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1

Automotive Fuel and Exhaust Systems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Materials are provided for a 14-hour course designed to introduce the automotive mechanic to the basic operations of automotive fuel and exhaust systems incorporated on military vehicles. The four study units cover characteristics of fuels, gasoline fuel system, diesel fuel systems, and exhaust system. Each study unit begins with a general…

Irby, James F.; And Others

2

Potential Increased Production of Automotive Diesel Fuels.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Automotive diesel engines are more efficient than automotive gasoline engines and thus deliver more power per unit fuel consumption. The diesel engines also are less polluting since their exhaust gases are free from lead contamination and contain less nit...

W. F. Hoot

1972-01-01

3

Raising automotive fuel efficiency  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Obama administration recently moved up the schedule for achieving the fuel efficiency standards set forth by Congress in the 2007 Energy Independence and Security Act. The deadline for meeting these standards is now vehicle model year 2016 instead of 2020.

Taft Foster; Thomas H. Klier

2009-01-01

4

Automotive fuels from biomass via gasification  

Microsoft Academic Search

There exists already a market of bio-automotive fuels i.e. bioethanol and biodiesel produced from food crops in many countries. From the viewpoint of economics, environment, land use, water use and chemical fertilizer use, however, there is a strong preference for the use of woody biomass and various forest\\/agricultural residues as the feedstock. Thus, the production of 2nd generation of bio-automotive

Wennan Zhang

2010-01-01

5

Materials Challenges for Automotive PEM Fuel Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the past few years, significant R efforts aimed at meeting the challenging cost and performance targets required for the use of Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEM) fuel cells in automotive applications. Besides engineering advances in bipolar plate materials and design, the optimization of membrane-electrode assemblies (MEAs) was an important enabler in reducing the cost and performance gaps towards commercial viability

Hubert Gasteiger

2004-01-01

6

Automotive Fuels and Air Pollution.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report identifies and evaluates the costs and consequences of alternative ways of modifying automobiles and fuels to achieve appropriate reductions in emissions. Control technologies to meet 1975 emission standards and the influence of fuel compositio...

D. V. Ragone

1971-01-01

7

Waste Automotive Lubricating Oil Reuse as a Fuel.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study evaluates the technical, economic and environmental feasibility of automotive waste oil reuse as a fuel. The supply and potential marketability of waste oil fuel is considered in relationship to existing and projected fossil fuel usage in the U...

B. Kincannon J. Carroll J. Sahagian N. Surprenant S. Chansky

1974-01-01

8

The impact of alternate fuels on future candidate automotive engines  

Microsoft Academic Search

The thermal efficiency that could occur in the future for a variety of automotive engine candidates operating on conventional and alternate fuels is projected based on current automotive engine development trends and the special characteristics of the various alternate fuels. The multi-fuel engine candidates include mixture cycle and direct injection reciprocating engines, as well as adiabatic turbocompound engines and advanced

C. J. Rahnke; R. J. Nichols

1982-01-01

9

Automotive and fuel technologies: current and future options  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this work is to assess the likely commercial timeframe of a broad range of automotive and fuel technologies. The report assesses the status of existing and alternative engine technologies, associated fuels, and problems which may retard their introduction and use. It estimates, where possible, the earliest time of general commercial use for each developing automotive technology and fuel.

Price, R.; Stamets, L.

1984-03-01

10

16 CFR 306.10 - Automotive fuel rating posting.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...replace labels as needed to...by posting a temporary label as much like...automotive fuel rating disclosures...available alternative liquid automotive fuels are meant to serve as illustrations...contains biomass-based diesel...fuel from a common...

2009-01-01

11

Fuel cells for automotive applications: overview  

SciTech Connect

Projections are made of fuel cell technology for vehicular use. The fuel used to provide hydrogen to a phosphoric acid fuel cell is assumed to be methanol. Experimental performance data for a golf cart is discussed. The design, economics, and predicted performance for a fuel cell retrofitted x-car with lead-acid batteries for peaking power, are described. The technical and economic feasibility of using fuel cells in city buses, vans and passenger cars are examined. It is concluded that the fuel cell/battery hybrid vehicle will have the advantages of high efficiency, i.e., 53% improvement in fuel economy, long fuel cell life, performance comparable to IC engine vehicles, low maintenance, petroleum fuel conservation, low pollution, and quiet operation. From a comparison of the lifetime costs of conventional vehicles versus fuel cell vehicles, it is concluded that commercialization of fuel cells for buses is most feasible followed by van and automobile applications. (LCL)

McCormick, J.B.

1980-01-01

12

The impact of alternate fuels on future candidate automotive engines  

SciTech Connect

The thermal efficiency that could occur in the future for a variety of automotive engine candidates operating on conventional and alternate fuels is projected based on current automotive engine development trends and the special characteristics of the various alternate fuels. The multi-fuel engine candidates include mixture cycle and direct injection reciprocating engines, as well as adiabatic turbocompound engines and advanced gas turbine and Stirling engines. The alternate fuels considered are propane, methanol, ethanol, diesel and methane.

Rahnke, C.J.; Nichols, R.J.

1982-06-01

13

Materials Challenges for Automotive PEM Fuel Cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the past few years, significant R efforts aimed at meeting the challenging cost and performance targets required for the use of Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEM) fuel cells in automotive applications. Besides engineering advances in bipolar plate materials and design, the optimization of membrane-electrode assemblies (MEAs) was an important enabler in reducing the cost and performance gaps towards commercial viability for the automotive market. On the one hand, platinum loadings were reduced from several mgPt/cm2MEA [1] to values of 0.5-0.6 mgPt/cm2MEA in current applications and loadings as low as 0.25 mgPt/cm2MEA have been demonstrated on the research level [2]. On the other hand, implementation of thin membranes (20-30 micrometer) [3, 4] as well as improvements in diffusion medium materials, essentially doubled the achievable power density of MEAs to ca. 0.9 W/cm2MEA (at 0.65 V) [5], thereby not only reducing the size of a PEMFC fuel cell system, but also reducing its overall materials cost (controlled to a large extent by membrane and Pt-catalyst cost). While this demonstrated a clear path towards automotive applications, a renewed focus of R efforts is now required to develop materials and fundamental materials understanding to assure long-term durability of PEM fuel cells. This presentation therefore will discuss the state-of-the-art knowledge of catalyst, catalyst-support, and membrane degradation mechanisms. In the area of Pt-catalysts, experience with phosphoric acid fuel cells (PAFCs) has shown that platinum sintering leads to long-term performance losses [6]. While this is less critical at the lower PEMFC operating temperatures (<100C) compared to PAFCs (>200C), very little is known about the dependence of Pt-sintering on temperature, cell voltage, and catalyst type (i.e., Pt versus Pt-alloys) and will be discussed here. Similarly, carbon-support corrosion can contribute significantly to voltage degradation in PAFCs [7], and even in the PEMFC environment more corrosion-resistant support materials (e.g., graphitized carbons) are desirable. While thin polymer electrolyte membranes (20-30 micrometer) enable high power density operation, the requirements on their chemical and mechanical stability are significantly more demanding compared to the thick membranes (100-200 micrometer) used in the past [1]. While the currently used perfluoro-sulfonicacid (PFSA) membranes are chemically very stable, they are known to degrade in the fuel cell environment [4] via peroxyl-radical attack, strongly enhanced in the presence of iron [8]. While the exact degradation mechanism is actively investigated, its understanding is clearly required to improve the chemical stability of PFSA's. Similarly, very little is known about the mechanical properties of polymer electrolyte membranes and critical issues will be discussed. References: 1. Strasser, K.; ``H2/O2 PEM Fuel Cell Module for an Air-Independent Propulsion System in a Submarine''; in: Handbook of Fuel Cells Fundamentals, Technology and Applications; Vielstich, W.; Lamm, A.; Gasteiger, H. A. (Eds.); John Wiley & Sons (Chichester, UK): volume 4, chapter 88, 2003, pp. 1201-1214. 2. Gasteiger, H. A.; Panels, J. E.; Yan, S. G.; J. Power Sources in press. 3. Gasteiger, H. A.; Gu, W.; Makharia, R.; Mathias, M. F.; Sompalli, S.; ``Beginning-of-Life MEA Performance: Efficiency Loss Contributions''; in: Handbook of Fuel Cells Fundamentals, Technology and Applications; Vielstich, W.; Lamm, A.; Gasteiger, H. A. (Eds.); John Wiley & Sons (Chichester, UK): volume 3, chapter 46, 2003, pp. 593-610. 4. Cleghorn, S.; Kolde, J.; Liu, W.; ``Catalyst-Coated Composite Membranes''; in: Handbook of Fuel Cells - Fundamentals, Technology and Applications; Vielstich, W.; Lamm, A.; Gasteiger, H. A. (Eds.); John Wiley & Sons (Chichester, UK): volume 3, chapter 44, 2003, pp. 566-575. 5. Mathias, M. F.; Gasteiger, H. A.; Fundamental Research and Development Challenges in Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cell Technology; in Proceedings of the Proton Conducting Membrane Fuel Cells III Symposi

Gasteiger, Hubert

2004-03-01

14

GATE Center for Automotive Fuel Cell Systems at Virginia Tech  

SciTech Connect

The Virginia Tech GATE Center for Automotive Fuel Cell Systems (CAFCS) achieved the following objectives in support of the domestic automotive industry: â?¢ Expanded and updated fuel cell and vehicle technologies education programs; â?¢ Conducted industry directed research in three thrust areas â?? development and characterization of materials for PEM fuel cells; performance and durability modeling for PEM fuel cells; and fuel cell systems design and optimization, including hybrid and plug-in hybrid fuel cell vehicles; â?¢ Developed MS and Ph.D. engineers and scientists who are pursuing careers related to fuel cells and automotive applications; â?¢ Published research results that provide industry with new knowledge which contributes to the advancement of fuel cell and vehicle systems commercialization. With support from the Dept. of Energy, the CAFCS upgraded existing graduate course offerings; introduced a hands-on laboratory component that make use of Virginia Techâ??s comprehensive laboratory facilities, funded 15 GATE Fellowships over a five year period; and expanded our program of industry interaction to improve student awareness of challenges and opportunities in the automotive industry. GATE Center graduate students have a state-of-the-art research experience preparing them for a career to contribute to the advancement fuel cell and vehicle technologies.

Nelson, Douglas

2011-05-31

15

Dynamic behaviour of hydrogen fuel cells for automotive application  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experimental analysis was conducted on a 30kW fuel cell power train with the aim to elucidate specific concerns of dynamic behaviour of hydrogen fuel cells in automotive applications. The study was conducted on a dynamic test bench able to simulate the behaviour of the reference vehicle, a minibus for historical centres collective service, on predefined driving cycle. The transient

P. Corbo; F. Migliardini; O. Veneri

2009-01-01

16

Chemical Kinetic Modeling of Combustion of Automotive Fuels  

SciTech Connect

The objectives of this report are to: (1) Develop detailed chemical kinetic reaction models for components of fuels, including olefins and cycloalkanes used in diesel, spark-ignition and HCCI engines; (2) Develop surrogate mixtures of hydrocarbon components to represent real fuels and lead to efficient reduced combustion models; and (3) Characterize the role of fuel composition on production of emissions from practical automotive engines.

Pitz, W J; Westbrook, C K; Silke, E J

2006-11-10

17

Fuel saver based on electromagnetic induction for automotive engine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the considered research is designed and analyzed the performance of the fuel saver which is based on electromagnetic induction for automotive diesel engine. The fuel saver which is based on permanent magnet has sold in market and its performance has tested. In comparison to the former fuel saver, in the proposed work is produced fuel saver which is based on electromagnetic induction. The considered research is the continuation of my former work. Performance of the produced fuel saver which is installed in the fuel line of internal combustion engine rig is compared to the performance of the standard internal combustion engine rig Speed of the engine, wire diameter of coil, and number of coil which is coiled in the winding of the the fuel saver are chosen as the testing variables. The considered research has succeeded to design the fuel saver which is based on electromagnetic induction for saving the automotive fuel consumption. Results of the research show that the addition of the fuel saver which is based on electromagnetic induction to the flow of the diesel fuel can significantly save the automative fuel consumption. In addition the designed fuel saver can reduce the opacity of the emission gas.

Siregar, Houtman P.; Sibarani, Maradu

2007-12-01

18

Application of H? optimal design to automotive fuel control  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study seeks to apply H? robust control theory to the design of an automotive diesel pump control system, and also to compare the results with those when optimal regulator theory is applied. A diesel pump control system must respond quickly and undeviatingly whenever a driver pedals the accelerator. Fuel viscosity changes due to temperature variations exert a great influence

H. Kuraoka; N. Ohka; M. Ohba; S. Hosoe; F. Zhang

1989-01-01

19

16 CFR 306.5 - Automotive fuel rating.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...biodiesel blends and biomass-based diesel...must possess a reasonable...component of the alternative liquid automotive fuel that you must...must possess a reasonable...the case of biomass-based diesel...3, 1993, as amended at...

2013-01-01

20

Utilizing fuel cell and supercapacitors for automotive hybrid electrical system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a new control algorithm for utilizing PEM fuel cell and supercapacitors for automotive system. A PEM fuel cell is operated as a directional main power source connected to 42 V dc bus (PowerNet) by boost converter, and supercapacitors is controlled as a fast bidirectional auxiliary power source connected to dc bus by a 2-quadrant dc\\/dc converter. The

Phatiphat Thounthong; Stéphane Raël; Bernard Davat

2005-01-01

21

An analysis of alternative fuel credit provisions of US automotive fuel economy standards  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the United States, alternative fuel vehicles are treated favorably in the calculations that are used to determine compliance with automotive fuel efficiency standards. We estimate that this favorable treatment is worth approximately $550–$1100 per alternative fuel vehicle in terms of avoided penalties. We use a dynamic simulation model to examine the implications of this favorable treatment of alternative fuel

Jonathan Rubin; Paul Leiby

2000-01-01

22

Fuel Cells for Non-automotive Uses: Status and Prospects  

SciTech Connect

Fuel cells are in varying stages ofcommercialization for both automotive and non-automotive applications. The fuel cell industry has made substantial progress but still needs to reduce costs and improve performance to compete successfully with established technologies. In just 5 years, costs have been reduced by a factor of two while improving efficiency and durability. Based on interviews with fuel cell manufacturers in the U.S., Japan and the EU and information from published sources, a model of non-automotive fuel cell markets is constructed and used to estimate the impacts of government policies and to project the potential evolution of the industry to 2025. The model includes the effects of learning-by-doing, scale economies and exogenous technological progress on component and system costs, estimates customer choices between fuel cell and competing established technologies, and attempts to measure the impacts of government policies. With continued policy support it appears likely that the industry can become self-sustaining within the next decade.

Upreti, Girish [ORNL; Greene, David L [ORNL; Duleep, K. G. [ICF International; Sawhney, Rupinder S [ORNL

2012-01-01

23

Modeling of Pem Fuel Cell Systems Including Controls and Reforming Effects for Hybrid Automotive Applications.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Due to the nature of fuel cell reactions, fuel cells have the potential of being more fuel efficient while generating fewer harmful emissions than conventional automotive power systems. Additionally, by hybridizing a fuel cell system with a battery, oppor...

D. D. Boettner

2001-01-01

24

Demonstration of dissociated methanol as an automotive fuel: system performance  

SciTech Connect

The results are presented of system performance testing of an automotive system devised to provide hydrogen-rich gases to an internal combustion engine by dissociating methanol on board the vehicle. The dissociation of methanol absorbs heat from the engine exhaust and increases the lower heating value of the fuel by 22%. The engine thermal efficiency is increased by raising the compression ratio and burning with excess air.

Finegold, J. G.; Karpuk, M. E.; McKinnon, J. T.; Passamaneck, R.

1981-04-01

25

Glycerol based automotive fuels from future biorefineries  

Microsoft Academic Search

After the energy crisis in the 1970s, considerable attention was focused on the development of alternate energy resources. At present, there is a renewed interest in biofuels due to increasing concerns about energy security and environmental pollution. One such biobased fuel that is being widely commercialized is biodiesel. With the increasing production of biodiesel a glut of glycerol has been

Sandun Fernando; Sushil Adhikari; Kiran Kota; Ranjitha Bandi

2007-01-01

26

Fuel conservation and economy constraints  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fuel conservation in civil aviation may be achieved by increasing the efficiency of the aircraft themselves, by operating the aircraft more efficiently, and by providing them with a more efficient air traffic environment. Three aspects are discussed briefly, and possible improvements in the air traffic management environment are examined in more detail. Finally, attention is drawn to the Research and Development program needed to achieve fuel conservation by improved air traffic management.

Barber, D.; Morrall, J. C.

1983-02-01

27

Thermodynamic aspects of reformulation of automotive fuels  

SciTech Connect

A study of procedures for measuring and predicting the RVP and the initial vapor emissions of reformulated gasoline blends which contain one or more oxygenated compounds, viz., Ethanol, MTBE, ETBE, and TAME is discussed. Two computer simulation methods were programmed and tested. In one method, Method A, the D-86 distillation data on the blend are used for predicting the blend`s RVP from a simulation of the Mini RVPE (RVP Equivalent) experiment. The other method, Method B, relies on analytical information (PIANO analyzes) on the nature of the base gasoline and utilizes classical thermodynamics for simulating the same RVPE, Mini experiment. Method B, also, predicts the composition and other properties of the initial vapor emission from the fuel. The results indicate that predictions made with both methods agree very well with experimental values. The predictions with Method B illustrate that the admixture of an oxygenate to a gasoline blend changes the volatility of the blend and, also, the composition of the vapor emission. From the example simulations, a blend with 10 vol % ethanol increases the RVP by about 0.8 psi. The accompanying vapor emission will contain about 15% ethanol. Similarly, the vapor emission of a fuel blend with 11 vol % MTBE was calculated to contain about 11 vol % MTBE. Predictions of the behavior of blends with ETBE and ETBE+Ethanol are also presented and discussed. Recognizing that quite some efforts have been invested in developing empirical correlations for predicting RVP, the writers consider the purpose of this paper to be pointing out that the methods of classical thermodynamics are adequate and that there is a need for additional work in developing certain fundamental data that are still lacking.

Zudkevitch, D. [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States); Murthy, A.K.S. [BOC Gases, Murray Hill, NJ (United States); Gmehling, J. [Univ. Oldenburg (Germany)

1995-09-01

28

Development of a Procedure for Determining Trace Quantities of Zinc in Aircraft and Automotive Engine Fuels.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A dithizone spectrophotometric procedure was developed for the determination of trace amounts of zinc in aviation and automotive engine fuel. The analysis of zinc in fuel containing alkyl lead antiknock involves a modification requiring the electrolytic r...

M. E. Le Pera

1964-01-01

29

Development of detergent additives for automotive fuels in other countries  

SciTech Connect

With increasing demands on environmental protection and with the production of reformulated unleaded motor fuels, new and effective detergent additives are urgently needed. A number of monographs and scientific works have been devoted to problems involved in the development and application of such additives. Since the mid-1980s in the United States and certain other countries, a crisis has been noted in the application of detergent additives. It has been found that certain types of detergents not only fail to give the required cleaning effect, but even promote the formation of deposits. This situation can be attributed primarily to the development of automotive gasoline engines with direct fuel injection. In the United States in 1989, about 90% of all automotive vehicles were equipped with such engines, which have very definite advantages in fuel economy, less smoking, and a number of other areas. However, after a few thousand kilometers of travel, the characteristics of these engines deteriorate, and undesirable changes are observed, including excessive fuel consumption, a reduction of the vehicle speed, and increased contents of carbon monoxide in the exhaust. These changes occur because of deposit formation in the fuel intake system, particularly on the intake valves. As the deposits continue to accumulate, the engines gradually experience an increase in octane number demand for engine operation without knocking. This phenomenon, which is known in American publications as {open_quotes}octane requirement increase{close_quotes} or ORI (Russian initialism RTOCh, literal translation, {open_quotes}increase of requirements for octane number{close_quotes}), continues until a certain equilibrium octane number is reached. This equilibrium value may change, depending on the engine design and other factors. In all cases, however, the ORI of modern engines is significant, amount to 2-14 octane numbers.

Zakharova, E.L.; Emel`yanov, V.E.; Deineko, P.S.

1994-09-01

30

Automotive Fuel Processor Development and Demonstration with Fuel Cell Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potential for fuel cell systems to improve energy efficiency and reduce emissions over conventional power systems has generated significant interest in fuel cell technologies. While fuel cells are being investigated for use in many applications such as stationary power generation and small portable devices, transportation applications present some unique challenges for fuel cell technology. Due to their lower operating

Nuvera Fuel Cells

2005-01-01

31

Automotive Fuel Processor Development and Demonstration with Fuel Cell Systems  

SciTech Connect

The potential for fuel cell systems to improve energy efficiency and reduce emissions over conventional power systems has generated significant interest in fuel cell technologies. While fuel cells are being investigated for use in many applications such as stationary power generation and small portable devices, transportation applications present some unique challenges for fuel cell technology. Due to their lower operating temperature and non-brittle materials, most transportation work is focusing on fuel cells using proton exchange membrane (PEM) technology. Since PEM fuel cells are fueled by hydrogen, major obstacles to their widespread use are the lack of an available hydrogen fueling infrastructure and hydrogen's relatively low energy storage density, which leads to a much lower driving range than conventional vehicles. One potential solution to the hydrogen infrastructure and storage density issues is to convert a conventional fuel such as gasoline into hydrogen onboard the vehicle using a fuel processor. Figure 2 shows that gasoline stores roughly 7 times more energy per volume than pressurized hydrogen gas at 700 bar and 4 times more than liquid hydrogen. If integrated properly, the fuel processor/fuel cell system would also be more efficient than traditional engines and would give a fuel economy benefit while hydrogen storage and distribution issues are being investigated. Widespread implementation of fuel processor/fuel cell systems requires improvements in several aspects of the technology, including size, startup time, transient response time, and cost. In addition, the ability to operate on a number of hydrocarbon fuels that are available through the existing infrastructure is a key enabler for commercializing these systems. In this program, Nuvera Fuel Cells collaborated with the Department of Energy (DOE) to develop efficient, low-emission, multi-fuel processors for transportation applications. Nuvera's focus was on (1) developing fuel processor subsystems (fuel reformer, CO cleanup, and exhaust cleanup) that were small enough to integrate on a vehicle and (2) evaluating the fuel processor system performance for hydrogen production, efficiency, thermal integration, startup, durability and ability to integrate with fuel cells. Nuvera carried out a three-part development program that created multi-fuel (gasoline, ethanol, natural gas) fuel processing systems and investigated integration of fuel cell / fuel processor systems. The targets for the various stages of development were initially based on the goals of the DOE's Partnership for New Generation Vehicles (PNGV) initiative and later on the Freedom Car goals. The three parts are summarized below with the names based on the topic numbers from the original Solicitation for Financial Assistance Award (SFAA).

Nuvera Fuel Cells

2005-04-15

32

A survey of processes for producing hydrogen fuel from different sources for automotive-propulsion fuel cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seven common fuels are compared for their utility as hydrogen sources for proton-exchange-membrane fuel cells used in automotive propulsion. Methanol, natural gas, gasoline, diesel fuel, aviation jet fuel, ethanol, and hydrogen are the fuels considered. Except for the steam reforming of methanol and using pure hydrogen, all processes for generating hydrogen from these fuels require temperatures over 1000 K at

1996-01-01

33

Oxidation of automotive primary reference fuels at elevated pressures  

SciTech Connect

Automotive engine knock limits the maximum operating compression ratio and ultimate thermodynamic efficiency of spark-ignition (SI) engines. In compression-ignition (CI) or diesel cycle engines, the premixed burn phase, which occurs shortly after injection, determines the time it takes for autoignition to occur. In order to improve engine efficiency and to recommend more efficient, cleaner-burning alternative fuels, they must understand the chemical kinetic processes that lead to autoignition in both SI and CI engines. These engines burn large molecular-weight blended fuels, a class to which the primary reference fuels (PRF) n-heptane and iso-octane belong. In this study, experiments were performed under engine like conditions in a high-pressure flow reactor using both the pure PRF fuels and their mixtures in the temperature range 550-880 K and 12.5 atm pressure. These experiments not only provide information on the reactivity of each fuel but also identify the major intermediate products formed during the oxidation process. A detailed chemical kinetic mechanism is used to simulate these experiments, and comparisons of experimentally measured and model predicted profiles for O{sub 2}, CO, CO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O and temperature rise are presented. Intermediates identified in the flow reactor are compared with those present in the computations, and the kinetic pathways leading to their formation are discussed. In addition, autoignition delay times measured in a shock tube over the temperature range 690-1220 K and at 40 atm pressure were simulated. Good agreement between experiment and simulation was obtained for both the pure fuels and their mixtures. Finally, quantitative values of major intermediates measured in the exhaust gas of a cooperative fuels research engine operating under motored engine conditions are presented together with those predicted by the detailed model.

Callahan, C V; Curran, H J; Dryer, F L; Pitz, W J; Westbrook, C K

1999-03-01

34

Potential increased production of automotive diesel fuels. Final report on task 17  

Microsoft Academic Search

Automotive diesel engines are more efficient than automotive gasoline engines and thus deliver more power per unit fuel consumption. The diesel engines also are less polluting since their exhaust gases are free from lead contamination and contain less nitrogen oxides (NOx) than do the gases from gasoline engines. It may be possible, therefore, to significantly reduce automobile pollutants by using

Hoot

1972-01-01

35

Compatibility of alternative fuels with advanced automotive gas turbine and stirling engines. A literature survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

The application of alternative fuels in advanced automotive gas turbine and Stirling engines is discussed on the basis of a literature survey. These alternative engines are briefly described, and the aspects that will influence fuel selection are identified. Fuel properties and combustion properties are discussed, with consideration given to advanced materials and components. Alternative fuels from petroleum, coal, oil shale,

J. Cairelli; D. Horvath

1981-01-01

36

Automobile air pollution: Automotive fuels. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the use of fuels and fuel additives for the reduction of automotive air pollution. Alternative fuels discussed include gasohol, methane, natural gas, and hydrogen. Improvements to gasoline and its properties which affect air pollution are considered, as well as lead and other fuel additives. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

NONE

1995-01-01

37

Automobile air pollution: Automotive fuels. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the use of fuels and fuel additives for the reduction of automotive air pollution. Alternative fuels discussed include gasohol, methane, natural gas, and hydrogen. Improvements to gasoline and its properties which affect air pollution are considered, as well as lead and other fuel additives. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1994-01-01

38

Automobile air pollution: Automotive fuels. (Latest citations from the NTIS database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the use of fuels and fuel additives for the reduction of automotive air pollution. Alternative fuels discussed include gasohol, methane, natural gas, and hydrogen. Improvements to gasoline and its properties which affect air pollution are considered, as well as lead and other fuel additives. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1993-06-01

39

USEtox relevance as an impact indicator for automotive fuels. Application on diesel fuel, gasoline and hard coal electricity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  In order to provide more sustainable fuels and address the depletion of oil as a feedstock, the automotive industry must adapt\\u000a to a growing market share of alternative fuels. The environmental impacts of the automotive industry to date would suggest\\u000a that these alternatives will be more environmentally friendly than petroleum-based fuels. This is nonetheless an assumption\\u000a that cannot be confirmed

Florent Querini; Stéphane Morel; Valérie Boch; Patrick Rousseaux

40

Compatibility of alternative fuels with advanced automotive gas turbine and stirling engines. A literature survey  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The application of alternative fuels in advanced automotive gas turbine and Stirling engines is discussed on the basis of a literature survey. These alternative engines are briefly described, and the aspects that will influence fuel selection are identified. Fuel properties and combustion properties are discussed, with consideration given to advanced materials and components. Alternative fuels from petroleum, coal, oil shale, alcohol, and hydrogen are discussed, and some background is given about the origin and production of these fuels. Fuel requirements for automotive gas turbine and Stirling engines are developed, and the need for certain reseach efforts is discussed. Future research efforts planned at Lewis are described.

Cairelli, J.; Horvath, D.

1981-05-01

41

Evaluation of Dissociated and Steam-Reformed Methanol as Automotive Engine Fuels.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Dissociated and steam reformed methanol were evaluated as automotive engine fuels. Advantages and disadvantages in using methanol in the reformed rather than liquid state are discussed. Engine dynamometer tests were conducted with a four cylinder, 2.3 lit...

T. R. Lalk D. M. McCall J. M. McCanlies

1984-01-01

42

Biogas foer vaerme, el-, och drivmedelsproduktion. (Biogas for production of heat, power and automotive fuels).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report gives a description of suitable techniques for production from biogas of heat, power and automotive fuels. Techniques for gas purification and load equalization are also described. Today, district heat production is the most common field of ap...

E. Stroem T. Ekeborg

1991-01-01

43

Two methods of conserving fuel  

SciTech Connect

The first method of conservation of fuel described requires the collection of polyethylene and polypropylene containers and films now being discarded as waste. Present methods of disposal are costly in money, in energy and in ecological damage. The second method eliminates grass lawns and the need for lawn-maintenance with a power-mower. In place of grass-cover, the world-wide use of perennial ground cover plants and low-spreading evergreens is proposed. 7 refs.

Becker, B.

1981-01-01

44

Atomic spectrometric methods for the determination of metals and metalloids in automotive fuels – A review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gasoline, diesel, ethanol and more recently also biodiesel are the four types of fuel used for automobile, truck and other transportation vehicle. The presence of metallic and metalloid species in automotive fuels is undesirable, except in the form of additives in order to improve specific characteristics of the fuel. Metallic or metalloid elements may derive from the raw product, such

Maria das Graças Andrade Korn; Denilson Santana Sodré dos Santos; Bernhard Welz; Maria Goreti Rodrigues Vale; Alete Paixão Teixeira; Daniel de Castro Lima; Sérgio Luis Costa Ferreira

2007-01-01

45

Economic & commercial viability of hydrogen fuel cell vehicles from an automotive manufacturer perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ford Motor Company's experience with Fuel Cell Vehicle (FCV) technology began over ten years ago with the P2000 concept. Development of this vehicle demonstrated technological feasibility of, and revealed a number of challenges to, automotive fuel cell commercialization. By 2005, Ford launched the Focus FCV fleet in partnership with the U.S. Department of Energy, Fuel Cells Canada (now Hydrogen and

Greg Frenette; Daniel Forthoffer

2009-01-01

46

The Seventh Annual Fairey Lecture - The better conservation of liquid fuels for mobile use  

Microsoft Academic Search

The conservation of liquid fuel for automotive use is discussed. It is shown that the conventional four-cycle gasoline engine offers little hope for further improvement in fuel efficiency and that the Diesel engine is the most efficient internal-combustion engine currently available. Advantages and disadvantages relative to the conventional gasoline engine are summarized for lean-mixture and stratified-charge spark-ignition engines, regular Diesels,

J. H. Pitchford

1976-01-01

47

Automobile air pollution: Automotive fuels. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the use of fuels and fuel additives for the reduction of automotive air pollution. Alternative fuels discussed include gasohol, methane, natural gas, and hydrogen. Improvements to gasoline and its properties which affect air pollution are considered, as well as lead and other fuel additives. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

NONE

1996-04-01

48

Automobile air pollution: Automotive fuels. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the use of fuels and fuel additives for the reduction of automotive air pollution. Alternative fuels discussed include gasohol, methane, natural gas, and hydrogen. Improvements to gasoline and its properties which affect air pollution are considered, as well as lead and other fuel additives. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

NONE

1997-06-01

49

An assessment of the multifuel capability and alternative fuel potential of the automotive Stirling engine (ASE)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Automotive Stirling Engine (ASE) holds the potential to become one of the most fuel-efficient transportation engines available. Complementary attractive features are its ability to achieve very low exhaust emissions and its multifuel capability - its ability to burn several present or nearterm fuels (those expected to be available through 1990) with few and minor engine hardware changes. The ASE's

R. L. Bechtold; P. L. Sutton

1982-01-01

50

How "Green" Is Your Fuel? Creation and Comparison of Automotive Biofuels  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In recent years, biofuel development and use has risen significantly. This undergraduate laboratory experiment educates students on the various alternative fuels that are being developed for automotive applications and the advantages and disadvantages of each. Students replicate commercially available alternative fuels, E85 and biodiesel, as well…

Wagner, Eugene P.; Koehle, Maura A.; Moyle, Todd M.; Lambert, Patrick D.

2010-01-01

51

Phasing out lead in automotive fuels: conversion considerations, policy formulation, and application to Lebanon  

Microsoft Academic Search

The serious public health effects of lead are widely recognized, and many countries of the world have taken steps to completely eliminate it from automotive fuels. This study reviews the international experience with phasing out leaded gasoline; considerations affecting adoption of unleaded fuel are identified, and difficulties underlying change are synthesized. Factors related to technology, supply availability, distribution channels, economics,

Isam Kaysi; Hani Mahmassani; Sati' Arnaout; Lina Kattan

2000-01-01

52

An assessment of the multifuel capability and alternative fuel potential of the automotive Stirling engine (ASE)  

SciTech Connect

The Automotive Stirling Engine (ASE) holds the potential to become one of the most fuel-efficient transportation engines available. Complementary attractive features are its ability to achieve very low exhaust emissions and its multifuel capability - its ability to burn several present or nearterm fuels (those expected to be available through 1990) with few and minor engine hardware changes. The ASE's potential to use alternative fuels is also promising. Alternative fuel potential is the ability to use fuels not currently considered transportation fuels but expected to become available in significant supply beyond 1990. Current ASE designs would probably require modifications to achieve acceptable engine performance with candidate alternative fuels. From the ASE design analyses and current/projected fuel availabilities, fuels most likely to represent the ASE multifuel capability and alternative fuel potential are identified. A broad-specification fuel that satisfies ASE operational requirements and minimizes refining energy needs is discussed.

Bechtold, R.L.; Sutton, P.L.

1982-08-01

53

ENGINEERING-ECONOMIC ANALYSES OF AUTOMOTIVE FUEL ECONOMY POTENTIAL IN THE UNITED STATES1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Over the past 25 years more than 20 major studies have examined the technological potential to improve the fuel economy of passenger cars and light trucks in the United States. The majority have used technology\\/cost analysis, a combination of analytical methods from the disciplines of economics and automotive engineering. In this review we describe the key elements of this

David L. Greene; John DeCicco

2000-01-01

54

Engineering-Economic Analyses of Automotive Fuel Economy Potential in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the past 25 years more than 20 major studies have examined the technological potential to improve the fuel economy of passenger cars and light trucks in the US. The majority has used technology\\/cost analysis, a combination of analytical methods from the disciplines of economics and automotive engineering. In this paper they describe the key elements of this methodology, discuss

Greene

2000-01-01

55

Engineering-economic analyses of automotive fuel economy potential in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the past 25 years more than 20 major studies have examined the technological potential to improve the fuel economy of passenger cars and light trucks in the US. The majority has used technology\\/cost analysis, a combination of analytical methods from the disciplines of economics and automotive engineering. In this paper the authors describe the key elements of this methodology,

D. L. Greene; J. DeCicco

2000-01-01

56

Characterization of alcohol\\/gasoline blends as automotive fuel: performance and emissions characteristics  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report contains the results of an investigation performed to determine the feasibility of using alcohol blends as a motor vehicle fuel. The first chapter contains the findings concerning the effect of methanol blends on the performance and regulated emissions characteristics of a conventional, circa 1974, carburetted, multicylinder, automotive type engine. The second chapter presents the findings regarding the effect

R. R. Jr. Adt; K. A. Chester; M. Harrenstien; C. N. Kurucz; J. Pappas; S. Rajan; K. T. Rhee; W. F. Spurny; M. Swain

1981-01-01

57

Water and alcohol use in automotive diesel engines. Alternative Fuels Utilization Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

A review has been made of the current technology of water and alcohol use in automotive diesel engines. Emphasis has been placed on assessing engine test results for seven methods of using alcohols as supplements or complete replacements for petroleum-based diesel fuel. The methods investigated include the dual-fuel techniques of emulsification, blending, fumigation, and dual-injection, and the monofuel techniques of

J. J. Jr. Donnelly; H. M. White

1983-01-01

58

Methane-Based Fuels for Automotive Fleet Vehicles: Publication shows how to exploit an alternative fuel for cars and trucks.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This citation summarizes a one-page announcement of technology available for utilization. A report assesses issues related to the supply and use of methane-related fuels in automotive engines. 'Methane', in the report, includes natural gas as well as synt...

1984-01-01

59

Health Damage Cost of Automotive Air Pollution: Cost Benefit Analysis of Fuel Quality Upgradation for Indian Cities  

Microsoft Academic Search

An analysis of the economic implication of judicial activism of the apex court of India in the regulation of automotive air pollution is analysed. It estimates the health damage cost of urban air pollution for 35 major urban agglomerations of India arising from automotive emissions and the savings that can be achieved by the regulation of fuel quality so as

Ramprasad Sengupta; Subrata Mandal

2009-01-01

60

Life cycle greenhouse gas emissions, fossil fuel demand and solar energy conversion efficiency in European bioethanol production for automotive purposes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Crop derived biofuels such as (bio)ethanol are increasingly applied for automotive purposes. They have, however, a relatively low efficiency in converting solar energy into automotive power. The outcome of life cycle studies concerning ethanol as to fossil fuel inputs and greenhouse gas emissions associated with such inputs depend strongly on the assumptions made regarding e.g. allocation, inclusion of upstream processes

L. Reijnders; M. A. J. Huijbregts

2007-01-01

61

Corporate Strategies of Automotive Manufacturers. Volume II: A Comprehensive Summary of Likely Actions by Domestic Companies Under Fuel-Economy Regulations: 1978-1985.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The study is centered on helping NHTSA reach an understanding of the likely strategic actions that will be taken by automotive manufacturers in the presence of legislation and regulation designed to achieve improvement in automotive fuel economy. Many fac...

H. S. Becker

1978-01-01

62

Fuel conservation integrated into airline economics  

SciTech Connect

Fuel conservation efforts at most major airlines involve close scrutiny and intensive analysis in all areas - flight, maintenance and ground handling. Yet, despite the concern and attention devoted, the fundamental question of fuel saving versus time trade-offs remains unanswered. This paper introduces and defines the concept ''The value of an airplane to an airline is that airplane's earning power.

Ferguson, D.R.

1981-01-01

63

Next Generation Bipolar Plates for Automotive PEM Fuel Cells.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The program goal was to develop the next generation of high temperature proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell bipolar plates for use in transportation fuel cell applications operating at temperatures up to 120 degrees C. The bipolar plate composite dev...

D. Flaherty J. Norley T. Zawodzinski W. Williams Y. H. Nguyen

2010-01-01

64

Simulating the Market for Automotive Fuel Efficiency: The SHRSIM Model.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes a computer model for simulating the effects of uncertainty about future fuel prices and competitors' behavior on the market shares of an automobile manufacturer who is considering introducing technology to increase fuel efficiency. S...

D. L. Greene

1987-01-01

65

A quick evaluating method for automotive fuel cell lifetime  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fuel cell vehicle commercialization and mass production are challenged by the durability of fuel cells and could be promoted by accelerated lifetime evaluating methods. In this paper, an arithmetic equation of fuel cell lifetime is presented, which is relating with load changing cycles, start–stop cycles, idling time, high power load condition and the air pollution factor. Basing on the practical

Pucheng Pei; Qianfei Chang; Tian Tang

2008-01-01

66

Energy conservation: electricity and fuels  

Microsoft Academic Search

A bibliography of approximately 550 citations on timely metallurgical topics is presented. Subjects covered include: trends in the efficient utilization of electricity, natural gas, fuel oil, coke, coal and other types of primary energy; case histories; conversion from radiant to direct fired furnaces; regenerative and recuperative heat recovery, control of current efficiency in electrolysis, substitution of fuel; innovative charge mixtures,

Kaminski

1981-01-01

67

Fuel-conservation efforts of Texas municipal  

SciTech Connect

Based on survey findings, several conclusions can be made about how Texas police departments perceive and react to high and rising fuel costs. Responses received from all departments indicated some programatic efforts to conserve fuel, which demonstrates that Texas police departments have dealt with and are concerned about the rising cost of fuel. However, the problem of meeting fuel bills was apparently not a paralyzing one in 1981. For example, only about one in five departments claimed that fuel costs were second only to salaries in their budgets. In addition, although some departments have been relying on the more popular conservation plans for years, the majority had instituted such plans within two or three years. Among the most frequently used programs, two clusters of program choices appear. The first cluster includes more frequent tune-ups, increased maintenance, and reminders to offiers to conserve fuel. The second cluster includes shutting-off engines at given intervals, regular use of fixed position patrol, and reminders to officers to conserve fuel.

Crouch, B.M.

1982-05-01

68

A survey of processes for producing hydrogen fuel from different sources for automotive-propulsion fuel cells  

SciTech Connect

Seven common fuels are compared for their utility as hydrogen sources for proton-exchange-membrane fuel cells used in automotive propulsion. Methanol, natural gas, gasoline, diesel fuel, aviation jet fuel, ethanol, and hydrogen are the fuels considered. Except for the steam reforming of methanol and using pure hydrogen, all processes for generating hydrogen from these fuels require temperatures over 1000 K at some point. With the same two exceptions, all processes require water-gas shift reactors of significant size. All processes require low-sulfur or zero-sulfur fuels, and this may add cost to some of them. Fuels produced by steam reforming contain {approximately}70-80% hydrogen, those by partial oxidation {approximately}35-45%. The lower percentages may adversely affect cell performance. Theoretical input energies do not differ markedly among the various processes for generating hydrogen from organic-chemical fuels. Pure hydrogen has severe distribution and storage problems. As a result, the steam reforming of methanol is the leading candidate process for on-board generation of hydrogen for automotive propulsion. If methanol unavailability or a high price demands an alternative process, steam reforming appears preferable to partial oxidation for this purpose.

Brown, L.F.

1996-03-01

69

Conversion of fuel-nitrogen to NO in automotive engines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nitrogen-free and nitrogen-doped fuels were investigated using a single-cylinder, spark-ignition engine, and gasoline and diesel-powered vehicles. The single-cylinder engine experiments showed that only NO (nitric oxide) emissions were affected by nitrogen in the fuel and that the percentage of fuel nitrogen converted to NO (PNCNO) ranged from about 5 to 100. Generally, PNCNO increased when equivalence ratio, concentration of nitrogen

A. R. Sapre; A. A. Quader

1983-01-01

70

Magnesium and its alloys applications in automotive industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study is to review and evaluate the applications of magnesium in the automotive industry that can significantly\\u000a contribute to greater fuel economy and environmental conservation. In the study, the current advantages, limitations, technological\\u000a barriers and future prospects of Mg alloys in the automotive industry are given. The usage of magnesium in automotive applications\\u000a is also assessed

Mustafa Kemal Kulekci

2008-01-01

71

Design and Analysis of Fuel-Cell Hybrid Systems Oriented to Automotive Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hybridization with high specific energy-storage devices such as supercapacitors (SCs) has important advantages in fuel-cell (FC)-based systems. This paper presents an approach for the design and analysis of FC hybrid systems (FCHSs) oriented to automotive applications. The FCHS is considered to be the most attractive long-term option for propulsion of passenger cars. The design stage includes the determination of the

Diego Feroldi; Maria Serra; Jordi Riera

2009-01-01

72

Preliminary characterization of anhydrous ethanol used in Brazil as automotive fuel  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work reports preliminary studies on the characterisation of anhydrous ethanol (AEA) used as an automotive fuel mixed with gasoline in Porto Alegre (South Brazil). Pre-concentration of the impurities contained in 1000 ml of AEA was carried on through solid-phase extraction using XAD-4™ resin. The main compounds in the extract were identified by means of spectral data from the library

Rossana B. C Vilar; Rosângela da Silva; Patricia Schossler; Renato Cataluña Veses; Clarisse M. S Piatnicki; Dimitrios Samios; Elina B Caramão

2003-01-01

73

Simulating the market for automotive fuel efficiency: The SHRSIM model  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report describes a computer model for simulating the effects of uncertainty about future fuel prices and competitors' behavior on the market shares of an automobile manufacturer who is considering introducing technology to increase fuel efficiency. Starting with an initial sales distribution, a pivot-point multinomial logit technique is used to adjust market shares based on changes in the present value

Greene

1987-01-01

74

Third automotive fuel economy research contractors coordination meeting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Topic areas covered include: industry analyses; driver energy conservation; heavy duty trucks; consumer research and market demand; vehicle weight reduction; and diesel engine studies are presented. Spark ignition engine and drivetrain improvements.

Gauthier, C. L.

1980-12-01

75

Simulating the market for automotive fuel efficiency: The SHRSIM model  

SciTech Connect

This report describes a computer model for simulating the effects of uncertainty about future fuel prices and competitors' behavior on the market shares of an automobile manufacturer who is considering introducing technology to increase fuel efficiency. Starting with an initial sales distribution, a pivot-point multinomial logit technique is used to adjust market shares based on changes in the present value of the added fuel efficiency. These shifts are random because the model generates random fuel price projections using parameters supplied by the user. The user also controls the timing of introduction and obsolescence of technology. While the model was designed with automobiles in mind, it has more general applicability to energy using durable goods. The model is written in IBM BASIC for an IBM PC and compiled using the Microsoft QuickBASIC (trademark of the Microsoft corporation) compiler.

Greene, D.L.

1987-02-01

76

Fuel-efficient energy storage automotive drive system  

SciTech Connect

A fuel-saving energy storage vehicle drive system which saves fuel, primarily under stop-and-go driving conditions, by collecting, storing and using energy normally lost in the braking or deceleration of the vehicle, by automatically controlled operation of the engine under certain conditions, and by automatically controlled use of the stored energy and engine respectively as alternative or supplemental prime movers for each other for driving the vehicle. Subsystems for preventing waste of deceleration energy and stored energy are provided, and compact transmission layout and packaging are provided which facilitate installation of the new system in existing vehicles.

Carman, V.E.; Anderson, D.H.; Lucas, E.F.

1984-04-10

77

Fuel-efficient energy storage automotive drive system  

SciTech Connect

A fuel-saving energy storage vehicle drive system which saves fuel, primarily under stop-and-go driving conditions, by collecting, storing and using energy normally lost in the braking or deceleration of the vehicle, by automatically controlled operation of the engine under certain conditions, and by automatically controlled use of the stored energy and engine respectively as alternative or supplemental prime movers for each other for driving the vehicle. Subsystems for preventing waste of deceleration energy and stored energy are provided, and compact transmission layout and packaging are provided which facilitate installation of the new system in existing vehicles.

Carman, V.E.

1983-06-14

78

Electrocatalyst approaches and challenges for automotive fuel cells.  

PubMed

Fuel cells powered by hydrogen from secure and renewable sources are the ideal solution for non-polluting vehicles, and extensive research and development on all aspects of this technology over the past fifteen years has delivered prototype cars with impressive performances. But taking the step towards successful commercialization requires oxygen reduction electrocatalysts--crucial components at the heart of fuel cells--that meet exacting performance targets. In addition, these catalyst systems will need to be highly durable, fault-tolerant and amenable to high-volume production with high yields and exceptional quality. Not all the catalyst approaches currently being pursued will meet those demands. PMID:22678278

Debe, Mark K

2012-06-06

79

Federal Funds: Fuel Conservation Fellowship Program  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|To train individuals who might design and implement plans for developing alternative sources of energy like solar or geothermal power, the Office of Education supports graduate fellowships in mining, mineral, and mineral fuel conservation. Describes three projects funded by the fellowship program during the 1976-77 academic year. (Author/RK)|

Bobowski, Rita Cipalla

1977-01-01

80

Experimental hydrogen-fueled automotive engine design data-base project. Volume 1. Executive summary report  

SciTech Connect

A preliminary hydrogen-fueled automotive piston engine design data-base now exists as a result of a research project at the University of Miami. The effort, which is overviewed here, encompassed the testing of 19 different configurations of an appropriately-modified, 1.6-liter displacement, light-duty automotive piston engine. The design data base includes engine performance and exhaust emissions over the entire load range, generally at a fixed speed (1800 rpm) and best efficiency spark timing. This range was sometimes limited by intake manifold backfiring and lean-limit restrictions; however, effective measures were demonstrated for obviating these problems. High efficiency, competitive specific power, and low emissions were conclusively demonstrated.

Swain, M.R.; Adt, R.R. Jr.; Pappas, J.M.

1983-05-01

81

Automotive composite fuel cell bipolar plates: Hydrogen permeation concerns  

Microsoft Academic Search

At present proton exchange membrane (PEM) performance levels and fuel cell stack operating conditions, require a plate area specific resistance of less than 30mohmcm2 and a plate thickness of less than 2mm are required to meet the vehicular volumetric power density target (>2kWl?1). Unfortunately, it is difficult to meet these targets, and simultaneously obtain good mechanical properties and low through-thickness

Richard Blunk; Feng Zhong; John Owens

2006-01-01

82

Review of alternate automotive engine fuel economy. Final report January-October 78  

SciTech Connect

This study assessed the potential of alternate automotive engines to meet the fuel economy goals and emission levels of the 1980-1990 period. As part of NHTSA's continuing research in support of the Department of Transportation fuel economy activities, this study reviewed those developments offering viable substitutes for the current spark ignition engine systems. Categories assessed included stratified charge, diesels, turbo charging, rotary/Wankel engines, and the developmental gas turbine and Stirling cycle engines. Results of past and on-going research through 1978 were reviewed along with the development and production status of various alternate engine technologies proposed for automobiles and light trucks through the 1980s. Assessment was then made of the potential fuel economy improvement as a percentage of 1978 baseline data.

Cole, D.; Bolt, J.A.; Huber, P.; Taylor, T. Jr.

1980-11-01

83

Evaluation of dissociated and steam-reformed methanol as automotive engine fuels  

SciTech Connect

Dissociated and steam reformed methanol were evaluated as automotive engine fuels. Advantages and disadvantages in using methanol in the reformed rather than liquid state are discussed. Engine dynamometer tests were conducted with a four cylinder, 2.3 liter, spark ignition automotive engine to determine performance and emission characteristics operating on simulated dissociated and steam reformed methanol (2H/sub 2/ + CO and 3H/sub 2/ + CO/sub 2/ respectively), and liquid methanol. Results are presented for engine performance and emissions as functions of equivalence ratio, at various throttle settings and engine speeds. Operation on dissociated and steam reformed methanol was characterized by flashback (violent propagation of a flame into the intake manifold) which limited operation to lower power output than was obtainable using liquid methanol. It was concluded that: an automobile could not be operated solely on dissociated or steam reformed methanol over the entire required power range - a supplementary fuel system or power source would be necessary to attain higher powers; the use of reformed methanol, compared to liquid methanol, may result in a small improvement in thermal efficiency in the low power range; dissociated methanol is a better fuel than steam reformed methanol for use in a spark ignition engine; and use of dissociated or steam reformed methanol may result in lower exhaust emissions compared to liquid methanol. 36 references, 27 figures, 3 tables.

Lalk, T.R.; McCall, D.M.; McCanlies, J.M.

1984-05-01

84

Atmospheric chemistry of automotive fuel additives: Diisopropyl ether  

SciTech Connect

To quantify the atmospheric reactivity of diisopropyl ether (DIPE), we have conducted a study of the kinetics and mechanism of reaction 1: OH + DIPE {r_arrow} products. Kinetic measurements of reaction 1 were made using both relative (at 295 K) and absolute techniques (over the temperature range 240-440 K). Rate data from both techniques can be represented by the following: k{sub 1} = (2.2{sub -0.8}{sup +14}) x 10{sup -12} exp[(445 {plus_minus} 145)/T] cm{sup 3} molecule{sup -1}s{sup -1}. At 298 K, k{sub 1} = 9.8 x 10{sup -12} cm{sup 3} molecule{sup -1}s{sup -1}. The products of the simulated atmospheric oxidation of DIPE were identified using FT-IR spectroscopy; isopropyl acetate and HCHO were the main products. The atmospheric oxidation of DIPE can be represented by i-C{sub 3}H{sub 7}O-i-C{sub 3}H{sub 7} + OH + 2NO {r_arrow} HCHO + i-C{sub 3}H{sub 7}OC(O)CH{sub 3} + HO{sub 2} + 2NO{sub 2}. Our kinetic and mechanistic data were incorporated into a 1-day simulation of atmospheric chemistry to quantify the relative incremental reactivity of DIPE. Results are compared with other oxygenated fuel additives. 30 refs., 9 figs.

Wallington, T.J.; Andino, J.M.; Potts, A.R. [Ford Motor Company, Dearborn, MI (United States)] [and others

1993-01-01

85

FUEL ENERGY CONSERVATION IN DRYING COTTON  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

About 300 cu. ft. of natural gas are used per bale of cotton ginned at a cost that has increased from $1.26 per bale in 2001 to $1.96/bale in 2004 to $3.29/bale in 2005. Gins can take a number of positive actions to conserve fuel such as 1)Insulate the drying system, 2)avoid unnecessary drying, 3)u...

86

Process to embody waste automotive lubricating oils into a fuel additive to reduce corrosion and deposits and augment energy availability  

Microsoft Academic Search

A process is described which makes use of waste automotive lubricating oils as an energy source, and function as an emulsifier, into which oils are embodied, and agitated, aqueous solutions of water-soluble salts of those metals which inhibit corrosion and minimize deposits when fuel oils are burned. The resultant fuel oil additive, as a water-in-oil emulsion, is introduced into fuels

1977-01-01

87

Survey Evidence on the Willingness of U.S. Consumers to Pay for Automotive Fuel Economy  

SciTech Connect

Prospect theory, which was awarded the Nobel Prize in Economics in 2002, holds that human beings faced with a risky bet will tend to value potential losses about twice as much as potential gains. Previous research has demonstrated that prospect theory could be sufficient to explain an energy paradox in the market for automotive fuel economy. This paper analyzes data from four random sample surveys of 1,000 U.S. households each in 2004, 2011, 2012 and 2013. Households were asked about willingness to pay for future fuel savings as well as the annual fuel savings necessary to justify a given upfront payment. Payback periods inferred from household responses are consistent over time and across different formulations of questions. Mean calculated payback periods are short, about 3 years, but there is substantial dispersion among individual responses. Calculated payback periods do not appear to be correlated with the attributes of respondents. Respondents were able to quantitatively describe their uncertainty about both vehicle fuel economy and future fuel prices. Simulation of loss averse behavior based on this stated uncertainty illustrate how loss aversion could lead consumers to substantially undervalue future fuel savings relative to their expected value.

Greene, David L [ORNL; Evans, David H [Sewanee, The University of the South; Hiestand, John [Indiana University

2013-01-01

88

Costs and benefits of automotive fuel economy improvement: A partial analysis  

SciTech Connect

This paper is an exercise in estimating the costs and benefits of technology-based fuel economy improvements for automobiles and light trucks. Benefits quantified include vehicle cots, fuel savings, consumer`s surplus effects, the effect of reduced weight on vehicle safety, impacts on emissions of CO{sub 2} and criteria pollutants, world oil market and energy security benefits, and the transfer of wealth from US consumes to oil producers. A vehicle stock model is used to capture sales, scrappage, and vehicle use effects under three fuel price scenarios. Three alternative fuel economy levels for 2001 are considered, ranging from 32.9 to 36.5 MPG for cars and 24.2 to 27.5 MPG for light trucks. Fuel economy improvements of this size are probably cost-effective. The size of the benefit, and whether there is a benefit, strongly depends on the financial costs of fuel economy improvement and judgments about the values of energy security, emissions, safety, etc. Three sets of values for eight parameters are used to define the sensitivity of costs and benefits to key assumptions. The net present social value (1989$) of costs and benefits ranges from a cost of $11 billion to a benefit of $286 billion. The critical parameters being the discount rate (10% vs. 3%) and the values attached to externalities. The two largest components are always the direct vehicle costs and fuel savings, but these tend to counterbalance each other for the fuel economy levels examined here. Other components are the wealth transfer, oil cost savings, CO{sub 2} emissions reductions, and energy security benefits. Safety impacts, emissions of criteria pollutants, and consumer`s surplus effects are relatively minor components. The critical issues for automotive fuel economy are therefore: (1) the value of present versus future costs and benefits, (2) the values of external costs and benefits, and (3) the financially cost-effective level of MPG achievable by available technology. 53 refs.

Greene, D.L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Duleep, K.G. [Energy and Environmental Analysis, Inc., Arlington, VA (United States)

1992-03-01

89

Costs and benefits of automotive fuel economy improvement: A partial analysis  

SciTech Connect

This paper is an exercise in estimating the costs and benefits of technology-based fuel economy improvements for automobiles and light trucks. Benefits quantified include vehicle cots, fuel savings, consumer's surplus effects, the effect of reduced weight on vehicle safety, impacts on emissions of CO{sub 2} and criteria pollutants, world oil market and energy security benefits, and the transfer of wealth from US consumes to oil producers. A vehicle stock model is used to capture sales, scrappage, and vehicle use effects under three fuel price scenarios. Three alternative fuel economy levels for 2001 are considered, ranging from 32.9 to 36.5 MPG for cars and 24.2 to 27.5 MPG for light trucks. Fuel economy improvements of this size are probably cost-effective. The size of the benefit, and whether there is a benefit, strongly depends on the financial costs of fuel economy improvement and judgments about the values of energy security, emissions, safety, etc. Three sets of values for eight parameters are used to define the sensitivity of costs and benefits to key assumptions. The net present social value (1989$) of costs and benefits ranges from a cost of $11 billion to a benefit of $286 billion. The critical parameters being the discount rate (10% vs. 3%) and the values attached to externalities. The two largest components are always the direct vehicle costs and fuel savings, but these tend to counterbalance each other for the fuel economy levels examined here. Other components are the wealth transfer, oil cost savings, CO{sub 2} emissions reductions, and energy security benefits. Safety impacts, emissions of criteria pollutants, and consumer's surplus effects are relatively minor components. The critical issues for automotive fuel economy are therefore: (1) the value of present versus future costs and benefits, (2) the values of external costs and benefits, and (3) the financially cost-effective level of MPG achievable by available technology. 53 refs.

Greene, D.L. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Duleep, K.G. (Energy and Environmental Analysis, Inc., Arlington, VA (United States))

1992-03-01

90

Analysis and control of an in situ hydrogen generation and fuel cell power system for automotive applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new future in automotive transportation is approaching where vehicles are powered by new, clean and efficient energy sources. While different technologies will contribute to this future, many see fuel cells as the leading long term candidate for becoming the power source for emissions-free, mass produced light vehicles. The development of emissions-free vehicles, which run directly on hydrogen, is the

Panini K. Kolavennu

2006-01-01

91

Oxidation of automotive primary reference fuels in a high pressure flow reactor  

SciTech Connect

Automotive engine knock limits the maximum operating compression ratio and ultimate thermodynamic efficiency of spark-ignition (SI) engines. In compression-ignition (CI) or diesel cycle engines the premixed urn phase, which occurs shortly after injection, determines the time it takes for autoignition to occur. In order to improve engine efficiency and to recommend more efficient, cleaner-burning alternative fuels, we must understand the chemical kinetic processes which lead to autoignition in both SI and CI engines. These engines burn large molecular-weight blended fuels, a class to which the primary reference fuels (PRF), n-heptane and isooctane belong. In this study, experiments were performed under engine-like conditions in a high pressure flow reactor using both the pure PRF fuels and their mixtures in the temperature range 550-880 K and at 12.5 atm pressure. These experiments not only provide information on the reactivity of each fuel but also identify the major intermediate products formed during the oxidation process. A detailed chemical kinetic mechanism is used to simulate these experiments and comparisons of experimentally measures and model predicted profiles for O{sub 2}, CO, CO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O and temperature rise are presented. Intermediates identified in the flow reactor are compared with those present in the computations, and the kinetic pathways leading to their formation are discussed. In addition, autoignition delay times measured in a shock tube over the temperature range 690- 1220 K and at 40 atm pressure were simulated. Good agreement between experiment and simulation was obtained for both the pure fuels and their mixtures. Finally, quantitative values of major intermediates measured in the exhaust gas of a cooperative fuels research engine operating under motored engine conditions are presented together with those predicted by the detailed method.

Curran, H.J.; Pitz, W.J.; Westbrook, C.K. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Callahan, C.V.; Dryer, F.L. [Princeton Univ., Areospace Engineering. NJ (United States)

1998-01-01

92

Engineering-economic analyses of automotive fuel economy potential in the United States  

SciTech Connect

Over the past 25 years more than 20 major studies have examined the technological potential to improve the fuel economy of passenger cars and light trucks in the US. The majority has used technology/cost analysis, a combination of analytical methods from the disciplines of economics and automotive engineering. In this paper the authors describe the key elements of this methodology, discuss critical issues responsible for the often widely divergent estimates produced by different studies, review the history of its use, and present results from six recent assessments. Whereas early studies tended to confine their scope to the potential of proven technology over a 10-year time period, more recent studies have focused on advanced technologies, raising questions about how best to include the likelihood of technological change. The paper concludes with recommendations for further research.

Greene, D.L.; DeCicco, J.

2000-02-01

93

Preliminary characterization of anhydrous ethanol used in Brazil as automotive fuel.  

PubMed

This work reports preliminary studies on the characterisation of anhydrous ethanol (AEA) used as an automotive fuel mixed with gasoline in Porto Alegre (South Brazil). Pre-concentration of the impurities contained in 1000 ml of AEA was carried on through solid-phase extraction using XAD4 resin. The main compounds in the extract were identified by means of spectral data from the library of the equipment. The concentrate was then fractionated using a preparative liquid chromatographic column filled with activated silica gel and the elution procedure was carried out with, n-hexane, n-hexane-benzene (1:1, v/v) and dichloromethane. Prior to analysis by GC-MS, each fraction was reduced to 1 ml with a gentle stream of nitrogen. Saturated linear hydrocarbons and aromatic hydrocarbons eluted in the first fraction and oxygenated compounds such as aldehydes. ketones and alcohols, eluted in the second one. were the main compounds detected in the sample. PMID:12580505

Vilar, Rossana B C; da Silva, Rosângela; Schossler, Patricia; Cataluña Veses, Renato; Piatnicki, Clarisse; Samios, Dimitrios; Caramão, Elina B

2003-01-24

94

Automobile air pollution: Automotive fuels, January 1980-August 1991 (Citations from the NTIS Data Base). Rept. for Jan 80-Aug 91  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the utilization of fuels and fuel additives for the reduction of automotive air pollution. Alternative fuels discussed include gasohol, methane, natural gas, and hydrogen. Improvements to gasoline and its properties which affect air pollution are considered, as well as lead and other fuel additives. (Contains 170 citations with title list and subject index.)

Not Available

1991-07-01

95

Automotive Stirling summary and overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

Government-funded studies for adapting the Stirling engine to an automotive application started in 1971. The initial studies were to reduce exhaust emissions and were later broadened to include fuel economy and alternate fuels. With the passage of the Automotive Propulsion Research and Development Act of 1978, the studies matured into the current Automotive Stirling Engine (ASE) Program. After eight years

W. K. Tabata; R. K. Shaltens

1985-01-01

96

Performance and cost of automotive fuel cell systems with ultra-low platinum loadings.  

SciTech Connect

An automotive polymer-electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC) system with ultra-low platinum loading (0.15 mg-Pt cm{sup -2}) has been analyzed to determine the relationship between its design-point efficiency and the system efficiency at part loads, efficiency over drive cycles, stack and system costs, and heat rejection. The membrane electrode assemblies in the reference PEFC stack use nanostructured, thin-film ternary catalysts supported on organic whiskers and a modified perfluorosulfonic acid membrane. The analyses show that the stack Pt content can be reduced by 50% and the projected high-volume manufacturing cost by >45% for the stack and by 25% for the system, if the design-point system efficiency is lowered from 50% to 40%. The resulting penalties in performance are a <1% reduction in the system peak efficiency; a 2-4% decrease in the system efficiency on the urban, highway, and LA92 drive cycles; and a 6.3% decrease in the fuel economy of the modeled hybrid fuel-cell vehicle on the combined cycle used by EPA for emission and fuel economy certification. The stack heat load, however, increases by 50% at full power (80 kW{sub e}) but by only 23% at the continuous power (61.5 kW{sub e}) needed to propel the vehicle on a 6.5% grade at 55 mph. The reduced platinum and system cost advantages of further lowering the design-point efficiency from 40% to 35% are marginal. The analyses indicate that thermal management in the lower efficiency systems is very challenging and that the radiator becomes bulky if the stack temperature cannot be allowed to increase to 90-95 C under driving conditions where heat rejection is difficult.

Ahluwalia, R.; Wang, X.; Kwon, K.; Rousseau, A.; Kalinoski, J.; James, B.; Marcinkoski, J. (Energy Systems); ( NE); (Directed Technologies Inc.); (ED)

2011-05-15

97

Analysis and Control of an in situ Hydrogen Generation and Fuel Cell Power System for Automotive Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new future in automotive transportation is approaching where vehicles are powered by new, clean and efficient energy sources. While different technologies will contribute to this future, many see fuel cells as the leading long term candidate for becoming the power source for emissions-free, mass produced light vehicles.\\u000aThe development of emissions-free vehicles, which run directly on hydrogen, is the

Panini Krishna Kolavennu

2005-01-01

98

Policy conflict - energy, environmental, and materials: automotive fuel-economy standards' implications for materials  

SciTech Connect

The demands for energy conservation, environmental protection, and stable raw material supplies and prices are strongly competitive, and the complexity of this relationship has not been recognized in forming Federal policy. The means for resolving conflicts through coordinated economic and policy analysis is lacking, and implications for potentially affected materials industries, inadequate. A comprehensive policy for reconciling these competing goals is still far away, as this case study of automobile fuel-economy standards illustrates.

Not Available

1980-02-05

99

Light aircraft engines, the potential and problems for use of automotive fuels. Phase I. Literature search. Final report, October 1979-September 1980  

SciTech Connect

A comprehensive data research and analysis for evaluating the use of automotive fuels as a substitute for aviation grade fuel by piston-type general aviation aircraft engines is presented. Historically known problems and potential problems with fuels were reviewed for possible impact relative to application to an aircraft operational environment. This report reviews areas such as: fuel specification requirements, combustion knock, preignition, vapor lock, spark plug fouling, additives for fuel and oil, and storage stability.

Patterson, D.J.; Morrison, K.; Remondino, M.; Slopsema, T.

1980-12-01

100

Fuel conservation for fishing vessels. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The fuel monitoring system provided information that was sufficiently precise and generally reliable enough to be of use in making operational decisions. The curve of fuel consumption versus speed for a vessel will vary with changes in draft, trim, and bottom cleanliness. Therefore, although generalized fuel consumption/speed curves would be of value to an operator, maximum fuel savings can only be effected by applying the actual present fuel consumption, as supplied by a fuel monitor, and true ground speed, as derived by a LORAN C system, to the decision making process. The dividing line between maximum profits and minimum fuel consumption may be a fine line requiring information from a fuel monitor to assist the operator in making the proper decision. This study also addressed the relationship of engine maintenance and fuel monitoring systems.

Not Available

1983-08-01

101

Energy Consumption: Fuel Utilization and Conservation in Industry.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report gives results of a study of fuel utilization and energy conservation for the six biggest energy consuming industrial groups: chemicals, primary metals, petroleum, paper, stone/clay/glass/concrete, and food. Level of heat rejection and short ter...

J. T. Reding B. P. Shepherd

1975-01-01

102

Helicopter cruise fuel conserving engine control  

Microsoft Academic Search

A digital fuel control for a helicopter engine controls fuel flow to the engine in response to a turbine reference speed determined in a normal mode to be rated speed, in fade-in mode to be incremented to an estimated optimum minimum speed, in an optimizer mode to be incremented in a direction leading to least fuel consumption, and in a

T. Morrison; J. J. Howlett; R. D. Zagranski

1984-01-01

103

Automotive fuel rail assemblies with integral means for mounting fuel regulator  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes in combination: a cup having an opening bounded by a flange, a fuel pressure regulator comprising a housing that is bounded by a flange, the fuel pressure regulator being disposed within the cup to place the housing flange in overlaying juxtaposition to the cup flange, and means to hold the housing flange in the aforestated juxtaposition to the cup flange comprising a clamp means, means positively defined on both the cup and the clamp means coating to pivotally mount the clamp means on the cup so as to allow the fuel pressure regulator to be inserted into the cup and thereafter the clamp means to pivot to a clamping position holding the housing flange in juxtaposition to the cup flange, and fastening means fastening the clamp means to the cup to hold the clamp means in the clamping position, wherein the means coacting to pivotally mount the clamp means on the cup comprises a slot in one of the cup flange and the clamp means and a tongue on the other of the cup flange and the clamp means, the tongue being disposed in the slot.

Mahnke, R.M.; Hornby, M.J.

1992-03-10

104

Perennial Crops for BioFuels and Conservation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Perennial woody crops have the potential to contribute significantly to the production of bio-fuels while simultaneously helping to provide a wide range of conservation benefits. Among these benefits are increased biological diversity in the landscape, conservation of soil and water resources, maintenance of forest ecosystem productivity and health, contribution to the global carbon cycle, and provision of socioeconomic benefits. Short

Gregory Ruark; Scott Josiah; Don Riemenschneider; Timothy Volk

2006-01-01

105

Automobile air pollution: Automotive fuels. August 1970-January 1990 (Citations from the NTIS data base). Report for August 1970-January 1990  

SciTech Connect

This bibliography contains citations concerning the utilization of fuels and fuel additives for the reduction of automotive air pollution. Alternative fuels discussed include gasohol, methane, natural gas, and hydrogen. Improvements to gasoline and its properties which affect air pollution are considered, as well as lead and other fuel additives. (This updated bibliography contains 338 citations, 40 of which are new entries to the previous edition.)

Not Available

1990-01-01

106

Automobile air pollution: automotive fuels. January 1970-January 1989 (Citations from the NTIS data base). Report for January 1970-January 1989  

SciTech Connect

This bibliography contains citations concerning the utilization of fuels and fuel additives for the reduction of automotive air pollution. Alternative fuels discussed include gasohol, methane, natural gas, and hydrogen. Improvements to gasoline and its properties which affect air pollution are considered, as well as lead and other fuel additives. (This updated bibliography contains 298 citations, 64 of which are new entries to the previous edition.)

Not Available

1989-02-01

107

Natural gas as an alternative to crude oil in automotive fuel chains well-to-wheel analysis and transition strategy development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Road transport produces significant amounts of CO2 by using crude oil as primary energy source. A reduction of CO2 emissions can be achieved by implementing alternative fuel chains. This article studies CO2 emissions and energy efficiencies by means of a well to wheel analysis of alternative automotive fuel chains, using natural gas (NG) as an alternative primary energy source to

Marko P. Hekkert; Franka H. J. F. Hendriks; Maarten L. Neelis

2005-01-01

108

A Study on Wear of Brush and Carbon Flat Commutator of DC Motor for Automotive Fuel Pump  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In an automotive fuel pump system, a small DC motor is widely used to drive the pump and driven by a automotive battery. Recently a bio-fuel, usually a mixture of gasoline and ethanol has been used due to shortage of gasoline and environmental aspect. It affects strongly the performances of a DC motor, especially commutation phenomena, what kind of fuel is used. Therefore the authors have started to investigate the influence of ethanol on the commutation phenomena. They have been reporting the wear of brush and carbon flat commutator in gasoline and ethanol so far. In this paper commutation period, arc duration, brush and commutator wear are examined in ethanol 50-gasoline 50%. Brush wears are very small compared with the previous results. Namely in the present test a mechanical sliding wear is predominant rather than erosion by arc due to short arc duration. Further, an area eroded by arc is observed to re-appear as a sliding surface. From these results a threshold arc energy between arc erosion and mechanical sliding wear is obtained, and a wear model is proposed to explain the above wear pattern on the sliding surface.

Sawa, Koichiro; Ueno, Takahiro; Tanaka, Hidenori

109

Collegium on aviation fuel conservation efforts  

SciTech Connect

Reduction in the consumption levels of fuel by Soviet civil aviation is addressed. Methods proposed to economize aircraft fuel include: the introduction of towing to the runup area, keeping aircraft surfaces in good condition by washing, ensuring the stability of engine operating characteristics by flushing out gas and air lines, using ground-based conditioners and equipment of ramps with ground-based sources of electricity to reduce the operation of auxiliary power plants, replacement of heat engines for clearing runways of snow and ice by the introduction of snowplows with blowers, introduction of machinery with infrared lighting, and broader application of chemical reagents.

Not Available

1985-02-01

110

How to conserve fuel in furnaces and flares  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the first part of this article, the author discusses some ideas on energy conservation in refinery process furnaces. In the second part, he discusses refinery flares and how to conserve purge gas and steam. It is shown that flue gas temperatures between 500\\/degree\\/F and 800\\/degree\\/F can waste seven to 15 percent of the fuel's heating valve. For flue gas

Seebold

1981-01-01

111

Hydrogen Storage for Automotive Vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hydrogen fuel cells represent a strong potential alternative to internal combustion engines relying on fossil fuels. The benefits and hurdles to hydrogen mobility are discussed, with particular emphasis on methods and materials for storing hydrogen in automotive vehicles.

Herbst, J. F.

2008-09-01

112

Combustion of biomass fuels in two cookstoves for their conservation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conservation of biofuels is an urgent need of the present hour for reducing pressure on the natural forest resources and meeting the alternative requirements. In the present investigation a traditional biomass stove, presently used by 120 million households in India, and the Sugam-II stove, developed and dessiminated by TBU, IIT Delhi, were used for observing fuel utilization efficiency. Acacia nilotica

J. B. Kandpal; R. C. Maheshwari

1995-01-01

113

Automotive Fuel Economy: A Technical Study and Curriculum Development Project. A Thesis Presented to the Faculty of the College of Education, Mankato State University.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Automotive fuel economy was the topic of a study during which technical and background information was gathered, curriculum materials were sought, and curricula were developed. Technical information came from written materials and actual mileage tests of selected factors. Background came from written materials, field trips, and building and…

Ready, Kirk Lewis

114

AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE 1. UNIT III, MAINTAINING THE FUEL SYSTEM--DETROIT DIESEL ENGINE.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|THIS MODULE OF A 30-MODULE COURSE IS DESIGNED TO DEVELOP AN UNDERSTANDING OF THE OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE OF THE DIESEL ENGINE FUEL SYSTEM. TOPICS ARE (1) PURPOSE OF THE FUEL SYSTEM, (2) TRACING THE FUEL FLOW, (3) MINOR COMPONENTS OF THE FUEL SYSTEM, (4) MAINTENANCE TIPS, (5) CONSTRUCTION AND FUNCTION OF THE FUEL INJECTORS, AND (6)…

Human Engineering Inst., Cleveland, OH.

115

Net energy, CO 2 emission, and life-cycle cost assessment of cassava-based ethanol as an alternative automotive fuel in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Assessment on net energy, external cost of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and cost of using cassava-based ethanol as an alternative automotive fuel has been conducted based on its holistic life-cycle, from feedstock production (source) to fuel combustion. And, a new indicator, figure of merit (FM), is proposed for grading conventional gasoline (CG) and cassava-based ethanol (CE): it links net energy

Zhiyuan Hu; Fang Fang; DaoFeng Ben; Gengqiang Pu; Chengtao Wang

2004-01-01

116

Automotive Engines; Automotive Mechanics I: 9043.03.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This automotive engines course studies and demonstrates the theory and principles of operation of the automotive four stroke cycle engine. The student will develop an understanding of the systems necessary to make the engine perform as designed, such as cooling, fuel, ignition and lubrication. This is a one or two quinmester credit course of 45…

Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

117

Information employed in fuel-conserving control of metal heating  

Microsoft Academic Search

In rolling, 15?25% of the basic equipment costs are accounted for by the measurement and centralized monitoring systems and by software for automatic control of the technological processes. In furnaces of chamber and pass-through type, considerable energy resources are consumed, and hence the costs of furnace automation should be quickly recouped through fuel conservation. Pass-through furnaces are complex inertial systems

B. N. Parsunkin; S. M. Andreev; D. V. Nuzhin; A. V. Volkov

2007-01-01

118

Impact of fuel conservation measures on safe truck downgrade speeds  

SciTech Connect

Runaway truck accidents are primarily due to brake fade and failure resulting from excessive temperature of the truck system brake components generated while descending severe downgrades. A grade severity rating system (GSRS) was developed in 1982 that determined the maximum safe downgrade speeds for various categories of truck gross weights. Heavy trucks, without retarders, that adhere to the maximum recommended descent speed have sufficient braking capacity to prevent a runaway condition. Since the development of the GSRS model, the use of radial truck tires and the manufacture of streamlined truck tractors have increased substantially. These fuel conservation measures reduce the nonbraking forces and place a greater load on the truck system brakes when it is necessary to maintain truck speed on downgrades. The impact of fuel conservation measures on truck system brake temperature is the equivalent of descending a downgrade which is 0.34% steeper than actual conditions. In addition, fuel conservation measures lower the threshold of truck weight susceptible to excessively high brake temperatures, and subsequent runaway conditions, from 45,000 to 35,000 lb.

Bowman, B.L. (Goodell-Grivas, Inc., 17320 W. Eight Mile Rd., Southfield, MI (US)); Coleman, J.A. (Turner-Fairbank Highway Res. Ctr., 6300 Georgetown Pike, McLean, VA (US))

1989-07-01

119

Enhanced air\\/fuel mixing for automotive Stirling engine turbulator-type combustors  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes a combustor for use in a Stirling engine and the like. It comprises: a combustor chamber; a fuel inlet couple to the chamber to inject fuel therein; a turbulator means disposed in the chambers downstream of the fuel inlet means for injecting combustion air into the chamber, the turbulator means being so positioned to cause a mixing

G. T. Riecke; R. E. Stotts

1992-01-01

120

Technology development goals for automotive fuel cell power systems. Final report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report determines cost and performance requirements for Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cell vehicles carrying pure H(sub 2) fuel, to achieve parity with internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicles. A conceptual design of a near term FCEV (fuel cel...

B. D. James G. N. Baum I. F. Kuhn

1994-01-01

121

Technology development goals for automotive fuel cell power systems. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report determines cost and performance requirements for Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cell vehicles carrying pure Hâ fuel, to achieve parity with internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicles. A conceptual design of a near term FCEV (fuel cell electric vehicle) is presented. Complete power system weight and cost breakdowns are presented for baseline design. Near term FCEV power system weight

B. D. James; G. N. Baum; I. F. Jr. Kuhn

1994-01-01

122

Control-Oriented Modeling and Analysis for Automotive Fuel Cell Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fuel Cells are electrochemical devices that convert the chemical energy of a gaseous fuel directly into electricity. They are widely regarded as a potential future stationary and mobile power source. The response of a fuel cell system depends on the air and hydrogen feed, flow and pressure regulation, and heat and water management. In this paper, we develop a dynamic

Jay T. Pukrushpan; Huei Peng; Anna G. Stefanopoulou

2004-01-01

123

Automotive Stirling Engine systems development  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of the Automotive Stirling Engine (ASE) program is to develop a Stirling engine for automotive use that provides a 30% improvement in fuel economy relative to a comparable internal-combustion engine while meeting emissions goals. This paper traces the engine systems' development efforts focusing on: 1) a summary of engine system performance for all Mod I engines; 2) the

Richey

1984-01-01

124

Enhanced air/fuel mixing for automotive Stirling engine turbulator-type combustors  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a combustor for use in a Stirling engine and the like. It comprises: a combustor chamber; a fuel inlet couple to the chamber to inject fuel therein; a turbulator means disposed in the chambers downstream of the fuel inlet means for injecting combustion air into the chamber, the turbulator means being so positioned to cause a mixing of the combustion air and fuel injected in the chamber; diverter means for dividing the combustion air and creating a primary mixing zone downstream fa the primary mixing zone; and wherein the primary mixing zone comprises a fuel rich zone where combustion initiates and the secondary mixing zone has sufficient combustion air to complete combustion of the fuel.

Riecke, G.T.; Stotts, R.E.

1992-02-25

125

Polymeric electronic gas sensor for determining alcohol content in automotive fuels  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we describe the electrosynthesis of poly[(2-bromo-5-hexyloxy-1,4-phenylenevinylene)-co-(1,4-phenylenevinylene)] (BHPPV-co-PPV), a novel conducting copolymer, and its application as active layer of a chemiresistive gas sensor suitable for quantification of ethanol present in ethanol–gasoline mixtures normally present in the fuel tanks of flex-fuel vehicles. This information is crucial for the smooth operation of the engine since it permits optimal air:fuel ratio

Adriano R. V. Benvenho; Rosamaria W. C. Li; Jonas Gruber

2009-01-01

126

Design and Optimization of a Switched Reluctance Motor Driving a Compressor for a PEM Fuel-Cell System for Automotive Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the design of a high-speed three-phase switched reluctance machine to drive a compressor for the air management of a fuel-cell system for automotive applications. The machine geometry is optimized by means of a finite-element method coupled to a genetic algorithm. The performance of the optimized machine is evaluated, taking into account the iron and air-friction losses. Some

Tsarafidy Raminosoa; Benjamin Blunier; Daniel Fodorean; Abdellatif Miraoui

2010-01-01

127

Exploring the relationship between vehicle safety and fuel efficiency in automotive design  

Microsoft Academic Search

Panel data analysis is used within a fixed effect model to examine the relationship between vehicle safety ratings and fuel efficiency of 45 new vehicle models sold in the US between 2002 and 2007. While conventional wisdom and most early literature suggest that lighter, more fuel efficient vehicles are less safe to their occupants, the tests show a positive relationship

Chialin Chen; Yu Ren

2010-01-01

128

Impacts of Synthetic Liquid Fuel Development. Automotive Market. Volume I. Summary.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study assesses the impacts of the development of synthetic liquid fuels from coal and oil shale; the fuels considered are synthetic crude oils from coal and oil shale and methanol from coal. Key issues examined in detail are the technology and all of...

E. M. Dickson R. V. Steele E. E. Hughes B. L. Walton R. A. Zink

1976-01-01

129

Metal\\/ceria water-gas shift catalysts for automotive polymer electrolyte fuel cell system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC) systems are a leading candidate for replacing the internal combustion engine in light duty vehicles. One method of generating the hydrogen necessary for the PEFC is reforming a liquid fuel, such as methanol or gasoline, via partial oxidation, steam reforming, or autothermal reforming (a combination of partial oxidation and steam reforming). The Hâ-rich reformate can

D. J. Myers; J. F. Krebs; J. D. Carter; R. Kumar; M. Krumpelt

2002-01-01

130

Biofuels in Spain: Market penetration analysis and competitiveness in the automotive fuel market  

Microsoft Academic Search

For several years the European Union (E.U.) has been promoting the use of biofuels due to their potential benefits such as the reduction of dependence on foreign energy imports (the raw materials can be produced within the E.U.), the more stable fossil fuel prices (they can replace fossil fuels on the market), the greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction (biofuels’ raw materials

Fernando Hernández Sobrino; Carlos Rodríguez Monroy; José Luís Hernández Pérez

2010-01-01

131

Policy Conflict - Energy, Environmental, and Materials: Automotive Fuel-Economy Standards' Implications for Materials.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The demands for energy conservation, environmental protection, and stable raw material supplies and prices are strongly competitive, and the complexity of this relationship has not been recognized in forming Federal policy. The focus of this report is the...

1980-01-01

132

Policy Conflict - Energy, Environmental, and Materials: Automotive Fuel-Economy Standards' Implications for Materials.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The demands for energy conservation, environmental protection, and stable raw material supplies and prices are strongly competitive, and the complexity of this relationship has not been recognized in forming Federal policy. The means for resolving conflic...

1980-01-01

133

Automotive Stirling Engine Development Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Ford/DOE automotive Stirling engine development program is directed towards establishing the technological and developmental base that would enable a decision on whether an engineering program should be directed at Stirling engine production. The fuel...

E. W. Kitzner

1978-01-01

134

Fuel-flexible partial oxidation reforming of hydrocarbons for automotive applications.  

SciTech Connect

Micro-reactor tests indicate that our partial oxidation catalyst is fuel-flexible and can reform conventional (gasoline and diesel) and alternative (ethanol, methanol, natural gas) fuels to hydrogen rich product gases with high hydrogen selectivity. Alcohols are reformed at lower temperatures (< 600 C) while alkanes and unsaturated hydrocarbons require slightly higher temperatures. Cyclic hydrocarbons and aromatics have also been reformed at relatively low temperatures, however, a different mechanism appears to be responsible for their reforming. Complex fuels like gasoline and diesel, which are mixtures of a broad range of hydrocarbons, require temperatures of > 700 C for maximum hydrogen production.

Ahmed, S.; Carter, J. D.; Kopasz, J. P.; Krumpelt, M.; Wilkenhoener, R.

1999-06-07

135

Assessment of Institutional Barriers to the Use of Natural Gas Fuel in Automotive Vehicle Fleets.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Institutional barriers to the use of natural gas as a fuel for motor vehicle fleets were identified. Recommendations for barrier removal were developed. Eight types of institutional barriers were assessed: (1) lack of a national standard for the safe desi...

J. Jablonski L. Lent M. Lawrence L. White

1983-01-01

136

Enhanced air\\/fuel mixing for automotive stirling engine turbulator-type combustors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The invention relates to the improved combustion of fuel in a combustion chamber of a stirling engine and the like by dividing combustion into primary and secondary combustion zones through the use of a diverter plate.

George T. Riecke; Robert E. Stotts

1992-01-01

137

On the Application of Hydrogen as a Fuel for Automotive Vehicles.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The advantages and disadvantages of storing the gaseous, liquid, and metal hydride form of hydrogen for future hydrogen-air fueled automobiles are discussed. Safety problems are not taken into account.

A. Gann

1975-01-01

138

On the calculation of fuel savings through lightweight design in automotive life cycle assessments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background, aim, and scope  Lightweight design is a common means of reducing a passenger car's fuel consumption. In order to calculate the resulting fuel\\u000a savings, one has to estimate the total energy that is needed to move a certain weight over a defined distance in a distinct\\u000a way, and express this energy in liter of gasoline or diesel. This can be

Christoph Koffler; Klaus Rohde-Brandenburger

2010-01-01

139

Aircraft fuel conservation. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning means to conserve fuel in airline operations. Included are abstracts dealing with aircraft design, engine design, propulsion efficiency, fuels, and operating procedures which conserve fuel.(Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

NONE

1995-12-01

140

Aircraft fuel conservation. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning means to conserve fuel in airline operations. Included are abstracts dealing with aircraft design, engine design, propulsion efficiency, fuels, and operating procedures which conserve fuel. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1994-05-01

141

Aircraft fuel conservation. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning means to conserve fuel in airline operations. Included are abstracts dealing with aircraft design, engine design, propulsion efficiency, fuels, and operating procedures which conserve fuel.(Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

NONE

1997-04-01

142

Demonstration of Energy Efficient Steam Reforming in Microchannels for Automotive Fuel Processing  

SciTech Connect

A compact, energy efficient microchannel steam reforming system has been demonstrated. The unit generates sufficient reformate to provide H2 to a 10 kWe PEM fuel cell (when coupled with a water-gas shift and CO cleanup reactors). The overall volume of the reactor is 4.9 liters while that of the supporting network of heat exchangers is 1.7 liters . Use of a microchannel configuration in the steam reforming reactor produces rapid heat and mass transport which enables fast kinetics for the highly endothermic reaction. Heat is provided to the reactor by a combustion gas flowing in interleaved microchannels in cross flow with the reaction channels. A network of microchannel heat exchangers allows recovery of heat in the reformate product and combustion exhaust streams for use in vaporizing water and fuel, preheating reactants to reactor temperature and preheating combustion air. The microchannel architecture enables very compact and highly effective heat exchangers to be constructed. As a result of the heat exchange network, the system exhaust temperatures are typically ~50?C for the combustion gas and ~130?C for the reformate product while the reactor is operated at 750?C. While reforming isooctane at a rate sufficient to supply a 13.7 kWe fuel cell the system achieved 98.6% conversion with an estimated overall system efficiency after integration with WGS and PEM fuel cell of 44% (electrical output / LHV fuel). The efficiency estimate assumes integration with a WGS reactor (90% conversion CO to CO2 with 100% selectivity) and a PEM fuel cell (64% power conversion effectiveness with 85% H2 utilization for an overall 54% efficiency) and does not include parasitic losses for compression of combustion air. Acknowledgement The work described here was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Transportation Technology as part of the OTT Fuel Cells Program.

Whyatt, Greg A.; TeGrotenhuis, Ward E.; Geeting, John GH; Davis, James M.; Wegeng, Robert S.; Pederson, Larry R.

2002-01-01

143

Automotive Engines  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

calculate engine displacement find the volume of a cylinderThe Volume of a Cylinder ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ now that you have the formula lets convert it into automotive terms original = AREA of BASE X the HEIGHT automotive = AREA of BORE X the STROKE ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- with the calculations you have of one cylinder, multiply that by how many cylinders you have total. You now know ...

Todd, Teacher

2005-10-19

144

Automotive Maintenance  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Weekly Article assignment Read an article about automotive and write a half page double space summery. This assignment is due each Monday when class start. You can use any online site listed below. In each site there are many different article from different automotive manufactures. Choose anyone that you would like to learn and ...

Call, Mr.

2007-02-27

145

Experimental hydrogen-fueled automotive engine design data-base project. Volume 2. Main technical report  

SciTech Connect

Operational performance and emissions characteristics of hydrogen-fueled engines are reviewed. The project activities are reviewed including descriptions of the test engine and its components, the test apparatus, experimental techniques, experiments performed and the results obtained. Analyses of other hydrogen engine project data are also presented and compared with the results of the present effort.

Swain, M.R.; Adt, R.R. Jr.; Pappas, J.M.

1983-05-01

146

Fuel Consumption, Emissions, and Power Characteristics of the 1975 Ford 140-CID Automotive Engine, Experimental Data.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Experimental data were obtained in dynamometer tests of the 1975 Ford 140 cubic-inch displacement, 2-bbl engine to determine steady-state fuel consumption and emissions of hydrocarbon, carbon monoxide, and oxides of nitrogen. These data were obtained in d...

W. F. Marshall K. R. Stamper

1976-01-01

147

LIGHT-DUTY AUTOMOTIVE TECHNOLOGY AND FUEL ECONOMY TRENDS 1975 THROUGH 2006  

EPA Science Inventory

This report summarizes key fuel economy and technology usage trends related to model year 1975 to 2006 light vehicles sold in the United States. Light vehicles include those vehicles that EPA and DOT classify as cars or light trucks with gross vehicle weight ratings of less than...

148

Assessment of methane-related fuels for automotive fleet vehicles: technical, supply, and economic assessments  

SciTech Connect

The use of methane-related fuels, derived from a variety of sources, in highway vehicles is assessed. Methane, as used here, includes natural gas (NG) as well as synthetic natural gas (SNG). Methanol is included because it can be produced from NG or the same resources as SNG, and because it is a liquid fuel at normal ambient conditions. Technological, operational, efficiency, petroleum displacement, supply, safety, and economic issues are analyzed. In principle, both NG and methanol allow more efficient engine operation than gasoline. In practice, engines are at present rarely optimized for NG and methanol. On the basis of energy expended from resource extraction to end use, only optimized LNG vehicles are more efficient than their gasoline counterparts. By 1985, up to 16% of total petroleum-based highway vehicle fuel could be displaced by large fleets with central NG fueling depots. Excluding diesel vehicles, which need technology advances to use NG, savings of 8% are projected. Methanol use by large fleets could displace up to 8% of petroleum-based highway vehicle fuel from spark-ignition vehicles and another 9% from diesel vehicles with technology advances. The US NG supply appears adequate to accommodate fleet use. Supply projections, future price differential versus gasoline, and user economics are uncertain. In many cases, attractive paybacks can occur. Compressed NG now costs on average about $0.65 less than gasoline, per energy-equivalent gallon. Methanol supply projections, future prices, and user economics are even more uncertain. Current and projected near-term methanol supplies are far from adequate to support fleet use. Methanol presently costs more than gasoline on an equal-energy basis, but is projected to cost less if produced from coal instead of NG or petroleum.

Not Available

1982-02-01

149

Examination of the Costs, Benefits and Enery Conservation Aspects of the NASA Aircraft Fuel Conservation Technology Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The costs and benefits of the NASA Aircraft Fuel Conservation Technology Program are discussed. Consideration is given to a present worth analysis of the planned program expenditures, an examination of the fuel savings to be obtained by the year 2005 and ...

1975-01-01

150

Semiconductor packages for automotive applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Automotive Electronics Revolutions in automotive technology have been driven by two motivations; maximizing comfort and fun, and “zeronizing” accidents and eco-hazards.[1] Recent resource-conservation move has promoted applications of electronic technology for better gas utilization. Many mechanical parts have been replaced by semiconductor devices, microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) and electric motors to make vehicles safer, more comfortable and eco-friendly. Numbers of electronic

Hirofumi Nakajima

2011-01-01

151

Metal/ceria water-gas shift catalysts for automotive polymer electrolyte fuel cell system.  

SciTech Connect

Polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC) systems are a leading candidate for replacing the internal combustion engine in light duty vehicles. One method of generating the hydrogen necessary for the PEFC is reforming a liquid fuel, such as methanol or gasoline, via partial oxidation, steam reforming, or autothermal reforming (a combination of partial oxidation and steam reforming). The H{sub 2}-rich reformate can contain as much as 10% carbon monoxide. Carbon monoxide has been shown to poison the platinum-based anode catalyst at concentrations as low as 10 ppm,1 necessitating removal of CO to this level before passing the reformate to the fuel cell stack. The water-gas shift (WGS) reaction, CO + H{sub 2}O {rightleftharpoons} CO{sub 2} + H{sub 2}, is used to convert the bulk of the reformate CO to CO{sub 2}. Industrially, the WGS reaction is conducted over two catalysts, which operate in different temperature regimes. One catalyst is a FeCr mixed oxide, which operates at 350-450 C and is termed the high-temperature shift (HTS) catalyst. The second catalyst is a CuZn mixed oxide, which operates at 200-250 C and is termed the low-temperature shift (LTS) catalyst. Although these two catalysts are used industrially in the production of H{sub 2} for ammonia synthesis, they have major drawbacks that make them unsuitable for transportation applications. Both the LTS and the HTS catalysts must first be ''activated'' before being used. For example, the copper in the copper oxide/zinc oxide LTS catalyst must first be reduced to elemental copper in situ before it becomes active for the WGS reaction. This reduction reaction is exothermic and must be carried out under well- controlled conditions using a dilute hydrogen stream (1 vol% H{sub 2}) to prevent high catalyst temperatures, which can result in sintering (agglomeration) of the copper particles and loss of active surface area for the WGS reaction. Also, once the catalyst has been activated by reduction, it must be protected from exposure to ambient air to prevent re-oxidation of the copper. The activated catalyst must also be protected from the condensation of liquids, for example, during start-up or transient operation. For these reasons, a more thermally rugged catalyst is needed which has sufficient activity to operate at the low temperatures that are thermodynamically necessary to achieve low CO concentrations.

Myers, D. J.; Krebs, J. F.; Carter, J. D.; Kumar, R.; Krumpelt, M.

2002-01-11

152

Status and Outlook for the U.S. Non-Automotive Fuel Cell Industry: Impacts of Government Policies and Assessment of Future Opportunities  

SciTech Connect

Fuel cells (FCs) are considered essential future energy technologies by developed and developing economies alike. Several countries, including the United States, Japan, Germany, and South Korea have established publicly funded R&D and market transformation programs to develop viable domestic FC industries for both automotive and non-automotive applications. Important non-automotive applications include large scale and small scale distributed combined heat and electrical power, backup and uninterruptible power, material handling and auxiliary power units. The U.S. FC industry is in the early stages of development, and is working to establish sustainable markets in all these areas. To be successful, manufacturers must reduce costs, improve performance, and overcome market barriers to new technologies. U.S. policies are assisting via research and development, tax credits and government-only and government-assisted procurements. Over the past three years, the industry has made remarkable progress, bringing both stack and system costs down by more than a factor of two while improving durability and efficiency, thanks in part to government support. Today, FCs are still not yet able to compete in these markets without continued policy support. However, continuation or enhancement of current policies, such as the investment tax credit and government procurements, together with continued progress by the industry, appears likely to establish a viable domestic industry within the next decade.

Greene, David L [ORNL; Duleep, K. G. [ICF International; Upreti, Girish [ORNL

2011-06-01

153

Development of a Hybrid Compressor/Expander Module for Automotive Fuel Cell Applications  

SciTech Connect

In this program TIAX LLC conducted the development of an advanced technology compressor/expander for supplying compressed air to Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cells in transportation applications. The overall objective of this program was to develop a hybrid compressor/expander module, based on both scroll and high-speed turbomachinery technologies, which will combine the strengths of each technology to create a concept with superior performance at minimal size and cost. The resulting system was expected to have efficiency and pressure delivery capability comparable to that of a scroll-only machine, at significantly reduced system size and weight when compared to scroll-only designs. Based on the results of detailed designs and analyses of the critical system elements, the Hybrid Compressor/Expander Module concept was projected to deliver significant improvements in weight, volume and manufacturing cost relative to previous generation systems.

McTaggart, Paul

2004-12-31

154

Automotive fuels from cellulose materials. [Production of ethanol and methane simultaneously  

SciTech Connect

The results of this investigation showed that it was feasible to link the alcohol fermentation and anaerobic digestion processes into a system for the production of both alcohol and methane from organic substrates. The rate of ethanol production has been determined with respect to cell concentration and the prerequisite of both a high cell concentration and yeast recycling has been shown. Ethanol fermentation under reduced pressure has been shown to be feasible and to give higher ethanol productivities. Although optimization of fermentation has been attempted in this report, with due regard to energy conservation, for industrial application the cost of sugar will be the overriding factor. Cysewski and Wilke (7) pointed out that the cost of sugar overwhelms all other costs in the production of ethanol by fermetation: up to 70 to 80% of the total cost of the ethanol. Results showed that the resultant fermentation spent wash and extracted crop residues could be anaerobically digested to produce methane (and carbon dioxide). A hydraulic retention time of 10 days or longer was needed for effective digestion in which a reduction of chemical oxygen demand (COD) of up to 85% was achieved. Results indicated that further reduction in retention time may be possible if the microbial biomass could be either retained on support media, or recycled more effectively. A gas production rate of 4270 liters gas/m/sup 3/ culture/day at 11.6 day retention time was obtained with the anaerobic contact digester using fodder beet spent wash. Using the same substrate, results over short periods with the anaerobic filter system could produce up to 4.8 liters gas/litre culture/day. The high methane composition of this gas (75 to 80%) make this an attractive proposition.

Higginson, B.; Thornton, R.H.

1980-01-01

155

Automotive Stirling Engine Development Program  

SciTech Connect

The Task I accomplishments of the jointly funded Ford/DOE Automotive Stirling Engine Development Program are detailed. This task was directed at achieving 20.6 MPG (gasoline) fuel economy for a 4500 lb inertia weight Stirling engine-powered passenger car. The results of engine testing and design, power control, fuel economy projections, and component design and development are discussed.

Kitzner, E.W.

1980-03-01

156

Automotive Stirling Engine Development Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Task I accomplishments of the jointly funded Ford\\/DOE Automotive Stirling Engine Development Program are detailed. This task was directed at achieving 20.6 MPG (gasoline) fuel economy for a 4500 lb inertia weight Stirling engine-powered passenger car. The results of engine testing and design, power control, fuel economy projections, and component design and development are discussed.

Kitzner

1980-01-01

157

Development of ecofriendly thermoplastics for automotive components  

Microsoft Academic Search

Use of natural fiber thermoplastic components in the automotive industry can provide the advantages of weight reduction, cost reduction and recyclability, in addition to eco-efficiency and renewability compared to synthetic conventional materials. Natural fibers have recently become attractive to automotive industry as an alternative reinforcement for glass fiber reinforced thermoplastics. The best way to increase the fuel efficiency with out

S. Jeyanthi; M. Purushothaman; J. Janci Rani

2011-01-01

158

High voltage automotive EMC component measurements using an artificial network  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates the adaptation of the standard 12V automotive conducted emissions component EMC measurement method, as defined in CISPR 25, to the ever increasing high voltage automotive components seen in hybrid electric, fuel cell, and the alike vehicles. Due to significantly higher voltages and currents and variations in shielding strategies, conventional automotive measurement methods do not always produce vehicle

Jody J. Nelson; William Goodwin; Mark Steffka; William Ivan; Markus Kopp

2007-01-01

159

Automotive fuel efficiency  

Microsoft Academic Search

For at least the remainder of this century, the United States faces a growing dependence on imported oil. Costs are substantial, and they will mount. In June 1992, net imports provided nearly 50% of supplies, and their cost was $4.3 billion. Cost of net imports of motor vehicles and parts amounted to $3.0 billion. The two items combined totaled more

P. H. Abelson

1992-01-01

160

Trends in automotive steel  

SciTech Connect

For more than 100 years, steel has been basic to the automotive industry. Recently, the steel industry developed an optimized automotive steel structure that is 24% lighter, 34% stronger, and $154 less expensive than traditional auto body structures on the road today. And top executives in the auto industry and the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles (PNGV) cite steel as the main material for the Supercar of the future. PNGV is the joint effort of the US government and the Big Three automobile manufacturers to develop technologies for a new generation of cars that provide as much as three times the fuel efficiency of today`s typical family sedan, yet do not sacrifice performance, safety, or affordability.

Martin, D.C. [American Iron and Steel Inst., Washington, DC (United States)

1996-05-01

161

Fuel Conservation Opportunities Through Changes in Mode of Freight Transportation. Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The study identifies opportunities for and barriers to increased use of railroads to promote fuel conservation. Transportation officials were interviewed from 9 companies in the processed food, metals, chemicals, and transportation vehicle industries. The...

R. M. Corbett A. E. Moon

1979-01-01

162

Potential automotive uses of wrought magnesium alloys.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Vehicle weight reduction is one of the major means available to improve automotive fuel efficiency. High-strength steels, aluminum (Al), and polymers are already being used to reduce weight significantly, but substantial additional reductions could be ach...

L. Gaines R. Cuenca S. Wu F. Stodolsky

1996-01-01

163

Potential impact of energy farming for conserving the fossil-fuel energy requirements of food production  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potential of supplying the energy requirements for food production by utilizing waste biomass was investigated. It was found that the energy available was more than sufficient even after conversion of waste biomass to more versatile fuel forms. The concept of utilizing waste biomass has the potential for conserving fossil fuels. Only the energy balance aspects of utilizing waste biomass

R. C. Bailie; D. M. Doner; J. D. Henry

1976-01-01

164

Combustion Modelling in Automotive Engines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Before the emissions and energy crises were upon us, it was enough that automotive engines worked. We could develop in a leisurely way our basic understanding of engine combustion problems. It is now obvious that the current automobile engine's problems of high emissions and deteriorating fuel economy must be rapidly solved. It is likely that new engine concepts must be

John B. Heywood

1974-01-01

165

Automotive Stirling Engine Development Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Task I accomplishments of the jointly funded Ford/DOE Automotive Stirling Engine Development Program are detailed. This task was directed at achieving 20.6 MPG (gasoline) fuel economy for a 4500 lb inertia weight Stirling engine-powered passenger car....

E. W. Kitzner

1980-01-01

166

Automotive Powertrain Control: A Survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper surveys recent and historical publications on automotive powertrain control. Control- oriented models of gasoline and diesel engines and their aftertreatment systems are reviewed, and chal- lenging control problems for conventional engines, hybrid vehicles and fuel cell powertrains are discussed. Fundamentals are revisited and advancements are highlighted. A comprehensive list of references is provided. In 1965, the US Congress

Jefirey A. Cook; Jing Sun; Julia H. Buckland; Ilya V. Kolmanovsky; Huei Peng; Jessy W. Grizzle

167

Final report: U.S. competitive position in automotive technologies  

SciTech Connect

Patent data are presented and analyzed to assess the U.S. competitive position in eleven advanced automotive technology categories, including automotive fuel cells, hydrogen storage, advanced batteries, hybrid electric vehicles and others. Inventive activity in most of the technologies is found to be growing at a rapid pace, particularly in advanced batteries, automotive fuel cells and ultracapacitors. The U.S. is the clear leader in automotive fuel cells, on-board hydrogen storage and light weight materials. Japan leads in advanced batteries, hybrid electric vehicles, ultracapacitors, and appears to be close to overtaking the U.S. in other areas of power electronics.

Albert, Michael B.; Cheney, Margaret; Thomas, Patrick; Kroll, Peter

2002-09-30

168

LOCALIZED AND GENERAL CORROSION OF COPPER IN AZOLES AND SILICA INHIBITED ZERO BLOWDOWN COOLING WATER IN AN AUTOMOTIVE PLANT Dan Duke Water Conservation Technology International, Inc. Temecula, CA  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the spring of 2007, the cooling water chemistry at a large automotive plant in Los Angeles, California, was changed from traditional chemical treatment of potable water to recycled water treated with a new zero blowdown chemistry. To establish the localized copper corrosion baseline during this transition, coupled multielectrode array sensors (CMAS) were installed in the sampling station of the

Lietai Yang

169

Conservation and alternative fuels in the transportation sector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A set of transportation energy conservation policy initiatives is described. From an energy efficiency viewpoint the efforts to improve the efficiency of automobiles, airplanes and trucks is effective. Shifting passengers from automobiles and airplanes to buses and trains, and shifting freight from aircraft and trucks to trains (and where practical, marine or pipeline modes) provides the largest energy savings.

1980-06-01

170

Management of powerplant maintenance and restoration programs for fuel conservation  

SciTech Connect

This paper reviews powerplant operational and maintenance procedures with the objective of minimizing fuel consumption and total operating costs of existing large turbofan engines. Specific recommendations are made to reduce the rate of on-wing performance deterioration and to define cost effective performance refurbishment. Measures being taken to accomplish further fuel and cost savings in the future are summarized. These include design performance retention improvements and development of performance diagnostic/analytical systems to permit better management control of engine operating costs. 3 refs.

Reid, C.

1981-01-01

171

Energy efficient engine program contributions to aircraft fuel conservation  

SciTech Connect

Significant advances in high bypass turbofan technologies that enhance fuel efficiency have been demonstrated in the NASA Energy Efficient Engine Program. This highly successful second propulsion element of the NASA Aircraft Energy Efficiency Program included major contract efforts with both General Electric and Pratt Whitney. Major results of these efforts will be presented including highlights from the NASA/General Electric E3 research turbofan engine test. Direct application of all the E3 technologies could result in fuel savings of over 18% compared to the CF6-50 and JT9D-7. Application of the E3 technologies to new and derivative engines such as the CF6-80C and PW 2037, as well as others, will be discussed. Significant portions of the fuel savings benefit for these new products can be directly related to the E3 technology program. Finally, results of a study looking at far term advanced turbofan engines will be briefly described. The study shows that substantial additional fuel savings over E3 are possible with additional turbofan technology programs.

Batterton, P.G.

1984-01-01

172

Analysis of fuel conservation through aircraft towing. Technical report  

Microsoft Academic Search

An analysis of aircraft towing at the top twenty air carrier airports in the United States is presented. The study of towing aircraft analyzes the economic feasibility of two towing scenarios: towing arrivals and departures, towing departures only. The analysis has been conducted under assumptions which yield an upper bound (high estimates) of fuel savings and a lower bound (low

Sinha

1975-01-01

173

Reducing fuel usage through applications of conservation and solar energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solar thermal technology, coupled with aggressive conservation measures, offers the prospect of greatly reducing the dependence of industry on oil and natural gas. The near-term market for solar technology is largely in industrial processes operating at temperatures below 288°C (550°F). Such process heat can be supplied by the relatively unsophisticated solar equipment available today. The number and diversity of industrial

E. K. May; D. W. Hooker

1980-01-01

174

Fuel conservation measures: the transportation sector. Volume II. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The transportation sector accounts for 25 percent of the energy consumed in the United States and 18 percent of the energy consumed in Texas. Energy consumption in Texas represents 8.9 percent of national consumption. Of the energy used by transportation in the United States, 6.2 percent is consumed in Texas. Over 7.3 billion gallons of fuel were consumed by the

Holder

1975-01-01

175

Fuel conservation opportunities through changes in mode of freight transportation. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study identifies opportunities for and barriers to increased use of railroads to promote fuel conservation. Transportation officials were interviewed from 9 companies in the processed food, metals, chemicals, and transportation vehicle industries. These industry personnel identified unreliable delivery times and equipment shortages as the key issues in their decision not to use the railroads. A range of actions that

R. M. Corbett; A. E. Moon

1979-01-01

176

Energy Storage Systems for Automotive Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fuel efficiency and performance of novel vehicles with electric propulsion capability are largely limited by the performance of the energy storage system (ESS). This paper reviews state-of-the-art ESSs in automotive applications. Battery technology options are considered in detail, with emphasis on methods of battery monitoring, managing, protecting, and balancing. Furthermore, other ESS candidates such as ultracapacitors, flywheels and fuel

Srdjan M. Lukic; Jian Cao; Ramesh C. Bansal; Fernando Rodriguez; Ali Emadi

2008-01-01

177

Automotive applications of superconductors  

SciTech Connect

These proceedings compile papers on supercomputers in the automobile industry. Titles include: An automotive engineer's guide to the effective use of scalar, vector, and parallel computers; fluid mechanics, finite elements, and supercomputers; and Automotive crashworthiness performance on a supercomputer.

Ginsberg, M.

1987-01-01

178

Shrimp monitor/locator for conservation of fuel. Final report  

SciTech Connect

A demonstration project of a new type Shrimp Detector/Monitor has been completed. The test project proved the efficiency of the Shrimp Monitor/Detector in detecting shrimp, in identifying the number and size, in real time, but indicated that improvement could be effected which would enhance the operation. Data obtained from the test cruises indicate significant savings in diesel fuel will occur for those trawlers using the Shrimp Monitor/Detector in place of the usual trynet operation; 25% savings for the series model number 400, (the prototype tested) and expected 35%+ if the advanced series model number 500 were used. Fabrication and operational costs for the Shrimp Monitor/Detector are reasonable and well within the financial abilities of the usual large offshore trawler. Research and testing during this program resulted in the design of an advanced model incorporating significant improvements, and fabrication was commenced but the extra cost involved beyond the set value of this contract made the further experiments non-viable. Recommendations have been submitted for an extended program to fabricate and test the advanced model series number 500 which may be of more value and interest, market use, to the operating offshore shrimp trawlers. A marketing/sales program will be instituted to place the Shrimp Monitor/Detector in the commercial area serving the shrimp fleet.

Not Available

1980-01-01

179

Overview of automotive sensors  

Microsoft Academic Search

An up-to-date review paper on automotive sensors is presented. Attention is focused on sensors used in production automotive systems. The primary sensor technologies in use today are reviewed and are classified according to their three major areas of automotive systems application-powertrain, chassis, and body. This subject is extensive. As described in this paper, for use in automotive systems, there are

William J. Fleming

2001-01-01

180

Automotive Diagnostic Technologies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document contains materials developed for and about the automotive diagnostic technologies tech prep program of the South-Western City Schools in Ohio. Part 1 begins with a map of the program, which begins with an automotive/diagnostic technologies program in grades 11 and 12 that leads to entry-level employment or a 2-year automotive

Columbus State Community Coll., OH.

181

Recycling of automotive aluminum  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the global warming of concern, the secondary aluminum stream is becoming an even more important component of aluminum production and is attractive because of its economic and environmental benefits. In this work, recycling of automotive aluminum is reviewed to highlight environmental benefits of aluminum recycling, use of aluminum alloys in automotive applications, automotive recycling process, and new technologies in

Jirang CUI; Hans J. ROVEN

2010-01-01

182

Automotive Diagnostic Technologies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This document contains materials developed for and about the automotive diagnostic technologies tech prep program of the South-Western City Schools in Ohio. Part 1 begins with a map of the program, which begins with an automotive/diagnostic technologies program in grades 11 and 12 that leads to entry-level employment or a 2-year automotive

Columbus State Community Coll., OH.

183

Automotive vehicle sensors  

SciTech Connect

This report is an introduction to the field of automotive vehicle sensors. It contains a prototype data base for companies working in automotive vehicle sensors, as well as a prototype data base for automotive vehicle sensors. A market analysis is also included.

Sheen, S.H.; Raptis, A.C.; Moscynski, M.J.

1995-09-01

184

Modern Automotive Power Systems: Advancements into the Future  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recent trend in the automotive industry is to create a new fleet of advanced vehicular technologies. The most popularly targeted automotive technology is the hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) powered by the existing internal combustion engine (ICE) technology as well as a suitable electric traction motor system. In addition, the auto industry has shown an increased interest in fuel cell

Ali Emadi; Sheldon S. Williamson

2006-01-01

185

NONDESTRUCTIVE TESTING ACTIVITIES, NEEDS, AND TRENDS IN THE AUTOMOTIVE INDUSTRY  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent and ongoing NDT activities in the automotive industry are surveyed. Application areas include body structures, powertrain components, chassis components, and fuel systems. Examples are drawn from various NDT modalities but with an emphasis on ultrasonics. The business case for NDT and the manner in which it is applied are strongly influenced by the automotive sector's production volumes, cost structure,

G. Mozurkewich

186

General Mechanical Repair. Minor Automotive Maintenance. Volume 1. Teacher's Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Fourteen units on minor automotive maintenance are presented in this teacher's guide. The units are the following: introduction to minor automotive maintenance, shop safety, engine principles, fuel system operation and repair, electrical system, ignition system, lubrication system, engine cooling system, exhaust system, wheel bearings and tires,…

East Texas State Univ., Commerce. Occupational Curriculum Lab.

187

Preliminary Analysis of Fuel Cell Derived Technologies Applied to Energy Conservation in the Chlor-alkali Industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work we investigated the application of four fuel cell derived technologies for energy conservation in the chlor-alkali industry. They include: (1) H2-Cl2 fuel cell (HCLFC), (2) electrochemical concentrator (ECC), (3) alkaline H2-O2 fuel cell (AFC), and (4) air depolarized chlor-alkali cell (ADCAC). We have developed performance models for the various fuel cell derived systems and combined them with

E. Anderson; E. J. Taylor; N. R. K. Vilambi; A. Gelb

1990-01-01

188

Energy Cost Reduction for Automotive Service Facilities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This handbook on energy cost reduction for automotive service facilities consists of four sections. The importance and economic benefits of energy conservation are discussed in the first section. In the second section six energy cost reduction measures are discussed: relamping interior areas; relamping and reducing interior lighting; setting back…

Federal Energy Administration, Washington, DC.

189

Automotive Design and Production  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This web site is the "Field Guide to Automotive Technology" and contains a great deal of information for automotive engineers, or for those teaching and studying in the field. Here, visitors will find all issues of the Automotive Design and Production monthly magazine going back to 1997. The "Industry Focus" section contains articles on electronics, and tools and practices in the automotive supply chain. The "Resources" section supplies information about automotive industry events, a database of links to useful automotive sites, as well as reports and books. The tabs on the top of the page take users to various forums and articles from the site, categorized as "On Cars," "Equip & Apps," "Materials," "Supply Side," and "Digital Domain."

2007-09-27

190

Corporate Strategies of Automotive Manufacturers. Volume I: An Executive Summary.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The study was sponsored to garner an understanding of the likely strategic actions of automotive manufacturers in light of government regulations on passenger automobile fuel economy. Ussing a series of quantitative and judgmental models, the study team e...

H. S. Becker

1978-01-01

191

Evaluating the Efficacy of Corrosion Inhibitors in Automotive Gasolines  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method for assessing the corrosion properties of automotive gasolines containing oxygenates and the effectiveness of corrosion inhibitors for these fuels similar to the method in ASTM D 665 is examined. Data on its use are reported.

I. V. Klokova; T. A. Klimova; V. E. Emel’yanov; I. F. Krylov

2005-01-01

192

A Compilation of Steady State Automotive Engine Test Data.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Experimental data were obtained in dynamometer tests of automotive engines used in the United States. The objective of this program is to obtain engine performance data for determining fuel consumption and emissions (carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons, and oxi...

J. A. Kidd R. G. Colello

1978-01-01

193

Platinum availability for future automotive technologies.  

PubMed

Platinum is an excellent catalyst, can be used at high temperatures, and is stable in many aggressive chemical environments. Consequently, platinum is used in many current industrial applications, notably automotive catalytic converters, and prospective vehicle fuel cells are expected to rely upon it. Between 2005 and 2010, the automotive industry used approximately 40% of mined platinum. Future automotive industry growth and automotive sales shifts toward new technologies could significantly alter platinum demand. The potential risks for decreased platinum availability are evaluated, using an analysis of platinum market characteristics that describes platinum's geophysical constraints, institutional efficiency, and dynamic responsiveness. Results show that platinum demand for an automotive fleet that meets 450 ppm greenhouse gas stabilization goals would require within 10% of historical growth rates of platinum supply before 2025. However, such a fleet, due largely to sales growth in fuel cell vehicles, will more strongly constrain platinum supply in the 2050 time period. While current platinum reserves are sufficient to satisfy this increased demand, decreasing platinum ore grade and continued concentration of platinum supply in a single geographic area are availability risk factors to platinum end-users. PMID:23088692

Alonso, Elisa; Field, Frank R; Kirchain, Randolph E

2012-11-19

194

Lightweight Steel Solutions for Automotive Industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, improvement in fuel efficiency and safety has become the biggest issue in worldwide automotive industry. Although the regulation of environment and safety has been tightened up more and more, the majority of vehicle bodies are still manufactured from stamped steel components. This means that the optimized steel solutions enable to demonstrate its ability to reduce body weight with high

Hong Woo Lee; Gyosung Kim; Sung Ho Park

2010-01-01

195

Automotive Stirling Engine: Mod 2 Design Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The design of an automotive Stirling engine that achieves the superior fuel economy potential of the Stirling cycle is described. As the culmination of a 9-yr development program, this engine, designated the Mod 2, also nullifies arguments that Stirling e...

N. P. Nightingale

1986-01-01

196

Automotive Stirling engine: Mod II design report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The design of an automotive Stirling engine that achieves the superior fuel economy potential of the Stirling cycle is described. As the culmination of a 9-yr development program, this engine, designated the Mod II, also nullifies arguments that Stirling engines are heavy, expensive, unreliable, and demonstrate poor performance. Installed in a General Motors 1985 Chevrolet Celebrity car, this engine has

Nightingale

1986-01-01

197

INTEGRATED STARTER-GENERATORS FOR AUTOMOTIVE APPLICATIONS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The integrated starter-generator (ISG) replaces both the conventional starter and alternator (generator) of an automobile in a single electric device. It allows greater electrical generation capacity and the fuel economy and emissions benefits of hybrid electric automotive propulsion. The ISG requires contrary specifications, i.e. a high starting torque and a field- weakening capability in a wide speed range, therefore its

Ioan-Adrian VIOREL; Loránd SZABÓ; Lars LÖWENSTEIN; Cristian ?TE?

198

Destruction and formation of PCDD/Fs in a fluidised bed combustor co-incinerating automotive shredder residue with refuse derived fuel and wastewater treatment sludge.  

PubMed

During an eight day trial automotive shredder residue (ASR) was added to the usual waste feed of a Fluidized Bed Combustor (FBC) for waste-to-energy conversion; the input waste mix consisted of 25% ASR, 25% refuse-derived fuel (RDF) and 50% wastewater treatment (WWT) sludge. All inputs and outputs were sampled and the concentration of the 17 PCDD/Fs with TEF-values was determined in order to obtain "PCDD/F fingerprints". The ASR contained approximately 9000 ng PCDD/Fs/kg(DW), six times more than the RDF and 10 times more than the WWT sludge. The fingerprint of ASR and RDF was dominated by HpCDD and OCDD, which accounted for 90% of the total PDDD/F content, whereas the WWT sludge contained relatively more HpCDFs and OCDF (together 70%). The flue gas cleaning residue (FGCR) and fly and boiler ash contained approximately 30,000 and 2500 ng PCDD/Fs/kg(DW), respectively. The fingerprints of these outputs were also dominated by HpCDFs and OCDF. The bottom ash contained only OCDD and OCDF, in total 8 ng PCDD/Fs/kg (DW). From the comparison of the bottom ash fingerprints with the fingerprints of the other output fractions and of the inputs, it could be concluded that the PCDD/Fs in the waste were destroyed and new PCDD/Fs were formed in the post combustion process by de novo synthesis. During the ASR-co-incineration, the PCDD/F congener concentrations in the fly and boiler ash, FGCR and flue gas were 1.25-10 times higher compared to the same output fractions generated during incineration of the usual waste mix (70% RDF and 30% WWT sludge). The concentration of the higher chlorinated PCDD/Fs increased most. As these congeners have the lowest TEF-factors, the total PCDD/F output, expressed in kg TEQ/year, of the FBC did not increase significantly when ASR was co-incinerated. Due to the relatively high copper levels in the ASR, the copper concentrations in the FBCs outputs increased. As copper catalysis the de novo syntheses, this could explain the increase in PCDD/F concentrations in these outputs. PMID:21621915

Van Caneghem, J; Vermeulen, I; Block, C; Van Brecht, A; Van Royen, P; Jaspers, M; Wauters, G; Vandecasteele, C

2011-04-21

199

Energy management techniques for fuel conservation in military transport aircraft. Final report, 6 Jan 1975--6 Feb 1976  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results are presented of an investigation of energy management techniques for fuel conservation in a large transport aircraft, the USAF C-141A. Using the methods of optimal control theory and numerical simulation, fuel-optimal flight paths are computed and compared with conventional vertical profiles for typical mission scenarios. Algorithms for on-board guidance to minimize fuel use are synthesized and evaluated, and functional

R. F. Stengel; F. J. Marcus

1976-01-01

200

Fishing-vessel fuel-conservation project. Final report, 25 June 1986-31 December 1987  

SciTech Connect

The Sea Grant Extension Program (SGEP) is the University of California's statewide education link with the commercial-fishing industry. SGEP's seven county-based marine advisors and three statewide specialists use applied research, demonstrations, workshops, publications, mass media, and individual consultations to help the industry put research-based information to work. SGEP has worked with the fishing industry for fifteen years. Two major ongoing long-term problems of the fishing industry have been chronically low-income levels and full- or over-exploitation of fish stocks. These problems were especially severe during the first half of the 1980s. With most fish resources fully utilized, one of the only means of improving the situation is improved economic efficiency, especially through fuel conservation. Fuel costs represent a large portion of most fishermen's variable costs.

Not Available

1987-01-01

201

Automotive CMOS Image Sensors  

Microsoft Academic Search

After penetrating the consumer and industrial world for over a decade, digital imaging is slowly but inevitably gaining marketshare in the automotive world. Cameras will become a key sensor in increasing car safety, driving assistance and driving comfort. The image sensors for automotive will be dominated by CMOS sensors as the requirements are different from the consumer market or the

S. Maddalena; A. Darmon; R. Diels

202

Trends in automotive steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

For more than 100 years, steel has been basic to the automotive industry. Recently, the steel industry developed an optimized automotive steel structure that is 24% lighter, 34% stronger, and $154 less expensive than traditional auto body structures on the road today. And top executives in the auto industry and the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles (PNGV) cite

1996-01-01

203

Automotive Technology Skill Standards  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The standards in this document are for Automotive Technology programs and are designed to clearly state what the student should know and be able to do upon completion of an advanced high-school automotive program. Minimally, the student will complete a three-year program to achieve all standards. Although these exit-level standards are designed…

Garrett, Tom; Asay, Don; Evans, Richard; Barbie, Bill; Herdener, John; Teague, Todd; Allen, Scott; Benshoof, James

2009-01-01

204

Coming revolution in world oil markets. [Abetted by conservation, fuel substitution, and better technologies  

SciTech Connect

Dr. Singer feels that a revolution will take place in the world oil market provided government does not enact counterproductive policies, but stands aside to let market forces achieve their inevitable results. He observes that by the end of this decade, and certainly in the 1990s, the free world may require less than half of the oil it uses today - some 20 million barrels per day (mbd) instead of 50 mbd. However, some 75% of this oil, instead of the current 25%, will be refined into gasoline and other motor fuels, while natural gas, nuclear energy and coal in different forms will substitute for most of the fuel oil to produce heat and steam - generally at much lower cost. Oil has become too expensive to burn, and a major adjustment in world-wide use patterns is overdue. Three factors will bring about these dramatic changes: First, new coal technologies: they make it convenient to replace heavy fuel oil in existing oil-fired boilers. Second, advances in refinery technology: they can produce more light products, gasoline and motor fuels, and less heavy fuel oil from a barrel of crude oil. Third, and above all, the laws of economics: higher oil prices, by themselves, encourage conservation and substitution. In addition, large price differentials between higher-quality light crudes and heavy crudes that normally yield less gasoline put a significant premium on refinery upgrading. And wholesale prices for gasoline are greater and are rising faster than those of residual fuel oil. Squeezing out more gasoline can increase the value of a barrel of crude substantially. Dr. Singer notes that the coming revolution is not generally recognized because many of the demand and supply trends are just emerging. He proceeds to discuss the staggering consequences of such a revolution.

Singer, S.F.

1981-02-04

205

Measuring the effects of conservation program special services: Client education, fuel assistance, and other indirect outcomes  

SciTech Connect

Conservation program special services are program components that have been designed into the package of program services. As a result, a quantifiable measure of the effectiveness of these services on program goals and objectives is difficult to obtain. Methods that have been designed to control for confounding effects of intercorrelated program services are usually inadequate. For instance, effective education is multi-faceted; the most desirable characteristics of education cannot be separated from one another and individually assessed. Many special services like client education and non-energy impacts (e.g., fuel assistance, quality control of weatherization work, weatherization activity that improves comfort, etc.) are receiving increasing attention from policy-makers. Not only is energy savings an important measure of program success, but indirect outcomes like the benefits of client education, reductions in average and absolute customer delinquent accounts, improvements in comfort, and the affordability, quality, and longevity of housing are also important measures of a program's success in delivering services to the community. In this paper the author will examine the potential effects of client education, fuel assistance, and other indirect outcomes of residential energy conservation programs. 39 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

White, D.L.

1991-01-01

206

Automotive Stirling Engine systems development  

SciTech Connect

The objective of the Automotive Stirling Engine (ASE) program is to develop a Stirling engine for automotive use that provides a 30% improvement in fuel economy relative to a comparable internal-combustion engine while meeting emissions goals. This paper traces the engine systems' development efforts focusing on: 1) a summary of engine system performance for all Mod I engines; 2) the development program conducted for the upgraded Mod I; and 3) vehicle systems work conducted to enhance vehicle fuel economy. Problems encountered during the upgraded Mod I test program are discussed. The importance of the EPA driving cycle cold-start penalty and the measures taken to minimize that penalty with the Mod II are also addressed. The design of an engine intended to meet the program objectives (Mod II) was initiated based on the Reference Engine System Design (RESD)*, which is a departure from existing program engines in that it is a Vee design with an annular regenerator/cooler arrangement, as opposed to the existing U-cannister configuration. The development is expected to take place over an approximate four-year time period, culminating in a vehicle demonstration of fuel economy that meets program goals. This paper presents the performance development of the ASE Program engines. Results obtained with the initial P-40 engines are presented, and Mod I engine performance and vehicle fuel economy measurements are discussed. The actions taken on the upgraded Mod I program are detailed, and the results presented. The Mod II engine design is reviewed, and projections for that system are presented. Accomplishments achieved within the ASE Program since its inception are also summarized.

Richey, A.E.

1984-08-01

207

Description of the computations and pilot procedures for planning fuel-conservative descents with a small programmable calculator  

SciTech Connect

A simplified flight management descent algorithm was developed and programmed on a small programmable calculator. It was designed to aid the pilot in planning and executing a fuel conservative descent to arrive at a metering fix at a time designated by the air traffic control system. The algorithm may also be used for planning fuel conservative descents when time is not a consideration. The descent path was calculated for a constant Mach/airspeed schedule from linear approximations of airplane performance with considerations given for gross weight, wind, and nonstandard temperature effects. The flight management descent algorithm and the vertical performance modeling required for the DC-10 airplane is described.

Vicroy, D.D.; Knox, C.E.

1983-05-01

208

AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE 1. UNIT XIII, I--MAINTAINING THE FUEL SYSTEM (PART III), CUMMINS DIESEL ENGINES, II--RADIATOR SHUTTER SYSTEM.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|THIS MODULE OF A 30-MODULE COURSE IS DESIGNED TO DEVELOP AN UNDERSTANDING OF THE CONSTRUCTION, OPERATION, AND MAINTENANCE OF THE DIESEL ENGINE FUEL AND RADIATOR SHUTTER SYSTEMS. TOPICS ARE (1) MORE ABOUT THE CUMMINS FUEL SYSTEM, (2) CALIBRATING THE PT FUEL PUMP, (3) CALIBRATING THE FUEL INJECTORS, (4) UNDERSTANDING THE SHUTTER SYSTEM, (5) THE…

Human Engineering Inst., Cleveland, OH.

209

AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE 1. UNIT XXII, I--MAINTAINING THE FUEL SYSTEM (PART I)--CUMMINS DIESEL ENGINE, II--UNDERSTANDING THE DIFFERENTIAL.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|THIS MODULE OF A 30-MODULE COURSE IS DESIGNED TO DEVELOP AN UNDERSTANDING OF THE FUNCTION AND MAINTENANCE OF THE DIESEL ENGINE FUEL SYSTEM AND DIFFERENTIAL DRIVE UNITS USED IN DIESEL POWERED VEHICLES. TOPICS ARE (1) FUEL SYSTEM COMPARISONS, (2) FUEL SYSTEM SUPPLY COMPONENTS, (3) FUEL SUPPLY SECTION MAINTENANCE, (4) FUNCTION OF THE DIFFERENTIAL,…

Minnesota State Dept. of Education, St. Paul. Div. of Vocational and Technical Education.

210

Second annual report to Congress on the Automotive Technology Development Program  

SciTech Connect

Progress in the Automotive Technology Development Program for the year ending September 30, 1980 is reported. This program is aimed at developing for commercialization advanced gas turbine (AGT) engines, advanced Stirling engines (ASE), and innovative, more efficient vehicles and vehicle components to use with advanced, energy-conserving automotive propulsion systems. For the AGT, the major accomplishments for this period included: awarded contracts for AGT development; completed reference powertrain design; initiated design and fabrication of testing facilities; and testing of components. For the ASE, design review is on schedule, and components have been tested up to 4000 h. A turbocompound diesel engine completed 54,000 miles of road testing and showed a 5% fuel economy improvement. Ten thousand miles of road testing a prototype Diesel Organic Rankine Bottoming Cycle in a heavy truck engine showed a 10% fuel economy gain. Three hundred standard GSA vehicles, operated with a Controlled Speed Accessory Drive showed, a 6 to 8% fuel economy gain. Four gas turbines have been installed in intercity buses, and five more are being installed in intracity buses in Baltimore. (LCL)

Not Available

1980-09-30

211

Automotive Stirling engine: Mod II design report  

SciTech Connect

The design of an automotive Stirling engine that achieves the superior fuel economy potential of the Stirling cycle is described. As the culmination of a 9-yr development program, this engine, designated the Mod II, also nullifies arguments that Stirling engines are heavy, expensive, unreliable, and demonstrate poor performance. Installed in a General Motors 1985 Chevrolet Celebrity car, this engine has a predicted combined fuel economy on unleaded gasoline of 17.5 km/L (41 mi/gal) - a value 50% above the current vehicle fleet average. The Mod II Stirling engine is a four-cylinder V-drive design with a single crankshaft. The engine is also equipped with all the controls and auxiliaries necessary for automotive operation. 35 figs.

Nightingale, N.P.

1986-10-01

212

Lightweight materials for automotive applications  

SciTech Connect

As a result of more stringent requirements for improved fuel economy and emissions, there is a growing tend to substitute Al and Mg for conventional steel and cast irons in vehicles. this article describes some of the technical issues that must be considered if the automotive industry is to utilize these lightweight materials in larger volumes. Lightweight metals may be used in the vehicle in both wrought and cast forms. Aluminum, in the form of stamped sheet, has the potential to be used extensively in vehicle structures and closures. However, compared to steel, aluminum is more difficult to stamp and spot weld. Current research is exploring ways of improving the formability of Al alloys and developing alternate joining methods including adhesive bonding and fasteners. Mg, Al, and metal-matrix composite casting have the potential to be used as replacements for many ferrous castings in power-train and chassis components. However, because of their different tribology, strength, and ductility, light-metal castings require improved foundry procedures and more sophisticated design rules before product engineers will use them in larger quantities. A major challenge for lightweight materials is the ability to produce a functional component at an acceptable price. The presentation concludes with a cost-benefit perspective for typical light-metal applications in the automotive industry.

Cole, G.S.; Sherman, A.M. [Ford Motor Company, Dearborn, MI (United States)

1995-07-01

213

Trends and new developments in the automotive industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The trends and new developments in the automotive industry that have led to a 55% increase in fuel economy since 1974 or a saving of 500 million bbl of oil, are automobile powertrain efficiency improvements and 650 lb average weight reduction in domestically produced cars. Future developments in the conventional spark-ignited internal combustion engine that could increase fuel economy by

Gratch

1980-01-01

214

Friction of Materials for Automotive Applications  

SciTech Connect

This brief overview of friction-related issues in materials for automobiles is invited for a special issue on automotive materials in the ASM journal AM&P. It describes a range of areas in a ground vehicle in which friction must be controlled or minimized. Applications range from piston rings to tires, and from brakes to fuel injector components. A perspective on new materials and lubricants, and the need for validation testing is presented.

Blau, Peter Julian [ORNL

2013-01-01

215

Ceramic Automotive Stirling Engine Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Ceramic Automotive Stirling Engine Program evaluated the application of advanced ceramic materials to an automotive Stirling engine. The objective of the program was to evaluate the technical feasibility of utilizing advanced ceramics to increase peak...

1986-01-01

216

1985 primary heating fuel use and switching: Assessment of the market for conservation in the Northwest: Phase 2  

SciTech Connect

This report presents information on the types of primary heating fuels used in residences in the Pacific Northwest region and how the heating fuels affect the level of investment in energy conservation measures (ECMs) by occupants of the residences. The types of heating fuel switching that occurred during the past two years (1983-1985) is also presented. The information was collected from random telephone surveys of households in Idaho, Oregon, Washington, and western Montana. The Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) conducted analyses of the survey results for the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) to obtain a better understanding of consumer attitudes and behaviors and to facilitate conservation program planning, design, and marketing. This report covers the following hypotheses: (1) there is no relationship between investing in ECMs and the type of primary heating fuel used in a residence; and (2) there is no relationship between the decision to switch to a new primary heating fuel during 1983-1985 and the original type of primary heating fuel used in the residence.

Hattrup, M.P.; Nordi, R.T.; Ivey, D.L.

1987-05-01

217

AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE. PROGRAM OUTLINE.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|INFORMATIONAL TOPICS COVERED IN THE TEXT MATERIALS AND SELF-INSTRUCTIONAL BRANCH PROGRAMED TRAINING FILMS FOR A 2-YEAR, 55 MODULE PROGRAM IN AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE ARE GIVEN. THE 30 MODULES FOR "AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE 1" ARE AVAILABLE AS VT 005 655 - VT 005 684, AND THE 25 MODULES FOR "AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE 2" ARE AVAILABLE…

Human Engineering Inst., Cleveland, OH.

218

AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE L. UNIT XII, PART I--MAINTAINING THE FUEL SYSTEM (PART II), CUMMINS DIESEL ENGINE, PART II--UNIT INSTALLATION (ENGINE).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|THIS MODULE OF A 30-MODULE COURSE IS DESIGNED TO DEVELOP AN UNDERSTANDING OF THE OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE OF THE DIESEL ENGINE FUEL SYSTEM AND THE PROCEDURES FOR DIESEL ENGINE INSTALLATION. TOPICS ARE FUEL FLOW CHARACTERISTICS, PTG FUEL PUMP, PREPARATION FOR INSTALLATION, AND INSTALLING ENGINE. THE MODULE CONSISTS OF A SELF-INSTRUCTIONAL BRANCH…

Human Engineering Inst., Cleveland, OH.

219

Alternative automotive engines and energy conservation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potential ability of alternatives to the internal combustion engine (ICE) to contribute towards the dual goals of reduction in the power consumed by the United States passenger car fleet and reduction in air pollutant emissions is assessed. The principal advantages and limitations of a variety of alternative engines are identified, including the Wankel spark-ignition engine, the carbureted prechamber stratified

J. B. Heywood; L. H. Linden

1976-01-01

220

Options for coordinating low-income fuel assistance with weatherization and conservation services  

SciTech Connect

This manual for coordinating low-income fuel assistance with weatherization and conservation services is divided into eight chapters that are presented in three parts. These parts provide: an introduction to the manual describing the objectives of the manual, the rationale for coordination, methods used to prepare the manual, how to use the manual, and background information on the Low-Income Home Energy Assistance Program (LIHEAP) and the Weatherization Assistance Program for Low-Income Persons (WAP); a review of approaches to state and local coordination of energy assistance programs; and detailed descriptions of the primary issues and factors influencing the effectiveness of interprogram coordination. In addition, a series of eight appendices are contained in the manual. These appendices include case studies of several state and local agencies that administered the FY 1981 Low-Income Energy Assistance Program (LIEAP) and other energy assistance programs, an overview of federal, state, private and local energy assistance programs, a bibliography and a glossary of key terms and definitions.

Not Available

1982-02-01

221

Consumer Behavior towards Fuel Efficient Vehicles.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report contains the results of a study directed toward anticipating consumer behavior toward motor vehicles redesigned to meet federally legislated automotive fuel economy standards. Automotive design changes already being implemented include weight ...

1979-01-01

222

Directions in automotive engine research and development  

SciTech Connect

The advent of high fuel costs and automotive fuel economy and emission regulations has cast doubt on the economic superiority and even the technical feasibility of conventional spark ignition and diesel engines, and has opened the field to other concepts. The emission regulations and their effect on the design and efficiency of conventional engines are reviewed, the research and development effort to improve the performance of conventional engines and to develop advanced engines is discussed, and the current status of these engines is presented.

Samuels, G.

1980-01-01

223

General Mechanical Repair. Minor Automotive Maintenance, Small Engine [Repair, and] Welding: Student Manual.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document is a student manual for a general mechanical repair course. Following a list of common essential elements of trade and industrial education, the manual is divided into three sections. The first section, on minor automotive maintenance, contains 13 units: automotive shop safety; engine principles; fuel system operation and repair;…

Hamlin, Larry

224

Influence of natural fibers in recycling of thermoplastics for automotive components  

Microsoft Academic Search

Use of natural fiber thermoplastic components in the automotive industry can provide the advantages of weight reduction, cost reduction and recyclability, in addition to eco- efficiency and renewability compared to synthetic conventional materials. Natural fibers have recently become attractive to automotive industry as an alternative reinforcement for glass fiber reinforced thermoplastics. The best way to increase the fuel efficiency with

S. Jeyanthi; J. Jeevamalar; J. Jancirani

2012-01-01

225

A semi-integrated sensorless PM brushless drive for a 42 V automotive HVAC compressor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The automotive industry is working hard to add new features that enhance passenger comfort and safety, improve vehicle fuel economy and reduce environmental emissions. The 42 V Power Net for future automobiles allows one to add such features in an efficient manner. This paper describes a semi-integrated PM brushless drive for a 42 V electric compressor for automotive HVAC. Electric

Malakondaiah Naidu; Thomas W. Nehl; Suresh Gopalakrishnan; Lukas Würth

2003-01-01

226

Automotive Battery Inspection & Cleaning  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Have you ever entered your car, turned the key and the engine would not start? You may have heard a click coming from under the hood each time you turn the key. Your headlights and interior lights are as dim as a nightlight and your horn gives a weak low muffle that sounds like someone is growling at you as you attempt to see what might work. This usually happens when you are in a hurry, its raining, and no one is around to help. The automotive battery is a key component and the primary source of electricity of the automotive electrical system. It helps provide the electricity to run the convenient amenities that we have grown to appreciate including radios, CD and DVD players, GPS systems that help guide us to our locations, and all the neat-o gages that tell us the current condition of the vehicle. Regular battery inspection and maintenance is easy and critical to avoid situations such as described above. OBJECTIVES: In this instructional module, you will: Understand the definition of the automotive battery. Gain a detailed understanding of battery basics. Learn how to inspect and service an automotive battery. MATERIALS: To complete this assignment, each student will need access to a computer with internet capabilities. PROCEDURES: This instructional module is divided into four steps. It is ...

Hjorten, Mr.

2006-02-03

227

Automotive Brake Systems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This correspondence course, orginally developed for the Marine Corps, is designed to provide mechanics with an understanding of the basic operations of automotive brake systems on military vehicles. The course contains four study units covering hydraulic brakes, air brakes, power brakes, and auxiliary brake systems. A troubleshooting guide for…

Marine Corps Inst., Washington, DC.

228

Automotive disc brake squeal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Disc brake squeal remains an elusive problem in the automotive industry. Since the early 20th century, many investigators have examined the problem with experimental, analytical, and computational techniques, but there is as yet no method to completely suppress disc brake squeal. This paper provides a comprehensive review and bibliography of works on disc brake squeal. In an effort to make

N. M. Kinkaid; O. M. O'Reilly; P. Papadopoulos

2003-01-01

229

Engineering Automotive Software  

Microsoft Academic Search

The amount of software in cars grows exponentially. Driving forces of this development are the availability of cheaper and more powerful hardware, as well as the demand for innovation through new functionality. The rapidly growing significance of software and software-based functionality is at the root of various challenges in the automotive industries. These concern their organization, definition of key competencies,

Manfred Broy; Ingolf H. Kruger; Alexander Pretschner; Christian Salzmann

2007-01-01

230

Automotive Power Trains.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This correspondence course, originally developed for the Marine Corps, is designed to provide mechanics with an understanding of the operation, maintenance, and troubleshooting of automotive power trains and certain auxiliary equipment. The course contains six study units covering basic power trains; clutch principles and operations; conventional…

Marine Corps Inst., Washington, DC.

231

The Automotive CASE  

Microsoft Academic Search

The increasing functionality and complexity of modern automotive embedded systems demand new ways of mastering their intricacies. The standard response to this challenge is the use of abstractions, of appropriate structuring concepts, and, related, but less important, of suitable description techniques. Such ideas materialize in CASE tools. We shed light on CASE in the context of complex em- bedded systems,

P. Braun; M. Broy; M. V. Cengarle; J. Philipps; W. Prenninger; A. Pretschner; M. Rappl; R. Sandner

232

Automotive Power Trains.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This correspondence course, originally developed for the Marine Corps, is designed to provide mechanics with an understanding of the operation, maintenance, and troubleshooting of automotive power trains and certain auxiliary equipment. The course contains six study units covering basic power trains; clutch principles and operations; conventional…

Marine Corps Inst., Washington, DC.

233

Automotive technology and fuel economy standards. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Science, Technology, and Space of the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation, United States Senate, Ninety-Sixth Congress, Second Session on S. 2015, April 30, May 2, 9, and 14, 1980  

SciTech Connect

The progress made toward improving automobile fuel economy and several related legislative proposals were discussed at hearings held on April 30, May 2, 9, and 14, 1980. The statements of 30 witnesses follow the text of S. 2015, which proposes a cooperative industry research program. A counterproposal (H.R. 4678) places greater responsibility on the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, while S. 1250 proposes cooperative industrial innovation centers. At issue is whether the American automobile industry can compete with foreign automotive technology and whether the industry can raise the necessary capital. S. 2015 would authorize $800 million of windfall profits tax money for basic automotive research. The witnesses suggested ways in which these funds should be allocated and discussed the possibility of setting post-1985 fuel efficiency standards. (DCK)

Not Available

1980-01-01

234

Pollution control and energy conservation: Complements or Antagonists? A study of gasoline taxes and automobile fuel economy standards  

SciTech Connect

The author presents a graphical comparison of the impact of alternative regulations on both automobile fuel use and tailpipe emissions under different emission standards for the United States, expanding on previous mathematical analysis. A simple graphical model is used to show the connection between the typical consumer`s budget-constrained utility maximization problem and this consumer`s consumption of gasoline. The model is used to illustrate the relative impact of energy conservation regulations on the level of pollution under two alternative pollution control standards. Energy conservation policies analyzed are a gasoline tax and an increase in the corporate average fuel economy standards. Also an analysis of the sensitivity of the results to the variation in estimated consumer responsiveness. 14 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

Espey, M. [Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States)

1997-05-01

235

AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE 1. UNIT XXIV, I--MAINTAINING THE FUEL SYSTEM PART III--CATERPILLAR DIESEL ENGINE, II--UNDERSTANDING THE VOLTAGE REGULATOR/ALTERNATOR.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|THIS MODULE OF A 30-MODULE COURSE IS DESIGNED TO DEVELOP AN UNDERSTANDING OF THE OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE OF THE DIESEL ENGINE FUEL AND BATTERY CHARGING SYSTEM. TOPICS ARE (1) INJECTION TIMING CONTROLS, (2) GOVERNOR, (3) FUEL SYSTEM MAINTENANCE TIPS, (4) THE CHARGING SYSTEM, (5) REGULATING THE GENERATOR/ALTERNATOR, AND (6) CHARGING SYSTEM…

Minnesota State Dept. of Education, St. Paul. Div. of Vocational and Technical Education.

236

AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE 1. UNIT XXIII, I--MAINTAINING THE FUEL SYSTEM, PART II--CATERPILLAR DIESEL ENGINE, II--UNDERSTANDING STEERING SYSTEMS.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|THIS MODULE OF A 30-MODULE COURSE IS DESIGNED TO DEVELOP AN UNDERSTANDING OF THE OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE OF THE DIESEL ENGINE FUEL INJECTION SYSTEM AND THE STEERING SYSTEM OF DIESEL POWERED VEHICLES. TOPICS ARE FUEL INJECTION SECTION, AND DESCRIPTION OF THE STEERING SYSTEM. THE MODULE CONSISTS OF A SELF-INSTRUCTIONAL BRANCH PROGRAMED TRAINING…

Minnesota State Dept. of Education, St. Paul. Div. of Vocational and Technical Education.

237

Introducing engine innovations: an examination of future markets for Brayton and Stirling automotive engines  

SciTech Connect

This paper takes a general and particular view of the process of engine innovation. The history of engine innovation in automobiles and railroads is briefly reviewed and related to the potential path of automotive engine innovation that may occur toward the turn of the century. It is shown that automotive engine innovation in the past has been costly, especially to lower income consumers, and that potential future adoption of Stirling and Brayton (gas turbine) engines is unlikely to be any different. The danger of negative economic side effects during the innovation process for the automobile industry and nation are noted. It is suggested that careful corporate and national preparation for automotive innovation is necessary. To that end, advanced (year 2000) engine and vehicle characteristics from the Technology Assessment of Productive Conservation in Urban Transport are used to estimate that the Stirling and Brayton engines are likely to have very specific and different markets. Driving cycle behavior of the engines in an urban and suburban setting is examined to show that the Stirling's most likely market will be as a specialized urban vehicle, while the Brayton's best market will be as a specialized suburban and inter-city vehicle. It is argued that neither engine has the properties necessary to become a universal replacement for all purpose vehicles using advanced Otto-cycle and diesel engines, but that proper use of these vehicles could ultimately help efficiently mitigate national problems of urban air pollution (the Stirling) and/or excessive fuel consumption. Finally, it is pointed out that recent EPA methods of evaluating vehicle fuel efficiency could incorrectly lead to a negative economic evaluation of advanced Stirling and Brayton engines, tending to unjustifiably retard their introduction into the market.

Santini, D.J.

1984-08-01

238

Lightweight Steel Solutions for Automotive Industry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, improvement in fuel efficiency and safety has become the biggest issue in worldwide automotive industry. Although the regulation of environment and safety has been tightened up more and more, the majority of vehicle bodies are still manufactured from stamped steel components. This means that the optimized steel solutions enable to demonstrate its ability to reduce body weight with high crashworthiness performance instead of expensive light weight materials such as Al, Mg and composites. To provide the innovative steel solutions for automotive industry, POSCO has developed AHSS and its application technologies, which is directly connected to EVI activities. EVI is a technical cooperation program with customer covering all stages of new car project from design to mass production. Integrated light weight solutions through new forming technologies such as TWB, hydroforming and HPF are continuously developed and provided for EVI activities. This paper will discuss the detailed status of these technologies especially light weight steel solutions based on innovative technologies.

Lee, Hong Woo; Kim, Gyosung; Park, Sung Ho

2010-06-01

239

Lightweight Steel Solutions for Automotive Industry  

SciTech Connect

Recently, improvement in fuel efficiency and safety has become the biggest issue in worldwide automotive industry. Although the regulation of environment and safety has been tightened up more and more, the majority of vehicle bodies are still manufactured from stamped steel components. This means that the optimized steel solutions enable to demonstrate its ability to reduce body weight with high crashworthiness performance instead of expensive light weight materials such as Al, Mg and composites. To provide the innovative steel solutions for automotive industry, POSCO has developed AHSS and its application technologies, which is directly connected to EVI activities. EVI is a technical cooperation program with customer covering all stages of new car project from design to mass production. Integrated light weight solutions through new forming technologies such as TWB, hydroforming and HPF are continuously developed and provided for EVI activities. This paper will discuss the detailed status of these technologies especially light weight steel solutions based on innovative technologies.

Lee, Hong Woo; Kim, Gyosung; Park, Sung Ho [Technical Research Laboratories, POSCO, 699, Gumho-dong, Gwangyang-si, Jeonnam, 545-090 (Korea, Republic of)

2010-06-15

240

Flash report: Automotive batteries  

SciTech Connect

Battery inventories soared early in the years after sales plunged 15% due to the mild winter. But in the last 90 days, admist a hot summer, industry leader Exide announced a 5% price hike to assess the current market, OTR interviewed 14 professionals from the battery industry - Contacts include four battery manufacturers, one industry specialists, seven retail chains plus two wholesalers. The nine sales groups supply about 10,000 stores an automotive shops nationwide.

Gates, J.H.

1995-12-01

241

Get Your Automotive Program Nationally Certified!  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Automotive programs that nationally certified enhance student recruitment and give students better employment opportunities. Technicians who earn the Automotive Service Excellence credential have joined the ranks of professionals in the automotive service industry. (Author/JOW)

Lundquist, Patricia A.

2000-01-01

242

Proceedings of the Fourth International Symposium on Automotive Propulsion Systems. Volume II.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Fifty-three presentations are given in Volume II with contents including: (1) automotive emissions; (2) powertrain components; (3) vehicle improvements; (4) alternative fuels; (5) electric and hybrid systems; and (6) concluding remarks. All of the technic...

1978-01-01

243

Automotive Spark-Ignition Engine in a New European Context. Proceedings.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The book contains the manuscripts of the papers presented at the meeting 'The automotive spark-ignition engine in a new European context'. Subjects discussed were: Emission reduction by modern engine concepts; use of unleaded fuels; reduction of engine no...

1985-01-01

244

Automotive Mg Research and Development in North America  

SciTech Connect

Expanding world economic prosperity and probable peaking of conventional petroleum production in the coming decades require efforts to increase the efficiency of, and the development of alternatives to, petroleum-based fuels used in automotive transportation. North America has been aggressively pursuing both approaches for over ten years. Mainly as a result of lower prices due to global sourcing, magnesium has recently emerged as a serious candidate for lightweighting, and thus increasing the fuel efficiency of, automotive transportation. Automotive vehicles produced in North America currently use more Mg than vehicles produced elsewhere in the world, but the amounts per vehicle are very small in comparison to other materials such as steel, aluminum and plastics. The reasons, besides price, are primarily a less-developed state of technology for Mg in automotive transportation applications and lack of familiarity by the vehicle manufacturers with the material. This paper reviews some publicly-known, recent, present and future North American research and development activities in Mg for automotive applications.

Carpenter, Joseph A. [U.S. Department of Energy; Jackman, Jennifer [CANMET - Materials Technology Laboratory, Natural Resources of Canada; Li, Naiyi [Ford Motor Company; Osborne, Richard J. [General Motors Corporation; Powell, Bob R. [General Motors Corporation; Sklad, Philip S [ORNL

2006-01-01

245

DOE\\/NASA Automotive Stirling Engine Project overview 83  

Microsoft Academic Search

An overview of the DOE\\/NASA Automotive Stirling Engine Project is presented. The background and objectives of the project are reviewed. Project activities are described and technical progress and status are presented and assessed. Prospects for achieving the objective 30% fuel economy improvement are considered good. The key remaining technology issues are primarily related to life, reliability and cost, such as

Beremand

1983-01-01

246

Automotive Stirling Engine Development Program - Combustion system development  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Automotive Stirling Engine (ASE) Program objectives are to develop kinematic Stirling engines, and transfer Stirling-engine technology to the United States. Stringent emissions requirements and the high-temperature environment of an ASE combustion system require a reduced flame temperature via techniques such as recirculation of combustion products, while the high recuperated air temperature causes fuel nozzle plugging and premature failure of

1984-01-01

247

DOE\\/NASA Automotive Stirling Engine Project overview 1983  

Microsoft Academic Search

An overview of the DOE\\/NASA Automotive Stirling Engine project is presented. The backgeound and objectives are reviewed. Project activities are described and technical progress and status are presented and assessed. Prospects for achieving the objective 30 percent fuel economy improvement are considered good. The key remaining technology issues are primarily related to life, reliability and cost, such as piston rod

Beremand

1983-01-01

248

Recent development in aluminium alloys for the automotive industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The growing demand for more fuel-efficient vehicles to reduce energy consumption and air pollution is a challenge for the automotive industry. The characteristic properties of aluminium, high strength stiffness to weight ratio, good formability, good corrosion resistance, and recycling potential make it the ideal candidate to replace heavier materials (steel or copper) in the car to respond to the weight

W. S. Miller; L. Zhuang; J. Bottema; A. J. Wittebrood; P De Smet; A. Haszler; A. Vieregge

2000-01-01

249

Automotive Chassis; Automotive Mechanics-Basic: 9043.02.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This automotive chassis course is designed to familiarize the beginning student of the history and development of the automobile with basic concepts common to the automobile industry, and general information that is required for successful advancement in the automotive mechanics field. It is one quinmester in a series of quinmester outlines…

Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

250

Introduction to Automotive Service. Teacher Edition. Automotive Service Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This document provides instruction for high-priority competencies on task lists developed by the National Institute of Automotive Service Excellence. Contained in this teacher's guide are the materials necessary to teach 11 competency-based instructional units related to the automotive service industry. The following instructional units are…

Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

251

Automotive Chassis; Automotive Mechanics-Basic: 9043.02.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This automotive chassis course is designed to familiarize the beginning student of the history and development of the automobile with basic concepts common to the automobile industry, and general information that is required for successful advancement in the automotive mechanics field. It is one quinmester in a series of quinmester outlines…

Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

252

Automotive Electricity: Automotive Mechanics Instructional Program. Block 3.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The third of six instructional blocks in automotive mechanics, the lessons and supportive information in the document provide a guide for teachers in planning an instructional program in automotive electricity at the secondary and post secondary level. The material, as organized, is a suggested sequence of instruction within each block. Each…

O'Brien, Ralph D.

253

AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE 1. UNIT XI, PART I--MAINTAINING THE FUEL SYSTEM (PART I), CUMMINS DIESEL ENGINES, PART II--UNIT REPLACEMENT (ENGINE).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|THIS MODULE OF A 30-MODULE COURSE IS DESIGNED TO DEVELOP AN UNDERSTANDING OF DIFFERENCES BETWEEN TWO AND FOUR CYCLE ENGINES, THE OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE OF THE DIESEL ENGINE FUEL SYSTEM, AND THE PROCEDURES FOR DIESEL ENGINE REMOVAL. TOPICS ARE (1) REVIEW OF TWO CYCLE AND FOUR CYCLE CONCEPT, (2) SOME BASIC CHARACTERISTICS OF FOUR CYCLE ENGINES,…

Human Engineering Inst., Cleveland, OH.

254

Automotive dual-mode hydrogen generation system  

SciTech Connect

The automotive dual hydrogen generation system is proposed as a supplementary hydrogen fuel means along with the current metallic hydride hydrogen storage method for vehicles. This system consists of utilizing conventional electrolysis cells with the low voltage D.C. electrical power supplied by two electrical generating sources within the vehicle. Since the automobile engine exhaust manifold(s) are presently an untapped useful source of thermal energy, they can be employed as the heat source for a simple heat engine/generator arrangement.

Kelly, D.A.

1981-01-01

255

United States Council for Automotive Research  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The United States Council for Automotive Research (USCAR) is a joint operation between Ford, DaimlerChrysler, and General Motors. The council lets the companies combine their resources to develop better non-competitive technologies, such as safety, fuel efficiency, and emissions. Many new innovations in vehicle design are described on the USCAR Web site. For example, the 21st Century section outlines some major advances that will shape the future of the automobile, while Specific Technologies examines various new manufacturing practices and vehicle components. There are also many articles and technical accomplishments listed on the site, giving some insight into what is currently being done to make driving a better experience.

256

Automotive Technology. Career Education Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The curriculum guide is designed to provide students with realistic training in automotive technology theory and practice within the secondary educational framework and to prepare them for entry into an occupation or continuing postsecondary education. The learning modules are grouped into three areas: small engines, automotive technology, and…

Dependents Schools (DOD), Washington, DC. European Area.

257

CMOS imaging for automotive applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

This contribution is devoted to CMOS imaging for automotive applications. It is shown that unlike CCD-based imaging, imaging based on CMOS-sensing meets adequately requirements posed by automotive vision applications. In addition, besides classical vision, CMOS imaging enables new applications like, e.g., occupancy sensing, rangefinding, and 3-D vision.

B. J. Hosticka; W. Brockherde; A. Bussmann; T. Heimann; R. Jeremias; A. Kemna; C. Nitta; O. Schrey

2003-01-01

258

Surface technology for automotive engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

The presented paper describes the role of surface technologies in the automotive industry. Various hard coatings like nitrides, diamond and cBN are used on tools for the manufacturing process. Due to their high hardness and low coefficient of friction, diamond-like carbon films will be indispensable for engine and power train components. The improvement of automotive glazings by optimization of optical

K. Bewilogua; G. Bräuer; A. Dietz; J. Gäbler; G. Goch; B. Karpuschewski; B. Szyszka

2009-01-01

259

A new automotive air\\/fuel sensor based on TiO 2-doped Nb 2O 5 thin film by ion-beam-enhanced deposition  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the preparation of a TiO2-doped Nb2O5 thin film using the ion-beam-enhanced deposition technique and the development of a new automobile air\\/fuel sensor with an additionally integrated platinum temperature sensor and a Pt heater. The resistive jump at the stoichiometric point in the characteristic curve is three orders of magnitude. The response time of the sensor is almost

Jianzhong Zhu; Congxin Ren; Guoliang Chen; Chunying Yu; Jiali Wu; Haicuan Mu

1996-01-01

260

Remarks on the use of synthetic fuels in serial automotive diesel engines: influence on their performances and their contribution to air pollution  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the main results of an experimental research on the use of alcohols and in particular methanol, as integrative fuels of gas-oil for 4 stroke Diesel engines. A comparison has been made between performances and contribution to air pollution of a typical engine for medium and heavy truck, operating with binary gas-oil-methanol and gas-oil-ethanol mixtures both in the

Giadrossi

1980-01-01

261

In-tank fuel reservoir with fuel level sensor  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes a fuel delivery system for automotive engine and like applications. It comprises: an electric-motor fuel pump for positioning within a fuel tank and having an inlet and an outlet for feeding fuel under pressure to an engine, the tank having a maximum design fuel level,means for returning excess fuel from the engine to the tank, and means

Asselin

1990-01-01

262

Aluminum automotive space frames  

SciTech Connect

Design of aluminum structures is to a new topic. Aircraft makers have successfully solved difficult structural problems with a high degree of understanding and reliability. Other transportation modes such as trucks, trailers, and railcars have faced structural problems with some emphasis on high- and low-cycle fatigue of welded aluminum structures. However, the automotive market places stringent engineering demands on materials and superimposes demanding cost constraints. A project was instituted at Reynolds Metals Co. to investigate the opportunities for the cost-effective application of aluminum to automotive spaceframes. Several areas were recognized as key to the success of this application. They were: equivalent or superior structural stiffness of the assembly to existing steel unibody and/or steel spaceframe vehicles; effective joining of spaceframe members; equivalent or superior crashworthiness of the assembly; weight savings; flexibility; and low-cost approach aimed at effective manufacturing. To gain experience with the key aspects in a practical environment, the experience of current builders of steel tube frame chassis was explored. These chassis are typically used in low-volume vehicles requiring torsional stiffness, excellent crashworthiness, and exterior body-style flexibility. A model was developed using finite element methods that accurately predicts mass and stiffness of frames. An effective aluminum space frame was generated which was 7.5% stiffer and more than 20% lighter than the steel frame, with stresses kept below the fatigue limit for aluminum welds.

NONE

1995-08-01

263

A Program to Evaluate and Demonstrate Conservation of Fossil Fuel Energy for Single-Family Dwellings.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report outlines a program which will demonstrate reduction in the United States fossil-fuel energy usage, particularly residential, shopping and commuting. Goals include combining more efficient energy use with low-energy structures to demonstrate th...

1975-01-01

264

Tank-automotive robotics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To provide an overview of Tank-Automotive Robotics. The briefing will contain program overviews & inter-relationships and technology challenges of TARDEC managed unmanned and robotic ground vehicle programs. Specific emphasis will focus on technology developments/approaches to achieve semi- autonomous operation and inherent chassis mobility features. Programs to be discussed include: DemoIII Experimental Unmanned Vehicle (XUV), Tactical Mobile Robotics (TMR), Intelligent Mobility, Commanders Driver Testbed, Collision Avoidance, International Ground Robotics Competition (ICGRC). Specifically, the paper will discuss unique exterior/outdoor challenges facing the IGRC competing teams and the synergy created between the IGRC and ongoing DoD semi-autonomous Unmanned Ground Vehicle and DoT Intelligent Transportation System programs. Sensor and chassis approaches to meet the IGRC challenges and obstacles will be shown and discussed. Shortfalls in performance to meet the IGRC challenges will be identified.

Lane, Gerald R.

1999-07-01

265

Automotive Marketing Methods and Practice.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report is a comprehensive examination of the current marketing practices, marketing methodologies, and decision-making processes utilized by the domestic automotive industry. The various marketing elements, such as products, consumer behavior, sales, ...

P. Braden S. Marshak R. Whorf

1979-01-01

266

Automotive Stirling Engine Development Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Progress is reported in the following: the Stirling reference engine system design; components and subsystems; F-40 baseline Stirling engine installation and test; the first automotive engine to be built on the program; computer development activities; an...

M. Allen

1980-01-01

267

Ceramic Automotive Stirling Engine Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A conceptual design study for a Ceramic Automotive Stirling Engine (CASE) was performed. Year 1990 structural ceramic technology was assumed. Structural and performance analyses of the conceptual design were performed as well as manufacturing and cost ana...

S. Musikant W. Chiu D. Darooka D. M. Mullings C. A. Johnson

1985-01-01

268

Automotive Stirling Engine Development Project.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The development and verification of automotive Stirling engine (ASE) component and system technology is described as it evolved through two experimental engine designs: the Mod 1 and the Mod 2. Engine operation and performance and endurance test results f...

W. D. Ernst R. K. Shaltens

1997-01-01

269

Ceramic Automotive Stirling Engine Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A conceptual design study for a Ceramic Automotive Stirling Engine (CASE) is performed. Year 1990 structural ceramic technology is assumed. Structural and performance analyses of the conceptual design are performed as well as a manufacturing and cost anal...

S. Musikant W. Chiu D. Darooka D. M. Mullings C. A. Johnson

1985-01-01

270

Recording Automotive Crash Event Data.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The National Transportation Safety Board has recommended that automobile manufacturers and the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration work cooperatively to gather information on automotive crashes using on-board collision sensing and recording dev...

A. Chidester J. Hinch T. C. Mercer K. S. Schultz

2001-01-01

271

Wet\\/dry cooling systems for fossil-fueled power plants: water conservation and plume abatement. Final report Jun 75Sep 77  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results of a study of technical and economic feasibilities of wet\\/dry cooling towers for water conservation and vapor plume abatement are given. Results of cost optimizations of wet\\/dry cooling for 1000-MWe fossil-fueled power plants are presented. Five sites in the western coal region and one in New York are evaluated for water conservation; four urban sites (Seattle, Cleveland, Newark, and

M. C. Hu; G. A. Englesson

1977-01-01

272

Ceramic automotive Stirling engine program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Ceramic Automotive Stirling Engine Program evaluated the application of advanced ceramic materials to an automotive Stirling engine. The objective of the program was to evaluate the technical feasibility of utilizing advanced ceramics to increase peak engine operating temperature, and to evaluate the performance benefits of such an increase. Manufacturing cost estimates were also developed for various ceramic engine components and compared with conventional metallic engine component costs.

1986-08-01

273

Ceramic Automotive Stirling Engine Program  

SciTech Connect

The Ceramic Automotive Stirling Engine Program evaluated the application of advanced ceramic materials to an automotive Stirling engine. The objective of the program was to evaluate the technical feasibility of utilizing advanced ceramics to increase peak engine operating temperature, and to evaluate the performance benefits of such an increase. Manufacturing cost estimates were also developed for various ceramic engine components and compared with conventional metallic engine component costs.

Not Available

1986-08-01

274

R&D portfolios in environmentally friendly automotive propulsion: Variety, competition and policy implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, we analyze R&D portfolios in environmentally friendly automotive propulsion including alternative fuel options. We argue that at the current stage of development, substitution of conventional car technology by a new automotive propulsion technology may lead to premature lock-in of suboptimal technology. To avoid such lock-in, one should value the variety of current R&D activity that enables organizations

Koen Frenken; Marko Hekkert; Per Godfroij

2004-01-01

275

Advanced high temperature materials for the energy efficient automotive stirling engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Stirling engine is under investigation jointly by the Department of Energy and NASA Lewis as an alternative to the internal\\u000a combustion engine for automotive applications. The Stirling engine is an external combustion engine that offers the advantage\\u000a of high fuel economy, low emissions, low noise, and low vibrations compared to current internal combustion automotive engines.\\u000a The most critical component

R. H. Titran; J. R. Stephens

1984-01-01

276

Automotive emission standards. (Latest citations from Pollution Abstracts). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning emission standards and air quality standards applied to automobile emissions. Included are federal and state regulations and policies regarding these emission standards. Techniques to meet emission standards are also addressed, involving fuel injection, catalysts, alternate engines, and automotive fuel refinery operations. Studies concerning implementation of automobile emission standards explore economic and environmental effects, testing and inspection procedures, and the automobile industry point of view. Most of the citations refer to gasoline engines, but a few pertain to diesel and other fuels. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

NONE

1993-07-01

277

Effects of fuel and forest conservation on future levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide.  

PubMed

We develop a numerical simulation of the global biogeochemical cycles of carbon that works over time scales extending from years to millions of years. The ocean is represented by warm and cold shallow water reservoirs, a thermocline reservoir, and deep Atlantic, Indian, and Pacific reservoirs. The atmosphere is characterized by a single carbon reservoir and the global biota by a single biomass reservoir. The simulation includes the rock cycle, distinguishing between shelf carbonate and pelagic carbonate precipitation, with distinct lysocline depths in the three deep ocean reservoirs. Dissolution of pelagic carbonates in response to decrease in lysocline depth is included. The simulation is tuned to reproduce the observed radiocarbon record resulting from atomic weapon testing. It is tuned also to reproduce the distribution of dissolved phosphate and total dissolved carbon between the ocean reservoirs as well as the carbon isotope ratios for both 13C and 14C in ocean and atmosphere. The simulation reproduces reasonably well the historical record of carbon dioxide partial pressure as well as the atmospheric isotope ratios for 13C and 14C over the last 200 yr as these have changed in response to fossil fuel burning and land use changes, principally forest clearance. The agreements between observation and calculation involves the assumption of a carbon dioxide fertilization effect in which the rate of production of biomass increases with increasing carbon dioxide partial pressure. At present the fertilization effect of increased carbon dioxide outweighs the effects of forest clearance, so the biota comprises an overall sink of atmospheric carbon dioxide sufficiently large to bring the budget approximately into balance. This simulation is used to examine the future evolution of carbon dioxide and its sensitivity to assumptions about the rate of fossil fuel burning and of forest clearance. Over times extending up to thousands of years, the results are insensitive to the formulation of the rock cycle and to the dissolution of deep sea carbonate sediments. Atmospheric carbon dioxide continues to increase as long fossil fuel is burned at a significant rate, because the rate of fossil fuel production of carbon dioxide far exceeds the rates at which geochemical processes can remove carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. The maximum concentration of carbon dioxide achieved in the atmosphere depends on the total amount of fossil fuel burned, but only weakly on the rate of burning. The future course of atmospheric carbon dioxide is, however, very sensitive to the fate of the forests in this simulation because of the important role assigned to carbon dioxide fertilization of plant growth rate. Forest clearance drives up atmospheric carbon dioxide not only by converting biomass into atmospheric carbon dioxide but more importantly by reducing the capacity of the biota to sequester fossil fuel carbon dioxide. In this simulation, atmospheric carbon dioxide levels could be sustained indefinitely below 500 parts per million (ppm) if fossil fuel combustion rates were immediately cut from their present value of 5 x 10(14) m/y to 0.2 x 10(14) m/y (a factor of 25 reduction) and if further forest clearance were halted. If neither of these conditions is met and if we consume most of the world's fossil fuel reserves, peak carbon dioxide concentrations of 1000-2000 ppm are probable within the next few centuries. PMID:11537854

Walker, J C; Kasting, J F

1992-01-01

278

Effects of fuel and forest conservation on future levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We develop a numerical simulation of the global biogeochemical cycles of carbon that works over time scales extending from years to millions of years. The ocean is represented by warm and cold shallow water reservoirs, a thermocline reservoir, and deep Atlantic, Indian, and Pacific reservoirs. The atmosphere is characterized by a single carbon reservoir and the global biota by a single biomass reservoir. The simulation includes the rock cycle, distinguishing between shelf carbonate and pelagic carbonate precipitation, with distinct lysocline depths in the three deep ocean reservoirs. Dissolution of pelagic carbonates in response to decrease in lysocline depth is included. The simulation is tuned to reproduce the observed radiocarbon record resulting from atomic weapon testing. It is tuned also to reproduce the distribution of dissolved phosphate and total dissolved carbon between the ocean reservoirs as well as the carbon isotope ratios for both 13C and 14C in ocean and atmosphere. The simulation reproduces reasonably well the historical record of carbon dioxide partial pressure as well as the atmospheric isotope ratios for 13C and 14C over the last 200 yr as these have changed in response to fossil fuel burning and land use changes, principally forest clearance. The agreements between observation and calculation involves the assumption of a carbon dioxide fertilization effect in which the rate of production of biomass increases with increasing carbon dioxide partial pressure. At present the fertilization effect of increased carbon dioxide outweighs the effects of forest clearance, so the biota comprises an overall sink of atmosph ric carbon dioxide sufficiently large to bring the budget approximately into balance. This simulation is used to examine the future evolution of carbon dioxide and its sensitivity to assumptions about the rate of fossil fuel burning and of forest clearance. Over times extending up to thousands of years, the results are insensitive to the formulation of the rock cycle and to the dissolution of deep sea carbonate sediments. Atmospheric carbon dioxide continues to increase as long fossil fuel is burned at a significant rate, because the rate of fossil fuel production of carbon dioxide far exceeds the rates at which geochemical processes can remove carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. The maximum concentration of carbon dioxide achieved in the atmosphere depends on the total amount of fossil fuel burned, but only weakly on the rate of burning. The future course of atmospheric carbon dioxide is, however, very sensitive to the fate of the forests in this simulation because of the important role assigned to carbon dioxide fertilization of plant growth rate. Forest clearance drives up atmospheric carbon dioxide not only by converting biomass into atmospheric carbon dioxide but more importantly by reducing the capacity of the biota to sequester fossil fuel carbon dioxide. In this simulation, atmospheric carbon dioxide levels could be sustained indefinitely below 500 parts per million (ppm) if fossil fuel combustion rates were immediately cut from their present value of 5 × 10 14 m/y to 0.2 × 10 14 m/y (a factor of 25 reduction) and if further forest clearance were halted. If neither of these conditions is met and if we consume most of the world's fossil fuel reserves, peak carbon dioxide concentrations of 1000-2000 ppm are probable within the next few centuries.

Walker, James C. G.; Kasting, James F.

1992-03-01

279

Fuel Cells: Reshaping the Future  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In conjunction with the FreedomCAR (Cooperative Automotive Research) and Fuel Initiative, President George W. Bush has pledged nearly two billion dollars for fuel cell research. Chrysler, Ford, and General Motors have unveiled fuel cell demonstration vehicles, and all three of these companies have invested heavily in fuel cell research. Fuel cell…

Toay, Leo

2004-01-01

280

Industry Sector Analysis - Automotive Parts/Accessories/Supplies/Automotive Service Equipment (Bolivia, Colombia, Costa Rica, Guatemala, Honduras, Peru, Venezuela).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The package contains the following ISA's: Bolivia, Automotive and Auto Parts Market Survey; Colombia, Automotive Parts and Accessories; Costa Rica, Automotive Parts and Service Equipment; Guatemala, Automotive Parts and Service Equipment; Honduras, Automo...

1992-01-01

281

Potential automotive uses of wrought magnesium alloys  

SciTech Connect

Vehicle weight reduction is one of the major means available to improve automotive fuel efficiency. High-strength steels, aluminum (Al), and polymers are already being used to reduce weight significantly, but substantial additional reductions could be achieved by greater use of low-density magnesium (Mg) and its alloys. Mg alloys are currently used in relatively small quantities for auto parts, generally limited to die castings (e.g., housings). Argonne National Laboratory`s Center for Transportation Research has performed a study for the Lightweight Materials Program within DOE`s Office of Transportation Materials to evaluate the suitability of wrought Mg and its alloys to replace steel/aluminum for automotive structural and sheet applications. Mg sheet could be used in body nonstructural and semi-structural applications, while extrusions could be used in such structural applications as spaceframes. This study identifies high cost as the major barrier to greatly increased Mg use in autos. Two technical R and D areas, novel reduction technology and better hot-forming technology, could enable major cost reductions.

Gaines, L.; Cuenca, R.; Wu, S. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Stodolsky, F. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)]|[Argonne National Lab., Washington, DC (United States)

1996-06-01

282

Automotive Drum Brakes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Do you know when the first car was built? Do you know who built the first automobile? Would you guess, Henry Ford? Try again. Do you know by what means they used to stop that car? We know the brakes on the vehicles we drive today are quite different from those back in the 1800s. While knowing the history of the automobile is interesting, knowing how they work is also interesting. The automotive brake or to be more specific, the drum brake is what this instruction is designed to review. In this instruction, we will begin by briefly looking at the history of automobile brakes and then learn how drum brakes work. While disk brakes can be easier to understand, are becoming more and more popular, especially on the rear tires, drum brakes, to some can be a challenge. The purpose of this lesson is to provide you with resources and encourage you to search more additional resources that will help you gain a mental moving picture of how the drum brake works. OBJECTIVES: In this instructional module, you will: Know a brief history of automobile brakes. Have a minimum of 8 web resources that provide instructions of drum brakes. Develop a mental moving picture of how drum brakes work. MATERIALS: To complete this learning activity, each student will need: Access to a computer with internet connection capabilities. A strong desire ...

Hjorten, Mr.

2006-02-03

283

Design of the 4-215 D. A. automotive Stirling engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Stirling engine holds out prospects of achieving a low pollution, quiet automotive power plant with excellent fuel economy and multi-fuel capability. N. V. Philips, of Holland, has been working with Ford Motor Company since 1972 on a joint program to build, test, and develop a conceptual version of the engine to determine its real potential. A description is given

R. van Giessel; F. Reinink

1977-01-01

284

Dynamic air traffic control simulation of profile descent and high-speed approach fuel conservation procedures. Final report Jul 77Aug 77  

Microsoft Academic Search

A dynamic simulation of instrument flight rule (IFR) air traffic operations in the Denver, Colorado, terminal area was conducted at the National Aviation Facilities Experimental Center (NAFEC) to investigate aircraft fuel conservation procedures and the compatibilities of these procedures with air traffic control (ATC) and with the expeditious flow of air traffic. The laboratory environment of the NAFEC Air Traffic

P. J. OBrien; F. M. Jr Willett; L. Tobias

1980-01-01

285

DOE/NASA Automotive Stirling Engine Project overview 83  

SciTech Connect

An overview of the DOE/NASA Automotive Stirling Engine Project is presented. The background and objectives of the project are reviewed. Project activities are described and technical progress and status are presented and assessed. Prospects for achieving the objective 30% fuel economy improvement are considered good. The key remaining technology issues are primarily related to life, reliability and cost, such as piston rod seals, and low cost heat exchangers.

Beremand, D.G.

1983-08-01

286

DOE/NASA Automotive Stirling Engine Project overview 1983  

SciTech Connect

An overview of the DOE/NASA Automotive Stirling Engine project is presented. The backgeound and objectives are reviewed. Project activities are described and technical progress and status are presented and assessed. Prospects for achieving the objective 30 percent fuel economy improvement are considered good. The key remaining technology issues are primarily related to life, reliability and cost, such as piston rod seals, and low cost heat exchangers.

Beremand, D.G.

1983-01-01

287

Automotive Stirling Engine Development Program. RESD Summary report  

SciTech Connect

This is the final report compiling a summary of the information presented and discussed at the May 1983 Automotive Stirling Engine (AES) Reference Engine System Design (RESD) review held at the NASA Lewis Research Center. The design of the engine and its auxiliaries and controls is described. Manufacturing costs in production quantity are also presented. Engine system performance predictions are discussed and vehicle integration is developed, along with projected fuel economy levels.

Not Available

1984-05-01

288

Importance of Projects in Automotive Industry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For automotive companies, research and development is the key to success for new generation of products. The aim of this article is to accent the importance of innovations and innovations-focused projects in automotive industry. Relevance of co-operation between automotive industry and educational institutions is noticed in the article, too. Furthermore, history of automotive industry in Slovakia is outlined in the article. Main part of the article is focused on project AUTOCLUSTERS.

Babe?ová, Zdenka Gyurák; Lenhardtová, Zuzana; Cagá?ová, Dagmar; Weidlichová-Luptáková, Stanislava

2010-01-01

289

Action Handbook for Automotive Service Instruction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The document is a handbook for a vocational automotive service education program which was formulated as a result of a four-day series of intensive workshops called the National Automotive Service Vocational Education Conference. The handbook discusses the major components of an automotive service vocational education program and aspects of their…

Motor Vehicle Manufacturers Association of the U.S., Inc., Detroit, MI.

290

Polysulfide Sealants for Automotive Stationary Glass  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the past 25 years, polysulfide sealants have become well known and widely used in the aircraft, marine, building, and more recently, the automotive industry. For automotive windshields, sealants must function on high speed production lines, maintain bonding power for 10 years or more, and meet new Federal Safety Specifications for glass retention. The most widely used automotive polysulfide sealant

John Gallagher; Ralph Gazzillo; Daniel Smith

1970-01-01

291

Economic impact of changing automotive materials use  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of prospective changes in automotive materials use on the nation's economy for the years 1990 and 2000. Based on detailed analysis of automotive materials use, this study first developed various assumptions on future automotive materials use, which were then incorporated into a detailed US input-output model constructed to analyze the

Koo

1985-01-01

292

78 FR 36633 - National Automotive Sampling System  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...2012-0084] National Automotive Sampling System AGENCY: National Highway...modernization of National Automotive Sampling System (NASS) or Data Modernization...upgrade the National Automotive Sampling System (NASS) by improving...changed. In addition, the distribution of the U.S....

2013-06-18

293

77 FR 37471 - National Automotive Sampling System  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...NHTSA-2012-0084] National Automotive Sampling System AGENCY: National Highway...of the National Automotive Sampling System (NASS) research design...upgrade the National Automotive Sampling System (NASS) by improving...changed. In addition, the distribution of the U.S....

2012-06-21

294

Systems analysis of flywheels in automotive applications  

SciTech Connect

Progress to date is reported on a continuing study for the Department of Energy on the performance potential of automotive vehicles incorporating energy storage flywheels. The study employs computer simulation techniques to evaluate the utility of the flywheel in several vehicle/mission applications. Analysis results are reported for the case of a four-passenger commuter car with battery/flywheel drive train and a six-passenger family car with heat engine/flywheel drive train. System benefits are reported in terms of range enhancement of fuel economy improvement, as appropriate. Effects or influences identified and characterized include flywheel design, vehicle duty cycle, accessory load, trip distance, drivetrain arrangement, and road maneuver performance specifications.

Forrest, L.

1983-08-01

295

Hologram interferometry in automotive component vibration testing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An ever increasing variety of automotive component vibration testing is being pursued at Ford Motor Company, U.S.A. The driving force for use of hologram interferometry in these tests is the continuing need to design component structures to meet more stringent functional performance criteria. Parameters such as noise and vibration, sound quality, and reliability must be optimized for the lightest weight component possible. Continually increasing customer expectations and regulatory pressures on fuel economy and safety mandate that vehicles be built from highly optimized components. This paper includes applications of holographic interferometry for powertrain support structure tuning, body panel noise reduction, wiper system noise and vibration path analysis, and other vehicle component studies.

Brown, Gordon M.; Forbes, Jamie W.; Marchi, Mitchell M.; Wales, Raymond R.

1993-02-01

296

Ethanol Production for Automotive Fuel Usage  

Microsoft Academic Search

The conceptual design of the 20 million gallon per year anhydrous ethanol facility a t Raft River has been completed. The corresponding geothermal gathering, extraction and reinjection systems to supply the process heating requirement were also completed. The ethanol facility operating on sugar beets, potatoes and wheat will share common fermentation and product recovery equipment. The geothermal fluid requirement will

T. E. Lindemuth; R. A. Stenzel; Y. J. Yim; J. Yu

1980-01-01

297

Ethanol Production for Automotive Fuel Usage  

Microsoft Academic Search

The production of ethanol from potatoes, sugar beet, and wheat using geothermal resources at the Raft River area of idaho is being evaluated. The south central section of Idaho produces approximately 18 million bushels of wheat, 1.3 million tons of sugar beet and 24 million cwt potatoes annually. Based on these production figures, a 20 million gallon\\/yr ethanol facility has

S. C. May; R. A. Stenzel; M. C. Weekes; J. Yu

1979-01-01

298

Ethanol Production for Automotive Fuel Usage  

SciTech Connect

The conceptual design of the 20 million gallon per year anhydrous ethanol facility a t Raft River has been completed. The corresponding geothermal gathering, extraction and reinjection systems to supply the process heating requirement were also completed. The ethanol facility operating on sugar beets, potatoes and wheat will share common fermentation and product recovery equipment. The geothermal fluid requirement will be approximately 6,000 gpm. It is anticipated that this flow will be supplied by 9 supply wells spaced at no closer than 1/4 mile in order to prevent mutual interferences. The geothermal fluid will be flashed in three stages to supply process steam at 250 F, 225 F and 205 F for various process needs. Steam condensate plus liquid remaining after the third flash will all be reinjected through 9 reinjection wells. The capital cost estimated for this ethanol plant employing all three feedstocks is $64 million. If only a single feedstock were used (for the same 20 mm gal/yr plant) the capital costs are estimated at $51.6 million, $43.1 million and $40. 5 million for sugar beets, potatoes and wheat respectively. The estimated capital cost for the geothermal system is $18 million.

Lindemuth, T.E.; Stenzel, R.A.; Yim, Y.J.; Yu, J.

1980-01-31

299

Low-tonnage production of motor fuels at remote fields  

Microsoft Academic Search

A reliable supply of motor fuels for automotive transport is one of the most important factors in normal functioning of the economy of any country. Crude oil and gas condensate are the traditional primary feedstock for manufacture of motor fuelsautomotive gasolines and diesel fuels. In Russia, despite the large production volumes and enormous reserves of this hydrocarbon feedstock,

V. G. Stepanov

2005-01-01

300

Automobile Buyer Decisions about Fuel Economy and Fuel Efficiency  

Microsoft Academic Search

Much prior research into consumer automotive and fuel purchase behaviors and fuel economy has been shaped by the normative assumptions of economics. Among these assumptions are that consumers should pay attention to costs of fuel and that they are aware of their options to save on fuel over long periods of time, i.e., the life of a vehicle or at

Kenneth S Kurani; Tom Turrentine

2004-01-01

301

Automotive Stirling Engine Development Program - Combustion system development  

SciTech Connect

The Automotive Stirling Engine (ASE) Program objectives are to develop kinematic Stirling engines, and transfer Stirling-engine technology to the United States. Stringent emissions requirements and the high-temperature environment of an ASE combustion system require a reduced flame temperature via techniques such as recirculation of combustion products, while the high recuperated air temperature causes fuel nozzle plugging and premature failure of metallic parts. This paper discusses the development of exhaust and combustion gas recirculation combustors, ceramics and ceramic coatings, and plug-resistant fuel nozzles.

Farrell, R.A.

1984-08-01

302

Microacoustic sensors for automotive applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, sensors and sensor systems have gained increasing importance for automotive electronics. In this paper, the suitability and the perspectives in the application of microacoustic sensors in the fields of angular rate sensors, pressure sensors, wireless sensor readout and liquid sensors are discussed

Bernhard Jakoby; Robert Bosch

2000-01-01

303

Ceramic Automotive Stirling Engine study  

Microsoft Academic Search

A conceptual design study for a Ceramic Automotive Stirling Engine (CASE) was performed. Year 1990 structural ceramic technology was assumed. Structural and performance analyses of the conceptual design were performed as well as manufacturing and cost analysis. The general conclusions from this study are that an engine using ceramic hot parts would be 10 to 26% more efficient over its

S. Musikant; W. Chiu; D. Darooka; D. M. Mullings; C. A. Johnson

1985-01-01

304

Automotive Mechanics. Student Learning Guides.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

These 33 learning guides are self-instructional packets for 33 tasks identified as essential for performance on an entry-level job in automotive mechanics. Each guide is based on a terminal performance objective (task) and 1-9 enabling objectives. For each enabliing objective, some or all of these materials may be presented: learning steps…

Ridge Vocational-Technical Center, Winter Haven, FL.

305

Automotive Technician Educational Cooperative Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Automotive Technician Educational Cooperative (ATEC), the premier applied-technology program at Truckee Meadows Community College (Sparks, Nevada), exemplifies what can be accomplished through leadership, cooperation, and dedication of a qualified faculty committed to designing and implementing a program based on standards. (JOW)

Verbeck, Bill

1998-01-01

306

Materials substitution in automotive interiors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Automotive interiors are evolving in the direction of increased: luxury, passive occupant crash protection, acoustic and vibration isolation, electronic instrumentation, and Warranty life. Performance requirements for materials to satisfy these needs are demanding higher levels of temperature and weather resistance, energy management capability and acoustic barrier properties. The complex, multi-material composition of many interior components requires fabrication processes with high

Eller

1987-01-01

307

Signal processing for automotive applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The complexity of automobiles has increased sharply. Consumer demands for better performance at a low cost have caused a boom in electrical components. Many of these components require the use of signal processing techniques to provide the desired response. The authors discuss signal processing for use in “smart” sensor design for automotive applications. The paper begins with a general overview

Tony Gioutsos

1995-01-01

308

Mass customisation — an automotive perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increasingly automotive manufacturers are aiming for mass customisation, providing such a variety of products that nearly everyone can find what they want. More product variety is causing escalating costs and complexity in the manufacturing system. It is not clear how the manufacturing system engendered by lean production will respond to this challenge. Manufacturers are experimenting with models of the assembly

Dave Alford; Peter Sackett; Geoff Nelder

2000-01-01

309

Automotive Technologies. State Competency Profile.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document, which lists the technical automotive technologies competencies identified by representatives from business, industry, and labor as well as technical educators throughout Ohio, is intended to assist individuals and organizations in developing college tech prep programs that will prepare students from secondary through post-secondary…

Ohio Board of Regents, Columbus.

310

Automotive power generation and control  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes some new developments in the application of power electronics to automotive power generation and control. A new load-matching technique is introduced that uses a simple switched-mode rectifier to achieve dramatic increases in peak and average power output from a conventional Lundell alternator, along with substantial improvements in efficiency. Experimental results demonstrate these capability improvements. Additional performance and

David J. Perreault; Vahe Caliskan

2004-01-01

311

Visualization of complex automotive data.  

PubMed

Making complicated data easier to understand has always been a challenge. Four types of visualization applications (CAD, generalized, specialized, and custom) have successfully been used by automotive manufacturers such as General Motors to help meet this goal. Here are some ways that common processes can be developed for all types of visualization. PMID:18027800

Stevens, Jeffrey A

312

Automotive Mechanics. Student Learning Guides.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|These 33 learning guides are self-instructional packets for 33 tasks identified as essential for performance on an entry-level job in automotive mechanics. Each guide is based on a terminal performance objective (task) and 1-9 enabling objectives. For each enabliing objective, some or all of these materials may be presented: learning steps…

Ridge Vocational-Technical Center, Winter Haven, FL.

313

Automotive Technician Educational Cooperative Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The Automotive Technician Educational Cooperative (ATEC), the premier applied-technology program at Truckee Meadows Community College (Sparks, Nevada), exemplifies what can be accomplished through leadership, cooperation, and dedication of a qualified faculty committed to designing and implementing a program based on standards. (JOW)|

Verbeck, Bill

1998-01-01

314

Thirteenth annual report to Congress on the Automotive Technology Development Program  

SciTech Connect

This is the thirteenth annual report on the progress in implementing the Automotive Propulsion Research and Development Act of 1976 (Title III of Public Law 95-238). The Act provides for a R D effort with respect to advanced automotive propulsion systems technology which would complement and stimulate corresponding efforts by the private sector. Implementation of the Act is responsibility of the DOE's Office of Transportation Technologies (OTT). The program goals of OTT are to increase end use efficiency of highway vehicles and other transportation modes and to substitute domestic fuels such as methanol, ethanol, and natural gas for petroleum-based fuels.

Not Available

1992-01-01

315

Thirteenth annual report to Congress on the Automotive Technology Development Program  

SciTech Connect

This is the thirteenth annual report on the progress in implementing the Automotive Propulsion Research and Development Act of 1976 (Title III of Public Law 95-238). The Act provides for a R & D effort with respect to advanced automotive propulsion systems technology which would complement and stimulate corresponding efforts by the private sector. Implementation of the Act is responsibility of the DOE`s Office of Transportation Technologies (OTT). The program goals of OTT are to increase end use efficiency of highway vehicles and other transportation modes and to substitute domestic fuels such as methanol, ethanol, and natural gas for petroleum-based fuels.

Not Available

1992-01-01

316

Environmental, Resource Conservation, and Economic Aspects of Used Oil Recycling.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In order to provide current and updated information, the case for burning used automotive lubricating oil versus re-refining it has been reevaluated based upon the 1980 American economy and energy conservation posture. In these comparisons, the environmen...

D. W. Brinkman M. L. Whisman N. J. Weinstein H. R. Emmerson

1981-01-01

317

Automotive Stirling Engine Development Program. Quarterly technical progress report, October--December 1977  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report covers the first 3 months effort of the Ford\\/DOE Automotive Stirling Engine Development Program, specifically Task I which is Fuel Economy Assessment. At the beginning of this contract effort the projected fuel economy of the 4-215 Stirling engine was 21.16 MPG with a confidence level of 29 percent. Since that date, the fuel economy improvement projection of the

Kitzner

1978-01-01

318

Ninth annual report to Congress on the Automotive Technology Development Program  

SciTech Connect

This report discusses DOE sponsored research in the area of automotive propulsion technology for the fiscal year 1987. Topics included are: (1) development of advanced heat engines with 30% improvement in fuel economy; (2) development of diesel engines with 30% improvement in fuel economy; (3) structural ceramics and advanced materials research; (4) establishment of a technology base for use of alternative fuels; (5) research and development of gas turbine, Stirling, and adiabatic diesel engines. (BCS)

Not Available

1987-09-17

319

Planning fuel-conservative descents with or without time constraints using a small programmable calculator: algorithm development and flight test results  

SciTech Connect

A simplified flight-management descent algorithm, programmed on a small programmable calculator, was developed and flight tested. It was designed to aid the pilot in planning and executing a fuel-conservative descent to arrive at a metering fix at a time designated by the air traffic control system. The algorithm may also be used for planning fuel-conservative descents when time is not a consideration. The descent path was calculated for a constant Mach/airspeed schedule from linear approximations of airplane performance with considerations given for gross weight, wind, and nonstandard temperature effects. The flight-management descent algorithm is described. The results of flight tests flown with a T-39A (Sabreliner) airplane are presented.

Knox, C.E.

1983-03-01

320

Present and Future Automotive Composite Materials Research Efforts at DOE  

SciTech Connect

Automobiles of the future will be forced to travel fi.uther on a tank of fuel while discharging lower levels of pollutants. Currently, the United States uses in excess of 16.4 million barrels of petroleum per day. Sixty-six percent of that petroleum is used in the transportation of people and goods. Automobiles currently account for just under two-thirds of the nation's gasoline consumptio~ and about one-third of the total United States energy usage. [1] By improving transportation related fiel efficiency, the United States can lessen the impact that emissions have on our environment and provide a cleaner environment for fiture generations. In 1992, The Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Transportation Materials completed a comprehensive program plan entitled, The Lightweight MateriaIs (LWko Multi-Year Program Plan, for the development of technologies aimed at reducing vehicle mass [2]. This plan was followed in 1997 by the more comprehensive Office of Advanced Automotive Technologies research and development plan titled, Energy Eficient Vehicles for a Cleaner Environment [3] which outlines the department's plans for developing more efficient vehicles during the next ~een years. Both plans identi~ potential applications, technology needs, and R&D priorities. The goal of the Lightweight Materials Program is to develop materials and primary processing methods for the fabrication of lighter weight components which can be incorporated into automotive systems. These technologies are intended to reduce vehicle weight, increase fuel efficiency and decrease emissions. The Lightweight Materials program is jointly managed by the Department of Energy(DOE) and the United States Automotive Materials Partnership (USAMP). Composite materiak program work is coordinated by cooperative research efforts between the DOE and the Automotive Composites Consortium (ACC).

Warren, C.D.

1999-07-03

321

Downsizing assessment of automotive Stirling engines  

SciTech Connect

A 67 kW (90 hp) Stirling engine design, sized for use in a 1984 1440 kg (3170 lb) automobile has been serving as the focal point for developing automotive Stirling engine technology under a current DOE/NASA R and D program. Since recent trends are towards lighter vehicles, an assessment was made of the appicability of the Stirling technology being developed for smaller, lower power engines. Using both the Philips scaling laws and a Lewis Research Center (Lewis) Stirling engine performance code, dimensional and performance characteristics were determined for a 26 kW (35 hp) and a 37 kW (50 hp) engine for use in a nominal 907 kg (2000 lb) vehicle. Key engine elements were sized and stressed and mechanical layouts were made to ensure mechanical fit and integrity of the engines. Fuel economy estimates indicated that the Stirling engine would maintain a 30 to 45 percent fuel economy advantage over comparable spark ignition and diesel powered vehicles in the 1984 time period. In order to maintain the performance advantage, particular attention must be paid to the Stirling engine mechanical losses and, although evaluated in this report, the cold start penalties.

Knoll, R.H.; Tew, R.C. Jr.; Klann, J.L.

1983-09-01

322

Ceramic Automotive Stirling Engine study  

SciTech Connect

A conceptual design study for a Ceramic Automotive Stirling Engine (CASE) was performed. Year 1990 structural ceramic technology was assumed. Structural and performance analyses of the conceptual design were performed as well as manufacturing and cost analysis. The general conclusions from this study are that an engine using ceramic hot parts would be 10 to 26% more efficient over its performance map than the current metal Automotive Stirling Reference Engine (ASRE). Cost of such a ceramic engine is likely to be somewhat higher than that of the ASRE but engine cost is very sensitive to the ultimate cost of the high purity, ceramic powder raw materials required to fabricate high performance parts. When the design study was projected to the year 2000 technology, substantial net efficiency improvements, on the order of 25 to 46% over the ASRE, were computed. This design employed advanced heat pipe technology in addition to year 2000 ceramic technology. 5 refs.

Musikant, S.; Chiu, W.; Darooka, D.; Mullings, D.M.; Johnson, C.A.

1985-01-01

323

Recycling used automotive oil filters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over 400 million used automotive oil filters are discarded in the United States each year, most of which are disposed of in landfills wasting valuable resources and risking contamination of ground- and surface-water supplies. This article summarizes U.S. bureau of Mines research evaluating scrap prepared from used automotive oil filters. Experimental results show that crushed and drained oil filters have a bulk density that is higher than many typical scrap grades, a chemical analysis low in residual elements (except tin due to use of tin plate in filters), and an overall yield, oil-filter scrap to cast steel, of 76% to 85%, depending on the method used to prepare the scrap.

Peaslee, Kent D.

1994-02-01

324

Large Displays in Automotive Design  

Microsoft Academic Search

More recently, automotive design studios have begun to explore the use of large-scale digital displays in their design workflow. Often, the applications of these displays have direct analogues with traditional techniques; in other cases, new applications are evolving that use these displays to visualize and inter-act with design content in new ways. An interesting attribute of this evo-lution is that,

William Buxton; George W. Fitzmaurice; Ravin Balakrishnan; Gordon Kurtenbach

2000-01-01

325

Communication bus for automotive applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Integrated solutions and interconnectivity impose a demanding challenge to automotive industry including requirements, such as safety, high inherent reliability, and fault-tolerance. Drive-by-wire applications imply not only the replacement of mechanical and hydraulic components by electronic systems but it also introduce new functionality, such as collision avoiding cars, enhanced vehicle handling and driving behaviour, and improved vehicle durability. The Time-Triggered Architecture

Stefan Poledna; Wolfgang Ettlmayr; Markus Novak

2001-01-01

326

Congressional Oversight Panel. September Oversight Report: The Use of TARP Funds in the Support and Reorganization of the Domestic Automotive Industry. September 9, 2009.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Even before last year's financial crisis, the American automotive industry was facing severe strains. Foreign competitors had steadily eroded its market share. Rising fuel prices had softened demand for its products. Legacy costs had constrained its flexi...

2009-01-01

327

Power electronics intensive solutions for advanced electric, hybrid electric, and fuel cell vehicular power systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a clear trend in the automotive industry to use more electrical systems in order to satisfy the ever-growing vehicular load demands. Thus, it is imperative that automotive electrical power systems will obviously undergo a drastic change in the next 10-20 years. Currently, the situation in the automotive industry is such that the demands for higher fuel economy and

Ali Emadi; Sheldon S. Williamson; Alireza Khaligh

2006-01-01

328

Quality and Electrode Life Improvements to Automotive Resistance Welding of Aluminum Sheet  

Microsoft Academic Search

Commentators have suggested that the need for better fuel economy will see a resurgence in the use of aluminum in the North American automotive sector. Recent advances have put aluminum back into mainstream automobile production, and pressure for more efficient vehicles will lead to increased use of aluminum where possible. Aluminum, however, is still considered difficult to weld, which hampers

Kevin R. Chan; Nigel S. Scotchmer

329

Comparison of steady-state and transient CVS cycle emissions of an automotive Stirling engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the goals of the Automotive Stirling Engine Development Program, sponsored by the Department of Energy and managed by NASA\\/Lewis Research Center, is to develop a rationale for predicting transient CVS cycle emissions from steady-state engine data. A technique is developed that integrates engine emissions as a function of fuel flow over a modelled CVS cycle to predict vehicle

R. A. Farrell; R. J. Bolton

1983-01-01

330

Energy system feasibility study of an Otto cycle\\/Stirling cycle hybrid automotive engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility of utilising a Stirling cycle engine as an exhaust gas waste heat recovery device for an Otto cycle internal combustion engine (ICE) in the context of an automotive power plant. The hybrid arrangement would produce increased brake power output for a given fuel consumption rate when compared to an ICE

Barry Cullen; Jim McGovern

2010-01-01

331

Proceedings of the 24th automotive technology development contractors coordination meeting (P-197)  

SciTech Connect

This book presents the papers given at a conference on automotive heat engines. Topics considered at the conference included Stirling cycle analysis, austenitic stainless steels, coatings, the DOE Alternative Fuels Utilization Program, ceramic technology, the fatigue of alumina at room and elevated temperatures, zirconia-toughened ceramics for heat engine applications, the nondestructive testing of structural ceramics, and the sintering of silicon nitrides.

Not Available

1986-01-01

332

Lubricated PVD CrAlN and WC\\/C coatings for automotive applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Demand on a better efficiency and higher performance under environmentally friendly aspects is an actual trend for automotive applications and machine components. This can be achieved by vacuum coatings such as DLC (diamond-like carbon), which offer excellent results in e.g. fuel injection systems, piston pins, gears and bearings. Nowadays, DLC has become very interesting for lubricated tribological contacts, because of

K. Bobzin; N. Bagcivan; N. Goebbels; K. Yilmaz; B.-R. Hoehn; K. Michaelis; M. Hochmann

2009-01-01

333

An experimental investigation on fluid dynamics of an automotive torque converter  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of the automotive torque converter fluid dynamics experimental investigation is to understand the flow field inside the torque converter, improve the performance, and increase the fuel economy of vehicles. A high-frequency response five-hole probe was developed for the unsteady flow measurement. The dynamic performance of this probe was examined, and the corresponding data processing technique was also developed.

Yu Dong

1998-01-01

334

Exploring innovation in the automotive industry: new technologies for cleaner cars  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concept of innovation has been used in a wide range of contexts and the theoretical development has proven to be extremely valuable to provide important insights into intra-market competition, strategy and regulatory policy. The automotive industry offers a fertile terrain for progress of the uncompleted theory building process of innovation, especially with the introduction of alternative fuels and alternative

Clovis Zapata; Paul Nieuwenhuis

2010-01-01

335

Effect of MoSâ based lubricants on automotive gear efficiency and operating temperatures  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to achieve the federally mandated fuel economy standards for automotive vehicles, passenger car and truck rear axle and differential lubrication must become more efficient. The results of the study described indicate potential for improvement in axle efficiency if MoSâ based lubricants are used.

D. A. Gresty; E. J. Jr. Kunz; T. J. Risdon

1977-01-01

336

Direct and indirect conservation of fossil-fuel energy: the influence of financial and philosophical motivators and available human resources  

Microsoft Academic Search

The research was conducted as a secondary analysis of data collected during the evaluation of a statewide household energy audit conducted at Michigan State University. Energy-consumption data from utility and oil companies served as the measure of direct conservation. Indirect conservation was investigated through the analysis of self-reported participation in a variety of behaviors collectively defined as voluntary simplicity. The

1982-01-01

337

Global sustainability and key needs in future automotive design.  

PubMed

The number of light vehicle registrations is forecast to increase worldwide by a factor of 3-5 over the next 50 years. This will dramatically increase environmental impacts worldwide of automobiles and light trucks. If light vehicles are to be environmentally sustainable globally, the automotive industry must implement fundamental changes in future automotive design. Important factors in assessing automobile design needs include fuel economy and reduced emissions. Many design parameters can impact vehicle air emissions and energy consumption including alternative fuel or engine technologies, rolling resistance, aerodynamics, drive train design, friction, and vehicle weight. Of these, vehicle weight is key and will translate into reduced energy demand across all energy distribution elements. A new class of vehicles is needed that combines ultra-light design with a likely hybrid or fuel cell engine technology. This could increase efficiency by a factor of 3-5 and reduce air emissions as well. Advanced lightweight materials, such as plastics or composites, will need to overtake the present metal-based infrastructure. Incorporating design features to facilitate end-of-life recycling and recovery is also important. The trend will be towards fewer materials and parts in vehicle design, combined with ease of disassembly. Mono-material construction can create vehicle design with improved recyclability as well as reduced numbers of parts and weight. PMID:14700327

McAuley, John W

2003-12-01

338

NASA/DOE automotive Stirling engine project. Overview 1986  

SciTech Connect

The DOE/NASA Automotive Stirling Engine Project is reviewed and its technical progress and status are presented. Key technologies in materials, seals, and piston rings are progressing well. Seven first-generation engines, and midifications thereto, have accumulated over 15 000 hr of test time, including 1100 hr of in-vehicle testing. Results indicate good progress toward the program goals. The first second-generation engine is now undergoing initial testing. It is expected that the program goal of a 30-percent improvement in fuel economy will be achieved in tests of a second-generation engine in a Celebrity vehicle.

Beremand, D.G.; Shaltens, R.K.

1986-01-01

339

Brakes Specialist. Teacher Edition. Automotive Service Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This document contains teacher's materials for a course on becoming an automotive brakes specialist, based on the National Institute of Automotive Service Excellence task lists. The course consists of three instructional units: service brake hydraulic system and wheel bearings, service drum brakes, and service disc brakes. Depending on the…

Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

340

Petroleum Marketing. Selling Automotive Products and Services.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This textbook contains material for the individualized instruction of students training for careers in service stations; automotive, tire, battery, and accessory retail stores; oil jobbers and petroleum product wholesalers, or any wholesale or retail establishment that sells automotive products and services. Included among the topics addressed in…

Luter, Robert R.

341

Mod I automotive Stirling engine mechanical development  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Mod I Stirling engine was the first automotive Stirling engine designed specifically for automotive application. Testing of these engines has revealed several deficiencies in engine mechanical integrity which have been corrected by redesign or upgrade. The main deficiencies uncovered during the Mod I program lie in the combustion, auxiliary, main seal, and heater head areas. This paper will address

Simetkosky

1984-01-01

342

Hybrid systems in automotive electronics design  

Microsoft Academic Search

Automotive electronic design is certainly one of the most attractive and promising application domains for hybrid system techniques. Some successful hybrid system applications to automotive model development and control algorithm design have already been reported in the literature. However, despite the significant advances achieved in the past few years, hybrid methods are in general still not mature enough for their

A. Balluchi; L. Benvenuti; A. Ferrari; A. L. Sangiovanni-Vincentelli

2006-01-01

343

Rare earth metals for automotive exhaust catalysts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The usage of rare earth metals for automotive exhaust catalysts is demonstrated in this paper. Rare earth metals have been widely used in automotive catalysts. In particular, three-way catalysts require the use of ceria compounds as oxygen storage materials, and lanthana as both a stabilizer of alumina and a promoter. The application for diesel catalysts is also illustrated. Effects of

Hirohumi Shinjoh

2006-01-01

344

Automotive engines for the 1980's  

Microsoft Academic Search

Changing social requirements and new technological developments will lead to major changes in automotive power plants. Wankel, Stirling, turbine, stratified charge, and diesel engines are the most serious contenders to replace or supplement today's piston engine. An assessment is made of their market applicability and likely commercialization through the 1980's, and a broad overall perspective on the future of automotive

1974-01-01

345

Standardized Curriculum for Automotive Body Repair.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Standardized curricula are provided for two courses for the secondary vocational education program in Mississippi: automotive body repair I and II. The nine units in automotive body repair I are as follows: introduction; related information; basic tool usage and safety; body and frame construction; basic sheet metal repair; preparing for…

Mississippi State Dept. of Education, Jackson. Office of Vocational, Technical and Adult Education.

346

Nonlinear Speed Control for Automotive Engines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous research has shown that high performance engine controllers could be used in conjunction with electronic controls on automatic transmissions to improve shift quality. Due to the highly nonlinear nature of automotive engines and the need for robustness of the design, sliding control is a likely choice. However, a standard sliding derivation for an automotive engine results in an unpractical

J. H. Green; J. K. Hedrick

1990-01-01

347

Automotive use of alcohol in Brazil and air pollution related aspects  

SciTech Connect

The continued expansion of alcohol use in Brazil, to replace gasoline as fuel for Otto internal combustion engines, has led to the technological development of these engines. However, despite the progress achieved in fuel economy, driveability, corrosion resistance, etc., no comparable progress has been achieved in air pollutants emission control. This paper presents an overview of of the alcohol automotive use in Brazil and discusses its air pollution related aspects.

Szwarc, A.; Branco, G.M.

1985-01-01

348

Hot-Film-Type Fuel-Flow Sensor.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A wide variety of flow sensors is available for applications including industrial flow meters and measuring instruments. The Mitsubishi hot-film-type fuel-flow sensor has been designed specifically for automotive applications. Fuel-flow values are derived...

H. Sato K. Tanimoto M. Bessho H. Arai Y. Tsuboi

1984-01-01

349

Development of a Laboratory Test for Multiport Fuel Injector Deposits - Evaluation of the Jet Fuel Thermal Oxidation Test Apparatus (JFTOT).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes the laboratory effort to develop a bench test suitable for screening gasolines to determine their potential for forming deposits in automotive port fuel injectors. The test selected for this work was the Jet Fuel Thermal Oxidation Te...

H. O. Strange

1987-01-01

350

Development process of automotive microsensors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The phased product development approach can be applied advantageously to develop and manufacture automotive microsensors. The phased approach involves a multifunctional team from innovation to development to eventual production and maintenance phases. The key advantage of this approach is the shortened development cycle and fast product introduction, while minimizing waste of resources and lowering risk of product failure. When applied to the product cycles of automotive sensors based on micromachining technology, this approach elucidates several critical considerations. In particular, since industrial application of micromachining technology is still at the infant stage, standards and design rules are not firmly established. Therefore, several important activities must be initiated simultaneously from the start of the innovation phase, which proves to be crucial to the prudent decision of technology alternatives and sensor system configuration. The use of a multifunctional team, as mandated in the phased approach, enables coherent development and optimization of the sense element, the fabrication technology, the packaging approach, the interface circuit configuration, and design features that allow efficient test and assembly flow. Also, with intermediate milestones within each phase, risk assessment and necessary midcourse adjustment to technology trade- offs can be both timely and accurate. Accelerometers, one of the most developed micromachined sensors, serve as representative examples that illustrate how the phased approach can benefits the commercialization of the newly established and rapidly expanding field of micromechanics.

Tang, William C.

1995-05-01

351

Analysis of the potential for new automotive uses of wrought magnesium  

SciTech Connect

The Center for Transportation Research at Argonne National Laboratory has performed a study for the Lightweight Materials Program within the US Department of Energy`s Office of Transportation Materials to evaluate the suitability of wrought magnesium and its alloys to replace steel or aluminum for automotive structural and sheet applications. Vehicle weight reduction is one of the major means available for improving automotive fuel efficiency. Although high-strength steels, Al, and polymers are already being used to achieve significant weight reductions, substantial additional weight reductions could be achieved by increased use of Mg (whose density is less than one-fourth that of steel and only two-thirds that of Al). This study shows that Mg sheet could be used in automotive body nonstructural and semistructural applications, whereas extrusions could be used in such structural applications as spaceframes. The primary barrier to such uses of wrought Mg is high cost.

Gaines, L.; Cuenca, R.; Wu, S. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Stodolsky, F. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)]|[Argonne National Lab., Washington, DC (United States)

1996-02-01

352

US\\/FRG joint report on the pebble bed high temperature reactor resource conservation potential and associated fuel cycle costs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Independent analyses at ORNL and KFA have led to the general conclusion that the flexibility in design and operation of a high-temperature gas-cooled pebble-bed reactor (PBR) can result in favorable ore utilization and fuel costs in comparison with other reactor types, in particular, with light-water reactors (LWRs). Fuel reprocessign and recycle show considerable promise for reducing ore consumption, and even

E. Teuchert; H. J. Ruetten; B. A. Worley; D. R. Vondy

1979-01-01

353

Durability of composites in automotive structural applications  

SciTech Connect

The overall goal of the project is to develop experimentally-based, durability-driven design guidelines for automotive composite structures and to demonstrate their applicability to lightweight, manufacturable structures under representative field loading histories and environments. Key technical issues are the potentially degrading effects that (1) both cyclic and long-term sustained loadings, (2) various automotive environments, and (3) low-energy impacts can have on the dimensional stability, strength, and stiffness of automotive composite structures. The purpose of this paper is to present the findings and observations developed to date and to outline future directions.

Corum, J.M.; Battiste, R.L.; McCoy, H.E.; Ruggles, M.B.; Simpson, W.A.; Weitsman, Y.J.

1996-10-01

354

Celanese polymer blends for automotive exterior applications  

SciTech Connect

The properties and commercial applications are described for a series of polymer blends based on Polybutylene Terephthalate (PBT). These blends are characterized by a unique balance of properties including super impact at a modulus characteristic of PBT, resistance to automotive chemicals, and ability to withstand temperatures required in automotive paint systems. The materials are tradenamed Duraloy(TM); the 2000 series of Duraloy(TM) is based on PBT. The mechanical and thermal properties of this series and the relationship of the properties to use in automotive body applications are discussed.

LaNieve, H.L.

1986-01-01

355

Fuel rail  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a fuel rail for a V-configuration automotive type internal combustion engine having a throttle body superimposed over an intake manifold. The throttle body has an air plenum above an induction channel aligned with a throttle bore passage in the manifold for flow or air to the engine cylinders. The rail includes a spacer body mounted sealingly between the throttle body and the manifold of the engine and having air induction passages therethrough to connect the throttle body channels and the manifold, the spacer body having at least on longitudinal bore defining a fuel passage extending through the spacer body, and a fuel injector receiving cups projecting from and communicating with the fuel passage. The spacer body consists of a number of separated spacer members, and rail member means through which the fuel passage runs joining the spacer members together.

Haigh, M.; Herbert, J.D.; O'Leary, J.J.

1988-09-20

356

Sensor Development for Pem Fuel Cell Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This document reports on the work done by Honeywell Sensing and Control to investigate the feasibility of modifying low cost Commercial Sensors for use inside a PEM Fuel Cell environment. Both stationary and automotive systems were considered. The target ...

2005-01-01

357

Fuel cells for cars - a competitive analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Specific competitive conditions will decide on the successful introduction of proton exchange membrane (PEM-) fuel cells as an automotive traction system substitute. Porter's competitive analysis methodology the so-called \\

Gian Carle; Peter Keller; Alexander Wokaun; K. W. Axhausen

2004-01-01

358

Energy: Conservation, Energy Briefs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A comprehensive energy conservation program at College of the Holy Cross has saved nearly one-third of the fuel oil and one-fifth of the electricity used at the college; briefs on boilers, lights, design. (Author/MLF)

Nation's Schools and Colleges, 1975

1975-01-01

359

Future Automotive Materials: Evolution or Revolution.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An exciting era is evolving in the application of new materials technologies to automotive applications. The desire on the part of the automobile industry to completely satisfy the customers while concurrently meeting increasing demands and regulations fo...

P. Beardmore

1990-01-01

360

Lubricating Oil for Automotive Hypoid Gears.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The lubricating oil for automotive hypoid gears is usually based on mineral oil, alkylamine, and chlorine- and sulfur-containing additives. In order to increase the operating properties of the oil the Russian patent suggests the addition of the following:...

E. I. Petyakina F. Y. Chames I. B. Gubenko I. F. Blagovidov P. P. Bagryantseva

1972-01-01

361

A global modular framework for automotive diagnosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The automotive after-sales dealers lack solutions for accurate, comprehensive and efficient fault localization. However, such services in the after-sales networks are crucial to the brand value of automotive manufacturers and for client satisfaction. In this paper, a new approach for the off-board diagnosis is presented, with significant improvements compared to the current technologies. A more robust approach that allows, per

A. Azarian; A. Siadat

362

International automotive research and testing centers guide  

SciTech Connect

Automotive Engineering`s Guide can help identify organizations throughout the world offering automotive research and testing assistance. These independent partners offer their services for aerodynamics testing, environmental testing, electronic and instrumentation testing, engine and emissions testing, material testing, mechanical testing, noise and acoustics testing, safety testing, structural testing, and vehicle dynamics testing. Companies offering vehicle design services, prototype build services, and test track facilities are also highlighted.

NONE

1996-03-01

363

Cardiogram: visual analytics for automotive engineers  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present Cardiogram, a visual analytics system that supports automotive engineers in debugging masses of traces each consisting of millions of recorded messages from in-car communication networks. With their increasing complexity, ensuring these safety-critical networks to be error-free has become a major task and challenge for automotive engineers. To overcome shortcomings of current analysis tools, Cardiogram combines visualization techniques with

Michael Sedlmair; Petra Isenberg; Dominikus Baur; Michael Mauerer; Christian Pigorsch; Andreas Butz

2011-01-01

364

A feasibility study on the use of ethanol/automotive gasoline blends in general aviation aircraft  

SciTech Connect

Considering the rising cost and diminished availability of 100-octane, low-lead (100 LL) aviation gasoline, owners of aircraft certified for 100 LL may be forced to find an alternative fuel in the near future. This study proposes a blend of 200-proof anhydrous ethanol ($1.70 per gallon) and automotive gasoline ($1.15 per gallon) as a replacement for aviation gasoline ($1.90 per gallon). The research program included materials compatibility tests, Cooperative Fuel Research engine tests, static thrust tests, and a flight test to determine the feasibility of such a blend as a fuel for an unmodified aircraft engine.

Hughes, L.J.; Kimberlin, R.D.

1986-01-01

365

Automotive Electrical and Electronic Systems I; Automotive Mechanics 2: 9045.03.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The automotive electrical and electronic system I course is designed as one of a group of quinmester courses offered in the field of automotive mechanics. General information will be given along with technical knowledge, basic skills, attitudes and values that are required for job entry level. The nine week (135 clock hour) course overcomes some…

Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

366

Secondary-Postsecondary Curriculum Development in Automotive Mechanics. Automotive Electrical Competencies. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Developed as part of a competency-based curriculum in automotive mechanics which is usable by students at both the secondary and postsecondary levels, this learning package focuses on automotive electrical systems. It is the first unit to be published in a series of eight which will cover the eight subject areas on the national certification…

Hoepner, Ronald

367

Automotive Refinishing II; Automotive Body Repair and Refinishing 2: 9035.05.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Part of the Dade County Public School (Florida)Quinmester Program, the automotive refinishing course outline is a continuation of automotive refinishing 1 and emphasizes the practical application of color coating and sheet metal refinishing. Overall refinishing with enamels, lacquers, and acrylics are included as well as spot repair painting and…

Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

368

Development of Prototype Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cell Pick-Up Electric Vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most of the automotive majors are working seriously to be the first to make commercially viable cars powered by the revolutionary fuel cell technology. The fuel cell (FC) will be as big a technological marvel as the internal combustion (IC) engine has been a century ago as compared to the heavy old external combustion steam engines. Automotive companies also know

S. Pathak; J. N. Das; J. Rangarajan; S. R. Choudhury; R. Prakash

2006-01-01

369

Conservation in industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The power of fuel price to promote efficient utilization is illustrated ; by some fuel conservation measures in industrial plants. Fixing broken windows ; and closing doors during loading are simple examples. Some technical measures ; cited are insulating watercooled skid rails used to convey material through a ; heat-treating furnance, recapturing stack gas heat from a radiant fired tube

C. A. Berg

1974-01-01

370

Liquid fuel: what next-alcohol  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alcohol fuels offer promising potential for transportation and industrial application. Alcohol, either ethanol or methanol, can be synthesized from a variety of plentiful domestic resources including urban waste, timber, agricultural waste and surpluses, coal and even algae. Alcohol can be immediately integrated into our present energy system - through blending with gasoline as an automotive fuel, as a pure fuel

1978-01-01

371

Springback Prediction, Compensation and Correlation for Automotive Stamping  

SciTech Connect

To reduce weight and increase fuel efficiency and safety, more and more automotive sheet stamping parts are being made of aluminum and high strength steels. Forming of such materials encounters not just reduced formability but also dimensional quality problems. Springback prediction accuracy and compensation effectiveness have been the major challenge to die development, construction and tryout. In this paper, the factors that affect the accuracy of springback prediction are discussed, which includes the effect of material models, the selection of element size, and the contact algorithms. Springback predictions of several automotive aluminum and high strength panels are compared with measurement data. The examples show that the prediction correlates with measurement data in both springback trend and magnitude. The effect of springback on final product can be reduced or eliminated through process control and die face compensation. The process control method involves finding the root causes of springback and eliminating them through process modification. The geometrical compensation of die surface is a direct way to eliminate the springback effect. The global scaling compensation method is normally limited to parts with relatively small springback. For large springback and twisting, a new approach is discussed, which takes into account of the effect of deformation and springback history. The compensation is achieved iteratively by solving a system of non-linear equations. Production dies were cut to the compensated surface, which shows that the die compensation is an efficient way to reduce springback-induced geometry deviation.

Xu Siguang; Zhao Kunmin; Lanker, Terry; Zhang, Jimmy; Wang, C.T. [General Motors Corp., Manufacturing Engineering, Die Center, 2000 Centerpoint, Pontiac, MI 48341 (United States)

2005-08-05

372

Methods of suppressing automotive interference  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Automotive manufacturers utilize several techniques to reduce EMI emanating from the vehicle. The techniques include resistor spark plugs, resistor spark plug cables, use of silicone lubricant in the distributor, use of capacitors as filters, placement of grounding straps at key locations, conductive fan belt discharge, and tire static-charge reduction. If even further reduction is needed to obtain the maximum capability of a specific mobile communication system, additional suppression techniques are discussed which are effective at frequencies from approximately 30 to 1000 MHz. Measurement results show that the EMI from a new production-line automobile, measured in accordance with SAE Standard J551g, can be reduced as much as 10 to 15 dB by employing these suppression techniques. The amount of degradation to a mobile narrow-band FM receiver, such as the type used by law enforcement agencies, can be measured using the measurement technique described. This same technique can then be used as a tool to further reduce EMI from the vehicle components.

Taggart, H. E.

1981-11-01

373

User discrimination in automotive systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The recently developed dual-view touch screens, which are announced to be installed in cars in a near future, give rise to completely new challenges in human-machine interaction. The automotive system should be able to identify if the driver or the passenger is currently interacting with the touch screen to provide a correct response to the touch. The optical devices, due to availability, acceptance by the users and multifunctional usage, approved to be the most appropriate sensing technology for driver/passenger discrimination. In this work the prototypic optical user discrimination system is implemented in the car simulator and evaluated in the laboratory environment with entirely controlled illumination. Three tests were done for this research. One of them examined if the near-infrared illumination should be switched on around the clock, the second one if there is a difference in discrimination performance between day, twilight and night conditions, and the third one examined how the intensive directional lighting influences the performance of the implemented user discrimination algorithm. Despite the high error rates, the evaluation results show that very simple computer vision algorithms are able to solve complicated user discrimination task. The average error rate of 10.42% (daytime with near-infrared illumination) is a very promising result for optical systems.

Makrushin, Andrey; Dittmann, Jana; Vielhauer, Claus; Leich, Marcus

2011-02-01

374

Two-stage actuation system using DC motors and piezoelectric actuators for controllable industrial and automotive brakes and clutches  

Microsoft Academic Search

High bandwidth actuation systems that are capable of simultaneously producing relatively large forces and displacements are required for use in automobiles and other industrial applications. Conventional hydraulic actuation mechanisms used in automotive brakes and clutches are complex, inefficient and have poor control robustness. These lead to reduced fuel economy, controllability issues and other disadvantages. This paper involves the design, development,

Vijay A. Neelakantan; Gregory N. Washington; Norman K. Bucknor

2005-01-01

375

Model Predictive Control of a Two Stage Actuation System using Piezoelectric Actuators for Controllable Industrial and Automotive Brakes and Clutches  

Microsoft Academic Search

High bandwidth actuation systems that are capable of simultaneously producing relatively large forces and displacements are required for use in automobiles and other industrial applications. Conventional hydraulic actuation mechanisms used in automotive brakes and clutches are complex, inefficient and have poor control robustness. These lead to reduced fuel economy, controllability issues and other disadvantages. Recently, a two-stage hybrid actuation mechanism

Vijay A. Neelakantan; Gregory N. Washington; Norman K. Bucknor

2008-01-01

376

Performance optimisation of the brushless motor with IPM rotor for automotive applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper deals with an analysis of permanent magnet brushless motors with interior pocket magnets (IPM) designed for automotive applications. The presented motors are used in automated manual transmission (AMT) and twin-clutch systems. The AMT systems allow fuel consumption and CO2 emission to be reduced in the vehicle. In the paper are described two versions of the motor design-with 8

J. Junak; G. Ombach

2010-01-01

377

A feasibility study on the use of ethanol\\/automotive gasoline blends in general aviation aircraft  

Microsoft Academic Search

Considering the rising cost and diminished availability of 100-octane, low-lead (100 LL) aviation gasoline, owners of aircraft certified for 100 LL may be forced to find an alternative fuel in the near future. This study proposes a blend of 200-proof anhydrous ethanol ($1.70 per gallon) and automotive gasoline ($1.15 per gallon) as a replacement for aviation gasoline ($1.90 per gallon).

L. J. Hughes; R. D. Kimberlin

1986-01-01

378

Analysis of manganese particulates from automotive decomposition of methylcyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl  

Microsoft Academic Search

Particulates have been collected and analyzed from automotive vehicles operating on fuel containing the organometallic antiknock additive methylcyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl. Electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis and L-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy were used to study and identify the manganese species present in these emitted particulates. Results show that respirable size particulates with a mass median aerodynamic diameter of 2.5 ?m or

C. Colmenares; Steven Deutsch; Cheryl Evans; A. J. Nelson; Louis J. Terminello; John G. Reynolds; Joseph W. Roos; Isaac L. Smith

1999-01-01

379

Trends and new developments in the automotive industry  

SciTech Connect

The trends and new developments in the automotive industry that have led to a 55% increase in fuel economy since 1974 or a saving of 500 million bbl of oil, are automobile powertrain efficiency improvements and 650 lb average weight reduction in domestically produced cars. Future developments in the conventional spark-ignited internal combustion engine that could increase fuel economy by 15% include: better fuel control and combustion chamber design; optimized compression ratio; increased use of electronic control systems, improved lubricants, turbocharging with downsized engine displacement, improved matching of transmission to axle ratio, locked-up overdrive transmissions with neutral idle, and a variable speed accessory drive. Alternative powerplants include: the stratified charge, diesel, electric, turbine, and stirling engines. Continued reductions in vehicle weight, both by downsizing and by increased use of aluminum and plastics, are expected to provide another 10% reduction in fuel consumption. Factors that could act as constraints to these developments are automobile costs, performance, functional utility, safety, emission standards, and design-to-production timing.

Gratch, S.

1980-01-01

380

View of automotive repair and gas station, facing southwest from ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

View of automotive repair and gas station, facing southwest from across Pope Street. Garage built for storage of employee automobiles in left background - Automotive Repair & Gas Station, Southwest corner of Pope Street & Olympic Avenue, Port Gamble, Kitsap County, WA

381

Lube rack of Automotive and Tractor Repair Shops with Warehousefield ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Lube rack of Automotive and Tractor Repair Shops with Warehouse-field Equipment Repair Shop Building's wall to the right, looking from the south - Kekaha Sugar Company, Automotive and Tractor Repair Shops, 8315 Kekaha Road, Kekaha, Kauai County, HI

382

View of south elevation of Automotive and Tractor Repair Shops ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

View of south elevation of Automotive and Tractor Repair Shops with the Warehouse Fabrication Shop and Stack in the background, looking from the southwest - Kekaha Sugar Company, Automotive and Tractor Repair Shops, 8315 Kekaha Road, Kekaha, Kauai County, HI

383

16 CFR Appendix A to Part 306 - Summary of Labeling Requirements for Biodiesel Fuels  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Requirements for Biodiesel Fuels A Appendix A to Part 306 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION...AUTOMOTIVE FUEL RATINGS, CERTIFICATION AND POSTING Pt. 306, App. A Appendix A to Part 306âSummary of Labeling Requirements for...

2010-01-01

384

16 CFR Appendix A to Part 306 - Summary of Labeling Requirements for Biodiesel Fuels  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Requirements for Biodiesel Fuels A Appendix A to Part 306 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION...AUTOMOTIVE FUEL RATINGS, CERTIFICATION AND POSTING Pt. 306, App. A Appendix A to Part 306âSummary of Labeling Requirements for...

2009-01-01

385

Anti-air pollution & energy conservation system for automobiles using leaded or unleaded gasoline, diesel or alternate fuel  

DOEpatents

Exhaust gases from an internal combustion engine operating with leaded or unleaded gasoline or diesel or natural gas, are used for energizing a high-speed gas turbine. The convoluting gas discharge causes a first separation stage by stratifying of heavier and lighter exhaust gas components that exit from the turbine in opposite directions, the heavier components having a second stratifying separation in a vortex tube to separate combustible pollutants from non-combustible components. The non-combustible components exit a vortex tube open end to atmosphere. The lighter combustible, pollutants effected in the first separation are bubbled through a sodium hydroxide solution for dissolving the nitric oxide, formaldehyde impurities in this gas stream before being piped to the engine air intake for re-combustion, thereby reducing the engine's exhaust pollution and improving its fuel economy. The combustible, heavier pollutants from the second separation stage are piped to air filter assemblies. This gas stream convoluting at a high-speed through the top stator-vanes of the air filters, centrifugally separates the coalescent water, aldehydes, nitrogen dioxides, sulfates, sulfur, lead particles which collect at the bottom of the bowl, wherein it is periodically released to the roadway. Whereas, the heavier hydrocarbon, carbon particles are piped through the air filter's porous element to the engine air intake for re-combustion, further reducing the engine's exhaust pollution and improving its fuel economy.

Bose, Ranendra K. (14346 Jacob La., Centreville, VA 20120-3305)

2002-06-04

386

Anti-air pollution & energy conservation system for automobiles using leaded or unleaded gasoline, diesel or alternate fuel  

SciTech Connect

Exhaust gases from an internal combustion engine operating with leaded or unleaded gasoline or diesel or natural gas, are used for energizing a high-speed gas turbine. The convoluting gas discharge causes a first separation stage by stratifying of heavier and lighter exhaust gas components that exit from the turbine in opposite directions, the heavier components having a second stratifying separation in a vortex tube to separate combustible pollutants from non-combustible components. The non-combustible components exit a vortex tube open end to atmosphere. The lighter combustible, pollutants effected in the first separation are bubbled through a sodium hydroxide solution for dissolving the nitric oxide, formaldehyde impurities in this gas stream before being piped to the engine air intake for re-combustion, thereby reducing the engine's exhaust pollution and improving its fuel economy. The combustible, heavier pollutants from the second separation stage are piped to air filter assemblies. This gas stream convoluting at a high-speed through the top stator-vanes of the air filters, centrifugally separates the coalescent water, aldehydes, nitrogen dioxides, sulfates, sulfur, lead particles which collect at the bottom of the bowl, wherein it is periodically released to the roadway. Whereas, the heavier hydrocarbon, carbon particles are piped through the air filter's porous element to the engine air intake for re-combustion, further reducing the engine's exhaust pollution and improving its fuel economy.

Bose, Ranendra K. (14346 Jacob La., Centreville, VA 20120-3305)

2002-06-04

387

Tribopolymerization: An advanced lubrication concept for automotive engines and systems of the future  

SciTech Connect

Advanced lubrication technologies based on the concept of tribopolymerization as a mechanism of boundary lubrication are described. Advantages of this approach as well as potential applications which could have an impact on the design, manufacture, and performance of existing and future automotive engines are presented and discussed. Tribopolymerization, a novel concept of molecular design developed by Furey and Kajdas, involves the continuous formation of thin polymeric films on rubbing surfaces; the protective films formed are self-replenishing. The antiwear compounds developed from this technology are effective with metals as well as ceramics and in the liquid as well as vapor phases. Furthermore, they are ashless and contain no harmful phosphorus or sulfur; and many are biodegradable. Thus, potential applications of this technology are diverse and include a variety of cost/performance/energy/environmental advantages. Examples include the following: (a) machining and cutting applications using thin films to reduce friction and ceramic tool wear; (b) the lubrication of ceramic engines (e.g., low heat rejection diesel engines) or ceramic components; (c) the development of ashless lubricants for existing and future automotive engines to reduce exhaust catalyst poisoning and environmental emissions; (d) ashless antiwear or ``lubricity`` additives for fuels, including gasoline, diesel and jet fuel; (e) vapor phase applications of this technology to high temperature gaseous systems or to fuel injector wear problems associated with the use of natural gas engines; and (f) the use of the concept of tribopolymerization as an enabling technology in the development of new engines and new automotive propulsion systems.

Furey, M.J. [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ., Blacksburg, VA (United States); Kajdas, C. [Warsaw Univ. of Technology, Plock (Poland); Kaltenbach, K.W. [Triad Investors Corp., Baltimore, MD (United States)

1997-12-31

388

Can Distance Learning Be Used to Teach Automotive Management Skills?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Today's automotive college students will shape the future of the automobile industry. The success of college-level automotive programs has long been dependent on the students' ability to participate in hands-on classroom based interactions. In this article, distance learning and how it can be used to teach automotive management skills, as well as…

Noto, Teresa L.

2011-01-01

389

Can Distance Learning Be Used to Teach Automotive Management Skills?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Today's automotive college students will shape the future of the automobile industry. The success of college-level automotive programs has long been dependent on the students' ability to participate in hands-on classroom based interactions. In this article, distance learning and how it can be used to teach automotive management skills, as well as…

Noto, Teresa L.

2011-01-01

390

Automotive Technology Development Program. Seventh annual report to Congress  

SciTech Connect

DOE's Automotive Technology Development Program formulated in response to the Act consists of three major engine-related projects: (1) the Automotive Gas Turbine Engine Development Project, (2) the Automotive Stirling Engine Development Project, and (3) the Heavy Duty Transport Technology Project. In addition, basic ceramic materials technology for all engine projects is being developed under the Advanced Materials Development Project.

Not Available

1985-12-01

391

Car detection using curved mirrors by automotive millimeter wave radar  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper addresses the theme of expansion in the range of uses of an automotive radar. In recent years, ITS has been researched actively in order to prevent accidents. Use of a radar could be considered as one of the collision prevention technologies, and a small portion of vehicles are equipped with automotive radars now. Although the automotive radar uses

N. Senda; M. Nakagawa

2003-01-01

392

Best Practices in School-to-Careers: The Automotive Industry.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document highlights the school-to-careers (STC) partnerships connecting workplace experiences to classroom learning to prepare students for successful employment in the automotive industry. First, the current state of the automotive industry is reviewed and the role of STC in addressing automotive service needs is explained. Next, the…

National Employer Leadership Council, Washington, DC.

393

Qualification testing of automotive terminals for high reliability applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The increasing sophistication of automotive electronic systems has presented some unique challenges to both the connector designer and the materials engineer. The automotive environment is abusive, yet reliability must be maintained over extended periods of time. For example, the life of safety related components must exceed the life of the vehicle. Automotive components are subjected to random vibration, thermal excursions,

P. W. Lees

1993-01-01

394

Molded GASIR ® infrared optics for automotive applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Umicore IR Glass has developed an industrial process to manufacture low cost chalcogenide glasses. These materials called GASIR® are transparent in the 3-5 and 8-12 ?m atmospheric windows which allows to use them in all the sensing and thermal imaging applications where Germanium and ZnSe usually stands. During the past 5 years, Umicore has developed and produced with and for its customers various GASIR ® optics in low and medium volume for military and civilian applications. But from the beginning of last year, the company is also very active in the automotive market. For that reason, a huge work of development on optics quality has been done to comply with automotive requests. Umicore's GASIR ® optics are used for instance in the night vision system that BMW launched in September 2005 on its 7-series. This system which will be described in this paper was developed by Umicore's customer, automotive TIER1 producer Autoliv.

Guimond, Y.; Bellec, Y.

2006-06-01

395

Mod II Automotive Stirling Engine design description and performance projections  

SciTech Connect

The Mod II Stirling engine represents the culmination of activity in the Automotive Stirling Engine (ASE) development program. Incorporating technologies developed throughout the program, the Mod II is a kinematic, single-crankshaft, four-cycle Stirling V engine with an annular regenerator and cooler surrounding each double-acting piston. Its design is based on a unified, one-piece, cast-iron block incorporating crankcase, gas ducts, control lines, and waterjackets. The Mod II also embodies a new piston design, dependent balance scheme, and roller bearings in the crankshaft/connecting rod system. The Mod II engine is projected to meet ASE program goals of a 30% improvement in fuel consumption compared to the spark-ignition, internal combustion (IC) engine; 1985 emission standards established by the EPA; the ability to be packaged in a current automobile; and a cost competitive with current gasoline and diesel engines.

Richey, A.E.

1986-01-01

396

The U.S. Automotive Market and Industry in 2025  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this study, the Center for Automotive Research (CAR) predicts the 2025 U.S. light vehicle market based on expected greenhouse gas requirements for the years 2017-2025. Through scenario modeling of four possible corporate average fuel economy (CAFE) standards, itâs found that this mandate poses a serious threat to the U.S. vehicle market. Itâs determined that from 2017-2025 consumer cost will rise 40%, overall vehicle sales will drop by $5.4 million, and a total U.S. employment loss of 1.69 million jobs. CAR offers the solution of creating a review board composed of members from government, engineering firms, and industry leaders to evaluate CAFE standards every three years, rather than setting standards for far ahead projected dates.

Center for Automotive Research (CAR)

397

Creep and creep-rupture behavior of a continuous strand, swirl mat reinforced polymer composite in automotive environments  

SciTech Connect

Creep and creep-rupture behavior of an isocyanurate based polyurethane matrix with a continuous strand, swirl mat E-glass reinforcement was investigated for automotive applications. The material under stress was exposed to various automobile service environments. Results show that environment has substantial effects on its creep and creep-rupture properties. Proposed design guide lines and stress reduction factors were developed for various automotive environments. These composites are considered candidate structural materials for light weight and fuel efficient automobiles of the future.

Ren, W.; Brinkman, C.R. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Metals and Ceramics Div.

1998-12-31

398

State of the art of multi-fuel reformers for fuel cell vehicles: problem identification and research needs  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review is focused on discussions about multi-fuel reformer technology for fuel cell vehicles where techniques for onboard hydrogen generation and gas clean-up processes, as well as fuel considerations and emissions are included. Our conclusion is that the potential for developing a highly efficient, durable and reliable reformer system for automotive applications is considerably higher if dedicated fuel reformers are

Lars J Pettersson; Roger Westerholm

2001-01-01

399

Fuel Cells for Portable Power: 1. Introduction to DMFCs; 2. Advanced Materials and Concepts for Portable Power Fuel Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thanks to generally less stringent cost constraints, portable power fuel cells, the direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) in particular, promise earlier market penetration than higher power polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFCs) for the automotive and stationary applications. However, a large-scale commercialization of DMFC-based power systems beyond niche applications already targeted by developers will depend on improvements to fuel cell performance

Zelenay; Piotr

2012-01-01

400

Automotive electric/electronic systems. Second edition  

SciTech Connect

Automotive Electric/Electronic Systems provides comprehensive information on state-of-the-art technical developments of the electrical and electronic engine systems, their design and construction, their status of technical innovation, and the fundamental effects they are having on conventional SI-engine operation. Readers who are interested in automotive electronics technology are provided with detailed descriptions and extensive illustrations and graphs to make complex electronic issues easier to understand. Contents include combustion in the spark-ignition engine, Emissions-control technology, mixture formation, ignition, spark plugs, motronic engine management, vehicle electrical system, electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) and interference suppression, starter batteries, alternators, and starting systems.

NONE

1995-12-31

401

Mod I automotive Stirling engine mechanical development  

SciTech Connect

The Mod I Stirling engine was the first automotive Stirling engine designed specifically for automotive application. Testing of these engines has revealed several deficiencies in engine mechanical integrity which have been corrected by redesign or upgrade. The main deficiencies uncovered during the Mod I program lie in the combustion, auxiliary, main seal, and heater head areas. This paper will address each of the major area deficiencies in detail, and describe the corrective actions taken as they apply to the Mod I and the next Stirling-engine design, the Upgraded Mod I (a redesign to incorporate new materials for cost/weight reduction and improved performance).

Simetkosky, M.

1984-01-01

402

Past experiences with automotive external combustion engines  

SciTech Connect

GMR (General Motors Research Laboratories, now GM R and D Center) has a history of improving the internal combustion engine, especially as it relates to automotive use. During the quarter century from 1950--75, considerable effort was devoted to evaluating alternative powerplants based on thermodynamic cycles different from those on which the established spark-ignition and diesel engines are founded. Two of these, the steam engine and the Stirling engine, incorporated external combustion. Research on those two alternatives is reviewed. Both were judged to fall short of current needs for commercial success as prime movers for conventional automotive vehicles.

Amann, C.A.

1999-07-01

403

Status and Trend of Automotive Power Packaging  

SciTech Connect

Comprehensive requirements in aspects of cost, reliability, efficiency, form factor, weight, and volume for power electronics modules in modern electric drive vehicles have driven the development of automotive power packaging technology intensively. Innovation in materials, interconnections, and processing techniques is leading to enormous improvements in power modules. In this paper, the technical development of and trends in power module packaging are evaluated by examining technical details with examples of industrial products. The issues and development directions for future automotive power module packaging are also discussed.

Liang, Zhenxian [ORNL

2012-01-01

404

Fatigue life of automotive rubber jounce bumper  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is evident that most rubber components in the automotive industry are subjected to repetitive loading. Vigorous research is needed towards improving the safety and reliability of the components. The study was done on an automotive rubber jounce bumper with a rubber hardness of 60 IRHD. The test was conducted in displacement-controlled environment under compressive load. The existing models by Kim, Harbour, Woo and Li were adopted to predict the fatigue life. The experimental results show strong similarities with the predicted models.

Sidhu, R. S.; Ali, Aidy

2010-05-01

405

Study of catalysis for solid oxide fuel cells and direct methanol fuel cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fuel cells offer the enticing promise of cleaner electricity with lower environmental impact than traditional energy conversion technologies. Driven by the interest in power sources for portable electronics, and distributed generation and automotive propulsion markets, active development efforts in the technologies of both solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) and direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) devices have achieved significant progress. However,

Xirong Jiang

2009-01-01

406

Microsystems for the automotive industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sensors are enabling components for the functionality of an ever increasing number of electronic systems in the car. These systems help to improve fuel efficiency and to reduce emissions. Electronic systems also increase the safety and comfort of the driver. During the past decade microsystem technologies have greatly contributed to reduce the cost of these sensors-and thus overall system cost-while

J. Marek; M. Illing

2000-01-01

407

Automotive electrical systems circa 2005  

Microsoft Academic Search

Demands for better fuel economy and more electric power are driving cars to multiple higher voltages. In the next 10 years the electrical systems in some luxury automobiles will be so changed as to be almost unrecognizable. Although they will doubtless employ the old reliable 12 V lead-acid battery, their loads will be driven by a variety of voltages, both

J. G. Kassakian; H.-C. Wolf; J. M. Miller; C. J. Hurton

1996-01-01

408

Energy Efficiency for Automotive Instructors.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Intended primarily but not solely for use at the postsecondary level, this curriculum guide contains six units on energy efficiency that were designed to be incorporated into an existing program in automobile mechanics. The following topics are examined: drivers and public awareness (relationship between driving and fuel consumption); ignition…

Scharmann, Larry, Ed.; Lay, Gary, Ed.

409

78 FR 14546 - Seagull Maritime Agencies Private Ltd. v. Gren Automotive, Inc., Centrus Automotive Distributors...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Centrus Automotive Distributors Inc., and Liu Shao, Individually; Notice of Filing of...Distributors Inc. (``Centrus'') and Mr. Liu Shao hereinafter ``Respondents.'' Complainant...Respondents, Centrus, Gren, and Mr. Liu Shao individually violated Sec....

2013-03-06

410

Fuel-conservation evaluation of US Army helicopters. Part 6. Performance calculator evaluation. Final report for period ending January 1981  

SciTech Connect

The US Army Aviation Engineering Flight Activity conducted an evaluation of Flight Management Calculator for the UH-1H. The calculator was a Hewlett-Packard HP-41CV. The performance calculator was evaluated for flight planning and in-flight use during 14 mission flights simulating operational conditions. The calculator was much easier to use in-flight than the operator's manual data. The calculator program needs improvement in the areas of pre-flight planning and execution speed. The mission flights demonstrated a 19% fuel saving using optimum over normal flight profiles in warm temperatures (15/sup 0/C above standard). Savings would be greater at colder temperatures because of increasing compressibility effects. Acceptable accuracy for individual aircraft under operational conditions may require a regressive analog model in which individual aircraft data are used to update the program. The performance data base for the UH-1H was expanded with level flight and hover data to thrust coefficients and Mach numbers to the practical limits of aircraft operation.

Dominick, F.; Lockwood, R.A.

1986-07-01

411

Automotive Body Repair. Performance Objectives. Basic Course.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Several intermediate performance objectives and corresponding criterion measures are listed for each of 15 terminal objectives for a basic automotive body repair and refinishing course. The materials were developed for a two-semester (2 hours daily) course for organized classroom and shop experiences designed to enable the student to develop…

Lang, Thomas

412

National Apprenticeship Standards for Automotive Machinist.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

These 24 standards have been adopted by the Automotive Service Industry Association to provide well-planned, properly supervised training for apprentices to develop into competent machinists. The goal of the standards is to establish and maintain high criteria of workmanship, to develop knowledge by workers of technical and theoretical aspects of…

Manpower Administration (DOL), Washington, DC. Bureau of Apprenticeship and Training.

413

CarMA: towards personalized automotive tuning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wireless sensing and actuation have been explored in many contexts, but the automotive setting has received relatively little attention. Automobiles have tens of onboard sensors and expose several hundred engine parameters which can be tuned (a form of actuation). The optimal tuning for a vehicle can depend upon terrain, traffic, and road conditions, but the ability to tune a vehicle

Tobias Flach; Nilesh Mishra; Luis Pedrosa; Christopher Riesz; Ramesh Govindan

2011-01-01

414

Basic Automotive Responsibilities. Life Skills. Teacher Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This teacher's guide is designed for use in presenting a four-unit course in basic automotive responsibilities that is part of a life skills series intended to help students become more self-sufficient in their personal and professional lives. The course's four instructional units cover these topics: purchasing a motor vehicle, maintaining a…

Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

415

Spectroscopic carbon dioxide sensor for automotive applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we present the first spectroscopic carbon dioxide sensor designed for automotive applications. The sensor is based on the well known infrared measurement principle. It includes a new robust infrared gas-detector and a corresponding, newly developed, ASIC. First application studies show its suitability for automatic vehicle ventilation systems and for leak detection in R744 air conditioning systems.

Michael Arndt; Maximilian Sauer

2004-01-01

416

Illinois Occupational Skill Standards: Automotive Technician Cluster.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This document, which is intended as a guide for work force preparation program providers, details the Illinois occupational skill standards for programs preparing students for employment in occupations in the automotive technician cluster. The document begins with overviews of the Illinois perspective on occupational skill standards and…

Illinois Occupational Skill Standards and Credentialing Council, Carbondale.

417

Thermal seizures in automotive drum brakes  

Microsoft Academic Search

In automotive industry, drum brake system is used on two types of wheels: cast and spoke. Brake drum, brake panel and brake drum liner are important components of the brake system. Failures of these components observed during high-g braking on spoke wheels of a motorcycle are reported and systematically analyzed in this paper. The brake drum and the panel were

O. P. Singh; S. Mohan; K. Venkata Mangaraju; M. Jayamathy; R. Babu

2010-01-01

418

Review of automotive brake friction materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

The gradual phasing-out of asbestos in automotive brake friction materials in many parts of the world has sparked the onset of extensive research and development into safer alternatives. As a result, the brake friction industry has seen the birth of different brake pads and shoes in the past decade, each with their own unique composition, yet performing the very same

D Chan; G W Stachowiak

2004-01-01

419

Downsizing assessment of automotive Stirling engines  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 67 kW (90 hp) Stirling engine design, sized for use in a 1984 1440 kg (3170 lb) automobile has been serving as the focal point for developing automotive Stirling engine technology under a current DOE\\/NASA R and D program. Since recent trends are towards lighter vehicles, an assessment was made of the appicability of the Stirling technology being developed

R. H. Knoll; R. C. Jr. Tew; J. L. Klann

1983-01-01

420

Past experiences with automotive external combustion engines  

Microsoft Academic Search

GMR (General Motors Research Laboratories, now GM R and D Center) has a history of improving the internal combustion engine, especially as it relates to automotive use. During the quarter century from 1950--75, considerable effort was devoted to evaluating alternative powerplants based on thermodynamic cycles different from those on which the established spark-ignition and diesel engines are founded. Two of

C. A. Amann

1999-01-01

421

Downsizing Assessment of Automotive Stirling Engines.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A 67 kW (90 hp) Stirling engine design, sized for use in a 1984 1440 kg (3170 lb) automobile has been serving as the focal point for developing automotive Stirling engine technology under a current DOE/NASA R and D program. Since recent trends are towards...

R. H. Knoll R. C. Tew J. L. Klann

1983-01-01

422

City browser: developing a conversational automotive HMI  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper introduces City Browser, a prototype multimodal, conversational, spoken language interface for automotive navigational aid and information access. A study designed to evaluate the impact of age and gender on device interaction errors, perceptions and experiences with the system along with physiological indices of workload is outlined. Preliminary results, plans for further analysis and a larger scale user evaluation

Alexander Gruenstein; Jarrod Orszulak; Sean Liu; Shannon Roberts; Jeff Zabel; Bryan Reimer; Bruce Mehler; Stephanie Seneff; James R. Glass; Joseph Coughlin

2009-01-01

423

Integration technology for MEMS automotive sensors  

Microsoft Academic Search

MEMS (microelectromechanical systems) is an enabling technology that has been used in high volume automotive applications such as pressure sensors and accelerometers for a variety of applications such as that control the engine performance as well as the safety of the occupants. MEMS sensors require an interface circuit to convert the input mechanical signal to the equivalent electrical signal that

Bishnu P. Gogoi; Dragan Mladenovic

2002-01-01

424

Flux-Switching Motors for Automotive Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a new class of brushless motor as an alternative to the permanent-magnet brushed motor used in the automotive industry. The new flux-switching motor is a very simple motor to manufacture, and, coupled with a powerelectronic controller requiring only two power semiconductor switches, it has the potential to be extremely low cost in high volume applications. The design

Charles Pollock; Helen Pollock; Richard Barron; Jeff R. Coles; David Moule; Andrew Court; Richard Sutton

2006-01-01

425

Flux switching motors for automotive applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a new class of brushless motor as an alternative to the permanent magnet brushed motor used in the automotive industry. The new flux switching motor is a very simple motor to manufacture and coupled with a power electronic controller requiring only two power semiconductor switches it has the potential to be extremely low cost in high volume

C. Pollock; H. Pollock; R. Barron; R. Sutton; J. Coles; D. Moule; A. Court

2003-01-01

426

REVIEW ARTICLE: Sensors for automotive telematics  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reviews the current practice in sensors and sensor applications for automotive and traffic-control systems. Sensors to control engine fuelling, ignition and transmission (known as the powertrain) are reviewed and the likely course of future development is discussed in the light of regulatory and market requirements as well as trends in sensor design and manufacture. Sensor needs for suspension,

J. D. Turner; L. Austin

2000-01-01

427

Safety relevant microsystems for automotive applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper an outline of current microsystem activities at Temic in the area of safety relevant automotive applications is given. One of the primary applications is the deployment of the airbag. New sensor concepts concerning single and multiaxial micromachined silicon accelerometers are shown. This includes a resonant principle for signal readout from the sensor, where a frequency shift of

H. Seidel

1998-01-01

428

Statistical signal processing for automotive safety systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The amount of software in general and safety systems in particular increases rapidly in the automotive industry. The trend is that functionality is decentralized, so new safety functions are distributed to common shared computer hardware, sensors and actuators using central data buses. This paper overviews recent and future safety systems, and high-lights the big challenges for researchers in the signal

Fredrik Gustafsson

2005-01-01

429

Automotive Trends in Aluminium - The European Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recent developments in aluminium application in the European automotive industry are presented and trends in average and specific use of aluminium in passenger cars is analyzed. Aspects of material selection and innovative concepts of car construction using aluminium that help to meet economical and environmental requirements as well as demands for enhanced driving comfort are discussed. Aluminium alloys developed

J. Hirsch

2004-01-01

430

Fuzzy logic control of an automotive engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

A systematic fuzzy logic control design method for control of automotive engine idling speed is discussed. The method uses the direct intelligent control paradigm. The procedure is based on partitioning of the state space into small rectangles called cell groups, and quantization of the states and the available controls into finite levels or bins. Membership functions are then assigned for

George Vachtsevanos; Shehu S. Farinwata; Dimitrios K. Pirovolou

1993-01-01

431

Technological improvements in automotive battery recycling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recycling of automotive batteries for the recovery of secondary lead is extremely important in Brazil, for the country does not possess large reserves of this metal. Lead is one of the most widely used metals in the world, but it is highly toxic, posing risks for humans and for the environment if not utilized or treated adequately. Industrial waste containing

M. A. Kreusch; M. J. J. S. Ponte; H. A. Ponte; N. M. S. Kaminari; C. E. B. Marino; V. Mymrin

2007-01-01

432

Soldered flip chip IC's in automotive applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

During recent years, we have accumulated a great deal of experience with high volume production of soldered flip-chips in small modules for automotive applications. We have processed more than 20 million flip chips with excellent results in terms of processing and reliability. There are several advantages for using hybrid flip chip modules for these applications. The reasons are given in

V. Thor; K. Appel; M. Nover; P. Sommerfeld

1998-01-01

433

Compact de-NOxer for automotive exhaust.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Our two year project concluded with mixed results. The basic idea of using ozone and hydroxyl radical in a two stage plasma chemical reactor to remove NO(sub x) from automotive exhaust proved to be correct. However we found the energy needed to operate th...

B. Chang M. Garcia

1996-01-01

434

Assessment of Fuel-Conservation Potential of a Ground-Transportation System Due to Full Utilization of its Mass Transportation Capabilities.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

During a fuel shortage situation, low production/fuel consumption areas must be identified and their fuel saving capability (quantitative) must be estimated in order that correct and effective emergency relief measures be proposed. This study first discus...

J. Lee

1977-01-01

435

Automotive technology status and projections. Volume 2. Assessment report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current and advanced conventional engines, advanced alternative engines, advanced power train components, and other energy conserving automobile modifications which could be implemented by the end of this century are examined. Topics covered include gas turbine engines, Stirling engines, advanced automatic transmissions, alternative fuels, and metal and ceramic technology. Critical problems are examined and areas for future research are indicated.

M. Dowdy; A. Burke; H. Schneider; W. Edmiston; G. Klose

1978-01-01

436

Vegetable oils and animal fats for diesel fuels: a systems study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provided some information on the possible use of vegetable oils and animal fats as substitute fuels and as emergency diesel fuels in the United States. This paper is confined to using triglyceride fuels in agricultural, automotive, and highway transportation applications. Satisfactory substitution of petroleum-based diesel fuels with triglyceride-based fuels requires the development of an integrated system for the

E. S. Lipinsky; S. Kresovich; C. K. Wagner; H. R. Appelbaum; T. A. McClure; J. L. Otis; D. A. Trayser

1982-01-01

437

Energy conservation with flywheels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

After a summary of flywheel capabilities, the paper reviews energy conservation in vehicular flywheel systems and in stationary flywheel systems. It is shown that the use of flywheels in various transportation applications could significantly reduce fuel consumption and lifetime costs. In addition, the widespread use of flywheels in stationary energy systems could reduce the consumption of fuel in power plants by cutting back on the use of petroleum-consuming equipment that would otherwise be required to accommodate the diurnal peak loads.

Rabenhorst, D. W.

1980-06-01

438

A comparative study of fuels for on-board hydrogen production for fuel-cell-powered automobiles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seven common fuels are compared for their utility as hydrogen sources for proton-exchange-membrane fuel cells used in automotive propulsion. Methanol, natural gas, gasoline, diesel fuel, aviation jet fuel, ethanol, and hydrogen are the fuels considered. Except for steam-reforming methanol and using pure hydrogen, all processes for generating hydrogen from these fuels require water–gas shift reactors of significant size. This occurs

Lee F. Brown

2001-01-01

439

Environmental, resource conservation, and economic aspects of used oil recycling  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to provide current and updated information, the case for burning used automotive lubricating oil versus re-refining it has been reevaluated based upon the 1980 American economy and energy conservation posture. In these comparisons, the environment is considered within four scenarios ranging from unrestricted burning of used oil without government constraints to complete prohibition of burning thereby funneling all

D. W. Brinkman; M. L. Whisman; N. J. Weinstein; H. R. Emmerson

1981-01-01

440

Hydrogen-fueled heat engines - Economic effect  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Economic and ecological advantages of hydrogen-fueled heat engines are examined in terms of fossil fuel savings and reduction of air pollutants produced by internal combustion engines. It is estimated that the replacement of a one-tenth part of automotive engines currently produced in the USSR would provide an annual gasoline savings of 4.5 million tons.

Pidgornii, A. M.; Zolotushkin, V. S.; Prokopenko, V. K.

1980-11-01

441

Airport electric vehicle powered by fuel cell  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nowadays, new technologies and breakthroughs in the field of energy efficiency, alternative fuels and added-value electronics are leading to bigger, more sustainable and green thinking applications. Within the Automotive Industry, there is a clear declaration of commitment with the environment and natural resources. The presence of passenger vehicles of hybrid architecture, public transport powered by cleaner fuels, non-aggressive utility vehicles

Pablo Fontela; Antonio Soria; Javier Mielgo; José Francisco Sierra; Juan de Blas; Lucia Gauchia; Juan M. Martínez

2007-01-01

442

The National Fuel End-Use Efficiency Field Test: Energy Savings and Performance of an Improved Energy Conservation Measure Selection Technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

The performance of an advanced residential energy conservation measure (ECM) selection technique was tested in Buffalo, New York, to verify the energy savings and program improvements achieved from use of the technique in conservation programs and provide input into determining whether utility investments in residential gas end-use conservation are cost effective. The technique analyzes a house to identify all ECMs

1991-01-01

443

The national fuel end-use efficiency field test: Energy savings and performance of an improved energy conservation measure selection technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

The performance of an advanced residential energy conservation measure (ECM) selection technique was tested in Buffalo, New York, to verify the energy savings and program improvements achieved from use of the technique in conservation programs and provide input into determining whether utility investments in residential gas end-use conservation are cost effective. The technique analyzes a house to identify all ECMs

M. P. Ternes; P. S. Hu; L. S. Williams; P. Goewey

1991-01-01

444

Residential conservation service  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Residential Conservation Services Program is a result of the 1978 National Energy Conservation Policy Act, Public Law 95-619 passed by congress to address the need for energy conservation in the residential sector. Large utility companies and fuel suppliers will be offering audits of their customers' homes to relay technical and economic data about conservation, solar, and wind measures. The impact on utility companies as a result of this program is to offer low cost audits ($15.00 charge for an audit costing approximately $100.00) and to assist their customers in reducing their consumption of electricity, gas, and oil through the use of conservation and renewables. The impact of RCS on wind turbine manufacturers and dealers is an opportunity to participate in a program which provides potential customers.

Sherman, J. M.

445

Fumigation of alcohol in a light duty automotive diesel engine  

SciTech Connect

A light-duty automotive diesel engine was fumigated with methanol and ethanol in amounts up to 35% and 50% of the total fuel energy respectively. The main purpose of this study was to determine the effect of alcohol (methanol and ethanol) fumigation on engine performance at various operating conditions. Engine fuel efficiency, emissions, smoke, and the occurrence of severe knock were the parameters used to evaluate performance. Raw exhaust particulate and its soluble organic extract were screened for biological activity using the Ames Salmonella typhimurium assay. Results are given for a test matrix made up of twelve steady-state operating conditions. For all conditions except the 1/4 rack (light load) condition, modest thermal efficiency gains were noted upon ethanol fumigation. Methanol showed the same increase at 3/4 and full rack (high load) conditions. However, engine roughness or the occurrence of severe knock limited the maximum amount of alcohol that could be fumigated. Brake specific NO/sub x/ concentrations were found to decrease for all ethanol conditions tested. Oxides of nitrogen emissions, on a volume basis, decreased for all alcohol conditions tested. Based on the limited particulate data analyzed, it appears as though ethanol fumigation, like methanol fumigation, while lowering the mass of particulate emitted, does enhance the biological activity of that particulate.

Broukhiyan, E.M.H.; Lestz, S.S.

1981-08-01

446

Automobile fuel economy standards. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Energy Regulation and Conservation of the Committee on Energy and Natural Resources, United States Senate, Ninety-Ninth Congress, First Session, May 14, 1985  

SciTech Connect

Representatives of the automobile industry, safety and transportation agencies, conservation and consumer groups, and legislators from several states testified at a hearing held to review fuel economy standards for automobiles. The standards were established under the Energy Policy and Conservation Act of 1975, but may no longer be appropriate if their net effect is to jeopardize the auto industry's health. Critics of the auto industry found their request to remove penalties irresponsible in light of the continuing need to conserve natural resources, but others supported the industry's proposal to roll back minimum mileage requirements from 27.5 to 26 miles per gallon. Two appendices with additional responses and material submitted for the record follow the testimony and statements of 16 witnesses.

Not Available

1985-01-01

447

Tenth annual report to Congress on the Automotive Technology Development Program  

SciTech Connect

This is the tenth annual report on the progress in implementing the Automotive Propulsion Research and Development Act of 1978 (Title III of Public Law 95-238). The Act provides for an expanded research and development (RandD) effort with respect to advanced automotive propulsion systems technology which would complement and stimulate corresponding efforts by the private sector. Implementation of the Act is the responsibility of the Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Transportation Systems (OTS). The programmatic goals of OTS are to increase end-use efficiency of highway vehicles and other transportation modes and to substitute abundant domestic fuels for petroleum based fuels. The Lewis Research Center (LERC) of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NANSA) is the Technical Project Manager for advanced materials and alternative fuels utilization RandD. The RandD projects in progress address the high-risk areas associated with the development of ceramic components for the gas turbine engine, improvement to the Stirling engine, heavy-duty adiabatic diesel engine technology, advanced materials technology, and alternative fuels utilization technology. 4 figs.

Not Available

1988-11-01

448

Autonomic Middleware for Automotive Embedded Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This chapter describes DySCAS: an advanced autonomic platform-independent middleware framework for automotive embedded systems. The concepts and architecture are motivated and described in detail, focusing on the need for, and achievement of, high flexibility and automatic run-time reconfiguration. The design of the middleware is positioned with respect to the way it overcomes the specific technical, environmental, and performance challenges of the automotive domain. Self-management is achieved in terms of automatic configuration for context-aware behavior, resource-use efficiency, and self-healing to handle run-time detected faults. The self-management is governed by the use of policies distributed throughout the middleware components. The simulation techniques that have been used for extensive validation are described and some key results presented. A reference implementation is presented, illustrating the way in which the various concepts and mechanisms can be realized and orchestrated.

Anthony, Richard; Chen, Dejiu; Törngren, Martin; Scholle, Detlef; Sanfridson, Martin; Rettberg, Achim; Naseer, Tahir; Persson, Magnus; Feng, Lei

449

Multichip module technology for automotive application  

SciTech Connect

Advancements in multichip module technology are creating design freedoms previously unavailable to design engineers. These advancements are opening new markets for laminate based multichip module products. In particular, material improvements in laminate printed wiring boards are allowing multichip module technology to meet more stringent environmental conditions. In addition, improvements in encapsulants and adhesives are enhancing the capabilities of multichip module technology to meet harsh environment. Furthermore, improvements in manufacturing techniques are providing the reliability improvements necessary for use in high quality electronic systems. These advances are making multichip module technology viable for high volume, harsh environment applications like under-the-hood automotive electronics. This paper will provide a brief review of multichip module technology, a discussion of specific research activities with Chrysler for use of multichip modules in automotive engine controllers and finally a discussion of prototype multichip modules fabricated and tested. {copyright} 1995 {ital American} {ital Institute} {ital of} {ital Physics}

Johnson, R.W. [Center for the Commerical Development of Space Power and Advanced Electronics, 231 Leach Center, Auburn University, Alabama 36849 (United States); Evans, J.L.; Bosley, L. [Chrysler/Huntsville Electronics, 100 Electronics Blvd., Huntsville, Alabama 35824 (United States)

1995-01-25

450

Ultrahigh carbon steel for automotive applications  

SciTech Connect

Ultrahigh carbon steels (UHCSs), which contain 1--2.1% carbon, have remarkable structural properties for automotive application when processed to achieve fine ferrite grains with fine spheroidized carbides. When processed for high room temperature ductility, UHCS can have good tensile ductility but significantly higher strength than current automotive high strength steels. The material can also be made superplastic at intermediate temperatures and exhibits excellent die fill capability. Furthermore, they can be made hard with high compression ductility. In wire form it is projected that UHCS can exhibit extremely high strengths (5,000 MPa) for tire cord applications. Examples of structural components that have been formed from fine-grained spheroidized UHCSs are illustrated.

Lesuer, D.R.; Syn, C.K. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Sherby, O.D. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)

1995-12-04

451

Rotary capacitance transducers for automotive environments  

SciTech Connect

Rotary transducers for automotive use are briefly discussed. A transducer based on differential capacitance is described that is robust and simple to manufacture. It has the potential to meet cost targets for automotive use. The design is based on a dielectrically coated rotor with a 240-degree conductive segment, turning over a stator with three 120-degree segments. One of these segments is used to supply drive to the isolated rotor segment. The other two segments act as differential capacitors, driven by the rotor. Linearity over about 105 degrees of rotation is within 4%, although special shaping of the plates can reduce this to less than 1%. A full custom CMOS integrated circuit was designed and implemented to interface to the sensor. It mounts on the back of the stator plate. The combination of a single chip and simple mechanical construction leads to a part which may become cost competitive with present resistive sensors.

Bauer, M.L.; Christopher, A.M.; Ericson, M.N.; Kennedy, E.J.; Ramsey, J.A.

1994-07-27

452

Fuels for fuel cells: Fuel and catalyst effects on carbon formation  

SciTech Connect

The goal of this research is to explore the effects of fuels, fuel constituents, additives and impurities on the performance of on-board hydrogen generation devices and consequently on the overall performance of fuel cell systems using reformed hydrocarbon fuels. Different fuels and components have been tested in automotive scale, adiabatic autothermal reactors to observe their relative reforming characteristics with various operating conditions. Carbon formation has been modeled and was experimentally monitored in situ during operation by laser measurements of the effluent reformate. Ammonia formation was monitored, and conditions varied to observe under what conditions N H 3 is made.

Borup, R. L. (Rodney L.); Inbody, M. A. (Michael A.); Perry, W. L. (William Lee); Parkinson, W. J. (William Jerry),

2002-01-01

453

New UV curing systems for automotive applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent developments of new UV curable resins, which meet the high demands of automotive applications (e.g. weather stability), in combination with a new lamp technology offer extremely fast drying of paints, giving complete curing within less than 2min (in some cases even within seconds). Since the capacity of the painting\\/drying booth is the bottleneck in most body shops and OEM

K. Maag; W. Lenhard; Helmut Löffles

2000-01-01

454

Nonlinear oscillations of automotive turbocharger turbines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Turbines, especially turbines supported in hydrodynamic bearings, often exhibit interesting oscillation effects, which result from the bearing nonlinearities. In the present work, an automotive turbocharger rotor is investigated. The rotor of the turbocharger examined here is supported in full-floating ring bearings, which give rise to complex system vibrations. Frequency spectra of run-up measurements, carried out on a hot-gas turbocharger test

Bernhard Schweizer; Mario Sievert

2009-01-01

455

Future nanotechnology developments for automotive applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the automotive industry, nanotechnology applications are manifold. They reach from power train, light-weight construction, energy conversion, pollution sensing and reduction, interior cooling, wear reduction, driving dynamics, surveillance control, up to recycle potential and much more. Additionally, visions of “nano in cars” reach from contributions for CO2-free engines, safe driving, quiet cars, self-healing body and windscreens, up to a mood-depending

Hartmut Presting; Ulf König

2003-01-01

456

Injuries to Pregnant Occupants in Automotive Crashes  

PubMed Central

Injuries unique to pregnant occupants involved in motor-vehicle crashes include placental abruption, uterine rupture or laceration, and direct fetal injury. The mechanisms and characteristics of these injuries are discussed using examples from a literature review and from recent investigations of crashes involving pregnant occupants. In addition, a review of the relationship between the pregnant driver and automotive restraints and the steering wheel illustrates how injury potential may differ from the non-pregnant occupant.

Klinich, Kathleen DeSantis; Schneider, Lawrence W.; Moore, Jamie L.; Pearlman, Mark D.

1998-01-01

457

Perspectives on weatherability testing of automotive coatings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Automotive coatings continue to evolve rapidly in order to reduce the environmental impact of coating operations and to meet\\u000a rising customer expectations for appearance and performance. The anticipated changes in chemistry, together with improved\\u000a appearance retention and the need to respond rapidly to customer desires, have placed new challenges on weathering protocols.\\u000a This paper discusses these issues and describes several

David R. Bauer

2002-01-01

458

Automotive restraint systems for premature infants.  

PubMed

Automotive restraint systems suitable for use with low birth weight infants were crash tested using a small infant dummy developed for the study. Conventional semiupright rear-facing child restraints were tested, as well as a new car bed restraint that may be advantageous for infants who are medically fragile and who must remain in a prone or supine position. This car bed can be adapted to accommodate a very small infant effectively. PMID:3346776

Bull, M J; Weber, K; Stroup, K B

1988-03-01

459

Crashworthiness simulation of composite automotive structures  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1990 the Automotive Composites Consortium (ACC) began the investigation of crash worthiness simulation methods for composite materials. A contract was given to Livermore Software Technology Corporation (LSTC) to implement a new damage model in LS-DYNA3DTM<\\/sup> specifically for composite structures. This model is in LS-DYNA3DTM<\\/sup> and is in use by the ACC partners. In 1994 USCAR, a partnership of American

M E Botkin; N L Johnson; S Simunovic; E Zywicz

1998-01-01

460

Occupational skin diseases in automotive industry workers.  

PubMed

Abstract Context: Studies on occupational skin diseases in workers of the automotive industry are few. Aim: To investigate the prevalence of occupational skin diseases in workers of the automotive industry. Materials and methods: Between September and December 2011, a total of 405 workers from the automotive repair industry in Diyarbak?r were interviewed. They were active workers in the repair industry who had been employed for at least six months. Business owners, sellers of spare parts and accounting officers were not included. The employees were examined at their workplaces and the working conditions were observed. Detailed dermatological examination was performed. Results: The mean age of the 405 workers who participated in the study was 27.7?±?10.3. The mean working time of employees was 13.3?±?10.4 years. All of the employees were male. Dermatological diseases were not detected in 144 out of 405 workers (35.6%) and at least one condition was diagnosed in 261 (64.4%). The most frequent diagnosis was callus, hyperkeratosis, clavus (27.7%), followed by nail changes (16.8%) and superficial mycoses (12.1%). Contact dermatitis was seen at a rate of 5.9%. Discussion: Traumatic lesions such as hyperkeratotic lesions and nail changes were found most frequently. Traumatic lesions were common among individuals who did not use gloves. Most nail changes were localized leuconychia, a finding not reported in the studies on automotive industry workers. In accordance with the literature, irritant contact dermatitis was observed in patients with a history of atopy and who had been working for a long time. Conclusion: Occupational skin diseases comprise an important field in dermatology, deserving much attention. Further studies on occupational dermatology are necessary. PMID:23638861

Yakut, Yunus; Uçmak, Derya; Akkurt, Zeynep Meltem; Akdeniz, Sedat; Palanci, Yilmaz; Sula, Bilal

2013-05-01

461

Exergy analysis of PEM fuel cells for marine applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fuel cells have a promising potential use in stationary and mobile power generation systems, as well as in automotive, aerospace or marine industries. At present, the main field of marine applications of fuel cells is submarines. Hydrogen\\/oxygen polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells are commonly used in this field. Storage of oxygen in liquid form is the optimal solution. Hydrogen

T. J. Leo; J. A. Durango; E. Navarro

2010-01-01

462

Atmospheric chemistry of alcohol fuels: Ethanol, acetaldehyde and PAN  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alcohols (methanol, ethanol) and other oxygenated compounds are receiving increasing attention as both automotive and industrial fuels. The air quality implications of the current and proposed large-scale use of alcohol fuels are presented in this study, with focus on ethanol which has been used for a number of years in Brazil as a major automobile fuel. Because of Brazil's commitment

D. Grosjean; A. H. Miguel

1988-01-01

463

Methanol touted as best alternate fuel for gasoline  

Microsoft Academic Search

Automotive executives for the US and West Germany agreed at an alcohol fuels symposium in Ottawa that methanol is the best and the most likely substitute for gasoline. Both also agreed that, for any of the alternate fuels, some form of government action will be necessary to develop the market. Citing fuel tests and comparisons with alternatives, participants noted that

1984-01-01

464

Third Program Plan for DOE's participation in the IEA Working Party on Energy-Conservation Research and Development  

SciTech Connect

The Plan documents the projects currently being conducted by the working party in which DOE is participating and the projects proposed by DOE for consideration by other IEA member nations. Chapter 1 reviews current and planned DOE commitments to existing implementing agreements: buildings and community systems; energy conservation in building complexes; energy cascading; heat pumps with thermal storage; advanced heat pumps; combustion; heat transfer and heat exchangers; energy storage; cement manufacturer; and high-temperature materials for automotive propulsion systems. Chapter 2 reviews planned DOE commitments to new implementing agreements: combustion; pulp and paper; iron and steel; food processing; urban waste; and alcohol additives to fuel. Appendix A discusses the mechanisms for establishing implementing agreements and annexes. Appendix B lists working party members and Appendix C describes the evaluation methodology.

None

1980-06-01

465

76 FR 13227 - Syncreon USA, Formerly Known as TDS US Automotive, Belvidere, IL; Amended Certification Regarding...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...433] Syncreon USA, Formerly Known as TDS US Automotive, Belvidere, IL; Amended Certification...insurance (UI) tax account under the name TDS US Automotive. Accordingly, the Department...of Syncreon USA, formerly known as TDS US Automotive, Belvidere, Illinois,...

2011-03-10

466

48 CFR 1852.223-76 - Federal Automotive Statistical Tool Reporting.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... false Federal Automotive Statistical Tool Reporting. 1852.223-76 Section...223-76 Federal Automotive Statistical Tool Reporting. As prescribed at 1823...clause: Federal Automotive Statistical Tool Reporting (JUL 2003) If...

2011-10-01

467

48 CFR 1852.223-76 - Federal Automotive Statistical Tool Reporting.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... false Federal Automotive Statistical Tool Reporting. 1852.223-76 Section...223-76 Federal Automotive Statistical Tool Reporting. As prescribed at 1823...clause: Federal Automotive Statistical Tool Reporting (JUL 2003) If...

2012-10-01

468

75 FR 38129 - TRW Automotive, Kelsey-Hayes Company, NABS Division, Mt. Vernon, OH; Amended Certification...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Administration [TA-W-70,907] TRW Automotive, Kelsey-Hayes Company, NABS Division...2009, applicable to workers of TRW Automotive, NABS Division, Mt. Vernon, Ohio...components such as brake cylinders for the automotive industry. Information shows that...

2010-07-01

469

Markets and Opportunities for MEMS\\/MST in Automotive Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This paper will focus on the evolution of and on the current and future automotive applications of MEMS (Microelectro-mechanical\\u000a Systems), and MST (Microsystem Technologies). Current product developments in pressure sensors, accelerometers, angular rate\\u000a sensors, and other MEMS\\/MST devices are presented. Market figures for automotive electronics and automotive sensors from 2001–2008\\u000a are given.

R. H. Grace

470

Overview: DOE/NASA automotive gas turbine and Stirling projects  

SciTech Connect

A brief overview is presented of the automotive gas turbine and automotive Stirling engine technology projects being carried out by NASA Lewis Research Center for the Department of Energy's Automotive Technology Development Division. This report: (1) discusses the projects as they were formulated and being carried out in accordance with PL 95-238 Auto Propulsion Research and Development Act of 1978; (2) presents substantive technology accomplishments; and (3) briefly addresses future path options of the program.

Beremand, D.G.

1981-01-01

471

Diode-laser-illuminated automotive lamp systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have utilized the high brightness of state-of-the-art diode laser sources, and a variety of emerging optical technologies to develop a new class of thin, uniquely styled automotive brake and signal lamps. Using optics based on thin (5 mm) plastic sheets, these lamps provide appearance and functional advantages not attainable with traditional automotive lighting systems. The light is coupled into the sheets using a 1 mm diameter glass fiber, and manipulated using refraction and reflection from edges, surfaces, and shaped cut-outs. Light can be extracted with an efficiency of approximately 50% and formed into a luminance distribution that meets the Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) photometric requirements. Prototype lamps using these optics have been constructed and are less than one inch in thickness. Thin lamps reduce sheet metal costs, complexity, material usage, weight, and allow for increased trunk volume. In addition, these optics enhance lamp design flexibility. When the lamps are not energized, they can appear body colored, and when lighted, the brightness distribution across the lamp can be uniform or structured. A diode laser based brake lamp consumes seven times less electrical power than one using an incandescent source and has instant on capability. Also, diode lasers have the potential to be 10-year/150,000 mile light sources.

Marinelli, Michael A.; Remillard, Jeffrey T.

1998-05-01

472

Foundry energy conservation workbook  

SciTech Connect

This report discusses methods for promoting energy conservation in foundries. Use of electric power, natural gas, and coke are evaluated. Waste heat recovery systems are considered. Energy consumption in the specific processes of electric melting, natural gas melting, heat treatments, ladle melting, and coke fuel melting is described. An example energy analysis is included. (GHH)

Not Available

1990-12-31

473

Promoting household energy conservation  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is commonly assumed that households must change their behaviour to reduce the problems caused by increasing levels of fossil energy use. Strategies for behaviour change will be more effective if they target the most important causes of the behaviour in question. Therefore, this paper first discusses the factors influencing household energy use. Three barriers to fossil fuel energy conservation

Linda Steg

2008-01-01

474

Conserving Energy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this project you will learn what energy is, how energy is used , and how to conserve it What are new ways of protecting the environment to conserve energy? Use your 4- column chart to record information about the questions i ask and you learn about. Begin by seeing what energy isEnergy Quest Tells different ways of conserving energy. List what you learn. What are simple ways to conserve energy everyday? How are vehicle manufactures inventing ways to conserve ...

Y, Mr.

2009-10-21

475

The low-temperature partial oxidation reforming of fuels for transportation fuel cell systems  

SciTech Connect

Argonne`s partial-oxidation reformer (APOR) is a compact, lightweight, rapid-start, and dynamically responsive device to convert liquid fuels to H{sub 2} for use in automotive fuel cells. An APOR catalyst for methanol has been developed and tested; catalysts for other fuels are being evaluated. Simple in design, operation, and control, the APOR can help develop efficient fuel cell propulsion systems.

Kumar, R.; Ahmed, S.; Krumpelt, M.

1996-12-31

476

Advanced high temperature materials for the energy efficient automotive Stirling engine  

SciTech Connect

The Stirling engine is under investigation jointly by the Department of Energy and NASA Lewis as an alternative to the internal combustion engine for automotive applications. The Stirling engine is an external combustion engine that offers the advantage of high fuel economy, low emissions, low noise, and low vibrations compared to current internal combustion automotive engines. The most critical component from a materials viewpoint is the heater head consisting of the cylinders, heating tubes, and regenerator housing. Materials requirements for the heater head include compatibility with hydrogen, resistance to hydrogen permeation, high temperature oxidation/corrosion resistance and high temperature creep-rupture and fatigue properties. A continuing supporting materials research and technology program has identified the wrought alloys CG-27 and 12RN72 and the cast alloys XF-818 and NASAUT 4G-A1 as candidate replacements for the cobalt containing alloys used in current prototype engines. Based on the materials research program in support of the automotive Stirling engine it is concluded that manufacture of the engine is feasible from low cost iron-base alloys rather than the cobalt alloys used in prototype engines. This paper will present results of research that led to this conclusion.

Titran, R.H.; Stephens, J.R.

1984-01-01

477

Advanced high temperature materials for the energy efficient automotive Stirling engine  

SciTech Connect

The Stirling engine is under investigation jointly by the Department of Energy and NASA Lewis as an alternative to the internal combustion engine for automotive applications. The Stirling engine is an external combustion engine that offers the advantage of high fuel economy, low emissions, low noise, and low vibrations compared to current internal combustion automotive engines. The most critical component from a materials viewpoint is the heater head consisting of the cylinders, heating tubes, and regenerator housing. Materials requirements for the heater head include compatibility with hydrogen, resistance to hydrogen permeation, high temperature oxidation/corrosion resistance, and high temperature creep-rupture and fatigue properties. A continuing supporting materials research and technology program has identified the wrought alloys CG-27 and 12RN72, and the cast alloys XF-818 and NASAUT 4G-A1 as candidate replacements for the cobalt containing alloys used in current prototype engines. Based on the materials research program in support of the automotive Stirling engine it is concluded that manufacture of the engine is feasible from low cost iron-base alloys rather than the cobalt alloys used in prototype engines. This paper presents results of research that led to this conclusion.

Titran, R.H.; Stephens, J.R.

1984-09-01

478

Conserving biodiversity by conserving land  

Microsoft Academic Search

Society faces difficult choices over whether to allow habitat conversion for economic gain versus conserving habitat to protect biodiversity. Because the conservation of biodiversity and the material well being of the human population are both important goals, it is important to set conservation priorities intelligently and minimize the reduction in other goals from pursuing conservation. In this paper, our objective

Stephen Polasky; Christian A. Vossler

2002-01-01

479

JSAE 1994 nendo shunki taikai gakujutsu koenkai maezurishu (No.943 115-165). (Proceedings of 1994 JSAE (Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan) Spring Convention (No.943 115-165)).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The 1994 JSAE (Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan) Spring Convention was held in Yokohama on May 11-13, and a total of 165 papers were presented. As for reduction in fuel consumption in the engine development, reported were a fuel consumption reduci...

1994-01-01

480

Economic incentives for energy conservation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This book discusses theoretical and practical issues involved in the use of economic incentives for energy conservation. The principal focus is on electricity use in North American residential and commercial sectors. An additional discussion is provided on fuels, conservation measures, industrial energy use, and related European experience. Topics covered include: electricity pricing, introduction and the nature of utility costs; cost

P. N. Nemetz; M. Hankey

1984-01-01

481

40 CFR 49.130 - Rule for limiting sulfur in fuels.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...apply to gasoline and diesel fuel, such as automotive and marine diesel, regulated under...sulfur limits for fuels? A person must...available for use any fuel oil, coal, solid fuel...of sulfur per dry standard cubic meter of...

2013-07-01

482

16 CFR 306.10 - Automotive fuel rating posting.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... (7) âB-20 Biodiesel Blend/contains biomass-based diesel or biodiesel in quantities between 5 percent and 20 percentâ (8) â20% Biomass-Based Diesel Blend/contains biomass-based diesel or biodiesel in quantities...

2013-01-01

483

Atmospheric chemistry of automotive fuel additives: Diisopropyl ether  

Microsoft Academic Search

To quantify the atmospheric reactivity of diisopropyl ether (DIPE), we have conducted a study of the kinetics and mechanism of reaction 1: OH + DIPE â products. Kinetic measurements of reaction 1 were made using both relative (at 295 K) and absolute techniques (over the temperature range 240-440 K). Rate data from both techniques can be represented by the following:

Timothy J. Wallington; Jean M. Andino; Alan R. Potts; Sara J. Rudy; Walter O. Siegl; Zhengyu Zhang; Michael J. Kurylo; Robert E. Huie

1993-01-01

484

Concept evaluation of automotive propulsion using liquid air/nitrogen. Task I report. Thermodynamics  

SciTech Connect

A technical assessment is made of an automotive powerplant system using cryogenic liquid air or nitrogen as the working fluid in a powerplant operating on an open Rankine-type cycle. In this concept the cold fluid is pressurized, heat energy is added to form hot gas and then is effectively expanded to atmospheric conditions in the engine that drives the vehicle. A range of gas pressures and temperatures as well as different expansion stages and reheat configurations are evaluated. The thermodynamic results indicate that this powerplant concept can be competitive with a comparable gasoline engine to give a vehicle equal in performance, weight, range and operating cost without using imported fuel.

Dooley, J.L.; Hammond, R.P.

1981-10-01

485

Automotive Service Occupations. A Suggested Outline of Services and Levels for the Automotive Industries Occupations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed to help teachers of automotive services select the body of knowledge and experiences leading to the development of salable skills which might be necessary at various levels of complexity, this guide suggests an alignment of content, with teaching suggestions, for use in developing a vocational program to prepare youth and adults for…

New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Secondary Curriculum Development.

486

Automotive Body Trim and Glass; Automotive Mechanics 2: 9045.05.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This document presents an outline for a 135-hour course designed to help students become employable with skills, knowledge, attitudes, and values necessary for performing the required service of the automotive trim and glass mechanic. The course of study includes an orientation to the course, service tools and bench skills development, and a…

Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

487

A High-Precision NDIR Gas Sensor for Automotive Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new high-precision spectroscopic gas sensor measuring carbon dioxide (CO2) for harsh environmental conditions of automotive applications is presented. The carbon dioxide concentration is the primary parameter for sensing in cabin air quality, as well as an important safety parameter when R744 (carbon dioxide) is used as the refrigerant in the air conditioning system. The automotive environment challenges the potential

Robert Frodl; Thomas Tille

2006-01-01

488

Brakes Specialist. Teacher Edition. Automotive Service Series. Second Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This curriculum guide for automatic brakes service is one in a series of automotive service speciality publications that is based on the National Institute of Automotive Service Excellence task lists. The curriculum is composed of four units. Each unit of instruction may contain some or all of the following components: objective sheet, suggested…

Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

489

Plenary Speech: Micro and Nano-Technologies for Automotive Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this talk, current and future research directions for micro- and nano-technologies applicable to the automotive sensor market will be presented. There exists an opportunity for new research to provide new micro- and nano-technologies that in the short run may not yet compete with the existing automotive sensor technologies, but in the long run are likely to surpass them. Historically,

Albert P. Pisano

2007-01-01

490

Paint deposition modeling for trajectory planning on automotive surfaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research is focused on developing trajectory planning tools for the automotive painting industry. The geometric complexity of automotive surfaces and the complexity of the spray patterns produced by modern paint atomizers combine to make this a challenging and interesting problem. This paper documents our efforts to develop computationally tractable analytic deposition models for electrostatic rotating bell (ESRB) atomizers, which

David C. Conner; Aaron Greenfield; Prasad N. Atkar; Alfred A. Rizzi; Howie Choset

2005-01-01

491

Overview: DOE\\/NASA automotive gas turbine and stirling projects  

Microsoft Academic Search

An overview on the progress of the automotive gas turbine and automotive Stirling engine technology projects is presented. The following items are reported: (1) formulation and execution of projects in accordance with the Auto Propulsion Research and Development Act of 1978; (2) substantive technology accomplishments; and (3) future path options of the programs.

D. G. Beremand

1981-01-01

492

Stirling engine design and feasibility for automotive use  

Microsoft Academic Search

The book is based on two reports dealing with theoretical considerations in the design of Stirling engines for automotive use, and with a feasibility study for an 80-100-hp automotive Stirling engine. The basic principles of heat engines are explained, and the Stirling engine is introduced, with attention given to the variety of Stirling engine types and their utility in comparison

Collie

1979-01-01

493

Automotive Stirling Engine Development Program Mod I Stirling engine development  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Automotive Stirling Engine (ASE) Development Program was established to enable research and development of alternate propulsion systems. The program was awarded to Mechanical Technology Incorporated (MTI) for the purpose of developing an automotive Stirling engine, and transferring Stirling-engine technology to the United States. MTI has fabricated and tested four Mod I engines that have accumulated over 1900 test hours

Simetkosky

1983-01-01

494

Overview: DOE/NASA automotive gas turbine and stirling projects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An overview on the progress of the automotive gas turbine and automotive Stirling engine technology projects is presented. The following items are reported: (1) formulation and execution of projects in accordance with the Auto Propulsion Research and Development Act of 1978; (2) substantive technology accomplishments; and (3) future path options of the programs.

Beremand, D. G.

495

Novel classifier fusion approahces for fault diagnosis in automotive systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Faulty automotive systems significantly degrade the performance and efficiency of vehicles, and oftentimes are the major contributors of vehicle breakdown; they result in large expenditures for repair and maintenance. Therefore, intelligent vehicle health-monitoring schemes are needed for effective fault diagnosis in automotive systems. Previously, we developed a data-driven approach using a data reduction technique, coupled with a variety of classifiers,

Kihoon Choi; Satnam Singh; Anuradha Kodali; Krishna R. Pattipati; John W. Sheppard; Setu Madhavi Namburu; S. Chigusa; D. V. Prokhorov; Liu Qiao

2007-01-01

496

Novel Classifier Fusion Approaches for Fault Diagnosis in Automotive Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Faulty automotive systems significantly degrade the performance and efficiency of vehicles, and oftentimes are the major contributors of vehicle breakdown; they result in large expenditures for repair and maintenance. Therefore, intelligent vehicle health-monitoring schemes are needed for effective fault diagnosis in automotive systems. Previously, we developed a data- driven approach using a data reduction technique, coupled with a variety of

Kihoon Choi; Satnam Singh; Anuradha Kodali; Krishna R. Pattipati; John W. Sheppard; Setu Madhavi Namburu; Shunsuke Chigusa; Danil V. Prokhorov; Liu Qiao

2009-01-01

497

The changing automotive environment: high-temperature electronics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The underhood automotive environment is harsh and current trends in the automotive electronics industry will be pushing the temperature envelope for electronic components. The desire to place engine control units on the engine and transmission control units either on or in the transmission will push the ambient temperature above 125°C. However, extreme cost pressures, increasing reliability demands (10 year\\/241 350

R. Wayne Johnson; John L. Evans; Peter Jacobsen; J. R. R. Thompson; Mark Christopher

2004-01-01

498

CORROSION SIMULATION TESTS ON STAINLESS FOR AUTOMOTIVE APPLICATIONS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stainless steel is largely used in the automotive market, essentially for exhaust system. In that field of application, designs are more and more complex and the guarantee durations continuously increase. Thus laboratory tests were developed in order to simulate automotive environments and estimate their impact on stainless steel durability. Corrosion mechanisms greatly depend on the temperature and so the exhaust

B. Michel; S. Saedlou; J. M. Herbelin; P. O. Santacreu

499

Automotive Control Systems: For Engine, Driveline, and Vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many engineers, working in the field of automotive control systems and mechatronics, as well as lecturing at technical universities, will welcome this book. It gives a broad insight view of the latest automotive technologies in use which have been adopted over a long period of time from research activities at universities and in industry. About twenty years ago the microcomputer

2000-01-01

500

DOE Automotive Composite Materials Research: Present and Future Efforts  

Microsoft Academic Search

One method of increasing automotive energy efficiency is through mass reduction of structural components by the incorporation of composite materials. Significant use of glass reinforced polymers as structural components could yield a 20--30% reduction in vehicle weight while the use of carbon fiber reinforced materials could yield a 40--60% reduction in mass. Specific areas of research for lightweighting automotive components

1999-01-01