. This background knowledge will lead to students collecting data about their own water use and finding areas in their lives to conserve water. This activity uses the 5E instructional model and is part of the "Survivor Earth" series of one-hour lessons.

363

THERMAL ENERGY STORAGE FOR FUEL CELL VEHICLE SYSTEMS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The automotive industry is facing a shift in paradigm, changing to electrical vehicular propulsion system, mainly because of the emissions from conventional Internal Combustion Engines (ICE). One of the emerging propulsion system technologies is the Fuel Cell Vehicle (FCV) powered by Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells (PEMFC). Due to the risk of freezing, a significant problem for these PEMFC powered

A. Molin; L. Wester; K. Haraldsson; M. Gustafsson; P. Alvfors; V. Martin

364

Fuels, Lubricants, and Coolants. FOS: Fundamentals of Service.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual on fuels, lubricants, and coolants is one of a series of power mechanics tests and visual aids on automotive and off-the-road agricultural and construction equipment. Materials present basic information with illustrations for use by vocational students and teachers as well as shop servicemen and laymen. Focusing on fuels, the first of…

John Deere Co., Moline, IL.

365

Deep Conservation in Urban India and its Implications for the Design of Conservation Technologies  

E-print Network

in the developed world. We present a study of energy, water and fuel conservation practices in urban India. OurDeep Conservation in Urban India and its Implications for the Design of Conservation Technologies and water resources has become an international problem. Urban residential households are among the primary

Toronto, University of

366

Deployment of ERP Systems at Automotive Industries, Security Inspection (Case Study: IRAN KHODRO Automotive Company)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Automotive industry and car production process is one of the most complex and large-scale production processes. Today, information technology (IT) and ERP systems incorporates a large portion of production processes. Without any integrated systems such as ERP, the production and supply chain processes will be tangled. The ERP systems, that are last generation of MRP systems, make produce and sale processes of these industries easier and this is the major factor of development of these industries anyhow. Today many of large-scale companies are developing and deploying the ERP systems. The ERP systems facilitate many of organization processes and make organization to increase efficiency. The security is a very important part of the ERP strategy at the organization, Security at the ERP systems, because of integrity and extensive, is more important of local and legacy systems. Disregarding of this point can play a giant role at success or failure of this kind of systems. The IRANKHODRO is the biggest automotive factory in the Middle East with an annual production over 600.000 cars. This paper presents ERP security deployment experience at the "IRANKHODRO Company". Recently, by launching ERP systems, it moved a big step toward more developments.

Ali, Hatamirad; Hasan, Mehrjerdi

367

Conservation Ecology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Conservation Ecology is a new, exclusively electronic, peer-reviewed scientific journal of the Resilience Alliance, with content ranging from the applied to the theoretical. Topics covered by the journal include: "the conservation of ecosystems, landscapes, species, populations, and genetic diversity; the restoration of ecosystems and habitats; and the management of resources." This site includes the full text version of the articles (including past issues), as well as instructions on how to submit papers and how to subscribe. Subscriptions to Conservation Ecology are free of charge and all materials are available for browsing without cost. Edited by ecosystem ecology expert, Dr. C. S. Holling, Conservation Ecology breaks new ground in an important, emerging science.

1997-01-01

368

Personalization of the Automotive Information Environment  

E-print Network

, more sophisticated learning algorithms can use features of the environment such as time of day to dy] applied a decision tree algorithm to predict the quality of fuel pellets for nuclear power plants

Langley, Pat

369

Automotive features : mass impact and deployment characterization  

E-print Network

Passenger car use is a major driver of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and fossil fuel consumption in the United States. Vehicles continue to incorporate increasing levels of technology, these advances do not translate ...

Zoepf, Stephen M

2011-01-01

370

Contactless magnetic brake for automotive applications  

E-print Network

Road and rail vehicles and aircraft rely mainly or solely on friction brakes. These brakes pose several problems, especially in hybrid vehicles: significant wear, fading, complex and slow actuation, lack of fail-safe features, increased fuel...

Gay, Sebastien Emmanuel

2009-05-15

371

Anticipating Environmental Impacts of Future Fuels  

EPA Science Inventory

Automotive fuels are composed of hundreds of compounds and the formulations aren?t uniform; they vary geographically and seasonally and sometimes specifically in response to regulatory requirements. As a result, very few state underground storage tank (UST) regulators know what i...

372

Modeling and experimental validation of a Hybridized Energy Storage System for automotive applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents the development and experimental validation of a dynamic model of a Hybridized Energy Storage System (HESS) consisting of a parallel connection of a lead acid (PbA) battery and double layer capacitors (DLCs), for automotive applications. The dynamic modeling of both the PbA battery and the DLC has been tackled via the equivalent electric circuit based approach. Experimental tests are designed for identification purposes. Parameters of the PbA battery model are identified as a function of state of charge and current direction, whereas parameters of the DLC model are identified for different temperatures. A physical HESS has been assembled at the Center for Automotive Research The Ohio State University and used as a test-bench to validate the model against a typical current profile generated for Start&Stop applications. The HESS model is then integrated into a vehicle simulator to assess the effects of the battery hybridization on the vehicle fuel economy and mitigation of the battery stress.

Fiorenti, Simone; Guanetti, Jacopo; Guezennec, Yann; Onori, Simona

2013-11-01

373

A study of the Armstrong Whitworth swing beam engine for automotive application  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The introduction of ceramics to those parts suffering high thermal loading was successfully demonstrated, and there is no question that the 100 kw (134 hp) naturally aspirated engine of the future will be developed to produce up to 300 kw (402 hp) by the application of turbocharging or its equivalent. However, at the 60 - 80 kw (80 - 107 hp) size needed for the economic automotive engine, scaling down the 300 kw (402 hp) is beset by the laws of scale. The conventional four stroke diesel was not shown to be successful at the small high speed engine size. The opposed piston two stroke engine does not suffer the same laws of scale and engines in the low power range have already been marketed successfully. The half liter/cylinder Armstrong Whitworth Swing Beam Engine is the latest to be designed with the automotive market in mind. Its low noise structure and balanced linkage system coupled with advantages for easy start and potential use of low grade fuels, derived from its variable compression ratio and slow piston motion, qualifies it for the application.

1983-01-01

374

Advanced Automotive Technologies annual report to Congress, fiscal year 1996  

SciTech Connect

This annual report serves to inform the United States Congress on the progress for fiscal year 1996 of programs under the Department of Energy`s Office of Advanced Automotive Technologies (OAAT). This document complies with the legislative requirement to report on the implementation of Title III of the Automotive Propulsion Research and Development Act of 1978. Also reported are related activities performed under subsequent relevant legislation without specific reporting requirements. Furthermore, this report serves as a vital means of communication from the Department to all public and private sector participants. Specific requirements that are addressed in this report are: Discussion of how each research and development contract, grant, or project funded under the authority of this Act satisfies the requirements of each subsection; Current comprehensive program definition for implementing Title III; Evaluation of the state of automotive propulsion system research and development in the United States; Number and amount of contracts and grants awarded under Title III; Analysis of the progress made in developing advanced automotive propulsion system technology; and Suggestions for improvements in automotive propulsion system research and development, including recommendations for legislation.

NONE

1998-03-01

375

Fuel Cell\\/Battery Powered Bus System. Final Report for period August 1987 - December 31, 1997  

Microsoft Academic Search

Today, fuel cell systems are getting much attention from the automotive industry as a future replacement for the internal combustion engine (ICE). Every US automobile manufacturer and most foreign firms have major programs underway to develop fuel cell engines for transportation. The objective of this program was to investigate the feasibility of using fuel cells as an alternative to the

Wimmer

1999-01-01

376

10 CFR 436.104 - Energy conservation measures and standards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION FEDERAL ENERGY MANAGEMENT AND PLANNING PROGRAMS...Operations Plans § 436.104 Energy conservation measures and standards...2) What is the estimate of savings by fuel type? (3)...

2010-01-01

377

Automotive non-pressure cooling system  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a non-pressure automotive engine cooling system comprising: a radiator containing a liquid coolant, coupling hoses that intercouple the radiator to the engine, pump means associated with the engine for circulating coolant through the engine and radiator. The pump means has a suction side, a radiator cap sealed on the radiator, an expansion tank disposed in the engine compartment, vent means on the tank for venting the tank to atmosphere, a coupling tube disposed between the radiator below the radiator cap and the expansion tank to enable free flow of the coolant under expansion from the radiator to the expansion tank. The radiator cap seals the radiator but provides a substantially non-pressure and unimpeded fluid path from the radiator to the coupling tube, a return line coupled from the expansion tank to the suction side of the pump means. The radiator has a gooseneck with the radiator cap sealably engaged with the gooseneck, an outlet port from the top of the radiator to which the coupling tube is connected. The outlet port is continuously open and unblocked by the radiator cap to provide free fluid flow from the radiator to the expansion tank over the entire operating temperature range, the radiator cap sealing only at the top of the gooseneck, and means for supporting the expansion tank at a position at a height corresponding to the top of the radiator. Under normal temperature operating conditions, the liquid level line is substantially the same in both the radiator and the expansion tank.

Skinner, A.A.

1987-07-07

378

Investigation of metallurgical coatings for automotive applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Metallurgical coatings have been widely used in the automotive industry from component machining, engine daily running to body decoration due to their high hardness, wear resistance, corrosion resistance and low friction coefficient. With high demands in energy saving, weight reduction and limiting environmental impact, the use of new materials such as light Aluminum/magnesium alloys with high strength-weight ratio for engine block and advanced high-strength steel (AHSS) with better performance in crash energy management for die stamping, are increasing. However, challenges are emerging when these new materials are applied such as the wear of the relative soft light alloys and machining tools for hard AHSS. The protective metallurgical coatings are the best option to profit from these new materials' advantages without altering largely in mass production equipments, machinery, tools and human labor. In this dissertation, a plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) coating processing on aluminum alloys was introduced in engine cylinder bores to resist wear and corrosion. The tribological behavior of the PEO coatings under boundary and starve lubrication conditions was studied experimentally and numerically for the first time. Experimental results of the PEO coating demonstrated prominent wear resistance and low friction, taking into account the extreme working conditions. The numerical elastohydrodynamic lubrication (EHL) and asperity contact based tribological study also showed a promising approach on designing low friction and high wear resistant PEO coatings. Other than the fabrication of the new coatings, a novel coating evaluation methodology, namely, inclined impact sliding tester was presented in the second part of this dissertation. This methodology has been developed and applied in testing and analyzing physical vapor deposition (PVD)/ chemical vapor deposition (CVD)/PEO coatings. Failure mechanisms of these common metallurgical hard coatings were systematically studied and summarized via the new testing methodology. Field tests based on the new coating characterization technique proved that this methodology is reliable, effective and economical.

Su, Jun Feng

379

77 FR 35428 - Certain Automotive GPS Navigation Systems, Components Thereof, and Products Containing Same...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...337-TA-814] Certain Automotive GPS Navigation Systems, Components Thereof...a show cause order and an initial determination (``ID...complaint filed by Beacon Navigation GmbH of Zug, Switzerland...of certain automotive GPS navigation systems, components...

2012-06-13

380

76 FR 66750 - Certain Automotive GPS Navigation Systems, Components Thereof, and Products Containing Same...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Re Certain Automotive GPS Navigation Systems, Components Thereof...filed on behalf of Beacon Navigation Gmbh on October 21, 2011...of certain automotive gps navigation systems, components thereof...the issuance of any final initial determination in this...

2011-10-27

381

75 FR 1080 - Certain Automotive Multimedia Display and Navigation Systems, Components Thereof, and Products...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Automotive Multimedia Display and Navigation Systems, Components Thereof...automotive multimedia display and navigation systems, components thereof...not to review any of these initial determinations. Pioneer remained...the ALJ issued his final Initial Determination...

2010-01-08

382

75 FR 41521 - Delphi Corporation, Automotive Holding Group, Plant 6, Currently Known as General Motors...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Automotive Holding Group, Plant 6, including on- site leased...Securitas, EDS, Bartech and Mays Chemicals, Flint, Michigan and Delphi...Automotive Holding Group, Plant 2, including on-site leased...Securitas, EDS, Bartech and Mays Chemicals, Flint, [[Page...

2010-07-16

383

The Market Acceptance of Advanced Automotive Technologies (MA3T) Model  

E-print Network

The Market Acceptance of Advanced Automotive Technologies (MA3T) Model Research Brief Oak Ridge: Energy Environment Safety Security Vehicle Technologies T he Market Acceptance of Advanced Automotive T simulates market demand for advanced vehicle technologies by representing relevant attributes

384

Fuel-cell vehicles: The clean machine  

SciTech Connect

Fortunately, it now seems possible that within a decade, auto manufacturers could be ready to market a super energy-efficient car that produces virtually no pollution and that can be fueled by a variety of secure energy sources. It would be safe, fun to drive, provide all the amenities of a conventional gasoline car -- and cost no more to own and operate than today's cars. The key technology is the fuel cell. Developed originally as an electric power system for aerospace and military applications, fuel cells have been too costly to consider for cars. But recent technological advances make it possible that mass-produced fuel cells will be able to compete with internal combustion engines in automotive applications. With a major redirection of US automotive R D, they could be mass-produced and on the road before 2010.

Williams, R.H. (Princeton Univ., NJ (United States). Center for Energy and Environmental Studies)

1994-04-01

385

Technoeconomic evaluation of efficiency of utilization of alternate motor fuels  

SciTech Connect

The authors review the advantages and disadvantages of using several alternative motor fuels, including petroleum-derived automotive gasolines, methanol, liquefied propane/butane gas, compressed and liquefied natural gas, and synthetic fuel. Two large tables data gathered on these fuels, and a chart shows prorated costs in production and use of alternate fuels as a function of prorated costs in production of raw material. The authors conclude that as the technology for alternate fuel production and for the manufacture of vehicles that use such fuels improve, the economy and energy indexes of fuel supply for the transport process will also improve.

Terent'ev, G.A.; Arsenov, E.E.; Konstantinov, B.P.; Smal', F.V.; Tyukov, V.M.

1985-07-01

386

Intergenerational equity and conservation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The issue of integenerational equity in the use of natural resources is discussed in the context of coal mining conversion. An attempt to determine if there is a clear-cut benefit to future generations in setting minimum coal extraction efficiency standards in mining is made. It is demonstrated that preserving fossil fuels beyond the economically efficient level is not necessarily beneficial to future generations even in terms of their own preferences. Setting fossil fuel conservation targets for intermediate products (i.e. energy) may increase the quantities of fossil fuels available to future generations and hence lower the costs, but there may be serious disadvantages to future generations as well. The use of relatively inexpensive fossil fuels in this generation may result in more infrastructure development and more knowledge production available to future generations. The value of fossil fuels versus these other endowments in the future depends on many factors which cannot possibly be evaluated at present. Since there is no idea of whether future generations are being helped or harmed, it is recommended that integenerational equity not be used as a factor in setting coal mine extraction efficiency standards, or in establishing requirements.

Otoole, R. P.; Walton, A. L.

1980-01-01

387

Low-Density Steels: Complex Metallurgy for Automotive Applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The current aim in the development of third-generation steels for lightweighting automotive applications is to increase strength keeping at least the same formability as current steel concepts. In this philosophy, an optimal concept would be one that brings, in addition, a lower density. For this purpose, low-density steels have been designed with important aluminum additions obtaining density reductions of 8-10% or higher in comparison with low-carbon steels. At the levels required for lightweighting, aluminum introduces complex phenomena in steels. Here, some of the effects of aluminum in phase stability, CALPHAD-type modeling, and microstructure development are described, the latter in relation with mechanical properties. Finally, the potential of two families of lightweight steels for automotive applications is assessed by comparison with a steel currently present in automotive structures.

Zuazo, I.; Hallstedt, B.; Lindahl, B.; Selleby, M.; Soler, M.; Etienne, A.; Perlade, A.; Hasenpouth, D.; Massardier-Jourdan, V.; Cazottes, S.; Kleber, X.

2014-09-01

388

Characterizing Al Tailor-Welded Blanks for Automotive Applications  

SciTech Connect

The current trend in the automotive industry is to develop and apply technology to continually reduce and minimize the energy consumption and environmental impact of future vehicles. As a result, advanced materials and methods of material savings for the purpose of vehicle weight reduction are of interest to all major automotive manufacturers as reflected by the significant focus of the Partnership for New Generation Vehicles (PNGV) on materials issues. Aluminum sheet stampings are being increasingly applied in high volume hang-on applications including hoods, decklids and liftgates with considerable interest in door stampings as well. Automotive engineers have been successful in reducing weight, reducing part count, streamlining the assembly process and reducing costs by taking advantage of singular steel tailored blanks to replace multiple blanks which would have to be separately stamped and assembled. The same opportunities exist for aluminum tailored blanks, with added weight savings. Potential applications of aluminum tailored blanks extend to body-in-white stampings.

Davies, Richard W. (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Oliver, H E. (Unknown); Smith, Mark T. (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Grant, Glenn J. (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB))

1998-11-01

389

IECEC '91; Proceedings of the 26th Intersociety Energy Conversion Engineering Conference, Boston, MA, Aug. 4-9, 1991. Vol. 4 - Energy conservation, policies and environment, energy systems and alternative fuels, innovative and advanced systems  

SciTech Connect

Various papers on energy conservation, policies and environment, energy systems and alternative fuels, and innovative and advanced systems are presented. Some of the topics addressed are: commercial microwave space power, SPS 2000: commercial SPS testbed for electric utilities, thermodynamically pumped IR laser, design optimization for magnetic bearing, dynamic balancing with open loop control of magnetic bearings, final prototype of magnetically suspended flywheel energy storage system, high-efficiency motor/generator for flywheel energy storage, experimental evaluation of a high performance superconducting torquer. Also discussed are: flywheel energy storage for electromechanical actuation systems, low noise spacecraft attitude control systems, analysis and conceptual design of a lunar radiator parabolic shade, innovative spacecraft thermal storage device, transient behavior of a liquid metal heat pipe, vortex expansion devices for high-temperature cryogenics, small magnetic energy storage systems using high-temperature superconductors, high-temperature superconducting vector switch, impedance change measurements of a superconducting shielded-core reactor.

Not Available

1991-01-01

390

A Study of the Awareness Level of Electric Vehicle Technology in California Community College Automotive Curriculums.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

California automotive technician programs were surveyed regarding their awareness of the impact that mandates of the Clean Air Act would have on their automotive technology programs. A questionnaire was sent to 100 California community colleges with an automotive technology program; 49 usable questionnaires were returned. A possible byproduct of…

Keyzer, James

391

75 FR 34483 - In the Matter of Certain Automotive Vehicles and Designs Therefore; Notice of Investigation  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Automotive Vehicles and Designs Therefore; Notice of...automotive vehicles and designs therefore by reason of...Trade Commission, 500 E Street, SW., Room 112, Washington...automotive vehicles and designs therefore that infringe...Inc., 719 Nogales Street, City of...

2010-06-17

392

New Trends for Pyrotechnic Automotive Safety in the European Union Lionel Aufauvre  

E-print Network

New Trends for Pyrotechnic Automotive Safety in the European Union Lionel Aufauvre INERIS finds pyrotechnic components of automotive safety equipment such as gas generators or igniters. In the very fast growing market of automotive safety industry, regulations might be perceived as non

Boyer, Edmond

393

Automotive batteries under current- or voltage- regulated charging conditions  

SciTech Connect

The value of cobalt as an automotive battery elixir has been assessed under both current-regulated (AS 2149 Test) and voltage-regulated (SAE J240a Test) charging conditions. Cobalt exerts a beneficial effect in the former but an antagonistic effect in the latter. Degradation in battery performance under voltage control is due to the depolarizing action of cobalt. This situation is unchanged with voltage limits between 14.8 and 13.8 V. Since present-day automobiles are fitted with voltage regulators, it is concluded that cobalt offers little promise of improving the service life of automotive batteries.

Hamilton, J.A.; Moresby, J.F.; Rand, D.A.J.

1984-10-01

394

Automotive SOI-BCD Technology Using Bonded Wafers  

SciTech Connect

The SOI-BCD device is excelling in high temperature operation and noise immunity because the integrated elements can be electrically separated by dielectric isolation. We have promptly paid attention to this feature and have concentrated to develop SOI-BCD devices seeking to match the automotive requirement. In this paper, the feature technologies specialized for automotive SOI-BCD devices, such as buried N{sup +} layer for impurity gettering and noise shielding, LDMOS with improved ESD robustness, crystal defect-less process, and wafer direct bonding through the amorphous layer for intelligent power IC are introduced.

Himi, H.; Fujino, S. [DENSO CORPORATION, Ashinoya, Kota-cho, Nukata-gun, Aichi Pref., 444-0193 (Japan)

2008-11-03

395

Producing lower-cost titanium for automotive applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although titanium has attractive properties that can improve the performance and economy of automobiles, at its current cost, it cannot compete with steel in most applications for which it is suited. It is readily apparent that titanium cannot be considered a viable mass-market automotive materials alternative as long as it is produced with the Kroll process. A look at existing and new technologies (as well as some that have been found lacking) in terms of applicability toward high-volume, low-cost titanium production for automotive applications indicates other options.

Hartman, A. D.; Gerdemann, S. J.; Hansen, J. S.

1998-09-01

396

Nonlinear force feedback control of piezoelectric-hydraulic pump actuator for automotive transmission shift control  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years, researchers have investigated the feasibility of utilizing piezoelectric-hydraulic pump based actuation systems for automotive transmission controls. This new concept could eventually reduce the complexity, weight, and fuel consumption of the current transmissions. In this research, we focus on how to utilize this new approach on the shift control of automatic transmissions (AT), which generally requires pressure profiling for friction elements during the operation. To illustrate the concept, we will consider the 1--> 2 up shift control using band brake friction elements. In order to perform the actuation force tracking for AT shift control, nonlinear force feedback control laws are designed based on the sliding mode theory for the given nonlinear system. This paper will describe the modeling of the band brake actuation system, the design of the nonlinear force feedback controller, and simulation and experimental results for demonstration of the new concept.

Kim, Gi-Woo; Wang, K. W.

2008-03-01

397

Automotive Stirling engine Mod I design-review report. Volume II  

SciTech Connect

Volume No. 2 of the Automotive Stirling Engine Mod I Design Review Report contains descriptions of the operating principles, performance requirements and design details of the auxiliaries and control systems for the MOD I Stirling engine system. These components and sub-systems have the following main functions: provide the required fuel and air flows for a well controlled combustion process, generating heat to the Stirling cycle; provide a driver acceptable method for controlling the power output of the engine; provide adequate lubrication and cooling water circulation; generate the electric energy required for engine and vehicle operation; provide a driver acceptable method for starting, stopping and monitoring the engine; and provide a guard system, that protects the engine at component or system malfunction.

Not Available

1982-08-01

398

Automotive Manufacturing and Repair Technician Employment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It's been more than three years since the U.S. automobile industry nearly collapsed. A controversial federal bailout, an increase in consumer demand, and a growing interest in environmentally friendly fuel-efficient vehicles and related technologies have combined to help create a remarkable recovery. Total U.S. sales of light vehicles in 2012 are…

McAlinden, Sean P.

2013-01-01

399

Synthetic fuels from fusion reactors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The technical, environmental, and economic features of a synthetic fuels economy based on fusion reactors are evaluated. Analyses of alternate possible U.S. energy systems for 2020 AD indicate that CTR's can deliver synthetic fuels based on electrolytic hydrogen (H2 gas, H2 liquid, and methanol) at costs competitive with natural fossil fuels and synthetic fuels derived from coal. With less conservative

J. R. Powell; F. J. Salzano; W. Sevian; P. Bezler; G. R. Hopkins; B. Yalof

1974-01-01

400

WATER CONSERVATION  

E-print Network

distribution is unlimited. MIL-HDBK-1165 Water conservation, maximizing the efficient use of water resources, is rapidly becoming a critical part of many military operations as more and more demands are placed upon existing water supplies. In order to remain a good neighbor and preserve the environment in which we live, engineers throughout the Department of Defense are frequently called upon to review the beneficial use of their water resources. This military handbook provides numerous methods to increase water efficiency and details the requirements of Executive Order 12902 as it relates to water conservation within the Department of Defense. In addition, this handbook also includes, in its appendices, procedures for submitting water conservation projects for central funding programs. ii MIL-HDBK-1165 FOREWORD This handbook is designed to provide guidance to the installation energy or facilities manager and project designers in the area of water conservation. This handbook is intended to assist installations in reducing their water consumption and thereby assist in complying with the provisions of Executive Order 12902. Recommendations for improvement are encouraged from within the Navy, other government agencies, and the private sector and should be furnished on the DD Form 1426 provided inside the back

Distribution Statement

1997-01-01

401

[Conservation Units.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Each of the six instructional units deals with one aspect of conservation: forests, water, rangeland, minerals (petroleum), and soil. The area of the elementary school curriculum with which each correlates is indicated. Lists of general and specific objectives are followed by suggested teaching procedures, including ideas for introducing the…

Texas Education Agency, Austin.

402

Lighting Conservation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With the energy crisis has come an awareness of wasteful consumption practices. One area where research is being done is in lighting conservation. Information in this article is concerned with finding more effective and efficient lighting designs which include daylight utilization, task-oriented lighting, and lighting controls. (MA)

Arnold, Frank D.

1975-01-01

403

Energy Conservation Through Effective Steam Trapping  

E-print Network

ENERGY CONSERVATION THROUGH EFFECTIVE STEAM TRAPPING Loris Diamante and Chuck Nagengast Columbia Controls Houston, Texas Fuel costs are rapidly escalating. The overall efficiency of any energy utilization must be improved immediately. Steam...ENERGY CONSERVATION THROUGH EFFECTIVE STEAM TRAPPING Loris Diamante and Chuck Nagengast Columbia Controls Houston, Texas Fuel costs are rapidly escalating. The overall efficiency of any energy utilization must be improved immediately. Steam...

Diamante, L.; Nagengast, C.

1979-01-01

404

Driver Education Curriculum Guide. Energy Conservation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed to provide high school students with information concerning energy-efficient driving, this curriculum guide covers techniques of conserving energy, efficient use of motor vehicles, safe driving techniques, and development of energy-efficient driving habits. The guide consists of six lessons: (1) Fuel Conservation: Why It Is Essential; (2)…

Governor's Highway Safety Program Office, Columbus, OH.

405

Energy Conservation--The Global Imperative.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents energy as a pivotal prerequisite of highly developed economic and social structure. Discusses: (1) fossil-fuel resources and demand in various countries; (2) energy conservation; (3) measures for conservation; (4) technology transfer; and (5) considerations to be regarded internationally. (HM)

Murthy, K. K.

1978-01-01

406

Exhaust gas recirculation system for an automotive engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

The invention discloses an exhaust gas recirculation system for an automotive engine in which that portion of the exhaust stream is selectively withdrawn which contains the major amount of undesirable ingredients. The portion of gas from each cylinder is received in a common mixing chamber and thereafter passed to the inlet side of the engine for mixing with fresh charge

K. S. Virk; H. E. Leikkanen

1979-01-01

407

Future Automotive Insurance System based on Telematics Technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the proliferation of vehicles and advancement of information technology, the technology of telematics, which provides valuable services to people by collecting and analyzing the information from drivers, vehicles and Telematics environments (e.g. traffic information, road condition, weather information, etc.), has been a hot research area in IT and automotive recently. There are needs for telematics makes more profitable. Telematics

Daesub Yoon; Jongwoo Choi; Hyunsuk Kim; Juwan Kim

2008-01-01

408

Hot Surface Ignition of Automotive and Aviation Fluids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although ignition of flammable liquids by hot surfaces is well known in the automotive and aviation industries, little fundamental research has been conducted to understand this ignition mechanism and only limited data is available in the literature. In this paper, we present results from over 2,500 ignition tests using a simple, highly reproducible experimental set-up involving a horizontal flat plate,

Jeff D. Colwell; Ali Reza

2005-01-01

409

Optimum design of dynamic response in automotive solenoid valve  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is pointed out that one of the most important points in designing an automotive electromagnetic actuator is to clarify the relationship between the response time and design factors. For optimum design, the main design factors (dimension, components, characteristics of the material of an actuator, and the applied voltage waveform) are primary concerns of actuator designers. Inducement of an eddy

Y. Ohdachi; Y. Kawase; Y. Murakami; Y. Inaguma

1991-01-01

410

Control Strategies for an Automotive Suspension with a MR Damper  

E-print Network

Control Strategies for an Automotive Suspension with a MR Damper Jorge de Jesus Lozoya, France e-mail: {olivier.sename, luc.dugard}@gipsa-lab.grenoble-inp.fr Abstract: A semi-active control is considered. Given its hysteretical and nonlinear behavior, the inclusion of a MR damper model in a controller

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

411

Next Generation Automotive User Interface Connecting Your World  

E-print Network

and distracting when you need your car to read back and compose text messages; search for, buy and download songs of the street you're on. Next Generation Automotive User Interface is an experiment at rethinking how we "tell Mitchell to meet me by the fountain at University and 21st street" and the system sends a voice

Fisher, Kathleen

412

ENVIRONMENTALLY SAFE, NO VOC AUTOMOTIVE COATING - PHASE II  

EPA Science Inventory

The EPA recognizes that volatile organic compounds (VOCs) must be eliminated from automotive coating formulations to improve worker safety and reduce environmental pollution. The phase I project resulted in the production of a polymer-based coating material that was clear, ...

413

Effects of Water and Ice Layer on Automotive Radar  

Microsoft Academic Search

Short Abstract—This experiment is carried out at the ,Robert Bosch GmbH, to analyse the signal degradation of millimeter wave radar Sensors in adverse ,weather conditions. It reveals that, the existence of water layer on the surface of antenna lens or its radome ,is the ,main ,cause for performance ,limitation of automotive radar sensors and provides information to identify such phenomena.

Alebel Arage; Wolf M. Steffens; Goetz Kuehnle; Rolf Jakoby

414

Study of Fan Noise Reduction for Automotive Radiator Cooling Fans  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to reduce automotive radiator cooling fan noise, it is necessary to reduce the system's blade passing frequency noise (BPF), a periodical noise unpleasant to the ear, in addition to an overall noise reduction. The au- thors have successfully developed and applied a BPF noise prediction technique, which consists of a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and sound wave propagation

ATSUSHI SUZUKI; TETSUO TOMINAGA; TSUYOSHI EGUCHI; TOSHIFUMI KUDO; TOMOSHIGE TAKATA

415

INVESTIGATION OF CLEANER TECHNOLOGIES TO MINIMIZE AUTOMOTIVE COOLANT WASTES  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in cooperation with the State of New Jersey evaluated chemical filtration and distillation technologies designed to recycle automotive and heavy-duty engine coolants. hese evaluations addressed the product quality, waste reduction, and eco...

416

Automotive Technology Objectives. Career Education. DS Manual 2870.1.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide is designed for use in helping junior and senior high school students explore the field of automotive technology as a potential career area. Included in the manual are the following materials: definitions, a key to the organization and numbering code and symbols used in the lists of objectives, lists of general and program objectives…

Dependents Schools (DOD), Washington, DC.

417

Automotive Active Safety Systems [Introduction to the special section  

Microsoft Academic Search

Global passenger vehicle sales exceed 60 million units per year while continuing to experience strong growth, especially in emerging markets around the world. With the increasing number of vehicles on the road, safety has become a focal point of consumers, governments, and society. This special issue is focused on reviewing the history and background of automotive safety systems by presenting

Zongxuan Sun; Shih-Ken Chen

2010-01-01

418

Concurrent design and manufacturing process of automotive composite components  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – To present the findings of the research on the use of concurrent engineering in the development of polymeric based composite automotive clutch pedal. It covers the use of various IT such as expert system, FEA, CAD, mould flow and rapid prototyping in order to carry out various activities such as material selection, total design, design analysis and mould

S. M. Sapuan

2005-01-01

419

Real-Time Support for Automotive Embedded Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acknowledgments I would like to thank my guide, Prof. Krithi Ramamritham for the consistent moti- vation and directions he has fed into my work. I would also like to thank Mr. Vamshi Krishna and Mr. Sachitanand Malewar for the help extended in understanding the prac- tical aspect of automotive systems. Declaration I hereby declare that I have written this report.

Ashish Govind Gudhe

420

Demand Forecasting in Automotive Aftermarket Based on ARMA Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rapid development of automobile industry in China promotes the fast growth of the automotive aftermarket. Facing the fierce market competition, it is necessary for a company to forecast the demand for auto spare parts. This paper proposes a method based on ARMA model to fulfill the important task. The accuracy and ease of use of the method is illustrated

Yun Chen; Heng Zhao; Li Yu

2010-01-01

421

Supplier development in the automotive industry: A case in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Supplier development has become a key element in maintaining a company's success in the automotive industry due to technological and competitive pressures. This paper explores how Dongfeng Peugeot Citroen Automobile Co., Ltd. (DPCA) implements supplier development to achieve its strategic goals. Its development practices involves integrating the supplier development strategy with the overall strategy, setting strict criteria for supplier development,

Cheng Jianjun; Yang Meiju

2011-01-01

422

Online dectection device for assembly of automotive sliding york bracket  

Microsoft Academic Search

This Online Sliding york bracket is one of the most important shift parts in automotive transmission. The traditional detection mostly depends on artificial methods, which cost large amount of labor and easily lead to the fatigue of naked eyes. In this article we have developed the object, clearance detection sensor. Considering the assembly feature of the sliding york bracket, we

Chundong Zhu; Zhiliang Zhu

2010-01-01

423

Valorization of Automotive Shredder Residues in metallurgical furnaces Project REFORBA  

E-print Network

with raw materials cheaper than coke. As additional potential benefits the amount of CO2 generated on the shredded materials, to recover valuable ferrous components. The remaining part (Automotive Shredder Residue of materials containing chemicals to remove. Sorting operations (grinding, screening, magnetic, eddy current

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

424

Clone Detection in Automotive Model-Based Development Florian Deissenboeck,  

E-print Network

Clone Detection in Automotive Model-Based Development Florian Deissenboeck, Benjamin Hummel, Elmar development: Cloning. This paper presents an ap- proach for the automatic detection of clones in large mod- els as they are used in model-based development of con- trol systems. The approach is based on graph

Deissenboeck, Florian

425

Comparation on Automotive Air-Conditioning Cooling Load Computation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The precondition of optimized designing of automotive air-conditioning system is accurate air-conditioning cooling load computation, while the current load computation is mostly estimated according to the experiences, and it is on the stage of exploring for the dynamic load computation. Three kinds of methods on load computation are discussed in this paper based on city model according to typical weather

Yining Sun; Ming Li; Xianguo Liu; Qing Gao; Jams W. Stevens

2011-01-01

426

Automotive Modules. Vocational Behavioral Objectives: A Guide for Individualizing Instruction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The curriculum guide deals with automotive repair skills at the secondary level of vocational education and industrial arts. It addresses the subject in behavioral terms, as prominent components of the career education concept. Presenting four skill modules, auto body repair, gas engine repair, service, and diesel engine mechanics, the objectives…

Westinghouse Learning Corp., New York, NY.

427

Use of an Automotive Technology Course in Engineering Technology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The automobile has been a source of engineering discoveries and employment for the last century. Many different disciplines go into the manufacturing and design of the automobile. The principles of the different engineering technology disciplines can be shown through the use of a general automotive technology course. At the University of Dayton the graduates of the engineering technology program have a good chance of interviewing and possibly even taking a job in the automotive field. It was felt that the students would benefit from taking a course in basic automotive engineering to allow them to have knowledge of these principles before interviewing for a position in one of these companies. This course would introduce them to basic systems, components, and terminology as it applies to many engineering technology disciplines. Also the business aspect would be developed as well as how government regulations influence automotive design. This paper describes the process of developing this class as well as some of the details and how it relates to a multi-disciplinary engineering technology program.

Falkowski, Sean

2011-05-11

428

CHARACTERIZATION OF AUTOMOTIVE EMISSIONS BY BACTERIAL MUTAGENESIS BIOASSAY: A REVIEW  

EPA Science Inventory

Due to the growing numbers of diesel passenger automobiles in the United States, there has been an expanded effort to understand the health effects of airborne pollutants arising from increased automotive emissions. Bacterial mutagenicity testing has played an important role in t...

429

Characterization of automotive high voltage networks for EMI measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

One major task in developing electric cars is to control electromagnetic interferences (EMI) of their power train. Fast slew rates in power electronics increase efficiency, but also emitted radio frequency (RF) disturbances. One main approach to reduce EMI within automotive systems is a complete shielding of its high voltage (HV) power network. The shielding of HV power networks changes the

M. Reuter; S. Tenbohlen; W. Kohler

2010-01-01

430

A Review of Embedded Automotive Protocols Nicolas Navet  

E-print Network

the beginning of the 90s. The specic requirements of the dierent car domains have led to the development for communications between the Electronic Control Units (ECU) of a vehicle in production cars dates from of the AUTOSAR consortium. Finally, we highlight future trends in the development of automotive communication

Navet, Nicolas

431

Adaptive Rollover Prevention for Automotive Vehicles with Differential Braking  

E-print Network

center of gravity (CG) position plays an important role for the vehicle dynamics and the vehicle road in the knowledge of it, have to be considered for analyzing vehicle dynamics, and must be accountedAdaptive Rollover Prevention for Automotive Vehicles with Differential Braking Selim Solmaz

Duffy, Ken

432

Hardware in the loop simulation of embedded automotive control system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Distributed embedded control systems play an increasing role in modern automotive designs and there is a pressing need to investigate the impact of different design decisions on system safety and reliability. A highly effective method of performing the testing for such an investigation is via a suitably detailed \\

Michael Short; Michael J. Pont

2005-01-01

433

Backup strategy for robots' failures in an automotive assembly system  

E-print Network

Spot welding Robot failures Line balancing a b s t r a c t Automotive assembly lines are often several robotic cells (also called stations), each of which consist of several welding robots in the vehicle body and performed sequentially by a single welding robot. There are two types of weld spots

Ben-Gal, Irad E.

434

Integrating multiple manufacturing initiatives: challenge for automotive suppliers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The primary purpose of the research was to determine whether automotive manufacturers integrate multiple manufacturing initiatives and whether performance measures were impacted directly by these initiatives. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A mail survey questionnaire was used to gather data about the attitudinal attributes associated with implementing multiple manufacturing initiatives (i.e. ISO 9001, ISO 14001, lean manufacturing) and changes in key

Dana M. Johnson; Jichao Sun; Mark A. Johnson

2007-01-01

435

Timing verification of automotive communication architecture using quantile estimation  

E-print Network

) and Jörn MIGGE (RealTime-at-Work). ERTSS'2014 - Toulouse, February 5-7, 2014. February 07, 2014 #12;1 Outline - 207/02/2014ERTSS'2014 Early-stage timing verification of wired automotive buses ­ CAN - 307/02/2014ERTSS'2014 Increased bandwidth requirements & timing constraints More complex

Navet, Nicolas

436

Automotive Power Flow System; Auto Mechanics I: 9043.04.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This automotive power flow system course sets the foundation in the theory of operation of the standard and automatic transmission, clutch assemblies, drive-line and rear axle assemblies. This is a one or two quinmester credit course covering 45 clock hours. In the fourth quinmester course in the tenth year, instruction consists of lectures,…

Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

437

Automotive Stirling Engine Mod I design review report. Volume III  

SciTech Connect

This volume, No. 3, of the Automotive Stirling Engine Mod 1 Design Review Report contains a preliminary parts list and detailed drawings of equipment for the basic Stirling engine and for the following systems: vehicular Stirling Engine System; external heat system; hot and cold engine systems; engine drive; controls and auxiliaries; and vehicle integration. (LCL)

Not Available

1982-08-01

438

Strainrange partitioning behavior of an automotive turbine alloy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report addresses Strainrange Partitioning, an advanced life prediction analysis procedure, as applied to CA-101 (cast IN 792 + Hf), an alloy proposed for turbine disks in automotive gas turbine engines. The methodology was successful in predicting specimen life under thermal-mechanical cycling, to within a factor of + or - 2.

Annis, C. G.; Vanwanderham, M. C.; Wallace, R. M.

1976-01-01

439

Robot trajectory integration for painting automotive parts with multiple patches  

Microsoft Academic Search

Automatic trajectory generation for spray painting is highly desirable for today's automotive manufacturing. Generating a trajectory for a surface with only one patch is widely studied to satisfy the paint thickness constraints. However, a complex surface has to be divided into several patches to satisfy the paint thickness and paint gun orientation constraints. Trajectory generation for a surface with multiple

Heping Chen; Ning Xi; Zhouhua Wei; Yifan Chen; Jeffrey Dahl

2003-01-01

440

Off-line programming: a success for the automotive industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Examines the developing uses of off-line programming (OLP) in the automotive industry, particularly in the areas of robot welding and robot painting of vehicle bodies. States that this is due to the development of graphical simulation tools and outlines their role in “right first time” policies. Looks at applications of OLP at Volvo, Capponi Alesina (Fiat’s largest, painting subcontractor) and

Brian W. Rooks

1997-01-01

441

Vision helping the automotive industry to better customer choice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The application of vision is providing the automotive industry with greater flexibility. Examines applications in both machine guidance and inspection. Examples of robot guidance from windscreen insertion using 2D data to painting of car bodies, which requires 3D vision. Inspection examples are of body-in-white measurement and the quality of rear axle units ready for assembly.

Brian W. Rooks

1997-01-01

442

Automotive body panel containing thermally exfoliated graphite oxide  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An automotive body panel containing a polymer composite formed of at least one polymer and a modified graphite oxide material, which is a thermally exfoliated graphite oxide with a surface area of from about 300 m.sup.2/g to 2600 m.sup.2/g.

Prud'Homme, Robert K. (Inventor); Aksay, Ilhan A. (Inventor); Adamson, Douglas (Inventor); Abdala, Ahmed (Inventor)

2011-01-01

443

Architectures of Automotive Electrical and Electronics (E/E) Systems  

E-print Network

1 Architectures of Automotive Electrical and Electronics (E/E) Systems Nicolas Navet Complexity / RTaW - 3 Strong costs, safety, reliability, timetomarket, reusability, legal constraints ! BMW 7 more than 100 ECUs [wardsauto] Pictures from [3] The case of a "generalist" car manufacturer PSA 35

Navet, Nicolas

444

IT Support for Release Management Processes in the Automotive Industry  

E-print Network

In the automotive industry, car development has been dramatically influenced by the introduction of electrical features like safety or multimedia functions. Car manufacturers expect shorter development cycles by faster) to achieve process maturity in car development or by implementing IEC 61508 to meet safety requirements

Ulm, Universität

445

Dow Corning photonics: the silicon advantage in automotive photonics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Automotive Market offers several opportunities for Dow Corning to leverage the power of silicon-based materials. Dow Corning Photonics Solutions has a number of developments that may be attractive for the emergent photonics needs in automobiles, building on 40 years of experience as a leading Automotive supplier with a strong foundation of expertise and an extensive product offering- from encapsulents and highly reliable resins, adhesives, insulating materials and other products, ensuring that the advantage of silicones are already well-embedded in Automotive systems, modules and components. The recent development of LED encapsulants of exceptional clarity and stability has extended the potential for Dow Corning"s strength in Photonics to be deployed "in-car". Demonstration of board-level and back-plane solutions utilising siloxane waveguide technology offers new opportunities for systems designers to integrate optical components at low cost on diverse substrates. Coupled with work on simple waveguide technology for sensors and data communications applications this suite of materials and technology offerings is very potent in this sector. The harsh environment under hood and the very extreme thermal range that materials must sustain in vehicles due to both their engine and the climate is an applications specification that defines the siloxane advantage. For these passive optics applications the siloxanes very high clarity at the data-communications wavelengths coupled with extraordinary stability offers significant design advantage. The future development of Head-Up-Displays for instrumentation and data display will offer yet more opportunities to the siloxanes in Automotive Photonics.

Clapp, Terry V.; Paquet, Rene; Norris, Ann; Pettersen, Babette

2005-02-01

446

Engine Fundamentals: Automotive Mechanics Instructional Program. Block 2.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The second of six instructional blocks in automotive mechanics, the lessons and supportive information in the document provide a guide for teachers in planning an instructional program in engine fundamentals at the secondary and postsecondary level. The material, as organized, is a suggested sequence of instruction within each block. Each lesson…

O'Brien, Ralph D.

447

CEC-500-2010-FS-018 Automotive Thermoelectric  

E-print Network

CEC-500-2010-FS-018 Automotive Thermoelectric HVAC Development and Demonstration Project thermoelectric cooling would significantly reduce the demand for petroleum and provide a clean alternative will develop and demonstrate an operational and economically-viable thermoelectric Heating Ventilation and Air

448

An injection quantity sensor for automotive applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

For a further optimization of the internal combustion process of automobiles, a miniaturized injection quantity sensor based on the electro-thermal measurement principle was developed. It consists of a thin film metallization of titanium\\/platinum on a low temperature cofired ceramics (LTCC) substrate. For high-precision fuel quantity measurements, the sensor chip was integrated into a finished common rail diesel injection nozzle. The

U. Schmid; H. Seidel

2005-01-01

449

It's not too Late for the Harpy Eagle (Harpia harpyja): High Levels Of Genetic Diversity and Differentiation Can Fuel Conservation Programs  

PubMed Central

Background The harpy eagle (Harpia harpyja) is the largest Neotropical bird of prey and is threatened by human persecution and habitat loss and fragmentation. Current conservation strategies include local education, captive rearing and reintroduction, and protection or creation of trans-national habitat blocks and corridors. Baseline genetic data prior to reintroduction of captive-bred stock is essential for guiding such efforts but has not been gathered previously. Methodology/Findings We assessed levels of genetic diversity, population structure and demographic history for harpy eagles using samples collected throughout a large portion of their geographic distribution in Central America (n?=?32) and South America (n?=?31). Based on 417 bp of mitochondrial control region sequence data, relatively high levels of haplotype and nucleotide diversity were estimated for both Central and South America, although haplotype diversity was significantly higher for South America. Historical restriction of gene flow across the Andes (i.e. between our Central and South American subgroups) is supported by coalescent analyses, the haplotype network and significant FST values, however reciprocally monophyletic lineages do not correspond to geographical locations in maximum likelihood analyses. A sudden population expansion for South America is indicated by a mismatch distribution analysis, and further supported by significant (p<0.05) negative values of Fu and Li's DF and F, and Fu's FS. This expansion, estimated at approximately 60 000 years BP (99 000–36 000 years BP 95% CI), encompasses a transition from a warm and dry time period prior to 50 000 years BP to an interval of maximum precipitation (50 000–36 000 years BP). Notably, this time period precedes the climatic and habitat changes associated with the last glacial maximum. In contrast, a multimodal distribution of haplotypes was observed for Central America suggesting either population equilibrium or a recent decline. Significance High levels of mitochondrial genetic diversity in combination with genetic differentiation among subgroups within regions and between regions highlight the importance of local population conservation in order to preserve maximal levels of genetic diversity in this species. Evidence of historically restricted female-mediated gene flow is an important consideration for captive-breeding programs. PMID:19802391

Lerner, Heather R. L.; Johnson, Jeff A.; Lindsay, Alec R.; Kiff, Lloyd F.; Mindell, David P.

2009-01-01

450

Mississippi Curriculum Framework for Automotive Body Repair (Program CIP: 47.0603--Auto/Automotive Body Repairer). Secondary Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document, which reflects Mississippi's statutory requirement that instructional programs be based on core curricula and performance-based assessment, contains outlines of the instructional units required in local instructional management plans and daily lesson plans for automotive body repair I and II. Presented first are a program…

Mississippi Research and Curriculum Unit for Vocational and Technical Education, State College.

451

Mississippi Curriculum Framework for Automotive Technology Programs (CIP: 47.0604--Automotive Mechanic/Tech.). Postsecondary Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document, which is intended for use by community and junior colleges throughout Mississippi, contains curriculum frameworks for the course sequences in the automotive technology programs cluster. Presented in the introductory section are a description of the program and suggested course sequence. Section I lists baseline competencies, and…

Mississippi Research and Curriculum Unit for Vocational and Technical Education, State College.

452

Mississippi Curriculum Framework for Automotive Mechanics (Program CIP: 47.0604--Auto/Automotive Mechanic/Tech). Secondary Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document, which reflects Mississippi's statutory requirement that instructional programs be based on core curricula and performance-based assessment, contains outlines of the instructional units required in local instructional management plans and daily lesson plans for automotive mechanics I and II. Presented first are a program description…

Mississippi Research and Curriculum Unit for Vocational and Technical Education, State College.

453

Automotive Stirling reference engine design report  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The reference Stirling engine system is described which provides the best possible fuel economy while meeting or exceeding all other program objectives. The system was designed to meet the requirements of a 1984 Pontiac Phoenix (X-body). This design utilizes all new technology that can reasonably be expected to be developed by 1984 and that is judged to provide significant improvement, relative to development risk and cost. Topics covered include: (1) external heat system; (2) hot engine system; (3) cold engine system; (4) engine drive system; (5) power control system and auxiliaries; (6) engine instalation; (7) optimization and vehicle simulation; (8) engine materials; and (9) production cost analysis.

1981-01-01

454

Conservation and renewable energy technologies for transportation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Office of Transportation Technologies (OTT) is charged with long-term, high-risk, and potentially high-payoff research and development of promising transportation technologies that are unlikely to be undertaken by the private sector alone. OTT activities are designed to develop an advanced technology base within the U.S. transportation industry for future manufacture of more energy-efficient, fuel-flexible, and environmentally sound transportation systems. OTT operations are focused on three areas: advanced automotive propulsion systems including gas turbines, low heat rejection diesel, and electric vehicle technologies; advanced materials development and tribology research; and research, development, demonstration, test, and evaluation (including field testing in fleet operations) of alternative fuels. Five papers describing the transportation technologies program have been indexed separately for inclusion on the data base.

1990-11-01

455

Conservation Regional Conservation SavingsRegional Conservation Savings  

E-print Network

the Plan''s Targets?s Targets? March 14, 2008 slide 2 Northwest Power and Conservation Council 55thth Plan Conservation ResourcePlan Conservation Resource Acquisition TargetsAcquisition Targets 20052005 ­­ 2009 = 700 aSavings(MWa) 5th Plan Target Non-Programatic Market Effects Bonneville Funded Conservation (Carry Over) Alliance

456

Development of a high-temperature durable catalyst for use in catalytic combustors for advanced automotive gas turbine engines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Durable catalytic reactors for advanced gas turbine engines were developed. Objectives were: to evaluate furnace aging as a cost effective catalytic reactor screening test, measure reactor degradation as a function of furnace aging, demonstrate 1,000 hours of combustion durability, and define a catalytic reactor system with a high probability of successful integration into an automotive gas turbine engine. Fourteen different catalytic reactor concepts were evaluated, leading to the selection of one for a durability combustion test with diesel fuel for combustion conditions. Eight additional catalytic reactors were evaluated and one of these was successfully combustion tested on propane fuel. This durability reactor used graded cell honeycombs and a combination of noble metal and metal oxide catalysts. The reactor was catalytically active and structurally sound at the end of the durability test.

Tong, H.; Snow, G. C.; Chu, E. K.; Chang, R. L. S.; Angwin, M. J.; Pessagno, S. L.

1981-09-01

457

A Development Curriculum Plan To Achieve a Sequenced Curriculum between High School Courses in Automotive Mechanics and the Mattatuck Community College Automotive Technician Program. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document contains a developmental curriculum plan for an articulated curriculum in automotive mechanics for Connecticut's Mattatuck Community College and area high schools. The curriculum guide includes a course description, criteria for evaluation, attendance policy, objectives, a curriculum outline, a three-part automotive technician test,…

Mattatuck Community Coll., Waterbury, CT.

458

State Articulated Instructional Objectives Guide for Occupational Education Programs. State Pilot Model for Automotive Mechanics (DCC V-003) and Automotive Mechanics (High School).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This articulation instructional objective guide for automotive mechanics contains summary information on fifteen blocks (courses) of instruction. They are introduction to automotive technology; lubrication and vehicle operating maintenance; cooling system maintenance and repair; automobile heater maintenance and repair; braking system maintenance…

North Carolina State Dept. of Community Colleges, Raleigh.

459

Automotive recycling in the United States: Energy conservation and environmental benefits  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The production and use of polymers has been growing and that trend is expected to continue. Likewise, the production of metals from ores is on the rise because of increasing demand. Recycling polymers and residual metals can result in significant energy savings and environmental benefits including a reduction in CO2 emissions. This article describes recycling options for the polymers and metals in end-of-life vehicles.

Pomykala, J. A.; Jody, B. J.; Daniels, E. J.; Spangenberger, J. S.

2007-11-01

460

The influence of surface topography on the forming friction of automotive aluminum sheet  

SciTech Connect

Interest in utilizing aluminum alloys in automobiles has increased in recent years as a result of the desire to lower automobile weight and, consequently, increase fuel economy. While aluminum alloy use in cast parts has increased, outer body panel applications are still being investigated. The industry is interested in improving the formability of these sheet alloys by a combination of alloy design and processing. A different avenue of improving the formability of these alloys may be through patterning of the sheet surface. Surface patterns hold the lubricant during the forming process, with a resulting decrease in the sheet-die surface contact. While it has been speculated that an optimum surface pattern would consist of discrete cavities, detailed investigation into the reduction of forming friction by utilizing discrete patterns is lacking. A series of discrete patterns were investigated to determine the dependence of the forming friction of automotive aluminum alloys on pattern lubricant carrying capacity and on material strength. Automotive aluminum alloys used in outer body panel applications were rolled on experimental rolls that had been prepared with a variety of discrete patterns. All patterns for each alloy were characterized before and after testing both optically and, to determine pattern lubricant capacity, using three dimensional laser profilometry. A draw bead simulation (DBS) friction tester was designed and fabricated to determine the forming friction of the patterned sheets. Tensile testing and frictionless DBS testing were performed to ascertain the material properties of each sheet. The most striking result of this work was the inversely linear dependence of forming friction on the lubricant carrying capacity of the discrete patterns.

Kramer, P.A. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Mineral Engineering]|[Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)

1998-05-01

461

Vehicle Design Evaluation Program (VDEP). A computer program for weight sizing, economic, performance and mission analysis of fuel-conservative aircraft, multibodied aircraft and large cargo aircraft using both JP and alternative fuels  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA Langley Research Center vehicle design evaluation program (VDEP-2) was expanded by (1) incorporating into the program a capability to conduct preliminary design studies on subsonic commercial transport type aircraft using both JP and such alternate fuels as hydrogen and methane;(2) incorporating an aircraft detailed mission and performance analysis capability; and (3) developing and incorporating an external loads analysis capability. The resulting computer program (VDEP-3) provides a preliminary design tool that enables the user to perform integrated sizing, structural analysis, and cost studies on subsonic commercial transport aircraft. Both versions of the VDEP-3 Program which are designated preliminary Analysis VDEP-3 and detailed Analysis VDEP utilize the same vehicle sizing subprogram which includes a detailed mission analysis capability, as well as a geometry and weight analysis for multibodied configurations.

Oman, B. H.

1977-01-01

462

Conservation Tillage: A Promising Perspective for Sustainable Agriculture in Greece  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conservation tillage has been widely implemented in the last decades in several parts of the world as an attractive alternative to conventional tillage due to its potential to protect soils from erosion and compaction, to conserve soil moisture, and to reduce production costs. Significant savings in fuel, labor, and machinery costs are realized with conservation tillage, mainly because fewer trips

Anastasios S. Lithourgidis; Christos A. Damalas; Ilias G. Eleftherohorinos

2009-01-01

463

Impact of novel thermoelectric materials on automotive applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Despite the fact that thermoelectric (TE) devices are compact, quiet, rugged, stable and very reliable, thermoelectrics have found only niche applications because they are also inefficient (less that 5% conversion efficiency is typical) and costly. The key to more widespread acceptance of thermoelectric is the development of materials that are capable of higher conversion efficiency, but other fundamental materials parameters play a role not less important to open to large applications and markets. In particular the automotive sector requires low materials density, materials made from widely-available pure elements with very large supply chains, non-toxicity of elements and potential compliance with REACH and RoHS obligations and low raw material cost combined with low manufacturing costs. The impact of novel TE materials on automotive application will be described focusing on promising nano magnesium silicide and skutterudites.

Brignone, Mauro; Ziggiotti, Alessandro

2012-06-01

464

Guides to pollution prevention: the automotive refinishing industry  

SciTech Connect

Automotive refinishing shops generate a variety of wastes while performing typical auto body repair and refinishing operations such as welding, filling dents, body section adjustments, alignments, sanding and painting. Opportunities for waste reduction exist for the waste thinners, solvents, and paints generated as well as the air emissions and waste water discharges. Both source reduction and recycling opportunities are identified. Suggestions include improved paint application technology and substitute paints; recovery and reuse of solvents and thinners; and implementing good materials management and housekeeping practices. To help companies in the industry identify opportunities for waste reduction at their own shops, the guide includes a set of worksheets which take the user step-by-step through an analysis of the on-site waste generating operations and the possibilities for minimizing each waste. The guide and its worksheets would also be instructive to consultants serving the automotive refinishing industry and government agencies who regulate waste streams generated from these firms.

Not Available

1991-10-01

465

OSGi based integrated service platform for automotive telematics  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the enormous market potentials of telematics industry and for further gains in safety and convenience, automotive telematics has become a hot R&D area in mobile computing and ITS. Quite a number of telematics services have been proposed by automakers and third-party service providers. This paper describes an OSGi based in-vehicle telematics service platform, by which telematics services can be

Yunfeng Ai; Yuan Sun; Wuling Huang; Xin Qiao

2007-01-01

466

Biodegradation of Coir and Sisal Applied in the Automotive Industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the results of biodegradability tests of natural fibers used by the automotive industry, namely: coir,\\u000a coir with latex, and sisal. The biodegradation of coir, coir with latex, and of sisal fibers was determined by monitoring\\u000a the production of carbon dioxide (CO2) (IBAMA—E.1.1.2, 1988) and fungal growth (DIN 53739, 1984). The contents of total extractives, lignin, holocellulose, ashes,

V. L. P. SalazarA; A. L. Leão; D. S. Rosa; J. G. C. Gomez; R. C. P. Alli

467

MM Transmission Arrangement Requirements for Conventional Automotive Vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a An automotive vehicle’s transmission arrangement comprises the whole of the components concerned with transmitting ECE or\\u000a ICE power as well as F-M, P-M or E-M motor power to the road wheels, that is, the M-M clutch and manual transmission (MT), termed the ‘gearbox’, semi-automatic transmission (SAT), fully-automatic transmission (FAT) or continuously-variable transmission (CVT), the propeller shaft (driveshaft), and final drive

B. T. Fijalkowski

468

Characterization of automotive paints: an environmental impact analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The environmental impacts associated with the manufacturing of different automotive paint materials including solvent-based and powder primers, water-based basecoat, and solvent-based and powder clearcoats were investigated based on life cycle analysis (LCA). The LCA of each paint formulation included the environmental emissions associated with mining and production of the raw materials, production of energy required to mine and produce raw

Stella Papasavva; Sheila Kia; Joseph Claya; Raymond Gunther

2001-01-01

469

Environmental transport and transformation of automotive-emitted lead.  

PubMed Central

The use of a mass balance equation assists in clarifying the contribution of automotive-emitted lead to the regional and global problems of the distribution of this element, by taking into account the physicochemical transformation processes operating on the lead during its transport along the various environmental pathways. The technical factors which govern the emission of such lead from automobile engines and which affect its subsequent dispersion through the environment are described. PMID:71234

Piver, W T

1977-01-01

470

Power quality issues and solutions in the automotive industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

With just-in-time production schemes, today's automotive manufacturers stretch flexible-automation and supply-chain management to the limit. Unscheduled downtime at the main assembly plant or at the outsourced supplier's facility can lead to lower productivity and lost profits. When a plant recently experienced four-cycle voltage sag, over $700,000 was lost in the following 72 minutes due to the shutdown of the process

B. Rogers; M. Stephens; M. McGranaghan

2004-01-01

471

Robotic automotive paint curing using thermal signature feedback  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to present a new closed-loop radiative robotic paint curing process that could replace less efficient and bulky convection-based paint curing processes in automotive manufacturing. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The proposed robotic paint curing processes uses an Ultraviolet LED panel for a heat source, an infra-red camera for non-contact thermal signature feedback of cure level,

Fan Zeng; Beshah Ayalew; Mohammed Omar

2009-01-01

472

Assurance of Automotive Safety - A Safety Case Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a A safety case should provide a clear, comprehensible and defensible argument, supported by evidence, that a system is acceptably\\u000a safe to operate in a particular environment. This approach is not new. For example, in the nuclear industry, safety cases\\u000a are approaching their 50\\u000a th\\u000a birthday. In stark contrast, the automotive industry has never been required to produce a safety case.

Robert Palin; Ibrahim Habli

2010-01-01

473

[Fuel substitution of vehicles by natural gas: Summaries of four final technical reports  

SciTech Connect

This report contains summary information on three meetings and highlights of a fourth meeting held by the Society of Automotive Engineers on natural gas fueled vehicles. The meetings covered the following: Natural gas engine and vehicle technology; Safety aspects of alternately fueled vehicles; Catalysts and emission control--Meeting the legislative standards; and LNG--Strengthening the links.

NONE

1996-05-01

474

Severe hydrotreating of diesel can cause fuel-injector pump failure  

Microsoft Academic Search

The US and Europe are increasingly tightening diesel-fuel quality specifications, particularly with respect to sulfur content. This trend is directing the oil industry toward progressively more severe types of hydrocatalytic manufacturing. Although usually beneficial in emissions terms, the overall consequences of such processing routes are not necessarily universally beneficial. In fact, there is strong evidence that automotive diesel fuel manufactured

M. Booth; P. E. Wolveridge

1993-01-01

475

Durability-based design criteria for an automotive structural composite  

SciTech Connect

Before composite structures can be widely used in automotive applications, their long-term durability must be assured. The Durability of Lightweight Composite Structures Project at Oak Ridge National Laboratory was established by the US Department of Energy to help provide that assurance. The project is closely coordinated with the Automotive Composites Consortium. The experimentally-based, durability-driven design criteria described in this paper are the result of the initial project thrust. The criteria address a single reference composite, which is an SRIM (Structural Reaction Injection Molded) polyurethane, reinforced with continuous strand, swirl-mat E-glass fibers. The durability issues addressed include the effects of cyclic and sustained loadings, temperature, automotive fluid environments, and low-energy impacts (e.g., tool drops and roadway kickups) on strength, stiffness, and deformation. The criteria provide design analysis guidance, a multiaxial strength criterion, time-independent and time-dependent allowable stresses, rules for cyclic loading, and damage tolerance design guidance. Environmental degradation factors and the degrading effects of prior loadings are included. Efforts are currently underway to validate the criteria by application to a second random-glass-fiber composite. Carbon-fiber composites are also being addressed.

Corum, J.M.; Battiste, R.L.; Brinkman, C.R.; Ren, W.; Ruggles, M.B.; Yahr, G.T.

1998-11-01

476

Experimental and numerical analysis of automotive gearbox rattle noise  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this work is to characterize the rattle noise of automotive gearboxes, resulting from impacts between toothed wheels of unselected gear ratios. These stereo-mechanical impacts are modeled by a coefficient of restitution which describes damping during the squeezing of the lubricant film for approaching surfaces, and the elastic deformation of impacting bodies. The dynamic response of the loose gear first depends on the design parameters and the engine operating conditions. The unknown parameters are the drag torque and the coefficient of restitution. They are identified experimentally through implementation of two optical encoders in an actual automotive gearbox and the operation of a specific test bench which replicates the automotive power train. Models of the different drag torque sources are validated from analysis of the free damped response of the driveline. The coefficient of restitution and its probability density function are measured from experiments under stationary operating conditions. A nonlinear model is built. The dynamic response of the loose gear depends on the dimensionless backlash, the coefficient of restitution and a dimensionless parameter proposed to describe the rattle excitation level. Experiments under controlled excitation are performed to validate the assumptions, to confirm the ability of the parameter proposed to describe the rattle noise threshold, and to characterize the dynamic response. The nonlinear model predictions are fitted with the drag torque and coefficient of restitution previously identified. They are compared with measurements to demonstrate the ability of the model to predict gear rattle for any loose gear, any gearbox and any operating condition.

Kadmiri, Younes; Rigaud, Emmanuel; Perret-Liaudet, Joël; Vary, Laurence

2012-06-01

477

Exciplex fluorescence visualization systems for pre-combustion diagnosis of an automotive gasoline engine  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports the development of vapor/liquid visualization systems based on an exciplex (excited state complex) formed between dimethyl or diethyl-substituted aniline and trimethyl-substituted naphthalenes. Quantum yields of individual monomers were measured and the exciplex emission spectra as well as fluorescence quenching mechanisms were analyzed. Among the many systems and formulations investigated in this study, an exciplex consisting of 7% 1,4,6-trimethylnaphthalene (TMN) and 5% N,N-dimethylaniline (DMA) in 88% isooctane was found to be the best system for the laser-induced exciplex fluorescence (LIEF) technique, which is used to observe mixture formation in diesel or spark ignition (SI) engines. Observation of spectrally separated fluorescence from monomer in the gas phase and from exciplex in the gasoline fuel requires that the exciplex forming dopants have boiling points within the distillation range of gasoline (20 to 215 C). The systems reported here are expected to be coevaporative with isooctane solvent and thus they should be effective in tracking the vaporization of automotive gasoline fuel.

Kim, J.U.; Golding, B.; Schock, H.J.; Nocera, D.G. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States); Keller, P.

1996-09-01

478

Residential heating conservation in Krakow  

SciTech Connect

A four-building conservation experiment was conducted in Krakow, Poland, during the 1992--1993 and 1993--1994 winters, aimed at determining potential savings of heat in typical multifamily residential buildings connected to the district heat network. Four identical multifamily buildings were selected for measurement and retrofitting. Together with the U.S. team, the local district heat utility, the Krakow development authority, and a Polish energy-efficiency foundation designed and conducted the 264-residence test of utility, building, and occupant conservation strategies during the 1992--1993 winter Baseline data were collected on each building prior to any conservation work. A different scope of work was planned and executed for each building, ranging from controls at the building level only to thermostatic valve control and weatherization. The project team has identified and demonstrated affordable and effective conservation technologies that can be applied to Krakow`s existing concrete-element residential housing. The results suggest that conservation strategies will be key to many alternatives in Krakow`s plan to eliminate low-emission air pollution sources. Conservation can allow connecting more customers to the utility network and eliminating local boilers without requiring construction of new combined heat and power plants. It can reduce heat costs for customers converting from solid-fuel heat sources to less polluting sources. By reducing heat demand, more customers can be served by existing gas and electric distribution systems.

Markel, L.C. [Electrotek Concepts, Knoxville, TN (United States); Reeves, G. [George Reeves Associates, Lake Hopatcong, NJ (United States); Gula, A.; Szydlowski, R.F. [Battelle Pacific Northwest Labs., Richland, WA (United States)

1995-08-01

479

The status of ceramic turbine component fabrication and quality assurance relevant to automotive turbine needs  

SciTech Connect

This report documents a study funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Transportation Technologies (OTT) with guidance from the Ceramics Division of the United States Automotive Materials Partnership (USAMP). DOE and the automotive companies have funded extensive development of ceramic materials for automotive gas turbine components, the most recent effort being under the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles (PNGV) program.

Richerson, D.W.

2000-02-01

480

Reliability analysis of a fuel cell electric city car  

Microsoft Academic Search

Automotive industry is seeking for a viable alternative to internal combustion engines, because of the increasing environmental concern, which suggests to intensify the search for cleaner and more efficient vehicles. Fuel cell electric vehicles are very promising on this respect, but the increased demands of consumers worldwide is satisfied only when the new vehicles are also less expensive to manufacture

M. Marchesoni; S. Savio

2005-01-01

481

Energizing Engineering Students with Hydrogen Fuel Cell Project  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

At Desert Vista High School, near Phoenix, Arizona, Perkins Innovation Grant funding is being used to fund a program that is helping to prepare students for careers in engineering by giving them hands-on experience in areas like hydrogen generation and fuel cell utilization. As one enters Dan Zavaleta's automotive and engineering classroom and lab…

Cannell, Nori; Zavaleta, Dan

2010-01-01

482

PEM FUEL CELL TECHNOLOGY Key Research Needs and Approaches  

E-print Network

06074 23 January 2008 #12;2 UTC POWER MARKET FOCUS Transportation Fuel Cells On-Site Power Solutions #12 Water management Robust systems Fleet vehicles Cyclic conditions Environmental contaminants Field ­ lab (demo) Relaxed specifications (demo) Supply base confidence (demo) Early Market Automotive Optimize

483

Dynamics in Behavioral Response to a Fuel Cell Vehicle Fleet and Hydrogen Fueling Infrastructure: An Exploratory Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transportation is a major contributor of carbon dioxide (CO2) and other greenhouse gas emissions from human activity. It accounts for approximately 14% of total anthropogenic emissions globally and about 27% in the United States. Growing concern regarding the impacts of climate change and greenhouse gas emissions has led to innovations in automotive and fuel technology. However, behavioral response to the

Susan Shaheen; Elliot Martin; Timothy Lipman

2007-01-01

484

Amazing Goop (US Only) -Automotive, Craft, Household, Lawn & Garden, Marine, Plumbing, RV, Sport & Outdoor, Wood & Furniture  

E-print Network

Amazing Goop (US Only) - Automotive, Craft, Household, Lawn & Garden, Marine, Plumbing, RV, Sport & Outdoor, Wood & Furniture 1000021 Consumer products: Adhesive. Eclectic Products Inc. 1075 Arrowsmith

Rollins, Andrew M.

485

A screening model to explore planning decisions in automotive manufacturing systems under demand uncertainty  

E-print Network

Large-scale, complex engineering systems, as for automotive manufacturing, often require significant capital investment and resources for systems configuration. Furthermore, these systems operate in environments that are ...

Yang, Yingxia

2009-01-01

486

Graduate Automotive Technology Education (GATE) Program: Center of Automotive Technology Excellence in Advanced Hybrid Vehicle Technology at West Virginia University  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the technical and educational achievements of the Graduate Automotive Technology Education (GATE) Center at West Virginia University (WVU), which was created to emphasize Advanced Hybrid Vehicle Technology. The Center has supported the graduate studies of 17 students in the Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering and the Lane Department of Computer Science and Electrical Engineering. These students have addressed topics such as hybrid modeling, construction of a hybrid sport utility vehicle (in conjunction with the FutureTruck program), a MEMS-based sensor, on-board data acquisition for hybrid design optimization, linear engine design and engine emissions. Courses have been developed in Hybrid Vehicle Design, Mobile Source Powerplants, Advanced Vehicle Propulsion, Power Electronics for Automotive Applications and Sensors for Automotive Applications, and have been responsible for 396 hours of graduate student coursework. The GATE program also enhanced the WVU participation in the U.S. Department of Energy Student Design Competitions, in particular FutureTruck and Challenge X. The GATE support for hybrid vehicle technology enhanced understanding of hybrid vehicle design and testing at WVU and encouraged the development of a research agenda in heavy-duty hybrid vehicles. As a result, WVU has now completed three programs in hybrid transit bus emissions characterization, and WVU faculty are leading the Transportation Research Board effort to define life cycle costs for hybrid transit buses. Research and enrollment records show that approximately 100 graduate students have benefited substantially from the hybrid vehicle GATE program at WVU.

Nigle N. Clark

2006-12-31

487

PRELIMINARY RESULTS OF THE TRANSFORMATION OF A CAR'S DI DIESEL ENGINE IN TO A DUAL FUEL ONE WITH COMMON RAIL INJECTION  

Microsoft Academic Search

A car Diesel engine has been transformed into a dual fuel engine for operation on natural gas. The potential reduction of polluting emissions makes natural gas a very interesting alternative fuel for automotive applications. The aim of he present investigation is the transformation of a D.I. Diesel engine into a dual fuel engine with pilot injection via the common rail

Arturo De Risi; Domenico Laforgia

1999-01-01

488

77 FR 699 - Regulation of Fuels and Fuel Additives: Identification of Additional Qualifying Renewable Fuel...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...for process energy displacing fossil fuel such as natural gas. Supporting...cost effective as the use of fossil fuels and therefore we conservatively...produced to replace all of the fossil natural gas used as fuel and about half the natural...

2012-01-05

489

Economics of Direct Hydrogen Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cell Systems  

SciTech Connect

Battelle's Economic Analysis of PEM Fuel Cell Systems project was initiated in 2003 to evaluate the technology and markets that are near-term and potentially could support the transition to fuel cells in automotive markets. The objective of Battelle?s project was to assist the DOE in developing fuel cell systems for pre-automotive applications by analyzing the technical, economic, and market drivers of direct hydrogen PEM fuel cell adoption. The project was executed over a 6-year period (2003 to 2010) and a variety of analyses were completed in that period. The analyses presented in the final report include: Commercialization scenarios for stationary generation through 2015 (2004); Stakeholder feedback on technology status and performance status of fuel cell systems (2004); Development of manufacturing costs of stationary PEM fuel cell systems for backup power markets (2004); Identification of near-term and mid-term markets for PEM fuel cells (2006); Development of the value proposition and market opportunity of PEM fuel cells in near-term markets by assessing the lifecycle cost of PEM fuel cells as compared to conventional alternatives used in the marketplace and modeling market penetration (2006); Development of the value proposition of PEM fuel cells in government markets (2007); Development of the value proposition and opportunity for large fuel cell system application at data centers and wastewater treatment plants (2008); Update of the manufacturing costs of PEM fuel cells for backup power applications (2009).

Mahadevan, Kathyayani

2011-10-04

490

10 CFR 490.506 - Alternative fueled vehicle credit transfers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM Alternative Fueled Vehicle Credit Program § 490...represents a vehicle that operates solely on alternative fuel. (b) Proof of credit transfer...

2010-01-01

491

10 CFR 490.8 - Replacement fuel production goal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Replacement fuel production goal. 490.8 Section...OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM General Provisions § 490.8 Replacement fuel production goal. The goal of...

2010-01-01

492

Checklist for transition to new highway fuel(s).  

SciTech Connect

Transportation is vital to the U.S. economy and society. As such, U.S. Presidents have repeatedly stated that the nation needs to reduce dependence on petroleum, especially for the highway transportation sector. Throughout history, highway transportation fuel transitions have been completed successfully both in United States and abroad. Other attempts have failed, as described in Appendix A: Historical Highway Fuel Transitions. Planning for a transition is critical because the changes can affect our nation's ability to compete in the world market. A transition will take many years to complete. While it is tempting to make quick decisions about the new fuel(s) of choice, it is preferable and necessary to analyze all the pertinent criteria to ensure that correct decisions are made. Doing so will reduce the number of changes in highway fuel(s). Obviously, changes may become necessary because of occurrences such as significant technology breakthroughs or major world events. With any and all of the possible transitions to new fuel(s), the total replacement of gasoline and diesel fuels is not expected. These conventional fuels are envisioned to coexist with the new fuel(s) for decades, while the revised fuel and vehicle infrastructures are implemented. The transition process must analyze the needs of the primary 'players,' which consist of the customers, the government, the fuel industry, and the automotive industry. To maximize the probability of future successes, the prime considerations of these groups must be addressed. Section 2 presents a succinct outline of the Checklist. Section 3 provides a brief discussion about the groupings on the Checklist.

Risch, C.; Santini, D.J. (Energy Systems)

2011-12-15

493

LOW-COST COMPOSITES IN VEHICLE MANUFACTURE - Low-Cost Composites in Automotive and Heavy Vehicle Manufacture  

SciTech Connect

The automotive and heavy vehicle manufacturing markets are extremely sensitive to costs. Margins are not high in these markets and differences in fixed costs and national infrastructure between different companies and countries creates a highly competitive environment. Composites can offer tremendous competitive advantages in this industry to help differentiate between products by offering increased safety, strength, fuel efficiency, and recyclability. However, composites are by definition more complex than the largely monolithic materials they replace. This leads to a situation where the composite solution to a structural problem is often a higher-cost solution. To successfully implement a composite material into an engineering system there is a need to drive down the costs of the composite materials. This can be done through the use of low-cost raw material precursors, low-cost manufacturing methods, or by using composites of high specific stiffness so that less material is needed in the structure. In this issue we have gathered five papers describing some of the recent advances in the application of low-cost composites to automotive and heavy vehicle manufacturing. These papers cover metal-matrix composites (MMCs), carbon fiber and natural fiber polymer-based composites, and a unique reaction-processed cermet. The papers included here are by no means exhaustive of the increasing new composite applications in transportation manufacturing, but give a flavor of some of the current research directions.

Grant, Glenn J.

2006-11-01

494

Societal lifecycle costs of cars with alternative fuels\\/engines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effectively addressing concerns about air pollution (especially health impacts of small-particle air pollution), climate change, and oil supply insecurity will probably require radical changes in automotive engine\\/fuel technologies in directions that offer both the potential for achieving near-zero emissions of air pollutants and greenhouse gases and a diversification of the transport fuel system away from its present exclusive dependence on

Joan M. Ogden; Robert H. Williams; Eric D. Larson

2004-01-01

495

76 FR 14070 - In the Matter of Certain Automotive Vehicles and Designs Therefore; Notice of Commission Issuance...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...of Certain Automotive Vehicles and Designs Therefore; Notice of Commission Issuance...International Trade Commission, 500 E Street, SW., Washington, DC 20436, telephone...of certain automotive vehicles and designs therefor by reason of...

2011-03-15

496

78 FR 16247 - Approval for Export-Only Manufacturing Authority, Foreign-Trade Zone 203, SGL Automotive Carbon...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Authority, Foreign-Trade Zone 203, SGL Automotive Carbon Fibers, LLC, (Carbon Fiber Manufacturing), Moses Lake, Washington Pursuant...manufacturing authority on behalf of SGL Automotive Carbon Fibers, LLC, within FTZ 203-Site 3, in Moses...

2013-03-14

497

Dynamic Model and Experimental Validation of a PEM Fuel Cell System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fuel cells are expected to become a challenging technology in terms of efficiency, and fitting the emission reduction schedules [Lemons, J. Power Sources, 29:251, 1] for the automotive application. Their fundamental component consists of two electrodes separated by a membrane. Fuel cells convert chemical energy into electrical energy while producing water and heat. To not disturb the transportation of the reactant gas, a proper membrane hydration needs to be maintained. Two different conditions can occur facing an inadequate water balance which decreases the performance of the stack. An insufficient removal of the accumulated water causes water flooding, decreasing reactant transport rate. Similarly, excessive water removal dries the membrane. To monitor the amount of water inside the cell, dynamic model based on the mass conservation principles and thermodynamic properties is developed in the form of nonlinear state space representation. Fick's law and Maxwell-Stefan model are used to describe multicomponent diffusion. Darcy's law is used to define the porous medium permeability. To demonstrate the accuracy of the proposed model, obtained results are compared with measured data at steady states operation mode. Investigation of the steady-state behavior is discussed in this paper.

Nassif, Younane; Godoy, Emmanuel; Bethoux, Olivier; Roche, Ivan

498

Electrohydraulic Forming of Near-Net Shape Automotive Panels  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project was to develop the electrohydraulic forming (EHF) process as a near-net shape automotive panel manufacturing technology that simultaneously reduces the energy embedded in vehicles and the energy consumed while producing automotive structures. Pulsed pressure is created via a shockwave generated by the discharge of high voltage capacitors through a pair of electrodes in a liquid-filled chamber. The shockwave in the liquid initiated by the expansion of the plasma channel formed between two electrodes propagates towards the blank and causes the blank to be deformed into a one-sided die cavity. The numerical model of the EHF process was validated experimentally and was successfully applied to the design of the electrode system and to a multi-electrode EHF chamber for full scale validation of the process. The numerical model was able to predict stresses in the dies during pulsed forming and was validated by the experimental study of the die insert failure mode for corner filling operations. The electrohydraulic forming process and its major subsystems, including durable electrodes, an EHF chamber, a water/air management system, a pulse generator and integrated process controls, were validated to be capable to operate in a fully automated, computer controlled mode for forming of a portion of a full-scale sheet metal component in laboratory conditions. Additionally, the novel processes of electrohydraulic trimming and electrohydraulic calibration were demonstrated at a reduced-scale component level. Furthermore, a hybrid process combining conventional stamping with EHF was demonstrated as a laboratory process for a full-scale automotive panel formed out of AHSS material. The economic feasibility of the developed EHF processes was defined by developing a cost model of the EHF process in comparison to the conventional stamping process.

Golovaschenko, Sergey F.

2013-09-26

499

MPhil Textile Conservation MPhil Textile Conservation  

E-print Network

MPhil Textile Conservation #12;MPhil Textile Conservation Textile conservation is a multi-disciplinary field combining scientific analysis and a knowledge of textile history and techniques with the practical-solving and hands-on work as well as the chance to develop knowledge of our rich textile heritage and to contribute

Guo, Zaoyang

500

LAND & WATER CONSERVATION PROGRAM  

E-print Network

LAND & WATER CONSERVATION PROGRAM ________________________________________________________________________ Preparing a Conservation Plan INTRODUCTION Conservation of land, water and other natural features. Examples of goals might include protecting the water resources of a town, maintaining or improving local

New Hampshire, University of