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1

THE EFFECT OF AUTOMOTIVE FUEL CONSERVATION MEASURES ON AIR POLLUTION  

EPA Science Inventory

A number of policies have been designed to reduce gasoline consumption by automobiles, including: gasoline rationing; increases in the federal excise tax on gasoline; excise taxes on new cars, in inverse proportion to their fuel economy; and regulations to set minimum levels on a...

2

Automotive Fuel and Exhaust Systems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Materials are provided for a 14-hour course designed to introduce the automotive mechanic to the basic operations of automotive fuel and exhaust systems incorporated on military vehicles. The four study units cover characteristics of fuels, gasoline fuel system, diesel fuel systems, and exhaust system. Each study unit begins with a general…

Irby, James F.; And Others

3

Hydrogen as Fuel: Automotive Uses  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This presentation introduces the use of hydrogen as an automotive fuel. The content includes details on how hydrogen is produced, emissions, storage of hydrogen and information about the BMW H2R hydrogen car.This presentation may be downloaded in PowerPoint file format.

4

16 CFR 306.10 - Automotive fuel rating posting.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...If you do not blend alternative liquid automotive fuels, you must post consistent...you. If you blend alternative liquid automotive fuels, you must possess...presently available alternative liquid automotive fuels are meant to...

2013-01-01

5

Automotive fuels from biomass via gasification  

Microsoft Academic Search

There exists already a market of bio-automotive fuels i.e. bioethanol and biodiesel produced from food crops in many countries. From the viewpoint of economics, environment, land use, water use and chemical fertilizer use, however, there is a strong preference for the use of woody biomass and various forest\\/agricultural residues as the feedstock. Thus, the production of 2nd generation of bio-automotive

Wennan Zhang

2010-01-01

6

Materials Challenges for Automotive PEM Fuel Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the past few years, significant R efforts aimed at meeting the challenging cost and performance targets required for the use of Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEM) fuel cells in automotive applications. Besides engineering advances in bipolar plate materials and design, the optimization of membrane-electrode assemblies (MEAs) was an important enabler in reducing the cost and performance gaps towards commercial viability

Hubert Gasteiger

2004-01-01

7

Energy Conservation Measures at an Automotive Instructional Facility  

E-print Network

Energy consumption and costs to operate an automotive technical training facility at Texas State Technical Institute in Waco have been significantly reduced through implementation of several energy conservation measures. This paper reviews building...

Godsey, F. W.

1989-01-01

8

Automotive Fuel and Exhaust Systems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This correspondence course, originally developed for the Marine Corps, is designed to provide mechanics with an understanding of the construction, operation, malfunction, diagnosis, maintenance, and repair of the fuel and exhaust systems used in automobiles. The course contains five study units covering fundamentals of gasoline engine fuel

Marine Corps Inst., Washington, DC.

9

Prospects for development of automotive fuels with improved ecological properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

The continuous growth of the automotive fleet, which numbered about 0.5 billion vehicles in 1993, has consumed major fuel and energy resources and created a serious problem in pollution of the air basin with exhaust gases. In Russia today, more than 30% of all pollutants released to the ambient medium can be attributed to automotive transport. In major cities, automotive

A. A. Gureev; T. N. Mitusova; V. V. Sokolov; V. E. Emel'yanov; N. P. Spirkina

1993-01-01

10

Fuel cells for automotive applications: Overview  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Projections are made of fuel cell technology for vehicular use. The fuel used to provide hydrogen to a phosphoric acid fuel cell is assumed to be methanol. Experimental performance data for a golf cart is discussed. The design, economics, and predicted performance for a fuel cell retrofitted x-car with lead acid batteries for peaking power, are described. The technical and economic feasibility of using fuel cells in city buses, vans and passenger cars are examined. It is concluded that the fuel cell/battery hybrid vehicle will have the advantages of high efficiency, i.e., 53 percent improvement in fuel economy, long fuel cell life, performance comparable to IC engine vehicles, low maintenance, petroleum fuel conservation, low pollution, and quiet operation. From a comparison of the lifetime costs of conventional vehicles versus fuel cell vehicles, it is concluded that commercialization of fuel cells for buses is most feasible followed by van and automobile applications.

McCormick, J. B.

11

Fuel System: Automotive Mechanics Instructional Program. Block 4.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The fourth of six instructional blocks in automotive mechanics, the lessons and supportive information in the document provide a guide for teachers in planning an instructional program in automotive fuel systems at the secondary and post secondary level. The material, as organized, is a suggested sequence of instruction within each block. Each…

O'Brien, Ralph D.

12

Materials Challenges for Automotive PEM Fuel Cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the past few years, significant R efforts aimed at meeting the challenging cost and performance targets required for the use of Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEM) fuel cells in automotive applications. Besides engineering advances in bipolar plate materials and design, the optimization of membrane-electrode assemblies (MEAs) was an important enabler in reducing the cost and performance gaps towards commercial viability for the automotive market. On the one hand, platinum loadings were reduced from several mgPt/cm2MEA [1] to values of 0.5-0.6 mgPt/cm2MEA in current applications and loadings as low as 0.25 mgPt/cm2MEA have been demonstrated on the research level [2]. On the other hand, implementation of thin membranes (20-30 micrometer) [3, 4] as well as improvements in diffusion medium materials, essentially doubled the achievable power density of MEAs to ca. 0.9 W/cm2MEA (at 0.65 V) [5], thereby not only reducing the size of a PEMFC fuel cell system, but also reducing its overall materials cost (controlled to a large extent by membrane and Pt-catalyst cost). While this demonstrated a clear path towards automotive applications, a renewed focus of R efforts is now required to develop materials and fundamental materials understanding to assure long-term durability of PEM fuel cells. This presentation therefore will discuss the state-of-the-art knowledge of catalyst, catalyst-support, and membrane degradation mechanisms. In the area of Pt-catalysts, experience with phosphoric acid fuel cells (PAFCs) has shown that platinum sintering leads to long-term performance losses [6]. While this is less critical at the lower PEMFC operating temperatures (<100C) compared to PAFCs (>200C), very little is known about the dependence of Pt-sintering on temperature, cell voltage, and catalyst type (i.e., Pt versus Pt-alloys) and will be discussed here. Similarly, carbon-support corrosion can contribute significantly to voltage degradation in PAFCs [7], and even in the PEMFC environment more corrosion-resistant support materials (e.g., graphitized carbons) are desirable. While thin polymer electrolyte membranes (20-30 micrometer) enable high power density operation, the requirements on their chemical and mechanical stability are significantly more demanding compared to the thick membranes (100-200 micrometer) used in the past [1]. While the currently used perfluoro-sulfonicacid (PFSA) membranes are chemically very stable, they are known to degrade in the fuel cell environment [4] via peroxyl-radical attack, strongly enhanced in the presence of iron [8]. While the exact degradation mechanism is actively investigated, its understanding is clearly required to improve the chemical stability of PFSA's. Similarly, very little is known about the mechanical properties of polymer electrolyte membranes and critical issues will be discussed. References: 1. Strasser, K.; ``H2/O2 PEM Fuel Cell Module for an Air-Independent Propulsion System in a Submarine''; in: Handbook of Fuel Cells Fundamentals, Technology and Applications; Vielstich, W.; Lamm, A.; Gasteiger, H. A. (Eds.); John Wiley & Sons (Chichester, UK): volume 4, chapter 88, 2003, pp. 1201-1214. 2. Gasteiger, H. A.; Panels, J. E.; Yan, S. G.; J. Power Sources in press. 3. Gasteiger, H. A.; Gu, W.; Makharia, R.; Mathias, M. F.; Sompalli, S.; ``Beginning-of-Life MEA Performance: Efficiency Loss Contributions''; in: Handbook of Fuel Cells Fundamentals, Technology and Applications; Vielstich, W.; Lamm, A.; Gasteiger, H. A. (Eds.); John Wiley & Sons (Chichester, UK): volume 3, chapter 46, 2003, pp. 593-610. 4. Cleghorn, S.; Kolde, J.; Liu, W.; ``Catalyst-Coated Composite Membranes''; in: Handbook of Fuel Cells - Fundamentals, Technology and Applications; Vielstich, W.; Lamm, A.; Gasteiger, H. A. (Eds.); John Wiley & Sons (Chichester, UK): volume 3, chapter 44, 2003, pp. 566-575. 5. Mathias, M. F.; Gasteiger, H. A.; Fundamental Research and Development Challenges in Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cell Technology; in Proceedings of the Proton Conducting Membrane Fuel Cells III Symposi

Gasteiger, Hubert

2004-03-01

13

GATE Center for Automotive Fuel Cell Systems at Virginia Tech  

SciTech Connect

The Virginia Tech GATE Center for Automotive Fuel Cell Systems (CAFCS) achieved the following objectives in support of the domestic automotive industry: â?¢ Expanded and updated fuel cell and vehicle technologies education programs; â?¢ Conducted industry directed research in three thrust areas â?? development and characterization of materials for PEM fuel cells; performance and durability modeling for PEM fuel cells; and fuel cell systems design and optimization, including hybrid and plug-in hybrid fuel cell vehicles; â?¢ Developed MS and Ph.D. engineers and scientists who are pursuing careers related to fuel cells and automotive applications; â?¢ Published research results that provide industry with new knowledge which contributes to the advancement of fuel cell and vehicle systems commercialization. With support from the Dept. of Energy, the CAFCS upgraded existing graduate course offerings; introduced a hands-on laboratory component that make use of Virginia Techâ??s comprehensive laboratory facilities, funded 15 GATE Fellowships over a five year period; and expanded our program of industry interaction to improve student awareness of challenges and opportunities in the automotive industry. GATE Center graduate students have a state-of-the-art research experience preparing them for a career to contribute to the advancement fuel cell and vehicle technologies.

Douglas Nelson

2011-05-31

14

16 CFR 306.5 - Automotive fuel rating.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...alternative liquid automotive fuels other than biodiesel blends and biomass-based diesel...that you must disclose. In the case of biodiesel blends, you must possess a reasonable...reliable evidence, for the percentage of biodiesel contained in the fuel, and in...

2010-01-01

15

The fuel conservation potential of Texas vanpools  

E-print Network

of the question asked of commuters was averaged and found to be 15. 9 mpg. This value seemed rather high, so another method was employed to check these results. The Society of Automotive Engineers report number 790225: Li ht Duty Automobile Fuel Econom..., , 1976, p. 113. 15. J. D. Murrell. Light Duty Automotive Fuel Economy. . . Trends Through 1979. Society of Automotive Engineers, Inc. (Report Humber 790225), Warrendale, Pennsylvania, Fegruary 1979, p. 4. 16. W. R Fortune. Vanpooling: A Commuting...

Williamson, Dennis Vernon

1979-01-01

16

An analysis of alternative fuel credit provisions of US automotive fuel economy standards  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the United States, alternative fuel vehicles are treated favorably in the calculations that are used to determine compliance with automotive fuel efficiency standards. We estimate that this favorable treatment is worth approximately $550–$1100 per alternative fuel vehicle in terms of avoided penalties. We use a dynamic simulation model to examine the implications of this favorable treatment of alternative fuel

Jonathan Rubin; Paul Leiby

2000-01-01

17

Automotive fuels and internal combustion engines: a chemical perspective.  

PubMed

Commercial transportation fuels are complex mixtures containing hundreds or thousands of chemical components, whose composition has evolved considerably during the past 100 years. In conjunction with concurrent engine advancements, automotive fuel composition has been fine-tuned to balance efficiency and power demands while minimizing emissions. Pollutant emissions from internal combustion engines (ICE), which arise from non-ideal combustion, have been dramatically reduced in the past four decades. Emissions depend both on the engine operating parameters (e.g. engine temperature, speed, load, A/F ratio, and spark timing) and the fuel. These emissions result from complex processes involving interactions between the fuel and engine parameters. Vehicle emissions are comprised of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), CO, nitrogen oxides (NO(x)), and particulate matter (PM). VOCs and NO(x) form photochemical smog in urban atmospheres, and CO and PM may have adverse health impacts. Engine hardware and operating conditions, after-treatment catalysts, and fuel composition all affect the amount and composition of emissions leaving the vehicle tailpipe. While engine and after-treatment effects are generally larger than fuel effects, engine and after-treatment hardware can require specific fuel properties. Consequently, the best prospects for achieving the highest efficiency and lowest emissions lie with optimizing the entire fuel-engine-after-treatment system. This review provides a chemical perspective on the production, combustion, and environmental aspects of automotive fuels. We hope this review will be of interest to workers in the fields of chemical kinetics, fluid dynamics of reacting flows, atmospheric chemistry, automotive catalysts, fuel science, and governmental regulations. PMID:16565750

Wallington, T J; Kaiser, E W; Farrell, J T

2006-04-01

18

Alternative powertrains for automotive applications aim at improving emissions and fuel economy. Lack of  

E-print Network

Abstract Alternative powertrains for automotive applications aim at improving emissions and fuel diesel-electric powertrain is included. 1. Introduction Automotive engine emissions are recognized engine remains the dominant prime mover for technological and cost reasons, alternative propulsion

Papalambros, Panos

19

Automotive fuel economy and emissions program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Experimental data were generated to support an assessment of the relationship between automobile fuel economy and emissions control systems. Tests were made at both the engine and vehicle levels. Detailed investigations were made on cold-start emissions devices, exhaust gas recirculation systems, and air injection reactor systems. Based on the results of engine tests, an alternative emission control system and modified control strategy were implemented and tested in the vehicle. With the same fuel economy and NOx emissions as the stock vehicle, the modified vehicle reduced HC and CO emissions by about 20 percent. By removing the NOx emissions constraint, the modified vehicle demonstrated about 12 percent better fuel economy than the stock vehicle.

Dowdy, M. W.; Baisley, R. L.

1978-01-01

20

77 FR 29751 - Agency Information Collection Activity Under OMB Review: Automotive Fuel Economy Reports  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Activity Under OMB Review: Automotive Fuel Economy Reports AGENCY: National Highway Traffic...comply with an applicable average fuel economy standard for the model year for which...INFORMATION CONTACT: Kenneth R. Katz, Fuel Economy Division, Office of International...

2012-05-18

21

Automotive Fuel Processor Development and Demonstration with Fuel Cell Systems  

SciTech Connect

The potential for fuel cell systems to improve energy efficiency and reduce emissions over conventional power systems has generated significant interest in fuel cell technologies. While fuel cells are being investigated for use in many applications such as stationary power generation and small portable devices, transportation applications present some unique challenges for fuel cell technology. Due to their lower operating temperature and non-brittle materials, most transportation work is focusing on fuel cells using proton exchange membrane (PEM) technology. Since PEM fuel cells are fueled by hydrogen, major obstacles to their widespread use are the lack of an available hydrogen fueling infrastructure and hydrogen's relatively low energy storage density, which leads to a much lower driving range than conventional vehicles. One potential solution to the hydrogen infrastructure and storage density issues is to convert a conventional fuel such as gasoline into hydrogen onboard the vehicle using a fuel processor. Figure 2 shows that gasoline stores roughly 7 times more energy per volume than pressurized hydrogen gas at 700 bar and 4 times more than liquid hydrogen. If integrated properly, the fuel processor/fuel cell system would also be more efficient than traditional engines and would give a fuel economy benefit while hydrogen storage and distribution issues are being investigated. Widespread implementation of fuel processor/fuel cell systems requires improvements in several aspects of the technology, including size, startup time, transient response time, and cost. In addition, the ability to operate on a number of hydrocarbon fuels that are available through the existing infrastructure is a key enabler for commercializing these systems. In this program, Nuvera Fuel Cells collaborated with the Department of Energy (DOE) to develop efficient, low-emission, multi-fuel processors for transportation applications. Nuvera's focus was on (1) developing fuel processor subsystems (fuel reformer, CO cleanup, and exhaust cleanup) that were small enough to integrate on a vehicle and (2) evaluating the fuel processor system performance for hydrogen production, efficiency, thermal integration, startup, durability and ability to integrate with fuel cells. Nuvera carried out a three-part development program that created multi-fuel (gasoline, ethanol, natural gas) fuel processing systems and investigated integration of fuel cell / fuel processor systems. The targets for the various stages of development were initially based on the goals of the DOE's Partnership for New Generation Vehicles (PNGV) initiative and later on the Freedom Car goals. The three parts are summarized below with the names based on the topic numbers from the original Solicitation for Financial Assistance Award (SFAA).

Nuvera Fuel Cells

2005-04-15

22

Development of detergent additives for automotive fuels in other countries  

SciTech Connect

With increasing demands on environmental protection and with the production of reformulated unleaded motor fuels, new and effective detergent additives are urgently needed. A number of monographs and scientific works have been devoted to problems involved in the development and application of such additives. Since the mid-1980s in the United States and certain other countries, a crisis has been noted in the application of detergent additives. It has been found that certain types of detergents not only fail to give the required cleaning effect, but even promote the formation of deposits. This situation can be attributed primarily to the development of automotive gasoline engines with direct fuel injection. In the United States in 1989, about 90% of all automotive vehicles were equipped with such engines, which have very definite advantages in fuel economy, less smoking, and a number of other areas. However, after a few thousand kilometers of travel, the characteristics of these engines deteriorate, and undesirable changes are observed, including excessive fuel consumption, a reduction of the vehicle speed, and increased contents of carbon monoxide in the exhaust. These changes occur because of deposit formation in the fuel intake system, particularly on the intake valves. As the deposits continue to accumulate, the engines gradually experience an increase in octane number demand for engine operation without knocking. This phenomenon, which is known in American publications as {open_quotes}octane requirement increase{close_quotes} or ORI (Russian initialism RTOCh, literal translation, {open_quotes}increase of requirements for octane number{close_quotes}), continues until a certain equilibrium octane number is reached. This equilibrium value may change, depending on the engine design and other factors. In all cases, however, the ORI of modern engines is significant, amount to 2-14 octane numbers.

Zakharova, E.L.; Emel`yanov, V.E.; Deineko, P.S.

1994-09-01

23

Oxidation of automotive primary reference fuels at elevated pressures  

SciTech Connect

Automotive engine knock limits the maximum operating compression ratio and ultimate thermodynamic efficiency of spark-ignition (SI) engines. In compression-ignition (CI) or diesel cycle engines, the premixed burn phase, which occurs shortly after injection, determines the time it takes for autoignition to occur. In order to improve engine efficiency and to recommend more efficient, cleaner-burning alternative fuels, they must understand the chemical kinetic processes that lead to autoignition in both SI and CI engines. These engines burn large molecular-weight blended fuels, a class to which the primary reference fuels (PRF) n-heptane and iso-octane belong. In this study, experiments were performed under engine like conditions in a high-pressure flow reactor using both the pure PRF fuels and their mixtures in the temperature range 550-880 K and 12.5 atm pressure. These experiments not only provide information on the reactivity of each fuel but also identify the major intermediate products formed during the oxidation process. A detailed chemical kinetic mechanism is used to simulate these experiments, and comparisons of experimentally measured and model predicted profiles for O{sub 2}, CO, CO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O and temperature rise are presented. Intermediates identified in the flow reactor are compared with those present in the computations, and the kinetic pathways leading to their formation are discussed. In addition, autoignition delay times measured in a shock tube over the temperature range 690-1220 K and at 40 atm pressure were simulated. Good agreement between experiment and simulation was obtained for both the pure fuels and their mixtures. Finally, quantitative values of major intermediates measured in the exhaust gas of a cooperative fuels research engine operating under motored engine conditions are presented together with those predicted by the detailed model.

Callahan, C V; Curran, H J; Dryer, F L; Pitz, W J; Westbrook, C K

1999-03-01

24

Automotive Stirling engine development program. [fuel economy assessment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Ford/DOE automotive Stirling engine development program is directed towards establishing the technological and developmental base that would enable a decision on whether an engineering program should be directed at Stirling engine production. The fuel economy assessment aims to achieve, with a high degree of confidence, the ERDA proposal estimate of 20.6 MPG (gasoline) for a 4500 lb 1WC Stirling engine passenger car. The current M-H fuel economy projection for the 170 HP Stirling engine is 15.7 MPG. The confidence level for this projection is 32%. A confidence level of 29% is projected for a 22.1 MPG estimate. If all of the planned analyses and test work is accomplished at the end of the one year effort, and the projected improvements are substantiated, the confidence levels would rise to 59% for the 20.6 MPG projection and 54% for the 22.1 MPG projection. Progress achieved thus far during the fuel economy assessment is discussed.

Kitzner, E. W.

1978-01-01

25

Compatibility of alternative fuels with advanced automotive gas turbine and stirling engines. A literature survey  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The application of alternative fuels in advanced automotive gas turbine and Stirling engines is discussed on the basis of a literature survey. These alternative engines are briefly described, and the aspects that will influence fuel selection are identified. Fuel properties and combustion properties are discussed, with consideration given to advanced materials and components. Alternative fuels from petroleum, coal, oil shale, alcohol, and hydrogen are discussed, and some background is given about the origin and production of these fuels. Fuel requirements for automotive gas turbine and Stirling engines are developed, and the need for certain reseach efforts is discussed. Future research efforts planned at Lewis are described.

Cairelli, J.; Horvath, D.

1981-05-01

26

Compatibility of alternative fuels with advanced automotive gas turbine and stirling engines. A literature survey  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The application of alternative fuels in advanced automotive gas turbine and Stirling engines is discussed on the basis of a literature survey. These alternative engines are briefly described, and the aspects that will influence fuel selection are identified. Fuel properties and combustion properties are discussed, with consideration given to advanced materials and components. Alternative fuels from petroleum, coal, oil shale, alcohol, and hydrogen are discussed, and some background is given about the origin and production of these fuels. Fuel requirements for automotive gas turbine and Stirling engines are developed, and the need for certain reseach efforts is discussed. Future research efforts planned at Lewis are described.

Cairelli, J.; Horvath, D.

1981-01-01

27

An automotive engine model for air-fuel ratio control using cylinder pressure information  

E-print Network

AN AUTOMOTIVE ENGINE MODEL FOR AIR-FUEL RATIO CONTROL USING CYLINDER PRESSURE INFORMATION A Thesis EMMANUEL TOMDIO NANA Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas ARM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1997 Major Subject: Electrical Engineering AN AUTOMOTIVE ENGINE MODEL FOR AIR-FUEL RATIO CONTROL USING CYLINDER PRESSURE INFORMATION A Thesis EMMANUEL TOMDIO NANA Submitted to Texas ARM University in partial...

Nana, Emmanuel Tomdio

2012-06-07

28

Control and real-time optimization of an automotive hybrid fuel cell power system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A real-time optimization method is used to find the point of maximum fuel efficiency of a hybrid fuel cell power system, in an automotive application. The controller performs as the master control in cascade with lower level controls. The lower level controls distribute the power between the ultra-capacitor and the fuel cell, during transients, to find the optimum operating point

A. Dalvi; M. Guay

2009-01-01

29

CONTROL-ORIENTED MODELING AND ANALYSIS FOR AUTOMOTIVE FUEL CELL SYSTEMS  

E-print Network

CONTROL-ORIENTED MODELING AND ANALYSIS FOR AUTOMOTIVE FUEL CELL SYSTEMS Jay T. Pukrushpan Huei Peng of Michigan Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109-2125 Email: pukrushp@umich.edu Abstract Fuel Cells are electrochemical regarded as a potential future stationary and mobile power source. The response of a fuel cell system

Peng, Huei

30

How "Green" Is Your Fuel? Creation and Comparison of Automotive Biofuels  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In recent years, biofuel development and use has risen significantly. This undergraduate laboratory experiment educates students on the various alternative fuels that are being developed for automotive applications and the advantages and disadvantages of each. Students replicate commercially available alternative fuels, E85 and biodiesel, as well…

Wagner, Eugene P.; Koehle, Maura A.; Moyle, Todd M.; Lambert, Patrick D.

2010-01-01

31

Preliminary computational studies of flash boiling for fuel injectors in gasoline direct injection automotive engines  

Microsoft Academic Search

A flash boiling model is being developed to capture the effects of bubble nucleation and growth inside an injector. This model will be applied to the study of flash boiling fuel injector sprays in gasoline direct injection (GDI) automotive engines. There is potential for flash boiling to reduce drop sizes, increase spray cone angles, and ultimately produce more favorable combustible

Dar-Lon Chang; Chia-fon F. Lee

2002-01-01

32

5 kW Multilevel DC-DC Converter for Hybrid Electric and Fuel Cell Automotive  

E-print Network

could be a battery or a stepped down voltage from the high voltage battery pack or any source. When5 kW Multilevel DC-DC Converter for Hybrid Electric and Fuel Cell Automotive Applications Faisal H Knoxville, TN 37996-2100 Abstract--A 5 kW multilevel modular capacitor clamped dc-dc converter (MMCCC

Tolbert, Leon M.

33

Fuel-conservative engine technology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Aircraft fuel consumption is discussed in terms of its efficient use, and the conversion of energy from sources other than petroleum. Topics discussed include: fuel from coal and oil shale, hydrogen deficiency of alternate sources, alternate fuels evaluation program, and future engines.

Dugan, J. F., Jr.; Mcaulay, J. E.; Reynolds, T. W.; Strack, W. C.

1975-01-01

34

Water and alcohol use in automotive diesel engines. Alternative Fuels Utilization Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

A review has been made of the current technology of water and alcohol use in automotive diesel engines. Emphasis has been placed on assessing engine test results for seven methods of using alcohols as supplements or complete replacements for petroleum-based diesel fuel. The methods investigated include the dual-fuel techniques of emulsification, blending, fumigation, and dual-injection, and the monofuel techniques of

J. J. Jr. Donnelly; H. M. White

1983-01-01

35

The individual contribution of automotive components to vehicle fuel consumption  

E-print Network

Fuel consumption has grown to become a major point of interest as oil reserves are depleted. The purpose of this study is to determine the key components that cause variation in the instantaneous fuel consumption of vehicles ...

Napier, Parhys L

2011-01-01

36

Fuel economy screening study of advanced automotive gas turbine engines  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Fuel economy potentials were calculated and compared among ten turbomachinery configurations. All gas turbine engines were evaluated with a continuously variable transmission in a 1978 compact car. A reference fuel economy was calculated for the car with its conventional spark ignition piston engine and three speed automatic transmission. Two promising engine/transmission combinations, using gasoline, had 55 to 60 percent gains over the reference fuel economy. Fuel economy sensitivities to engine design parameter changes were also calculated for these two combinations.

Klann, J. L.

1980-01-01

37

A survey of processes for producing hydrogen fuel from different sources for automotive-propulsion fuel cells  

SciTech Connect

Seven common fuels are compared for their utility as hydrogen sources for proton-exchange-membrane fuel cells used in automotive propulsion. Methanol, natural gas, gasoline, diesel fuel, aviation jet fuel, ethanol, and hydrogen are the fuels considered. Except for the steam reforming of methanol and using pure hydrogen, all processes for generating hydrogen from these fuels require temperatures over 1000 K at some point. With the same two exceptions, all processes require water-gas shift reactors of significant size. All processes require low-sulfur or zero-sulfur fuels, and this may add cost to some of them. Fuels produced by steam reforming contain {approximately}70-80% hydrogen, those by partial oxidation {approximately}35-45%. The lower percentages may adversely affect cell performance. Theoretical input energies do not differ markedly among the various processes for generating hydrogen from organic-chemical fuels. Pure hydrogen has severe distribution and storage problems. As a result, the steam reforming of methanol is the leading candidate process for on-board generation of hydrogen for automotive propulsion. If methanol unavailability or a high price demands an alternative process, steam reforming appears preferable to partial oxidation for this purpose.

Brown, L.F.

1996-03-01

38

Fuel conservative aircraft engine technology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Technology developments for more fuel-efficiency subsonic transport aircraft are reported. Three major propulsion projects were considered: (1) engine component improvement - directed at current engines; (2) energy efficient engine - directed at new turbofan engines; and (3) advanced turboprops - directed at technology for advanced turboprop-powered aircraft. Each project is reviewed and some of the technologies and recent accomplishments are described.

Nored, D. L.

1978-01-01

39

Federal Funds: Fuel Conservation Fellowship Program  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To train individuals who might design and implement plans for developing alternative sources of energy like solar or geothermal power, the Office of Education supports graduate fellowships in mining, mineral, and mineral fuel conservation. Describes three projects funded by the fellowship program during the 1976-77 academic year. (Author/RK)

Bobowski, Rita Cipalla

1977-01-01

40

Magnesium and its alloys applications in automotive industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study is to review and evaluate the applications of magnesium in the automotive industry that can significantly\\u000a contribute to greater fuel economy and environmental conservation. In the study, the current advantages, limitations, technological\\u000a barriers and future prospects of Mg alloys in the automotive industry are given. The usage of magnesium in automotive applications\\u000a is also assessed

Mustafa Kemal Kulekci

2008-01-01

41

Engine performance comparison associated with carburetor icing during aviation grade fuel and automotive grade fuel operation. Final report Jan-Jul 82  

SciTech Connect

A comprehensive sea-level-static test cell data collection and evaluation effort to review operational characteristics of 'off-the-shelf' carburetor ice detection/warning devices for general aviation piston engine aircraft during operation on aviation grade fuel and automotive grade fuel. Presented herein are results, observations and conclusions drawn from over 250 hours of test cell engine operation on 100LL aviation grade fuel, unleaded premium and unleaded regular grade automotive fuel. Sea-level-static test cell engine operations were conducted utilizing a Teledyne Continental Motors 0-200A engine and a Cessna 150 fuel system to review engine operational characteristics of 100LL aviation grade fuel and various blends of automotive grade fuel as well as carburetor ice detectors/warning devices sensitivity/effectiveness during actual carburetor icing. The primary purpose of test cell engine operation was to observe real-time carburetor icing characteristics associated with possible automotive grade fuel utilization by piston-powered light general aviation aircraft. In fulfillment of this task, baseline engine operations were established with 100LL aviation grade fuel followed by various blend of automotive grade fuel prior to imposing carburetor icing conditions and assessing operational characteristics.

Cavage, W.; Newcomb, J.; Biehl, K.

1983-05-01

42

Partial oxidation fuel reforming for automotive power systems.  

SciTech Connect

For widespread use of fuel cells to power automobiles in the near future, it is necessary to convert gasoline or other transportation fuels to hydrogen on-board the vehicle. Partial oxidation reforming is particularly suited to this application as it eliminates the need for heat exchange at high temperatures. Such reformers offer rapid start and good dynamic performance. Lowering the temperature of the partial oxidation process, which requires the development of a suitable catalyst, can increase the reforming efficiency. Catalytic partial oxidation (or autothermal) reformers and non-catalytic partial oxidation reformers developed by various organizations are presently undergoing testing and demonstration. This paper summarizes the process chemistries as well as recent test data from several different reformers operating on gasoline, methanol, and other fuels.

Ahmed, S.; Chalk, S.; Krumpelt, M.; Kumar, R.; Milliken, J.

1999-09-07

43

Electrocatalyst approaches and challenges for automotive fuel cells.  

PubMed

Fuel cells powered by hydrogen from secure and renewable sources are the ideal solution for non-polluting vehicles, and extensive research and development on all aspects of this technology over the past fifteen years has delivered prototype cars with impressive performances. But taking the step towards successful commercialization requires oxygen reduction electrocatalysts--crucial components at the heart of fuel cells--that meet exacting performance targets. In addition, these catalyst systems will need to be highly durable, fault-tolerant and amenable to high-volume production with high yields and exceptional quality. Not all the catalyst approaches currently being pursued will meet those demands. PMID:22678278

Debe, Mark K

2012-06-01

44

Next Generation Bipolar Plates for Automotive PEM Fuel Cells  

SciTech Connect

The results of a successful U.S. Department of Energy (DoE) funded two-year $2.9 MM program lead by GrafTech International Inc. (GrafTech) are reported and summarized. The program goal was to develop the next generation of high temperature proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell bipolar plates for use in transportation fuel cell applications operating at temperatures up to 120 °C. The bipolar plate composite developed during the program is based on GrafTech’s GRAFCELL? resin impregnated flexible graphite technology and makes use of a high temperature Huntsman Advanced Materials resin system which extends the upper use temperature of the composite to the DoE target. High temperature performance of the new composite is achieved with the added benefit of improvements in strength, modulus, and dimensional stability over the incumbent resin systems. Other physical properties, including thermal and electrical conductivity of the new composite are identical to or not adversely affected by the new resin system. Using the new bipolar plate composite system, machined plates were fabricated and tested in high temperature single-cell fuel cells operating at 120 °C for over 1100 hours by Case Western Reserve University. Final verification of performance was done on embossed full-size plates which were fabricated and glued into bipolar plates by GrafTech. Stack testing was done on a 10-cell full-sized stack under a simulated drive cycle protocol by Ballard Power Systems. Freeze-thaw performance was conducted by Ballard on a separate 5-cell stack and shown to be within specification. A third stack was assembled and shipped to Argonne National Laboratory for independent performance verification. Manufacturing cost estimate for the production of the new bipolar plate composite at current and high volume production scenarios was performed by Directed Technologies Inc. (DTI). The production cost estimates were consistent with previous DoE cost estimates performed by DTI for the DoE on metal plates. The final result of DTI’s analysis for the high volume manufacturing scenario ($6.85 /kW) came in slightly above the DoE target of $3 to $5/kW. This estimate was derived using a “Best Case Scenario” for many of the production process steps and raw material costs with projections to high volumes. Some of the process improvements assumed in this “Best Case Scenario” including high speed high impact forming and solvent-less resins, have not yet been implemented, but have a high probability of potential success.

Orest Adrianowycz; Julian Norley; David J. Stuart; David Flaherty; Ryan Wayne; Warren Williams; Roger Tietze; Yen-Loan H. Nguyen; Tom Zawodzinski; Patrick Pietrasz

2010-04-15

45

Effect of automotive electrical system changes on fuel consumption using incremental efficiency methodology  

E-print Network

There has been a continuous increase in automotive electric power usage. Future projections show no sign of it decreasing. Therefore, the automotive industry has a need to either improve the current 12 Volt automotive ...

Hardin, Christopher William

2004-01-01

46

Preparation, characterization and degradation mechanisms of PtCu alloy nanoparticles for automotive fuel cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electrochemically dealloyed PtCu alloy nanoparticles successfully meet the automotive technology target of having four times higher Pt mass activity for the electroreduction of molecular oxygen compared to current state-of-the-art platinum catalysts [1]. However, the catalysts must also maintain their activity throughout the aggressive automotive drive-cycles in order to be implemented in fuel cells cars. Here, the durability of dealloyed PtCu catalysts was systematically evaluated under various voltage-cycles using a rotating ring disk electrode. The stability of the non-noble metal alloy component was proven at electrode potentials below 0.6 V. The platinum stability was evaluated at potentials up to 1.1 V to avoid carbon corrosion and then up to 1.2 V to be closer to the more aggressive cycles developed in startup/shutdown events of the fuel cells. The major known failure modes such as non-noble metal dissolution, platinum dissolution, and particle growth/agglomeration were monitored in order to understand closely the PtCu nanoparticles behavior under different potential cycles and to provide a degradation fingerprint.

Marcu, A.; Toth, G.; Srivastava, R.; Strasser, P.

2012-06-01

47

Characterization of alcohol/gasoline blends as automotive fuel: performance and emissions characteristics  

SciTech Connect

This report contains the results of an investigation performed to determine the feasibility of using alcohol blends as a motor vehicle fuel. The first chapter contains the findings concerning the effect of methanol blends on the performance and regulated emissions characteristics of a conventional, circa 1974, carburetted, multicylinder, automotive type engine. The second chapter presents the findings regarding the effect of ethanol blends on the above-mentioned performance and emission characteristics using the previously-described engine. The third chapter contains the results obtained concerning the effects of denaturants on ethanol blend-fueled engine performance and regulated emissions characteristics for the engine. The fourth chapter contains the findings regarding the effect of methanol blends on the lean misfire limit and a further discussion concerning geometric distribution (in the conventional engine).

Adt, R.R. Jr.; Chester, K.A.; Harrenstien, M.; Kurucz, C.N.; Pappas, J.; Rajan, S.; Rhee, K.T.; Spurny, W.F.; Swain, M.

1981-09-01

48

Costs and benefits of automotive fuel economy improvement: A partial analysis  

SciTech Connect

This paper is an exercise in estimating the costs and benefits of technology-based fuel economy improvements for automobiles and light trucks. Benefits quantified include vehicle cots, fuel savings, consumer`s surplus effects, the effect of reduced weight on vehicle safety, impacts on emissions of CO{sub 2} and criteria pollutants, world oil market and energy security benefits, and the transfer of wealth from US consumes to oil producers. A vehicle stock model is used to capture sales, scrappage, and vehicle use effects under three fuel price scenarios. Three alternative fuel economy levels for 2001 are considered, ranging from 32.9 to 36.5 MPG for cars and 24.2 to 27.5 MPG for light trucks. Fuel economy improvements of this size are probably cost-effective. The size of the benefit, and whether there is a benefit, strongly depends on the financial costs of fuel economy improvement and judgments about the values of energy security, emissions, safety, etc. Three sets of values for eight parameters are used to define the sensitivity of costs and benefits to key assumptions. The net present social value (1989$) of costs and benefits ranges from a cost of $11 billion to a benefit of $286 billion. The critical parameters being the discount rate (10% vs. 3%) and the values attached to externalities. The two largest components are always the direct vehicle costs and fuel savings, but these tend to counterbalance each other for the fuel economy levels examined here. Other components are the wealth transfer, oil cost savings, CO{sub 2} emissions reductions, and energy security benefits. Safety impacts, emissions of criteria pollutants, and consumer`s surplus effects are relatively minor components. The critical issues for automotive fuel economy are therefore: (1) the value of present versus future costs and benefits, (2) the values of external costs and benefits, and (3) the financially cost-effective level of MPG achievable by available technology. 53 refs.

Greene, D.L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Duleep, K.G. [Energy and Environmental Analysis, Inc., Arlington, VA (United States)

1992-03-01

49

Costs and benefits of automotive fuel economy improvement: A partial analysis  

SciTech Connect

This paper is an exercise in estimating the costs and benefits of technology-based fuel economy improvements for automobiles and light trucks. Benefits quantified include vehicle cots, fuel savings, consumer's surplus effects, the effect of reduced weight on vehicle safety, impacts on emissions of CO{sub 2} and criteria pollutants, world oil market and energy security benefits, and the transfer of wealth from US consumes to oil producers. A vehicle stock model is used to capture sales, scrappage, and vehicle use effects under three fuel price scenarios. Three alternative fuel economy levels for 2001 are considered, ranging from 32.9 to 36.5 MPG for cars and 24.2 to 27.5 MPG for light trucks. Fuel economy improvements of this size are probably cost-effective. The size of the benefit, and whether there is a benefit, strongly depends on the financial costs of fuel economy improvement and judgments about the values of energy security, emissions, safety, etc. Three sets of values for eight parameters are used to define the sensitivity of costs and benefits to key assumptions. The net present social value (1989$) of costs and benefits ranges from a cost of $11 billion to a benefit of $286 billion. The critical parameters being the discount rate (10% vs. 3%) and the values attached to externalities. The two largest components are always the direct vehicle costs and fuel savings, but these tend to counterbalance each other for the fuel economy levels examined here. Other components are the wealth transfer, oil cost savings, CO{sub 2} emissions reductions, and energy security benefits. Safety impacts, emissions of criteria pollutants, and consumer's surplus effects are relatively minor components. The critical issues for automotive fuel economy are therefore: (1) the value of present versus future costs and benefits, (2) the values of external costs and benefits, and (3) the financially cost-effective level of MPG achievable by available technology. 53 refs.

Greene, D.L. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Duleep, K.G. (Energy and Environmental Analysis, Inc., Arlington, VA (United States))

1992-03-01

50

Investigation of degradation effects in polymer electrolyte fuel cells under automotive-related operating conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The influence of artificial starvation effects during automotive-related operating conditions is investigated within a polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC) using non-dispersive infrared sensors and a current scan shunt. Driving cycles (DC) and single load change experiments are performed with specific fuel and oxidant starvation conditions. Within the DC experiments, a maximal CO2 amount of 4.67 ?mol per cycle is detected in the cathode and 0.97 ?mol per cycle in the anode exhaust without reaching fuel starvation conditions during the DC. Massive cell reversal conditions occur within the single load change experiments as a result of anodic fuel starvation. As soon as a fuel starvation appears, the emitted CO2 increases exponentially in the anode and cathode exhaust. A maximal CO2 amount of 143.8 ?mol CO2 on the anode side and 5.8 ?mol CO2 on the cathode side is detected in the exhaust gases. The critical cell reversal conditions only occur by using hydrogen reformate as anode reactant. The influence of the starvation effects on the PEFC performance is investigated via polarization curves, cyclic and linear sweep voltammetry as well as electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The PEFC performance is reduced by 47% as a consequence of the dynamic operation.

Enz, S.; Dao, T. A.; Messerschmidt, M.; Scholta, J.

2015-01-01

51

2013 CAR Breakfast Briefing Series - Automotive Fuels and Emissions - Policies Compliance and Potential Impact of Future Technologies  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource contains presentations from one of the Center for Automotive Researchâs (CARâs) breakfast briefings titled âAutomotive Fuels and Emissions: Policies, Compliance, & Potential Impact of Future Technologies.â This briefing occurred on 12/5/13 at Robert Bosch LLC in Farmington Hills, MI. At the briefing presenters discussed the strategic implications of Tier 3 regulations which will soon be finalized and may impact future technology decisions in a multitude of ways. The impact of Tier 3 emission regulations is expected to be far reaching as they have the potential to influence the quality of fuel, as well as usage of alternative fuels and powertrains. Further, the regulations will have a direct influence on the technologies, such as diesel and gasoline direct injection, that automakers will utilize to meet the fuel economy standards through MY2025. Included in this resource are the presentations from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Volkswagen, and Bosch utilized at the briefing.

Center for Automotive Research (CAR)

52

Technology development goals for automotive fuel cell power systems. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This report determines cost and performance requirements for Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cell vehicles carrying pure H{sub 2} fuel, to achieve parity with internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicles. A conceptual design of a near term FCEV (fuel cell electric vehicle) is presented. Complete power system weight and cost breakdowns are presented for baseline design. Near term FCEV power system weight is 6% higher than ICE system, mid-term FCEV projected weights are 29% lower than ICE`s. There are no inherently high-cost components in FCE, and at automotive production volumes, near term FCEV cost viability is closer at hand than at first thought. PEM current vs voltage performance is presented for leading PEM manufacturers and researchers. 5 current and proposed onboard hydrogen storage techniques are critically compared: pressurized gas, cryogenic liquid, combined pressurized/cryogenic, rechargeable hydride, adsorption. Battery, capacitor, and motor/controller performance is summarized. Fuel cell power system component weight and cost densities (threshold and goal) are tabulated.

James, B.D.; Baum, G.N.; Kuhn, I.F. Jr. [Directed Technologies, Inc., Arlington, VA (United States)

1994-08-01

53

Engineering-economic analyses of automotive fuel economy potential in the United States  

SciTech Connect

Over the past 25 years more than 20 major studies have examined the technological potential to improve the fuel economy of passenger cars and light trucks in the US. The majority has used technology/cost analysis, a combination of analytical methods from the disciplines of economics and automotive engineering. In this paper the authors describe the key elements of this methodology, discuss critical issues responsible for the often widely divergent estimates produced by different studies, review the history of its use, and present results from six recent assessments. Whereas early studies tended to confine their scope to the potential of proven technology over a 10-year time period, more recent studies have focused on advanced technologies, raising questions about how best to include the likelihood of technological change. The paper concludes with recommendations for further research.

Greene, D.L.; DeCicco, J.

2000-02-01

54

Bacterial contamination of automotive fuels in a tropical region: the case of Costa Rica.  

PubMed

Microbial contamination of fuel has been the cause of several problems in transportation and storage of these products. Due to the lack of previous studies related to these problems in Costa Rica, bacterial quality was evaluated biannually in automotive fuels stored in the four oil distribution facilities of the Costa Rican Petroleum Refinery (RECOPE). In 12 oil storage tanks, for a total of 96 samples, mesophilic, heterotrophic aerobic/facultative counts (ASTM D6974-04) and identification of bacteria presented in regular gas, premium gas and diesel from the bottom and superior part of the tanks were done; in the samples containing an aqueous phase, sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) were also quantified by the most probable number technique (MPN), according to the ASTM D4412-84 standard. The higher contamination was shown at the bottom of the tanks (populations up to 10(4) UFC/l), especially if there was accumulated water, in which case populations reached 10(8) UFC/l. The most contaminated fuel was diesel (counts up to 10(4) UFC/l), whereas the less contaminated was premium gas. The less contaminated fuels were from the facilities of La Garita and Barranca, whereas the most contaminated were from Ochomogo. Nevertheless, the quantified populations did not cause significant alteration in quality physicochemical parameters in the samples analyzed. A total of 149 bacterial strains were isolated, 136 (91.3%) Gram positive and 13 (8.7%) Gram negative. The most frequent genera were Staphylococcus (24.0%), Micrococcus (21.9%), Bacillus (18.8%) and Kocuria (11.5%) among Gram positive bacteria and Pseudomonas (7.3%) among Gram negative bacteria. The majority of these genera have been found as fuel contaminants or even as degraders of this kind of products; nevertheless, some species for which their appearance or growth in hydrocarbons have not been described were found with low frequencies. SRB were present in counts up to 10(5) MPN/l in 42.9% of water containing samples (including all from diesel tanks), indicating biocorrosion processes risk in fuel transport and storage systems. From the findings in this study it is recommended to give a frequent maintenance to fuel containers, based on continuous drainage and removal of accumulated water, antimicrobial agent addition and microbial quality monitoring in country's fuels. PMID:19928449

Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Carlos E; Rodríguez-Cavallini, Evelyn; Blanco, Rigoberto

2009-09-01

55

Automotive Stirling summary and overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

Government-funded studies for adapting the Stirling engine to an automotive application started in 1971. The initial studies were to reduce exhaust emissions and were later broadened to include fuel economy and alternate fuels. With the passage of the Automotive Propulsion Research and Development Act of 1978, the studies matured into the current Automotive Stirling Engine (ASE) Program. After eight years

W. K. Tabata; R. K. Shaltens

1985-01-01

56

The outlook for automotive fuel supplies, alternative vehicle engines, and potential implications for transportation tax structures (1985-2000). Staff report No. 2 (final)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Potential developments in automotive fuel supplies, alternatives to the Otto Cycle engine, and implications of projected developments in these areas for state road user tax arrangements are examined. Alternative heat engines, electric vehicles, and fuel cells are considered in regard to the state of their technological development and ability to utilize nonstandard fuels. Alternative taxing arrangements briefly evaluated are: BTU

W. Barron; E. Crawford; M. Weinberg

1978-01-01

57

Liquid-hydrogen storage and refueling for automotive applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Division of Transportation Energy Conservation of the U.S. Department of Energy, the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL), the Deutsche, Forschungs- und Versuchsanstalt fur Luft- und Raumfahrt (DFVLR), and the New Mexico Energy Institute are participating in a cooperative project to examine the use of liquid hydrogen as an automotive fuel by investigating the liquid-hydrogen refueling process, assessing safety problems

W. Peschka; F. J. Edeskuty; W. F. Stewart

1980-01-01

58

A Study on Wear of Brush and Carbon Flat Commutator of DC Motor for Automotive Fuel Pump  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In an automotive fuel pump system, a small DC motor is widely used to drive the pump and driven by a automotive battery. Recently a bio-fuel, usually a mixture of gasoline and ethanol has been used due to shortage of gasoline and environmental aspect. It affects strongly the performances of a DC motor, especially commutation phenomena, what kind of fuel is used. Therefore the authors have started to investigate the influence of ethanol on the commutation phenomena. They have been reporting the wear of brush and carbon flat commutator in gasoline and ethanol so far. In this paper commutation period, arc duration, brush and commutator wear are examined in ethanol 50-gasoline 50%. Brush wears are very small compared with the previous results. Namely in the present test a mechanical sliding wear is predominant rather than erosion by arc due to short arc duration. Further, an area eroded by arc is observed to re-appear as a sliding surface. From these results a threshold arc energy between arc erosion and mechanical sliding wear is obtained, and a wear model is proposed to explain the above wear pattern on the sliding surface.

Sawa, Koichiro; Ueno, Takahiro; Tanaka, Hidenori

59

Assessment of institutional barriers to the use of natural gas fuel in automotive vehicle fleets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Institutional barriers to the use of natural gas as a fuel for motor vehicle fleets were identified. Recommendations for barrier removal were developed. Eight types of institutional barriers were assessed: (1) lack of a national standard for the safe design and certification of natural gas vehicles and refueling stations; (2) excessively conservative or misapplied state and local regulations, including bridge and tunnel restrictions, restrictions on types of vehicles that may be fueled by natural gas, zoning regulations that prohibit operation of refueling stations, parking restrictions, application of LPG standards to LNG vehicles, and unintentionally unsafe vehicle or refueling station requirements; (3) need for clarification of EPA's tampering enforcement policy; (4) the U.S. hydrocarbon standard; (5) uncertainty concerning state utility commission jurisdiction; (6) sale for resale prohibitions imposed by natural gas utility companies or state utility commissions; (7) uncertainty of the effects of conversions to natural gas on vehicle manufactures warranties; and (8) need for a natural gas to gasoline equivalent units conversion factor for use in calculation of state road use taxes.

Jablonski, J.; Lent, L.; Lawrence, M.; White, L.

1983-08-01

60

Combustion of biomass fuels in two cookstoves for their conservation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conservation of biofuels is an urgent need of the present hour for reducing pressure on the natural forest resources and meeting the alternative requirements. In the present investigation a traditional biomass stove, presently used by 120 million households in India, and the Sugam-II stove, developed and dessiminated by TBU, IIT Delhi, were used for observing fuel utilization efficiency. Acacia nilotica

J. B. Kandpal; R. C. Maheshwari

1995-01-01

61

AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE 1. UNIT III, MAINTAINING THE FUEL SYSTEM--DETROIT DIESEL ENGINE.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THIS MODULE OF A 30-MODULE COURSE IS DESIGNED TO DEVELOP AN UNDERSTANDING OF THE OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE OF THE DIESEL ENGINE FUEL SYSTEM. TOPICS ARE (1) PURPOSE OF THE FUEL SYSTEM, (2) TRACING THE FUEL FLOW, (3) MINOR COMPONENTS OF THE FUEL SYSTEM, (4) MAINTENANCE TIPS, (5) CONSTRUCTION AND FUNCTION OF THE FUEL INJECTORS, AND (6)…

Human Engineering Inst., Cleveland, OH.

62

Automotive Fuel Economy: A Technical Study and Curriculum Development Project. A Thesis Presented to the Faculty of the College of Education, Mankato State University.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Automotive fuel economy was the topic of a study during which technical and background information was gathered, curriculum materials were sought, and curricula were developed. Technical information came from written materials and actual mileage tests of selected factors. Background came from written materials, field trips, and building and…

Ready, Kirk Lewis

63

Working towards a future on alternative fuels : the role of the automotive industry  

E-print Network

Complementarity of vehicles and fuels has posed significant barrier for increasing the use of alternative fuels in place of traditional ones. An initial positive number of either alternative fuel vehicle (AFV) users or ...

Chen, Cuicui

2012-01-01

64

Hydrogen Storage for Automotive Vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hydrogen fuel cells represent a strong potential alternative to internal combustion engines relying on fossil fuels. The benefits and hurdles to hydrogen mobility are discussed, with particular emphasis on methods and materials for storing hydrogen in automotive vehicles.

Herbst, J. F.

2008-09-01

65

Net energy, CO 2 emission, and life-cycle cost assessment of cassava-based ethanol as an alternative automotive fuel in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Assessment on net energy, external cost of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and cost of using cassava-based ethanol as an alternative automotive fuel has been conducted based on its holistic life-cycle, from feedstock production (source) to fuel combustion. And, a new indicator, figure of merit (FM), is proposed for grading conventional gasoline (CG) and cassava-based ethanol (CE): it links net energy

Zhiyuan Hu; Fang Fang; DaoFeng Ben; Gengqiang Pu; Chengtao Wang

2004-01-01

66

A fuel conservation study for transport aircraft utilizing advanced technology and hydrogen fuel  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The conservation of fossil fuels in commercial aviation was investigated. Four categories of aircraft were selected for investigation: (1) conventional, medium range, low take-off gross weight; (2) conventional, long range, high take-off gross weights; (3) large take-off gross weight aircraft that might find future applications using both conventional and advanced technology; and (4) advanced technology aircraft of the future powered with liquid hydrogen fuel. It is concluded that the hydrogen fueled aircraft can perform at reduced size and gross weight the same payload/range mission as conventionally fueled aircraft.

Berry, W.; Calleson, R.; Espil, J.; Quartero, C.; Swanson, E.

1972-01-01

67

Hybrid and Electric Automotive Systems: Combined Electrical, Mechanical, and Fuel Cell Opportunities for Personal Transportation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electric automobiles are clean, efficient, and powerful but are limited in range. Hybrid designs seek to enhance range through the use of liquid fuel. The energy, force, and power needs of a typical car are reviewed. The relationship to fuel cells as energy sources is discussed. Opportunities in the electrical arena, the mechanical arena, and the fuel cell arena are

Philip T. Krein

2006-01-01

68

Automotive Engines; Automotive Mechanics I: 9043.03.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This automotive engines course studies and demonstrates the theory and principles of operation of the automotive four stroke cycle engine. The student will develop an understanding of the systems necessary to make the engine perform as designed, such as cooling, fuel, ignition and lubrication. This is a one or two quinmester credit course of 45…

Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

69

Fuel cells for automotive powertrains—A techno-economic assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the objective of identifying the hurdles currently preventing a widespread application of fuel cell technology in passenger cars an assessment of technical and economic parameters is carried out. Patent and publication analysis is used to assess current status of fuel cell technology regarding its position on technology life cycle. S-curve methodology leads to the conclusion that further scientific activity

Peter Mock; Stephan A. Schmid

2009-01-01

70

Enhanced air/fuel mixing for automotive stirling engine turbulator-type combustors  

DOEpatents

The invention relates to the improved combustion of fuel in a combustion chamber of a stirling engine and the like by dividing combustion into primary and secondary combustion zones through the use of a diverter plate.

Riecke, George T. (Ballston Spa, NY); Stotts, Robert E. (Newark, NY)

1992-01-01

71

Development of a test facility for the experimental evaluation of liquid and gaseous automotive engine fuels  

E-print Network

emissions, power, speed, fuel and air flowrates, spark advance and various pressures and temperatures on the engine, The engine variables which were measured were torque, r pm, manifold vacuum, and air and fuel flowrates. Measured components in the engine... to measure torque, emissions, cylinder pressure, as well as various temperatures and pressures on the engine was investigated. While constructing the system and selecting the instrumentation, many things were taken into consideration; among these were...

McCanlies, John Michael

1983-01-01

72

Experimental evaluation of fuel preparation systems for an automotive gas turbine catalytic combustor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Spatial fuel distributions, degree of vaporization, pressure drop and air velocity profiles were measured. Three airblast injectors and an air-assist nozzle were tested. Air swirlers were used to improve the spatial fuel-air distribution. The work was done in a 12 cm tubular duct. Test conditions were: a pressure of 0.3 and 0.5 MPa, inlet air temperatures up to 800 K, air velocities of 10 20 m/s and fuel-air ratios up to 0.020. The fuel was Jet A. The best results were obtained with an airblast configuration that used multiple cones to provide high velocity air for atomization and also straightened the inlet airflow. With this configuration, uniform spatial fuel-air distributions were obtained with mixing lengths greater than 17.8 cm. In this length, vaporization of the fuel was 98.5 percent complete at an inlet air temperature of 700 K. The total pressure loss was 1.0 percent with a reference velocity of 20 m/s and 0.25 percent at 10m/s. The air velocity was uniform across the duct and no autoignition reactions were observed.

Tacina, R. R.

1977-01-01

73

Review of JPL Automotive Technology Status and Projections (ATSP) project  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The general objective was to make a continuing assessment of current automotive technology development programs and of the prospects for new concepts. The study embraced alternative engines, advanced powertrain components, and related energy conserving vehicle modifications which could be implemented by the end of this century. Vehicle level projections of the fuel economy and emissions potential of alternative power systems were key elements of this assessment.

Dowdy, M. W.

1978-01-01

74

Light-duty automotive technology and fuel economy trends through 1993. Technical report  

SciTech Connect

The report describes the trends in light-duty motor vehicle fuel economy and technology usage for model years 1975 through 1993. Comparisons with previous year's data are made for the fleet as a whole and for a number of cylinders, vehicle size class, inertia weight class, and market segment, including domestic, European, and Asian vehicles.

Murrell, J.D.; Hellman, K.H.; Heavenrich, R.M.

1993-05-01

75

Light-duty automotive technology and fuel economy trends through 1993. Technical report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The report describes the trends in light-duty motor vehicle fuel economy and technology usage for model years 1975 through 1993. Comparisons with previous year's data are made for the fleet as a whole and for a number of cylinders, vehicle size class, inertia weight class, and market segment, including domestic, European, and Asian vehicles.

J. D. Murrell; K. H. Hellman; R. M. Heavenrich

1993-01-01

76

Light-duty automotive technology and fuel-economy trends through 1988. Technical report  

SciTech Connect

This report examines trends in light-duty motor-vehicle fuel economy and technology usage for model years 1978 through 1988. Comparisons with previous year's data are made for the fleet as a whole and for the number of cylinders, vehicle-size class, inertia weight class, and market segment, includes domestic, European, and Asian vehicles.

Heavenrich, R.M.; Murrell, J.D.

1988-06-01

77

Light-duty automotive technology and fuel-economy trends through 1989. Technical report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trends in motor-vehicle technology and fuel-economy usage for light-duty cars and trucks model years 1978 through 1989 are examined in the report. Comparisons with previous years' data are made for the fleet as a whole and for the number of cylinders, vehicle class size, inertia weight class, and market segment (Domestic, European, and Asian).

R. M. Heavenrich; J. D. Murrell

1989-01-01

78

Light-duty automotive technology and fuel-economy trends through 1988. Technical report  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report examines trends in light-duty motor-vehicle fuel economy and technology usage for model years 1978 through 1988. Comparisons with previous year's data are made for the fleet as a whole and for the number of cylinders, vehicle-size class, inertia weight class, and market segment, includes domestic, European, and Asian vehicles.

R. M. Heavenrich; J. D. Murrell

1988-01-01

79

Light-duty automotive technology and fuel-economy trends through 1989. Technical report  

SciTech Connect

Trends in motor-vehicle technology and fuel-economy usage for light-duty cars and trucks model years 1978 through 1989 are examined in the report. Comparisons with previous years' data are made for the fleet as a whole and for the number of cylinders, vehicle class size, inertia weight class, and market segment (Domestic, European, and Asian).

Heavenrich, R.M.; Murrell, J.D.

1989-05-01

80

Considerations for Using Composite Pressure Vessels (CPVs) in Fuel Storage for Automotive Applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Ongoing initiative to get high energy capacity "green fuel" containers to market quickly and cost effectively. The United States has decided to invest in "green energy" technology, to become energy independent, and to "Innovate Our Way to a Clean Energy Future."

Cone, Darren; Greene, Nathanael; Beeson, Harold; McCloskey, David

2013-01-01

81

Experimental hydrogen-fueled automotive engine design data-base project. Volume 2. Main technical report  

SciTech Connect

Operational performance and emissions characteristics of hydrogen-fueled engines are reviewed. The project activities are reviewed including descriptions of the test engine and its components, the test apparatus, experimental techniques, experiments performed and the results obtained. Analyses of other hydrogen engine project data are also presented and compared with the results of the present effort.

Swain, M.R.; Adt, R.R. Jr.; Pappas, J.M.

1983-05-01

82

Assessment of methane-related fuels for automotive fleet vehicles: technical, supply, and economic assessments  

SciTech Connect

The use of methane-related fuels, derived from a variety of sources, in highway vehicles is assessed. Methane, as used here, includes natural gas (NG) as well as synthetic natural gas (SNG). Methanol is included because it can be produced from NG or the same resources as SNG, and because it is a liquid fuel at normal ambient conditions. Technological, operational, efficiency, petroleum displacement, supply, safety, and economic issues are analyzed. In principle, both NG and methanol allow more efficient engine operation than gasoline. In practice, engines are at present rarely optimized for NG and methanol. On the basis of energy expended from resource extraction to end use, only optimized LNG vehicles are more efficient than their gasoline counterparts. By 1985, up to 16% of total petroleum-based highway vehicle fuel could be displaced by large fleets with central NG fueling depots. Excluding diesel vehicles, which need technology advances to use NG, savings of 8% are projected. Methanol use by large fleets could displace up to 8% of petroleum-based highway vehicle fuel from spark-ignition vehicles and another 9% from diesel vehicles with technology advances. The US NG supply appears adequate to accommodate fleet use. Supply projections, future price differential versus gasoline, and user economics are uncertain. In many cases, attractive paybacks can occur. Compressed NG now costs on average about $0.65 less than gasoline, per energy-equivalent gallon. Methanol supply projections, future prices, and user economics are even more uncertain. Current and projected near-term methanol supplies are far from adequate to support fleet use. Methanol presently costs more than gasoline on an equal-energy basis, but is projected to cost less if produced from coal instead of NG or petroleum.

Not Available

1982-02-01

83

Enhancement of automotive compressed natural-gas-fuel storage via adsorbents. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The New York State Energy Research and Development Authority and the New York State Gas Group completed a project assessing the potential for adsorbent-enhanced storage of compressed natural gas for dual-fuel vehicles. The report compares several carbon and zeolite adsorbents based on surface area, porosity, pore size distribution, density and methane loading; AX-21 is evaluated in detail. The impact of

Notaro

1985-01-01

84

Examination of the costs, benefits and enery conservation aspects of the NASA aircraft fuel conservation technology program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The costs and benefits of the NASA Aircraft Fuel Conservation Technology Program are discussed. Consideration is given to a present worth analysis of the planned program expenditures, an examination of the fuel savings to be obtained by the year 2005 and the worth of this fuel savings relative to the investment required, a comparison of the program funding with that planned by other Federal agencies for energy conservation, an examination of the private industry aeronautical research and technology financial posture for the period FY 76 - FY 85, and an assessment of the potential impacts on air and noise pollution. To aid in this analysis, a computerized fleet mix forecasting model was developed. This model enables the estimation of fuel consumption and present worth of fuel expenditures for selected commerical aircraft fleet mix scenarios.

1975-01-01

85

Automotive Maintenance  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Weekly Article assignment Read an article about automotive and write a half page double space summery. This assignment is due each Monday when class start. You can use any online site listed below. In each site there are many different article from different automotive manufactures. Choose anyone that you would like to learn and ...

Mr. Call

2007-02-27

86

Automotive Engines  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

calculate engine displacement find the volume of a cylinderThe Volume of a Cylinder ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ now that you have the formula lets convert it into automotive terms original = AREA of BASE X the HEIGHT automotive = AREA of BORE X the STROKE ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- with the calculations you have of one cylinder, multiply that by how many cylinders you have total. You now know ...

Teacher Todd

2005-10-19

87

Development of a Hybrid Compressor/Expander Module for Automotive Fuel Cell Applications  

SciTech Connect

In this program TIAX LLC conducted the development of an advanced technology compressor/expander for supplying compressed air to Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cells in transportation applications. The overall objective of this program was to develop a hybrid compressor/expander module, based on both scroll and high-speed turbomachinery technologies, which will combine the strengths of each technology to create a concept with superior performance at minimal size and cost. The resulting system was expected to have efficiency and pressure delivery capability comparable to that of a scroll-only machine, at significantly reduced system size and weight when compared to scroll-only designs. Based on the results of detailed designs and analyses of the critical system elements, the Hybrid Compressor/Expander Module concept was projected to deliver significant improvements in weight, volume and manufacturing cost relative to previous generation systems.

McTaggart, Paul

2004-12-31

88

Status and Outlook for the U.S. Non-Automotive Fuel Cell Industry: Impacts of Government Policies and Assessment of Future Opportunities  

SciTech Connect

Fuel cells (FCs) are considered essential future energy technologies by developed and developing economies alike. Several countries, including the United States, Japan, Germany, and South Korea have established publicly funded R&D and market transformation programs to develop viable domestic FC industries for both automotive and non-automotive applications. Important non-automotive applications include large scale and small scale distributed combined heat and electrical power, backup and uninterruptible power, material handling and auxiliary power units. The U.S. FC industry is in the early stages of development, and is working to establish sustainable markets in all these areas. To be successful, manufacturers must reduce costs, improve performance, and overcome market barriers to new technologies. U.S. policies are assisting via research and development, tax credits and government-only and government-assisted procurements. Over the past three years, the industry has made remarkable progress, bringing both stack and system costs down by more than a factor of two while improving durability and efficiency, thanks in part to government support. Today, FCs are still not yet able to compete in these markets without continued policy support. However, continuation or enhancement of current policies, such as the investment tax credit and government procurements, together with continued progress by the industry, appears likely to establish a viable domestic industry within the next decade.

Greene, David L [ORNL; Duleep, K. G. [ICF International; Upreti, Girish [ORNL

2011-06-01

89

Infrared in automotive applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As the automotive industry continues to develop advanced materials and manufacturing processes, infrared imaging has the potential to become a major tool in process monitoring and closed loop process control. This paper reviews five novel applications of infrared imaging in applications such as product testing, component manufacture, and vehicle assembly. Infrared was found to be effective as a diagnostics tool for characterizing disc brake systems and electronic engine control sensors. The effectiveness of infrared to qualify fuel nozzle backspray was used to optimize hardware design for fuel systems. Finally, infrared was found to be useful in vehicle assembly operations in the installation of windshield glass and instrument panel hardware where visual inspection was impractical. The speed of image capture and the availability of image processing software for real time image processing and closed loop process control will no doubt find more applications as infrared imaging finds its niche in the automotive industry.

Predmesky, Ronald L.; Zaluzec, Matthew J.

1997-04-01

90

ECAS Phase I fuel cell results. [Energy Conservation Alternatives Study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper summarizes and discusses the fuel cell system results of Phase I of the Energy Conversion Alternatives Study (ECAS). Ten advanced electric powerplant systems for central-station baseload generation using coal were studied by NASA in ECAS. Three types of low-temperature fuel cells (solid polymer electrolyte, SPE, aqueous alkaline, and phosphoric acid) and two types of high-temperature fuel cells (molten carbonate, MC, and zirconia solid electrolyte, SE) were studied. The results indicate that (1) overall efficiency increases with fuel cell temperature, and (2) scale-up in powerplant size can produce a significant reduction in cost of electricity (COE) only when it is accompanied by utilization of waste fuel cell heat through a steam bottoming cycle and/or integration with a gasifier. For low-temperature fuel cell systems, the use of hydrogen results in the highest efficiency and lowest COE. In spite of higher efficiencies, because of higher fuel cell replacement costs integrated SE systems have higher projected COEs than do integrated MC systems. Present data indicate that life can be projected to over 30,000 hr for MC fuel cells, but data are not yet sufficient for similarly projecting SE fuel cell life expectancy.

Warshay, M.

1978-01-01

91

Aircraft fuel conservation technology. Task force report, September 10, 1975  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An advanced technology program is described for reduced fuel consumption in air transport. Cost benefits and estimates are given for improved engine design and components, turboprop propulsion systems, active control systems, laminar flow control, and composite primary structures.

1975-01-01

92

Evaluation of low wing-loading fuel conservative, short-haul transports  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Fuel conservation that could be attained with two technology advancements, Q fan propulsion system and active control technology (ACT) was studied. Aircraft incorporating each technology were sized for a Federal Aviation Regulation (FAR) field length of 914 meters (3,000 feet), 148 passengers, and a 926 kilometer (500 nautical mile) mission. The cruise Mach number was .70 at 10100 meter (33,000 foot) altitude. The improvement resulting from application of the Q fan propulsion system was computed relative to an optimized fuel conservative transport design. The performance improvements resulting from application of ACT technology were relative to the optimized Q fan propulsion system configuration.

Pasley, L. H.; Waldeck, T. A.

1976-01-01

93

Chemicals for the automotive industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

This book covers a wide range of advanced materials, surface treatments, and clean fuels\\/lubricants now used to manufacture, propel, and maintain motor vehicles. The book examines recent advancements and current research, illustrating the progress to date, future trends, new applications, and the effects of these of automotive chemicals on the environment (including pollution, recyclability, and efficiency). Environmental considerations and their

Drake

1991-01-01

94

WET/DRY COOLING SYSTEMS FOR FOSSIL-FUELED POWER PLANTS: WATER CONSERVATION AND PLUME ABATEMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of a study of technical and economic feasibilities of wet/dry cooling towers for water conservation and vapor plume abatement. Results of cost optimizations of wet/dry cooling for 1000-MWe fossil-fueled power plants are presented. Five sites in the wester...

95

Emissions comparison of alternative fuels in an advanced automotive diesel engine. Interim report, October 1997April 1998  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exhaust emissions mappings were conducted for six alternative diesel fuels in a Daimler-Benz (DB) OM6l1 diesel engine. The OM6l 1 engine is a 2.2L, direct-injection diesel with a Bosch, high-pressure, common-rail, fuel-injection system. The engine design closely matches the specifications of the Partnership for a New Generation Vehicle (PNGV) target compression-ignition engine. Triplicate 13-mode, steady-state test sequences were performed for

M. B. Sirman; E. C. Owens; K. A. Whitney

1998-01-01

96

User's manual for a fuel-conservative descent planning algorithm implemented on a small programmable calculator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A simplified flight management descent algorithm was developed and programmed on a small programmable calculator. It was designed to aid the pilot in planning and executing a fuel conservative descent to arrive at a metering fix at a time designated by the air traffic control system. The algorithm may also be used for planning fuel conservative descents when time is not a consideration. The descent path was calculated for a constant Mach/airspeed schedule from linear approximations of airplane performance with considerations given for gross weight, wind, and nonstandard temperature effects. An explanation and examples of how the algorithm is used, as well as a detailed flow chart and listing of the algorithm are contained.

Vicroy, D. D.

1984-01-01

97

Energy efficiency assessment by life cycle simulation of cassava-based fuel ethanol for automotive use in Chinese Guangxi context  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interest has been renewed in bio-ethanol products for their contributions in moderating oil crises. So far, most research on bio-ethanol in China is based on pilot-level experimental studies. But this work only discloses information regarding material balances and reached yields without any further energy analysis.This paper aims to assess the energy efficiency of the cassava-based fuel ethanol (KFE) product from

Suiran Yu; Jing Tao

2009-01-01

98

Automotive Stirling engine systems development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objective of the Automotive Stirling Engine (ASE) program is to develop a Stirling engine for automotive use that provides a 30 percent improvement in fuel economy relative to a comparable internal-combustion engine while meeting emissions goals. This paper traces the engine systems' development efforts focusing on: (1) a summary of engine system performance for all Mod I engines; (2) the development, program conducted for the upgraded Mod I; and (3) vehicle systems work conducted to enhance vehicle fuel economy. Problems encountered during the upgraded Mod I test program are discussed. The importance of the EPA driving cycle cold-start penalty and the measures taken to minimize that penalty with the Mod II are also addressed.

Richey, A. E.

1984-01-01

99

Influence of fuel injection timing and pressure on in-flame soot particles in an automotive-size diesel engine.  

PubMed

The current understanding of soot particle morphology in diesel engines and their dependency on the fuel injection timing and pressure is limited to those sampled from the exhaust. In this study, a thermophoretic sampling and subsequent transmission electron microscope imaging were applied to the in-flame soot particles inside the cylinder of a working diesel engine for various fuel injection timings and pressures. The results show that the number count of soot particles per image decreases by more than 80% when the injection timing is retarded from -12 to -2 crank angle degrees after the top dead center. The late injection also results in over 90% reduction of the projection area of soot particles on the TEM image and the size of soot aggregates also become smaller. The primary particle size, however, is found to be insensitive to the variations in fuel injection timing. For injection pressure variations, both the size of primary particles and soot aggregates are found to decrease with increasing injection pressure, demonstrating the benefits of high injection velocity and momentum. Detailed analysis shows that the number count of soot particles per image increases with increasing injection pressure up to 130 MPa, primarily due to the increased small particle aggregates that are less than 40 nm in the radius of gyration. The fractal dimension shows an overall decrease with the increasing injection pressure. However, there is a case that the fractal dimension shows an unexpected increase between 100 and 130 MPa injection pressure. It is because the small aggregates with more compact and agglomerated structures outnumber the large aggregates with more stretched chain-like structures. PMID:24933154

Zhang, Renlin; Kook, Sanghoon

2014-07-15

100

Automotive vehicle sensors  

SciTech Connect

This report is an introduction to the field of automotive vehicle sensors. It contains a prototype data base for companies working in automotive vehicle sensors, as well as a prototype data base for automotive vehicle sensors. A market analysis is also included.

Sheen, S.H.; Raptis, A.C.; Moscynski, M.J.

1995-09-01

101

Automotive Diagnostic Technologies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document contains materials developed for and about the automotive diagnostic technologies tech prep program of the South-Western City Schools in Ohio. Part 1 begins with a map of the program, which begins with an automotive/diagnostic technologies program in grades 11 and 12 that leads to entry-level employment or a 2-year automotive

Columbus State Community Coll., OH.

102

Conservation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This set of teaching aids consists of seven Audubon Nature Bulletins, providing the teacher and student with informational reading on various topics in conservation. The bulletins have these titles: Plants as Makers of Soil, Water Pollution Control, The Ground Water Table, Conservation--To Keep This Earth Habitable, Our Threatened Air Supply,…

National Audubon Society, New York, NY.

103

General Mechanical Repair. Minor Automotive Maintenance. Volume 1. Teacher's Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Fourteen units on minor automotive maintenance are presented in this teacher's guide. The units are the following: introduction to minor automotive maintenance, shop safety, engine principles, fuel system operation and repair, electrical system, ignition system, lubrication system, engine cooling system, exhaust system, wheel bearings and tires,…

East Texas State Univ., Commerce. Occupational Curriculum Lab.

104

An assessment of the benefits of the use of NASA developed fuel conservative technology in the US commercial aircraft fleet  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Cost and benefits of a fuel conservative aircraft technology program proposed by NASA are estimated. NASA defined six separate technology elements for the proposed program: (a) engine component improvement (b) composite structures (c) turboprops (d) laminar flow control (e) fuel conservative engine and (f) fuel conservative transport. There were two levels postulated: The baseline program was estimated to cost $490 million over 10 years with peak funding in 1980. The level two program was estimated to cost an additional $180 million also over 10 years. Discussions with NASA and with representatives of the major commercial airframe manufacturers were held to estimate the combinations of the technology elements most likely to be implemented, the potential fuel savings from each combination, and reasonable dates for incorporation of these new aircraft into the fleet.

1975-01-01

105

77 FR 55898 - Request for Comments on a Renewal of a Previously Approved Information Collection: Automotive...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Information Collection: Automotive Fuel Economy Reports ACTION: Notice and request for...INFORMATION CONTACT: Kenneth R. Katz, Fuel Economy Division, Office of International Policy, Fuel Economy and Consumer Programs, NVS-132,...

2012-09-11

106

Destruction and formation of PCDD/Fs in a fluidised bed combustor co-incinerating automotive shredder residue with refuse derived fuel and wastewater treatment sludge.  

PubMed

During an eight day trial automotive shredder residue (ASR) was added to the usual waste feed of a Fluidized Bed Combustor (FBC) for waste-to-energy conversion; the input waste mix consisted of 25% ASR, 25% refuse-derived fuel (RDF) and 50% wastewater treatment (WWT) sludge. All inputs and outputs were sampled and the concentration of the 17 PCDD/Fs with TEF-values was determined in order to obtain "PCDD/F fingerprints". The ASR contained approximately 9000 ng PCDD/Fs/kg(DW), six times more than the RDF and 10 times more than the WWT sludge. The fingerprint of ASR and RDF was dominated by HpCDD and OCDD, which accounted for 90% of the total PDDD/F content, whereas the WWT sludge contained relatively more HpCDFs and OCDF (together 70%). The flue gas cleaning residue (FGCR) and fly and boiler ash contained approximately 30,000 and 2500 ng PCDD/Fs/kg(DW), respectively. The fingerprints of these outputs were also dominated by HpCDFs and OCDF. The bottom ash contained only OCDD and OCDF, in total 8 ng PCDD/Fs/kg (DW). From the comparison of the bottom ash fingerprints with the fingerprints of the other output fractions and of the inputs, it could be concluded that the PCDD/Fs in the waste were destroyed and new PCDD/Fs were formed in the post combustion process by de novo synthesis. During the ASR-co-incineration, the PCDD/F congener concentrations in the fly and boiler ash, FGCR and flue gas were 1.25-10 times higher compared to the same output fractions generated during incineration of the usual waste mix (70% RDF and 30% WWT sludge). The concentration of the higher chlorinated PCDD/Fs increased most. As these congeners have the lowest TEF-factors, the total PCDD/F output, expressed in kg TEQ/year, of the FBC did not increase significantly when ASR was co-incinerated. Due to the relatively high copper levels in the ASR, the copper concentrations in the FBCs outputs increased. As copper catalysis the de novo syntheses, this could explain the increase in PCDD/F concentrations in these outputs. PMID:21621915

Van Caneghem, J; Vermeulen, I; Block, C; Van Brecht, A; Van Royen, P; Jaspers, M; Wauters, G; Vandecasteele, C

2012-03-15

107

Status and Prospects of the Global Automotive Fuel Cell Industry and Plans for Deployment of Fuel Cell Vehicles and Hydrogen Refueling Infrastructure  

SciTech Connect

Automobile manufacturers leading the development of mass-market fuel cell vehicles (FCVs) were interviewed in Japan, Korea, Germany and the United States. There is general agreement that the performance of FCVs with respect to durability, cold start, packaging, acceleration, refueling time and range has progressed to the point where vehicles that could be brought to market in 2015 will satisfy customer expectations. However, cost and the lack of refueling infrastructure remain significant barriers. Costs have been dramatically reduced over the past decade, yet are still about twice what appears to be needed for sustainable market success. While all four countries have plans for the early deployment of hydrogen refueling infrastructure, the roles of government, industry and the public in creating a viable hydrogen refueling infrastructure remain unresolved. The existence of an adequate refueling infrastructure and supporting government policies are likely to be the critical factors that determine when and where hydrogen FCVs are brought to market.

Greene, David L [ORNL; Duleep, Gopal [HD Systems

2013-06-01

108

Automotive Design and Production  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This web site is the "Field Guide to Automotive Technology" and contains a great deal of information for automotive engineers, or for those teaching and studying in the field. Here, visitors will find all issues of the Automotive Design and Production monthly magazine going back to 1997. The "Industry Focus" section contains articles on electronics, and tools and practices in the automotive supply chain. The "Resources" section supplies information about automotive industry events, a database of links to useful automotive sites, as well as reports and books. The tabs on the top of the page take users to various forums and articles from the site, categorized as "On Cars," "Equip & Apps," "Materials," "Supply Side," and "Digital Domain."

2007-09-27

109

Planning fuel-conservative descents in an airline environmental using a small programmable calculator: Algorithm development and flight test results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A simple, airborne, flight-management descent algorithm was developed and programmed into a small programmable calculator. The algorithm may be operated in either a time mode or speed mode. The time mode was designed to aid the pilot in planning and executing a fuel-conservative descent to arrive at a metering fix at a time designated by the air traffic control system. The speed model was designed for planning fuel-conservative descents when time is not a consideration. The descent path for both modes was calculated for a constant with considerations given for the descent Mach/airspeed schedule, gross weight, wind, wind gradient, and nonstandard temperature effects. Flight tests, using the algorithm on the programmable calculator, showed that the open-loop guidance could be useful to airline flight crews for planning and executing fuel-conservative descents.

Knox, C. E.; Vicroy, D. D.; Simmon, D. A.

1985-01-01

110

Light weight materials for automotive applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a result of more stringent requirements for improved fuel economy and emissions, there is a growing trend to substitute Al and Mg for conventional steel and cast irons in vehicles. This article describes some of the technical issues that must be considered if the automotive industry is to utilize these lightweight materials in larger volumes. Lightweight metals may be

G. S. Cole; A. M. Sherman

1995-01-01

111

Automotive Applications of Thermoelectric Materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report reviews several existing and potential automotive applications of thermoelectric technology. Material and device\\u000a issues related to automotive applications are discussed. Challenges for automotive thermoelectric applications are highlighted.

Jihui Yang; Francis R. Stabler

2009-01-01

112

Platinum availability for future automotive technologies.  

PubMed

Platinum is an excellent catalyst, can be used at high temperatures, and is stable in many aggressive chemical environments. Consequently, platinum is used in many current industrial applications, notably automotive catalytic converters, and prospective vehicle fuel cells are expected to rely upon it. Between 2005 and 2010, the automotive industry used approximately 40% of mined platinum. Future automotive industry growth and automotive sales shifts toward new technologies could significantly alter platinum demand. The potential risks for decreased platinum availability are evaluated, using an analysis of platinum market characteristics that describes platinum's geophysical constraints, institutional efficiency, and dynamic responsiveness. Results show that platinum demand for an automotive fleet that meets 450 ppm greenhouse gas stabilization goals would require within 10% of historical growth rates of platinum supply before 2025. However, such a fleet, due largely to sales growth in fuel cell vehicles, will more strongly constrain platinum supply in the 2050 time period. While current platinum reserves are sufficient to satisfy this increased demand, decreasing platinum ore grade and continued concentration of platinum supply in a single geographic area are availability risk factors to platinum end-users. PMID:23088692

Alonso, Elisa; Field, Frank R; Kirchain, Randolph E

2012-12-01

113

Description of the computations and pilot procedures for planning fuel-conservative descents with a small programmable calculator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A simplified flight management descent algorithm was developed and programmed on a small programmable calculator. It was designed to aid the pilot in planning and executing a fuel conservative descent to arrive at a metering fix at a time designated by the air traffic control system. The algorithm may also be used for planning fuel conservative descents when time is not a consideration. The descent path was calculated for a constant Mach/airspeed schedule from linear approximations of airplane performance with considerations given for gross weight, wind, and nonstandard temperature effects. The flight management descent algorithm and the vertical performance modeling required for the DC-10 airplane is described.

Vicroy, D. D.; Knox, C. E.

1983-01-01

114

Simulator evaluation of optimal thrust management/fuel conservation strategies for airbus aircraft on short haul routes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The feasibility of incorporating optimal concepts into a practical system was determined. Various earlier theoretical analyses were confirmed, and insight was gained into the sensitivity of fuel conservation strategies to nonlinear and second order aerodynamic and engine characteristics. In addition to the investigation of optimal trajectories the study ascertained combined fuel savings by utilizing various procedure-oriented improvements such as delayed flap/decelerating approaches and great circle navigation.

Bochem, J. H.; Mossman, D. C.; Lanier, P. D.

1977-01-01

115

Automotive Technology Skill Standards  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The standards in this document are for Automotive Technology programs and are designed to clearly state what the student should know and be able to do upon completion of an advanced high-school automotive program. Minimally, the student will complete a three-year program to achieve all standards. Although these exit-level standards are designed…

Garrett, Tom; Asay, Don; Evans, Richard; Barbie, Bill; Herdener, John; Teague, Todd; Allen, Scott; Benshoof, James

2009-01-01

116

AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE 1. UNIT XIII, I--MAINTAINING THE FUEL SYSTEM (PART III), CUMMINS DIESEL ENGINES, II--RADIATOR SHUTTER SYSTEM.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THIS MODULE OF A 30-MODULE COURSE IS DESIGNED TO DEVELOP AN UNDERSTANDING OF THE CONSTRUCTION, OPERATION, AND MAINTENANCE OF THE DIESEL ENGINE FUEL AND RADIATOR SHUTTER SYSTEMS. TOPICS ARE (1) MORE ABOUT THE CUMMINS FUEL SYSTEM, (2) CALIBRATING THE PT FUEL PUMP, (3) CALIBRATING THE FUEL INJECTORS, (4) UNDERSTANDING THE SHUTTER SYSTEM, (5) THE…

Human Engineering Inst., Cleveland, OH.

117

AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE 1. UNIT XXII, I--MAINTAINING THE FUEL SYSTEM (PART I)--CUMMINS DIESEL ENGINE, II--UNDERSTANDING THE DIFFERENTIAL.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THIS MODULE OF A 30-MODULE COURSE IS DESIGNED TO DEVELOP AN UNDERSTANDING OF THE FUNCTION AND MAINTENANCE OF THE DIESEL ENGINE FUEL SYSTEM AND DIFFERENTIAL DRIVE UNITS USED IN DIESEL POWERED VEHICLES. TOPICS ARE (1) FUEL SYSTEM COMPARISONS, (2) FUEL SYSTEM SUPPLY COMPONENTS, (3) FUEL SUPPLY SECTION MAINTENANCE, (4) FUNCTION OF THE DIFFERENTIAL,…

Minnesota State Dept. of Education, St. Paul. Div. of Vocational and Technical Education.

118

Techno-economic requirements for automotive composites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

New technology generally serves two main goals of the automotive industry: one is to enable vehicles to comply with various governmental regulations and the other is to provide a competitive edge in the market. The latter goal can either be served through improved manufacturing and design capabilities, such as computer aided design and computer aided manufacturing, or through improved product performance, such as anti-lock braking (ABS). Although safety features are sometimes customer driven, such as the increasing use of airbags and ABS, most are determined by regulations as outlined by the Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards (FMVSS). Other standards, set by the Environmental Protection Agency, determine acceptable levels of emissions and fuel consumption. State governments, such as in California, are also setting precedent standards, such as requiring manufacturers to offer zero-emission vehicles as a certain fraction of their sales in the state. The drive to apply new materials in the automobile stems from the need to reduce weight and improve fuel efficiency. Topics discussed include: new lightweight materials; types of automotive materials; automotive composite applications; the role for composite materials in automotive applications; advantages and disadvantages of composite materials; material substitution economics; economic perspective; production economics; and composite materials production economics.

Arnold, Scot

1993-01-01

119

AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE L. UNIT XII, PART I--MAINTAINING THE FUEL SYSTEM (PART II), CUMMINS DIESEL ENGINE, PART II--UNIT INSTALLATION (ENGINE).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THIS MODULE OF A 30-MODULE COURSE IS DESIGNED TO DEVELOP AN UNDERSTANDING OF THE OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE OF THE DIESEL ENGINE FUEL SYSTEM AND THE PROCEDURES FOR DIESEL ENGINE INSTALLATION. TOPICS ARE FUEL FLOW CHARACTERISTICS, PTG FUEL PUMP, PREPARATION FOR INSTALLATION, AND INSTALLING ENGINE. THE MODULE CONSISTS OF A SELF-INSTRUCTIONAL BRANCH…

Human Engineering Inst., Cleveland, OH.

120

Automotive Stirling engine: Mod 2 design report  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The design of an automotive Stirling engine that achieves the superior fuel economy potential of the Stirling cycle is described. As the culmination of a 9-yr development program, this engine, designated the Mod 2, also nullifies arguments that Stirling engines are heavy, expensive, unreliable, demonstrating poor performance. Installed in a General Motors Chevrolet Celebrity car, this engine has a predicted combined fuel economy on unleaded gasoline of 17.5 km/l (41 mpg)- a value 50% above the current vehicle fleet average. The Mod 2 Stirling engine is a four-cylinder V-drive design with a single crankshaft. The engine is also equipped with all the controls and auxiliaries necessary for automotive operation.

Nightingale, Noel P.

1986-01-01

121

The AGT 101 advanced automotive gas turbine  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A development program is described whose goal is the accumulation of the technology base needed by the U.S. automotive industry for the production of automotive gas turbine powertrains. Such gas turbine designs must exhibit reduced fuel consumption, a multi-fuel capability, and low exhaust emissions. The AGT101 powertrain described is a 74.6 kW, regenerated single-shaft gas turbine, operating at a maximum inlet temperature of 1644 K and coupled to a split differential gearbox and automatic overdrive transmission. The engine's single stage centrifugal compressor and single stage radial inflow turbine are mounted on a common shaft, and will operate at a maximum rotor speed of 100,000 rpm. All high temperature components, including the turbine rotor, are ceramic.

Rackley, R. A.; Kidwell, J. R.

1982-01-01

122

The AGT101 technology - An automotive alternative  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Advanced Gas Turbine Powertrain System Development Project is oriented at providing the United States automotive industry the technology base necessary to produce gas turbine powertrains for automotive applications that will have: (1) reduced fuel consumption, (2) the ability to use a variety of fuels, (3) low emissions, and (4) competitive cost/performance. The AGT101 powertrain being developed consists of a regenerated single-shaft gas turbine engine flat rated at 74.6 kW (100 hp) coupled to a split-differential gearbox and a Ford automatic overdrive production transmission. Performance predictions for the AGT101 powertrain represent a 59-percent improvement in mileage estimates over a 1985 conventionally-powered automobile for the combined federal driving cycle.

Rackley, R. A.; Davis, K. A.

1981-01-01

123

Lightweight materials for automotive applications  

SciTech Connect

As a result of more stringent requirements for improved fuel economy and emissions, there is a growing tend to substitute Al and Mg for conventional steel and cast irons in vehicles. this article describes some of the technical issues that must be considered if the automotive industry is to utilize these lightweight materials in larger volumes. Lightweight metals may be used in the vehicle in both wrought and cast forms. Aluminum, in the form of stamped sheet, has the potential to be used extensively in vehicle structures and closures. However, compared to steel, aluminum is more difficult to stamp and spot weld. Current research is exploring ways of improving the formability of Al alloys and developing alternate joining methods including adhesive bonding and fasteners. Mg, Al, and metal-matrix composite casting have the potential to be used as replacements for many ferrous castings in power-train and chassis components. However, because of their different tribology, strength, and ductility, light-metal castings require improved foundry procedures and more sophisticated design rules before product engineers will use them in larger quantities. A major challenge for lightweight materials is the ability to produce a functional component at an acceptable price. The presentation concludes with a cost-benefit perspective for typical light-metal applications in the automotive industry.

Cole, G.S.; Sherman, A.M. [Ford Motor Company, Dearborn, MI (United States)] [Ford Motor Company, Dearborn, MI (United States)

1995-07-01

124

Reformulated diesel fuel  

DOEpatents

Reformulated diesel fuels for automotive diesel engines which meet the requirements of ASTM 975-02 and provide significantly reduced emissions of nitrogen oxides (NO.sub.x) and particulate matter (PM) relative to commercially available diesel fuels.

McAdams, Hiramie T [Carrollton, IL; Crawford, Robert W [Tucson, AZ; Hadder, Gerald R [Oak Ridge, TN; McNutt, Barry D [Arlington, VA

2006-03-28

125

Friction of Materials for Automotive Applications  

SciTech Connect

This brief overview of friction-related issues in materials for automobiles is invited for a special issue on automotive materials in the ASM journal AM&P. It describes a range of areas in a ground vehicle in which friction must be controlled or minimized. Applications range from piston rings to tires, and from brakes to fuel injector components. A perspective on new materials and lubricants, and the need for validation testing is presented.

Blau, Peter Julian [ORNL

2013-01-01

126

AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE 1. UNIT XXIV, I--MAINTAINING THE FUEL SYSTEM PART III--CATERPILLAR DIESEL ENGINE, II--UNDERSTANDING THE VOLTAGE REGULATOR/ALTERNATOR.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THIS MODULE OF A 30-MODULE COURSE IS DESIGNED TO DEVELOP AN UNDERSTANDING OF THE OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE OF THE DIESEL ENGINE FUEL AND BATTERY CHARGING SYSTEM. TOPICS ARE (1) INJECTION TIMING CONTROLS, (2) GOVERNOR, (3) FUEL SYSTEM MAINTENANCE TIPS, (4) THE CHARGING SYSTEM, (5) REGULATING THE GENERATOR/ALTERNATOR, AND (6) CHARGING SYSTEM SERVICE…

Minnesota State Dept. of Education, St. Paul. Div. of Vocational and Technical Education.

127

AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE 1. UNIT XXIII, I--MAINTAINING THE FUEL SYSTEM, PART II--CATERPILLAR DIESEL ENGINE, II--UNDERSTANDING STEERING SYSTEMS.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THIS MODULE OF A 30-MODULE COURSE IS DESIGNED TO DEVELOP AN UNDERSTANDING OF THE OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE OF THE DIESEL ENGINE FUEL INJECTION SYSTEM AND THE STEERING SYSTEM OF DIESEL POWERED VEHICLES. TOPICS ARE FUEL INJECTION SECTION, AND DESCRIPTION OF THE STEERING SYSTEM. THE MODULE CONSISTS OF A SELF-INSTRUCTIONAL BRANCH PROGRAMED TRAINING…

Minnesota State Dept. of Education, St. Paul. Div. of Vocational and Technical Education.

128

AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE. PROGRAM OUTLINE.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

INFORMATIONAL TOPICS COVERED IN THE TEXT MATERIALS AND SELF-INSTRUCTIONAL BRANCH PROGRAMED TRAINING FILMS FOR A 2-YEAR, 55 MODULE PROGRAM IN AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE ARE GIVEN. THE 30 MODULES FOR "AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE 1" ARE AVAILABLE AS VT 005 655 - VT 005 684, AND THE 25 MODULES FOR "AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE 2" ARE AVAILABLE…

Human Engineering Inst., Cleveland, OH.

129

Alternative fuels for road vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The finite nature of global fossil fuel resources underscores the need to develop alternative vehicular fuels. Increased use of renewable and alternative fuels can extend fossil fuel supplies and help resolve air pollution problems inherent in automotive use of conventional fuels. Fuel characteristics, safety implications, feedstocks, infrastructure, fuel production costs, emissions performance, required vehicle modifications, and outlook are described for

Poulton

1994-01-01

130

Adhesive Bonding of Polymeric Materials for Automotive Applications  

SciTech Connect

In 1992, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) began a cooperative research program with the Automotive Composites Consortium (ACC) to develop technologies that would overcome obstacles to the adhesive bonding of current and future automotive materials. This effort is part of a larger Department of Energy (DOE) program to promote the use of lighter weight materials in automotive structures. By reducing the weight of current automobiles, greater fuel economy and reduced emissions can be achieved. The bonding of similar and dissimilar materials was identified as being of primary importance since this enabling technology gives designers the freedom to choose from an expanded menu of low-mass materials for structural component weight reduction. Early in the project`s conception, five key areas were identified as being of primary importance to the automotive industry.

Warren, C.D., Boeman, R.G., Paulauskas, F.L.

1994-11-18

131

Alternative automotive engines and energy conservation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potential ability of alternatives to the internal combustion engine (ICE) to contribute towards the dual goals of reduction in the power consumed by the United States passenger car fleet and reduction in air pollutant emissions is assessed. The principal advantages and limitations of a variety of alternative engines are identified, including the Wankel spark-ignition engine, the carbureted prechamber stratified

J. B. Heywood; L. H. Linden

1976-01-01

132

49 CFR 537.9 - Determination of fuel economy values and average fuel economy.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Determination of fuel economy values and average fuel economy. 537.9 Section 537.9 Transportation...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AUTOMOTIVE FUEL ECONOMY REPORTS § 537.9 Determination of fuel...

2010-10-01

133

49 CFR 537.9 - Determination of fuel economy values and average fuel economy.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false Determination of fuel economy values and average fuel economy. 537.9 Section 537.9 Transportation...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AUTOMOTIVE FUEL ECONOMY REPORTS § 537.9 Determination of fuel...

2011-10-01

134

49 CFR 537.9 - Determination of fuel economy values and average fuel economy.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false Determination of fuel economy values and average fuel economy. 537.9 Section 537.9 Transportation...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AUTOMOTIVE FUEL ECONOMY REPORTS § 537.9 Determination of fuel...

2013-10-01

135

49 CFR 537.9 - Determination of fuel economy values and average fuel economy.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false Determination of fuel economy values and average fuel economy. 537.9 Section 537.9 Transportation...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AUTOMOTIVE FUEL ECONOMY REPORTS § 537.9 Determination of fuel...

2012-10-01

136

Energy Conservation Potential in Natural Gas Fueled Reciprocating Engines - A Preliminary Market Evaluation  

E-print Network

by GHIRLA and SMITH(13). Figure 6 and Figure 7 present a comparison of an SAE 5W30 NFE (Non Fuel Efficient) oil and an SAE 5W30 FEO (Fuel Efficient) oil. The fuel efficient oil conta~ns a colloid additive. The fuel economy comparison was conducted on a... benefits available from colloid additives under constant speed (55 mph) conditions. A typical SAE 30 motor oil is compared to the same SAE 30 motor oil plus a ccl loid additive. Figure 9 also points out that optimum fuel economy benefits are achieved...

Johnson, D. M.

1979-01-01

137

Automotive manufacturing assessment system. Volume IV: engine manufacturing analysis. Final report Jun 77Aug 78  

Microsoft Academic Search

Volume IV represents the results of one of four major study areas under the Automotive Manufacturing Assessment System (AMAS) sponsored by the DOT\\/Transportation Systems Center. AMAS was designed to assist in the evaluation of industry's capability to produce fuel efficient vehicles. An analysis of automotive engine manufacturing was conducted in order to determine the impact of regulatory changes on tooling

T. Jr

1979-01-01

138

General Mechanical Repair. Minor Automotive Maintenance, Small Engine [Repair, and] Welding: Student Manual.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document is a student manual for a general mechanical repair course. Following a list of common essential elements of trade and industrial education, the manual is divided into three sections. The first section, on minor automotive maintenance, contains 13 units: automotive shop safety; engine principles; fuel system operation and repair;…

Hamlin, Larry

139

Automotive Power Trains.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This correspondence course, originally developed for the Marine Corps, is designed to provide mechanics with an understanding of the operation, maintenance, and troubleshooting of automotive power trains and certain auxiliary equipment. The course contains six study units covering basic power trains; clutch principles and operations; conventional…

Marine Corps Inst., Washington, DC.

140

Automotive Technology Curriculum Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Idaho state curriculum guide provides lists of tasks, performance objectives, and enabling objectives for instruction in automotive technology. The document begins with a list of all tasks covered by the curriculum, a short course outline, and a curriculum framework that explains major content, laboratory activities, and intended outcomes.…

Idaho State Dept. of Education, Boise. Div. of Vocational Education.

141

Automotive Emission Control.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication contains instructional materials for both teachers and students for a course in automotive emission control. Instructional materials in this publication are written in terms of student performance using measurable objectives. The course includes 16 units. Each instructional unit includes some or all of the basic components of a…

Lee, Billy D.; And Others

142

Automotive Emission Control.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide designed to assist teachers in improving instruction in the area of automotive emission control curriculum includes four areas. Each area consists of one or more units of instruction, with each instructional unit including some or all of the following basic components: Performance objectives, suggested activities for teacher and…

Lee, Billy D.; Ragazzi, Ronald

143

Automotive Pollution Control.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Intended for a 1- or 2-month curriculum in auto mechanics, this student manual on automotive pollution control was developed by a subject matter specialist at an area vocational school and tested in a vocational auto shop. Intended either for use in an integrated curriculum or for use in teaching pollution control as a separate course, these 12…

Raudenbush, David B.

144

Automotive Battery Inspection & Cleaning  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Have you ever entered your car, turned the key and the engine would not start? You may have heard a click coming from under the hood each time you turn the key. Your headlights and interior lights are as dim as a nightlight and your horn gives a weak low muffle that sounds like someone is growling at you as you attempt to see what might work. This usually happens when you are in a hurry, its raining, and no one is around to help. The automotive battery is a key component and the primary source of electricity of the automotive electrical system. It helps provide the electricity to run the convenient amenities that we have grown to appreciate including radios, CD and DVD players, GPS systems that help guide us to our locations, and all the neat-o gages that tell us the current condition of the vehicle. Regular battery inspection and maintenance is easy and critical to avoid situations such as described above. OBJECTIVES: In this instructional module, you will: Understand the definition of the automotive battery. Gain a detailed understanding of battery basics. Learn how to inspect and service an automotive battery. MATERIALS: To complete this assignment, each student will need access to a computer with internet capabilities. PROCEDURES: This instructional module is divided into four steps. It is ...

Hjorten, Mr.

2006-02-03

145

Bringing Excellence to Automotive  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Market situation and development in recent years shows, that organization's ability to meet customer requirements is not enough. Successful organizations are able to exceed the expectations of all stakeholders. They are building their excellence systematically. Our contribution basically how the excellence in automotive is created using EFQM Excellence Model in Total Quality Management.

Ve?e?a, Pavel; Paulová, Iveta

2012-12-01

146

Automotive Brake Systems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This correspondence course, orginally developed for the Marine Corps, is designed to provide mechanics with an understanding of the basic operations of automotive brake systems on military vehicles. The course contains four study units covering hydraulic brakes, air brakes, power brakes, and auxiliary brake systems. A troubleshooting guide for…

Marine Corps Inst., Washington, DC.

147

Lightweight Steel Solutions for Automotive Industry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, improvement in fuel efficiency and safety has become the biggest issue in worldwide automotive industry. Although the regulation of environment and safety has been tightened up more and more, the majority of vehicle bodies are still manufactured from stamped steel components. This means that the optimized steel solutions enable to demonstrate its ability to reduce body weight with high crashworthiness performance instead of expensive light weight materials such as Al, Mg and composites. To provide the innovative steel solutions for automotive industry, POSCO has developed AHSS and its application technologies, which is directly connected to EVI activities. EVI is a technical cooperation program with customer covering all stages of new car project from design to mass production. Integrated light weight solutions through new forming technologies such as TWB, hydroforming and HPF are continuously developed and provided for EVI activities. This paper will discuss the detailed status of these technologies especially light weight steel solutions based on innovative technologies.

Lee, Hong Woo; Kim, Gyosung; Park, Sung Ho

2010-06-01

148

AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE 1. UNIT XI, PART I--MAINTAINING THE FUEL SYSTEM (PART I), CUMMINS DIESEL ENGINES, PART II--UNIT REPLACEMENT (ENGINE).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THIS MODULE OF A 30-MODULE COURSE IS DESIGNED TO DEVELOP AN UNDERSTANDING OF DIFFERENCES BETWEEN TWO AND FOUR CYCLE ENGINES, THE OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE OF THE DIESEL ENGINE FUEL SYSTEM, AND THE PROCEDURES FOR DIESEL ENGINE REMOVAL. TOPICS ARE (1) REVIEW OF TWO CYCLE AND FOUR CYCLE CONCEPT, (2) SOME BASIC CHARACTERISTICS OF FOUR CYCLE ENGINES,…

Human Engineering Inst., Cleveland, OH.

149

A design strategy applied to sulfur resistant lean NOx̳ automotive catalysts  

E-print Network

Catalyst poisoning due to sulfur compounds derived from fuel sulfur presents a major challenge, intractable thus far, to development of many advanced technologies for automotive catalysts such as the lean NOx, trap. Under ...

Tang, Hairong

2005-01-01

150

Reversed flow converter for emission control after automotive engines  

Microsoft Academic Search

A concept of catalytic reversed flow converter (RFC) is discussed for three emerging areas of emission control after automotive engines. The first potential application concerns with oxidation of methane and CO emitted from dual fueled, natural gas\\/diesel engines (DDF). The behavior of RFC is studied under typical transient conditions of DDF engine exhaust using mathematical modeling and experiments with converter

Yu. Sh. Matros; G. A. Bunimovich; V. O. Strots; E. A. Mirosh

1999-01-01

151

77 FR 37471 - National Automotive Sampling System  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...NHTSA-2012-0084] National Automotive Sampling System AGENCY: National Highway Traffic...comprehensive review of the National Automotive Sampling System (NASS) research design and data...effort to upgrade the National Automotive Sampling System (NASS) by improving the...

2012-06-21

152

Automotive Mg Research and Development in North America  

SciTech Connect

Expanding world economic prosperity and probable peaking of conventional petroleum production in the coming decades require efforts to increase the efficiency of, and the development of alternatives to, petroleum-based fuels used in automotive transportation. North America has been aggressively pursuing both approaches for over ten years. Mainly as a result of lower prices due to global sourcing, magnesium has recently emerged as a serious candidate for lightweighting, and thus increasing the fuel efficiency of, automotive transportation. Automotive vehicles produced in North America currently use more Mg than vehicles produced elsewhere in the world, but the amounts per vehicle are very small in comparison to other materials such as steel, aluminum and plastics. The reasons, besides price, are primarily a less-developed state of technology for Mg in automotive transportation applications and lack of familiarity by the vehicle manufacturers with the material. This paper reviews some publicly-known, recent, present and future North American research and development activities in Mg for automotive applications.

Carpenter, Joseph A. [U.S. Department of Energy; Jackman, Jennifer [CANMET - Materials Technology Laboratory, Natural Resources of Canada; Li, Naiyi [Ford Motor Company; Osborne, Richard J. [General Motors Corporation; Powell, Bob R. [General Motors Corporation; Sklad, Philip S [ORNL

2006-01-01

153

Automotive Electricity: Automotive Mechanics Instructional Program. Block 3.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The third of six instructional blocks in automotive mechanics, the lessons and supportive information in the document provide a guide for teachers in planning an instructional program in automotive electricity at the secondary and post secondary level. The material, as organized, is a suggested sequence of instruction within each block. Each…

O'Brien, Ralph D.

154

United States Council for Automotive Research  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The United States Council for Automotive Research (USCAR) is a joint operation between Ford, DaimlerChrysler, and General Motors. The council lets the companies combine their resources to develop better non-competitive technologies, such as safety, fuel efficiency, and emissions. Many new innovations in vehicle design are described on the USCAR Web site. For example, the 21st Century section outlines some major advances that will shape the future of the automobile, while Specific Technologies examines various new manufacturing practices and vehicle components. There are also many articles and technical accomplishments listed on the site, giving some insight into what is currently being done to make driving a better experience.

155

Fuel conservation by the application of spill prevention and fail-safe engineering (a guideline manual)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spill prevention procedures are provided for maintaining a spill free plant during the transportation, transfer, storage and processing of petroleum products. The manual can be used to prevent spills of materials other than fuel oil. Special emphasis is given to failsafe engineering as an approach to preventing spills from the predominant cause-human failure.

Goodier, J. L.; Siclari, R. J.; Garrity, P. A.

1981-06-01

156

Basin Scale Water Quality Conservation: Impacts of filter strips, bio-fuel development and hydrological parameters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Excessive nutrient and sediment export from agricultural basins with intensive row crop cultivation have been identified as persistent problems leading to higher levels of nitrate nitrogen and reduced levels of dissolved oxygen in the water bodies. Water quality thus gets degraded and becomes less suitable for human use and potential threat to the aquatic life and environment. Development of bio-fuel

Mahesh Kumar Sahu

2010-01-01

157

Automotive Engine Maintenance and Repair.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This correspondence course, originally developed for the Marine Corps, is designed to provide students with an understanding of automotive engine maintenance and repair. The course contains six study units covering automotive engine maintenance and repair; design classification; engine malfunction, diagnosis, and repair; engine disassembly; engine…

Marine Corps Inst., Washington, DC.

158

Automotive Technology. Career Education Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The curriculum guide is designed to provide students with realistic training in automotive technology theory and practice within the secondary educational framework and to prepare them for entry into an occupation or continuing postsecondary education. The learning modules are grouped into three areas: small engines, automotive technology, and…

Dependents Schools (DOD), Washington, DC. European Area.

159

DYNAMICS OF AUTOMOTIVE SULFATE EMISSIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

A preliminary assessment of the potential environmental impact of automotive sulfuric acid (or sulfate) aerosol has been made by analyzing the aerosol dynamics. This analysis leads to the prediction of ambient automotive sulfuric acid aerosol concentrations over and around a larg...

160

Fuel Cells: Reshaping the Future  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In conjunction with the FreedomCAR (Cooperative Automotive Research) and Fuel Initiative, President George W. Bush has pledged nearly two billion dollars for fuel cell research. Chrysler, Ford, and General Motors have unveiled fuel cell demonstration vehicles, and all three of these companies have invested heavily in fuel cell research. Fuel cell…

Toay, Leo

2004-01-01

161

Requirements for future automotive batteries - a snapshot  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Introduction of new fuel economy, performance, safety, and comfort features in future automobiles will bring up many new, power-hungry electrical systems. As a consequence, demands on automotive batteries will grow substantially, e.g. regarding reliability, energy throughput (shallow-cycle life), charge acceptance, and high-rate partial state-of-charge (HRPSOC) operation. As higher voltage levels are mostly not an economically feasible alternative for the short term, the existing 14 V electrical system will have to fulfil these new demands, utilizing advanced 12 V energy storage devices. The well-established lead-acid battery technology is expected to keep playing a key role in this application. Compared to traditional starting-lighting-ignition (SLI) batteries, significant technological progress has been achieved or can be expected, which improve both performance and service life. System integration of the storage device into the vehicle will become increasingly important. Battery monitoring systems (BMS) are expected to become a commodity, penetrating the automotive volume market from both highly equipped premium cars and dedicated fuel-economy vehicles (e.g. stop/start). Battery monitoring systems will allow for more aggressive battery operating strategies, at the same time improving the reliability of the power supply system. Where a single lead-acid battery cannot fulfil the increasing demands, dual-storage systems may form a cost-efficient extension. They consist either of two lead-acid batteries or of a lead-acid battery plus another storage device.

Karden, Eckhard; Shinn, Paul; Bostock, Paul; Cunningham, James; Schoultz, Evan; Kok, Daniel

162

75 FR 34170 - Plastic Omnium Automotive Exteriors, LLC, Anderson, SC; Plastic Omnium Automotive Exteriors, LLC...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...TA-W-73,230; TA-W-73,230A] Plastic Omnium Automotive Exteriors, LLC, Anderson, SC; Plastic Omnium Automotive Exteriors, LLC, Troy...March 18, 2010, applicable to workers of Plastic Omnium Automotive Exteriors, LLC,...

2010-06-16

163

Apparatus and method for conserving fuel in the operation of a train consist  

SciTech Connect

The apparatus includes a master control unit associated with a first locomotive and a slave control unit associated with a second locomotive. Each of the control units is identically constructed to include an electronic processor and memory. The memory includes a program which is also identical for both units. Each of the units is connected to at least a portion of a train line extending between the locomotives, and inter-unit communications are accomplished over only a single spare line within the train line. Under control of the program the control units detect the setting of the throttle in the first locomotive, and in response thereto the control units operate the throttle of the second locomotive so that the combined operation of the first and second locomotives functions at an optimum power output-to-fuel consumption ratio within a predetermined range of power levels for each setting of the throttle in the first locomotive.

Beaird, S.M.; Nickles, S.K.

1982-08-17

164

Automotive Power Generation and Control  

E-print Network

This paper describes some new developments in the application of power electronics to automotive power generation and control. A new load-matching technique is introduced that uses a simple switched-mode rectifier to achieve ...

Caliskan, Vahe

165

Ceramic automotive Stirling engine program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Ceramic Automotive Stirling Engine Program evaluated the application of advanced ceramic materials to an automotive Stirling engine. The objective of the program was to evaluate the technical feasibility of utilizing advanced ceramics to increase peak engine operating temperature, and to evaluate the performance benefits of such an increase. Manufacturing cost estimates were also developed for various ceramic engine components and compared with conventional metallic engine component costs.

1986-08-01

166

Ceramic automotive Stirling engine program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Ceramic Automotive Stirling Engine Program evaluated the application of advanced ceramic materials to an automotive Stirling engine. The objective of the program was to evaluate the technical feasibility of utilizing advanced ceramics to increase peak engine operating temperature, and to evaluate the performance benefits of such an increase. Manufacturing cost estimates were also developed for various ceramic engine components and compared with conventional metallic engine component costs.

1986-01-01

167

Ceramic Automotive Stirling Engine Program  

SciTech Connect

The Ceramic Automotive Stirling Engine Program evaluated the application of advanced ceramic materials to an automotive Stirling engine. The objective of the program was to evaluate the technical feasibility of utilizing advanced ceramics to increase peak engine operating temperature, and to evaluate the performance benefits of such an increase. Manufacturing cost estimates were also developed for various ceramic engine components and compared with conventional metallic engine component costs.

Not Available

1986-08-01

168

Progress on the Development of a Microchannel Steam Reformer for Automotive Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

A compact, energy efficient steam reforming system for automotive applications has been under development at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. At the IMRET 5 conference, results were presented describing the operation of a thermally integrated, energy efficient, compact, microchannel steam reforming system capable of converting a liquid hydrocarbon fuel (isooctane) into a reformate stream sufficient for a PEM fuel cell

Greg A. Whyatt; Christopher M. Fischer; James M. Davis

2002-01-01

169

DOE/NASA Automotive Stirling Engine Project overview '83  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An overview of the DOE/NASA Automotive Stirling Engine Project is presented. The background and objectives of the project are reviewed. Project activities are described and technical progress and status are presented and assessed. Prospects for achieving the objective 30% fuel economy improvement are considered good. The key remaining technology issues are primarily related to life, reliability and cost, such as piston rod seals, and low cost heat exchanges.

Beremand, D. G.

1982-01-01

170

Automotive Stirling Engine Development Program. RESD Summary report  

SciTech Connect

This is the final report compiling a summary of the information presented and discussed at the May 1983 Automotive Stirling Engine (AES) Reference Engine System Design (RESD) review held at the NASA Lewis Research Center. The design of the engine and its auxiliaries and controls is described. Manufacturing costs in production quantity are also presented. Engine system performance predictions are discussed and vehicle integration is developed, along with projected fuel economy levels.

Not Available

1984-05-01

171

Automotive Drum Brakes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Do you know when the first car was built? Do you know who built the first automobile? Would you guess, Henry Ford? Try again. Do you know by what means they used to stop that car? We know the brakes on the vehicles we drive today are quite different from those back in the 1800s. While knowing the history of the automobile is interesting, knowing how they work is also interesting. The automotive brake or to be more specific, the drum brake is what this instruction is designed to review. In this instruction, we will begin by briefly looking at the history of automobile brakes and then learn how drum brakes work. While disk brakes can be easier to understand, are becoming more and more popular, especially on the rear tires, drum brakes, to some can be a challenge. The purpose of this lesson is to provide you with resources and encourage you to search more additional resources that will help you gain a mental moving picture of how the drum brake works. OBJECTIVES: In this instructional module, you will: Know a brief history of automobile brakes. Have a minimum of 8 web resources that provide instructions of drum brakes. Develop a mental moving picture of how drum brakes work. MATERIALS: To complete this learning activity, each student will need: Access to a computer with internet connection capabilities. A strong desire ...

Mr. Hjorten

2006-02-03

172

Automotive infinite transmission  

SciTech Connect

An automotive infinite transmission is described having an input pulley, an output pulley, and belt means entrained around the input and output pulleys for transmitting a rotational torque from the input pulley to the output pulley. An effective diameter of each of the input and output pulleys is variable for changing continuously a transmission ratio. Each of the input and output pulleys comprises: a fixed pulley member fixedly mounted on a rotary shaft and having a tapered pulley surface; a movable pulley member mounted on the rotary shaft for movement axially of the rotary shaft and having a tapered pulley surface; actuator means for axially moving the movable member toward and away from the fixed pulley member; generally radially extending slits formed in each of the pulley surface of the fixed pulley member and the pulley surface of the movable pulley member; drive blocks disposed circumferentially along the annular groove between the pulley surface of the fixed pulley member and the pulley surface of the movable pulley member; means for reducing a frictional force between the drive blocks and the pulley surface of the fixed pulley member and a frictional force between the drive blocks and the pulley surface of the movable pulley member; means for biasing the drive blocks radially inwardly against a centrifugal force applied to the drive blocks when the fixed and movable pulley members are rotated; and the drive blocks each having a radially outward surface with which the belt means is in frictional contact.

Hattori, Y.; Nomura, K.; Goshima, T.; Tanaka, H.

1987-11-10

173

Planning fuel-conservative descents with or without time constraints using a small programmable calculator: Algorithm development and flight test results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A simplified flight-management descent algorithm, programmed on a small programmable calculator, was developed and flight tested. It was designed to aid the pilot in planning and executing a fuel-conservative descent to arrive at a metering fix at a time designated by the air traffic control system. The algorithm may also be used for planning fuel-conservative descents when time is not a consideration. The descent path was calculated for a constant Mach/airspeed schedule from linear approximations of airplane performance with considerations given for gross weight, wind, and nonstandard temperature effects. The flight-management descent algorithm is described. The results of flight tests flown with a T-39A (Sabreliner) airplane are presented.

Knox, C. E.

1983-01-01

174

Laser technology in automotive lighting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The last few years have seen something of a revolution in automotive lighting facilitated by a range of new photonics advances. The lighting industry as a whole is moving rapidly from the incandescent and gas discharge based technologies that dominated the 20th century to solid state technology in the form of Light Emitting Diodes (LED) which are a point source light, Organic Light Emitting Diodes (OLED) which are an area source light and at the edge the increasing use of lasers with different functional applications. In this paper I will focus on this edge technology of lasers as they are still trying to find their right place in automotive lighting. To better analyze their potential, the working principle of a laser will be explained, laser types used in automotive lighting, their application methods, advantages and disadvantages of their usage will be declared, application examples from the current trials of some leading automotive industry research groups will be given and finalization will be with an overall view of the possible future laser applications in the field of automotive lighting.

Altingöz, Ceren

2014-03-01

175

Integrated automotive exhaust engineering : uncertainty management  

E-print Network

The global automotive industry has entered a stagnating period. Automotive OEMs and their tier suppliers are struggling for business growth. One of the most important strategies is to improve the engineering efficiency in ...

Fang, Xitian, 1963-

2006-01-01

176

Advanced automotive diesel engine system study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A conceptual study of an advanced automotive diesel engine is discussed. The engine concept selected for vehicle installation was a supercharged 1.4 liter, 4 cylinder spark assisted diesel of 14:1 compression ratio. A compounding unit consisting of a Lysholm compressor and expander is connected to the engine crankshaft by a belt drive. The inlet air charge is heated by the expander exhaust gas via a heat exchanger. Four levels of technology achievement on the selected engine concept were evaluated, from state-of-the-art to the ideal case. This resulted in the fuel economy increasing from 53.2 mpg to 81.7 mpg, and the 0-60 mph time decreasing from 17.6 seconds to 10.9 seconds.

1983-01-01

177

Advanced Gas Turbine (AGT) powertrain system development for automotive applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An automotive gas turbine powertrain system which, when installed in a 1985 production vehicle (3000 pounds inertia weight), is being developed with a CFDC fuel economy of 42.8 miles per gallon based on Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) test procedures and diesel No. 2 fuel. The AGT-powered vehicle shall give substantially the same overall vehicle driveability and performance as a comparable 1985 production vehicle powered by a conventional spark ignition powertrain system (baseline system). Gaseous emissions and particulate levels less than: NOx = 0.4 gm/mile, HC = 0.41 gm/mile, and CO = 3.4 gm/mile, and a total particulate of 0.2 gm/mile, using the same fuel as used for fuel economy measurements is expected, along with the ability to use a variety of alternate fuels.

1981-01-01

178

Automotive friction-induced noises A. Elmaiana  

E-print Network

Automotive friction-induced noises A. Elmaiana , J.-M. Duffala , F. Gautiera , C. Pezeratb and J, France 3143 #12;Friction-induced noises are numerous in the automotive field. They also involve a large friction-induced noises with simple structures and automotive materials. Qualitative sensitivity studies

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

179

Faculty of Engineering Mechanical, Automotive and  

E-print Network

Faculty of Engineering Mechanical, Automotive and Materials Engineering The field of Mechanical, Automotive and Materials Engineering offers a multi-faceted program where you tackle real-world problems in the engineering disciplines · Thermodynamics, fluids and heat transfer #12;Mechanical, Automotive and Materials

180

Study of art of automotive active suspensions  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, research and development of automotive active suspensions are reviewed. Structures and models of various automotive suspensions are described. Furthermore, typical commercial products of automotive suspensions are illustrated. Based on the reported studies and development, the authors discus the comparisons between various vehicular suspensions from the aspects of structure, weight, cost, ride comfort, handling performance, reliability, dynamic performance,

X. D. Xue; K. W. E. Cheng; Z. Zhang; J. K. Lin; D. H. Wang; Y. J. Bao; M. K. Wong; N. Cheung

2011-01-01

181

Action Handbook for Automotive Service Instruction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The document is a handbook for a vocational automotive service education program which was formulated as a result of a four-day series of intensive workshops called the National Automotive Service Vocational Education Conference. The handbook discusses the major components of an automotive service vocational education program and aspects of their…

Motor Vehicle Manufacturers Association of the U.S., Inc., Detroit, MI.

182

Liquid hydrogen for automotive vehicles - Experimental results  

SciTech Connect

A BMW-518 has been adapted for LH2-fuel, representing the first LH2-fueled car in Europe. This is a joint program between the German Research and Testing Laboratory for Aeronautics and the Research Institute for Motor-Transport Service and Automotive Engines at the University of Stuttgart. The program was established for demonstration of successful car-operation and and the safe handling of LH2-fuel during car operation and refueling. Based on earlier papers, more recent test results and experiences are reported about car operation and engine performance. The car has been driven over an accumulated distance of about 1800 km on a test track. The test track consists of a loop of about 2.5 km in length, including a proper combination of straight level sections, curved sections and ascending sections. In order to demonstrate a safe liquid hydrogen refueling procedure that could also be used by untrained people, a semiautomatic computer operated refueling station has been developed. This refueling station is in successful operation.

Peschka, W.

1981-01-01

183

Automotive Stirling Engine Development Program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Progress is reported in the following: the Stirling reference engine system design; components and subsystems; F-40 baseline Stirling engine installation and test; the first automotive engine to be built on the program; computer development activities; and technical assistance to the Government. The overall program philosophy is outlined, and data and results are given.

Allen, M. (editor)

1980-01-01

184

Automotive Cooling and Lubricating Systems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This correspondence course, originally developed for the Marine Corps, is designed to provide new mechanics with a source of study materials to assist them in becoming more proficient in their jobs. The course contains four study units covering automotive cooling system maintenance, cooling system repair, lubricating systems, and lubrication…

Marine Corps Inst., Washington, DC.

185

Automotive Technologies. State Competency Profile.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document, which lists the technical automotive technologies competencies identified by representatives from business, industry, and labor as well as technical educators throughout Ohio, is intended to assist individuals and organizations in developing college tech prep programs that will prepare students from secondary through post-secondary…

Ohio Board of Regents, Columbus.

186

Automotive power generation and control  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes some new developments in the application of power electronics to automotive power generation and control. A new load-matching technique is introduced that uses a simple switched-mode rectifier to achieve dramatic increases in peak and average power output from a conventional Lundell alternator, along with substantial improvements in efficiency. Experimental results demonstrate these capability improvements. Additional performance and

David J. Perreault; Vahe Caliskan

2004-01-01

187

Advanced materials in automotive engines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Titanium, magnesium, rapidly solidified aluminum alloys, ceramics, metal matrix composites, ordered aluminides and plastics are among the materials discussed as being of interest for application in future automotive engines. Metal matrix composites, the subject of four talks and mentioned in several others, receive the most attention. The advantages offered by metal matrix composites compared to the properties of the matrix

A. M. Sherman; J. E. Allison

1986-01-01

188

Ceramic Automotive Stirling Engine study  

Microsoft Academic Search

A conceptual design study for a Ceramic Automotive Stirling Engine (CASE) was performed. Year 1990 structural ceramic technology was assumed. Structural and performance analyses of the conceptual design were performed as well as manufacturing and cost analysis. The general conclusions from this study are that an engine using ceramic hot parts would be 10 to 26% more efficient over its

S. Musikant; W. Chiu; D. Darooka; D. M. Mullings; C. A. Johnson

1985-01-01

189

Virtualization in Automotive Embedded Systems  

E-print Network

/03/2010 © 2010 RTaW / PSA / Freescale - 2 Outline 1. Automotive E/E Systems: mastering complexity 2. Ecosystems centralized is unsure because of carryover .. © 2010 RTaW / PSA / Freescale - 8 Ecosystem of virtualization gateway with both an Autosar and an infotainment VM (eg., linux, android) Benefits ­ Performances

Navet, Nicolas

190

Virtualization in Automotive Embedded Systems  

E-print Network

;© 2010 RTaW / PSA / Freescale - 2 Outline 1. Automotive E/E Systems: mastering complexity 2. Ecosystems centralized is unsure because of carryover .. #12;© 2010 RTaW / PSA / Freescale - 8 Ecosystem platform : eg. Body gateway with both an Autosar and an infotainment VM (eg., linux, android) Benefits

Navet, Nicolas

191

Innovative Technology in Automotive Technology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Automotive Technology combines hands-on training along with a fully integrated, interactive, computerized multistationed facility. Our program is a competency based, true open-entry/open-exit program that utilizes flexible self-paced course outlines. It is designed around an industry partnership that promotes community and economic development,…

Gardner, John

2007-01-01

192

Automotive Technology. Technical Committee Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Technical Committee Report prepared by industry representatives in Idaho lists the skills currently necessary for an employee in that state to obtain a job in automotive technology, retain a job once hired, and advance in that occupational field. (Task lists are grouped according to duty areas generally used in industry settings, and are used…

Idaho State Dept. of Education, Boise. Div. of Vocational Education.

193

Automotive Electronics. Teacher Edition (Revised).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This learning module addresses computers and their applications in contemporary automobiles. The text provides students with information on automotive microcomputers and hands-on activities that will help them see how semiconductors and digital logic devices fit into the modern repair facility. The module contains nine instructional units that…

Mackert, Howard C.; Heiserman, Russell L.

194

Ceramic technology for automotive turbines  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The paper presents an update on ceramic technology for automotive turbines. Progress in research and development of improved ceramics is reviewed, including approaches for assessing time-dependent strength characteristics. Processes for making shapes are discussed, and the design and testing of selected ceramic turbine components are reviewed.

Mclean, A. F.

1982-01-01

195

Automotive Mechanics. Student Learning Guides.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

These 33 learning guides are self-instructional packets for 33 tasks identified as essential for performance on an entry-level job in automotive mechanics. Each guide is based on a terminal performance objective (task) and 1-9 enabling objectives. For each enabliing objective, some or all of these materials may be presented: learning steps…

Ridge Vocational-Technical Center, Winter Haven, FL.

196

Fuel Cells: Driving the Future  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This fuel cell module was created by General Motors and Weekly Reader to supplement science courses for students in grades 5-8. Its duration is 4-5 class periods and includes a teacherâs guide, posters, interactive diagram, and four classroom activities. Topics discussed include automotive history, environmental and energy concerns, fundamentals of fuel cells, fuel cell technologies, and sustainable energy.

Motors, General

197

Present and Future Automotive Composite Materials Research Efforts at DOE  

SciTech Connect

Automobiles of the future will be forced to travel fi.uther on a tank of fuel while discharging lower levels of pollutants. Currently, the United States uses in excess of 16.4 million barrels of petroleum per day. Sixty-six percent of that petroleum is used in the transportation of people and goods. Automobiles currently account for just under two-thirds of the nation's gasoline consumptio~ and about one-third of the total United States energy usage. [1] By improving transportation related fiel efficiency, the United States can lessen the impact that emissions have on our environment and provide a cleaner environment for fiture generations. In 1992, The Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Transportation Materials completed a comprehensive program plan entitled, The Lightweight MateriaIs (LWko Multi-Year Program Plan, for the development of technologies aimed at reducing vehicle mass [2]. This plan was followed in 1997 by the more comprehensive Office of Advanced Automotive Technologies research and development plan titled, Energy Eficient Vehicles for a Cleaner Environment [3] which outlines the department's plans for developing more efficient vehicles during the next ~een years. Both plans identi~ potential applications, technology needs, and R&D priorities. The goal of the Lightweight Materials Program is to develop materials and primary processing methods for the fabrication of lighter weight components which can be incorporated into automotive systems. These technologies are intended to reduce vehicle weight, increase fuel efficiency and decrease emissions. The Lightweight Materials program is jointly managed by the Department of Energy(DOE) and the United States Automotive Materials Partnership (USAMP). Composite materiak program work is coordinated by cooperative research efforts between the DOE and the Automotive Composites Consortium (ACC).

Warren, C.D.

1999-07-03

198

Instability of automotive air conditioning system with a variable displacement compressor. Part 2. Numerical simulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to determine the conservative stable region (CSR) proposed in part 1 of this paper, a dynamic model of the automotive air conditioning system with a variable displacement compressor and a thermal expansion valve is developed. The sensitivity analysis is done to show how uncertainties in input parameters influence the predicted results of system performance. The dynamic simulation is

Changqing Tian; Chunpeng Dou; Xinjiang Yang; Xianting Li

2005-01-01

199

Power electronics intensive solutions for advanced electric, hybrid electric, and fuel cell vehicular power systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a clear trend in the automotive industry to use more electrical systems in order to satisfy the ever-growing vehicular load demands. Thus, it is imperative that automotive electrical power systems will obviously undergo a drastic change in the next 10-20 years. Currently, the situation in the automotive industry is such that the demands for higher fuel economy and

Ali Emadi; Sheldon S. Williamson; Alireza Khaligh

2006-01-01

200

Conceptual design study of an improved automotive gas turbine powertrain  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Automotive gas turbine concepts with significant technological advantages over the spark ignition (SI) engine were assessed. Possible design concepts were rated with respect to fuel economy and near-term application. A program plan which outlines the development of the improved gas turbine (IGT) concept that best met the goals and objectives of the study identifies the research and development work needed to meet the goal of entering a production engineering phase by 1983. The fuel economy goal is to show at least a 20% improvement over a conventional 1976 SI engine/vehicle system. On the basis of achieving the fuel economy goal, of overall suitability to mechanical design, and of automotive mass production cost, the powertrain selected was a single-shaft engine with a radial turbine and a continuously variable transmission (CVT). Design turbine inlet temperature was 1150 C. Reflecting near-term technology, the turbine rotor would be made of an advanced superalloy, and the transmission would be a hydromechanical CVT. With successful progress in long-lead R&D in ceramic technology and the belt-drive CVT, the turbine inlet temperature would be 1350 C to achieve near-maximum fuel economy.

Wagner, C. E. (editor); Pampreen, R. C. (editor)

1979-01-01

201

Fracture testing and analysis of adhesively bonded joints for automotive applications  

SciTech Connect

In 1992, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) began a cooperative effort with the Automotive Composites Consortium (ACC) to conduct research and development that would overcome technological hurdles to the adhesive bonding of current and future automotive materials. This effort is part of a larger Department of Energy (DOE) program to promote the use of lighter weight materials in automotive structures for the purpose of increasing fuel efficiency and reducing environmental pollutant emissions. In accomplishing this mission, the bonding of similar and dissimilar materials was identified as being of primary importance to the automotive industry since this enabling technology would give designers the freedom to choose from an expanded menu of low mass materials for component weight reduction. This paper concentrates on the details of developing accurate fracture test methods for adhesively bonded joints in the automotive industry. The test methods being developed are highly standardized and automated so that industry suppliers will be able to pass on reliable data to automotive designers in a timely manner. Mode I fracture tests have been developed that are user friendly and automated for easy data acquisition, data analysis, test control and test repeatability. The development of this test is discussed. In addition, materials and manufacturing issues are addressed which are of particular importance when designing adhesive and composite material systems.

Boeman, R.G.; Warren, C.D. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Engineering Technology Div.

1994-12-31

202

Ceramic automotive Stirling engine study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A conceptual design study for a Ceramic Automotive Stirling Engine (CASE) is performed. Year 1990 structural ceramic technology is assumed. Structural and performance analyses of the conceptual design are performed as well as a manufacturing and cost analysis. The general conclusions from this study are that such an engine would be 10-26% more efficient over its performance map than the current metal Automotive Stirling Reference Engine (ASRE). Cost of such a ceramic engine is likely to be somewhat higher than that of the ASRE but engine cost is very sensitive to the ultimate cost of the high purity, ceramic powder raw materials required to fabricate high performance parts. When the design study is projected to the year 2000 technology, substantinal net efficiency improvements, on the order of 25 to 46% over the ASRE, are computed.

Musikant, S.; Chiu, W.; Darooka, D.; Mullings, D. M.; Johnson, C. A.

1985-01-01

203

Advanced Materials for Automotive Application  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper some recent material developments will be overviewed mainly from the point of view of automotive industry. In car industry, metal forming is one of the most important manufacturing processes imposing severe restrictions on materials; these are often contradictory requirements, e.g. high strength simultaneously with good formability, etc. Due to these challenges and the ever increasing demand new material classes have been developed; however, the more and more wide application of high strength materials meeting the requirements stated by the mass reduction lead to increasing difficulties concerning the formability which requires significant technological developments as well. In this paper, the recent materials developments will be overviewed from the point of view of the automotive industry.

Tisza, M.

2013-12-01

204

Ultrasonic materials evaluation of automotive inflator components  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The application of Nondestructive Evaluation, particularly ultrasonic evaluation, in the automotive components industry has been accelerated in the last several years. The quality and integrity of materials and structures employed for automotive components are routinely examined by radiographic, eddy current and ultrasonic methods. Some discontinuities can be detected with one or all of these methods. Certain defects, in the form of delamination, can only be detected by the ultrasonic method. Both manual testing and highly automated system have been used for ultrasonic testing of automotive components. The automated system is particularly attractive when high reliability is required for automotive components used in critical safety systems applications. This paper gives a practical overview of the application of ultrasonic evaluation in automotive component development and manufacturing. Areas covered include ultrasonic evaluation of materials, automated inspection of cold rolled components, and methodology for setting up acceptance and reject standards. This manuscript is focused on the ultrasonic application to safety related automotive components.

Chung, Thomas T.; Fischer, Craig

2000-05-01

205

Optimisation of Automotive Seat Kinematics  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Automotive seating structures have evolved over an extended period of development, resulting in convergence of practical embodiments\\u000a to a planar kinematic chain, typically based on a four-bar linkage. Seating structures are subject to a stringent set of constraints\\u000a and objectives, including: allowable envelope of motion, structural integrity, modularity and product cost. Although four-bar\\u000a linkage kinematics is well understood, the large

M. Leary; M. Mazur; T. Mild; A. Subic

206

Alternative Fuels Infrastructure Development  

SciTech Connect

This summary reviews the status of alternate transportation fuels development and utilization in Thailand. An understanding of the issues and experiences associated with the introduction of alternative fuels in other countries can help the US in anticipation potential problems as it introduces new automotive fuels. Thailand is of particular interest since it introduced E20 to its commercial market in 2007 and the US is now considering introducing E20 into the US market.

Bloyd, Cary N.

2010-06-30

207

Study of Recovery of Waste Heat From the Exhaust of Automotive Engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Automotive engines reject a considerable amount of energy to the ambience through the exhaust gas. Significant reduction of engine fuel consumption could be attained by recovering of exhaust heat by using thermoelectric generators. One of the most important issues is to develop an efficient heat exchanger which provides optimal recovery of heat from exhaust gases. The work presents a design

K. Wojciechowski; P. Lijewski; M. Schmidt

208

76 FR 40591 - Coordinating Policies on Automotive Communities and Workers  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...years later, the American automotive industry is beginning to recover. The automotive industry has, over the past...domestic automakers in 2010 gained market share for the first time since 1995. The automotive supply chain, which...

2011-07-11

209

Formability of Aluminum 5182-Polypropylene Sandwich Sheet for Automotive Application  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The AA5182/polypropylene/AA5182 (AA/PP/AA) sandwich sheet is the material fabricated by adhering two aluminum skins to one polypropylene core. When it has the same flexural rigidity as a steel sheet, it is 65% lighter than the steel sheet and 30% lighter than an aluminum alloy sheet. Therefore, it is notified exclusively as good substitutive materials for a steel body to improve the fuel efficiency. Through AA/PP/AA sandwich sheet, however, it has relatively lower formability than that of the steel sheet for automotive application. In this study, we developed formability evaluation techniques in order to apply AA/PP/AA sandwich sheet for an automotive parts. For this purpose, newly adopting formability evaluations (using limit dome height and plane strain test) were carried out in order to secure the fundamental data for the measurement of sheet metal forming and the establishment of optimum forming conditions of the sandwich sheet. The results showed that there were in good agreements between the old formability evaluation method and the new one which was more simplified than that of the old one. From the results of these formability evaluations, the formability of sandwich sheet was higher than that of aluminum alloy sheet alone which was the skin component for the sandwich sheet. In addition, it was found that sandwich sheet could reduce the weight and could have the same flexural rigidity simultaneously when it was compared to the automotive steel sheet.

Kim, Kee Joo; Kim, Cheol-Woong; Choi, Byung-Ik; Sung, Chang Won; Kim, Heon Young; Won, Si-Tae; Ryu, Ho-Yeun

210

Fast automotive diesel exhaust measurement using quantum cascade lasers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Step by step, US and European legislations enforce the further reduction of atmospheric pollution caused by automotive exhaust emissions. This is pushing automotive development worldwide. Fuel efficient diesel engines with SCRtechnology can impede NO2-emission by reduction with NH3 down to the ppm range. To meet the very low emission limits of the Euro6 resp. US NLEV (National Low Emission Vehicle) regulations, automotive manufacturers have to optimize continuously all phases of engine operation and corresponding catalytic converters. Especially nonstationary operation holds a high potential for optimizing gasoline consumption and further reducing of pollutant emissions. Test equipment has to cope with demanding sensitivity and speed requirements. In the past Fraunhofer IPM has developed a fast emission analyzer called DEGAS (Dynamic Exhaust Gas Analyzer System), based on cryogenically cooled lead salt lasers. These systems have been used at Volkswagen AG`s test benches for a decade. Recently, IPM has developed DEGAS-Next which is based on cw quantum cascade lasers and thermoelectrically cooled detectors. The system is capable to measure three gas components (i.e. NO, NO2, NH3) in two channels with a time resolution of 20 ms and 1 ppm detection limits. We shall present test data and a comparison with fast FTIR measurements.

Herbst, J.; Brunner, R.; Lambrecht, A.

2013-12-01

211

Single shaft automotive gas turbine engine characterization test  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An automotive gas turbine incorporating a single stage centrifugal compressor and a single stage radial inflow turbine is described. Among the engine's features is the use of wide range variable geometry at the inlet guide vanes, the compressor diffuser vanes, and the turbine inlet vanes to achieve improved part load fuel economy. The engine was tested to determine its performance in both the variable geometry and equivalent fixed geometry modes. Testing was conducted without the originally designed recuperator. Test results were compared with the predicted performance of the nonrecuperative engine based on existing component rig test maps. Agreement between test results and the computer model was achieved.

Johnson, R. A.

1979-01-01

212

Automotive average fuel-economy standards. Hearings before the Committee on Interstate and Foreign Commerce, House of Representatives, Ninety-Sixth Congress, Second Session on H. R. 5140 and H. R. 5260, H. R. 5944, H. R. 6908, and H. R. 6943, March 28 and April 15, 1980  

SciTech Connect

Hearings were conducted concerning amendments on Title V of the Motor Vehicle Information and Cost Savings Act. Title V was added to the act in 1975 when Congress enacted the Energy Policy and Conservation Act. It established the motor-vehicle fuel-economy program which has contributed significantly to achieving conservation in the use of gasoline and helping to reduce oil imports. The five amendments, H.R. 5140, H.R. 5260, H.R. 5944, H.R. 6908, and H.R. 6943, are aimed at providing some flexibility in the administration of the standards program. None affect the fuel-economy standards or the statuatory mandate to comply with them. The standards remain untouched.

Not Available

1980-01-01

213

Smog control fuel additives  

SciTech Connect

A method is described of controlling, reducing or eliminating, ozone and related smog resulting from photochemical reactions between ozone and automotive or industrial gases comprising the addition of iodine or compounds of iodine to hydrocarbon-base fuels prior to or during combustion in an amount of about 1 part iodine per 240 to 10,000,000 parts fuel, by weight, to be accomplished by: (a) the addition of these inhibitors during or after the refining or manufacturing process of liquid fuels; (b) the production of these inhibitors for addition into fuel tanks, such as automotive or industrial tanks; or (c) the addition of these inhibitors into combustion chambers of equipment utilizing solid fuels for the purpose of reducing ozone.

Lundby, W.

1993-06-29

214

Advanced Gas Turbine (AGT) powertrain system development for automotive applications report  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report describes progress and work performed during January through June 1984 to develop technology for an Advanced Gas Turbine (AGT) engine for automotive applications. Work performed during the first eight periods initiated design and analysis, ceramic development, component testing, and test bed evaluation. Project effort conducted under this contract is part of the DOE Gas Turbine Highway Vehicle System Program. This program is oriented at providing the United States automotive industry the high-risk long-range techology necessary to produce gas turbine engines for automobiles with reduced fuel consumption and reduced environmental impact. Technology resulting from this program is intended to reach the marketplace by the early 1990s.

1984-01-01

215

Mod I automotive Stirling engine mechanical development  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Mod I Stirling engine was the first automotive Stirling engine designed specifically for automotive application. Testing of these engines has revealed several deficiencies in engine mechanical integrity which have been corrected by redesign or upgrade. The main deficiencies uncovered during the Mod I program lie in the combustion, auxiliary, main seal, and heater head areas. This paper will address

Simetkosky

1984-01-01

216

NONLINEAR MAGNETIC LEVITATION OF AUTOMOTIVE ENGINE VALVES  

E-print Network

, the controller is designed for and implemented on an electromagnetic valve actuator for use in automotive engines to improve performance and ro- bustness near the electromagnets. Implementation is achieved using position on an electromagnetic valve actuator for use in the actuation of automotive engine valves. 2. ELECTROMAGNETIC VALVE

Grizzle, Jessy W.

217

Petroleum Marketing. Selling Automotive Products and Services.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This textbook contains material for the individualized instruction of students training for careers in service stations; automotive, tire, battery, and accessory retail stores; oil jobbers and petroleum product wholesalers, or any wholesale or retail establishment that sells automotive products and services. Included among the topics addressed in…

Luter, Robert R.

218

Automotive EMC Workshop Clemson Vehicular Electronics Laboratory  

E-print Network

Possible Antenna? Possible Source? (Processor with 200-MHz clock) #12;Clemson Vehicular ElectronicsAutomotive EMC Workshop Clemson Vehicular Electronics Laboratory Reliable Automotive Electronics Vehicular Electronics Laboratory - 2013 What we are NOT doing 3 NOT Relying on EMC Design Guidelines #12

Duchowski, Andrew T.

219

Rare earth metals for automotive exhaust catalysts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The usage of rare earth metals for automotive exhaust catalysts is demonstrated in this paper. Rare earth metals have been widely used in automotive catalysts. In particular, three-way catalysts require the use of ceria compounds as oxygen storage materials, and lanthana as both a stabilizer of alumina and a promoter. The application for diesel catalysts is also illustrated. Effects of

Hirohumi Shinjoh

2006-01-01

220

Future automotive materials: Evolution or revolution  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An exciting era is evolving in the application of new materials technologies to automotive applications. The desire on the part of the automobile industry to completely satisfy the customers while concurrently meeting increasing demands and regulations for stringent emission control and fuel efficiency is opening a plethora of opportunities for new materials. In many cases, materials solutions are the only mechanisms for resolving some of the upcoming issues. The materials scientist and engineer will therefore have a primary role to play and will assume a position of significance hithertofore unseen in the automobile industry. The nature of the industry dictates that changes are primarily evolutionary with respect to chronology but nevertheless some of the future material changes will be revolutionary in nature. This presentation will treat three primary systems of the vehicle separately, based on the different materials approaches which will be adopted. These areas are: (1) skin panels, (2) structures, and (3) powertrains. The competition between a variety of new materials in these 3 systems will be discussed in detail with the various tradeoffs being outlined. Amongst the more prominent of the new breed of materials will be new steel technologies, structural plastics (FRP), aluminum alloys (conventional and rapidly solidified), titanium alloys, metal matrix composites and smart materials (electrorheological fluids, etc.). The pace of development and application is accelerating rapidly and the impetus is likely to increase.

Beardmore, P.

1990-01-01

221

Automotive Applications of Physics and Materials Research: Permanent Magnets, Thermoelectrics, and Hydrogen Storage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Advances in the research and development of new materials continue to have a major impact on the automotive industry and on many other technologies today. A physics background in materials provides a research scientist with many opportunities to pursue a very satisfying and successful career doing industrial and applied physics, ranging from discovering and characterizing new and technologically useful materials to always learning something new in science. For example, the use of permanent magnets in the auto industry was revolutionized by the discovery at General Motors Research and Development Center of a new iron based magnetic material Nd2Fe14B. Moreover, this material rapidly became the state-of-the-art permanent magnet in a wide range of applications across many technologies beyond automotive. More recently, with growing pressure to improve efficiencies of automobiles and other energy consumers, thermoelectrics are a very exciting class of energy conversion materials that have seen dramatic advances in performance. General Motors is at the leading edge of research and development on automotive waste heat recovery using thermoelectric materials. Today, the very promising fuel cell future of the auto industry relies, in part, on advances in on-board alternative fuel storage. New materials and schemes for hydrogen storage that will help bring automotive fuel cell technology to fruition is a rapidly advancing field of physics and materials research. In this presentation, I will discuss my work in these areas during my career at General Motors Research and Development Center.

Meisner, Gregory

2007-03-01

222

ELECTRONIC FUEL INJECTION DIESEL LOCOMOTIVES  

E-print Network

among very few such efforts on large diesel engines. Just as the Automotive technology has progressed and improvements are made possible by matching of fuel consumption of the diesel engine to demand and speedELECTRONIC FUEL INJECTION FOR DIESEL LOCOMOTIVES 13 August, 2011 Diesel Loco Modernisation Works

Jagannatham, Aditya K.

223

Energy: Conservation, Energy Briefs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A comprehensive energy conservation program at College of the Holy Cross has saved nearly one-third of the fuel oil and one-fifth of the electricity used at the college; briefs on boilers, lights, design. (Author/MLF)

Nation's Schools and Colleges, 1975

1975-01-01

224

Comparison of steady-state and transient CVS cycle emission of an automotive Stirling engine  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Automotive Stirling Engine Development Program is to demonstrate a number of goals for a Stirling-powered vehicle. These goals are related to an achievement of specified maximum emission rates, a combined cycle fuel economy 30 percent better than a comparable internal-combustion engine-powered automobile, multifuel capability, competitive cost and reliability, and a meeting of Federal standards concerning noise and safety. The present investigation is concerned with efforts related to meeting the stringent emission goals. Attention is given to the initial development of a procedure for predicting transient CVS urban cycle gaseous emissions from steady-state engine data, taking into account the employment of the test data from the first-generation automotive Stirling engine. A large amount of steady-state data from three Mod I automotive Stirling engines were used to predict urban CVS cycle emissions for the Mod I Lerma vehicle.

Farrell, R. A.; Bolton, R. J.

1983-01-01

225

ME 374D Automotive Engineering laboratory ABET EC2000 syllabus  

E-print Network

and Automotive Engineering ­ ME 374C Notes 2010 at Coop. Other Required Material: NA Course ObjectivesME 374D ­ Automotive Engineering laboratory Page 1 ABET EC2000 syllabus ME 374D ­ Automotive are controlled, and the engineering logic and trade-offs in automotive engineering. Class/Laboratory Schedule

Ben-Yakar, Adela

226

Effect of alternative fuels on aftertreatment device  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is no doubt that globally, alternative fuels have attained the center of attention in order to reduce the dependency on fossil fuels. A lot of research has been conducted on the alternative fuels in the automotive industry pertaining to the sustainability, engine performance and the emission characteristics. ^ The focus of this study is to investigate the effect of

Bunpreet Singh

2010-01-01

227

78 FR 16498 - Proposed Information Collection Request; Comment Request; Registration of Fuels and Fuel...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...regulation. The information is also used to ensure that fuel additives comply with EPA requirements for protecting catalytic converters and other automotive emission controls. The data have been used to construct a comprehensive data base on...

2013-03-15

228

Integrated generation of solid fuel and biogas from green cut material from landscape conservation and private households.  

PubMed

Green cut material is a potential source of renewable energy which is not fully exploited through conventional energy recovery systems. A new energy conversion process, the integrated generation of solid fuel and biogas from biomass (IFBB), which includes mechanical separation after hydro-thermal conditioning, was investigated. Ash softening temperature and lower heating value of the solid fuel were increased through the IFFB process in comparison to the untreated raw material. The net energy yield of IFBB at 40 °C conditioning temperature ranged between 1.96 and 2.85 kWh kg(-1) dry matter (DM) and for the direct combustion between 1.75 and 2.65 kWh kg(-1) DM. Conversion efficiencies for the IFBB system were 0.42-0.68 and for direct combustion 0.42-0.63. The IFBB system produces storable energy from material which is nowadays not used for energy conversion. PMID:21963902

Hensgen, F; Richter, F; Wachendorf, M

2011-11-01

229

Hybrid Automotive Engine Using Ethanol-Burning Miller Cycle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A proposed hybrid (internal-combustion/ electric) automotive engine system would include as its internal-combustion subsystem, a modified Miller-cycle engine with regenerative air preheating and with autoignition like that of a Diesel engine. The fuel would be ethanol and would be burned lean to ensure complete combustion. Although the proposed engine would have a relatively low power-to-weight ratio compared to most present engines, this would not be the problem encountered if this engine were used in a non-hybrid system since hybrid systems require significantly lower power and thus smaller engines than purely internal-combustion-engine-driven vehicles. The disadvantage would be offset by the advantages of high fuel efficiency, low emission of nitrogen oxides and particulate pollutants, and the fact that ethanol is a renewable fuel. The original Miller-cycle engine, named after its inventor, was patented in the 1940s and is the basis of engines used in some modern automobiles, but is not widely known. In somewhat oversimplified terms, the main difference between a Miller-cycle engine and a common (Otto-cycle) automobile engine is that the Miller-cycle engine has a longer expansion stroke while retaining the shorter compression stroke. This is accomplished by leaving the intake valve open for part of the compression stroke, whereas in the Otto cycle engine, the intake valve is kept closed during the entire compression stroke. This greater expansion ratio makes it possible to extract more energy from the combustion process without expending more energy for compression. The net result is greater efficiency. In the proposed engine, the regenerative preheating would be effected by running the intake air through a heat exchanger connected to the engine block. The regenerative preheating would offer two advantages: It would ensure reliable autoignition during operation at low ambient temperature and would help to cool the engine, thereby reducing the remainder of the power needed for cooling and thereby further contributing to efficiency. An electrical resistance air preheater might be needed to ensure autoignition at startup and during a short warmup period. Because of the autoignition, the engine could operate without either spark plugs or glow plugs. Ethanol burns relatively cleanly and has been used as a motor fuel since the invention of internal-combustion engines. However, the energy content of ethanol per unit weight of ethanol is less than that of Diesel fuel or gasoline, and ethanol has a higher heat of vaporization. Because the Miller cycle offers an efficiency close to that of the Diesel cycle, burning ethanol in a Miller-cycle engine gives about as much usable output energy per unit volume of fuel as does burning gasoline in a conventional gasoline automotive engine. Because of the combination of preheating, running lean, and the use of ethyl alcohol, the proposed engine would generate less power per unit volume than does a conventional automotive gasoline engine. Consequently, for a given power level, the main body of the proposed engine would be bulkier. However, because little or no exhaust cleanup would be needed, the increase in bulk of the engine could be partially offset by the decrease in bulk of the exhaust system. The regenerative preheating also greatly reduces the external engine cooling requirement, and would translate to reduced engine bulk. It may even be possible to accomplish the remaining cooling of the engine by use of air only, eliminating the bulk and power consumption of a water cooling system. The combination of a Miller-cycle engine with regenerative air preheating, ethyl alcohol fuel, and hybrid operation could result in an automotive engine system that satisfies the need for a low pollution, high efficiency, and simple engine with a totally renewable fuel.

Weinstein, Leonard

2004-01-01

230

Anti-air pollution & energy conservation system for automobiles using leaded or unleaded gasoline, diesel or alternate fuel  

DOEpatents

Exhaust gases from an internal combustion engine operating with leaded or unleaded gasoline or diesel or natural gas, are used for energizing a high-speed gas turbine. The convoluting gas discharge causes a first separation stage by stratifying of heavier and lighter exhaust gas components that exit from the turbine in opposite directions, the heavier components having a second stratifying separation in a vortex tube to separate combustible pollutants from non-combustible components. The non-combustible components exit a vortex tube open end to atmosphere. The lighter combustible, pollutants effected in the first separation are bubbled through a sodium hydroxide solution for dissolving the nitric oxide, formaldehyde impurities in this gas stream before being piped to the engine air intake for re-combustion, thereby reducing the engine's exhaust pollution and improving its fuel economy. The combustible, heavier pollutants from the second separation stage are piped to air filter assemblies. This gas stream convoluting at a high-speed through the top stator-vanes of the air filters, centrifugally separates the coalescent water, aldehydes, nitrogen dioxides, sulfates, sulfur, lead particles which collect at the bottom of the bowl, wherein it is periodically released to the roadway. Whereas, the heavier hydrocarbon, carbon particles are piped through the air filter's porous element to the engine air intake for re-combustion, further reducing the engine's exhaust pollution and improving its fuel economy.

Bose, Ranendra K. (14346 Jacob La., Centreville, VA 20120-3305)

2002-06-04

231

Alternative Fuels Infrastructure Development  

SciTech Connect

This summary reviews the status of alternate transportation fuels development and utilization in Thailand. Thailand has continued to work to promote increased consumption of gasohol especially for highethanol content fuels like E85. The government has confirmed its effort to draw up incentives for auto makers to invest in manufacturing E85-compatible vehicles in the country. An understanding of the issues and experiences associated with the introduction of alternative fuels in other countries can help the US in anticipation potential problems as it introduces new automotive fuels.

Bloyd, Cary N.; Stork, Kevin

2011-02-01

232

Strategic frameworks in automotive systems architecting  

E-print Network

More often than not, large-scale engineering concepts such as those used by creative automotive manufacturing companies require the incorporation of significant capital outlays and resources for the purposes of implementation ...

Tampi, Mahesh

2012-01-01

233

Complexity reduction in automotive design and development  

E-print Network

Automobiles are complex products. High product complexity drives high levels of design and process complexity and complicatedness. This thesis attempts to reduce complicatedness in the automotive vehicle design and development ...

Ziegler, Ronald J., 1965-

2005-01-01

234

Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) Automotive Labs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The following labs were developed by Lewis and Clark Community College to modify National Automotive Technicians Education Foundation (NATEF) certified courses with HEV technologies. This project was funded by a seed grant from the CAAT.

College, Lewis A.

235

Filtration Technologies in the Automotive Industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The filtration in the automotive industry is diverse. Many filters are used either for the filtration of air or liquid in\\u000a the tank, engine or cabine. This paper will focus on air filtration and more specifically on engine air filtration. After\\u000a a brief presentation of the basic filtration principles, the filtration technologies used in this field of the automotive\\u000a industry

E. Jandos; M. Lebrun; C. Brzezinski; S. Canizares

236

Hydrogen, Fuel Cells, and Infrastructure Technologies FY 2002 Progress Report IV.D Fuel Cell Stack Subsystem and Components  

E-print Network

electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell stack system comprised of a PEM fuel cell stack and the supporting gas substitutes for the internal combustion engine (ICE) in automotive applications only when their benefits this contract was designed to accept reformed gasoline from a fuel processor. Development of the fuel processor

237

Automotive Refinishing II; Automotive Body Repair and Refinishing 2: 9035.05.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Part of the Dade County Public School (Florida)Quinmester Program, the automotive refinishing course outline is a continuation of automotive refinishing 1 and emphasizes the practical application of color coating and sheet metal refinishing. Overall refinishing with enamels, lacquers, and acrylics are included as well as spot repair painting and…

Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

238

Springback Prediction, Compensation and Correlation for Automotive Stamping  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To reduce weight and increase fuel efficiency and safety, more and more automotive sheet stamping parts are being made of aluminum and high strength steels. Forming of such materials encounters not just reduced formability but also dimensional quality problems. Springback prediction accuracy and compensation effectiveness have been the major challenge to die development, construction and tryout. In this paper, the factors that affect the accuracy of springback prediction are discussed, which includes the effect of material models, the selection of element size, and the contact algorithms. Springback predictions of several automotive aluminum and high strength panels are compared with measurement data. The examples show that the prediction correlates with measurement data in both springback trend and magnitude. The effect of springback on final product can be reduced or eliminated through process control and die face compensation. The process control method involves finding the root causes of springback and eliminating them through process modification. The geometrical compensation of die surface is a direct way to eliminate the springback effect. The global scaling compensation method is normally limited to parts with relatively small springback. For large springback and twisting, a new approach is discussed, which takes into account of the effect of deformation and springback history. The compensation is achieved iteratively by solving a system of non-linear equations. Production dies were cut to the compensated surface, which shows that the die compensation is an efficient way to reduce springback-induced geometry deviation.

Xu, Siguang; Zhao, Kunmin; Lanker, Terry; Zhang, Jimmy; Wang, C. T.

2005-08-01

239

Future Automotive Aftertreatment Solutions: The 150°C Challenge Workshop Report  

SciTech Connect

With future fuel economy standards enacted, the U.S. automotive manufacturers (OEMs) are committed to pursuing a variety of high risk/highly efficient stoichiometric and lean combustion strategies to achieve superior performance. In recognition of this need, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has partnered with domestic automotive manufacturers through U.S. DRIVE to develop these advanced technologies. However, before these advancements can be introduced into the U.S. market, they must also be able to meet increasingly stringent emissions requirements. A significant roadblock to this implementation is the inability of current catalyst and aftertreatment technologies to provide the required activity at the much lower exhaust temperatures that will accompany highly efficient combustion processes and powertrain strategies. Therefore, the goal of this workshop and report is to create a U.S. DRIVE emission control roadmap that will identify new materials and aftertreatment approaches that offer the potential for 90% conversion of emissions at low temperature (150°C) and are consistent with highly efficient combustion technologies currently under investigation within U.S. DRIVE Advanced Combustion and Emission Control (ACEC) programs.

Zammit, Michael; DiMaggio, Craig L.; Kim, Chang H.; Lambert, Christine; Muntean, George G.; Peden, Charles HF; Parks, James E.; Howden, Ken

2013-10-15

240

Integrated fuel processor development.  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy's Office of Advanced Automotive Technologies has been supporting the development of fuel-flexible fuel processors at Argonne National Laboratory. These fuel processors will enable fuel cell vehicles to operate on fuels available through the existing infrastructure. The constraints of on-board space and weight require that these fuel processors be designed to be compact and lightweight, while meeting the performance targets for efficiency and gas quality needed for the fuel cell. This paper discusses the performance of a prototype fuel processor that has been designed and fabricated to operate with liquid fuels, such as gasoline, ethanol, methanol, etc. Rated for a capacity of 10 kWe (one-fifth of that needed for a car), the prototype fuel processor integrates the unit operations (vaporization, heat exchange, etc.) and processes (reforming, water-gas shift, preferential oxidation reactions, etc.) necessary to produce the hydrogen-rich gas (reformate) that will fuel the polymer electrolyte fuel cell stacks. The fuel processor work is being complemented by analytical and fundamental research. With the ultimate objective of meeting on-board fuel processor goals, these studies include: modeling fuel cell systems to identify design and operating features; evaluating alternative fuel processing options; and developing appropriate catalysts and materials. Issues and outstanding challenges that need to be overcome in order to develop practical, on-board devices are discussed.

Ahmed, S.; Pereira, C.; Lee, S. H. D.; Krumpelt, M.

2001-12-04

241

Materials review for improved automotive gas-turbine engine. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Advanced materials are the key to achieving the performance and fuel economy goals of improved automotive gas turbine engines. The potential role of superalloys, refractory alloys, and ceramics in the hottest sections of future engines that may be required to operate with turbine inlet temperatures as high as 1370°C (2500°F) is examined. These high temperature materials are reviewed. The characteristics

C. Belleau; W. L. Ehlers; F. A. Hagen

1978-01-01

242

Advanced automotive diesel assessment program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Cummins Engine Company completed an analytical study to identify an advanced automotive (light duty) diesel (AAD) power plant for a 3,000-pound passenger car. The study resulted in the definition of a revolutionary diesel engine with several novel features. A 3,000-pound car with this engine is predicted to give 96.3, 72.2, and 78.8 MPG in highway, city, and combined highway-city driving, respectively. This compares with current diesel powered cars yielding 41.7, 35.0, and 37.7 MPG. The time for 0-60 MPH acceleration is 13.9 sec. compared to the baseline of 15.2 sec. Four technology areas were identified as crucial in bringing this concept to fruition. They are: (1) part-load preheating, (2) positive displacement compounding, (3) spark assisted diesel combustion system, and (4) piston development for adiabatic, oilless diesel engine. Marketing and planning studies indicate that an aggressive program with significant commitment could result in a production car in 10 years from the date of commencement.

Sekar, R.; Tozzi, L.

1983-01-01

243

User discrimination in automotive systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The recently developed dual-view touch screens, which are announced to be installed in cars in a near future, give rise to completely new challenges in human-machine interaction. The automotive system should be able to identify if the driver or the passenger is currently interacting with the touch screen to provide a correct response to the touch. The optical devices, due to availability, acceptance by the users and multifunctional usage, approved to be the most appropriate sensing technology for driver/passenger discrimination. In this work the prototypic optical user discrimination system is implemented in the car simulator and evaluated in the laboratory environment with entirely controlled illumination. Three tests were done for this research. One of them examined if the near-infrared illumination should be switched on around the clock, the second one if there is a difference in discrimination performance between day, twilight and night conditions, and the third one examined how the intensive directional lighting influences the performance of the implemented user discrimination algorithm. Despite the high error rates, the evaluation results show that very simple computer vision algorithms are able to solve complicated user discrimination task. The average error rate of 10.42% (daytime with near-infrared illumination) is a very promising result for optical systems.

Makrushin, Andrey; Dittmann, Jana; Vielhauer, Claus; Leich, Marcus

2011-03-01

244

The Race for 21st Century Auto Fuels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Will automobiles be predominately propelled with petroleum or other fuels during the 21st century? This paper carries out a comparison of five automotive technologies (efficiency, fossil, biofuel, electricity and hydrogen) under four basic criteria (infrastructure, vehicles, resources, and environment).

Farrell, Alex; Brandt, Adam; Arons, Sam

2008-09-01

245

The National Fuel End-Use Efficiency Field Test: Energy Savings and Performance of an Improved Energy Conservation Measure Selection Technique  

SciTech Connect

The performance of an advanced residential energy conservation measure (ECM) selection technique was tested in Buffalo, New York, to verify the energy savings and program improvements achieved from use of the technique in conservation programs and provide input into determining whether utility investments in residential gas end-use conservation are cost effective. The technique analyzes a house to identify all ECMs that are cost effective in the building envelope, space-heating system, and water-heating system. The benefit-to-cost ratio (BCR) for each ECM is determined and cost-effective ECMs (BCR > 1.0) are selected once interactions between ECMs are taken into account. Eighty-nine houses with the following characteristics were monitored for the duration of the field test: occupants were low-income, houses were single-family detached houses but not mobile homes, and primary space- and water-heating systems were gas-fired. Forty-five houses received a mix of ECMs as selected by the measure selection technique (audit houses) and 44 served as a control group. Pre-weatherization data were collected from January to April 1988 and post-weatherization data were collected from December 1988 to April 1989. Space- and waterheating gas consumption and indoor temperature were monitored weekly during the two winters. A house energy consumption model and regression analysis were employed to normalize the space-heating energy savings to average outdoor temperature conditions and a 68 F indoor temperature. Space and water-heating energy savings for the audit houses were adjusted by the savings for the control houses. The average savings of 257 therms/year for the audit houses was 17% of the average pre-weatherization house gas consumption and 78% of that predicted. Average space-heating energy savings was 252 therms/year (25% of pre-weatherization space-heating energy consumption and 85% of the predicted value) and average water-heating savings was 5 therms/year (2% of pre-weatherization water-heating energy consumption and 17% of predicted). The overall BCR for the ECMs was 1.24 using the same assumptions followed in the selection technique: no administration cost, residential fuel costs, real discount rate of 0.05, and no fuel escalation. A weatherization program would be cost effective at an administration cost less than $335/house. On average, the indoor temperature increased in the audit houses by 0.5 F following weatherization and decreased in the control houses by 0.1 F. The following conclusions regarding the measure selection technique were drawn from the study: (1) a significant cost-effective level of energy savings resulted, (2) space-heating energy savings and total installation costs were predicted with reasonable accuracy, indicating that the technique's recommendations are justified, (3) effectiveness improved from earlier versions and can continue to be improved, and (4) a wider variety of ECMs were installed compared to most weatherization programs. An additional conclusion of the study was that a significant indoor temperature take-back effect had not occurred.

Ternes, M.P.

1991-01-01

246

Design & optimization of automotive power electronics utilizing FITMOS MOSFET technology  

E-print Network

Power electronics are essential to many automotive applications, and their importance continues to grow as more vehicle functions incorporate electronic controls. MOSFETs are key elements in automotive power electronic ...

Li, Wei, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Department. of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science.

2009-01-01

247

Multidisciplinary design optimization of an automotive magnetorheological brake design  

E-print Network

Multidisciplinary design optimization of an automotive magnetorheological brake design Edward J This paper presents the development of a new electromechanical brake system using magnetorheological (MR: Magnetorheological fluid; Automotive brake; Finite element analysis; Computational fluid dynamics; Multidisciplinary

Park, Edward

248

Life cycle cost modeling of automotive paint systems  

E-print Network

Vehicle coating is an important component of automotive manufacturing. The paint shop constitutes the plurality of initial investment in an automotive assembly plant, consumes the majority of energy used in the plant's ...

Leitz, Christopher W. (Christopher William), 1976-

2007-01-01

249

The U.S. Automotive Market and Industry in 2025  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this study, the Center for Automotive Research (CAR) predicts the 2025 U.S. light vehicle market based on expected greenhouse gas requirements for the years 2017-2025. Through scenario modeling of four possible corporate average fuel economy (CAFE) standards, itâs found that this mandate poses a serious threat to the U.S. vehicle market. Itâs determined that from 2017-2025 consumer cost will rise 40%, overall vehicle sales will drop by $5.4 million, and a total U.S. employment loss of 1.69 million jobs. CAR offers the solution of creating a review board composed of members from government, engineering firms, and industry leaders to evaluate CAFE standards every three years, rather than setting standards for far ahead projected dates.

Center for Automotive Research (CAR)

250

Conservation physiology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conservation biologists increasingly face the need to provide legislators, courts and conservation managers with data on causal mechanisms underlying conservation problems such as species decline. To develop and monitor solutions, conservation biologists are progressively using more techniques that are physiological. Here, we review the emerging discipline of conservation physiology and suggest that, for conservation strategies to be successful, it is

Martin Wikelski; Steven J. Cooke

2006-01-01

251

Creep and creep-rupture behavior of a continuous strand, swirl mat reinforced polymer composite in automotive environments  

SciTech Connect

Creep and creep-rupture behavior of an isocyanurate based polyurethane matrix with a continuous strand, swirl mat E-glass reinforcement was investigated for automotive applications. The material under stress was exposed to various automobile service environments. Results show that environment has substantial effects on its creep and creep-rupture properties. Proposed design guide lines and stress reduction factors were developed for various automotive environments. These composites are considered candidate structural materials for light weight and fuel efficient automobiles of the future.

Ren, W.; Brinkman, C.R. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Metals and Ceramics Div.

1998-12-31

252

A comparative study of fuels for on-board hydrogen production for fuel-cell-powered automobiles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seven common fuels are compared for their utility as hydrogen sources for proton-exchange-membrane fuel cells used in automotive propulsion. Methanol, natural gas, gasoline, diesel fuel, aviation jet fuel, ethanol, and hydrogen are the fuels considered. Except for steam-reforming methanol and using pure hydrogen, all processes for generating hydrogen from these fuels require water–gas shift reactors of significant size. This occurs

Lee F. Brown

2001-01-01

253

Molded GASIR ® infrared optics for automotive applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Umicore IR Glass has developed an industrial process to manufacture low cost chalcogenide glasses. These materials called GASIR® are transparent in the 3-5 and 8-12 ?m atmospheric windows which allows to use them in all the sensing and thermal imaging applications where Germanium and ZnSe usually stands. During the past 5 years, Umicore has developed and produced with and for its customers various GASIR ® optics in low and medium volume for military and civilian applications. But from the beginning of last year, the company is also very active in the automotive market. For that reason, a huge work of development on optics quality has been done to comply with automotive requests. Umicore's GASIR ® optics are used for instance in the night vision system that BMW launched in September 2005 on its 7-series. This system which will be described in this paper was developed by Umicore's customer, automotive TIER1 producer Autoliv.

Guimond, Y.; Bellec, Y.

2006-05-01

254

Engine Performance Specialist. Instructor's Manual. Automotive Service Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This curriculum guide is one of a series automotive service specialty publications that continues students' training in the automotive service trade by providing instruction in the engine performance specialty. It is based on the National Institute of Automotive Service Excellence task lists. Each of the 16 units includes some or all of the basic…

Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

255

Master Thesis Defining Materials in an Automotive Environment to Support  

E-print Network

Master Thesis ­ Defining Materials in an Automotive Environment to Support Realistic Virtual to material library in RD&T. · Demonstration on an automotive case in RD&T. Prior knowledge Knowledge will decrease project time and cost. In the automotive industry, virtual evaluation is of special importance

Assarsson, Ulf

256

Best Practices in School-to-Careers: The Automotive Industry.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document highlights the school-to-careers (STC) partnerships connecting workplace experiences to classroom learning to prepare students for successful employment in the automotive industry. First, the current state of the automotive industry is reviewed and the role of STC in addressing automotive service needs is explained. Next, the…

National Employer Leadership Council, Washington, DC.

257

Computer Graphic Tools for Automotive Paint Engineering Gary W. Meyer  

E-print Network

Computer Graphic Tools for Automotive Paint Engineering Gary W. Meyer University of Minnesota graphics programs that can be used to solve automotive paint engineering problems. New surface reflection models have been created for simulating the appearance of automotive paint, and the hardware available

Minnesota, University of

258

Can Distance Learning Be Used to Teach Automotive Management Skills?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Today's automotive college students will shape the future of the automobile industry. The success of college-level automotive programs has long been dependent on the students' ability to participate in hands-on classroom based interactions. In this article, distance learning and how it can be used to teach automotive management skills, as well as…

Noto, Teresa L.

2011-01-01

259

Reliability Potential Of Epoxy Based Encapsulants For Automotive Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Automotive under-the-hood electronics often have to withstand temperatures up to 175 °C in combination with harsh environment conditions. This paper gives an overview about the reliability potential of epoxy based encapsulants for automotive applications. Therefore the resistance of epoxy molding compound against typical automotive fluids at temperature of use is analyzed. Six epoxy molding compounds available on the market, showing

T. Braun; K.-F. Becker; M. Koch; V. Bader; Rolf Aschenbrenner; Herbert Reichl

2005-01-01

260

Modeling and Verifying Intelligent Automotive Cyber-Physical Systems  

E-print Network

Modeling and Verifying Intelligent Automotive Cyber-Physical Systems Sumit Kumar Jha Gita Exhaustive state space exploration based verification of cyber-physical system designs re- mains a challenge automotive cyber-physical systems continue to grow in complex- ity. The testing of intelligent automotive

Rajkumar, Ragunathan "Raj"

261

Fuels for fuel cells: Fuel and catalyst effects on carbon formation  

SciTech Connect

The goal of this research is to explore the effects of fuels, fuel constituents, additives and impurities on the performance of on-board hydrogen generation devices and consequently on the overall performance of fuel cell systems using reformed hydrocarbon fuels. Different fuels and components have been tested in automotive scale, adiabatic autothermal reactors to observe their relative reforming characteristics with various operating conditions. Carbon formation has been modeled and was experimentally monitored in situ during operation by laser measurements of the effluent reformate. Ammonia formation was monitored, and conditions varied to observe under what conditions N H 3 is made.

Borup, R. L. (Rodney L.); Inbody, M. A. (Michael A.); Perry, W. L. (William Lee); Parkinson, W. J. (William Jerry),

2002-01-01

262

Automotive technology status and projections. Volume 2: Assessment report  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Current and advanced conventional engines, advanced alternative engines, advanced power train components, and other energy conserving automobile modifications which could be implemented by the end of this century are examined. Topics covered include gas turbine engines, Stirling engines, advanced automatic transmissions, alternative fuels, and metal and ceramic technology. Critical problems are examined and areas for future research are indicated.

Dowdy, M.; Burke, A.; Schneider, H.; Edmiston, W.; Klose, G. J.; Heft, R.

1978-01-01

263

Energy Efficiency for Automotive Instructors.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Intended primarily but not solely for use at the postsecondary level, this curriculum guide contains six units on energy efficiency that were designed to be incorporated into an existing program in automobile mechanics. The following topics are examined: drivers and public awareness (relationship between driving and fuel consumption); ignition…

Scharmann, Larry, Ed.; Lay, Gary, Ed.

264

Nanotechnology impact on the automotive industry.  

PubMed

Nanotechnology has been implemented widely in the automotive industry. This technology is particularly useful in coatings, fabrics, structural materials, fluids, lubricants, tires, and preliminary applications in smart glass/windows and video display systems. A special sub-class of improved materials, alternative energy, has also seen a boost from advances in nanotechnology, and continues to be an active research area. A correlation exists in the automotive industry between the areas with increased nanotechnology incorporation and those with increased profit margins via improvements and customer demands. PMID:25360613

Wong, Kaufui V; Paddon, Patrick A

2014-01-01

265

Fatigue life of automotive rubber jounce bumper  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is evident that most rubber components in the automotive industry are subjected to repetitive loading. Vigorous research is needed towards improving the safety and reliability of the components. The study was done on an automotive rubber jounce bumper with a rubber hardness of 60 IRHD. The test was conducted in displacement-controlled environment under compressive load. The existing models by Kim, Harbour, Woo and Li were adopted to predict the fatigue life. The experimental results show strong similarities with the predicted models.

Sidhu, R. S.; Ali, Aidy

2010-05-01

266

Status and Trend of Automotive Power Packaging  

SciTech Connect

Comprehensive requirements in aspects of cost, reliability, efficiency, form factor, weight, and volume for power electronics modules in modern electric drive vehicles have driven the development of automotive power packaging technology intensively. Innovation in materials, interconnections, and processing techniques is leading to enormous improvements in power modules. In this paper, the technical development of and trends in power module packaging are evaluated by examining technical details with examples of industrial products. The issues and development directions for future automotive power module packaging are also discussed.

Liang, Zhenxian [ORNL

2012-01-01

267

Mod I automotive Stirling engine mechanical development  

SciTech Connect

The Mod I Stirling engine was the first automotive Stirling engine designed specifically for automotive application. Testing of these engines has revealed several deficiencies in engine mechanical integrity which have been corrected by redesign or upgrade. The main deficiencies uncovered during the Mod I program lie in the combustion, auxiliary, main seal, and heater head areas. This paper will address each of the major area deficiencies in detail, and describe the corrective actions taken as they apply to the Mod I and the next Stirling-engine design, the Upgraded Mod I (a redesign to incorporate new materials for cost/weight reduction and improved performance).

Simetkosky, M.

1984-01-01

268

Past experiences with automotive external combustion engines  

SciTech Connect

GMR (General Motors Research Laboratories, now GM R and D Center) has a history of improving the internal combustion engine, especially as it relates to automotive use. During the quarter century from 1950--75, considerable effort was devoted to evaluating alternative powerplants based on thermodynamic cycles different from those on which the established spark-ignition and diesel engines are founded. Two of these, the steam engine and the Stirling engine, incorporated external combustion. Research on those two alternatives is reviewed. Both were judged to fall short of current needs for commercial success as prime movers for conventional automotive vehicles.

Amann, C.A.

1999-07-01

269

Reformulated diesel fuel and method  

DOEpatents

A method for mathematically identifying at least one diesel fuel suitable for combustion in an automotive diesel engine with significantly reduced emissions and producible from known petroleum blendstocks using known refining processes, including the use of cetane additives (ignition improvers) and oxygenated compounds.

McAdams, Hiramie T [Carrollton, IL; Crawford, Robert W [Tucson, AZ; Hadder, Gerald R [Oak Ridge, TN; McNutt, Barry D [Arlington, VA

2006-08-22

270

Automotive Stirling engine development program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Activities performed on Mod I engine testing and test results, testing of the Mod I engine in the United States, Mod I engine characterization and analyses, Mod I Transient Test Bed fuel economy, upgraded Mod I performance and testing, Stirling engine reference engine manufacturing and reduced size studied, components and subsystems, and the study and test of low cost casting alloys are summarized. The overall program philosophy is outlined, and data and results are presented.

Nightingale, N.; Ernst, W.; Richey, A.; Simetkosky, M.; Smith, G.; Rohdenburg, C.; Vatsky, A.; Antonelli, M. (editor)

1983-01-01

271

Automotive Stirling Engine Development Program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Mod I engine testing and test results, the test of a Mod I engine in the United States, Mod I engine characterization and analysis, Mod I Transient Test Bed fuel economy, Mod I-A engine performance are discussed. Stirling engine reference engine manufacturing and reduced size studies, components and subsystems, and the study and test of low-cost casting alloys are also covered. The overall program philosophy is outlined, and data and results are presented.

Nightingale, N.; Ernst, W.; Richey, A.; Simetkosky, M.; Smith, G.; Antonelli, M. (editor)

1983-01-01

272

Thermography for Preventive Maintenance and Conservation  

E-print Network

With fuel prices soaring, more and more companies are looking at energy management as a means to curb energy costs. Let's face it, our energy supply picture is improving but new energy will be expensive. Conservation, energy management, fuel...

Lopez, T.

1979-01-01

273

Modeling foam damping materials in automotive structures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Foam damping materials judiciously placed in automotive structures efficiently reduce the vibration amplitudes of large, relatively flat exterior body panels such as the hood, roof, deck lid (trunk) and door skin. These polymer foams (typically epoxy or vinyl) have mechanical properties that depend on the foam homogeneity, degree of expansion, temperature and frequency of excitation. Standard methods for determining true

David A. Wagner; Yuksel Gur; Susan M. Ward; Marsha A. Samus

1997-01-01

274

Blade erosion in automotive gas turbine engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work, a study has been conducted to predict blade erosion and surface deterioration of the free power turbine of an automotive gas turbine engine. The blade material erosion model is based on three-dimensional particle trajectory simulations in the three-dimensional turbine flow field. The particle rebound characteristics after surface impacts were determined from experimental measurements of restitution ratios for

M. Metwally; W. Tabakoff; A. Hamed

1995-01-01

275

High Temperature Materials for Automotive Power Plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alternative power plants, emission control systems and control systems for optimizing performance of internal combustion engines have focused increased attention on automotive applications of high temperature materials. Ceramics and related materials are receiving particular attention. This paper presents an overview of some of the high temperature materials developments associated with catalytic devices for emission control systems, sensors for engine feedback

J. J. Harwood

1974-01-01

276

The Society of Automotive Engineers Library  

Microsoft Academic Search

A brief history of the Society of Automotive Engineers is followed by a description of its library. Because of the large collection, only material published by SAE is contained in the library. Services such as document delivery and acquisition are discussed along with several others. Descriptions of SAE's two databases are detailed.

Janet Jedlicka

1987-01-01

277

MIT and Automotive Industries MIT Industry Brief  

E-print Network

that this is not a comprehensive summary of research being conducted at MIT in the topic areas listed above. AUTOMOTIVE MATERIALS The Center for Materials Science and Engineering (CMSE) fosters collaborative, interdisciplinary research and education in the science and engineering of materials that will address the future needs of society

Ceder, Gerbrand

278

Automotive Body Repair. Performance Objectives. Basic Course.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Several intermediate performance objectives and corresponding criterion measures are listed for each of 15 terminal objectives for a basic automotive body repair and refinishing course. The materials were developed for a two-semester (2 hours daily) course for organized classroom and shop experiences designed to enable the student to develop…

Lang, Thomas

279

Automotive Body Repair. Performance Objectives. Intermediate Course.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Several intermediate performance objectives and corresponding criterion measures are listed for each of 10 terminal objectives for an intermediate automotive body repair and refinishing course. The materials were developed for a two-semester (3 hours daily) course for specialized classrooms, shop, and practical experiences designed to enable the…

Lang, Thomas

280

Technological improvements in automotive battery recycling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recycling of automotive batteries for the recovery of secondary lead is extremely important in Brazil, for the country does not possess large reserves of this metal. Lead is one of the most widely used metals in the world, but it is highly toxic, posing risks for humans and for the environment if not utilized or treated adequately. Industrial waste containing

M. A. Kreusch; M. J. J. S. Ponte; H. A. Ponte; N. M. S. Kaminari; C. E. B. Marino; V. Mymrin

2007-01-01

281

NONLINEAR MAGNETIC LEVITATION OF AUTOMOTIVE ENGINE VALVES  

E-print Network

, the controller is designed for and implemented on an electromagnetic valve actuator for use in automotive engines performance and robustness near the electromagnets. Implementation is achieved using position and current and engine speed. By replacing the camshaft with the EVA, which uses electromagnets to actuate the engine

Stefanopoulou, Anna

282

Basic Automotive Mechanics. Florida Vocational Program Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This program guide identifies primary concerns in the organization, operation, and evaluation of a basic automotive mechanics program. It is designed for local school district and community college administrators, instructors, program advisory committees, and regional coordinating councils. The guide begins with the Dictionary of Occupational…

University of South Florida, Tampa. Dept. of Adult and Vocational Education.

283

Acoustics of automotive catalytic converter assemblies  

Microsoft Academic Search

In an automotive exhaust system, the purpose of the catalytic converter is to reduce pollutant emissions. However, catalytic converters also affect the engine and exhaust system breathing characteristics; they increase backpressure, affect exhaust system acoustic characteristics, and contribute to exhaust manifold tuning. Thus, radiated sound models should include catalytic converters since they can affect both the source characteristics and the

Nolan S. Dickey; Ahmet Selamet; Steve J. Parks; Kevin V. Tallio; Keith D. Miazgowicz; Paul M. Radavich

2003-01-01

284

Illinois Occupational Skill Standards: Automotive Technician Cluster.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document, which is intended as a guide for work force preparation program providers, details the Illinois occupational skill standards for programs preparing students for employment in occupations in the automotive technician cluster. The document begins with overviews of the Illinois perspective on occupational skill standards and…

Illinois Occupational Skill Standards and Credentialing Council, Carbondale.

285

Automotive Technology. Florida Vocational Program Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This program guide identifies primary concerns in the organization, operation, and evaluation of an automotive technology program. It is designed for local school district and community college administrators, instructors, program advisory committees, and regional coordinating councils. The guide begins with the Dictionary of Occupational Titles…

University of South Florida, Tampa. Dept. of Adult and Vocational Education.

286

Automotive Stirling engine development program - A success  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The original 5-year Automotive Stirling Engine Development Program has been extended to 10 years due to reduced annual funding levels. With an estimated completion date of April 1988, the technical achievements and the prospectives of meeting the original program objectives are reviewed. Various other applications of this developed Stirling engine technology are also discussed.

Tabata, William K.

1987-01-01

287

Automotive Stirling engine development program: A success  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The original 5-yr Automotive Stirling Engine Development Program has been extended to 10 years due to reduced annual funding levels. With an estimated completion date of April 1988, the technical achievements and the prospectives of meeting the original program objectives are reviewed. Various other applications of this developed Stirling engine technology are also discussed.

Tabata, W. K.

1987-01-01

288

Automotive Service Technology. Florida Vocational Program Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This program guide identifies primary concerns in the organization, operation, and evaluation of an automotive service technology program. It is designed for local school district and community college administrators, instructors, program advisory committees, and regional coordinating councils. The guide begins with the Dictionary of Occupational…

University of South Florida, Tampa. Dept. of Adult and Vocational Education.

289

Automotive Spray Paint Simulation Jonathan Konieczny1,  

E-print Network

Automotive Spray Paint Simulation Jonathan Konieczny1, , John Heckman2 , Gary Meyer1 , Mark Manyen2 for the simulation of spray painting. Head mounted display goggles are combined with a tracking system to allow users to paint a virtual surface with a spray gun. Ray tracing is used to simulate droplets landing

Meyer, Gary

290

Application, Rendering and Display of Automotive Paint  

E-print Network

Application, Rendering and Display of Automotive Paint by Jonathan Konieczny Dr Gary W. MeyerPont Paints was kind enough to allow us to visit their own paint testing facility and track their spray painters using real spray guns. The data gathered from that visit was essential to creating the spray paint

Meyer, Gary

291

Requirements for Automotive System Engineering Tools  

Microsoft Academic Search

The requirements to system and software development tools brought up by the automotive industry differ from the requirements that other customers have. The important catchwords here are heterogeneity of suppliers, tools, tech- nical background of the engineers, and - partially resulting from the just mentioned - the overall complexity of the sys- tems that are built up. There are multiple

Joachim Schlosser; BMW AG

2002-01-01

292

COTTON FIBER NONWOVENS FOR AUTOMOTIVE COMPOSITES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

With increasing demand for automobiles in the global mareket, and a simultaneous pressure to address the issue of sustainability, there is continuing need for the incorporation of natural fiber based materials into automotives. The focus of recent research has been to produce compostable cotton fibe...

293

Quartz rate gyro sensor for automotive control  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new quartz rate gyro sensor has been developed for automotive controls. The principle of the sensor is detection of the Coriolis force with a vibrator. An H shape vibrator supported with a stem at its center was used. The vibrator supported at the center was good for the isolation of a small detection motion from a large excitation motion.

Y. Nonomura; M. Fujiyoshi; Y. Omura; K. Tsukada; M. Okuwa; T. Morikawa; N. Sugitani; S. Satou; N. Kurata; S. Matsushige

2004-01-01

294

Quartz angular rate sensor for automotive control  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new quartz angular rate sensor has been developed for automotive controls. The principle of the sensor is detection of the Coriolis force with a vibrator An H shape vibrator supported with a stein at the center was used The vibrator supported at the center was good for the isolation of a small motion detecting angular rate from an extremely

Y. Nonomura; M. Fujiyoshi; Y. Omura; K. Tsukada; M. Okuwa; T. Morikawa; N. Sugitani; S. Satou; N. Kurata; S. Matsushige

2001-01-01

295

SOI rate gyro sensor for automotive control  

Microsoft Academic Search

A silicon on insulator (SOI) rate gyro sensor has been developed for automotive controls. The sensor detects yaw rate of automobiles. The sensor has a new open beam structure (OBS). Excitation and detection electrodes of the OBS are open toward exterior bonding pads in a plane. The FEM analysis results showed the OBS was superior to other structures. The OBS

Y. Nonomura; M. Fujiyoshi; Y. Omura; N. Fujitsuka; K. Mizuno; K. Tsukada

2006-01-01

296

Society of Automotive Engineers Student competitions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Xtreme Engineering is what you get with the Society of Automotive Engineers Collegiate Design Competitions. Go beyond textbook theory by designing, building and testing the performance of a real vehicle. Join other undergraduate and graduate students from around the globe in exciting and intense competitions. This site provides links to information on registering, dates, organizers and results for five different competitions.

Society of Automotive Engineers

297

National Apprenticeship Standards for Automotive Machinist.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

These 24 standards have been adopted by the Automotive Service Industry Association to provide well-planned, properly supervised training for apprentices to develop into competent machinists. The goal of the standards is to establish and maintain high criteria of workmanship, to develop knowledge by workers of technical and theoretical aspects of…

Manpower Administration (DOL), Washington, DC. Bureau of Apprenticeship and Training.

298

Automotive Lightweight Materials: the Roles of Nde in Bringing New Materials Into Production  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The automotive industry is in the midst of a time of tremendous change. There is an almost perfect storm of changing governmental and market requirements seeking much higher fuel economy, low or no carbon dioxide emissions, and much higher crash and safety performance. Moreover, this occurs in a globe-spanning market that has more low-cost manufacturers than ever before. This confluence of factors leads to new vehicles with many new types of powertrains having unprecedented power densities and highly-engineered body structures with many new materials and joining methods. These are being turned out with shorter lead times, higher quality requirements, and continuous cost pressures. This talk will review the role in NDE in bringing new materials and processes to market, some of the applications in production, and to highlight some of the current NDE needs driven by these forces on the automotive industry.

Dasch, Cameron J.

2008-02-01

299

Automotive Stirling Engine Development Program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Development test activities on Mod I engines directed toward evaluating technologies for potential inclusion in the Mod II engine are summarized. Activities covered include: test of a 12-tube combustion gas recirculation combustor; manufacture and flow-distribution test of a two-manifold annular heater head; piston rod/piston base joint; single-solid piston rings; and a digital air/fuel concept. Also summarized are results of a formal assessment of candidate technologies for the Mod II engine, and preliminary design work for the Mod II. The overall program philosophy weight is outlined, and data and test results are presented.

Nightingale, N.; Richey, A.; Farrell, R.; Riecke, G.; Ernst, W.; Howarth, R.; Cronin, M.; Simetkosky, M.; Smith, G.; Meacher, J.

1985-01-01

300

Ethanol, a clean burning bio-solar fuel - Its production and utilization  

Microsoft Academic Search

The production of ethanol from various substances is considered, and the use of ethanol as an automotive fuel is discussed. Extensive experimental tests and theoretical investigations have shown that ethanol can be used in existing automotive engines in the form of ethanol gasoline blends. Further, future ethanol engines can be developed for total ethanol operation with consequent high specific output

H. B. Mathur

1980-01-01

301

Essays on the dynamics of alternative fuel vehicle adoption : insights from the market for hybrid-electric vehicles in the United States  

E-print Network

Despite growing energy security and environmental concerns about dependence on oil as a transportation fuel, gasoline remains the overwhelmingly dominant fuel used by the US automotive fleet. Numerous previous efforts to ...

Keith, David Ross

2012-01-01

302

Proceedings of the international symposium on alcohol fuel technology: methanol and ethanol  

SciTech Connect

The papers presented dealt with the following topics: international situation and economic and political aspects, use of alcohol fuels as automotive fuels, production of methanol and methyl fuels, production of ethanol, methanol application and modeling, alcohol fuel optimization, and environmental considerations. Each paper was prepared for introduction into the EDB data base. (JSR)

None

1978-07-01

303

Third Program Plan for DOE's participation in the IEA Working Party on Energy-Conservation Research and Development  

SciTech Connect

The Plan documents the projects currently being conducted by the working party in which DOE is participating and the projects proposed by DOE for consideration by other IEA member nations. Chapter 1 reviews current and planned DOE commitments to existing implementing agreements: buildings and community systems; energy conservation in building complexes; energy cascading; heat pumps with thermal storage; advanced heat pumps; combustion; heat transfer and heat exchangers; energy storage; cement manufacturer; and high-temperature materials for automotive propulsion systems. Chapter 2 reviews planned DOE commitments to new implementing agreements: combustion; pulp and paper; iron and steel; food processing; urban waste; and alcohol additives to fuel. Appendix A discusses the mechanisms for establishing implementing agreements and annexes. Appendix B lists working party members and Appendix C describes the evaluation methodology.

None

1980-06-01

304

Multilevel dynamic fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method in the automotive supply chain performance evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ultimate goal to valuate the automotive supply chain performance is to carry out the overall optimization of the automotive supply chain. It is the key of supply chain performance evaluation that a set of perfect automotive supply chain performance evaluation index system must be establish. According to the definition of automotive supply chain performance, the automotive Supply Chain Performance

Lizhen Du; Di Zhang; Ling Shen

2009-01-01

305

Status of solid polymer electrolyte fuel cell technology and potential for transportation applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) fuel cell represents the first fuel cell technology known to be used operationally. Current activities are mainly related to the development of a space regenerative fuel cell system for energy storage on board space stations, or other large orbiting vehicles and platforms. During 1981, a study was performed to determine the feasibility of using SPE fuel cells for automotive or other vehicular applications, using methanol as the fuel. The results of this study were very encouraging. Details concerning a conceptual automotive fuel cell power plant study are discussed, taking into account also a layout of major components for compact passenger car installation.

McElroy, J. F.; Nuttall, L. J.

306

Fumigation of Alcohol in a Light Duty Automotive Diesel Engine  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A light-duty automotive Diesel engine was fumigated with methanol in amounts up to 35% and 50% of the total fuel energy respectively in order to determine the effect of alcohol fumigation on engine performance at various operating conditons. Engine fuel efficiency, emissions, smoke, and the occurrence of severe knock were the parameters used to evaluate performance. Raw exhaust particulate and its soluble organic extract were screened for biological activity using the Ames Salmonella typhimurium assay. Results are given for a test matrix made up of twelve steady-state operating conditions. For all conditions except the 1/4 rack (light load) condition, modest thermal efficiency gains were noted upon ethanol fumigation. Methanol showed the same increase at 3/4 and full rack (high load) conditions. However, engine roughness or the occurrence of severe knock limited the maximum amount of alcohol that could be fumigated. Brake specific nitrogen oxide concentrations were found to decrease for all ethanol conditions tested. Oxides of nitrogen emissions, on a volume basis, decreased for all alcohol conditions tested. Based on the limited particulate data analyzed, it appears that ethanol fumigation, like methanol fumigation, while lowering the mass of particulated emitted, does enhance the biological activity of that particulate.

Broukhiyan, E. M. H.; Lestz, S. S.

1981-01-01

307

Industrial waste recycling at an automotive component manufacturing facility  

SciTech Connect

The AC Rochester Division of General Motors Corporation (GM) develops and manufacturers automotive components for engine management systems at nine facilities in the US. Its largest facility is located in flint, Michigan, and is known as the Flint East site. The Flint East site covers nearly two square miles and consists of several plants housing manufacturing operations for spark plugs, glow plugs, oil filters, air filters, air cleaner assemblies, fuel pumps, fuel level sensors, cruise control systems, and other components. The volume and diversity of the scrap and wastes generated from these operations require skillful waste management to provide environmentally safe and cost-effective disposal options. Over time, a full-scale recycling and waste disposal operation evolved at Flint East. The operation has grown over the past thirty years to handle over 68,000 tons of material annually. Flint East`s program is regarded as a model industrial waste reduction and recycling operation. Elements of the program are presented here as a guide to establishing a successful industrial recycling program.

Jaffurs, J.A.; Hubler, R.L.; Behaylo, D.P. [General Motors Corp., Flint, MI (United States). AC Rochester Div.

1995-09-01

308

Multichip module technology for automotive application  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Advancements in multichip module technology are creating design freedoms previously unavailable to design engineers. These advancements are opening new markets for laminate based multichip module products. In particular, material improvements in laminate printed wiring boards are allowing multichip module technology to meet more stringent environmental conditions. In addition, improvements in encapsulants and adhesives are enhancing the capabilities of multichip module technology to meet harsh environment. Furthermore, improvements in manufacturing techniques are providing the reliability improvements necessary for use in high quality electronic systems. These advances are making multichip module technology viable for high volume, harsh environment applications like under-the-hood automotive electronics. This paper will provide a brief review of multichip module technology, a discussion of specific research activities with Chrysler for use of multichip modules in automotive engine controllers and finally a discussion of prototype multichip modules fabricated and tested.

Johnson, R. Wayne; Evans, John L.; Bosley, Larry

1995-01-01

309

Automotion of domain walls for spintronic interconnects  

SciTech Connect

We simulate “automotion,” the transport of a magnetic domain wall under the influence of demagnetization and magnetic anisotropy, in nanoscale spintronic interconnects. In contrast to spin transfer driven magnetic domain wall motion, the proposed interconnects operate without longitudinal charge current transfer, with only a transient current pulse at domain wall creation and have favorable scaling down to the 20?nm dimension. Cases of both in-plane and out-of-plane magnetization are considered. Analytical dependence of the velocity of domain walls on the angle of magnetization are compared with full micromagnetic simulations. Deceleration, attenuation and disappearance, and reflection of domain walls are demonstrated through simulation. Dependences of the magnetization angle on the current pulse parameters are studied. The energy and delay analysis suggests that automotion is an attractive option for spintronic logic interconnects.

Nikonov, Dmitri E.; Manipatruni, Sasikanth; Young, Ian A. [Exploratory Integrated Circuits, Components Research, Intel Corp., Hillsboro, Oregon 97124 (United States)

2014-06-07

310

Rotary capacitance transducers for automotive environments  

SciTech Connect

Rotary transducers for automotive use are briefly discussed. A transducer based on differential capacitance is described that is robust and simple to manufacture. It has the potential to meet cost targets for automotive use. The design is based on a dielectrically coated rotor with a 240-degree conductive segment, turning over a stator with three 120-degree segments. One of these segments is used to supply drive to the isolated rotor segment. The other two segments act as differential capacitors, driven by the rotor. Linearity over about 105 degrees of rotation is within 4%, although special shaping of the plates can reduce this to less than 1%. A full custom CMOS integrated circuit was designed and implemented to interface to the sensor. It mounts on the back of the stator plate. The combination of a single chip and simple mechanical construction leads to a part which may become cost competitive with present resistive sensors.

Bauer, M.L.; Christopher, A.M.; Ericson, M.N.; Kennedy, E.J.; Ramsey, J.A.

1994-07-27

311

75 FR 12470 - Automotive Fuel Ratings, Certification and Posting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...renewable biofuels, like ethanol...their sales of biofuels (whether...materials, components, on-board...ethanol is the principal component...IV. Analysis In light of...to its ``principal component.'' 16...

2010-03-16

312

16 CFR 306.5 - Automotive fuel rating.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Commercial Practices 1 2013-01-01... Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE...and biomass-based diesel blends...and reliable evidence, for the...and reliable evidence, for the percentage...of biomass-based diesel...

2013-01-01

313

16 CFR 306.5 - Automotive fuel rating.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... Commercial Practices 1 2014-01-01... Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE...and biomass-based diesel blends...and reliable evidence, for the...and reliable evidence, for the percentage...of biomass-based diesel...

2014-01-01

314

16 CFR 306.5 - Automotive fuel rating.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01... Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE...and biomass-based diesel blends...and reliable evidence, for the...and reliable evidence, for the percentage...of biomass-based diesel...

2012-01-01

315

16 CFR 306.5 - Automotive fuel rating.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01... Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE...and biomass-based diesel blends...and reliable evidence, for the...and reliable evidence, for the percentage...of biomass-based diesel...

2011-01-01

316

16 CFR 306.10 - Automotive fuel rating posting.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Minimum ___% Methane” (7) “B-20 Biodiesel Blend/contains biomass-based diesel or biodiesel in quantities between 5 percent and 20 percent...Blend/contains biomass-based diesel or biodiesel in quantities between 5 percent and 20...

2010-01-01

317

Evaluation of reformed methanol as an automotive engine fuel  

E-print Network

: Gasoline Speed: 1900 rpm Manifold vacuum: 10. 5" Hg. Timing: Stock with E R 8 S 18 1S 28 2S 38 3S 48 4S S8 HOURS OF OPERATTOM rtcfur : Slo?- Y as -: sunctco? o Spec ta?g :ours Sur"t?g s?gc?e c as-tn. ~ 2500 rpm 18 2000 rpm C CC c 1000 rpm... at an operating condition of 1900 rpm and 18 in. Hg. The Table 4: Engine Break-in Schedule [29] Simulated Vehicle Engine Speed, Speed, mph XPYI Manifold Vacuum, in. Hg Fraction of Time in Node 20 30 40 50 60 25 35 45 55 Idle 1, 300 1, 600 2...

McCall, David M

1983-01-01

318

Automotive carbon fiber: Opportunities and challenges  

Microsoft Academic Search

The carbon fiber industry is growing, with steadily increasing demand from the aerospace and defense markets as well as smaller\\u000a markets such as sporting goods and construction materials. Infiltration of the automotive market remains a challenge, however,\\u000a and so the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) FreedomCAR program has made the development of low-cost automotivegrade carbon\\u000a fiber its highest priority for

Rogelio A. Sullivan

2006-01-01

319

Automotive carbon fiber: Opportunities and challenges  

Microsoft Academic Search

The carbon fiber industry is growing, with steadily increasing demand from the aerospace and defense markets as well as smaller markets such as sporting goods and construction materials. Infiltration of the automotive market remains a challenge, however, and so the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) FreedomCAR program has made the development of low-cost automotivegrade carbon fiber its highest priority for

Rogelio A. Sullivan

2006-01-01

320

Crashworthiness simulation of composite automotive structures  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1990 the Automotive Composites Consortium (ACC) began the investigation of crash worthiness simulation methods for composite materials. A contract was given to Livermore Software Technology Corporation (LSTC) to implement a new damage model in LS-DYNA3DTM<\\/sup> specifically for composite structures. This model is in LS-DYNA3DTM<\\/sup> and is in use by the ACC partners. In 1994 USCAR, a partnership of American

M E Botkin; N L Johnson; S Simunovic; E Zywicz

1998-01-01

321

Characterization of three-way automotive catalysts  

SciTech Connect

The CRADA between Delphi Automotive Systems (Delphi; formerly General Motors - AC Delco, Systems) and Lockheed Martin Energy Research (LMER) on automotive catalysts was completed at the end of FY96, after a ten month, no-cost extension. The CRADA was aimed at improved performance and lifetime of noble metal based three-way-catalysts (TWC), which are the primary catalytic system for automotive emission control systems. While these TWC can meet the currently required emission standards, higher than optimum noble metal loadings are often required to meet lifetime requirements. In addition, more stringent emission standards will be imposed in the near future, demanding improved performance and service life from these catalysts. Understanding the changes of TWC conversion efficiency with ageing is a critical need in improving these catalysts. Initially in a fresh catalyst, the active material is often distributed on a very fine scale, approaching single atoms or small atomic clusters. As such, a wide range of analytical techniques have been employed to provide high spatial resolution characterization of the evolving state of the catalytic material.

Kenik, E.A.; More, K.L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); LaBarge, W. [Delphi Automotive Systems, Flint, MI (United States)] [and others

1997-04-01

322

Aerodynamic Flow Field Measurements for Automotive Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The design of a modern automotive air handling system is a complex task. The system is required to bring the interior of the vehicle to a comfortable level in as short a time as possible. A goal of the automotive industry is to predict the interior climate of an automobile using advanced computational fluid dynamic (CFD) methods. The development of these advanced prediction tools will enable better selection of engine and accessory components. The goal of this investigation was to predict methods used by the automotive industry. To accomplish this task three separate experiments were performed. The first was a laboratory setup where laser velocimeter (LV) flow field measurements were made in the heating and air conditioning unit of a Ford Windstar. The second involved flow field measurements in the engine compartment of a Ford Explorer, with the engine running idle. The third mapped the flow field exiting the center dashboard panel vent inside the Explorer, while the circulating fan operated at 14 volts. All three experiments utilized full-coincidence three-component LV systems. This enabled the mean and fluctuating velocities to be measured along with the Reynolds stress terms.

Hepner, Timothy E.

1999-01-01

323

A Conservation Practices for Conserving  

E-print Network

A Conservation Catalog Practices for Conserving Pennsylvania's Natural Resources #12;#12;A Conservation Catalog 1 Introduction P ennsylvania is a land of great natural resources and Pennsylvania, additional assistance is also available. Local county conservation districts and the USDA's Natural Resources

Kaye, Jason P.

324

Design considerations for an automotive magnetorheological brake Kerem Karakoc, Edward J. Park *, Afzal Suleman  

E-print Network

Design considerations for an automotive magnetorheological brake Kerem Karakoc, Edward J. Park February 2008 Available online xxxx Keywords: Mechatronic design Magnetorheological fluid Automotive brake t In this paper, design considerations for building an automotive magnetorheological (MR) brake are dis- cussed

Park, Edward

325

Advanced high temperature materials for the energy efficient automotive Stirling engine  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Stirling Engine is under investigated jointly by the Department of Energy and NASA Lewis as an alternative to the internal combustion engine for automotive applications. The Stirling Engine is an external combustion engine that offers the advantage of high fuel economy, low emissions, low noise, and low vibrations compared to current internal combustion automotive engines. The most critical component from a materials viewpoint is the heater head consisting of the cylinders, heating tubes, and regenerator housing. Materials requirements for the heater head include compatibility with hydrogen, resistance to hydrogen permeation, high temperature oxidation/corrosion resistance and high temperature creep-rupture and fatigue properties. A continuing supporting materials research and technology program has identified the wrought alloys CG-27 and 12RN72 and the cast alloys XF-818 and NASAUT 4G-A1 as candidate replacements for the cobalt containing alloys used in current prototype engines. Based on the materials research program in support of the automotive Stirling engine it is concluded that manufacture of the engine is feasible from low cost iron-base alloys rather than the cobalt alloys rather than the cobalt alloys used in prototype engines. This paper will present results of research that led to this conclusion.

Titran, R. H.; Stephens, J. R.

1984-01-01

326

An Evaluation of 3D Woven Orthogonal Composites' Potential in the Automotive Supply Chain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The automotive supply chain and its management can be a very complex process and comprises a long dynamic and complex network that consists of four primary segments: original equipment manufacturers (OEMs), first tier suppliers, sub tiers suppliers, and infrastructure suppliers. During the analysis of the current automotive industry it was identified that textile industry importance is considerable increasing as a part of the global automotive supply chain, because textile products are used for interior, exterior and even suspension parts and components. Automotive industry has an increasing demand for higher quality exterior panels with better functional properties and reduced weight. One of the main potentials for this demand is based on the three-dimensional woven composites technology innovations which can replace an existing technology. The new role of the textile industry could make important changes in the automotive supply chain industry, such as: changes in the size of the supply chain, the time to the market and the position of textile industry in the automotive supply chain structure. 3D composite materials from high performance fibers, such as glass and carbon, have been used for automotive applications in a limited way due to the low production rate and the lack of research and development. This research will contribute to the understanding of textile composites in transportation and the textile parameters that affect the performance characteristics of these materials. The research examines the performance characteristics of lighter and stronger 3D woven fabric composites made from fiberglass with the aim to improve fuel efficiency by reducing the total vehicle weight while maintaining safety standards. The performance characteristics of the 3D woven fabric composite can be designed by changing different construction parameters, such as picks density, pick roving linear density, arrangements of warp and z-yarns, and the number of warp and picks layers. The purpose of this research was to evaluate and predict composite panels' performance attributes based on these structural parameters. The tested properties include: tensile and flexural properties, impact performance, and fiber volume fraction. The testing results were compared with required performance characteristics for metal auto body parts. The properties of composite materials designed and developed in this research are comparable to the properties of materials currently used for auto body parts, e.g. BH 240 steels and 6000 series aluminum. It is evident that there is an opportunity to substitute some metal parts with lighter composite materials and to decrease automobile weight. Safety during an automotive crash can be influenced by the impact strength of the newly designed and produced material, so impact properties evaluation is the critical purpose of this study. Reducing the weight of the vehicle is not only popular because of its positive impact on fuel consumption, but also may provide additional benefits, such as CO2 emissions reductions, significantly reduced noise and vibration, increased performance, corrosion resistance, and handling characteristics of the vehicle.

Taylor, Dalia

327

Multiroller traction drive speed reducer: Evaluation for automotive gas turbine engine  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Tests were conducted on a nominal 14:1 fixed-ratio Nasvytis multiroller traction drive retrofitted as the speed reducer in an automotive gas turbine engine. Power turbine speeds of 45,000 rpm and a drive output power of 102 kW (137 hp) were reached. The drive operated under both variable roller loading (proportional to torque) and fixed roller loading (automatic loading mechanism locked). The drive operated smoothly and efficiently as the engine speed reducer. Engine specific fuel consumption with the traction speed reducer was comparable to that with the original helical gearset.

Rohn, D. A.; Anderson, N. E.; Loewenthal, S. H.

1982-01-01

328

Conservation Conservation ResourcesConservation Resources  

E-print Network

, conservation development, wind cost & availability, climate change science and policycost & availability, climate change science and policy #12;slide 5 Northwest Power and Conservation Council ES-10 Base PlanAcquisitions(aMW) BPA and Utility Programs Alliance Programs Since 1980 the Region'sSince 1980 the Region's Utilities

329

Conservative logic  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conservative logic is a comprehensive model of computation which explicitly reflects a number of fundamental principles of physics, such as the reversibility of the dynamical laws and the conservation of certainadditive quantities (among which energy plays a distinguished role). Because it more closely mirrors physics than traditional models of computation, conservative logic is in a better position to provide indications

Edward Fredkin; Tommaso Toffoli

1982-01-01

330

10 CFR 490.703 - Biodiesel fuel use credit allocation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 false Biodiesel fuel use credit allocation. 490.703 Section 490.703 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM Biodiesel Fuel Use Credit § 490.703 Biodiesel fuel...

2011-01-01

331

10 CFR 490.703 - Biodiesel fuel use credit allocation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 false Biodiesel fuel use credit allocation. 490.703 Section 490.703 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM Biodiesel Fuel Use Credit § 490.703 Biodiesel fuel...

2012-01-01

332

10 CFR 490.703 - Biodiesel fuel use credit allocation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-01-01 false Biodiesel fuel use credit allocation. 490.703 Section 490.703 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM Biodiesel Fuel Use Credit § 490.703 Biodiesel fuel...

2014-01-01

333

10 CFR 490.703 - Biodiesel fuel use credit allocation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Biodiesel fuel use credit allocation. 490.703 Section 490.703 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM Biodiesel Fuel Use Credit § 490.703 Biodiesel fuel...

2010-01-01

334

10 CFR 490.703 - Biodiesel fuel use credit allocation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Biodiesel fuel use credit allocation. 490.703 Section 490.703 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM Biodiesel Fuel Use Credit § 490.703 Biodiesel fuel...

2013-01-01

335

Automotive Air Conditioning and Heating; Automotive Mechanics (Advanced): 9047.04.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document presents an outline for a 135-hour course designed to provide the student with all the foundations necessary to become employable in the automotive air conditioning and heating trade. The course of study includes an orientation to the world of work, the elementary physics of air conditioning and heating, and laboratory experiments…

Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

336

THE USE OF RECYCLED SOLID AUTOMOTIVE PAINT WASTES AS INGREDIENTS IN AUTOMOTIVE SEALANT PRODUCTS - PHASE I  

EPA Science Inventory

About 75,000,000 lbs. of paint sludge is generated by the U.S. automotive industry each year. This type of waste (and similar streams in other industries) make a significant contribution to landfills. A proposed solution is to recycle the paint sludge into compounding ingredients...

337

THE USE OF RECYCLED SOLID AUTOMOTIVE PAINT WASTES AS INGREDIENTS IN AUTOMOTIVE SEALANT PRODUCTS - PHASE II  

EPA Science Inventory

About 75,000,000 lbs of paint sludge is generated by the U.S. automotive industry each year. This type of waste and (similar streams from other industries) make significant contributions to landfills. The solution proposed by ASTER, Inc., proven feasible during the Phase I of thi...

338

Triangle Alternative Transportation Fuels First Responder Training Workshop  

E-print Network

) Vehicle Technology Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) Vehicle Technology Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Vehicle fueling sites. Vehicles deployed include compressed natural gas (CNG), propane (LPG), hybrid electric: Natural Gas and Propane--Rich Cregar, Automotive Technology Expert What is a Gaseous Fuel? Propane (LPG

339

Fuels, Lubricants, and Coolants. FOS: Fundamentals of Service.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual on fuels, lubricants, and coolants is one of a series of power mechanics tests and visual aids on automotive and off-the-road agricultural and construction equipment. Materials present basic information with illustrations for use by vocational students and teachers as well as shop servicemen and laymen. Focusing on fuels, the first of…

John Deere Co., Moline, IL.

340

APPLICATIONS OF COMPUTATIONAL INVERSE TECHNIQUES TO AUTOMOTIVE ENGINEERING  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several applications to automotive engineering of the advanced computational inverse techniques have been reported in this paper. The computational inverse techniques, such as gradient based methods with genetic algorithms, intergeneration projection genetic algorithms, progressive neural networks, reduced-base methods, etc. are firstly introduced. After that the applications to automotive engineering for material characterization of the cold-working metal, identification of geometric parameters

X. Han

341

Mountain Plains Learning Experience Guide: Automotive Repair. Course: Electrical Systems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One of twelve individualized courses included in an automotive repair curriculum, this course covers the theory, diagnosis, repair, and adjustment of automotive electrical systems. The course is comprised of six units: (1) Fundamentals of Electrical Systems, (2) Battery Servicing, (3) Starting Systems, (4) Charging Systems, (5) Ignition Systems,…

Schramm, C.; Osland, Walt

342

Laser metrology — a diagnostic tool in automotive development processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laser measurement techniques are widely used in automotive development processes. Applications at Volkswagen are presented where laser metrology works as a diagnostic tool for analysing and optimising complex coupled processes inside and between automotive components and structures such as the reduction of a vehicle's interior or outer acoustic noise, including brake noise, and the combustion analysis for diesel and gasoline

Manfred-Andreas Beeck; Werner Hentschel

2000-01-01

343

Analysis of Automotive Turbocharger Nonlinear Response Including Bifurcations  

E-print Network

ANALYSIS OF AUTOMOTIVE TURBOCHARGER NONLINEAR VIBRATIONS INCLUDING BIFURCATIONS A Thesis by ARIAN VISTAMEHR Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 2009 Major Subject: Mechanical Engineering ANALYSIS OF AUTOMOTIVE TURBOCHARGER NONLINEAR VIBRATIONS INCLUDING BIFURCATIONS A Thesis by ARIAN VISTAMEHR...

Vistamehr, Arian

2010-10-12

344

Heating and Air Conditioning Specialist. Teacher Edition. Automotive Service Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This instructor's guide contains materials for teaching the heating and air conditioning specialist component of a competency-based instructional program for students preparing for employment in the automotive service trade. It is based on the National Institute of Automotive Service Excellence task lists. The six instructional units presented…

Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

345

Mountain Plains Learning Experience Guide: Automotive Repair. Course: Engine Repair.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One of twelve individualized courses included in an automotive repair curriculum, this course covers theory and construction, inspection diagnoses, and service and overhaul of automotive engines. The course is comprised of five units: (1) Fundamentals of Four-Cycle Engines, (2) Engine Construction, (3) Valve Train, (4) Lubricating Systems, and (5)…

Schramm, C.; Osland, Walt

346

Overview: DOE/NASA automotive gas turbine and stirling projects  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An overview on the progress of the automotive gas turbine and automotive Stirling engine technology projects is presented. The following items are reported: (1) formulation and execution of projects in accordance with the Auto Propulsion Research and Development Act of 1978; (2) substantive technology accomplishments; and (3) future path options of the programs.

Beremand, D. G.

1981-01-01

347

Dow Corning photonics: the silicon advantage in automotive photonics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Automotive Market offers several opportunities for Dow Corning to leverage the power of silicon-based materials. Dow Corning Photonics Solutions has a number of developments that may be attractive for the emergent photonics needs in automobiles, building on 40 years of experience as a leading Automotive supplier with a strong foundation of expertise and an extensive product offering- from encapsulents

Terry V. Clapp; Rene Paquet; Ann Norris; Babette Pettersen

2005-01-01

348

The changing automotive environment: high-temperature electronics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The underhood automotive environment is harsh and current trends in the automotive electronics industry will be pushing the temperature envelope for electronic components. The desire to place engine control units on the engine and transmission control units either on or in the transmission will push the ambient temperature above 125°C. However, extreme cost pressures, increasing reliability demands (10 year\\/241 350

R. Wayne Johnson; John L. Evans; Peter Jacobsen; J. R. R. Thompson; Mark Christopher

2004-01-01

349

Stirling engine design and feasibility for automotive use  

Microsoft Academic Search

The book is based on two reports dealing with theoretical considerations in the design of Stirling engines for automotive use, and with a feasibility study for an 80-100-hp automotive Stirling engine. The basic principles of heat engines are explained, and the Stirling engine is introduced, with attention given to the variety of Stirling engine types and their utility in comparison

Collie

1979-01-01

350

Automotive shredder residue (ASR) characterization for a valuable management.  

PubMed

Car fluff is the waste produced after end-of-life-vehicles (ELVs) shredding and metal recovery. It is made of plastics, rubber, glass, textiles and residual metals and it accounts for almost one-third of a vehicle mass. Due to the approaching of Directive 2000/53/EC recycling targets, 85% recycling rate and 95% recovery rate in 2015, the implementation of automotive shredder residue (ASR) sorting and recycling technologies appears strategic. The present work deals with the characterization of the shredder residue coming from an industrial plant, representative of the Italian situation, as for annual fluxes and technologies involved. The aim of this study is to characterize ASR in order to study and develop a cost effective and environmentally sustainable recycling system. Results show that almost half of the residue is made of fines and the remaining part is mainly composed of polymers. Fine fraction is the most contaminated by mineral oils and heavy metals. This fraction produces also up to 40% ashes and its LHV is lower than the plastic-rich one. Foam rubber represents around half of the polymers share in car fluff. Moreover, some chemical-physical parameters exceed the limits of some parameters fixed by law to be considered refuse derived fuel (RDF). As a consequence, ASR needs to be pre-treated in order to follow the energy recovery route. PMID:20566277

Morselli, Luciano; Santini, Alessandro; Passarini, Fabrizio; Vassura, Ivano

2010-11-01

351

Automotive carbon fiber: Opportunities and challenges  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The carbon fiber industry is growing, with steadily increasing demand from the aerospace and defense markets as well as smaller markets such as sporting goods and construction materials. Infiltration of the automotive market remains a challenge, however, and so the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) FreedomCAR program has made the development of low-cost automotivegrade carbon fiber its highest priority for materials research. The DOE effort is currently focused on three objectives: developing low-cost carbon fiber precursors, low-cost conversion methods, and high-throughput fabrication processes.

Sullivan, Rogelio A.

2006-11-01

352

Automotive Safety - Size vs. Weight Debate  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This study was performed by Dynamic Research, Inc. and funded by The Aluminum Association to evaluate the effects on safety when vehicle size and weight are varied. The tests carried out by Dynamic used a numerical model approach with data from the National Automotive Sampling System (NASS) SUV crash database combined with FEM techniques created for the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) and the U.S. Air Force. It was found increasing vehicle size, rather than reducing weight by 20%, created much safer collisions. Ideally, if a vehicle could be made lighter and longer, it would be safer and create fewer emissions due to weight reduction.

Association, The A.

353

Safeguarding teleoperation using automotive radar sensors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Multi-Agent Tactical Sentry Unmanned Ground Vehicle, developed at Defence R&D Canada - Suffield, has been in service with the Canadian Forces for six years. This tele-operated wheeled vehicle provides a capability for point detection of chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear agents. During the service life of this system, it has become apparent that a means of automatically detecting obstacles in tele-operated and semi-autonomous modes would greatly increase the safety and reliability of the vehicle in cluttered or human occupied operating environments. This paper documents the design of such a system based on a 24 GHz automotive radar.

Giesbrecht, Jared; Fairbrother, Blaine

2011-05-01

354

Waste audit study: Automotive paint shops  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the results of a waste-audit study of automotive paint shops. The study focuses on the types and quantities of wastes generated, treatment and disposal alternatives, and the potential for reducing the amount and/or toxicity of waste generated. The analysis of solvent waste minimization focused primarily on in-plant modifications (e.g., source reduction) to reduce the generation of solvent waste. Strict inventory control is the most-readily implementable approach. While in-house recycling is viable, it is usually only cost-effective for larger firms. Specific recommendations for waste reduction were made.

Not Available

1987-01-01

355

RME or DME: A preferred alternative fuel option for future diesel engine operation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The twin challenges of fossil fuel depletion and environmental degradation, present engine and vehicle manufacturers with problems focused on future provision of both automotive power plant and conventional hydrocarbon fuels. In the drive to meet more stringent emission controls, many options have been identified, in the investigation of viable alternative fuels, and in the means of meeting the standards. While

R. J. Crookes; K. D. H. Bob-Manuel

2007-01-01

356

Skutterudites: Thermoelectric Materials for Automotive Applications?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The power output of a thermoelectric generator (TEG) was investigated under engine partial-load operation based on measured exhaust gas temperatures and mass flow rates. Materials with properties required for highend temperature TE couples (>500°C) were evaluated. Various possible material combinations for p- and n-legs of these couples as well as the conflicting targets of high efficiency and low cost as required for automotive mass production are discussed. New skutterudite materials for both p- and n-legs as identified during a joint research project are presented, which can help to overcome this conflict. Efficiencies >10% were achieved with these new materials, which have potentially twofold lower production costs than telluride-based materials due to the price of their elements. Some potential for improvement in efficiency and costs has been identified by developing highly integrated TEG units, specifically designed for automotive applications. These initial results of the material development and the evaluation of different integration concepts will be applied in a subsequent step for the fabrication of a pilot number of TEG modules/units.

Salzgeber, K.; Prenninger, P.; Grytsiv, A.; Rogl, P.; Bauer, E.

2010-09-01

357

Crashworthiness simulation of composite automotive structures  

SciTech Connect

In 1990 the Automotive Composites Consortium (ACC) began the investigation of crash worthiness simulation methods for composite materials. A contract was given to Livermore Software Technology Corporation (LSTC) to implement a new damage model in LS-DYNA3DTM specifically for composite structures. This model is in LS-DYNA3DTM and is in use by the ACC partners. In 1994 USCAR, a partnership of American auto companies, entered into a partnership called SCAAP (Super Computing Automotive Applications Partnership) for the express purpose of working with the National Labs on computational oriented research. A CRADA (Cooperative Research and Development Agreement) was signed with Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Sandia National Laboratory, Argonne National Laboratory, and Los Alamos National Laboratory to work in three distinctly different technical areas, one of which was composites material modeling for crash worthiness. Each Laboratory was assigned a specific modeling task. The ACC was responsible for the technical direction of the composites project and provided all test data for code verification. All new models were to be implemented in DYNA3D and periodically distributed to all partners for testing. Several new models have been developed and implemented. Excellent agreement has been shown between tube crush simulation and experiments.

Botkin, M E; Johnson, N L; Simunovic, S; Zywicz, E

1998-06-01

358

Separation and recovery process R&D to enhance automotive materials recycling  

SciTech Connect

Since 1976, the sales-weighted curb-weight of cars and light trucks sold in the United States has decreased by almost 800 pounds. Vehicle weight reduction has, of course, provided for a significant increase in US fleet fuel economy, from 17 to 27 miles per gallon. However, achievement of the weight reduction and concomitant increase in fuel economy was brought about, in part, by the substitution of lighter-weight materials, such as thinner-gauge coated sheet-steels replacing heavy-gauge noncoated sheet-steels and new aluminum alloys replacing steel as well as the increased use of plastics replacing metals. Each of these new materials has created the need for new technology for materials recycling. This paper highlights some of the R&D being conducted at Argonne National Laboratory to develop technology that will enhance and minimize the cost of automotive materials recycling.

Daniels, E.J.

1994-05-01

359

Nanotechnology in automotive industry: research strategy and trends for the future-small objects, big impacts.  

PubMed

The goal of this paper is to emphasize and present briefly the nanotechnology science and its potential impact on the automotive industry in order to improve the production of recent models with an optimization of the safety performance and a reduction in the environmental impacts. Nanomaterials can be applied in car bodies as light weight constructions without compromising the stiffness and crashwortiness, which means less material and less fuel consumption. This paper outlines the progress of nanotechnology applications into the safety features of more recent vehicle models and fuel efficiency, but also emphasis the importance of sustainable development on the application of these technologies and life cycle analysis of the considered materials, in order to meet the society trends and customers demands to improve ecology, safety and comfort. PMID:22962798

Coelho, Margarida C; Torrão, Guilhermina; Emami, Nazanin; Grácio, José

2012-08-01

360

Electromagnetic interference filter for automotive electrical systems  

DOEpatents

A filter for an automotive electrical system includes a substrate having first and second conductive members. First and second input terminals are mounted to the substrate. The first input terminal is electrically connected to the first conductive member, and the second input terminal is electrically connected to the second conductive member. A plurality of capacitors are mounted to the substrate. Each of the capacitors is electrically connected to at least one of the first and second conductive members. First and second power connectors are mounted to the substrate. The first power connector is electrically connected to the first conductive member, and the second power connector is electrically connected to the second conductive member. A common mode choke is coupled to the substrate and arranged such that the common mode choke extends around at least a portion of the substrate and the first and second conductive members.

Herron, Nicholas Hayden; Carlson, Douglas S; Tang, David; Korich, Mark D

2013-07-02

361

Characterization of nitromethane emission from automotive exhaust  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We carried out time-resolved experiments using a proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometer and a chassis dynamometer to characterize nitromethane emission from automotive exhaust. We performed experiments under both cold-start and hot-start conditions, and determined the dependence of nitromethane emission on vehicle velocity and acceleration/deceleration as well as the effect of various types of exhaust-gas treatment system. We found that nitromethane emission was much lower from a gasoline car than from diesel trucks, probably due to the reduction function of the three-way catalyst of the gasoline car. Diesel trucks without a NOx reduction catalyst using hydrocarbons produced high emissions of nitromethane, with emission factors generally increasing with increasing acceleration at low vehicle velocities.

Sekimoto, Kanako; Inomata, Satoshi; Tanimoto, Hiroshi; Fushimi, Akihiro; Fujitani, Yuji; Sato, Kei; Yamada, Hiroyuki

2013-12-01

362

Combustor development for automotive gas turbines  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development of a combustion system for the AGT 100 automotive gas turbine engine is described. A maximum turbine inlet temperature of 1288 C is reached during the regenerative cycle, and air up to 1024 C is supplied to the combustor inlet. A premix/prevaporization ceramic combustor employing variable geometry to control burning zone temperature was developed and tested. Tests on both metal and ceramic combustors showed that emissions were a function of burner inlet temperature (BIT). At 999 C BIT, NO(x) emissions were two orders of magnitude below program goals, and at the same temperature but at a different variable geometry position, the CO was 30 times below program goal. Tests to evaluate the durability of the ceramic materials showed no failures during steady-state operation; however, some cracks developed in the dome during extended transient operation.

Ross, P. T.; Williams, J. R.; Anderson, D. N.

1982-01-01

363

Patterns of automotive emissions in Muscat atmosphere  

SciTech Connect

This paper investigates the dispersion of automotive emissions in Muscat atmosphere. The rates of emitted pollutants were calculated on the basis of traffic data. A three-dimensional, time-dependent computer model was developed and used for predicting the patterns of emitted pollutants and their effects on residential areas. The influence zone developed by the simulated cases indicates that residential areas within 200 m from the roundabouts suffer an emission concentration of 30% relative to the source concentration. Locations as far as 5 km from the roundabouts receive concentrations in the order of 0.5%. The predicted concentrations of CO and NOX constitute a warning of possible hazardous situations in the coming few years, unless emission-control regulations are enforced.

El-Zawahry, A.E.M.; Saeed, M.N.; Al-Futaisi, A. [Sultan Qaboos Univ., Muscat (Oman)

1995-12-31

364

Advancing Material Models for Automotive Forming Simulations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Simulations in automotive industry need more advanced material models to achieve highly reliable forming and springback predictions. Conventional material models implemented in the FEM-simulation models are not capable to describe the plastic material behaviour during monotonic strain paths with sufficient accuracy. Recently, ESI and Corus co-operate on the implementation of an advanced material model in the FEM-code PAMSTAMP 2G. This applies to the strain hardening model, the influence of strain rate, and the description of the yield locus in these models. A subsequent challenge is the description of the material after a change of strain path. The use of advanced high strength steels in the automotive industry requires a description of plastic material behaviour of multiphase steels. The simplest variant is dual phase steel consisting of a ferritic and a martensitic phase. Multiphase materials also contain a bainitic phase in addition to the ferritic and martensitic phase. More physical descriptions of strain hardening than simple fitted Ludwik/Nadai curves are necessary. Methods to predict plastic behaviour of single-phase materials use a simple dislocation interaction model based on the formed cells structures only. At Corus, a new method is proposed to predict plastic behaviour of multiphase materials have to take hard phases into account, which deform less easily. The resulting deformation gradients create geometrically necessary dislocations. Additional micro-structural information such as morphology and size of hard phase particles or grains is necessary to derive the strain hardening models for this type of materials. Measurements available from the Numisheet benchmarks allow these models to be validated. At Corus, additional measured values are available from cross-die tests. This laboratory test can attain critical deformations by large variations in blank size and processing conditions. The tests are a powerful tool in optimising forming simulations prior to larger scale industrial validation.

Vegter, H.; An, Y.; ten Horn, C. H. L. J.; Atzema, E. H.; Roelofsen, M. E.

2005-08-01

365

Progress on the Development of a Microchannel Steam Reformer for Automotive Applications  

SciTech Connect

A compact, energy efficient steam reforming system for automotive applications has been under development at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. At the IMRET 5 conference, results were presented describing the operation of a thermally integrated, energy efficient, compact, microchannel steam reforming system capable of converting a liquid hydrocarbon fuel (isooctane) into a reformate stream sufficient for a PEM fuel cell with >10 kWe capacity (Whyatt et al., 2001). Since this demonstration, the project has focused on performing testing in smaller scale steam reforming reactors to further reduce the reforming reactor volume, demonstrate fuel flexibility and address other issues. A test stand, nominally 1/20th the scale of the previous steam reforming demonstration, was constructed and smaller scale reactors have been used in testing. Significant gains have been made with respect to increasing the volumetric productivity of the reactor, suggesting that the 10 kWe reactor could now be made considerably smaller than the previous prototype. In addition the reformer has been demonstrated on a variety of fuels including methane, methanol, ethanol, propane, butane, isooctane, and a benchmark fuel mix intended to simulate a sulfur-free gasoline. The development effort is being funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Transportation Technology.

Whyatt, Greg A.; Fischer, Christopher M.; Davis, James M.

2002-03-15

366

25 CFR 117.10 - Purchase of automotive equipment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...ACTIVITIES DEPOSIT AND EXPENDITURE OF INDIVIDUAL FUNDS OF MEMBERS OF THE OSAGE TRIBE OF INDIANS WHO DO NOT HAVE CERTIFICATES OF COMPETENCY § 117.10 Purchase of automotive equipment. The superintendent may disburse from the surplus funds of an adult...

2011-04-01

367

25 CFR 117.10 - Purchase of automotive equipment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...ACTIVITIES DEPOSIT AND EXPENDITURE OF INDIVIDUAL FUNDS OF MEMBERS OF THE OSAGE TRIBE OF INDIANS WHO DO NOT HAVE CERTIFICATES OF COMPETENCY § 117.10 Purchase of automotive equipment. The superintendent may disburse from the surplus funds of an adult...

2012-04-01

368

25 CFR 117.10 - Purchase of automotive equipment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...ACTIVITIES DEPOSIT AND EXPENDITURE OF INDIVIDUAL FUNDS OF MEMBERS OF THE OSAGE TRIBE OF INDIANS WHO DO NOT HAVE CERTIFICATES OF COMPETENCY § 117.10 Purchase of automotive equipment. The superintendent may disburse from the surplus funds of an adult...

2014-04-01

369

25 CFR 117.10 - Purchase of automotive equipment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...ACTIVITIES DEPOSIT AND EXPENDITURE OF INDIVIDUAL FUNDS OF MEMBERS OF THE OSAGE TRIBE OF INDIANS WHO DO NOT HAVE CERTIFICATES OF COMPETENCY § 117.10 Purchase of automotive equipment. The superintendent may disburse from the surplus funds of an adult...

2010-04-01

370

25 CFR 117.10 - Purchase of automotive equipment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...ACTIVITIES DEPOSIT AND EXPENDITURE OF INDIVIDUAL FUNDS OF MEMBERS OF THE OSAGE TRIBE OF INDIANS WHO DO NOT HAVE CERTIFICATES OF COMPETENCY § 117.10 Purchase of automotive equipment. The superintendent may disburse from the surplus funds of an adult...

2013-04-01

371

EVALUATION OF A PROPORTIONAL SAMPLER FOR AUTOMOTIVE EXHAUST EMISSIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

A test program was conducted to evaluate a proportional sampler for use in automotive exhaust gas emissions research. Automobile emissions test results obtained using the proportional sampler were compared with results obtained using the conventional constant volume sampler. Meas...

372

COMPOSITION CHANGES IN REFRIGERANT BLENDS FOR AUTOMOTIVE AIR CONDITIONING  

EPA Science Inventory

Three refrigerant blends used to replace CFC-12 in automotive air conditioners were evaluated for composition changes due to typical servicing and leakage. When recommended service procedures were followed, changes in blend compositions were relatively small. Small changes in b...

373

INVESTIGATION OF CLEANER TECHNOLOGIES TO MINIMIZE AUTOMOTIVE COOLANT WASTES  

EPA Science Inventory

The US Environmental Protection Agency in cooperation with the State of New Jersey evaluated chemical filtration and distillation technologies designed to recycle automotive and heavy-duty engine coolants. These evaluations addressed the product quality, waste reduction and econo...

374

Lean product development for the automotive niche vehicle marketplace  

E-print Network

The automotive low volume niche vehicle marketplace is growing, evidenced by increasing media coverage and fierce competition between original equipment manufacturers. Development of niche vehicles must be lean and therefore ...

Kupczewski, Celeste D., 1974-

2005-01-01

375

Electrical build issues in automotive product development : an analysis  

E-print Network

To be competitive and successful within the automotive industry the Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs) have to bring new products with features fast to market. The OEMs need to reduce the Product Development cycle ...

Chacko, John

2008-01-01

376

Green automotive supply chain for an emerging market  

E-print Network

Green Supply Chain Management (GSCM) within the automotive industry is largely based on combining lean manufacturing with mandated supplier adoption of ISO 14001-compliant Environmental Management Systems (EMS). This ...

Fisch, Gene (Gene Joseph)

2008-01-01

377

Following Industry's Lead: Revising the Automotive Technology Curriculum  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Today's automotive technology curriculum is changing; curriculum revisions are being made in response to both the changing automobile and to the latest social trends and laws affecting students and teachers alike. (Author)

Crouse, William H.; Anglin, Donald L.

1976-01-01

378

EVALUATION OF FILTRATION AND DISTILLATION METHODS FOR RECYCLING AUTOMOTIVE COOLANT  

EPA Science Inventory

This evaluation addresses the product quality, waste reduction, and economic issues involved in recycling automotive engine coolants at a New Jersey Department of Transportation garage. he specific recycling units evaluated are based on the technologies of filtration and distilla...

379

Robust optical sensors for safety critical automotive applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Optical sensors for the automotive industry need to be robust, high performing and low cost. This paper focuses on the impact of automotive requirements on optical sensor design and packaging. Main strategies to lower optical sensor entry barriers in the automotive market include: Perform sensor calibration and tuning by the sensor manufacturer, sensor test modes on chip to guarantee functional integrity at operation, and package technology is key. As a conclusion, optical sensor applications are growing in automotive. Optical sensor robustness matured to the level of safety critical applications like Electrical Power Assisted Steering (EPAS) and Drive-by-Wire by optical linear arrays based systems and Automated Cruise Control (ACC), Lane Change Assist and Driver Classification/Smart Airbag Deployment by camera imagers based systems.

De Locht, Cliff; De Knibber, Sven; Maddalena, Sam

2008-02-01

380

Embedded Automotive System Development Process Steer-By-Wire System  

E-print Network

developers by providing a common environment for graphical specification and analysis. In this process model in the loop. Integral Components Most software standards require traceability of requirementsEmbedded Automotive System Development Process Steer-By-Wire System Joachim Langenwalter

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

381

The dynamics of supply chains in the automotive industry  

E-print Network

This thesis looks at how supply chains in the automotive industry operate from the perspective of the manufacturers. The study includes the industry structure, the top players in the industry, factors that drive the industry, ...

Braese, Niklas

2005-01-01

382

GUIDES TO POLLUTION PREVENTION: THE AUTOMOTIVE REFINISHING INDUSTRY  

EPA Science Inventory

Automotive refinishing shops generate a variety of wastes while performing typical auto body repair and refinishing operations such as welding, filling dents, body section adjustments, alignments, sanding and painting. pportunities for waste reduction exist for the waste thinners...

383

AUTOMOTIVE CRANKCASE OIL: DETECTION IN A COASTAL WETLANDS ENVIRONMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

Samples from four sewage treatment facilities which discharge into Jamaica Bay, New York, were analyzed for the presence of waste automotive oil products. UV-fluorescence spectroscopic techniques were utilized to qualitatively identify waste petroleum hydrocarbons in effluents of...

384

Case Study- Steam System Improvements at Dupont Automotive Marshall Laboratory  

E-print Network

Dupont's Marshall Laboratory is an automotive paint research and development facility in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. The campus is comprised of several buildings that are served by Trigen-Philadelphia Energy Corporation's district steam loop...

Larkin, A.

385

Water Conservation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity was developed to get students thinking about the many ways that people use freshwater and how we can conserve this precious and fundamental natural resource. Students will watch a short documentary describing issues related to clean water availability, analyze water-use data and start to think about how they consume and can conserve water. This background knowledge will lead to students collecting data about their own water use and finding areas in their lives to conserve water. This activity uses the 5E instructional model and is part of the "Survivor Earth" series of one-hour lessons.

386

Intergenerational equity and conservation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The issue of integenerational equity in the use of natural resources is discussed in the context of coal mining conversion. An attempt to determine if there is a clear-cut benefit to future generations in setting minimum coal extraction efficiency standards in mining is made. It is demonstrated that preserving fossil fuels beyond the economically efficient level is not necessarily beneficial to future generations even in terms of their own preferences. Setting fossil fuel conservation targets for intermediate products (i.e. energy) may increase the quantities of fossil fuels available to future generations and hence lower the costs, but there may be serious disadvantages to future generations as well. The use of relatively inexpensive fossil fuels in this generation may result in more infrastructure development and more knowledge production available to future generations. The value of fossil fuels versus these other endowments in the future depends on many factors which cannot possibly be evaluated at present. Since there is no idea of whether future generations are being helped or harmed, it is recommended that integenerational equity not be used as a factor in setting coal mine extraction efficiency standards, or in establishing requirements.

Otoole, R. P.; Walton, A. L.

1980-01-01

387

Magnesium for automotive applications: Primary production cost assessment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Production technologies must be cost effective for primary magnesium to become an economically viable alternative material for wide spread automotive applications. In this article, the prices at which magnesium becomes competitive with aluminum and steel are examined, including magnesium production cost estimates for current and future scenarios using electrolytic and thermal processes. The economic viability of the industry for automotive applications is also examined in the context of magnesium market price, taking into consideration the dynamics of its supply and demand as well.

Das, Sujit

2003-11-01

388

Baseline automotive gas-turbine engine development program. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is the first of four volumes of the contract final report, which summarizes all of the work performed in a government-sponsored Automotive Gas Turbine Development Program. In this first volume of the contract final report, results are presented from tests which were conducted on a Baseline Engine to document the Automotive Gas Turbine State-of-the-Art at the start of the

C. E. Wagner; R. C. Pampreen

1979-01-01

389

Adaptation of an Automotive Dialogue System to Users’ Expertise  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Spoken dialogue systems (SDSs) can be used to operate devices, e.g. in the automotive en- vironment. People using these systems usually have different levels of experience. However, most systems do not take this into account. In this paper we present a method,to build a di- alogue system in an automotive,environment that adapts to the user’s experience with the system.

Liza Hassel; Eli Hagen; Ag Bmw

390

Conservation Regional Conservation SavingsRegional Conservation Savings  

E-print Network

1 Northwest Power and Conservation Council Regional Conservation SavingsRegional Conservation the Plan''s Targets?s Targets? March 14, 2008 slide 2 Northwest Power and Conservation Council 55thth Plan Conservation ResourcePlan Conservation Resource Acquisition TargetsAcquisition Targets 20052005 ­­ 2009 = 700 a

391

Alternative fuels and intercity trucking  

Microsoft Academic Search

This assessment of alternative fuels and the intercity trucking sector was jointly sponsored by two groups. Work related to near- and mid-term alternative fuels and general energy-conservation options was done under sponsorship of the U.S. Department of Energy as part of its Transportation Energy Conservation activities. Work on far-term alternative fuels was sponsored by the Ryder Program in Transportation of

1978-01-01

392

Conservation Presentation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduces a project in which students teach about the importance of recycling and conservation by presenting demonstrations. Includes demonstrations on water, plastic, and other recycling products such as steel. (YDS)

Friday, Gerald

2001-01-01

393

PRECISION CONSERVATION  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Precision conservation utilizes a set of technologies and procedures that link mapped variables with analytical capabilities to appropriate management actions. It requires the integration of spatial technologies of global positioning systems, remote sensing and geographic information systems with t...

394

Implications of fuel selection for an SI engine: Results from the first and second laws of thermodynamics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current work examines the detailed thermodynamics of the use of eight (8) fuels by an automotive, spark-ignition engine using a thermodynamic engine cycle simulation. The fuels examined were methane, propane, hexane, isooctane, methanol, ethanol, carbon monoxide, and hydrogen. Both overall engine performance parameters and detailed instantaneous quantities are determined for each of the fuels. Results include thermal efficiencies, heat

Jerald A. Caton

2010-01-01

395

A flight management algorithm and guidance for fuel-conservative descents in a time-based metered air traffic environment: Development and flight test results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A simple airborne flight management descent algorithm designed to define a flight profile subject to the constraints of using idle thrust, a clean airplane configuration (landing gear up, flaps zero, and speed brakes retracted), and fixed-time end conditions was developed and flight tested in the NASA TSRV B-737 research airplane. The research test flights, conducted in the Denver ARTCC automated time-based metering LFM/PD ATC environment, demonstrated that time guidance and control in the cockpit was acceptable to the pilots and ATC controllers and resulted in arrival of the airplane over the metering fix with standard deviations in airspeed error of 6.5 knots, in altitude error of 23.7 m (77.8 ft), and in arrival time accuracy of 12 sec. These accuracies indicated a good representation of airplane performance and wind modeling. Fuel savings will be obtained on a fleet-wide basis through a reduction of the time error dispersions at the metering fix and on a single-airplane basis by presenting the pilot with guidance for a fuel-efficient descent.

Knox, C. E.

1984-01-01

396

Energy Conservation--The Global Imperative.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents energy as a pivotal prerequisite of highly developed economic and social structure. Discusses: (1) fossil-fuel resources and demand in various countries; (2) energy conservation; (3) measures for conservation; (4) technology transfer; and (5) considerations to be regarded internationally. (HM)

Murthy, K. K.

1978-01-01

397

Modeling and experimental validation of a Hybridized Energy Storage System for automotive applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents the development and experimental validation of a dynamic model of a Hybridized Energy Storage System (HESS) consisting of a parallel connection of a lead acid (PbA) battery and double layer capacitors (DLCs), for automotive applications. The dynamic modeling of both the PbA battery and the DLC has been tackled via the equivalent electric circuit based approach. Experimental tests are designed for identification purposes. Parameters of the PbA battery model are identified as a function of state of charge and current direction, whereas parameters of the DLC model are identified for different temperatures. A physical HESS has been assembled at the Center for Automotive Research The Ohio State University and used as a test-bench to validate the model against a typical current profile generated for Start&Stop applications. The HESS model is then integrated into a vehicle simulator to assess the effects of the battery hybridization on the vehicle fuel economy and mitigation of the battery stress.

Fiorenti, Simone; Guanetti, Jacopo; Guezennec, Yann; Onori, Simona

2013-11-01

398

Automotive features : mass impact and deployment characterization  

E-print Network

Passenger car use is a major driver of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and fossil fuel consumption in the United States. Vehicles continue to incorporate increasing levels of technology, these advances do not translate ...

Zoepf, Stephen M

2011-01-01

399

It's not too Late for the Harpy Eagle (Harpia harpyja): High Levels Of Genetic Diversity and Differentiation Can Fuel Conservation Programs  

PubMed Central

Background The harpy eagle (Harpia harpyja) is the largest Neotropical bird of prey and is threatened by human persecution and habitat loss and fragmentation. Current conservation strategies include local education, captive rearing and reintroduction, and protection or creation of trans-national habitat blocks and corridors. Baseline genetic data prior to reintroduction of captive-bred stock is essential for guiding such efforts but has not been gathered previously. Methodology/Findings We assessed levels of genetic diversity, population structure and demographic history for harpy eagles using samples collected throughout a large portion of their geographic distribution in Central America (n?=?32) and South America (n?=?31). Based on 417 bp of mitochondrial control region sequence data, relatively high levels of haplotype and nucleotide diversity were estimated for both Central and South America, although haplotype diversity was significantly higher for South America. Historical restriction of gene flow across the Andes (i.e. between our Central and South American subgroups) is supported by coalescent analyses, the haplotype network and significant FST values, however reciprocally monophyletic lineages do not correspond to geographical locations in maximum likelihood analyses. A sudden population expansion for South America is indicated by a mismatch distribution analysis, and further supported by significant (p<0.05) negative values of Fu and Li's DF and F, and Fu's FS. This expansion, estimated at approximately 60 000 years BP (99 000–36 000 years BP 95% CI), encompasses a transition from a warm and dry time period prior to 50 000 years BP to an interval of maximum precipitation (50 000–36 000 years BP). Notably, this time period precedes the climatic and habitat changes associated with the last glacial maximum. In contrast, a multimodal distribution of haplotypes was observed for Central America suggesting either population equilibrium or a recent decline. Significance High levels of mitochondrial genetic diversity in combination with genetic differentiation among subgroups within regions and between regions highlight the importance of local population conservation in order to preserve maximal levels of genetic diversity in this species. Evidence of historically restricted female-mediated gene flow is an important consideration for captive-breeding programs. PMID:19802391

Lerner, Heather R. L.; Johnson, Jeff A.; Lindsay, Alec R.; Kiff, Lloyd F.; Mindell, David P.

2009-01-01

400

10 CFR 490.506 - Alternative fueled vehicle credit transfers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... false Alternative fueled vehicle credit transfers. 490.506 Section 490.506 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM Alternative Fueled Vehicle Credit Program § 490.506...

2014-01-01

401

10 CFR 490.8 - Replacement fuel production goal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Replacement fuel production goal. 490.8 Section 490.8 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM General Provisions § 490.8 Replacement fuel...

2013-01-01

402

10 CFR 490.506 - Alternative fueled vehicle credit transfers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false Alternative fueled vehicle credit transfers. 490.506 Section 490.506 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM Alternative Fueled Vehicle Credit Program § 490.506...

2013-01-01

403

10 CFR 490.8 - Replacement fuel production goal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-01-01 false Replacement fuel production goal. 490.8 Section 490.8 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM General Provisions § 490.8 Replacement fuel...

2014-01-01

404

10 CFR 490.8 - Replacement fuel production goal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 false Replacement fuel production goal. 490.8 Section 490.8 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM General Provisions § 490.8 Replacement fuel...

2011-01-01

405

10 CFR 490.506 - Alternative fueled vehicle credit transfers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... false Alternative fueled vehicle credit transfers. 490.506 Section 490.506 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM Alternative Fueled Vehicle Credit Program § 490.506...

2012-01-01

406

10 CFR 490.506 - Alternative fueled vehicle credit transfers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... false Alternative fueled vehicle credit transfers. 490.506 Section 490.506 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM Alternative Fueled Vehicle Credit Program § 490.506...

2011-01-01

407

10 CFR 490.8 - Replacement fuel production goal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Replacement fuel production goal. 490.8 Section 490.8 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM General Provisions § 490.8 Replacement fuel...

2010-01-01

408

10 CFR 490.8 - Replacement fuel production goal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 false Replacement fuel production goal. 490.8 Section 490.8 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM General Provisions § 490.8 Replacement fuel...

2012-01-01

409

10 CFR 490.506 - Alternative fueled vehicle credit transfers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Alternative fueled vehicle credit transfers. 490.506 Section 490.506 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM Alternative Fueled Vehicle Credit Program § 490.506...

2010-01-01

410

Advanced Automotive Diesel Assessment Program, executive summary  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objectives of this analytical study were: to select one advanced automotive diesel engine (AAD) concept which would increase the tank mileage of a 3,000 pound passenger car from the present 35 mpg to at least 52 mpg; to identify long term component research and development work required to bring the selected concept to fruition; and to prepare a development strategy that will bring the selected concept to a prototype testing phase. Cummins Engine Company has completed this study. The selected concept is a 4 stroke cycle, direct injection, spark assisted, advanced adiabatic diesel engine with positive displacement compounding plus expander and part load air preheating. The engine does not use a liquid coolant nor liquid lubricants. It is a 4 cylinder, in-line, 77 mm bore x 77 mm stroke, 1.434 liters displacement engine weighing 300 lb, and rated at 70 BHP at 3000 rpm. Installation dimensions are 621 mm length x 589 mm width x 479 mm height (24.4 inch x 22 inch x 18.9 inch).

1983-01-01

411

Measuring soot particles from automotive exhaust emissions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The European Metrology Research Programme participating countries and the European Union jointly fund a three year project to address the need of the automotive industry for a metrological sound base for exhaust measurements. The collaborative work on particle emissions involves five European National Metrology Institutes, the Tampere University of Technology, the Joint Research Centre for Energy and Transport and the Leibniz Institute for Tropospheric Research. On one hand, a particle number and size standard for soot particles is aimed for. Eventually this will allow the partners to provide accurate and comparable calibrations of measurement instruments for the type approval of Euro 5b and Euro 6 vehicles. Calibration aerosols of combustion particles, silver and graphite proof partially suitable. Yet, a consensus choice together with instrument manufactures is pending as the aerosol choice considerably affects the number concentration measurement. Furthermore, the consortium issued consistent requirements for novel measuring instruments foreseen to replace today's opacimeters in regulatory periodic emission controls of soot and compared them with European legislative requirements. Four partners are conducting a metrological validation of prototype measurement instruments. The novel instruments base on light scattering, electrical, ionisation chamber and diffusion charging sensors and will be tested at low and high particle concentrations. Results shall allow manufacturers to further improve their instruments to comply with legal requirements.

Andres, Hanspeter; Lüönd, Felix; Schlatter, Jürg; Auderset, Kevin; Jordan-Gerkens, Anke; Nowak, Andreas; Ebert, Volker; Buhr, Egbert; Klein, Tobias; Tuch, Thomas; Wiedensohler, Alfred; Mamakos, Athanasios; Riccobono, Francesco; Discher, Kai; Högström, Richard; Yli-Ojanperä, Jaakko; Quincey, Paul

2014-08-01

412

Acoustics of automotive catalytic converter assemblies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In an automotive exhaust system, the purpose of the catalytic converter is to reduce pollutant emissions. However, catalytic converters also affect the engine and exhaust system breathing characteristics; they increase backpressure, affect exhaust system acoustic characteristics, and contribute to exhaust manifold tuning. Thus, radiated sound models should include catalytic converters since they can affect both the source characteristics and the exhaust system acoustic behavior. A typical catalytic converter assembly employs a ceramic substrate to carry the catalytically active noble metals. The substrate has numerous parallel tubes and is mounted in a housing with swelling mat or wire mesh around its periphery. Seals at the ends of the substrate can be used to help force flow through the substrate and/or protect the mat material. Typically, catalytic converter studies only consider sound propagation in the small capillary tubes of the substrate. Investigations of the acoustic characteristics of entire catalytic converter assemblies (housing, substrate, seals, and mat) do not appear to be available. This work experimentally investigates the acoustic behavior of catalytic converter assemblies and the contributions of the separate components to sound attenuation. Experimental findings are interpreted with respect to available techniques for modeling sound propagation in ceramic substrates.

Dickey, Nolan S.; Selamet, Ahmet; Parks, Steve J.; Tallio, Kevin V.; Miazgowicz, Keith D.; Radavich, Paul M.

2003-10-01

413

Fuel Reformation: Microchannel Reactor Design  

SciTech Connect

Fuel processing is used to extract hydrogen from conventional vehicle fuel and allow fuel cell powered vehicles to use the existing petroleum fuel infrastructure. Kilowatt scale micro-channel steam reforming, water-gas shift and preferential oxida-tion reactors have been developed capable of achieving DOE required system performance metrics. Use of a microchannel design effectively supplies heat to the highly endothermic steam reforming reactor to maintain high conversions, controls the temperature profile for the exothermic water gas shift reactor, which optimizes the overall reaction conversion, and removes heat to prevent the unwanted hydrogen oxidation in the prefer-ential oxidation reactor. The reactors combined with micro-channel heat exchangers, when scaled to a full sized 50 kWe automotive system, will be less than 21 L in volume and 52 kg in weight.

Brooks, Kriston P.; Davis, James M.; Fischer, Christopher M.; King, David L.; Pederson, Larry R.; Rawlings, Gregg C.; Stenkamp, Victoria S.; TeGrotenhuis, Ward E.; Wegeng, Robert S.; Whyatt, Greg A.

2005-09-01

414

Deployment of ERP Systems at Automotive Industries, Security Inspection (Case Study: IRAN KHODRO Automotive Company)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Automotive industry and car production process is one of the most complex and large-scale production processes. Today, information technology (IT) and ERP systems incorporates a large portion of production processes. Without any integrated systems such as ERP, the production and supply chain processes will be tangled. The ERP systems, that are last generation of MRP systems, make produce and sale processes of these industries easier and this is the major factor of development of these industries anyhow. Today many of large-scale companies are developing and deploying the ERP systems. The ERP systems facilitate many of organization processes and make organization to increase efficiency. The security is a very important part of the ERP strategy at the organization, Security at the ERP systems, because of integrity and extensive, is more important of local and legacy systems. Disregarding of this point can play a giant role at success or failure of this kind of systems. The IRANKHODRO is the biggest automotive factory in the Middle East with an annual production over 600.000 cars. This paper presents ERP security deployment experience at the "IRANKHODRO Company". Recently, by launching ERP systems, it moved a big step toward more developments.

Ali, Hatamirad; Hasan, Mehrjerdi

415

Water Conservation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, students study the availability of water on Earth and discuss methods that can be used to purify and conserve this critical resource. Using multimedia interactives, video, and classroom activities, they will identify sources of fresh water available for consumption, understand the need for water conservation, and compare the benefits and drawbacks of different water management techniques. They will also assess how much water they and their families typically use, and think about ways to reduce their water usage. Finally, students explore different techniques being employed for water management around the world, including the use of dams to create reservoirs.

2005-01-01

416

A Screening Model to Explore Planning Decisions in Automotive Manufacturing Systems under Demand Uncertainty  

E-print Network

engineering systems, as for automotive manufacturing, often require significant capital investment. Thesis advisor: Randolph Kirchain Title: Associate Professor of Materials Science & Engineering3 A Screening Model to Explore Planning Decisions in Automotive Manufacturing Systems under Demand

de Weck, Olivier L.

417

A Screening Model to Explore Planning Decisions in Automotive Manufacturing Systems under Demand Uncertainty  

E-print Network

:____________________ _______________________________________ __ Prof. Randolph E. Kirchain Associate Professor of Materials Science & Engineering and Engineering engineering systems, as for automotive manufacturing, often require significant capital investment A Screening Model to Explore Planning Decisions in Automotive Manufacturing Systems under

de Weck, Olivier L.

418

49 CFR 213.347 - Automotive or railroad crossings at grade.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false Automotive or railroad crossings at grade. 213.347 Section...Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION...Higher § 213.347 Automotive or railroad crossings at grade. (a)...

2012-10-01

419

49 CFR 213.347 - Automotive or railroad crossings at grade.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false Automotive or railroad crossings at grade. 213.347 Section...Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION...Higher § 213.347 Automotive or railroad crossings at grade. (a)...

2013-10-01

420

49 CFR 213.347 - Automotive or railroad crossings at grade.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Automotive or railroad crossings at grade. 213.347 Section...Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION...Higher § 213.347 Automotive or railroad crossings at grade. (a)...

2010-10-01

421

49 CFR 213.347 - Automotive or railroad crossings at grade.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false Automotive or railroad crossings at grade. 213.347 Section...Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION...Higher § 213.347 Automotive or railroad crossings at grade. (a)...

2011-10-01

422

38 CFR 17.155 - Minimum standards of safety and quality for automotive adaptive equipment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Minimum standards of safety and quality for automotive adaptive... § 17.155 Minimum standards of safety and quality for automotive adaptive...and establish minimum standards of safety and quality for adaptive...

2011-07-01

423

38 CFR 17.155 - Minimum standards of safety and quality for automotive adaptive equipment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...standards of safety and quality for automotive adaptive equipment. 17.155 Section 17...standards of safety and quality for automotive adaptive equipment. (a) The Under Secretary...minimum standards of safety and quality for adaptive equipment provided under 38...

2010-07-01

424

[Fuel substitution of vehicles by natural gas: Summaries of four final technical reports  

SciTech Connect

This report contains summary information on three meetings and highlights of a fourth meeting held by the Society of Automotive Engineers on natural gas fueled vehicles. The meetings covered the following: Natural gas engine and vehicle technology; Safety aspects of alternately fueled vehicles; Catalysts and emission control--Meeting the legislative standards; and LNG--Strengthening the links.

NONE

1996-05-01

425

Checklist for transition to new highway fuel(s).  

SciTech Connect

Transportation is vital to the U.S. economy and society. As such, U.S. Presidents have repeatedly stated that the nation needs to reduce dependence on petroleum, especially for the highway transportation sector. Throughout history, highway transportation fuel transitions have been completed successfully both in United States and abroad. Other attempts have failed, as described in Appendix A: Historical Highway Fuel Transitions. Planning for a transition is critical because the changes can affect our nation's ability to compete in the world market. A transition will take many years to complete. While it is tempting to make quick decisions about the new fuel(s) of choice, it is preferable and necessary to analyze all the pertinent criteria to ensure that correct decisions are made. Doing so will reduce the number of changes in highway fuel(s). Obviously, changes may become necessary because of occurrences such as significant technology breakthroughs or major world events. With any and all of the possible transitions to new fuel(s), the total replacement of gasoline and diesel fuels is not expected. These conventional fuels are envisioned to coexist with the new fuel(s) for decades, while the revised fuel and vehicle infrastructures are implemented. The transition process must analyze the needs of the primary 'players,' which consist of the customers, the government, the fuel industry, and the automotive industry. To maximize the probability of future successes, the prime considerations of these groups must be addressed. Section 2 presents a succinct outline of the Checklist. Section 3 provides a brief discussion about the groupings on the Checklist.

Risch, C.; Santini, D.J. (Energy Systems)

2011-12-15

426

[Conservation Units.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Each of the six instructional units deals with one aspect of conservation: forests, water, rangeland, minerals (petroleum), and soil. The area of the elementary school curriculum with which each correlates is indicated. Lists of general and specific objectives are followed by suggested teaching procedures, including ideas for introducing the…

Texas Education Agency, Austin.

427

[Conservation Units.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Instructional units deal with each aspect of conservation: forests, wildlife, rangelands, water, minerals, and soil. The area of the secondary school curriculum with which each is correlated is indicated. Lists of general and specific objectives are followed by suggested teaching procedures, including ideas for introducing the topic, questions to…

Texas Education Agency, Austin.

428

Conservatively Speaking.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An estimated 4,000 members of the politically active fundamentalist Christian Coalition organization met in September 1995. The two-day convention featured speeches from prominent conservative politicians. Ralph Reed, executive director, touched upon the Coalition's growing emphasis on local politics, especially school boards. (MLF)

Vail, Kathleen

1995-01-01

429

Colorful Conservation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Some people only think about conservation on Earth Day. Being in the "art business" however, this author is always conscious of the many products she thinks get wasted when they could be reused, recycled, and restored--especially in a school building and art room. In this article, she describes an art lesson that allows students to paint…

Skophammer, Karen

2011-01-01

430

3500-hour durability testing of ceramic materials for automotive gas turbine engines  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A two-year durability program was performed by AiResearch Phoenix to evaluate four commercially available ceramic materials under simulated automotive gas turbine combustor discharge conditions. These conditions included extended cyclic thermal exposures up to 2500 F and 3500 hr. The four materials selected for evaluation were Norton NCX-34 hot pressed silicon nitride, AiResearch RBN 101 reaction bonded silicon nitride, Carborundum pressureless sintered alpha-SiC and Pure Carbon Co. (British Nuclear Fuels, Ltd.) Refel reaction sintered silicon carbide. These materials were initially exposed to 350 hr/1750 cycles at 1200 and 1370 C. Subsequent exposures to 1050, 2100 and 3500 hr were performed on those materials maintaining 50% of baseline strength after the initial exposure. Additional evaluations of exposed bars included dimensional and weight changes, dye penetrant, specific damping capacity changes, SEM fractography, and X-ray diffraction.

Carruthers, W. D.; Richerson, D. W.; Benn, K. W.

1980-01-01

431

Automotive shredder residue: A survey of the hazardous organic micro-pollutants spectrum in landfill biogas.  

PubMed

In this study, we report an extensive set of analytical results on the quality of the biogas produced by a landfill of automotive shredder residues. In particular, the investigation was directed towards the identification of a spectrum of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (16 compounds) and a wide range of volatile organic compounds (35 compounds). This article highlights the most important indications of toxicological concern for the detected compounds. Among the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, chrysene shows the highest concentration, followed by pyrene and benzo(b)fluoranthene. Dibenz(a,h)anthracene, the most carcinogenic of the tested compounds, displayed results below the limit of analytical detectability. Benzo(a)pyrene, another typical carcinogenic compound, was detected at low concentrations. With regard to volatile organic compounds, the survey revealed a relevant concentration of toluene (found in fuels and paint thinner) significantly higher than the other compounds. Noticeable amounts of hexane, trichloromethane, and acetone were also found. PMID:25428428

Raboni, Massimo; Torretta, Vincenzo; Urbini, Giordano; Viotti, Paolo

2014-11-26

432

Automotive Stirling engine Mod I design-review report. Volume II  

SciTech Connect

Volume No. 2 of the Automotive Stirling Engine Mod I Design Review Report contains descriptions of the operating principles, performance requirements and design details of the auxiliaries and control systems for the MOD I Stirling engine system. These components and sub-systems have the following main functions: provide the required fuel and air flows for a well controlled combustion process, generating heat to the Stirling cycle; provide a driver acceptable method for controlling the power output of the engine; provide adequate lubrication and cooling water circulation; generate the electric energy required for engine and vehicle operation; provide a driver acceptable method for starting, stopping and monitoring the engine; and provide a guard system, that protects the engine at component or system malfunction.

Not Available

1982-08-01

433

Low-Density Steels: Complex Metallurgy for Automotive Applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The current aim in the development of third-generation steels for lightweighting automotive applications is to increase strength keeping at least the same formability as current steel concepts. In this philosophy, an optimal concept would be one that brings, in addition, a lower density. For this purpose, low-density steels have been designed with important aluminum additions obtaining density reductions of 8-10% or higher in comparison with low-carbon steels. At the levels required for lightweighting, aluminum introduces complex phenomena in steels. Here, some of the effects of aluminum in phase stability, CALPHAD-type modeling, and microstructure development are described, the latter in relation with mechanical properties. Finally, the potential of two families of lightweight steels for automotive applications is assessed by comparison with a steel currently present in automotive structures.

Zuazo, I.; Hallstedt, B.; Lindahl, B.; Selleby, M.; Soler, M.; Etienne, A.; Perlade, A.; Hasenpouth, D.; Massardier-Jourdan, V.; Cazottes, S.; Kleber, X.

2014-09-01

434

Making aerospace technology work for the automotive industry - Introduction  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In many cases it has been found that advances made in one technical field can contribute to other fields. An investigation is in this connection conducted concerning subjects from contemporary NASA programs and projects which might have relevance and potential usefulness to the automotive industry. Examples regarding aerospace developments which have been utilized by the automotive industry are related to electronic design, computer systems, quality control experience, a NASA combustion scanner and television display, exhaust gas analyzers, and a device for suppressing noise propagated through ducts. Projects undertaken by NASA's center for propulsion and power research are examined with respect to their value for the automotive industry. As a result of some of these projects, a gas turbine engine and a Stirling engine might each become a possible alternative to the conventional spark ignition engine.

Olson, W. T.

1978-01-01

435

Component Development - Advanced Fuel Cells for Transportation Applications  

SciTech Connect

Report summarizes results of second phase of development of Vairex air compressor/expander for automotive fuel cell power systems. Project included optimizing key system performance parameters, as well as reducing number of components and the project cost, size and weight of the air system. Objectives were attained. Advanced prototypes are in commercial test environments.

Butler, William

2000-06-19

436

Energizing Engineering Students with Hydrogen Fuel Cell Project  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

At Desert Vista High School, near Phoenix, Arizona, Perkins Innovation Grant funding is being used to fund a program that is helping to prepare students for careers in engineering by giving them hands-on experience in areas like hydrogen generation and fuel cell utilization. As one enters Dan Zavaleta's automotive and engineering classroom and lab…

Cannell, Nori; Zavaleta, Dan

2010-01-01

437

Automotive is the domain of `self propelled, motorised vehicles'. Hence, although the car is dominant, the  

E-print Network

Automotive Design "I believe, the most significant thing happening in the global car design industryAutomotive is the domain of `self propelled, motorised vehicles'. Hence, although the car is dominant, the scope is much wider. And because Automotive Design is always considered in its mobility

438

Development & Implementation of a Community Needs Assessment in Automotive Technology (AMT), Maui, Hawaii.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study, Maui Community College examines the potential employment demand for entry-level automotive technicians on the island of Maui in Hawaii. A requirement for ASE certification by National Automotive Technicians Education Foundation, Inc. is that the college ascertain on a regular basis the community demand for trained automotive

Pezzoli, J. A.; Lee, Hollis; Hussey, Thomas

439

76 FR 58778 - U.S. Automotive Parts and Components Business Development Mission to Russia  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...as on current developments in Russia's...site visits to automotive assembly plants...based on 1960s technology. Quality control...the Russian automotive manufacturers...are seeking technology and business...The U.S. Automotive Parts and Components Business Development Mission to...

2011-09-22

440

A Study of the Awareness Level of Electric Vehicle Technology in California Community College Automotive Curriculums.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

California automotive technician programs were surveyed regarding their awareness of the impact that mandates of the Clean Air Act would have on their automotive technology programs. A questionnaire was sent to 100 California community colleges with an automotive technology program; 49 usable questionnaires were returned. A possible byproduct of…

Keyzer, James

441

76 FR 71313 - U.S. Automotive Parts and Components Business Development Mission to Russia  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...as on current developments in Russia's...site visits to automotive assembly plants...based on 1960s technology. Quality control...the Russian automotive manufacturers...are seeking technology and business...The U.S. Automotive Parts and Components Business Development Mission to...

2011-11-17

442

76 FR 77974 - U.S. Automotive Parts and Components Business Development Mission to Russia  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...as on current developments in Russia's...site visits to automotive assembly plants...based on 1960s technology. Quality control...the Russian automotive manufacturers...are seeking technology and business...The U.S. Automotive Parts and Components Business Development Mission to...

2011-12-15

443

Alternative automotive fuels. Hearings before the Subcommittee on Energy and Power of the Committee on Energy and Commerce, House of Representatives, One Hundredth Congress, First Session on H. R. 168, H. R. 1595, H. R. 2031, and H. R. 2052, June 17, 24, and July 9, 1987  

SciTech Connect

Four House bills are described which encourage the replacement of gasoline with alternative fuels. H.R. 168 would establish a program for replacing, by 1995, 10% or more of the gasoline in the US with alcohol and other replacement fuels derived from coal and renewable resources. H.R. 1595 would amend title V of the Motor Vehicle Information and Cost Savings Act to allow adjustments in a manufacturer's fleet average fuel economy for automobiles made by the manufacturer which utilize non-petroleum-based fuels. H.R. 2031 would amend the Clean Air Act to require that all gasoline sold by refineries in the US contain a certain percentage of ethanol or methanol and would amend the Internal Revenue Code to extend certain tax benefits for fuels containing alcohol. H.R. 2052 would enhance the energy security of the US, improve the environment, and expand markets for agricultural commodities by providing for the increased use of motor fuel blended with ethanol. Thirty-three witnesses, representatives from the petroleum industry, engine manufacturers, Department of Energy, Department of Transportation, the automobile industry, and environmental agencies, were heard.

Not Available

1988-01-01

444

Faculty of Engineering Mechanical, Automotive and  

E-print Network

behind aerospace design, and especially the manufacturing, maintenance, and logistics involved in serving engines, diesel technology, and fuel cell technologies. technologies. A highlight is the opportunity and properties of metals, ceramics, polymers and composites to optimize designs. What You Will Take First Year

445

Automotive Manufacturing and Repair Technician Employment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It's been more than three years since the U.S. automobile industry nearly collapsed. A controversial federal bailout, an increase in consumer demand, and a growing interest in environmentally friendly fuel-efficient vehicles and related technologies have combined to help create a remarkable recovery. Total U.S. sales of light vehicles in 2012 are…

McAlinden, Sean P.

2013-01-01

446

Conservation and renewable energy technologies for transportation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Office of Transportation Technologies (OTT) is charged with long-term, high-risk, and potentially high-payoff research and development of promising transportation technologies that are unlikely to be undertaken by the private sector alone. OTT activities are designed to develop an advanced technology base within the U.S. transportation industry for future manufacture of more energy-efficient, fuel-flexible, and environmentally sound transportation systems. OTT operations are focused on three areas: advanced automotive propulsion systems including gas turbines, low heat rejection diesel, and electric vehicle technologies; advanced materials development and tribology research; and research, development, demonstration, test, and evaluation (including field testing in fleet operations) of alternative fuels. Five papers describing the transportation technologies program have been indexed separately for inclusion on the data base.

1990-11-01

447

DOE Automotive Composite Materials Research: Present and Future Efforts  

SciTech Connect

One method of increasing automotive energy efficiency is through mass reduction of structural components by the incorporation of composite materials. Significant use of glass reinforced polymers as structural components could yield a 20--30% reduction in vehicle weight while the use of carbon fiber reinforced materials could yield a 40--60% reduction in mass. Specific areas of research for lightweighting automotive components are listed, along with research needs for each of these categories: (1) low mass metals; (2) polymer composites; and (3) ceramic materials.

Warren, C.D.

1999-08-10

448

Conservation Island  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, learners will understand the concepts behind endangered and extinct animals and develop their own conservation plan to save three endangered species. Each group or pair of learners will receive an animal profile and sketch it from the description that is given. Then, they will consider the animalâs habitat, behavior, diet, and threats as well as the peopleâs need for cities, agricultural areas, and tribal lands and share this information with other groups. After learners become familiar with their animal (considering both animal and human needs), they must choose what sections of land to conserve and give a short presentation. This lesson plan includes wrap-up suggestions, educator resources, extension ideas, and is standards-based.

Sciences, California A.

2008-01-01

449

Chemical Kinetic Modeling of Advanced Transportation Fuels  

SciTech Connect

Development of detailed chemical kinetic models for advanced petroleum-based and nonpetroleum based fuels is a difficult challenge because of the hundreds to thousands of different components in these fuels and because some of these fuels contain components that have not been considered in the past. It is important to develop detailed chemical kinetic models for these fuels since the models can be put into engine simulation codes used for optimizing engine design for maximum efficiency and minimal pollutant emissions. For example, these chemistry-enabled engine codes can be used to optimize combustion chamber shape and fuel injection timing. They also allow insight into how the composition of advanced petroleum-based and non-petroleum based fuels affect engine performance characteristics. Additionally, chemical kinetic models can be used separately to interpret important in-cylinder experimental data and gain insight into advanced engine combustion processes such as HCCI and lean burn engines. The objectives are: (1) Develop detailed chemical kinetic reaction models for components of advanced petroleum-based and non-petroleum based fuels. These fuels models include components from vegetable-oil-derived biodiesel, oil-sand derived fuel, alcohol fuels and other advanced bio-based and alternative fuels. (2) Develop detailed chemical kinetic reaction models for mixtures of non-petroleum and petroleum-based components to represent real fuels and lead to efficient reduced combustion models needed for engine modeling codes. (3) Characterize the role of fuel composition on efficiency and pollutant emissions from practical automotive engines.

PItz, W J; Westbrook, C K; Herbinet, O

2009-01-20

450

Utiization of alternate fuels in diesel engines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accomplishments during three years entitled The Utilization of Alternate Fuels in Diesel Engines are summarized. Experiments were designed and test equipment set-up for the purpose of evaluating the use of methanol as a fumigant for light-duty Diesel engine service. The major experimental results were obtained from a multicylinder automotive Diesel engine. However, fundamental studies employing a GC\\/micro-reactor and a constant

Lestz

1980-01-01

451

Zero Emission Engine — A Novel Steam Engine for Automotive Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Taking advantage of several of the most modern research and development achievements in combustion technology, material science, control engineering, together with some unconventional thoughts on thermodynamics, a novel concept of a steam engine is presented, which is especially suitable for automotive engine applications. The paper starts by describing the general concept of the so-called Zero Emission Steam Engine, which includes

Stephan Mößbauer; Franz Durst; Dimosthenis Trimis; Tobias Haas

452

Exhaust Gas Sensor Based On Tin Dioxide For Automotive Application  

E-print Network

Exhaust Gas Sensor Based On Tin Dioxide For Automotive Application Arthur VALLERON a,b , Christophe, Engineering Materials Department The aim of this paper is to investigate the potentialities of gas sensor layer with gold electrodes. This gas sensor is able to detect both reducing and oxidizing gases

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

453

EU deregulation and dealer-supplier relations in automotive distribution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The automotive industry in the European Union (EU) faces a sharply reduced regulatory environment, with Block Exemption (1400\\/2002). Economists have predicted fundamental changes in the market as a result of the modified Block Exemption. In this article, the aim is to investigate how the relationship between a car dealer and its main supplier (i.e. an OEM or its

Allard C. R. van Riel; Veronica Liljander; Janjaap Semeijn; Pia Polsa

2011-01-01

454

Role of Friction in Materials Selection for Automotive Applications  

SciTech Connect

This is an invited article for a special issue of the ASM International monthly magazine that concerns "Automotive Materials and Applications." The article itself overviews frictional considerations in material selection for automobiles. It discusses implications for energy efficiency (engine friction) and safety (brakes) among other topics.

Blau, Peter Julian [ORNL

2013-01-01

455

CEC-500-2010-FS-018 Automotive Thermoelectric  

E-print Network

CEC-500-2010-FS-018 Automotive Thermoelectric HVAC Development and Demonstration Project thermoelectric cooling would significantly reduce the demand for petroleum and provide a clean alternative will develop and demonstrate an operational and economically-viable thermoelectric Heating Ventilation and Air

456

DESIGN OF AN INTEGRATED ANTENNA FOR AUTOMOTIVE SYSTEMS  

E-print Network

is represented by a right-hand- polarized antenna with a good cross-polarization-rejection ratio able cross- polarization-rejection ratios [4]. The second phase deals with the integration of antenna subDESIGN OF AN INTEGRATED ANTENNA FOR AUTOMOTIVE SYSTEMS R. Azaro, G. Boato, F. De Natale, G

Boato, Giulia

457

Dow Corning photonics: the silicon advantage in automotive photonics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Automotive Market offers several opportunities for Dow Corning to leverage the power of silicon-based materials. Dow Corning Photonics Solutions has a number of developments that may be attractive for the emergent photonics needs in automobiles, building on 40 years of experience as a leading Automotive supplier with a strong foundation of expertise and an extensive product offering- from encapsulents and highly reliable resins, adhesives, insulating materials and other products, ensuring that the advantage of silicones are already well-embedded in Automotive systems, modules and components. The recent development of LED encapsulants of exceptional clarity and stability has extended the potential for Dow Corning"s strength in Photonics to be deployed "in-car". Demonstration of board-level and back-plane solutions utilising siloxane waveguide technology offers new opportunities for systems designers to integrate optical components at low cost on diverse substrates. Coupled with work on simple waveguide technology for sensors and data communications applications this suite of materials and technology offerings is very potent in this sector. The harsh environment under hood and the very extreme thermal range that materials must sustain in vehicles due to both their engine and the climate is an applications specification that defines the siloxane advantage. For these passive optics applications the siloxanes very high clarity at the data-communications wavelengths coupled with extraordinary stability offers significant design advantage. The future development of Head-Up-Displays for instrumentation and data display will offer yet more opportunities to the siloxanes in Automotive Photonics.

Clapp, Terry V.; Paquet, Rene; Norris, Ann; Pettersen, Babette

2005-02-01

458

Investigation of thermal management materials for automotive electronic control units  

Microsoft Academic Search

Today’s electronics packages are smaller and more powerful than ever before. This leads to ever increasing thermal challenges for the systems designer. The automotive electronic control unit (ECU) package faces the same challenge of thermal management as the industry in general. This is coupled with the latest European Union legislation (Euro 6 standard) which forced the ECU manufacturers to completely

Sabuj Mallik; Ndy Ekere; Chris Best; Raj Bhatti

2011-01-01

459

Thermomechanical analysis of an automotive diesel engine exhaust manifold  

Microsoft Academic Search

The following paper presents a detailed description of a thermo-mechanical analysis method of an exhaust manifold for a four-stroke automotive Diesel engine, where the focus is on the physically correct description of the transient heat transfer on the hot gas side. For this purpose, a simple, but very effective method has been developed to calculate the quasi steady state heat

K. Höschler; J. Bischof; W. Koschel

2002-01-01

460

Throughput analysis in automotive paint shops: a case study  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, an overlapping decomposition method is used to estimate the throughput of a production system with multiple rework loops. The idea of the method is to decompose the system into a couple of serial lines and modify the parameters of overlapping machines to accommodate the effects of other lines. Using this method, the throughput of an automotive paint

Jingshan Li

2004-01-01

461

Modeling torque transmissibility for automotive dry clutch engagement  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dry clutch is a fundamental component in many automotive drivelines. For instance, the clutch torque transmissibility characteristic severely influences gearshift performance in automated manual transmissions. In this paper a novel model of the torque transmissibility of dry clutches is proposed. The dependence of the transmissibility characteristic on wear, slip speed and friction pads geometry and the influence of the

Francesco Vasca; Luigi Iannelli; Adolfo Senatore; Maurizio Taglialatela Scafati

2008-01-01

462

Automotive catalytic converters: current status and some perspectives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Automotive three-way catalysts (TWCs) have represented over the last 25 years one of the most successful stories in the development of catalysts. The aim of this paper is to illustrate the technology for abatement of exhaust emissions by analysing the current understanding of TWCs, the specific role of the various components, the achievements and the limitations. The challenges in the

Jan Kašpar; Paolo Fornasiero; Neal Hickey

2003-01-01

463

Challenges for Qualitative Electrical Reasoning in Automotive Circuit Simulation  

E-print Network

Challenges for Qualitative Electrical Reasoning in Automotive Circuit Simulation Neal Snooke advances in the field can be assessed. Introduction Electrical circuits were among the earliest devices been done in modelling electrical circuits, and look at what further work needs to be done, based

Snooke, Neal

464

Causes and control of spinal cord injury in automotive crashes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides a history of automotive safety and a review of biomedical research on human tolerance and occupant protection. It discusses current understandings of body kinematics and impact biomechanics that result in neck injury. Perspective is given on the linkage between mechanical forces that are the cause and physiologic disruptions that are the consequence of spinal cord injury. The

David C. Viano

1992-01-01

465

AUTOMOTIVE AND HEAVY-DUTY ENGINE COOLANT RECYCLING BY FILTRATION  

EPA Science Inventory

This evaluation addresses the product quality, waste reduction and economic issues involved in recycling automotive and heavy-duty engine coolants. he specific recycling units evaluated are a fleet-size unit and a portable unit, both based on the technology of chemical filtration...

466

A Golden Section approach to optimization of automotive friction materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Golden Section approach combined with relational grade analysis is proposed as an experimental design tool helpful in the development of new automotive friction materials. Golden Section was used to design the volume fraction of the components systematically. The changes in friction performance (friction coefficient and wear) measured using Friction Assessment and Screening Test (FAST) can be correlated with component

Y. Lu

2003-01-01

467

AUTOMOTIVE AND HEAVY-DUTY ENGINE COOLANT RECYCLING BY DISTILLATION  

EPA Science Inventory

This evaluation addresses the product quality, waste reduction, and economic issues involved in recycling automotive and heavy-duty engine coolants for a facility such as the New Jersey Department of Transportation garage in Ewing, New Jersey. he specific recycling evaluated is b...

468

Isocyanates Profile: Automotive Refinishing Shop Project and Philadelphia Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Background information on the use of isocyanates and diisocyanates in the automotive refinishing industry is available in this draft report. It also includes a number of links to sites which offer additional information pertaining to regulatory, health, hazard exposure, personal protection issues (PPE) and engineering and control measures that can be implemented as well.

2007-01-31

469

Sequential environmental stresses tests qualification for automotive components  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose is to create a new qualification methodology for plastic encapsulated electronic components used in an automotive environment at high temperature. It is based on the acceleration of failure mechanisms like ball bond lift (due to intermetallic Au–Al thickness growth), by combination of environmental stresses. The delamination measurement was used as an indicator of potential assembly weaknesses. An optimized

Manoubi Auguste Bahi; Pascal Lecuyer; Hélène Frémont; Jean-Pierre Landesman

2007-01-01

470

Automotive body panel containing thermally exfoliated graphite oxide  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An automotive body panel containing a polymer composite formed of at least one polymer and a modified graphite oxide material, which is a thermally exfoliated graphite oxide with a surface area of from about 300 m.sup.2/g to 2600 m.sup.2/g.

Prud'Homme, Robert K. (Inventor); Aksay, Ilhan A. (Inventor); Adamson, Douglas (Inventor); Abdala, Ahmed (Inventor)

2011-01-01

471

Dynamic model for an automotive overhead valve-gear system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research presents a lumped-parameter model, distinct from the ones developed until the present time, easily adaptable for its analog\\/hybrid simulation, and that combines favorably its simplicity and precision to represent appropriately an automotive valve gear system by means of the inclusion of the hydraulic lifter and of the viscous forces produced by its guide. The checking of this new

Mendez-Adriani

1989-01-01

472

Near Field Communication (NFC) in an Automotive Environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Near Field Communication (NFC) offers intuitive interactions between humans and vehicles. In this paper we explore different NFC based use cases in an automotive context. Nearly all described use cases have been implemented in a BMW vehicle to get experiences of NFC in a real in-car environment. We describe the underlying soft- and hardware architecture and our experiences in setting

Rainer Steffen; J. Preißinger; T. Scho?llermann; A. Mu?ller; I. Schnabel

2010-01-01

473

INVESTIGATION OF CLEANER TECHNOLOGIES TO MINIMIZE AUTOMOTIVE COOLANT WASTES  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in cooperation with the State of New Jersey evaluated chemical filtration and distillation technologies designed to recycle automotive and heavy-duty engine coolants. hese evaluations addressed the product quality, waste reduction, and eco...

474

Automotive Stirling Engine Mod 1 Design Review, Volume 1  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Risk assessment, safety analysis of the automotive stirling engine (ASE) mod I, design criteria and materials properties for the ASE mod I and reference engines, combustion are flower development, and the mod I engine starter motor are discussed. The stirling engine system, external heat system, hot engine system, cold engine system, and engine drive system are also discussed.

1982-01-01

475

Automatic Parallelization of Hand Written Automotive Engine Control  

E-print Network

Automatic Parallelization of Hand Written Automotive Engine Control Codes Using OSCAR Compiler Dan by integrated control systems with enhanced electric control units, or real-time control system such as an advanced engine control unit and an enhanced information system, human and other cars recognition

Kasahara, Hironori

476

PROGRAMME SPECIFICATION POSTGRADUATE PROGRAMMES Programme name Automotive Engineering  

E-print Network

of the behaviour of Automotive, Mechatronics and energy systems with appropriate methods. Appreciate advanced, and to disseminate the latest research advances and professional best practice. A specific aim of the programme of modern methods of control and design of vehicle and power train systems. - Application of advanced

Weyde, Tillman

477

Learning style preferences of engineers in automotive design  

Microsoft Academic Search

An investigation was conducted in the design department of a medium-sized automotive company to establish engineers’ preferred learning styles. This was achieved by using two proven questionnaires followed by statistical analysis methods. The evidence showed that the engineers investigated have a significant visual learning style preference. This means that their learning is more effective by using diagrams, sketches, photographs, schematics,

Yvette James-Gordon; Jay Bal

2001-01-01

478

Tools and Techniques for Ensuring Automotive EMC Performance and Reliability  

E-print Network

they generate and store significant amounts of electric energy. Cars in the future ... 8 #12;9 Lighter More Systems 3 Current automotive electronics design and integration strategies are not sustainable. Cars and wireless communication Cars in the future will have ONE reliable, low-cost, lightweight network that serves

Stuart, Steven J.

479

Automotive Computer Units. Vocational Trade and Industrial Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The materials included in "Automotive Computer Units" represent a unit of instruction to acquaint auto mechanics at all skill levels with the use of computers in today's automobiles. The unit is designed for use in full-time secondary and postsecondary classes and part-time adult classes. It may be adapted to open-entry, open-exit programs for…

Kenney, Jerry

480

The roles of external knowledge sources in Thailand's automotive industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article studies the role of the external knowledge sources supporting the automotive industry in Thailand. The external knowledge sources can be categorized into three groups, namely universities, government agencies, and private associations. The study was conducted through a series of interviews with the key decision makers involved in the development of linkages in each organization. The results show that

Patarapong Intarakumnerd; Nathasit Gerdsri; Pard Teekasap

2012-01-01

481

The noise of cooling fans used in heavy automotive vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is concerned with the reduction of noise from automotive cooling systems. A comparison is made between the use of axial flow and centrifugal fans and formulae presented for obtaining the octave sound power for each type of fan. The disadvantages of centrifugal fan installations are highlighted and axial fan design configurations are examined with the object of providing

B. D. Mugridge

1976-01-01

482

Training Needs for High Performance in the Automotive Industry.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A project was conducted in Australia to identify the training needs of the emerging industry required to support the development of the high performance areas of the automotive machining and reconditioning field especially as it pertained to auto racing. Data were gathered through a literature search, interviews with experts in the field, and…

Clyne, Barry; And Others

483

Impact detection for smart automotive damage mitigation systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Occupant safety and severity of vehicle damage are important factors in automotive vehicle design. Smart automobiles of the future could potentially use distributed smart material sensors and actuators in order to identify impact and take appropriate evasive or mitigative actions. This provides the motivation for this study. The first part of this study is focused on detecting the location and

Saravanan M. Peelamedu; Nagi G. Naganathan

2000-01-01

484

Engine Fundamentals: Automotive Mechanics Instructional Program. Block 2.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The second of six instructional blocks in automotive mechanics, the lessons and supportive information in the document provide a guide for teachers in planning an instructional program in engine fundamentals at the secondary and postsecondary level. The material, as organized, is a suggested sequence of instruction within each block. Each lesson…

O'Brien, Ralph D.

485

Automotive Technology Objectives. Career Education. DS Manual 2870.1.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide is designed for use in helping junior and senior high school students explore the field of automotive technology as a potential career area. Included in the manual are the following materials: definitions, a key to the organization and numbering code and symbols used in the lists of objectives, lists of general and program objectives…

Dependents Schools (DOD), Washington, DC.

486

Model Program for Surveying Employers of Automotive Technology Graduates.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using a sample of all graduates and a randomly chosen group of leavers (those who had completed three terms over a four-year period), a study was conducted at Chemeketa Community College to develop a model survey instrument for employers to evaluate the automotive technology program. Several steps were followed in the development process,…

Woodnutt, Tom

487

Liaison Program for Automotive Technology. Special Vocational Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This packet contains an instructor's guide, student task sheets, and an illustrated vocabulary list for a program in automotive technology for handicapped students (special vocational education). The instructor's guide consists of a matrix of modules with vocabulary divided into 30 units of study for Auto Mechanics I and 17 units for Auto…

Western Kentucky Univ., Bowling Green. Center for Career and Vocational Teacher Education.

488

Tribological properties of automotive disc brakes with solid lubricants  

Microsoft Academic Search

In automotive brake systems, high temperatures and pressures are generated at the contacting surfaces. This affects the pad and disc materials, creating a friction film between the surfaces, which consists of wear particles and volatile reactants from the pad and disc. To acquire suitable tribological properties, a pad matrix contains up to 20 different ingredients, mainly selected from experience. In

Luise Gudmand-Høyer; Allan Bach; Georg T Nielsen; Per Morgen

1999-01-01

489

EVALUATION OF FILTRATION AND DISTILLATION METHODS FOR RECYCLING AUTOMOTIVE COOLANT.  

EPA Science Inventory

This evaluation addresses the product quality, waste reduction, and economic issues involved in recycling automotive and heavy-duty engine coolants at a New Jersey Department of Transportation garage. The specific recycling units evaluated are based on the technologies of filtrat...

490

Development of a Systematic Automotive Education Program. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As part of a project to provide techniques for developing and implementing realistic vocational training and placement programs for prisoner rehabilitation, an Automotive Trades Council (ATC) was established to test the concept of using a citizens' council to function as a bridge between correctional and training personnel and the using society.…

Wylie, Peter B.; And Others

491

Evaluation of a Dialogue System in an Automotive Environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we discuss features to enhance the usability of a spoken dialogue system (SDS) in an automotive environment. We describe the tests that were performed to evaluate those fea- tures, and the methods used to assess the test results. One of these methods is a modifica- tion of PARADISE, a framework for evaluating the performance of SDSs (Walker

Liza Hassel; Eli Hagen; BMW AG

492

CHARACTERIZATION OF AUTOMOTIVE EMISSIONS BY BACTERIAL MUTAGENESIS BIOASSAY: A REVIEW  

EPA Science Inventory

Due to the growing numbers of diesel passenger automobiles in the United States, there has been an expanded effort to understand the health effects of airborne pollutants arising from increased automotive emissions. Bacterial mutagenicity testing has played an important role in t...

493

Use of an Automotive Technology Course in Engineering Technology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The automobile has been a source of engineering discoveries and employment for the last century. Many different disciplines go into the manufacturing and design of the automobile. The principles of the different engineering technology disciplines can be shown through the use of a general automotive technology course. At the University of Dayton the graduates of the engineering technology program have a good chance of interviewing and possibly even taking a job in the automotive field. It was felt that the students would benefit from taking a course in basic automotive engineering to allow them to have knowledge of these principles before interviewing for a position in one of these companies. This course would introduce them to basic systems, components, and terminology as it applies to many engineering technology disciplines. Also the business aspect would be developed as well as how government regulations influence automotive design. This paper describes the process of developing this class as well as some of the details and how it relates to a multi-disciplinary engineering technology program.

Falkowski, Sean

494

Experimental investigation of a CO 2 automotive air conditioner  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, a CO2 automotive air conditioner prototype was designed and constructed. The compressor was of swash plate design; the gas cooler and evaporator were made of fin-tubes; a manual expansion valve and an internal heat exchanger accumulator were used. The lubricant, the CO2 charge, the evaporator outlet pressure, the compressor speed, the air inlet temperature and flow rate

Hongsheng Liu; Jiangping Chen; Zhijiu Chen

2005-01-01

495

Simulation and comparison of infrared sensors for automotive applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a simulation and comparison of two different infrared (IR) imaging systems in terms of their use in automotive collision avoidance and vision enhancement applications. The first half of this study concerns the simulations of a `cooled' shortwave focal plane array infrared imaging system, and an `uncooled' focal plane array infrared imaging system. This is done using the

Thomas J. Meitzler; Euijung Sohn; Robert E. Karlsen; Grant R. Gerhart; Sridhar Lakshmanan

1995-01-01

496

Designing and managing collaborative enterprises in the automotive industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the findings of a recently completed research project. It sheds light upon the appropriate governance of inter-firm relationships, in order to achieve competitive success for the whole partnership and its individual members. An exploratory study in the German automotive industry using inductive Grounded Theory was conducted, in order to form a set of propositions that were then

Mario Binder; Ben Clegg

2007-01-01

497

Automotive Modules. Vocational Behavioral Objectives: A Guide for Individualizing Instruction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The curriculum guide deals with automotive repair skills at the secondary level of vocational education and industrial arts. It addresses the subject in behavioral terms, as prominent components of the career education concept. Presenting four skill modules, auto body repair, gas engine repair, service, and diesel engine mechanics, the objectives…

Westinghouse Learning Corp., New York, NY.

498

Study of Fan Noise Reduction for Automotive Radiator Cooling Fans  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to reduce automotive radiator cooling fan noise, it is necessary to reduce the system's blade passing frequency noise (BPF), a periodical noise unpleasant to the ear, in addition to an overall noise reduction. The au- thors have successfully developed and applied a BPF noise prediction technique, which consists of a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and sound wave propagation

ATSUSHI SUZUKI; TETSUO TOMINAGA; TSUYOSHI EGUCHI; TOSHIFUMI KUDO; TOMOSHIGE TAKATA

499

Networked Automotive Cyber Physical Systems: Applications, Challenges and Research Directions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Next-generation Automotive Cyber Physical Systems (CPS) are expected to be networked in the wireless domain. It is not un-reasonable to envisage thousands of automobiles with appropriate sensing, actuation and communication ability to network themselves wirelessly in the cyber world. A wide spectrum of applications are possible in this domain. In this article, we highlight three canonical applications, while illustrating their

Sriram Chellappan; Sanjay Kumar Madria

500

Fostering Innovation and Investment In Ontario's Automotive Industry  

E-print Network

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Haykin, Simon