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1

Review and Evaluation of Automotive Fuel Conservation Technologies.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In response to a legislative mandate to improve automotive fuel efficiency, NHTSA identified areas to be researched and analyzed to determine the costs, feasibility and impacts on various segments of the population. In all, nine tasks were completed and r...

S. Marek L. Rohter O. J. Viergutz

1981-01-01

2

THE EFFECT OF AUTOMOTIVE FUEL CONSERVATION MEASURES ON AIR POLLUTION  

EPA Science Inventory

A number of policies have been designed to reduce gasoline consumption by automobiles, including: gasoline rationing; increases in the federal excise tax on gasoline; excise taxes on new cars, in inverse proportion to their fuel economy; and regulations to set minimum levels on a...

3

Review and Evaluation of Automotive Fuel Conservation Technologies. Volume I: Summary.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A series of research tasks were instituted to assess the impact of automotive technologies and the manufacturer's overall product plans on existing and future fuel economy requirements. Supported by NHTSA's Technology Assessment Division, this program pro...

T. Taylor

1981-01-01

4

Review and evaluation of automotive fuel conservation technologies. Final summary report Mar 79Mar 81  

Microsoft Academic Search

In response to a legislative mandate to improve automotive fuel efficiency, NHTSA identified areas to be researched and analyzed to determine the costs, feasibility and impacts on various segments of the population. In all, nine tasks were completed and reported in individual reports. This final report presents a summary of the program and a brief description of the results. The

S. Marek; L. Rohter; O. J. Viergutz

1981-01-01

5

Review and evaluation of automotive fuel conservation technologies. Final summary report Mar 79-Mar 81  

SciTech Connect

In response to a legislative mandate to improve automotive fuel efficiency, NHTSA identified areas to be researched and analyzed to determine the costs, feasibility and impacts on various segments of the population. In all, nine tasks were completed and reported in individual reports. This final report presents a summary of the program and a brief description of the results. The reports discussed in this report include: 'Passenger Car/Pedestrian Impact Protection System Evaluation', 'Implementation Analysis of Brake Inspectability Requirements', 'Proposed Rear View Mirror Characteristics and Costs', 'Cost Analysis for Upgraded Passenger Car Rear Signal Lighting Requirements', 'Vehicle Weight/Cost Optimization', 'Cost and Economic Impact of Tire Reserve Load Requirements', 'Implementation Analysis for Daytime Use of Headlights', 'Weight and Detailed Process Cost Study of 1981 Chrysler K-Car (Reliant/Aries) Components', 'Impact of Upgraded FMVSS 105 on the Economy of Operation of the 1979 LDT Fleet', 'Cost, Producibility, and Feasibility Studies of Specific Automotive Systems'.

Marek, S.; Rohter, L.; Viergutz, O.J.

1981-03-01

6

Review and evaluation of automotive fuel conservation technologies. Volume I: summary. Final report Mar 79Sep 81  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of research tasks were instituted to assess the impact of automotive technologies and the manufacturer's overall product plans on existing and future fuel economy requirements. Supported by NHTSA's Technology Assessment Division, this program provided analytical capabilities in the areas of automotive technology, manufacturing costs, and industry assessments. Specific subject areas of investigation include: potential fuel economy improvements from

T. Jr

1981-01-01

7

Automotive Fuel and Exhaust Systems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Materials are provided for a 14-hour course designed to introduce the automotive mechanic to the basic operations of automotive fuel and exhaust systems incorporated on military vehicles. The four study units cover characteristics of fuels, gasoline fuel system, diesel fuel systems, and exhaust system. Each study unit begins with a general…

Irby, James F.; And Others

8

Review and evaluation of automotive fuel conservation technologies. Volume I: summary. Final report Mar 79-Sep 81  

SciTech Connect

A series of research tasks were instituted to assess the impact of automotive technologies and the manufacturer's overall product plans on existing and future fuel economy requirements. Supported by NHTSA's Technology Assessment Division, this program provided analytical capabilities in the areas of automotive technology, manufacturing costs, and industry assessments. Specific subject areas of investigation include: potential fuel economy improvements from variable valve timing of internal combustion engines; effects of tire under inflation on fuel economy; reductions in engine friction; automotive applications of metal/plastic laminates as a substitute material; cost, weight and material analyses of a Ford F-150 light truck; design, cost and weight analyses of truck-trailer rear underride guards; the impact of FMVSS (seat belts) comfort and convenience on vehicle manufacturing; design modifications and manufacturing costs of child seat tether anchorages; and identification of auto manufacturer's technical progress in weight reduction through material substitution and component redesign.

Taylor, T. Jr

1981-12-01

9

Review and Evaluation of Automotive Fuel Conservation Technologies. Volume II: Appendix C.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Appendices of Volumes I and II contain reports on those subject areas not previously submitted under NTIS. These subjects are: effects of automobile tire pressure changes on fuel economy; weight reduction through material substitution and component re...

T. Taylor

1981-01-01

10

Automotive gas turbine fuel control  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A fuel control system is reported for automotive-type gas turbines and particulary advanced gas turbines utilizing variable geometry components to improve mileage and reduce pollution emission. The fuel control system compensates for fuel density variations, inlet temperature variations, turbine vane actuation, acceleration, and turbine braking. These parameters are utilized to control various orifices, spool valves and pistons.

Gold, H. (inventor)

1978-01-01

11

Review and evaluation of automotive fuel conservation technologies. Volume II: appendix C. Final report Mar 79-Sep 81  

SciTech Connect

The Appendices of Volumes I and II contain reports on those subject areas not previously submitted under NTIS. These subjects are: effects of automobile tire pressure changes on fuel economy; weight reduction through material substitution and component redesign; and an alternate design for truck rear underride guard protection.

Taylor, T. Jr

1981-12-01

12

Review and evaluation of automotive fuel conservation technologies. Volume II: appendix C. Final report Mar 79Sep 81  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Appendices of Volumes I and II contain reports on those subject areas not previously submitted under NTIS. These subjects are: effects of automobile tire pressure changes on fuel economy; weight reduction through material substitution and component redesign; and an alternate design for truck rear underride guard protection.

T. Jr

1981-01-01

13

Testing of an automotive fuel cell system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is to present a test platform for automotive fuel cell systems and report some test results on this platform. The test platform was developed based on a test bed of internal combustion engine with a dynamometer, the dynamometer acted as both a load and a measurement instrument. A fuel cell engine, a DC\\/DC converter and an induction traction

Pucheng Pei; Minggao Ouyang; Qingchun Lu; Haiyan Huang; Xihao Li

2004-01-01

14

Materials Challenges for Automotive PEM Fuel Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the past few years, significant R efforts aimed at meeting the challenging cost and performance targets required for the use of Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEM) fuel cells in automotive applications. Besides engineering advances in bipolar plate materials and design, the optimization of membrane-electrode assemblies (MEAs) was an important enabler in reducing the cost and performance gaps towards commercial viability

Hubert Gasteiger

2004-01-01

15

Waste Automotive Lubricating Oil Reuse as a Fuel.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study evaluates the technical, economic and environmental feasibility of automotive waste oil reuse as a fuel. The supply and potential marketability of waste oil fuel is considered in relationship to existing and projected fossil fuel usage in the U...

B. Kincannon J. Carroll J. Sahagian N. Surprenant S. Chansky

1974-01-01

16

Fuel cells for automotive applications: overview  

SciTech Connect

Projections are made of fuel cell technology for vehicular use. The fuel used to provide hydrogen to a phosphoric acid fuel cell is assumed to be methanol. Experimental performance data for a golf cart is discussed. The design, economics, and predicted performance for a fuel cell retrofitted x-car with lead-acid batteries for peaking power, are described. The technical and economic feasibility of using fuel cells in city buses, vans and passenger cars are examined. It is concluded that the fuel cell/battery hybrid vehicle will have the advantages of high efficiency, i.e., 53% improvement in fuel economy, long fuel cell life, performance comparable to IC engine vehicles, low maintenance, petroleum fuel conservation, low pollution, and quiet operation. From a comparison of the lifetime costs of conventional vehicles versus fuel cell vehicles, it is concluded that commercialization of fuel cells for buses is most feasible followed by van and automobile applications. (LCL)

McCormick, J.B.

1980-01-01

17

Production of automotive fuels from coal in South Africa  

SciTech Connect

Automotive fuels from resources such as coal, shale, and tar sands will become increasingly important. Their rate of introduction will vary from country to country, depending on local circumstances. This paper relates the South African scenario for the production of synthetic automotive fuels from coal, describes the plants and processes used, and discusses the properties of the products.

Hoogendoorn, J.C.

1981-01-01

18

GATE Center for Automotive Fuel Cell Systems at Virginia Tech  

SciTech Connect

The Virginia Tech GATE Center for Automotive Fuel Cell Systems (CAFCS) achieved the following objectives in support of the domestic automotive industry: â?¢ Expanded and updated fuel cell and vehicle technologies education programs; â?¢ Conducted industry directed research in three thrust areas â?? development and characterization of materials for PEM fuel cells; performance and durability modeling for PEM fuel cells; and fuel cell systems design and optimization, including hybrid and plug-in hybrid fuel cell vehicles; â?¢ Developed MS and Ph.D. engineers and scientists who are pursuing careers related to fuel cells and automotive applications; â?¢ Published research results that provide industry with new knowledge which contributes to the advancement of fuel cell and vehicle systems commercialization. With support from the Dept. of Energy, the CAFCS upgraded existing graduate course offerings; introduced a hands-on laboratory component that make use of Virginia Techâ??s comprehensive laboratory facilities, funded 15 GATE Fellowships over a five year period; and expanded our program of industry interaction to improve student awareness of challenges and opportunities in the automotive industry. GATE Center graduate students have a state-of-the-art research experience preparing them for a career to contribute to the advancement fuel cell and vehicle technologies.

Nelson, Douglas

2011-05-31

19

Ethanol/Gasoline Blends as Automotive Fuel.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Vehicle tests were conducted to determine the influence of ethanol in a 10% ethanol/90% gasoline fuel mixture on fuel economy, regulated and unregulated exhaust emissions, exhaust hydrocarbon distribution, and road octane quality. Volumetric fuel economy ...

J. R. Allsup D. B. Eccleston

1979-01-01

20

Oxidation of automotive primary reference fuels at elevated pressures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Automotive engine knock limits the maximum operating compression ratio and ultimate thermodynamic efficiency of spark-ignition (SI) engines. In compression-ignition (CI) or diesel cycle engines, the premixed burn phase, which occurs shortly after injection, determines the time it takes for autoignition to occur. In order to improve engine efficiency and to recommend more efficient, cleaner-burning alternative fuels, they must understand the

C V Callahan; H J Curran; F L Dryer; W J Pitz; C K Westbrook

1999-01-01

21

Demonstration of dissociated methanol as an automotive fuel: system performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

An automotive system was devised to provide H-rich gases to an internal combustion engine by dissociating MeOH on board the vehicle, and the results of engine dynamometer testing are presented. The dissociation of MeOH absorbs heat from the engine exhaust and increases the lower heating value of the fuel by 22%. The engine thermal efficiency is increased by raising the

J. G. Finegold; M. E. Karpuk; J. T. McKinnon; R. Passamaneck

1981-01-01

22

Emission Characteristics of Propane as Automotive Fuel.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Air pollutants in exhaust gas produced from LP-gas (propane) were studied using both laboratory engines and vehicles. The objective of the study was both to evaluate propane as a low-pollution fuel and to provide information on adjustment of engine parame...

J. R. Allsup R. D. Fleming

1972-01-01

23

Glycerol based automotive fuels from future biorefineries  

Microsoft Academic Search

After the energy crisis in the 1970s, considerable attention was focused on the development of alternate energy resources. At present, there is a renewed interest in biofuels due to increasing concerns about energy security and environmental pollution. One such biobased fuel that is being widely commercialized is biodiesel. With the increasing production of biodiesel a glut of glycerol has been

Sandun Fernando; Sushil Adhikari; Kiran Kota; Ranjitha Bandi

2007-01-01

24

Passenger Car Fuel Conservation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Detailed information on the way passenger car fuel consumption is affected by how people drive and by the care taken to keep car engines and tires in proper running order was sought through highway test operations. Test operations included: (1) measuremen...

P. J. Claffey

1976-01-01

25

Start-up analysis for automotive PEM fuel cell systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The development of fuel cell cars can play an important role in resolving transport problems, due to the high environmental compatibility and high efficiency of this kind of vehicle. Among the different types of fuel cells, proton-exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) are considered the best solution for automotive applications at the moment. In this work, constructive criteria are discussed with the aim of obtaining a power generation module adaptable to a wide range of cars. A particular problem in accomplishing the overall project is represented by the definition of the compressor system for air feeding. In this work, the design approach to the problem will be delineated: some options are reviewed and the best solution is analysed. The transient response of the system (fuel cell and compressor) is investigated in order to optimise the start-up running through a model of a fuel cell stack and a compressor simulation. The model and its results are proposed as a work procedure to solve the problem, by varying external conditions: in fact, to perform the system start-up under stable conditions, the air relative humidity and temperature must be maintained in a proper range of values. The approach here presented has been utilised for the definition of the characteristics of the power module and layout of a middle-size hybrid city bus in the framework of a project promoted by the European Union.

De Francesco, M.; Arato, E.

26

Oxidation of automotive primary reference fuels at elevated pressures  

SciTech Connect

Automotive engine knock limits the maximum operating compression ratio and ultimate thermodynamic efficiency of spark-ignition (SI) engines. In compression-ignition (CI) or diesel cycle engines, the premixed burn phase, which occurs shortly after injection, determines the time it takes for autoignition to occur. In order to improve engine efficiency and to recommend more efficient, cleaner-burning alternative fuels, they must understand the chemical kinetic processes that lead to autoignition in both SI and CI engines. These engines burn large molecular-weight blended fuels, a class to which the primary reference fuels (PRF) n-heptane and iso-octane belong. In this study, experiments were performed under engine like conditions in a high-pressure flow reactor using both the pure PRF fuels and their mixtures in the temperature range 550-880 K and 12.5 atm pressure. These experiments not only provide information on the reactivity of each fuel but also identify the major intermediate products formed during the oxidation process. A detailed chemical kinetic mechanism is used to simulate these experiments, and comparisons of experimentally measured and model predicted profiles for O{sub 2}, CO, CO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O and temperature rise are presented. Intermediates identified in the flow reactor are compared with those present in the computations, and the kinetic pathways leading to their formation are discussed. In addition, autoignition delay times measured in a shock tube over the temperature range 690-1220 K and at 40 atm pressure were simulated. Good agreement between experiment and simulation was obtained for both the pure fuels and their mixtures. Finally, quantitative values of major intermediates measured in the exhaust gas of a cooperative fuels research engine operating under motored engine conditions are presented together with those predicted by the detailed model.

Callahan, C V; Curran, H J; Dryer, F L; Pitz, W J; Westbrook, C K

1999-03-01

27

Evaluation of dissociated and steam-reformed methanol as automotive engine fuels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dissociated and steam reformed methanol were evaluated as automotive engine fuels. Advantages and disadvantages in using methanol in the reformed rather than liquid state are discussed. Engine dynamometer tests were conducted with a four cylinder, 2.3 liter, spark ignition automotive engine to determine performance and emission characteristics operating on simulated dissociated and steam reformed methanol (2Hâ + CO and 3Hâ

T. R. Lalk; D. M. McCall; J. M. McCanlies

1984-01-01

28

Automotive Stirling engine development program. [fuel economy assessment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Ford/DOE automotive Stirling engine development program is directed towards establishing the technological and developmental base that would enable a decision on whether an engineering program should be directed at Stirling engine production. The fuel economy assessment aims to achieve, with a high degree of confidence, the ERDA proposal estimate of 20.6 MPG (gasoline) for a 4500 lb 1WC Stirling engine passenger car. The current M-H fuel economy projection for the 170 HP Stirling engine is 15.7 MPG. The confidence level for this projection is 32%. A confidence level of 29% is projected for a 22.1 MPG estimate. If all of the planned analyses and test work is accomplished at the end of the one year effort, and the projected improvements are substantiated, the confidence levels would rise to 59% for the 20.6 MPG projection and 54% for the 22.1 MPG projection. Progress achieved thus far during the fuel economy assessment is discussed.

Kitzner, E. W.

1978-01-01

29

Automobile air pollution: Automotive fuels. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the use of fuels and fuel additives for the reduction of automotive air pollution. Alternative fuels discussed include gasohol, methane, natural gas, and hydrogen. Improvements to gasoline and its properties which affect air pollution are considered, as well as lead and other fuel additives. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

NONE

1995-01-01

30

Compatibility of alternative fuels with advanced automotive gas turbine and stirling engines. A literature survey  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The application of alternative fuels in advanced automotive gas turbine and Stirling engines is discussed on the basis of a literature survey. These alternative engines are briefly described, and the aspects that will influence fuel selection are identified. Fuel properties and combustion properties are discussed, with consideration given to advanced materials and components. Alternative fuels from petroleum, coal, oil shale, alcohol, and hydrogen are discussed, and some background is given about the origin and production of these fuels. Fuel requirements for automotive gas turbine and Stirling engines are developed, and the need for certain reseach efforts is discussed. Future research efforts planned at Lewis are described.

Cairelli, J.; Horvath, D.

1981-01-01

31

USEtox relevance as an impact indicator for automotive fuels. Application on diesel fuel, gasoline and hard coal electricity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  In order to provide more sustainable fuels and address the depletion of oil as a feedstock, the automotive industry must adapt\\u000a to a growing market share of alternative fuels. The environmental impacts of the automotive industry to date would suggest\\u000a that these alternatives will be more environmentally friendly than petroleum-based fuels. This is nonetheless an assumption\\u000a that cannot be confirmed

Florent Querini; Stéphane Morel; Valérie Boch; Patrick Rousseaux

32

Biogas foer vaerme, el-, och drivmedelsproduktion. (Biogas for production of heat, power and automotive fuels).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report gives a description of suitable techniques for production from biogas of heat, power and automotive fuels. Techniques for gas purification and load equalization are also described. Today, district heat production is the most common field of ap...

E. Stroem T. Ekeborg

1991-01-01

33

Evaluation of Dissociated and Steam-Reformed Methanol as Automotive Engine Fuels.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Dissociated and steam reformed methanol were evaluated as automotive engine fuels. Advantages and disadvantages in using methanol in the reformed rather than liquid state are discussed. Engine dynamometer tests were conducted with a four cylinder, 2.3 lit...

T. R. Lalk D. M. McCall J. M. McCanlies

1984-01-01

34

Current Status of Alternative Automotive Power Systems and Fuels. Volume I. Executive Summary.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A summary is given of technical information collected on: (1) alternatives to the conventional internal combustion engine for automobiles; and (2) nonpetroleum-based automotive fuels derived from domestic sources. Alternative heat engines considered were ...

D. E. Lapedes M. G. Hinton J. Meltzer T. Iura

1974-01-01

35

Evaluation of Dissociated and Steam-Reformed Methanol as Automotive Engine Fuels.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Dissociated and steam reformed methanol were evaluated as automotive engine fuels. Advantages and disadvantages in using methanol in the reformed rather than liquid state were discussed. Engine dynamometer tests were conducted with a four cylinder, 2.3 li...

T. R. Lalk D. M. Mccall J. M. Mccanlies

1984-01-01

36

Lightweight aircraft engines, the potential and problems for use of automotive fuels  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A comprehensive data research and analysis for evaluating the use of automotive fuels as a substitute for aviation grade fuel by piston-type general aviation aircraft engines is presented. Historically known problems and potential problems with fuels were reviewed for possible impact relative to application to an aircraft operational environment. This report reviews areas such as: fuel specification requirements, combustion knock, preignition, vapor lock, spark plug fouling, additives for fuel and oil, and storage stability.

Patterson, D. J.

1983-01-01

37

Waste Automotive Lubricating Oil as a Municipal Incinerator Fuel.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The technical, economic and environmental impact of using waste automotive lubricating oils to improve the municipal incineration combustion process was examined. Laboratory analyses of selected physical properties of waste oil and a waste oil burner test...

S. Chansky B. McCoy N. Surprenant

1973-01-01

38

Automobile air pollution: Automotive fuels. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the use of fuels and fuel additives for the reduction of automotive air pollution. Alternative fuels discussed include gasohol, methane, natural gas, and hydrogen. Improvements to gasoline and its properties which affect air pollution are considered, as well as lead and other fuel additives. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

NONE

1996-04-01

39

How "Green" Is Your Fuel? Creation and Comparison of Automotive Biofuels  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In recent years, biofuel development and use has risen significantly. This undergraduate laboratory experiment educates students on the various alternative fuels that are being developed for automotive applications and the advantages and disadvantages of each. Students replicate commercially available alternative fuels, E85 and biodiesel, as well…

Wagner, Eugene P.; Koehle, Maura A.; Moyle, Todd M.; Lambert, Patrick D.

2010-01-01

40

Fuel-conservative engine technology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Aircraft fuel consumption is discussed in terms of its efficient use, and the conversion of energy from sources other than petroleum. Topics discussed include: fuel from coal and oil shale, hydrogen deficiency of alternate sources, alternate fuels evaluation program, and future engines.

Dugan, J. F., Jr.; Mcaulay, J. E.; Reynolds, T. W.; Strack, W. C.

1975-01-01

41

Bilingual Skills Training Program. Auto Mechanics. Module 3.0: The Automotive Fuel System.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This module on the automotive fuel system is the third of six (CE 028 296-301) in the auto mechanics course of a bilingual skills training program. (A Vocabulary Development Workbook is available as CE 028 294.) The course is designed to furnish theoretical and laboratory experience. Module objectives are for students to develop trade-related…

Northern New Mexico Community Coll., El Rito.

42

Preliminary computational studies of flash boiling for fuel injectors in gasoline direct injection automotive engines  

Microsoft Academic Search

A flash boiling model is being developed to capture the effects of bubble nucleation and growth inside an injector. This model will be applied to the study of flash boiling fuel injector sprays in gasoline direct injection (GDI) automotive engines. There is potential for flash boiling to reduce drop sizes, increase spray cone angles, and ultimately produce more favorable combustible

Dar-Lon Chang; Chia-fon F. Lee

2002-01-01

43

Ethanol-containing automotive fuels – a safety concept for petrol stations in Germany  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to the promotion of renewable energy sources, the demand for ethanol\\/automotive fuels has increased,\\u000a whereby the ethanol is produced from biomass. As these fuels are flammable liquids, explosion protection\\u000a concepts are needed for their transport, use and storage and for the operation of petrol stations. Safety\\u000a characteristics are the basis of such concepts. Since the data for ethanol, on

E. Brandes; D.-H. Frobese

2009-01-01

44

Life cycle greenhouse gas emissions, fossil fuel demand and solar energy conversion efficiency in European bioethanol production for automotive purposes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Crop derived biofuels such as (bio)ethanol are increasingly applied for automotive purposes. They have, however, a relatively low efficiency in converting solar energy into automotive power. The outcome of life cycle studies concerning ethanol as to fossil fuel inputs and greenhouse gas emissions associated with such inputs depend strongly on the assumptions made regarding e.g. allocation, inclusion of upstream processes

L. Reijnders; M. A. J. Huijbregts

2007-01-01

45

Fuel conservative aircraft engine technology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Technology developments for more fuel-efficiency subsonic transport aircraft are reported. Three major propulsion projects were considered: (1) engine component improvement - directed at current engines; (2) energy efficient engine - directed at new turbofan engines; and (3) advanced turboprops - directed at technology for advanced turboprop-powered aircraft. Each project is reviewed and some of the technologies and recent accomplishments are described.

Nored, D. L.

1978-01-01

46

Fuel economy screening study of advanced automotive gas turbine engines  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Fuel economy potentials were calculated and compared among ten turbomachinery configurations. All gas turbine engines were evaluated with a continuously variable transmission in a 1978 compact car. A reference fuel economy was calculated for the car with its conventional spark ignition piston engine and three speed automatic transmission. Two promising engine/transmission combinations, using gasoline, had 55 to 60 percent gains over the reference fuel economy. Fuel economy sensitivities to engine design parameter changes were also calculated for these two combinations.

Klann, J. L.

1980-01-01

47

Magnesium and its alloys applications in automotive industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study is to review and evaluate the applications of magnesium in the automotive industry that can significantly\\u000a contribute to greater fuel economy and environmental conservation. In the study, the current advantages, limitations, technological\\u000a barriers and future prospects of Mg alloys in the automotive industry are given. The usage of magnesium in automotive applications\\u000a is also assessed

Mustafa Kemal Kulekci

2008-01-01

48

Federal Funds: Fuel Conservation Fellowship Program  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To train individuals who might design and implement plans for developing alternative sources of energy like solar or geothermal power, the Office of Education supports graduate fellowships in mining, mineral, and mineral fuel conservation. Describes three projects funded by the fellowship program during the 1976-77 academic year. (Author/RK)

Bobowski, Rita Cipalla

1977-01-01

49

Partial oxidation fuel reforming for automotive power systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

For widespread use of fuel cells to power automobiles in the near future, it is necessary to convert gasoline or other transportation fuels to hydrogen on-board the vehicle. Partial oxidation reforming is particularly suited to this application as it elim...

S. Ahmed S. Chalk M. Krumpelt R. Kumar J. Milliken

1999-01-01

50

Oxidation of automotive primary reference fuels in a high pressure flow reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Automotive engine knock limits the maximum operating compression ratio and ultimate thermodynamic efficiency of spark-ignition (SI) engines. In compression-ignition (CI) or diesel cycle engines the premixed urn phase, which occurs shortly after injection, determines the time it takes for autoignition to occur. In order to improve engine efficiency and to recommend more efficient, cleaner-burning alternative fuels, we must understand the

H. J. Curran; W. J. Pitz; C. K. Westbrook; C. V. Callahan; F. L. Dryer

1998-01-01

51

Design and Analysis of Fuel-Cell Hybrid Systems Oriented to Automotive Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hybridization with high specific energy-storage devices such as supercapacitors (SCs) has important advantages in fuel-cell (FC)-based systems. This paper presents an approach for the design and analysis of FC hybrid systems (FCHSs) oriented to automotive applications. The FCHS is considered to be the most attractive long-term option for propulsion of passenger cars. The design stage includes the determination of the

Diego Feroldi; Maria Serra; Jordi Riera

2009-01-01

52

Sunflower seed oil: automotive fuel source. Final technical report  

SciTech Connect

The intent of this portion of the project has to demonstrate the feasibility of utilizing sunflower seed oil as an alternate fuel for the spark ignition engine. The research was limited to small, one cylinder, air-cooled engines that are very common on the market place. Conventional fuels, such as gasoline, kerosene, diesel fuel blended with the sunflower oil were used. Sunfuel, sunflower oil, is difficult to procure and relatively expensive at approximately $4.00/gal. The research was unconcerned with how readily available or how competitively priced it was against petroleum products. All of the effort was to assume it was available and cost effective. We concentrated on making it burn in the heat engine and achieved it with marginal success. The review of the literature which was carried on concurrently with the research indicates several problems associated with producing Sunfuel.

Denny, W.M.

1984-01-01

53

Partial oxidation fuel reforming for automotive power systems.  

SciTech Connect

For widespread use of fuel cells to power automobiles in the near future, it is necessary to convert gasoline or other transportation fuels to hydrogen on-board the vehicle. Partial oxidation reforming is particularly suited to this application as it eliminates the need for heat exchange at high temperatures. Such reformers offer rapid start and good dynamic performance. Lowering the temperature of the partial oxidation process, which requires the development of a suitable catalyst, can increase the reforming efficiency. Catalytic partial oxidation (or autothermal) reformers and non-catalytic partial oxidation reformers developed by various organizations are presently undergoing testing and demonstration. This paper summarizes the process chemistries as well as recent test data from several different reformers operating on gasoline, methanol, and other fuels.

Ahmed, S.; Chalk, S.; Krumpelt, M.; Kumar, R.; Milliken, J.

1999-09-07

54

Development of detergent additives for automotive fuels in other countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

With increasing demands on environmental protection and with the production of reformulated unleaded motor fuels, new and effective detergent additives are urgently needed. A number of monographs and scientific works have been devoted to problems involved in the development and application of such additives. Since the mid-1980s in the United States and certain other countries, a crisis has been noted

É. L. Zakharova; P. S. Deineko

1994-01-01

55

Advanced Automotive Fuels Research, Development, and Commercialization Cluster (OH)  

SciTech Connect

Technical aspects of producing alternative fuels that may eventually supplement or replace conventional the petroleum-derived fuels that are presently used in vehicular transportation have been investigated. The work was centered around three projects: 1) deriving butanol as a fuel additive from bacterial action on sugars produced from decomposition of aqueous suspensions of wood cellulose under elevated temperature and pressure; 2) using highly ordered, openly structured molecules known as metal-organic framework (MOF) compounds as adsorbents for gas separations in fuel processing operations; and 3) developing a photocatalytic membrane for solar-driven water decomposition to generate pure hydrogen fuel. Several departments within the STEM College at YSU contributed to the effort: Chemistry, Biology, and Chemical Engineering. In the butanol project, sawdust was blended with water at variable pH and temperature (150 – 250{degrees}C), and heated inside a pressure vessel for specified periods of time. Analysis of the extracts showed a wide variety of compounds, including simple sugars that bacteria are known to thrive upon. Samples of the cellulose hydrolysate were fed to colonies of Clostridium beijerinckii, which are known to convert sugars to a mixture of compounds, principally butanol. While the bacteria were active toward additions of pure sugar solutions, the cellulose extract appeared to inhibit butanol production, and furthermore encouraged the Clostridium to become dormant. Proteomic analysis showed that the bacteria had changed their genetic code to where it was becoming sporulated, i.e., the bacteria were trying to go dormant. This finding may be an opportunity, as it may be possible to genetically engineer bacteria that resist the butanol-driven triggering mechanism to stop further fuel production. Another way of handling the cellulosic hydrolysates was to simply add the enzymes responsible for butanol synthesis to the hydrolytic extract ex-vivo. These enzymes are generally not available commercially, however, and those that are can be quite expensive. Accordingly, the genes responsible for enzyme synthesis were inserted into other microorganisms in order to accelerate enzyme production. This was demonstrated for two of the required enzymes in the overall series. In the MOF project, a number of new MOF compounds were synthesized and characterized, as well as some common MOFs well-known for their adsorption properties. Selectivity for specific gases such as CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2} was demonstrated, although it was seen that water vapor would frequently act as an interferent. This work underscored the need to test MOF compounds under real world conditions, i.e., room temperature and above instead of liquid N{sub 2} temperature, and testing adsorption using blends of gases instead of pure components. In the solar membrane project, thin films of CdTe and WO{sub 3} were applied to steel substrates and used as p-type and n-type semiconductors, respectively, in the production of H{sub 2} and O{sub 2}. Testing with {sup 2}H and {sup 18}O isotopically labeled water enabled substantiation of net water-splitting.

Linkous, Clovis; Hripko, Michael; Abraham, Martin; Balendiran, Ganesaratnam; Hunter, Allen; Lovelace-Cameron, Sherri; Mette, Howard; Price, Douglas; Walker, Gary; Wang, Ruigang

2013-08-31

56

Postmortem ethanol in the setting of ethanol-containing automotive fuel.  

PubMed

The pilot of a light aircraft that crashed after a loss of power was found to have ethanol in the vitreous and the blood, but almost none in the urine. The globes of the eyes were intact, and the body was refrigerated after recovery until the autopsy was performed the following morning. The pilot was described as a "nondrinker," and additional specialized toxicology testing results were inconsistent with ethanol ingestion. The pilot's body was extensively exposed to fuel during the prolonged extraction. Investigation determined that the aircraft had been fueled with gasoline that contained 10% ethanol. Although exposure to automotive fuel has not been previously described as a source of ethanol in postmortem specimens, it may represent a source for the ethanol detected during postmortem toxicology testing in this case, and this finding may be relevant to other cases with similar exposure. PMID:22835972

Garber, Mitchell A; Canfield, Dennis V; Lewis, Russell J; Simmons, Samuel D; Radisch, Deborah L

2013-03-01

57

Piezoceramic multilayer actuators for fuel injection systems in automotive area  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cofired multilayer piezoceramic actuators as extremely fast valve driving elements will lead to a significant progress in the field of fuel injection systems. A careful adaptation of the component performance to the system demands, an extraordinary high reliability, and competitive low production costs are prerequisites for this large-scale industrial application. With proper material selection as basis, conventional multilayer technology has to be substantially extended in order to achieve large stack volumes, to avoid degradation effects during cofiring and nevertheless to meet the target costs. Under large-signal driving conditions, the static and dynamic behavior of the component is essentially influenced by driving pulse shape, clamping force, and stiffness of the load. Linear FE methods are employed to calculate the performance criteria of different actuator designs. Moreover, a FE-implementation using a micromechanical domain switching model was developed in order to describe the strongly nonlinear material behavior. Together with a quantitative estimation of crack initiation and propagation by means of fracture mechanics, these methods can give valuable hits for controlling the effects of fatigue and deterioration which may limit the operating life time. In order to optimize the interaction of the electrical and mechanical parts in the injection system, dynamic models of piezoelectric components must be provided. A nonlinear model of the stack actuator has been developed for the analysis software MATLAB/SIMULINK. Special attention has been paid to the hysteresis properties.

Schuh, Carsten; Steinkopff, Thorsten; Wolff, Andreas; Lubitz, Karl

2000-06-01

58

Evaluation of dissociated and steam-reformed methanol as automotive engine fuels  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Dissociated and steam reformed methanol were evaluated as automotive engine fuels. Advantages and disadvantages in using methanol in the reformed rather than liquid state were discussed. Engine dynamometer tests were conducted with a four cylinder, 2.3 liter, spark ignition automotive engine to determine performance and emission characteristics operating on simulated dissociated and steam reformed methanol (2H2 + CO and 3H2 + CO2 respectively), and liquid methanol. Results are presented for engine performance and emissions as functions of equivalence ratio, at various throttle settings and engine speeds. Operation on dissociated and steam reformed methanol was characterized by flashback (violent propagation of a flame into the intake manifold) which limited operation to lower power output than was obtainable using liquid methanol. It was concluded that: an automobile could not be operated solely on dissociated or steam reformed methanol over the entire required power range - a supplementary fuel system or power source would be necessary to attain higher powers; the use of reformed mechanol, compared to liquid methanol, may result in a small improvement in thermal efficiency in the low power range; dissociated methanol is a better fuel than steam reformed methanol for use in a spark ignition engine; and use of dissociated or steam reformed methanol may result in lower exhaust emissions compared to liquid methanol.

Lalk, T. R.; Mccall, D. M.; Mccanlies, J. M.

1984-01-01

59

Algorithm for fuel conservative horizontal capture trajectories  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A real time algorithm for computing constant altitude fuel-conservative approach trajectories for aircraft is described. The characteristics of the trajectory computed were chosen to approximate the extremal trajectories obtained from the optimal control solution to the problem and showed a fuel difference of only 0.5 to 2 percent for the real time algorithm in favor of the extremals. The trajectories may start at any initial position, heading, and speed and end at any other final position, heading, and speed. They consist of straight lines and a series of circular arcs of varying radius to approximate constant bank-angle decelerating turns. Throttle control is maximum thrust, nominal thrust, or zero thrust. Bank-angle control is either zero or aproximately 30 deg.

Neuman, F.; Erzberger, H.

1981-01-01

60

Experimental evaluation of fuel preparation systems for an automotive gas turbine catalytic combustor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Premixing-prevaporizing fuel systems were evaluated for use with a catalytic reactor for possible automotive gas turbine application. Spatial fuel-air distributions, degree of vaporization, pressure drop and air velocity profiles were measured. Three airblast injectors and an air-assist nozzle were tested. Air swirlers were used to improve the spatial fuel-air distribution. The work was done in a 12 cm tubular duct. Test conditions were: a pressure of 0.3 and 0.5 MPa, inlet air temperatures up to 800 K, air velocities of 10 and 20 m/s and fuel-air ratios up to 0.020. The fuel was Jet A. The best results were obtained with an air-blast configuration that used multiple cones to provide high velocity air for atomization and also straightened the inlet airflow. With this configuration, uniform spatial fuel-air distributions were obtained with mixing lengths greater than 17.8 cm. In this length, vaporization of the fuel was 98.5 percent complete at an inlet air temperature of 700 K. The total pressure loss was 1.0 percent with a reference velocity of 20 m/s and 0.25 percent at 10 m/s. The air velocity was uniform across the duct and no autoignition reactions were observed.

Tacina, R. R.

1977-01-01

61

Survey Evidence on the Willingness of U.S. Consumers to Pay for Automotive Fuel Economy  

SciTech Connect

Prospect theory, which was awarded the Nobel Prize in Economics in 2002, holds that human beings faced with a risky bet will tend to value potential losses about twice as much as potential gains. Previous research has demonstrated that prospect theory could be sufficient to explain an energy paradox in the market for automotive fuel economy. This paper analyzes data from four random sample surveys of 1,000 U.S. households each in 2004, 2011, 2012 and 2013. Households were asked about willingness to pay for future fuel savings as well as the annual fuel savings necessary to justify a given upfront payment. Payback periods inferred from household responses are consistent over time and across different formulations of questions. Mean calculated payback periods are short, about 3 years, but there is substantial dispersion among individual responses. Calculated payback periods do not appear to be correlated with the attributes of respondents. Respondents were able to quantitatively describe their uncertainty about both vehicle fuel economy and future fuel prices. Simulation of loss averse behavior based on this stated uncertainty illustrate how loss aversion could lead consumers to substantially undervalue future fuel savings relative to their expected value.

Greene, David L [ORNL; Evans, David H [Sewanee, The University of the South; Hiestand, John [Indiana University

2013-01-01

62

Drivmedel fraan kaella till anvaendande. Etapp 1 - foerstudie. (Automotive fuels from source to end use - phase one).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this pre-study is to analyse the full upgrading of automotive fuels for use in Sweden. The scope of this pre-study is to perpare for a more comprehensive study. This second phase study will explore energy utilization, emissions and environm...

M. Ekelund

1990-01-01

63

Standardized Curriculum for Automotive Mechanics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Standardized curricula are provided for two courses for the secondary vocational education program in Mississippi: automotive mechanics I and II. The six units in automotive mechanics I are as follows: orientation and safety; tools, equipment, and manuals; measurement; automotive engines; basic electrical systems; and fuel systems. Automotive

Mississippi State Dept. of Education, Jackson. Office of Vocational, Technical and Adult Education.

64

Technology development goals for automotive fuel cell power systems. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This report determines cost and performance requirements for Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cell vehicles carrying pure H{sub 2} fuel, to achieve parity with internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicles. A conceptual design of a near term FCEV (fuel cell electric vehicle) is presented. Complete power system weight and cost breakdowns are presented for baseline design. Near term FCEV power system weight is 6% higher than ICE system, mid-term FCEV projected weights are 29% lower than ICE`s. There are no inherently high-cost components in FCE, and at automotive production volumes, near term FCEV cost viability is closer at hand than at first thought. PEM current vs voltage performance is presented for leading PEM manufacturers and researchers. 5 current and proposed onboard hydrogen storage techniques are critically compared: pressurized gas, cryogenic liquid, combined pressurized/cryogenic, rechargeable hydride, adsorption. Battery, capacitor, and motor/controller performance is summarized. Fuel cell power system component weight and cost densities (threshold and goal) are tabulated.

James, B.D.; Baum, G.N.; Kuhn, I.F. Jr. [Directed Technologies, Inc., Arlington, VA (United States)

1994-08-01

65

Oxidation of automotive primary reference fuels in a high pressure flow reactor  

SciTech Connect

Automotive engine knock limits the maximum operating compression ratio and ultimate thermodynamic efficiency of spark-ignition (SI) engines. In compression-ignition (CI) or diesel cycle engines the premixed urn phase, which occurs shortly after injection, determines the time it takes for autoignition to occur. In order to improve engine efficiency and to recommend more efficient, cleaner-burning alternative fuels, we must understand the chemical kinetic processes which lead to autoignition in both SI and CI engines. These engines burn large molecular-weight blended fuels, a class to which the primary reference fuels (PRF), n-heptane and isooctane belong. In this study, experiments were performed under engine-like conditions in a high pressure flow reactor using both the pure PRF fuels and their mixtures in the temperature range 550-880 K and at 12.5 atm pressure. These experiments not only provide information on the reactivity of each fuel but also identify the major intermediate products formed during the oxidation process. A detailed chemical kinetic mechanism is used to simulate these experiments and comparisons of experimentally measures and model predicted profiles for O{sub 2}, CO, CO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O and temperature rise are presented. Intermediates identified in the flow reactor are compared with those present in the computations, and the kinetic pathways leading to their formation are discussed. In addition, autoignition delay times measured in a shock tube over the temperature range 690- 1220 K and at 40 atm pressure were simulated. Good agreement between experiment and simulation was obtained for both the pure fuels and their mixtures. Finally, quantitative values of major intermediates measured in the exhaust gas of a cooperative fuels research engine operating under motored engine conditions are presented together with those predicted by the detailed method.

Curran, H.J.; Pitz, W.J.; Westbrook, C.K. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Callahan, C.V.; Dryer, F.L. [Princeton Univ., Areospace Engineering. NJ (United States)

1998-01-01

66

Analysis and control of an in situ hydrogen generation and fuel cell power system for automotive applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new future in automotive transportation is approaching where vehicles are powered by new, clean and efficient energy sources. While different technologies will contribute to this future, many see fuel cells as the leading long term candidate for becoming the power source for emissions-free, mass produced light vehicles. The development of emissions-free vehicles, which run directly on hydrogen, is the true long term goal. However significant difficulties exist in developing these vehicles, due to hydrogen storage problems. For automotive applications, it is desirable to use a carbon-based hydrogenous fuel. The focus of this research was to analyze a fuel cell system for automotive applications, which generated hydrogen in situ using methane as a fuel source. This system consists of four parts: (1) an in situ hydrogen generation subsystem, (2) a power generation subsystem, (3) a thermal management subsystem and (4) a switching control subsystem. The novelty of this research lies in the fact that the entire system was considered from a systems engineering viewpoint with realistic constraints. A fuel processor subsystem was designed and its volume optimized to less than 100 liters. A relationship between the fuel fed into the fuel processor and the hydrogen coming out of it was developed. Using a fuel cell model an overall relationship between the fuel feed rate and the power output was established. The fuel cell car must be fully operational within a minute or so of a cold-start and must respond to rapidly varying loads. Significant load transitions occur frequently as a result of changes in driving conditions. These engineering constraints were addressed by coupling a battery to the fuel cell. A switching controller was designed and it was validated using realistic power profiles. Finally, a model reference adaptive controller was designed to handle nonlinearities and load transitions. The adaptive controller performance was enhanced by adding dead zone compensation and derivative action. The enhanced adaptive controller was validated for different power profiles.

Kolavennu, Panini K.

67

Light aircraft engines, the potential and problems for use of automotive fuels. Phase I. Literature search. Final report, October 1979September 1980  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comprehensive data research and analysis for evaluating the use of automotive fuels as a substitute for aviation grade fuel by piston-type general aviation aircraft engines is presented. Historically known problems and potential problems with fuels were reviewed for possible impact relative to application to an aircraft operational environment. This report reviews areas such as: fuel specification requirements, combustion knock,

D. J. Patterson; K. Morrison; M. Remondino; T. Slopsema

1980-01-01

68

Educational Campaign for Petroleum and Fuel Conservation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report discusses the desirability of and strategies for a campaign to encourage conservation among individual consumers of petroleum products in India. Topics covered include the potential for conservation in the unorganized consumers sector; selectio...

1979-01-01

69

Performance and cost of automotive fuel cell systems with ultra-low platinum loadings.  

SciTech Connect

An automotive polymer-electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC) system with ultra-low platinum loading (0.15 mg-Pt cm{sup -2}) has been analyzed to determine the relationship between its design-point efficiency and the system efficiency at part loads, efficiency over drive cycles, stack and system costs, and heat rejection. The membrane electrode assemblies in the reference PEFC stack use nanostructured, thin-film ternary catalysts supported on organic whiskers and a modified perfluorosulfonic acid membrane. The analyses show that the stack Pt content can be reduced by 50% and the projected high-volume manufacturing cost by >45% for the stack and by 25% for the system, if the design-point system efficiency is lowered from 50% to 40%. The resulting penalties in performance are a <1% reduction in the system peak efficiency; a 2-4% decrease in the system efficiency on the urban, highway, and LA92 drive cycles; and a 6.3% decrease in the fuel economy of the modeled hybrid fuel-cell vehicle on the combined cycle used by EPA for emission and fuel economy certification. The stack heat load, however, increases by 50% at full power (80 kW{sub e}) but by only 23% at the continuous power (61.5 kW{sub e}) needed to propel the vehicle on a 6.5% grade at 55 mph. The reduced platinum and system cost advantages of further lowering the design-point efficiency from 40% to 35% are marginal. The analyses indicate that thermal management in the lower efficiency systems is very challenging and that the radiator becomes bulky if the stack temperature cannot be allowed to increase to 90-95 C under driving conditions where heat rejection is difficult.

Ahluwalia, R.; Wang, X.; Kwon, K.; Rousseau, A.; Kalinoski, J.; James, B.; Marcinkoski, J. (Energy Systems); ( NE); (Directed Technologies Inc.); (ED)

2011-05-15

70

Evaluation of alternatives for conserving fuel resources  

Microsoft Academic Search

Energy conservation in residences is important to the gas utility industry because it can extend existing gas supplies to meet the demands of new customers, minimize the need for new and costly alternative supplies, and maintain a competitive advantage over high-efficiency electric end-use systems such as heat pumps. Energy conservation can be achieved in two basically different ways: by changes

R. A. Macriss; F. E. Belles

1976-01-01

71

A Study on Wear of Brush and Carbon Flat Commutator of DC Motor for Automotive Fuel Pump  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In an automotive fuel pump system, a small DC motor is widely used to drive the pump and driven by a automotive battery. Recently a bio-fuel, usually a mixture of gasoline and ethanol has been used due to shortage of gasoline and environmental aspect. It affects strongly the performances of a DC motor, especially commutation phenomena, what kind of fuel is used. Therefore the authors have started to investigate the influence of ethanol on the commutation phenomena. They have been reporting the wear of brush and carbon flat commutator in gasoline and ethanol so far. In this paper commutation period, arc duration, brush and commutator wear are examined in ethanol 50-gasoline 50%. Brush wears are very small compared with the previous results. Namely in the present test a mechanical sliding wear is predominant rather than erosion by arc due to short arc duration. Further, an area eroded by arc is observed to re-appear as a sliding surface. From these results a threshold arc energy between arc erosion and mechanical sliding wear is obtained, and a wear model is proposed to explain the above wear pattern on the sliding surface.

Sawa, Koichiro; Ueno, Takahiro; Tanaka, Hidenori

72

Assessment of institutional barriers to the use of natural gas fuel in automotive vehicle fleets  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Institutional barriers to the use of natural gas as a fuel for motor vehicle fleets were identified. Recommendations for barrier removal were developed. Eight types of institutional barriers were assessed: (1) lack of a national standard for the safe design and certification of natural gas vehicles and refueling stations; (2) excessively conservative or misapplied state and local regulations, including bridge and tunnel restrictions, restrictions on types of vehicles that may be fueled by natural gas, zoning regulations that prohibit operation of refueling stations, parking restrictions, application of LPG standards to LNG vehicles, and unintentionally unsafe vehicle or refueling station requirements; (3) need for clarification of EPA's tampering enforcement policy; (4) the U.S. hydrocarbon standard; (5) uncertainty concerning state utility commission jurisdiction; (6) sale for resale prohibitions imposed by natural gas utility companies or state utility commissions; (7) uncertainty of the effects of conversions to natural gas on vehicle manufactures warranties; and (8) need for a natural gas to gasoline equivalent units conversion factor for use in calculation of state road use taxes.

Jablonski, J.; Lent, L.; Lawrence, M.; White, L.

1983-01-01

73

Impact of fuel conservation measures on safe truck downgrade speeds  

SciTech Connect

Runaway truck accidents are primarily due to brake fade and failure resulting from excessive temperature of the truck system brake components generated while descending severe downgrades. A grade severity rating system (GSRS) was developed in 1982 that determined the maximum safe downgrade speeds for various categories of truck gross weights. Heavy trucks, without retarders, that adhere to the maximum recommended descent speed have sufficient braking capacity to prevent a runaway condition. Since the development of the GSRS model, the use of radial truck tires and the manufacture of streamlined truck tractors have increased substantially. These fuel conservation measures reduce the nonbraking forces and place a greater load on the truck system brakes when it is necessary to maintain truck speed on downgrades. The impact of fuel conservation measures on truck system brake temperature is the equivalent of descending a downgrade which is 0.34% steeper than actual conditions. In addition, fuel conservation measures lower the threshold of truck weight susceptible to excessively high brake temperatures, and subsequent runaway conditions, from 45,000 to 35,000 lb.

Bowman, B.L. (Goodell-Grivas, Inc., 17320 W. Eight Mile Rd., Southfield, MI (US)); Coleman, J.A. (Turner-Fairbank Highway Res. Ctr., 6300 Georgetown Pike, McLean, VA (US))

1989-07-01

74

Evaporation characteristics of fuel spray and low emissions in a lean premixed-prevaporization combustor for a 100 kW automotive ceramic gas turbine  

Microsoft Academic Search

A lean premixed-prevaporization combustor (PPL-1) for a 100 kW automotive ceramic gas turbine has been developed to meet the Japanese emission standards for passenger cars without using an aftertreatment system. The design of a fuel injector and a prevaporization-premixing tube (PP-tube) in the PPL-1 combustor is a key subject for promotion of evaporation of fuel spray. The Sauter mean diameter

Yoichiro Ohkubo; Yoshinori Idota; Yoshihiro Nomura

1997-01-01

75

Fuel conservation capability and effort by commercial air carriers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Computer capability weather input data, performance data, and ATC interface are discussed in terms of their role in preflight and inflight planning for commercial flights. The effect of preflight and inflight planning on fuel efficient operation was evaluated along with the impact of avionics. It was found that there is a potential for saving fuel through use of avionics, especially in the area of vertical guidance in all phases of flight. Other results of the study indicate: (1) preflight planning as it now stands is adequate with the exception that more accurate and up-to-date weather information is desirable; (2) better inflight information about existing weather conditions is needed; and (3) ATC can aid in fuel conservation.

1974-01-01

76

A fuel conservation study for transport aircraft utilizing advanced technology and hydrogen fuel  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The conservation of fossil fuels in commercial aviation was investigated. Four categories of aircraft were selected for investigation: (1) conventional, medium range, low take-off gross weight; (2) conventional, long range, high take-off gross weights; (3) large take-off gross weight aircraft that might find future applications using both conventional and advanced technology; and (4) advanced technology aircraft of the future powered with liquid hydrogen fuel. It is concluded that the hydrogen fueled aircraft can perform at reduced size and gross weight the same payload/range mission as conventionally fueled aircraft.

Berry, W.; Calleson, R.; Espil, J.; Quartero, C.; Swanson, E.

1972-01-01

77

Fuel-Conservation Guidance System for Powered-Lift Aircraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A technique is described for the design of fuel-conservative guidance systems and is applied to a system that was flight tested on board NASA's sugmentor wing jet STOL research aircraft. An important operational feature of the system is its ability to rapidly synthesize fuel-efficient trajectories for a large set of initial aircraft positions, altitudes, and headings. This feature allows the aircraft to be flown efficiently under conditions of changing winds and air traffic control vectors. Rapid synthesis of fuel-efficient trajectories is accomplished in the airborne computer by fast-time trajectory integration using a simplified dynamic performance model of the aircraft. This technique also ensures optimum flap deployment and, for powered-lift STOL aircraft, optimum transition to low-speed flight. Also included in the design is accurate prediction of touchdown time for use in four-dimensional guidance applications. Flight test results have demonstrated that the automatically synthesized trajectories produce significant fuel savings relative to manually flown conventional approaches.

Erzberger, Heinz; McLean, John D.

1981-01-01

78

Fuel cycle efficiencies of different automotive on-board hydrogen storage options  

Microsoft Academic Search

In comparing different options for producing, distributing and storing hydrogen, it is important to use a consistent set of definitions and to clearly identify assumptions. It is equally important to consider the complete fuel cycle and account for losses, inefficiencies and energy consumption in upstream processes that recover and convert energy feedstock to process fuel. The purpose of this paper

R. K. Ahluwalia; T. Q. Hua; J.-K. Peng

2007-01-01

79

Experimental hydrogen-fueled automotive engine design data-base project. Volume 3. Appendices  

SciTech Connect

The following appendices are presented: maximum power estimates for hydrogen-fueled engine configurations; single-cylinder Toyota engine construction; thermocouple installation; construction of lithium-filled valves; originally-proposed EGR quantification scheme; certificates of instrument calibration; data-reduction computer program and experimental results; exhaust gas temperature determination for the pre IVC engines; calculation of excess hydrogen in the exhaust and H/sub 2/ utilization coefficient; exhaust valve thermal characteristics; steady-state diffusion (SWIRL) model; Bishop/Taylor ITE from BTE computer program and results; and NO/sub x/ emissions and fuel economy for hydrogen-fueled vehicles operated over driving cycles.

Swain, M.R.; Adt, R.R. Jr.; Pappas, J.M.

1983-05-01

80

Assessment of Institutional Barriers to the Use of Natural Gas Fuel in Automotive Vehicle Fleets.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Institutional barriers to the use of natural gas as a fuel for motor vehicle fleets were identified. Recommendations for barrier removal were developed. Eight types of institutional barriers were assessed: (1) lack of a national standard for the safe desi...

J. Jablonski L. Lent M. Lawrence L. White

1983-01-01

81

Experimental evaluation of fuel preparation systems for an automotive gas turbine catalytic combustor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Spatial fuel distributions, degree of vaporization, pressure drop and air velocity profiles were measured. Three airblast injectors and an air-assist nozzle were tested. Air swirlers were used to improve the spatial fuel-air distribution. The work was done in a 12 cm tubular duct. Test conditions were: a pressure of 0.3 and 0.5 MPa, inlet air temperatures up to 800 K, air velocities of 10 20 m/s and fuel-air ratios up to 0.020. The fuel was Jet A. The best results were obtained with an airblast configuration that used multiple cones to provide high velocity air for atomization and also straightened the inlet airflow. With this configuration, uniform spatial fuel-air distributions were obtained with mixing lengths greater than 17.8 cm. In this length, vaporization of the fuel was 98.5 percent complete at an inlet air temperature of 700 K. The total pressure loss was 1.0 percent with a reference velocity of 20 m/s and 0.25 percent at 10m/s. The air velocity was uniform across the duct and no autoignition reactions were observed.

Tacina, R. R.

1977-01-01

82

Light-Duty Automotive Technology, Carbon Dioxide Emissions, and Fuel Economy Trends: 1975 through 2009.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report summarizes key trends in carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, fuel economy and technology usage related to model year (MY) 1975 through 2009 light-duty vehicles sold in the United States. Light-duty vehicles are those vehicles that EPA classifies a...

2009-01-01

83

Experimental hydrogen-fueled automotive engine design data-base project. Volume 2. Main technical report  

SciTech Connect

Operational performance and emissions characteristics of hydrogen-fueled engines are reviewed. The project activities are reviewed including descriptions of the test engine and its components, the test apparatus, experimental techniques, experiments performed and the results obtained. Analyses of other hydrogen engine project data are also presented and compared with the results of the present effort.

Swain, M.R.; Adt, R.R. Jr.; Pappas, J.M.

1983-05-01

84

Examination of the costs, benefits and enery conservation aspects of the NASA aircraft fuel conservation technology program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The costs and benefits of the NASA Aircraft Fuel Conservation Technology Program are discussed. Consideration is given to a present worth analysis of the planned program expenditures, an examination of the fuel savings to be obtained by the year 2005 and the worth of this fuel savings relative to the investment required, a comparison of the program funding with that planned by other Federal agencies for energy conservation, an examination of the private industry aeronautical research and technology financial posture for the period FY 76 - FY 85, and an assessment of the potential impacts on air and noise pollution. To aid in this analysis, a computerized fleet mix forecasting model was developed. This model enables the estimation of fuel consumption and present worth of fuel expenditures for selected commerical aircraft fleet mix scenarios.

1975-01-01

85

Industrial use of plasma-deposited coatings for components of automotive fuel injection systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modern fuel injection systems for cars consist of precise mechanical parts, which need solid lubricant coatings to be protected from friction and wear. Diamond-like-carbon (DLC)-coatings show crucial advantages in a low wear (see the high hardness), in the low coefficient of friction (even for a non-lubricated contact with steel as a counterpart) and in the low wear of the counter

Christoph P. O. Treutler

2005-01-01

86

Enhancement of automotive compressed natural-gas-fuel storage via adsorbents. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The New York State Energy Research and Development Authority and the New York State Gas Group completed a project assessing the potential for adsorbent-enhanced storage of compressed natural gas for dual-fuel vehicles. The report compares several carbon and zeolite adsorbents based on surface area, porosity, pore size distribution, density and methane loading; AX-21 is evaluated in detail. The impact of

Notaro

1985-01-01

87

Ammonia as Automotive Fuel: A proposed ammonia/air fuel-cell system appears feasible for automobiles.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This citation summarizes a one-page announcement of technology available for utilization. The use of ammonia as a hydrogen energy-storage medium and the characteristics of an ammonia/air fuel-cell system are examined. These topics are of special interest ...

1982-01-01

88

Center for Advanced Automotive Technology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Center for Advanced Automotive Technology (CAAT) is a National Science Foundation (NSF) funded Advanced Technological Education (ATE) center located at Macomb Community College, and among many other efforts, houses a comprehensive, up-to-date educational resource library available to the public. This library contains resources as small as a single presentation or assignment, to complete modules and courses taught at community colleges and universities in the fields of automotive, engineering, and technology. The scope of this library includes advanced automotive technology, alternative fuels, the smart grid interface, and related industry reports.

2013-06-26

89

Options for Coordinating Low-Income Fuel Assistance with Weatherization and Conservation Services.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This manual for coordinating low-income fuel assistance with weatherization and conservation services is divided into eight chapters that are presented in three parts. These parts provide: an introduction to the manual describing the objectives of the man...

1982-01-01

90

An automotive transmission for automotive gas turbine power plants  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A joint government-industry program was initiated to investigate the two-shaft gas turbine concept as an alternative to present-day automotive powerplants. Both were examined, compared and evaluated on the basis of the federal automotive driving cycle in terms of specific fuel/power/speed characteristics of the engine and the efficiency and performance of the transmission. The results showed that an optimum match of vehicle, gas turbine engine, and conventional automatic transmission is capable of a significant improvement in fuel economy. This system offers many advantages that should lead to its wide acceptance in future vehicles.

Polak, J. C.

1980-01-01

91

Automotive Mechanics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This curriculum guide provides materials for a competency-based course in automotive mechanics at the secondary level. The curriculum design uses the curriculum infused model for the teaching of basic skills as part of vocational education and demonstrates the relationship of vocationally related skills to communication, mathematics, and science…

Brown, Desmond

92

Development of ecofriendly thermoplastics for automotive components  

Microsoft Academic Search

Use of natural fiber thermoplastic components in the automotive industry can provide the advantages of weight reduction, cost reduction and recyclability, in addition to eco-efficiency and renewability compared to synthetic conventional materials. Natural fibers have recently become attractive to automotive industry as an alternative reinforcement for glass fiber reinforced thermoplastics. The best way to increase the fuel efficiency with out

S. Jeyanthi; M. Purushothaman; J. Janci Rani

2011-01-01

93

ECAS Phase I fuel cell results. [Energy Conservation Alternatives Study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper summarizes and discusses the fuel cell system results of Phase I of the Energy Conversion Alternatives Study (ECAS). Ten advanced electric powerplant systems for central-station baseload generation using coal were studied by NASA in ECAS. Three types of low-temperature fuel cells (solid polymer electrolyte, SPE, aqueous alkaline, and phosphoric acid) and two types of high-temperature fuel cells (molten carbonate, MC, and zirconia solid electrolyte, SE) were studied. The results indicate that (1) overall efficiency increases with fuel cell temperature, and (2) scale-up in powerplant size can produce a significant reduction in cost of electricity (COE) only when it is accompanied by utilization of waste fuel cell heat through a steam bottoming cycle and/or integration with a gasifier. For low-temperature fuel cell systems, the use of hydrogen results in the highest efficiency and lowest COE. In spite of higher efficiencies, because of higher fuel cell replacement costs integrated SE systems have higher projected COEs than do integrated MC systems. Present data indicate that life can be projected to over 30,000 hr for MC fuel cells, but data are not yet sufficient for similarly projecting SE fuel cell life expectancy.

Warshay, M.

1978-01-01

94

Automotive Sensors and MEMS Technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

- Automotive sensors are used for emission gas purification, energy conservation, car kinematic performance, safety and ITS (intelligent transportation system). The comparison of the sensor characteristics was made for their application area. Many kinds of the principles are applied for the sensors. There are two types of sensors, such as physical and chemical one. Many of the automotive sensors are physical type such as mechanical sensors. And a gas sensor is a chemical type. The sensors have been remarkably developed with the advancement of the MEMS (Micro Electro Mechanical Systems) technology. In this paper, gas, pressure, combustion pressure, acceleration, magnetic, and angular rate sensors for automotive use are explained with their features. The sensors are key devices to control cars in the engine, power train, chassis and safety systems. The environment resistance, long term reliability, and low cost are required for the automotive sensors. They are very hard to be resolved. However, the sensor technology contributes greatly to improving global environment, energy conservation, and safety. The applications of automotive sensors will be expanded with the automobile developments.

Nonomura, Yutaka

95

Aircraft fuel conservation technology. Task force report, September 10, 1975  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An advanced technology program is described for reduced fuel consumption in air transport. Cost benefits and estimates are given for improved engine design and components, turboprop propulsion systems, active control systems, laminar flow control, and composite primary structures.

1975-01-01

96

LOCALIZED AND GENERAL CORROSION OF COPPER IN AZOLES AND SILICA INHIBITED ZERO BLOWDOWN COOLING WATER IN AN AUTOMOTIVE PLANT Dan Duke Water Conservation Technology International, Inc. Temecula, CA  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the spring of 2007, the cooling water chemistry at a large automotive plant in Los Angeles, California, was changed from traditional chemical treatment of potable water to recycled water treated with a new zero blowdown chemistry. To establish the localized copper corrosion baseline during this transition, coupled multielectrode array sensors (CMAS) were installed in the sampling station of the

Lietai Yang

97

An early glimpse at long-term subsonic commercial turbofan technology requirements. [fuel conservation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper reports on the exploratory investigation and initial findings of the study of future turbofan concepts to conserve fuel. To date, these studies have indicated a potential reduction in cruise thrust specific fuel consumption in 1990 turbofans of approximately 15% relative to present day new engines through advances in internal aerodynamics, structure-mechanics, and materials. Advanced materials also offer the potential for fuel savings through engine weight reduction. Further studies are required to balance fuel consumption reduction with sound airlines operational economics.

Gray, D. E.; Dugan, J. F.

1975-01-01

98

Fuel conservation merits of advanced turboprop transport aircraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The advantages of a propfan powered aircraft for the commercial air transportation system were assessed by the comparison with an equivalent turbofan transport. Comparisons were accomplished on the basis of fuel utilization and operating costs, as well as aircraft weight and size. Advantages of the propfan aircraft, concerning fuel utilization and operating costs, were accomplished by considering: (1) incorporation of propfan performance and acoustic data; (2) revised mission profiles (longer design range and reduction in; and cruise speed) (3) utilization of alternate and advanced technology engines.

Revell, J. D.; Tullis, R. H.

1977-01-01

99

Energy efficient engine program contributions to aircraft fuel conservation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Significant advances in high bypass turbofan technologies that enhance fuel efficiency have been demonstrated in the NASA Energy Efficient Engine Program. This highly successful second propulsion element of the NASA Aircraft Energy Efficiency Program included major contract efforts with both General Electric and Pratt & Whitney. Major results of these efforts will be presented including highlights from the NASA/General Electric E3 research turbofan engine test. Direct application of all the E3 technologies could result in fuel savings of over 18% compared to the CF6-50 and JT9D-7. Application of the E3 technologies to new and derivative engines such as the CF6-80C and PW 2037, as well as others, will be discussed. Significant portions of the fuel savings benefit for these new products can be directly related to the E3 technology program. Finally, results of a study looking at far term advanced turbofan engines will be briefly described. The study shows that substantial additional fuel savings over E3 are possible with additional turbofan technology programs.

Batterton, P. G.

1984-01-01

100

Evaluation of low wing-loading fuel conservative, short-haul transports  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Fuel conservation that could be attained with two technology advancements, Q fan propulsion system and active control technology (ACT) was studied. Aircraft incorporating each technology were sized for a Federal Aviation Regulation (FAR) field length of 914 meters (3,000 feet), 148 passengers, and a 926 kilometer (500 nautical mile) mission. The cruise Mach number was .70 at 10100 meter (33,000 foot) altitude. The improvement resulting from application of the Q fan propulsion system was computed relative to an optimized fuel conservative transport design. The performance improvements resulting from application of ACT technology were relative to the optimized Q fan propulsion system configuration.

Pasley, L. H.; Waldeck, T. A.

1976-01-01

101

Wind power for the electric-utility industry: policy incentives for fuel conservation  

SciTech Connect

To illustrate an earlier finding that the financial regulatory environment of investor-owned electric utilities provided little or no incentive to invest in fuel-conserving technologies, the authors selected wind power as a near-term fuel-conservation technology that could reduce utility fuel consumption during the 1980s. They document the capabilities of wind-energy electric systems (WECS) for utility-grid applications, identify six major American manufacturers of wind turbines, and describe the major existing and planned WECS installations. Computer models of the financial impact on utilities show that the utility's financial condition and an uncertain regulatory environment are the major barriers to investment. Policymakers can use this kind of computer analysis to develop new policies that will stimulate higher productivity at lower fuel consumption. 91 references, 16 figures, 31 tables.

March, F.; Dlott, E.H.; Korn, D.H.; Madio, F.R.; McArthur, R.C.; Vachon, W.A.

1982-01-01

102

Reference energy-altitude descent guidance: Simulator evaluation. [aircraft descent and fuel conservation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Descent guidance was developed to provide a pilot with information to ake a fuel-conservative descent and cross a designated geographical waypoint at a preselected altitude and airspeed. The guidance was designed to reduce fuel usage during the descent and reduce the mental work load associated with planning a fuel-conservative descent. A piloted simulation was conducted to evaluate the operational use of this guidance concept. The results of the simulation tests show that the use of the guidance reduced fuel consumption and mental work load during the descent. Use of the guidance also decreased the airspeed error, but had no effect on the altitude error when the designated waypoint was crossed. Physical work load increased with the use of the guidance, but remained well within acceptable levels. The pilots found the guidance easy to use as presented and reported that it would be useful in an operational environment.

Abbot, K. H.; Knox, C. E.

1985-01-01

103

Some aspects of powerplant airframe integration affecting fuel conservation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The performance criteria for STOL transport aircraft place many constraints on engineering design, which, in turn, may have a direct bearing on fuel efficiency: these constraints become even more severe with the introduction of powered-lift for turbofan aircraft. Consideration is given to some aspects of performance and design which arise as a result of powerplant/airframe integration and an attempt is made to assess these factors in terms of transport fuel efficiency. The drag polars of various powered lift concepts are analyzed to determine the installed thrust/weight required and a simple method of relating this to fuel efficiency is suggested. Some other factors have been identified as being important to this aspect of design and these are discussed in more general terms. Finally, special consideration is given to recent Canadian research in the realm of supercritical airfoil technology as applied to an multi-foil section which could be utilized both for the STOL regime of flight and for cruise at transonic speeds.

Farbridge, J. E.

1978-01-01

104

Light-Duty Automotive Technology, Carbon Dioxide Emissions, and Fuel Economy Trends: 1975 through 2011. Executive Summary.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report summarizes key trends in carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, fuel economy, and CO2- and fuel economy-related technology for gasoline- and diesel-fueled personal vehicles sold in the United States, from model years (MY) 1975 through 2011. Personal ...

2012-01-01

105

Effectiveness of advanced fuel-conservative procedures in the transitional ATC environment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The real time simulation (involving both the pilot and the air traffic controller) of fuel conservative approaches, profile descents, and four dimensional area navigation to assess the effectiveness of the procedures is discussed. Generally, results indicate some difficulties with the procedures tested in a mixed traffic environment and point to the need for computer assistance for effective implementation of candidate procedures.

Tobias, L.; Obrien, P. J.

1980-01-01

106

Evaluation of low wing-loading fuel conservative, short-haul transports  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fuel conservation that could be attained with two technology advancements, Q fan propulsion system and active control technology (ACT) was studied. Aircraft incorporating each technology were sized for a Federal Aviation Regulation (FAR) field length of 914 meters (3,000 feet), 148 passengers, and a 926 kilometer (500 nautical mile) mission. The cruise Mach number was .70 at 10100 meter (33,000

L. H. Pasley; T. A. Waldeck

1976-01-01

107

WET/DRY COOLING SYSTEMS FOR FOSSIL-FUELED POWER PLANTS: WATER CONSERVATION AND PLUME ABATEMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of a study of technical and economic feasibilities of wet/dry cooling towers for water conservation and vapor plume abatement. Results of cost optimizations of wet/dry cooling for 1000-MWe fossil-fueled power plants are presented. Five sites in the wester...

108

Conservation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This set of teaching aids consists of seven Audubon Nature Bulletins, providing the teacher and student with informational reading on various topics in conservation. The bulletins have these titles: Plants as Makers of Soil, Water Pollution Control, The Ground Water Table, Conservation--To Keep This Earth Habitable, Our Threatened Air Supply,…

National Audubon Society, New York, NY.

109

77 FR 19000 - Foreign-Trade Zone 99-Wilmington, DE: Application for Manufacturing Authority; Fisker Automotive...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Wilmington, DE: Application for Manufacturing Authority; Fisker Automotive, Inc...Office, grantee of FTZ 99, requesting manufacturing authority on behalf of Fisker Automotive...and fluids, welding compounds, fuel additives, anti-freeze, chemical...

2012-03-29

110

Automotive Manufacturing Scholarships  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page from the Consortium for Alabama Regional Center for Automotive Manufacturing (CARCAM) provides some information about scholarships in automotive manufacturing. The highlighted scholarship is only open to Alabama residents, but the page provides links to other scholarship opportunities.

2011-02-01

111

Automotive applications of superconductors  

Microsoft Academic Search

These proceedings compile papers on supercomputers in the automobile industry. Titles include: An automotive engineer's guide to the effective use of scalar, vector, and parallel computers; fluid mechanics, finite elements, and supercomputers; and Automotive crashworthiness performance on a supercomputer.

1987-01-01

112

Recycling of automotive aluminum  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the global warming of concern, the secondary aluminum stream is becoming an even more important component of aluminum production and is attractive because of its economic and environmental benefits. In this work, recycling of automotive aluminum is reviewed to highlight environmental benefits of aluminum recycling, use of aluminum alloys in automotive applications, automotive recycling process, and new technologies in

Jirang CUI; Hans J. ROVEN

2010-01-01

113

Automotive vehicle sensors  

SciTech Connect

This report is an introduction to the field of automotive vehicle sensors. It contains a prototype data base for companies working in automotive vehicle sensors, as well as a prototype data base for automotive vehicle sensors. A market analysis is also included.

Sheen, S.H.; Raptis, A.C.; Moscynski, M.J.

1995-09-01

114

Automotive Diagnostic Technologies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document contains materials developed for and about the automotive diagnostic technologies tech prep program of the South-Western City Schools in Ohio. Part 1 begins with a map of the program, which begins with an automotive/diagnostic technologies program in grades 11 and 12 that leads to entry-level employment or a 2-year automotive

Columbus State Community Coll., OH.

115

Light-Duty Automotive Technology, Carbon Dioxide Emissions, and Fuel Economy Trends: 1975 Through 2009 Executive Summary.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report summarizes key trends in carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, fuel economy and technology usage related to model year (MY) 1975 through 2009 light-duty vehicles sold in the United States. Light-duty vehicles are those vehicles that EPA classifies a...

2009-01-01

116

Fuel System Services. An Instructor's Guide for a Program in Trade and Technical Education. Automotive Industries Occupations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed to assist instructors in preparing secondary and adult students for employment in the field of fuel system services, this guide outlines eight units of instruction. The eight unit titles are (1) Introduction (overview of course content and requirements, and work/safety habits), (2) Minor Components, (3) Carburetor Fundamentals, (4)…

New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Secondary Curriculum Development.

117

Chemicals for the automotive industry  

SciTech Connect

This book covers a wide range of advanced materials, surface treatments, and clean fuels/lubricants now used to manufacture, propel, and maintain motor vehicles. The book examines recent advancements and current research, illustrating the progress to date, future trends, new applications, and the effects of these of automotive chemicals on the environment (including pollution, recyclability, and efficiency). Environmental considerations and their effect on the industry are covered in discussions about such topics as biodegradable lubricants, oxygenated diesel and ignition engine fuels, oils, and recyclable, lightweight plastic components.

Drake, J.A.G.

1991-01-01

118

Influence of fuel injection timing and pressure on in-flame soot particles in an automotive-size diesel engine.  

PubMed

The current understanding of soot particle morphology in diesel engines and their dependency on the fuel injection timing and pressure is limited to those sampled from the exhaust. In this study, a thermophoretic sampling and subsequent transmission electron microscope imaging were applied to the in-flame soot particles inside the cylinder of a working diesel engine for various fuel injection timings and pressures. The results show that the number count of soot particles per image decreases by more than 80% when the injection timing is retarded from -12 to -2 crank angle degrees after the top dead center. The late injection also results in over 90% reduction of the projection area of soot particles on the TEM image and the size of soot aggregates also become smaller. The primary particle size, however, is found to be insensitive to the variations in fuel injection timing. For injection pressure variations, both the size of primary particles and soot aggregates are found to decrease with increasing injection pressure, demonstrating the benefits of high injection velocity and momentum. Detailed analysis shows that the number count of soot particles per image increases with increasing injection pressure up to 130 MPa, primarily due to the increased small particle aggregates that are less than 40 nm in the radius of gyration. The fractal dimension shows an overall decrease with the increasing injection pressure. However, there is a case that the fractal dimension shows an unexpected increase between 100 and 130 MPa injection pressure. It is because the small aggregates with more compact and agglomerated structures outnumber the large aggregates with more stretched chain-like structures. PMID:24933154

Zhang, Renlin; Kook, Sanghoon

2014-07-15

119

General Mechanical Repair. Minor Automotive Maintenance. Volume 1. Teacher's Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Fourteen units on minor automotive maintenance are presented in this teacher's guide. The units are the following: introduction to minor automotive maintenance, shop safety, engine principles, fuel system operation and repair, electrical system, ignition system, lubrication system, engine cooling system, exhaust system, wheel bearings and tires,…

East Texas State Univ., Commerce. Occupational Curriculum Lab.

120

Modern Automotive Power Systems: Advancements into the Future  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recent trend in the automotive industry is to create a new fleet of advanced vehicular technologies. The most popularly targeted automotive technology is the hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) powered by the existing internal combustion engine (ICE) technology as well as a suitable electric traction motor system. In addition, the auto industry has shown an increased interest in fuel cell

Ali Emadi; Sheldon S. Williamson

2006-01-01

121

Fuel conservative guidance for shipboard landing of powered-lift STOL aircraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A computer-simulation study was undertaken to investigate the application of Fuel Conservative Guidance (FCG) techniques, developed at NASA Ames Research Center, to improve the fuel efficiency and minimize recovery time of powered-lift short-takeoff-and-landing (STOL) airplanes operating from aircraft carriers at sea. The FCG system consists of a set of algorithms whose coefficients and parameters limits match those of the Quiet Short-Haul Research Aircraft. When a flightpath is specified by a set of initial conditions for the aircraft and a set of positional waypoints with associated airspeeds, the FCG synthesizes the necessary guidance commands to capture the specified path at any specified waypoint and to optimize fuel consumption and time fo fly along the path. Closed-form expressions are developed for calculating the altitude profile synthesized by the algorithm. Results of this simulation study show that when restrictions on the approach flightpath imposed for manual operation are removed completely, fuel consumption during the approach was reduced by as much as 38 percent (434 lb of fuel) and the time required to fly the flightpath was reduced by as much as 28 percent (209 sec). Savings because of FCG were produced by: (1) shortening the total flight time and distance, and (2) keeping the airspeed high as long as possible to minimize time spent flying in a powered-lift mode.

Warner, D. N., Jr.; Mcgee, L. A.; Mclean, J. D.; Schmidt, G. K.

1985-01-01

122

National Fuel Cell Vehicle Learning Demonstration: Gen 2 Progress. California Air Resources Board 2009 ZEV Symposium. Session 2: Automotive Fuel Cell Vehicle Technologies.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Partial Contents: Fuel Cell Vehicle Learning Demonstration Project Objectives and Targets; Industry Partners: Four Automaker/Energy-Supplier Teams; Vehicle Deployment Complete at 140 FCVs, Some Early Vehicles Retired; DOE Learning Demo Fleet Has Surpassed...

J. Garbak J. Kurtz K. Wipke S. Sprik T. Ramsden

2009-01-01

123

Fishing-vessel fuel-conservation project. Final report, 25 June 1986-31 December 1987  

SciTech Connect

The Sea Grant Extension Program (SGEP) is the University of California's statewide education link with the commercial-fishing industry. SGEP's seven county-based marine advisors and three statewide specialists use applied research, demonstrations, workshops, publications, mass media, and individual consultations to help the industry put research-based information to work. SGEP has worked with the fishing industry for fifteen years. Two major ongoing long-term problems of the fishing industry have been chronically low-income levels and full- or over-exploitation of fish stocks. These problems were especially severe during the first half of the 1980s. With most fish resources fully utilized, one of the only means of improving the situation is improved economic efficiency, especially through fuel conservation. Fuel costs represent a large portion of most fishermen's variable costs.

Not Available

1987-01-01

124

Automotive Design and Production  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This web site is the "Field Guide to Automotive Technology" and contains a great deal of information for automotive engineers, or for those teaching and studying in the field. Here, visitors will find all issues of the Automotive Design and Production monthly magazine going back to 1997. The "Industry Focus" section contains articles on electronics, and tools and practices in the automotive supply chain. The "Resources" section supplies information about automotive industry events, a database of links to useful automotive sites, as well as reports and books. The tabs on the top of the page take users to various forums and articles from the site, categorized as "On Cars," "Equip & Apps," "Materials," "Supply Side," and "Digital Domain."

2007-09-27

125

Jump start: The new automotive revolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

For half a century, automotive technology has been subservient to the demands of performance and style. Now,the first generation of environmentally responsible cars is on the way. Experimental low-emission cars that run on methane, hydrogen, or electricity and have exceptional fuel economy are being build by more than a dozen companies. Growing numbers of automobiles in recent year have offset

Flavin

1993-01-01

126

Light weight materials for automotive applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a result of more stringent requirements for improved fuel economy and emissions, there is a growing trend to substitute Al and Mg for conventional steel and cast irons in vehicles. This article describes some of the technical issues that must be considered if the automotive industry is to utilize these lightweight materials in larger volumes. Lightweight metals may be

G. S. Cole; A. M. Sherman

1995-01-01

127

Fuel conservative guidance concept for shipboard landing of powered-life aircraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A simulation study was undertaken to investigate the application of energy conservative guidance (ECG) software, developed at NASA Ames Research Center, to improve the time and fuel efficiency of powered lift airplanes operating from aircraft carriers at sea. When a flightpath is indicated by a set of initial conditions for the aircraft and a set of positional waypoints with associated airspeeds, the ECG software synthesizes the necessary guidance commands to optimize fuel and time along the specified path. A major feature of the ECG system is the ability to synthesize a trajectory that will allow the aircraft to capture the specified path at any waypoint with the desired heading and airspeed from an arbitrary set of initial conditions. Five paths were identified and studied. These paths demonstrate the ECG system's ability to save flight time and fuel by more efficiently managing the aircraft's capabilities. Results of this simulation study show that when restrictions on the approach flightpath imposed for manual operation are removed completely, fuel consumption during the approach was reduced by as much as 49% (610 lb fuel) and the time required to fly the flightpath was reduced by as much as 41% (5 min). Savings due to ECG were produced by: (1) shortening the total flight time; (2) keeping the airspeed high as long as possible to minimize time spent flying in a regime in which more engine thrust is required for lift to aid the aerodynamic lift; (3) minimizing time spent flying at constant altitude at slow airspeeds; and (4) synthesizing a path from any location for a direct approach to landing without entering a holding pattern or other fixed approach path.

Warner, D. N., Jr.; Mcghee, L. A.; Mclean, J. D.; Schmidt, G. K.

1984-01-01

128

Destruction and formation of PCDD/Fs in a fluidised bed combustor co-incinerating automotive shredder residue with refuse derived fuel and wastewater treatment sludge.  

PubMed

During an eight day trial automotive shredder residue (ASR) was added to the usual waste feed of a Fluidized Bed Combustor (FBC) for waste-to-energy conversion; the input waste mix consisted of 25% ASR, 25% refuse-derived fuel (RDF) and 50% wastewater treatment (WWT) sludge. All inputs and outputs were sampled and the concentration of the 17 PCDD/Fs with TEF-values was determined in order to obtain "PCDD/F fingerprints". The ASR contained approximately 9000 ng PCDD/Fs/kg(DW), six times more than the RDF and 10 times more than the WWT sludge. The fingerprint of ASR and RDF was dominated by HpCDD and OCDD, which accounted for 90% of the total PDDD/F content, whereas the WWT sludge contained relatively more HpCDFs and OCDF (together 70%). The flue gas cleaning residue (FGCR) and fly and boiler ash contained approximately 30,000 and 2500 ng PCDD/Fs/kg(DW), respectively. The fingerprints of these outputs were also dominated by HpCDFs and OCDF. The bottom ash contained only OCDD and OCDF, in total 8 ng PCDD/Fs/kg (DW). From the comparison of the bottom ash fingerprints with the fingerprints of the other output fractions and of the inputs, it could be concluded that the PCDD/Fs in the waste were destroyed and new PCDD/Fs were formed in the post combustion process by de novo synthesis. During the ASR-co-incineration, the PCDD/F congener concentrations in the fly and boiler ash, FGCR and flue gas were 1.25-10 times higher compared to the same output fractions generated during incineration of the usual waste mix (70% RDF and 30% WWT sludge). The concentration of the higher chlorinated PCDD/Fs increased most. As these congeners have the lowest TEF-factors, the total PCDD/F output, expressed in kg TEQ/year, of the FBC did not increase significantly when ASR was co-incinerated. Due to the relatively high copper levels in the ASR, the copper concentrations in the FBCs outputs increased. As copper catalysis the de novo syntheses, this could explain the increase in PCDD/F concentrations in these outputs. PMID:21621915

Van Caneghem, J; Vermeulen, I; Block, C; Van Brecht, A; Van Royen, P; Jaspers, M; Wauters, G; Vandecasteele, C

2012-03-15

129

Automotive Technology Skill Standards  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The standards in this document are for Automotive Technology programs and are designed to clearly state what the student should know and be able to do upon completion of an advanced high-school automotive program. Minimally, the student will complete a three-year program to achieve all standards. Although these exit-level standards are designed…

Garrett, Tom; Asay, Don; Evans, Richard; Barbie, Bill; Herdener, John; Teague, Todd; Allen, Scott; Benshoof, James

2009-01-01

130

Planning fuel-conservative descents in an airline environmental using a small programmable calculator: Algorithm development and flight test results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A simple, airborne, flight-management descent algorithm was developed and programmed into a small programmable calculator. The algorithm may be operated in either a time mode or speed mode. The time mode was designed to aid the pilot in planning and executing a fuel-conservative descent to arrive at a metering fix at a time designated by the air traffic control system. The speed model was designed for planning fuel-conservative descents when time is not a consideration. The descent path for both modes was calculated for a constant with considerations given for the descent Mach/airspeed schedule, gross weight, wind, wind gradient, and nonstandard temperature effects. Flight tests, using the algorithm on the programmable calculator, showed that the open-loop guidance could be useful to airline flight crews for planning and executing fuel-conservative descents.

Knox, C. E.; Vicroy, D. D.; Simmon, D. A.

1985-01-01

131

Center for Advanced Automotive Technology: Resource Library  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Center for Advanced Automotive Technology, a partnership between Macomb Community College, Wayne State University Division of Engineering Technology, and Regional Automotive related businesses, associations and agencies, is dedicated to education and curricular reform for the rapidly evolving advanced powertrain sector. This page provides free educational resources on alternative fuels, advanced engine technologies, energy storage and battery technologies, energy policy, smart grid interface, material lightweighting, vehicle electrification systems and technologies and related topics. Users may browse the resource by topic or search by keyword.

2013-02-04

132

Description of the computations and pilot procedures for planning fuel-conservative descents with a small programmable calculator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A simplified flight management descent algorithm was developed and programmed on a small programmable calculator. It was designed to aid the pilot in planning and executing a fuel conservative descent to arrive at a metering fix at a time designated by the air traffic control system. The algorithm may also be used for planning fuel conservative descents when time is not a consideration. The descent path was calculated for a constant Mach/airspeed schedule from linear approximations of airplane performance with considerations given for gross weight, wind, and nonstandard temperature effects. The flight management descent algorithm and the vertical performance modeling required for the DC-10 airplane is described.

Vicroy, D. D.; Knox, C. E.

1983-01-01

133

ATIP: Automotive Technician Internship Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Automotive Technology Department (ATD) of De Anza College (DAC) in Cupertino, California, in partnership with the Automotive Service Council of California, received funding to develop and implement a 2-year, competency-based certification program for automotive service technicians. Students in the Automotive Technician Internship Program…

De Anza Coll., Cupertino, CA.

134

Simulator evaluation of optimal thrust management/fuel conservation strategies for airbus aircraft on short haul routes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The feasibility of incorporating optimal concepts into a practical system was determined. Various earlier theoretical analyses were confirmed, and insight was gained into the sensitivity of fuel conservation strategies to nonlinear and second order aerodynamic and engine characteristics. In addition to the investigation of optimal trajectories the study ascertained combined fuel savings by utilizing various procedure-oriented improvements such as delayed flap/decelerating approaches and great circle navigation.

Bochem, J. H.; Mossman, D. C.; Lanier, P. D.

1977-01-01

135

Automotive Laboratory Instrumentation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Automotive laboratory instrumentation may be divided into the five broad classifications, power absorption and measurement, temperature measurement and control, pressure measurements, fluid flow, and dimensional measurement. Many of these instruments find...

1968-01-01

136

Techno-economic requirements for automotive composites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

New technology generally serves two main goals of the automotive industry: one is to enable vehicles to comply with various governmental regulations and the other is to provide a competitive edge in the market. The latter goal can either be served through improved manufacturing and design capabilities, such as computer aided design and computer aided manufacturing, or through improved product performance, such as anti-lock braking (ABS). Although safety features are sometimes customer driven, such as the increasing use of airbags and ABS, most are determined by regulations as outlined by the Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards (FMVSS). Other standards, set by the Environmental Protection Agency, determine acceptable levels of emissions and fuel consumption. State governments, such as in California, are also setting precedent standards, such as requiring manufacturers to offer zero-emission vehicles as a certain fraction of their sales in the state. The drive to apply new materials in the automobile stems from the need to reduce weight and improve fuel efficiency. Topics discussed include: new lightweight materials; types of automotive materials; automotive composite applications; the role for composite materials in automotive applications; advantages and disadvantages of composite materials; material substitution economics; economic perspective; production economics; and composite materials production economics.

Arnold, Scot

1993-01-01

137

Lightweight materials for automotive applications  

SciTech Connect

As a result of more stringent requirements for improved fuel economy and emissions, there is a growing tend to substitute Al and Mg for conventional steel and cast irons in vehicles. this article describes some of the technical issues that must be considered if the automotive industry is to utilize these lightweight materials in larger volumes. Lightweight metals may be used in the vehicle in both wrought and cast forms. Aluminum, in the form of stamped sheet, has the potential to be used extensively in vehicle structures and closures. However, compared to steel, aluminum is more difficult to stamp and spot weld. Current research is exploring ways of improving the formability of Al alloys and developing alternate joining methods including adhesive bonding and fasteners. Mg, Al, and metal-matrix composite casting have the potential to be used as replacements for many ferrous castings in power-train and chassis components. However, because of their different tribology, strength, and ductility, light-metal castings require improved foundry procedures and more sophisticated design rules before product engineers will use them in larger quantities. A major challenge for lightweight materials is the ability to produce a functional component at an acceptable price. The presentation concludes with a cost-benefit perspective for typical light-metal applications in the automotive industry.

Cole, G.S.; Sherman, A.M. [Ford Motor Company, Dearborn, MI (United States)] [Ford Motor Company, Dearborn, MI (United States)

1995-07-01

138

Automotive Stirling engine: Mod 2 design report  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The design of an automotive Stirling engine that achieves the superior fuel economy potential of the Stirling cycle is described. As the culmination of a 9-yr development program, this engine, designated the Mod 2, also nullifies arguments that Stirling engines are heavy, expensive, unreliable, demonstrating poor performance. Installed in a General Motors Chevrolet Celebrity car, this engine has a predicted combined fuel economy on unleaded gasoline of 17.5 km/l (41 mpg)- a value 50% above the current vehicle fleet average. The Mod 2 Stirling engine is a four-cylinder V-drive design with a single crankshaft. The engine is also equipped with all the controls and auxiliaries necessary for automotive operation.

Nightingale, Noel P.

1986-01-01

139

AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE. PROGRAM OUTLINE.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

INFORMATIONAL TOPICS COVERED IN THE TEXT MATERIALS AND SELF-INSTRUCTIONAL BRANCH PROGRAMED TRAINING FILMS FOR A 2-YEAR, 55 MODULE PROGRAM IN AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE ARE GIVEN. THE 30 MODULES FOR "AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE 1" ARE AVAILABLE AS VT 005 655 - VT 005 684, AND THE 25 MODULES FOR "AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE 2" ARE AVAILABLE…

Human Engineering Inst., Cleveland, OH.

140

Automotive Stirling engine development program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This is the ninth Semiannual Technical Progress Report prepared under the Automotive Stirling Engine Development Program. It covers the twenty-eighth and twenty-ninth quarters of activity after award of the contract. Quarterly Technical Progress Reports related program activities from the first through the thirteenth quarters; thereafter, reporting was changed to a Semiannual format. This report summarizes the study of higher-power kinematic Stirling engines for transportation use, development testing of Mod I Stirling engines, and component development activities. Component development testing included successful conical fuel nozzle testing and functional checkout of Mod II controls and auxiliaries on Mod I engine test beds. Overall program philosophy is outlined and data and test results are presented.

Ernst, W.; Richey, A.; Farrell, R.; Riecke, G.; Smith, G.; Howarth, R.; Cronin, M.; Simetkosky, M.; Meacher, J.

1986-01-01

141

AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE L. UNIT XII, PART I--MAINTAINING THE FUEL SYSTEM (PART II), CUMMINS DIESEL ENGINE, PART II--UNIT INSTALLATION (ENGINE).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THIS MODULE OF A 30-MODULE COURSE IS DESIGNED TO DEVELOP AN UNDERSTANDING OF THE OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE OF THE DIESEL ENGINE FUEL SYSTEM AND THE PROCEDURES FOR DIESEL ENGINE INSTALLATION. TOPICS ARE FUEL FLOW CHARACTERISTICS, PTG FUEL PUMP, PREPARATION FOR INSTALLATION, AND INSTALLING ENGINE. THE MODULE CONSISTS OF A SELF-INSTRUCTIONAL BRANCH…

Human Engineering Inst., Cleveland, OH.

142

Automotive Power Trains.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This correspondence course, originally developed for the Marine Corps, is designed to provide mechanics with an understanding of the operation, maintenance, and troubleshooting of automotive power trains and certain auxiliary equipment. The course contains six study units covering basic power trains; clutch principles and operations; conventional…

Marine Corps Inst., Washington, DC.

143

Automotive Brake Systems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This correspondence course, orginally developed for the Marine Corps, is designed to provide mechanics with an understanding of the basic operations of automotive brake systems on military vehicles. The course contains four study units covering hydraulic brakes, air brakes, power brakes, and auxiliary brake systems. A troubleshooting guide for…

Marine Corps Inst., Washington, DC.

144

Automotive Pollution Control.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Intended for a 1- or 2-month curriculum in auto mechanics, this student manual on automotive pollution control was developed by a subject matter specialist at an area vocational school and tested in a vocational auto shop. Intended either for use in an integrated curriculum or for use in teaching pollution control as a separate course, these 12…

Raudenbush, David B.

145

Automotive Technology Curriculum Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Idaho state curriculum guide provides lists of tasks, performance objectives, and enabling objectives for instruction in automotive technology. The document begins with a list of all tasks covered by the curriculum, a short course outline, and a curriculum framework that explains major content, laboratory activities, and intended outcomes.…

Idaho State Dept. of Education, Boise. Div. of Vocational Education.

146

Automotive Battery Inspection & Cleaning  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Have you ever entered your car, turned the key and the engine would not start? You may have heard a click coming from under the hood each time you turn the key. Your headlights and interior lights are as dim as a nightlight and your horn gives a weak low muffle that sounds like someone is growling at you as you attempt to see what might work. This usually happens when you are in a hurry, its raining, and no one is around to help. The automotive battery is a key component and the primary source of electricity of the automotive electrical system. It helps provide the electricity to run the convenient amenities that we have grown to appreciate including radios, CD and DVD players, GPS systems that help guide us to our locations, and all the neat-o gages that tell us the current condition of the vehicle. Regular battery inspection and maintenance is easy and critical to avoid situations such as described above. OBJECTIVES: In this instructional module, you will: Understand the definition of the automotive battery. Gain a detailed understanding of battery basics. Learn how to inspect and service an automotive battery. MATERIALS: To complete this assignment, each student will need access to a computer with internet capabilities. PROCEDURES: This instructional module is divided into four steps. It is ...

Hjorten, Mr.

2006-02-03

147

Bringing Excellence to Automotive  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Market situation and development in recent years shows, that organization's ability to meet customer requirements is not enough. Successful organizations are able to exceed the expectations of all stakeholders. They are building their excellence systematically. Our contribution basically how the excellence in automotive is created using EFQM Excellence Model in Total Quality Management.

Ve?e?a, Pavel; Paulová, Iveta

2012-12-01

148

Automotive power steering system  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes improvement in an automotive power steering system including a pump, a servo-valve, a steering assist fluid motor, a reservoir having a reservoir chamber therein, fluid ducts; a volume of hydraulic oil; a fluid level. The improvement comprises: means defining a fill port; a cover; means connect a gas accumulator.

VanGorder, D.H.; Wilson, K.R.

1991-04-23

149

General Mechanical Repair. Minor Automotive Maintenance, Small Engine [Repair, and] Welding: Student Manual.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document is a student manual for a general mechanical repair course. Following a list of common essential elements of trade and industrial education, the manual is divided into three sections. The first section, on minor automotive maintenance, contains 13 units: automotive shop safety; engine principles; fuel system operation and repair;…

Hamlin, Larry

150

Modeling, Identification, Design, and Implementation of Nonlinear Automotive Idle Speed Control Systems - An Overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

Automotive idle speed control (ISC) is one of the most challenging aspects in engine control fields. Essentially it is a highly nonlinear, time-varying, complicated, and uncertain dynamic control problem. As the typical automotive transient operation, the quality of the ISC has a significant impact on fuel economy, emission levels (HC, CO, and NOx), combustion stability, transient response, and noise, vibration,

Zhengmao Ye

2007-01-01

151

Consumer Behavior towards Fuel Efficient Vehicles.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report contains the results of a study directed toward anticipating consumer behavior toward motor vehicles redesigned to meet federally legislated automotive fuel economy standards. Automotive design changes already being implemented include weight ...

1979-01-01

152

Light-Duty Automotive Technology, Carbon Dioxide Emissions, and Fuel Economy Trends: 1975 through 2011. Appendix A: Database Details and Calculation Methods.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Dimensionally, fuel economy is miles divided by gallons. Then, presented with more than one fuel economy value, an approach to averaging the values is to compute the result by determining the total miles traveled and dividing that by the total gallons use...

2012-01-01

153

AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE 1. UNIT XXIV, I--MAINTAINING THE FUEL SYSTEM PART III--CATERPILLAR DIESEL ENGINE, II--UNDERSTANDING THE VOLTAGE REGULATOR/ALTERNATOR.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THIS MODULE OF A 30-MODULE COURSE IS DESIGNED TO DEVELOP AN UNDERSTANDING OF THE OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE OF THE DIESEL ENGINE FUEL AND BATTERY CHARGING SYSTEM. TOPICS ARE (1) INJECTION TIMING CONTROLS, (2) GOVERNOR, (3) FUEL SYSTEM MAINTENANCE TIPS, (4) THE CHARGING SYSTEM, (5) REGULATING THE GENERATOR/ALTERNATOR, AND (6) CHARGING SYSTEM SERVICE…

Minnesota State Dept. of Education, St. Paul. Div. of Vocational and Technical Education.

154

AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE 1. UNIT XXIII, I--MAINTAINING THE FUEL SYSTEM, PART II--CATERPILLAR DIESEL ENGINE, II--UNDERSTANDING STEERING SYSTEMS.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THIS MODULE OF A 30-MODULE COURSE IS DESIGNED TO DEVELOP AN UNDERSTANDING OF THE OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE OF THE DIESEL ENGINE FUEL INJECTION SYSTEM AND THE STEERING SYSTEM OF DIESEL POWERED VEHICLES. TOPICS ARE FUEL INJECTION SECTION, AND DESCRIPTION OF THE STEERING SYSTEM. THE MODULE CONSISTS OF A SELF-INSTRUCTIONAL BRANCH PROGRAMED TRAINING…

Minnesota State Dept. of Education, St. Paul. Div. of Vocational and Technical Education.

155

Lightweight Steel Solutions for Automotive Industry  

SciTech Connect

Recently, improvement in fuel efficiency and safety has become the biggest issue in worldwide automotive industry. Although the regulation of environment and safety has been tightened up more and more, the majority of vehicle bodies are still manufactured from stamped steel components. This means that the optimized steel solutions enable to demonstrate its ability to reduce body weight with high crashworthiness performance instead of expensive light weight materials such as Al, Mg and composites. To provide the innovative steel solutions for automotive industry, POSCO has developed AHSS and its application technologies, which is directly connected to EVI activities. EVI is a technical cooperation program with customer covering all stages of new car project from design to mass production. Integrated light weight solutions through new forming technologies such as TWB, hydroforming and HPF are continuously developed and provided for EVI activities. This paper will discuss the detailed status of these technologies especially light weight steel solutions based on innovative technologies.

Lee, Hong Woo; Kim, Gyosung; Park, Sung Ho [Technical Research Laboratories, POSCO, 699, Gumho-dong, Gwangyang-si, Jeonnam, 545-090 (Korea, Republic of)

2010-06-15

156

Reformulated diesel fuel  

DOEpatents

Reformulated diesel fuels for automotive diesel engines which meet the requirements of ASTM 975-02 and provide significantly reduced emissions of nitrogen oxides (NO.sub.x) and particulate matter (PM) relative to commercially available diesel fuels.

McAdams, Hiramie T [Carrollton, IL; Crawford, Robert W [Tucson, AZ; Hadder, Gerald R [Oak Ridge, TN; McNutt, Barry D [Arlington, VA

2006-03-28

157

Automotive disc brake squeal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Disc brake squeal remains an elusive problem in the automotive industry. Since the early 20th century, many investigators have examined the problem with experimental, analytical, and computational techniques, but there is as yet no method to completely suppress disc brake squeal. This paper provides a comprehensive review and bibliography of works on disc brake squeal. In an effort to make this review accessible to a large audience, background sections on vibrations, contact and disc brake systems are also included.

Kinkaid, N. M.; O'Reilly, O. M.; Papadopoulos, P.

2003-10-01

158

Typical Automotive Manufacturing Technology Degree Requirements  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This document from the Consortium for Alabama Regional Center for Automotive Manufacturing (CARCAM) provides the typical automotive manufacturing technology degree requirements. Actual classes will vary by institution. The requirements include general education classes as well as specialized automotive manufacturing coursework.

2011-02-02

159

78 FR 36633 - National Automotive Sampling System  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...National Highway Traffic Safety Administration [Docket...2012-0084] National Automotive Sampling System AGENCY: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA...modernization of National Automotive Sampling System...

2013-06-18

160

Evaluation of advanced lift concepts and fuel conservative short-haul aircraft, volume 1  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The performance and economics of a twin-engine augmentor wing airplane were evaluated in two phases. Design aspects of the over-the-wing/internally blown flap hybrid, augmentor wing, and mechanical flap aircraft were investigated for 910 m. field length with parametric extension to other field lengths. Fuel savings achievable by application of advanced lift concepts to short-haul aircraft were evaluated and the effect of different field lengths, cruise requirements, and noise levels on fuel consumption and airplane economics at higher fuel prices were determined. Conclusions and recommendations are presented.

Renshaw, J. H.; Bowden, M. K.; Narucki, C. W.; Bennett, J. A.; Smith, P. R.; Ferrill, R. S.; Randall, C. C.; Tibbetts, J. G.; Patterson, R. W.; Meyer, R. T.

1974-01-01

161

Introduction to Automotive Service. Teacher Edition. Automotive Service Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document provides instruction for high-priority competencies on task lists developed by the National Institute of Automotive Service Excellence. Contained in this teacher's guide are the materials necessary to teach 11 competency-based instructional units related to the automotive service industry. The following instructional units are…

Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

162

Automotive applications of a hybrid active noise and vibration control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fuel economy, as well as social-economical factors in Europe, Asia and other market places for automotive vehicles have forced manufacturers to design smaller and lighter vehicles. Some manufacturers have plans and designs to introduce even smaller and lighter vehicles in the late 1990s and the beginning of the next century. Lighter vehicles are typically more susceptible to noise and vibrations.

R. A. Shoureshi; R. Gasser; J. Vance

1997-01-01

163

Automotive applications of a hybrid active noise and vibration control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fuel economy, international competition, and socioeconomic factors have forced manufacturers to design smaller and lighter automotive vehicles. Such vehicles are typically more susceptible to noise and vibrations, which increase as they age. For reasons of health, there has been a major increase of effort in the design of noise and vibration characteristics of vehicles that would better appeal to the

R. Shoureshi; T. Knurek

1996-01-01

164

Laboratory Application and Demonstration of Automotive Oxygen Sensors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The application and demonstration of automotive oxygen (lambda) sensors in the laboratory is discussed. After a presentation of the electrochemical principle, selected experiments are outlined, which cover a broad spectrum of possible applications. In addition to the possibility of measuring partial pressures of oxygen, the use of these sensors in a fuel cell mode is described. Closely related to the

T. Schober; J. Friedrich

1999-01-01

165

A Program to Evaluate and Demonstrate Conservation of Fossil Fuel Energy for Single-Family Dwellings.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report outlines a program which will demonstrate reduction in the United States fossil-fuel energy usage, particularly residential, shopping and commuting. Goals include combining more efficient energy use with low-energy structures to demonstrate th...

1975-01-01

166

AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE 1. UNIT XI, PART I--MAINTAINING THE FUEL SYSTEM (PART I), CUMMINS DIESEL ENGINES, PART II--UNIT REPLACEMENT (ENGINE).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THIS MODULE OF A 30-MODULE COURSE IS DESIGNED TO DEVELOP AN UNDERSTANDING OF DIFFERENCES BETWEEN TWO AND FOUR CYCLE ENGINES, THE OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE OF THE DIESEL ENGINE FUEL SYSTEM, AND THE PROCEDURES FOR DIESEL ENGINE REMOVAL. TOPICS ARE (1) REVIEW OF TWO CYCLE AND FOUR CYCLE CONCEPT, (2) SOME BASIC CHARACTERISTICS OF FOUR CYCLE ENGINES,…

Human Engineering Inst., Cleveland, OH.

167

United States Council for Automotive Research  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The United States Council for Automotive Research (USCAR) is a joint operation between Ford, DaimlerChrysler, and General Motors. The council lets the companies combine their resources to develop better non-competitive technologies, such as safety, fuel efficiency, and emissions. Many new innovations in vehicle design are described on the USCAR Web site. For example, the 21st Century section outlines some major advances that will shape the future of the automobile, while Specific Technologies examines various new manufacturing practices and vehicle components. There are also many articles and technical accomplishments listed on the site, giving some insight into what is currently being done to make driving a better experience.

168

Con-fuels alternative. [Conservation seen far superior to Synfuels program to reduce oil imports  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Synfuels program proposed by the Administration is first briefly reviewed. The author then explains an alternative plan involving saving energy by saving waste heat - in effect, a massive conservation plan. Infrared photographs show enormous amounts of wasted oil and gas escaping in the form of heat from millions of structures as a result of our inefficient use of

Rauch

1979-01-01

169

Automotive Stirling Engine Development Project  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development and verification of automotive Stirling engine (ASE) component and system technology is described as it evolved through two experimental engine designs: the Mod 1 and the Mod 2. Engine operation and performance and endurance test results for the Mod 1 are summarized. Mod 2 engine and component development progress is traced from the original design through hardware development, laboratory test, and vehicle installation. More than 21,000 hr of testing were accomplished, including 4800 hr with vehicles that were driven more dm 59,000 miles. Mod 2 engine dynamometer tests demonstrated that the engine system configuration had accomplished its performance goals for power (60 kW) and efficiency (38.5%) to within a few percent. Tests with the Mod 2 engine installed in a delivery van demonstrated combined metro-highway fuel economy improvements consistent with engine performance goals and the potential for low emission levels. A modified version of the Mod 2 has been identified as a manufacturable design for an ASE. As part of the ASE project, the Industry Test and Evaluation Program (ITEP), NASA Technology Utilization (TU) project, and the industry-funded Stirling Natural Gas Engine program were undertaken to transfer ASE technology to end users. The results of these technology transfer efforts are also summarized.

Ernst, William D.; Shaltens, Richard K.

1997-01-01

170

Evaluation of advanced lift concepts and potential fuel conservation for short-haul aircraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effect of different field lengths, cruise requirements, noise level, and engine cycle characteristics on minimizing fuel consumption and minimizing operating cost at high fuel prices were evaluated for some advanced short-haul aircraft. The conceptual aircraft were designed for 148 passengers using the upper surface-internally blown jet flap, the augmentor wing, and the mechanical flap lift systems. Advanced conceptual STOL engines were evaluated as well as a near-term turbofan and turboprop engine. Emphasis was given to designs meeting noise levels equivalent to 95-100 EPNdB at 152 m (500 ft) sideline.

Sweet, H. S.; Renshaw, J. H.; Bowden, M. K.

1975-01-01

171

Aluminum automotive space frames  

SciTech Connect

Design of aluminum structures is to a new topic. Aircraft makers have successfully solved difficult structural problems with a high degree of understanding and reliability. Other transportation modes such as trucks, trailers, and railcars have faced structural problems with some emphasis on high- and low-cycle fatigue of welded aluminum structures. However, the automotive market places stringent engineering demands on materials and superimposes demanding cost constraints. A project was instituted at Reynolds Metals Co. to investigate the opportunities for the cost-effective application of aluminum to automotive spaceframes. Several areas were recognized as key to the success of this application. They were: equivalent or superior structural stiffness of the assembly to existing steel unibody and/or steel spaceframe vehicles; effective joining of spaceframe members; equivalent or superior crashworthiness of the assembly; weight savings; flexibility; and low-cost approach aimed at effective manufacturing. To gain experience with the key aspects in a practical environment, the experience of current builders of steel tube frame chassis was explored. These chassis are typically used in low-volume vehicles requiring torsional stiffness, excellent crashworthiness, and exterior body-style flexibility. A model was developed using finite element methods that accurately predicts mass and stiffness of frames. An effective aluminum space frame was generated which was 7.5% stiffer and more than 20% lighter than the steel frame, with stresses kept below the fatigue limit for aluminum welds.

NONE

1995-08-01

172

Basin Scale Water Quality Conservation: Impacts of filter strips, bio-fuel development and hydrological parameters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Excessive nutrient and sediment export from agricultural basins with intensive row crop cultivation have been identified as persistent problems leading to higher levels of nitrate nitrogen and reduced levels of dissolved oxygen in the water bodies. Water quality thus gets degraded and becomes less suitable for human use and potential threat to the aquatic life and environment. Development of bio-fuel

Mahesh Kumar Sahu

2010-01-01

173

Motor Vehicle Operator Fuel-Conservation Feedback Device. Final Technical Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A summary is given of the work performed to evaluate a number of existing fuel and vacuum monitoring devices from a technical and human factors viewpoint; the experimental analysis of the device presentation from the operator (user) standpoint both on the...

C. Fazio C. Hartley F. O'Neil R. Cooksey

1982-01-01

174

Wet\\/dry cooling systems for fossil-fueled power plants: water conservation and plume abatement. Final report Jun 75Sep 77  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results of a study of technical and economic feasibilities of wet\\/dry cooling towers for water conservation and vapor plume abatement are given. Results of cost optimizations of wet\\/dry cooling for 1000-MWe fossil-fueled power plants are presented. Five sites in the western coal region and one in New York are evaluated for water conservation; four urban sites (Seattle, Cleveland, Newark, and

M. C. Hu; G. A. Englesson

1977-01-01

175

Some characteristics of automotive gasolines and their performance in a light aircraft engine. Final report, October 1982March 1984  

Microsoft Academic Search

The primary purpose of this extensive test effort was to observe real-time operational performance characteristics associated with automotive-grade fuel utilized by piston-engine-powered light general-aviation aircraft. In fulfillment of this effort, baseline engine operations were established with 100LL aviation grade fuel followed by four blends of automotive-grade fuel. A comprehensive sea-level static test cell\\/flight test data collection and evaluation effort was

K. M. Morrison; N. W. Sung; D. J. Patterson

1984-01-01

176

Advanced Gas Turbine (AGT) powertrain system development for automotive applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A gas turbine powertrain for automobiles with reduced fuel consumption and reduced environmental impact is investigated. The automotive gas turbine, when installed in an automobile (3000 pounds inertia weight), provides a CFDC fuel economy of 42.8 miles per gallon based on EPA test procedures and diesel No. 2 fuel. The AGT powered vehicle substantially gives the same overall vehicle driveability and performance as a comparable production vehicle powered by a conventional spark ignition powertrain system. The emissions are less than federal standards, and a variety of fuels can be used.

1982-01-01

177

Multifunctional Materials Used in Automotive Industry: A Critical Review  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nowadays, advanced materials and related processes in the automotive industry, are more widely used, leading to an effort towards reducing weight and fuel consumption. The use of such advanced materials and technologies tends to increase the cost. Multifunctional materials (MFMs) and related processing technologies aim at overcoming this increase of cost by exploiting the high level of functional integration. MFMs are designed so as to meet specific requirements through tailored properties. The use of such materials, in the automotive body construction, can help reduce produced parts, lightweight design, high level of integration of functionalities, advancements in mechanical properties of structures etc. In the current study, there is a clear definition of MFMs, and a critical view of such materials used both in the automotive body construction and in other industrial applications.

Salonitis, Konstantinos; Pandremenos, John; Paralikas, John; Chryssolouris, George

178

Effects of fuel and forest conservation on future levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide.  

PubMed

We develop a numerical simulation of the global biogeochemical cycles of carbon that works over time scales extending from years to millions of years. The ocean is represented by warm and cold shallow water reservoirs, a thermocline reservoir, and deep Atlantic, Indian, and Pacific reservoirs. The atmosphere is characterized by a single carbon reservoir and the global biota by a single biomass reservoir. The simulation includes the rock cycle, distinguishing between shelf carbonate and pelagic carbonate precipitation, with distinct lysocline depths in the three deep ocean reservoirs. Dissolution of pelagic carbonates in response to decrease in lysocline depth is included. The simulation is tuned to reproduce the observed radiocarbon record resulting from atomic weapon testing. It is tuned also to reproduce the distribution of dissolved phosphate and total dissolved carbon between the ocean reservoirs as well as the carbon isotope ratios for both 13C and 14C in ocean and atmosphere. The simulation reproduces reasonably well the historical record of carbon dioxide partial pressure as well as the atmospheric isotope ratios for 13C and 14C over the last 200 yr as these have changed in response to fossil fuel burning and land use changes, principally forest clearance. The agreements between observation and calculation involves the assumption of a carbon dioxide fertilization effect in which the rate of production of biomass increases with increasing carbon dioxide partial pressure. At present the fertilization effect of increased carbon dioxide outweighs the effects of forest clearance, so the biota comprises an overall sink of atmospheric carbon dioxide sufficiently large to bring the budget approximately into balance. This simulation is used to examine the future evolution of carbon dioxide and its sensitivity to assumptions about the rate of fossil fuel burning and of forest clearance. Over times extending up to thousands of years, the results are insensitive to the formulation of the rock cycle and to the dissolution of deep sea carbonate sediments. Atmospheric carbon dioxide continues to increase as long fossil fuel is burned at a significant rate, because the rate of fossil fuel production of carbon dioxide far exceeds the rates at which geochemical processes can remove carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. The maximum concentration of carbon dioxide achieved in the atmosphere depends on the total amount of fossil fuel burned, but only weakly on the rate of burning. The future course of atmospheric carbon dioxide is, however, very sensitive to the fate of the forests in this simulation because of the important role assigned to carbon dioxide fertilization of plant growth rate. Forest clearance drives up atmospheric carbon dioxide not only by converting biomass into atmospheric carbon dioxide but more importantly by reducing the capacity of the biota to sequester fossil fuel carbon dioxide. In this simulation, atmospheric carbon dioxide levels could be sustained indefinitely below 500 parts per million (ppm) if fossil fuel combustion rates were immediately cut from their present value of 5 x 10(14) m/y to 0.2 x 10(14) m/y (a factor of 25 reduction) and if further forest clearance were halted. If neither of these conditions is met and if we consume most of the world's fossil fuel reserves, peak carbon dioxide concentrations of 1000-2000 ppm are probable within the next few centuries. PMID:11537854

Walker, J C; Kasting, J F

1992-01-01

179

75 FR 34170 - Plastic Omnium Automotive Exteriors, LLC, Anderson, SC; Plastic Omnium Automotive Exteriors, LLC...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...TA-W-73,230; TA-W-73,230A] Plastic Omnium Automotive Exteriors, LLC, Anderson, SC; Plastic Omnium Automotive Exteriors, LLC, Troy...March 18, 2010, applicable to workers of Plastic Omnium Automotive Exteriors, LLC,...

2010-06-16

180

Downsizing assessment of automotive Stirling engines  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A 67 kW (90 hp) Stirling engine design, sized for use in a 1984 1440 kg (3170 lb) automobile was the focal point for developing automotive Stirling engine technology. Since recent trends are towards lighter vehicles, an assessment was made of the applicability of the Stirling technology being developed for smaller, lower power engines. Using both the Philips scaling laws and a Lewis Research Center (Lewis) Stirling engine performance code, dimensional and performance characteristics were determined for a 26 kW (35 hp) and a 37 kW (50 hp) engine for use in a nominal 907 kg (2000 lb) vehicle. Key engine elements were sized and stressed and mechanical layouts were made to ensure mechanical fit and integrity of the engines. Fuel economy estimates indicated that the Stirling engine would maintain a 30 to 45 percent fuel economy advantage comparable spark ignition and diesel powered vehicles in the 1984 period.

Knoll, R. H.; Tew, R. C., Jr.; Klann, J. L.

1983-01-01

181

Army Alternative Ground Fuels Qualification.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Introduction: Tank Automotive Research, Development, and Engineering Center (TARDEC) Mission and Portfolio - Responsibilities as DOD Executive Agent for Ground Fuels & Lubricants. Why Alternative Fuels: - Payback - What Army Leaders Are Saying About Energ...

P. Muzzel

2012-01-01

182

Automotive Maintenance Equipment in Thailand.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The study contains the market potential in Thailand for mechanical equipment and hand tools used in the testing and repairing of automotive equipment. No attempt has been made for a definitive survey outside the capital city, but motor vehicle registratio...

1965-01-01

183

Automotive Maintenance Equipment in Thailand.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This survey assesses the market potential in Thailand for mechanical equipment and hand tools used in the testing and repairing of automotive equipment. No attempt has been made for a definitive survey outside the capital city, but motor vehicle registrat...

1964-01-01

184

Recording Automotive Crash Event Data.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The National Transportation Safety Board has recommended that automobile manufacturers and the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration work cooperatively to gather information on automotive crashes using on-board collision sensing and recording dev...

A. Chidester J. Hinch T. C. Mercer K. S. Schultz

2001-01-01

185

Ceramic automotive Stirling engine program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Ceramic Automotive Stirling Engine Program evaluated the application of advanced ceramic materials to an automotive Stirling engine. The objective of the program was to evaluate the technical feasibility of utilizing advanced ceramics to increase peak engine operating temperature, and to evaluate the performance benefits of such an increase. Manufacturing cost estimates were also developed for various ceramic engine components and compared with conventional metallic engine component costs.

1986-01-01

186

United States Automotive Materials Partnership LLC (USAMP)  

SciTech Connect

The United States Automotive Materials Partnership LLC (USAMP) was formed in 1993 as a partnership between Chrysler Corporation, Ford Motor Company, and General Motors Corporation. Since then the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has supported its activities with funding and technical support. The mission of the USAMP is to conduct vehicle-oriented research and development in materials and materials processing to improve the competitiveness of the U.S. Auto Industry. Its specific goals are: (1) To conduct joint research to further the development of lightweight materials for improved automotive fuel economy; and (2) To work with the Federal government to explore opportunities for cooperative programs with the national laboratories, Federal agencies such as the DOE and universities. As a major component of the DOE's Office of FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies Program (FCVT) collaboration with the USAMP, the Automotive Lightweighting Materials (ALM) program focuses on the development and validation of advanced materials and manufacturing technologies to significantly reduce automotive vehicle body and chassis weight without compromising other attributes such as safety, performance, recyclability, and cost. The FCVT was announced in FY 2002 and implemented in FY 2003, as a successor of the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles (PNGV), largely addressed under the first Cooperative Agreement. This second USAMP Cooperative Agreement with the DOE has expanded a unique and valuable framework for collaboratively directing industry and government research efforts toward the development of technologies capable of solving important societal problems related to automobile transportation. USAMP efforts are conducted by the domestic automobile manufacturers, in collaboration with materials and manufacturing suppliers, national laboratories, universities, and other technology or trade organizations. These interactions provide a direct route for implementing newly developed materials and technologies, and have resulted in significant technical successes to date, as discussed in the individual project summary final reports. Over 70 materials-focused projects have been established by USAMP, in collaboration with participating suppliers, academic/non-profit organizations and national laboratories, and executed through its original three divisions: the Automotive Composites Consortium (ACC), the Automotive Metals Division (AMD), and Auto/Steel Partnership (A/SP). Two new divisions were formed by USAMP in 2006 to drive research emphasis on integration of structures incorporating dissimilar lightweighting materials, and on enabling technology for nondestructive evaluation of structures and joints. These new USAMP divisions are: Multi-Material Vehicle Research and Development Initiative (MMV), and the Non-Destructive Evaluation Steering Committee (NDE). In cooperation with USAMP and the FreedomCAR Materials Technical Team, a consensus process has been established to facilitate the development of projects to help move leveraged research to targeted development projects that eventually migrate to the original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) as application engineering projects. Research projects are assigned to one of three phases: concept feasibility, technical feasibility, and demonstration feasibility. Projects are guided through ongoing monitoring and USAMP offsite reviews, so as to meet the requirements of each phase before they are allowed to move on to the next phase. As progress is made on these projects, the benefits of lightweight construction and enabling technologies will be transferred to the supply base and implemented in production vehicles. The single greatest barrier to automotive use of lightweight materials is their high cost; therefore, priority is given to activities aimed at reducing costs through development of new materials, forming technologies, and manufacturing processes. The emphasis of the research projects reported in this document was largely on applied research and evaluation of mass savings opportunities thro

United States Automotive Materials Partnership

2011-01-31

187

Conservation tillage.  

PubMed

Conservation production systems combine tillage and planting practices to reduce soil erosion and loss of water from farmland. Successful conservation tillage practices depend on the ability of farm managers to integrate sound crop production practices with effective pest management systems. More scientific information is needed to determine the relations between tillage practices and physical, chemical, and biological soil factors that affect plant and pest ecology. There is a need to devise improved pest management strategies for conservation tillage and to better understand the impact of conservation tillage on water-quality, especially as it is related to use of agricultural chemicals. While savings in fuel, labor, and soil have induced many farmers to adopt conservation tillage, improved methods and equipment should increase adoption even more. PMID:17797277

Gebhardt, M R; Daniel, T C; Schweizer, E E; Allmaras, R R

1985-11-01

188

Automotive emission standards. (Latest citations from Pollution Abstracts). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning emission standards and air quality standards applied to automobile emissions. Included are federal and state regulations and policies regarding these emission standards. Techniques to meet emission standards are also addressed, involving fuel injection, catalysts, alternate engines, and automotive fuel refinery operations. Studies concerning implementation of automobile emission standards explore economic and environmental effects, testing and inspection procedures, and the automobile industry point of view. Most of the citations refer to gasoline engines, but a few pertain to diesel and other fuels. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

NONE

1993-07-01

189

Public policy incentives for electric utility fuel conservation investments: a case study for wind power  

SciTech Connect

A systematic method is presented for evaluating the future of solar electric technology in the electric utility industry. The sensitivity of economic performance to a range of policy variables is determined for a selected solar electric technology (wind) at typical utilities. Finally, the prospects for the solar electric technology in utilities as a function of federal power is appraised for a test case based on wind. Included are a review of wind energy technology and applications, methodology; perspectives on the electric utility industry; construction of the utility case study; and financial and policy analyses. In regard to utility investment in wind power systems, it was demonstrated that (1) large wind energy projects in the multi-megawatt range will be economic for many utilities in the 1980s if wind industry production cost targets are met; (2) the climate for investment in general and for 'risky' projects, such as wind energy, is poor; (3) utilities are risk averse with respect to renewable energy investments; and (4) wind projects must justify themselves on the basis of fuel savings only. Major findings in regard to investment evaluation criteria used by utilities also are presented.

March, F.; Dlott, E.H.; Korn, D.H.; Madio, F.R.; McArthur, R.C.

1981-09-01

190

Alternatives to Automotive Consumer Products That Use Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC) and/or Chlorinated Organic Compound Solvents.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This project involved developing, testing and demonstrating alternative near-zero VOC automotive aerosol products for engine degreasing, carburetor and fuel injection system cleaning, brake cleaning and general purpose degreasing. The products were tested...

J. Zavadil D. Wolf M. Morris

2004-01-01

191

Automotive sulfate emission data.  

PubMed Central

This paper discusses automotive sulfate emission results obtained by the Office of Mobile Source Air Pollution Control of EPA, General Motors, Ford, Chrysler, and Esso. This work has been directed towards obtaining sulfate emission factors for cars with and without catalyst. While the EPA and Chrysler investigations have found significant sulfate formation in noncatalyst cars, GM, Ford, and Esso have found only trace levels from noncatalyst cars. All of these investigators agree that much higher quantities of sulfate are emitted from catalyst cars. The work done to date shows pelleted catalysts to have much lower sulfate emissions over the low speed-EPA Federal Test Procedures than monolith catalysts. This is probably due to temporary storage of sulfates on the catalyst due to chemical interaction with the alumina pellets. The sulfate compounds are, to a large degree, emitted later under higher speed conditions which result in higher catalyst temperatures which decompose the alumina salt. Future work will be directed towards further elucidation of this storage mechanism as well as determining in detail how factors such as air injection rate and catalyst location affect sulfate emissions.

Somers, J H

1975-01-01

192

Potential automotive uses of wrought magnesium alloys  

SciTech Connect

Vehicle weight reduction is one of the major means available to improve automotive fuel efficiency. High-strength steels, aluminum (Al), and polymers are already being used to reduce weight significantly, but substantial additional reductions could be achieved by greater use of low-density magnesium (Mg) and its alloys. Mg alloys are currently used in relatively small quantities for auto parts, generally limited to die castings (e.g., housings). Argonne National Laboratory`s Center for Transportation Research has performed a study for the Lightweight Materials Program within DOE`s Office of Transportation Materials to evaluate the suitability of wrought Mg and its alloys to replace steel/aluminum for automotive structural and sheet applications. Mg sheet could be used in body nonstructural and semi-structural applications, while extrusions could be used in such structural applications as spaceframes. This study identifies high cost as the major barrier to greatly increased Mg use in autos. Two technical R and D areas, novel reduction technology and better hot-forming technology, could enable major cost reductions.

Gaines, L.; Cuenca, R.; Wu, S. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Stodolsky, F. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)]|[Argonne National Lab., Washington, DC (United States)

1996-06-01

193

REVIEW ARTICLE: Sensors for automotive telematics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article reviews the current practice in sensors and sensor applications for automotive and traffic-control systems. Sensors to control engine fuelling, ignition and transmission (known as the powertrain) are reviewed and the likely course of future development is discussed in the light of regulatory and market requirements as well as trends in sensor design and manufacture. Sensor needs for suspension, braking and control of traction are also reviewed and the likely introduction of wheel and tyre sensors to enhance driving safety is discussed. The recent trend towards vehicle-mounted devices to sense the vehicle's environment (such as radar, optical, ultrasound, capacitive and image-based systems) and the implications of the introduction of safety-critical automotive systems such as adaptive cruise control are discussed. Sensors for initiating the deployment of safety systems such as airbags, together with transducers for disconnecting fuel pumps and vehicle batteries in the event of a crash, are reviewed. The paper includes a brief discussion of highway-based sensors for measuring vehicle speed and presence and concludes with a discussion of the likely future developments in the field.

Turner, J. D.; Austin, L.

2000-02-01

194

Fuel Cells: Reshaping the Future  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In conjunction with the FreedomCAR (Cooperative Automotive Research) and Fuel Initiative, President George W. Bush has pledged nearly two billion dollars for fuel cell research. Chrysler, Ford, and General Motors have unveiled fuel cell demonstration vehicles, and all three of these companies have invested heavily in fuel cell research. Fuel cell…

Toay, Leo

2004-01-01

195

Laser technology in automotive lighting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The last few years have seen something of a revolution in automotive lighting facilitated by a range of new photonics advances. The lighting industry as a whole is moving rapidly from the incandescent and gas discharge based technologies that dominated the 20th century to solid state technology in the form of Light Emitting Diodes (LED) which are a point source light, Organic Light Emitting Diodes (OLED) which are an area source light and at the edge the increasing use of lasers with different functional applications. In this paper I will focus on this edge technology of lasers as they are still trying to find their right place in automotive lighting. To better analyze their potential, the working principle of a laser will be explained, laser types used in automotive lighting, their application methods, advantages and disadvantages of their usage will be declared, application examples from the current trials of some leading automotive industry research groups will be given and finalization will be with an overall view of the possible future laser applications in the field of automotive lighting.

Altingöz, Ceren

2014-03-01

196

77 FR 37471 - National Automotive Sampling System  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...National Highway Traffic Safety Administration [Docket...NHTSA-2012-0084] National Automotive Sampling System AGENCY: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA...review of the National Automotive Sampling System...

2012-06-21

197

MEMS testing and applications in automotive and aerospace industries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

MEMS technology combines micromachining and integrated circuit fabrication technologies to produce highly reliable MEMS transducers. This paper presents an overview of MEMS transducers applications, particularly in automotive and aerospace industries, which includes inertia sensors for safety, navigation, and guidance control, thermal anemometer for temperature and heat-flux sensors in engine applications, MEMS atomizers for fuel injection, and micromachined actuators for flow control applications. Design examples for the devices in above mentioned applications are also presented and test results are given.

Ma, Zhichun; Chen, Xuyuan

2009-05-01

198

DOE/NASA Automotive Stirling Engine Project overview '83  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An overview of the DOE/NASA Automotive Stirling Engine Project is presented. The background and objectives of the project are reviewed. Project activities are described and technical progress and status are presented and assessed. Prospects for achieving the objective 30% fuel economy improvement are considered good. The key remaining technology issues are primarily related to life, reliability and cost, such as piston rod seals, and low cost heat exchanges.

Beremand, D. G.

1982-01-01

199

Polysulfide Sealants for Automotive Stationary Glass  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the past 25 years, polysulfide sealants have become well known and widely used in the aircraft, marine, building, and more recently, the automotive industry. For automotive windshields, sealants must function on high speed production lines, maintain bonding power for 10 years or more, and meet new Federal Safety Specifications for glass retention. The most widely used automotive polysulfide sealant

John Gallagher; Ralph Gazzillo; Daniel Smith

1970-01-01

200

Advanced automotive diesel engine system study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A conceptual study of an advanced automotive diesel engine is discussed. The engine concept selected for vehicle installation was a supercharged 1.4 liter, 4 cylinder spark assisted diesel of 14:1 compression ratio. A compounding unit consisting of a Lysholm compressor and expander is connected to the engine crankshaft by a belt drive. The inlet air charge is heated by the expander exhaust gas via a heat exchanger. Four levels of technology achievement on the selected engine concept were evaluated, from state-of-the-art to the ideal case. This resulted in the fuel economy increasing from 53.2 mpg to 81.7 mpg, and the 0-60 mph time decreasing from 17.6 seconds to 10.9 seconds.

1983-01-01

201

Ethanol Production for Automotive Fuel Usage  

SciTech Connect

The conceptual design of the 20 million gallon per year anhydrous ethanol facility a t Raft River has been completed. The corresponding geothermal gathering, extraction and reinjection systems to supply the process heating requirement were also completed. The ethanol facility operating on sugar beets, potatoes and wheat will share common fermentation and product recovery equipment. The geothermal fluid requirement will be approximately 6,000 gpm. It is anticipated that this flow will be supplied by 9 supply wells spaced at no closer than 1/4 mile in order to prevent mutual interferences. The geothermal fluid will be flashed in three stages to supply process steam at 250 F, 225 F and 205 F for various process needs. Steam condensate plus liquid remaining after the third flash will all be reinjected through 9 reinjection wells. The capital cost estimated for this ethanol plant employing all three feedstocks is $64 million. If only a single feedstock were used (for the same 20 mm gal/yr plant) the capital costs are estimated at $51.6 million, $43.1 million and $40. 5 million for sugar beets, potatoes and wheat respectively. The estimated capital cost for the geothermal system is $18 million.

Lindemuth, T.E.; Stenzel, R.A.; Yim, Y.J.; Yu, J.

1980-01-31

202

Planning fuel-conservative descents with or without time constraints using a small programmable calculator: Algorithm development and flight test results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A simplified flight-management descent algorithm, programmed on a small programmable calculator, was developed and flight tested. It was designed to aid the pilot in planning and executing a fuel-conservative descent to arrive at a metering fix at a time designated by the air traffic control system. The algorithm may also be used for planning fuel-conservative descents when time is not a consideration. The descent path was calculated for a constant Mach/airspeed schedule from linear approximations of airplane performance with considerations given for gross weight, wind, and nonstandard temperature effects. The flight-management descent algorithm is described. The results of flight tests flown with a T-39A (Sabreliner) airplane are presented.

Knox, C. E.

1983-01-01

203

Planning fuel-conservative descents with or without time constraints using a small programmable calculator: algorithm development and flight test results  

SciTech Connect

A simplified flight-management descent algorithm, programmed on a small programmable calculator, was developed and flight tested. It was designed to aid the pilot in planning and executing a fuel-conservative descent to arrive at a metering fix at a time designated by the air traffic control system. The algorithm may also be used for planning fuel-conservative descents when time is not a consideration. The descent path was calculated for a constant Mach/airspeed schedule from linear approximations of airplane performance with considerations given for gross weight, wind, and nonstandard temperature effects. The flight-management descent algorithm is described. The results of flight tests flown with a T-39A (Sabreliner) airplane are presented.

Knox, C.E.

1983-03-01

204

Fuel Economy Through Teamwork. Energy Savings in School Transportation Publication Series. 1. Pupil Transportation and Energy Conservation. 2. Purchasing for Fuel Economy. 3. Driving for Fuel Economy. 4. Operating for Fuel Economy. 5. The Science of Saving Fuel.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication series of five booklets presents a summary of tips for saving energy in pupil transportation. The first booklet offers guidelines and suggestions to assist school transportation administration in achieving better fuel economy and cost management goals. The second presents purchasing tips and shows ways to use benefit cost analysis…

BRI Systems, Inc., Phoenix, AZ.

205

Catalytic combustion for the automotive gas turbine engine  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Fuel injectors to provide a premixed prevaporized fuel-air mixture are studied. An evaluation of commercial catalysts was performed as part of a program leading to the demonstration of a low emissions combustor for an automotive gas turbine engine. At an inlet temperature of 800 K, a pressure of 500,000 Pa and a velocity of 20 m/s a multiple-jet injector produced less than + or - 10 percent variation in Jet-A fuel-air ratio and 100 percent varporization with less than 0.5 percent pressure drop. Fifteen catalytic reactors were tested with propane fuel at an inlet temperature of 800 K, a pressure of 300,000 Pa and inlet velocities of 10 to 25 m/s. Seven of the reactors had less than 2 percent pressure drop while meeting emissions goals of 13.6 gCO/kg fuel and 1.64 gHC/kg fuel at the velocities and exit temperatures required for operation in an automotive gas turbine engine. NO sub x emissions at all conditions were less than 0.5 ppm. All tests were performed with steady state conditions.

Anderson, D. N.; Tacina, R. R.; Mroz, T. S.

1977-01-01

206

Advanced Gas Turbine (AGT) powertrain system development for automotive applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An automotive gas turbine powertrain system which, when installed in a 1985 production vehicle (3000 pounds inertia weight), is being developed with a CFDC fuel economy of 42.8 miles per gallon based on Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) test procedures and diesel No. 2 fuel. The AGT-powered vehicle shall give substantially the same overall vehicle driveability and performance as a comparable 1985 production vehicle powered by a conventional spark ignition powertrain system (baseline system). Gaseous emissions and particulate levels less than: NOx = 0.4 gm/mile, HC = 0.41 gm/mile, and CO = 3.4 gm/mile, and a total particulate of 0.2 gm/mile, using the same fuel as used for fuel economy measurements is expected, along with the ability to use a variety of alternate fuels.

1981-01-01

207

Ceramics potential in automotive powerplants  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The paper addresses the potential that ceramic materials can play an important role in future automotive powerplants - both advanced heat engines and advanced battery systems. A number of related experimental programs are reviewed including ceramics for gasoline and diesel piston engines, gas turbine and Stirling Engines and sodium-sulfur batteries. A strong integrated program to develop ceramics technology is recommended.

Mclean, A. F.

1983-01-01

208

Readings in the Automotive Trade.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed for reluctant readers in vocational high school, this selection of readings emphasizes general information about the automotive trade. Articles have been selected from a variety of auto magazines and trade journals. Each article is followed by an assortment of exercises designed to enable the student to further develop vocabulary and…

DiGise, Joe

209

Automotive Stirling Engine Development Program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Progress is reported in the following: the Stirling reference engine system design; components and subsystems; F-40 baseline Stirling engine installation and test; the first automotive engine to be built on the program; computer development activities; and technical assistance to the Government. The overall program philosophy is outlined, and data and results are given.

Allen, M. (editor)

1980-01-01

210

Automotive Technology. Technical Committee Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Technical Committee Report prepared by industry representatives in Idaho lists the skills currently necessary for an employee in that state to obtain a job in automotive technology, retain a job once hired, and advance in that occupational field. (Task lists are grouped according to duty areas generally used in industry settings, and are used…

Idaho State Dept. of Education, Boise. Div. of Vocational Education.

211

Automotive Electronics. Teacher Edition (Revised).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This learning module addresses computers and their applications in contemporary automobiles. The text provides students with information on automotive microcomputers and hands-on activities that will help them see how semiconductors and digital logic devices fit into the modern repair facility. The module contains nine instructional units that…

Mackert, Howard C.; Heiserman, Russell L.

212

Materials substitution in automotive interiors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Automotive interiors are evolving in the direction of increased: luxury, passive occupant crash protection, acoustic and vibration isolation, electronic instrumentation, and Warranty life. Performance requirements for materials to satisfy these needs are demanding higher levels of temperature and weather resistance, energy management capability and acoustic barrier properties. The complex, multi-material composition of many interior components requires fabrication processes with high

Eller

1987-01-01

213

Automotive Gas Turbine Power System-Performance Analysis Code  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An open cycle gas turbine numerical modelling code suitable for thermodynamic performance analysis (i.e. thermal efficiency, specific fuel consumption, cycle state points, working fluid flowrates etc.) of automotive and aircraft powerplant applications has been generated at the NASA Lewis Research Center's Power Technology Division. The use this code can be made available to automotive gas turbine preliminary design efforts, either in its present version, or, assuming that resources can be obtained to incorporate empirical models for component weight and packaging volume, in later version that includes the weight-volume estimator feature. The paper contains a brief discussion of the capabilities of the presently operational version of the code, including a listing of input and output parameters and actual sample output listings.

Juhasz, Albert J.

1997-01-01

214

Guides to pollution prevention: The automotive repair industry. Manual  

SciTech Connect

Automotive maintenance and repair shops generate a variety of waste streams during activities such as replacing fluids (e.g., motor oil, radiator coolant, transmission fluid, brake fluid), replacing non-repairable parts (e.g., brake shoes/pads, shocks, batteries, belts, mufflers, electrical components, water pumps) and repairing fixable parts (e.g., brake calipers/rotors/drums, alternators, fuel pumps, carburetors, power train components). Of small quantity generators of hazardous waste in the nation, the automotive repair industry leads in number of generators and in quantity of total waste produced. Many opportunities exist to reduce the oils, sludges, and solvent and aqueous cleaning wastes that are generated. The guide describes the typical waste generating processes of the industry as well as source reduction and/or recycling options for each.

Not Available

1991-10-01

215

Ceramic automotive Stirling engine study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A conceptual design study for a Ceramic Automotive Stirling Engine (CASE) is performed. Year 1990 structural ceramic technology is assumed. Structural and performance analyses of the conceptual design are performed as well as a manufacturing and cost analysis. The general conclusions from this study are that such an engine would be 10-26% more efficient over its performance map than the current metal Automotive Stirling Reference Engine (ASRE). Cost of such a ceramic engine is likely to be somewhat higher than that of the ASRE but engine cost is very sensitive to the ultimate cost of the high purity, ceramic powder raw materials required to fabricate high performance parts. When the design study is projected to the year 2000 technology, substantinal net efficiency improvements, on the order of 25 to 46% over the ASRE, are computed.

Musikant, S.; Chiu, W.; Darooka, D.; Mullings, D. M.; Johnson, C. A.

1985-01-01

216

Conceptual design study of an improved automotive gas turbine powertrain  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Automotive gas turbine concepts with significant technological advantages over the spark ignition (SI) engine were assessed. Possible design concepts were rated with respect to fuel economy and near-term application. A program plan which outlines the development of the improved gas turbine (IGT) concept that best met the goals and objectives of the study identifies the research and development work needed to meet the goal of entering a production engineering phase by 1983. The fuel economy goal is to show at least a 20% improvement over a conventional 1976 SI engine/vehicle system. On the basis of achieving the fuel economy goal, of overall suitability to mechanical design, and of automotive mass production cost, the powertrain selected was a single-shaft engine with a radial turbine and a continuously variable transmission (CVT). Design turbine inlet temperature was 1150 C. Reflecting near-term technology, the turbine rotor would be made of an advanced superalloy, and the transmission would be a hydromechanical CVT. With successful progress in long-lead R&D in ceramic technology and the belt-drive CVT, the turbine inlet temperature would be 1350 C to achieve near-maximum fuel economy.

Wagner, C. E. (editor); Pampreen, R. C. (editor)

1979-01-01

217

Fast automotive diesel exhaust measurement using quantum cascade lasers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Step by step, US and European legislations enforce the further reduction of atmospheric pollution caused by automotive exhaust emissions. This is pushing automotive development worldwide. Fuel efficient diesel engines with SCRtechnology can impede NO2-emission by reduction with NH3 down to the ppm range. To meet the very low emission limits of the Euro6 resp. US NLEV (National Low Emission Vehicle) regulations, automotive manufacturers have to optimize continuously all phases of engine operation and corresponding catalytic converters. Especially nonstationary operation holds a high potential for optimizing gasoline consumption and further reducing of pollutant emissions. Test equipment has to cope with demanding sensitivity and speed requirements. In the past Fraunhofer IPM has developed a fast emission analyzer called DEGAS (Dynamic Exhaust Gas Analyzer System), based on cryogenically cooled lead salt lasers. These systems have been used at Volkswagen AG`s test benches for a decade. Recently, IPM has developed DEGAS-Next which is based on cw quantum cascade lasers and thermoelectrically cooled detectors. The system is capable to measure three gas components (i.e. NO, NO2, NH3) in two channels with a time resolution of 20 ms and 1 ppm detection limits. We shall present test data and a comparison with fast FTIR measurements.

Herbst, J.; Brunner, R.; Lambrecht, A.

2013-12-01

218

Lubricated PVD CrAlN and WC\\/C coatings for automotive applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Demand on a better efficiency and higher performance under environmentally friendly aspects is an actual trend for automotive applications and machine components. This can be achieved by vacuum coatings such as DLC (diamond-like carbon), which offer excellent results in e.g. fuel injection systems, piston pins, gears and bearings. Nowadays, DLC has become very interesting for lubricated tribological contacts, because of

K. Bobzin; N. Bagcivan; N. Goebbels; K. Yilmaz; B.-R. Hoehn; K. Michaelis; M. Hochmann

2009-01-01

219

Heat-integrated reactor concepts for catalytic reforming and automotive exhaust purification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Optimal solutions in environmental catalysis require a well-coordinated development of catalysts and of process design. This contribution is devoted to energy integrated design concepts for fuel reforming and for automotive exhaust purification. The examples presented demonstrate the importance of an innovative process design for optimal utilization of existing catalysts and show the potential of future developments.New concepts for steam reforming

Grigorios Kolios; Achim Gritsch; Arístides Morillo; Ute Tuttlies; Jens Bernnat; Frank Opferkuch; Gerhart Eigenberger

2007-01-01

220

THE EFFECT OF DIAPHRAGMS IN CONTINUOUS SILL MEMBER ON THE STRENGTH OF AUTOMOTIVE B-PILLAR  

Microsoft Academic Search

The competing factors in automotive engineering design may be divided into four main categories: cost, performance, safety, and fuel economy. All four are related by vehicle weight considerations. As far as cost is concerned, heavy vehicle weight is a waste of money, but, if overall volume is not to be reduced, reducing vehicle weight can be more expensive. Lighter vehicles

Tuah Jaya

221

Automotive and Construction Equipment for Arctic Use: Heating and Cold Starting.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Low-temperature problems with automotive vehicles and equipment begin to appear at about 0 C. Lubricants thicken, batteries lose power, and water in the fuel, oil or other fluids begins to cause problems. Diesel engines that have not been winterized becom...

D. Diemand

1991-01-01

222

Packaging challenges of producing smaller power mosfets & schottky diodes for the automotive sector  

Microsoft Academic Search

The global automotive electronics market is expected to be worth more the $240 billion by 2017 (according to research conducted by Strategy Analytics). Innovative IC (Integrated Circuit) and power devices for powertrain, lighting and body electronics are helping car manufacturers to reduce the emission levels, improve the fuel economy, and increase the safety of the vehicles they produce.

Kevin J Keller

2011-01-01

223

Ceramics for the AGT101 automotive gas turbine  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An advanced gas turbine powertrain for automotive application is being developed. Objectives of the program include a fuel consumption of 42.8 mpg on No. 2 diesel fuel in a 3000 pound car, same overall vehicle performance as obtained with a conventional spark ignition internal combustion engine, low emission, multiple fuel capacity, reliability, and competitive cost. The AGT101 powertrain consists of a power section, gearbox and transmission, and the design and analysis conducted thus far support the initial engine concept, as no significant design changes have been required. The ceramic rotor design approach and component materials are discussed, and it is projected that the AGT powertrain will be competitive with any other alternative powertrain in meeting the design objectives.

Kreiner, D. M.; Wimmer, J. M.

1981-01-01

224

Global sustainability and key needs in future automotive design.  

PubMed

The number of light vehicle registrations is forecast to increase worldwide by a factor of 3-5 over the next 50 years. This will dramatically increase environmental impacts worldwide of automobiles and light trucks. If light vehicles are to be environmentally sustainable globally, the automotive industry must implement fundamental changes in future automotive design. Important factors in assessing automobile design needs include fuel economy and reduced emissions. Many design parameters can impact vehicle air emissions and energy consumption including alternative fuel or engine technologies, rolling resistance, aerodynamics, drive train design, friction, and vehicle weight. Of these, vehicle weight is key and will translate into reduced energy demand across all energy distribution elements. A new class of vehicles is needed that combines ultra-light design with a likely hybrid or fuel cell engine technology. This could increase efficiency by a factor of 3-5 and reduce air emissions as well. Advanced lightweight materials, such as plastics or composites, will need to overtake the present metal-based infrastructure. Incorporating design features to facilitate end-of-life recycling and recovery is also important. The trend will be towards fewer materials and parts in vehicle design, combined with ease of disassembly. Mono-material construction can create vehicle design with improved recyclability as well as reduced numbers of parts and weight. PMID:14700327

McAuley, John W

2003-12-01

225

Single shaft automotive gas turbine engine characterization test  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An automotive gas turbine incorporating a single stage centrifugal compressor and a single stage radial inflow turbine is described. Among the engine's features is the use of wide range variable geometry at the inlet guide vanes, the compressor diffuser vanes, and the turbine inlet vanes to achieve improved part load fuel economy. The engine was tested to determine its performance in both the variable geometry and equivalent fixed geometry modes. Testing was conducted without the originally designed recuperator. Test results were compared with the predicted performance of the nonrecuperative engine based on existing component rig test maps. Agreement between test results and the computer model was achieved.

Johnson, R. A.

1979-01-01

226

NASA/DOE automotive Stirling engine project: Overview 1986  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The DOE/NASA Automotive Stirling Engine Project is reviewed and its technical progress and status are presented. Key technologies in materials, seals, and piston rings are progressing well. Seven first-generation engines, and modifications thereto, have accumulated over 15,000 hr of test time, including 1100hr of in-vehicle testing. Results indicate good progress toward the program goals. The first second-generation engine is now undergoing initial testing. It is expected that the program goal of a 30-percent improvement in fuel economy will be achieved in tests of a second-generation engine in a Celebrity vehicle.

Beremand, D. G.; Shaltens, R. K.

1986-01-01

227

Drawn arc aluminum stud welding for automotive applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Federal regulations have been enacted to significantly reduce atmospheric pollution caused by motor vehicles. This forced the automotive manufacturers to improve fuel efficiency of cars and light trucks by using lightweight materials such as aluminum. The focus of the current study is to develop welding procedures using the drawn arc process for 5754-0 and 6061-T6 aluminum alloys. The mechanical and macrostructural characteristics of the welded joints were evaluated using tensile tests, torque tests, and optical microscopy. Preliminary study indicates that these alloys can be welded with a minimal amount of porosity and good mechanical properties.

Ramasamy, S.

2002-08-01

228

Waveform design principles for automotive radar systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a high performance 77 GHz FMCW radar sensor for automotive applications. Powerful automotive radar systems are currently under development for various applications. Radar sensor based comfort systems like Adaptive Cruise Control (ACC) are already available on the market. The main objective from a radar sensor point of view is to detect all targets inside the observation area

Hermann Rohling; Marc-Michael Meinecke

2001-01-01

229

Rare earth metals for automotive exhaust catalysts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The usage of rare earth metals for automotive exhaust catalysts is demonstrated in this paper. Rare earth metals have been widely used in automotive catalysts. In particular, three-way catalysts require the use of ceria compounds as oxygen storage materials, and lanthana as both a stabilizer of alumina and a promoter. The application for diesel catalysts is also illustrated. Effects of

Hirohumi Shinjoh

2006-01-01

230

Ultrahigh carbon steel for automotive applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ultrahigh carbon steels (UHCSs), which contain 1--2.1% carbon, have remarkable structural properties for automotive application when processed to achieve fine ferrite grains with fine spheroidized carbides. When processed for high room temperature ductility, UHCS can have good tensile ductility but significantly higher strength than current automotive high strength steels. The material can also be made superplastic at intermediate temperatures and

D. R. Lesuer; C. K. Syn; O. D. Sherby

1995-01-01

231

Standardized Curriculum for Automotive Body Repair.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Standardized curricula are provided for two courses for the secondary vocational education program in Mississippi: automotive body repair I and II. The nine units in automotive body repair I are as follows: introduction; related information; basic tool usage and safety; body and frame construction; basic sheet metal repair; preparing for…

Mississippi State Dept. of Education, Jackson. Office of Vocational, Technical and Adult Education.

232

National Apprenticeship Standards for Automotive Service Councils.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet contains national apprenticeship standards for use by Automotive Service Councils in the training of future automotive mechanics, body repairmen, painters, and other specialized professional technicians. It begins with a brief presentation of apprenticeship policy. The major contents are provisions of standards on the following:…

Employment and Training Administration (DOL), Washington, DC.

233

An Analysis of the Automotive Service Occupation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The general purpose of the occupational analysis is to provide workable, basic information dealing with the many and varied duties performed in the automotive service advisor occupation. The automotive service advisor is responsible primarily for sales and services and at the same time may be called upon to supervise other service center…

Winfrey, Prince J.; Morse, David L.

234

Petroleum Marketing. Selling Automotive Products and Services.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This textbook contains material for the individualized instruction of students training for careers in service stations; automotive, tire, battery, and accessory retail stores; oil jobbers and petroleum product wholesalers, or any wholesale or retail establishment that sells automotive products and services. Included among the topics addressed in…

Luter, Robert R.

235

Waste-to-Energy ECIP (Energy Conservation Investment Program) Project. Volume 1: An Analysis of Hydrogen Infrastructure Fuel Cell Technology.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Volume I of this work represents a preliminary analysis of the economics from an anaerobic sludge digester Wastewater Treatment Plant (WWTP) at a military installation integrated with a fuel cell with hydrogen production capabilities. The waste-to-energy,...

F. H. Holcomb, R. A. Ducey, B. J. Kim, G. Perez, R. Neathammer

2006-01-01

236

Energy: Conservation, Energy Briefs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A comprehensive energy conservation program at College of the Holy Cross has saved nearly one-third of the fuel oil and one-fifth of the electricity used at the college; briefs on boilers, lights, design. (Author/MLF)

Nation's Schools and Colleges, 1975

1975-01-01

237

COâ mitigation and fuel production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methanol as an alternative transportation fuel appears to be an effective intermediate agent, for reducing COâ from the utility power and the transportation sectors. On the utilization side, methanol as a liquid fuel fits in well with the current infrastructure for storage and delivery to the automotive sector with better efficiency. On the production side, COâ from fossil fuel plants

Steinberg

1997-01-01

238

Advanced Gas Turbine (AGT) powertrain system development for automotive applications report  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report describes progress and work performed during January through June 1984 to develop technology for an Advanced Gas Turbine (AGT) engine for automotive applications. Work performed during the first eight periods initiated design and analysis, ceramic development, component testing, and test bed evaluation. Project effort conducted under this contract is part of the DOE Gas Turbine Highway Vehicle System Program. This program is oriented at providing the United States automotive industry the high-risk long-range techology necessary to produce gas turbine engines for automobiles with reduced fuel consumption and reduced environmental impact. Technology resulting from this program is intended to reach the marketplace by the early 1990s.

1984-01-01

239

Future automotive materials: Evolution or revolution  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An exciting era is evolving in the application of new materials technologies to automotive applications. The desire on the part of the automobile industry to completely satisfy the customers while concurrently meeting increasing demands and regulations for stringent emission control and fuel efficiency is opening a plethora of opportunities for new materials. In many cases, materials solutions are the only mechanisms for resolving some of the upcoming issues. The materials scientist and engineer will therefore have a primary role to play and will assume a position of significance hithertofore unseen in the automobile industry. The nature of the industry dictates that changes are primarily evolutionary with respect to chronology but nevertheless some of the future material changes will be revolutionary in nature. This presentation will treat three primary systems of the vehicle separately, based on the different materials approaches which will be adopted. These areas are: (1) skin panels, (2) structures, and (3) powertrains. The competition between a variety of new materials in these 3 systems will be discussed in detail with the various tradeoffs being outlined. Amongst the more prominent of the new breed of materials will be new steel technologies, structural plastics (FRP), aluminum alloys (conventional and rapidly solidified), titanium alloys, metal matrix composites and smart materials (electrorheological fluids, etc.). The pace of development and application is accelerating rapidly and the impetus is likely to increase.

Beardmore, P.

1990-01-01

240

Space Software for Automotive Design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

John Thousand of Wolverine Western Corp. put his aerospace group to work on an unfamiliar job, designing a brake drum using computer design techniques. Computer design involves creation of a mathematical model of a product and analyzing its effectiveness in simulated operation. Technique enables study of performance and structural behavior of a number of different designs before settling on a final configuration. Wolverine employees attacked a traditional brake drum problem, the sudden buildup of heat during fast and repeated braking. Part of brake drum not confined tends to change its shape under combination of heat, physical pressure and rotational forces, a condition known as bellmouthing. Since bellmouthing is a major factor in braking effectiveness, a solution of problem would be a major advance in automotive engineering. A former NASA employee, now a Wolverine employee, knew of a series of NASA computer programs ideally suited to confronting bellmouthing. Originally developed as aids to rocket engine nozzle design, it's capable of analyzing problems generated in a rocket engine or automotive brake drum by heat, expansion, pressure and rotational forces. Use of these computer programs led to new brake drum concept featuring a more durable axle, and heat transfer ribs, or fins, on hub of drum.

1988-01-01

241

Comparison of steady-state and transient CVS cycle emission of an automotive Stirling engine  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Automotive Stirling Engine Development Program is to demonstrate a number of goals for a Stirling-powered vehicle. These goals are related to an achievement of specified maximum emission rates, a combined cycle fuel economy 30 percent better than a comparable internal-combustion engine-powered automobile, multifuel capability, competitive cost and reliability, and a meeting of Federal standards concerning noise and safety. The present investigation is concerned with efforts related to meeting the stringent emission goals. Attention is given to the initial development of a procedure for predicting transient CVS urban cycle gaseous emissions from steady-state engine data, taking into account the employment of the test data from the first-generation automotive Stirling engine. A large amount of steady-state data from three Mod I automotive Stirling engines were used to predict urban CVS cycle emissions for the Mod I Lerma vehicle.

Farrell, R. A.; Bolton, R. J.

1983-01-01

242

Urban transportation energy conservation: analytic procedures for estimating changes in travel demand and fuel consumption. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

This series of reports provides metropolitan planning organizations with analytical tools that can be used to evaluate the effectiveness of alternative transportation policies in achieving reductions in overall fuel consumption. To ensure a high measure of accuracy, the analysis goes beyond the first order effects, i.e., the shift from single occupant autos as the mode chosen for the work trip

T. J. Atherton; J. H. Suhrbier

1979-01-01

243

Durability of composites in automotive structural applications  

SciTech Connect

The overall goal of the project is to develop experimentally-based, durability-driven design guidelines for automotive composite structures and to demonstrate their applicability to lightweight, manufacturable structures under representative field loading histories and environments. Key technical issues are the potentially degrading effects that (1) both cyclic and long-term sustained loadings, (2) various automotive environments, and (3) low-energy impacts can have on the dimensional stability, strength, and stiffness of automotive composite structures. The purpose of this paper is to present the findings and observations developed to date and to outline future directions.

Corum, J.M.; Battiste, R.L.; McCoy, H.E.; Ruggles, M.B.; Simpson, W.A.; Weitsman, Y.J.

1996-10-01

244

38 CFR 17.155 - Minimum standards of safety and quality for automotive adaptive equipment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Minimum standards of safety and quality for automotive adaptive equipment. ...VETERANS AFFAIRS MEDICAL Automotive Equipment and Driver Training... Minimum standards of safety and quality for automotive adaptive...

2009-07-01

245

38 CFR 17.155 - Minimum standards of safety and quality for automotive adaptive equipment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Minimum standards of safety and quality for automotive adaptive equipment. ...VETERANS AFFAIRS MEDICAL Automotive Equipment and Driver Training... Minimum standards of safety and quality for automotive adaptive...

2010-07-01

246

Integrated generation of solid fuel and biogas from green cut material from landscape conservation and private households.  

PubMed

Green cut material is a potential source of renewable energy which is not fully exploited through conventional energy recovery systems. A new energy conversion process, the integrated generation of solid fuel and biogas from biomass (IFBB), which includes mechanical separation after hydro-thermal conditioning, was investigated. Ash softening temperature and lower heating value of the solid fuel were increased through the IFFB process in comparison to the untreated raw material. The net energy yield of IFBB at 40 °C conditioning temperature ranged between 1.96 and 2.85 kWh kg(-1) dry matter (DM) and for the direct combustion between 1.75 and 2.65 kWh kg(-1) DM. Conversion efficiencies for the IFBB system were 0.42-0.68 and for direct combustion 0.42-0.63. The IFBB system produces storable energy from material which is nowadays not used for energy conversion. PMID:21963902

Hensgen, F; Richter, F; Wachendorf, M

2011-11-01

247

Hybrid Automotive Engine Using Ethanol-Burning Miller Cycle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A proposed hybrid (internal-combustion/ electric) automotive engine system would include as its internal-combustion subsystem, a modified Miller-cycle engine with regenerative air preheating and with autoignition like that of a Diesel engine. The fuel would be ethanol and would be burned lean to ensure complete combustion. Although the proposed engine would have a relatively low power-to-weight ratio compared to most present engines, this would not be the problem encountered if this engine were used in a non-hybrid system since hybrid systems require significantly lower power and thus smaller engines than purely internal-combustion-engine-driven vehicles. The disadvantage would be offset by the advantages of high fuel efficiency, low emission of nitrogen oxides and particulate pollutants, and the fact that ethanol is a renewable fuel. The original Miller-cycle engine, named after its inventor, was patented in the 1940s and is the basis of engines used in some modern automobiles, but is not widely known. In somewhat oversimplified terms, the main difference between a Miller-cycle engine and a common (Otto-cycle) automobile engine is that the Miller-cycle engine has a longer expansion stroke while retaining the shorter compression stroke. This is accomplished by leaving the intake valve open for part of the compression stroke, whereas in the Otto cycle engine, the intake valve is kept closed during the entire compression stroke. This greater expansion ratio makes it possible to extract more energy from the combustion process without expending more energy for compression. The net result is greater efficiency. In the proposed engine, the regenerative preheating would be effected by running the intake air through a heat exchanger connected to the engine block. The regenerative preheating would offer two advantages: It would ensure reliable autoignition during operation at low ambient temperature and would help to cool the engine, thereby reducing the remainder of the power needed for cooling and thereby further contributing to efficiency. An electrical resistance air preheater might be needed to ensure autoignition at startup and during a short warmup period. Because of the autoignition, the engine could operate without either spark plugs or glow plugs. Ethanol burns relatively cleanly and has been used as a motor fuel since the invention of internal-combustion engines. However, the energy content of ethanol per unit weight of ethanol is less than that of Diesel fuel or gasoline, and ethanol has a higher heat of vaporization. Because the Miller cycle offers an efficiency close to that of the Diesel cycle, burning ethanol in a Miller-cycle engine gives about as much usable output energy per unit volume of fuel as does burning gasoline in a conventional gasoline automotive engine. Because of the combination of preheating, running lean, and the use of ethyl alcohol, the proposed engine would generate less power per unit volume than does a conventional automotive gasoline engine. Consequently, for a given power level, the main body of the proposed engine would be bulkier. However, because little or no exhaust cleanup would be needed, the increase in bulk of the engine could be partially offset by the decrease in bulk of the exhaust system. The regenerative preheating also greatly reduces the external engine cooling requirement, and would translate to reduced engine bulk. It may even be possible to accomplish the remaining cooling of the engine by use of air only, eliminating the bulk and power consumption of a water cooling system. The combination of a Miller-cycle engine with regenerative air preheating, ethyl alcohol fuel, and hybrid operation could result in an automotive engine system that satisfies the need for a low pollution, high efficiency, and simple engine with a totally renewable fuel.

Weinstein, Leonard

2004-01-01

248

Development and test results of a flight management algorithm for fuel conservative descents in a time-based metered traffic environment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A simple flight management descent algorithm designed to improve the accuracy of delivering an airplane in a fuel-conservative manner to a metering fix at a time designated by air traffic control was developed and flight tested. This algorithm provides a three dimensional path with terminal area time constraints (four dimensional) for an airplane to make an idle thrust, clean configured (landing gear up, flaps zero, and speed brakes retracted) descent to arrive at the metering fix at a predetermined time, altitude, and airspeed. The descent path was calculated for a constant Mach/airspeed schedule from linear approximations of airplane performance with considerations given for gross weight, wind, and nonstandard pressure and temperature effects. The flight management descent algorithm is described. The results of the flight tests flown with the Terminal Configured Vehicle airplane are presented.

Knox, C. E.; Cannon, D. G.

1980-01-01

249

Progressive Insurance Automotive X PRIZE Education Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Progressive Insurance Automotive X PRIZE Education Program conducted education and outreach activities and used the competition's technical goals and vehicle demonstrations as a means of attracting students and the public to learn more about advanced ...

R. Ready

2011-01-01

250

Lubricating Oil for Automotive Hypoid Gears.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The lubricating oil for automotive hypoid gears is usually based on mineral oil, alkylamine, and chlorine- and sulfur-containing additives. In order to increase the operating properties of the oil the Russian patent suggests the addition of the following:...

E. I. Petyakina F. Y. Chames I. B. Gubenko I. F. Blagovidov P. P. Bagryantseva

1972-01-01

251

Automotive Stirling Engine Development Program: A Success.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The original 5-yr Automotive Stirling Engine Development Program has been extended to 10 years due to reduced annual funding levels. With an estimated completion date of April 1988, the technical achievements and the prospectives of meeting the original p...

W. K. Tabata

1987-01-01

252

Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) Automotive Labs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The following labs were developed by Lewis and Clark Community College to modify National Automotive Technicians Education Foundation (NATEF) certified courses with HEV technologies. This project was funded by a seed grant from the CAAT.

College, Lewis A.

253

Conservation physiology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conservation biologists increasingly face the need to provide legislators, courts and conservation managers with data on causal mechanisms underlying conservation problems such as species decline. To develop and monitor solutions, conservation biologists are progressively using more techniques that are physiological. Here, we review the emerging discipline of conservation physiology and suggest that, for conservation strategies to be successful, it is

Martin Wikelski; Steven J. Cooke

2006-01-01

254

Filtration Technologies in the Automotive Industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The filtration in the automotive industry is diverse. Many filters are used either for the filtration of air or liquid in\\u000a the tank, engine or cabine. This paper will focus on air filtration and more specifically on engine air filtration. After\\u000a a brief presentation of the basic filtration principles, the filtration technologies used in this field of the automotive\\u000a industry

E. Jandos; M. Lebrun; C. Brzezinski; S. Canizares

255

Anti-air pollution & energy conservation system for automobiles using leaded or unleaded gasoline, diesel or alternate fuel  

DOEpatents

Exhaust gases from an internal combustion engine operating with leaded or unleaded gasoline or diesel or natural gas, are used for energizing a high-speed gas turbine. The convoluting gas discharge causes a first separation stage by stratifying of heavier and lighter exhaust gas components that exit from the turbine in opposite directions, the heavier components having a second stratifying separation in a vortex tube to separate combustible pollutants from non-combustible components. The non-combustible components exit a vortex tube open end to atmosphere. The lighter combustible, pollutants effected in the first separation are bubbled through a sodium hydroxide solution for dissolving the nitric oxide, formaldehyde impurities in this gas stream before being piped to the engine air intake for re-combustion, thereby reducing the engine's exhaust pollution and improving its fuel economy. The combustible, heavier pollutants from the second separation stage are piped to air filter assemblies. This gas stream convoluting at a high-speed through the top stator-vanes of the air filters, centrifugally separates the coalescent water, aldehydes, nitrogen dioxides, sulfates, sulfur, lead particles which collect at the bottom of the bowl, wherein it is periodically released to the roadway. Whereas, the heavier hydrocarbon, carbon particles are piped through the air filter's porous element to the engine air intake for re-combustion, further reducing the engine's exhaust pollution and improving its fuel economy.

Bose, Ranendra K. (14346 Jacob La., Centreville, VA 20120-3305)

2002-06-04

256

Smog control fuel additives  

SciTech Connect

A method is described of controlling, reducing or eliminating, ozone and related smog resulting from photochemical reactions between ozone and automotive or industrial gases comprising the addition of iodine or compounds of iodine to hydrocarbon-base fuels prior to or during combustion in an amount of about 1 part iodine per 240 to 10,000,000 parts fuel, by weight, to be accomplished by: (a) the addition of these inhibitors during or after the refining or manufacturing process of liquid fuels; (b) the production of these inhibitors for addition into fuel tanks, such as automotive or industrial tanks; or (c) the addition of these inhibitors into combustion chambers of equipment utilizing solid fuels for the purpose of reducing ozone.

Lundby, W.

1993-06-29

257

Automotive Body Sheet Metal Maintenance I; Automotive Body Repair and Refinishing 1: 9033.05.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The automotive body sheet metal maintenance course is an exploratory course in the use of all sheet metal working and equipment common to this trade area. Included are techniques of diagnosis of damage and repair. Emphasized is the proper use of tools and fabrication methods used in automotive body maintenance and repair. This nine week course…

Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

258

Advanced automotive diesel assessment program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Cummins Engine Company completed an analytical study to identify an advanced automotive (light duty) diesel (AAD) power plant for a 3,000-pound passenger car. The study resulted in the definition of a revolutionary diesel engine with several novel features. A 3,000-pound car with this engine is predicted to give 96.3, 72.2, and 78.8 MPG in highway, city, and combined highway-city driving, respectively. This compares with current diesel powered cars yielding 41.7, 35.0, and 37.7 MPG. The time for 0-60 MPH acceleration is 13.9 sec. compared to the baseline of 15.2 sec. Four technology areas were identified as crucial in bringing this concept to fruition. They are: (1) part-load preheating, (2) positive displacement compounding, (3) spark assisted diesel combustion system, and (4) piston development for adiabatic, oilless diesel engine. Marketing and planning studies indicate that an aggressive program with significant commitment could result in a production car in 10 years from the date of commencement.

Sekar, R.; Tozzi, L.

1983-01-01

259

Springback Prediction, Compensation and Correlation for Automotive Stamping  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To reduce weight and increase fuel efficiency and safety, more and more automotive sheet stamping parts are being made of aluminum and high strength steels. Forming of such materials encounters not just reduced formability but also dimensional quality problems. Springback prediction accuracy and compensation effectiveness have been the major challenge to die development, construction and tryout. In this paper, the factors that affect the accuracy of springback prediction are discussed, which includes the effect of material models, the selection of element size, and the contact algorithms. Springback predictions of several automotive aluminum and high strength panels are compared with measurement data. The examples show that the prediction correlates with measurement data in both springback trend and magnitude. The effect of springback on final product can be reduced or eliminated through process control and die face compensation. The process control method involves finding the root causes of springback and eliminating them through process modification. The geometrical compensation of die surface is a direct way to eliminate the springback effect. The global scaling compensation method is normally limited to parts with relatively small springback. For large springback and twisting, a new approach is discussed, which takes into account of the effect of deformation and springback history. The compensation is achieved iteratively by solving a system of non-linear equations. Production dies were cut to the compensated surface, which shows that the die compensation is an efficient way to reduce springback-induced geometry deviation.

Xu, Siguang; Zhao, Kunmin; Lanker, Terry; Zhang, Jimmy; Wang, C. T.

2005-08-01

260

Future Automotive Aftertreatment Solutions: The 150°C Challenge Workshop Report  

SciTech Connect

With future fuel economy standards enacted, the U.S. automotive manufacturers (OEMs) are committed to pursuing a variety of high risk/highly efficient stoichiometric and lean combustion strategies to achieve superior performance. In recognition of this need, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has partnered with domestic automotive manufacturers through U.S. DRIVE to develop these advanced technologies. However, before these advancements can be introduced into the U.S. market, they must also be able to meet increasingly stringent emissions requirements. A significant roadblock to this implementation is the inability of current catalyst and aftertreatment technologies to provide the required activity at the much lower exhaust temperatures that will accompany highly efficient combustion processes and powertrain strategies. Therefore, the goal of this workshop and report is to create a U.S. DRIVE emission control roadmap that will identify new materials and aftertreatment approaches that offer the potential for 90% conversion of emissions at low temperature (150°C) and are consistent with highly efficient combustion technologies currently under investigation within U.S. DRIVE Advanced Combustion and Emission Control (ACEC) programs.

Zammit, Michael; DiMaggio, Craig L.; Kim, Chang H.; Lambert, Christine; Muntean, George G.; Peden, Charles HF; Parks, James E.; Howden, Ken

2013-10-15

261

Fuel-conservation evaluation of US Army helicopters. Part 6. Performance calculator evaluation. Final report for period ending January 1981  

SciTech Connect

The US Army Aviation Engineering Flight Activity conducted an evaluation of Flight Management Calculator for the UH-1H. The calculator was a Hewlett-Packard HP-41CV. The performance calculator was evaluated for flight planning and in-flight use during 14 mission flights simulating operational conditions. The calculator was much easier to use in-flight than the operator's manual data. The calculator program needs improvement in the areas of pre-flight planning and execution speed. The mission flights demonstrated a 19% fuel saving using optimum over normal flight profiles in warm temperatures (15/sup 0/C above standard). Savings would be greater at colder temperatures because of increasing compressibility effects. Acceptable accuracy for individual aircraft under operational conditions may require a regressive analog model in which individual aircraft data are used to update the program. The performance data base for the UH-1H was expanded with level flight and hover data to thrust coefficients and Mach numbers to the practical limits of aircraft operation.

Dominick, F.; Lockwood, R.A.

1986-07-01

262

Development of Prototype Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cell Pick-Up Electric Vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most of the automotive majors are working seriously to be the first to make commercially viable cars powered by the revolutionary fuel cell technology. The fuel cell (FC) will be as big a technological marvel as the internal combustion (IC) engine has been a century ago as compared to the heavy old external combustion steam engines. Automotive companies also know

S. Pathak; J. N. Das; J. Rangarajan; S. R. Choudhury; R. Prakash

2006-01-01

263

7 CFR 3201.101 - Automotive care products.  

...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Automotive care products. 3201.101 Section 3201...Designated Items § 3201.101 Automotive care products. (a) Definition. Products...soaps, wheel and tire cleaners, leather care products, interior cleaners, and...

2014-01-01

264

A low cost, triple-voltage bus DC-DC converter for automotive applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Before the automotive industry completes moving the 14 V vehicle loads to the 42 V net, HEVs and fuel cell vehicles will likely employ a triple voltage-14 V\\/42 V\\/high-voltage (200~500 V) bus system. This paper presents a low-cost, soft-switched, bidirectional DC\\/DC converter for connecting the three voltage nets. The converter consists of two half-brides and a high-frequency transformer, which provides

Gui-Jia Su; Fang Z. Peng

2005-01-01

265

Consortium for Alabama Regional Center for Automotive Manufacturing (CARCAM)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Consortium for Alabama Regional Center for Automotive Manufacturing's (CARCAM) mission is "to promote, develop and deliver effective training programs in Automotive Manufacturing." CARCAM is an educational resource for those looking to enter the automotive industry. It is also useful tool for the professional development of those already working in the industry. Their site provides information on training programs, events and news about the automotive industry.

2007-08-20

266

Multi-agent-Based Diagnostics of Automotive Electronic Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The diagnostic system discussed in this paper provides an agent-based approach to advanced on-board diagnostics of operation\\u000a and communication failures occurring in an electronic automotive system. To facilitate development and testing of agent-based\\u000a automotive diagnostics, a software simulator of automotive electronics systems, also based on multi-agent technology, has\\u000a been implemented, allowing the developers to simulate various automotive system failures. The

Dusan Pavlícek; Michal Pechoucek; Vladimír Marík; Ondrej Flek

2007-01-01

267

Tribopolymerization: An advanced lubrication concept for automotive engines and systems of the future  

SciTech Connect

Advanced lubrication technologies based on the concept of tribopolymerization as a mechanism of boundary lubrication are described. Advantages of this approach as well as potential applications which could have an impact on the design, manufacture, and performance of existing and future automotive engines are presented and discussed. Tribopolymerization, a novel concept of molecular design developed by Furey and Kajdas, involves the continuous formation of thin polymeric films on rubbing surfaces; the protective films formed are self-replenishing. The antiwear compounds developed from this technology are effective with metals as well as ceramics and in the liquid as well as vapor phases. Furthermore, they are ashless and contain no harmful phosphorus or sulfur; and many are biodegradable. Thus, potential applications of this technology are diverse and include a variety of cost/performance/energy/environmental advantages. Examples include the following: (a) machining and cutting applications using thin films to reduce friction and ceramic tool wear; (b) the lubrication of ceramic engines (e.g., low heat rejection diesel engines) or ceramic components; (c) the development of ashless lubricants for existing and future automotive engines to reduce exhaust catalyst poisoning and environmental emissions; (d) ashless antiwear or ``lubricity`` additives for fuels, including gasoline, diesel and jet fuel; (e) vapor phase applications of this technology to high temperature gaseous systems or to fuel injector wear problems associated with the use of natural gas engines; and (f) the use of the concept of tribopolymerization as an enabling technology in the development of new engines and new automotive propulsion systems.

Furey, M.J. [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ., Blacksburg, VA (United States); Kajdas, C. [Warsaw Univ. of Technology, Plock (Poland); Kaltenbach, K.W. [Triad Investors Corp., Baltimore, MD (United States)

1997-12-31

268

Electrical Systems Specialist. Teacher Edition. Automotive Service Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This curriculum guide is one of a series of automotive service specialty publications that continues students' training in the automotive service trade by providing instruction in the electrical systems speciality. It is based on the National Institute of Automotive Service Excellence tasks lists. It contains nine units. Each unit includes some or…

Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

269

Can Distance Learning Be Used to Teach Automotive Management Skills?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Today's automotive college students will shape the future of the automobile industry. The success of college-level automotive programs has long been dependent on the students' ability to participate in hands-on classroom based interactions. In this article, distance learning and how it can be used to teach automotive management skills, as well as…

Noto, Teresa L.

2011-01-01

270

The U.S. Automotive Market and Industry in 2025  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this study, the Center for Automotive Research (CAR) predicts the 2025 U.S. light vehicle market based on expected greenhouse gas requirements for the years 2017-2025. Through scenario modeling of four possible corporate average fuel economy (CAFE) standards, itâs found that this mandate poses a serious threat to the U.S. vehicle market. Itâs determined that from 2017-2025 consumer cost will rise 40%, overall vehicle sales will drop by $5.4 million, and a total U.S. employment loss of 1.69 million jobs. CAR offers the solution of creating a review board composed of members from government, engineering firms, and industry leaders to evaluate CAFE standards every three years, rather than setting standards for far ahead projected dates.

Center for Automotive Research (CAR)

271

Fatigue life of automotive rubber jounce bumper  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is evident that most rubber components in the automotive industry are subjected to repetitive loading. Vigorous research is needed towards improving the safety and reliability of the components. The study was done on an automotive rubber jounce bumper with a rubber hardness of 60 IRHD. The test was conducted in displacement-controlled environment under compressive load. The existing models by Kim, Harbour, Woo and Li were adopted to predict the fatigue life. The experimental results show strong similarities with the predicted models.

Sidhu, R. S.; Ali, Aidy

2010-05-01

272

Creep and creep-rupture behavior of a continuous strand, swirl mat reinforced polymer composite in automotive environments  

SciTech Connect

Creep and creep-rupture behavior of an isocyanurate based polyurethane matrix with a continuous strand, swirl mat E-glass reinforcement was investigated for automotive applications. The material under stress was exposed to various automobile service environments. Results show that environment has substantial effects on its creep and creep-rupture properties. Proposed design guide lines and stress reduction factors were developed for various automotive environments. These composites are considered candidate structural materials for light weight and fuel efficient automobiles of the future.

Ren, W.; Brinkman, C.R. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Metals and Ceramics Div.

1998-12-31

273

Conserving Energy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this project you will learn what energy is, how energy is used , and how to conserve it What are new ways of protecting the environment to conserve energy? Use your 4- column chart to record information about the questions i ask and you learn about. Begin by seeing what energy isEnergy Quest Tells different ways of conserving energy. List what you learn. What are simple ways to conserve energy everyday? How are vehicle manufactures inventing ways to conserve ...

Y, Mr.

2009-10-21

274

Flux switching motors for automotive applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a new class of brushless motor as an alternative to the permanent magnet brushed motor used in the automotive industry. The new flux switching motor is a very simple motor to manufacture and coupled with a power electronic controller requiring only two power semiconductor switches it has the potential to be extremely low cost in high volume

C. Pollock; H. Pollock; R. Barron; R. Sutton; J. Coles; D. Moule; A. Court

2003-01-01

275

Flux-Switching Motors for Automotive Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a new class of brushless motor as an alternative to the permanent-magnet brushed motor used in the automotive industry. The new flux-switching motor is a very simple motor to manufacture, and, coupled with a powerelectronic controller requiring only two power semiconductor switches, it has the potential to be extremely low cost in high volume applications. The design

Charles Pollock; Helen Pollock; Richard Barron; Jeff R. Coles; David Moule; Andrew Court; Richard Sutton

2006-01-01

276

Highly durable coatings for automotive polycarbonate glazing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Automotive glazing represents a significant high volume application opportunity for engineering thermoplastic materials. Specifically, the use of polycarbonate can provide benefits such as vehicle weight reduction, occupant containment and design flexibility. Polycarbonate has superb impact resistance, optical clarity and the processing benefits of thermoplastic, but lacks abrasion resistance and weathering performance. Solution applied silicone-based hard-coats markedly improve the durability of

D. Katsamberis; K. Browall; C. Iacovangelo; M. Neumann; H. Morgner

1997-01-01

277

Fmcw Mmw Radar For Automotive Longitudinal Control  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report presents information on millimeter wave (MMW) radar for automotive longitudinal control. It addresses the fundamental capabilities and limitations of millimeter waves for ranging and contrasts their operation with that of conventional microwave radar. The report analyzes pulsed and FMCW radar configurations, and provides detailed treatment of FMCW radar operating at MMW frequency, its advantages and disadvantages as they

William David

1997-01-01

278

Harmonic automotive radar for VRU classification  

Microsoft Academic Search

A harmonic radar and set of passive transponders are used for detection and identification of vulnerable road users (VRU) in automotive applications. The radar system transmits a signal consisting of two distinct frequency components in the 76-81 GHz band. A small transponder is carried by the VRU. The antenna and the electric circuitry of the transponder are printed on flexible

Jone Saebboe; Ville Viikari; Timo Varpula; Heikki Seppä; Shi Cheng; M. Al-Nuaimi; P. Hallbjorner; A. Rydberg

2009-01-01

279

Specialized battery emulator for automotive electrical systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Complexity of the automotive electrical power system is continuously increasing. Greater amount of higher loads is added and active energy management is being introduced. The whole design of such power systems depends on the batteries being used. Since safety-related systems also need power to function, special care has to be taken considering voltage quality. However, there are a lot of

T. Baumho?fer; W. Waag; D. U. Sauer

2010-01-01

280

Soldered flip chip IC's in automotive applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

During recent years, we have accumulated a great deal of experience with high volume production of soldered flip-chips in small modules for automotive applications. We have processed more than 20 million flip chips with excellent results in terms of processing and reliability. There are several advantages for using hybrid flip chip modules for these applications. The reasons are given in

V. Thor; K. Appel; M. Nover; P. Sommerfeld

1998-01-01

281

Metrics for Automotive Merchandising, Petroleum Marketing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed to meet the job-related metric measurement needs of students in automotive merchandising and petroleum marketing classes, this instructional package is one of five for the marketing and distribution cluster, part of a set of 55 packages for metric instruction in different occupations. The package is intended for students who already know…

Cooper, Gloria S., Ed.; Magisos, Joel H., Ed.

282

Noise Sources Characterization of Automotive HVAC Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The noise sources and mechanisms of the front and rear HVAC systems of an automotive are characterized experimentally. The front system has three main outlet ducts equipped with louvers and operates in two modes of bypass and recirculation. The inlet and outlet sides of the rear system are both located in the cabin; hence, it always works only on the

Vahid Madani

2002-01-01

283

Qualification guidelines for automotive packaging devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the continued demand for miniaturization, with the advent of new materials and processes, and with increased demand for better performance and lower cost, reliability of microelectronic devices continues to be a major concern. As microelectronic packages are used in a wide range of applications from automotive to aerospace to telecommunications to biomedical devices, there is a need for developing

Rajiv Raghunathan; Suresh K. Sitaraman

2000-01-01

284

Measurement of conducted transients on automotive sensors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Honeywell has developed a new concept for high frequency conducted transient measurements at automotive sensor connectors directly on the vehicle using a special interface covering the DC to 18 GHz frequency range. Conducted transients were captured using both a digitizing oscilloscope TDS-794D and HP spectrum analyzer to analyze single event-conducted transients and harmonic content. The objective of the test was

V. Ivanov; M. Plagens

2000-01-01

285

Automotive Body Repair. Performance Objectives. Intermediate Course.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Several intermediate performance objectives and corresponding criterion measures are listed for each of 10 terminal objectives for an intermediate automotive body repair and refinishing course. The materials were developed for a two-semester (3 hours daily) course for specialized classrooms, shop, and practical experiences designed to enable the…

Lang, Thomas

286

Automotive Body Repair. Performance Objectives. Basic Course.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Several intermediate performance objectives and corresponding criterion measures are listed for each of 15 terminal objectives for a basic automotive body repair and refinishing course. The materials were developed for a two-semester (2 hours daily) course for organized classroom and shop experiences designed to enable the student to develop…

Lang, Thomas

287

Lithium ion battery automotive applications and requirements  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews the potential automotive applications for lithium ion (Li-ion) batteries. Various applications are considered in terms of the battery system requirements. USABC and PNGV goals are referenced as they provide general specifications which apply to most original equipment manufacturers. Battery system design assumptions, such as electronic controls, modeling, and thermal management are discussed. Possible Li-ion battery implementation issues

T. J. Mller

2002-01-01

288

Automotive Technology. Florida Vocational Program Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This program guide identifies primary concerns in the organization, operation, and evaluation of an automotive technology program. It is designed for local school district and community college administrators, instructors, program advisory committees, and regional coordinating councils. The guide begins with the Dictionary of Occupational Titles…

University of South Florida, Tampa. Dept. of Adult and Vocational Education.

289

Automotive Service Technology. Florida Vocational Program Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This program guide identifies primary concerns in the organization, operation, and evaluation of an automotive service technology program. It is designed for local school district and community college administrators, instructors, program advisory committees, and regional coordinating councils. The guide begins with the Dictionary of Occupational…

University of South Florida, Tampa. Dept. of Adult and Vocational Education.

290

Basic Automotive Mechanics. Florida Vocational Program Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This program guide identifies primary concerns in the organization, operation, and evaluation of a basic automotive mechanics program. It is designed for local school district and community college administrators, instructors, program advisory committees, and regional coordinating councils. The guide begins with the Dictionary of Occupational…

University of South Florida, Tampa. Dept. of Adult and Vocational Education.

291

SAFETY ISSUES IN AVIONICS AND AUTOMOTIVE DATABUSES  

Microsoft Academic Search

In avionics and automotive applications of computing, spec ial care must be taken of issues related to safety. Assurance must be provided that comput er hardware or software does not contribute to situations, which may cause loss of life or significant property damage. One aspect of this concern is the design of databuses, which provide a me dium to exchange

Janusz Zalewski; Dawid Trawczy ski; Janusz Sosnowski; Andrew Kornecki

292

Spectroscopic carbon dioxide sensor for automotive applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we present the first spectroscopic carbon dioxide sensor designed for automotive applications. The sensor is based on the well known infrared measurement principle. It includes a new robust infrared gas-detector and a corresponding, newly developed, ASIC. First application studies show its suitability for automatic vehicle ventilation systems and for leak detection in R744 air conditioning systems.

Michael Arndt; Maximilian Sauer

2004-01-01

293

Illinois Occupational Skill Standards: Automotive Technician Cluster.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document, which is intended as a guide for work force preparation program providers, details the Illinois occupational skill standards for programs preparing students for employment in occupations in the automotive technician cluster. The document begins with overviews of the Illinois perspective on occupational skill standards and…

Illinois Occupational Skill Standards and Credentialing Council, Carbondale.

294

Artificial leather production in the automotive industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article is focused on the process of artificial leather production in the automotive industry (e.g. the artificial leather on a car dashboard). One successful manufacturing process is the heating of the mould surface by infrared heaters located above the mould. We will describe one model of mould warming, as well as a method to calculate the heat radiation intensity

Jaroslav Mlynek; Radek Srb

2012-01-01

295

Automotive Air Filter Inlet Velocity Distributions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laser sheet flow visualizations and laser Doppler anemometer velocity measurements have been performed to define the flow fields upstream of a clean rectangular automotive engine air filter mounted in laboratory test housings and model vehicular housings. The experiments have shown that the flow fields in the various housings present the filter with very different inlet flow distributions. Significant variations in

F. W. Chambers; S. H. Yao; R. A. Newman; R. Duran

1996-01-01

296

Dynamic supplier management in the automotive industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to provide an explanation and set out the reasons for the change in supply strategy from sole sourcing to split sourcing at an automotive assembly plant. In that context, this paper highlights the advantages of split sourcing over earlier strategies. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The information on which this paper is based comes chiefly

Ricardo Aláez-Aller; Juan Carlos Longás-García

2010-01-01

297

Automotive Transport in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

The American economy has become geared to motor transport to a degree that has made the automotive in dustries the number one combination of economic acivities in the United States. Whether the measurement is production, em ployment, consumer outlays, tons of materials or miles of travel, the motor vehicle and its operation have assumed a commanding role in nearly everything

Wilfred Owen

1958-01-01

298

Review of automotive brake friction materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

The gradual phasing-out of asbestos in automotive brake friction materials in many parts of the world has sparked the onset of extensive research and development into safer alternatives. As a result, the brake friction industry has seen the birth of different brake pads and shoes in the past decade, each with their own unique composition, yet performing the very same

D Chan; G W Stachowiak

2004-01-01

299

Automotive technology status and projections. Volume 2: Assessment report  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Current and advanced conventional engines, advanced alternative engines, advanced power train components, and other energy conserving automobile modifications which could be implemented by the end of this century are examined. Topics covered include gas turbine engines, Stirling engines, advanced automatic transmissions, alternative fuels, and metal and ceramic technology. Critical problems are examined and areas for future research are indicated.

Dowdy, M.; Burke, A.; Schneider, H.; Edmiston, W.; Klose, G. J.; Heft, R.

1978-01-01

300

Automotive Stirling engine development program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Activities performed on Mod I engine testing and test results, testing of the Mod I engine in the United States, Mod I engine characterization and analyses, Mod I Transient Test Bed fuel economy, upgraded Mod I performance and testing, Stirling engine reference engine manufacturing and reduced size studied, components and subsystems, and the study and test of low cost casting alloys are summarized. The overall program philosophy is outlined, and data and results are presented.

Nightingale, N.; Ernst, W.; Richey, A.; Simetkosky, M.; Smith, G.; Rohdenburg, C.; Vatsky, A.; Antonelli, M. (editor)

1983-01-01

301

Automotive Stirling Engine Development Program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Mod I engine testing and test results, the test of a Mod I engine in the United States, Mod I engine characterization and analysis, Mod I Transient Test Bed fuel economy, Mod I-A engine performance are discussed. Stirling engine reference engine manufacturing and reduced size studies, components and subsystems, and the study and test of low-cost casting alloys are also covered. The overall program philosophy is outlined, and data and results are presented.

Nightingale, N.; Ernst, W.; Richey, A.; Simetkosky, M.; Smith, G.; Antonelli, M. (editor)

1983-01-01

302

Promoting household energy conservation  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is commonly assumed that households must change their behaviour to reduce the problems caused by increasing levels of fossil energy use. Strategies for behaviour change will be more effective if they target the most important causes of the behaviour in question. Therefore, this paper first discusses the factors influencing household energy use. Three barriers to fossil fuel energy conservation

Linda Steg

2008-01-01

303

Foundry energy conservation workbook  

SciTech Connect

This report discusses methods for promoting energy conservation in foundries. Use of electric power, natural gas, and coke are evaluated. Waste heat recovery systems are considered. Energy consumption in the specific processes of electric melting, natural gas melting, heat treatments, ladle melting, and coke fuel melting is described. An example energy analysis is included. (GHH)

Not Available

1990-12-31

304

Graduate Automotive Technology Education (GATE) Center for Hybrid Electric Drivetrains and Control Strategies  

SciTech Connect

Beginning the fall semester of 1999, The University of Maryland, Departments of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering and the Institute for Systems Research served as a U.S. Department of Energy (USDOE) Graduate Automotive Technology Education (GATE) Center for Hybrid Electric Drivetrains and Control Strategies. A key goal was to produce a graduate level education program that educated and prepared students to address the technical challenges of designing and developing hybrid electric vehicles, as they progressed into the workforce. A second goal was to produce research that fostered the advancement of hybrid electric vehicles, their controls, and other related automotive technologies. Participation ended at the University of Maryland after the 2004 fall semester. Four graduate courses were developed and taught during the course of this time, two of which evolved into annually-taught undergraduate courses, namely Vehicle Dynamics and Control Systems Laboratory. Five faculty members from Mechanical Engineering, Electrical Engineering, and the Institute for Systems Research participated. Four Ph.D. degrees (two directly supported and two indirectly supported) and seven Master's degrees in Mechanical Engineering resulted from the research conducted. Research topics included thermoelectric waste heat recovery, fuel cell modeling, pre- and post-transmission hybrid powertrain control and integration, hybrid transmission design, H{sub 2}-doped combustion, and vehicle dynamics. Many of the participating students accepted positions in the automotive industry or government laboratories involved in automotive technology work after graduation. This report discusses the participating faculty, the courses developed and taught, research conducted, the students directly and indirectly supported, and the publication list. Based on this collection of information, the University of Maryland firmly believes that the key goal of the program was met and that the majority of the participating students are now contributing to the advancement of automotive technology in this country.

David Holloway

2005-09-30

305

Energy conservation and air transportation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Air transportation demand and passenger energy demand are discussed, in relation to energy conservation. Alternatives to air travel are reviewed, along with airline advertising and ticket pricing. Cargo energy demand and airline systems efficiency are also examined, as well as fuel conservation techniques. Maximum efficiency of passenger aircraft, from B-747 to V/STOL to British Concorde, is compared.

1973-01-01

306

Automotive Stirling Engine Development Program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Development test activities on Mod I engines directed toward evaluating technologies for potential inclusion in the Mod II engine are summarized. Activities covered include: test of a 12-tube combustion gas recirculation combustor; manufacture and flow-distribution test of a two-manifold annular heater head; piston rod/piston base joint; single-solid piston rings; and a digital air/fuel concept. Also summarized are results of a formal assessment of candidate technologies for the Mod II engine, and preliminary design work for the Mod II. The overall program philosophy weight is outlined, and data and test results are presented.

Nightingale, N.; Richey, A.; Farrell, R.; Riecke, G.; Ernst, W.; Howarth, R.; Cronin, M.; Simetkosky, M.; Smith, G.; Meacher, J.

1985-01-01

307

Automotive Lightweight Materials: the Roles of Nde in Bringing New Materials Into Production  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The automotive industry is in the midst of a time of tremendous change. There is an almost perfect storm of changing governmental and market requirements seeking much higher fuel economy, low or no carbon dioxide emissions, and much higher crash and safety performance. Moreover, this occurs in a globe-spanning market that has more low-cost manufacturers than ever before. This confluence of factors leads to new vehicles with many new types of powertrains having unprecedented power densities and highly-engineered body structures with many new materials and joining methods. These are being turned out with shorter lead times, higher quality requirements, and continuous cost pressures. This talk will review the role in NDE in bringing new materials and processes to market, some of the applications in production, and to highlight some of the current NDE needs driven by these forces on the automotive industry.

Dasch, Cameron J.

2008-02-01

308

Fuel additives: Excluding aviation fuels. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning compositions, applications and performance of additives in fuels. Evaluations and environmental testing of additives in automotive, diesel, and boiler fuels are discussed. Additive effects on air pollution control, combustion stability, fuel economy and fuel storage are presented. Aviation fuel additives are covered in a separate bibliography. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

NONE

1995-12-01

309

Fuel additives: Excluding aviation fuels. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning compositions, applications and performance of additives in fuels. Evaluations and environmental testing of additives in automotive, diesel, and boiler fuels are discussed. Additive effects on air pollution control, combustion stability, fuel economy and fuel storage are presented. Aviation fuel additives are covered in a separate bibliography. (Contains a minimum of 231 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

NONE

1995-02-01

310

AGT-102 automotive gas turbine  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Development of a gas turbine powertrain with a 30% fuel economy improvement over a comparable S1 reciprocating engine, operation within 0.41 HC, 3.4 CO, and 0.40 NOx grams per mile emissions levels, and ability to use a variety of alternate fuels is summarized. The powertrain concept consists of a single-shaft engine with a ceramic inner shell for containment of hot gasses and support of twin regenerators. It uses a fixed-geometry, lean, premixed, prevaporized combustor, and a ceramic radial turbine rotor supported by an air-lubricated journal bearing. The engine is coupled to the vehicle through a widerange continuously variable transmission, which utilizes gearing and a variable-ratio metal compression belt. A response assist flywheel is used to achieve acceptable levels of engine response. The package offers a 100 lb weight advantage in a Chrysler K Car front-wheel-drive installation. Initial layout studies, preliminary transient thermal analysis, ceramic inner housing structural analysis, and detailed performance analysis were carried out for the basic engine.

1981-01-01

311

Third Program Plan for DOE's participation in the IEA Working Party on Energy-Conservation Research and Development  

SciTech Connect

The Plan documents the projects currently being conducted by the working party in which DOE is participating and the projects proposed by DOE for consideration by other IEA member nations. Chapter 1 reviews current and planned DOE commitments to existing implementing agreements: buildings and community systems; energy conservation in building complexes; energy cascading; heat pumps with thermal storage; advanced heat pumps; combustion; heat transfer and heat exchangers; energy storage; cement manufacturer; and high-temperature materials for automotive propulsion systems. Chapter 2 reviews planned DOE commitments to new implementing agreements: combustion; pulp and paper; iron and steel; food processing; urban waste; and alcohol additives to fuel. Appendix A discusses the mechanisms for establishing implementing agreements and annexes. Appendix B lists working party members and Appendix C describes the evaluation methodology.

None

1980-06-01

312

Automotive Stirling engine development program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The major accomplishments were the completion of the Basic Stirling Engine (BSE) and the Stirling Engine System (SES) designs on schedule, the approval and acceptance of those designs by NASA, and the initiation of manufacture of BSE components. The performance predictions indicate the Mod II engine design will meet or exceed the original program goals of 30% improvement in fuel economy over a conventional Internal Combustion (IC) powered vehicle, while providing acceptable emissions. This was accomplished while simultaneously reducing Mod II engine weight to a level comparable with IC engine power density, and packaging the Mod II in a 1985 Celebrity with no external sheet metal changes. The projected mileage of the Mod II Celebrity for the combined urban and highway CVS cycle is 40.9 mpg which is a 32% improvement over the IC Celebrity. If additional potential improvements are verified and incorporated in the Mod II, the mileage could increase to 42.7 mpg.

Ernst, W.; Richey, A.; Farrell, R.; Riecke, G.; Smith, G.; Howarth, R.; Cronin, M.; Simetkosky, M.; Meacher, J.

1986-01-01

313

Multichip module technology for automotive application  

SciTech Connect

Advancements in multichip module technology are creating design freedoms previously unavailable to design engineers. These advancements are opening new markets for laminate based multichip module products. In particular, material improvements in laminate printed wiring boards are allowing multichip module technology to meet more stringent environmental conditions. In addition, improvements in encapsulants and adhesives are enhancing the capabilities of multichip module technology to meet harsh environment. Furthermore, improvements in manufacturing techniques are providing the reliability improvements necessary for use in high quality electronic systems. These advances are making multichip module technology viable for high volume, harsh environment applications like under-the-hood automotive electronics. This paper will provide a brief review of multichip module technology, a discussion of specific research activities with Chrysler for use of multichip modules in automotive engine controllers and finally a discussion of prototype multichip modules fabricated and tested. {copyright} 1995 {ital American} {ital Institute} {ital of} {ital Physics}

Johnson, R.W. [Center for the Commerical Development of Space Power and Advanced Electronics, 231 Leach Center, Auburn University, Alabama 36849 (United States); Evans, J.L.; Bosley, L. [Chrysler/Huntsville Electronics, 100 Electronics Blvd., Huntsville, Alabama 35824 (United States)

1995-01-25

314

Automotion of domain walls for spintronic interconnects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We simulate "automotion," the transport of a magnetic domain wall under the influence of demagnetization and magnetic anisotropy, in nanoscale spintronic interconnects. In contrast to spin transfer driven magnetic domain wall motion, the proposed interconnects operate without longitudinal charge current transfer, with only a transient current pulse at domain wall creation and have favorable scaling down to the 20 nm dimension. Cases of both in-plane and out-of-plane magnetization are considered. Analytical dependence of the velocity of domain walls on the angle of magnetization are compared with full micromagnetic simulations. Deceleration, attenuation and disappearance, and reflection of domain walls are demonstrated through simulation. Dependences of the magnetization angle on the current pulse parameters are studied. The energy and delay analysis suggests that automotion is an attractive option for spintronic logic interconnects.

Nikonov, Dmitri E.; Manipatruni, Sasikanth; Young, Ian A.

2014-06-01

315

Fumigation of Alcohol in a Light Duty Automotive Diesel Engine  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A light-duty automotive Diesel engine was fumigated with methanol in amounts up to 35% and 50% of the total fuel energy respectively in order to determine the effect of alcohol fumigation on engine performance at various operating conditons. Engine fuel efficiency, emissions, smoke, and the occurrence of severe knock were the parameters used to evaluate performance. Raw exhaust particulate and its soluble organic extract were screened for biological activity using the Ames Salmonella typhimurium assay. Results are given for a test matrix made up of twelve steady-state operating conditions. For all conditions except the 1/4 rack (light load) condition, modest thermal efficiency gains were noted upon ethanol fumigation. Methanol showed the same increase at 3/4 and full rack (high load) conditions. However, engine roughness or the occurrence of severe knock limited the maximum amount of alcohol that could be fumigated. Brake specific nitrogen oxide concentrations were found to decrease for all ethanol conditions tested. Oxides of nitrogen emissions, on a volume basis, decreased for all alcohol conditions tested. Based on the limited particulate data analyzed, it appears that ethanol fumigation, like methanol fumigation, while lowering the mass of particulated emitted, does enhance the biological activity of that particulate.

Broukhiyan, E. M. H.; Lestz, S. S.

1981-01-01

316

Range Doppler detection for automotive FMCW radars  

Microsoft Academic Search

The FMCW-Radar-Principle is widely used for automotive radar systems. The basic idea for FMCW-Radars is to generate a linear frequency ramp as transmit signal. The difference frequency between the transmitted and received signal is determined after downconversion. In order to detect range and velocity together, the information, extracted from one frequency ramp, is not enough, because it is ambiguous. Several

Volker Winkler

2007-01-01

317

Range Doppler detection for automotive FMCW radars  

Microsoft Academic Search

The FMCW-radar-principle is widely used for automotive radar systems. The basic idea for FMCW-radars is to generate a linear frequency ramp as transmit signal. The difference frequency between the transmitted and received signal is determined after downconversion. In order to detect range and velocity together, the information, extracted from one frequency ramp, is not enough, because it is ambiguous. Several

Volker Winkler

2007-01-01

318

Model Predictive Control of Magnetic Automotive Actuators  

Microsoft Academic Search

Magnetically actuated mass-spring-damper systems are common in automotive systems as components of various actuation mechanisms. They are characterized by nonlinear dynamics, tight performance specifications and physical constraints. Due to these reasons, model predictive control (MPC) is an appealing control framework for such systems. In this paper we describe different MPC approaches to control the magnetically actuated mass-spring-damper system. The MPC

Stefano Di Cairano; Alberto Bemporad; Ilya Kolmanovsky; Davor Hrovat

2007-01-01

319

DESIGN AND ANALYSIS OF AN AUTOMOTIVE ALTERNATOR  

Microsoft Academic Search

The article deals with design of the heavy-duty claw-pole automotive alternator. This type of al- ternator should operate under unfriendly condition, e.g. in agricultural applications. Described devel- opment is supported by Ministry of Industry and Trade in frame of the project FI-IM4\\/194. Required parameters were evaluated and analytic design of magnetic circuit was performed in cooperation with Magneton a.s. Krom

Ondej VÍTEK; Vítzslav HÁJEK

320

Acoustic response variability in automotive vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

A statistical analysis of a series of measurements of the audio-frequency response of a large set of automotive vehicles is presented: a small hatchback model with both a three-door (411 vehicles) and five-door (403 vehicles) derivative and a mid-sized family five-door car (316 vehicles). The sets included vehicles of various specifications, engines, gearboxes, interior trim, wheels and tyres. The tests

E. Hills; B. R. Mace; N. S. Ferguson

2009-01-01

321

Crashworthiness simulation of composite automotive structures  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1990 the Automotive Composites Consortium (ACC) began the investigation of crash worthiness simulation methods for composite materials. A contract was given to Livermore Software Technology Corporation (LSTC) to implement a new damage model in LS-DYNA3DTM<\\/sup> specifically for composite structures. This model is in LS-DYNA3DTM<\\/sup> and is in use by the ACC partners. In 1994 USCAR, a partnership of American

M E Botkin; N L Johnson; S Simunovic; E Zywicz

1998-01-01

322

Hydroforming applications in automotive: a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deals with different aspects of the hydroforming technology and its relevance for the automotive industry. Starting\\u000a from a brief description of tube hydroforming and sheet hydroforming, the paper shows the progressive developments of both\\u000a technologies, using results of R&D projects, prototypes and serial production parts as examples. Considerations on the future\\u000a trends and chances of the hydroforming technologies

M. Tolazzi; Centro Ricerche Fiat; Trento Branch

2010-01-01

323

Deep drawing characteristics of automotive aluminum alloys  

Microsoft Academic Search

Limiting draw ratios (LDRs) and other axisymmetric deep drawing characteristics of AA5754-O and AA6111-T4 automotive aluminum sheet materials are investigated as a function of die profile radii by experiments and numerical predictions. A procedure for rapid determination of LDR based on a characteristic limit load of the material at fracture is developed and verified. Other deep drawing characteristics such as

M. Jain; J. Allin; M. J. Bull

1998-01-01

324

Millimeter-wave Radars For Automotive Use  

Microsoft Academic Search

The expansion of frequency allocation to the high-frequency ranges decided at WARC’79 has brought active development in millimeter-wave equipment. The development of new communication systems and new compound semiconductors have brought progress to the technology for high-frequency circuits and devices. We started the development of automotive radar using miljimeter waves in the early 1970s, and have applied them experimentally for

T. Takehana; H. Iwamoto; T. Sakamoto; T. Nogami

1988-01-01

325

Directions for computational mechanics in automotive crashworthiness  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The automotive industry has used computational methods for crashworthiness since the early 1970's. These methods have ranged from simple lumped parameter models to full finite element models. The emergence of the full finite element models in the mid 1980's has significantly altered the research direction. However, there remains a need for both simple, rapid modeling methods and complex detailed methods. Some directions for continuing research are discussed.

Bennett, James A.; Khalil, T. B.

1993-01-01

326

Smart sensor for automotive passive restraint systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Automotive passive restraint systems continue to take advantage of the benefits of microelectronics to provide more sophisticated occupant safety features. Traditional microelectronic advantages such as miniaturization, system integration, and part count reduction are being used to a greater level. This paper describes a `smart' automotive accelerometer that performs, in a single integrated component, all of the sensing and signal processing functions required to assess vehicle crash severity and generate a timely airbag deployment command if needed. The device improves system performance and reliability while lowering cost, by replacing the several acceleration-sensitive mechanical switches (and the associated wiring) currently used in most automotive passive restraint systems. The accelerometer consists of a capacitive sense element and a CMOS ASIC which contains interface circuitry and a digital deployment decision circuit. Signal filtering, calibration, and vehicle-specific programming are also performed on-chip. The design approach minimizes the effects of temperature and voltage variations and therefore eliminates the need for separate compensation circuits. Performance of the device in the laboratory as well as in vehicle crash tests demonstrates the accelerometer's ability to meet its design objectives.

Spangler, Leland; Kemp, Christopher J.

1996-05-01

327

Thermoelectric infrared imaging sensors for automotive applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes three low-cost thermoelectric infrared imaging sensors having a 1,536, 2,304, and 10,800 element thermoelectric focal plane array (FPA) respectively and two experimental automotive application systems. The FPAs are basically fabricated with a conventional IC process and micromachining technologies and have a low cost potential. Among these sensors, the sensor having 2,304 elements provide high responsivity of 5,500 V/W and a very small size with adopting a vacuum-sealed package integrated with a wide-angle ZnS lens. One experimental system incorporated in the Nissan ASV-2 is a blind spot pedestrian warning system that employs four infrared imaging sensors. This system helps alert the driver to the presence of a pedestrian in a blind spot by detecting the infrared radiation emitted from the person"s body. The system can also prevent the vehicle from moving in the direction of the pedestrian. The other is a rearview camera system with an infrared detection function. This system consists of a visible camera and infrared sensors, and it helps alert the driver to the presence of a pedestrian in a rear blind spot. Various issues that will need to be addressed in order to expand the automotive applications of IR imaging sensors in the future are also summarized. This performance is suitable for consumer electronics as well as automotive applications.

Hirota, Masaki; Nakajima, Yasushi; Saito, Masanori; Satou, Fuminori; Uchiyama, Makoto

2004-07-01

328

Piezoelectric isolation system for lightweight automotive seats  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Active vibration isolation of automotive seats requires actuators that achieve millimeter-range displacements and forces on the order of 300 N. Recent developments in piezoceramic actuator technology provide a means for achieving these force and displacement levels in a compact device. This work demonstrates that prestressed, curved piezoceramic actuators achieve the force and displacement levels required for active isolation of automotive seats. An estimate of the force and displacement requirements are obtained from numerical simulations on a four-degree-of- freedom car and seat model that utilize representative road accelerations as inputs. An actuator that meets these specifications is designed using piezoceramic materials. Free displacement of 4.4 mm and blocked force greater than 300 N are measured. The actuator is integrated within a dead mass setup that simulates the isolation characteristics of an automotive seat. Control experiments demonstrate that active vibration is achievable with realistic road disturbances. Feedback control is able to eliminate any amplification due to mechanical resonance and reduce the isolation frequency from 9.5 Hz to 2 Hz.

Malowicki, Mark; Leo, Donald J.

2001-07-01

329

Application of Cost-Effective Stainless Steel for Automotive Components  

Microsoft Academic Search

High-strength nickel free austenitic stainless steel material as a light-weight substitute for commercial automotive deep drawn steel has been studied with an automotive bumper as an example. The stainless steel gave a weight saving as high as 50% at the same cost that of deep drawn steels. The study examines the techno-economic merits of value engineering automotive material. The bumper

K. Hariharan; G. Balachandran; M. Sathya Prasad

2009-01-01

330

76 FR 13227 - Syncreon USA, Formerly Known as TDS US Automotive, Belvidere, IL; Amended Certification Regarding...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...433] Syncreon USA, Formerly Known as TDS US Automotive, Belvidere, IL; Amended...insurance (UI) tax account under the name TDS US Automotive. Accordingly, the Department...workers of Syncreon USA, formerly known as TDS US Automotive, Belvidere, Illinois,...

2011-03-10

331

76 FR 66750 - Certain Automotive GPS Navigation Systems, Components Thereof, and Products Containing Same...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...COMMISSION [DN 2850] Certain Automotive GPS Navigation Systems, Components...complaint entitled In Re Certain Automotive GPS Navigation Systems, Components...after importation of certain automotive gps navigation systems, components...Identify any public health, safety, or welfare concerns in...

2011-10-27

332

40 CFR 721.10636 - Slimes and sludges, automotive coating, wastewater treatment, solid waste.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Slimes and sludges, automotive coating, wastewater...Chemical Substances § 721.10636 Slimes and sludges, automotive coating, wastewater...The chemical substance identified as slimes and sludges, automotive...

2013-07-01

333

77 FR 34854 - Prevailing Rate Systems; Special Wage Schedules for Nonappropriated Fund Automotive Mechanics  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Schedules for Nonappropriated Fund Automotive Mechanics AGENCY: U.S. Office of Personnel...nonappropriated fund (NAF) automotive mechanics. These special wage schedules would...practice covering DOD's NAF automotive mechanics with a flat rate pay system....

2012-06-12

334

75 FR 34483 - In the Matter of Certain Automotive Vehicles and Designs Therefore; Notice of Investigation  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Certain Automotive Vehicles and Designs Therefore; Notice of Investigation...certain automotive vehicles and designs therefore by reason of infringement...certain automotive vehicles and designs therefore that infringe U...Industrial Co., Ltd., 53 Building, 3297 Hong Mei Road,...

2010-06-17

335

Reformulated diesel fuel and method  

DOEpatents

A method for mathematically identifying at least one diesel fuel suitable for combustion in an automotive diesel engine with significantly reduced emissions and producible from known petroleum blendstocks using known refining processes, including the use of cetane additives (ignition improvers) and oxygenated compounds.

McAdams, Hiramie T [Carrollton, IL; Crawford, Robert W [Tucson, AZ; Hadder, Gerald R [Oak Ridge, TN; McNutt, Barry D [Arlington, VA

2006-08-22

336

Conservation Online  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Started as a germ of an idea back in 1987 (on a real, live bulletin board, as opposed to an electronic one), Conservation Online (CoOL) has been providing online resources for conservation professionals since 1993. As its website announces, it is a "full text library of conservation information," covering a wide array of topics ranging from digital imaging to reprographics, and quite a bit of material in between. By clicking on any given topic, visitors will receive a brief overview of the subject, its terminology, and then a list of general online resources for consideration. Another nice feature of the site is the mailing list archive, which contain the archives of various queries submitted to different professional conservation groups, such as the Association of Moving Image Archivists, the Textiles Conservation Discussion List, and the Conservation Framer's Mailing List. The site is rounded out by a timeline that traces the CoOL's history from the summer of 1987 to July 2003.

337

Prospects on fuel economy improvements for hydrogen powered vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fuel cell vehicles are the subject of extensive research and development because of their potential for high efficiency and low emissions. Because fuel cell vehicles remain expensive and the demand for hydrogen is therefore limited, very few fueling stations are being built. To try to accelerate the development of a hydrogen economy, some original equipment manufacturers (OEM) in the automotive

A. Rousseau; T. Wallner; S. Pagerit; H. Lohse-Bush

2008-01-01

338

Modeling Water Management in Polymer-Electrolyte Fuel Cells.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Fuel cells may become the energy-delivery devices of the 21st century with realization of a carbon-neutral energy economy. Although there are many types of fuel cells, polymerelectrolyte fuel cells (PEFCs) are receiving the most attention for automotive a...

A. Z. Webber H. P. Gunterman J. Newman R. Balliet

2007-01-01

339

Advanced high temperature materials for the energy efficient automotive Stirling engine  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Stirling Engine is under investigated jointly by the Department of Energy and NASA Lewis as an alternative to the internal combustion engine for automotive applications. The Stirling Engine is an external combustion engine that offers the advantage of high fuel economy, low emissions, low noise, and low vibrations compared to current internal combustion automotive engines. The most critical component from a materials viewpoint is the heater head consisting of the cylinders, heating tubes, and regenerator housing. Materials requirements for the heater head include compatibility with hydrogen, resistance to hydrogen permeation, high temperature oxidation/corrosion resistance and high temperature creep-rupture and fatigue properties. A continuing supporting materials research and technology program has identified the wrought alloys CG-27 and 12RN72 and the cast alloys XF-818 and NASAUT 4G-A1 as candidate replacements for the cobalt containing alloys used in current prototype engines. Based on the materials research program in support of the automotive Stirling engine it is concluded that manufacture of the engine is feasible from low cost iron-base alloys rather than the cobalt alloys rather than the cobalt alloys used in prototype engines. This paper will present results of research that led to this conclusion.

Titran, R. H.; Stephens, J. R.

1984-01-01

340

An Evaluation of 3D Woven Orthogonal Composites' Potential in the Automotive Supply Chain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The automotive supply chain and its management can be a very complex process and comprises a long dynamic and complex network that consists of four primary segments: original equipment manufacturers (OEMs), first tier suppliers, sub tiers suppliers, and infrastructure suppliers. During the analysis of the current automotive industry it was identified that textile industry importance is considerable increasing as a part of the global automotive supply chain, because textile products are used for interior, exterior and even suspension parts and components. Automotive industry has an increasing demand for higher quality exterior panels with better functional properties and reduced weight. One of the main potentials for this demand is based on the three-dimensional woven composites technology innovations which can replace an existing technology. The new role of the textile industry could make important changes in the automotive supply chain industry, such as: changes in the size of the supply chain, the time to the market and the position of textile industry in the automotive supply chain structure. 3D composite materials from high performance fibers, such as glass and carbon, have been used for automotive applications in a limited way due to the low production rate and the lack of research and development. This research will contribute to the understanding of textile composites in transportation and the textile parameters that affect the performance characteristics of these materials. The research examines the performance characteristics of lighter and stronger 3D woven fabric composites made from fiberglass with the aim to improve fuel efficiency by reducing the total vehicle weight while maintaining safety standards. The performance characteristics of the 3D woven fabric composite can be designed by changing different construction parameters, such as picks density, pick roving linear density, arrangements of warp and z-yarns, and the number of warp and picks layers. The purpose of this research was to evaluate and predict composite panels' performance attributes based on these structural parameters. The tested properties include: tensile and flexural properties, impact performance, and fiber volume fraction. The testing results were compared with required performance characteristics for metal auto body parts. The properties of composite materials designed and developed in this research are comparable to the properties of materials currently used for auto body parts, e.g. BH 240 steels and 6000 series aluminum. It is evident that there is an opportunity to substitute some metal parts with lighter composite materials and to decrease automobile weight. Safety during an automotive crash can be influenced by the impact strength of the newly designed and produced material, so impact properties evaluation is the critical purpose of this study. Reducing the weight of the vehicle is not only popular because of its positive impact on fuel consumption, but also may provide additional benefits, such as CO2 emissions reductions, significantly reduced noise and vibration, increased performance, corrosion resistance, and handling characteristics of the vehicle.

Taylor, Dalia

341

Some characteristics of automotive gasolines and their performance in a light aircraft engine. Final report, October 1982-March 1984  

SciTech Connect

The primary purpose of this extensive test effort was to observe real-time operational performance characteristics associated with automotive-grade fuel utilized by piston-engine-powered light general-aviation aircraft. In fulfillment of this effort, baseline engine operations were established with 100LL aviation grade fuel followed by four blends of automotive-grade fuel. A comprehensive sea-level static test cell/flight test data collection and evaluation effort was conducted to review operational characteristics of a carbureted light-aircraft piston engine as related to fuel volatility, fuel temperature, and fuel-system pressure. Sea-level static test cell engines operations were conducted utilizing an AVCO Lycoming 0-320 engine connected to an eddy-current dynamometer which facilitated data collection under various engine load conditions. In addition, real-time inflight performance data was obtained utilizing a Cessna 150/Continental 0-200A engine, while operating on test fuels No. 1 and No. 2 which had Reid vapor pressures of 14.4 psi and 8.0 psi, respectively.

Morrison, K.M.; Sung, N.W.; Patterson, D.J.

1984-11-01

342

76 FR 19684 - Automotive Fuel Ratings Certification and Posting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Institute (``API''), ConocoPhillips, Marathon Petroleum Company, LLC (``Marathon''), and the National Petrochemical & Refiners...All supported the proposal, though API and Marathon noted that the ASTM standards referenced...

2011-04-08

343

THE USE OF RECYCLED SOLID AUTOMOTIVE PAINT WASTES AS INGREDIENTS IN AUTOMOTIVE SEALANT PRODUCTS - PHASE I  

EPA Science Inventory

About 75,000,000 lbs. of paint sludge is generated by the U.S. automotive industry each year. This type of waste (and similar streams in other industries) make a significant contribution to landfills. A proposed solution is to recycle the paint sludge into compounding ingredients...

344

THE USE OF RECYCLED SOLID AUTOMOTIVE PAINT WASTES AS INGREDIENTS IN AUTOMOTIVE SEALANT PRODUCTS - PHASE II  

EPA Science Inventory

About 75,000,000 lbs of paint sludge is generated by the U.S. automotive industry each year. This type of waste and (similar streams from other industries) make significant contributions to landfills. The solution proposed by ASTER, Inc., proven feasible during the Phase I of thi...

345

Automotive Tune-up and Performance; Automotive Mechanics 3: 9047.02.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document presents an outline for a 135-hour course designed to help students become employable and provide them with the skills, knowledge, attitudes, and values necessary for performing the required services in automotive tune up and performance. Such services are critical and must be exact to meet Federal Emission Control Standards. The…

Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

346

Mountain Plains Learning Experience Guide: Automotive Repair. Course: Automotive Shop Safety.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One of twelve individualized courses included in an automotive repair curriculum, this course presents avoidance of dangerous situations and accidents, and emergency equipment and procedures. The course is comprised of one unit, Shop Safety. The unit begins with a Unit Learning Experience Guide that gives directions for unit completion. The…

Osland, Walt

347

Mountain Plains Learning Experience Guide: Automotive Repair. Course: Emission Systems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One of twelve individualized courses included in an automotive repair curriculum, this course covers the theory, testing, and servicing of automotive emission control systems. The course is comprised of one unit, Fundamentals of Emission Systems. The unit begins with a Unit Learning Experience Guide that gives directions for unit completion. The…

Schramm, C.; Osland, Walt

348

Paint deposition modeling for trajectory planning on automotive surfaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research is focused on developing trajectory planning tools for the automotive painting industry. The geometric complexity of automotive surfaces and the complexity of the spray patterns produced by modern paint atomizers combine to make this a challenging and interesting problem. This paper documents our efforts to develop computationally tractable analytic deposition models for electrostatic rotating bell (ESRB) atomizers, which

David C. Conner; Aaron Greenfield; Prasad N. Atkar; Alfred A. Rizzi; Howie Choset

2005-01-01

349

An automotive radar network based on 77 GHz FMCW sensors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Automotive radar sensors will be used in many future applications to increase comfort and safety. Adaptive cruise control (ACC), parking aid, collision warning or avoidance and pre crash are some automotive applications, which are based on high performance radar sensors. This paper describes results gained by an European Commission funded research project and a new radar network based on four

Florian Fölster; Hermann Rohling; Urs Lübbert

2005-01-01

350

Heating and Air Conditioning Specialist. Teacher Edition. Automotive Service Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This instructor's guide contains materials for teaching the heating and air conditioning specialist component of a competency-based instructional program for students preparing for employment in the automotive service trade. It is based on the National Institute of Automotive Service Excellence task lists. The six instructional units presented…

Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

351

Automation Test Method for Automotive Embedded Software Based on AUTOSAR  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses new approach to materialize for automation test method for automotive embedded software. The total automotive embedded software is changing frequently whenever the specification for hardware is modified. These cause to spend time and cost. To resolve these problems, AUTOSAR which consists of the standardized interfaces, structures and communication method was introduced. AUTOSAR has Client-Server mechanism in order

Huichoun Moon; Gwanghun Kim; Yeongyun Kim; Seokkyoo Shin; Kyoung Kim; Im Sanggui

2009-01-01

352

Mountain Plains Learning Experience Guide: Automotive Repair. Course: Electrical Systems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One of twelve individualized courses included in an automotive repair curriculum, this course covers the theory, diagnosis, repair, and adjustment of automotive electrical systems. The course is comprised of six units: (1) Fundamentals of Electrical Systems, (2) Battery Servicing, (3) Starting Systems, (4) Charging Systems, (5) Ignition Systems,…

Schramm, C.; Osland, Walt

353

Overview: DOE/NASA automotive gas turbine and stirling projects  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An overview on the progress of the automotive gas turbine and automotive Stirling engine technology projects is presented. The following items are reported: (1) formulation and execution of projects in accordance with the Auto Propulsion Research and Development Act of 1978; (2) substantive technology accomplishments; and (3) future path options of the programs.

Beremand, D. G.

1981-01-01

354

EDUCATING AUTOMOTIVE DESIGN: A SCIENTIFIC APPROACH WITHOUT COMPROMISING TACIT KNOWLEDGE  

Microsoft Academic Search

The car has, more than any other, become a product with highly emotional properties and a significant impact on society. The automotive styling process as generally educated and practiced today has its foundation in the 1930's in the Detroit studios of General Motors and has not changed significantly since. The automotive industry and its market however have evolved dramatically. Car

Elmer D. van Grondelle; Matthijs B. van Dijk

355

A High-Precision NDIR Gas Sensor for Automotive Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new high-precision spectroscopic gas sensor measuring carbon dioxide (CO2) for harsh environmental conditions of automotive applications is presented. The carbon dioxide concentration is the primary parameter for sensing in cabin air quality, as well as an important safety parameter when R744 (carbon dioxide) is used as the refrigerant in the air conditioning system. The automotive environment challenges the potential

Robert Frodl; Thomas Tille

2006-01-01

356

Particle counting and sizing with LDV for automotive air- filters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Scope of study. Flow non-uniformity in the automotive filter has a great impact on the filter performance. Therefore, study of the flow distribution as well as the dust particle concentration in the filter housing is very important for improvement of automotive filter design. This study focuses on particle counting and sizing techniques with Laser Doppler Velocimetry (LDV) and their application

Faqiu Liang

1997-01-01

357

Automotive Control Systems: For Engine, Driveline, and Vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many engineers, working in the field of automotive control systems and mechatronics, as well as lecturing at technical universities, will welcome this book. It gives a broad insight view of the latest automotive technologies in use which have been adopted over a long period of time from research activities at universities and in industry. About twenty years ago the microcomputer

2000-01-01

358

Compensating springback in the automotive practice using MASHAL  

Microsoft Academic Search

New materials are used in the automotive industry to reduce weight and to improve crash performance. These materials feature a higher ratio of yield stress to elastic modulus leading to increased springback after tool release. The resulting shape deviations and their efficient reduction is of major interest for the automotive industry nowadays. The usual strategies for springback reduction can diminish

S. Ohnimus; M. Petzoldt; B. Rietman; J. Weiher

2005-01-01

359

Automotive component manufacturing innovation in developing countries' association with education  

Microsoft Academic Search

The associations between employee qualification levels and innovation and between innovation and training as innovation activity were investigated for automotive component manufacturers in a developing country context, using a survey conducted in South Africa, India and China. Automotive component manufacturers in developing countries have to innovate to remain competitive amidst intense global competition in the sector. It was proposed that

JL Steyn; GA Liebenberg; K-Y Chan

2011-01-01

360

Waste audit study: Automotive paint shops  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the results of a waste-audit study of automotive paint shops. The study focuses on the types and quantities of wastes generated, treatment and disposal alternatives, and the potential for reducing the amount and/or toxicity of waste generated. The analysis of solvent waste minimization focused primarily on in-plant modifications (e.g., source reduction) to reduce the generation of solvent waste. Strict inventory control is the most-readily implementable approach. While in-house recycling is viable, it is usually only cost-effective for larger firms. Specific recommendations for waste reduction were made.

Not Available

1987-01-01

361

Baseline automotive gas turbine engine development program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Tests results on a baseline engine are presented to document the automotive gas turbine state-of-the-art at the start of the program. The performance characteristics of the engine and of a vehicle powered by this engine are defined. Component improvement concepts in the baseline engine were evaluated on engine dynamometer tests in the complete vehicle on a chassis dynamometer and on road tests. The concepts included advanced combustors, ceramic regenerators, an integrated control system, low cost turbine material, a continuously variable transmission, power-turbine-driven accessories, power augmentation, and linerless insulation in the engine housing.

Wagner, C. E. (editor); Pampreen, R. C. (editor)

1979-01-01

362

Safeguarding teleoperation using automotive radar sensors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Multi-Agent Tactical Sentry Unmanned Ground Vehicle, developed at Defence R&D Canada - Suffield, has been in service with the Canadian Forces for six years. This tele-operated wheeled vehicle provides a capability for point detection of chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear agents. During the service life of this system, it has become apparent that a means of automatically detecting obstacles in tele-operated and semi-autonomous modes would greatly increase the safety and reliability of the vehicle in cluttered or human occupied operating environments. This paper documents the design of such a system based on a 24 GHz automotive radar.

Giesbrecht, Jared; Fairbrother, Blaine

2011-05-01

363

19 CFR 10.84 - Automotive vehicles and articles for use as original equipment in the manufacture of automotive...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Automotive vehicles and articles for use as original equipment in the...SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED... § 10.84 Automotive vehicles and articles for use as original equipment in...

2013-04-01

364

A volumetric flow sensor for automotive injection systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For further optimization of the automotive power train of diesel engines, advanced combustion processes require a highly flexible injection system, provided e.g. by the common rail (CR) injection technique. In the past, the feasibility to implement injection nozzle volumetric flow sensors based on the thermo-resistive measurement principle has been demonstrated up to injection pressures of 135 MPa (1350 bar). To evaluate the transient behaviour of the system-integrated flow sensors as well as an injection amount indicator used as a reference method, hydraulic simulations on the system level are performed for a CR injection system. Experimentally determined injection timings were found to be in good agreement with calculated values, especially for the novel sensing element which is directly implemented into the hydraulic system. For the first time pressure oscillations occurring after termination of the injection pulse, predicted theoretically, could be verified directly in the nozzle. In addition, the injected amount of fuel is monitored with the highest resolution ever reported in the literature.

Schmid, U.; Krötz, G.; Schmitt-Landsiedel, D.

2008-04-01

365

The NASA Energy Conservation Program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Large energy-intensive research and test equipment at NASA installations is identified, and methods for reducing energy consumption outlined. However, some of the research facilities are involved in developing more efficient, fuel-conserving aircraft, and tradeoffs between immediate and long-term conservation may be necessary. Major programs for conservation include: computer-based systems to automatically monitor and control utility consumption; a steam-producing solid waste incinerator; and a computer-based cost analysis technique to engineer more efficient heating and cooling of buildings. Alternate energy sources in operation or under evaluation include: solar collectors; electric vehicles; and ultrasonically emulsified fuel to attain higher combustion efficiency. Management support, cooperative participation by employees, and effective reporting systems for conservation programs, are also discussed.

Gaffney, G. P.

1977-01-01

366

Crashworthiness simulation of composite automotive structures  

SciTech Connect

In 1990 the Automotive Composites Consortium (ACC) began the investigation of crash worthiness simulation methods for composite materials. A contract was given to Livermore Software Technology Corporation (LSTC) to implement a new damage model in LS-DYNA3DTM specifically for composite structures. This model is in LS-DYNA3DTM and is in use by the ACC partners. In 1994 USCAR, a partnership of American auto companies, entered into a partnership called SCAAP (Super Computing Automotive Applications Partnership) for the express purpose of working with the National Labs on computational oriented research. A CRADA (Cooperative Research and Development Agreement) was signed with Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Sandia National Laboratory, Argonne National Laboratory, and Los Alamos National Laboratory to work in three distinctly different technical areas, one of which was composites material modeling for crash worthiness. Each Laboratory was assigned a specific modeling task. The ACC was responsible for the technical direction of the composites project and provided all test data for code verification. All new models were to be implemented in DYNA3D and periodically distributed to all partners for testing. Several new models have been developed and implemented. Excellent agreement has been shown between tube crush simulation and experiments.

Botkin, M E; Johnson, N L; Simunovic, S; Zywicz, E

1998-06-01

367

Skutterudites: Thermoelectric Materials for Automotive Applications?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The power output of a thermoelectric generator (TEG) was investigated under engine partial-load operation based on measured exhaust gas temperatures and mass flow rates. Materials with properties required for highend temperature TE couples (>500°C) were evaluated. Various possible material combinations for p- and n-legs of these couples as well as the conflicting targets of high efficiency and low cost as required for automotive mass production are discussed. New skutterudite materials for both p- and n-legs as identified during a joint research project are presented, which can help to overcome this conflict. Efficiencies >10% were achieved with these new materials, which have potentially twofold lower production costs than telluride-based materials due to the price of their elements. Some potential for improvement in efficiency and costs has been identified by developing highly integrated TEG units, specifically designed for automotive applications. These initial results of the material development and the evaluation of different integration concepts will be applied in a subsequent step for the fabrication of a pilot number of TEG modules/units.

Salzgeber, K.; Prenninger, P.; Grytsiv, A.; Rogl, P.; Bauer, E.

2010-09-01

368

Graduate Automotive Technology Education (GATE) Center  

SciTech Connect

The Graduate Automotive Technology Education (GATE) Center at the University of Tennessee, Knoxville has completed its sixth year of operation. During this period the Center has involved thirteen GATE Fellows and ten GATE Research Assistants in preparing them to contribute to advanced automotive technologies in the center's focus area: hybrid drive trains and control systems. Eighteen GATE students have graduated, and three have completed their course work requirements. Nine faculty members from three departments in the College of Engineering have been involved in the GATE Center. In addition to the impact that the Center has had on the students and faculty involved, the presence of the center has led to the acquisition of resources that probably would not have been obtained if the GATE Center had not existed. Significant industry interaction such as internships, equipment donations, and support for GATE students has been realized. The value of the total resources brought to the university (including related research contracts) exceeds $4,000,000. Problem areas are discussed in the hope that future activities may benefit from the operation of the current program.

Jeffrey Hodgson; David Irick

2005-09-30

369

Thermoelectric Technology for Automotive Waste Heat Recovery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Essential to the long term success of advanced thermoelectric (TE) technology for practical waste heat recovery is fundamental physics and materials research aimed at discovering and understanding new high performance TE materials. Applications of such new materials require their development into efficient and robust TE modules for incorporation into real devices such as a TE generator (TEG) for automotive exhaust gas waste heat recovery. Our work at GM Global R&D includes a continuing investigation of Skutterudite-based material systems and new classes of compounds that have potential for TE applications. To assess and demonstrate the viability of a TEG using state-of-the-art materials and modules, we have designed, fabricated, installed, and integrated a working prototype TEG to recover exhaust gas waste heat from a production test vehicle. Preliminary results provide important data for the operation and validation of the mechanical, thermal, and electrical systems of the TEG in combination with the various vehicle systems (e.g., exhaust bypass valve and controls, thermocouples, gas and coolant flow and pressure sensors, TE voltage and output power). Recent results from our materials research work and our functioning automotive TEG will be presented.

Meisner, Gregory

2011-03-01

370

Energy Conservation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Possibilities of energy conservation in domestic buildings and households are reviewed, i.e. in technical systems, heating and air conditioning systems and other energy-consuming appliances. The present situation is reviewed, and suggestions for improveme...

J. Branch A. Gsponer B. Giovanni

1981-01-01

371

Conservation Presentation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduces a project in which students teach about the importance of recycling and conservation by presenting demonstrations. Includes demonstrations on water, plastic, and other recycling products such as steel. (YDS)

Friday, Gerald

2001-01-01

372

Probing anode degradation in automotive Li-ion batteries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The lithium-ion battery is drawing attention as a power source for future clean and fuel-efficient vehicles. Although the Li-ion battery presently shows best performance for energy density and power density compared to other rechargeable batteries, some degradation problems still remain as key challenges for long-term durability in automotive applications. Among those problems, Li deposition is well known for causing permanent capacity loss. Fundamental mechanisms of Li deposition in the carbon anode are, however, not fully understood, especially at subzero temperature and/or under high rate charge. This dissertation introduces comprehensive study of Li deposition using automotive 18650 Li-ion cells. The mechanism and relevant diagnostic methods as well as preventive charging protocol are discussed. In part one, a new diagnostic tool is introduced utilizing 3-electrode cell system, which measures thermodynamic and kinetic parameters of cathode and anode, respectively, as a function of temperature and SOC (state of charge): open circuit potential (OCP); Li diffusion coefficient in active particles; and internal resistance. These data are employed to understand electrochemical reaction and its thermal interaction under charging conditions that result in Li deposition. Part two provides a threshold parameter for the onset of Li deposition, which is not commonly used anode potential but charge capacity, or more specifically the amount of Li+ ions participating in intercalation reaction without Li deposition at given charging circumstances. This is called the critical charge capacity in this thesis, beyond which capacity loss at normal operating condition is observed, which becomes more serious as temperature is lowered and/or charge C-rate increases. Based on these experimental results, the mechanism of Li deposition is proposed as the concept of anode particle surface saturation, meaning that once the anode particle surface is saturated with Li in any charging circumstances, no more Li+ ions can be intercalated but should be reduced to metallic form on the anode particle surface. This is validated by calculating the distribution of Li concentration inside the anode particle with electrochemical modeling. In part three, a novel pulse charge protocol is developed, which consists of two steps. First high current charge/discharge pulses increase the cell temperature from a subzero temperature up to above room temperature in a short time, and next, high current charge provides the net charge capacity. Sluggish Li diffusion at low temperature becomes fast thanks to cell temperature elevation by high current pulses (1st step), which plays a role of preventing surface saturation during high current charge (2nd step). Thus, this charge protocol is not only Li deposition-free but also leads to rapid charge at subzero temperatures.

Kwon, Ou Jung

373

Evaluation of Fuel Additives for Reduction of Material Imcompatibilities in Methanol-Gasoline Blends.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Screening tests determined the efficacy of six commercially available additives as modifiers of methanol's corrosivity toward metals and its weakening of tensile properties of nonmetals in automotive fuel systems. From the screening phase, three additives...

C. F. Rodriguez J. G. Barbee W. K. Knutson J. P. Cuellar

1983-01-01

374

Metanol como combustivel: avaliacao da contaminacao atmosferica. (Methanol as fuel: evaluation of atmosphere contamination).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

With the beginning of methanol use as automotive fuel in Sao Paulo city, 1990, Special measurements of methanol, formaldehyde, ethanol and acetaldehyde in atmosphere were realized. Other indicators of air quality such as carbon and ozone monoxide were als...

C. D. Alonso J. Romano M. L. G. Guardani

1991-01-01

375

Acid rain and electricity conservation  

SciTech Connect

Conservation directly lowers the emissions of SO/sub 2/ and other pollutants by reducing the amount of coal and other fuels that must be burned to meet electricity demand. This book is the first report to provide an integrated analysis of electricity supply, acid raid abatement, and conservation opportunities. The authors use a utility simulation model to examine SO/sub 2/ emissions, electric rates, and overall costs to consumers for different load growth and emissions control scenarios. The study also suggests how acid rain legislation can be designed to encourage electricity conservation.

Geller, H.; Miller, E.; Ledbetter, M.; Miller, P.

1987-01-01

376

Massachusetts Conservation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Massachusetts has long been a leader in the conservation and preservation movements. From early attempts to create an Emerald Necklace around Boston to the battle to save the Old State House, the commonwealth has rich, fascinating tales and experiences. This wonderful travel itinerary was created by the National Park Service's Heritage Education Services in partnership with the Massachusetts Historical Commission and the National Conference of State Historic Preservation Officers. On the site, visitors can look over essays, a list of sites, maps, and external websites. The powerful essays include "Conservation and Landscape Planning in Massachusetts" and "American Conservation in the Twentieth Century." Checking out the List of Sites area, visitors can read a complete list of all the places mentioned in the itinerary (complete with details and photos) such as the Boston Public Garden, the Lynn Woods Historic District, and the Fruitlands Museums Historic District.

377

Intergenerational equity and conservation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The issue of integenerational equity in the use of natural resources is discussed in the context of coal mining conversion. An attempt to determine if there is a clear-cut benefit to future generations in setting minimum coal extraction efficiency standards in mining is made. It is demonstrated that preserving fossil fuels beyond the economically efficient level is not necessarily beneficial to future generations even in terms of their own preferences. Setting fossil fuel conservation targets for intermediate products (i.e. energy) may increase the quantities of fossil fuels available to future generations and hence lower the costs, but there may be serious disadvantages to future generations as well. The use of relatively inexpensive fossil fuels in this generation may result in more infrastructure development and more knowledge production available to future generations. The value of fossil fuels versus these other endowments in the future depends on many factors which cannot possibly be evaluated at present. Since there is no idea of whether future generations are being helped or harmed, it is recommended that integenerational equity not be used as a factor in setting coal mine extraction efficiency standards, or in establishing requirements.

Otoole, R. P.; Walton, A. L.

1980-06-01

378

Characterization of nitromethane emission from automotive exhaust  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We carried out time-resolved experiments using a proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometer and a chassis dynamometer to characterize nitromethane emission from automotive exhaust. We performed experiments under both cold-start and hot-start conditions, and determined the dependence of nitromethane emission on vehicle velocity and acceleration/deceleration as well as the effect of various types of exhaust-gas treatment system. We found that nitromethane emission was much lower from a gasoline car than from diesel trucks, probably due to the reduction function of the three-way catalyst of the gasoline car. Diesel trucks without a NOx reduction catalyst using hydrocarbons produced high emissions of nitromethane, with emission factors generally increasing with increasing acceleration at low vehicle velocities.

Sekimoto, Kanako; Inomata, Satoshi; Tanimoto, Hiroshi; Fushimi, Akihiro; Fujitani, Yuji; Sato, Kei; Yamada, Hiroyuki

2013-12-01

379

Spectroscopic analysis of automotive engine oil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Infrared absorption spectroscopy (IR) and acousto-optic tunable filter (AOTF) technology were combined to develop a portable spectrophotometer for use in engine oil analysis to identify and quantify oil contaminants and residue products, Preliminary measurements were taken with a field-portable AOTF-based spectrometer (2 to 4.5 micrometers ) and an FTIR spectrometer (2 to 25 micrometers ) for comparison. Absorption spectra of used and unused oil samples were measured and compared to determine absorption changes between the various samples resulting from oil degradation and any chemical reactions that might have taken place during high- temperature engine lubrication. These preliminary results indicate that IR spectroscopy can be used for oil quality monitoring in automotive engines, which will help predict and prevent engine failure and degradation. This work can be extended to other remote sensing applications, such as the monitoring of environmental oil spills.

Dahmani, Rachid; Gupta, Neelam

2002-02-01

380

Selecting forged aluminum for automotive applications  

SciTech Connect

With the current and future efforts to downsize automobiles and reduce their weight, strong lightweight materials, in various product forms, are being substituted for many traditionally ferrous components. One of the substitute materials is aluminum, which although itself is not new to automobiles is finding novel applications as forgings in critical chassis and suspension areas. The 1984 Corvette provides an excellent example of how the use of forged aluminum can reduce unsprung and overall weight as well as improve performance without compromising the integrity of the vehicle. Using aluminum as forgings permits taking maximum advantage of its high strength-to-weight ratio, excellent ductility and toughness, and good corrosion resistance. This paper discusses the various considerations to be entertained when looking at aluminum forgings for automotive applications and the benefits of planning for these lightweight parts early in the design phase.

Holtz, M.A.; Davis, J.; Crawford, D.

1984-01-01

381

It's not too Late for the Harpy Eagle (Harpia harpyja): High Levels Of Genetic Diversity and Differentiation Can Fuel Conservation Programs  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundThe harpy eagle (Harpia harpyja) is the largest Neotropical bird of prey and is threatened by human persecution and habitat loss and fragmentation. Current conservation strategies include local education, captive rearing and reintroduction, and protection or creation of trans-national habitat blocks and corridors. Baseline genetic data prior to reintroduction of captive-bred stock is essential for guiding such efforts but has

Heather R. L. Lerner; Jeff A. Johnson; Alec R. Lindsay; Lloyd F. Kiff; David P. Mindell

2009-01-01

382

Advancing Material Models for Automotive Forming Simulations  

SciTech Connect

Simulations in automotive industry need more advanced material models to achieve highly reliable forming and springback predictions. Conventional material models implemented in the FEM-simulation models are not capable to describe the plastic material behaviour during monotonic strain paths with sufficient accuracy. Recently, ESI and Corus co-operate on the implementation of an advanced material model in the FEM-code PAMSTAMP 2G. This applies to the strain hardening model, the influence of strain rate, and the description of the yield locus in these models. A subsequent challenge is the description of the material after a change of strain path.The use of advanced high strength steels in the automotive industry requires a description of plastic material behaviour of multiphase steels. The simplest variant is dual phase steel consisting of a ferritic and a martensitic phase. Multiphase materials also contain a bainitic phase in addition to the ferritic and martensitic phase. More physical descriptions of strain hardening than simple fitted Ludwik/Nadai curves are necessary.Methods to predict plastic behaviour of single-phase materials use a simple dislocation interaction model based on the formed cells structures only. At Corus, a new method is proposed to predict plastic behaviour of multiphase materials have to take hard phases into account, which deform less easily. The resulting deformation gradients create geometrically necessary dislocations. Additional micro-structural information such as morphology and size of hard phase particles or grains is necessary to derive the strain hardening models for this type of materials.Measurements available from the Numisheet benchmarks allow these models to be validated. At Corus, additional measured values are available from cross-die tests. This laboratory test can attain critical deformations by large variations in blank size and processing conditions. The tests are a powerful tool in optimising forming simulations prior to larger scale industrial validation.

Vegter, H.; An, Y.; Horn, C.H.L.J. ten; Atzema, E.H.; Roelofsen, M.E. [Corus Research Development and Technology, PO Box 10000, 1970 CA IJmuiden (Netherlands)

2005-08-05

383

Nanotechnology in automotive industry: research strategy and trends for the future-small objects, big impacts.  

PubMed

The goal of this paper is to emphasize and present briefly the nanotechnology science and its potential impact on the automotive industry in order to improve the production of recent models with an optimization of the safety performance and a reduction in the environmental impacts. Nanomaterials can be applied in car bodies as light weight constructions without compromising the stiffness and crashwortiness, which means less material and less fuel consumption. This paper outlines the progress of nanotechnology applications into the safety features of more recent vehicle models and fuel efficiency, but also emphasis the importance of sustainable development on the application of these technologies and life cycle analysis of the considered materials, in order to meet the society trends and customers demands to improve ecology, safety and comfort. PMID:22962798

Coelho, Margarida C; Torrão, Guilhermina; Emami, Nazanin; Grácio, José

2012-08-01

384

Energy Conservation in School Transportation Systems. Energy Conservation Guidelines 4.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Fourth in a series of four publications on energy conservation, this booklet offers basic guidelines for sound fuel reduction in school transportation. The pamphlet suggests ways to implement energy-saving practices, guidelines for preventive maintenance of school vehicles, a definition of the drivers' and superintendents' roles, school policies…

Giesguth, John, Ed.; Scheingold, Edward, Ed.

385

Marketing Conservation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 1986, Northeast Utilities began helping shool administrators combat school building energy wastage through a program called Energy Alliance. The typical school can reduce its energy bill by 30 percent by adopting a wide range of conservation measures, including cogeneration, relamping, and energy audits. (MLH)

Ellis, William B.

1987-01-01

386

Colorful Conservation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Some people only think about conservation on Earth Day. Being in the "art business" however, this author is always conscious of the many products she thinks get wasted when they could be reused, recycled, and restored--especially in a school building and art room. In this article, she describes an art lesson that allows students to paint…

Skophammer, Karen

2011-01-01

387

Energy Conservation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This selection of class activities involves a sequence of 10 class sessions. The goal of the collection is to aid students in learning the concepts of energy conservation and to put this knowledge into practice. Attention is also given to the development of alternate energy sources. Each lesson includes an activity title, motivational hints,…

Land, Amy A.

388

Conserving Soil.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed as enrichment materials for grades six through nine, this program is an interdisciplinary study of soils. As part of the program students: (1) examine soil organisms; (2) research history of local Native Americans to see how they and others have used the land and its soils; (3) investigate how soils are degraded and how they are conserved

Soil Conservation Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

389

Water Conservation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students study the availability of fresh water on Earth and the methods that can be used to purify and conserve it. They also assess how much water they and their families typically use, and think about ways to reduce water usage.

Foundation, Wgbh E.

2005-12-17

390

AUTOMOTIVE CRANKCASE OIL: DETECTION IN A COASTAL WETLANDS ENVIRONMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

Samples from four sewage treatment facilities which discharge into Jamaica Bay, New York, were analyzed for the presence of waste automotive oil products. UV-fluorescence spectroscopic techniques were utilized to qualitatively identify waste petroleum hydrocarbons in effluents of...

391

Advanced Automotive Transmission Development Status and Research Needs.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report summarizes the development status of advanced automotive transmissions and identifies areas where further research effort is needed. The status of conventional transmission technology is briefly examined, and the development status of continuo...

1982-01-01

392

INVESTIGATION OF CLEANER TECHNOLOGIES TO MINIMIZE AUTOMOTIVE COOLANT WASTES  

EPA Science Inventory

The US Environmental Protection Agency in cooperation with the State of New Jersey evaluated chemical filtration and distillation technologies designed to recycle automotive and heavy-duty engine coolants. These evaluations addressed the product quality, waste reduction and econo...

393

Modular PM Motor Drives for Automotive Traction Applications.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper presents modular permanent magnet (PM) motor drives for automotive traction applications. A partially modularized drive system consisting of a single PM motor and multiple inverters is described. The motor has multiple three-phase stator windin...

G. J. Su

2001-01-01

394

EVALUATION OF FILTRATION AND DISTILLATION METHODS FOR RECYCLING AUTOMOTIVE COOLANT  

EPA Science Inventory

This evaluation addresses the product quality, waste reduction, and economic issues involved in recycling automotive engine coolants at a New Jersey Department of Transportation garage. he specific recycling units evaluated are based on the technologies of filtration and distilla...

395

Progress in fuel systems to meet new fuel economy and emissions standards  

SciTech Connect

This publication includes information describing the latest developments within the automotive industry on fuel system hardware and control strategies. Contents include: Slow heating process of a heated pintle-type gasoline fuel injector; Mixture preparation measurements; Study of fuel flow rate change in injector for methanol fueled S.I. engine; Flow and structural analysis for fuel pressure regulator performance; A new method to analyze fuel behavior in a spark ignition engine; Throttle body at engine idle -- tolerance effect on flow rate; and more.

NONE

1995-12-31

396

Baseline automotive gas-turbine engine development program. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is the first of four volumes of the contract final report, which summarizes all of the work performed in a government-sponsored Automotive Gas Turbine Development Program. In this first volume of the contract final report, results are presented from tests which were conducted on a Baseline Engine to document the Automotive Gas Turbine State-of-the-Art at the start of the

C. E. Wagner; R. C. Pampreen

1979-01-01

397

Low VOC carbamate functional coatings compositions for automotive topcoats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polymers and oligomers having carbamate functional groups have been used in a variety of curable coating compositions. Carbamate\\u000a functional polymers offer many advantages for automotive topcoats, such as outstanding resistance to environmental etching,\\u000a scratching and marring, humidity, and UV exposure. Hydrophobic carbamate oligomers suitable for crosslinking with standard\\u000a amino resins were synthesized and formulated into stable one-pack automotive clearcoats with

Marvin L. Green

2001-01-01

398

Automotive emissions control technology. Final report Sep 79Jul 80  

Microsoft Academic Search

The primary objective of this study was to quantify and predict the levels of Federally regulated exhaust emissions from in-use automotive vehicles in the 1975-1985 time period. Input data sources included the EPA Emission Factor Surveillance Program from 1977 through 1980, the California Air Resources Board, and major automotive manufacturers. Regression, failure analyses, and sources-of-variability analyses were employed. Major current\\/projected

J. Bernard; S. Kaufman; R. Dulla; K. Duleep; R. Crawford

1980-01-01

399

SiGe technology and circuits for automotive radar applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent advancements in SiGe device develop- ment enable the realization of 77GHz automotive radar systems using relatively low-cost silicon technology. This paper will discuss technology requirements for the radar design and also present examples of receiver and transmitter circuit implementations. I. INTRODUCTION Ever since the advent of the seat belt, safety has become a key differentiator in the automotive industry.

Sergio Pacheco; Ralf Reuter; Saverio Trotta; Didier Salle; Jay John

2011-01-01

400

Minimizing interference in automotive radar using digital beamforming  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Millimetre wave radar is an essential part of automotive safety functions. A high interference tolerance, especially with other radar sensors, is vital. This paper gives an overview of the motivation, the boundary conditions and related activities in the MOSARIM project funded by the European Union and concerned with interference mitigation in automotive radars. Current and planned activities considering Digital Beamforming (DBF) as a method for interference mitigation are presented.

Fischer, C.; Goppelt, M.; Blöcher, H.-L.; Dickmann, J.

2011-07-01

401

Organizational learning in automotive manufacturing: a strategic choice  

Microsoft Academic Search

This manuscript surveys the changes that affected the automotive industry in recent years with the evolution of industrial\\u000a focus on globalization forces. Further, it proposes organizational learning as a viable strategy for the automotive industry,\\u000a to effectively embrace and be agile to the continually changing environment. First, the manuscript characterizes and surveys\\u000a the impact of globalization (global markets and competitors)

M. Omar; L. Mears; T. Kurfess; R. Kiggans

402

Life cycle assessment of Australian automotive door skins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background, aim, and scope  Policy initiatives, such as the EU End of Life Vehicle (ELV) Directive for only 5% landfilling by 2015, are increasing the\\u000a pressure for higher material recyclability rates. This is stimulating research into material alternatives and end-of-life\\u000a strategies for automotive components. This study presents a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) on an Australian automotive component,\\u000a namely an exterior door

Prateek Puri; Paul Compston; Victor Pantano

2009-01-01

403

Modeling automotive gas-exchange solenoid valve actuators  

Microsoft Academic Search

We develop a finite-element analysis (FEA) model to describe transient and static operation of gas-exchange valves. Such valves, directly controlled by solenoids, are a promising method for enhancing automotive engine efficiency. The FEA model is validated by experimental testing on an actual automotive prototype valve. We show that a nonlinear lumped-parameter model that uses FEA results also closely matches experimental

Ryan R. Chladny; Charles Robert Koch; Alan F. Lynch

2005-01-01

404

Fuels, Lubricants, and Coolants. FOS: Fundamentals of Service.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual on fuels, lubricants, and coolants is one of a series of power mechanics tests and visual aids on automotive and off-the-road agricultural and construction equipment. Materials present basic information with illustrations for use by vocational students and teachers as well as shop servicemen and laymen. Focusing on fuels, the first of…

John Deere Co., Moline, IL.

405

Reduction in fuel consumption in internal combustion engines. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

This program approached automotive fuel consumption from two directions: (1) to model the automobile using mathematical formulations, and (2) to investigate the ignition of lean fuel\\/air mixtures using plasma jet ignition. The mathematical model was used to predict the impacts that various changes in the properties of the vehicle such as engine compression ratio, engine displacement, and body weight would

J. F. Grant; Z. Golenko; M. E. McIlwain; E. P. Marram

1982-01-01

406

Electrochemical Filtering of CO from Fuel-Cell Reformate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Proton exchange membrane fuel cells ~PEMFC! operating on pure hydrogen show good polarization characteristics over a wide range of load and temperature conditions. However, using pure H2 as a fuel in automotive and residential applications has many limi- tations. The infrastructure to deliver H 2 is inadequate, the refueling of gaseous H2 can be slow, and the storage of H2

Balasubramanian Lakshmanan; Wayne Huang; John W. Weidner

2002-01-01

407

Preliminary report on some health, environmental, and economic costs and benefits of energy conservation and fuel substitutions. [Four scenarios for 1985 and 2000  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four scenarios were analyzed, including the National Energy Plan, that ranged from virtually no growth (74 quads) to 139 quads in 2000. The scenarios describe reasonable paths that this country might follow and encompass a broad spectrum of fuel-mix and environmental-policy options. Analyses show only small differences in emission estimates among scenarios, even though total energy-resource consumption varies by as

P. D. Moskowitz; J. Brainard; D. P. Serwer; L. D. Hamilton

1978-01-01

408

Soundscape conservation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We argue that soundscapes possess both ecological and social value and that they should be considered natural resources worthy\\u000a of management and conservation. In this paper we bring together diverse bodies of literature that identify the human and ecological\\u000a benefits provided by soundscapes. Sense of place, cultural significance, interactions with landscape perceptions, and wildlife\\u000a wellbeing are a few of the

Sarah L. Dumyahn; Bryan C. Pijanowski

409

Heron conservation  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Herons are large, popular and, in many cases, spectacular birds found in wetlands world-wide, both tropical and temperate, natural and man-made. Some populations are very small and localized, some have decreased, some have expanded their ranges, and a few are pests of human activities. In the fifteen years since the publication of the latest monographic treatment of the family, The Herons Handbook, there has been a tremendous increase in our knowledge of heron status and conservation requirements, set against a backdrop of increasing concern about the future of the world?s wetland habitats. This book provides a comprehensive update following two distinct threads. The status and conservation needs of herons are first presented on a regional basis, in a series of chapters set at a continental or subcontinental scale. Over 200 biologists and heron conservationists have contributed to the data summarized here, and the very latest census and survey results provide the most up-to-date and detailed picture of heron populations currently available. Chapters discussing several critical issues in heron conservation follow, tending to focus on the international nature of the problems.

2000-01-01

410

Energy Conservation--The Global Imperative.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents energy as a pivotal prerequisite of highly developed economic and social structure. Discusses: (1) fossil-fuel resources and demand in various countries; (2) energy conservation; (3) measures for conservation; (4) technology transfer; and (5) considerations to be regarded internationally. (HM)

Murthy, K. K.

1978-01-01

411

Low-friction coatings for air bearings in fuel cell air compressors  

Microsoft Academic Search

In an effort to reduce fuel consumption and emissions, hybrid vehicles incorporating fuel cell systems are being developed by automotive manufacturers, their suppliers, federal agencies (specifically, the US Department of Energy) and national laboratories. The fuel cell system will require an air management subsystem that includes a compressor\\/expander. Certain components in the compressor will require innovative lubrication technology in order

O. O. Ajayi; G. R. Fenske; A. Erdemir; J. Woodford; J. Sitts; K. Elshot; K. Griffey

2000-01-01

412

Local government energy management: liquid petroleum gas (LPG) as a motor vehicle fuel  

Microsoft Academic Search

The retrofit or conversion of automotive engines to operate on liquid petroleum gas (LPG) or propane fuel is one of many potentially cost-effective strategies for reducing a local government's annual fleet operating and maintenance costs. The cost effectiveness of an LPG conversion decision is highly dependent on the initial conversion cost, vehicle type, current and projected fuel costs, vehicle fuel

G. A. McCoy; J. Kerstetter

1983-01-01

413

Simulation and sensitivity Analysis of Autothermal Reforming (ATR) for Mobile Fuel Cell Application  

Microsoft Academic Search

Autothermal Refonmng (ATR) is one of the latest technologies for fuel reforming to pmduce hyalrcgen for fuel cell automotive application ATR is a combination of an endothermic and exothermic process to give th€ maximum hydrogen Foductivity. It integntes the heat effecl of the panial oxidation and steam teforming reacdons by feeding the fuel, water and air or oxygen into the

Arshad Ahmadl; WM Skudai' Johor' Malavsia

414

A flight management algorithm and guidance for fuel-conservative descents in a time-based metered air traffic environment: Development and flight test results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A simple airborne flight management descent algorithm designed to define a flight profile subject to the constraints of using idle thrust, a clean airplane configuration (landing gear up, flaps zero, and speed brakes retracted), and fixed-time end conditions was developed and flight tested in the NASA TSRV B-737 research airplane. The research test flights, conducted in the Denver ARTCC automated time-based metering LFM/PD ATC environment, demonstrated that time guidance and control in the cockpit was acceptable to the pilots and ATC controllers and resulted in arrival of the airplane over the metering fix with standard deviations in airspeed error of 6.5 knots, in altitude error of 23.7 m (77.8 ft), and in arrival time accuracy of 12 sec. These accuracies indicated a good representation of airplane performance and wind modeling. Fuel savings will be obtained on a fleet-wide basis through a reduction of the time error dispersions at the metering fix and on a single-airplane basis by presenting the pilot with guidance for a fuel-efficient descent.

Knox, C. E.

1984-01-01

415

Multitarget detection algorithm for automotive FMCW radar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Today, 77 GHz FMCW (Frequency Modulation Continuous Wave) radar has strong advantages of range and velocity detection for automotive applications. However, FMCW radar brings out ghost targets and missed targets in multi-target situations. In this paper, in order to resolve these limitations, we propose an effective pairing algorithm, which consists of two steps. In the proposed method, a waveform with different slopes in two periods is used. In the 1st pairing processing, all combinations of range and velocity are obtained in each of two wave periods. In the 2nd pairing step, using the results of the 1st pairing processing, fine range and velocity are detected. In that case, we propose the range-velocity windowing technique in order to compensate for the non-ideal beat-frequency characteristic that arises due to the non-linearity of the RF module. Based on experimental results, the performance of the proposed algorithm is improved compared with that of the typical method.

Hyun, Eugin; Oh, Woo-Jin; Lee, Jong-Hun

2012-05-01

416

Advanced Automotive Diesel Assessment Program, executive summary  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objectives of this analytical study were: to select one advanced automotive diesel engine (AAD) concept which would increase the tank mileage of a 3,000 pound passenger car from the present 35 mpg to at least 52 mpg; to identify long term component research and development work required to bring the selected concept to fruition; and to prepare a development strategy that will bring the selected concept to a prototype testing phase. Cummins Engine Company has completed this study. The selected concept is a 4 stroke cycle, direct injection, spark assisted, advanced adiabatic diesel engine with positive displacement compounding plus expander and part load air preheating. The engine does not use a liquid coolant nor liquid lubricants. It is a 4 cylinder, in-line, 77 mm bore x 77 mm stroke, 1.434 liters displacement engine weighing 300 lb, and rated at 70 BHP at 3000 rpm. Installation dimensions are 621 mm length x 589 mm width x 479 mm height (24.4 inch x 22 inch x 18.9 inch).

1983-01-01

417

Washing treatment of automotive shredder residue (ASR).  

PubMed

Worldwide, the amount of end-of-life vehicles (ELVs) reaches 50 million units per year. Once the ELV has been processed, it may then be shredded and sorted to recover valuable metals that are recycled in iron and steelmaking processes. The residual fraction, called automotive shredder residue (ASR), represents 25% of the ELV and is usually landfilled. In order to deal with the leachable fraction of ASR that poses a potential threat to the environment, a washing treatment before landfilling was applied. To assess the potential for full-scale application of washing treatment, tests were carried out in different conditions (L/S = 3 and 5L/kgTS; t = 3 and 6 h). Moreover, to understand whether the grain size of waste could affect the washing efficiency, the treatment was applied to ground (<4 mm) and not-ground samples. The findings obtained revealed that, on average, washing treatment achieved removal rates of more than 60% for dissolved organic carbon (DOC), chemical oxygen demand (COD) and total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN). With regard to metals and chlorides, sulphates and fluoride leachable fraction, a removal efficiency of approximately 60% was obtained, as confirmed also by EC values. The comparison between the results for ground and not-ground samples did not highlight significant differences. PMID:23706987

Cossu, Raffaello; Lai, Tiziana

2013-08-01

418

Automotive Air Filter Inlet Velocity Distributions*  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Laser sheet flow visualizations and laser Doppler anemometer velocity measurements have been performed to define the flow fields upstream of a clean rectangular automotive engine air filter mounted in laboratory test housings and model vehicular housings. The experiments have shown that the flow fields in the various housings present the filter with very different inlet flow distributions. Significant variations in velocity magnitude occur across the plane of the flow entering the filter. One standard laboratory test housing is designed to accommodate a range of different size filters conveniently. This design results in flow field variations that may bias performance measurements. Housings used in vehicles often are designed with primary consideration given to underhood packaging. The measurements show that a typical model vehicle housing produces regions of separated and recirculating flow that extend to as much as forty percent of the projected area of the filter. Estimates of clean filter efficiency performed using the measured velocity distributions suggest that the non-uniform velocity distributions produce small but significant differences in the initial filter efficiency.

Chambers, F. W.; Yao, S. H.; Newman, R. A.; Duran, R.

1996-11-01

419

Integrated optical system for investigation and diagnostics of abnormal combustion in an automotive engine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper presents a research project oriented towards development of existing measurement methods which use optical sensors for the research and diagnostics of the combustion process in the internal-combustion automotive enigne. Experiments assume usage of photometric techniques and in particular spectrophotometry of the flames existing in the combustion chamber. Gathered results will enable expanding knowledge about processes taking place during combustion of air-fuel mixture and accompanying phenomena (i.e. knock, misfires). The work is also aimed at designing a diagnostic system which will enable an on-line identification of unfavorable phenomena like knocking combustion or misfires (lack of combustion). Extracted synthetic quality indexes will be used in the improvement of combustion process and as a feedback signals in the engine control algorithms. Research is made on the typical automotive engine equipped with an optical sensor located in the engine head and having direct access into the combustion chamber. The sensor enables on-line transmission of the optical signal during the combustion through the bundle of optical waveguides and two parallel filtering paths. Then optical signal was filtered with set of interference filters. The paper is illustrated with some results obtained during preliminary experiments.

Piernikarski, Dariusz

2004-09-01

420

The role of rare-earth dopants in nanophase zirconia catalysts for automotive emission control.  

SciTech Connect

Rare earth (RE) modification of automotive catalysts (e.g., ZrO{sub 2}) for exhaust gas treatment results in outstanding improvement of the structural stability, catalytic functions and resistance to sintering at high temperatures. Owing to the low redox potential of nonstoichiometric CeO{sub 2}, oxygen release and intake associated with the conversion between the 3+ and 4+ oxidation states of the Ce ions in Ce-doped ZrO{sub 2} provide the oxygen storage capacity that is essentially to effective catalytic functions under dynamic air-to-fuel ratio cycling. Doping tripositive RE ions such as La and Nd in ZrO{sub 2}, on the other hand, introduces oxygen vacancies that affect the electronic and ionic conductivity. These effects, in conjunction with the nanostructure and surface reactivity of the fine powders, present a challenging problem in the development of better ZrO{sub 2}-containing three-way catalysts. We have carried out in-situ small-to-wide angle neutron diffraction at high temperatures and under controlled atmospheres to study the structural phase transitions, sintering behavior, and Ce{sup 3+} {leftrightarrow} Ce{sup 4+} redox process. We found substantial effects due to RE doping on the nature of aggregation of nanoparticles, defect formation, crystal phase transformation, and metal-support interaction in ZrO{sub 2} catalysts for automotive emission control.

Loong, C.-K.; Ozawa, M.

1999-07-16

421

Deployment of ERP Systems at Automotive Industries, Security Inspection (Case Study: IRAN KHODRO Automotive Company)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Automotive industry and car production process is one of the most complex and large-scale production processes. Today, information technology (IT) and ERP systems incorporates a large portion of production processes. Without any integrated systems such as ERP, the production and supply chain processes will be tangled. The ERP systems, that are last generation of MRP systems, make produce and sale processes of these industries easier and this is the major factor of development of these industries anyhow. Today many of large-scale companies are developing and deploying the ERP systems. The ERP systems facilitate many of organization processes and make organization to increase efficiency. The security is a very important part of the ERP strategy at the organization, Security at the ERP systems, because of integrity and extensive, is more important of local and legacy systems. Disregarding of this point can play a giant role at success or failure of this kind of systems. The IRANKHODRO is the biggest automotive factory in the Middle East with an annual production over 600.000 cars. This paper presents ERP security deployment experience at the "IRANKHODRO Company". Recently, by launching ERP systems, it moved a big step toward more developments.

Ali, Hatamirad; Hasan, Mehrjerdi

422

It's not too Late for the Harpy Eagle (Harpia harpyja): High Levels Of Genetic Diversity and Differentiation Can Fuel Conservation Programs  

PubMed Central

Background The harpy eagle (Harpia harpyja) is the largest Neotropical bird of prey and is threatened by human persecution and habitat loss and fragmentation. Current conservation strategies include local education, captive rearing and reintroduction, and protection or creation of trans-national habitat blocks and corridors. Baseline genetic data prior to reintroduction of captive-bred stock is essential for guiding such efforts but has not been gathered previously. Methodology/Findings We assessed levels of genetic diversity, population structure and demographic history for harpy eagles using samples collected throughout a large portion of their geographic distribution in Central America (n?=?32) and South America (n?=?31). Based on 417 bp of mitochondrial control region sequence data, relatively high levels of haplotype and nucleotide diversity were estimated for both Central and South America, although haplotype diversity was significantly higher for South America. Historical restriction of gene flow across the Andes (i.e. between our Central and South American subgroups) is supported by coalescent analyses, the haplotype network and significant FST values, however reciprocally monophyletic lineages do not correspond to geographical locations in maximum likelihood analyses. A sudden population expansion for South America is indicated by a mismatch distribution analysis, and further supported by significant (p<0.05) negative values of Fu and Li's DF and F, and Fu's FS. This expansion, estimated at approximately 60 000 years BP (99 000–36 000 years BP 95% CI), encompasses a transition from a warm and dry time period prior to 50 000 years BP to an interval of maximum precipitation (50 000–36 000 years BP). Notably, this time period precedes the climatic and habitat changes associated with the last glacial maximum. In contrast, a multimodal distribution of haplotypes was observed for Central America suggesting either population equilibrium or a recent decline. Significance High levels of mitochondrial genetic diversity in combination with genetic differentiation among subgroups within regions and between regions highlight the importance of local population conservation in order to preserve maximal levels of genetic diversity in this species. Evidence of historically restricted female-mediated gene flow is an important consideration for captive-breeding programs.

Lerner, Heather R. L.; Johnson, Jeff A.; Lindsay, Alec R.; Kiff, Lloyd F.; Mindell, David P.

2009-01-01

423

Numerical and Experimental Applications of TWIP Steel in Automotive Parts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Modern automotive design has been faced with the weight reduction problem to meet the CO2 emissions standard while achieving high safety and compact design. Such being the case, most car makers want to use the ultra high strength steels (UHSS). But there are several problems when such steels are used, due to presumed lack of formability. Since the disadvantage such as above, it has been suggested that UHSS need special forming methods or it should be used only limited process like simple bending, by many automotive research institutes. To overcome these shortcomings, Twinning Induced Plasticity (TWIP) steel for improved strength and formability has been developed by steel making company, including POSCO, Korea. Because of its characteristics, it is expected to be widely used in automotive parts. This paper aims at finding out several ways how to make effective use of TWIP steel in automotive parts. Especially, comprising about from 15 to 18% manganese and from 1.5 to 2% aluminum which was developed by POSCO for application of the automotive parts will be considered.

Lee, J. W.; Lim, J. H.; Choi, J. B.; Oh, P. Y.

2011-08-01

424

Advanced Automotive Technologies annual report to Congress, fiscal year 1996  

SciTech Connect

This annual report serves to inform the United States Congress on the progress for fiscal year 1996 of programs under the Department of Energy`s Office of Advanced Automotive Technologies (OAAT). This document complies with the legislative requirement to report on the implementation of Title III of the Automotive Propulsion Research and Development Act of 1978. Also reported are related activities performed under subsequent relevant legislation without specific reporting requirements. Furthermore, this report serves as a vital means of communication from the Department to all public and private sector participants. Specific requirements that are addressed in this report are: Discussion of how each research and development contract, grant, or project funded under the authority of this Act satisfies the requirements of each subsection; Current comprehensive program definition for implementing Title III; Evaluation of the state of automotive propulsion system research and development in the United States; Number and amount of contracts and grants awarded under Title III; Analysis of the progress made in developing advanced automotive propulsion system technology; and Suggestions for improvements in automotive propulsion system research and development, including recommendations for legislation.

NONE

1998-03-01

425

38 CFR 17.155 - Minimum standards of safety and quality for automotive adaptive equipment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...standards of safety and quality for automotive adaptive equipment. 17.155 Section 17...standards of safety and quality for automotive adaptive equipment. (a) The Under Secretary...minimum standards of safety and quality for adaptive equipment provided under 38...

2013-07-01

426

76 FR 20082 - Koenigsegg Automotive AB; Morgan Motor Company Limited; Receipt of Applications for Renewals of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...TRANSPORTATION National Highway Traffic Safety Administration [Docket No. NHTSA-2011-0006] Koenigsegg Automotive AB; Morgan Motor Company Limited...National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA...49 CFR Part 555, Koenigsegg Automotive AB Koenigsegg'') and...

2011-04-11

427

75 FR 52587 - 2009 Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS)/National Automotive Sampling System General...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...National Highway Traffic Safety Administration [U...FARS)/National Automotive Sampling System General...National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA...National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA...FARS) & National Automotive Sampling System...

2010-08-26

428

75 FR 30900 - Fisker Automotive; Receipt of Application for Temporary Exemption From Advanced Air Bag...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...National Highway Traffic Safety Administration [Docket...NHTSA-2010-0069] Fisker Automotive; Receipt of Application...National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA...Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard (FMVSS) No...CFR part 555, Fisker Automotive Corporation has...

2010-06-02

429

49 CFR 213.347 - Automotive or railroad crossings at grade.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Automotive or railroad crossings at grade...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION TRACK SAFETY STANDARDS Train Operations at...Classes 6 and Higher § 213.347 Automotive or railroad crossings at...

2010-10-01

430

75 FR 57549 - Fisker Automotive; Grant of Application for Temporary Exemption From Advanced Air Bag...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...National Highway Traffic Safety Administration [Docket...NHTSA-2010-0069] Fisker Automotive; Grant of Application...National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA...Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard (FMVSS) No...the petition of Fisker Automotive Corporation...

2010-09-21

431

49 CFR 213.347 - Automotive or railroad crossings at grade.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-10-01 2009-10-01 false Automotive or railroad crossings at grade...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION TRACK SAFETY STANDARDS Train Operations at...Classes 6 and Higher § 213.347 Automotive or railroad crossings at...

2009-10-01

432

Evaluation of the Benefits Attributable to Automotive Lightweight Materials Program Research and Development Projects.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this project is to identify and test methods appropriate for estimating the benefits attributable to research and development projects funded by the Automotive Lightweight Materials (ALM) Program of the Office of Advanced Automotive Technol...

S. Das

2001-01-01

433

Net energy analysis of synthetic liquid fuels. [Produced by coal gasification and liquefaction, Garrett, Tosco- and Paraho-produced shale oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

To aid in understanding the commitment of energy resources required by a strategy which replaces imported petroleum with synthetic fuels, increases in energy consumption were calculated for eight different synthetic liquid fuel technologies, focusing on automotive transportation as the end use for these fuels. The various synthetic fuels were produced by the liquefaction of Illinois and Wyoming coal by the

Steele

1976-01-01

434

Multi-objective optimization and comparative evaluation of Si soft-switched and SiC hard-switched automotive DC-DC converters  

Microsoft Academic Search

The application of soft-switching concepts or silicon carbide (SiC) devices are two enabling technologies to further push the efficiency, power density or specific weight of power electronics converters. For an automotive application, such as a DC-DC converter that interconnects the high voltage battery or ultra-capacitor in a hybrid electrical vehicle (HEV) or a fuel cell vehicle (FCV) to the DC-link,

S. Waffler; M. Preindl; J. W. Kolar

2009-01-01

435

Development and performance analysis of a data-reduction algorithm for automotive multiplexing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Automotive multiplexing allows sharing information among various intelligent modules inside an automotive electronic system. In order to achieve an optimum functionality, the information should be exchanged among various electronic modules in real time. Data-reduction techniques are used to send the data over a transmission medium at a high speed. They can be employed in automotive multiplexing systems to improve the

Syed Misbahuddin; Syed Masud Mahmud; Nizar Al-Holou

2001-01-01

436

The Automotive Situation in Pozna? versus other Cities and National Indexes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Following the dynamic development of the automotive industry and economic changes in the last 20 years Polish transport-related needs and citizen mobility have changed as well. An increased demand for traveling and easy access to individual means of transport in the form of passenger cars put Poznan in the top ten of the largest cities of Poland in terms of the motorization level. The paper analyses the current situation of the level of motorization of the city of Poznan based on statistical data from Central Vehicle and Driver Register, Department of Motor Vehicles in Poznan and published by Central Office of Statistics. A synthetic analysis has been presented of the situation in Poznan against other largest cities of Poland and the average situation in the country. The paper also presents the analysis of the preferences of the citizens of Poznan in terms of engine capacity, type of fuel, engine type as and the most popular vehicle makes.

Kozak, Karolina; Kozak, Mi?os?aw; Merkisz, Jerzy; Nijak, Dawid; Wi?niewska, Bo?ena

2012-09-01

437

Automotive batteries under current- or voltage- regulated charging conditions  

SciTech Connect

The value of cobalt as an automotive battery elixir has been assessed under both current-regulated (AS 2149 Test) and voltage-regulated (SAE J240a Test) charging conditions. Cobalt exerts a beneficial effect in the former but an antagonistic effect in the latter. Degradation in battery performance under voltage control is due to the depolarizing action of cobalt. This situation is unchanged with voltage limits between 14.8 and 13.8 V. Since present-day automobiles are fitted with voltage regulators, it is concluded that cobalt offers little promise of improving the service life of automotive batteries.

Hamilton, J.A.; Moresby, J.F.; Rand, D.A.J.

1984-10-01

438

Engineering wear-resistant surfaces in automotive aluminum  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Inadequate wear resistance and low seizure loads prevent the direct use of aluminum alloys in automotive parts subject to intensive friction combined with high thermal and mechanical loading, such as brake discs, pistons, and cylinder liners. To enable the use of aluminum alloys in the production of automotive brake discs and other wear-resistant products, the insertion of a monolithic friction cladding rather than surface coating has been considered in this work. Three experimental approaches, two based on the pressure-less infiltration of porous ceramic preforms and one based on the subsequent hot rolling of aluminum and metal-matrix composite strips, are currently under investigation.

Kavorkijan, V.

2003-02-01

439

Automotive Manufacturing and Repair Technician Employment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It's been more than three years since the U.S. automobile industry nearly collapsed. A controversial federal bailout, an increase in consumer demand, and a growing interest in environmentally friendly fuel-efficient vehicles and related technologies have combined to help create a remarkable recovery. Total U.S. sales of light vehicles in 2012 are…

McAlinden, Sean P.

2013-01-01

440

Travel to Germany and Switzerland to attend the ISATA conferences on automative materials and alternative fuel vehicles. Foreign trip report, September 10--23, 1993.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The ISATA conferences on automotive materials and alternative fuel vehicles provided an opportunity to preview technology developments occurring in Europe. This will allow the Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy-lightweight Materi...

G. M. Wood

1993-01-01

441

US Navy mobility fuels: Worldwide survey and analysis of both commercial and Navy fuels. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Quality and worldwide availability of distillate fuels have become increasing concerns to the U.S. Department of Defense. In response to these concerns, the David Taylor Research Center (DTRC) has conducted a worldwide survey of such fuels through a contract with the National Institute for Petroleum and Energy Research (NIPER). Representative fuels were collected at both Navy and commercial ports around the world through a NIPER subcontract to ABS Worldwide Technical Services (ABSTECH). The collected fuels were Naval Distillate Fuel (MIL-F-16884H, NATO F-76), Marine Gas Oil (MGO), Heavy Marine Gas Oil (HMGO), and Marine Diesel Fuel (MDF) for the Navy; Automotive/Truck Diesel for the Army; and Aviation Turbine Fuel (MIL-T-5624L, NATO JP-5) for the Naval Air Propulsion Center. The Navy F-76 fuel samples were characterized at NIPER by 44 different fuel property analyses.

Woodward, P.W.; Shay, J.Y.

1989-07-01

442

DC-offset effect cancelation method using mean-padding FFT for automotive UWB radar sensor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To improve road safety and realize intelligent transportation, Ultra-Wideband (UWB) radars sensor in the 24 GHz domain are currently under development for many automotive applications. Automotive UWB radar sensor must be small, require low power and inexpensive. By employing a direct conversion receiver, automotive UWB radar sensor is able to meet size and cost reduction requirements. We developed Automotive UWB radar sensor for automotive applications. The developed receiver of the automotive radar sensor is direct conversion architecture. Direct conversion architecture poses a dc-offset problem. In automotive UWB radar, Doppler frequency is used to extract velocity. The Doppler frequency of a vehicle can be detected using zero-padding Fast Fourier Transform (FFT). However, a zero-padding FFT error is occurs due to DC-offset problem in automotive UWB radar sensor using a direct conversion receiver. Therefore, dc-offset problem corrupts velocity ambiguity. In this paper we proposed a mean-padding method to reduce zero-padding FFT error due to DC-offset in automotive UWB radar using direct conversion receiver, and verify our proposed method with computer simulation and experiment using developed automotive UWB radar sensor. We present the simulation results and experiment result to compare velocity measurement probability of the zero-padding FFT and the mean-padding FFT. The proposed algorithm simulated using Matlab and experimented using designed the automotive UWB radar sensor in a real road environment. The proposed method improved velocity measurement probability.

Ju, Yeonghwan; Kim, Sang-Dong; Lee, Jong-Hun

2011-05-01

443

AUTOMOTIVE AND HEAVY-DUTY ENGINE COOLANT RECYCLING BY FILTRATION  

EPA Science Inventory

This evaluation addresses the product quality, waste reduction and economic issues involved in recycling automotive and heavy-duty engine coolants. he specific recycling units evaluated are a fleet-size unit and a portable unit, both based on the technology of chemical filtration...

444

AUTOMOTIVE AND HEAVY-DUTY ENGINE COOLANT RECYCLING BY DISTILLATION  

EPA Science Inventory

This evaluation addresses the product quality, waste reduction, and economic issues involved in recycling automotive and heavy-duty engine coolants for a facility such as the New Jersey Department of Transportation garage in Ewing, New Jersey. he specific recycling evaluated is b...

445

Education and Training for Troubleshooting in Automotive Chassis  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are several subjects discussed in this research: (1) developing the learning contents for repairing automotive chassis; (2) building the virtual and interactive platform for browsing and practice of troubleshooting; (3) creating the online evaluation tools and effectiveness analysis. Meanwhile, the framework has been tested and implemented in the course, \\

Janus S. Liang

2007-01-01

446

Service Station Attendant and Light Automotive Maintenance, Course Description.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Prepared by instructors and curriculum specialists, this course of study was designed to meet the individual needs of the dropout and/or hard-core unemployed youth by providing training as a service station attendant and light automotive maintenance mechanic. The achievement level of each student is determined at entry, and small instructional…

Clifford, Jack W.; And Others

447

Superquadric representation of automotive parts applying part decomposition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Superquadrics are able to represent a large variety of objects with only a few parameters and a single equation. We present a superquadric representation strategy for automotive parts composed of 3-D triangle meshes. Our strategy consists of two ma- jor steps of part decomposition and superquadric fitting. The origi- nalities of this approach include the following two features. First, our

Yan Zhang; Andreas Koschan; Mongi A. Abidi

2004-01-01

448

Aluminum Metal-Matrix Composites for Automotive Applications: Tribological Considerations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aluminum alloys possess a number of mechanical and physical properties that make them attractive for automotive applications, but they exhibit extremely poor resistance to seizure and galling. Reinforcement of aluminum alloys with solid lubricants, hard ceramic particles, short fibers and whiskers results in advanced metal-matrix composites (MMC) with precise balances of mechanical, physical and tribological characteristics. Advanced manufacturing technologies such

S. V. Prasad; R. Asthana

2004-01-01

449

Predictive Control of Harmonic Drive in Automotive Application  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper addresses the predictive control of the har- monic drive in an automotive application. The goal of the control was to provide good steering feel for the driver and satisfactory tracking performance in a steering system. The paper presents the dynamic model of the harmonic drive, a design framework and a two step algorithm for predictive controller design. The

Ádam Varga; Béla Lantos

2007-01-01

450

A power BCD chipset for automotive HID lamp ballast systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two new power BCD (Bipolar-CMOS DMOS) integrated circuits designed for HID lamp ballast systems in an automotive environment are described. The first is an analog controller and switchmode power supply driver implemented in a 60 V process, while the latter is a full bridge driver implemented in a 500 V process (offline BCD). These devices have been used in a

C. Diazzi; F. Martignoni; P. Nora; R. Quaglino; T. Placke

1996-01-01

451

Rim Urethane Elastomers the Non-Automotive Side  

Microsoft Academic Search

The market for non-automotive RIM is very diverse, including such applications as lawn and garden equipment, snowmobiles, and evaporative coolers. Among all molding processes, only injections molding allows as much design freedom as RIM. However, injection molding is usually not an economically viable alternative for the production of parts as large as most RIM moldings. RIM is also a process

George D. Lewis

1982-01-01

452

Ergonomics Automotive Design Recommendation Using Image Based Collaborative Filtering  

Microsoft Academic Search

An analysis of customers' sensibility and preferences is an important business strategy in a motor industry that is increa-singly becoming more customer oriented. This paper proposes ergonomics automotive design recommendation using the image based collaborative filtering. The proposed method applies a method that supports car design using the image based collaborative filtering utilizing sensibility as a starting point in the

Ho-Ill Jung; Sun-Moon Jo; Kee-Wook Rim; Jung-Hyun Lee; Kyung-Yong Chung

2012-01-01

453

CHARACTERIZATION OF AUTOMOTIVE EMISSIONS BY BACTERIAL MUTAGENESIS BIOASSAY: A REVIEW  

EPA Science Inventory

Due to the growing numbers of diesel passenger automobiles in the United States, there has been an expanded effort to understand the health effects of airborne pollutants arising from increased automotive emissions. Bacterial mutagenicity testing has played an important role in t...

454

INVESTIGATION OF CLEANER TECHNOLOGIES TO MINIMIZE AUTOMOTIVE COOLANT WASTES  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in cooperation with the State of New Jersey evaluated chemical filtration and distillation technologies designed to recycle automotive and heavy-duty engine coolants. hese evaluations addressed the product quality, waste reduction, and eco...

455

Injection Mold Design and Optimization of Automotive Panel  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, automotive panel for injection molding processes analysis and die design is presented. Injection molding parts on the instrument panel through the structural and process analysis to determine the parting surface, gating systems. Injection molding parts conduct mold flow analysis to determine the feasibility, and the die gating system and the gas-assisted injection molding process are optimized. Thus,

Zhenyu Zhao; Xushu He; Mingjun Liu; Bai Liu

2010-01-01

456

Thermal cycling reliability of lead free solders for automotive applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The solder joint reliability of ceramic chip resistors assembled to laminate substrates has been a long time concern for systems exposed to harsh environments such as those found in automotive and aerospace applications. This is due to a combination of the extreme temperature excursions experienced by the assemblies along with the large coefficient of thermal expansion mismatches between the alumina

J. C. Suhling; H. S. Gale; R. Wayne Johnson; M. N. Islam; T. Shete; P. Lall; M. J. Bozack; J. L. Evans; Ping Seto; T. Gupta; J. R. Thompson

2004-01-01

457

Thermal Comfort Assessment: A Case Study at Malaysian Automotive Industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Problem statement: Thermal comfort has a great influence on the produc tivity and satisfaction of indoor building occupants. The expo sure to excessive heat during work may cause discomfort and contributed to low productivity amon g workers. Malaysia known with its hot and humid weather where in most of the survey study published indicated that workers in Malaysia automotive industries

A. R. Ismail; N. Jusoh; R. Zulkifli; K. Sopian; B. M. Deros

2009-01-01

458

Automotive parts produced by optimizing the process flow forming – machining  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to the increasing demand for precision parts with high volumes for the automotive industry, the forming of steel has gained increasing substantial importance. Therefore, new manufacturing methods and practices for special parts have been developed with cold, warm, hot and combination forging processes. Furthermore, the demand for assemble-ready parts has largely increased, whereby a subsequent machining operation is now

H. Nägele; H. Wörner; M. Hirschvogel

2000-01-01

459

Strainrange partitioning behavior of an automotive turbine alloy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report addresses Strainrange Partitioning, an advanced life prediction analysis procedure, as applied to CA-101 (cast IN 792 + Hf), an alloy proposed for turbine disks in automotive gas turbine engines. The methodology was successful in predicting specimen life under thermal-mechanical cycling, to within a factor of + or - 2.

Annis, C. G.; Vanwanderham, M. C.; Wallace, R. M.

1976-01-01

460

Automotive Stirling Engine Mod 1 Design Review, Volume 1  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Risk assessment, safety analysis of the automotive stirling engine (ASE) mod I, design criteria and materials properties for the ASE mod I and reference engines, combustion are flower development, and the mod I engine starter motor are discussed. The stirling engine system, external heat system, hot engine system, cold engine system, and engine drive system are also discussed.

1982-01-01

461

Modeling and control of automotive powertrain systems: a tutorial  

Microsoft Academic Search

This tutorial presents an overview of key issues in electronic control of internal combustion engines for automotive passenger vehicles, and showcases the control oriented engine and aftertreatment system models that are useful in addressing these issues. Beginning with a discussion on electronic engine control systems and standard sensors and actuators, key engine control subsystems and their associated functionalities are outlined.

Jing Sun; Ilya Kolmanovsky; Jeffrey A. Cook; Julia H. Buckland

2005-01-01

462

Automotive Power Flow System; Auto Mechanics I: 9043.04.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This automotive power flow system course sets the foundation in the theory of operation of the standard and automatic transmission, clutch assemblies, drive-line and rear axle assemblies. This is a one or two quinmester credit course covering 45 clock hours. In the fourth quinmester course in the tenth year, instruction consists of lectures,…

Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

463

ENVIRONMENTALLY SAFE, NO VOC AUTOMOTIVE COATING - PHASE II  

EPA Science Inventory

The EPA recognizes that volatile organic compounds (VOCs) must be eliminated from automotive coating formulations to improve worker safety and reduce environmental pollution. The phase I project resulted in the production of a polymer-based coating material that was clear, ...

464

Human Factors Analysis of Automotive Adaptive Equipment for Disabled Drivers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report describes a study of the human factors and highway safety aspects of state-of-the-art automotive adaptive devices which permit a physically disabled driver to operate a motor vehicle. The study consisted of a review of recent studies of problem...

R. J. Koppa M. McDermott C. Raab D. J. Sexton

1980-01-01

465

Liaison Program for Automotive Technology. Special Vocational Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This packet contains an instructor's guide, student task sheets, and an illustrated vocabulary list for a program in automotive technology for handicapped students (special vocational education). The instructor's guide consists of a matrix of modules with vocabulary divided into 30 units of study for Auto Mechanics I and 17 units for Auto…

Western Kentucky Univ., Bowling Green. Center for Career and Vocational Teacher Education.

466

Occupational Education for Students with Special Needs: Automotive Maintenance.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This curriculum resource guide on automotive maintenance is one of a series of seventeen specialized curriculum guides for occupational education of the marginal, handicapped, or special needs occupational education student. The guide begins with six behavior clusters that contain a series of forty-two instructional topics designed to teach…

Nassau County Board of Cooperative Educational Services, Westbury, NY.

467

Isocyanates Profile: Automotive Refinishing Shop Project and Philadelphia Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Background information on the use of isocyanates and diisocyanates in the automotive refinishing industry is available in this draft report. It also includes a number of links to sites which offer additional information pertaining to regulatory, health, hazard exposure, personal protection issues (PPE) and engineering and control measures that can be implemented as well.

2007-01-31

468

Automotive Technology Objectives. Career Education. DS Manual 2870.1.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide is designed for use in helping junior and senior high school students explore the field of automotive technology as a potential career area. Included in the manual are the following materials: definitions, a key to the organization and numbering code and symbols used in the lists of objectives, lists of general and program objectives…

Dependents Schools (DOD), Washington, DC.

469

Automotive Modules. Vocational Behavioral Objectives: A Guide for Individualizing Instruction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The curriculum guide deals with automotive repair skills at the secondary level of vocational education and industrial arts. It addresses the subject in behavioral terms, as prominent components of the career education concept. Presenting four skill modules, auto body repair, gas engine repair, service, and diesel engine mechanics, the objectives…

Westinghouse Learning Corp., New York, NY.

470

Damping Specification of Automotive Structural Components via Modal Projection  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the automotive industry damping has become an important and highly effective design parameter for reducing low-frequency vibroacoustic noise in the vehicle compartment. It is a fairly straightforward procedure to compute vibroacoustic frequency responses of a damped car body for a given excitation and to compare the resulting response levels to a prescribed specification over a frequency range. However, when

Nicolas Roy; Zouhir Abbadi; Etienne Balmès

471

Mechatronic bond graph modelling of an automotive vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Automotive manufacturers have created vehicle models but these are somewhat complex and use black boxes with numerous tables and mappings. Each model is generally valid for its own field of use and can thus produce significant differences in results outside its specific field. Moreover vehicle behaviour requires detailing and analysis during precise manoeuvres called ‘life situations'. These ‘life situations' require

Wilfrid Marquis-Favre; Eric Bideaux; Olivier Mechin; Serge Scavarda; Franck Guillemard; Marc Ebalard

2006-01-01

472

Automotive Body Refinisher. Vocational Trade and Industrial Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This volume provides an overview of the duties, procedures, concepts, tools, and equipment used in automotive body refinishing. It supplements the first volume of this series ("Introduction to Auto Body") and complements the other manuals that cover body repair and frame repair. Suitable for secondary, postsecondary, and adult classes, this guide…

Walker, Susan S.; VanWinkle, James

473

Automotive body panel containing thermally exfoliated graphite oxide  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An automotive body panel containing a polymer composite formed of at least one polymer and a modified graphite oxide material, which is a thermally exfoliated graphite oxide with a surface area of from about 300 m.sup.2/g to 2600 m.sup.2/g.

Prud'Homme, Robert K. (Inventor); Aksay, Ilhan A. (Inventor); Adamson, Douglas (Inventor); Abdala, Ahmed (Inventor)

2011-01-01

474

Networked Automotive Cyber Physical Systems: Applications, Challenges and Research Directions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Next-generation Automotive Cyber Physical Systems (CPS) are expected to be networked in the wireless domain. It is not un-reasonable to envisage thousands of automobiles with appropriate sensing, actuation and communication ability to network themselves wirelessly in the cyber world. A wide spectrum of applications are possible in this domain. In this article, we highlight three canonical applications, while illustrating their

Sriram Chellappan; Sanjay Kumar Madria

475

STATISTICAL SIGNAL PROCESSING FOR AUTOMOTIVE SAFETY SYSTE MS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The amount of software in general and safety systems in particular increases rapidly in the automotive industry. T he trend is that functionality is decentralized, so new safety functions are distributed to common shared computer hard- ware, sensors and actuators using central data buses. This paper overviews recent and future safety systems, and high- lights the big challenges for researchers

Fredrik Gustafsson

476

Accumulator with refrigerant processing cartridge for automotive air conditioning system  

Microsoft Academic Search

An accumulator is described for use in an air conditioning system for an automotive vehicle, the system including refrigerant and a refrigerant circuit having a compressor, and a condenser and an evaporator arranged in a series relationship on the high pressure side of the compressor, the accumulator comprising: a housing comprised of upper and lower portions joined together in abutting

R. G. Breuhan; J. J. Amin

1988-01-01

477

Development of a Systematic Automotive Education Program. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As part of a project to provide techniques for developing and implementing realistic vocational training and placement programs for prisoner rehabilitation, an Automotive Trades Council (ATC) was established to test the concept of using a citizens' council to function as a bridge between correctional and training personnel and the using society.…

Wylie, Peter B.; And Others

478

The Automotive Supply Chain: Global Trends and Asian Perspectives  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this paper is to provide an overview of the major trends taking place in the automotive industry across the world, with an emphasis on the Asian market. It is not a comprehensive report, but rather an informed view of the issues and a panorama of the behavior of the major players, both automakers and suppliers. In the

Francisco Veloso; Rajiv Kumar

2002-01-01

479

Tribological properties of automotive disc brakes with solid lubricants  

Microsoft Academic Search

In automotive brake systems, high temperatures and pressures are generated at the contacting surfaces. This affects the pad and disc materials, creating a friction film between the surfaces, which consists of wear particles and volatile reactants from the pad and disc. To acquire suitable tribological properties, a pad matrix contains up to 20 different ingredients, mainly selected from experience. In

Luise Gudmand-Høyer; Allan Bach; Georg T Nielsen; Per Morgen

1999-01-01

480

Performances Evaluation of Frequency Measurement Techniques in Automotive Industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many automotive sensors have as output a square wave signal, whose frequency is related which measurement parameters. Such sensors are use for measuring the shafts rotation and wheels rotation. The measurement systems are developed basically based on a microcontroller, which timers capture feature is used for frequency measurement. The frequency measurement principle is the same for every microcontroller; the differences

M. Muresan; D. Pitica; G. Chindris

2007-01-01

481

Studies relevant to the design of reliable automotive electronics  

Microsoft Academic Search

This dissertation describes three independent studies related to the design of reliable automotive electronics. The topics covered are: the estimation of the radiated emissions from power bus structures, EM propagation of tire pressure monitoring systems (TPMS), and examinations of corrosion-induced faults in a connector. The first chapter describes a method for estimating the maximum possible radiated emissions from a printed

Hua Zeng

2010-01-01

482

Energy Absorption in Polymer Composites for Automotive Crashworthiness  

Microsoft Academic Search

The energy absorption capability of a composite material is critical to developing improved human safety in an automotive crash. Energy absorption is dependent on many parameters like fiber type, matrix type, fiber architecture, specimen geometry, processing conditions, fiber volume fraction, and testing speed. Changes in these parameters can cause subsequent changes in the specific energy absorption (ES) of composite materials

George C. Jacob; John F. Fellers; Srdan Simunovic; J. Michael Starbuck

2002-01-01

483

Use of an Automotive Technology Course in Engineering Technology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The automobile has been a source of engineering discoveries and employment for the last century. Many different disciplines go into the manufacturing and design of the automobile. The principles of the different engineering technology disciplines can be shown through the use of a general automotive technology course. At the University of Dayton the graduates of the engineering technology program have a good chance of interviewing and possibly even taking a job in the automotive field. It was felt that the students would benefit from taking a course in basic automotive engineering to allow them to have knowledge of these principles before interviewing for a position in one of these companies. This course would introduce them to basic systems, components, and terminology as it applies to many engineering technology disciplines. Also the business aspect would be developed as well as how government regulations influence automotive design. This paper describes the process of developing this class as well as some of the details and how it relates to a multi-disciplinary engineering technology program.

Falkowski, Sean

2011-05-11

484

Case Study: Steam System Improvements At Dupont Automotive Marshall Laboratory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dupont's Marshall Laboratory is an automotive paint research and development facility in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. The campus is comprised of several buildings that are served by Trigen-Philadelphia Energy Corporation's district steam loop. In 1996, Dupont management announced that it was considering moving the facility out of Philadelphia primarily due to the high operating cost compared to where they were considering relocating.

Andrew W. Larkin

2003-01-01

485

EVALUATION OF FILTRATION AND DISTILLATION METHODS FOR RECYCLING AUTOMOTIVE COOLANT.  

EPA Science Inventory

This evaluation addresses the product quality, waste reduction, and economic issues involved in recycling automotive and heavy-duty engine coolants at a New Jersey Department of Transportation garage. The specific recycling units evaluated are based on the technologies of filtrat...

486

Non-contact ECG monitoring for automotive application  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work reports on a sensing technique suitable for non-contact ECG monitoring inside a running car. Specifically, the physical principles of operation and the specific boundary conditions regarding automotive integration is presented. To eliminate the need for additional cabling, a wireless communication module based on the Bluetooth standard was added and used to transmit and store data on a measurement

Steffen Leonhardt; A. Aleksandrowicz

2008-01-01

487

Automotive recycling in the United States : energy conservation and enviromental benefits.  

SciTech Connect

The production and use of polymers has been growing and that trend is expected to continue. Likewise, the production of metals from ores is on the rise because of increasing demand. Recycling polymers and residual metals can result in significant energy savings and environmental benefits including a reduction in CO2 emissions. This article describes recycling options for the polymers and metals in end-of-life vehicles.

Pomykala, J. A; Jody, B. J.; Daniels, E. J.; Spangenberger, J. S.; Energy Systems

2007-11-01

488

Water Conservation Devices: Residential Water Conservation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A consumer-oriented capsule report highlights findings of research projects funded through the Office of Water Research and Technology which treat the significance, economics, and application of water conservation. Water conservation measures and devices,...

1977-01-01

489

Graduate Automotive Technology Education (GATE) Program: Center of Automotive Technology Excellence in Advanced Hybrid Vehicle Technology at West Virginia University  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report summarizes the technical and educational achievements of the Graduate Automotive Technology Education (GATE) Center at West Virginia University (WVU), which was created to emphasize Advanced Hybrid Vehicle Technology. The Center has supported the graduate studies of 17 students in the Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering and the Lane Department of Computer Science and Electrical Engineering. These students

Nigle N. Clark

2006-01-01

490

Mississippi Curriculum Framework for Automotive Mechanics (Program CIP: 47.0604--Auto/Automotive Mechanic/Tech). Secondary Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document, which reflects Mississippi's statutory requirement that instructional programs be based on core curricula and performance-based assessment, contains outlines of the instructional units required in local instructional management plans and daily lesson plans for automotive mechanics I and II. Presented first are a program description…

Mississippi Research and Curriculum Unit for Vocational and Technical Education, State College.

491

Mississippi Curriculum Framework for Automotive Body Repair (Program CIP: 47.0603--Auto/Automotive Body Repairer). Secondary Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document, which reflects Mississippi's statutory requirement that instructional programs be based on core curricula and performance-based assessment, contains outlines of the instructional units required in local instructional management plans and daily lesson plans for automotive body repair I and II. Presented first are a program…

Mississippi Research and Curriculum Unit for Vocational and Technical Education, State College.

492

Modifications for use of methanol or methanol-gasoline blends in automotive vehicles, September 1976-January 1980  

SciTech Connect

Methanol or blends of methanol and gasoline as automotive fuels may be attractive means for extending the nation's petroleum reserves. The present study was aimed at identifying potential problems and solutions for this use of methanol. Retrofitting of existing vehicles as well as future vehicle design have been considered. The use of ethanol or higher alcohols was not addressed in this study but will be included at a later date. Several potentially serious problems have been identified with methanol use. The most attractive solutions depend upon an integrated combination of vehicle modifications and fuel design. No vehicle problems were found which could not be solved with relatively minor developments of existing technology providing the methanol or blend fuel was itself engineered to ameliorate the solution. Research needs have been identified in the areas of lubrication and materials. These, while apparently solvable, must precede use of methanol or methanol-gasoline blends as motor fuels. Because of the substantial costs and complexities of a retrofitting program, use of methanol must be evaluated in relation to other petroleum-saving alternatives. Future vehicles can be designed initially to operate satisfactorily on these alternate fuels. However a specific fuel composition must be specified around which the future engines and vehicles can be designed.

Patterson, D.J.; Bolt, J.A.; Cole, D.E.

1980-01-01

493

Increase of the fuel cell system efficiency — Modular testing, analysis and development environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main issue in preparing fuel cell systems for the future market is system reliability and efficiency. Apart from successful field test trials, any type of stationary, in general automotive or portable fuel cell systems are at the development stage. One task to deal with is to increase the component and system efficiencies by facilitating the system construction or eliminating

P. König; E. Ivers-Tiffée

2009-01-01

494

An adaptive estimator of fuel film dynamics in the intake port of a spark ignition engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to meet the limits imposed on automotive emissions, engine control systems are required to constrain air\\/fuel ratio (AFR) in a narrow band around the stoichiometric value, due to the strong decay of catalyst efficiency in case of rich or lean mixture. An adaptive estimator, based on an extended Kalman filter, is proposed for the fuel film dynamics in

I. Arsie; C. Pianese; G. Rizzo; V. Cioffi

2003-01-01

495

Design Space Exploration of Small-Scale PEM Fuel Cell Long Endurance Aircraft  

Microsoft Academic Search

§ Due to their high specific energy, proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell systems are becoming increasingly attractive as the primary powerplant for low-power, long-endurance aircraft applications. Although PEM fuel cell technology has been applied for automotive and stationary use, limited design and experimental work has been performed and documented for actual aircraft applications. In order to better understand the

Blake A. Moffitt; Thomas H. Bradley; Dimitri Mavris; David E. Parekh

496

Automotive Stirling reference engine design report  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The reference Stirling engine system is described which provides the best possible fuel economy while meeting or exceeding all other program objectives. The system was designed to meet the requirements of a 1984 Pontiac Phoenix (X-body). This design utilizes all new technology that can reasonably be expected to be developed by 1984 and that is judged to provide significant improvement, relative to development risk and cost. Topics covered include: (1) external heat system; (2) hot engine system; (3) cold engine system; (4) engine drive system; (5) power control system and auxiliaries; (6) engine instalation; (7) optimization and vehicle simulation; (8) engine materials; and (9) production cost analysis.

1981-01-01

497

Development of a high-temperature durable catalyst for use in catalytic combustors for advanced automotive gas turbine engines  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Durable catalytic reactors for advanced gas turbine engines were developed. Objectives were: to evaluate furnace aging as a cost effective catalytic reactor screening test, measure reactor degradation as a function of furnace aging, demonstrate 1,000 hours of combustion durability, and define a catalytic reactor system with a high probability of successful integration into an automotive gas turbine engine. Fourteen different catalytic reactor concepts were evaluated, leading to the selection of one for a durability combustion test with diesel fuel for combustion conditions. Eight additional catalytic reactors were evaluated and one of these was successfully combustion tested on propane fuel. This durability reactor used graded cell honeycombs and a combination of noble metal and metal oxide catalysts. The reactor was catalytically active and structurally sound at the end of the durability test.

Tong, H.; Snow, G. C.; Chu, E. K.; Chang, R. L. S.; Angwin, M. J.; Pessagno, S. L.

1981-01-01

498

A Development Curriculum Plan To Achieve a Sequenced Curriculum between High School Courses in Automotive Mechanics and the Mattatuck Community College Automotive Technician Program. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document contains a developmental curriculum plan for an articulated curriculum in automotive mechanics for Connecticut's Mattatuck Community College and area high schools. The curriculum guide includes a course description, criteria for evaluation, attendance policy, objectives, a curriculum outline, a three-part automotive technician test,…

Mattatuck Community Coll., Waterbury, CT.

499

Fixing Detroit: How Far, How Fast, How Fuel Efficient.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Automotive Industry Crisis of 2009 is the worst the industry has ever experienced. This paper helps resolve the debate on how much and fast it should change and how it should it respond to demands for increased fuel efficiency. Looking at the actions ...

R. Kleinbaum W. McManus

2009-01-01

500

Fixing Detroit: how far, how fast, how fuel-efficient  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Automotive Industry Crisis of 2009 is the worst the industry has ever experienced. This paper helps resolve the debate on how much and fast it should change and how it should it respond to demands for increased fuel efficiency. Looking at the actions of successful corporate turnarounds, the lessons are very clear: implement broad, deep, fast change, replace the

Rob Kleinbaum; Walter McManus

2009-01-01