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Sample records for autonomic nerve preserving

  1. Analysis of autonomic nerve preservation and pouch reconstruction influencing fragmentation of defecation after sphincter-preserving surgery for rectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Katsumata, K; Sumi, T; Enomoto, M; Mori, Y; Aoki, T

    2010-01-01

    Our questionnaire survey on defecation disorders after rectal cancer surgery revealed that 66.7% of postoperative patients were most annoyed with fragmentation of defecation. Therefore, we performed a change-over-time analysis on the relationship of fragmentation and factors including location of rectal cancer, surgical technique, anastomosis method, pouch reconstruction, extent of lymph node dissection, and degree of pelvic and colonic nerve preservation surrounding the superior mesenteric artery. The fragmentation decreased over time at the postoperative time points of 6 months, 2 and 5 years. A statistical analysis of factors influencing fragmentation revealed that location of cancer, reconstruction technique, anastomosis method and degree of pelvic nerve preservation were significant factors for the entire patient population and that colonic nerve preservation was a significant factor 5 years after surgery. Analysis of patients with lower rectal cancer only showed that in addition to surgical technique and anastomosis method, pouch reconstruction was effective and autonomic nerve preservation was effective 5 years after surgery. As a result, when the anastomotic site was closer to the anus, the frequency of fragmentation increased; we concluded that pouch reconstruction was an effective surgical technique and colonic nerve preservation was effective in the longer term. PMID:21051900

  2. Anatomical basis and clinical research of pelvic autonomic nerve preservation with laparoscopic radical resection for rectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yan; Lu, Xiao-ming; Tao, Kai-xiong; Ma, Jian-hua; Cai, Kai-lin; Wang, Lin-fang; Niu, Yan-feng; Wang, Guo-bin

    2016-04-01

    The clinical effect of laparoscopic rectal cancer curative excision with pelvic autonomic nerve preservation (PANP) was investigated. This study evaluated the frequency of urinary and sexual dysfunction of 149 male patients with middle and low rectal cancer who underwent laparoscopic or open total mesorectal excision with pelvic autonomic nerve preservation (PANP) from March 2011 to March 2013. Eighty-four patients were subjected to laparoscopic surgery, and 65 to open surgery respectively. The patients were followed up for 12 months, interviewed, and administered a standardized questionnaire about postoperative functional outcomes and quality of life. In the laparoscopic group, 13 patients (18.37%) presented transitory postoperative urinary dysfunction, and were medically treated. So did 12 patients (21.82%) in open group. Sexual desire was maintained by 52.86%, un-ability to engage in intercourse by 47.15%, and un-ability to achieve orgasm and ejaculation by 34.29% of the patients in the laparoscopic group. Sexual desire was maintained by 56.36%, un-ability to engage in intercourse by 43.63%, and un-ability to achieve orgasm and ejaculation by 33.73% of the patients in the open group. No significant differences in urinary and sexual dysfunction between the laparoscopic and open rectal resection groups were observed (P>0.05). It was concluded that laparoscopic rectal cancer radical excision with PANP did not aggravate or improve sexual and urinary dysfunction. PMID:27072964

  3. Pelvic autonomic nerve preservation in radical rectal cancer surgery: changes in the past 3 decades

    PubMed Central

    Chew, Min-Hoe; Yeh, Yu-Ting; Lim, Evan; Seow-Choen, Francis

    2016-01-01

    The advent of total mesorectal excision (TME) together with minimally invasive techniques such as laparoscopic colorectal surgery and robotic surgery has improved surgical results. However, the incidence of bladder and sexual dysfunction remains high. This may be particularly distressing for the patient and troublesome to manage for the surgeon when it does occur. The increased use of neoadjuvant and adjuvant radiotherapy is also associated with poorer functional outcomes. In this review, we evaluate current understanding of the anatomy of pelvic nerves which are divided into the areas of the inferior mesenteric artery pedicle, the lateral pelvic wall and dissection around the urogenital organs. Surgical techniques in these areas are discussed. We also discuss the results in functional outcomes of the various techniques including open, laparoscopic and robotic over the last 30 years. PMID:27478196

  4. Morphologic Changes in Autonomic Nerves in Diabetic Autonomic Neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Jin, Heung Yong; Baek, Hong Sun; Park, Tae Sun

    2015-12-01

    Diabetic neuropathy is one of the major complications of diabetes, and it increases morbidity and mortality in patients with both type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Because the autonomic nervous system, for example, parasympathetic axons, has a diffuse and wide distribution, we do not know the morphological changes that occur in autonomic neural control and their exact mechanisms in diabetic patients with diabetic autonomic neuropathy (DAN). Although the prevalence of sympathetic and parasympathetic neuropathy is similar in T1DM versus T2DM patients, sympathetic nerve function correlates with parasympathetic neuropathy only in T1DM patients. The explanation for these discrepancies might be that parasympathetic nerve function was more severely affected among T2DM patients. As parasympathetic nerve damage seems to be more advanced than sympathetic nerve damage, it might be that parasympathetic neuropathy precedes sympathetic neuropathy in T2DM, which was Ewing's concept. This could be explained by the intrinsic morphologic difference. Therefore, the morphological changes in the sympathetic and parasympathetic nerves of involved organs in T1DM and T2DM patients who have DAN should be evaluated. In this review, evaluation methods for morphological changes in the epidermal nerves of skin, and the intrinsic nerves of the stomach will be discussed. PMID:26706915

  5. Is the preservation of the phrenic nerve important after pneumonectomy?

    PubMed

    Burns, Jessica; Dunning, Joel

    2011-01-01

    A best evidence topic in cardiac surgery was written according to a structured protocol. The question addressed was: is the preservation of the phrenic nerve important after pneumonectomy? Altogether more than 49 papers were found using the reported search, of which four represented the best evidence to answer the clinical question. The authors, journal, date and country of publication, patient group studied, study type, relevant outcomes and results of these papers are tabulated. We conclude that care should be taken to preserve the integrity of the phrenic nerve wherever possible. The abnormal diaphragmatic motion which occurs as a consequence of phrenic nerve damage significantly reduces expiratory lung volumes, gas exchange and exercise capacity in already compromised patients. Phrenic nerve injury can also lead to a prolonged need for mechanical ventilation; this alone carries a risk of complication, such as infection. Plication of the paralyzed hemi-diaphragm has proved effective in reducing respiratory insufficiency after pneumonectomy. The aim of this is to fix and flatten the diaphragm, thus mimicking the role of a functioning phrenic nerve. Furthermore, the function of a preserved phrenic nerve remains normal for up to 11 years post pneumonectomy. Therefore, deterioration in function may highlight a recurrence in disease or a change in the post pneumonectomy space. PMID:20937666

  6. Metatranscriptomic analysis of autonomously collected and preserved marine bacterioplankton

    PubMed Central

    Ottesen, Elizabeth A; Marin, Roman; Preston, Christina M; Young, Curtis R; Ryan, John P; Scholin, Christopher A; DeLong, Edward F

    2011-01-01

    Planktonic microbial activity and community structure is dynamic, and can change dramatically on time scales of hours to days. Yet for logistical reasons, this temporal scale is typically under-sampled in the marine environment. In order to facilitate higher-resolution, long-term observation of microbial diversity and activity, we developed a protocol for automated collection and fixation of marine microbes using the Environmental Sample Processor (ESP) platform. The protocol applies a preservative (RNALater) to cells collected on filters, for long-term storage and preservation of total cellular RNA. Microbial samples preserved using this protocol yielded high-quality RNA after 30 days of storage at room temperature, or onboard the ESP at in situ temperatures. Pyrosequencing of complementary DNA libraries generated from ESP-collected and preserved samples yielded transcript abundance profiles nearly indistinguishable from those derived from conventionally treated replicate samples. To demonstrate the utility of the method, we used a moored ESP to remotely and autonomously collect Monterey Bay seawater for metatranscriptomic analysis. Community RNA was extracted and pyrosequenced from samples collected at four time points over the course of a single day. In all four samples, the oxygenic photoautotrophs were predominantly eukaryotic, while the bacterial community was dominated by Polaribacter-like Flavobacteria and a Rhodobacterales bacterium sharing high similarity with Rhodobacterales sp. HTCC2255. However, each time point was associated with distinct species abundance and gene transcript profiles. These laboratory and field tests confirmed that autonomous collection and preservation is a feasible and useful approach for characterizing the expressed genes and environmental responses of marine microbial communities. PMID:21716310

  7. Metatranscriptomic analysis of autonomously collected and preserved marine bacterioplankton

    SciTech Connect

    Ottesen, Elizabeth A.; Marin, Roman; Preston, Christina M.; Young, Curtis R.; Ryan, John P.; Scholin, Christopher A.; DeLong, Edward F.

    2011-06-30

    Planktonic microbial activity and community structure is dynamic, and can change dramatically on time scales of hours to days. Yet for logistical reasons, this temporal scale is typically undersampled in the marine environment. In order to facilitate higher-resolution, long-term observation of microbial diversity and activity, we developed a protocol for automated collection and fixation of marine microbes using the Environmental Sample Processor (ESP) platform. The protocol applies a preservative (RNALater) to cells collected on filters, for long-term storage and preservation of total cellular RNA. Microbial samples preserved using this protocol yielded high-quality RNA after 30 days of storage at room temperature, or onboard the ESP at in situ temperatures. Pyrosequencing of complementary DNA libraries generated from ESP-collected and preserved samples yielded transcript abundance profiles nearly indistinguishable from those derived from conventionally treated replicate samples. To demonstrate the utility of the method, we used a moored ESP to remotely and autonomously collect Monterey Bay seawater for metatranscriptomic analysis. Community RNA was extracted and pyrosequenced from samples collected at four time points over the course of a single day. In all four samples, the oxygenic photoautotrophs were predominantly eukaryotic, while the bacterial community was dominated by Polaribacter-like Flavobacteria and a Rhodobacterales bacterium sharing high similarity with Rhodobacterales sp. HTCC2255. However, each time point was associated with distinct species abundance and gene transcript profiles. These laboratory and field tests confirmed that autonomous collection and preservation is a feasible and useful approach for characterizing the expressed genes and environmental responses of marine microbial communities.

  8. Autonomic Nerve Activity and Blood Pressure in Ambulatory Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Hellyer, Jessica; Akingba, A. George; Rhee, Kyoung-Suk; Tan, Alex Y.; Lane, Kathleen A.; Shen, Changyu; Patel, Jheel; Fishbein, Michael C; Chen, Peng-Sheng

    2014-01-01

    Background The relationship between cardiac autonomic nerve activity and blood pressure (BP) changes in ambulatory dogs is unclear. Objective To test the hypotheses that simultaneous termination of stellate ganglion nerve activity (SGNA) and vagal nerve activity (VNA) predisposes to spontaneous orthostatic hypotension and that specific β2 adrenoceptor blockade prevents the hypotensive episodes. Methods We used a radiotransmitter to record SGNA, VNA and blood pressure (BP) in 8 ambulatory dogs. Video imaging was used to document postural changes. Results Out of these 8 dogs, 5 showed simultaneous sympathovagal discharges in which the minute by minute integrated SGNA correlated with integrated VNA in a linear pattern (“Group 1”). In these dogs abrupt termination of simultaneous SGNA-VNA at the time of postural changes (as documented by video imaging) was followed by abrupt (>20 mmHg over 4 beats) drops in BP. Dogs without simultaneous on/off firing (“Group 2”) did not have drastic drops in pressure. ICI 118,551 (ICI, a specific β2-blocker) infused at 3.1 µg/kg/hr for 7 days significantly increased BP from 126 (95% confidence interval, CI: 118 to 133) mmHg to 133 (95% CI 125 to141) mmHg (p=0.0001). The duration of hypotension (mean systolic BP < 100 mmHg) during baseline accounted for 7.1% of the recording. The percentage was reduced by ICI to 1.3% (p = 0.01). Conclusions Abrupt simultaneous termination of SGNA-VNA was observed at the time of orthostatic hypotension in ambulatory dogs. Selective β2 adrenoceptor blockade increased BP and reduced the duration of hypotension in this model. PMID:24275433

  9. Re-Innervation of the Bladder through End-to-Side Neurorrhaphy of Autonomic Nerve and Somatic Nerve in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Wan-sheng; Dong, Chuan-jiang; Li, Shu-qiang; Kunwar, Kiran Jang

    2012-01-01

    Abstract End-to-side neurorrhaphy is widely used in the peripheral nervous system for nerve repair; however, the application of this technique has been limited to somatic nerves. The feasibility of nerve regeneration through end-to-side neurorrhaphy between autonomic and somatic nerves with different characteristics in the peripheral nervous system is still undetermined. In this study, rats were divided into three groups for different treatments (n=10 per group). In the end-to-side neurorrhaphy group, left L6 and S1 were transected in the dura, and the distal stump of L6 ventral root was sutured to the lateral face of L4 ventral root through end-to-side coaptation. In the no repair group, the rats did not undergo neurorrhaphy. In the control group, the left L6 dorsal root and S1 roots were transected, respectively, but the L6 ventral root was kept intact. After 16 weeks, the origin and mechanism of nerve regeneration was evaluated by retrograde double labeling technique as well as histological examination and intravesical pressure measurement. Retrograde double labeling indicated that the reconstructed reflex pathway was successfully established and the primary regeneration mechanism involved axon collateral sprouting. Morphological examination and intravesical pressure measurement indicated prominent nerve regeneration and successful re-innervation of the bladder in the neurorrhaphy group, compared with the “no repair” group (p<0.05). No significant changes were observed in the histology of the donor nerve and the bilateral extensor digitorum longus muscles in the neurorrhaphy group. Nerve regeneration may be achievable for nerve repair through end-to-side neurorrhaphy between autonomic and somatic nerves without apparent impairment of donor somatic nerve. PMID:22332710

  10. Rat Whisker Movement after Facial Nerve Lesion: Evidence for Autonomic Contraction of Skeletal Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Heaton, James T.; Sheu, Shu-Hsien; Hohman, Marc H.; Knox, Christopher J.; Weinberg, Julie S.; Kleiss, Ingrid J.; Hadlock, Tessa A.

    2014-01-01

    Vibrissal whisking is often employed to track facial nerve regeneration in rats; however, we have observed similar degrees of whisking recovery after facial nerve transection with or without repair. We hypothesized that the source of non-facial nerve-mediated whisker movement after chronic denervation was from autonomic, cholinergic axons traveling within the infraorbital branch of the trigeminal nerve (ION). Rats underwent unilateral facial nerve transection with repair (N=7) or resection without repair (N=11). Post-operative whisking amplitude was measured weekly across 10 weeks, and during intraoperative stimulation of the ION and facial nerves at ≥18 weeks. Whisking was also measured after subsequent ION transection (N=6) or pharmacologic blocking of the autonomic ganglia using hexamethonium (N=3), and after snout cooling intended to elicit a vasodilation reflex (N=3). Whisking recovered more quickly and with greater amplitude in rats that underwent facial nerve repair compared to resection (P<0.05), but individual rats overlapped in whisking amplitude across both groups. In the resected rats, non-facial-nerve mediated whisking was elicited by electrical stimulation of the ION, temporarily diminished following hexamethonium injection, abolished by transection of the ION, and rapidly and significantly (P<0.05) increased by snout cooling. Moreover, fibrillation-related whisker movements decreased in all rats during the initial recovery period (indicative of reinnervation), but re-appeared in the resected rats after undergoing ION transection (indicative of motor denervation). Cholinergic, parasympathetic axons traveling within the ION innervate whisker pad vasculature, and immunohistochemistry for vasoactive intestinal peptide revealed these axons branching extensively over whisker pad muscles and contacting neuromuscular junctions after facial nerve resection. This study provides the first behavioral and anatomical evidence of spontaneous autonomic innervation

  11. SOD1 Overexpression Preserves Baroreflex Control of Heart Rate with an Increase of Aortic Depressor Nerve Function.

    PubMed

    Hatcher, Jeffrey; Gu, He; Cheng, Zixi Jack

    2016-01-01

    Overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS), such as the superoxide radical (O2 (∙-)), is associated with diseases which compromise cardiac autonomic function. Overexpression of SOD1 may offer protection against ROS damage to the cardiac autonomic nervous system, but reductions of O2 (∙-) may interfere with normal cellular functions. We have selected the C57B6SJL-Tg (SOD1)2 Gur/J mouse as a model to determine whether SOD1 overexpression alters cardiac autonomic function, as measured by baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) and aortic depressor nerve (ADN) recordings, as well as evaluation of baseline heart rate (HR) and mean arterial pressure (MAP). Under isoflurane anesthesia, C57 wild-type and SOD1 mice were catheterized with an arterial pressure transducer and measurements of HR and MAP were taken. After establishing a baseline, hypotension and hypertension were induced by injection of sodium nitroprusside (SNP) and phenylephrine (PE), respectively, and ΔHR versus ΔMAP were recorded as a measure of baroreflex sensitivity (BRS). SNP and PE treatment were administered sequentially after a recovery period to measure arterial baroreceptor activation by recording aortic depressor nerve activity. Our findings show that overexpression of SOD1 in C57B6SJL-Tg (SOD1)2 Gur/J mouse preserved the normal HR, MAP, and BRS but enhanced aortic depressor nerve function. PMID:26823951

  12. SOD1 Overexpression Preserves Baroreflex Control of Heart Rate with an Increase of Aortic Depressor Nerve Function

    PubMed Central

    Hatcher, Jeffrey; Gu, He; Cheng, Zixi (Jack)

    2016-01-01

    Overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS), such as the superoxide radical (O2∙−), is associated with diseases which compromise cardiac autonomic function. Overexpression of SOD1 may offer protection against ROS damage to the cardiac autonomic nervous system, but reductions of O2∙− may interfere with normal cellular functions. We have selected the C57B6SJL-Tg (SOD1)2 Gur/J mouse as a model to determine whether SOD1 overexpression alters cardiac autonomic function, as measured by baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) and aortic depressor nerve (ADN) recordings, as well as evaluation of baseline heart rate (HR) and mean arterial pressure (MAP). Under isoflurane anesthesia, C57 wild-type and SOD1 mice were catheterized with an arterial pressure transducer and measurements of HR and MAP were taken. After establishing a baseline, hypotension and hypertension were induced by injection of sodium nitroprusside (SNP) and phenylephrine (PE), respectively, and ΔHR versus ΔMAP were recorded as a measure of baroreflex sensitivity (BRS). SNP and PE treatment were administered sequentially after a recovery period to measure arterial baroreceptor activation by recording aortic depressor nerve activity. Our findings show that overexpression of SOD1 in C57B6SJL-Tg (SOD1)2 Gur/J mouse preserved the normal HR, MAP, and BRS but enhanced aortic depressor nerve function. PMID:26823951

  13. Device-Based Autonomic Modulation in Arrhythmia Patients: the Role of Vagal Nerve Stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Huang, William A.; Shivkumar, Kalyanam; Vaseghi, Marmar

    2015-01-01

    Opinion statement Vagal nerve stimulation (VNS) has shown promise as an adjunctive therapy for management of cardiac arrhythmias by targeting the cardiac parasympathetic nervous system. VNS has been evaluated in the setting of ischemia-driven ventricular arrhythmias and atrial arrhythmias, as well as a treatment option for heart failure. As better understanding of the complexities of the cardiac autonomic nervous system is obtained, vagal nerve stimulation will likely become a powerful tool in the current cardiovascular therapeutic armamentarium. PMID:25894588

  14. Autonomic nerves terminating on microvessels in the pineal organs of various submammalian vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Frank, C L; Czirok, Szabina J; Vincze, Csilla; Rácz, G; Szél, A; Vígh, B

    2005-01-01

    In earlier works we have found that in the mammalian pineal organ, a part of autonomic nerves--generally thought to mediate light information from the retina--form vasomotor endings on smooth muscle cells of vessels. We supposed that they serve the vascular support for circadian and circannual periodic changes in the metabolic activity of the pineal tissue. In the present work, we investigated whether peripheral nerves present in the photoreceptive pineal organs of submammalians form similar terminals on microvessels. In the cyclostome, fish, amphibian, reptile and bird species investigated, autonomic nerves accompany vessels entering the arachnoidal capsule and interfollicular meningeal septa of the pineal organ. The autonomic nerves do not enter the pineal tissue proper but remain in the perivasal meningeal septa isolated by basal lamina. They are composed of unmyelinated and myelinated fibers and form terminals around arterioles, veins and capillaries. The terminals contain synaptic and granular vesicles. Comparing various vertebrates, more perivasal terminals were found in reptiles and birds than in the cyclostome, fish and amphibian pineal organs. Earlier, autonomic nerves of the pineal organs were predominantly investigated in connection with the innervation of pineal tissue. The perivasal terminals found in various submammalians show that a part of the pineal autonomic fibers are vasomotoric in nature, but the vasosensor function of some fibers cannot be excluded. We suppose that the vasomotor regulation of the pineal microvessels in the photosensory submamalian pineal--like in mammals--may serve the vascular support for circadian and circannual periodic changes in the metabolic activity of the pineal tissue. The higher number of perivasal terminals in reptiles and birds may correspond to the higher metabolic activity of the tissues in more differentiated species. PMID:15813212

  15. Inhomogeneous derangement of cardiac autonomic nerve control in diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Sanyal, Shamarendra Nath; Arita, Makoto; Ono, Katsushige

    2002-03-01

    The present study compared autonomic nervous function in Kob [Spontaneously Diabetic, Bio-Breeding (BB)] rats with control Wistar rats to determine the development of cardiac neuropathy in diabetic rats. Telemetric ECG signals were obtained from an ECG radio-transmitter placed in a dorsal subcutaneous pouch of male Kob and Wistar rats for 30min every 6h at a sample rate of 5kHz. Heart rate (HR) and HR variability (HRV) were analyzed in each group by power spectrograms obtained by a fast Fourier transform algorithm. RR interval, total power (TP), low frequency (LF) power (0.04-0.67 Hz), high frequency (HF) power (0.79-1.48 Hz) and LF/HF ratio were also measured. The Kob rats had lower HRV than the control Wistar rats; HR, TP, and HF power, but not the LF/HF ratio, in the Kob rats were significantly lower than those of the control rats (p<0.001). However, in the Kob rats the response of these parameters to a muscarinic antagonist (atropine: 2mg/kg) was left intact, but their response to a beta-adrenergic antagonist (propranolol: 4mg/kg) was impeded. Autonomic nervous control of HR in spontaneously diabetic rats was inhomogeneously deranged in terms of the balance in sympathetic and parasympathetic tone, not only in the baseline condition, but also in the regulatory systems, including postsynaptic receptor function. PMID:11922279

  16. Artifacts produced during electrical stimulation of the vestibular nerve in cats. [autonomic nervous system components of motion sickness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tang, P. C.

    1973-01-01

    Evidence is presented to indicate that evoked potentials in the recurrent laryngeal, the cervical sympathetic, and the phrenic nerve, commonly reported as being elicited by vestibular nerve stimulation, may be due to stimulation of structures other than the vestibular nerve. Experiments carried out in decerebrated cats indicated that stimulation of the petrous bone and not that of the vestibular nerve is responsible for the genesis of evoked potentials in the recurrent laryngeal and the cervical sympathetic nerves. The phrenic response to electrical stimulation applied through bipolar straight electrodes appears to be the result of stimulation of the facial nerve in the facial canal by current spread along the petrous bone, since stimulation of the suspended facial nerve evoked potentials only in the phrenic nerve and not in the recurrent laryngeal nerve. These findings indicate that autonomic components of motion sickness represent the secondary reactions and not the primary responses to vestibular stimulation.

  17. Olfactory stimulatory with grapefruit and lavender oils change autonomic nerve activity and physiological function.

    PubMed

    Nagai, Katsuya; Niijima, Akira; Horii, Yuko; Shen, Jiao; Tanida, Mamoru

    2014-10-01

    This review summarizes the effects of olfactory stimulation with grapefruit and lavender oils on autonomic nerve activity and physiological function. Olfactory stimulation with the scent of grapefruit oil (GFO) increases the activity of sympathetic nerves that innervate white and brown adipose tissues, the adrenal glands, and the kidneys, decreases the activity of the gastric vagal nerve in rats and mice. This results in an increase in lipolysis, thermogenesis, and blood pressure, and a decrease in food intake. Olfactory stimulation with the scent of lavender oil (LVO) elicits the opposite changes in nerve activity and physiological variables. Olfactory stimulation with scent of limonene, a component of GFO, and linalool, a component of LVO, has similar effects to stimulation with GFO and LVO, respectively. The histamine H1-receptor antagonist, diphenhydramine, abolishes all GFO-induced changes in nerve activity and physiological variables, and the hitstamine H3-receptor antagonist, thioperamide, eliminates all LVO-induced changes. Lesions to the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus and anosmic treatment with ZnSO4 also abolish all GFO- and LVO-induced changes. These findings indicate that limonene and linalool might be the active substances in GFO and LVO, and suggest that the suprachiasmatic nucleus and histamine are involved in mediating the GFO- and LVO-induced changes in nerve activity and physiological variables. PMID:25002406

  18. Real-Time Assessment of Autonomic Nerve Activity During Adaptive Servo-Ventilation Support or Waon Therapy.

    PubMed

    Imamura, Teruhiko; Kinugawa, Koichiro; Nitta, Daisuke; Komuro, Issei

    2016-07-27

    Adaptive servo-ventilation support and Waon therapy are recently developed non-pharmacological and noninvasive therapies for patients with heart failure refractory to guideline-directed medical therapy. These therapies decrease both preload and afterload, increase cardiac output, and appear to ameliorate autonomic nerve activity. However, the time course of autonomic nerve activity during these therapies remains unclear. We performed heart rate variability analysis using the MemCalc power spectral density method (MemCalc system; Suwa Trust Co, Tokyo) to assess autonomic nerve activity during adaptive servo-ventilation support and Waon therapy in two different cases and determined the time course of autonomic nerve activity during these therapies. During both therapies, we found a drastic increase in parasympathetic nerve activity and continuous suppression of sympathetic nerve activity. Heart rate variability analysis using the MemCalc method may be promising for the assessment of the efficacy of various treatments, including adaptive servo-ventilation support and Waon therapy, from the viewpoint of autonomic nerve activity. PMID:27385607

  19. Retrolabyrinthine approach for cochlear nerve preservation in neurofibromatosis type 2 and simultaneous cochlear implantation

    PubMed Central

    Bento, Ricardo Ferreira; Monteiro, Tatiana Alves; Bittencourt, Aline Gomes; Goffi-Gomez, Maria Valeria Schmidt; de Brito, Rubens

    2013-01-01

    Summary Introduction: Few cases of cochlear implantation (CI) in neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2) patients had been reported in the literature. The approaches described were translabyrinthine, retrosigmoid or middle cranial fossa. Objectives: To describe a case of a NF2- deafened-patient who underwent to vestibular schwannoma resection via RLA with cochlear nerve preservation and CI through the round window, at the same surgical time. Resumed Report: A 36-year-old woman with severe bilateral hearing loss due to NF2 was submitted to vestibular schwannoma resection and simultaneous CI. Functional assessment of cochlear nerve was performed by electrical promontory stimulation. Complete tumor removal was accomplishment via RLA with anatomic and functional cochlear and facial nerve preservation. Cochlear electrode array was partially inserted via round window. Sound field hearing threshold improvement was achieved. Mean tonal threshold was 46.2 dB HL. The patient could only detect environmental sounds and human voice but cannot discriminate vowels, words nor do sentences at 2 years of follow-up. Conclusion: Cochlear implantation is a feasible auditory restoration option in NF2 when cochlear anatomic and functional nerve preservation is achieved. The RLA is adequate for this purpose and features as an option for hearing preservation in NF2 patients. PMID:25992034

  20. Differential myelinated and unmyelinated sensory and autonomic skin nerve fiber involvement in patients with ophthalmic postherpetic neuralgia

    PubMed Central

    Truini, Andrea; Haanpaa, Maija; Provitera, Vincenzo; Biasiotta, Antonella; Stancanelli, Annamaria; Caporaso, Giuseppe; Santoro, Lucio; Cruccu, Giorgio; Nolano, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Postherpetic neuralgia (PHN) is a common and exceptionally drug-resistant neuropathic pain condition. In this cross-sectional skin biopsy study, seeking information on the responsible pathophysiological mechanisms we assessed how ophthalmic PHN affects sensory and autonomic skin innervation. We took 2-mm supraorbital punch skin biopsies from the affected and unaffected sides in 10 patients with ophthalmic PHN. Using indirect immunofluorescence and a large panel of antibodies including protein gene product (PGP) 9.5 we quantified epidermal unmyelinated, dermal myelinated and autonomic nerve fibers. Although skin biopsy showed reduced epidermal and dermal myelinated fiber density in specimens from the affected side, the epidermal/dermal myelinated nerve fiber ratio was lower in the affected than in the unaffected side (p < 0.001), thus suggesting a predominant epidermal unmyelinated nerve fiber loss. Conversely, autonomic skin innervation was spared. Our study showing that ophthalmic PHN predominantly affects unmyelinated nerve fiber and spares autonomic nerve fiber might help to understand the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying this difficult-to-treat condition. PMID:26300742

  1. Differences in autonomic nerve function in patients with silent and symptomatic myocardial ischaemia.

    PubMed Central

    Shakespeare, C. F.; Katritsis, D.; Crowther, A.; Cooper, I. C.; Coltart, J. D.; Webb-Peploe, M. W.

    1994-01-01

    BACKGROUND--Autonomic neuropathy provides a mechanism for the absence of symptoms in silent myocardial ischaemia, but characterisation of the type of neuropathy is lacking. AIM--To characterise and compare autonomic nerve function in patients with silent and symptomatic myocardial ischaemia. METHODS AND RESULTS--The Valsalva manoeuvre, heart rate variation (HRV) in response to deep breathing and standing, lower body negative pressure, isometric handgrip, and the cold pressor test were performed by patients with silent (n = 25) and symptomatic (n = 25) ambulatory ischaemia and by controls (n = 21). No difference in parasympathetic efferent function between patients with silent and symptomatic ischaemia was recorded, but both had significantly less HRV in response to standing than the controls (p < 0.005 for silent and p < 0.01 for symptomatic). Patients with silent ischaemia showed an increased propensity for peripheral vasodilatation compared with symptomatic patients (p < 0.02) and controls (p < 0.04). Impaired sympathetic function was found in patients with pure silent ischaemia (n = 4) compared with the remaining patients with silent ischaemia whose pain pathways were presumed to be intact. CONCLUSIONS--Patients with silent ischaemia and pain pathways presumed to be intact have an enhanced peripheral vasodilator response, and if this applied to the coronary vasculature it could provide a mechanism for limiting ischaemia to below the pain threshold. Patients with pure silent ischaemia have evidence of sympathetic autonomic dysfunction. Images PMID:8297687

  2. Uterine autonomic nerve innervation plays a crucial role in regulating rat uterine mast cell functions during embryo implantation.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Xue-Jun; Huang, Li-Bo; Qiao, Hui-Li; Deng, Ze-Pei; Fa, Jing-Jing

    2009-12-01

    To explore the potential mechanism of how uterine innervations would affect the uterine mast cell (MC) population and functions during the periimplantation. We herein first examined the consequence of uterine neurectomy on embryo implantation events. We observed that amputation of autonomic nerves innervating the uterus led to on-time implantation failure in rats. Exploiting MC culture and ELISA approaches, we then further analyzed the effect of neurectomy on cellular histamine levels and its release from uterine MCs, to elucidate the relation of the autonomic nerves and local cellular immunity in the uterine during early pregnancy. We observed that disconnection of autonomic nerve innervation significantly increased the population of uterine MCs. Most interestingly, these increased number of uterine MCs in neuroectomized rats contained a much reduced cellular level of histamine. Our subsequent challenge experiments revealed that uterine MCs in nerve amputated rats exhibited enhanced histamine releasing rate in response to substance P and antiIgE, suggesting loss of nerve innervation in the uterus not only increases the population of uterine MCs, but also facilitates the release of histamine from MCs, thus subsequently interfere with the normal implantation process. Collectively, our findings provide a new line of evidence supporting the concept that immune-neuro-endocrine network plays important role during pregnancy establishment and maintenance. PMID:19765668

  3. Effects of culture supernatant from Lactobacillus pentosus strain S-PT84 on autonomic nerve activity in rats.

    PubMed

    Beppu, Yoshinori; Izumo, Takayuki; Horii, Yuko; Shen, Jiao; Fujisaki, Yoshiyuki; Nakashima, Toshihiro; Tsuruoka, Nobuo; Nagai, Katsuya

    2012-01-01

    Intestinal administration of various lactobacilli has been reported to affect autonomic neurotransmission, blood pressure, blood glucose, and body weight in rats, however, the mechanisms of action of the lactobacilli remain to be clarified. Therefore, the effect of the culture supernatant of Lactobacillus pentosus strain S-PT84 on the autonomic nerve activity in urethane-anesthetized rats was investigated. Intraduodenal injection of the low-molecular-weight (LMW) fraction (molecules less than 10,000 Da) of the S-PT84 culture supernatant elevated the brown adipose tissue sympathetic nerve activity and reduced the gastric vagal nerve activity. Moreover, intraoral administration of this LMW fraction increased the body temperature of rats above the interscapular brown adipose tissue. These results suggest that the LMW fraction of the S-PT84 culture supernatant affects the autonomic nerve activity and thermogenesis, and that the change in thermogenesis may be caused by the change in the sympathetic nerve activity of brown adipose tissue. PMID:22523286

  4. The role of intercostal nerve preservation in acute pain control after thoracotomy*

    PubMed Central

    Marchetti-Filho, Marco Aurélio; Leão, Luiz Eduardo Villaça; Costa-Junior, Altair da Silva

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether the acute pain experienced during in-hospital recovery from thoracotomy can be effectively reduced by the use of intraoperative measures (dissection of the neurovascular bundle prior to the positioning of the Finochietto retractor and preservation of the intercostal nerve during closure). METHODS: We selected 40 patients who were candidates for elective thoracotomy in the Thoracic Surgery Department of the Federal University of São Paulo/Paulista School of Medicine, in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. The patients were randomized into two groups: conventional thoracotomy (CT, n = 20) and neurovascular bundle preservation (NBP, n = 20). All of the patients underwent thoracic epidural anesthesia and muscle-sparing thoracotomy. Pain intensity was assessed with a visual analog scale on postoperative days 1, 3, and 5, as well as by monitoring patient requests for/consumption of analgesics. RESULTS: On postoperative day 5, the self-reported pain intensity was significantly lower in the NBP group than in the CT group (visual analog scale score, 1.50 vs. 3.29; p = 0.04). No significant differences were found between the groups regarding the number of requests for/consumption of analgesics. CONCLUSIONS: In patients undergoing thoracotomy, protecting the neurovascular bundle prior to positioning the retractor and preserving the intercostal nerve during closure can minimize pain during in-hospital recovery. PMID:24831401

  5. Vagus nerve stimulation: state of the art of stimulation and recording strategies to address autonomic function neuromodulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guiraud, David; Andreu, David; Bonnet, Stéphane; Carrault, Guy; Couderc, Pascal; Hagège, Albert; Henry, Christine; Hernandez, Alfredo; Karam, Nicole; Le Rolle, Virginie; Mabo, Philippe; Maciejasz, Paweł; Malbert, Charles-Henri; Marijon, Eloi; Maubert, Sandrine; Picq, Chloé; Rossel, Olivier; Bonnet, Jean-Luc

    2016-08-01

    Objective. Neural signals along the vagus nerve (VN) drive many somatic and autonomic functions. The clinical interest of VN stimulation (VNS) is thus potentially huge and has already been demonstrated in epilepsy. However, side effects are often elicited, in addition to the targeted neuromodulation. Approach. This review examines the state of the art of VNS applied to two emerging modulations of autonomic function: heart failure and obesity, especially morbid obesity. Main results. We report that VNS may benefit from improved stimulation delivery using very advanced technologies. However, most of the results from fundamental animal studies still need to be demonstrated in humans.

  6. Great auricular nerve preservation in parotid surgery: rationale and long-term results insights.

    PubMed

    Moretti, Antonio; Citraro, Leonardo; Petrucci, Anna Grazia; Di Giovanni, Pamela; Di Mauro, Roberta; Giacomini, Pier Giorgio

    2015-11-01

    Great auricular nerve (GAN) is frequently sacrificed during parotid surgery. GAN preservation during parotidectomy is advised to avoid complications such as sensitive disorders, but debate still exists. In this study, our experience is reported on the matter. From a cohort of 173 parotidectomies carried out in the period 2005-2010, we studied 60 patients: 20 patients in which we preserved only the posterior branch of GAN (group A), 20 patients in which we preserved also the lobular branch (group B) and 20 patients in which the main trunk of GAN was sectioned (group C); we evaluated tactile sensitivity in all the skin supplied by GAN at 1 week, 1 month, 6 months and 1 year after surgery. Group B is the best in terms of loss and recovery of sensitivity after 1-year post-surgery, followed closely by group A, on the contrary group C confirmed to be the worst. Results suggest that saving as many branches of the GAN as possible during parotid surgery could be useful for reducing hypo-dysesthesia. Preserving posterior and lobular branches of the GAN, when possible, improves the sensitivity of the preauricular area with better quality of life for the patient. PMID:25381094

  7. Significance of Vestibular Testing on Distinguishing the Nerve of Origin for Vestibular Schwannoma and Predicting the Preservation of Hearing

    PubMed Central

    He, Yu-Bo; Yu, Chun-Jiang; Ji, Hong-Ming; Qu, Yan-Ming; Chen, Ning

    2016-01-01

    Background: Determining the nerve of origin for vestibular schwannoma (VS), as a method for predicting hearing prognosis, has not been systematically considered. The vestibular test can be used to investigate the function of the superior vestibular nerve (SVN) and the inferior vestibular nerve (IVN). This study aimed to preoperatively distinguish the nerve of origin for VS patients using the vestibular test, and determine if this correlated with hearing preservation. Methods: A total of 106 patients with unilateral VS were enrolled in this study prospectively. Each patient received a caloric test, vestibular-evoked myogenic potential (VEMP) test, and cochlear nerve function test (hearing) before the operation and 1 week, 3, and 6 months, postoperatively. All patients underwent surgical removal of the VS using the suboccipital approach. During the operation, the nerve of tumor origin (SVN or IVN) was identified by the surgeon. Tumor size was measured by preoperative magnetic resonance imaging. Results: The nerve of tumor origin could not be unequivocally identified in 38 patients (38/106, 35.80%). These patients were not subsequently evaluated. In 26 patients (nine females, seventeen males), tumors arose from the SVN and in 42 patients (18 females, 24 males), tumors arose from the IVN. Comparing with the nerve of origins (SVN and IVN) of tumors, the results of the caloric tests and VEMP tests were significantly different in tumors originating from the SVN and the IVN in our study. Hearing was preserved in 16 of 26 patients (61.54%) with SVN-originating tumors, whereas hearing was preserved in only seven of 42 patients (16.67%) with IVN-originating tumors. Conclusions: Our data suggest that caloric and VEMP tests might help to identify whether VS tumors originate from the SVN or IVN. These tests could also be used to evaluate the residual function of the nerves after surgery. Using this information, we might better predict the preservation of hearing for patients

  8. Temporary Neurotrophin Treatment Prevents Deafness-Induced Auditory Nerve Degeneration and Preserves Function.

    PubMed

    Ramekers, Dyan; Versnel, Huib; Strahl, Stefan B; Klis, Sjaak F L; Grolman, Wilko

    2015-09-01

    After substantial loss of cochlear hair cells, exogenous neurotrophins prevent degeneration of the auditory nerve. Because cochlear implantation, the current therapy for profound sensorineural hearing loss, depends on a functional nerve, application of neurotrophins is being investigated. We addressed two questions important for fundamental insight into the effects of exogenous neurotrophins on a degenerating neural system, and for translation to the clinic. First, does temporary treatment with brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) prevent nerve degeneration on the long term? Second, how does a BDNF-treated nerve respond to electrical stimulation? Deafened guinea pigs received a cochlear implant, and their cochleas were infused with BDNF for 4 weeks. Up to 8 weeks after treatment, their cochleas were analyzed histologically. Electrically evoked compound action potentials (eCAPs) were recorded using stimulation paradigms that are informative of neural survival. Spiral ganglion cell (SGC) degeneration was prevented during BDNF treatment, resulting in 1.9 times more SGCs than in deafened untreated cochleas. Importantly, SGC survival was almost complete 8 weeks after treatment cessation, when 2.6 times more SGCs were observed. In four eCAP characteristics (three involving alteration of the interphase gap of the biphasic current pulse and one involving pulse trains), we found large and statistically significant differences between normal-hearing and deaf controls. Importantly, for BDNF-treated animals, these eCAP characteristics were near normal, suggesting healthy responsiveness of BDNF-treated SGCs. In conclusion, clinically practicable short-term neurotrophin treatment is sufficient for long-term survival of SGCs, and it can restore or preserve SGC function well beyond the treatment period. Significance statement: Successful restoration of hearing in deaf subjects by means of a cochlear implant requires a healthy spiral ganglion cell population. Deafness

  9. Derangement of autonomic nerve control in rat with right ventricular failure.

    PubMed

    Sanyal, S N.; Ono, K

    2002-06-01

    The effects of right ventricular hypertrophy and eventual right ventricular failure on autonomic nerve regulation of heart rate variability were investigated using rats with monocrotaline (MCT)-induced pulmonary hypertension. ECG signals were obtained from a radio transmitter placed into the subcutaneous pouch in the back of the male MCT-treated and control rats for 30 min every 6 h at a sample rate of 5 kHz with or without injection of atropine (2 mg/kg I.P.) or propranolol (4 mg/kg I.P.), in a room equipped with a climate controller. Heart rate (HR) and HR variability (HRV) were analyzed in each group by power spectrograms obtained by the fast-Fourier transform algorithm. The RR interval, total power (TP), low-frequency (LF) power (0.04-0.73 Hz), high-frequency (HF) power (0.73-2 Hz) and LF/HF (L/H) ratio were measured. HR was significantly increased in the MCT-treated rats (P<0.001), which also presented lower HRV than that of the control Wistar rats; TP (P<0.05) and HF (P<0.05) power, but not the L/H ratio, were significantly lower than that of the control rats. Responses of these parameters to a muscarinic antagonist (atropine: 2 mg/kg) and a beta-adrenergic antagonist (propranolol: 4 mg/kg), however, remained intact in the MCT-treated rats. Only the parasympathetic component of autonomic nervous controls of HRV was deranged in rats with MCT-induced right ventricular failure. PMID:12039652

  10. Evaluation of distal symmetric polyneuropathy: the role of autonomic testing, nerve biopsy, and skin biopsy (an evidence-based review).

    PubMed

    England, J D; Gronseth, G S; Franklin, G; Carter, G T; Kinsella, L J; Cohen, J A; Asbury, A K; Szigeti, K; Lupski, J R; Latov, N; Lewis, R A; Low, P A; Fisher, M A; Herrmann, D; Howard, J F; Lauria, G; Miller, R G; Polydefkis, M; Sumner, A J

    2009-01-01

    Distal symmetric polyneuropathy (DSP) is the most common variety of neuropathy. Since the evaluation of this disorder is not standardized, the available literature was reviewed to provide evidence-based guidelines regarding the role of autonomic testing, nerve biopsy, and skin biopsy for the assessment of polyneuropathy. A literature review using MEDLINE, EMBASE, Science Citation Index, and Current Contents was performed to identify the best evidence regarding the evaluation of polyneuropathy published between 1980 and March 2007. Articles were classified according to a four-tiered level of evidence scheme and recommendations were based on the level of evidence. (1) Autonomic testing may be considered in the evaluation of patients with polyneuropathy to document autonomic nervous system dysfunction (Level B). Such testing should be considered especially for the evaluation of suspected autonomic neuropathy (Level B) and distal small fiber sensory polyneuropathy (SFSN) (Level C). A battery of validated tests is recommended to achieve the highest diagnostic accuracy (Level B). (2) Nerve biopsy is generally accepted as useful in the evaluation of certain neuropathies as in patients with suspected amyloid neuropathy, mononeuropathy multiplex due to vasculitis, or with atypical forms of chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP). However, the literature is insufficient to provide a recommendation regarding when a nerve biopsy may be useful in the evaluation of DSP (Level U). (3) Skin biopsy is a validated technique for determining intraepidermal nerve fiber (IENF) density and may be considered for the diagnosis of DSP, particularly SFSN (Level C). There is a need for additional prospective studies to define more exact guidelines for the evaluation of polyneuropathy. PMID:19086069

  11. Melatonin preserves superoxide dismutase activity in hypoglossal motoneurons of adult rats following peripheral nerve injury.

    PubMed

    Chang, Hung-Ming; Huang, Yi-Lun; Lan, Chyn-Tair; Wu, Un-In; Hu, Ming-E; Youn, Su-Chung

    2008-03-01

    Peripheral nerve injury (PNI) produces functional changes in lesioned neurons in which oxidative stress is considered to be the main cause of neuronal damage. As superoxide dismutase (SOD) is an important antioxidative enzyme involved in redox regulation of oxidative stress, the present study determined whether melatonin would exert its beneficial effects by preserving the SOD reactivity following PNI. Adult rats subjected to hypoglossal nerve transection were intraperitoneally injected with melatonin at ones for 3, 7, 14, 30 and 60 days successively. The potential neuroprotective effects of melatonin were quantitatively demonstrated by neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS), mitochondrial manganese SOD (Mn-SOD), and cytosolic copper-zinc SOD (Cu/Zn-SOD) immunohistochemistry. The functional recovery of the lesioned neurons was evaluated by choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) immunohistochemistry along with the electromyographic (EMG) recordings of denervation-induced fibrillation activity. The results indicate that following PNI, the nNOS immunoreactivity was significantly increased in lesioned neurons peaking at 14 days. The up-regulation of nNOS temporally coincided with the reduction of ChAT and SOD in which the Cu/Zn-SOD showed a greater diminution than Mn-SOD. However, following melatonin administration, the nNOS augmentation was successfully suppressed and the activities of Mn-SOD, Cu/Zn-SOD, and ChAT were effectively preserved at all postaxotomy periods. EMG data also showed a decreased fibrillation in melatonin-treated groups, suggesting a potential effect of melatonin in promoting functional recovery. In association with its significant capacity in preserving SOD reactivity, melatonin is suggested to serve as a powerful therapeutic agent for treating PNI-relevant oxidative damage. PMID:18289169

  12. Perinatal taurine exposure programs patterns of autonomic nerve activity responses to tooth pulp stimulation in adult male rats

    PubMed Central

    Khimsuksri, Sawita; Wyss, J. Michael; Thaeomor, Atcharaporn; Paphangkorakit, Jarin; Jirakulsomchok, Dusit; Roysommuti, Sanya

    2016-01-01

    Perinatal taurine excess or deficit influences adult health and disease, especially relative to the autonomic nervous system. This study tests the hypothesis that perinatal taurine exposure influences adult autonomic nervous system control of arterial pressure in response to acute electrical tooth pulp stimulation. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were fed normal rat chow with 3% β-alanine (taurine depletion, TD), 3% taurine (taurine supplementation, TS) or water alone (control, C) from conception to weaning. Their male offspring were fed normal rat chow and tap water throughout the experiment. At 8–10 weeks of age, blood chemistry, arterial pressure, heart rate and renal sympathetic nerve activity were measured in anesthetized rats. Age, body weight, mean arterial pressure, heart rate, plasma electrolytes, blood urea nitrogen, plasma creatinine and plasma cortisol were not significantly different among the three groups. Before tooth pulp stimulation, low (0.3–0.5 Hz) and high frequency (0.5–4.0 Hz) power spectral densities of arterial pressure were not significantly different among groups, while the power spectral densities of renal sympathetic nerve activity were significantly decreased in TD compared to control rats. Tooth pulp stimulation did not change arterial pressure, heart rate, renal sympathetic nerve and arterial pressure power spectral densities in the 0.3–4.0 Hz spectrum or renal sympathetic nerve firing rate in any group. In contrast, perinatal taurine imbalance disturbed very low frequency power spectral densities of both arterial pressure and renal sympathetic nerve activity (below 0.1 Hz), both before and after the tooth pulp stimulation. The power densities of TS were most sensitive to ganglionic blockade and central adrenergic inhibition, while those of TD were sensitive to both central and peripheral adrenergic inhibition. The present data indicate that perinatal taurine imbalance can lead to aberrant autonomic nervous system responses in

  13. Influences of casein hydrolysate ingestion on cerebral activity, autonomic nerve activity, and anxiety.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Hirohiko; Iwamoto, Mario; Washida, Kenji; Sekine, Kazunori; Takase, Mitsunori; Park, Bum-Jin; Morikawa, Takeshi; Miyazaki, Yoshifumi

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the influences of the oral ingestion of casein hydrolysate from bovine milk at rest physiologically and psychologically. Eleven male university students were given a casein hydrolysate drink (H) or a maltitol drink as a control (C) in a crossover study. Just before and one hour after ingestion of each drink, the total-hemoglobin (tHb) concentrations at ten points of the prefrontal cortex to evaluate cerebral activity, and heart rate variability (HRV) to evaluate autonomic nerve activity through spectral analysis were measured as physiological indicators. The Japanese version of the State--Trait Anxiety Inventory--state anxiety (STAI-s) score was also used, as a psychological indicator. In comparison between H and C ingestion, a significant difference is observed only in tHb concentrations at one of ten points. At this point, the change in tHb concentration was lower after H ingestion compared to C ingestion. And in comparison between before and after ingestion of each drink, a significant increase in tHb concentration at two points after C ingestion, a significant increase in parasympathetic activity and decrease in sympathetic activity after H ingestion, and a significant decrease in STAI-s score in H ingestion were observed. These results suggest that ingestion of the casein hydrolysate may keep prefrontal cortex activity stable while maltitol ingestion partially increases the activity. Moreover, there is a possibility that casein hydrolysate might decrease sympathetic activity, increase parasympathetic activity, and lower anxiety. We conclude that the bovine milk casein hydrolysate may have more relaxing effects than maltitol. PMID:20558968

  14. The onset and rate of myelination in six peripheral and autonomic nerves of the rat.

    PubMed Central

    Schäfer, K; Friede, R L

    1988-01-01

    A light and electron microscopic study was carried out of the numbers of myelinated fibres in 6 nerves of the rat for 7 age groups from birth to 73 weeks. The hypoglossal nerve and the mandibular branch of the facial nerve had short and early myelination periods, essentially complete by the second week. The glossopharyngeal nerve and the sympathetic rami communicantes myelinated late and over a protracted period. Myelination of the rami communicantes continued up to 20 weeks, followed by a marked loss of fibres in the 73 week animals. Intercostal and saphenous nerves had intermediary patterns. There was evidence of subpopulations myelinating at different times. Measurements of myelin sheath thickness showed variations of relative sheath thickness with age, between nerves and for subpopulations of nerves. Late myelination corresponded to relatively thin myelin sheaths. Statistical two-stage-density cluster analysis by computer was used for analysing complex fibre populations. The developmental changes of three subpopulations of the intercostal nerve are documented. Nerves also differed in their rates of axon growth. The increment in axon calibre was small and late for sympathetic fibres. Intercostal and facial nerve fibres had rapid axon growth with different growth rates for subpopulations. PMID:3248966

  15. Preservation of the vegetative pelvic nerves and local reccurence in the operative treatment of rectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Jota, G J; Karadzov, Z; Panovski, M; Vasilevski, V; Serafimoski, V

    2006-12-01

    Life quality of the patients operated from rectal cancer is a serious problem. Despite the curing as a primary objective in the treatment of the rectal cancer, special attention is paid to the life quality upon the performed operation on the subjected patients. The analyzed series consists of 29 patients with rectal cancer, operated on at the Digestive Surgery Clinic within the framework of the Clinical Centre in Skopje, in the period between 2001-2006. Our series involves patients from the T2 and T3 stage of the illness, where it possible to preserve the vegetative pelvic nerves, that are characterized by a relatively long-lasting symptomatology and relatively high percentage of lymphatic metastases. The standardization of the operative intervention resulted in an increase in the number of patients with continuous operations and preservation of the neuro-vegetative plexus without influencing the radicalism of the intervention. The application of the Stapler and Double Stapler technique brought about an increase in the number of continuous operations characterized by a termino-terminal colorectal anastomosis. On the other hand the preventive creation of LOOP ileostomies in the case of the ultra low resections resulted in a decrease in the level of dehiscence of this type as one of the most common and most difficult complications. The preservation of the pelvic neuro-vegetative plexus prolongs the operation time by 30 to 60 minutes, depending on the case and the patient. We assume that the procedure does not have a particular influence on the frequency of the complications, and at the same time it positively affects the revival of the urinal and sexual function. Taking into consideration the fact that the lymphatic dissection increases the possibility of removal of the malignant tissue and enables an adequate "staging" and on the other hand the preservation of the pelvic plexus improves the quality of life, both in terms of the sexual function and the function of

  16. Effects of carvedilol on cardiac autonomic nerve activities during sinus rhythm and atrial fibrillation in ambulatory dogs

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Eue-Keun; Shen, Mark J.; Lin, Shien-Fong; Chen, Peng-Sheng; Oh, Seil

    2014-01-01

    Aims We hypothesized that carvedilol can effectively suppress autonomic nerve activity (ANA) in ambulatory dogs during sinus rhythm and atrial fibrillation (AF), and that carvedilol withdrawal can lead to rebound elevation of ANA. Carvedilol is known to block pre-junctional β2-adrenoceptor responsible for norepinephrine release. Methods and results We implanted radiotransmitters to record stellate ganglion nerve activity (SGNA), vagal nerve activity (VNA), and superior left ganglionated plexi nerve activity (SLGPNA) in 12 ambulatory dogs. Carvedilol (12.5 mg orally twice a day) was given for 7 days during sinus rhythm (n = 8). Four of the eight dogs and an additional four dogs were paced into persistent AF. Carvedilol reduced heart rate [from 103 b.p.m. (95% confidence interval (CI), 100–105) to 100 b.p.m. (95% CI, 98–102), P = 0.044], suppressed integrated nerve activities (Int-NAs, SGNA by 17%, VNA by 19%, and SLGPNA by 12%; all P < 0.05 vs. the baseline), and significantly reduced the incidence (from 8 ± 6 to 3 ± 3 episodes/day, P < 0.05) and total duration (from 68 ± 64 to 16 ± 21 s/day, P < 0.05) of paroxysmal atrial tachycardia (PAT). Following the development of persistent AF, carvedilol loading was associated with AF termination in three dogs. In the remaining five dogs, Int-NAs were not significantly suppressed by carvedilol, but SGNA significantly increased by 16% after carvedilol withdrawal (P < 0.001). Conclusion Carvedilol suppresses ANA and PAT in ambulatory dogs during sinus rhythm. PMID:24469435

  17. Leptin Receptor Signaling in the Hypothalamus Regulates Hepatic Autonomic Nerve Activity via Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase and AMP-Activated Protein Kinase

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Naoki; Morgan, Donald A.; Kurata, Yasutaka; Shibamoto, Toshishige

    2015-01-01

    Leptin action in the brain has emerged as an important regulator of liver function independently from its effects on food intake and body weight. The autonomic nervous system plays a key role in the regulation of physiological processes by leptin. Here, we used direct recording of nerve activity from sympathetic or vagal nerves subserving the liver to investigate how brain action of leptin controls hepatic autonomic nerve activity. Intracerebroventricular (ICV) administration of leptin activated hepatic sympathetic traffic in rats and mice in dose- and receptor-dependent manners. The hepatic sympatho-excitatory effects of leptin were also observed when leptin was microinjected directly into the arcuate nucleus (ARC), but not into the ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH). Moreover, using pharmacological and genetic approaches, we show that leptin-induced increase in hepatic sympathetic outflow depends on PI3K but not AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), STAT3, or ERK1/2. Interestingly, ICV leptin also increased hepatic vagal nerve activity in rats. We show that this response is reproduced by intra-ARC, but not intra-VMH, leptin administration and requires PI3K and AMPK. We conclude that central leptin signaling conveys the information to the liver through the sympathetic and parasympathetic branches of the autonomic nervous system. Our data also provide important insight into the molecular events underlying leptin's control of hepatic autonomic nerve activity by implicating PI3K and AMPK pathways. PMID:25589743

  18. Preserved cardiac autonomic dynamics during sleep in patients with spinal cord injury

    PubMed Central

    Tobaldini, Eleonora; Proserpio, Paola; Sambusida, Katrina; Lanza, Andrea; Redaelli, Tiziana; Frigerio, Pamela; Fratticci, Lara; Rosa, Silvia; Casali, Karina R.; Somers, Virend K; Nobili, Lino; Montano, Nicola

    2015-01-01

    Spinal cord injuries (SCI) are associated with altered cardiovascular autonomic control. Sleep is characterized by modifications of autonomic control across sleep stages; however, no data are available on the effects of SCI on CAC during sleep. The aim of our study was to assess cariac autonomic modulation during sleep in SCI patients. Overnight polysomnographic recordings were obtained in 27 patients with cervical (Cerv) and thoracic (Thor) SCI and in healthy subjects (Controls). ECG and respiration were extracted from PSG, divided into sleep stages (W, N2, N3 and REM) for assessment of CAC, using symbolic analysis and Corrected Conditional Entropy. SA identifies three main indices, 0V%, index of sympathetic modulation, and 2LV% and 2UV%, markers of vagal modulation. CCE evaluates the complexity of heart period time series. Symbolic analysis revealed a reduction of 0V% in N2 and N3 compared to W and REM and an increase of 2LV% and 2UV% in N2 and N3 compared to W and REM in SCI patients, independent of the level of the lesion, and similar to Controls. Corrected Conditional Entropy was higher in N2 and N3 compared to W and REM in all three groups. In SCI patients, cardiac autonomic control changed across sleep stages, with a reduction of sympathetic and an increase of parasympathetic modulation during NREM compared to W and REM and a parallel increase of complexity during NREM, similar to Controls. Cardiac autonomic dynamics during sleep are maintained in SCI, independent of the level of the lesion. PMID:25953303

  19. Prophylactic nimodipine treatment for cochlear and facial nerve preservation after vestibular schwannoma surgery: a randomized multicenter Phase III trial.

    PubMed

    Scheller, Christian; Wienke, Andreas; Tatagiba, Marcos; Gharabaghi, Alireza; Ramina, Kristofer F; Ganslandt, Oliver; Bischoff, Barbara; Zenk, Johannes; Engelhorn, Tobias; Matthies, Cordula; Westermaier, Thomas; Antoniadis, Gregor; Pedro, Maria Teresa; Rohde, Veit; von Eckardstein, Kajetan; Kretschmer, Thomas; Kornhuber, Malte; Steighardt, Jörg; Richter, Michael; Barker, Fred G; Strauss, Christian

    2016-03-01

    OBJECT A pilot study of prophylactic nimodipine and hydroxyethyl starch treatment showed a beneficial effect on facial and cochlear nerve preservation following vestibular schwannoma (VS) surgery. A prospective Phase III trial was undertaken to confirm these results. METHODS An open-label, 2-arm, randomized parallel group and multicenter Phase III trial with blinded expert review was performed and included 112 patients who underwent VS surgery between January 2010 and February 2013 at 7 departments of neurosurgery to investigate the efficacy and safety of the prophylaxis. The surgery was performed after the patients were randomly assigned to one of 2 groups using online randomization. The treatment group (n = 56) received parenteral nimodipine (1-2 mg/hr) and hydroxyethyl starch (hematocrit 30%-35%) from the day before surgery until the 7th postoperative day. The control group (n = 56) was not treated prophylactically. RESULTS Intent-to-treat analysis showed no statistically significant effects of the treatment on either preservation of facial nerve function (35 [67.3%] of 52 [treatment group] compared with 34 [72.3%] of 47 [control group]) (p = 0.745) or hearing preservation (11 [23.4%] of 47 [treatment group] compared with 15 [31.2%] of 48 [control group]) (p = 0.530) 12 months after surgery. Since tumor sizes were significantly larger in the treatment group than in the control group, logistic regression analysis was required. The risk for deterioration of facial nerve function was adjusted nearly the same in both groups (OR 1.07 [95% CI 0.34-3.43], p = 0.91). In contrast, the risk for postoperative hearing loss was adjusted 2 times lower in the treatment group compared with the control group (OR 0.49 [95% CI 0.18-1.30], p = 0.15). Apart from dose-dependent hypotension (p < 0.001), no clinically relevant adverse reactions were observed. CONCLUSIONS There were no statistically significant effects of the treatment. Despite the width of the confidence intervals, the

  20. Large Kindred Evaluation of Mitofusin 2 Novel Mutation, Extremes of Neurologic Presentations, and Preserved Nerve Mitochondria

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Christopher J.; Kimmel, Grace W.; Pittock, Sean J.; Engelstad, JaNean E.; Cunningham, Julie M.; Wu, Yanhong; Dyck, Peter J.

    2013-01-01

    Background Mitofusin 2 (MFN2) is a mitochondrial membrane protein mediating mitochondrial fusion and function. Mutated MFN2 is responsible for Charcot-Marie-Tooth type 2A2. In small kindreds, specific MFN2 mutations have been reported to associate with severity of axonal neuropathy, optic atrophy, and involvement of the central nervous system. The results of the nerve biopsy specimens suggested that the mitochondria are structurally abnormal in patients with MFN2 mutations. Objective To study a newly identified MFN2 mutation, Leu146Phe, and the associated phenotypes in a large kindred. Patients An American kindred of Northern European and Cherokee American Indian descent. Results Genetic analysis revealed a novel GTPase domain MFN2 mutation Leu146Phe that associated with clinical status of 15 studied persons (10 affected and 5 unaffected) and not found in 800 control persons. Clinical manifestations were markedly different. In 1 affected person, optic atrophy and brain magnetic resonance imaging abnormalities led to multiple sclerosis diagnosis and interferon β-1a treatment when neuropathy was initially unrecognized. Age of onset ranged from 1 to 45 years. In some affected family members, severe and rapid-onset motor sensory neuropathy led to early loss of ambulation, whereas other family members experienced minimal neuropathic sensory symptoms. Despite histologically significant loss of nerve fibers, the mitochondria were not distinguishable from diseased sural nerve biopsy specimens and healthy controls. Conclusions Novel MFN2 mutation Leu146Phe causes Charcot-Marie-Tooth type 2A2. Intrafamilial clinical phenotype variability is emphasized and has important implications in genetic counseling. The clinical phenotype may mimic multiple sclerosis when optic atrophy and the characteristic brain lesions of MFN2 on magnetic resonance imaging are present and neuropathy is mild or unrecognized. The predicted molecular pathogenesis may occur without evident histological

  1. A schwannoma of the S1 dural sleeve was resected while the intact nerve fibers were preserved using a microscope. Report of a case with early MRI findings.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, S; Uchida, K; Kokubo, Y; Yayama, T; Nakajima, H; Inukai, T; Nomura, E; Baba, H

    2007-04-01

    In this report, we describe a small schwannoma of the dural sleeve and mention that it is often difficult to differentiate this tumor from lumbar disc herniation, especially a sequestered hernia, or a discal cyst. Gadolinium-enhanced MR images were a useful preoperative examination modality for differentiating this lesion from other diseases. Microscopically, the intradural tumor was successfully removed. The dura mater of the S1 nerve root was opened microsurgically, allowing the nerve fibers involved in the tumor to be identified. The involved fibers were cut around the tumor, and the lesion was resected while the intact nerve fibers were preserved. Based on histological examination of the resected specimen, the tumor was diagnosed as a schwannoma with multilocular cystic degeneration. Microsurgery allowed the tumor to be removed with minimal impairment from cutting of nerve fibers in the nerve root. PMID:17674301

  2. Delayed neurotrophic treatment preserves nerve survival and electrophysiological responsiveness in neomycin-deafened guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Yamagata, Takahiko; Miller, Josef M; Ulfendahl, Mats; Olivius, N Petri; Altschuler, Richard A; Pyykkö, Ilmari; Bredberg, Göran

    2004-10-01

    Benefits of cochlear prostheses for the deaf are dependent on survival and excitability of the auditory nerve. Degeneration of deafferented auditory nerve fibers is prevented and excitability maintained by immediate replacement therapy with exogenous neurotrophic factors, in vivo. It is important to know whether such interventions are effective after a delay following deafness, typical for the human situation. This study evaluated the efficacy of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and ciliary neurotrophic factor axokine-1 analogue (CNTF Ax1) application, 2 or 6 weeks postdeafening, in preventing further degeneration and a decrease in excitability. Guinea pigs were deafened and implanted with intracochlear stimulating electrodes, a scala tympani cannula-osmotic pump system, and auditory brainstem response (ABR) recording electrodes. Subjects received BDNF + CNTF Ax1 or artificial perilymph (AP) treatment for 27 days, beginning at 2 or 6 weeks following deafening. Electrical (E) ABR thresholds increased following deafening. After 1 week, in the 2-weeks-delayed neurotrophic factor treatment group, EABR thresholds decreased relative to AP controls, which were statistically significant at 2 weeks. In the 6-week delay group, a tendency to enhanced EABR sensitivity began at 2 weeks of treatment and increased thereafter, with a significant difference between neurotrophic factor- and AP-treated groups across the treatment period. A clear, statistically significant, enhanced survival of spiral ganglion cells was seen in both neurotrophic factor treatment groups relative to AP controls. These findings demonstrate that BDNF + CNTF Ax1 can act to delay or possibly even reverse degenerative and, likely apoptotic, processes well after they have been activated. These survival factors can rescue cells from death and enhance electrical excitability, even during the period of degeneration and cell loss when the spiral ganglion cell population is reduced by >50% (6 weeks). It is

  3. Autonomic nervous system dysfunction in workers exposed to lead, zinc, and copper in relation to peripheral nerve conduction: a study of R-R interval variability

    SciTech Connect

    Murata, K.; Araki, S. )

    1991-01-01

    Quantitative assessment of the autonomic neurotoxicity due to lead was undertaken by measuring variability in the electrocardiographic R-R interval (CVRR) in 16 male workers exposed to lead, zinc, copper, and tin and in 16 unexposed control subjects. Two component coefficients of variation in the R-R interval, the C-CVRSA (respiratory sinus arrhythmia) and C-CVMWSA (Mayer wave related sinus arrhythmia), were examined; these indices are considered to reflect parasympathetic and sympathetic activities, respectively. Maximal motor and sensory conduction velocities (MCV and SCV) in the median nerve were also measured. In the 16 exposed workers, blood lead concentrations ranged from 16 to 60 (mean 34) micrograms/dl. The CVRR and C-CVRSA were found to be significantly reduced in the workers with elevated lead, zinc, and copper absorption as compared to unexposed control subjects; also, the MCV and SCV were significantly slowed. The C-CVMWSA was not significantly reduced, and was positively related to plasma zinc concentrations. No significant relationships were found between indicators of lead and copper absorption and these electrophysiological measurements. These data suggest that subclinical toxicity of lead occurs in the parasympathetic component of the autonomic nervous system as well as in the peripheral nerves. Zinc may antagonize the autonomic nervous dysfunction caused by lead.

  4. Nerve growth factor preserves a critical motor period in rat striatum.

    PubMed

    Wolansky, M J; Paratcha, G C; Ibarra, G R; Azcurra, J M

    1999-01-01

    We previously found the occurrence of a critical motor period during rat postnatal development where circling training starting the 7-day schedule at 30 days-but not before or after-induces a lifetime drop in the binding to cholinergic muscarinic receptors (mAChRs) in striatum. Here, we studied whether nerve growth factor (NGF) participates in this restricted period of muscarinic sensitivity. For this purpose, we administered mouse salival gland 2.5S NGF (1.4 or 0.4 microg/day, infused by means of ALZA minipumps) by intrastriatal unilateral route between days 25 and 39, and then trained rats starting at 40 days. Under these conditions, NGF induced a long-term reduction in the striatal [3H] quinuclidilbenzylate (QNB) binding sites despite the fact that motor training was carried out beyond the natural critical period. Thus, at day 70, measurement of specific QNB binding in infused striata of trained rats showed decreases of 42% (p < .0004) and 33% (p < .02) after administration of the higher and lower NGF doses, respectively, with respect to trained rats treated with cytochrome C, for control. Noncannulated striata of the NGF-treated rats also showed a decrease in QNB binding sites (44%; p < .0001) only at the higher infusion rate. This effect was not found in the respective control groups. Our observations show that NGF modulates the critical period in which activity-dependent mAChR setting takes place during rat striatal maturation. PMID:10027568

  5. Raman microspectroscopy for visualization of peripheral nerves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minamikawa, Takeo; Harada, Yoshinori; Koizumi, Noriaki; Takamatsu, Tetsuro

    2013-02-01

    The peripheral nervous system plays an important role in motility, sensory, and autonomic functions of the human body. Preservation of peripheral nerves in surgery is essential for improving quality of life of patients. To preserve peripheral nerves, detection of ne peripheral nerves that cannot be identi ed by human eye or under white light imaging is necessary. In this study, we sought to provide a proof-of-principle demonstration of a label-free detection technique of peripheral nerve tissues against adjacent tissues that employs spontaneous Raman microspectroscopy. A line-illumination confocal Raman microscope was used for the experiment. A laser operating at the wavelength of 532 nm was used as an excitation laser light. We obtained Raman spectra of peripheral nerve, brous connective tissue, skeletal muscle, blood vessel, and adipose tissue of Wistar rats, and extracted speci c spectral features of peripheral nerves and adjacent tissues. By applying multivariate image analysis, peripheral nerves were clearly detected against adjacent tissues without any preprocessing neither xation nor staining. These results suggest the potential of the Raman spectroscopic observation for noninvasive and label-free nerve detection, and we expect this method could be a key technique for nerve-sparing surgery.

  6. Circumferential targeted renal sympathetic nerve denervation with preservation of the renal arterial wall using intra-luminal ultrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roth, Austin; Coleman, Leslie; Sakakura, Kenichi; Ladich, Elena; Virmani, Renu

    2015-03-01

    An intra-luminal ultrasound catheter system (ReCor Medical's Paradise System) has been developed to provide circumferential denervation of the renal sympathetic nerves, while preserving the renal arterial intimal and medial layers, in order to treat hypertension. The Paradise System features a cylindrical non-focused ultrasound transducer centered within a balloon that circulates cooling fluid and that outputs a uniform circumferential energy pattern designed to ablate tissues located 1-6 mm from the arterial wall and protect tissues within 1 mm. RF power and cooling flow rate are controlled by the Paradise Generator which can energize transducers in the 8.5-9.5 MHz frequency range. Computer simulations and tissue-mimicking phantom models were used to develop the proper power, cooling flow rate and sonication duration settings to provide consistent tissue ablation for renal arteries ranging from 5-8 mm in diameter. The modulation of these three parameters allows for control over the near-field (border of lesion closest to arterial wall) and far-field (border of lesion farthest from arterial wall, consisting of the adventitial and peri-adventitial spaces) depths of the tissue lesion formed by the absorption of ultrasonic energy and conduction of heat. Porcine studies have confirmed the safety (protected intimal and medial layers) and effectiveness (ablation of 1-6 mm region) of the system and provided near-field and far-field depth data to correlate with bench and computer simulation models. The safety and effectiveness of the Paradise System, developed through computer model, bench and in vivo studies, has been demonstrated in human clinical studies.

  7. Autonomic neuropathy resulting in recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy in an HIV patient with Hodgkin lymphoma receiving vinblastine and antiretroviral therapy.

    PubMed

    Cherif, S; Danino, S; Yoganathan, K

    2015-03-01

    Hoarseness of voice due to vocal cord paresis as a result of recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy has been well recognised. Recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy is commonly caused by compression due to tumour or lymph nodes or by surgical damage. Vinca alkaloids are well known to cause peripheral neuropathy. However, vinca alkaloids causing recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy has been reported rarely in children. We report a case of an adult patient with HIV who developed hoarseness of voice due to vocal cord paralysis during vinblastine treatment for Hodgkin lymphoma. Mediastinal and hilar lymph node enlargement in such patients may distract clinicians from considering alternative causes of recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy, with potential ensuing severe or even life-threatening stridor. PMID:24828552

  8. The autonomic laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Low, P. A.; Opfer-Gehrking, T. L.

    1999-01-01

    The autonomic nervous system can now be studied quantitatively, noninvasively, and reproducibly in a clinical autonomic laboratory. The approach at the Mayo Clinic is to study the postganglionic sympathetic nerve fibers of peripheral nerve (using the quantitative sudomotor axon reflex test [QSART]), the parasympathetic nerves to the heart (cardiovagal tests), and the regulation of blood pressure by the baroreflexes (adrenergic tests). Patient preparation is extremely important, since the state of the patient influences the results of autonomic function tests. The autonomic technologist in this evolving field needs to have a solid core of knowledge of autonomic physiology and autonomic function tests, followed by training in the performance of these tests in a standardized fashion. The range and utilization of tests of autonomic function will likely continue to evolve.

  9. Functional Ser205Leu polymorphism of the nerve growth factor receptor (NGFR) gene is associated with vagal autonomic dysregulation in humans

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Chuan-Chia; Fang, Wen-Hui; Chang, Hsin-An; Huang, San-Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Evidence indicates that reduced cardiac vagal (parasympathetic) tone, a robust cardiovascular risk factor, is a trait vulnerability marker of major depressive disorder (MDD). The Ser205/Ser205 genotype of the functional polymorphism (Ser205Leu) of the nerve growth factor receptor (NGFR), also called p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75NTR), gene is reported to increase the risk of MDD. Here, we hypothesized that the NGFR Ser205Leu polymorphism may have an effect on vagal control. A sample of 810 healthy, drug-free, unrelated Han Chinese (413 males, 397 females; mean age 35.17 ± 8.53 years) was included in the NGFR genotyping. Short-term heart rate variability (HRV) was used to assess vagus-mediated autonomic function. Potential HRV covariates, such as mood/anxiety status and serum metabolic parameters, were assessed. Homozygotes of the Ser205 allele had significantly lower high frequency power and root mean square of successive heartbeat interval differences, both HRV indices of vagal modulation, compared to Leu205 allele carriers. Even after adjusting for relevant confounders, these associations remained significant. Further stratification by sex revealed that the associations were observed only in males. Our results implicate that decreased parasympathetic activity is associated with the NGFR Ser205/Ser205 genotype in a gender-specific manner, suggesting a potential role of NGFR polymorphism in modulating cardiac autonomic function. PMID:26278479

  10. Development of an autonomous detector for sensing of nerve agents based on functionalized silicon nanowire field-effect transistors.

    PubMed

    Clavaguera, Simon; Raoul, Nicolas; Carella, Alexandre; Delalande, Michael; Celle, Caroline; Simonato, Jean-Pierre

    2011-10-15

    The ability to detect minute traces of chemical warfare agents is mandatory both for military forces and homeland security. Various detectors based on different technologies are available but still suffer from serious drawbacks such as false positives. There is still a need for the development of innovative reliable sensors, in particular for organophosphorus nerve agents like Sarin. We report herein on the fabrication of a portable, battery-operated, microprocessor-based prototype sensor system relying on silicon nanowire field-effect transistors for the detection of nerve agents. A fast, supersensitive and highly selective detection of organophosphorus molecules is reported. The results show also high selectivity in complex mixtures and on contaminated materials. PMID:21962681

  11. [Subtotal parotidectomy for a parotid gland tumour in two players of wind instruments, with preservation of facial nerve function].

    PubMed

    Heeremans, E H; Mastboom, W J B

    2007-03-01

    Two professional musicians, a 55-year-old clarinet player and a 58-year-old trumpet player, presented to the surgical outpatient clinic with a Warthin's tumour and a pleomorphic adenoma in the deep lobe of the parotid gland, respectively. The several branches of the facial nerve form the virtual plane between the superficial and deep lobes of the parotid gland. Due to the localisation of this nerve, parotid surgery entails a significant risk of neurapraxia of the facial nerve branches. Before the operation, both patients were informed carefully about both the necessity and the risks of surgical excision of parotid tumours. Even slight damage to the facial nerve during parotidectomy could have severe implications for their careers. Both underwent subtotal parotidectomy. Postoperatively, there was clinically a temporary minor marginal branch dysfunction in one patient. Pre- and postoperative electromyography did not indicate asymmetrical function of the facial muscles. A few weeks after the operations, both musicians could resume playing; subtotal parotidectomy can apparently be safely performed in players of wind instruments. PMID:17373397

  12. Preserved functional autonomic phenotype in adult mice overexpressing moderate levels of human alpha‐synuclein in oligodendrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Tank, Jens; da Costa‐Goncalves, Andrey C.; Kamer, Ilona; Qadri, Fatimunnisa; Ubhi, Kiren; Rockenstein, Edward; Diedrich, André; Masliah, Eliezer; Gross, Volkmar; Jordan, Jens

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Mice overexpressing human alpha‐synuclein in oligodendrocytes (MBP1‐α‐syn) recapitulate some key functional and neuropathological features of multiple system atrophy (MSA). Whether or not these mice develop severe autonomic failure, which is a key feature of human MSA, remains unknown. We explored cardiovascular autonomic regulation using long‐term blood pressure (BP) radiotelemetry and pharmacological testing. We instrumented 12 MBP1‐α‐syn mice and 11 wild‐type mice aged 9 months for radiotelemetry. Animals were tested with atropine, metoprolol, clonidine, and trimethaphan at 9 and 12 months age. We applied spectral and cross‐spectral analysis to assess heart rate (HR) and BP variability. At 9 months of age daytime BP (transgenic: 101 ± 2 vs. wild type: 99 ± 2 mmHg) and HR (497 ± 11 vs. 505 ± 16 beats/min) were similar. Circadian BP and HR rhythms were maintained. Nighttime BP (109 ± 2 vs. 108 ± 2 mmHg) and HR (575 ± 15 vs. 569 ± 14 beats/min), mean arterial BP responses to trimethaphan (−21 ± 8 vs. −10 ± 5 mmHg, P = 0.240) and to clonidine (−8 ± 3 vs. −5 ± 2 mmHg, P = 0.314) were similar. HR responses to atropine (+159 ± 24 vs. +146 ± 22 beats/min), and to clonidine (−188 ± 21 vs. −163 ± 33 beats/min) did not differ between strains. Baroreflex sensitivity (4 ± 1 vs. 4 ± 1 msec/mmHg) and HR variability (total power, 84 ± 17 vs. 65 ± 21 msec²) were similar under resting conditions and during pharmacological testing. Repeated measurements at 12 months of age provided similar results. In mice, moderate overexpression of human alpha‐synuclein in oligodendrocytes is not sufficient to induce overt autonomic failure. Additional mechanisms may be required to express the autonomic failure phenotype including higher levels of expression or more advanced age. PMID:25428949

  13. Differential Patterns and Determinants of Cardiac Autonomic Nerve Dysfunction during Endotoxemia and Oral Fat Load in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Ziegler, Dan; Strom, Alexander; Strassburger, Klaus; Nowotny, Bettina; Zahiragic, Lejla; Nowotny, Peter J.; Carstensen-Kirberg, Maren; Herder, Christian; Szendroedi, Julia; Roden, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The autonomic nervous system (ANS) plays an important role in regulating the metabolic homeostasis and controlling immune function. ANS alterations can be detected by reduced heart rate variability (HRV) in conditions like diabetes and sepsis. We determined the effects of experimental conditions mimicking inflammation and hyperlipidemia on HRV and heart rate (HR) in relation to the immune, metabolic, and hormonal responses resulting from these interventions. Sixteen lean healthy subjects received intravenous (i.v.) low-dose endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide [LPS]), i.v. fat, oral fat, and i.v. glycerol (control) for 6 hours, during which immune, metabolic, hormonal, and five HRV parameters (pNN50, RMSSD, low-frequency (LF) and high-frequency (HF) power, and LF/HF ratio) were monitored and energy metabolism and insulin sensitivity (M-value) were assessed. LPS infusion induced an increase (AUC) in HR and LF/HF ratio and decline in pNN50 and RMSSD, while oral fat resulted in elevated HR and a transient (hours 1-2) decrease in pNN50, RMSSD, and HF power. During LPS infusion, ΔIL-1ra levels and ΔIL-1ra and ΔIL-1ß gene expression correlated positively with ΔLF/HF ratio and inversely with ΔRMSSD. During oral fat intake, ΔGLP-1 tended to correlate positively with ΔHR and inversely with ΔpNN50 and ΔRMSSD. Following LPS infusion, lipid oxidation correlated positively with HR and inversely with pNN50 and RMSSD, whereas HRV was not related to M-value. In conclusion, suppression of vagal tone and sympathetic predominance during endotoxemia are linked to anti-inflammatory processes and lipid oxidation but not to insulin resistance, while weaker HRV changes in relation to the GLP-1 response are noted during oral fat load. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01054989 PMID:25893426

  14. IFATS collection: Human adipose tissue-derived stem cells induce angiogenesis and nerve sprouting following myocardial infarction, in conjunction with potent preservation of cardiac function.

    PubMed

    Cai, Liying; Johnstone, Brian H; Cook, Todd G; Tan, Jian; Fishbein, Michael C; Chen, Peng-Sheng; March, Keith L

    2009-01-01

    The administration of therapeutic cell types, such as stem and progenitor cells, has gained much interest for the limitation or repair of tissue damage caused by a variety of insults. However, it is still uncertain whether the morphological and functional benefits are mediated predominantly via cell differentiation or paracrine mechanisms. Here, we assessed the extent and mechanisms of adipose-derived stromal/stem cells (ASC)-dependent tissue repair in the context of acute myocardial infarction. Human ASCs in saline or saline alone was injected into the peri-infarct region in athymic rats following left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery ligation. Cardiac function and structure were evaluated by serial echocardiography and histology. ASC-treated rats consistently exhibited better cardiac function, by all measures, than control rats 1 month following LAD occlusion. Left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction and fractional shortening were improved in the ASC group, whereas LV remodeling and dilation were limited in the ASC group compared with the saline control group. Anterior wall thinning was also attenuated by ASC treatment, and post-mortem histological analysis demonstrated reduced fibrosis in ASC-treated hearts, as well as increased peri-infarct density of both arterioles and nerve sprouts. Human ASCs were persistent at 1 month in the peri-infarct region, but they were not observed to exhibit significant cardiomyocyte differentiation. Human ASCs preserve heart function and augment local angiogenesis and cardiac nerve sprouting following myocardial infarction predominantly by the provision of beneficial trophic factors. PMID:18772313

  15. Autoimmune autonomic disorders.

    PubMed

    Mckeon, Andrew; Benarroch, Eduardo E

    2016-01-01

    Autoimmune autonomic disorders occur because of an immune response directed against sympathetic, parasympathetic, and enteric ganglia, autonomic nerves, or central autonomic pathways. In general, peripheral autoimmune disorders manifest with either generalized or restricted autonomic failure, whereas central autoimmune disorders manifest primarily with autonomic hyperactivity. Some autonomic disorders are generalized, and others are limited in their anatomic extent, e.g., isolated gastrointestinal dysmotility. Historically, these disorders were poorly recognized, and thought to be neurodegenerative. Over the last 20 years a number of autoantibody biomarkers have been discovered that have enabled the identification of certain patients as having an autoimmune basis for either autonomic failure or hyperactivity. Peripheral autoimmune autonomic disorders include autoimmune autonomic ganglionopathy (AAG), paraneoplastic autonomic neuropathy, and acute autonomic and sensory neuropathy. AAG manifests with acute or subacute onset of generalized or selective autonomic failure. Antibody targeting the α3 subunit of the ganglionic-type nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α3gAChR) is detected in approximately 50% of cases of AAG. Some other disorders are characterized immunologically by paraneoplastic antibodies with a high positive predictive value for cancer, such as antineuronal nuclear antibody, type 1 (ANNA-1: anti-Hu); others still are seronegative. Recognition of an autoimmune basis for autonomic disorders is important, as their manifestations are disabling, may reflect an underlying neoplasm, and have the potential to improve with a combination of symptomatic and immune therapies. PMID:27112689

  16. Assessing nerves in leprosy.

    PubMed

    Garbino, José Antonio; Heise, Carlos Otto; Marques, Wilson

    2016-01-01

    Leprosy neuropathy is dependent on the patient's immune response and expresses itself as a focal or multifocal neuropathy with asymmetric involvement. Leprosy neuropathy evolves chronically but recurrently develops periods of exacerbation during type 1 or type 2 reactions, leading to acute neuropathy. Nerve enlargement leading to entrapment syndromes is also a common manifestation. Pain may be either of inflammatory or neuropathic origin. A thorough and detailed evaluation is mandatory for adequate patient follow-up, including nerve palpation, pain assessment, graded sensory mapping, muscle power testing, and autonomic evaluation. Nerve conduction studies are a sensitive tool for nerve dysfunction, including new lesions during reaction periods or development of entrapment syndromes. Nerve ultrasonography is also a very promising method for nerve evaluation in leprosy. The authors propose a composite nerve clinical score for nerve function assessment that can be useful for longitudinal evaluation. PMID:26773623

  17. Identificaton of 2,3-dihydro-3,5-dihydroxy-6-methyl-4H-pyran-4-one isolated from Lactobacillus pentosus strain S-PT84 culture supernatants as a compound that stimulates autonomic nerve activities in rats.

    PubMed

    Beppu, Yoshinori; Komura, Hajime; Izumo, Takayuki; Horii, Yuko; Shen, Jiao; Tanida, Mamoru; Nakashima, Toshihiro; Tsuruoka, Nobuo; Nagai, Katsuya

    2012-11-01

    Intestinal administration of various lactobacilli has been reported to affect autonomic neurotransmission, blood pressure, and body weight in rats. In this study, three molecules (peaks A, B, and C) were isolated from Lactobacillus pentosus strain S-PT84 (S-PT 84) culture supernatants. Intraduodenal (ID) injection of these molecules increased or inhibited renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA) in rats as follows: peak A, 134%; peak B, 40.1%; peak C, 408%. Furthermore, we identified peak C as 2,3-dihydro-3,5-dihydroxy-6-methyl-4H-pyran-4-one (DDMP). ID injection of DDMP increased brown adipose tissue sympathetic nerve activity (BAT-SNA; 118 ± 15.3%), whereas intraoral injection of DDMP increased the body temperature above the interscapular brown adipose tissue (BAT-T; 0.72 ± 0.13 °C) in rats. These data suggest that S-PT84 produces molecules that modulate autonomic nerve activity. In addition, DDMP increased BAT-SNA and BAT-T, and these changes in BAT-T may be caused by changes in BAT-SNA. PMID:23082723

  18. A Rare Case of C2 Sensory Blockade with Preserved Phrenic Nerve Function in an Obstetric Patient.

    PubMed

    Coffman, John C; Fiorini, Kasey; Cook, Meghan; Small, Robert H

    2016-01-01

    High neuraxial blockade is a serious complication in obstetric patients and requires prompt recognition and management in order to optimize patient outcomes. In cases of high neuroblockade, patients may present with significant hypotension, dyspnea, agitation, difficulty speaking or inability to speak, or even loss of consciousness. We report the unusual presentation of an obstetric patient that remained hemodynamically stable and had the preserved ability to initiate breaths despite sensory blockade up to C2. The presence of differential motor and sensory block documented in this case helped enable the patient to be managed with noninvasive ventilatory support until the high blockade regressed and we are not aware of any other similar reports in literature. PMID:27559484

  19. A Rare Case of C2 Sensory Blockade with Preserved Phrenic Nerve Function in an Obstetric Patient

    PubMed Central

    Fiorini, Kasey; Cook, Meghan

    2016-01-01

    High neuraxial blockade is a serious complication in obstetric patients and requires prompt recognition and management in order to optimize patient outcomes. In cases of high neuroblockade, patients may present with significant hypotension, dyspnea, agitation, difficulty speaking or inability to speak, or even loss of consciousness. We report the unusual presentation of an obstetric patient that remained hemodynamically stable and had the preserved ability to initiate breaths despite sensory blockade up to C2. The presence of differential motor and sensory block documented in this case helped enable the patient to be managed with noninvasive ventilatory support until the high blockade regressed and we are not aware of any other similar reports in literature. PMID:27559484

  20. Sildenafil promotes smooth muscle preservation and ameliorates fibrosis through modulation of extracellular matrix and tissue growth factor gene expression after bilateral cavernosal nerve resection in the rat

    PubMed Central

    Sirad, Fara; Hlaing, Su; Kovanecz, Istvan; Artaza, Jorge N.; Garcia, Leah A.; Rajfer, Jacob; Ferrini, Monica G.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction It has been shown that PDE 5 inhibitors preserve smooth muscle (SM) content and ameliorate the fibrotic degeneration normally seen in the corpora cavernosa after bilateral cavernosal nerve resection (BCNR). However, the downstream mechanisms by which these drugs protect the corpora cavernosa remain poorly understood. Aim To provide insight into the mechanism, we aimed to determine the gene expression profile of angiogenesis related pathways within the penile tissue after BCNR with or without continuous sildenafil treatment. Methods 5-month old Fisher rats were subjected to BCNR or sham operation and treated with or without sildenafil (20 mg/Kg. B.W drinking water) for 3 days or 45 days (n=8 rats per group). Total RNAs isolated from the denuded penile shaft and prostate were subjected to reverse transcription and to angiogenesis real time-PCR arrays (84 genes). Changes in protein expression of selected genes such as epiregulin and CTGF were corroborated by western blot and immunohistochemistry. Main outcomes measures Genes modulated by BCNR and sildenafil treatment. Results A decreased expression of genes related to SM growth factors such as epiregulin (EREG), platelet derived growth factor (PDGF), extracellular matrix regulators such as metalloproteinases 3 and 9, endothelial growth factors, together with an up-regulation of pro-fibrotic genes such as connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) and TGFβ2 were found at both time points after BCNR. Sildenafil treatment reversed this process by up-regulating endothelial and SM growth factors and down-regulating pro-fibrotic factors. Sildenafil did not affect the expression of EREG, VEGF, PDGF in the ventral prostate of BCNR animals Conclusions Sildenafil treatment after BCNR activates genes related to SM preservation and down regulates genes related to fibrosis in the corpora cavernosa. These results provide a mechanistic justification for the use of sildenafil and other PDE5 inhibitors as protective therapy

  1. Improved Stratification of Autonomic Regulation for risk prediction in post-infarction patients with preserved left ventricular function (ISAR-Risk)

    PubMed Central

    Bauer, Axel; Barthel, Petra; Schneider, Raphael; Ulm, Kurt; Müller, Alexander; Joeinig, Anke; Stich, Raphael; Kiviniemi, Antti; Hnatkova, Katerina; Huikuri, Heikki; Schömig, Albert; Malik, Marek; Schmidt, Georg

    2009-01-01

    Aims To investigate the combination of heart rate turbulence (HRT) and deceleration capacity (DC) as risk predictors in post-infarction patients with left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) > 30%. Methods and results We enrolled 2343 consecutive survivors of acute myocardial infarction (MI) (<76 years) in sinus rhythm. HRT and DC were obtained from 24 h Holter recordings. Patients with both abnormal HRT (slope ≤ 2.5 ms/RR and onset ≥ 0%) and abnormal DC (≤4.5 ms) were considered suffering from severe autonomic failure (SAF) and prospectively classified as high risk. Primary and secondary endpoints were all-cause, cardiac, and sudden cardiac mortality within the first 5 years of follow-up. During follow-up, 181 patients died; 39 deaths occurred in 120 patients with LVEF ≤ 30%, and 142 in 2223 patients with LVEF>30% (cumulative 5-year mortality rates of 37.9% and 7.8%, respectively). Among patients with LVEF > 30%, SAF identified another high-risk group of 117 patients with 37 deaths (cumulative 5-year mortality rates of 38.6% and 6.1%, respectively). Merging both high-risk groups (i.e. LVEF ≤ 30% and/or SAF) doubled the sensitivity of mortality prediction compared with LVEF ≤ 30% alone (21.1% vs. 42.1%, P < 0.001) while preserving 5-year mortality rate (38.2%). Conclusion In post-MI patients with LVEF>30%, SAF identifies a high-risk group equivalent in size and mortality risk to patients with LVEF ≤ 30%. PMID:19109245

  2. Anatomic basis for the continence-preserving radical retropubic prostatectomy.

    PubMed

    Steiner, M S

    2000-02-01

    The technique of continence-preserving anatomic radical retropubic prostatectomy focuses on the preservation of the following anatomic components of the external striated urethral sphincteric complex: (1) the entire circumference of the rhabdosphincter musculature, (2) the periurethral fascial investments (the pubourethral ligaments anterolaterally and median fibrous raphe posteriorly), and (3) the innervation of both the rhabdosphincter by way of the intrapelvic branch of the pudendal nerve (somatic) and the mucosal and smooth muscle components by way of the urethral branch of the inferior hypogastric plexus (autonomic). The clinical impact of preserving the external striated urethral sphincter and its innervation by performing a continence preserving anatomic retropubic prostatectomy is a shorter time to achieve urinary continence. PMID:10719925

  3. Intraoperative vagal nerve monitoring.

    PubMed

    Leonetti, J P; Jellish, W S; Warf, P; Hudson, E

    1996-08-01

    A variety of benign and malignant neoplasms occur in the superior cervical neck, parapharyngeal space or the infratemporal fossa. The surgical resection of these lesions may result in postoperative iatrogenic injury to the vagus nerve with associated dysfunctional swallowing and airway protection. Anatomic and functional preservation of this critical cranial nerve will contribute to a favorable surgical outcome. Fourteen patients with tumors of the cervical neck or adjacent skull base underwent intraoperative vagal nerve monitoring in an attempt to preserve neural integrity following tumor removal. Of the 11 patients with anatomically preserved vagal nerves in this group, seven patients had normal vocal cord mobility following surgery and all 11 patients demonstrated normal vocal cord movement by six months. In an earlier series of 23 patients with tumors in the same region who underwent tumor resection without vagal nerve monitoring, 18 patients had anatomically preserved vagal nerves. Within this group, five patients had normal vocal cord movement at one month and 13 patients demonstrated normal vocal cord movement at six months. This paper will outline a technique for intraoperative vagal nerve monitoring utilizing transcricothyroid membrane placement of bipolar hook-wire electrodes in the vocalis muscle. Our results with the surgical treatment of cervical neck and lateral skull base tumors for patients with unmonitored and monitored vagal nerves will be outlined. PMID:8828272

  4. [Ganglia of peripheral nerves].

    PubMed

    Tatagiba, M; Penkert, G; Samii, M

    1993-01-01

    The authors present two different types of ganglion affecting the peripheral nerves: extraneural and intraneural ganglion. Compression of peripheral nerves by articular ganglions is well known. The surgical management involves the complete removal of the lesion with preservation of most nerve fascicles. Intraneural ganglion is an uncommon lesion which affects the nerve diffusely. The nerve fascicles are usually intimately involved between the cysts, making complete removal of all cysts impossible. There is no agreement about the best surgical management to be applied in these cases. Two possibilities are available: opening of the epineural sheath lengthwise and pressing out the lesion; or resection of the affected part of the nerve and performing a nerve reconstruction. While in case of extraneural ganglion the postoperative clinical evolution is very favourable, only long follow up studies will reveal in case of intraneural ganglion the best surgical approach. PMID:8128785

  5. Diabetic autonomic neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Clarke, B F; Ewing, D J; Campbell, I W

    1979-10-01

    This review attempts to outline the present understanding of diabetic autonomic neuropathy. The clinical features have been increasinly recognised but knowledge of the localization and morphology of the lesions and their pathogenesis remains fragmentary. A metabolic causation as postulated in somatic nerves accords best with clinical observations. Most bodily systems, particularly the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal and urogenital, are involved with added disturbances of thermoregulatory function and pupillary reflexes. Possible effects on neuroendocrine and peptidergic secretion and respiratory control await definition. Current interest centres around the development of a new generation of tests of autonomic nerve function that are simple, non-invasive, reproducible and allow precision in diagnosis and accurate quantitation. Most are based on cardiovascular reflexes and abnormality in them is assumed to reflect autonomic damage elsewhere. Probably no single test suffices and a battery of tests reflecting both parasympathetic and sympathetic function is preferable. Little is known of the natural history. The prevalence may be greater than previously suspected and although symptoms are mild in the majority, a few develop florid features. The relation of control and duration of diabetes to the onset and progression of autonomic neuropathy is not clearly established. Once tests of autonomic function become abnormal they usually remain abnormal. Symptomatic autonomic neuropathy carries a greatly increased mortality rate possibly due to indirect mechanisms such as renal failure and direct mechanisms such as cardio-resiratory arrest. Improved treatment of some of the more disabling symptoms has been possible in recent years. PMID:387501

  6. Autonomous and Autonomic Swarms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinchey, Michael G.; Rash, James L.; Truszkowski, Walter F.; Rouff, Christopher A.; Sterritt, Roy

    2005-01-01

    A watershed in systems engineering is represented by the advent of swarm-based systems that accomplish missions through cooperative action by a (large) group of autonomous individuals each having simple capabilities and no global knowledge of the group s objective. Such systems, with individuals capable of surviving in hostile environments, pose unprecedented challenges to system developers. Design and testing and verification at much higher levels will be required, together with the corresponding tools, to bring such systems to fruition. Concepts for possible future NASA space exploration missions include autonomous, autonomic swarms. Engineering swarm-based missions begins with understanding autonomy and autonomicity and how to design, test, and verify systems that have those properties and, simultaneously, the capability to accomplish prescribed mission goals. Formal methods-based technologies, both projected and in development, are described in terms of their potential utility to swarm-based system developers.

  7. Pinched Nerve

    MedlinePlus

    ... Enhancing Diversity Find People About NINDS NINDS Pinched Nerve Information Page Table of Contents (click to jump ... being done? Clinical Trials Organizations What is Pinched Nerve? The term "pinched nerve" is a colloquial term ...

  8. Nerve biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    Nerve biopsy may be done to help diagnose: Axon degeneration (destruction of the axon portion of the nerve cell) Damage to the ... Demyelination Inflammation of the nerve Leprosy Loss of axon tissue Metabolic neuropathies Necrotizing vasculitis Sarcoidosis

  9. Inferior alveolar nerve repositioning.

    PubMed

    Louis, P J

    2001-09-01

    Nerve repositioning is a viable alternative for patients with an atrophic edentulous posterior mandible. Patients, however, should be informed of the potential risks of neurosensory disturbance. Documentation of the patient's baseline neurosensory function should be performed with a two-point discrimination test or directional brush stroke test preoperatively and postoperatively. Recovery of nerve function should be expected in 3 to 6 months. The potential for mandibular fracture when combining nerve repositioning with implant placement also should be discussed with the patient. This can be avoided by minimizing the amount of buccal cortical plate removal during localization of the nerve and maintaining the integrity of the inferior cortex of the mandible. Additionally, avoid overseating the implant, thus avoiding stress along the inferior border of the mandible. The procedure does allow for the placement of longer implants, which should improve implant longevity. Patients undergoing this procedure have expressed overall satisfaction with the results. Nerve repositioning also can be used to preserve the inferior alveolar nerve during resection of benign tumors or cysts of the mandible. This procedure allows the surgeon to maintain nerve function in situations in which the nerve would otherwise have to be resected. PMID:11665379

  10. [Autonomic features in Parkinson disease].

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Toshimasa; Tamura, Naotoshi

    2012-04-01

    Nonmotor symptoms such as autonomic and neuropsychiatric dysfunctions, are commonly seen in Parkinson disease (PD). Recent studies have shown that PD is accompanied by cardiac sympathetic denervation and constipation even in the early stage. Neuropathological studies confirmed changes in the cardiac sympathetic nerves and the gastrointestinal tract. These findings suggest that PD neuropathology may occur first in the peripheral autonomic pathways and extend to the central autonomic pathways, in agreement with the "Braak theory". This article will reviews the symptoms and pathophysiology of gastrointestinal dysfunction, urinary disturbance, sexual dysfunction, sweating dysfunction, pupillary autonomic dysfunction, and orthostatic and postprandial hypotension in PD patients, and discuss to organ selectiveness in autonomic dysfunction in PD. PMID:22481512

  11. Nerve agents: implications for anesthesia providers.

    PubMed

    Hrobak, Paula Kay

    2008-04-01

    Anesthesia providers may be called to treat injuries from chemical weapons or spills, for which prompt treatment is vital. It is therefore important to understand the mechanism of action of nerve agents and the resultant pathophysiology and to be able to quickly recognize the signs and symptoms of nerve agent exposure. This review article addresses the different types of nerve agents that are currently being manufactured as well as the symptomatic and definitive treatment of the patient who presents with acute nerve agent toxicity. This article also reviews the physiology of the neuromuscular junction and the autonomic nervous system receptors that nerve agent toxicity affects. PMID:18478812

  12. Autonomic neuropathies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Low, P. A.

    1998-01-01

    A limited autonomic neuropathy may underlie some unusual clinical syndromes, including the postural tachycardia syndrome, pseudo-obstruction syndrome, heat intolerance, and perhaps chronic fatigue syndrome. Antibodies to autonomic structures are common in diabetes, but their specificity is unknown. The presence of autonomic failure worsens prognosis in the diabetic state. Some autonomic neuropathies are treatable. Familial amyloid polyneuropathy may respond to liver transplantation. There are anecdotal reports of acute panautonomic neuropathy responding to intravenous gamma globulin. Orthostatic hypotension may respond to erythropoietin or midodrine.

  13. Nerve biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Loss of axon tissue Metabolic neuropathies Necrotizing vasculitis Sarcoidosis Risks Allergic reaction to the local anesthetic Discomfort ... Neurosarcoidosis Peripheral neuropathy Primary amyloidosis Radial nerve dysfunction Sarcoidosis Tibial nerve dysfunction Update Date 6/1/2015 ...

  14. Nerve conduction

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... the spinal cord to muscles and sensory receptors. A peripheral nerve is composed of nerve bundles (fascicles) ... two neurons, it must first be converted to a chemical signal, which then crosses a space of ...

  15. Erectile Function Outcomes in the Current Era of Anatomic Nerve-Sparing Radical Prostatectomy

    PubMed Central

    Burnett, Arthur L

    2006-01-01

    The contemporary use of anatomic nerve-sparing radical prostatectomy, which entails preserving the autonomic nerve supply to the penis required for penile erection, has led to improved erectile function outcomes compared with what has been seen historically. However, delay of postoperative recovery of erection for as long as 2 years is common, such that dysfunctional erection status lingers as a major postoperative problem. Several possible strategies to improve overall recovery rates and to hasten postoperative recovery of erectile function are currently being advanced. These include pharmacologic rehabilitation therapy and neuromodulatory therapy. Rigorous basic scientific investigation and clinical assessment of these new strategic approaches are critically important to establish their actual therapeutic benefits. PMID:17021626

  16. Autonomic hyperreflexia

    MedlinePlus

    The most common cause of autonomic hyperreflexia is spinal cord injury. The nervous system of people with this condition ... Flushed (red) skin above the level of the spinal cord injury High blood pressure Slow pulse or fast pulse ...

  17. Autonomic hyperreflexia

    MedlinePlus

    ... The most common cause of autonomic hyperreflexia is spinal cord injury. The nervous system of people with this condition ... Flushed (red) skin above the level of the spinal cord injury High blood pressure Slow pulse or fast pulse ...

  18. [Acute idiopathic autonomic neuropathy with local autonomic failure in a child].

    PubMed

    Arai, Hidee; Kubota, Hiroaki; Omata, Taku; Tanabe, Yuzo

    2010-09-01

    A 5-year-old girl presented with flushing and sweating on the left arm with coldness on the left palm that had persisted for approximately 24 hours. She had a fever and chicken pox-like exanthemas on her skin. She had no weakness, sensory disturbance or other autonomic dysfunction, such as orthostatic hypotension. Physical, neurological, blood and cerebrospinal fluid findings, including those of a viral study, were normal. A spinal MRI revealed no abnormal signals. Motor nerve conduction velocity, compound muscle action potential and sensory nerve conduction velocity in both medial nerves were normal, although compound sensory nerve action potential was low in the left medial nerve. F waves were absent in both medial nerves. The amplitude of the sympathetic skin response was low in the left palm. The cold-induced vasodilatation test showed bilateral sympathetic nerve dysfunction, especially on the left side. The coefficient of variation of RR intervals was low. Aciclovir was administered until chicken pox was ruled out. Subsequently, her symptoms improved. However, a sympathetic skin response and cold-induced vasodilatation findings 9 months later revealed sympathetic nerve dysfunction. These findings suggested autonomic neuropathy with local sympathetic dysfunction and a mild sensory nerve disturbance. PMID:20845769

  19. Neurophysiological approach to disorders of peripheral nerve.

    PubMed

    Crone, Clarissa; Krarup, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Disorders of the peripheral nerve system (PNS) are heterogeneous and may involve motor fibers, sensory fibers, small myelinated and unmyelinated fibers and autonomic nerve fibers, with variable anatomical distribution (single nerves, several different nerves, symmetrical affection of all nerves, plexus, or root lesions). Furthermore pathological processes may result in either demyelination, axonal degeneration or both. In order to reach an exact diagnosis of any neuropathy electrophysiological studies are crucial to obtain information about these variables. Conventional electrophysiological methods including nerve conduction studies and electromyography used in the study of patients suspected of having a neuropathy and the significance of the findings are discussed in detail and more novel and experimental methods are mentioned. Diagnostic considerations are based on a flow chart classifying neuropathies into eight categories based on mode of onset, distribution, and electrophysiological findings, and the electrophysiological characteristics in each type of neuropathy are discussed. PMID:23931776

  20. Lack of efficacy of an intradural somatic-to-autonomic nerve anastomosis (Xiao procedure) for bladder control in children with myelomeningocele and lipomyelomeningocele: results of a prospective, randomized, double-blind study.

    PubMed

    Tuite, Gerald F; Polsky, Ethan G; Homsy, Yves; Reilly, Margaret A; Carey, Carolyn M; Parrish Winesett, S; Rodriguez, Luis F; Storrs, Bruce B; Gaskill, Sarah J; Tetreault, Lisa L; Martinez, Denise G; Amankwah, Ernest K

    2016-08-01

    OBJECTIVE Xiao et al. and other investigators have studied an intradural somatic-to-autonomic (e.g., L-5 to S3-4) nerve transfer as a method to create a reflex arc to allow bladder emptying in response to cutaneous stimulation (the Xiao procedure). In previous clinical studies of patients with spinal dysraphism who underwent the Xiao procedure, high success rates (70%-85%) were reported for the establishment of a "skin-CNS-bladder" reflex arc that allows spontaneous, controlled voiding in children with neurogenic bladder dysfunction. However, many of these studies did not use blinded observers, did not have control groups, and/or featured only limited follow-up durations. METHODS A randomized, prospective, double-blind trial was initiated in March 2009, enrolling children with myelomeningocele (MM), lipomyelomeningocele (LMM), and neurogenic bladder dysfunction who were scheduled for spinal cord detethering (DT) for the usual indications. At the time of DT, patients were randomized between 2 arms of the study: half of the patients underwent a standard spinal cord DT procedure alone (DT group) and half underwent DT as well as the Xiao procedure (DT+X group). Patients, families, and study investigators, all of whom were blinded to the surgical details, analyzed the patients' strength, sensory function, mobility, voiding, and urodynamic bladder function before surgery and at regular intervals during the 3-year follow-up. RESULTS Twenty patients were enrolled in the study: 10 underwent only DT and the other 10 underwent DT+X. The addition of the Xiao procedure to spinal cord DT resulted in longer operative times (p = 0.024) and a greater chance of wound infection (p = 0.03). Patients in both treatment arms could intermittently void or dribble small amounts of urine (< 20% total bladder capacity) in response to scratching in dermatomes T-9 through S-2 using a standardized protocol, but the voiding was not reproducible and the volume voided was not clinically useful in

  1. Sensory nerve function and auto-mutilation after reconstruction of various gap lengths with nerve guides and autologous nerve grafts.

    PubMed

    den Dunnen, W F; Meek, M F

    2001-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate sensory nerve recovery and auto-mutilation after reconstruction of various lengths of nerve gaps in the sciatic nerve of the rat, using different techniques. Group 4, in which the longest nerve gap (15 mm) was reconstructed with a thin-walled p(DL-lactide-gamma-caprolactone) nerve guide filled with modified denatured muscle tissue, showed the best results in the electro-stimulation tests and signs of severe auto-mutilation were not observed. Even in the control group, in which a 10 mm nerve gap was left open, in two of the five rats improvement of the sensory nerve function was observed, which was caused by re-innervation of the sciatic nerve and not by expansion of the neighboring saphenous nerve. It is hypothesized that a better quality of nerve reconstruction/guidance channel/support results in faster regeneration and hence re-innervation, thereby, preventing auto-mutilation. A thin red glabrous skin, anhydrosis (dryness of the skin), short nails and edema were interpreted as signs of autonomic dysfunction. PMID:11352096

  2. Neurophysiologic intraoperative monitoring: II. Facial nerve function.

    PubMed

    Niparko, J K; Kileny, P R; Kemink, J L; Lee, H M; Graham, M D

    1989-01-01

    Intraoperative facial nerve monitoring provides a potentially useful adjunct to recent surgical advances in neurotology and neurosurgery. These measures further aid the surgeon in preserving facial nerve function by enhancing visual identification with electrical monitoring of mechanically evoked facial muscle activation. Facial nerve monitoring in neurotologic surgery may achieve the following goals: (1) early recognition of surgical trauma to the facial nerve, with immediate feedback made available to the surgeon through monitoring of mechanical activation; (2) assistance in distinguishing the facial nerve from regional cranial nerves and from adjacent soft tissue and tumor with selective electrical stimulation; (3) facilitation of tumor excision by electrical mapping of portions of tumor that are remote from the facial nerve; (4) confirmation of nerve stimulability at the completion of surgery; and (5) identification of the site and degree of neural dysfunction in patients undergoing nerve exploration for suspected facial nerve neoplasm or undergoing decompression in acute facial palsy. This paper provides an overview of intraoperative facial nerve monitoring principles and methodology and reports a recent clinical investigation that demonstrates the utility of facial nerve monitoring in translabyrinthine acoustic neuroma surgery. PMID:2655465

  3. Autonomic Modification of Intestinal Smooth Muscle Contractility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montgomery, Laura E. A.; Tansey, Etain A.; Johnson, Chris D.; Roe, Sean M.; Quinn, Joe G.

    2016-01-01

    Intestinal smooth muscle contracts rhythmically in the absence of nerve and hormonal stimulation because of the activity of pacemaker cells between and within the muscle layers. This means that the autonomic nervous system modifies rather than initiates intestinal contractions. The practical described here gives students an opportunity to observe…

  4. Autonomous Soaring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Victor P.

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the autonomous soaring flight of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV). It reviews energy sources for UAVs, and two examples of UAV's that used alternative energy sources, and thermal currents for soaring. Examples of flight tests, plans, and results are given. Ultimately, the concept of a UAV harvesting energy from the atmosphere has been shown to be feasible with existing technology.

  5. Autonomic control of the eye.

    PubMed

    McDougal, David H; Gamlin, Paul D

    2015-01-01

    The autonomic nervous system influences numerous ocular functions. It does this by way of parasympathetic innervation from postganglionic fibers that originate from neurons in the ciliary and pterygopalatine ganglia, and by way of sympathetic innervation from postganglionic fibers that originate from neurons in the superior cervical ganglion. Ciliary ganglion neurons project to the ciliary body and the sphincter pupillae muscle of the iris to control ocular accommodation and pupil constriction, respectively. Superior cervical ganglion neurons project to the dilator pupillae muscle of the iris to control pupil dilation. Ocular blood flow is controlled both via direct autonomic influences on the vasculature of the optic nerve, choroid, ciliary body, and iris, as well as via indirect influences on retinal blood flow. In mammals, this vasculature is innervated by vasodilatory fibers from the pterygopalatine ganglion, and by vasoconstrictive fibers from the superior cervical ganglion. Intraocular pressure is regulated primarily through the balance of aqueous humor formation and outflow. Autonomic regulation of ciliary body blood vessels and the ciliary epithelium is an important determinant of aqueous humor formation; autonomic regulation of the trabecular meshwork and episcleral blood vessels is an important determinant of aqueous humor outflow. These tissues are all innervated by fibers from the pterygopalatine and superior cervical ganglia. In addition to these classical autonomic pathways, trigeminal sensory fibers exert local, intrinsic influences on many of these regions of the eye, as well as on some neurons within the ciliary and pterygopalatine ganglia. PMID:25589275

  6. Autonomic control of the eye

    PubMed Central

    McDougal, David H.; Gamlin, Paul D.

    2016-01-01

    The autonomic nervous system influences numerous ocular functions. It does this by way of parasympathetic innervation from postganglionic fibers that originate from neurons in the ciliary and pterygopalatine ganglia, and by way of sympathetic innervation from postganglionic fibers that originate from neurons in the superior cervical ganglion. Ciliary ganglion neurons project to the ciliary body and the sphincter pupillae muscle of the iris to control ocular accommodation and pupil constriction, respectively. Superior cervical ganglion neurons project to the dilator pupillae muscle of the iris to control pupil dilation. Ocular blood flow is controlled both via direct autonomic influences on the vasculature of the optic nerve, choroid, ciliary body, and iris, as well as via indirect influences on retinal blood flow. In mammals, this vasculature is innervated by vasodilatory fibers from the pterygopalatine ganglion, and by vasoconstrictive fibers from the superior cervical ganglion. Intraocular pressure is regulated primarily through the balance of aqueous humor formation and outflow. Autonomic regulation of ciliary body blood vessels and the ciliary epithelium is an important determinant of aqueous humor formation; autonomic regulation of the trabecular meshwork and episcleral blood vessels is an important determinant of aqueous humor outflow. These tissues are all innervated by fibers from the pterygopalatine and superior cervical ganglia. In addition to these classical autonomic pathways, trigeminal sensory fibers exert local, intrinsic influences on many of these regions of the eye, as well as on some neurons within the ciliary and pterygopalatine ganglia. PMID:25589275

  7. Autonomic dysreflexia

    PubMed Central

    Milligan, James; Lee, Joseph; McMillan, Colleen; Klassen, Hilary

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Objective To raise family physicians’ awareness of autonomic dysreflexia (AD) in patients with spinal cord injury (SCI) and to provide some suggestions for intervention. Sources of information MEDLINE was searched from 1970 to July 2011 using the terms autonomic dysreflexia and spinal cord injury with family medicine or primary care. Other relevant guidelines and resources were reviewed and used. Main message Family physicians often lack confidence in treating patients with SCI, see them as complex and time-consuming, and feel undertrained to meet their needs. Family physicians provide a vital component of the health care of such patients, and understanding of the unique medical conditions related to SCI is important. Autonomic dysreflexia is an important, common, and potentially serious condition with which many family physicians are unfamiliar. This article will review the signs and symptoms of AD and offer some acute management options and preventive strategies for family physicians. Conclusion Family physicians should be aware of which patients with SCI are susceptible to AD and monitor those affected by it. Outlined is an approach to acute management. Family physicians play a pivotal role in prevention of AD through education (of the patient and other health care providers) and incorporation of strategies such as appropriate bladder, bowel, and skin care practices and warnings and management plans in the medical chart. PMID:22893332

  8. Autonomous vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Meyrowitz, A.L.; Blidberg, D.R.; Michelson, R.C. |

    1996-08-01

    There are various kinds of autonomous vehicles (AV`s) which can operate with varying levels of autonomy. This paper is concerned with underwater, ground, and aerial vehicles operating in a fully autonomous (nonteleoperated) mode. Further, this paper deals with AV`s as a special kind of device, rather than full-scale manned vehicles operating unmanned. The distinction is one in which the AV is likely to be designed for autonomous operation rather than being adapted for it as would be the case for manned vehicles. The authors provide a survey of the technological progress that has been made in AV`s, the current research issues and approaches that are continuing that progress, and the applications which motivate this work. It should be noted that issues of control are pervasive regardless of the kind of AV being considered, but that there are special considerations in the design and operation of AV`s depending on whether the focus is on vehicles underwater, on the ground, or in the air. The authors have separated the discussion into sections treating each of these categories.

  9. Optic nerve atrophy

    MedlinePlus

    Optic nerve atrophy is damage to the optic nerve. The optic nerve carries images of what the eye sees to ... problem most often affects older adults. The optic nerve can also be damaged by shock, toxins, radiation, ...

  10. Nerve biopsy (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Nerve biopsy is the removal of a small piece of nerve for examination. Through a small incision, a sample ... is removed and examined under a microscope. Nerve biopsy may be performed to identify nerve degeneration, identify ...

  11. Peripheral Nerve Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... spinal cord. Like static on a telephone line, peripheral nerve disorders distort or interrupt the messages between the brain ... body. There are more than 100 kinds of peripheral nerve disorders. They can affect one nerve or many nerves. ...

  12. Autonomous control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Barbara

    1990-01-01

    KSC has been developing the Knowledge-Based Autonomous Test Engineer (KATE), which is a tool for performing automated monitoring, diagnosis, and control of electromechanical devices. KATE employs artificial intelligence computing techniques to perform these functions. The KATE system consists of a generic shell and a knowledge base. The KATE shell is the portion of the system which performs the monitoring, diagnosis, and control functions. It is generic in the sense that it is application independent. This means that the monitoring activity, for instance, will be performed with the same algorithms regardless of the particular physical device being used. The knowledge base is the portion of the system which contains specific functional and behavorial information about the physical device KATE is working with. Work is nearing completion on a project at KSC to interface a Texas Instruments Explorer running a LISP version of KATE with a Generic Checkout System (GCS) test-bed to control a physical simulation of a shuttle tanking system (humorously called the Red Wagon because of its color and mobility). The Autonomous Control System (ACS) project supplements and extends the KATE/GCS project by adding three other major activities. The activities include: porting KATE from the Texas Instruments Explorer machine to an Intel 80386-based UNIX workstation in the LISP language; rewriting KATE as necessary to run on the same 80386 workstation but in the Ada language; and investigating software and techniques to translate ANSI Standard Common LISP to Mil Standard Ada. Primary goals of this task are as follows: (1) establish the advantages of using expert systems to provide intelligent autonomous software for Space Station Freedom applications; (2) determine the feasibility of using Ada as the run-time environment for model-based expert systems; (3) provide insight into the advantages and disadvantagesof using LISP or Ada in the run-time environment for expert systems; and (4

  13. Hemangioma of the Facial Nerve

    PubMed Central

    Balkany, Thomas; Fradis, Milo; Jafek, Bruce W.; Rucker, Nolan C.

    1991-01-01

    Hemangioma of the facial nerve may occur more frequently than previously recognized. This benign vascular tumor most often arises in the area of the geniculate ganglion, although the reason for this site of predilection is not known. Using silicon injection and cross-sectional vessel counts, we recently demonstrated the presence of a geniculate capillary plexus (GCP) in the cat. The present study was designed to identify a similar GCP in man, if present, and to relate if to the site of predilection of hemangioma of the facial nerve. Twenty-five human facial nerves were studied in horizontally sectioned temporal bones. A clinical case of hemangioma arising at the geniculate ganglion is presented. The human geniculate ganglion has a very rich capillary plexus in contrast to the poor intrinsic vasculature of the adjacent labyrinthine segment and nioderate vasculature of the tympanic segment of the facial nerve. We hypothesize that the GCP is the origin of most hemangiomas of facial nerve. The anatomic distinctness of the geniculate gangion and GCP from the facial nerve may allow removal of these tumors with preservation of motor function in certain cases. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3 PMID:17170823

  14. INL Autonomous Navigation System

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2005-03-30

    The INL Autonomous Navigation System provides instructions for autonomously navigating a robot. The system permits high-speed autonomous navigation including obstacle avoidance, waypoing navigation and path planning in both indoor and outdoor environments.

  15. The Evolution and Technique of Nerve-Sparing Retroperitoneal Lymphadenectomy.

    PubMed

    Masterson, Timothy A; Cary, Clint; Rice, Kevin R; Foster, Richard S

    2015-08-01

    The evolution of retroperitoneal lymph node dissection technique and associated template modifications for nonseminomatous germ cell tumors have resulted in significant improvement in the long-term morbidity. Through the preservation of sympathetic nerves via exclusion from or prospective identification within the boundaries of resection, maintenance and recovery of antegrade ejaculation are achieved. Nerve-sparing strategies in early-stage disease are feasible in most patients. Postchemotherapy, select patients can be considered for nerve preservation. This article describes the anatomic and physiologic basis for, indications and technical aspects of, and functional and oncologic outcomes reported after nerve-sparing retroperitoneal lymphadenectomy in testicular cancer. PMID:26216818

  16. [Evaluation of autonomic dysfunction by novel methods].

    PubMed

    Ando, Yukio; Obayashi, Konen

    2004-07-01

    The autonomic nervous system innervates every organ in the body. Since autonomic disturbances affect patient survival, an understanding and recognition of these disturbances are important. We adopted several new methods to evaluate autonomic function accurately. 123I-metaiodobenzylguanidine scintigraphy can assess the cardiac autonomic function even in the presence of cardiac arrhythmia. Laser-Doppler flowmetry, ultrasonographic study in the vessels and near-infrared spectrophotoscopy techniques serve as useful markers for screening the dysfunction of vasomotor neurons and blood circulation. Electrogastrography and the circadian rhythms of protein C secretion could be markers of the visceromotor nerves in the abdomen. Electrogastrography is a particularly useful tool for reflecting on functional changes in gastrointestinal motility. The evaluation of anemia could be a marker of autonomic dysfunction in the kidney and bone marrow in patients with familial amyloidotic polyneuropathy, pandysautonomia, and multiple system atrophy. Normocytic and normochromic anemia correlated with the severity of autonomic dysfunction were shown in these patients. We also evaluated the dysfunction of the neuroendocrine system and sudomotor neuron using our new autonomic function tests. The glucose-tolerance test could become one of the most useful clinical tools for detecting autonomic dysfunction in the endocrine system. Microhydrography and thermography could be useful tools for diagnosing the lesion site of dyshidrosis. Moreover, it is clinically important to check the systemic circulation and autonomic function in patients treated with sildenafil citrate and organ transplantation to save their lives. Our new autonomic function tests, such as laser-Doppler flowmetry and 123I-metaiodobenzylguanidine scintigraphy, are crucial tools in supplying the best symptomatic treatment for such patients. PMID:15344558

  17. Hypothalamic Nesfatin-1 Stimulates Sympathetic Nerve Activity via Hypothalamic ERK Signaling.

    PubMed

    Tanida, Mamoru; Gotoh, Hitoshi; Yamamoto, Naoki; Wang, Mofei; Kuda, Yuhichi; Kurata, Yasutaka; Mori, Masatomo; Shibamoto, Toshishige

    2015-11-01

    Nesfatin-1 acts on the hypothalamus and regulates the autonomic nervous system. However, the hypothalamic mechanisms of nesfatin-1 on the autonomic nervous system are not well understood. In this study, we found that intracerebroventricular (ICV) administration of nesfatin-1 increased the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) activity in rats. Furthermore, the activity of sympathetic nerves, in the kidneys, liver, and white adipose tissue (WAT), and blood pressure was stimulated by the ICV injection of nesfatin-1, and these effects were abolished owing to pharmacological inhibition of ERK. Renal sympathoexcitatory and hypertensive effects were also observed with nesfatin-1 microinjection into the paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus (PVN). Moreover, nesfatin-1 increased the number of phospho (p)-ERK1/2-positive neurons in the PVN and coexpression of the protein in neurons expressing corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH). Pharmacological blockade of CRH signaling inhibited renal sympathetic and hypertensive responses to nesfatin-1. Finally, sympathetic stimulation of WAT and increased p-ERK1/2 levels in response to nesfatin-1 were preserved in obese animals such as rats that were fed a high-fat diet and leptin receptor-deficient Zucker fatty rats. These findings indicate that nesfatin-1 regulates the autonomic nervous system through ERK signaling in PVN-CRH neurons to maintain cardiovascular function and that the antiobesity effect of nesfatin-1 is mediated by hypothalamic ERK-dependent sympathoexcitation in obese animals. PMID:26310564

  18. Autonomic Regulation Therapy in Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Buckley, Una; Shivkumar, Kalyanam; Ardell, Jeffrey L.

    2015-01-01

    Autonomic Regulation Therapy (ART) is a rapidly emerging therapy in the management of congestive heart failure secondary to systolic dysfunction. Modulation of the cardiac neuronal hierarchy can be achieved with bioelectronics modulation of the spinal cord, cervical vagus, baroreceptor, or renal nerve ablation. This review will discuss relevant preclinical and clinical research in ART for systolic heart failure. Understanding mechanistically what is being stimulated within the autonomic nervous system by such device-based therapy and how the system reacts to such stimuli is essential for optimizing stimulation parameters and for the future development of effective ART. PMID:26054327

  19. Autonomic Regulation Therapy in Heart Failure.

    PubMed

    Buckley, Una; Shivkumar, Kalyanam; Ardell, Jeffrey L

    2015-08-01

    Autonomic regulation therapy (ART) is a rapidly emerging therapy in the management of congestive heart failure secondary to systolic dysfunction. Modulation of the cardiac neuronal hierarchy can be achieved with bioelectronics modulation of the spinal cord, cervical vagus, baroreceptor, or renal nerve ablation. This review will discuss relevant preclinical and clinical research in ART for systolic heart failure. Understanding mechanistically what is being stimulated within the autonomic nervous system by such device-based therapy and how the system reacts to such stimuli is essential for optimizing stimulation parameters and for the future development of effective ART. PMID:26054327

  20. Facial nerve identification with fluorescent dye in rats.

    PubMed

    de Melo, Giulianno Molina; Cervantes, Onivaldo; Covolan, Luciene; Baptista, Heloisa Allegro; Ferreira, Elenn Soares; Abrahao, Marcio

    2016-02-01

    PURPOSE The parotidectomy technique still has an elevated paresis and paralysis index, lowering patient life's quality. The correct identification of the facial nerve can prevent nerve damage. Fluorescent dye identifies nerves in experimental studies but only few articles focused its use on facial nerve study in parotidectomies. We aimed to stain the rat facial nerve with fluorescent dye to facilitate visualization and dissection in order to prevent injuries. METHODS Forty adult male Wistar rats were submitted to facial injection of saline solution (Gsf-control group, 10) or fluorescent dye solution (Gdye group, 30) followed by parotidectomy preserving the facial nerve, measuring the time for localization and facility of localization (LocTime and LFN). Nerve function was assessed using the Vibrissae Movements (PMV) and Eyelid Closure Motion (PFP) scores. RESULTS Nerve localization was faster in Gdye group, with 83% Easy LFN rate. The Gdye group presented with low nerve injury degree and better PMV and PFP scores, with high sensitivity and accuracy. CONCLUSIONS This experimental method of facial nerve fluorescence was effective for intraoperative nerve visualization, identification and preservation. The technique may be used in future facial nerve studies, translated to humans, contributing to the optimization of parotid surgery in the near future. PMID:26959618

  1. The nature of the autonomic dysfunction in multiple system atrophy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parikh, Samir M.; Diedrich, Andre; Biaggioni, Italo; Robertson, David

    2002-01-01

    The concept that multiple system atrophy (MSA, Shy-Drager syndrome) is a disorder of the autonomic nervous system is several decades old. While there has been renewed interest in the movement disorder associated with MSA, two recent consensus statements confirm the centrality of the autonomic disorder to the diagnosis. Here, we reexamine the autonomic pathophysiology in MSA. Whereas MSA is often thought of as "autonomic failure", new evidence indicates substantial persistence of functioning sympathetic and parasympathetic nerves even in clinically advanced disease. These findings help explain some of the previously poorly understood features of MSA. Recognition that MSA entails persistent, constitutive autonomic tone requires a significant revision of our concepts of its diagnosis and therapy. We will review recent evidence bearing on autonomic tone in MSA and discuss their therapeutic implications, particularly in terms of the possible development of a bionic baroreflex for better control of blood pressure.

  2. Preservation Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Reagan W.

    2004-01-01

    The long-term preservation of digital entities requires mechanisms to manage the authenticity of massive data collections that are written to archival storage systems. Preservation environments impose authenticity constraints and manage the evolution of the storage system technology by building infrastructure independent solutions. This seeming paradox, the need for large archives, while avoiding dependence upon vendor specific solutions, is resolved through use of data grid technology. Data grids provide the storage repository abstractions that make it possible to migrate collections between vendor specific products, while ensuring the authenticity of the archived data. Data grids provide the software infrastructure that interfaces vendor-specific storage archives to preservation environments.

  3. OCT image segmentation of the prostate nerves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chitchian, Shahab; Weldon, Thomas P.; Fried, Nathaniel M.

    2009-08-01

    The cavernous nerves course along the surface of the prostate and are responsible for erectile function. Improvements in identification, imaging, and visualization of the cavernous nerves during prostate cancer surgery may improve nerve preservation and postoperative sexual potency. In this study, 2-D OCT images of the rat prostate were segmented to differentiate the cavernous nerves from the prostate gland. Three image features were employed: Gabor filter, Daubechies wavelet, and Laws filter. The features were segmented using a nearestneighbor classifier. N-ary morphological post-processing was used to remove small voids. The cavernous nerves were differentiated from the prostate gland with a segmentation error rate of only 0.058 +/- 0.019.

  4. Urine Preservative

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Scott M. (Inventor); Nillen, Jeannie (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    Disclosed is CPG, a combination of a chlorhexidine salt (such as chlorhexidine digluconate, chlorhexidine diacetate, or chlorhexidine dichloride) and n-propyl gallate that can be used at ambient temperatures as a urine preservative.

  5. The role of the autonomic ganglia in atrial fibrillation

    PubMed Central

    Stavrakis, Stavros; Nakagawa, Hiroshi; Po, Sunny S.; Scherlag, Benjamin J.; Lazzara, Ralph; Jackman, Warren M.

    2015-01-01

    Recent experimental and clinical studies have shown that the epicardial autonomic ganglia play an important role in the initiation and maintenance of atrial fibrillation (AF). In this review, we present the current data on the role of the autonomic ganglia in the pathogenesis of AF and discuss potential therapeutic implications. Experimental studies have demonstrated that acute autonomic remodeling may play a crucial role in AF maintenance in the very early stages. The benefit of adding ablation of the autonomic ganglia to the standard pulmonary vein (PV) isolation procedure for patients with paroxysmal AF is supported by both experimental and clinical data. The interruption of axons from these hyperactive autonomic ganglia to the PV myocardial sleeves may be an important factor in the success of PV isolation procedures. The vagus nerve exerts an inhibitory control over the autonomic ganglia and attenuation or loss of this control may allow these ganglia to become hyperactive. Autonomic neuromodulation using low-level vagus nerve stimulation inhibits the activity of the autonomic ganglia and reverses acute electrical atrial remodeling during rapid atrial pacing and may provide an alternative non-ablative approach for the treatment of AF, especially in the early stages. This notion is supported by a preliminary human study. Further studies are warranted to confirm these findings. PMID:26301262

  6. Nerve conduction velocity

    MedlinePlus

    Nerve conduction velocity (NCV) is a test to see how fast electrical signals move through a nerve. ... normal body temperature. Being too cold slows nerve conduction. Tell your doctor if you have a cardiac ...

  7. Femoral nerve damage (image)

    MedlinePlus

    The femoral nerve is located in the leg and supplies the muscles that assist help straighten the leg. It supplies sensation ... leg. One risk of damage to the femoral nerve is pelvic fracture. Symptoms of femoral nerve damage ...

  8. Ulnar nerve damage (image)

    MedlinePlus

    The ulnar nerve originates from the brachial plexus and travels down arm. The nerve is commonly injured at the elbow because of elbow fracture or dislocation. The ulnar nerve is near the surface of the body where ...

  9. Diabetes and nerve damage

    MedlinePlus

    ... hot or cold When the nerves that control digestion are affected, you may have trouble digesting food. ... harder to control. Damage to nerves that control digestion almost always occurs in people with severe nerve ...

  10. Comparative anatomy of the autonomic nervous system.

    PubMed

    Nilsson, Stefan

    2011-11-16

    This short review aims to point out the general anatomical features of the autonomic nervous systems of non-mammalian vertebrates. In addition it attempts to outline the similarities and also the increased complexity of the autonomic nervous patterns from fish to tetrapods. With the possible exception of the cyclostomes, perhaps the most striking feature of the vertebrate autonomic nervous system is the similarity between the vertebrate classes. An evolution of the complexity of the system can be seen, with the segmental ganglia of elasmobranchs incompletely connected longitudinally, while well developed paired sympathetic chains are present in teleosts and the tetrapods. In some groups the sympathetic chains may be reduced (dipnoans and caecilians), and have yet to be properly described in snakes. Cranial autonomic pathways are present in the oculomotor (III) and vagus (X) nerves of gnathostome fish and the tetrapods, and with the evolution of salivary and lachrymal glands in the tetrapods, also in the facial (VII) and glossopharyngeal (IX) nerves. PMID:20444653

  11. Preserved Hearing Following Vestibular Schwannoma Surgery: Audiological Findings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauch, Christopher D.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Audiologic test results were reviewed for 30 patients whose hearing was preserved following eighth nerve tumor surgery. Improved auditory brainstem response tracings were seen as probably indicating increased neural synchrony due to reduced pressure on the cochlear nerve following surgery, whereas reduced hearing sensitivity probably reflects…

  12. Preservation Matters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noriega, Chon A.

    2005-01-01

    One must undertake multi-institutional efforts that include universities, archives, museums, libraries and community-based arts organizations and the artists to preserve Latino art history. Arts infrastructure can be strengthened by various Chicano Studies Research Center projects that are concerned with archive building and scholarship, and with…

  13. Digital Preservation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yakel, Elizabeth

    2001-01-01

    Reviews research on digital preservation issues, including born-digital and digitally recreated documents. Discusses electronic records research; metadata and other standards; electronic mail; Web-based documents; moving images media; selection of materials for digitization, including primary sources; administrative issues; media stability…

  14. Autonomous Soaring Flight Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, Michael J.

    2006-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation on autonomous soaring flight results for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV)'s is shown. The topics include: 1) Background; 2) Thermal Soaring Flight Results; 3) Autonomous Dolphin Soaring; and 4) Future Plans.

  15. Autonomic Nervous System Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    Your autonomic nervous system is the part of your nervous system that controls involuntary actions, such as the beating of your heart ... breathing and swallowing Erectile dysfunction in men Autonomic nervous system disorders can occur alone or as the result ...

  16. Autonomic Nervous System Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    Your autonomic nervous system is the part of your nervous system that controls involuntary actions, such as the beating ... with breathing and swallowing Erectile dysfunction in men Autonomic nervous system disorders can occur alone or as ...

  17. The cranial nerve skywalk: A 3D tutorial of cranial nerves in a virtual platform.

    PubMed

    Richardson-Hatcher, April; Hazzard, Matthew; Ramirez-Yanez, German

    2014-01-01

    Visualization of the complex courses of the cranial nerves by students in the health-related professions is challenging through either diagrams in books or plastic models in the gross laboratory. Furthermore, dissection of the cranial nerves in the gross laboratory is an extremely meticulous task. Teaching and learning the cranial nerve pathways is difficult using two-dimensional (2D) illustrations alone. Three-dimensional (3D) models aid the teacher in describing intricate and complex anatomical structures and help students visualize them. The study of the cranial nerves can be supplemented with 3D, which permits the students to fully visualize their distribution within the craniofacial complex. This article describes the construction and usage of a virtual anatomy platform in Second Life™, which contains 3D models of the cranial nerves III, V, VII, and IX. The Cranial Nerve Skywalk features select cranial nerves and the associated autonomic pathways in an immersive online environment. This teaching supplement was introduced to groups of pre-healthcare professional students in gross anatomy courses at both institutions and student feedback is included. PMID:24678025

  18. Autonomic control of gut motility: a comparative view.

    PubMed

    Olsson, Catharina; Holmgren, Susanne

    2011-11-16

    Gut motility is regulated to optimize food transport and processing. The autonomic innervation of the gut generally includes extrinsic cranial and spinal autonomic nerves. It also comprises the nerves contained entirely within the gut wall, i.e. the enteric nervous system. The extrinsic and enteric nervous control follows a similar pattern throughout the vertebrate groups. However, differences are common and may occur between groups and families as well as between closely related species. In this review, we give an overview of the distribution and effects of common neurotransmitters in the vertebrate gut. While the focus is on birds, reptiles, amphibians and fish, mammalian data are included to form the background for comparisons. While some transmitters, like acetylcholine and nitric oxide, show similar distribution patterns and effects in most species investigated, the role of others is more varying. The significance for these differences is not yet fully understood, emphasizing the need for continued comparative studies of autonomic control. PMID:20724224

  19. Genetic autonomic disorders.

    PubMed

    Axelrod, Felicia B

    2013-03-01

    Genetic disorders affecting the autonomic nervous system can result in abnormal development of the nervous system or they can be caused by neurotransmitter imbalance, an ion-channel disturbance or by storage of deleterious material. The symptoms indicating autonomic dysfunction, however, will depend upon whether the genetic lesion has disrupted peripheral or central autonomic centers or both. Because the autonomic nervous system is pervasive and affects every organ system in the body, autonomic dysfunction will result in impaired homeostasis and symptoms will vary. The possibility of genetic confirmation by molecular testing for specific diagnosis is increasing but treatments tend to remain only supportive and directed toward particular symptoms. PMID:23465768

  20. Activities of autonomic neurotransmitters in Meibomian gland tissues are associated with menopausal dry eye★

    PubMed Central

    Li, Lianxiang; Jin, Dongling; Gao, Jinsheng; Wang, Liguang; Liu, Xianjun; Wang, Jingzhang; Xu, Zhongxin

    2012-01-01

    The secretory activities of meibomian glands are regulated by the autonomic nervous system. The change in density and activity of autonomic nerves in meibomian glands during menopause play an important role in the pathogenesis of dry eye. In view of this, we established a dry eye rat model by removing the bilateral ovaries. We used neuropeptide Y and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide as markers of autonomic neurotransmitters. Our results showed that the concentration of estradiol in serum significantly decreased, the density of neuropeptide Y immunoreactivity in nerve fibers significantly increased, the density of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide immunoreactivity in nerve fibers significantly decreased, and the ratio of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide/neuropeptide Y positive staining significantly decreased. These results suggest that a decrease in ovary activity may lead to autonomic nervous system dysfunction, thereby affecting the secretory activity of the meibomian gland, which participates in sexual hormone imbalance-induced dry eye. PMID:25317125

  1. Pure Autonomic Failure.

    PubMed

    Thaisetthawatkul, Pariwat

    2016-08-01

    Pure autonomic failure (PAF) is a rare sporadic neurodegenerative autonomic disorder characterized by slowly progressive pan autonomic failure without other features of neurologic dysfunctions. The main clinical symptoms result from neurogenic orthostatic hypotension and urinary and gastrointestinal autonomic dysfunctions. Autonomic failure in PAF is caused by neuronal degeneration of pre- and postganglionic sympathetic and parasympathetic neurons in the thoracic spinal cord and paravertebral autonomic ganglia. The presence of Lewy bodies and α-synuclein deposits in these neural structures suggests that PAF is one of Lewy body synucleinopathies, examples of which include multiple system atrophy, Parkinson disease, and Lewy body disease. There is currently no specific treatment to stop progression in PAF. Management of autonomic symptoms is the mainstay of treatment and includes management of orthostatic hypotension and supine hypertension. The prognosis for survival of PAF is better than for the other synucleinopathies. PMID:27338613

  2. Electrophysiologic studies of cutaneous nerves of the forelimb of the cat.

    PubMed

    Kitchell, R L; Canton, D D; Johnson, R D; Maxwell, S A

    1982-10-01

    The cutaneous innervation of the forelimb was investigated in 20 barbiturate-anesthetized cats by using electrophysiological techniques. The cutaneous area (CA) innervated by each cutaneous nerve was delineated in at least six cats by brushing the hair in the CA with a small watercolor brush while recording from the nerve. Mapping of adjacent CA revealed larger overlap zones (OZ) than were noted in the dog. Remarkable findings were that the brachiocephalic nerve arose from the axillary nerve and the CA comparable to that supplied by the cutaneous branch of the brachiocephalic nerve in the dog was supplied by a cutaneous branch of the suprascapular nerve. The CA supplied by the communicating branch from the musculocutaneous to the median nerve was similar in both species except that the communicating branch arose proximal to any other branches of the musculocutaneous nerve in the cat, whereas it was a terminal branch in the dog. The superficial branch of the radial nerve gave off cutaneous brachial branches in the cat proximal to the lateral cutaneous antebrachial nerve. The CA of the palmar branches of the ulnar nerve did not completely overlap the CA of the palmar branches of the median nerve as occurred in the dog; thus an autonomous zone (AZ) for the CA of the palmar branches of the median nerve is present in the cat, whereas no AZ existed for the CA of this nerve in the dog. PMID:7142449

  3. Endocrine tumors associated with the vagus nerve.

    PubMed

    Varoquaux, Arthur; Kebebew, Electron; Sebag, Fréderic; Wolf, Katherine; Henry, Jean-François; Pacak, Karel; Taïeb, David

    2016-09-01

    The vagus nerve (cranial nerve X) is the main nerve of the parasympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system. Vagal paragangliomas (VPGLs) are a prime example of an endocrine tumor associated with the vagus nerve. This rare, neural crest tumor constitutes the second most common site of hereditary head and neck paragangliomas (HNPGLs), most often in relation to mutations in the succinate dehydrogenase complex subunit D (SDHD) gene. The treatment paradigm for VPGL has progressively shifted from surgery to abstention or therapeutic radiation with curative-like outcomes. Parathyroid tissue and parathyroid adenoma can also be found in close association with the vagus nerve in intra or paravagal situations. Vagal parathyroid adenoma can be identified with preoperative imaging or suspected intraoperatively by experienced surgeons. Vagal parathyroid adenomas located in the neck or superior mediastinum can be removed via initial cervicotomy, while those located in the aortopulmonary window require a thoracic approach. This review particularly emphasizes the embryology, molecular genetics, and modern imaging of these tumors. PMID:27406876

  4. Histochemical discrimination of fibers in regenerating rat infraorbital nerve

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilke, R. A.; Riley, D. A.; Sanger, J. R.

    1992-01-01

    In rat dorsal root ganglia, histochemical staining of carbonic anhydrase (CA) and cholinesterase (CE) yields a reciprocal pattern of activity: Sensory processes are CA positive and CE negative, whereas motor processes are CA negative and CE positive. In rat infraorbital nerve (a sensory peripheral nerve), we saw extensive CA staining of nearly 100% of the myelinated axons. Although CE reactivity in myelinated axons was extremely rare, we did observe CE staining of unmyelinated autonomic fibers. Four weeks after transection of infraorbital nerves, CA-stained longitudinal sections of the proximal stump demonstrated 3 distinct morphological zones. A fraction of the viable axons retained CA activity to within 2 mm of the distal extent of the stump, and the stain is capable of resolving growth sprouts being regenerated from these fibers. Staining of unmyelinated autonomic fibers in serial sections shows that CE activity was not retained as far distally as is the CA sensory staining.

  5. Ulnar nerve damage (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... arm. The nerve is commonly injured at the elbow because of elbow fracture or dislocation. The ulnar nerve is near ... surface of the body where it crosses the elbow, so prolonged pressure on the elbow or entrapment ...

  6. Nerve Injuries in Athletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Kathryn; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Over a two-year period this study evaluated the condition of 65 athletes with nerve injuries. These injuries represent the spectrum of nerve injuries likely to be encountered in sports medicine clinics. (Author/MT)

  7. Radial nerve dysfunction (image)

    MedlinePlus

    The radial nerve travels down the arm and supplies movement to the triceps muscle at the back of the upper arm. ... the wrist and hand. The usual causes of nerve dysfunction are direct trauma, prolonged pressure on the ...

  8. Tibial nerve dysfunction

    MedlinePlus

    ... a loss of movement or sensation in the foot from damage to the tibial nerve. ... Tibial nerve dysfunction is an unusual form of peripheral ... the calf and foot muscles. A problem in function with a single ...

  9. Nerve conduction velocity

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003927.htm Nerve conduction velocity To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Nerve conduction velocity (NCV) is a test to see how ...

  10. Electromechanical Nerve Stimulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tcheng, Ping; Supplee, Frank H., Jr.; Prass, Richard L.

    1993-01-01

    Nerve stimulator applies and/or measures precisely controlled force and/or displacement to nerve so response of nerve measured. Consists of three major components connected in tandem: miniature probe with spherical tip; transducer; and actuator. Probe applies force to nerve, transducer measures force and sends feedback signal to control circuitry, and actuator positions force transducer and probe. Separate box houses control circuits and panel. Operator uses panel to select operating mode and parameters. Stimulator used in research to characterize behavior of nerve under various conditions of temperature, anesthesia, ventilation, and prior damage to nerve. Also used clinically to assess damage to nerve from disease or accident and to monitor response of nerve during surgery.

  11. Radial nerve dysfunction

    MedlinePlus

    ... nerve leads to problems with movement in the arm and wrist and with sensation in the back of the arm or hand. ... to the radial nerve, which travels down the arm and controls movement of the triceps muscle at ...

  12. Degenerative Nerve Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    Degenerative nerve diseases affect many of your body's activities, such as balance, movement, talking, breathing, and heart function. Many ... viruses. Sometimes the cause is not known. Degenerative nerve diseases include Alzheimer's disease Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis Friedreich's ...

  13. Pediatric autonomic disorders.

    PubMed

    Axelrod, Felicia B; Chelimsky, Gisela G; Weese-Mayer, Debra E

    2006-07-01

    The scope of pediatric autonomic disorders is not well recognized. The goal of this review is to increase awareness of the expanding spectrum of pediatric autonomic disorders by providing an overview of the autonomic nervous system, including the roles of its various components and its pervasive influence, as well as its intimate relationship with sensory function. To illustrate further the breadth and complexities of autonomic dysfunction, some pediatric disorders are described, concentrating on those that present at birth or appear in early childhood. PMID:16818580

  14. Science, technology and the future of small autonomous drones.

    PubMed

    Floreano, Dario; Wood, Robert J

    2015-05-28

    We are witnessing the advent of a new era of robots - drones - that can autonomously fly in natural and man-made environments. These robots, often associated with defence applications, could have a major impact on civilian tasks, including transportation, communication, agriculture, disaster mitigation and environment preservation. Autonomous flight in confined spaces presents great scientific and technical challenges owing to the energetic cost of staying airborne and to the perceptual intelligence required to negotiate complex environments. We identify scientific and technological advances that are expected to translate, within appropriate regulatory frameworks, into pervasive use of autonomous drones for civilian applications. PMID:26017445

  15. Science, technology and the future of small autonomous drones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Floreano, Dario; Wood, Robert J.

    2015-05-01

    We are witnessing the advent of a new era of robots -- drones -- that can autonomously fly in natural and man-made environments. These robots, often associated with defence applications, could have a major impact on civilian tasks, including transportation, communication, agriculture, disaster mitigation and environment preservation. Autonomous flight in confined spaces presents great scientific and technical challenges owing to the energetic cost of staying airborne and to the perceptual intelligence required to negotiate complex environments. We identify scientific and technological advances that are expected to translate, within appropriate regulatory frameworks, into pervasive use of autonomous drones for civilian applications.

  16. Clinical and electrophysiologic attributes as predictors of results of autonomic function tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, C. L.; Denq, J. C.; Harper, C. M.; O'Brien, P. C.; Low, P. A.

    1998-01-01

    Autonomic dysfunction is a feature of some neuropathies and not others. It has been suggested that some clinical and electrophysiologic attributes are predictable of autonomic impairment detected using laboratory testing; however, dear guidelines are unavailable. We evaluated 138 relatively unselected patients with peripheral neuropathy who underwent neurologic evaluation, electromyography (EMG), nerve conduction studies, and autonomic function tests to determine which variables were predictive of laboratory findings of autonomic failure. The variables evaluated were 1) clinical somatic neuropathic findings, 2) clinical autonomic symptoms, and 3) electrophysiologic findings. Autonomic symptoms were strongly predictive (Rs = 0.40, p < 0.001) of autonomic failure. Among the non-autonomic indices, absent ankle reflexes were mildly predictive (Rs = 0.19, p = 0.022) of autonomic impairment, but all others were not (duration, clinical pattern, severity, weakness, sensory loss). Electrophysiologic changes of an axonal neuropathy predicted autonomic impairment while demyelinating neuropathy did not. We conclude that autonomic studies will most likely be abnormal in patients who have symptoms of autonomic involvement and those who have an axonal neuropathy.

  17. Laryngeal nerve damage

    MedlinePlus

    Laryngeal nerve damage is injury to one or both of the nerves that are attached to the voice box. ... Injury to the laryngeal nerves is uncommon. When it does occur, it can be from: A complication of neck or chest surgery (especially thyroid, lung, ...

  18. Electrophysiologic studies of cutaneous nerves of the thoracic limb of the dog.

    PubMed

    Kitchell, R L; Whalen, L R; Bailey, C S; Lohse, C L

    1980-01-01

    The cutaneous innervation of the thoracic limb was investigated in 36 barbiturate-anesthetized dogs, using electrophysiologic techniques. The cutaneous area (CA) innervated by each cutaneous nerve was delineated in at least five dogs by stroking the hair in the area with a small watercolor brush while recording from the nerve. Mapping of adjacent CA revealed areas of considerable overlapping. The part of the CA of a given nerve supplied by only that nerve is referred to as its autonomous zone. Of all nerves arising from the brachial plexus, only the suprascapular, subscapular, lateral thoracic, thoracodorsal, and cranial and caudal pectoral nerves lacked cutaneous afferents. The dorsal cutaneous branch of C6 had a CA, but no grossly demonstrable dorsal cutaneous branches for C7 C8, or T1 were found. The cervical nerves had ventral cutaneous branches, but no lateral cutaneous branches. Thoracic nerves T2-T4 had dorsal, ventral, and lateral cutaneous branches. The cutaneous branches of the brachiocephalic, axillary, musculocutaneous, radial, median, and ulnar nerves all had CA which were overlapped by adjacent CA, thus their autonomous zones were much smaller than the cutaneous areas usually depicted for these nerves in anatomy and neurology textbooks. PMID:7362125

  19. High Median Nerve Injuries.

    PubMed

    Isaacs, Jonathan; Ugwu-Oju, Obinna

    2016-08-01

    The median nerve serves a crucial role in extrinsic and intrinsic motor and sensory function to the radial half of the hand. High median nerve injuries, defined as injuries proximal to the anterior interosseous nerve origin, therefore typically result in significant functional loss prompting aggressive surgical management. Even with appropriate recognition and contemporary nerve reconstruction, however, motor and sensory recovery may be inadequate. With isolated persistent high median nerve palsies, a variety of available tendon transfers can improve key motor functions and salvage acceptable use of the hand. PMID:27387077

  20. Assessment of nerve morphology in nerve activation during electrical stimulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomez-Tames, Jose; Yu, Wenwei

    2013-10-01

    The distance between nerve and stimulation electrode is fundamental for nerve activation in Transcutaneous Electrical Stimulation (TES). However, it is not clear the need to have an approximate representation of the morphology of peripheral nerves in simulation models and its influence in the nerve activation. In this work, depth and curvature of a nerve are investigated around the middle thigh. As preliminary result, the curvature of the nerve helps to reduce the simulation amplitude necessary for nerve activation from far field stimulation.

  1. Role of the Autonomic Nervous System in Atrial Fibrillation: Pathophysiology and Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Peng-Sheng; Chen, Lan S.; Fishbein, Michael C.; Lin, Shien-Fong; Nattel, Stanley

    2014-01-01

    Autonomic nervous system activation can induce significant and heterogeneous changes of atrial electrophysiology and induce atrial tachyarrhythmias, including atrial tachycardia (AT) and atrial fibrillation (AF). The importance of the autonomic nervous system in atrial arrhythmogenesis is also supported by circadian variation in the incidence of symptomatic AF in humans. Methods that reduce autonomic innervation or outflow have been shown to reduce the incidence of spontaneous or induced atrial arrhythmias, suggesting that neuromodulation may be helpful in controlling AF. In this review we focus on the relationship between the autonomic nervous system and the pathophysiology of AF, and the potential benefit and limitations of neuromodulation in the management of this arrhythmia. We conclude that autonomic nerve activity plays an important role in the initiation and maintenance of AF, and modulating autonomic nerve function may contribute to AF control. Potential therapeutic applications include ganglionated plexus ablation, renal sympathetic denervation, cervical vagal nerve stimulation, baroreflex stimulation, cutaneous stimulation, novel drug approaches and biological therapies. While the role of the autonomic nervous system has long been recognized, new science and new technologies promise exciting prospects for the future. PMID:24763467

  2. Intraoperative Vagus Nerve Monitoring: A Transnasal Technique during Skull Base Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Schutt, Christopher A.; Paskhover, Boris; Judson, Benjamin L.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Intraoperative vagus nerve monitoring during skull base surgery has been reported with the use of an oral nerve monitoring endotracheal tube. However, the intraoral presence of an endotracheal tube can limit exposure by its location in the operative field during transfacial approaches and by limiting superior mobilization of the mandible during transcervical approaches. We describe a transnasal vagus nerve monitoring technique. Design and Participants Ten patients underwent open skull base surgery. Surgical approaches included transcervical (five), transfacial/maxillary swing (three), and double mandibular osteotomy (two). The vagus nerve was identified, stimulated, and monitored in all cases. Main Outcome Measures Intraoperative nerve stimulation, pre- and postoperative vagus nerve function through the use of flexible laryngoscopy in conjunction with assessment of subjective symptoms of hoarseness, voice change, and swallowing difficulty. Results Three patients had extensive involvement of the nerve by tumor with complete postoperative nerve deficit, one patient had a transient deficit following dissection of tumor off of nerve with resolution, and the remaining patients had nerve preservation. One patient experienced minor epistaxis during monitor tube placement that was managed conservatively. Conclusions Transnasal vagal nerve monitoring is a simple method that allows for intraoperative monitoring during nerve preservation surgery without limiting surgical exposure. PMID:25844292

  3. Visualizing Oxazine 4 nerve-specific fluorescence ex vivo in frozen tissue sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barth, Connor W.; Gibbs, Summer L.

    2016-03-01

    Nerve damage plagues surgical outcomes and remains a major burden for patients, surgeons, and the healthcare system. Fluorescence image-guided surgery using nerve specific small molecule fluorophores offers a solution to diminish surgical nerve damage through improved intraoperative nerve identification and visualization. Oxazine 4 has shown superior nerve specificity in initial testing in vivo, while exhibiting a red shifted excitation and emission spectra compared to other nerve-specific fluorophores. However, Oxazine 4 does not exhibit near-infrared (NIR) excitation and emission, which would be ideal to improve penetration depth and nerve signal to background ratios for in vivo imaging. Successful development of a NIR nerve-specific fluorophore will require understanding of the molecular target of fluorophore nerve specificity. While previous small molecule nerve-specific fluorophores have demonstrated excellent ex vivo nerve specificity, Oxazine 4 ex vivo nerve specific fluorescence has been difficult to visualize. In the present study, we examined each step of the ex vivo fluorescence microscopy sample preparation procedure to discover how in vivo nerve-specific fluorescence is changed during ex vivo tissue sample preparation. Through step-by-step examination we found that Oxazine 4 fluorescence was significantly diminished by washing and mounting tissue sections for microscopy. A method to preserve Oxazine 4 nerve specific fluorescence ex vivo was determined, which can be utilized for visualization by fluorescence microscopy.

  4. Median nerve schwannoma: A case and review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Padasali, Praveen S.; Shankaregowda, V. S.; Kshirsagar, Shriram D.

    2015-01-01

    We report a case of a median nerve schwannoma, a rare type of a benign tumor of Schwann cells that presents as a palpable and painful mass on the flexor aspect of the forearm. Schwannomas of the median nerve make up 0.1–0.3% of all hand tumors. Symptoms are caused by an entrapment syndrome resulting from the growing tumor. Pain is the most common complaint of schwannomas. Imaging studies include computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasound. It is difficult to differentiate schwanommas from neurofibromas solely on the basis of a radiological investigation. Tumors of the median nerve are diagnostically challenging and median nerve schwannomas are rare. Diagnostic pearls are described to facilitate a more accurate and timely diagnosis. These characteristics include mobility, Tinel's sign, S-100 histological staining, and Antoni patterns. With a correct diagnosis, the tumor can be extirpated with preservation of nerve function and a low risk of recurrence. PMID:26396609

  5. Intraoperative Cranial Nerve Monitoring During Posterior Skull Base Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Kartush, Jack M.; LaRouere, Michael J.; Graham, Malcolm D.; Bouchard, Kenneth R.; Audet, Blaise V.

    1991-01-01

    Intraoperative monitoring of neurophysiologic function is rapidly evolving as an important adjunct during skull base surgery to reduce the incidence of neurologic deficit. Facial nerve monitoring is an excellent model, since electrical and mechanical evoked potentials can be directly presented to the surgeon in real-time through an acoustic loudspeaker display. The lower cranial nerves may also be monitored using similar electromyographic techniques. Auditory system monitoring is more difficult due to the low amplitude response that requires averaging and filtering to extract the evoked potential. In conjunction with auditory monitoring, improved hearing preservation may be further enhanced by concomitant facial nerve monitoring, since the surgeon is alerted to traumatic manipulations that may affect both facial and cochlear nerves. Techniques and interpretative issues are presented to maximize the efficacy and safety of cranial nerve monitoring. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 5 PMID:17170827

  6. Autonomous surveillance for biosecurity.

    PubMed

    Jurdak, Raja; Elfes, Alberto; Kusy, Branislav; Tews, Ashley; Hu, Wen; Hernandez, Emili; Kottege, Navinda; Sikka, Pavan

    2015-04-01

    The global movement of people and goods has increased the risk of biosecurity threats and their potential to incur large economic, social, and environmental costs. Conventional manual biosecurity surveillance methods are limited by their scalability in space and time. This article focuses on autonomous surveillance systems, comprising sensor networks, robots, and intelligent algorithms, and their applicability to biosecurity threats. We discuss the spatial and temporal attributes of autonomous surveillance technologies and map them to three broad categories of biosecurity threat: (i) vector-borne diseases; (ii) plant pests; and (iii) aquatic pests. Our discussion reveals a broad range of opportunities to serve biosecurity needs through autonomous surveillance. PMID:25744760

  7. The Furcal Nerve Revisited

    PubMed Central

    Dabke, Harshad V.

    2014-01-01

    Atypical sciatica and discrepancy between clinical presentation and imaging findings is a dilemma for treating surgeon in management of lumbar disc herniation. It also constitutes ground for failed back surgery and potential litigations thereof. Furcal nerve (Furcal = forked) is an independent nerve with its own ventral and dorsal branches (rootlets) and forms a link nerve that connects lumbar and sacral plexus. Its fibers branch out to be part of femoral and obturator nerves in-addition to the lumbosacral trunk. It is most commonly found at L4 level and is the most common cause of atypical presentation of radiculopathy/sciatica. Very little is published about the furcal nerve and many are unaware of its existence. This article summarizes all the existing evidence about furcal nerve in English literature in an attempt to create awareness and offer insight about this unique entity to fellow colleagues/professionals involved in spine care. PMID:25317309

  8. Sciatic nerve injection injury.

    PubMed

    Jung Kim, Hyun; Hyun Park, Sang

    2014-06-11

    Nerve injury is a common complication following intramuscular injection and the sciatic nerve is the most frequently affected nerve, especially in children, the elderly and underweight patients. The neurological presentation may range from minor transient pain to severe sensory disturbance and motor loss with poor recovery. Management of nerve injection injury includes drug treatment of pain, physiotherapy, use of assistive devices and surgical exploration. Early recognition of nerve injection injury and appropriate management are crucial in order to reduce neurological deficit and to maximize recovery. Sciatic nerve injection injury is a preventable event. Total avoidance of intramuscular injection is recommended if other administration routes can be used. If the injection has to be administered into the gluteal muscle, the ventrogluteal region (gluteal triangle) has a more favourable safety profile than the dorsogluteal region (the upper outer quadrant of the buttock). PMID:24920643

  9. Preservation of Digital Objects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galloway, Patricia

    2004-01-01

    Presents a literature review that covers the following topics related to preservation of digital objects: practical examples; stakeholders; recordkeeping standards; genre-specific problems; trusted repository standards; preservation methods; preservation metadata standards; and future directions. (Contains 82 references.) (MES)

  10. Decellularisation and histological characterisation of porcine peripheral nerves.

    PubMed

    Zilic, Leyla; Wilshaw, Stacy-Paul; Haycock, John W

    2016-09-01

    Peripheral nerve injuries affect a large proportion of the global population, often causing significant morbidity and loss of function. Current treatment strategies include the use of implantable nerve guide conduits (NGC's) to direct regenerating axons between the proximal and distal ends of the nerve gap. However, NGC's are limited in their effectiveness at promoting regeneration Current NGCs are not suitable as substrates for supporting either neuronal or Schwann cell growth, as they lack an architecture similar to that of the native extracellular matrix (ECM) of the nerve. The aim of this study was to create an acellular porcine peripheral nerve using a novel decellularisation protocol, in order to eliminate the immunogenic cellular components of the tissue, while preserving the three-dimensional histoarchitecture and ECM components. Porcine peripheral nerve (sciatic branches were decellularised using a low concentration (0.1%; w/v) sodium dodecyl sulphate in conjunction with hypotonic buffers and protease inhibitors, and then sterilised using 0.1% (v/v) peracetic acid. Quantitative and qualitative analysis revealed a ≥95% (w/w) reduction in DNA content as well as preservation of the nerve fascicles and connective tissue. Acellular nerves were shown to have retained key ECM components such as collagen, laminin and fibronectin. Slow strain rate to failure testing demonstrated the biomechanical properties of acellular nerves to be comparable to fresh controls. In conclusion, we report the production of a biocompatible, biomechanically functional acellular scaffold, which may have use in peripheral nerve repair. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2016;113: 2041-2053. © 2016 The Authors. Biotechnology and Bioengineering published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26926914

  11. Endoscopic Facial Nerve Surgery.

    PubMed

    Marchioni, Daniele; Soloperto, Davide; Rubini, Alessia; Nogueira, João Flávio; Badr-El-Dine, Mohamed; Presutti, Livio

    2016-10-01

    Tympanic facial nerve segment surgery has been traditionally performed using microscopic approaches, but currently, exclusive endoscopic approaches have been performed for traumatic, neoplastic, or inflammatory diseases, specially located at the geniculate ganglion, greater petrosal nerve, and second tract of the facial nerve, until the second genu. The tympanic segment of the facial nerve can be reached and visualized using an exclusive transcanal endoscopic approach, even in poorly accessible regions such as the second genu and geniculate ganglion, avoiding mastoidectomy, bony demolition, and meningeal or cerebral lobe tractions, with low complication rates using a minimally invasive surgical route. PMID:27468633

  12. Highly Autonomous Systems Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doyle, R.; Rasmussen, R.; Man, G.; Patel, K.

    1998-01-01

    It is our aim by launching a series of workshops on the topic of highly autonomous systems to reach out to the larger community interested in technology development for remotely deployed systems, particularly those for exploration.

  13. Autonomous Flight Safety System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simpson, James

    2010-01-01

    The Autonomous Flight Safety System (AFSS) is an independent self-contained subsystem mounted onboard a launch vehicle. AFSS has been developed by and is owned by the US Government. Autonomously makes flight termination/destruct decisions using configurable software-based rules implemented on redundant flight processors using data from redundant GPS/IMU navigation sensors. AFSS implements rules determined by the appropriate Range Safety officials.

  14. Autonomic modification of intestinal smooth muscle contractility.

    PubMed

    Montgomery, Laura E A; Tansey, Etain A; Johnson, Chris D; Roe, Sean M; Quinn, Joe G

    2016-03-01

    Intestinal smooth muscle contracts rhythmically in the absence of nerve and hormonal stimulation because of the activity of pacemaker cells between and within the muscle layers. This means that the autonomic nervous system modifies rather than initiates intestinal contractions. The practical described here gives students an opportunity to observe this spontaneous activity and its modification by agents associated with parasympathetic and sympathetic nerve activity. A section of the rabbit small intestine is suspended in an organ bath, and the use of a pressure transducer and data-acquisition software allows the measurement of tension generated by the smooth muscle of intestinal walls. The application of the parasympathetic neurotransmitter ACh at varying concentrations allows students to observe an increase in intestinal smooth muscle tone with increasing concentrations of this muscarinic receptor agonist. Construction of a concentration-effect curve allows students to calculate an EC50 value for ACh and consider some basic concepts surrounding receptor occupancy and activation. Application of the hormone epinephrine to the precontracted intestine allows students to observe the inhibitory effects associated with sympathetic nerve activation. Introduction of the drug atropine to the preparation before a maximal concentration of ACh is applied allows students to observe the inhibitory effect of a competitive antagonist on the physiological response to a receptor agonist. The final experiment involves the observation of the depolarizing effect of K(+) on smooth muscle. Students are also invited to consider why the drugs atropine, codeine, loperamide, and botulinum toxin have medicinal uses in the management of gastrointestinal problems. PMID:26873897

  15. Ex vivo peripheral nerve detection of rats by spontaneous Raman spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Minamikawa, Takeo; Harada, Yoshinori; Takamatsu, Tetsuro

    2015-01-01

    Nerve-sparing surgery is increasingly being applied to avoid functional deficits of the limbs and organs following surgery. Peripheral nerves that should be preserved are, however, sometimes misidentified due to similarity of shape and color to non-nerve tissues. To avoid misidentification of peripheral nerves, development of an in situ nerve detection method is desired. In this study, we report the label-free detection of ex vivo peripheral nerves of Wistar rats by using Raman spectroscopy. We obtained Raman spectra of peripheral nerves (myelinated and unmyelinated nerves) and their adjacent tissues of Wistar rats without any treatment such as fixation and/or staining. For the identification of tissue species and further analysis of spectral features, we proposed a principal component regression-based discriminant analysis with representative Raman spectra of peripheral nerves and their adjacent tissues. Our prediction model selectively detected myelinated nerves and unmyelinated nerves of Wistar rats with respective sensitivities of 95.5% and 88.3% and specificities of 99.4% and 93.5%. Furthermore, important spectral features for the identification of tissue species were revealed by detailed analysis of principal components of representative Raman spectra of tissues. Our proposed approach may provide a unique and powerful tool for peripheral nerve detection for nerve-sparing surgery in the future. PMID:26602842

  16. Nerve sparing clitoroplasty in a rare case of idiopathic clitoromegaly

    PubMed Central

    Kujur, Abha Rani; Joseph, Vijay; Chandra, Praveen

    2016-01-01

    Clitoromegaly is an embarrassing condition causing psychological stress, requiring intervention. The goals of clitoroplasty are to achieve normal genital anatomy and to preserve tactile sensation with a satisfactory sexual response. We present a rare case of idiopathic clitoromegaly managed by reduction clitoroplasty, preserving the dorsal neurovascular bundle and extensive network of nerves around the corpora to the glans and the creation of labia minora. PMID:27274128

  17. Orbital intraconal abducens nerve schwannoma: A case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Bhaganagare, Amresh Subhash; Bidkar, Vishakha Chandrakant; Rodrigus, Elvis; Naik, Vikas; Pai, Balaji

    2015-01-01

    Authors report a case of right orbital intraconal abducens nerve schwannoma in a 32-year lady, who presented with a sense of tightness and discomfort in right eye on looking extreme right side since 4 months. The tumor was totally excised with functional preservation of the nerve by superior orbitotomy. The clinical, radiological features and the management are discussed. PMID:25767598

  18. Distal median nerve dysfunction

    MedlinePlus

    ... Names Neuropathy - distal median nerve Images Central nervous system and peripheral nervous system References Jarvik JG, Comstock BA, Kliot M, et al. Surgery versus non-surgical therapy for carpal tunnel syndrome: a randomized ... D. Disorders of peripheral nerves. In: Daroff RB, Fenichel GM, Jankovic J, ...

  19. Optic Nerve Decompression

    MedlinePlus

    ... canals). The optic nerve is the “nerve of vision” and extends from the brain, through your skull, and into your eye. A ... limited to, the following: loss of vision, double vision, inadequate ... leakage of brain fluid (CSF), meningitis, nasal bleeding, infection of the ...

  20. A new technique for hypoglossal-facial nerve repair.

    PubMed

    Atlas, M D; Lowinger, D S

    1997-07-01

    Hypoglossal reinnervation of the facial nerve may be required after a proximal facial nerve injury. The classic hypoglossal-facial graft procedure involves transection of the donor hypoglossal nerve, resulting in hemiglottic paralysis that, in association with paralysis of other cranial nerves, may cause speech and swallowing difficulties. Multiple lower cranial nerve palsies in conjunction with facial paralysis, as may occur after procedures such as skull base surgery, contraindicate the use of such techniques. The successful use of XII-VII "interposition jump grafts" without hemiglossal weakness has been described However, a prolonged recovery period and weaker facial reanimation have been seen. In order to attain maximum facial reinnervation while preserving hypoglossal function, we have developed a new technique of XII-VII repair. This method involves mobilization of the intratemporal portion of the facial nerve remnant, achieving a single anastomosis with the hypoglossal nerve, which has been partially incised. This technique has been used in three patients to date, with 6 to 11 months follow-up. In all cases facial tone and symmetry have been restored and voluntary facial expression accomplished. The authors conclude that by employing the techniques described highly satisfactory cosmetic and functional results may be expected, without compromising hypoglossal nerve function. PMID:9217143

  1. Preoperative transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation for localizing superficial nerve paths.

    PubMed

    Natori, Yuhei; Yoshizawa, Hidekazu; Mizuno, Hiroshi; Hayashi, Ayato

    2015-12-01

    During surgery, peripheral nerves are often seen to follow unpredictable paths because of previous surgeries and/or compression caused by a tumor. Iatrogenic nerve injury is a serious complication that must be avoided, and preoperative evaluation of nerve paths is important for preventing it. In this study, transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) was used for an in-depth analysis of peripheral nerve paths. This study included 27 patients who underwent the TENS procedure to evaluate the peripheral nerve path (17 males and 10 females; mean age: 59.9 years, range: 18-83 years) of each patient preoperatively. An electrode pen coupled to an electrical nerve stimulator was used for superficial nerve mapping. The TENS procedure was performed on patients' major peripheral nerves that passed close to the surgical field of tumor resection or trauma surgery, and intraoperative damage to those nerves was apprehensive. The paths of the target nerve were detected in most patients preoperatively. The nerve paths of 26 patients were precisely under the markings drawn preoperatively. The nerve path of one patient substantially differed from the preoperative markings with numbness at the surgical region. During surgery, the nerve paths could be accurately mapped preoperatively using the TENS procedure as confirmed by direct visualization of the nerve. This stimulation device is easy to use and offers highly accurate mapping of nerves for surgical planning without major complications. The authors conclude that TENS is a useful tool for noninvasive nerve localization and makes tumor resection a safe and smooth procedure. PMID:26420473

  2. Noninvasive subject-specific monitoring of autonomic-cardiac regulation.

    PubMed

    Ataee, Pedram; Hahn, Jin-Oh; Dumont, Guy A; Boyce, W Thomas

    2014-04-01

    This paper presents a feasibility study of a model-based approach to noninvasive and subject-specific monitoring of autonomic-cardiac regulation. The proposed approach is built upon individualizing a physiologically-based model by applying a parameter estimation method to routine clinical observations, thereby assuring physical transparency, computational efficiency, and clinical adaptability. To develop an efficient parameter estimation procedure, a parametric sensitivity analysis was performed on the autonomic-cardiac regulation model to identify high-sensitivity model parameters whose changes exert significant impacts on the system outputs. Then, a parameter estimation problem formulated as a nonlinear optimization was solved to estimate high-sensitivity model parameters associated with autonomic-cardiac regulation, whereas the remaining parameters were fixed at their nominal values. The proposed approach can potentially monitor temporal changes in autonomic-cardiac regulation by identifying time-varying changes in the autonomic-cardiac model parameters, including sympathetic and parasympathetic nerve activities on the heart (modulating heart rate), and sympathetic nerve activity on the arterial tree (modulating total peripheral resistance). The proof-of-concept for the proposed approach was tested using a number of experimental data from the MIMIC database and the orthostatic hypotension tests. Our finding shows that the proposed approach is able to provide low-variance estimates of the autonomic-cardiac model parameters, which are consistent with their anticipated behaviors inferred from the physiologic knowledge. An extensive comparison study must be conducted in the future to establish the clinical validity of the proposed approach. PMID:24658244

  3. Phosphorylated α-synuclein in skin nerve fibres differentiates Parkinson's disease from multiple system atrophy.

    PubMed

    Zange, Leonora; Noack, Cornelia; Hahn, Katrin; Stenzel, Werner; Lipp, Axel

    2015-08-01

    Deposition of phosphorylated SNCA (also known as α-synuclein) in cutaneous nerve fibres has been shown pre- and post-mortem in Parkinson's disease. Thus far, no pre-mortem studies investigating the presence of phosphorylated SNCA in skin sympathetic nerve fibres of multiple system atrophy, another synucleinopathy, have been conducted. In this in vivo study, skin from the ventral forearm of 10 patients with multiple system atrophy and 10 with Parkinson's disease, together with six control subjects with essential tremor, were examined by immunohistochemistry. Phosphorylated SNCA deposits in skin sympathetic nerve fibres and dermal nerve fibre density were assessed. All patients with Parkinson's disease expressed phosphorylated SNCA in sympathetic skin nerve fibres, correlating with an age-independent denervation of autonomic skin elements. In contrast, no phosphorylated SNCA was found in autonomic skin nerve fibres of patients with multiple system atrophy and essential tremor control subjects. These findings support that phosphorylated SNCA deposition is causative for nerve fibre degeneration in Parkinson's disease. Moreover, pre-mortem investigation of phosphorylated SNCA in cutaneous nerve fibres may prove a relevant and easily conductible diagnostic procedure to differentiate Parkinson's disease from multiple system atrophy. PMID:26017579

  4. Thinking Ahead: Autonomic Buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Brambley, Michael R. )

    2002-08-31

    The time has come for the commercial buildings industries to reconsider the very nature of the systems installed in facilities today and to establish a vision for future buildings that differs from anything in the history of human shelter. Drivers for this examination include reductions in building operation staffs; uncertain costs and reliability of electric power; growing interest in energy-efficient and resource-conserving?green? and?high-performance? commercial buildings; and a dramatic increase in security concerns since the tragic events of September 11. This paper introduces a new paradigm? autonomic buildings? which parallels the concept of autonomic computing, introduced by IBM as a fundamental change in the way computer networks work. Modeled after the human nervous system,?autonomic systems? themselves take responsibility for a large portion of their own operation and even maintenance. For commercial buildings, autonomic systems could provide environments that afford occupants greater opportunity to focus on the things we do in buildings rather than on operation of the building itself, while achieving higher performance levels, increased security, and better use of energy and other natural resources. The author uses the human body and computer networking to introduce and illustrate this new paradigm for high-performance commercial buildings. He provides a vision for the future of commercial buildings based on autonomicity, identifies current research that could contribute to this future, and highlights research and technological gaps. The paper concludes with a set of issues and needs that are key to converting this idealized future into reality.

  5. Pure autonomic failure.

    PubMed

    Garland, Emily M; Hooper, William B; Robertson, David

    2013-01-01

    A 1925 report by Bradbury and Eggleston first described patients with extreme orthostatic hypotension and a low, steady heart rate. Evidence accumulated over the next two decades that patients with orthostatic hypotension include those with pure autonomic failure (PAF), characterized by isolated peripheral autonomic dysfunction and decreased norepinephrine synthesis; multiple system atrophy (MSA) with symptoms of a central Parkinson-like syndrome and normal resting plasma norepinephrine; and Parkinson's disease (PD), with lesions in postganglionic noradrenergic neurons and signs of autonomic dysfunction. All three disorders are classified as α-synucleinopathies. Insoluble deposits of α-synuclein are found in glia in MSA, whereas they take the form of neuronal cytoplasmic inclusions called Lewy bodies in PAF and PD. The exact relationship between α-synuclein deposits and the pathology remains undetermined. PAF occurs sporadically, and progresses slowly with a relatively good prognosis. However, it has been proposed that some cases of PAF may develop a central neurodegenerative disorder. Differentiation between PAF, MSA, and PD with autonomic failure can be facilitated by a number of biochemical and functional tests and by imaging studies. Cardiac sympathetic innervation is generally intact in MSA but decreased or absent in Parkinson's disease with autonomic failure and PAF. Treatment of PAF is directed at relieving symptoms with nonpharmacological interventions and with medications producing volume expansion and vasoconstriction. Future studies should focus on determining the factors that lead to central rather than solely peripheral neurodegeneration. PMID:24095130

  6. Autonomic Modulation by Electrical Stimulation of the Parasympathetic Nervous System: An Emerging Intervention for Cardiovascular Diseases.

    PubMed

    He, Bo; Lu, Zhibing; He, Wenbo; Huang, Bing; Jiang, Hong

    2016-06-01

    The cardiac autonomic nervous system has been known to play an important role in the development and progression of cardiovascular diseases. Autonomic modulation by electrical stimulation of the parasympathetic nervous system, which increases the parasympathetic activity and suppresses the sympathetic activity, is emerging as a therapeutic strategy for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. Here, we review the recent literature on autonomic modulation by electrical stimulation of the parasympathetic nervous system, including vagus nerve stimulation, transcutaneous auricular vagal stimulation, spinal cord stimulation, and ganglionated plexi stimulation, in the treatment of heart failure, atrial fibrillation, and ventricular arrhythmias. PMID:26914959

  7. Architecture of autonomous systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dikshit, Piyush; Guimaraes, Katia; Ramamurthy, Maya; Agrawala, Ashok; Larsen, Ronald L.

    1989-01-01

    Automation of Space Station functions and activities, particularly those involving robotic capabilities with interactive or supervisory human control, is a complex, multi-disciplinary systems design problem. A wide variety of applications using autonomous control can be found in the literature, but none of them seem to address the problem in general. All of them are designed with a specific application in mind. In this report, an abstract model is described which unifies the key concepts underlying the design of automated systems such as those studied by the aerospace contractors. The model has been kept as general as possible. The attempt is to capture all the key components of autonomous systems. With a little effort, it should be possible to map the functions of any specific autonomous system application to the model presented here.

  8. Architecture of autonomous systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dikshit, Piyush; Guimaraes, Katia; Ramamurthy, Maya; Agrawala, Ashok; Larsen, Ronald L.

    1986-01-01

    Automation of Space Station functions and activities, particularly those involving robotic capabilities with interactive or supervisory human control, is a complex, multi-disciplinary systems design problem. A wide variety of applications using autonomous control can be found in the literature, but none of them seem to address the problem in general. All of them are designed with a specific application in mind. In this report, an abstract model is described which unifies the key concepts underlying the design of automated systems such as those studied by the aerospace contractors. The model has been kept as general as possible. The attempt is to capture all the key components of autonomous systems. With a little effort, it should be possible to map the functions of any specific autonomous system application to the model presented here.

  9. Exercise and autonomic function.

    PubMed

    Goldsmith, R L; Bloomfield, D M; Rosenwinkel, E T

    2000-03-01

    The complex interplay between the dichotomous subdivisions of the autonomic nervous system establishes and maintains a delicately tuned homeostasis in spite of an ever-changing environment. Aerobic exercise training can increase activity of the parasympathetic nervous system and decrease sympathetic activity. Conversely, it is well-documented that cardiac disease is often characterized by attenuated parasympathetic activity and heightened sympathetic tone. A correlation between autonomic disequilibrium and disease has led to the hypothesis that exercise training, as a therapy that restores the autonomic nervous system towards normal function, may be associated with, and possibly responsible for, outcome improvements in various populations. This is merely one of the many benefits that is conferred by chronic exercise training and reviewed in this issue. PMID:10758814

  10. A flexible platform for biofeedback-driven control and personalization of electrical nerve stimulation therapy.

    PubMed

    Ward, Matthew P; Qing, Kurt Y; Otto, Kevin J; Worth, Robert M; John, Simon W M; Irazoqui, Pedro P

    2015-05-01

    Electrical vagus nerve stimulation is a treatment alternative for many epileptic and depressed patients whose symptoms are not well managed with pharmaceutical therapy. However, the fixed stimulus, open loop dosing mechanism limits its efficacy and precludes major advances in the quality of therapy. A real-time, responsive form of vagus nerve stimulation is needed to control nerve activation according to therapeutic need. This personalized approach to therapy will improve efficacy and reduce the number and severity of side effects. We present autonomous neural control, a responsive, biofeedback-driven approach that uses the degree of measured nerve activation to control stimulus delivery. We demonstrate autonomous neural control in rats, showing that it rapidly learns how to most efficiently activate any desired proportion of vagal A, B, and/or C fibers over time. This system will maximize efficacy by minimizing patient response variability and by minimizing therapeutic failures resulting from longitudinal decreases in nerve activation with increasing durations of treatment. The value of autonomous neural control equally applies to other applications of electrical nerve stimulation. PMID:25167554

  11. Radial Nerve Tendon Transfers.

    PubMed

    Cheah, Andre Eu-Jin; Etcheson, Jennifer; Yao, Jeffrey

    2016-08-01

    Radial nerve palsy typically occurs as a result of trauma or iatrogenic injury and leads to the loss of wrist extension, finger extension, thumb extension, and a reduction in grip strength. In the absence of nerve recovery, reconstruction of motor function involves tendon transfer surgery. The most common donor tendons include the pronator teres, wrist flexors, and finger flexors. The type of tendon transfer is classified based on the donor for the extensor digitorum communis. Good outcomes have been reported for most methods of radial nerve tendon transfers as is typical for positional tendon transfers not requiring significant power. PMID:27387076

  12. Autonomous electrochromic assembly

    DOEpatents

    Berland, Brian Spencer; Lanning, Bruce Roy; Stowell, Jr., Michael Wayne

    2015-03-10

    This disclosure describes system and methods for creating an autonomous electrochromic assembly, and systems and methods for use of the autonomous electrochromic assembly in combination with a window. Embodiments described herein include an electrochromic assembly that has an electrochromic device, an energy storage device, an energy collection device, and an electrochromic controller device. These devices may be combined into a unitary electrochromic insert assembly. The electrochromic assembly may have the capability of generating power sufficient to operate and control an electrochromic device. This control may occur through the application of a voltage to an electrochromic device to change its opacity state. The electrochromic assembly may be used in combination with a window.

  13. Cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy

    PubMed Central

    McCarty, Niamh

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy often goes unrecognized. We present a case of a 22-year-old man with multiple manifestations of this disease, including weakness, dizziness, fatigue, tachycardia, abnormal QTc, and orthostasis, which occurred 2 years after his type 1 diabetes diagnosis. He exhibited parasympathetic denervation with resting tachycardia and exercise intolerance but also had evidence of orthostatic hypotension, which suggests sympathetic denervation. He did not have complete cardiovascular autonomic reflex testing, which would have been helpful, but improved with aggressive diabetes treatment and the increase of beta-blockade. It is important to identify these patients to understand their signs and symptoms and consider appropriate therapies. PMID:27034552

  14. Cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy.

    PubMed

    McCarty, Niamh; Silverman, Barry

    2016-04-01

    Cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy often goes unrecognized. We present a case of a 22-year-old man with multiple manifestations of this disease, including weakness, dizziness, fatigue, tachycardia, abnormal QTc, and orthostasis, which occurred 2 years after his type 1 diabetes diagnosis. He exhibited parasympathetic denervation with resting tachycardia and exercise intolerance but also had evidence of orthostatic hypotension, which suggests sympathetic denervation. He did not have complete cardiovascular autonomic reflex testing, which would have been helpful, but improved with aggressive diabetes treatment and the increase of beta-blockade. It is important to identify these patients to understand their signs and symptoms and consider appropriate therapies. PMID:27034552

  15. The Autonomous Helicopter System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilmore, John F.

    1984-06-01

    This paper describes an autonomous airborne vehicle being developed at the Georgia Tech Engineering Experiment Station. The Autonomous Helicopter System (AHS) is a multi-mission system consisting of three distinct sections: vision, planning and control. Vision provides the local and global scene analysis which is symbolically represented and passed to planning as the initial route planning constraints. Planning generates a task dependent path for the vehicle to traverse which assures maximum mission system success as well as safety. Control validates the path and either executes the given route or feeds back to previous sections in order to resolve conflicts.

  16. Morphologic Characterization of Nerves in Whole-Mount Airway Biopsies

    PubMed Central

    Canning, Brendan J.; Merlo-Pich, Emilio; Woodcock, Ashley A.; Smith, Jaclyn A.

    2015-01-01

    Rationale: Neuroplasticity of bronchopulmonary afferent neurons that respond to mechanical and chemical stimuli may sensitize the cough reflex. Afferent drive in cough is carried by the vagus nerve, and vagal afferent nerve terminals have been well defined in animals. Yet, both unmyelinated C fibers and particularly the morphologically distinct, myelinated, nodose-derived mechanoreceptors described in animals are poorly characterized in humans. To date there are no distinctive molecular markers or detailed morphologies available for human bronchopulmonary afferent nerves. Objectives: Morphologic and neuromolecular characterization of the afferent nerves that are potentially involved in cough in humans. Methods: A whole-mount immunofluorescence approach, rarely used in human lung tissue, was used with antibodies specific to protein gene product 9.5 (PGP9.5) and, for the first time in human lung tissue, 200-kD neurofilament subunit. Measurements and Main Results: We have developed a robust technique to visualize fibers consistent with autonomic and C fibers and pulmonary neuroendocrine cells. A group of morphologically distinct, 200-kD neurofilament-immunopositive myelinated afferent fibers, a subpopulation of which did not express PGP9.5, was also identified. Conclusions: PGP9.5-immunonegative nerves are strikingly similar to myelinated airway afferents, the cough receptor, and smooth muscle–associated airway receptors described in rodents. These have never been described in humans. Full description of human airway nerves is critical to the translation of animal studies to the clinical setting. PMID:25906337

  17. High Ulnar Nerve Injuries: Nerve Transfers to Restore Function.

    PubMed

    Patterson, Jennifer Megan M

    2016-05-01

    Peripheral nerve injuries are challenging problems. Nerve transfers are one of many options available to surgeons caring for these patients, although they do not replace tendon transfers, nerve graft, or primary repair in all patients. Distal nerve transfers for the treatment of high ulnar nerve injuries allow for a shorter reinnervation period and improved ulnar intrinsic recovery, which are critical to function of the hand. PMID:27094893

  18. Dysfunctional penile cholinergic nerves in diabetic impotent men

    SciTech Connect

    Blanco, R.; Saenz de Tejada, I.; Goldstein, I.; Krane, R.J.; Wotiz, H.H.; Cohen, R.A. )

    1990-08-01

    Impotence in the diabetic man may be secondary to a neuropathic condition of the autonomic penile nerves. The relationship between autonomic neuropathy and impotence in diabetes was studied in human corporeal tissue obtained during implantation of a penile prosthesis in 19 impotent diabetic and 15 nondiabetic patients. The functional status of penile cholinergic nerves was assessed by determining their ability to accumulate tritiated choline (34), and synthesize (34) and release (19) tritiated-acetylcholine after incubation of corporeal tissue with tritiated-choline (34). Tritiated-choline accumulation, and tritiated-acetylcholine synthesis and release were significantly reduced in the corporeal tissue from diabetic patients compared to that from nondiabetic patients (p less than 0.05). The impairment in acetylcholine synthesis worsened with the duration of diabetes (p less than 0.025). No differences in the parameters measured were found between insulin-dependent (11) and noninsulin-dependent (8) diabetic patients. The ability of the cholinergic nerves to synthesize acetylcholine could not be predicted clinically with sensory vibration perception threshold testing. It is concluded that there is a functional penile neuropathic condition of the cholinergic nerves in the corpus cavernosum of diabetic impotent patients that may be responsible for the erectile dysfunction.

  19. Ulnar nerve dysfunction

    MedlinePlus

    ... pressure on the elbow An elbow fracture or dislocation Temporary pain and tingling of this nerve can ... Saunders; 2011:chap 428. Read More Broken bone Dislocation Mononeuritis multiplex Mononeuropathy Myelin Peripheral neuropathy Systemic Update ...

  20. Diabetic Nerve Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... at the wrong times. This damage is called diabetic neuropathy. Over half of people with diabetes get ... you change positions quickly Your doctor will diagnose diabetic neuropathy with a physical exam and nerve tests. ...

  1. Ulnar nerve dysfunction

    MedlinePlus

    ... surface of the body where it crosses the elbow. The damage destroys the nerve covering ( myelin sheath) ... be caused by: Long-term pressure on the elbow An elbow fracture or dislocation Temporary pain and ...

  2. Degenerative Nerve Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    Degenerative nerve diseases affect many of your body's activities, such as balance, movement, talking, breathing, and heart function. Many of these diseases are genetic. Sometimes the cause is a medical ...

  3. Common peroneal nerve dysfunction

    MedlinePlus

    ... people: Who are very thin (for example, from anorexia nervosa ) Who have certain autoimmune conditions, such as ... Elsevier; 2013:chap 22. Read More Alertness - decreased Anorexia Broken bone Diabetes and nerve damage Mononeuritis multiplex ...

  4. Femoral nerve dysfunction

    MedlinePlus

    ... An abnormal knee reflex Smaller than normal quadriceps muscles on the front of the thigh Tests that may be done include: Electromyography ( EMG ) Nerve conduction tests ( NCV ), usually done at ...

  5. Femoral nerve dysfunction

    MedlinePlus

    Neuropathy - femoral nerve; Femoral neuropathy ... Craig EJ, Clinchot DM. Femoral neuropathy. In: Frontera WR, Silver JK, Rizzo TD Jr, eds. Essentials of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation: Musculoskeletal Disorders, Pain, and Rehabilitation . 3rd ...

  6. Diabetic Nerve Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... the wrong times. This damage is called diabetic neuropathy. Over half of people with diabetes get it. ... change positions quickly Your doctor will diagnose diabetic neuropathy with a physical exam and nerve tests. Controlling ...

  7. Schwannoma of Extraocular Nerves

    PubMed Central

    Niazi, Wasim; Boggan, James E.

    1994-01-01

    An unusual case of schwannoma arising from the third cranial nerve in a thirteen year old male is reported. The patient presented with paresis of the right oculomotor nerve and ipsilateral hemiparesis. The clinical features of this case are discussed and the pertinent medical literature reviewed. ImagesFigure 1p220-bFigure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6 PMID:17171175

  8. Learning for autonomous navigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Angelova, Anelia; Howard, Andrew; Matthies, Larry; Tang, Benyang; Turmon, Michael; Mjolsness, Eric

    2005-01-01

    Autonomous off-road navigation of robotic ground vehicles has important applications on Earth and in space exploration. Progress in this domain has been retarded by the limited lookahead range of 3-D sensors and by the difficulty of preprogramming systems to understand the traversability of the wide variety of terrain they can encounter.

  9. Developing Autonomous Learners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulcahy, Robert F.

    1991-01-01

    Defines the concept of autonomous learning. Presents the Strategies Program for Effective Learning/Thinking (SPELT), including its underlying assumptions, instructional model, teacher training procedures, research findings, and anticipated future development. Research results include implications for learning-disabled and gifted students. (KS)

  10. Autonomous data transmission apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Kotlyar, Oleg M.

    1997-01-01

    A autonomous borehole data transmission apparatus for transmitting measurement data from measuring instruments at the downhole end of a drill string by generating pressure pulses utilizing a transducer longitudinally responsive to magnetic field pulses caused by electrical pulses corresponding to the measured downhole parameters.

  11. Vestibular influences on autonomic cardiovascular control in humans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biaggioni, I.; Costa, F.; Kaufmann, H.; Robertson, D. (Principal Investigator)

    1998-01-01

    There is substantial evidence that anatomical connections exist between vestibular and autonomic nuclei. Animal studies have shown functional interactions between the vestibular and autonomic systems. The nature of these interactions, however, is complex and has not been fully defined. Vestibular stimulation has been consistently found to reduce blood pressure in animals. Given the potential interaction between vestibular and autonomic pathways this finding could be explained by a reduction in sympathetic activity. However, rather than sympathetic inhibition, vestibular stimulation has consistently been shown to increase sympathetic outflow in cardiac and splanchnic vascular beds in most experimental models. Several clinical observations suggest that a link between vestibular and autonomic systems may also exist in humans. However, direct evidence for vestibular/autonomic interactions in humans is sparse. Motion sickness has been found to induce forearm vasodilation and reduce baroreflex gain, and head down neck flexion induces transient forearm and calf vasoconstriction. On the other hand, studies using optokinetic stimulation have found either very small, variable, or inconsistent changes in heart rate and blood pressure, despite substantial symptoms of motion sickness. Furthermore, caloric stimulation severe enough to produce nystagmus, dizziness, and nausea had no effect on sympathetic nerve activity measured directly with microneurography. No effect was observed on heart rate, blood pressure, or plasma norepinephrine. Several factors may explain the apparent discordance of these results, but more research is needed before we can define the potential importance of vestibular input to cardiovascular regulation and orthostatic tolerance in humans.

  12. Vestibular influences on autonomic cardiovascular control in humans.

    PubMed

    Biaggioni, I; Costa, F; Kaufmann, H

    1998-01-01

    There is substantial evidence that anatomical connections exist between vestibular and autonomic nuclei. Animal studies have shown functional interactions between the vestibular and autonomic systems. The nature of these interactions, however, is complex and has not been fully defined. Vestibular stimulation has been consistently found to reduce blood pressure in animals. Given the potential interaction between vestibular and autonomic pathways this finding could be explained by a reduction in sympathetic activity. However, rather than sympathetic inhibition, vestibular stimulation has consistently been shown to increase sympathetic outflow in cardiac and splanchnic vascular beds in most experimental models. Several clinical observations suggest that a link between vestibular and autonomic systems may also exist in humans. However, direct evidence for vestibular/autonomic interactions in humans is sparse. Motion sickness has been found to induce forearm vasodilation and reduce baroreflex gain, and head down neck flexion induces transient forearm and calf vasoconstriction. On the other hand, studies using optokinetic stimulation have found either very small, variable, or inconsistent changes in heart rate and blood pressure, despite substantial symptoms of motion sickness. Furthermore, caloric stimulation severe enough to produce nystagmus, dizziness, and nausea had no effect on sympathetic nerve activity measured directly with microneurography. No effect was observed on heart rate, blood pressure, or plasma norepinephrine. Several factors may explain the apparent discordance of these results, but more research is needed before we can define the potential importance of vestibular input to cardiovascular regulation and orthostatic tolerance in humans. PMID:9416587

  13. Autonomic pain: features and methods of assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Gandhavadi, B.; Rosen, J.S.; Addison, R.G.

    1982-01-01

    The distribution of pain originating in the sympathetic nervous system does not match the somatic segmental sensory distribution at the postganglionic level. The two types of distribution are separate and different. At the preganglionic level, fibers show typical segmental sensory distribution, which resembles but is not identical to somatic segmental sensory distribution. Instead, sympathetic pain has its own distribution along the vascular supply and some peripheral nerves. It cannot be called atypical in terms of somatic segmental sensory distribution. Several techniques are available to assess autonomic function in cases of chronic pain. Infrared thermography is superior to any other physiologic or pharmacologic method to assess sympathetic function. Overactivity of sympathetic function in the area of pain is the probable cause of temperature reduction in that area. Accordingly it would appear that in cases in which thermography demonstrates decreased temperature, sympathetic block or sympathectomy would provide relief from the pain.

  14. Sural nerve defects after nerve biopsy or nerve transfer as a sensory regeneration model for peripheral nerve conduit implantation.

    PubMed

    Radtke, C; Kocsis, J D; Reimers, K; Allmeling, C; Vogt, P M

    2013-09-01

    Nerve repair after injury can be effectively accomplished by direct suture approximation of the proximal and distal segments. This is more successful if coadaptation can be achieved without tension. Currently, the gold standard repair of larger deficits is the transplantation of an autologous sensory sural nerve graft. However, a significant disadvantage of this technique is the inevitable donor morbidity (sensory loss, neuroma and scar formation) after harvesting of the sural nerve. Moreover, limitation of autologous donor nerve length and fixed diameter of the available sural nerve are major drawbacks of current autograft treatment. Another approach that was introduced for nerve repair is the implantation of alloplastic nerve tubes made of, for example, poly-L-lactide. In these, nerve stumps of the transected nerves are surgically bridged using the biosynthetic conduit. A number of experimental studies, primarily in rodents, indicate axonal regeneration and remyelination after implantation of various conduits. However, only limited clinical studies with conduit implantation have been performed in acute peripheral nerve injuries particularly on digital nerves. Clinical transfer of animal studies, which can be carefully calibrated for site and extent of injury, to humans is difficult to interpret due to the intrinsic variability in human nerve injuries. This prevents effective quantification of improvement and induces bias in the study. Therefore, standardization of lesion/repair in human studies is warranted. Here we propose to use sural nerve defects, induced due to nerve graft harvesting or from diagnostic nerve biopsies as a model site to enable standardization of nerve conduit implantation. This would help better with the characterization of the implants and its effectiveness in axonal regeneration and remyelination. Nerve regeneration can be assessed, for example, by recovery of sensation, measured non-invasively by threshold to von Frey filaments and cold

  15. Software Architecture for Autonomous Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shih, Jimmy S.

    1997-01-01

    The thesis objective is to design an autonomous spacecraft architecture to perform both deliberative and reactive behaviors. The Autonomous Small Planet In-Situ Reaction to Events (ASPIRE) project uses the architecture to integrate several autonomous technologies for a comet orbiter mission.

  16. Glucagon Release Induced by Pancreatic Nerve Stimulation in the Dog

    PubMed Central

    Marliss, Errol B.; Girardier, Lucien; Seydoux, Josiane; Wollheim, Claes B.; Kanazawa, Yasunori; Orci, Lelio; Renold, Albert E.; Porte, Daniel

    1973-01-01

    A direct neural role in the regulation of immunoreactive glucagon (IRG) secretion has been investigated during stimulation of mixed autonomic nerves to the pancreas in anesthetized dogs. The responses were evaluated by measurement of blood flow and hormone concentration in the venous effluent from the stimulated region of pancreas. Electrical stimulation of the distal end of the discrete bundles of nerve fibers isolated along the superior pancreaticoduodenal artery was invariably followed by an increase in IRG output. With 10-min periods of nerve stimulation, the integrated response showed that the higher the control glucagon output, the greater was the increment. Atropinization did not influence the response to stimulation. That the preparation behaved in physiologic fashion was confirmed by a fall in IRG output, and a rise in immunoreactive insulin (IRI) output, during hyperglycemia induced by intravenous glucose (0.1 g/kg). The kinetics of this glucose effect on IRG showed characteristics opposite to those of nerve stimulation: the lower the control output, the less the decrement. Furthermore, during the control steady state, blood glucose concentration was tightly correlated with the IRI/IRG molar output ratio, the function relating the two parameters being markedly nonlinear. Injection or primed infusion of glucose diminished the IRG response to simultaneous nerve stimulation. Measurement of IRG was inferred to reflect response of pancreatic glucagon secretion on the basis of the site of sample collection (the superior pancreaticoduodenal vein), the absence of changes in arterial IRG, and similar responses being obtained using an antibody specific for pancreatic glucagon. These studies support a role for the autonomic nervous system in the control of glucagon secretion: direct nerve stimulation induces glucagon release. Such sympathetic activation may be interpreted as capable of shifting the sensitivity of the A cell to glucose in the direction of higher

  17. Formax Preserved Birds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheridan, Philip

    1978-01-01

    A quick, simple method for preserving bird specimens using borax and a formalin solution is described. Procedures for injecting and mounting the specimens are given along with certain restrictions on preserving specimens. (MA)

  18. Facial Nerve Outcome after Vestibular Schwannoma Surgery: Our Experience*

    PubMed Central

    Rinaldi, Vittorio; Casale, Manuele; Bressi, Federica; Potena, Massimiliano; Vesperini, Emanuela; De Franco, Antonio; Silvestri, Sergio; Zini, Carlo; Salvinelli, Fabrizio

    2012-01-01

    In this study we evaluate the postoperative facial nerve function after vestibular schwannoma (VS) surgery and analyze the factors that cause it. We included 97 consecutive patients undergoing surgical excision of sporadic unilateral VS. Patient and tumor characteristics, surgical approaches, facial nerve function, extent of tumor removal, perioperative complications are all analyzed through standardized systems. Four different surgical approaches are used: translabyrinthine, retrolabyrinthine, retrosigmoid, and middle cranial fossa. Anatomic preservation of the facial nerve is achieved in 97% of patients. The incidence of postoperative facial palsy is found to be statistically correlated to tumor size, but not to the surgical approach used and to extent of tumor penetration in the internal auditory canal. A significant improvement of the short-term facial nerve outcome is detected in patients undergone simultaneous intraoperative electromyography (EMG) and pneumatic facial nerve monitoring. Complete tumor excision is achieved in 94% of cases. Complication rates are excellent and no deaths are reported. Short- and long-term facial nerve outcome is good and comparable with those of other series reported in literature. In VS surgery both EMG and pneumatic facial nerve monitors should be simultaneously used. Further investigations are desirable to improve the facial outcome respecting the oncological radicality. PMID:23372991

  19. Influence of cigarette smoking on human autonomic function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Niedermaier, O. N.; Smith, M. L.; Beightol, L. A.; Zukowska-Grojec, Z.; Goldstein, D. S.; Eckberg, D. L.

    1993-01-01

    BACKGROUND. Although cigarette smoking is known to lead to widespread augmentation of sympathetic nervous system activity, little is known about the effects of smoking on directly measured human sympathetic activity and its reflex control. METHODS AND RESULTS. We studied the acute effects of smoking two research-grade cigarettes on muscle sympathetic nerve activity and on arterial baroreflex-mediated changes of sympathetic and vagal neural cardiovascular outflows in eight healthy habitual smokers. Measurements were made during frequency-controlled breathing, graded Valsalva maneuvers, and carotid baroreceptor stimulation with ramped sequences of neck pressure and suction. Smoking provoked the following changes: Arterial pressure increased significantly, and RR intervals, RR interval spectral power at the respiratory frequency, and muscle sympathetic nerve activity decreased. Plasma nicotine levels increased significantly, but plasma epinephrine, norepinephrine, and neuropeptide Y levels did not change. Peak sympathetic nerve activity during and systolic pressure overshoots after Valsalva straining increased significantly in proportion to increases of plasma nicotine levels. The average carotid baroreceptor-cardiac reflex relation shifted rightward and downward on arterial pressure and RR interval axes; average gain, operational point, and response range did not change. CONCLUSIONS. In habitual smokers, smoking acutely reduces baseline levels of vagal-cardiac nerve activity and completely resets vagally mediated arterial baroreceptor-cardiac reflex responses. Smoking also reduces muscle sympathetic nerve activity but augments increases of sympathetic activity triggered by brief arterial pressure reductions. This pattern of autonomic changes is likely to influence smokers' responses to acute arterial pressure reductions importantly.

  20. Ultrasound in Dual Nerve Impairment after Proximal Radial Nerve Lesion

    PubMed Central

    Lämmer, Alexandra B; Schwab, Stefan; Schramm, Axel

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Sonography in classical nerve entrapment syndromes is an established and validated method. In contrast, few publications highlight lesions of the radial nerve, particularly of the posterior interosseus nerve (PIN). Method Five patients with a radial nerve lesion were investigated by electromyography, nerve conduction velocity and ultrasound. Further normative values of 26 healthy subjects were evaluated. Results Four patients presented a clinical and electrophysiological proximal axonal radial nerve lesion and one patient showed a typical posterior interosseous nerve syndrome (PINS). The patient with PINS presented an enlargement of the PIN anterior to the supinator muscle. However four patients with proximal lesions showed an unexpected significant enlargement of the PIN within the supinator muscle. Conclusion High-resolution sonography is a feasible method to demonstrate the radial nerve including its distal branches. At least in axonal radial nerve lesions, sonography might reveal abnormalities far distant from a primary proximal lesion site clearly distinct from the appearance in classical PINS. PMID:25992766

  1. [Biophysics of nerve excitation].

    PubMed

    Kol'e, O R; Maksimov, G V

    2010-01-01

    The studies testifying to the presence of the interrelation between the physiological functions of the organism and physical and chemical processes in nerves are discussed. Changes in some physical and chemical parameters observed both upon elicited rhythmic exaltation of nerves and during the spontaneous rhythmic activity of neurons are analyzed. Upon rhythmic exaltation, a complex of physical and chemical processes is triggered, and reversible structural and metabolic rearrangements at the subcellular and molecular levels occur that do not take place during the generation of a single action potential. Thus, only in conditions of rhythmic exaltation of a nerve, it is possible to reveal those processes that provide exaltation of nerves in the organism. The future possibilities of the investigations combining the biophysical and physiological approaches are substantiated. Characteristic changes in physicochemical parameters are observed in nerves during the generation of a series of action potentials of different frequency and duration ("frequency dependence") under normal physiological conditions, as well as in extreme situations and in nerve pathology. The structural and metabolic rearrangements are directly related to the mode of rhythmic exaltation and proceed both in the course of rhythmic exaltation and after its termination. Participation and the basic components of the nervous fulcrum (an axon, Shwan cell, myelin, subcellular organelles) in the realization of rhythmic exaltation is shown. In the coordination of all processes involved in rhythmic exaltation, the main role is played by the systems of redistribution and transport of intercellular and endocellular calcium. The idea is put forward that myelin of nerve fibers is not only an isolator, but also an "intercellular depot" of calcium and participates in the redistribution of different ions. Thus, the rhythmic excitation is of great importance in the realization of some physiological functions, the

  2. Respiratory modulation of human autonomic rhythms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Badra, L. J.; Cooke, W. H.; Hoag, J. B.; Crossman, A. A.; Kuusela, T. A.; Tahvanainen, K. U.; Eckberg, D. L.

    2001-01-01

    We studied the influence of three types of breathing [spontaneous, frequency controlled (0.25 Hz), and hyperventilation with 100% oxygen] and apnea on R-R interval, photoplethysmographic arterial pressure, and muscle sympathetic rhythms in nine healthy young adults. We integrated fast Fourier transform power spectra over low (0.05-0.15 Hz) and respiratory (0.15-0.3 Hz) frequencies; estimated vagal baroreceptor-cardiac reflex gain at low frequencies with cross-spectral techniques; and used partial coherence analysis to remove the influence of breathing from the R-R interval, systolic pressure, and muscle sympathetic nerve spectra. Coherence among signals varied as functions of both frequency and time. Partialization abolished the coherence among these signals at respiratory but not at low frequencies. The mode of breathing did not influence low-frequency oscillations, and they persisted during apnea. Our study documents the independence of low-frequency rhythms from respiratory activity and suggests that the close correlations that may exist among arterial pressures, R-R intervals, and muscle sympathetic nerve activity at respiratory frequencies result from the influence of respiration on these measures rather than from arterial baroreflex physiology. Most importantly, our results indicate that correlations among autonomic and hemodynamic rhythms vary over time and frequency, and, thus, are facultative rather than fixed.

  3. Injection nerve palsy

    PubMed Central

    Kakati, Arindhom; Bhat, Dhananjaya; Devi, Bhagavathula Indira; Shukla, Dhaval

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To study the clinical profile and outcome of surgery for injection nerve palsies. Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective study of patients with INP who were treated at our institute during May 2000 to May 2009. Clinical, electroneuromyography (ENMG), and operative findings were noted. Intraoperative nerve action potential monitoring was not used in any case. Outcome of patients who were followed was reviewed. Results: INP comprised 92 (11%) of 837 nerve injury patients. Seventy one patients were children less than 16 years. The nerves involved were sciatic in 80 patients, radial in 8, and others in four. Fifty seven patients had power, grade 0/5. ENMG studies revealed absent compound muscle action potential in 64 and absent sensory nerve action potential in 67 patients. Thirty nine (42.3%) of 92 patients underwent surgery. The mean duration since injury in these patients was 5.2 months (3 months to 11 months). All underwent neurolysis. Only 18 patients who underwent surgery had a follow up of more than 3 months. Ten (55.5%) patients had good or fair outcome after surgery. Except for grade of motor deficit prior to surgery, none of the variables were found to significantly affect the outcome. Conclusion: The outcome of INP is generally good and many patients recover spontaneously. The outcome of surgery is dependent on preoperative motor power. PMID:23546341

  4. Autonomous power expert system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walters, Jerry L.; Petrik, Edward J.; Roth, Mary Ellen; Truong, Long Van; Quinn, Todd; Krawczonek, Walter M.

    1990-01-01

    The Autonomous Power Expert (APEX) system was designed to monitor and diagnose fault conditions that occur within the Space Station Freedom Electrical Power System (SSF/EPS) Testbed. APEX is designed to interface with SSF/EPS testbed power management controllers to provide enhanced autonomous operation and control capability. The APEX architecture consists of three components: (1) a rule-based expert system, (2) a testbed data acquisition interface, and (3) a power scheduler interface. Fault detection, fault isolation, justification of probable causes, recommended actions, and incipient fault analysis are the main functions of the expert system component. The data acquisition component requests and receives pertinent parametric values from the EPS testbed and asserts the values into a knowledge base. Power load profile information is obtained from a remote scheduler through the power scheduler interface component. The current APEX design and development work is discussed. Operation and use of APEX by way of the user interface screens is also covered.

  5. Mobile Autonomous Humanoid Assistant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diftler, M. A.; Ambrose, R. O.; Tyree, K. S.; Goza, S. M.; Huber, E. L.

    2004-01-01

    A mobile autonomous humanoid robot is assisting human co-workers at the Johnson Space Center with tool handling tasks. This robot combines the upper body of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)/Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) Robonaut system with a Segway(TradeMark) Robotic Mobility Platform yielding a dexterous, maneuverable humanoid perfect for aiding human co-workers in a range of environments. This system uses stereo vision to locate human team mates and tools and a navigation system that uses laser range and vision data to follow humans while avoiding obstacles. Tactile sensors provide information to grasping algorithms for efficient tool exchanges. The autonomous architecture utilizes these pre-programmed skills to form human assistant behaviors. The initial behavior demonstrates a robust capability to assist a human by acquiring a tool from a remotely located individual and then following the human in a cluttered environment with the tool for future use.

  6. Barriers of the peripheral nerve

    PubMed Central

    Peltonen, Sirkku; Alanne, Maria; Peltonen, Juha

    2013-01-01

    This review introduces the traditionally defined anatomic compartments of the peripheral nerves based on light and electron microscopic topography and then explores the cellular and the most recent molecular basis of the different barrier functions operative in peripheral nerves. We also elucidate where, and how, the homeostasis of the normal human peripheral nerve is controlled in situ and how claudin-containing tight junctions contribute to the barriers of peripheral nerve. Also, the human timeline of the development of the barriers of the peripheral nerve is depicted. Finally, potential future therapeutic modalities interfering with the barriers of the peripheral nerve are discussed. PMID:24665400

  7. Nature's Autonomous Oscillators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mayr, H. G.; Yee, J.-H.; Mayr, M.; Schnetzler, R.

    2012-01-01

    Nonlinearity is required to produce autonomous oscillations without external time dependent source, and an example is the pendulum clock. The escapement mechanism of the clock imparts an impulse for each swing direction, which keeps the pendulum oscillating at the resonance frequency. Among nature's observed autonomous oscillators, examples are the quasi-biennial oscillation and bimonthly oscillation of the Earth atmosphere, and the 22-year solar oscillation. The oscillations have been simulated in numerical models without external time dependent source, and in Section 2 we summarize the results. Specifically, we shall discuss the nonlinearities that are involved in generating the oscillations, and the processes that produce the periodicities. In biology, insects have flight muscles, which function autonomously with wing frequencies that far exceed the animals' neural capacity; Stretch-activation of muscle contraction is the mechanism that produces the high frequency oscillation of insect flight, discussed in Section 3. The same mechanism is also invoked to explain the functioning of the cardiac muscle. In Section 4, we present a tutorial review of the cardio-vascular system, heart anatomy, and muscle cell physiology, leading up to Starling's Law of the Heart, which supports our notion that the human heart is also a nonlinear oscillator. In Section 5, we offer a broad perspective of the tenuous links between the fluid dynamical oscillators and the human heart physiology.

  8. Autonomous power expert system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ringer, Mark J.; Quinn, Todd M.

    1990-01-01

    The goal of the Autonomous Power System (APS) program is to develop and apply intelligent problem solving and control technologies to the Space Station Freedom Electrical Power Systems (SSF/EPS). The objectives of the program are to establish artificial intelligence/expert system technology paths, to create knowledge based tools with advanced human-operator interfaces, and to integrate and interface knowledge-based and conventional control schemes. This program is being developed at the NASA-Lewis. The APS Brassboard represents a subset of a 20 KHz Space Station Power Management And Distribution (PMAD) testbed. A distributed control scheme is used to manage multiple levels of computers and switchgear. The brassboard is comprised of a set of intelligent switchgear used to effectively switch power from the sources to the loads. The Autonomous Power Expert System (APEX) portion of the APS program integrates a knowledge based fault diagnostic system, a power resource scheduler, and an interface to the APS Brassboard. The system includes knowledge bases for system diagnostics, fault detection and isolation, and recommended actions. The scheduler autonomously assigns start times to the attached loads based on temporal and power constraints. The scheduler is able to work in a near real time environment for both scheduling and dynamic replanning.

  9. Autonomous power expert system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ringer, Mark J.; Quinn, Todd M.

    1990-01-01

    The goal of the Autonomous Power System (APS) program is to develop and apply intelligent problem solving and control technologies to the Space Station Freedom Electrical Power Systems (SSF/EPS). The objectives of the program are to establish artificial intelligence/expert system technology paths, to create knowledge based tools with advanced human-operator interfaces, and to integrate and interface knowledge-based and conventional control schemes. This program is being developed at the NASA-Lewis. The APS Brassboard represents a subset of a 20 KHz Space Station Power Management And Distribution (PMAD) testbed. A distributed control scheme is used to manage multiple levels of computers and switchgear. The brassboard is comprised of a set of intelligent switchgear used to effectively switch power from the sources to the loads. The Autonomous Power Expert System (APEX) portion of the APS program integrates a knowledge based fault diagnostic system, a power resource scheduler, and an interface to the APS Brassboard. The system includes knowledge bases for system diagnostics, fault detection and isolation, and recommended actions. The scheduler autonomously assigns start times to the attached loads based on temporal and power constraints. The scheduler is able to work in a near real time environment for both scheduling an dynamic replanning.

  10. Trigeminal autonomic cephalalgias.

    PubMed

    Eller, M; Goadsby, P J

    2016-01-01

    The trigeminal autonomic cephalalgias (TACs) are a group of primary headache disorders characterised by lateralized symptoms: prominent headache and ipsilateral cranial autonomic features, such as conjunctival injection, lacrimation and rhinorrhea. The TACs are: cluster headache (CH), paroxysmal hemicrania (PH), short-lasting unilateral neuralgiform headache attacks with conjunctival injection and tearing (SUNCT)/short-lasting neuralgiform headache attacks with cranial autonomic features (SUNA) and hemicrania continua (HC). Their diagnostic criteria are outlined in the International Classification of Headache Disorders, third edition-beta (ICHD-IIIb). These conditions are distinguished by their attack duration and frequency, as well as response to treatment. HC is continuous and by definition responsive to indomethacin. The main differential when considering this headache is chronic migraine. Other TACs are remarkable for their short duration and must be distinguished from other short-lasting painful conditions, such as trigeminal neuralgia and primary stabbing headache. Cluster headache is characterised by exquisitely painful attacks that occur in discrete episodes lasting 15-180 min a few times a day. In comparison, PH occurs more frequently and is of shorter duration, and like HC is responsive to indomethacin. SUNCT/SUNA is the shortest duration and highest frequency TAC; attacks can occur over a hundred times every day. PMID:24888770

  11. Patterning of sympathetic nerve activity in response to vestibular stimulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerman, I. A.; McAllen, R. M.; Yates, B. J.

    2000-01-01

    Growing evidence suggests a role for the vestibular system in regulation of autonomic outflow during postural adjustments. In the present paper we review evidence for the patterning of sympathetic nerve activity elicited by vestibular stimulation. In response to electrical activation of vestibular afferents, firing of sympathetic nerves located throughout the body is altered. However, activity of the renal nerve is most sensitive to vestibular inputs. In contrast, high-intensity simultaneous activation of cutaneous and muscle inputs elicits equivalent changes in firing of the renal, superior mesenteric and lumbar colonic nerves. Responses of muscle vasoconstrictor (MVC) efferents to vestibular stimulation are either inhibitory (Type I) or are comprised of a combination of excitation and inhibition (Type II). Interestingly, single MVC units located in the hindlimb exhibited predominantly Type I responses while those located in the forelimb and face exhibited Type II responses. Furthermore, brachial and femoral arterial blood flows were dissociated in response to vestibular stimulation, such that brachial vascular resistance increased while femoral resistance decreased. These studies demonstrate that vestibulosympathetic reflexes are patterned according to both the anatomical location and innervation target of a particular sympathetic nerve, and can lead to distinct changes in local blood flow.

  12. Fibrolipomatous hamartoma of the inferior calcaneal nerve (Baxter nerve).

    PubMed

    Zeng, Rong; Frederick-Dyer, Katherine; Ferguson, N Lynn; Lewis, James; Fu, Yitong

    2012-09-01

    Fibrolipomatous hamartoma (FLH) is a rare, benign lesion of the peripheral nerves most frequently involving the median nerve and its digital branches (80 %). Pathognomonic MR features of FLH such as coaxial-cable-like appearance on axial planes and a spaghetti-like appearance on coronal planes have been described by Marom and Helms, obviating the need for diagnostic biopsy. We present a case of fibrolipomatous hamartoma of the inferior calcaneal nerve (Baxter nerve) with associated subcutaneous fat proliferation. PMID:22526881

  13. Vagal and sympathetic nerve activities influenced by posterior cerebral circulation in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, K; Kubo, T; Matsunaga, T

    1993-01-01

    Vagal and sympathetic nervous activities in the rabbit were recorded while vertebral blood flow was partially blocked by the injection of adenosine 5'-diphosphate (ADP; platelet aggregator). When a small dose of ADP (0.2 mg/kg) was administered into a unilateral vertebral artery, sympathetic nerve (SN) activity increased, and its magnitude was inversely correlated with the extent of the decrease in blood pressure (BP). A larger dose (2 mg/kg) of ADP suppressed SN activity on the injected side, whereas the change was small on the non-injected side. Vagal nerve (VN) activity showed a monophasic excitatory response on both sides, although the change was larger on the injected than on the non-injected side. As a result, asymmetry in autonomic nerve activity was more distinct in SN than in VN. The present study demonstrated that asymmetry of autonomic nervous function can result from changes in blood flow in the cerebellum and brainstem. PMID:8256597

  14. What Are Nerve Blocks for Headache?

    MedlinePlus

    ... nerve blocks for headache? Print Email What are nerve blocks for headache? ACHE Newsletter Sign up for ... entering your e-mail address below. What are nerve blocks for headache? A nerve block is the ...

  15. [Preservatives in ophthalmology].

    PubMed

    Messmer, E M

    2012-11-01

    Preservatives are a legal requirement for eye drops in multidose containers. Moreover, they are necessary for stabilization and intraocular penetration for a number of ophthalmic preparations. Most preservatives act in a relatively unspecific manner as detergents or by oxidative mechanisms and thereby cause side effects at the ocular surface. They may also affect the lens, trabecular meshwork and the retina. Benzalkonium chloride is the most commonly used preservative in ophthalmology and is more toxic than other or newer preservatives, such as polyquaternium-1 (Polyquad), sodium perborate, oxychloro-complex (Purite®) and SofZia. Preservative-free topical medication is highly recommended for patients with ocular surface disease, frequent eye drop administration, proven allergy to preservatives and contact lens wear. PMID:23179809

  16. Optic nerve hypoplasia in children.

    PubMed Central

    Zeki, S. M.; Dutton, G. N.

    1990-01-01

    Optic nerve hypoplasia (ONH) is characterised by a diminished number of optic nerve fibres in the optic nerve(s) and until recently was thought to be rare. It may be associated with a wide range of other congenital abnormalities. Its pathology, clinical features, and the conditions associated with it are reviewed. Neuroendocrine disorders should be actively sought in any infant or child with bilateral ONH. Early recognition of the disorder may in some cases be life saving. Images PMID:2191713

  17. Differential responses of components of the autonomic nervous system.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, David S

    2013-01-01

    This chapter conveys several concepts and points of view about the scientific and medical significance of differential alterations in activities of components of the autonomic nervous system in stress and disease. The use of terms such as "the autonomic nervous system," "autonomic failure," "dysautonomia," and "autonomic dysfunction" imply the existence of a single entity; however, the autonomic nervous system has functionally and neurochemically distinctive components, which are reflected in differential responses to stressors and differential involvement in pathophysiologic states. One can conceptualize the autonomic nervous system as having at least five components: the sympathetic noradrenergic system, the sympathetic cholinergic system, the parasympathetic cholinergic system, the sympathetic adrenergic system, and the enteric nervous system. Evidence has accumulated for differential noradrenergic vs. adrenergic responses in various situations. The largest sympathetic adrenergic system responses are seen when the organism encounters stressors that pose a global or metabolic threat. Sympathetic noradrenergic system activation dominates the responses to orthostasis, moderate exercise, and exposure to cold, whereas sympathetic adrenergic system activation dominates those to glucoprivation and emotional distress. There seems to be at least as good a justification for the concept of coordinated adrenocortical-adrenomedullary responses as for coordinated adrenomedullary-sympathoneural responses in stress. Fainting reactions involve differential adrenomedullary hormonal vs. sympathetic noradrenergic activation. Parkinson disease entails relatively selective dysfunction of the sympathetic noradrenergic system, with prominent loss of noradrenergic nerves in the heart, yet normal adrenomedullary function. Allostatic load links stress with degenerative diseases, and Parkinson disease may be a disease of the elderly because of allostatic load. PMID:24095112

  18. Ischemic Nerve Block.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Ian D.

    This experiment investigated the capability for movement and muscle spindle function at successive stages during the development of ischemic nerve block (INB) by pressure cuff. Two male subjects were observed under six randomly ordered conditions. The duration of index finger oscillation to exhaustion, paced at 1.2Hz., was observed on separate…

  19. Optic Nerve Drusen

    MedlinePlus

    ... the drusen enlarge and the overlying tissue (nerve fiber layer) thins with age, the disc drusen become more apparent. How are optic disc drusen treated? There is no treatment for drusen. In the rare cases (with choroidal neovascularization) laser treatment may be indicated. Revised March 2016 Eye ...

  20. Optic Nerve Atrophy

    MedlinePlus

    ... with the occipital lobe (the part of the brain that interprets vision) like a cable wire. What is optic nerve ... nystagmus. In older patients, peripheral vision and color vision assessment ... around the brain and spinal cord (hydrocephalus) may prevent further optic ...

  1. Autonomic neural control of heart rate during dynamic exercise: revisited

    PubMed Central

    White, Daniel W; Raven, Peter B

    2014-01-01

    The accepted model of autonomic control of heart rate (HR) during dynamic exercise indicates that the initial increase is entirely attributable to the withdrawal of parasympathetic nervous system (PSNS) activity and that subsequent increases in HR are entirely attributable to increases in cardiac sympathetic activity. In the present review, we sought to re-evaluate the model of autonomic neural control of HR in humans during progressive increases in dynamic exercise workload. We analysed data from both new and previously published studies involving baroreflex stimulation and pharmacological blockade of the autonomic nervous system. Results indicate that the PSNS remains functionally active throughout exercise and that increases in HR from rest to maximal exercise result from an increasing workload-related transition from a 4 : 1 vagal–sympathetic balance to a 4 : 1 sympatho–vagal balance. Furthermore, the beat-to-beat autonomic reflex control of HR was found to be dependent on the ability of the PSNS to modulate the HR as it was progressively restrained by increasing workload-related sympathetic nerve activity. In conclusion: (i) increases in exercise workload-related HR are not caused by a total withdrawal of the PSNS followed by an increase in sympathetic tone; (ii) reciprocal antagonism is key to the transition from vagal to sympathetic dominance, and (iii) resetting of the arterial baroreflex causes immediate exercise-onset reflexive increases in HR, which are parasympathetically mediated, followed by slower increases in sympathetic tone as workloads are increased. PMID:24756637

  2. Autonomous Space Shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siders, Jeffrey A.; Smith, Robert H.

    2004-01-01

    The continued assembly and operation of the International Space Station (ISS) is the cornerstone within NASA's overall Strategic P an. As indicated in NASA's Integrated Space Transportation Plan (ISTP), the International Space Station requires Shuttle to fly through at least the middle of the next decade to complete assembly of the Station, provide crew transport, and to provide heavy lift up and down mass capability. The ISTP reflects a tight coupling among the Station, Shuttle, and OSP programs to support our Nation's space goal . While the Shuttle is a critical component of this ISTP, there is a new emphasis for the need to achieve greater efficiency and safety in transporting crews to and from the Space Station. This need is being addressed through the Orbital Space Plane (OSP) Program. However, the OSP is being designed to "complement" the Shuttle as the primary means for crew transfer, and will not replace all the Shuttle's capabilities. The unique heavy lift capabilities of the Space Shuttle is essential for both ISS, as well as other potential missions extending beyond low Earth orbit. One concept under discussion to better fulfill this role of a heavy lift carrier, is the transformation of the Shuttle to an "un-piloted" autonomous system. This concept would eliminate the loss of crew risk, while providing a substantial increase in payload to orbit capability. Using the guidelines reflected in the NASA ISTP, the autonomous Shuttle a simplified concept of operations can be described as; "a re-supply of cargo to the ISS through the use of an un-piloted Shuttle vehicle from launch through landing". Although this is the primary mission profile, the other major consideration in developing an autonomous Shuttle is maintaining a crew transportation capability to ISS as an assured human access to space capability.

  3. Collaborating with Autonomous Agents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trujillo, Anna C.; Cross, Charles D.; Fan, Henry; Hempley, Lucas E.; Motter, Mark A.; Neilan, James H.; Qualls, Garry D.; Rothhaar, Paul M.; Tran, Loc D.; Allen, B. Danette

    2015-01-01

    With the anticipated increase of small unmanned aircraft systems (sUAS) entering into the National Airspace System, it is highly likely that vehicle operators will be teaming with fleets of small autonomous vehicles. The small vehicles may consist of sUAS, which are 55 pounds or less that typically will y at altitudes 400 feet and below, and small ground vehicles typically operating in buildings or defined small campuses. Typically, the vehicle operators are not concerned with manual control of the vehicle; instead they are concerned with the overall mission. In order for this vision of high-level mission operators working with fleets of vehicles to come to fruition, many human factors related challenges must be investigated and solved. First, the interface between the human operator and the autonomous agent must be at a level that the operator needs and the agents can understand. This paper details the natural language human factors e orts that NASA Langley's Autonomy Incubator is focusing on. In particular these e orts focus on allowing the operator to interact with the system using speech and gestures rather than a mouse and keyboard. With this ability of the system to understand both speech and gestures, operators not familiar with the vehicle dynamics will be able to easily plan, initiate, and change missions using a language familiar to them rather than having to learn and converse in the vehicle's language. This will foster better teaming between the operator and the autonomous agent which will help lower workload, increase situation awareness, and improve performance of the system as a whole.

  4. Temperature-controlled optical stimulation of the rat prostate cavernous nerves.

    PubMed

    Tozburun, Serhat; Hutchens, Thomas C; McClain, Michael A; Lagoda, Gwen A; Burnett, Arthur L; Fried, Nathaniel M

    2013-06-01

    Optical nerve stimulation (ONS) may be useful as a diagnostic tool for intraoperative identification and preservation of the prostate cavernous nerves (CN), responsible for erectile function, during prostate cancer surgery. Successful ONS requires elevating the nerve temperature to within a narrow range (~42 to 47°C) for nerve activation without thermal damage to the nerve. This preliminary study explores a prototype temperature-controlled optical nerve stimulation (TC-ONS) system for maintaining a constant (±1°C) nerve temperature during short-term ONS of the rat prostate CNs. A 150-mW, 1455-nm diode laser was operated in continuous-wave mode, with and without temperature control, during stimulation of the rat CNs for 15 to 30 s through a fiber optic probe with a 1-mm-diameter spot. A microcontroller opened and closed an in-line mechanical shutter in response to an infrared sensor, with a predetermined temperature set point. With TC-ONS, higher laser power settings were used to rapidly and safely elevate the CNs to a temperature necessary for a fast intracavernous pressure response, while also preventing excessive temperatures that would otherwise cause thermal damage to the nerve. With further development, TC-ONS may provide a rapid, stable, and safe method for intraoperative identification and preservation of the prostate CNs. PMID:23733025

  5. C2 nerve dysfunction associated with C1 lateral mass screw fixation.

    PubMed

    Huang, Da-geng; Hao, Ding-jun; Li, Guang-lin; Guo, Hao; Zhang, Yu-chen; He, Bao-rong

    2014-11-01

    The C1 lateral mass screw technique is widely used for atlantoaxial fixation. However, C2 nerve dysfunction may occur as a complication of this procedure, compromising the quality of life of affected patients. This is a review of the topic of C2 nerve dysfunction associated with C1 lateral mass screw fixation and related research developments. The C2 nerve root is located in the space bordered superiorly by the posterior arch of C1 , inferiorly by the C2 lamina, anteriorly by the lateral atlantoaxial joint capsule, and posteriorly by the anterior edge of the ligamentum flavum. Some surgeons suggest cutting the C2 nerve root during C1 lateral mass screw placement, whereas others prefer to preserve it. The incidence, clinical manifestations, causes, management, and prevention of C2 nerve dysfunction associated with C(1) lateral mass screw fixation are reviewed. Sacrifice of the C2 nerve root carries a high risk of postoperative numbness, whereas postoperative nerve dysfunction can occur when it has been preserved. Many surgeons have been working hard on minimizing the risk of postoperative C2 nerve dysfunction associated with C1 lateral mass screw fixation. PMID:25430709

  6. Temperature-controlled optical stimulation of the rat prostate cavernous nerves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tozburun, Serhat; Hutchens, Thomas C.; McClain, Michael A.; Lagoda, Gwen A.; Burnett, Arthur L.; Fried, Nathaniel M.

    2013-06-01

    Optical nerve stimulation (ONS) may be useful as a diagnostic tool for intraoperative identification and preservation of the prostate cavernous nerves (CN), responsible for erectile function, during prostate cancer surgery. Successful ONS requires elevating the nerve temperature to within a narrow range (˜42 to 47°C) for nerve activation without thermal damage to the nerve. This preliminary study explores a prototype temperature-controlled optical nerve stimulation (TC-ONS) system for maintaining a constant (±1°C) nerve temperature during short-term ONS of the rat prostate CNs. A 150-mW, 1455-nm diode laser was operated in continuous-wave mode, with and without temperature control, during stimulation of the rat CNs for 15 to 30 s through a fiber optic probe with a 1-mm-diameter spot. A microcontroller opened and closed an in-line mechanical shutter in response to an infrared sensor, with a predetermined temperature set point. With TC-ONS, higher laser power settings were used to rapidly and safely elevate the CNs to a temperature necessary for a fast intracavernous pressure response, while also preventing excessive temperatures that would otherwise cause thermal damage to the nerve. With further development, TC-ONS may provide a rapid, stable, and safe method for intraoperative identification and preservation of the prostate CNs.

  7. Role of the autonomic nervous system in tumorigenesis and metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Magnon, Claire

    2015-01-01

    Convergence of multiple stromal cell types is required to develop a tumorigenic niche that nurtures the initial development of cancer and its dissemination. Although the immune and vascular systems have been shown to have strong influences on cancer, a growing body of evidence points to a role of the nervous system in promoting cancer development. This review discusses past and current research that shows the intriguing role of autonomic nerves, aided by neurotrophic growth factors and axon cues, in creating a favorable environment for the promotion of tumor formation and metastasis.

  8. Interactions between developing nerves and salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, João N; Hoffman, Matthew P

    2013-01-01

    Our aim is to provide a summary of the field of salivary gland development and regeneration from the perspective of what is known about the function of nerves during these processes. The primary function of adult salivary glands is to produce and secrete saliva. Neuronal control of adult salivary gland function has been a focus of research ever since Pavlov's seminal experiments on salivation in dogs. Less is known about salivary gland innervation during development and how the developing nerves influence gland organogenesis and regeneration. Here, we will review what is known about the communication between the autonomic nervous system and the epithelium of the salivary glands during organogenesis. An important emerging theme is the instructive role of the nervous system on the epithelial stem/progenitor cells during development as well as regeneration after damage. We will provide a brief overview of the neuroanatomy of the salivary glands and discuss recent literature that begins to integrate neurobiology with epithelial organogenesis, which may provide paradigms for exploring these interactions in other organ systems. PMID:23974175

  9. Seasonal variation in muscle sympathetic nerve activity.

    PubMed

    Cui, Jian; Muller, Matthew D; Blaha, Cheryl; Kunselman, Allen R; Sinoway, Lawrence I

    2015-08-01

    Epidemiologic data suggest there are seasonal variations in the incidence of severe cardiac events with peak levels being evident in the winter. Whether autonomic indices including muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) vary with season remains unclear. In this report, we tested the hypothesis that resting MSNA varies with the seasons of the year with peak levels evident in the winter. We analyzed the supine resting MSNA in 60 healthy subjects. Each subject was studied during two, three, or four seasons (total 237 visits). MSNA burst rate in the winter (21.0 ± 6.8 burst/min, mean ± SD) was significantly greater than in the summer (13.5 ± 5.8 burst/min, P < 0.001), the spring (17.1 ± 9.0 burst/min, P = 0.03), and the fall (17.9 ± 7.7 burst/min, P = 0.002). There was no significant difference in MSNA for other seasonal comparisons. The results suggest that resting sympathetic nerve activity varies along the seasons, with peak levels evident in the winter. We speculate that the seasonal changes in sympathetic activity may be a contribution to the previously observed seasonal variations in cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. PMID:26265752

  10. Seasonal variation in muscle sympathetic nerve activity

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Jian; Muller, Matthew D; Blaha, Cheryl; Kunselman, Allen R; Sinoway, Lawrence I

    2015-01-01

    Epidemiologic data suggest there are seasonal variations in the incidence of severe cardiac events with peak levels being evident in the winter. Whether autonomic indices including muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) vary with season remains unclear. In this report, we tested the hypothesis that resting MSNA varies with the seasons of the year with peak levels evident in the winter. We analyzed the supine resting MSNA in 60 healthy subjects. Each subject was studied during two, three, or four seasons (total 237 visits). MSNA burst rate in the winter (21.0 ± 6.8 burst/min, mean ± SD) was significantly greater than in the summer (13.5 ± 5.8 burst/min, P < 0.001), the spring (17.1 ± 9.0 burst/min, P = 0.03), and the fall (17.9 ± 7.7 burst/min, P = 0.002). There was no significant difference in MSNA for other seasonal comparisons. The results suggest that resting sympathetic nerve activity varies along the seasons, with peak levels evident in the winter. We speculate that the seasonal changes in sympathetic activity may be a contribution to the previously observed seasonal variations in cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. PMID:26265752

  11. Disorders of the lower cranial nerves

    PubMed Central

    Finsterer, Josef; Grisold, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    Lesions of the lower cranial nerves (LCN) are due to numerous causes, which need to be differentiated to optimize management and outcome. This review aims at summarizing and discussing diseases affecting LCN. Review of publications dealing with disorders of the LCN in humans. Affection of multiple LCN is much more frequent than the affection of a single LCN. LCN may be affected solely or together with more proximal cranial nerves, with central nervous system disease, or with nonneurological disorders. LCN lesions have to be suspected if there are typical symptoms or signs attributable to a LCN. Causes of LCN lesions can be classified as genetic, vascular, traumatic, iatrogenic, infectious, immunologic, metabolic, nutritional, degenerative, or neoplastic. Treatment of LCN lesions depends on the underlying cause. An effective treatment is available in the majority of the cases, but a prerequisite for complete recovery is the prompt and correct diagnosis. LCN lesions need to be considered in case of disturbed speech, swallowing, coughing, deglutition, sensory functions, taste, or autonomic functions, neuralgic pain, dysphagia, head, pharyngeal, or neck pain, cardiac or gastrointestinal compromise, or weakness of the trapezius, sternocleidomastoid, or the tongue muscles. To correctly assess manifestations of LCN lesions, precise knowledge of the anatomy and physiology of the area is required. PMID:26167022

  12. Autonomous Phase Retrieval Calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estlin, Tara A.; Chien, Steve A.; Castano, Rebecca; Gaines, Daniel M.; Doubleday, Joshua R.; Schoolcraft, Josua B.; Oyake, Amalaye; Vaughs, Ashton G.; Torgerson, Jordan L.

    2011-01-01

    The Palomar Adaptive Optics System actively corrects for changing aberrations in light due to atmospheric turbulence. However, the underlying internal static error is unknown and uncorrected by this process. The dedicated wavefront sensor device necessarily lies along a different path than the science camera, and, therefore, doesn't measure the true errors along the path leading to the final detected imagery. This is a standard problem in adaptive optics (AO) called "non-common path error." The Autonomous Phase Retrieval Calibration (APRC) software suite performs automated sensing and correction iterations to calibrate the Palomar AO system to levels that were previously unreachable.

  13. Autonomous mobile robot teams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Agah, Arvin; Bekey, George A.

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes autonomous mobile robot teams performing tasks in unstructured environments. The behavior and the intelligence of the group is distributed, and the system does not include a central command base or leader. The novel concept of the Tropism-Based Cognitive Architecture is introduced, which is used by the robots in order to produce behavior transforming their sensory information to proper action. The results of a number of simulation experiments are presented. These experiments include worlds where the robot teams must locate, decompose, and gather objects, and defend themselves against hostile predators, while navigating around stationary and mobile obstacles.

  14. Toward autonomous spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fogel, L. J.; Calabrese, P. G.; Walsh, M. J.; Owens, A. J.

    1982-01-01

    Ways in which autonomous behavior of spacecraft can be extended to treat situations wherein a closed loop control by a human may not be appropriate or even possible are explored. Predictive models that minimize mean least squared error and arbitrary cost functions are discussed. A methodology for extracting cyclic components for an arbitrary environment with respect to usual and arbitrary criteria is developed. An approach to prediction and control based on evolutionary programming is outlined. A computer program capable of predicting time series is presented. A design of a control system for a robotic dense with partially unknown physical properties is presented.

  15. Autonomous interplanetary constellation design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chow, Cornelius Channing, II

    According to NASA's integrated space technology roadmaps, space-based infrastructures are envisioned as necessary ingredients to a sustained effort in continuing space exploration. Whether it be for extra-terrestrial habitats, roving/cargo vehicles, or space tourism, autonomous space networks will provide a vital communications lifeline for both future robotic and human missions alike. Projecting that the Moon will be a bustling hub of activity within a few decades, a near-term opportunity for in-situ infrastructure development is within reach. This dissertation addresses the anticipated need for in-space infrastructure by investigating a general design methodology for autonomous interplanetary constellations; to illustrate the theory, this manuscript presents results from an application to the Earth-Moon neighborhood. The constellation design methodology is formulated as an optimization problem, involving a trajectory design step followed by a spacecraft placement sequence. Modeling the dynamics as a restricted 3-body problem, the investigated design space consists of families of periodic orbits which play host to the constellations, punctuated by arrangements of spacecraft autonomously guided by a navigation strategy called LiAISON (Linked Autonomous Interplanetary Satellite Orbit Navigation). Instead of more traditional exhaustive search methods, a numerical continuation approach is implemented to map the admissible configuration space. In particular, Keller's pseudo-arclength technique is used to follow folding/bifurcating solution manifolds, which are otherwise inaccessible with other parameter continuation schemes. A succinct characterization of the underlying structure of the local, as well as global, extrema is thus achievable with little a priori intuition of the solution space. Furthermore, the proposed design methodology offers benefits in computation speed plus the ability to handle mildly stochastic systems. An application of the constellation design

  16. The role of the autonomic nervous system in Tourette Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Hawksley, Jack; Cavanna, Andrea E.; Nagai, Yoko

    2015-01-01

    Tourette Syndrome (TS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder, consisting of multiple involuntary movements (motor tics) and one or more vocal (phonic) tics. It affects up to one percent of children worldwide, of whom about one third continue to experience symptoms into adulthood. The central neural mechanisms of tic generation are not clearly understood, however recent neuroimaging investigations suggest impaired cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical activity during motor control. In the current manuscript, we will tackle the relatively under-investigated role of the peripheral autonomic nervous system, and its central influences, on tic activity. There is emerging evidence that both sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous activity influences tic expression. Pharmacological treatments which act on sympathetic tone are often helpful: for example, Clonidine (an alpha-2 adrenoreceptor agonist) is often used as first choice medication for treating TS in children due to its good tolerability profile and potential usefulness for co-morbid attention-deficit and hyperactivity disorder. Clonidine suppresses sympathetic activity, reducing the triggering of motor tics. A general elevation of sympathetic tone is reported in patients with TS compared to healthy people, however this observation may reflect transient responses coupled to tic activity. Thus, the presence of autonomic impairments in patients with TS remains unclear. Effect of autonomic afferent input to cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical circuit will be discussed schematically. We additionally review how TS is affected by modulation of central autonomic control through biofeedback and Vagus Nerve Stimulation (VNS). Biofeedback training can enable a patient to gain voluntary control over covert physiological responses by making these responses explicit. Electrodermal biofeedback training to elicit a reduction in sympathetic tone has a demonstrated association with reduced tic frequency. VNS, achieved through an implanted device

  17. The role of the autonomic nervous system in Tourette Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hawksley, Jack; Cavanna, Andrea E; Nagai, Yoko

    2015-01-01

    Tourette Syndrome (TS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder, consisting of multiple involuntary movements (motor tics) and one or more vocal (phonic) tics. It affects up to one percent of children worldwide, of whom about one third continue to experience symptoms into adulthood. The central neural mechanisms of tic generation are not clearly understood, however recent neuroimaging investigations suggest impaired cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical activity during motor control. In the current manuscript, we will tackle the relatively under-investigated role of the peripheral autonomic nervous system, and its central influences, on tic activity. There is emerging evidence that both sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous activity influences tic expression. Pharmacological treatments which act on sympathetic tone are often helpful: for example, Clonidine (an alpha-2 adrenoreceptor agonist) is often used as first choice medication for treating TS in children due to its good tolerability profile and potential usefulness for co-morbid attention-deficit and hyperactivity disorder. Clonidine suppresses sympathetic activity, reducing the triggering of motor tics. A general elevation of sympathetic tone is reported in patients with TS compared to healthy people, however this observation may reflect transient responses coupled to tic activity. Thus, the presence of autonomic impairments in patients with TS remains unclear. Effect of autonomic afferent input to cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical circuit will be discussed schematically. We additionally review how TS is affected by modulation of central autonomic control through biofeedback and Vagus Nerve Stimulation (VNS). Biofeedback training can enable a patient to gain voluntary control over covert physiological responses by making these responses explicit. Electrodermal biofeedback training to elicit a reduction in sympathetic tone has a demonstrated association with reduced tic frequency. VNS, achieved through an implanted device

  18. Nerve Growth Factor and Diabetic Neuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Vinik, Aaron

    2003-01-01

    Neuropathy is one of the most debilitating complications of both type 1 and type 2 diabetes, with estimates of prevalence between 50–90% depending on the means of detection. Diabetic neuropathies are heterogeneous and there is variable involvement of large myelinated fibers and small, thinly myelinated fibers. Many of the neuronal abnormalities in diabetes can be duplicated by experimental depletion of specific neurotrophic factors, their receptors or their binding proteins. In experimental models of diabetes there is a reduction in the availability of these growth factors, which may be a consequence of metabolic abnormalities, or may be independent of glycemic control. These neurotrophic factors are required for the maintenance of the neurons, the ability to resist apoptosis and regenerative capacity. The best studied of the neurotrophic factors is nerve growth factor (NGF) and the related members of the neurotrophin family of peptides. There is increasing evidence that there is a deficiency of NGF in diabetes, as well as the dependent neuropeptides substance P (SP) and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) that may also contribute to the clinical symptoms resulting from small fiber dysfunction. Similarly, NT3 appears to be important for large fiber and IGFs for autonomic neuropathy. Whether the observed growth factor deficiencies are due to decreased synthesis, or functional, e.g. an inability to bind to their receptor, and/or abnormalities in nerve transport and processing, remains to be established. Although early studies in humans on the role of neurotrophic factors as a therapy for diabetic neuropathy have been unsuccessful, newer agents and the possibilities uncovered by further studies should fuel clinical trials for several generations. It seems reasonable to anticipate that neurotrophic factor therapy, specifically targeted at different nerve fiber populations, might enter the therapeutic armamentarium. PMID:14668049

  19. Modes of fossil preservation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schopf, J.M.

    1975-01-01

    The processes of geologic preservation are important for understanding the organisms represented by fossils. Some fossil differences are due to basic differences in organization of animals and plants, but the interpretation of fossils has also tended to be influenced by modes of preservation. Four modes of preservation generally can be distinguished: (1) Cellular permineralization ("petrifaction") preserves anatomical detail, and, occasionally, even cytologic structures. (2) Coalified compression, best illustrated by structures from coal but characteristic of many plant fossils in shale, preserves anatomical details in distorted form and produces surface replicas (impressions) on enclosing matrix. (3) Authigenic preservation replicates surface form or outline (molds and casts) prior to distortion by compression and, depending on cementation and timing, may intergrade with fossils that have been subject to compression. (4) Duripartic (hard part) preservation is characteristic of fossil skeletal remains, predominantly animal. Molds, pseudomorphs, or casts may form as bulk replacements following dissolution of the original fossil material, usually by leaching. Classification of the kinds of preservation in fossils will aid in identifying the processes responsible for modifying the fossil remains of both animals and plants. ?? 1975.

  20. Grafts for Ridge Preservation

    PubMed Central

    Jamjoom, Amal; Cohen, Robert E.

    2015-01-01

    Alveolar ridge bone resorption is a biologic phenomenon that occurs following tooth extraction and cannot be prevented. This paper reviews the vertical and horizontal ridge dimensional changes that are associated with tooth extraction. It also provides an overview of the advantages of ridge preservation as well as grafting materials. A Medline search among English language papers was performed in March 2015 using alveolar ridge preservation, ridge augmentation, and various graft types as search terms. Additional papers were considered following the preliminary review of the initial search that were relevant to alveolar ridge preservation. The literature suggests that ridge preservation methods and augmentation techniques are available to minimize and restore available bone. Numerous grafting materials, such as autografts, allografts, xenografts, and alloplasts, currently are used for ridge preservation. Other materials, such as growth factors, also can be used to enhance biologic outcome. PMID:26262646

  1. EFFECTS OF HYPERGLYCEMIA ON RAT CAVERNOUS NERVE AXONS: A FUNCTIONAL AND ULTRASTRUCTURAL STUDY

    PubMed Central

    Zotova, Elena G.; Schaumburg, Herbert H.; Raine, Cedric S.; Cannella, Barbara; Tar, Moses; Melman, Arnold; Arezzo, Joseph C.

    2008-01-01

    The present study explored parallel changes in the physiology and structure of myelinated (Aδ) and unmyelinated (C) small diameter axons in the cavernous nerve of rats associated with streptozotocin-induced hyperglycemia. Damage to these axons is thought to play a key role in diabetic autonomic neuropathy and erectile dysfunction, but their pathophysiology has been poorly studied. Velocities in slow conducting fibers were measured by applying multiple unit procedures; histopathology was evaluated with both light and electron microscopy. To our knowledge, these are the initial studies of slow nerve conduction velocities in the distal segments of the cavernous nerve. We report that hyperglycemia is associated with a substantial reduction in the amplitude of the slow conducting response, as well as a slowing of velocities within this very slow range (<2.5 m/sec). Even with prolonged hyperglycemia (> 4 months), histopathological abnormalities were mild and limited to the distal segments of the cavernous nerve. Structural findings included dystrophic changes in nerve terminals, abnormal accumulations of glycogen granules in unmyelinated and preterminal axons, and necrosis of scattered smooth muscle fibers. The onset of slowing of velocity in the distal cavernous nerve occurred subsequent to slowing in somatic nerves in the same rats. The functional changes in the cavernous nerve anticipated and exceeded the axonal degeneration detected by morphology. The physiologic techniques outlined in these studies are feasible in most electrophysiologic laboratories and could substantially enhance our sensitivity to the onset and progression of small fiber diabetic neuropathy. PMID:18687329

  2. Autonomous Formation Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schkolnik, Gerard S.; Cobleigh, Brent

    2004-01-01

    NASA's Strategic Plan for the Aerospace Technology Enterprise includes ambitious objectives focused on affordable air travel, reduced emissions, and expanded aviation-system capacity. NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, in cooperation with NASA Ames Research Center, the Boeing Company, and the University of California, Los Angeles, has embarked on an autonomous-formation-flight project that promises to make significant strides towards these goals. For millions of years, birds have taken advantage of the aerodynamic benefit of flying in formation. The traditional "V" formation flown by many species of birds (including gulls, pelicans, and geese) enables each of the trailing birds to fly in the upwash flow field that exists just outboard of the bird immediately ahead in the formation. The result for each trailing bird is a decrease in induced drag and thus a reduction in the energy needed to maintain a given speed. Hence, for migratory birds, formation flight extends the range of the system of birds over the range of birds flying solo. The Autonomous Formation Flight (AFF) Project is seeking to extend this symbiotic relationship to aircraft.

  3. Learning for Autonomous Navigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Angelova, Anelia; Howard, Andrew; Matthies, Larry; Tang, Benyang; Turmon, Michael; Mjolsness, Eric

    2005-01-01

    Robotic ground vehicles for outdoor applications have achieved some remarkable successes, notably in autonomous highway following (Dickmanns, 1987), planetary exploration (1), and off-road navigation on Earth (1). Nevertheless, major challenges remain to enable reliable, high-speed, autonomous navigation in a wide variety of complex, off-road terrain. 3-D perception of terrain geometry with imaging range sensors is the mainstay of off-road driving systems. However, the stopping distance at high speed exceeds the effective lookahead distance of existing range sensors. Prospects for extending the range of 3-D sensors is strongly limited by sensor physics, eye safety of lasers, and related issues. Range sensor limitations also allow vehicles to enter large cul-de-sacs even at low speed, leading to long detours. Moreover, sensing only terrain geometry fails to reveal mechanical properties of terrain that are critical to assessing its traversability, such as potential for slippage, sinkage, and the degree of compliance of potential obstacles. Rovers in the Mars Exploration Rover (MER) mission have got stuck in sand dunes and experienced significant downhill slippage in the vicinity of large rock hazards. Earth-based off-road robots today have very limited ability to discriminate traversable vegetation from non-traversable vegetation or rough ground. It is impossible today to preprogram a system with knowledge of these properties for all types of terrain and weather conditions that might be encountered.

  4. Autonomic Responses to Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toscano, W. B.; Cowings, P. S.; Miller, N. E.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to describe how changes in autonomic nervous system responses may be used as an index of individual differences in adaptational capacity to space flight. During two separate Spacelab missions, six crewmembers wore an ambulatory monitoring system which enabled continuous recording of their physiological responses for up to twelve hours a day for 3 to 5 mission days. The responses recorded were electrocardiography, respiration wave form, skin conductance level, hand temperature, blood flow to the hands and triaxial accelerations of the head and upper body. Three of these subjects had been given training, before the mission, in voluntary control of these autonomic responses as a means of facilitating adaptation to space. Three of these subjects served as Controls, i.e., did not receive this training but took anti-motion sickness medication. Nearly 300 hours of flight data are summarized. These data were examined using time-series analyses, spectral analyses of heart rate variability, and analyses of variance. Information was obtained on responses to space motion sickness, inflight medications, circadian rhythm, workload and fatigue. Preliminary assessment was made on the effectiveness of self-regulation training as a means of facilitating adaptation, with recommendations for future flights.

  5. Autonomous mobile communication relays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Hoa G.; Everett, Hobart R.; Manouk, Narek; Verma, Ambrish

    2002-07-01

    Maintaining a solid radio communication link between a mobile robot entering a building and an external base station is a well-recognized problem. Modern digital radios, while affording high bandwidth and Internet-protocol-based automatic routing capabilities, tend to operate on line-of-sight links. The communication link degrades quickly as a robot penetrates deeper into the interior of a building. This project investigates the use of mobile autonomous communication relay nodes to extend the effective range of a mobile robot exploring a complex interior environment. Each relay node is a small mobile slave robot equipped with sonar, ladar, and 802.11b radio repeater. For demonstration purposes, four Pioneer 2-DX robots are used as autonomous mobile relays, with SSC-San Diego's ROBART III acting as the lead robot. The relay robots follow the lead robot into a building and are automatically deployed at various locations to maintain a networked communication link back to the remote operator. With their on-board external sensors, they also act as rearguards to secure areas already explored by the lead robot. As the lead robot advances and RF shortcuts are detected, relay nodes that become unnecessary will be reclaimed and reused, all transparent to the operator. This project takes advantage of recent research results from several DARPA-funded tasks at various institutions in the areas of robotic simulation, ad hoc wireless networking, route planning, and navigation. This paper describes the progress of the first six months of the project.

  6. Nemesis Autonomous Test System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barltrop, Kevin J.; Lee, Cin-Young; Horvath, Gregory A,; Clement, Bradley J.

    2012-01-01

    A generalized framework has been developed for systems validation that can be applied to both traditional and autonomous systems. The framework consists of an automated test case generation and execution system called Nemesis that rapidly and thoroughly identifies flaws or vulnerabilities within a system. By applying genetic optimization and goal-seeking algorithms on the test equipment side, a "war game" is conducted between a system and its complementary nemesis. The end result of the war games is a collection of scenarios that reveals any undesirable behaviors of the system under test. The software provides a reusable framework to evolve test scenarios using genetic algorithms using an operation model of the system under test. It can automatically generate and execute test cases that reveal flaws in behaviorally complex systems. Genetic algorithms focus the exploration of tests on the set of test cases that most effectively reveals the flaws and vulnerabilities of the system under test. It leverages advances in state- and model-based engineering, which are essential in defining the behavior of autonomous systems. It also uses goal networks to describe test scenarios.

  7. Autonomous Flight Safety System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferrell, Bob; Santuro, Steve; Simpson, James; Zoerner, Roger; Bull, Barton; Lanzi, Jim

    2004-01-01

    Autonomous Flight Safety System (AFSS) is an independent flight safety system designed for small to medium sized expendable launch vehicles launching from or needing range safety protection while overlying relatively remote locations. AFSS replaces the need for a man-in-the-loop to make decisions for flight termination. AFSS could also serve as the prototype for an autonomous manned flight crew escape advisory system. AFSS utilizes onboard sensors and processors to emulate the human decision-making process using rule-based software logic and can dramatically reduce safety response time during critical launch phases. The Range Safety flight path nominal trajectory, its deviation allowances, limit zones and other flight safety rules are stored in the onboard computers. Position, velocity and attitude data obtained from onboard global positioning system (GPS) and inertial navigation system (INS) sensors are compared with these rules to determine the appropriate action to ensure that people and property are not jeopardized. The final system will be fully redundant and independent with multiple processors, sensors, and dead man switches to prevent inadvertent flight termination. AFSS is currently in Phase III which includes updated algorithms, integrated GPS/INS sensors, large scale simulation testing and initial aircraft flight testing.

  8. Self-preserving cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Varvaresou, A; Papageorgiou, S; Tsirivas, E; Protopapa, E; Kintziou, H; Kefala, V; Demetzos, C

    2009-06-01

    Preservatives are added to products for two reasons: first, to prevent microbial spoilage and therefore to prolong the shelf life of the product; second, to protect the consumer from a potential infection. Although chemical preservatives prevent microbial growth, their safety is questioned by a growing segment of consumers. Therefore, there is a considerable interest in the development of preservative-free or self-preserving cosmetics. In these formulations traditional/chemical preservatives have been replaced by other cosmetic ingredients with antimicrobial properties that are not legislated as preservatives according to the Annex VI of the Commission Directive 76/768/EEC and the amending directives (2003/15/EC, 2007/17/EC and 2007/22/EC). 'Hurdle Technology', a technology that has been used for the control of product safety in the food industry since 1970s, has also been applied for the production of self-preserving cosmetics. 'Hurdle Technology' is a term used to describe the intelligent combination of different preservation factors or hurdles to deteriorate the growth of microorganisms. Adherence to current good manufacturing practice, appropriate packaging, careful choice of the form of the emulsion, low water activity and low or high pH values are significant variables for the control of microbial growth in cosmetic formulations. This paper describes the application of the basic principles of 'Hurdle Technology' in the production of self-preserving cosmetics. Multifunctional antimicrobial ingredients and plant-derived essential oils and extracts that are used as alternative or natural preservatives and are not listed in Annex VI of the Cosmetic Directive are also reported. PMID:19302511

  9. Asteroid Exploration with Autonomic Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Truszkowski, Walt; Rash, James; Rouff, Christopher; Hinchey, Mike

    2004-01-01

    NASA is studying advanced technologies for a future robotic exploration mission to the asteroid belt. The prospective ANTS (Autonomous Nano Technology Swarm) mission comprises autonomous agents including worker agents (small spacecra3) designed to cooperate in asteroid exploration under the overall authoriq of at least one ruler agent (a larger spacecraft) whose goal is to cause science data to be returned to Earth. The ANTS team (ruler plus workers and messenger agents), but not necessarily any individual on the team, will exhibit behaviors that qualify it as an autonomic system, where an autonomic system is defined as a system that self-reconfigures, self-optimizes, self-heals, and self-protects. Autonomic system concepts lead naturally to realistic, scalable architectures rich in capabilities and behaviors. In-depth consideration of a major mission like ANTS in terms of autonomic systems brings new insights into alternative definitions of autonomic behavior. This paper gives an overview of the ANTS mission and discusses the autonomic properties of the mission.

  10. Expanded Perspectives on Autonomous Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oxford, Rebecca L.

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores two general perspectives on autonomous learners: psychological and sociocultural. These perspectives introduce a range of theoretically grounded facets of autonomous learners, facets such as the self-regulated learner, the emotionally intelligent learner, the self-determined learner, the mediated learner, the socioculturally…

  11. Small fibre function in primary autonomic failure.

    PubMed

    Baron, R; Feldmann, R; Lindner, V

    1993-12-01

    A case of primary autonomic failure (AF) with uncomplicated Parkinson's disease is presented with clinical and neurophysiological data. Special emphasis is placed on new methods of examining impairment of unmyelinated sympathetic and afferent C-fibres. Sympathetic vasoconstrictor responses in the skin induced by deep inspiration were examined quantitatively with laser Doppler flowmetry. The vasoconstriction was markedly depressed in primary AF compared with healthy controls and similar to secondary forms of AF. Peripheral nociceptive C-fibre function was quantitatively assessed by measurement of axon reflex vasodilatation induced by histamine iontophoresis. The axon reflex vasodilatation was completely intact in primary AF in contrast to patients with secondary peripheral small fibre neuropathy. The results indicate that sympathetic C-fibres are considerably affected by the degenerative disease, whereas the afferent C-fibres seem to be totally preserved. Modern neurophysiological methods of testing sympathetic and afferent small fibre function in combination with other neurophysiological tests, e.g. brain-stem auditory evoked potentials, might help to diagnose and differentiate primary AF in early stages and make it easier to distinguish between secondary autonomic neuropathies of unknown origin that often also involve unmyelinated afferent fibres. PMID:8138830

  12. Topohistology of sympathetic and parasympathetic nerve fibers in branches of the pelvic plexus: an immunohistochemical study using donated elderly cadavers

    PubMed Central

    Hieda, Keisuke; Sasaki, Hiromasa; Murakami, Gen; Abe, Shinichi; Matsubara, Akio; Miyake, Hideaki; Fujisawa, Masato

    2014-01-01

    Although the pelvic autonomic plexus may be considered a mixture of sympathetic and parasympathetic nerves, little information on its composite fibers is available. Using 10 donated elderly cadavers, we investigated in detail the topohistology of nerve fibers in the posterior part of the periprostatic region in males and the infero-anterior part of the paracolpium in females. Neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) were used as parasympathetic nerve markers, and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) was used as a marker of sympathetic nerves. In the region examined, nNOS-positive nerves (containing nNOS-positive fibers) were consistently predominant numerically. All fibers positive for these markers appeared to be thin, unmyelinated fibers. Accordingly, the pelvic plexus branches were classified into 5 types: triple-positive mixed nerves (nNOS+, VIP+, TH+, thick myelinated fibers + or -); double-positive mixed nerves (nNOS+, VIP-, TH+, thick myelinated fibers + or -); nerves in arterial walls (nNOS-, VIP+, TH+, thick myelinated fibers-); non-parasympathetic nerves (nNOS-, VIP-, TH+, thick myelinated fibers + or -); (although rare) pure sensory nerve candidates (nNOS-, VIP-, TH-, thick myelinated fibers+). Triple-positive nerves were 5-6 times more numerous in the paracolpium than in the periprostatic region. Usually, the parasympathetic nerve fibers did not occupy a specific site in a nerve, and were intermingled with sympathetic fibers. This morphology might be the result of an "incidentally" adopted nerve fiber route, rather than a target-specific pathway. PMID:24693483

  13. Ultrasound of Peripheral Nerves

    PubMed Central

    Suk, Jung Im; Walker, Francis O.; Cartwright, Michael S.

    2013-01-01

    Over the last decade, neuromuscular ultrasound has emerged as a useful tool for the diagnosis of peripheral nerve disorders. This article reviews sonographic findings of normal nerves including key quantitative ultrasound measurements that are helpful in the evaluation of focal and possibly generalized peripheral neuropathies. It also discusses several recent papers outlining the evidence base for the use of this technology, as well as new findings in compressive, traumatic, and generalized neuropathies. Ultrasound is well suited for use in electrodiagnostic laboratories where physicians, experienced in both the clinical evaluation of patients and the application of hands-on technology, can integrate findings from the patient’s history, physical examination, electrophysiological studies, and imaging for diagnosis and management. PMID:23314937

  14. Organ reperfusion and preservation.

    PubMed

    Jamieson, Russell W; Friend, Peter J

    2008-01-01

    Organ transplantation is one of the medical success stories of the 20th century. Transplantation is, however, a victim of its own success with demand for organs far exceeding supply. The ischemia/reperfusion injury associated with organ transplantation is complex with interlinking cellular pathways and cascades. With increasing use of marginal organs and better understanding of the consequences of ischemia/reperfusion, enhanced organ preservation is required. Traditional static cold preservation cannot prevent ischemia/reperfusion injury, the low temperature itself is damaging and viability testing is limited. Donor preconditioning techniques to enhance organ preservation in advance of retrieval are starting to show convergence on several key pathways (HO-1 and cell apoptosis). Microdialysis and bioimpedence techniques may allow viability assessment during cold storage. Hypothermic machine perfusion has a role to play, particularly in preservation of kidneys from non-heart-beating donors although results of clinical trials are awaited. Normothermic preservation offers benefits over cold storage (at least experimentally) by avoiding damage induced by low temperature, minimising ischemia/reperfusion injury and allowing resuscitation of damaged organs. Normothermic preservation is likely to increase as the average quality of donor organs declines and clinical trials are needed. In the long term, normothermic preservation may be used, not just to resuscitate organs, but facilitate organ immunomodulation. PMID:17981540

  15. Intestinal Neuromuscular Function after Preservation and Transplantation1

    PubMed Central

    Hamada, Nobuo; Hutson, William R.; Nakada, Koji; Ikoma, Akira; Suzuki, Tomomi; Zhu, Yue; Starzl, Thomas E.; Todo, Satoru

    2010-01-01

    While it is well known that prolonged preservation of the intestinal graft causes severe mucosal damage after transplantation, little is known about the effect on neuromuscular function. The entire small intestine of adult hound dogs was flushed and preserved with cold lactated Ringer’s solution and autotransplanted either immediately (n = 6) or after 24 hr (n = 6). Animals undergoing sham operation (n = 4) were used as a control. Fasting motility and the response of the intestinal smooth muscle and enteric nerves to bethanechol (100 μg/kg/0.5 hr, iv) and cisapride (0.5 mg/kg, iv) were determined by a multiple strain gauge method on Postoperative Days 2, 4, 7, 14, 21, and 28. Compared to the control, immediately transplanted grafts and those preserved for 24 hr developed delayed reappearance of migrating myoelectric complexes (MMC), hypercontractile activity, and reduced response to bethanechol and cisapride administration. Animals in the preservation group developed more abnormal fasting motility after transplantation, but responses to bethanechol and cisapride stimulation were not markedly different from those of the immediate group. The reappearance of MMC occurred 3 weeks postoperatively in the preservation group compared to 2 days in the immediate group. The results of our study indicate that intestinal dysmotility is augmented in prolonged-preservation grafts compared to those with brief preservation. The dysmotility was transient and normalized 3 to 4 weeks after surgery. Preservation and reperfusion injury to the neuromuscular system of intestinal grafts are reversible and are attenuated by simple hypothermia. PMID:8661243

  16. Cranial Nerve II: Vision.

    PubMed

    Gillig, Paulette Marie; Sanders, Richard D

    2009-09-01

    This article contains a brief review of the anatomy of the visual system, a survey of diseases of the retina, optic nerve and lesions of the optic chiasm, and other visual field defects of special interest to the psychiatrist. It also includes a presentation of the corticothalamic mechanisms, differential diagnosis, and various manifestations of visual illusions, and simple and complex visual hallucinations, as well as the differential diagnoses of these various visual phenomena. PMID:19855858

  17. Optic nerve hypoplasia.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Savleen; Jain, Sparshi; Sodhi, Harsimrat B S; Rastogi, Anju; Kamlesh

    2013-05-01

    Optic nerve hypoplasia (ONH) is a congenital anomaly of the optic disc that might result in moderate to severe vision loss in children. With a vast number of cases now being reported, the rarity of ONH is obviously now refuted. The major aspects of ophthalmic evaluation of an infant with possible ONH are visual assessment, fundus examination, and visual electrophysiology. Characteristically, the disc is small, there is a peripapillary double-ring sign, vascular tortuosity, and thinning of the nerve fiber layer. A patient with ONH should be assessed for presence of neurologic, radiologic, and endocrine associations. There may be maternal associations like premature births, fetal alcohol syndrome, maternal diabetes. Systemic associations in the child include endocrine abnormalities, developmental delay, cerebral palsy, and seizures. Besides the hypoplastic optic nerve and chiasm, neuroimaging shows abnormalities in ventricles or white- or gray-matter development, septo-optic dysplasia, hydrocephalus, and corpus callosum abnormalities. There is a greater incidence of clinical neurologic abnormalities in patients with bilateral ONH (65%) than patients with unilateral ONH. We present a review on the available literature on the same to urge caution in our clinical practice when dealing with patients with ONH. Fundus photography, ocular coherence tomography, visual field testing, color vision evaluation, neuroimaging, endocrinology consultation with or without genetic testing are helpful in the diagnosis and management of ONH. (Method of search: MEDLINE, PUBMED). PMID:24082663

  18. Evaluation of Nerve Conduction Studies in Obese Children With Insulin Resistance or Impaired Glucose Tolerance.

    PubMed

    Ince, Hülya; Taşdemir, Haydar Ali; Aydin, Murat; Ozyürek, Hamit; Tilki, Hacer Erdem

    2015-07-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate nerve conduction studies in terms of neuropathic characteristics in obese patients who were in prediabetes stage and also to determine the abnormal findings. The study included 69 obese adolescent patients between April 2009 and December 2010. All patients and control group underwent motor (median, ulnar, tibial, and peroneal) and sensory (median, ulnar, sural, and medial plantar) nerve conduction studies and sympathetic skin response test. Sensory response amplitude of the medial plantar nerve was significantly lower in the patients with impaired glucose tolerance and insulin resistance. To our knowledge, the present study is the first study demonstrating the development of sensory and autonomic neuropathy due to metabolic complications of obesity in adolescent children even in the period without development of diabetes mellitus. We recommend that routine electrophysiological examinations be performed, using medial plantar nerve conduction studies and sympathetic skin response test. PMID:25342307

  19. Dermatological and immunological conditions due to nerve lesions

    PubMed Central

    Bove, Domenico; Lupoli, Amalia; Caccavale, Stefano; Piccolo, Vincenzo; Ruocco, Eleonora

    2013-01-01

    Summary Some syndromes are of interest to both neurologists and dermatologists, because cutaneous involvement may harbinger symptoms of a neurological disease. The aim of this review is to clarify this aspect. The skin, because of its relationships with the peripheral sensory nervous system, autonomic nervous system and central nervous system, constitutes a neuroimmunoendocrine organ. The skin contains numerous neuropeptides released from sensory nerves. Neuropeptides play a precise role in cutaneous physiology and pathophysiology, and in certain skin diseases. A complex dysregulation of neuropeptides is a feature of some diseases of both dermatological and neurological interest (e.g. cutaneous and nerve lesions following herpes zoster infection, cutaneous manifestations of carpal tunnel syndrome, trigeminal trophic syndrome). Dermatologists need to know when a patient should be referred to a neurologist and should consider this option in those presenting with syndromes of unclear etiology. PMID:24125557

  20. Autonomous docking ground demonstration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lamkin, Steve L.; Le, Thomas Quan; Othon, L. T.; Prather, Joseph L.; Eick, Richard E.; Baxter, Jim M.; Boyd, M. G.; Clark, Fred D.; Spehar, Peter T.; Teters, Rebecca T.

    1991-01-01

    The Autonomous Docking Ground Demonstration is an evaluation of the laser sensor system to support the docking phase (12 ft to contact) when operated in conjunction with the guidance, navigation, and control (GN&C) software. The docking mechanism being used was developed for the Apollo/Soyuz Test Program. This demonstration will be conducted using the 6-DOF Dynamic Test System (DTS). The DTS simulates the Space Station Freedom as the stationary or target vehicle and the Orbiter as the active or chase vehicle. For this demonstration, the laser sensor will be mounted on the target vehicle and the retroflectors will be on the chase vehicle. This arrangement was chosen to prevent potential damage to the laser. The laser sensor system, GN&C, and 6-DOF DTS will be operated closed-loop. Initial conditions to simulate vehicle misalignments, translational and rotational, will be introduced within the constraints of the systems involved.

  1. Autonomous Flying Controls Testbed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Motter, Mark A.

    2005-01-01

    The Flying Controls Testbed (FLiC) is a relatively small and inexpensive unmanned aerial vehicle developed specifically to test highly experimental flight control approaches. The most recent version of the FLiC is configured with 16 independent aileron segments, supports the implementation of C-coded experimental controllers, and is capable of fully autonomous flight from takeoff roll to landing, including flight test maneuvers. The test vehicle is basically a modified Army target drone, AN/FQM-117B, developed as part of a collaboration between the Aviation Applied Technology Directorate (AATD) at Fort Eustis,Virginia and NASA Langley Research Center. Several vehicles have been constructed and collectively have flown over 600 successful test flights.

  2. Characteristics of ejaculated rat semen after lesion of scrotal nerves.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Luis I; Soto-Cid, Abraham; Carrillo, Porfirio; Toledo, Rebeca; Hernandez, Maria Elena; Manzo, Jorge

    2007-05-16

    The scrotum, representing the pouch surrounding the testes and their associated structures, plays a significant role in maintaining the gonad at a temperature lower than that of the body. Although thermoregulation of the testes has been ascribed as a main function of the scrotum, here we found that mechanical stimulation of the scrotum is important during mating to facilitate the appropriate expulsion of semen during ejaculation. Previously we showed that the scrotal skin area is innervated by two nerve branches, the proximal (Psb) and distal (Dsb) scrotal branches which supply the proximal or distal half of the scrotum, respectively. The sensory field of each nerve is testosterone-dependent. The decreased androgen levels following castration reduce the sensitive area to mechanical stimuli that can be restored following exogenous administration of the hormone. Here, we tested the effect of scrotal nerve transection on sexual parameters of experienced male rats. Data show that lesion of PSb or DSb alone or combined did not affect the execution of sexual behavior. However, these lesions significantly reduced the proportion of males that expelled semen during ejaculation, with that semen showing a reduced quantity of sperm. Thus, scrotal nerves are important in reproduction not for the appropriate display of sexual behavior, but for the expulsion of a normal quantity of semen and number of sperm during ejaculation. Our suggestion is that scrotal afferents trigger spinal reflexes to activate autonomic efferents supplying the male reproductive tract for the control of seminal emission. PMID:17343882

  3. Tifft Farm Nature Preserve.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benjamin, Thomas B.; Gannon, David J.

    1980-01-01

    Described are the creation, development, activities, and programs of Tifft Farm, a 264-acre nature preserve and environmental education center in Buffalo, New York, constructed on a sanitary landfill. (BT)

  4. Mechanism of entanglement preservation

    SciTech Connect

    Tong Qingjun; An Junhong; Luo Honggang; Oh, C. H.

    2010-05-15

    We study the entanglement preservation of two qubits locally interacting with their reservoirs. We show that the existence of a bound state of the qubit and its reservoir and the non-Markovian effect are two essential ingredients and their interplay plays a crucial role in preserving the entanglement in the steady state. When the non-Markovian effect is neglected, the entanglement sudden death (ESD) is reproduced. On the other hand, when the non-Markovian is significantly strong but the bound state is absent, the phenomenon of the ESD and its revival is recovered. Our formulation presents a unified picture about the entanglement preservation and provides a clear clue on how to preserve the entanglement in quantum information processing.

  5. Autonomic dysfunction in essential hypertension: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Carthy, Elliott R.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Greater sympathetic drive has been established in the early stages of essential hypertension, suggesting that neurohormonal dysregulation may be key to its aetiology and progression. The aims of this review are to discuss evidence of the role of autonomic dysfunction in essential hypertension and proposed mechanisms, and also some applications of this knowledge to current management strategies of essential hypertension. Methods A computer search was performed using the PUBMED database for peer reviewed original articles comparing autonomic function tested via heart rate variability (HRV), muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) or plasma noradrenaline levels in normotensive (mean blood pressure (BP) of ≤140/90 mmHg or ≤135/85 mmHg if measured via home BP measurements) and hypertensive groups (mean resting BP of ≥140/90 mmHg (or ≥135/85 mmHg if measured via home BP measurements). Subjects were excluded with secondary causes of hypertension or autonomic dysfunction. Results A total of 17 studies were included for discussion. The main findings of this study include that of reduced baroreflex sensitivity, believed to be secondary to increased arterial stiffness, is hypothesised to be implicated in the pathogenesis of essential hypertension. Also, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors were not as effective on markers of autonomic control of blood pressure when compared with alternative anti-hypertensive drugs. Conclusions Consistent research is needed to establish the effectiveness of pharmacotherapies at each of stage of hypertension, and on markers of autonomic dysfunction. Consistent study designs will enable more accurate accumulation of data across multiple studies, and appropriate application of such data into clinical practice. PMID:25568776

  6. Neuromuscular Ultrasound of Cranial Nerves

    PubMed Central

    Tawfik, Eman A.; Cartwright, Michael S.

    2015-01-01

    Ultrasound of cranial nerves is a novel subdomain of neuromuscular ultrasound (NMUS) which may provide additional value in the assessment of cranial nerves in different neuromuscular disorders. Whilst NMUS of peripheral nerves has been studied, NMUS of cranial nerves is considered in its initial stage of research, thus, there is a need to summarize the research results achieved to date. Detailed scanning protocols, which assist in mastery of the techniques, are briefly mentioned in the few reference textbooks available in the field. This review article focuses on ultrasound scanning techniques of the 4 accessible cranial nerves: optic, facial, vagus and spinal accessory nerves. The relevant literatures and potential future applications are discussed. PMID:25851889

  7. Morphology and Functional Anatomy of the Recurrent Laryngeal Nerve with Extralaryngeal Terminal Bifurcation

    PubMed Central

    Dogan, Sami

    2016-01-01

    Anatomical variations of the recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN), such as an extralaryngeal terminal bifurcation (ETB), threaten the safety of thyroid surgery. Besides the morphology of the nerve branches, intraoperative evaluation of their functional anatomy may be useful to preserve motor activity. We exposed 67 RLNs in 36 patients. The main trunk, bifurcation point, and terminal branches of bifid nerves were macroscopically determined and exposed during thyroid surgery. The functional anatomy of the nerve branches was evaluated by intraoperative nerve monitoring (IONM). Forty-six RLNs with an ETB were intraoperatively exposed. The bifurcation point was located along the prearterial, arterial, and postarterial segments in 11%, 39%, and 50% of bifid RLNs, respectively. Motor activity was determined in all anterior branches. The functional anatomy of terminal branches detected motor activity in 4 (8.7%) posterior branches of 46 bifid RLNs. The motor activity in posterior branches created a wave amplitude at 25–69% of that in the corresponding anterior branches. The functional anatomy of bifid RLNs demonstrated that anterior branches always contained motor fibres while posterior branches seldom contained motor fibres. The motor activity of the posterior branch was weaker than that of the anterior branch. IONM may help to differentiate between motor and sensory functions of nerve branches. The morphology and functional anatomy of all nerve branches must be preserved to ensure a safer surgery. PMID:27493803

  8. Ultrasound guidance of uncommon nerve blocks

    PubMed Central

    Thallaj, Ahmed

    2011-01-01

    In the past nerve stimulation was considered the standard tool for anesthesiologists to locate the peripheral nerve for nerve blocks. However, with the recent introduction of ultrasound (US) technology for regional anesthesia, the use of nerve stimulation has become a rarity nowadays. There is a growing interest by most anesthesiologists in using US for nerve blocks because of its simplicity and accuracy. US is now available in most hospitals practicing regional anesthesia and is a popular tool for performance of nerve blocks. Although nerve stimulation became a rarity, however the use of it is now limited to identify small nerve structures, such as greater auricular nerve and medial antebrachial cutaneous nerve of the forearm. However, in this review article we discuss the role of ultrasonography for greater auricular and antebrachial cutaneous nerve blocks, which could replace nerve stimulation technique. We look at the available literature on the role of US for the performance of uncommon nerve blocks and its benefits. PMID:22144927

  9. Cybersecurity for aerospace autonomous systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Straub, Jeremy

    2015-05-01

    High profile breaches have occurred across numerous information systems. One area where attacks are particularly problematic is autonomous control systems. This paper considers the aerospace information system, focusing on elements that interact with autonomous control systems (e.g., onboard UAVs). It discusses the trust placed in the autonomous systems and supporting systems (e.g., navigational aids) and how this trust can be validated. Approaches to remotely detect the UAV compromise, without relying on the onboard software (on a potentially compromised system) as part of the process are discussed. How different levels of autonomy (task-based, goal-based, mission-based) impact this remote characterization is considered.

  10. Autonomous software: Myth or magic?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allan, A.; Naylor, T.; Saunders, E. S.

    2008-03-01

    We discuss work by the eSTAR project which demonstrates a fully closed loop autonomous system for the follow up of possible micro-lensing anomalies. Not only are the initial micro-lensing detections followed up in real time, but ongoing events are prioritised and continually monitored, with the returned data being analysed automatically. If the ``smart software'' running the observing campaign detects a planet-like anomaly, further follow-up will be scheduled autonomously and other telescopes and telescope networks alerted to the possible planetary detection. We further discuss the implications of this, and how such projects can be used to build more general autonomous observing and control systems.

  11. Autonomous Navigation Using Celestial Objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Folta, David; Gramling, Cheryl; Leung, Dominic; Belur, Sheela; Long, Anne

    1999-01-01

    In the twenty-first century, National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Enterprises envision frequent low-cost missions to explore the solar system, observe the universe, and study our planet. Satellite autonomy is a key technology required to reduce satellite operating costs. The Guidance, Navigation, and Control Center (GNCC) at the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) currently sponsors several initiatives associated with the development of advanced spacecraft systems to provide autonomous navigation and control. Autonomous navigation has the potential both to increase spacecraft navigation system performance and to reduce total mission cost. By eliminating the need for routine ground-based orbit determination and special tracking services, autonomous navigation can streamline spacecraft ground systems. Autonomous navigation products can be included in the science telemetry and forwarded directly to the scientific investigators. In addition, autonomous navigation products are available onboard to enable other autonomous capabilities, such as attitude control, maneuver planning and orbit control, and communications signal acquisition. Autonomous navigation is required to support advanced mission concepts such as satellite formation flying. GNCC has successfully developed high-accuracy autonomous navigation systems for near-Earth spacecraft using NASA's space and ground communications systems and the Global Positioning System (GPS). Recently, GNCC has expanded its autonomous navigation initiative to include satellite orbits that are beyond the regime in which use of GPS is possible. Currently, GNCC is assessing the feasibility of using standard spacecraft attitude sensors and communication components to provide autonomous navigation for missions including: libration point, gravity assist, high-Earth, and interplanetary orbits. The concept being evaluated uses a combination of star, Sun, and Earth sensor measurements along with forward-link Doppler

  12. Nerve blocks for chronic pain.

    PubMed

    Hayek, Salim M; Shah, Atit

    2014-10-01

    Nerve blocks are often performed as therapeutic or palliative interventions for pain relief. However, they are often performed for diagnostic or prognostic purposes. When considering nerve blocks for chronic pain, clinicians must always consider the indications, risks, benefits, and proper technique. Nerve blocks encompass a wide variety of interventional procedures. The most common nerve blocks for chronic pain and that may be applicable to the neurosurgical patient population are reviewed in this article. This article is an introduction and brief synopsis of the different available blocks that can be offered to a patient. PMID:25240668

  13. Nerve conduction and electromyography studies.

    PubMed

    Kane, N M; Oware, A

    2012-07-01

    Nerve conduction studies (NCS) and electromyography (EMG), often shortened to 'EMGs', are a useful adjunct to clinical examination of the peripheral nervous system and striated skeletal muscle. NCS provide an efficient and rapid method of quantifying nerve conduction velocity (CV) and the amplitude of both sensory nerve action potentials (SNAPs) and compound motor action potentials (cMAPs). The CV reflects speed of propagation of action potentials, by saltatory conduction, along large myelinated axons in a peripheral nerve. The amplitude of SNAPs is in part determined by the number of axons in a sensory nerve, whilst amplitude of cMAPs reflects integrated function of the motor axons, neuromuscular junction and striated muscle. Repetitive nerve stimulation (RNS) can identify defects of neuromuscular junction (NMJ) transmission, pre- or post-synaptic. Needle EMG examination can detect myopathic changes in muscle and signs of denervation. Combinations of these procedures can establish if motor and/or sensory nerve cell bodies or peripheral nerves are damaged (e.g. motor neuronopathy, sensory ganglionopathy or neuropathy), and also indicate if the primary target is the axon or the myelin sheath (i.e. axonal or demyelinating neuropathies). The distribution of nerve damage can be determined as either generalised, multifocal (mononeuropathy multiplex) or focal. The latter often due to compression at the common entrapment sites (such as the carpal tunnel, Guyon's canal, cubital tunnel, radial groove, fibular head and tarsal tunnel, to name but a few of the reported hundred or so 'entrapment neuropathies'). PMID:22614870

  14. Primary repair of crush nerve injuries by means of biological tubulization with muscle-vein-combined grafts.

    PubMed

    Tos, Pierluigi; Battiston, Bruno; Ciclamini, Davide; Geuna, Stefano; Artiaco, Stefano

    2012-07-01

    Despite extensive research and surgical innovation, the treatment of peripheral nerve injuries remains a complex issue, particularly in nonsharp lesions. The aim of this study was to assess the clinical outcome in a group of 16 patients who underwent, in emergency, a primary repair for crush injury of sensory and mixed nerves of the upper limb with biological tubulization, namely, the muscle-vein-combined graft. The segments involved were sensory digital nerves in eight cases and mixed nerves in another eight cases (four median nerves and four ulnar nerves). The length of nerve defect ranged from 0.5 to 4 cm (mean 1.9 cm). Fifteen of 16 patients showed some degree of functional recovery. Six patients showed diminished light touch (3.61), six had protective sensation (4.31), and three showed loss of protective sensation (4.56) using Semmes-Weinstein monofilament test. All the patients who underwent digital nerve repair had favorable results graded as S4 in one case, S3+ in six cases, and S3 in one case. With respect to mixed nerve repair, we observed two S4, two S3+, two S3, one S2, and one S0 sensory recovery. Less favorable results were observed for motor function with three M4, one M3, two M2, and two M0 recoveries. Altogether, the results of this retrospective study demonstrates that tubulization nerve repair in emergency, in case of short nerve gaps, may restore the continuity of the nerve avoiding secondary nerve grafting. This technique preserves donor nerve and, in case of failure, does not preclude a delayed repair with a nerve graft. PMID:22422438

  15. Comparative study of peripheral neuropathy and nerve regeneration in NOD and ICR diabetic mice.

    PubMed

    Homs, Judit; Ariza, Lorena; Pagès, Gemma; Verdú, Enrique; Casals, Laura; Udina, Esther; Chillón, Miguel; Bosch, Assumpció; Navarro, Xavier

    2011-09-01

    The non-obese diabetic (NOD) mouse was suggested as an adequate model for diabetic autonomic neuropathy. We evaluated sensory-motor neuropathy and nerve regeneration following sciatic nerve crush in NOD males rendered diabetic by multiple low doses of streptozotocin, in comparison with similarly treated Institute for Cancer Research (ICR) mice, a widely used model for type I diabetes. Neurophysiological values for both strains showed a decline in motor and sensory nerve conduction velocity at 7 and 8 weeks after induction of diabetes in the intact hindlimb. However, amplitudes of compound muscle and sensory action potentials (CMAPs and CNAPs) were significantly reduced in NOD but not in ICR diabetic mice. Morphometrical analysis showed myelinated fiber loss in highly hyperglycemic NOD mice, but no significant changes in fiber size. There was a reduction of intraepidermal nerve fibers, more pronounced in NOD than in ICR diabetic mice. Interestingly, aldose reductase and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) activities were increased already at 1 week of hyperglycemia, persisting until the end of the experiment in both strains. Muscle and nerve reinnervation was delayed in diabetic mice following sciatic nerve crush, being more marked in NOD mice. Thus, diabetes of mid-duration induces more severe peripheral neuropathy and slower nerve regeneration in NOD than in ICR mice. PMID:22003936

  16. Fluorescently-tagged anti-ganglioside antibody selectively identifies peripheral nerve in living animals

    PubMed Central

    Massaad, Cynthia A.; Zhang, Gang; Pillai, Laila; Azhdarinia, Ali; Liu, Weiqiang; Sheikh, Kazim A.

    2015-01-01

    Selective in vivo delivery of cargo to peripheral nervous system (PNS) has broad clinical and preclinical applications. An important applicability of this approach is systemic delivery of fluorescently conjugated ligands that selectively label PNS, which could allow visualization of peripheral nerves during any surgery. We examine the use of an anti-ganglioside monoclonal antibody (mAb) as selective neuronal delivery vector for surgical imaging of peripheral nerves. Systemic delivery of an anti-ganglioside mAb was used for selective intraneuronal/axonal delivery of fluorescent agents to visualize nerves by surgical imaging in living mice. In this study, we show that intact motor, sensory, and autonomic nerve fibers/paths are distinctly labeled following a single nanomolar systemic injection of fluorescently labeled anti-ganglioside mAb. Tissue biodistribution studies with radiolabeled mAb were used to validate neuronal uptake of fluorescently labeled mAb. Implications of this proof of concept study are that fluorescent conjugates of anti-ganglioside mAbs are valuable delivery vectors to visualize nerves during surgery to avoid nerve injury and monitor nerve degeneration and regeneration after injury. These findings support that antibodies, and their derivatives/fragments, can be used as selective neuronal delivery vector for transport of various cargos to PNS in preclinical and clinical settings. PMID:26514366

  17. Autonomous power system brassboard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merolla, Anthony

    1992-10-01

    The Autonomous Power System (APS) brassboard is a 20 kHz power distribution system which has been developed at NASA Lewis Research Center, Cleveland, Ohio. The brassboard exists to provide a realistic hardware platform capable of testing artificially intelligent (AI) software. The brassboard's power circuit topology is based upon a Power Distribution Control Unit (PDCU), which is a subset of an advanced development 20 kHz electrical power system (EPS) testbed, originally designed for Space Station Freedom (SSF). The APS program is designed to demonstrate the application of intelligent software as a fault detection, isolation, and recovery methodology for space power systems. This report discusses both the hardware and software elements used to construct the present configuration of the brassboard. The brassboard power components are described. These include the solid-state switches (herein referred to as switchgear), transformers, sources, and loads. Closely linked to this power portion of the brassboard is the first level of embedded control. Hardware used to implement this control and its associated software is discussed. An Ada software program, developed by Lewis Research Center's Space Station Freedom Directorate for their 20 kHz testbed, is used to control the brassboard's switchgear, as well as monitor key brassboard parameters through sensors located within these switches. The Ada code is downloaded from a PC/AT, and is resident within the 8086 microprocessor-based embedded controllers. The PC/AT is also used for smart terminal emulation, capable of controlling the switchgear as well as displaying data from them. Intelligent control is provided through use of a T1 Explorer and the Autonomous Power Expert (APEX) LISP software. Real-time load scheduling is implemented through use of a 'C' program-based scheduling engine. The methods of communication between these computers and the brassboard are explored. In order to evaluate the features of both the

  18. Autonomous power system brassboard

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merolla, Anthony

    1992-01-01

    The Autonomous Power System (APS) brassboard is a 20 kHz power distribution system which has been developed at NASA Lewis Research Center, Cleveland, Ohio. The brassboard exists to provide a realistic hardware platform capable of testing artificially intelligent (AI) software. The brassboard's power circuit topology is based upon a Power Distribution Control Unit (PDCU), which is a subset of an advanced development 20 kHz electrical power system (EPS) testbed, originally designed for Space Station Freedom (SSF). The APS program is designed to demonstrate the application of intelligent software as a fault detection, isolation, and recovery methodology for space power systems. This report discusses both the hardware and software elements used to construct the present configuration of the brassboard. The brassboard power components are described. These include the solid-state switches (herein referred to as switchgear), transformers, sources, and loads. Closely linked to this power portion of the brassboard is the first level of embedded control. Hardware used to implement this control and its associated software is discussed. An Ada software program, developed by Lewis Research Center's Space Station Freedom Directorate for their 20 kHz testbed, is used to control the brassboard's switchgear, as well as monitor key brassboard parameters through sensors located within these switches. The Ada code is downloaded from a PC/AT, and is resident within the 8086 microprocessor-based embedded controllers. The PC/AT is also used for smart terminal emulation, capable of controlling the switchgear as well as displaying data from them. Intelligent control is provided through use of a T1 Explorer and the Autonomous Power Expert (APEX) LISP software. Real-time load scheduling is implemented through use of a 'C' program-based scheduling engine. The methods of communication between these computers and the brassboard are explored. In order to evaluate the features of both the

  19. Nerve-pulse interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, A.C.

    1982-01-01

    Some recent experimental and theoretical results on mechanisms through which individual nerve pulses can interact are reviewed. Three modes of interactions are considered: (1) interaction of pulses as they travel along a single fiber which leads to velocity dispersion; (2) propagation of pairs of pulses through a branching region leading to quantum pulse code transformations; and (3) interaction of pulses on parallel fibers through which they may form a pulse assembly. This notion is analogous to Hebb's concept of a cell assembly, but on a lower level of the neural hierarchy.

  20. Autonomic Dysregulation in Multiple Sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Pintér, Alexandra; Cseh, Domonkos; Sárközi, Adrienn; Illigens, Ben M; Siepmann, Timo

    2015-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic, progressive central neurological disease characterized by inflammation and demyelination. In patients with MS, dysregulation of the autonomic nervous system may present with various clinical symptoms including sweating abnormalities, urinary dysfunction, orthostatic dysregulation, gastrointestinal symptoms, and sexual dysfunction. These autonomic disturbances reduce the quality of life of affected patients and constitute a clinical challenge to the physician due to variability of clinical presentation and inconsistent data on diagnosis and treatment. Early diagnosis and initiation of individualized interdisciplinary and multimodal strategies is beneficial in the management of autonomic dysfunction in MS. This review summarizes the current literature on the most prevalent aspects of autonomic dysfunction in MS and provides reference to underlying pathophysiological mechanisms as well as means of diagnosis and treatment. PMID:26213927

  1. Autonomic closure for turbulence simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, Ryan N.; Hamlington, Peter E.; Dahm, Werner J. A.

    2016-03-01

    A new approach to turbulence closure is presented that eliminates the need to specify a predefined turbulence model and instead provides for fully adaptive, self-optimizing, autonomic closures. The closure is autonomic in the sense that the simulation itself determines the optimal local, instantaneous relation between any unclosed term and resolved quantities through the solution of a nonlinear, nonparametric system identification problem. This nonparametric approach allows the autonomic closure to freely adapt to varying nonlinear, nonlocal, nonequilibrium, and other turbulence characteristics in the flow. Even a simple implementation of the autonomic closure for large eddy simulations provides remarkably more accurate results in a priori tests than do dynamic versions of traditional prescribed closures.

  2. Autonomic closure for turbulence simulations.

    PubMed

    King, Ryan N; Hamlington, Peter E; Dahm, Werner J A

    2016-03-01

    A new approach to turbulence closure is presented that eliminates the need to specify a predefined turbulence model and instead provides for fully adaptive, self-optimizing, autonomic closures. The closure is autonomic in the sense that the simulation itself determines the optimal local, instantaneous relation between any unclosed term and resolved quantities through the solution of a nonlinear, nonparametric system identification problem. This nonparametric approach allows the autonomic closure to freely adapt to varying nonlinear, nonlocal, nonequilibrium, and other turbulence characteristics in the flow. Even a simple implementation of the autonomic closure for large eddy simulations provides remarkably more accurate results in a priori tests than do dynamic versions of traditional prescribed closures. PMID:27078285

  3. Autonomic disorders predicting Parkinson disease

    PubMed Central

    Palma, Jose-Alberto; Kaufmann, Horacio

    2014-01-01

    It is now well recognized that there is a premotor phase of Parkinson disease with hyposmia and REM sleep behavior disorder caused by degeneration of specific CNS neurons. Most patients with PD describe autonomic symptoms at the time of diagnosis suggesting that these features may have potential sensitivity as clinical biomarkers of the premotor phase. The recognition that damage to peripheral autonomic neurons is present in the early stages of Parkinson disease has led to a search for specific abnormalities in autonomic function that could serve as predictive biomarkers. There is evidence that constipation, urinary and sexual dysfunction and more recently decreased cardiac chronotropic response during exercise, are part of the premotor parkinsonian phenotype. The sensitivity and specificity of these features has yet to be accurately assessed. We briefly review the evidence for autonomic dysfunction as biomarkers of premotor PD. PMID:24262198

  4. Autonomic Dysregulation in Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Pintér, Alexandra; Cseh, Domonkos; Sárközi, Adrienn; Illigens, Ben M.; Siepmann, Timo

    2015-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic, progressive central neurological disease characterized by inflammation and demyelination. In patients with MS, dysregulation of the autonomic nervous system may present with various clinical symptoms including sweating abnormalities, urinary dysfunction, orthostatic dysregulation, gastrointestinal symptoms, and sexual dysfunction. These autonomic disturbances reduce the quality of life of affected patients and constitute a clinical challenge to the physician due to variability of clinical presentation and inconsistent data on diagnosis and treatment. Early diagnosis and initiation of individualized interdisciplinary and multimodal strategies is beneficial in the management of autonomic dysfunction in MS. This review summarizes the current literature on the most prevalent aspects of autonomic dysfunction in MS and provides reference to underlying pathophysiological mechanisms as well as means of diagnosis and treatment. PMID:26213927

  5. ISS Update: Autonomous Mission Operations

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA Public Affairs Officer Brandi Dean interviews Jeff Mauldin, Simulation Supervisor for Autonomous Mission Operations at Johnson Space Center in Houston, Texas. Ask us on Twitter @NASA_Johnson a...

  6. Autonomous Landing Hazard Avoidance Technology

    NASA Video Gallery

    Future NASA space crafts will be able to safely land on the Moon, Marsand even an asteroid, in potentially hazardous terrain areas, allautonomously. And NASA’s Autonomous Landing Hazard Avoidan...

  7. Autonomous avoidance based on motion delay of master-slave surgical robot.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Shintaro; Toyoda, Kazutaka; Kobayashi, Yo; Fujie, Masakatsu G

    2009-01-01

    Safe use of master-slave robots for endoscopic surgery requires autonomous motions to avert contact with vital organs, blood vessels, and nerves. Here we describe an avoidance control algorithm with delay compensation that takes the dynamic characteristics of the robot into account. To determine the operating parameters, we measured frequency characteristics of each joint of the slave-manipulator. The results suggest this delay compensation program improves avoidance performance. PMID:19964112

  8. Autonomous Gaussian Decomposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindner, Robert R.; Vera-Ciro, Carlos; Murray, Claire E.; Stanimirović, Snežana; Babler, Brian; Heiles, Carl; Hennebelle, Patrick; Goss, W. M.; Dickey, John

    2015-04-01

    We present a new algorithm, named Autonomous Gaussian Decomposition (AGD), for automatically decomposing spectra into Gaussian components. AGD uses derivative spectroscopy and machine learning to provide optimized guesses for the number of Gaussian components in the data, and also their locations, widths, and amplitudes. We test AGD and find that it produces results comparable to human-derived solutions on 21 cm absorption spectra from the 21 cm SPectral line Observations of Neutral Gas with the EVLA (21-SPONGE) survey. We use AGD with Monte Carlo methods to derive the H i line completeness as a function of peak optical depth and velocity width for the 21-SPONGE data, and also show that the results of AGD are stable against varying observational noise intensity. The autonomy and computational efficiency of the method over traditional manual Gaussian fits allow for truly unbiased comparisons between observations and simulations, and for the ability to scale up and interpret the very large data volumes from the upcoming Square Kilometer Array and pathfinder telescopes.

  9. Autonomous landing guidance program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, John A.

    1996-05-01

    The Autonomous Landing Guidance program is partly funded by the US Government under the Technology Reinvestment Project. The program consortium consists of avionics and other equipment vendors, airlines and the USAF. A Sextant Avionique HUD is used to present flight symbology in cursive form as well as millimeter wave radar imagery from Lear Astronics equipment and FLIR Systems dual-channel, forward-looking, infrared imagery. All sensor imagery is presented in raster form. A future aim is to fuse all imagery data into a single presentation. Sensor testing has been accomplished in a Cessna 402 operated by the Maryland Advanced Development Laboratory. Development testing is under way in a Northwest Airlines simulator equipped with HUD and image simulation. Testing is also being carried out using United Airlines Boeing 727 and USAF C-135C (Boeing 707) test aircraft. The paper addresses the technology utilized in sensory and display systems as well as modifications made to accommodate the elements in the aircraft. Additions to the system test aircraft include global positioning systems, inertial navigation systems and extensive data collection equipment. Operational philosophy and benefits for both civil and military users are apparent. Approach procedures have been developed allowing use of Category 1 ground installations in Category 3 conditions.

  10. Autonomous underwater barcode recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulze, Karl R.

    2003-11-01

    Wide area symbol recognition is a task that plagues many autonomous vehicles. A process is needed first to recognize if the symbol is present, and if so where it is. Once the symbol's position is detected it must be analyzed and recognized. In this scenario we have a submersible attempting to locate man made objects on the bottom of a large water basin. These man made objects have bar codes on them that need to be read and the position of the code needs to be recorded relative to where it is in the entire pond. A two step process has been developed to allow the position recognition within a frame to be dealt with on a separate DSP associated with one of three total cameras. The object recognition is then dealt with on a high speed computer aboard the vehicle to read the proper code. The reading is done using a statistics based approach that assumes a noisy, but contrasting background. This approach has proven to be effective in environments in which the background has very little ordered noise, such as the bottom of lakes and ponds, but requires very high clarity in order to capture a suitable image.

  11. Autonomous mission operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frank, J.; Spirkovska, L.; McCann, R.; Wang, Lui; Pohlkamp, K.; Morin, L.

    NASA's Advanced Exploration Systems Autonomous Mission Operations (AMO) project conducted an empirical investigation of the impact of time delay on today's mission operations, and of the effect of processes and mission support tools designed to mitigate time-delay related impacts. Mission operation scenarios were designed for NASA's Deep Space Habitat (DSH), an analog spacecraft habitat, covering a range of activities including nominal objectives, DSH system failures, and crew medical emergencies. The scenarios were simulated at time delay values representative of Lunar (1.2-5 sec), Near Earth Object (NEO) (50 sec) and Mars (300 sec) missions. Each combination of operational scenario and time delay was tested in a Baseline configuration, designed to reflect present-day operations of the International Space Station, and a Mitigation configuration in which a variety of software tools, information displays, and crew-ground communications protocols were employed to assist both crews and Flight Control Team (FCT) members with the long-delay conditions. Preliminary findings indicate: 1) Workload of both crewmembers and FCT members generally increased along with increasing time delay. 2) Advanced procedure execution viewers, caution and warning tools, and communications protocols such as text messaging decreased the workload of both flight controllers and crew, and decreased the difficulty of coordinating activities. 3) Whereas crew workload ratings increased between 50 sec and 300 sec of time delay in the Baseline configuration, workload ratings decreased (or remained flat) in the Mitigation configuration.

  12. Simple autonomous Mars walker

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larimer, Stanley J.; Lisec, Thomas R.; Spiessbach, Andrew J.

    1989-01-01

    Under a contract with NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Martin Marietta has developed several alternative rover concepts for unmanned exploration of the planet Mars. One of those concepts, the 'Walking Beam', is the subject of this paper. This concept was developed with the goal of achieving many of the capabilities of more sophisticated articulated-leg walkers with a much simpler, more robust, less computationally demanding and more power efficient design. It consists of two large-base tripods nested one within the other which alternately translate with respect to each other along a 5-meter beam to propel the vehicle. The semiautonomous navigation system relies on terrain geometry sensors and tacticle feedback from each foot to autonomously select a path which avoids hazards along a route designated from earth. Both mobility and navigation features of this concept are discussed including a top-level description of the vehicle's physical characteristics, deployment strategy, mobility elements, sensor suite, theory of operation, navigation and control processes, and estimated performance.

  13. Is paramecium swimming autonomic?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bandyopadhyay, Promode R.; Toplosky, Norman; Hansen, Joshua

    2010-11-01

    We seek to explore if the swimming of paramecium has an underlying autonomic mechanism. Such robotic elements may be useful in capturing the disturbance field in an environment in real time. Experimental evidence is emerging that motion control neurons of other animals may be present in paramecium as well. The limit cycle determined using analog simulation of the coupled nonlinear oscillators of olivo-cerebellar dynamics (ieee joe 33, 563-578, 2008) agrees with the tracks of the cilium of a biological paramecium. A 4-motor apparatus has been built that reproduces the kinematics of the cilium motion. The motion of the biological cilium has been analyzed and compared with the results of the finite element modeling of forces on a cilium. The modeling equates applied torque at the base of the cilium with drag, the cilium stiffness being phase dependent. A low friction pendulum apparatus with a multiplicity of electromagnetic actuators is being built for verifying the maps of the attractor basin computed using the olivo-cerebellar dynamics for different initial conditions. Sponsored by ONR 33.

  14. Autonomous Aerobraking at Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanna, Jill L.; Tolson, Robert; Cianciolo, Alicia Dwyer; Dec, John

    2002-01-01

    Aerobraking has become a proven approach for orbital missions at Mars. A launch of a 1000 kg class spacecraft on a Delta class booster saves 90% of the post-MOI fuel otherwise required to circularize the orbit. In 1997, Mars Global Surveyor demonstrated the feasibility and Mars 2001 Odyssey completed a nearly trouble free aerobraking phase in January 2002. In 2006, Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter will also utilize aerobraking. From the flight operations standpoint, however, aerobraking is labor intensive and high risk due to the large density variability in the Mars thermosphere. The maximum rate of aerobraking is typically limited by the maximum allowable temperature of the solar array which is the primary drag surface. Prior missions have used a surrogate variable, usually maximum free stream heat flux, as a basis for performing periapsis altitude corridor control maneuvers. This paper provides an adaptive sequential method for operationally relating measured temperatures to heat flux profile characteristics and performing maneuvers based directly on measured temperatures and atmospheric properties derived from the heat flux profiles. Simulations of autonomous aerobraking are performed using Odyssey mission data.

  15. Autonomous production of propellants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramohalli, Kumar; Schallhorn, P. A.

    1990-01-01

    The autonomous production of propellants is addressed. Since 80 to 90 percent of a spacecraft's mass is typically propellants, it is advantageous to produce propellants in strategic locations en route to, and at, the desired mission destination. This reduces the weight of the spacecraft and the cost of each mission. Since one of the primary goals of the space program is safety, a totally automated propellant production system is desirable. This system would remove, from hostile, high-risk extraterrestrial environments, the constant human intervention currently required in the production of many propellants. This enables the exploration of space to be more than the search for and production of fuel. As a proof-of-concept demonstration, one specific case was chosen for this study. That case was a composite propellant processor (the principle is more important than the application), and the specific processor used saved SERC the considerable cost of acquiring a new liquid propellant processor that would also have required similar automation.

  16. Autonomous Mission Operations Roadmap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frank, Jeremy David

    2014-01-01

    As light time delays increase, the number of such situations in which crew autonomy is the best way to conduct the mission is expected to increase. However, there are significant open questions regarding which functions to allocate to ground and crew as the time delays increase. In situations where the ideal solution is to allocate responsibility to the crew and the vehicle, a second question arises: should the activity be the responsibility of the crew or an automated vehicle function? More specifically, we must answer the following questions: What aspects of mission operation responsibilities (Plan, Train, Fly) should be allocated to ground based or vehicle based planning, monitoring, and control in the presence of significant light-time delay between the vehicle and the Earth?How should the allocated ground based planning, monitoring, and control be distributed across the flight control team and ground system automation? How should the allocated vehicle based planning, monitoring, and control be distributed between the flight crew and onboard system automation?When during the mission should responsibility shift from flight control team to crew or from crew to vehicle, and what should the process of shifting responsibility be as the mission progresses? NASA is developing a roadmap of capabilities for Autonomous Mission Operations for human spaceflight. This presentation will describe the current state of development of this roadmap, with specific attention to in-space inspection tasks that crews might perform with minimum assistance from the ground.

  17. Autonomous power system: Integrated scheduling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ringer, Mark J.

    1992-01-01

    The Autonomous Power System (APS) project at NASA Lewis Research Center is designed to demonstrate the abilities of integrated intelligent diagnosis, control and scheduling techniques to space power distribution hardware. The project consists of three elements: the Autonomous Power Expert System (APEX) for fault diagnosis, isolation, and recovery (FDIR), the Autonomous Intelligent Power Scheduler (AIPS) to determine system configuration, and power hardware (Brassboard) to simulate a space-based power system. Faults can be introduced into the Brassboard and in turn, be diagnosed and corrected by APEX and AIPS. The Autonomous Intelligent Power Scheduler controls the execution of loads attached to the Brassboard. Each load must be executed in a manner that efficiently utilizes available power and satisfies all load, resource, and temporal constraints. In the case of a fault situation on the Brassboard, AIPS dynamically modifies the existing schedule in order to resume efficient operation conditions. A database is kept of the power demand, temporal modifiers, priority of each load, and the power level of each source. AIPS uses a set of heuristic rules to assign start times and resources to each load based on load and resource constraints. A simple improvement engine based upon these heuristics is also available to improve the schedule efficiency. This paper describes the operation of the Autonomous Intelligent Power Scheduler as a single entity, as well as its integration with APEX and the Brassboard. Future plans are discussed for the growth of the Autonomous Intelligent Power Scheduler.

  18. Advanced technologies and novel neurostimulation targets in trigeminal autonomic cephalalgias.

    PubMed

    Lambru, Giorgio; Giakoumakis, Emmanouil; Al-Kaisy, Adnan

    2015-05-01

    The trigeminal autonomic cephalalgias (TACs) are a group of rare but disabling primary headache disorders. Their management is challenging, since only few effective treatments are available and high doses may be required to control the headache, compromising patients' adherence to treatments. A significant minority of patients, who fail to respond to or tolerate established treatments, are left with enormous level of disability and disruption to their quality of life. A growing body of evidence demonstrates the efficacy of central and peripheral neuromodulation approaches for management of patients with refractory TACs. In view of the potential risks related to deep brain stimulation of the posterior hypothalamic region, occipital nerve stimulation is currently considered the first treatment option for refractory chronic TACs. However, in view of the presence of paraesthesia induced by the stimulator, no robust controlled trials have been possible so far. Additionally, the equipment used for occipital nerve stimulation is not designed specifically for peripheral nerve stimulation, thus a significant proportion of patients experience device-related complications that often require surgical revisions. To overcome these issues, new neurostimulation technologies using less invasive or non-invasive approaches and modulating different neuroanatomical targets have been recently studied. PMID:26017527

  19. Subacute autonomic and sensory neuropathy closely related to cytomegalovirus infection preceded by frequent syncopal attacks.

    PubMed

    Nakao, Koichi; Namekawa, Michito; Kondo, Soichi; Ono, Sayaka; Nakano, Imaharu

    2016-08-31

    A 73-year-old woman who had hypertension developed a slight fever and general malaise with laboratory-proven hepatic dysfunction as well as frequent syncopal attacks 3 months before admission to our hospital. One month later, she developed urinary retention and distal limb numbness. Upon admission, her neurological examination showed reduced limb tendon reflexes, glove and stocking-type numbness, and diminished senses of touch, temperature, pain, and distal leg vibration and position. Serum cytomegalovirus (CMV) IgM antibody and CMV IgG antibody were elevated on admission, and both decreased thereafter, confirming CMV infection. No serum anti-ganglioside antibody was detected. Cerebrospinal fluid revealed a mild pleocytosis and elevated proteins. Compound muscle action potential (CMAP) amplitudes of the tibial and peroneal nerve were slightly reduced. Sensory nerve action potential (SNAP) amplitudes of the median and ulnar nerves were reduced, and sural SNAP was not evoked. Systolic blood pressure dropped 48 mmHg when the patient assumed a standing position from a supine one, demonstrating orthostatic hypotension, and a cold pressor test was abnormal, both indicating an obvious hypofunction of the sympathetic nerve. The postganglionic autonomic nerve appeared to be damaged because the accumulation of [(123)I] meta-iodobenzylguanidine was reduced on myocardial scintigraphy. These findings combined together led us to make a diagnosis of subacute autonomic and sensory neuropathy associated with CMV infection in this case. Following an eventless administration of oral fludrocortisones, intravenous immuno-globulin (IVIg) was given after one month of the hospitalization with a remarkable reduction of the syncope. This case is instructive in two points. One is that there may be a couple of months with syncope alone before the sensory disturbance appearance, and the other is that IVIg may be considerably effective for the patient-annoying syncopes. To our knowledge, this

  20. Enabling Autonomous Rover Science through Dynamic Planning and Scheduling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estlin, Tara A.; Gaines, Daniel; Chouinard, Caroline; Fisher, Forest; Castano, Rebecca; Judd, Michele; Nesnas, Issa

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes how dynamic planning and scheduling techniques can be used onboard a rover to autonomously adjust rover activities in support of science goals. These goals could be identified by scientists on the ground or could be identified by onboard data-analysis software. Several different types of dynamic decisions are described, including the handling of opportunistic science goals identified during rover traverses, preserving high priority science targets when resources, such as power, are unexpectedly over-subscribed, and dynamically adding additional, ground-specified science targets when rover actions are executed more quickly than expected. After describing our specific system approach, we discuss some of the particular challenges we have examined to support autonomous rover decision-making. These include interaction with rover navigation and path-planning software and handling large amounts of uncertainty in state and resource estimations.

  1. Device-Based Approaches to Modulate the Autonomic Nervous System and Cardiac Electrophysiology

    PubMed Central

    Hucker, William J; Singh, Jagmeet P; Parks, Kimberly

    2014-01-01

    Alterations in resting autonomic tone can be pathogenic in many cardiovascular disease states, such as heart failure and hypertension. Indeed, autonomic modulation by way of beta-blockade is a standard treatment of these conditions. There is a significant interest in developing non-pharmacological methods of autonomic modulation as well. For instance, clinical trials of vagal stimulation and spinal cord stimulation in the treatment of heart failure are currently underway, and renal denervation has been studied recently in the treatment of resistant hypertension. Notably, autonomic stimulation is also a potent modulator of cardiac electrophysiology. Manipulating the autonomic nervous system in studies designed to treat heart failure and hypertension have revealed that autonomic modulation may have a role in the treatment of common atrial and ventricular arrhythmias as well. Experimental data on vagal nerve and spinal cord stimulation suggest that each technique may reduce ventricular arrhythmias. Similarly, renal denervation may play a role in the treatment of atrial fibrillation, as well as in controlling refractory ventricular arrhythmias. In this review, we present the current experimental and clinical data on the effect of these therapeutic modalities on cardiac electrophysiology and their potential role in arrhythmia management. PMID:26835062

  2. Optical coherence tomography of the prostate nerves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chitchian, Shahab

    Preservation of the cavernous nerves during prostate cancer surgery is critical in preserving a man's ability to have spontaneous erections following surgery. These microscopic nerves course along the surface of the prostate within a few millimeters of the prostate capsule, and they vary in size and location from one patient to another, making preservation of the nerves difficult during dissection and removal of a cancerous prostate gland. These observations may explain in part the wide variability in reported sexual potency rates (9--86%) following prostate cancer surgery. Any technology capable of providing improved identification, imaging, and visualization of the cavernous nerves during prostate cancer surgery would be of great assistance in improving sexual function after surgery, and result in direct patient benefit. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a noninvasive optical imaging technique capable of performing high-resolution cross-sectional in vivo and in situ imaging of microstructures in biological tissues. OCT imaging of the cavernous nerves in the rat and human prostate has recently been demonstrated. However, improvements in the OCT system and the quality of the images for identification of the cavernous nerves is necessary before clinical use. The following chapters describe complementary approaches to improving identification and imaging of the cavernous nerves during OCT of the prostate gland. After the introduction to OCT imaging of the prostate gland, the optimal wavelength for deep imaging of the prostate is studied in Chapter 2. An oblique-incidence single point measurement technique using a normal-detector scanning system was implemented to determine the absorption and reduced scattering coefficients, mua and m's , of fresh canine prostate tissue, ex vivo, from the diffuse reflectance profile of near-IR light as a function of source-detector distance. The effective attenuation coefficient, mueff, and the Optical Penetration Depth (OPD) were

  3. A History Worth Preserving

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelly, Cynthia

    2008-04-01

    The Manhattan Project transformed the course of American and world history, science, politics and society. If we can read about this in books and watch History Channel documentaries, why do we need to preserve some of the properties of this enormous undertaking? The presentation, ``A History Worth Preserving,'' will address why some of the physical properties need to be preserved and which ones we are struggling to maintain for future generations. The story of this effort begins in 1997 as the Department of Energy was posed to demolish the last remaining Manhattan Project properties at the Los Alamos laboratory. Located deep behind security fences, the ``V Site's'' asbestos-shingled wooden buildings looked like humble garages with over-sized wooden doors. The ``V Site'' properties were almost lost twice, first to bulldozers and then the Cerro Grande fire of 2000. Now, visitors can stand inside the building where J. Robert Oppenheimer and his crew once worked and imagine the Trinity ``gadget'' hanging from its hoist shortly before it ushered in the Atomic Age on July 16, 1945. As Richard Rhodes has commented, we preserve what we value of the physical past because it specifically embodies our social past. But many challenge whether the Manhattan Project properties ought to be preserved. Rather than recognize the Manhattan Project as a great achievement worthy of commemoration, some see it as a regrettable event, producing an instrument to take man's inhumanity to man to extremes. While these divergent views will no doubt persist, the significance of the Manhattan Project in producing the world's first atomic bombs is irrefutable. Preserving some of its tangible remains is essential so that future generations can understand what the undertaking entailed from its humble wooden sheds to enormous first-of-a-kind industrial plants with 125,000 people working in secret and living in frontier-like communities. With continuing pressure for their demolition, what progress has

  4. Peripheral nerve conduits: technology update

    PubMed Central

    Arslantunali, D; Dursun, T; Yucel, D; Hasirci, N; Hasirci, V

    2014-01-01

    Peripheral nerve injury is a worldwide clinical problem which could lead to loss of neuronal communication along sensory and motor nerves between the central nervous system (CNS) and the peripheral organs and impairs the quality of life of a patient. The primary requirement for the treatment of complete lesions is a tension-free, end-to-end repair. When end-to-end repair is not possible, peripheral nerve grafts or nerve conduits are used. The limited availability of autografts, and drawbacks of the allografts and xenografts like immunological reactions, forced the researchers to investigate and develop alternative approaches, mainly nerve conduits. In this review, recent information on the various types of conduit materials (made of biological and synthetic polymers) and designs (tubular, fibrous, and matrix type) are being presented. PMID:25489251

  5. Transgenic BDNF induces nerve fiber regrowth into the auditory epithelium in deaf cochleae.

    PubMed

    Shibata, Seiji B; Cortez, Sarah R; Beyer, Lisa A; Wiler, James A; Di Polo, Adriana; Pfingst, Bryan E; Raphael, Yehoash

    2010-06-01

    Sensory organs typically use receptor cells and afferent neurons to transduce environmental signals and transmit them to the CNS. When sensory cells are lost, nerves often regress from the sensory area. Therapeutic and regenerative approaches would benefit from the presence of nerve fibers in the tissue. In the hearing system, retraction of afferent innervation may accompany the degeneration of auditory hair cells that is associated with permanent hearing loss. The only therapy currently available for cases with severe or complete loss of hair cells is the cochlear implant auditory prosthesis. To enhance the therapeutic benefits of a cochlear implant, it is necessary to attract nerve fibers back into the cochlear epithelium. Here we show that forced expression of the neurotrophin gene BDNF in epithelial or mesothelial cells that remain in the deaf ear induces robust regrowth of nerve fibers towards the cells that secrete the neurotrophin, and results in re-innervation of the sensory area. The process of neurotrophin-induced neuronal regeneration is accompanied by significant preservation of the spiral ganglion cells. The ability to regrow nerve fibers into the basilar membrane area and protect the auditory nerve will enhance performance of cochlear implants and augment future cell replacement therapies such as stem cell implantation or induced transdifferentiation. This model also provides a general experimental stage for drawing nerve fibers into a tissue devoid of neurons, and studying the interaction between the nerve fibers and the tissue. PMID:20109446

  6. Transgenic BDNF induces nerve fiber regrowth into the auditory epithelium in deaf cochleae

    PubMed Central

    Shibata, Seiji B.; Cortez, Sarah R.; Beyer, Lisa A.; Wiler, Jim A.; Di Polo, Adriana; Pfingst, Bryan E.; Raphael, Yehoash

    2010-01-01

    Sensory organs typically use receptor cells and afferent neurons to transduce environmental signals and transmit them to the CNS. When sensory cells are lost, nerves often regress from the sensory area. Therapeutic and regenerative approaches would benefit from the presence of nerve fibers in the tissue. In the hearing system, retraction of afferent innervation may accompany the degeneration of auditory hair cells that is associated with permanent hearing loss. The only therapy currently available for cases with severe or complete loss of hair cells is the cochlear implant auditory prosthesis. To enhance the therapeutic benefits of a cochlear implant, it is necessary to attract nerve fibers back into the cochlear epithelium. Here we show that forced expression of the neurotrophin gene BDNF in epithelial or mesothelial cells that remain in the deaf ear, induces robust regrowth of nerve fibers towards the cells that secrete the neurotrophin, and results in re-innervation of the sensory area. The process of neurotrophin-induced neuronal regeneration is accompanied by significant preservation of the spiral ganglion cells. The ability to regrow nerve fibers into the basilar membrane area and protect the auditory nerve will enhance performance of cochlear implants and augment future cell replacement therapies such as stem cell implantation or induced transdifferentiation. This model also provides a general experimental stage for drawing nerve fibers into a tissue devoid of neurons, and studying the interaction between the nerve fibers and the tissue. PMID:20109446

  7. Acrolein depletes the neuropeptides CGRP and substance P in sensory nerves in rat respiratory tract.

    PubMed Central

    Springall, D R; Edginton, J A; Price, P N; Swanston, D W; Noel, C; Bloom, S R; Polak, J M

    1990-01-01

    The mammalian respiratory tract is densely innervated by autonomic and sensory nerves around airways and blood vessels. Subsets of these nerves contain a number of putative neurotransmitter peptides, such as substance P and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) in sensory nerves and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP), possibly serving autonomic functions. CGRP is also found in endocrine cells in rat airway epithelium. These peptides are all pharmacologically potent effectors of bronchial and vascular smooth muscle and bronchial secretion. Their functions in vivo are less well established. We have therefore examined the effects of inhaled acrolein, a sensory irritant, on three pulmonary neuropeptides: CGRP, substance P, and VIP. Groups of rats (n = 3 each) were exposed for 10 min to acrolein in air (Ct = 510, 1858, and 5693 mg.min/m3) or to air alone. Fifteen minutes later they were killed (pentabarbitone IP) and their respiratory tracts were dissected and fixed in 0.4% p-benzoquinone solution. Cryostat sections were stained by indirect immunofluorescence for a general nerve marker (PGP 9.5) and neuropeptides. The acrolein-treated animals had a dose-related decrease in tracheal substance P- and CGRP-immunoreactive nerve fibers compared with controls. No change was seen in total nerve fiber distribution and number (PGP 9.5) or VIP immunoreactivity, nor in CGRP-immunoreactive epithelial endocrine cells. It is concluded that the rat tracheal peptidergic nerves are a sensitive indicator of inhaled irritant substances. Their reduced immunoreactivity may be because of a release of sensory neuropeptides that could play a role in the physiological response to irritant or toxic compounds. Images FIGURE 4. a FIGURE 4. b FIGURE 5. a FIGURE 5. b FIGURE 6. a FIGURE 6. b FIGURE 7. a FIGURE 7. b FIGURE 7. c FIGURE 8. a FIGURE 8. b PMID:1696540

  8. Ultrasound-Guided Peripheral Nerve Procedures.

    PubMed

    Strakowski, Jeffrey A

    2016-08-01

    Ultrasound guidance allows real-time visualization of the needle in peripheral nerve procedures, improving accuracy and safety. Sonographic visualization of the peripheral nerve and surrounding anatomy can provide valuable information for diagnostic purposes and procedure enhancement. Common procedures discussed are the suprascapular nerve at the suprascapular notch, deep branch of the radial nerve at the supinator, median nerve at the pronator teres and carpal tunnel, lateral cutaneous nerve of the thigh, superficial fibular nerve at the leg, tibial nerve at the ankle, and interdigital neuroma. For each procedure, the indications, relevant anatomy, preprocedural scanning technique, and injection procedure itself are detailed. PMID:27468673

  9. Sympathetic preganglionic efferent and afferent neurons mediated by the greater splanchnic nerve in rabbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Torigoe, Yasuhiro; Cernucan, Roxana D.; Nishimoto, Jo Ann S.; Blanks, Robert H. I.

    1985-01-01

    As a part of the study of the vestibular-autonomic pathways involved in motion sickness, the location and the morphology of preganglionic sympathetic neurons (PSNs) projecting via the greater splanchnic nerve were examined. Retrograde labeling of neurons was obtained by application of horseradish peroxidase to the cut end of the greater splanchnic nerve. Labeled PSNs were found, ipsilaterally, within the T1 to T11 spinal cord segments, with the highest density of neurons in T6. Most PSNs were located within the intermediolateral column, but a significant portion also occurred within the lateral funiculus, the intercalated region, and the central autonomic area; the proportion of labeling between the four regions depended on the spinal cord segment.

  10. Autonomous Byte Stream Randomizer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paloulian, George K.; Woo, Simon S.; Chow, Edward T.

    2013-01-01

    Net-centric networking environments are often faced with limited resources and must utilize bandwidth as efficiently as possible. In networking environments that span wide areas, the data transmission has to be efficient without any redundant or exuberant metadata. The Autonomous Byte Stream Randomizer software provides an extra level of security on top of existing data encryption methods. Randomizing the data s byte stream adds an extra layer to existing data protection methods, thus making it harder for an attacker to decrypt protected data. Based on a generated crypto-graphically secure random seed, a random sequence of numbers is used to intelligently and efficiently swap the organization of bytes in data using the unbiased and memory-efficient in-place Fisher-Yates shuffle method. Swapping bytes and reorganizing the crucial structure of the byte data renders the data file unreadable and leaves the data in a deconstructed state. This deconstruction adds an extra level of security requiring the byte stream to be reconstructed with the random seed in order to be readable. Once the data byte stream has been randomized, the software enables the data to be distributed to N nodes in an environment. Each piece of the data in randomized and distributed form is a separate entity unreadable on its own right, but when combined with all N pieces, is able to be reconstructed back to one. Reconstruction requires possession of the key used for randomizing the bytes, leading to the generation of the same cryptographically secure random sequence of numbers used to randomize the data. This software is a cornerstone capability possessing the ability to generate the same cryptographically secure sequence on different machines and time intervals, thus allowing this software to be used more heavily in net-centric environments where data transfer bandwidth is limited.

  11. Pylorus-Preserving Gastrectomy for Gastric Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Seung-Young; Yang, Han-Kwang

    2016-01-01

    Pylorus-preserving gastrectomy (PPG) is a function-preserving surgery for the treatment of early gastric cancer (EGC), aiming to decrease the complication rate and improve postoperative quality of life. According to the Japanese gastric cancer treatment guidelines, PPG can be performed for cT1N0M0 gastric cancer located in the middle-third of the stomach, at least 4.0 cm away from the pylorus. Although the length of the antral cuff gradually increased, from 1.5 cm during the initial use of the procedure to 3.0 cm currently, its optimal length still remains unclear. Standard procedures for the preservation of pyloric function, infra-pyloric vessels, and hepatic branch of the vagus nerve, make PPG technically more difficult and raise concerns about incomplete lymph node dissection. The short- and long-term oncological and survival outcomes of PPG were comparable to those for distal gastrectomy, but with several advantages such as a lower incidence of dumping syndrome, bile reflux, and gallstone formation, and improved nutritional status. Gastric stasis, a typical complication of PPG, can be effectively treated by balloon dilatation and stent insertion. Robot-assisted pylorus-preserving gastrectomy is feasible for EGC in the middle-third of the stomach in terms of the short-term clinical outcome. However, any benefits over laparoscopy-assisted PPG (LAPPG) from the patient's perspective have not yet been proven. An ongoing Korean multicenter randomized controlled trial (KLASS-04), which compares LAPPG and laparoscopy-assisted distal gastrectomy for EGC in the middle-third of the stomach, may provide more clear evidence about the advantages and oncologic safety of PPG. PMID:27433390

  12. Pylorus-Preserving Gastrectomy for Gastric Cancer.

    PubMed

    Oh, Seung-Young; Lee, Hyuk-Joon; Yang, Han-Kwang

    2016-06-01

    Pylorus-preserving gastrectomy (PPG) is a function-preserving surgery for the treatment of early gastric cancer (EGC), aiming to decrease the complication rate and improve postoperative quality of life. According to the Japanese gastric cancer treatment guidelines, PPG can be performed for cT1N0M0 gastric cancer located in the middle-third of the stomach, at least 4.0 cm away from the pylorus. Although the length of the antral cuff gradually increased, from 1.5 cm during the initial use of the procedure to 3.0 cm currently, its optimal length still remains unclear. Standard procedures for the preservation of pyloric function, infra-pyloric vessels, and hepatic branch of the vagus nerve, make PPG technically more difficult and raise concerns about incomplete lymph node dissection. The short- and long-term oncological and survival outcomes of PPG were comparable to those for distal gastrectomy, but with several advantages such as a lower incidence of dumping syndrome, bile reflux, and gallstone formation, and improved nutritional status. Gastric stasis, a typical complication of PPG, can be effectively treated by balloon dilatation and stent insertion. Robot-assisted pylorus-preserving gastrectomy is feasible for EGC in the middle-third of the stomach in terms of the short-term clinical outcome. However, any benefits over laparoscopy-assisted PPG (LAPPG) from the patient's perspective have not yet been proven. An ongoing Korean multicenter randomized controlled trial (KLASS-04), which compares LAPPG and laparoscopy-assisted distal gastrectomy for EGC in the middle-third of the stomach, may provide more clear evidence about the advantages and oncologic safety of PPG. PMID:27433390

  13. Family Preservation & Family Functioning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCroskey, Jacquelyn; Meezan, William

    This book reports a study of the outcomes of home-based family preservation services for abusive and neglectful families in Los Angeles County. Using the Family Assessment Form, the research project evaluated services provided by two voluntary agencies, and focused on changes in family functioning between the opening and closing of services during…

  14. Preserving Southwest Virginia's Folklore.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burgin, Ramond

    1997-01-01

    Describes Southwest Virginia's rich tradition of folklore and culture and the need for its preservation. Summarizes the author's time-consuming process of preparing an inventory and indexing the vast archival collections gathered by students in American Folklore classes at Mountain Empire Community College and by the Southwest Virginia Folklore…

  15. Paints and Preservatives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Larry E.; Miller, Larry E.

    The publication contains an outline for use by agriculture teachers in developing a teaching plan for a unit on paints and preservatives. The topics included are (1) recognizing, solving, and preventing paint problems and (2) operating and using power spray painting equipment. Items presented for each topic are: the situation, (intended to inform…

  16. Preserving the Seminar Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramsey, David; Evans, Jocelyn; Levy, Meyer

    2016-01-01

    This article presents a new approach to online graduate education. With hopes of recruiting a larger cohort in order to preserve a graduate program struggling with low enrollment, we began offering a limited number of seats to students who would attend class in real time but from remote locations, using a videoconferencing platform. Unlike…

  17. Optical stimulation of the prostate nerves: A potential diagnostic technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tozburun, Serhat

    There is wide variability in sexual potency rates (9--86%) after nerve-sparing prostate cancer surgery due to limited knowledge of the location of the cavernous nerves (CN's) on the prostate surface, which are responsible for erectile function. Thus, preservation of the CN's is critical in preserving a man's ability to have spontaneous erections following surgery. Nerve-mapping devices, utilizing conventional Electrical Nerve Stimulation (ENS) techniques, have been used as intra-operative diagnostic tools to assist in preservation of the CN. However, these technologies have proven inconsistent and unreliable in identifying the CN's due to the need for physical contact, the lack of spatial selectivity, and the presence of electrical artifacts in measurements. Optical Nerve Stimulation (ONS), using pulsed infrared laser radiation, is studied as an alternative to ENS. The objective of this study is sevenfold: (1) to develop a laparoscopic laser probe for ONS of the CN's in a rat model, in vivo; (2) to demonstrate faster ONS using continuous-wave infrared laser radiation; (3) to describe and characterize the mechanism of successful ONS using alternative laser wavelengths; (4) to test a compact, inexpensive all-single-mode fiber configuration for optical stimulation of the rat CN studies; (5) to implement fiber optic beam shaping methods for comparison of Gaussian and flat-top spatial beam profiles during ONS; (6) to demonstrate successful ONS of CN's through a thin layer of fascia placed over the nerve and prostate gland; and (7) to verify the experimentally determined therapeutic window for safe and reliable ONS without thermal damage to the CN's by comparison with a computational model for thermal damage. A 5.5-Watt Thulium fiber laser operated at 1870 nm and two pigtailed, single mode, near-IR diode lasers (150-mW, 1455-nm laser and 500-mW, 1550-nm laser) were used for non-contact stimulation of the rat CN's. Successful laser stimulation, as measured by an

  18. Occipital nerve stimulation.

    PubMed

    Mammis, Antonios; Agarwal, Nitin; Mogilner, Alon Y

    2015-01-01

    Occipital nerve stimulation (ONS) is a form of neuromodulation therapy aimed at treating intractable headache and craniofacial pain. The therapy utilizes neurostimulating electrodes placed subcutaneously in the occipital region and connected to a permanently implanted programmable pulse generator identical to those used for dorsal column/spinal cord stimulation. The presumed mechanisms of action involve modulation of the trigeminocervical complex, as well as closure of the physiologic pain gate. ONS is a reversible, nondestructive therapy, which can be tailored to a patient's individual needs. Typically, candidates for successful ONS include those patients with migraines, Chiari malformation, or occipital neuralgia. However, recent MRSA infections, unrealistic expectations, and psychiatric comorbidities are generally contraindications. As with any invasive procedure, complications may occur including lead migration, infection, wound erosion, device failure, muscle spasms, and pain. The success of this therapy is dependent on careful patient selection, a preimplantation trial, meticulous implantation technique, programming strategies, and complication avoidance. PMID:25411143

  19. Stereotactic Radiotherapy for Intracranial Nonacoustic Schwannomas Including Facial Nerve Schwannoma

    SciTech Connect

    Nishioka, Kentaro; Abo, Daisuke; Aoyama, Hidefumi; Furuta, Yasushi; Onimaru, Rikiya; Onodera, Shunsuke; Sawamura, Yutaka; Ishikawa, Masayori; Fukuda, Satoshi; Shirato, Hiroki

    2009-12-01

    Purpose: Although the effectiveness of stereotactic radiosurgery for nonacoustic schwannomas is currently being assessed, there have been few studies on the efficacy of stereotactic radiotherapy (SRT) for these tumors. We investigated the long-term outcome of SRT for nonacoustic intracranial nerve schwannomas. Methods and Materials: Seventeen patients were treated between July 1994 and December 2006. Of these patients, 7 had schwannomas located in the jugular foramen, 5 in the trigeminal nerve, 4 in the facial nerve, and 1 in the oculomotor nerve. Radiotherapy was used as an initial treatment without surgery in 10 patients (59%) and after initial subtotal resection in the remaining patients. The tumor volume ranged from 0.3 to 31.3 mL (mean, 8.2 mL). The treatment dose was 40 to 54 Gy in 20 to 26 fractions. The median follow-up period was 59.5 months (range, 7.4-122.6 months). Local control was defined as stable or decreased tumor size on follow-up magnetic resonance imaging. Results: Tumor size was decreased in 3 patients, stable in 13, and increased in 1 after SRT. Regarding neurologic symptoms, 8 patients (47%) had improvement and 9 patients were unchanged. One patient had an increase in tumor size and received microsurgical resection at 32 months after irradiation. No patient had worsening of pre-existing neurologic symptoms or development of new cranial nerve deficits at the last follow-up. Conclusions: SRT is an effective alternative to surgical resection for patients with nonacoustic intracranial nerve schwannomas with respect to not only long-term local tumor control but also neuro-functional preservation.

  20. L-Ornithine intake affects sympathetic nerve outflows and reduces body weight and food intake in rats.

    PubMed

    Konishi, Yuuki; Koosaka, Yasutaka; Maruyama, Ryuutaro; Imanishi, Kazuki; Kasahara, Kazuaki; Matsuda, Ai; Akiduki, Saori; Hishida, Yukihiro; Kurata, Yasutaka; Shibamoto, Toshishige; Satomi, Jun; Tanida, Mamoru

    2015-02-01

    Ingesting the amino acid l-ornithine effectively improves lipid metabolism in humans, although it is unknown whether it affects the activities of autonomic nerves that supply the peripheral organs related to lipid metabolism, such as adipose tissues. Thus, we investigated the effects of l-ornithine ingestion on autonomic nerves that innervate adipose tissues and the feeding behaviors of rats. Intragastric injection of l-ornithine (2.5%) in urethane-anesthetized rats activated sympathetic nerve activity to white adipose tissue (WAT-SNA), and stimulated sympathetic nerve activity to brown adipose tissue (BAT-SNA). In addition, WAT-SNA responses to l-ornithine were abolished in rats with ablated abdominal vagal nerves. l-ornithine ingestion for 9 weeks also significantly reduced rats' body weight, food intake, and abdominal fat weight. Proopiomelanocortin (POMC) levels in the hypothalamus and uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) levels in brown adipose tissue were significantly increased in rats that ingested 2.5% l-ornithine for 9 weeks. These results suggested that ingested l-ornithine was taken up in the gastrointestinal organs and stimulated afferent vagal nerves and activated the central nervous system. Subsequently, increased hypothalamic POMC activated sympathetic neurotransmission to adipose tissues and accelerated energy expenditure. PMID:25526897

  1. Towards an Autonomic Cluster Management System (ACMS) with Reflex Autonomicity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Truszkowski, Walt; Hinchey, Mike; Sterritt, Roy

    2005-01-01

    Cluster computing, whereby a large number of simple processors or nodes are combined together to apparently function as a single powerful computer, has emerged as a research area in its own right. The approach offers a relatively inexpensive means of providing a fault-tolerant environment and achieving significant computational capabilities for high-performance computing applications. However, the task of manually managing and configuring a cluster quickly becomes daunting as the cluster grows in size. Autonomic computing, with its vision to provide self-management, can potentially solve many of the problems inherent in cluster management. We describe the development of a prototype Autonomic Cluster Management System (ACMS) that exploits autonomic properties in automating cluster management and its evolution to include reflex reactions via pulse monitoring.

  2. Energy/dissipation-preserving Birkhoffian multi-symplectic methods for Maxwell's equations with dissipation terms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Hongling; Li, Shengtai

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, we propose two new energy/dissipation-preserving Birkhoffian multi-symplectic methods (Birkhoffian and Birkhoffian box) for Maxwell's equations with dissipation terms. After investigating the non-autonomous and autonomous Birkhoffian formalism for Maxwell's equations with dissipation terms, we first apply a novel generating functional theory to the non-autonomous Birkhoffian formalism to propose our Birkhoffian scheme, and then implement a central box method to the autonomous Birkhoffian formalism to derive the Birkhoffian box scheme. We have obtained four formal local conservation laws and three formal energy global conservation laws. We have also proved that both of our derived schemes preserve the discrete version of the global/local conservation laws. Furthermore, the stability, dissipation and dispersion relations are also investigated for the schemes. Theoretical analysis shows that the schemes are unconditionally stable, dissipation-preserving for Maxwell's equations in a perfectly matched layer (PML) medium and have second order accuracy in both time and space. Numerical experiments for problems with exact theoretical results are given to demonstrate that the Birkhoffian multi-symplectic schemes are much more accurate in preserving energy than both the exponential finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method and traditional Hamiltonian scheme. We also solve the electromagnetic pulse (EMP) propagation problem and the numerical results show that the Birkhoffian scheme recovers the magnitude of the current source and reaction history very well even after long time propagation.

  3. Autonomous mobile robots: Vehicles with cognitive control

    SciTech Connect

    Meystel, A.

    1987-01-01

    This book explores a new rapidly developing area of robotics. It describes the state-of-the-art intelligence control, applied machine intelligence, and research and initial stages of manufacturing of autonomous mobile robots. A complete account of the theoretical and experimental results obtained during the last two decades together with some generalizations on Autonomous Mobile Systems are included in this book. Contents: Introduction; Requirements and Specifications; State-of-the-art in Autonomous Mobile Robots Area; Structure of Intelligent Mobile Autonomous System; Planner, Navigator; Pilot; Cartographer; Actuation Control; Computer Simulation of Autonomous Operation; Testing the Autonomous Mobile Robot; Conclusions; Bibliography.

  4. Nerves and fasciae in and around the paracolpium or paravaginal tissue: an immunohistochemical study using elderly donated cadavers.

    PubMed

    Hinata, Nobuyuki; Hieda, Keisuke; Sasaki, Hiromasa; Kurokawa, Tetsuji; Miyake, Hideaki; Fujisawa, Masato; Murakami, Gen; Fujimiya, Mineko

    2014-03-01

    The paracolpium or paravaginal tissue is surrounded by the vaginal wall, the pubocervical fascia and the rectovaginal septum (Denonvilliers' fascia). To clarify the configuration of nerves and fasciae in and around the paracolpium, we examined histological sections of 10 elderly cadavers. The paracolpium contained the distal part of the pelvic autonomic nerve plexus and its branches: the cavernous nerve, the nerves to the urethra and the nerves to the internal anal sphincter (NIAS). The NIAS ran postero-inferiorly along the superior fascia of the levator ani muscle to reach the longitudinal muscle layer of the rectum. In two nulliparous and one multiparous women, the pubocervical fascia and the rectovaginal septum were distinct and connected with the superior fascia of the levator at the tendinous arch of the pelvic fasciae. In these three cadavers, the pelvic plexus and its distal branches were distributed almost evenly in the paracolpium and sandwiched by the pubocervical and Denonvilliers' fasciae. By contrast, in five multiparous women, these nerves were divided into the anterosuperior group (bladder detrusor nerves) and the postero-inferior group (NIAS, cavernous and urethral nerves) by the well-developed venous plexus in combination with the fragmented or unclear fasciae. Although the small number of specimens was a major limitation of this study, we hypothesized that, in combination with destruction of the basic fascial architecture due to vaginal delivery and aging, the pelvic plexus is likely to change from a sheet-like configuration to several bundles. PMID:24693482

  5. Malignant Peripheral Nerve Sheath Tumor.

    PubMed

    James, Aaron W; Shurell, Elizabeth; Singh, Arun; Dry, Sarah M; Eilber, Fritz C

    2016-10-01

    Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor (MPNST) is the sixth most common type of soft tissue sarcoma. Most MPNSTs arise in association with a peripheral nerve or preexisting neurofibroma. Neurofibromatosis type is the most important risk factor for MPNST. Tumor size and fludeoxyglucose F 18 avidity are among the most helpful parameters to distinguish MPNST from a benign peripheral nerve sheath tumor. The histopathologic diagnosis is predominantly a diagnosis of light microscopy. Immunohistochemical stains are most helpful to distinguish high-grade MPNST from its histologic mimics. Current surgical management of high-grade MPNST is similar to that of other high-grade soft tissue sarcomas. PMID:27591499

  6. Interfaces with the peripheral nerve for the control of neuroprostheses.

    PubMed

    del Valle, Jaume; Navarro, Xavier

    2013-01-01

    Nervous system injuries lead to loss of control of sensory, motor, and autonomic functions of the affected areas of the body. Provided the high amount of people worldwide suffering from these injuries and the impact on their everyday life, numerous and different neuroprostheses and hybrid bionic systems have been developed to restore or partially mimic the lost functions. A key point for usable neuroprostheses is the electrode that interfaces the nervous system and translates not only motor orders into electrical outputs that activate the prosthesis but is also able to transform sensory information detected by the machine into signals that are transmitted to the central nervous system. Nerve electrodes have been classified with regard to their invasiveness in extraneural, intraneural, and regenerative. The more invasive is the implant the more selectivity of interfacing can be reached. However, boosting invasiveness and selectivity may also heighten nerve damage. This chapter provides a general overview of nerve electrodes as well as the state-of-the-art of their biomedical applications in neuroprosthetic systems. PMID:24093606

  7. Autonomous hazard detection and avoidance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pien, Homer

    1992-01-01

    During GFY 91, Draper Laboratory was awarded a task by NASA-JSC under contract number NAS9-18426 to study and evaluate the potential for achieving safe autonomous landings on Mars using an on-board autonomous hazard detection and avoidance (AHDA) system. This report describes the results of that study. The AHDA task had four objectives: to demonstrate, via a closed-loop simulation, the ability to autonomously select safe landing sites and the ability to maneuver to the selected site; to identify key issues in the development of AHDA systems; to produce strawman designs for AHDA sensors and algorithms; and to perform initial trade studies leading to better understanding of the effect of sensor/terrain/viewing parameters on AHDA algorithm performance. This report summarizes the progress made during the first year, with primary emphasis on describing the tools developed for simulating a closed-loop AHDA landing. Some cursory performance evaluation results are also presented.

  8. Role of Schwann cells in the regeneration of penile and peripheral nerves.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lin; Sanford, Melissa T; Xin, Zhongcheng; Lin, Guiting; Lue, Tom F

    2015-01-01

    Schwann cells (SCs) are the principal glia of the peripheral nervous system. The end point of SC development is the formation of myelinating and nonmyelinating cells which ensheath large and small diameter axons, respectively. They play an important role in axon regeneration after injury, including cavernous nerve injury that leads to erectile dysfunction (ED). Despite improvement in radical prostatectomy surgical techniques, many patients still suffer from ED postoperatively as surgical trauma causes traction injuries and local inflammatory changes in the neuronal microenvironment of the autonomic fibers innervating the penis resulting in pathophysiological alterations in the end organ. The aim of this review is to summarize contemporary evidence regarding: (1) the origin and development of SCs in the peripheral and penile nerve system; (2) Wallerian degeneration and SC plastic change following peripheral and penile nerve injury; (3) how SCs promote peripheral and penile nerve regeneration by secreting neurotrophic factors; (4) and strategies targeting SCs to accelerate peripheral nerve regeneration. We searched PubMed for articles related to these topics in both animal models and human research and found numerous studies suggesting that SCs could be a novel target for treatment of nerve injury-induced ED. PMID:25999359

  9. Localization of NADPH Oxidase in Sympathetic and Sensory Ganglion Neurons and Perivascular Nerve Fibers

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Xian; Demel, Stacie L.; Quinn, Mark T.; Galligan, James J.; Kreulen, David L.

    2009-01-01

    Superoxide anion (O2−•) production was previously reported to be increased in celiac ganglia (CG) during DOCA-salt hypertension, possibly via activation of the reduced nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase. This suggested a role for neuronal NADPH oxidase in autonomic neurovascular control. However, the expression and localization of NADPH oxidase in the peripheral neurons is not fully known. The purpose of this study was to examine the subcellular localization of NADPH oxidase in sympathetic and sensory ganglion neurons and perivascular nerve fibers. In rat CG, p22phox and neuropeptide Y (NPY) were colocalized in all neurons. P22phox was also localized to dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons that contain calcitonin gene related peptide (CGRP). In mesenteric arteries, p22phox and p47phox were colocalized with NPY or CGRP in perivascular nerve terminals. A similar pattern of nerve terminal staining of p22phox and p47phox was also found in cultured CG neurons and nerve growth factor (NGF)-differentiated PC12 cells. These data demonstrate a previously uncharacterized localization of NADPH oxidase in perivascular nerve fibers. The presence of a O2−• – generating enzyme in close vicinity to the sites of neurotransmitter handling in the nerve fibers suggests the possibility of novel redox-mediated mechanisms in peripheral neurovascular control. PMID:19716351

  10. Role of Schwann cells in the regeneration of penile and peripheral nerves

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lin; Sanford, Melissa T; Xin, Zhongcheng; Lin, Guiting; Lue, Tom F

    2015-01-01

    Schwann cells (SCs) are the principal glia of the peripheral nervous system. The end point of SC development is the formation of myelinating and nonmyelinating cells which ensheath large and small diameter axons, respectively. They play an important role in axon regeneration after injury, including cavernous nerve injury that leads to erectile dysfunction (ED). Despite improvement in radical prostatectomy surgical techniques, many patients still suffer from ED postoperatively as surgical trauma causes traction injuries and local inflammatory changes in the neuronal microenvironment of the autonomic fibers innervating the penis resulting in pathophysiological alterations in the end organ. The aim of this review is to summarize contemporary evidence regarding: (1) the origin and development of SCs in the peripheral and penile nerve system; (2) Wallerian degeneration and SC plastic change following peripheral and penile nerve injury; (3) how SCs promote peripheral and penile nerve regeneration by secreting neurotrophic factors; (4) and strategies targeting SCs to accelerate peripheral nerve regeneration. We searched PubMed for articles related to these topics in both animal models and human research and found numerous studies suggesting that SCs could be a novel target for treatment of nerve injury-induced ED. PMID:25999359

  11. Current Approaches to Neuromodulation in Primary Headaches: Focus on Vagal Nerve and Sphenopalatine Ganglion Stimulation.

    PubMed

    Puledda, Francesca; Goadsby, Peter J

    2016-07-01

    Neuromodulation is a promising, novel approach for the treatment of primary headache disorders. Neuromodulation offers a new dimension in the treatment that is both easily reversible and tends to be very well tolerated. The autonomic nervous system is a logical target given the neurobiology of common primary headache disorders, such as migraine and the trigeminal autonomic cephalalgias (TACs). This article will review new encouraging results of studies from the most recent literature on neuromodulation as acute and preventive treatment in primary headache disorders, and cover some possible underlying mechanisms. We will especially focus on vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) and sphenopalatine ganglion (SPG) since they have targeted autonomic pathways that are cranial and can modulate relevant pathophysiological mechanisms. The initial data suggests these approaches will find an important role in headache disorder management going forward. PMID:27278441

  12. Model-based analysis and design of nerve cuff electrodes for restoring bladder function by selective stimulation of the pudendal nerve

    PubMed Central

    Kent, Alexander R; Grill, Warren M

    2013-01-01

    Objective Electrical stimulation of the pudendal nerve (PN) is being developed as a means to restore bladder function in persons with spinal cord injury. A single nerve cuff electrode placed on the proximal PN trunk may enable selective stimulation of distinct fascicles to maintain continence or evoke micturition. The objective of this study was to design a nerve cuff that enabled selective stimulation of the PN. Approach We evaluated the performance of both flat interface nerve electrode (FINE) cuff and round cuff designs, with a range of FINE cuff heights and number of contacts, as well as multiple contact orientations. This analysis was performed using a computational model, in which the nerve and fascicle cross-sectional positions from five human PN trunks were systematically reshaped within the nerve cuff. These cross-sections were used to create finite element models, with electric potentials calculated and applied to a cable model of a myelinated axon to evaluate stimulation selectivity for different PN targets. Subsequently, the model was coupled to a genetic algorithm (GA) to identify solutions that used multiple contact activation to maximize selectivity and minimize total stimulation voltage. Main results Simulations did not identify any significant differences in selectivity between FINE and round cuffs, although the latter required smaller stimulation voltages for target activation due to preserved localization of targeted fascicle groups. Further, it was found that a 10 contact nerve cuff generated sufficient selectivity for all PN targets, with the degree of selectivity dependent on the relative position of the target within the nerve. The GA identified solutions that increased fitness by 0.7–45.5% over single contact activation by decreasing stimulation of non-targeted fascicles. Significance This study suggests that using an optimal nerve cuff design and multiple contact activation could enable selective stimulation of the human PN trunk for

  13. Model-based analysis and design of nerve cuff electrodes for restoring bladder function by selective stimulation of the pudendal nerve

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kent, Alexander R.; Grill, Warren M.

    2013-06-01

    Objective. Electrical stimulation of the pudendal nerve (PN) is being developed as a means to restore bladder function in persons with spinal cord injury. A single nerve cuff electrode placed on the proximal PN trunk may enable selective stimulation of distinct fascicles to maintain continence or evoke micturition. The objective of this study was to design a nerve cuff that enabled selective stimulation of the PN. Approach. We evaluated the performance of both flat interface nerve electrode (FINE) cuff and round cuff designs, with a range of FINE cuff heights and number of contacts, as well as multiple contact orientations. This analysis was performed using a computational model, in which the nerve and fascicle cross-sectional positions from five human PN trunks were systematically reshaped within the nerve cuff. These cross-sections were used to create finite element models, with electric potentials calculated and applied to a cable model of a myelinated axon to evaluate stimulation selectivity for different PN targets. Subsequently, the model was coupled to a genetic algorithm (GA) to identify solutions that used multiple contact activation to maximize selectivity and minimize total stimulation voltage. Main results. Simulations did not identify any significant differences in selectivity between FINE and round cuffs, although the latter required smaller stimulation voltages for target activation due to preserved localization of targeted fascicle groups. Further, it was found that a ten contact nerve cuff generated sufficient selectivity for all PN targets, with the degree of selectivity dependent on the relative position of the target within the nerve. The GA identified solutions that increased fitness by 0.7-45.5% over single contact activation by decreasing stimulation of non-targeted fascicles. Significance. This study suggests that using an optimal nerve cuff design and multiple contact activation could enable selective stimulation of the human PN trunk for

  14. Nerve growth factor signaling following unilateral pelvic ganglionectomy in the rat ventral prostate is age dependent.

    PubMed

    Podlasek, Carol A; Ghosh, Rudrani; Onur Cakir, Omer; Bond, Christopher; McKenna, Kevin E; McVary, Kevin T

    2013-11-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is a serious health concern and is an underlying cause of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) in many men. In affected men, LUTS/BPH is believed to result from benign proliferation of the prostate resulting in bladder outlet obstruction. Postnatal growth of the prostate is controlled via growth factor and endocrine mechanisms. However, little attention had been given to the function of the autonomic nervous system in prostate growth and differentiation. Nerve growth factor (NGF) is a prostatic mitogen that has a trophic role in autonomic sensory end organ interaction. In this study, we examine how the autonomic nervous system influences prostate growth as a function of age by quantifying NGF in the rat ventral prostate (VP) after pelvic ganglionectomy. Unilateral pelvic ganglionectomy was performed on postnatal days 30 (P30), 60 and 120 Sprague-Dawley rats in comparison to sham controls (n=39). Semiquantitative RT-PCR, Western blotting and immunohistochemical analysis for NGF were performed on denervated, intact (contralateral side) and sham control VP 7 days after surgery. Ngf RNA expression was significantly increased in the denervated and intact hyperplastic VP. Western blotting showed age-dependent increases in NGF protein at P60 in the contralateral intact VP. NGF was localized in the nerves, basal cells and columnar epithelium of the prostatic ducts. Denervation causes age-dependent increases in NGF in the VP, which is a potential mechanism by which the autonomic nervous system may regulate prostate growth and lead to BPH/LUTS. PMID:23872662

  15. Nerve Transfers for the Restoration of Wrist, Finger, and Thumb Extension After High Radial Nerve Injury.

    PubMed

    Pet, Mitchell A; Lipira, Angelo B; Ko, Jason H

    2016-05-01

    High radial nerve injury is a common pattern of peripheral nerve injury most often associated with orthopedic trauma. Nerve transfers to the wrist and finger extensors, often from the median nerve, offer several advantages when compared to nerve repair or grafting and tendon transfer. In this article, we discuss the forearm anatomy pertinent to performing these nerve transfers and review the literature surrounding nerve transfers for wrist, finger, and thumb extension. A suggested algorithm for management of acute traumatic high radial nerve palsy is offered, and our preferred surgical technique for treatment of high radial nerve palsy is provided. PMID:27094891

  16. Coexistence of adrenergic and cholinergic nerves in the inferior hypogastric plexus: anatomical and immunohistochemical study with 3D reconstruction in human male fetus

    PubMed Central

    Alsaid, Bayan; Bessede, Thomas; Karam, Ibrahim; Abd-Alsamad, Issam; Uhl, Jean-Francois; Benoît, Gérard; Droupy, Stéphane; Delmas, Vincent

    2009-01-01

    Classic anatomical methods have failed to determine the precise location, origin and nature of nerve fibres in the inferior hypogastric plexus (IHP). The purpose of this study was to identify the location and nature (adrenergic and/or cholinergic) of IHP nerve fibres and to provide a three-dimensional (3D) representation of pelvic nerves and their relationship to other anatomical structures. Serial transverse sections of the pelvic portion of two human male fetuses (16 and 17 weeks’ gestation) were studied histologically and immunohistochemically, digitized and reconstructed three-dimensionally. 3D reconstruction allowed a ‘computer-assisted dissection’, identifying the precise location and distribution of the pelvic nerve elements. Proximal (supra-levator) and distal (infra-levator) communications between the pudendal nerve and IHP were observed. By determining the nature of the nerve fibres using immunostaining, we were able to demonstrate that the hypogastric nerves and pelvic splanchnic nerves, which are classically considered purely sympathetic and parasympathetic, respectively, contain both adrenergic and cholinergic nerve fibres. The pelvic autonomic nervous system is more complex than previously thought, as adrenergic and cholinergic fibres were found to co-exist in both ‘sympathetic’ and ‘parasympathetic’ nerves. This study is the first step to a 3D cartography of neurotransmitter distribution which could help in the selection of molecules to be used in the treatment of incontinence, erectile dysfunction and ejaculatory disorders. PMID:19438760

  17. Contingency Software in Autonomous Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lutz, Robyn; Patterson-Hine, Ann

    2006-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the development of contingency software for autonomous systems. Autonomous vehicles currently have a limited capacity to diagnose and mitigate failures. There is a need to be able to handle a broader range of contingencies. The goals of the project are: 1. Speed up diagnosis and mitigation of anomalous situations.2.Automatically handle contingencies, not just failures.3.Enable projects to select a degree of autonomy consistent with their needs and to incrementally introduce more autonomy.4.Augment on-board fault protection with verified contingency scripts

  18. Miniature Autonomous Robotic Vehicle (MARV)

    SciTech Connect

    Feddema, J.T.; Kwok, K.S.; Driessen, B.J.; Spletzer, B.L.; Weber, T.M.

    1996-12-31

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has recently developed a 16 cm{sup 3} (1 in{sup 3}) autonomous robotic vehicle which is capable of tracking a single conducting wire carrying a 96 kHz signal. This vehicle was developed to assess the limiting factors in using commercial technology to build miniature autonomous vehicles. Particular attention was paid to the design of the control system to search out the wire, track it, and recover if the wire was lost. This paper describes the test vehicle and the control analysis. Presented in the paper are the vehicle model, control laws, a stability analysis, simulation studies and experimental results.

  19. Progress towards autonomous, intelligent systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lum, Henry; Heer, Ewald

    1987-01-01

    An aggressive program has been initiated to develop, integrate, and implement autonomous systems technologies starting with today's expert systems and evolving to autonomous, intelligent systems by the end of the 1990s. This program includes core technology developments and demonstration projects for technology evaluation and validation. This paper discusses key operational frameworks in the content of systems autonomy applications and then identifies major technological challenges, primarily in artificial intelligence areas. Program content and progress made towards critical technologies and demonstrations that have been initiated to achieve the required future capabilities in the year 2000 era are discussed.

  20. Intelligent, autonomous systems in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lum, H.; Heer, E.

    1988-01-01

    The Space Station is expected to be equipped with intelligent, autonomous capabilities; to achieve and incorporate these capabilities, the required technologies need to be identitifed, developed and validated within realistic application scenarios. The critical technologies for the development of intelligent, autonomous systems are discussed in the context of a generalized functional architecture. The present state of this technology implies that it be introduced and applied in an evolutionary process which must start during the Space Station design phase. An approach is proposed to accomplish design information acquisition and management for knowledge-base development.

  1. Gas House Autonomous System Monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Luke; Edsall, Ashley

    2015-01-01

    Gas House Autonomous System Monitoring (GHASM) will employ Integrated System Health Monitoring (ISHM) of cryogenic fluids in the High Pressure Gas Facility at Stennis Space Center. The preliminary focus of development incorporates the passive monitoring and eventual commanding of the Nitrogen System. ISHM offers generic system awareness, adept at using concepts rather than specific error cases. As an enabler for autonomy, ISHM provides capabilities inclusive of anomaly detection, diagnosis, and abnormality prediction. Advancing ISHM and Autonomous Operation functional capabilities enhances quality of data, optimizes safety, improves cost effectiveness, and has direct benefits to a wide spectrum of aerospace applications.

  2. Discerning non-autonomous dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clemson, Philip T.; Stefanovska, Aneta

    2014-09-01

    Structure and function go hand in hand. However, while a complex structure can be relatively safely broken down into the minutest parts, and technology is now delving into nanoscales, the function of complex systems requires a completely different approach. Here the complexity clearly arises from nonlinear interactions, which prevents us from obtaining a realistic description of a system by dissecting it into its structural component parts. At best, the result of such investigations does not substantially add to our understanding or at worst it can even be misleading. Not surprisingly, the dynamics of complex systems, facilitated by increasing computational efficiency, is now readily tackled in the case of measured time series. Moreover, time series can now be collected in practically every branch of science and in any structural scale-from protein dynamics in a living cell to data collected in astrophysics or even via social networks. In searching for deterministic patterns in such data we are limited by the fact that no complex system in the real world is autonomous. Hence, as an alternative to the stochastic approach that is predominantly applied to data from inherently non-autonomous complex systems, theory and methods specifically tailored to non-autonomous systems are needed. Indeed, in the last decade we have faced a huge advance in mathematical methods, including the introduction of pullback attractors, as well as time series methods that cope with the most important characteristic of non-autonomous systems-their time-dependent behaviour. Here we review current methods for the analysis of non-autonomous dynamics including those for extracting properties of interactions and the direction of couplings. We illustrate each method by applying it to three sets of systems typical for chaotic, stochastic and non-autonomous behaviour. For the chaotic class we select the Lorenz system, for the stochastic the noise-forced Duffing system and for the non-autonomous the

  3. Enterocins in food preservation.

    PubMed

    Khan, Haider; Flint, Steve; Yu, Pak-Lam

    2010-06-30

    The Enterococcus genus, a member of the Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) is found in various environments, but more particularly in the intestines of humans and other animals. Although sometimes associated with pathogenicity these bacteria have many benefits. They have been found in traditional artisanal fermented products, are used as probiotic cultures and nowadays extensively studied for the production of bacteriocins--the enterocins. Many of these enterocins have been found to be active against Listeria monocytogenes, and a few have also been reported to be active even against Gram negative bacteria, an unusual property for the bacteriocins produced by LAB. These properties have resulted in many studies describing the use of enterocins as preservatives in foods of animal and vegetable origin. This review covers the most recent information on the use of enterocins as food preservatives, either produced in-situ by the addition of enterocin producing strains or as external preservatives in the form of purified or semi-purified extracts, to prevent the growth of spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms. PMID:20399522

  4. Mobility-Related Consequences of Reduced Lower-Extremity Peripheral Nerve Function with Age: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Ward, Rachel E.; Caserotti, Paolo; Cauley, Jane A.; Boudreau, Robert M.; Goodpaster, Bret H.; Vinik, Aaron I.; Newman, Anne B.; Strotmeyer, Elsa S.

    2016-01-01

    common in late-life and modifiable. Interventions to preserve nerve function should be investigated with regard to their effect on postponing or preventing disability in older adults. PMID:27493833

  5. Mobility-Related Consequences of Reduced Lower-Extremity Peripheral Nerve Function with Age: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Ward, Rachel E; Caserotti, Paolo; Cauley, Jane A; Boudreau, Robert M; Goodpaster, Bret H; Vinik, Aaron I; Newman, Anne B; Strotmeyer, Elsa S

    2016-08-01

    common in late-life and modifiable. Interventions to preserve nerve function should be investigated with regard to their effect on postponing or preventing disability in older adults. PMID:27493833

  6. S1 nerve is the most efficient nerve rootlet innervating the anal canal and rectum in rats

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Kai; Luo, Pengbo; Zheng, Xianyou; Zhu, Xiaozhong; Wang, Lei; Chai, Yimin

    2015-01-01

    Autonomic and somatic components participate in the defecation process in mammals, combining signals from the brainstem and forebrain. The innervation pattern involved in micturition in rats has been well studied, while defecation has been less studied. The aim of the present study was to identify the most important sensory and motor nerves of the anal canal and rectum involved in defecation. The amplitudes of evoked potential of the anal canal and rectum were higher when L6 and S1 ventral rootlets were stimulated, compared with the other segments (ANOVA and Tukey’s post hoc test, all P < 0.05). The S1 segment was more strongly cholera toxin subunit B conjugated to horseradish peroxidase (CB-HRP) positive compared with the other segments (ANOVA and Tukey’s post hoc test, P < 0.05). Ventral spinal rootlets of L6 and S1 mainly contributed to the pressure change in the anal canal and rectum when the ventral spinal rootlets from L5 to S3 were stimulated electrically. In conclusion, many afferent and efferent nerves innervate the anal canal and rectum and are involved in defecation, but the S1 nerve rootlet could be the most efficient one. These results could provide a basis for defecation reconstruction, especially for patients with spinal cord injuries. PMID:26260583

  7. Speckle reduction during all-fiber common-path optical coherence tomography of the cavernous nerves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chitchian, Shahab; Fiddy, Michael; Fried, Nathaniel M.

    2009-02-01

    Improvements in identification, imaging, and visualization of the cavernous nerves during prostate cancer surgery, which are responsible for erectile function, may improve nerve preservation and postoperative sexual potency. In this study, we use a rat prostate, ex vivo, to evaluate the feasibility of optical coherence tomography (OCT) as a diagnostic tool for real-time imaging and identification of the cavernous nerves. A novel OCT system based on an all single-mode fiber common-path interferometer-based scanning system is used for this purpose. A wavelet shrinkage denoising technique using Stein's unbiased risk estimator (SURE) algorithm to calculate a data-adaptive threshold is implemented for speckle noise reduction in the OCT image. The signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) was improved by 9 dB and the image quality metrics of the cavernous nerves also improved significantly.

  8. Issues in the Optimal Selection of a Cranial Nerve Monitoring System

    PubMed Central

    Selesnick, Samuel H.; Goldsmith, Daniel F.

    1993-01-01

    Intraoperative nerve monitoring (IONM) is a safe technique that is of clear clinical value in the preservation of cranial nerves in skull base surgery and is rapidly becoming the standard of care. Available nerve monitoring systems vary widely in capabilities and costs. A well-informed surgeon may best decide on monitoring needs based on surgical case selection, experience, operating room space, availability of monitoring personnel, and cost. Key system characteristics that should be reviewed in the decision-making process include the monitoring technique (electromyography, pressure transducer, direct nerve monitoring, brainstem auditory evoked potential) and the stimulus technique (stimulating parameters, probe selection). In the past, IONM has been primarily employed in posterior fossa and temporal bone surgery, but the value of IONM is being recognized in more skull base and head and neck surgeries. Suggested IONM strategies for specific surgeries are presented. PMID:17170916

  9. An alternative video footprint analysis to assess functional loss following injury to the rat sciatic nerve.

    PubMed

    Bervar, M

    2002-01-01

    The rat sciatic nerve is a well-established animal model for the study of recovery from peripheral nerve injuries. Footprint analysis is the most widely used non-invasive method of measuring functional recovery after injury in this model. We describe a new, alternative video analysis of standing (or static footprint video analysis) to assess functional loss following injury to the rat sciatic nerve, while the animal is standing or at periodic rest on a flat transparent surface. We found that this alternative video analysis is technically easier to perform than the corresponding footprint video analysis while walking, but still preserves all advantages of video versus conventional ink track method: i.e. few non-measurable footprints, better repeatability, high accuracy and more precise quantification of the degree of functional loss after sciatic nerve injury in the rat. PMID:12514995

  10. Nerve Disease and Bladder Control

    MedlinePlus

    ... Research Training & Career Development Grant programs for students, postdocs, and faculty Research at NIDDK Labs, faculty, and ... KB) Alternate Language URL Nerve Disease and Bladder Control Page Content On this page: What bladder control ...

  11. Ion Channels in Nerve Membranes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehrenstein, Gerald

    1976-01-01

    Discusses research that indicates that nerve membranes, which play a key role in the conduction of impulses, are traversed by protein channels with ion pathways opened and closed by the membrane electric field. (Author/MLH)

  12. Imaging of the facial nerve.

    PubMed

    Veillona, F; Ramos-Taboada, L; Abu-Eid, M; Charpiot, A; Riehm, S

    2010-05-01

    The facial nerve is responsible for the motor innervation of the face. It has a visceral motor function (lacrimal, submandibular, sublingual glands and secretion of the nose); it conveys a great part of the taste fibers, participates to the general sensory of the auricle (skin of the concha) and the wall of the external auditory meatus. The facial mimic, production of tears, nasal flow and salivation all depend on the facial nerve. In order to image the facial nerve it is mandatory to be knowledgeable about its normal anatomy including the course of its efferent and afferent fibers and about relevant technical considerations regarding CT and MR to be able to achieve high-resolution images of the nerve. PMID:20456888

  13. Preserving a Lunar Legacy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Leary, B.; Brown, L. F.; Gibson, R. A.; Versluis, J.

    2000-12-01

    With the first Russian flyby mission in 1959, the quest for robotic, and eventually, manned exploration of the moon became fact rather than fiction. Since then there have been innumerable spacecraft impacts and landers which have left artifacts and created archaeological sites on the lunar surface. One of the most significant events in lunar exploration came with the successful landing of the manned Apollo 11 mission in the Sea of Tranquillity (July 20, 1969). Missions such as these form a transcript of the world's quest to explore space and are evidence of humanity's first steps in this ultimate journey. One would think that, given the historic nature of these endeavors, some process would have been established to preserve sites for future generations. There is certainly little disagreement within the astronomical and archeological communities that lunar landing and impact sites are precious cultural resources containing irreplaceable artifacts that attest to humanity's initial efforts to explore other worlds. But, in fact, there are no federal preservation laws, nor international criteria, which directly address preservation procedures and decisions on other solar system bodies. Although the moon's remoteness and isolation have protected lunar sites to date, recent commercial interests in development, and in private robotic exploration, of the moon, make preservation of these historic sites even more timely. This preliminary study, funded in part by NASA, has begun to document the Apollo 11 landing site by making the first complete inventory of artifacts, and features, and completing an archeological site map of Tranquillity Base. We will discuss the issues in obtaining accurate lists of the cultural resources left behind, in documenting their historic context, and in the problems of selenographic mapping. Detailed information is needed to document the integrity historical importance of any location with the eventual aim of having it listed as a UNESCO World

  14. Three variations of the laryngeal nerve in the same patient: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction A non-recurrent course is a rare anatomic variation of the inferior laryngeal nerve (ILN). Bilateral extra-laryngeal bifurcation of the ILN seldom occurs before its laryngeal entry. Anastomosis between the ILN and cervical sympathetic chain is another rare anatomic feature. The prevalence of extra-laryngeal branching of the non-recurrent nerve is unknown. We present an example of triple anatomic variations of ILNs in the same patient, and also two anatomic variations in the same nerve. Case presentation A 56-year-old Caucasian man with a large toxic multi-nodular goiter was surgically treated with total thyroidectomy. Both his right and left ILNs were identified, fully exposed and preserved along their cervical courses. We discovered many variations during bilateral exploration of the two ILNs. His right ILN was non-recurrent. This non-recurrent ILN showed a terminal division before laryngeal entry. The left nerve had a usual course as a recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN) at his tracheaesophageal groove. We also discovered bifurcation of his RLN beginning at a neurovascular (RLN and inferior thyroid artery) crossing point. Anterior and posterior branches of both nerves entered his larynx separately. The sympathetic inferior laryngeal anastomotic branch (SILAB) between the posterior branch of his left ILN and the cervical sympathetic chain was established in the distal part of the nerve before laryngeal entry. Conclusion A non-recurrent nerve and extra-laryngeal branching of the ILN are two different variations. The coincidence of a right non-recurrent ILN and bilateral bifurcation of both nerves is a very interesting feature. SILAB is a rare additional finding as a third anatomic variation in the same patient. Extra-laryngeal terminal division of a non-recurrent ILN is an extremely unusual anatomic finding. Two anatomic variations have occurred in the same nerve, like "the variation of the variation". PMID:21722360

  15. A Robust Compositional Architecture for Autonomous Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brat, Guillaume; Deney, Ewen; Farrell, Kimberley; Giannakopoulos, Dimitra; Jonsson, Ari; Frank, Jeremy; Bobby, Mark; Carpenter, Todd; Estlin, Tara

    2006-01-01

    Space exploration applications can benefit greatly from autonomous systems. Great distances, limited communications and high costs make direct operations impossible while mandating operations reliability and efficiency beyond what traditional commanding can provide. Autonomous systems can improve reliability and enhance spacecraft capability significantly. However, there is reluctance to utilizing autonomous systems. In part this is due to general hesitation about new technologies, but a more tangible concern is that of reliability of predictability of autonomous software. In this paper, we describe ongoing work aimed at increasing robustness and predictability of autonomous software, with the ultimate goal of building trust in such systems. The work combines state-of-the-art technologies and capabilities in autonomous systems with advanced validation and synthesis techniques. The focus of this paper is on the autonomous system architecture that has been defined, and on how it enables the application of validation techniques for resulting autonomous systems.

  16. Manipulation of norepinephrine metabolism with yohimbine in the treatment of autonomic failure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biaggioni, I.; Robertson, R. M.; Robertson, D.

    1994-01-01

    It has been postulated that alpha 2-adrenergic receptors play a modulatory role in the regulation of blood pressure. Activation of alpha 2-receptors located in the central nervous system results in inhibition of sympathetic tone and decrease of blood pressure. This indeed may be the mechanism of action of central sympatholytic antihypertensives such as alpha-methyldopa. Presynaptic alpha 2-receptors also are found in adrenergic nerve terminals. These receptors act as a negative feedback mechanism by inhibiting the release of norepinephrine. The relevance of alpha 2-adrenergic receptors for blood pressure regulation can be explored with yohimbine, a selective antagonist of these receptors. Yohimbine increases blood pressure in resting normal volunteers. This effect is associated with an increase in both sympathetic nerve activity, reflecting an increase in central sympathetic outflow, and in norepinephrine spillover, reflecting potentiation of the release of norepinephrine from adrenergic nerve terminals. These actions, therefore, underscore the importance of alpha 2-adrenergic receptors for blood pressure regulation even under resting conditions. Patients with autonomic failure, even those with severe sympathetic deprivation, are hypersensitive to the pressor effects of yohimbine. This increased responsiveness can be explained by sensitization of adrenergic receptors, analogous to denervation supersensitivity, and by the lack of autonomic reflexes that would normally buffer any increase in blood pressure. Preliminary studies suggest that the effectiveness of yohimbine in autonomic failure can be enhanced with monoamine oxidase inhibitors. Used in combination, yohimbine increases norepinephrine release, whereas monoamine oxidase inhibitors inhibit its degradation. Therefore, yohimbine is not only a useful tool in the study of blood pressure regulation, but may offer a therapeutic option in autonomic dysfunction.

  17. Possible role of afferent autonomic signals in abdominal organs in anorexic and cardiovascular responses to nicotine injection in rats.

    PubMed

    Yagi, Shintaro; Tanida, Mamoru; Satomi, Jun

    2015-05-27

    Smoking generally causes an increase in nicotine levels in the blood, affecting the brain components, such as the hypothalamus (feeding-related area) or the brain stem (cardiovascular control area). In terms of nicotine transmission to the brain, a new insight that the afferent vagal nerve in the liver is important for sensing increased nicotine levels in the blood and informing the brain was reported in an experiment with rats. However, it has not been clarified whether the afferent autonomic nerve system is implicated in feeding and cardiovascular responses to nicotine. Here, we examined the possible role of afferent autonomic nerve transmission in rats in regulating feeding behavior and cardiovascular functions by nicotine. An intravenous injection of nicotine dose dependently increased the blood pressure (BP) in urethane-anesthetized rats; high nicotine doses also led to an increase in BP in conscious rats. Further, an intravenous injection of nicotine for 3 days reduced food intake and body weight gain in rats. The weight-reducing action of intravenous nicotine was abolished by blocking the afferent sympathetic signals in the abdominal organs, but not the vagal nerve signals. Moreover, the hypertensive action of nicotine was not abolished either by afferent sympathectomy or by vagotomy. Thus, these data suggest that nicotine injected into the vein acts on the afferent sympathetic nerve in the abdominal organs and transmits signals to the brain for reducing body weight, but not for suppressing appetite or increasing BP. PMID:25875474

  18. [Peripheral Nerve Injuries in Sports].

    PubMed

    Tettenborn, B; Mehnert, S; Reuter, I

    2016-09-01

    Peripheral nerve injuries due to sports are relatively rare but the exact incidence is not known due to a lack of epidemiological studies. Particular sports activities tend to cause certain peripheral nerve injuries including direct acute compression or stretching, repetitive compression and stretching over time, or another mechanism such as ischemia or laceration. These nerve lesions may be severe and delay or preclude the athlete's return to sports, especially in cases with delayed diagnosis. Repetitive and vigorous use or overuse makes the athlete vulnerable to disorders of the peripheral nerves, and sports equipment may cause compression of the nerves. Depending on etiology, the treatment is primarily conservative and includes physiotherapy, modification of movements and sports equipment, shoe inserts, splinting, antiphlogistic drugs, sometimes local administration of glucocorticoids or, lately, the use of extracorporeal shock waves. Most often, cessation of the offending physical activity is necessary. Surgery is only indicated in the rare cases of direct traumatic nerve injury or when symptoms are refractory to conservative therapy. Prognosis mainly depends on the etiology and the available options of modifying measures.This article is based on the publications "Reuter I, Mehnert S. Engpasssyndrome peripherer Nerven bei Sportlern". Akt Neurol 2012;39:292-308 and Sportverl Sportschad 2013;27:130-146. PMID:27607069

  19. Insulin Pump Therapy Is Associated with Lower Rates of Retinopathy and Peripheral Nerve Abnormality

    PubMed Central

    Zabeen, Bedowra; Craig, Maria E.; Virk, Sohaib A.; Pryke, Alison; Chan, Albert K. F.; Cho, Yoon Hi; Benitez-Aguirre, Paul Z.; Hing, Stephen; Donaghue, Kim C.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To compare rates of microvascular complications in adolescents with type 1 diabetes treated with continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) versus multiple daily injections (MDI). Research Design and Methods Prospective cohort of 989 patients (aged 12–20 years; diabetes duration >5 years) treated with CSII or MDI for >12 months. Microvascular complications were assessed from 2000–14: early retinopathy (seven-field fundal photography), peripheral nerve function (thermal and vibration threshold testing), autonomic nerve abnormality (heart rate variability analysis of electrocardiogram recordings) and albuminuria (albumin creatinine ratio/timed overnight albumin excretion). Generalized estimating equations (GEE) were used to examine the relationship between treatment and complications rates, adjusting for socio-economic status (SES) and known risk factors including HbA1c and diabetes duration. Results Comparing CSII with MDI: HbA1C was 8.6% [70mmol/mol] vs. 8.7% [72 mmol/mol]) (p = 0.7), retinopathy 17% vs. 22% (p = 0.06); microalbuminuria 1% vs. 4% (p = 0.07), peripheral nerve abnormality 27% vs. 33% (p = 0.108) and autonomic nerve abnormality 24% vs. 28% (p = 0.401). In multivariable GEE, CSII use was associated with lower rates of retinopathy (OR 0.66, 95% CI 0.45–0.95, p = 0.029) and peripheral nerve abnormality (OR 0.63, 95% CI 0.42–0.95, p = 0.026), but not albuminuria (OR 0.46, 95% CI 0.10–2.17, p = 0.33). SES was not associated with any of the complication outcomes. Conclusions In adolescents, CSII use is associated with lower rates of retinopathy and peripheral nerve abnormality, suggesting an apparent benefit of CSII over MDI independent of glycemic control or SES. PMID:27050468

  20. Segmentation of optical coherence tomography images for differentiation of the cavernous nerves from the prostate gland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chitchian, Shahab; Weldon, Thomas P.; Fried, Nathaniel M.

    2009-07-01

    The cavernous nerves course along the surface of the prostate and are responsible for erectile function. Improvements in identification, imaging, and visualization of the cavernous nerves during prostate cancer surgery may improve nerve preservation and postoperative sexual potency. Two-dimensional (2-D) optical coherence tomography (OCT) images of the rat prostate were segmented to differentiate the cavernous nerves from the prostate gland. To detect these nerves, three image features were employed: Gabor filter, Daubechies wavelet, and Laws filter. The Gabor feature was applied with different standard deviations in the x and y directions. In the Daubechies wavelet feature, an 8-tap Daubechies orthonormal wavelet was implemented, and the low-pass sub-band was chosen as the filtered image. Last, Laws feature extraction was applied to the images. The features were segmented using a nearest-neighbor classifier. N-ary morphological postprocessing was used to remove small voids. The cavernous nerves were differentiated from the prostate gland with a segmentation error rate of only 0.058+/-0.019. This algorithm may be useful for implementation in clinical endoscopic OCT systems currently being studied for potential intraoperative diagnostic use in laparoscopic and robotic nerve-sparing prostate cancer surgery.

  1. Trigeminal autonomic cephalalgia as a presenting feature of Neuromyelitis Optica: "A rare combination of two uncommon disorders".

    PubMed

    Mathew, Thomas; Nadimpally, Uday Shanker; Sarma, G R K; Nadig, Raghunandan

    2016-03-01

    Neuromyelitis Optica (NMO) can have atypical presentations like hiccups, vomiting, etc. which is classically described as the area postrema syndrome. Here we report a case of a 39 year old male patient who presented with features of Trigeminal Autonomic Cephalalgia (TAC). MRI spine showed long segment myelitis. Diagnosis of NMO was confirmed by a positive Anti aquaporin 4 antibody assay. TACs are a rare group of headache disorders characterized by severe unilateral headache in the V1 distribution of the trigeminal nerve and autonomic symptoms. This presentation in NMO is hitherto unreported in literature. PMID:27063627

  2. The Functioning of Autonomous Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rao, V. Pala Prasada; Rao, Digumarti Bhaskara

    2012-01-01

    The college gets separated from the university, though not completely, when it is an autonomous college, which is practice in India. Academic package will become flexible and the decision-making is internalized, changes and updating could be easily carried out, depending on the need as reflected from the feedback taken from alumni, user sectors,…

  3. Computing architecture for autonomous microgrids

    SciTech Connect

    Goldsmith, Steven Y.

    2015-09-29

    A computing architecture that facilitates autonomously controlling operations of a microgrid is described herein. A microgrid network includes numerous computing devices that execute intelligent agents, each of which is assigned to a particular entity (load, source, storage device, or switch) in the microgrid. The intelligent agents can execute in accordance with predefined protocols to collectively perform computations that facilitate uninterrupted control of the .

  4. AARD - Autonomous Airborne Refueling Demonstration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ewers, Dick

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph document reviews the Autonomous Airborne Refueling Demonstration program, and NASA Dryden's work in the program. The primary goal of the program is to make one fully automatic probe-to-drogue engagement using the AARD system. There are pictures of the aircraft approaching to the docking.

  5. An Autonomous Spacecraft Agent Prototype

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pell, Barney; Bernard, Douglas E.; Chien, Steve A.; Gat, Erann; Muscettola, Nicola; Nayak, P. Pandurang; Wagner, Michael D.; Williams, Brian C.

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes the New Millennium Remote Agent (NMRA) architecture for autonomous spacecraft control systems. This architecture integrates traditional real-time monitoring and control with constraint-based planning and scheduling, robust multi-threaded execution, and model-based diagnosis and reconfiguration.

  6. Specificity of peripheral nerve regeneration: interactions at the axon level.

    PubMed

    Allodi, Ilary; Udina, Esther; Navarro, Xavier

    2012-07-01

    Peripheral nerves injuries result in paralysis, anesthesia and lack of autonomic control of the affected body areas. After injury, axons distal to the lesion are disconnected from the neuronal body and degenerate, leading to denervation of the peripheral organs. Wallerian degeneration creates a microenvironment distal to the injury site that supports axonal regrowth, while the neuron body changes in phenotype to promote axonal regeneration. The significance of axonal regeneration is to replace the degenerated distal nerve segment, and achieve reinnervation of target organs and restitution of their functions. However, axonal regeneration does not always allows for adequate functional recovery, so that after a peripheral nerve injury, patients do not recover normal motor control and fine sensibility. The lack of specificity of nerve regeneration, in terms of motor and sensory axons regrowth, pathfinding and target reinnervation, is one the main shortcomings for recovery. Key factors for successful axonal regeneration include the intrinsic changes that neurons suffer to switch their transmitter state to a pro-regenerative state and the environment that the axons find distal to the lesion site. The molecular mechanisms implicated in axonal regeneration and pathfinding after injury are complex, and take into account the cross-talk between axons and glial cells, neurotrophic factors, extracellular matrix molecules and their receptors. The aim of this review is to look at those interactions, trying to understand if some of these molecular factors are specific for motor and sensory neuron growth, and provide the basic knowledge for potential strategies to enhance and guide axonal regeneration and reinnervation of adequate target organs. PMID:22609046

  7. Electrophysiological evaluation of nerve function in inferior alveolar nerve injury: relationship between nerve action potentials and histomorphometric observations.

    PubMed

    Murayama, M; Sasaki, K; Shibahara, T

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this study was to improve the accuracy of diagnosis of inferior alveolar nerve (IAN) injury by determining degrees of nerve disturbance using the sensory nerve action potential (SNAP) and sensory nerve conduction velocity (SCV). Crush and partial and complete nerve amputation injuries were applied to the IAN of rabbits, then SNAPs and histomorphometric observations were recorded at 1, 5, and 10 weeks. For crush injury, most nerves were smaller in diameter at 5 weeks than at 1 week, however after 10 weeks, extensive nerve regeneration was observed. The SNAP showed a decrease in SCV at weeks 1 and 5, followed by an increase at week 10. For partial nerve amputation, small to medium-sized nerve fibres were observed at weeks 1 and 5, then larger nerves were seen at week 10. Minimal changes in SCV were observed at weeks 1 and 5, however SCV increased at week 10. For complete nerve amputation, nerve fibres were sparse at week 1, but gradual nerve regeneration was observed at weeks 5 and 10. SNAPs were detectable from week 10, however the SCV was extremely low. This study showed SCV to be an effective factor in the evaluation of nerve injury and regeneration. PMID:26433750

  8. Preserving the Manhattan Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelly, Cynthia

    2014-03-01

    When future generations look back on the 20th century, few events will rival the harnessing of nuclear energy as a turning point in world history, science and society. Yet, the Department of Energy has not always embraced its Manhattan Project origins. The presentation will focus on the progress made over the last 20 years to preserve the properties and first-hand accounts that for decades have been threatened with demolition and indifference. Since the mid-1950s, most remaining Manhattan Project properties at the Los Alamos National Laboratory had been abandoned. Among them was a cluster of wooden buildings called the ``V Site.'' This is where scientists assembled the ``Gadget,'' the world's first atomic device tested on July 16, 1945. Regardless of its significance, the ``V Site'' buildings like all the rest were slated for demolition. The Advisory Council on Historic Preservation (ACHP) toured the properties in November 1998. Most could not believe that the world's first atomic bomb was designed in such humble structures. The properties were declared to be ``monumental in their lack of monumentality.'' A Save America's Treasures grant for 700,000 was awarded to restore the properties. To raise the required matching funds, I left the Federal government and soon founded the Atomic Heritage Foundation. The presentation will trace the progress made over the last decade to generate interest and support nationwide to preserve the Manhattan Project heritage. Saving both the physical properties and first-hand accounts of the men and women have been a priority. Perhaps our most significant achievement may be legislation now under consideration by Congress to create a Manhattan Project National Historical Park. Seventy years later, the Manhattan Project is finally getting the recognition it deserves.

  9. From nerve net to nerve ring, nerve cord and brain--evolution of the nervous system.

    PubMed

    Arendt, Detlev; Tosches, Maria Antonietta; Marlow, Heather

    2016-01-01

    The puzzle of how complex nervous systems emerged remains unsolved. Comparative studies of neurodevelopment in cnidarians and bilaterians suggest that this process began with distinct integration centres that evolved on opposite ends of an initial nerve net. The 'apical nervous system' controlled general body physiology, and the 'blastoporal nervous system' coordinated feeding movements and locomotion. We propose that expansion, integration and fusion of these centres gave rise to the bilaterian nerve cord and brain. PMID:26675821

  10. Immunohistochemical characterization of amyloid proteins in sural nerves and clinical associations in amyloid neuropathy.

    PubMed Central

    Li, K.; Kyle, R. A.; Dyck, P. J.

    1992-01-01

    To test whether immunohistochemical characterization of proteins in amyloid deposits in biopsied sural nerves gives reliable and useful diagnostic information using commercially available reagents, biopsy specimens of sural nerves from 38 patients with amyloid neuropathy were studied. Transthyretin (TTR) was detected in the amyloid deposits of 11 nerves, lambda light chains (LC) in 8 nerves, kappa LC in 7 nerves, and both lambda and kappa LC in 3 nerves. In 9 nerves, the amyloid deposits were too small to allow adequate immunohistochemical characterization of amyloid proteins in serial sections. Evidence that immunohistochemical characterization was correct came from: 1) evaluation of kin, 2) search for monoclonal proteins in the plasma, and 3) sequencing of the gene abnormalities in TTR+ cases. In 9 of 11 TTR+ cases, in which DNA could be obtained, sequencing of the gene showed that each of the 9 cases was heterozygous for a gene mutation; 7 had previously described mutations and 2 undescribed mutations. Therefore, in the nine sporadic cases without plasma monoclonal light chains, the immunohistochemical characterization correctly identified the protein in amyloid as transthyretin. Likewise, there was a high concordance between immunoglobulin light chains in plasma and light chains in amyloid in primary amyloidosis. Evaluation of the type, distribution, and severity of the neurologic symptoms and deficits showed: 1) the sensorimotor and autonomic neuropathy of amyloidosis characteristically affects proximal as well as distal limbs, and 2) the type of amyloidosis probably cannot be determined from the characteristics or severity of the neuropathy alone or from the location or size of amyloid deposits in nerve. Images Figure 1 PMID:1321563

  11. Does Attempt at Hearing Preservation Microsurgery of Vestibular Schwannoma Affect Postoperative Tinnitus?

    PubMed Central

    Chovanec, Martin; Zvěřina, Eduard; Balogová, Zuzana; Kluh, Jan; Syka, Josef; Merunka, Ilja; Skřivan, Jiří

    2015-01-01

    Background. The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of vestibular schwannoma microsurgery via the retrosigmoid-transmeatal approach with special reference to the postoperative tinnitus outcome. Material and Methods. A prospective study was performed in 89 consecutive patients with unilateral vestibular schwannoma indicated for microsurgery. Patient and tumor related parameters, pre- and postoperative hearing level, intraoperative findings, and hearing and tinnitus handicap inventory scores were analyzed. Results. Cochlear nerve integrity was achieved in 44% corresponding to preservation of preoperatively serviceable hearing in 47% and useful hearing in 21%. Main prognostic factors of hearing preservation were grade/size of tumor, preoperative hearing level, intraoperative neuromonitoring, tumor consistency, and adhesion to neurovascular structures. Microsurgery led to elimination of tinnitus in 66% but also new-onset of the symptom in 14% of cases. Preservation of useful hearing and neurectomy of the eighth cranial nerve were main prognostic factors of tinnitus elimination. Preservation of cochlear nerve but loss of preoperative hearing emerged as the main factor for tinnitus persistence and new onset tinnitus. Decrease of THI scores was observed postoperatively. Conclusions. Our results underscore the importance of proper pre- and intraoperative decision making about attempt at hearing preservation versus potential for tinnitus elimination/risk of new onset of tinnitus. PMID:25654125

  12. Autonomic, locomotor and cardiac abnormalities in a mouse model of muscular dystrophy: targeting the renin-angiotensin system.

    PubMed

    Sabharwal, Rasna; Chapleau, Mark W

    2014-04-01

    LV dysfunction and higher mortality in Sgcd-/- mice. Treatment of Sgcd-/- mice with the angiotensin type 1 receptor blocker losartan for 8-9 weeks, beginning at 3 weeks of age, decreased fibrosis and oxidative stress in skeletal muscle, increased locomotor activity and prevented autonomic dysfunction. Chronic infusion of the counter-regulatory peptide angiotensin-(1-7) resulted in similar protection. We conclude that activation of the renin-angiotensin system, at a young age, contributes to skeletal muscle and autonomic dysfunction in muscular dystrophy. We speculate that the latter is mediated via abnormal sensory nerve and/or cytokine signalling from dystrophic skeletal muscle to the brain and contributes to age-related LV dysfunction, dilated cardiomyopathy, arrhythmias and premature death. Therefore, correcting the early autonomic dysregulation and renin-angiotensin system activation may provide a novel therapeutic approach in muscular dystrophy. PMID:24334334

  13. Preserving Perishables (Dormavac)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    A new commercial product that can preserve perishable commodities for weeks without freezing, so that they can be shipped fresh without the cost of air freight, has been developed by Grumman Corporation, Bethpage, Long Island, New York. The development benefited from the company's experience in developing the environmental control system for the Lunar Module, which delivered Apollo astronauts to the surface of the moon. Called Dormavac, the system provides a commodity-preserving environment within an aluminum container that can be transported by truck, rail or ship. Dormavac creates a cold-but above freezing-environment with high relative humidity and very low air pressure. The saturated air minimizes commodity weight loss and the air is automatically changed several times an hour to flush away odors and harmful gases released by the commodities. According to company literature, Dormavac significantly extends the transportation life of perishables. For example, pork has a normal cold storage life of about seven days, beef two weeks and tomatoes three weeks; with Dormavac, pork remains fresh for three weeks, beef more than six weeks and tomatoes seven weeks or more. Dormavac is manufactured and marketed by Grumman Allied Industries, Woodbury, New York. In developing the system, Grumman Allied drew upon the technological resources of another company subsidiary, Grumman Aerospace. Engineers who had earlier worked on Lunar Module environmental control brought their know-how and experience to the Dormavac development.

  14. Autonomic Computing: Freedom or a Threat?

    SciTech Connect

    Fink, Glenn A.; Frincke, Deb

    2007-12-01

    No longer is the question whether autonomic computing will gain general acceptance but when. Experts expect autonomic computing to be widely used within 10 years. When it does become mainstream, how will autonomics change system administration and corporations, and will the change be for better or worse? The answer depends on how well we anticipate the limitations of what autonomic systems are suited to do, whether we can collectively address the vulnerabilities of autonomic approaches as we draw upon the advantages, and whether administrators, companies, partners, and users are prepared for the transition. This article presents some design considerations to address the first two issues and some suggested survival techniques for the third.

  15. Chitosan conduits combined with nerve growth factor microspheres repair facial nerve defects

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Huawei; Wen, Weisheng; Hu, Min; Bi, Wenting; Chen, Lijie; Liu, Sanxia; Chen, Peng; Tan, Xinying

    2013-01-01

    Microspheres containing nerve growth factor for sustained release were prepared by a compound method, and implanted into chitosan conduits to repair 10-mm defects on the right buccal branches of the facial nerve in rabbits. In addition, chitosan conduits combined with nerve growth factor or normal saline, as well as autologous nerve, were used as controls. At 90 days post-surgery, the muscular atrophy on the right upper lip was more evident in the nerve growth factor and normal sa-line groups than in the nerve growth factor-microspheres and autologous nerve groups. physiological analysis revealed that the nerve conduction velocity and amplitude were significantly higher in the nerve growth factor-microspheres and autologous nerve groups than in the nerve growth factor and normal saline groups. Moreover, histological observation illustrated that the di-ameter, number, alignment and myelin sheath thickness of myelinated nerves derived from rabbits were higher in the nerve growth factor-microspheres and autologous nerve groups than in the nerve growth factor and normal saline groups. These findings indicate that chitosan nerve conduits bined with microspheres for sustained release of nerve growth factor can significantly improve facial nerve defect repair in rabbits. PMID:25206635

  16. Chitosan conduits combined with nerve growth factor microspheres repair facial nerve defects.

    PubMed

    Liu, Huawei; Wen, Weisheng; Hu, Min; Bi, Wenting; Chen, Lijie; Liu, Sanxia; Chen, Peng; Tan, Xinying

    2013-11-25

    Microspheres containing nerve growth factor for sustained release were prepared by a compound method, and implanted into chitosan conduits to repair 10-mm defects on the right buccal branches of the facial nerve in rabbits. In addition, chitosan conduits combined with nerve growth factor or normal saline, as well as autologous nerve, were used as controls. At 90 days post-surgery, the muscular atrophy on the right upper lip was more evident in the nerve growth factor and normal sa-line groups than in the nerve growth factor-microspheres and autologous nerve groups. physiological analysis revealed that the nerve conduction velocity and amplitude were significantly higher in the nerve growth factor-microspheres and autologous nerve groups than in the nerve growth factor and normal saline groups. Moreover, histological observation illustrated that the di-ameter, number, alignment and myelin sheath thickness of myelinated nerves derived from rabbits were higher in the nerve growth factor-microspheres and autologous nerve groups than in the nerve growth factor and normal saline groups. These findings indicate that chitosan nerve conduits bined with microspheres for sustained release of nerve growth factor can significantly improve facial nerve defect repair in rabbits. PMID:25206635

  17. Autonomous Cryogenics Loading Operations Simulation Software: Knowledgebase Autonomous Test Engineer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wehner, Walter S.

    2012-01-01

    The Simulation Software, KATE (Knowledgebase Autonomous Test Engineer), is used to demonstrate the automatic identification of faults in a system. The ACLO (Autonomous Cryogenics Loading Operation) project uses KATE to monitor and find faults in the loading of the cryogenics int o a vehicle fuel tank. The KATE software interfaces with the IHM (Integrated Health Management) systems bus to communicate with other systems that are part of ACLO. One system that KATE uses the IHM bus to communicate with is AIS (Advanced Inspection System). KATE will send messages to AIS when there is a detected anomaly. These messages include visual inspection of specific valves, pressure gauges and control messages to have AIS open or close manual valves. My goals include implementing the connection to the IHM bus within KATE and for the AIS project. I will also be working on implementing changes to KATE's Ul and implementing the physics objects in KATE that will model portions of the cryogenics loading operation.

  18. Autonomous Cryogenics Loading Operations Simulation Software: Knowledgebase Autonomous Test Engineer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wehner, Walter S., Jr.

    2013-01-01

    Working on the ACLO (Autonomous Cryogenics Loading Operations) project I have had the opportunity to add functionality to the physics simulation software known as KATE (Knowledgebase Autonomous Test Engineer), create a new application allowing WYSIWYG (what-you-see-is-what-you-get) creation of KATE schematic files and begin a preliminary design and implementation of a new subsystem that will provide vision services on the IHM (Integrated Health Management) bus. The functionality I added to KATE over the past few months includes a dynamic visual representation of the fluid height in a pipe based on number of gallons of fluid in the pipe and implementing the IHM bus connection within KATE. I also fixed a broken feature in the system called the Browser Display, implemented many bug fixes and made changes to the GUI (Graphical User Interface).

  19. Cranial Nerves IX, X, XI, and XII

    PubMed Central

    Sanders, Richard D.

    2010-01-01

    This article concludes the series on cranial nerves, with review of the final four (IX–XII). To summarize briefly, the most important and common syndrome caused by a disorder of the glossopharyngeal nerve (craniel nerve IX) is glossopharyngeal neuralgia. Also, swallowing function occasionally is compromised in a rare but disabling form of tardive dyskinesia called tardive dystonia, because the upper motor portion of the glossopharyngel nerve projects to the basal ganglia and can be affected by lesions in the basal ganglia. Vagus nerve funtion (craniel nerve X) can be compromised in schizophrenia, bulimia, obesity, and major depression. A cervical lesion to the nerve roots of the spinal accessory nerve (craniel nerve XI) can cause a cervical dystonia, which sometimes is misdiagnosed as a dyskinesia related to neuroleptic use. Finally, unilateral hypoglossal (craniel nerve XII) nerve palsy is one of the most common mononeuropathies caused by brain metastases. Supranuclear lesions of cranial nerve XII are involved in pseudobulbar palsy and ALS, and lower motor neuron lesions of cranial nerve XII can also be present in bulbar palsy and in ALS patients who also have lower motor neuron involvement. This article reviews these and other syndromes related to cranial nerves IX through XII that might be seen by psychiatry. PMID:20532157

  20. What Protects Certain Nerves from Stretch Injury?

    PubMed

    Schraut, Nicholas B; Walton, Sharon; Bou Monsef, Jad; Shott, Susan; Serici, Anthony; Soulii, Lioubov; Amirouche, Farid; Gonzalez, Mark H; Kerns, James M

    2016-01-01

    The human tibial nerves is less prone to injury following joint arthroplasty compared with the peroneal nerves. Besides the anatomical distribution, other features may confer protection from stretch injury. We therefore examined the size, shape and connective tissue distribution for the two nerves. The tibial and peroneal nerves from each side of nine fresh human cadavers we reharvested mid-thigh. Proximal segments manually stretched 20%-25% were fixed in aldehyde, while the adjacent distal segments were fixed in their natural length. Paraffin sections stained by Masson's trichrome method for connective tissue were examined by light microscopy. Tibial nerves had 2X more fascicles compared with the peroneal, but the axonal content appeared similar. Analysis showed that neither nerve had a significant reduction in cross sectional area of the fascicles following stretch. However, fascicles from stretched tibial nerves become significantly more oval compared with those from unstretched controls and peroneal nerves. Tibial nerves had a greater proportion that was extrafascicular tissue (50-55%) compared with peroneal nerves (38%-42%). This epineurium was typically adipose tissue. Perineurial thickness in both nerves was directly related to fascicular size. Tibial nerves have several unique histological features associated with size, shape and tissue composition compared with the peroneal nerve. We suggest that more fascicles with their tightly bound perineurium and more robust epineurium afford protection against stretch injury. Mechanical studies should clarify how size and shape contribute to nerve protection and/or neurapraxia. PMID:26529568

  1. AUTONOMIC ASPECTS OF ARRHYTHMOGENESIS: THE ENDURING AND THE NEW

    PubMed Central

    Verrier, Richard L.; Antzelevitch, Charles

    2006-01-01

    Recent progress in our understanding of the role of the autonomic nervous system in the development of cardiac arrhythmias is reviewed. Our focus is on the translation of basic principles of neural control of heart rhythm that have emerged from experimental studies to clinical applications. Recent studies have made significant strides in defining the function of intrinsic cardiac innervation and the importance of nerve sprouting in electrical remodeling. A recurring theme is that heterogeneity of sympathetic innervation in response to injury is highly arrhythmogenic In addition, both sympathetic and parasympathetic influences on ion channel activity have been found accentuate electrical heterogeneities and thus to contribute to arrhythmogenesis in the long QT and Brugada syndromes. In the clinic, heart rate variability continues to be a useful tool in delineating pathophysiologic changes that result from the progression of heart disease and the impact of diabetic neuropathy. Heart rate turbulence, a noninvasive indicator of baroreceptor sensitivity has emerged as a simple, practical tool to assess risk for cardiovascular mortality in patients with ischemic heart disease and heart failure. Evidence of the proarrhythmic influence of behavioral stress has been further bolstered by defibrillator discharge studies and ambulatory ECG-based T-wave alternans measurement. In summary, the results of recent investigations underscore the importance of the autonomic influences as triggers of arrhythmia and provide important mechanistic insights into the ionic and cellular mechanisms involved. PMID:14688627

  2. Human Type 1 Diabetes Is Characterized by an Early, Marked, Sustained, and Islet-Selective Loss of Sympathetic Nerves.

    PubMed

    Mundinger, Thomas O; Mei, Qi; Foulis, Alan K; Fligner, Corinne L; Hull, Rebecca L; Taborsky, Gerald J

    2016-08-01

    In humans, the glucagon response to moderate-to-marked insulin-induced hypoglycemia (IIH) is largely mediated by the autonomic nervous system. Because this glucagon response is impaired early in type 1 diabetes, we sought to determine if these patients, like animal models of autoimmune diabetes, have an early and severe loss of islet sympathetic nerves. We also tested whether this nerve loss is a permanent feature of type 1 diabetes, is islet-selective, and is not seen in type 2 diabetes. To do so, we quantified pancreatic islet and exocrine sympathetic nerve fiber area from autopsy samples of patients with type 1 or 2 diabetes and control subjects without diabetes. Our central finding is that patients with either very recent onset (<2 weeks) or long duration (>10 years) of type 1 diabetes have a severe loss of islet sympathetic nerves (Δ = -88% and Δ = -79%, respectively). In contrast, patients with type 2 diabetes lose no islet sympathetic nerves. There is no loss of exocrine sympathetic nerves in either type 1 or type 2 diabetes. We conclude that patients with type 1, but not type 2, diabetes have an early, marked, sustained, and islet-selective loss of sympathetic nerves, one that may impair their glucagon response to IIH. PMID:27207540

  3. Adverse effects of cigarette and noncigarette smoke exposure on the autonomic nervous system: mechanisms and implications for cardiovascular risk.

    PubMed

    Middlekauff, Holly R; Park, Jeanie; Moheimani, Roya S

    2014-10-21

    This review summarizes the detrimental effects of cigarette and noncigarette emission exposure on autonomic function, with particular emphasis on the mechanisms of acute and chronic modulation of the sympathetic nervous system. We propose that the nicotine and fine particulate matter in tobacco smoke lead to increased sympathetic nerve activity, which becomes persistent via a positive feedback loop between sympathetic nerve activity and reactive oxidative species. Furthermore, we propose that baroreflex suppression of sympathetic activation is attenuated in habitual smokers; that is, the baroreflex plays a permissive role, allowing sympathoexcitation to occur without restraint in the setting of increased pressor response. This model is also applicable to other nontobacco cigarette emission exposures (e.g., marijuana, waterpipes [hookahs], electronic cigarettes, and even air pollution). Fortunately, emerging data suggest that baroreflex sensitivity and autonomic function may be restored after smoking cessation, providing further evidence in support of the health benefits of smoking cessation. PMID:25323263

  4. Inhalational exposure to nerve agents.

    PubMed

    Niven, Alexander S; Roop, Stuart A

    2004-03-01

    The respiratory system plays a major role in the pathogenesis of nerve agent toxicity. It is the major route of entry and absorption of nerve agent vapor, and respiratory failure is the most common cause of death follow-ing exposure. Respiratory symptoms are mediated by chemical irritation,muscarinic and nicotinic receptor overstimulation, and central nervous system effects. Recent attacks have demonstrated that most patients with an isolated vapor exposure developed respiratory symptoms almost immediately. Most patients had only mild and transient respiratory effects, and those that did develop significant respiratory compromise did so rapidly. These observations have significant ramifications on triage of patients in a mass-casualty situation, because patients with mild-to-moderate exposure to nerve agent vapor alone do not require decontamination and are less likely to develop progressive symptoms following initial antidote therapy. Limited data do not demonstrate significant long-term respiratory effects following nerve agent exposure and treatment. Provisions for effective respiratory protection against nerve agents is a vital consideration in any emergency preparedness or health care response plan against a chemical attack. PMID:15062227

  5. Rehabilitation of the trigeminal nerve

    PubMed Central

    Iro, Heinrich; Bumm, Klaus; Waldfahrer, Frank

    2005-01-01

    When it comes to restoring impaired neural function by means of surgical reconstruction, sensory nerves have always been in the role of the neglected child when compared with motor nerves. Especially in the head and neck area, with its either sensory, motor or mixed cranial nerves, an impaired sensory function can cause severe medical conditions. When performing surgery in the head and neck area, sustaining neural function must not only be highest priority for motor but also for sensory nerves. In cases with obvious neural damage to sensory nerves, an immediate neural repair, if necessary with neural interposition grafts, is desirable. Also in cases with traumatic trigeminal damage, an immediate neural repair ought to be considered, especially since reconstructive measures at a later time mostly require for interposition grafts. In terms of the trigeminal neuralgia, commonly thought to arise from neurovascular brainstem compression, a pharmaceutical treatment is considered as the state of the art in terms of conservative therapy. A neurovascular decompression of the trigeminal root can be an alternative in some cases when surgical treatment is sought after. Besides the above mentioned therapeutic options, alternative treatments are available. PMID:22073060

  6. Tail arteries from chronically spinalized rats have potentiated responses to nerve stimulation in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Yeoh, Melanie; McLachlan, Elspeth M; Brock, James A

    2004-01-01

    Patients with severe spinal cord lesions that damage descending autonomic pathways generally have low resting arterial pressure but bladder or colon distension or unheeded injuries may elicit a life-threatening hypertensive episode. Such episodes (known as autonomic dysreflexia) are thought to result from the loss of descending baroreflex inhibition and/or plasticity within the spinal cord. However, it is not clear whether changes in the periphery contribute to the exaggerated reflex vasoconstriction. The effects of spinal transection at T7–8 on nerve- and agonist-evoked contractions of the rat tail artery were investigated in vitro. Isometric contractions of arterial segments were recorded and responses of arteries from spinalized animals (‘spinalized arteries’) and age-matched and sham-operated controls were compared. Two and eight weeks after transection, nerve stimulation at 0.1–10 Hz produced contractions of greater force and duration in spinalized arteries. At both stages, the α-adrenoceptor antagonists prazosin (10 nm) and idazoxan (0.1 μm) produced less blockade of nerve-evoked contraction in spinalized arteries. Two weeks after transection, spinalized arteries were supersensitive to the α1-adrenoceptor agonist phenylephrine, and the α2-adrenoceptor agonist, clonidine, but 8 weeks after transection, spinalized arteries were supersensitive only to clonidine. Contractions of spinalized arteries elicited by 60 mm K+ were larger and decayed more slowly at both stages. These findings demonstrate that spinal transection markedly increases nerve-evoked contractions and this can, in part, be accounted for by increased reactivity of the vascular smooth muscle to vasoconstrictor agents. This hyper-reactivity may contribute to the genesis of autonomic dysreflexia in patients. PMID:14766944

  7. Facial-hypoglossal nerve anastomosis using laser nerve welding.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Kun; Kim, Sun Goo; Kim, Dae Joong

    2006-07-01

    The aim of this study is to compare laser nerve welding to microsurgical suturing of hypoglossal-facial nerve anastomosis (HFA), and a result of immediate to delayed repair, and to evaluate the effect of laser nerve welding on HFA for reanimation of facial palsy. The first group of five rats underwent immediate HFA by microsurgical suturing and the second group of five rats by CO2 laser welding. The third group of five rats underwent delayed HFA by microsurgical suturing, and the fourth group of five rats by laser nerve welding. The fifth group of five rats served as controls, with intact hypoglossal and facial nerve. In all rats of the four different treatment groups, cholera toxin B subunit (CTb) was injected in the epineurium distal to the anastomosis site on the postoperative 6th week and in the normal hypoglossal nerve in the five rats of the control group. Neurons labeled CTb of hypoglossal nuclei were positive immunohistochemically, and the numbers were counted. In the immediate HFA groups, CTb-positive neurons were 751 +/- 247 in the laser welding group (n = 5) and 888 +/- 60 in the microsurgical suturing group (n = 5). There was no significant difference (P = 0.117). In the delayed HFA groups, CTb-positive neurons were 749 +/- 54 in the laser welding group (n = 5) and 590 +/- 169 in the microsurgical suturing group (n = 5). The difference was not significant (P = 0.116). There was no significant difference between immediate and delayed anastomosis in the laser welding group (P = 0.600), but there was significance between immediate and delayed anastomosis in the microsurgical suturing group (P = 0.009). Injected CTb in intact hypoglossal neurons (n = 5) were labeled 1,003 +/- 52. No dehiscence in the laser welding site of nerve anastomosis was seen at the time of re-exploration for injection of CTb in all 10 rats. This study shows that the regeneration of anastomosed hypoglossal-facial nerve was affected similarly by laser welding and microsurgical suturing

  8. (Non-invasive evaluation of the cardiac autonomic nervous system by PET)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    The proposed research addresses the development, validation and application of cardiac PET imaging techniques to characterize the autonomic nervous system of the heart. PET technology has significantly matured over the last two decades. Instrument design, image processing and production of radiochemical compounds have formed an integrative approach to provide a powerful and novel imaging modality for the quantitative in vivo evaluation of the autonomic nervous system of the heart. Animal studies using novel tracers for the sympathetic and parasympathetic nerve terminals will be employed to characterize the functional integrity of nerve terminals. This work will be complemented by the development of agents which bind to postsynaptic receptor sites. The combined evaluation of presynaptic and postsynaptic neuronal function will allow a unique characterization of neuronal function. Initial development in animal studies will be followed by feasibility studies in humans. These studies are designed to test sophisticated imaging protocols in the human heart and validate the scintigraphic findings with independent markers of autonomic innervation. Subsequent clinical application in various cardiac diseases is expected to provide new insights into the neuropathophysiology of the heart.

  9. The yin and yang of cardiac autonomic control: vago-sympathetic interactions revisited.

    PubMed

    Paton, J F R; Boscan, P; Pickering, A E; Nalivaiko, E

    2005-11-01

    We review the pattern of activity in the parasympathetic and sympathetic nerves innervating the heart. Unlike the conventional textbook picture of reciprocal control of cardiac vagal and sympathetic nervous activity, as seen during a baroreceptor reflex, many other reflexes involve simultaneous co-activation of both autonomic limbs. Indeed, even at 'rest', the heart receives tonic drives from both sympathetic and parasympathetic cardiac nerves. Autonomic co-activation occurs during peripheral chemoreceptor, diving, oculocardiac, somatic nociceptor reflex responses as well as being evoked from structures within the brain. It is suggested that simultaneous co-activation may lead to a more efficient cardiac function giving greater cardiac output than activation of the sympathetic limb alone; this permits both a longer time for ventricular filling and a stronger contraction of the myocardium. This may be important when pumping blood into a constricted vascular tree such as is the case during the diving response. We discuss that in some instances, high drive to the heart from both autonomic limbs may also be arrhythmogenic. PMID:16269319

  10. Preserving reptiles for research

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gotte, Steve W.; Jacobs, Jeremy F.; Zug, George R.

    2016-01-01

    What are voucher specimens and why do we collect them? Voucher specimens are animals and/or their parts that are deposited in a research museum to document the occurrence of a taxon at a specific location in space and time (Pleijel et al., 2008; Reynolds and McDiarmid, 2012). For field biologists, vouchers are the repeatable element of a field study as they allow other biologists, now and in the future, to confirm the identity of species that were studied. The scientific importance of a voucher specimen or series of specimens is that other people are afforded the opportunity to examine the entire animal and confirm or correct identifications. A photographic record is somewhat useful for recording the occurrence of a species, but such records can be insufficient for reliable confirmation of specific identity. Even if a photo shows diagnostic characters of currently recognized taxa, it may not show characters that separate taxa that may be described in the future. Substantial cryptic biodiversity is being found in even relatively well-known herpetofaunas (Crawford et al., 2010), and specimens allow researchers to retroactively evaluate the true diversity in a study as understanding of taxonomy evolves. They enable biologists to study the systematic relationships of populations by quantifying variation in different traits. Specimens are also a source of biological data such as behaviour, ecology, epidemiology, and reproduction through examination of their anatomy, reproductive and digestive tracts, and parasites (Suarez and Tsutsui, 2004). Preserving reptiles as vouchers is not difficult, although doing it properly requires care, effort, and time. Poorly preserved vouchers can invalidate the results and conclusions of your study because of the inability to confirm the identity of your study animals. Good science requires repeatability of observations, and the absence of vouchers or poorly preserved ones prevents such confirmation. Due to space restrictions, we are

  11. Autonomic blockade improves insulin sensitivity in obese subjects.

    PubMed

    Gamboa, Alfredo; Okamoto, Luis E; Arnold, Amy C; Figueroa, Rocio A; Diedrich, André; Raj, Satish R; Paranjape, Sachin Y; Farley, Ginnie; Abumrad, Naji; Biaggioni, Italo

    2014-10-01

    Obesity is an important risk factor for the development of insulin resistance. Initial compensatory mechanisms include an increase in insulin levels, which are thought to induce sympathetic activation in an attempt to restore energy balance. We have previously shown, however, that sympathetic activity has no beneficial effect on resting energy expenditure in obesity. On the contrary, we hypothesize that sympathetic activation contributes to insulin resistance. To test this hypothesis, we determined insulin sensitivity using a standard hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp protocol in obese subjects randomly assigned in a crossover design 1 month apart to receive saline (intact day) or trimetaphan (4 mg/min IV, autonomic blocked day). Whole-body glucose uptake (MBW in mg/kg per minute) was used as index of maximal muscle glucose use. During autonomic blockade, we clamped blood pressure with a concomitant titrated intravenous infusion of the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor N-monomethyl-L-arginine. Of the 21 obese subjects (43±2 years; 35±2 kg/m(2) body mass index) studied, 14 were insulin resistant; they were more obese, had higher plasma glucose and insulin, and had higher muscle sympathetic nerve activity (23.3±1.5 versus 17.2±2.1 burst/min; P=0.03) when compared with insulin-sensitive subjects. Glucose use improved during autonomic blockade in insulin-resistant subjects (MBW 3.8±0.3 blocked versus 3.1±0.3 mg/kg per minute intact; P=0.025), with no effect in the insulin-sensitive group. These findings support the concept that sympathetic activation contributes to insulin resistance in obesity and may result in a feedback loop whereby the compensatory increase in insulin levels contributes to greater sympathetic activation. PMID:25001269

  12. The spinal accessory nerve plexus, the trapezius muscle, and shoulder stabilization after radical neck cancer surgery.

    PubMed Central

    Brown, H; Burns, S; Kaiser, C W

    1988-01-01

    A clinical and anatomic study of the spinal accessory, the eleventh cranial nerve, and trapezius muscle function of patients who had radical neck cancer surgery was conducted. This study was done not only to document the indispensibility of the trapezius muscle to shoulder-girdle stability, but also to clarify the role of the eleventh cranial nerve in the variable motor and sensory changes occurring after the loss of this muscle. Seventeen male patients, 49-69 years of age, (average of 60 years of age) undergoing a total of 23 radical neck dissections were examined for upper extremity function, particularly in regard to the trapezius muscle, and for subjective signs of pain. The eleventh nerve, usually regarded as the sole motor innervation to the trapezius, was cut in 17 instances because of tumor involvement. Dissection of four fresh and 30 preserved adult cadavers helped to reconcile the motor and sensory differences in patients who had undergone loss of the eleventh nerve. The dissections and clinical observations corroborate that the trapezius is a key part of a "muscle continuum" that stabilizes the shoulder. Variations in origins and insertions of the trapezius may influence its function in different individuals. As regards the spinal accessory nerve, it is concluded that varying motor and sensory connections form a plexus with the eleventh nerve, accounting, in part, for the variations in motor innervation and function of the trapezius, as well as for a variable spectrum of sensory changes when the eleventh nerve is cut. For this reason, it is suggested that the term "spinal accessory nerve plexus" be used to refer to the eleventh nerve when it is considered in the context of radical neck cancer surgery. Images Fig. 4. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. Fig. 8. PMID:3056289

  13. Function-preserving gastrectomy for gastric cancer in Japan.

    PubMed

    Nomura, Eiji; Okajima, Kunio

    2016-07-14

    Surgery used to be the only therapy for gastric cancer, and since its ability to cure gastric cancer was the focus of attention, less attention was paid to function-preserving surgery in gastric cancer, though it was studied for gastroduodenal ulcer. Maki et al developed pylorus-preserving gastrectomy for gastric ulcer in 1967. At the same time, the definition of early gastric cancer (EGC) was being considered, histopathological investigations of EGC were carried out, and the validity of modified surgery was sustained. After the development of H2-blockers, the number of operations for gastroduodenal ulcers decreased, and the number of EGC patients increased simultaneously. As a result, the indications for pylorus-preserving gastrectomy for EGC in the middle third of the stomach extended, and various alterations were added. Since then, many kinds of function-preserving gastrectomies have been performed and studied in other fields of gastric cancer, and proximal gastrectomy, jejunal pouch interposition, segmental gastrectomy, and local resection have been performed. On the other hand, from the overall perspective, it can be said that endoscopic resection, which was launched at almost the same time, is the ultimate function-preserving surgery under the current circumstances. The current function-preserving gastrectomies that are often performed and studied are pylorus-preserving gastrectomy and proximal gastrectomy. The reasons for this are that these procedures that can be performed with systemic lymph node dissection, and they include three important elements: (1) reduction of the extent of gastrectomy; (2) preservation of the pylorus; and (3) preservation of the vagal nerve. In addition, these operations are more likely to be performed with a laparoscopic approach as minimally invasive surgery. Of the above-mentioned three elements, reduction of the extent of gastrectomy is the most important in our view. Therefore, we should try to reduce the extent of gastrectomy

  14. Function-preserving gastrectomy for gastric cancer in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Nomura, Eiji; Okajima, Kunio

    2016-01-01

    Surgery used to be the only therapy for gastric cancer, and since its ability to cure gastric cancer was the focus of attention, less attention was paid to function-preserving surgery in gastric cancer, though it was studied for gastroduodenal ulcer. Maki et al developed pylorus-preserving gastrectomy for gastric ulcer in 1967. At the same time, the definition of early gastric cancer (EGC) was being considered, histopathological investigations of EGC were carried out, and the validity of modified surgery was sustained. After the development of H2-blockers, the number of operations for gastroduodenal ulcers decreased, and the number of EGC patients increased simultaneously. As a result, the indications for pylorus-preserving gastrectomy for EGC in the middle third of the stomach extended, and various alterations were added. Since then, many kinds of function-preserving gastrectomies have been performed and studied in other fields of gastric cancer, and proximal gastrectomy, jejunal pouch interposition, segmental gastrectomy, and local resection have been performed. On the other hand, from the overall perspective, it can be said that endoscopic resection, which was launched at almost the same time, is the ultimate function-preserving surgery under the current circumstances. The current function-preserving gastrectomies that are often performed and studied are pylorus-preserving gastrectomy and proximal gastrectomy. The reasons for this are that these procedures that can be performed with systemic lymph node dissection, and they include three important elements: (1) reduction of the extent of gastrectomy; (2) preservation of the pylorus; and (3) preservation of the vagal nerve. In addition, these operations are more likely to be performed with a laparoscopic approach as minimally invasive surgery. Of the above-mentioned three elements, reduction of the extent of gastrectomy is the most important in our view. Therefore, we should try to reduce the extent of gastrectomy

  15. An Autonomously Reciprocating Transmembrane Nanoactuator.

    PubMed

    Watson, Matthew A; Cockroft, Scott L

    2016-01-22

    Biological molecular machines operate far from equilibrium by coupling chemical potential to repeated cycles of dissipative nanomechanical motion. This principle has been exploited in supramolecular systems that exhibit true machine behavior in solution and on surfaces. However, designed membrane-spanning assemblies developed to date have been limited to simple switches or stochastic shuttles, and true machine behavior has remained elusive. Herein, we present a transmembrane nanoactuator that turns over chemical fuel to drive autonomous reciprocating (back-and-forth) nanomechanical motion. Ratcheted reciprocating motion of a DNA/PEG copolymer threaded through a single α-hemolysin pore was induced by a combination of DNA strand displacement processes and enzyme-catalyzed reactions. Ion-current recordings revealed saw-tooth patterns, indicating that the assemblies operated in autonomous, asymmetric cycles of conformational change at rates of up to one cycle per minute. PMID:26661295

  16. Autonomous spacecraft maintenance study group

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marshall, M. H.; Low, G. D.

    1981-01-01

    A plan to incorporate autonomous spacecraft maintenance (ASM) capabilities into Air Force spacecraft by 1989 is outlined. It includes the successful operation of the spacecraft without ground operator intervention for extended periods of time. Mechanisms, along with a fault tolerant data processing system (including a nonvolatile backup memory) and an autonomous navigation capability, are needed to replace the routine servicing that is presently performed by the ground system. The state of the art fault handling capabilities of various spacecraft and computers are described, and a set conceptual design requirements needed to achieve ASM is established. Implementations for near term technology development needed for an ASM proof of concept demonstration by 1985, and a research agenda addressing long range academic research for an advanced ASM system for 1990s are established.

  17. Treatment of gastrointestinal autonomic neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Törnblom, Hans

    2016-03-01

    The symptoms caused by gastrointestinal autonomic neuropathy in diabetes mellitus is important to highlight since it affects a large proportion of people with diabetes, regardless of whether this is type 1 or type 2. Gastroparesis and general signs of bowel dysfunction, such as constipation, diarrhoea and abdominal pain are most often encountered and involve both pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatment options. This mini-review summarises a presentation given at the 'Diagnosis and treatment of autonomic diabetic neuropathy in the gut' symposium at the 2015 annual meeting of the EASD. It is accompanied by another mini-review on a topic from this symposium (by Azpiroz and Malagelada, DOI: 10.1007/s00125-015-3831-1 ) and a commentary by the Session Chair, Péter Kempler (DOI: 10.1007/s00125-015-3826-y ). PMID:26634570

  18. Experiments on autonomous Boolean networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosin, David P.; Rontani, Damien; Gauthier, Daniel J.; Schöll, Eckehard

    2013-06-01

    We realize autonomous Boolean networks by using logic gates in their autonomous mode of operation on a field-programmable gate array. This allows us to implement time-continuous systems with complex dynamical behaviors that can be conveniently interconnected into large-scale networks with flexible topologies that consist of time-delay links and a large number of nodes. We demonstrate how we realize networks with periodic, chaotic, and excitable dynamics and study their properties. Field-programmable gate arrays define a new experimental paradigm that holds great potential to test a large body of theoretical results on the dynamics of complex networks, which has been beyond reach of traditional experimental approaches.

  19. Preservation of Human Cornea

    PubMed Central

    Armitage, W. John

    2011-01-01

    Summary The successful outcome of the majority of corneal transplants depends on the presence of a viable corneal endothelium. This monolayer of cells lines the inner surface of the cornea and its primary function is to maintain corneal transparency by controlling the hydration of the collagenous stromal layer. Since human corneal endothelial cells do not readily proliferate, preservation of the endothelium is a primary aim of methods of corneal storage. Although some cryopreserved corneas have been transplanted successfully, the complexity of the cryopreservation technique and its potential for causing endothelial damage have limited its application. Hypothermia (2–8 °C) is the most commonly applied method of storage, which allows storage for 7–14 days. Organ culture (28–37 °C), which extends storage time to 4 weeks, is used widely in European eye banks. Graft outcomes for corneas stored by these two techniques appear similar. PMID:21566714

  20. Orbital preservation in maxillectomy.

    PubMed

    Stern, S J; Goepfert, H; Clayman, G; Byers, R; Wolf, P

    1993-07-01

    Twenty-eight previously untreated patients with squamous carcinoma of the maxillary sinus underwent maxillectomy with preservation of the orbital contents at the M. D. Anderson Cancer Center between 1971 and 1986. Eighteen patients had part or all of the orbital floor resected; nine patients were treated with radiotherapy, and nine had surgery only. Only 3 of 18 patients in this group (17%) retained significant function in the ipsilateral eye. Furthermore, local recurrence in this group was common (44%), regardless of whether postoperative radiotherapy was used. Ten patients retained the bony orbital floor; if the radiation fields did not include the eye, problems were minimal. Strong consideration should be given to orbital exenteration at the time of surgery, when the orbital floor is resected--especially if postoperative radiation fields will include the eye. PMID:8336956

  1. Advances in corneal preservation.

    PubMed Central

    Lindstrom, R L

    1990-01-01

    The functional status of the endothelium and sustained corneal deturgescence after corneal preservation are of great clinical importance and have been primary goals in the development of corneal storage media. In our investigational studies we have specifically addressed the improvement of the quality of donor tissue after 4 degrees C storage, the extension of corneal preservation time, the enhancement of corneal wound healing, and the reduction of the normal progressive loss of endothelial cells postkeratoplasty. Specifically we have developed in vitro HCE cell and epithelial cell culture models that can accurately reflect the response of human corneal tissue in vivo. These models have been utilized to study the effects of growth factors and medium components in relation to their biocompatibility and efficacy in the development of improved corneal preservation solutions. Our laboratory investigated in vitro conditions that allowed human corneal endothelium to shift from a nonproliferative state, in which they remain viable and metabolically active, to a proliferative, mitotically active state. Isolation techniques developed in our laboratory have enabled the establishment of primary and subsequent subcultures of human corneal endothelium that retain the attributes of native endothelium. These in vitro conditions maintain HCE cells in a proliferative state, actively undergoing mitosis. A quantitative bioassay has been developed to determine the effects of various test medium in the stimulation or inhibition of DNA synthesis. In attempting to learn more about the events that occur during in vitro endothelial cell isolation, cell reattachment, extracellular matrix interaction and migrating during subculture, SEM was done on isolated HCE cells incubated in CSM. These studies suggest that the components of the extracellular matrix modulate the growth response of HCE cells, and play a role in regulating proliferation and migration. These observations are important in

  2. Format-Preserving Encryption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellare, Mihir; Ristenpart, Thomas; Rogaway, Phillip; Stegers, Till

    Format-preserving encryption (FPE) encrypts a plaintext of some specified format into a ciphertext of identical format—for example, encrypting a valid credit-card number into a valid credit-card number. The problem has been known for some time, but it has lacked a fully general and rigorous treatment. We provide one, starting off by formally defining FPE and security goals for it. We investigate the natural approach for achieving FPE on complex domains, the “rank-then-encipher” approach, and explore what it can and cannot do. We describe two flavors of unbalanced Feistel networks that can be used for achieving FPE, and we prove new security results for each. We revisit the cycle-walking approach for enciphering on a non-sparse subset of an encipherable domain, showing that the timing information that may be divulged by cycle walking is not a damaging thing to leak.

  3. A precision mechanical nerve stimulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tcheng, Ping; Supplee, Frank H., Jr.; Prass, Richard L.

    1988-01-01

    An electromechanical device, used to apply and monitor stimulating pulses to a mammalian motor nerve, has been successfully developed at NASA Langley Research Center. Two existing force transducers, a flight skin friction balance and a miniature skin friction balance which were designed for making aerodynamic drag measurements, were modified and incorporated to form this precision instrument. The nerve stimulator is a type one servomechanism capable of applying and monitoring stimulating pulses of 0 to 10 grams with a precision of better than +/- 0.05 grams. Additionally, the device can be independently used to apply stimulating pulses by displacing the nerve from 0 to 0.25 mm with a precision of better than +/- 0.001 mm while measuring the level of the load applied.

  4. [Paraganglioma of the vagus nerve].

    PubMed

    Torres-Carranza, E; Infante-Cossío, P; García-Perla, A; Belmonte, R; Menéndez, J; Gutiérrez-Pérez, J L

    2006-06-01

    Paragangliomas of the vagus nerve are uncommon vascular benign neoplasms of neuroectodermic origin. Initial clinical manifestation is usually as an asymptomatic cervical mass, although sometimes may cause lower cranial nerve palsies. These paragangliomas seldom associate to high levels of circulating catecholamines. Diagnosis is based on the clinics aided by imaging, where CT and MRI play an important role. Angiography is not only diagnostic, but it also allows preoperative embolization of the mass. Most accepted treatment is surgical removal, even though some paragangliomas are suitable for radiation therapy in very specific patients. In this paper we describe a new case of paraganglioma of the vagus nerve in a cervical location, with hypertensive episodes and high catecholamine-levels. The authors review the literature describing the clinical presentation, the diagnosis and the treatment of this rare lesion. PMID:16855784

  5. Facial nerve paralysis in children

    PubMed Central

    Ciorba, Andrea; Corazzi, Virginia; Conz, Veronica; Bianchini, Chiara; Aimoni, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    Facial nerve palsy is a condition with several implications, particularly when occurring in childhood. It represents a serious clinical problem as it causes significant concerns in doctors because of its etiology, its treatment options and its outcome, as well as in little patients and their parents, because of functional and aesthetic outcomes. There are several described causes of facial nerve paralysis in children, as it can be congenital (due to delivery traumas and genetic or malformative diseases) or acquired (due to infective, inflammatory, neoplastic, traumatic or iatrogenic causes). Nonetheless, in approximately 40%-75% of the cases, the cause of unilateral facial paralysis still remains idiopathic. A careful diagnostic workout and differential diagnosis are particularly recommended in case of pediatric facial nerve palsy, in order to establish the most appropriate treatment, as the therapeutic approach differs in relation to the etiology. PMID:26677445

  6. Facial nerve paralysis in children.

    PubMed

    Ciorba, Andrea; Corazzi, Virginia; Conz, Veronica; Bianchini, Chiara; Aimoni, Claudia

    2015-12-16

    Facial nerve palsy is a condition with several implications, particularly when occurring in childhood. It represents a serious clinical problem as it causes significant concerns in doctors because of its etiology, its treatment options and its outcome, as well as in little patients and their parents, because of functional and aesthetic outcomes. There are several described causes of facial nerve paralysis in children, as it can be congenital (due to delivery traumas and genetic or malformative diseases) or acquired (due to infective, inflammatory, neoplastic, traumatic or iatrogenic causes). Nonetheless, in approximately 40%-75% of the cases, the cause of unilateral facial paralysis still remains idiopathic. A careful diagnostic workout and differential diagnosis are particularly recommended in case of pediatric facial nerve palsy, in order to establish the most appropriate treatment, as the therapeutic approach differs in relation to the etiology. PMID:26677445

  7. Chemical warfare. Nerve agent poisoning.

    PubMed

    Holstege, C P; Kirk, M; Sidell, F R

    1997-10-01

    The threat of civilian and military casualties from nerve agent exposure has become a greater concern over the past decade. After rapidly assessing that a nerve agent attack has occurred, emphasis must be placed on decontamination and protection of both rescuers and medical personnel from exposure. The medical system can become rapidly overwhelmed and strong emotional reactions can confuse the clinical picture. Initially, care should first be focused on supportive care, with emphasis toward aggressive airway maintenance and decontamination. Atropine should be titrated, with the goal of therapy being drying of secretions and the resolution of bronchoconstriction and bradycardia. Early administration of pralidoxime chloride maximizes antidotal efficacy. Benzodiazepines, in addition to atropine, should be administered if seizures develop. Early, aggressive medical therapy is the key to prevention of the morbidity and mortality associated with nerve agent poisoning. PMID:9330846

  8. Autonomous spacecraft rendezvous and docking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tietz, J. C.; Almand, B. J.

    1985-01-01

    A storyboard display is presented which summarizes work done recently in design and simulation of autonomous video rendezvous and docking systems for spacecraft. This display includes: photographs of the simulation hardware, plots of chase vehicle trajectories from simulations, pictures of the docking aid including image processing interpretations, and drawings of the control system strategy. Viewgraph-style sheets on the display bulletin board summarize the simulation objectives, benefits, special considerations, approach, and results.

  9. Functional evaluation of peripheral nerve regeneration and target reinnervation in animal models: a critical overview.

    PubMed

    Navarro, Xavier

    2016-02-01

    Peripheral nerve injuries usually lead to severe loss of motor, sensory and autonomic functions in the patients. Due to the complex requirements for adequate axonal regeneration, functional recovery is often poorly achieved. Experimental models are useful to investigate the mechanisms related to axonal regeneration and tissue reinnervation, and to test new therapeutic strategies to improve functional recovery. Therefore, objective and reliable evaluation methods should be applied for the assessment of regeneration and function restitution after nerve injury in animal models. This review gives an overview of the most useful methods to assess nerve regeneration, target reinnervation and recovery of complex sensory and motor functions, their values and limitations. The selection of methods has to be adequate to the main objective of the research study, either enhancement of axonal regeneration, improving regeneration and reinnervation of target organs by different types of nerve fibres, or increasing recovery of complex sensory and motor functions. It is generally recommended to use more than one functional method for each purpose, and also to perform morphological studies of the injured nerve and the reinnervated targets. PMID:26228942

  10. THE ACTION OF MORPHINE-LIKE DRUGS ON IMPULSE TRANSMISSION IN MAMMALIAN NERVE FIBRES.

    PubMed

    KOSTERLITZ, H W; WALLIS, D I

    1964-06-01

    Experiments on nerves in situ and on isolated nerves provide no evidence that morphine interferes with impulse transmission in myelinated or nonmyelinated nerve fibres. The concentrations used in experiments on isolated nerves were 10- to 100-times as high as those required to depress transmission at autonomic nerve-effector cell junctions. Examination of the resting membrane potential, the action potential and the positive after-potential, the conduction velocity, the time courses of the recovery of the size of the action potential and of the excitability after a conditioning stimulus, the ability of the axons to sustain repetitive activity and the posttetanic hyperpolarization gave no indication that morphine affects either the mechanisms involved in the initiation of the propagated impulse or those leading to restoration of the resting state after activity. Analgesic drugs, such as pethidine and methadone which have a local anaesthetic action, may cause a reversible decrease in the size of the compound action potential and in the conduction velocity of A-B and C fibres. PMID:14211680

  11. A Widening Circle: Preservation Literature Review, 1992.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drewes, Jeanne M.

    1993-01-01

    Examines preservation literature from 1992 that focused on the integration of preservation strategies within the organization. Highlights include foreign preservation programs; collection development and preservation; government programs; deacidification; paper requirements; disaster recovery techniques; mutilation; microform issues; nonbook…

  12. Autonomic Computing: Panacea or Poppycock?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sterritt, Roy; Hinchey, Mike

    2005-01-01

    Autonomic Computing arose out of a need for a means to cope with rapidly growing complexity of integrating, managing, and operating computer-based systems as well as a need to reduce the total cost of ownership of today's systems. Autonomic Computing (AC) as a discipline was proposed by IBM in 2001, with the vision to develop self-managing systems. As the name implies, the influence for the new paradigm is the human body's autonomic system, which regulates vital bodily functions such as the control of heart rate, the body's temperature and blood flow-all without conscious effort. The vision is to create selfivare through self-* properties. The initial set of properties, in terms of objectives, were self-configuring, self-healing, self-optimizing and self-protecting, along with attributes of self-awareness, self-monitoring and self-adjusting. This self-* list has grown: self-anticipating, self-critical, self-defining, self-destructing, self-diagnosis, self-governing, self-organized, self-reflecting, and self-simulation, for instance.

  13. Semi autonomous mine detection system

    SciTech Connect

    Douglas Few; Roelof Versteeg; Herman Herman

    2010-04-01

    CMMAD is a risk reduction effort for the AMDS program. As part of CMMAD, multiple instances of semi autonomous robotic mine detection systems were created. Each instance consists of a robotic vehicle equipped with sensors required for navigation and marking, a countermine sensors and a number of integrated software packages which provide for real time processing of the countermine sensor data as well as integrated control of the robotic vehicle, the sensor actuator and the sensor. These systems were used to investigate critical interest functions (CIF) related to countermine robotic systems. To address the autonomy CIF, the INL developed RIK was extended to allow for interaction with a mine sensor processing code (MSPC). In limited field testing this system performed well in detecting, marking and avoiding both AT and AP mines. Based on the results of the CMMAD investigation we conclude that autonomous robotic mine detection is feasible. In addition, CMMAD contributed critical technical advances with regard to sensing, data processing and sensor manipulation, which will advance the performance of future fieldable systems. As a result, no substantial technical barriers exist which preclude – from an autonomous robotic perspective – the rapid development and deployment of fieldable systems.

  14. Autonomic Neuropathy in Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Verrotti, Alberto; Prezioso, Giovanni; Scattoni, Raffaella; Chiarelli, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    Diabetic autonomic neuropathy (DAN) is a serious and common complication of diabetes, often overlooked and misdiagnosed. It is a systemic-wide disorder that may be asymptomatic in the early stages. The most studied and clinically important form of DAN is cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy defined as the impairment of autonomic control of the cardiovascular system in patients with diabetes after exclusion of other causes. The reported prevalence of DAN varies widely depending on inconsistent definition, different diagnostic method, different patient cohorts studied. The pathogenesis is still unclear and probably multifactorial. Once DAN becomes clinically evident, no form of therapy has been identified, which can effectively stop or reverse it. Prevention strategies are based on strict glycemic control with intensive insulin treatment, multifactorial intervention, and lifestyle modification including control of hypertension, dyslipidemia, stop smoking, weight loss, and adequate physical exercise. The present review summarizes the latest knowledge regarding clinical presentation, epidemiology, pathogenesis, and management of DAN, with some mention to childhood and adolescent population. PMID:25520703

  15. Integrated System for Autonomous Science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chien, Steve; Sherwood, Robert; Tran, Daniel; Cichy, Benjamin; Davies, Ashley; Castano, Rebecca; Rabideau, Gregg; Frye, Stuart; Trout, Bruce; Shulman, Seth; Doggett, Thomas; Ip, Felipe; Greeley, Ron; Baker, Victor; Dohn, James; Boyer, Darrell

    2006-01-01

    The New Millennium Program Space Technology 6 Project Autonomous Sciencecraft software implements an integrated system for autonomous planning and execution of scientific, engineering, and spacecraft-coordination actions. A prior version of this software was reported in "The TechSat 21 Autonomous Sciencecraft Experiment" (NPO-30784), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 28, No. 3 (March 2004), page 33. This software is now in continuous use aboard the Earth Orbiter 1 (EO-1) spacecraft mission and is being adapted for use in the Mars Odyssey and Mars Exploration Rovers missions. This software enables EO-1 to detect and respond to such events of scientific interest as volcanic activity, flooding, and freezing and thawing of water. It uses classification algorithms to analyze imagery onboard to detect changes, including events of scientific interest. Detection of such events triggers acquisition of follow-up imagery. The mission-planning component of the software develops a response plan that accounts for visibility of targets and operational constraints. The plan is then executed under control by a task-execution component of the software that is capable of responding to anomalies.

  16. Radial nerve motor palsy following seasonal influenza vaccination: a case report.

    PubMed

    Taras, John S; Donohue, Kenneth W

    2014-01-01

    This case report describes the course of a 26-year-old male who developed a dense motor palsy of the radial nerve after receiving a seasonal influenza vaccination. The palsy developed within 12 to 16 hours of inoculation and demonstrated no clinical recovery until 5 months postinjury. Electromyographic and nerve conduction studies obtained at six weeks postinjury were consistent with complete motor denervation. Sensory function was preserved. The injury was successfully treated nonoperatively with physical therapy and wrist splinting, and the palsy gradually resolved over the next several months. PMID:24641896

  17. Peripheral nerve disease in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Klein, Autumn

    2013-06-01

    Neuropathies during pregnancy and the postpartum period are common and are usually due to compression around pregnancy and childbirth. The most common peripheral neuropathies are Bell's palsy, carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS), and lower extremity neuropathies. Although most neuropathies are usually reversible, associated disabilities or morbidities can limit functioning and require therapy. Nerve conduction study tests and imaging should only be considered if symptoms are unusual or prolonged. Some neuropathies may be associated with preeclampsia or an inherent underlying neuropathy that increases the risk of nerve injury. All neuropathies in pregnancy should be followed as some may be persistent and require follow-up. PMID:23563878

  18. Nerve lesioning with direct current

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravid, E. Natalie; Shi Gan, Liu; Todd, Kathryn; Prochazka, Arthur

    2011-02-01

    Spastic hypertonus (muscle over-activity due to exaggerated stretch reflexes) often develops in people with stroke, cerebral palsy, multiple sclerosis and spinal cord injury. Lesioning of nerves, e.g. with phenol or botulinum toxin is widely performed to reduce spastic hypertonus. We have explored the use of direct electrical current (DC) to lesion peripheral nerves. In a series of animal experiments, DC reduced muscle force by controlled amounts and the reduction could last several months. We conclude that in some cases controlled DC lesioning may provide an effective alternative to the less controllable molecular treatments available today.

  19. Sphenopalatine ganglion electrical nerve stimulation implant for intractable facial pain.

    PubMed

    Elahi, Foad; Reddy, Chandan G

    2015-01-01

    Persistent idiopathic facial pain can be extremely difficult and significantly challenging to manage for the patient and the clinician. Pharmacological treatment of these painful conditions is not always successful. It has been suggested that the autonomic reflex plays an important role in the pathophysiology of headaches and facial neuralgia. The key structure in the expression of cranial autonomic symptoms is the sphenopalatine ganglion (SPG), also known as the pterygopalatine ganglion. The role of the SPG in the pathophysiology of headaches and facial pain has become clearer in the past decade. In this case report, we describe a 30 year-old woman with insidious onset of right facial pain. She was suffering from daily pain for more than 9 years prior to her visit at the pain clinic. Her pain was constant with episodic aggravation without a predisposing trigger factor. The patient was evaluated by multiple different specialties and tried multimodal therapy, which included antiepileptic medications, with minimal pain relief. A SPG block using short-acting local anesthetic provided significant temporary pain relief. The second and third attempt of SPG block using different local anesthetic medications demonstrated the same responses. After a thorough psychological assessment and ruling out the presence of a correctable cause for the pain, we decided to proceed with SPG electrical neuromodulation. The patient reported significant pain relief during the electrical nerve stimulation trial. The patient underwent a permanent implant of the neurostimulation electrode in the SPG region. The patient was successfully taken off opioid medication and her pain was dramatically responsive during a 6 month follow-up visit. In this article we describe the SPG nerve stimulation and the technical aspect of pterygopalatine fossa electrode placement. The pterygoplatine fossa is an easily accessible location. This case report will be encouraging for physicians treating intractable

  20. Recording sympathetic nerve activity chronically in rats: surgery techniques, assessment of nerve activity, and quantification

    PubMed Central

    Muntzel, Martin S.

    2013-01-01

    The sympathetic nervous system plays a pivotal role in homeostasis through its direct innervation and functional impact on a variety of end organs. In rats, a number of methods are available to assess sympathetic nervous system function. Traditionally, direct recording of sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) has been restricted to acute, anesthetized preparations or conscious animals within a few days after electrode implantation. However, these approaches provide short-term data in studies designed to investigate changes in SNA during chronic disease states. Over the last several years, chronic SNA recording has been pioneered in rabbits and more recently in rats. The purpose of this article is to provide insights and a “how to” guide for chronic SNA recordings in rats based on experiences from two independent laboratories. We will present common methodologies used to chronically record SNA, characteristics and methods to distinguish sympathetic bursts versus electrical artifacts (and provide corresponding audio clips when available), and provide suggestions for analysis and presentation of data. In many instances, these same guidelines are applicable to acute SNA recordings. Using the surgical approaches described herein, both laboratories have been able to chronically record SNA in >50% of rats for a duration >3 wk. The ability to record SNA over the time course of several weeks will, undoubtedly, greatly impact the field of autonomic and cardiovascular physiology. PMID:24014674

  1. Nerve supply to the pelvis (image)

    MedlinePlus

    The nerves that branch off the central nervous system (CNS) provide messages to the muscles and organs for normal ... be compromised. In multiple sclerosis, the demyelinization of nerve cells may lead to bowel incontinence, bladder problems ...

  2. Infraspinatus muscle atrophy from suprascapular nerve compression.

    PubMed

    Cordova, Christopher B; Owens, Brett D

    2014-02-01

    Muscle weakness without pain may signal a nerve compression injury. Because these injuries should be identified and treated early to prevent permanent muscle weakness and atrophy, providers should consider suprascapular nerve compression in patients with shoulder muscle weakness. PMID:24463748

  3. Intra-operative electrooculographic monitoring to prevent post-operative extraocular motor nerve dysfunction during skull base surgeries

    PubMed Central

    Sheshadri, Veena; Bharadwaj, Suparna; Chandramouli, BA

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims: Intra-operative identification and preservation of extraocular motor nerves is one of the main goals of surgeries for skull base tumours and this is done by monitoring the extraocular movement (EOM). Intra-operative electromyographic monitoring has been reported, but it is a complex and skilful process. Electrooculography (EOG) is a simple and reliable technique for monitoring EOMs. We aimed to assess the utility of EOG monitoring in preventing extraocular motor nerve dysfunction during skull base surgeries. Methods: In this retrospective cohort study, intra-operative EOG recordings were obtained using disposable needle electrodes placed on the periorbital skin and the polarity of the waves noted for interpretation. Triggered as well as continuous EOG responses were recorded after monopolar electrode stimulation of cranial nerve (CN) during tumour removal which helped the surgeon with careful dissection and avoiding potential nerve injuries. Results: Of the 11 cases monitored, oculomotor and abducent nerves were identified in all cases, but the trochlear nerve could not be definitively identified. Six patients had no pre- or post-operative extraocular motor nerve dysfunction. The other five patients had pre-existing deficits before surgery, which recovered completely in two, significantly in one, and did not improve in two patients at 3–6 months follow-up. Conclusions: EOG was found to be a simple and reliable method of monitoring extraocular motor nerves (CNs III and VI) intraoperatively. PMID:27601738

  4. Diving and exercise: the interaction of trigeminal receptors and muscle metaboreceptors on muscle sympathetic nerve activity in humans.

    PubMed

    Fisher, James P; Fernandes, Igor A; Barbosa, Thales C; Prodel, Eliza; Coote, John H; Nóbrega, Antonio Claudio L; Vianna, Lauro C

    2015-03-01

    Swimming involves muscular activity and submersion, creating a conflict of autonomic reflexes elicited by the trigeminal receptors and skeletal muscle afferents. We sought to determine the autonomic cardiovascular responses to separate and concurrent stimulation of the trigeminal cutaneous receptors and metabolically sensitive skeletal muscle afferents (muscle metaboreflex). In eight healthy men (30 ± 2 yr) muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA; microneurography), mean arterial pressure (MAP; Finometer), femoral artery blood flow (duplex Doppler ultrasonography), and femoral vascular conductance (femoral artery blood flow/MAP) were assessed during the following three experimental conditions: 1) facial cooling (trigeminal nerve stimulation), 2) postexercise ischemia (PEI; muscle metaboreflex activation) following isometric handgrip, and 3) trigeminal nerve stimulation with concurrent PEI. Trigeminal nerve stimulation produced significant increases in MSNA total activity (Δ347 ± 167%) and MAP (Δ21 ± 5%) and a reduction in femoral artery vascular conductance (Δ-17 ± 9%). PEI also evoked significant increases in MSNA total activity (Δ234 ± 83%) and MAP (Δ36 ± 4%) and a slight nonsignificant reduction in femoral artery vascular conductance (Δ-9 ± 12%). Trigeminal nerve stimulation with concurrent PEI evoked changes in MSNA total activity (Δ341 ± 96%), MAP (Δ39 ± 4%), and femoral artery vascular conductance (Δ-20 ± 9%) that were similar to those evoked by either separate trigeminal nerve stimulation or separate PEI. Thus, excitatory inputs from the trigeminal nerve and metabolically sensitive skeletal muscle afferents do not summate algebraically in eliciting a MSNA and cardiovascular response but rather exhibit synaptic occlusion, suggesting a high degree of convergent inputs on output neurons. PMID:25527781

  5. Proximal Sciatic Nerve Intraneural Ganglion Cyst

    PubMed Central

    Swartz, Karin R.; Wilson, Dianne; Boland, Michael; Fee, Dominic B.

    2009-01-01

    Intraneural ganglion cysts are nonneoplastic, mucinous cysts within the epineurium of peripheral nerves which usually involve the peroneal nerve at the knee. A 37-year-old female presented with progressive left buttock and posterior thigh pain. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a sciatic nerve mass at the sacral notch which was subsequently revealed to be an intraneural ganglion cyst. An intraneural ganglion cyst confined to the proximal sciatic nerve has only been reported once prior to 2009. PMID:20069041

  6. Patterned substrates and methods for nerve regeneration

    DOEpatents

    Mallapragada, Surya K.; Heath, Carole; Shanks, Howard; Miller, Cheryl A.; Jeftinija, Srdija

    2004-01-13

    Micropatterned substrates and methods for fabrication of artificial nerve regeneration conduits and methods for regenerating nerves are provided. Guidance compounds or cells are seeded in grooves formed on the patterned substrate. The substrates may also be provided with electrodes to provide electrical guidance cues to the regenerating nerve. The micropatterned substrates give physical, chemical, cellular and/or electrical guidance cues to promote nerve regeneration at the cellular level.

  7. Effect of Artificial Nerve Conduit Vascularization on Peripheral Nerve in a Necrotic Bed

    PubMed Central

    Iijima, Yuki; Murayama, Akira; Takeshita, Katsushi

    2016-01-01

    Background: Several types of artificial nerve conduit have been used for bridging peripheral nerve gaps as an alternative to autologous nerves. However, their efficacy in repairing nerve injuries accompanied by surrounding tissue damage remains unclear. We fabricated a novel nerve conduit vascularized by superficial inferior epigastric (SIE) vessels and evaluated whether it could promote axonal regeneration in a necrotic bed. Methods: A 15-mm nerve conduit was implanted beneath the SIE vessels in the groin of a rat to supply it with blood vessels 2 weeks before nerve reconstruction. We removed a 13-mm segment of the sciatic nerve and then pressed a heated iron against the dorsal thigh muscle to produce a burn. The defects were immediately repaired with an autograft (n = 10), nerve conduit graft (n = 8), or vascularized nerve conduit graft (n = 8). Recovery of motor function was examined for 18 weeks after surgery. The regenerated nerves were electrophysiologically and histologically evaluated. Results: The vascularity of the nerve conduit implanted beneath the SIE vessels was confirmed histologically 2 weeks after implantation. Between 14 and 18 weeks after surgery, motor function of the vascularized conduit group was significantly better than that of the nonvascularized conduit group. Electrophysiological and histological evaluations revealed that although the improvement did not reach the level of reinnervation achieved by an autograft, the vascularized nerve conduit improved axonal regeneration more than did the conduit alone. Conclusion: Vascularization of artificial nerve conduits accelerated peripheral nerve regeneration, but further research is required to improve the quality of nerve regeneration. PMID:27257595

  8. An anatomical study of porcine peripheral nerve and its potential use in nerve tissue engineering

    PubMed Central

    Zilic, Leyla; Garner, Philippa E; Yu, Tong; Roman, Sabiniano; Haycock, John W; Wilshaw, Stacy-Paul

    2015-01-01

    Current nerve tissue engineering applications are adopting xenogeneic nerve tissue as potential nerve grafts to help aid nerve regeneration. However, there is little literature that describes the exact location, anatomy and physiology of these nerves to highlight their potential as a donor graft. The aim of this study was to identify and characterise the structural and extracellular matrix (ECM) components of porcine peripheral nerves in the hind leg. Methods included the dissection of porcine nerves, localisation, characterisation and quantification of the ECM components and identification of nerve cells. Results showed a noticeable variance between porcine and rat nerve (a commonly studied species) in terms of fascicle number. The study also revealed that when porcine peripheral nerves branch, a decrease in fascicle number and size was evident. Porcine ECM and nerve fascicles were found to be predominately comprised of collagen together with glycosaminoglycans, laminin and fibronectin. Immunolabelling for nerve growth factor receptor p75 also revealed the localisation of Schwann cells around and inside the fascicles. In conclusion, it is shown that porcine peripheral nerves possess a microstructure similar to that found in rat, and is not dissimilar to human. This finding could extend to the suggestion that due to the similarities in anatomy to human nerve, porcine nerves may have utility as a nerve graft providing guidance and support to regenerating axons. PMID:26200940

  9. The efficacy of combined regional nerve blocks in awake orotracheal fiberoptic intubation

    PubMed Central

    Chatrath, Veena; Sharan, Radhe; Jain, Payal; Bala, Anju; Ranjana; Sudha

    2016-01-01

    Aims of Study: To evaluate the efficacy, hemodynamic changes, and patient comfort during awake fiberoptic intubation done under combined regional blocks. Materials and Methods: In the present observational study, 50 patients of American Society of Anesthesiologists ( ASA) Grade I–II, Mallampati Grade I–IV were given nerve blocks - bilateral glossopharyngeal nerve block, bilateral superior laryngeal nerve block, and recurrent laryngeal nerve block before awake fiberoptic intubation using 2% lidocaine. Results: Procedure was associated with minimal increases in hemodynamic parameters during the procedure and until 3 min after it. Most of the intubations were being carried out within 3 min. Patient comfort was satisfactory with 90% of patients having favorable grades. Discussion: The most common cause of mortality and serious morbidity due to anesthesia is from airway problems. One-third of all anesthetic deaths are due to failure to intubate and ventilate. Awake flexible fiberoptic intubation under local anesthesia is now an accepted technique for managing such situations. In awake patient's anatomy, muscle tone, airway protection, and ventilation are preserved, but it is essential to sufficiently anesthetize the upper airway before the performance of awake fiberoptic bronchoscope-guided intubation to ensure patient comfort and cooperation for which in our study we used the nerve block technique. Conclusion: A properly performed technique of awake fiberoptic intubation done under combined regional nerve blocks provides good intubating conditions, patient comfort and safety and results in minimal hemodynamic changes. PMID:27212757

  10. [Perineural tumor spread from the ophthalmic branch of the trigeminal nerve: a case report].

    PubMed

    Fontanarosa, Antonio; Scialpi, Michele; Macarini, Luca; Genovese, Eugenio Annibale; Stabile Ianora, Antonio Amato; Rubini, Giuseppe

    2012-11-01

    Perineural tumor spread of head and neck malignancies is a well known form of metastatic disease in which a lesion can migrate away from the primary site along the cranial nerves. Nerve function can be preserved even in advanced stages of the disease, making neuroradiological assessment of perineural tumor location and extension of utmost importance, as radiological or pathological examination may reveal normal or nonspecific nerve function. Computed Tomography is useful in detecting foraminal enlargement or more destructive bone patterns. Magnetic Resonance imaging is the modality of choice because it can provide direct (nerve enlargement and enhancement) and indirect evidence of the disease (neuropathic muscular atrophy, obliteration of fat planes) owing to its superior soft-tissue contrast resolution, its multiplanar imaging and the decreased amount artifacts from dental hardware. Fat suppression images after contrast injection are mandatory to better detect nerve enhancement. We report the case of a female patient with perineural diffusion along the ophthalmic branch. This clinical picture is very rare, compared to those involving the mandibular and maxillary branches of the fifth cranial nerve. PMID:23096748

  11. A method for the staining of intraosseous nerve fibers using Sihler's staining technique.

    PubMed

    Shiozaki, K; Miida, K; Tanaka, R; Shimoda, S

    2013-08-01

    Understanding nerve fiber distribution in the jaw bone is important when performing invasive surgical treatments. Both microscopic and macroscopic anatomical techniques have been developed to study innervation. Conventional methods of removing and staining these structures, however, often alter structure and lack reproducibility of the resulting specimens. We sought to optimize Sihler's staining technique to stain intraosseous nerves in mandibles. Four cadaver specimens were used. The best staining of intraosseous nerve fibers was achieved by using the Plank-Rychlo solution. When the Styrene monomer was used, the resulting transparency was better than that obtained with glycerin under the same conditions. No significant differences were found between Sihler's staining procedure performed according to the conventional method and the procedure in which the second decalcification step was omitted. Our results demonstrate that applying Sihler's staining technique to bones makes them transparent and allows observation of nerves while preserving the external shape of the bone and maintaining the position of intraosseous nerve fibers. Our findings suggest our Sihler staining method for intraosseous nerve fibers can provide an intermediate resolution between macroscopic and microscopic techniques. PMID:23472877

  12. Atorvastatin is beneficial for muscle reinnervation after complete sciatic nerve section in rats.

    PubMed

    Cloutier, Frédéric-Charles; Rouleau, Dominique M; Hébert-Davies, Jonah; Beaumont, Pierre H; Beaumont, Eric

    2013-12-01

    Nerve regeneration and functional recovery are often incomplete after peripheral neurotmetic lesion. Atorvastatin has been shown to be neuroprotective after transient ischaemia or traumatic injury. The aim of this study was to establish if systemic administration of Atorvastatin could improve functional muscle reinnervation after complete sciatic nerve section. Sixteen female Sprague-Dawley rats were used in this study. After a complete right sciatic nerve section, end-to-end microsuture repair was performed and fibrin glue was added. Three groups were studied: (1) sutures (S) + fibrin glue (F) only + saline administration for 14 days; (2) S+F+Atorvastatin administration for 14 days; and (3) uninjured nerve. Five months later, the sciatic nerve and the gastrocnemius muscle were isolated to perform in vivo electrophysiological measurements. Better kinematics was observed in atorvastatin-treated rats 5 months after its administration. Indeed, a larger excursion of the hip-ankle-toe angle during walking was observed. This effect was associated with the preservation of electromyographic activity (2.91 mV vs 0.77 mV) and maximal muscle force (85.1 g vs 28.6 g) on stimulation of the proximal nerve section. Five months after a neurotmetic lesion, the recovery is incomplete when using suture and fibrin glue only. Furthermore, the systemic administration of Atorvastatin for 14 days after lesion was beneficial in improving locomotion capability associated with the re-establishment of muscle strength and EMG activity. PMID:23848426

  13. Autonomous Cryogenic Load Operations: Knowledge-Based Autonomous Test Engineer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schrading, J. Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    The Knowledge-Based Autonomous Test Engineer (KATE) program has a long history at KSC. Now a part of the Autonomous Cryogenic Load Operations (ACLO) mission, this software system has been sporadically developed over the past 20 years. Originally designed to provide health and status monitoring for a simple water-based fluid system, it was proven to be a capable autonomous test engineer for determining sources of failure in the system. As part of a new goal to provide this same anomaly-detection capability for a complicated cryogenic fluid system, software engineers, physicists, interns and KATE experts are working to upgrade the software capabilities and graphical user interface. Much progress was made during this effort to improve KATE. A display of the entire cryogenic system's graph, with nodes for components and edges for their connections, was added to the KATE software. A searching functionality was added to the new graph display, so that users could easily center their screen on specific components. The GUI was also modified so that it displayed information relevant to the new project goals. In addition, work began on adding new pneumatic and electronic subsystems into the KATE knowledge base, so that it could provide health and status monitoring for those systems. Finally, many fixes for bugs, memory leaks, and memory errors were implemented and the system was moved into a state in which it could be presented to stakeholders. Overall, the KATE system was improved and necessary additional features were added so that a presentation of the program and its functionality in the next few months would be a success.

  14. Autonomous Cryogenic Load Operations: KSC Autonomous Test Engineer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shrading, Nicholas J.

    2012-01-01

    The KSC Autonomous Test Engineer (KATE) program has a long history at KSC. Now a part of the Autonomous Cryogenic Load Operations (ACLO) mission, this software system has been sporadically developed over the past 20+ years. Originally designed to provide health and status monitoring for a simple water-based fluid system, it was proven to be a capable autonomous test engineer for determining sources of failure in. the system, As part.of a new goal to provide this same anomaly-detection capability for a complicated cryogenic fluid system, software engineers, physicists, interns and KATE experts are working to upgrade the software capabilities and graphical user interface. Much progress was made during this effort to improve KATE. A display ofthe entire cryogenic system's graph, with nodes for components and edges for their connections, was added to the KATE software. A searching functionality was added to the new graph display, so that users could easily center their screen on specific components. The GUI was also modified so that it displayed information relevant to the new project goals. In addition, work began on adding new pneumatic and electronic subsystems into the KATE knowledgebase, so that it could provide health and status monitoring for those systems. Finally, many fixes for bugs, memory leaks, and memory errors were implemented and the system was moved into a state in which it could be presented to stakeholders. Overall, the KATE system was improved and necessary additional features were added so that a presentation of the program and its functionality in the next few months would be a success.

  15. M. leprae components induce nerve damage by complement activation: identification of lipoarabinomannan as the dominant complement activator.

    PubMed

    Bahia El Idrissi, Nawal; Das, Pranab K; Fluiter, Kees; Rosa, Patricia S; Vreijling, Jeroen; Troost, Dirk; Morgan, B Paul; Baas, Frank; Ramaglia, Valeria

    2015-05-01

    Peripheral nerve damage is the hallmark of leprosy pathology but its etiology is unclear. We previously identified the membrane attack complex (MAC) of the complement system as a key determinant of post-traumatic nerve damage and demonstrated that its inhibition is neuroprotective. Here, we determined the contribution of the MAC to nerve damage caused by Mycobacterium leprae and its components in mouse. Furthermore, we studied the association between MAC and the key M. leprae component lipoarabinomannan (LAM) in nerve biopsies of leprosy patients. Intraneural injections of M. leprae sonicate induced MAC deposition and pathological changes in the mouse nerve, whereas MAC inhibition preserved myelin and axons. Complement activation occurred mainly via the lectin pathway and the principal activator was LAM. In leprosy nerves, the extent of LAM and MAC immunoreactivity was robust and significantly higher in multibacillary compared to paucibacillary donors (p = 0.01 and p = 0.001, respectively), with a highly significant association between LAM and MAC in the diseased samples (r = 0.9601, p = 0.0001). Further, MAC co-localized with LAM on axons, pointing to a role for this M. leprae antigen in complement activation and nerve damage in leprosy. Our findings demonstrate that MAC contributes to nerve damage in a model of M. leprae-induced nerve injury and its inhibition is neuroprotective. In addition, our data identified LAM as the key pathogen associated molecule that activates complement and causes nerve damage. Taken together our data imply an important role of complement in nerve damage in leprosy and may inform the development of novel therapeutics for patients. PMID:25772973

  16. Endoscopic-assisted infraorbital nerve release

    PubMed Central

    Sosin, Michael; De La Cruz, Carla; Christy, Michael R.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Endoscopic-assisted techniques in plastic and craniofacial surgeries are limited. We present a patient with infraorbital nerve entrapment following traumatic facial injury that failed conservative management. Compression of the nerve was treated with an endoscopic-assisted nerve release of the surrounding soft tissue with a circumferential foraminal osteotomy.

  17. Facial nerve palsy due to birth trauma

    MedlinePlus

    Seventh cranial nerve palsy due to birth trauma ... these factors do not lead to facial nerve palsy or birth trauma. ... The most common form of facial nerve palsy due to birth trauma ... This part controls the muscles around the lips. The muscle ...

  18. 21 CFR 882.5275 - Nerve cuff.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Nerve cuff. 882.5275 Section 882.5275 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES Neurological Therapeutic Devices § 882.5275 Nerve cuff. (a) Identification. A nerve...

  19. 21 CFR 882.5275 - Nerve cuff.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Nerve cuff. 882.5275 Section 882.5275 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES Neurological Therapeutic Devices § 882.5275 Nerve cuff. (a) Identification. A nerve...

  20. 21 CFR 882.5275 - Nerve cuff.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Nerve cuff. 882.5275 Section 882.5275 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES Neurological Therapeutic Devices § 882.5275 Nerve cuff. (a) Identification. A nerve...

  1. 21 CFR 882.5275 - Nerve cuff.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Nerve cuff. 882.5275 Section 882.5275 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES Neurological Therapeutic Devices § 882.5275 Nerve cuff. (a) Identification. A nerve...

  2. 21 CFR 882.5275 - Nerve cuff.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Nerve cuff. 882.5275 Section 882.5275 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES Neurological Therapeutic Devices § 882.5275 Nerve cuff. (a) Identification. A nerve...

  3. Use of pupil size to determine the effect of electromagnetic acupuncture on activation level of the autonomic nervous system.

    PubMed

    Kim, Soo-Byeong; Choi, Woo-Hyuk; Liu, Wen-Xue; Lee, Na-Ra; Shin, Tae-Min; Lee, Yong-Heum

    2014-06-01

    Magnetic fields are widely considered as a method of treatment to increase the therapeutic effect when applied to acupoints. Hence, this study proposes a new method which creates significant stimulation of acupoints by using weak magnetic fields. We conducted this experiment in order to confirm the effect on the activation level of the autonomic nervous system by measuring pupil sizes in cases of stimulation by using manual acupuncture and electromagnetic acupuncture (EMA) at BL15. We selected 30 Hz of biphasic wave form with 570.1 Gauss. To confirm the biopotential by the magnetic flux density occurring in EMA that affected the activation of the autonomic nervous system, we observed the biopotential induced at the upper and the mid left and right trapezius. We observed a significant decrease in pupil size only in the EMA group (p < 0.05), thus confirming that EMA decreased the pupil size through activation of the parasympathetic nerve in the autonomic nervous system. Moreover, we confirmed that the amplitude of the biopotential which was caused by 570.1 Gauss was higher than ±20 μA. Thus, we can conclude that EMA treatment successfully activates the parasympathetic nerve in the autonomic nervous system by inducing a biotransformation by the induced biopotential. PMID:24929456

  4. Neurofibrosarcoma of the vagus nerve

    PubMed Central

    Corris, P. A.

    1983-01-01

    A patient whose symptoms of cough and intermittent hoarseness were due to a neurofibrosarcoma of the vagus nerve is described. Attention is drawn to the rarity of the tumour and a short review of the pathology and treatment of neurofibrosarcoma is discussed. ImagesFig. 1 PMID:6844194

  5. Overview of Optic Nerve Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... pathways to the brain results in loss of vision. At a structure in the brain called the optic chiasm, each optic nerve splits, ... both eyes, and the left side of the brain receives information from the right visual field of both eyes. ... occurs. Resources ...

  6. Cranial nerve palsies in childhood

    PubMed Central

    Lyons, C J; Godoy, F; ALQahtani, E

    2015-01-01

    We review ocular motor cranial nerve palsies in childhood and highlight many of the features that differentiate these from their occurrence in adulthood. The clinical characteristics of cranial nerve palsies in childhood are affected by the child's impressive ability to repair and regenerate after injury. Thus, aberrant regeneration is very common after congenital III palsy; Duane syndrome, the result of early repair after congenital VI palsy, is invariably associated with retraction of the globe in adduction related to the innervation of the lateral rectus by the III nerve causing co-contraction in adduction. Clinical features that may be of concern in adulthood may not be relevant in childhood; whereas the presence of mydriasis in III palsy suggests a compressive aetiology in adults, this is not the case in children. However, the frequency of associated CNS abnormalities in III palsy and the risk of tumour in VI palsy can be indications for early neuroimaging depending on presenting features elicited through a careful history and clinical examination. The latter should include the neighbouring cranial nerves. We discuss the impact of our evolving knowledge of congenital cranial dysinnervation syndromes on this field. PMID:25572578

  7. The Diagnostic Value of Nerve Ultrasound in an Atypical Palmar Cutaneous Nerve Lesion.

    PubMed

    Zanette, Giampietro; Tamburin, Stefano

    2016-07-01

    Detailed knowledge of the fascicular anatomy of peripheral nerves is important for microsurgical repair and functional electrostimulation.We report a patient with a lesion on the left palmar cutaneous branch of the median nerve (PCBMN) and sensory signs expanding outside the PCBMN cutaneous innervation territory. Nerve conduction study showed the absence of left PCBMN sensory nerve action potential, but apparently, no median nerve (MN) involvement. Nerve ultrasound documented a neuroma of the left PCBMN and a coexistent lateral neuroma of the left MN in the carpal tunnel after the PCBMN left the main nerve trunk.Nerve ultrasound may offer important information in patients with peripheral nerve lesions and atypical clinical and/or nerve conduction study findings. The present case may shed some light on the somatotopy of MN fascicles at the wrist. PMID:26945219

  8. Nerve injury associated with orthognathic surgery. Part 1: UK practice and motor nerve injuries.

    PubMed

    Bowe, D C; Gruber, E A; McLeod, N M H

    2016-05-01

    The head and neck is anatomically complex, and several nerves are at risk during orthognathic operations. Some injuries to nerves are reported more commonly than others. To find out what consultant surgeons tell their patients about the prevalence of common nerve injuries before orthognathic operations, we did a postal survey of fellows of the British Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons (BAOMS). We also reviewed published papers to find out the reported incidence of injuries to cranial motor nerves during orthognathic operations. Only injuries to the facial nerve were commonly reported, and we found only case reports about injuries to the oculomotor, abducens, and trochlear nerves. The risk of temporary facial nerve palsy reported was 0.30/100 nerves (95% CI 0.23 to 0.50) and permanent facial nerve palsy was 0.06/100 nerves (95% CI 0.02 to 0.15). PMID:26935213

  9. A novel quantitative method for diabetic cardiac autonomic neuropathy assessment in type 1 diabetic mice.

    PubMed

    Chon, Ki H; Yang, Bufan; Posada-Quintero, Hugo F; Siu, Kin L; Rolle, Marsha; Brink, Peter; Birzgalis, Aija; Moore, Leon C

    2014-11-01

    In this work, we used a sensitive and noninvasive computational method to assess diabetic cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy (DCAN) from pulse oximeter (photoplethysmographic; PPG) recordings from mice. The method, which could be easily applied to humans, is based on principal dynamic mode (PDM) analysis of heart rate variability (HRV). Unlike the power spectral density, PDM has been shown to be able to separately identify the activities of the parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous systems without pharmacological intervention. HRV parameters were measured by processing PPG signals from conscious 1.5- to 5-month-old C57/BL6 control mice and in Akita mice, a model of insulin-dependent type 1 diabetes, and compared with the gold-standard Western blot and immunohistochemical analyses. The PDM results indicate significant cardiac autonomic impairment in the diabetic mice in comparison to the controls. When tail-cuff PPG recordings were collected and analyzed starting from 1.5 months of age in both C57/Bl6 controls and Akita mice, onset of DCAN was seen at 3 months in the Akita mice, which persisted up to the termination of the recording at 5 months. Western blot and immunohistochemical analyses also showed a reduction in nerve density in Akita mice at 3 and 4 months as compared to the control mice, thus, corroborating our PDM data analysis of HRV records. Western blot analysis of autonomic nerve proteins corroborated the PPG-based HRV analysis via the PDM approach. In contrast, traditional HRV analysis (based on either the power spectral density or time-domain measures) failed to detect the nerve rarefaction. PMID:25097056

  10. A Novel Quantitative Method for Diabetic Cardiac Autonomic Neuropathy Assessment in Type 1 Diabetic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Bufan; Posada-Quintero, Hugo F.; Siu, Kin L.; Rolle, Marsha; Brink, Peter; Birzgalis, Aija; Moore, Leon C.

    2014-01-01

    In this work, we used a sensitive and noninvasive computational method to assess diabetic cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy (DCAN) from pulse oximeter (photoplethysmographic; PPG) recordings from mice. The method, which could be easily applied to humans, is based on principal dynamic mode (PDM) analysis of heart rate variability (HRV). Unlike the power spectral density, PDM has been shown to be able to separately identify the activities of the parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous systems without pharmacological intervention. HRV parameters were measured by processing PPG signals from conscious 1.5- to 5-month-old C57/BL6 control mice and in Akita mice, a model of insulin-dependent type 1 diabetes, and compared with the gold-standard Western blot and immunohistochemical analyses. The PDM results indicate significant cardiac autonomic impairment in the diabetic mice in comparison to the controls. When tail-cuff PPG recordings were collected and analyzed starting from 1.5 months of age in both C57/Bl6 controls and Akita mice, onset of DCAN was seen at 3 months in the Akita mice, which persisted up to the termination of the recording at 5 months. Western blot and immunohistochemical analyses also showed a reduction in nerve density in Akita mice at 3 and 4 months as compared to the control mice, thus, corroborating our PDM data analysis of HRV records. Western blot analysis of autonomic nerve proteins corroborated the PPG-based HRV analysis via the PDM approach. In contrast, traditional HRV analysis (based on either the power spectral density or time-domain measures) failed to detect the nerve rarefaction. PMID:25097056

  11. Cardiovascular autonomic dysfunction in sickle cell anemia.

    PubMed

    Martins, Wolney de Andrade; Lopes, Heno Ferreira; Consolim-Colombo, Fernanda Marciano; Gualandro, Sandra de Fátima Menosi; Arteaga-Fernández, Edmundo; Mady, Charles

    2012-01-26

    Sickle cell anemia (SCA) is associated to increased cardiac output, normal heart rate (HR), abnormal QT dispersion and lower diastolic blood pressure (DBP). The mechanisms are still unknown. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that there is cardiovascular autonomic dysfunction (CAD) in SCA. The secondary objectives were to distinguish the roles of chronic anemia and hemoglobinopathy and to evaluate the predominance of the sympathetic or parasympathetic systems in the pathogenesis of CAD. Sixteen subjects with SCA, 13 with sickle cell trait (SCT), 13 with iron deficiency anemia (IDA), and 13 healthy volunteers (HV) were evaluated. All subjects were submitted to 24h-electrocardiogram (24h-ECG), plasma norepinephrine (NE) measurement before and after isometric exercise (IE), and also Valsalva maneuver (VM), diving maneuver (DV), and tilt test (TT). Baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) was also evaluated. The minimum, average and maximum HR as well as the percentage of bradycardia and tachycardia at 24-h ECG were similar in all groups. NE at baseline and after IE did not differ between groups. The SCA group showed less bradycardia at phase IV of VM, less bradycardia during DV, and also less tachycardia and lower DBP during TT. BRS for bradycardia and tachycardia reflex was decreased in the SCA and SCT groups. In conclusion, 1) there is CAD in SCA, and it is characterized by the reduction of BRS and the limitation of HR modulation mediated by the parasympathetic system; 2) cardiovascular sympathetic activity is preserved in SCA; and 3) hemoglobinopathy is the preponderant ethiopathogenic factor. PMID:21868290

  12. Sympathetic Nerve Activity and Simulated Diving in Healthy Humans

    PubMed Central

    Shamsuzzaman, Abu; Ackerman, Michael J.; Kuniyoshi, Fatima Sert; Accurso, Valentina; Davison, Diane; Amin, Raouf S.; Somers, Virend K.

    2014-01-01

    The goal of our study was to develop a simple and practical method for simulating diving in humans using facial cold exposure and apnea stimuli to measure neural and circulatory responses during the stimulated diving reflex. We hypothesized that responses to simultaneous facial cold exposure and apnea (simulated diving) would be synergistic, exceeding the sum of responses to individual stimuli. We studied 56 volunteers (24 female and 32 male), average age 39 years. All subjects were healthy, free of cardiovascular and other diseases, and on no medications. Although muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA), blood pressure, and vascular resistance increased markedly during both early and late phases of simulated diving, significant reductions in heart rate were observed only during the late phase. Total MSNA during simulated diving was greater than combined MSNA responses to the individual stimuli. We found that simulated diving is a powerful stimulus to sympathetic nerve traffic with significant bradycardia evident in the late phase of diving and eliciting synergistic sympathetic and parasympathetic responses. Our data provide insight into autonomic triggers that could help explain catastrophic cardiovascular events that may occur during asphyxia or swimming, such as in patients with obstructive sleep apnea and congenital long QT syndrome. PMID:24368150

  13. Sympathetic nerve activity and simulated diving in healthy humans.

    PubMed

    Shamsuzzaman, Abu; Ackerman, Michael J; Kuniyoshi, Fatima Sert; Accurso, Valentina; Davison, Diane; Amin, Raouf S; Somers, Virend K

    2014-04-01

    The goal of our study was to develop a simple and practical method for simulating diving in humans using facial cold exposure and apnea stimuli to measure neural and circulatory responses during the stimulated diving reflex. We hypothesized that responses to simultaneous facial cold exposure and apnea (simulated diving) would be synergistic, exceeding the sum of responses to individual stimuli. We studied 56 volunteers (24 female and 32 male), average age of 39 years. All subjects were healthy, free of cardiovascular and other diseases, and on no medications. Although muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA), blood pressure, and vascular resistance increased markedly during both early and late phases of simulated diving, significant reductions in heart rate were observed only during the late phase. Total MSNA during simulated diving was greater than combined MSNA responses to the individual stimuli. We found that simulated diving is a powerful stimulus to sympathetic nerve traffic with significant bradycardia evident in the late phase of diving and eliciting synergistic sympathetic and parasympathetic responses. Our data provide insight into autonomic triggers that could help explain catastrophic cardiovascular events that may occur during asphyxia or swimming, such as in patients with obstructive sleep apnea or congenital long QT syndrome. PMID:24368150

  14. Tele/Autonomous Robot For Nuclear Facilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Backes, Paul G.; Tso, Kam S.

    1994-01-01

    Fail-safe tele/autonomous robotic system makes it unnecessary for human technicians to enter nuclear-fuel-reprocessing facilities and other high-radiation or otherwise hazardous industrial environments. Used to carry out experiments as exchanging equipment modules, turning bolts, cleaning surfaces, and grappling turning objects by use of mixture of autonomous actions and teleoperation with either single arm or two cooperating arms. System capable of fully autonomous operation, teleoperation or shared control.

  15. Sustainable and Autonomic Space Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinchey, Michael G.; Sterritt, Roy; Rouff, Christopher; Rash, James L.; Truszkowski, Walter

    2006-01-01

    Visions for future space exploration have long term science missions in sight, resulting in the need for sustainable missions. Survivability is a critical property of sustainable systems and may be addressed through autonomicity, an emerging paradigm for self-management of future computer-based systems based on inspiration from the human autonomic nervous system. This paper examines some of the ongoing research efforts to realize these survivable systems visions, with specific emphasis on developments in Autonomic Policies.

  16. The EO-1 Autonomous Science Agent Architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chien, Steve; Sherwood, Rob; Tran, Daniel; Cichy, Benjamin; Rabideau, Gregg; Castano, Rebecca; Davies, Ashley; Lee, Rachel; Mandl, Dan; Frye, Stuart; Trout, Bruce; Hengemihle, Jerry; D'Agostino, Jeff; Shulman, Seth; Ungar, Stephen; Brakke, Thomas; Boyer, Darrell; Van Gaasbeck, Jim; Greeley, Ronald; Doggett, Thomas; Baker, Victor; Dohm, James; Ip, Felipe

    2004-01-01

    An Autonomous Science Agent is currently flying onboard the Earth Observing One Spacecraft. This software enables the spacecraft to autonomously detect and respond to science events occurring on the Earth. The package includes software systems that perform science data analysis, deliberative planning, and run-time robust execution. Because of the deployment to a remote spacecraft, this Autonomous Science Agent has stringent constraints of autonomy, reliability, and limited computing resources. We describe these constraints and how they are reflected in our agent architecture.

  17. Detection of peripheral nerve pathology

    PubMed Central

    Seelig, Michael J.; Baker, Jonathan C.; Mackinnon, Susan E.; Pestronk, Alan

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To compare accuracy of ultrasound and MRI for detecting focal peripheral nerve pathology, excluding idiopathic carpal or cubital tunnel syndromes. Methods: We performed a retrospective review of patients referred for neuromuscular ultrasound to identify patients who had ultrasound and MRI of the same limb for suspected brachial plexopathy or mononeuropathies, excluding carpal/cubital tunnel syndromes. Ultrasound and MRI results were compared to diagnoses determined by surgical or, if not performed, clinical/electrodiagnostic evaluation. Results: We identified 53 patients who had both ultrasound and MRI of whom 46 (87%) had nerve pathology diagnosed by surgical (n = 39) or clinical/electrodiagnostic (n = 14) evaluation. Ultrasound detected the diagnosed nerve pathology (true positive) more often than MRI (43/46 vs 31/46, p < 0.001). Nerve pathology was correctly excluded (true negative) with equal frequency by MRI and ultrasound (both 6/7). In 25% (13/53), ultrasound was accurate (true positive or true negative) when MRI was not. These pathologies were typically (10/13) long (>2 cm) and only occasionally (2/13) outside the MRI field of view. MRI missed multifocal pathology identified with ultrasound in 6 of 7 patients, often (5/7) because pathology was outside the MRI field of view. Conclusions: Imaging frequently detects peripheral nerve pathology and contributes to the differential diagnosis in patients with mononeuropathies and brachial plexopathies. Ultrasound is more sensitive than MRI (93% vs 67%), has equivalent specificity (86%), and better identifies multifocal lesions than MRI. In sonographically accessible regions ultrasound is the preferred initial imaging modality for anatomic evaluation of suspected peripheral nervous system lesions. PMID:23553474

  18. Historic Preservation in Art Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guilfoil, Joanne K.

    2004-01-01

    The Blue Grass Trust in Lexington, Kentucky sponsors the annual visual art contest for historic preservation, one of the many events they sponsor as part of the celebrations planned for Historic Preservation Month each May. When the announcement concerning the Blue Grass Trust visual art competition is released, area high school art teachers…

  19. Preservation of Liquid Biological Samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Putcha, Lakshmi (Inventor); Nimmagudda, Ramalingeshwara R. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    The present invention provides a method of preserving a liquid biological sample, comprising the step of: contacting said liquid biological sample with a preservative comprising, sodium benzoate in an amount of at least about 0.15% of the sample (weight/volume) and citric acid in an amount of at least about 0.025% of the sample (weight/volume).

  20. Entanglement preservation by continuous distillation

    SciTech Connect

    Mundarain, D.; Orszag, M.

    2009-05-15

    We study the two-qubit entanglement preservation for a system in the presence of independent thermal baths. We use a combination of filtering operations and distillation protocols as a series of frequent measurements on the system. It is shown that a small fraction of the total amount of available copies of the system preserves or even improves its initial entanglement during the evolution.

  1. Sharing and Preserving Family Stories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dobrez, Cynthia K.

    1987-01-01

    One public library's storytelling program for fourth through eighth graders and their grandparents has preserved grandparents' stories and fostered family communication. Storytelling was done one-on-one, with each child then writing and illustrating the story. Benefits included preservation of oral history and encouragement of storytelling,…

  2. Preservation Methods for Digital Library

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rajendran, L.; Venkatesan, M.; Kanthimathi, S.

    2005-01-01

    Going digital is the way to minimize handling of damaged materials, but the imaging process is demanding and must be done with oversight by preservation staff and with a high enough level of quality to ensure the reusability of the archival electronic file for as long as possible. This paper focuses on the scope and needs of digital preservation,…

  3. Collections Security: The Preservation Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patkus, Beth L.

    1998-01-01

    Provides a brief review of the basic elements of library security and preservation programs as a background for an exploration of security/preservation issues, problems, and policies. Discusses environmental control, disaster preparedness, fire protection, storage and handling, and controlling access to collections. (AEF)

  4. Role of Autonomic Reflex Arcs in Cardiovascular Responses to Air Pollution Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Hazari, Mehdi S.; Farraj, Aimen K.

    2016-01-01

    The body responds to environmental stressors by triggering autonomic reflexes in the pulmonary receptors, baroreceptors, and chemoreceptors to maintain homeostasis. Numerous studies have shown that exposure to various gases and airborne particles can alter the functional outcome of these reflexes, particularly with respect to the cardiovascular system. Modulation of autonomic neural input to the heart and vasculature following direct activation of sensory nerves in the respiratory system, elicitation of oxidative stress and inflammation, or through other mechanisms is one of the primary ways that exposure to air pollution affects normal cardiovascular function. Any homeostatic process that utilizes the autonomic nervous system to regulate organ function might be affected. Thus, air pollution and other inhaled environmental irritants have the potential to alter both local airway function and baro-and chemoreflex responses, which modulate autonomic control of blood pressure and detect concentrations of key gases in the body. While each of these reflex pathways causes distinct responses, the systems are heavily integrated and communicate through overlapping regions of the brainstem to cause global effects. This short review summarizes the function of major pulmonary sensory receptors, baroreceptors, and carotid body chemoreceptors and discusses the impacts of air pollution exposure on these systems. PMID:25123706

  5. Information for Successful Interaction with Autonomous Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malin, Jane T.; Johnson, Kathy A.

    2003-01-01

    Interaction in heterogeneous mission operations teams is not well matched to classical models of coordination with autonomous systems. We describe methods of loose coordination and information management in mission operations. We describe an information agent and information management tool suite for managing information from many sources, including autonomous agents. We present an integrated model of levels of complexity of agent and human behavior, which shows types of information processing and points of potential error in agent activities. We discuss the types of information needed for diagnosing problems and planning interactions with an autonomous system. We discuss types of coordination for which designs are needed for autonomous system functions.

  6. General autonomic components of motion sickness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cowings, Patricia S.; Suter, Steve; Toscano, William B.; Kamiya, Joe; Naifeh, Karen

    1986-01-01

    This report refers to a body of investigations directed toward the examination of autonomic nervous system responses to motion sickness. Heart rate, respiration rate, finger pulse volume, and basal skin resistance were measured on 127 men and women before, during, and after exposure to a nauseogenic rotating chair test. Significant changes in all autonomic responses were observed across the tests (p less than .05). Significant differences in autonomic responses among groups divided according to motion sickness susceptibility were also observed (p less than .05). Results suggest that the examination of autonomic responses as an objective indicator of motion sickness malaise is warranted and may contribute to the overall understanding of the syndrome.

  7. Autonomic dysfunction in primary sleep disorders.

    PubMed

    Miglis, Mitchell G

    2016-03-01

    The autonomic nervous system plays an important role in the coordination of many important physiologic functions during sleep. Many patients with untreated sleep disorders will describe symptoms of autonomic impairment, and a majority of patients with autonomic impairment have some form of sleep disorder. This article will explore possible explanations for this connection, as well as review the current literature on autonomic impairment in common primary sleep disorders including obstructive sleep apnea, insomnia, restless legs syndrome, periodic limb movement disorder, narcolepsy, and rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder. PMID:27198946

  8. Autonomic Computing for Spacecraft Ground Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Zhenping; Savkli, Cetin; Jones, Lori

    2007-01-01

    Autonomic computing for spacecraft ground systems increases the system reliability and reduces the cost of spacecraft operations and software maintenance. In this paper, we present an autonomic computing solution for spacecraft ground systems at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), which consists of an open standard for a message oriented architecture referred to as the GMSEC architecture (Goddard Mission Services Evolution Center), and an autonomic computing tool, the Criteria Action Table (CAT). This solution has been used in many upgraded ground systems for NASA 's missions, and provides a framework for developing solutions with higher autonomic maturity.

  9. Chemically extracted acellular allogeneic nerve graft combined with ciliary neurotrophic factor promotes sciatic nerve repair

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yanru; Zhang, Hui; Katiella, Kaka; Huang, Wenhua

    2014-01-01

    A chemically extracted acellular allogeneic nerve graft can reduce postoperative immune rejection, similar to an autologous nerve graft, and can guide neural regeneration. However, it remains poorly understood whether a chemically extracted acellular allogeneic nerve graft combined with neurotrophic factors provides a good local environment for neural regeneration. This study investigated the repair of injured rat sciatic nerve using a chemically extracted acellular allogeneic nerve graft combined with ciliary neurotrophic factor. An autologous nerve anastomosis group and a chemical acellular allogeneic nerve bridging group were prepared as controls. At 8 weeks after repair, sciatic functional index, evoked potential amplitude of the soleus muscle, triceps wet weight recovery rate, total number of myelinated nerve fibers and myelin sheath thickness were measured. For these indices, values in the three groups showed the autologous nerve anastomosis group > chemically extracted acellular nerve graft + ciliary neurotrophic factor group > chemical acellular allogeneic nerve bridging group. These results suggest that chemically extracted acellular nerve grafts combined with ciliary neurotrophic factor can repair sciatic nerve defects, and that this repair is inferior to autologous nerve anastomosis, but superior to chemically extracted acellular allogeneic nerve bridging alone. PMID:25221592

  10. Chemically extracted acellular allogeneic nerve graft combined with ciliary neurotrophic factor promotes sciatic nerve repair.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yanru; Zhang, Hui; Katiella, Kaka; Huang, Wenhua

    2014-07-15

    A chemically extracted acellular allogeneic nerve graft can reduce postoperative immune rejection, similar to an autologous nerve graft, and can guide neural regeneration. However, it remains poorly understood whether a chemically extracted acellular allogeneic nerve graft combined with neurotrophic factors provides a good local environment for neural regeneration. This study investigated the repair of injured rat sciatic nerve using a chemically extracted acellular allogeneic nerve graft combined with ciliary neurotrophic factor. An autologous nerve anastomosis group and a chemical acellular allogeneic nerve bridging group were prepared as controls. At 8 weeks after repair, sciatic functional index, evoked potential amplitude of the soleus muscle, triceps wet weight recovery rate, total number of myelinated nerve fibers and myelin sheath thickness were measured. For these indices, values in the three groups showed the autologous nerve anastomosis group > chemically extracted acellular nerve graft + ciliary neurotrophic factor group > chemical acellular allogeneic nerve bridging group. These results suggest that chemically extracted acellular nerve grafts combined with ciliary neurotrophic factor can repair sciatic nerve defects, and that this repair is inferior to autologous nerve anastomosis, but superior to chemically extracted acellular allogeneic nerve bridging alone. PMID:25221592

  11. Preserving Dignity in Later Life.

    PubMed

    São José, José Manuel

    2016-09-01

    This article examines how elders who receive social care in the community experience loss of dignity and how they preserve their dignity. Qualitative research revealed that loss of dignity is a major concern for these elders and that they preserve their dignity differently, ranging from actively engaging with life to detaching themselves from life. We conclude that, in later life, preserving dignity while receiving social care differs from preserving dignity in the context of health care, especially health care provided in institutional settings. Furthermore, preserving dignity in later life, while receiving social care, is a complex process, depending not only on performing activities and individual action and responsibility, but also on other actions, some of them involving a certain inactivity/passivity, and interactions with others, especially caregivers. This article offers some insights to developing better policies and care practices for promoting dignity in the context of community-based social care. PMID:27456751

  12. Contact dermatitis caused by preservatives.

    PubMed

    Yim, Elizabeth; Baquerizo Nole, Katherine L; Tosti, Antonella

    2014-01-01

    Preservatives are biocidal chemicals added to food, cosmetics, and industrial products to prevent the growth of microorganisms. They are usually nontoxic and inexpensive and have a long shelf life. Unfortunately, they commonly cause contact dermatitis. This article reviews the most important classes of preservatives physicians are most likely to encounter in their daily practice, specifically isothiazolinones, formaldehyde and formaldehyde-releasers, iodopropynyl butylcarbamate, methyldibromoglutaronitrile, and parabens. For each preservative mentioned, the prevalence of sensitization, clinical presentation of contact dermatitis, patch testing concentrations, cross reactions, and related legislation will be discussed. Mandatory labeling of preservatives is required in some countries, but not required in others. Until policies are made, physicians and patients must be proactive in identifying potential sensitizers and removing their use. We hope that this article will serve as a guide for policy makers in creating legislation and future regulations on the use and concentration of certain preservatives in cosmetics and industrial products. PMID:25207684

  13. Electrochemical Skin Conductance Correlates with Skin Nerve Fiber Density

    PubMed Central

    Novak, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Electrochemical skin conductance (ESC) using reverse iontophoresis and chronoamperometry has been used to evaluate abnormal function of small fibers. How ESC correlates with loss of small fibers in skin is unclear. Methods: This was a prospective, blinded study. The primary outcome measure was the correlation between ESC at the feet and results of skin biopsies including epidermal nerve fiber density (ENFD) and sweat gland nerve fiber density (SGNFD) at the distal leg. ESC, ENFD, and SGNFD data were normalized by adjusting for weight. The secondary outcome measures were the correlation between ESC and the following variables: quantitative sudomotor axon reflex test (QSART) and symptom scales (neuropathy, pain and autonomic). Results: Eighty-one patients (mean ± sd): age = 53.3 ± 17.3, men/women = 25/56 were enrolled in the study. ESC was reduced in subjects with abnormally low ENFD (ENFD normal/abnormal, ESC = 1.17 ± 0.27/0.87 ± 0.34 μSiemens/kg, p < 0.0008) and abnormally low SGNFD (SGNFD normal/abnormal ESC = 1.09 ± 0.34/0.78 ± 0.3 μSiemens/kg, p < 0.0003). ESC correlated with ENFD (ρ = 0.73, p = 0.0001) and SGNFD (ρ = 0.64, p = 0.0001). ESC did not correlate with symptom scales. Conclusion: ESC is diminished in subjects who have a reduced number of small fibers in the skin and the ESC reduction is proportional to ENFD and SGNFD. ESC can be useful in detecting loss of small nerve fibers. PMID:27605912

  14. Autonomous navigation - The ARMMS concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, L. J.; Jones, J. B.; Mease, K. D.; Kwok, J. H.; Goltz, G. L.; Kechichian, J. A.

    1984-08-01

    A conceptual design is outlined for the navigation subsystem of the Autonomous Redundancy and Maintenance Management Subsystem (ARMMS). The principal function of this navigation subsystem is to maintain the spacecraft over a specified equatorial longitude to within + or - 3 deg. In addition, the navigation subsystem must detect and correct internal faults. It comprises elements for a navigation executive and for orbit determination, trajectory, maneuver planning, and maneuver command. Each of these elements is described. The navigation subsystem is to be used in the DSCS III spacecraft.

  15. Autonomous sensor manager agents (ASMA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osadciw, Lisa A.

    2004-04-01

    Autonomous sensor manager agents are presented as an algorithm to perform sensor management within a multisensor fusion network. The design of the hybrid ant system/particle swarm agents is described in detail with some insight into their performance. Although the algorithm is designed for the general sensor management problem, a simulation example involving 2 radar systems is presented. Algorithmic parameters are determined by the size of the region covered by the sensor network, the number of sensors, and the number of parameters to be selected. With straight forward modifications, this algorithm can be adapted for most sensor management problems.

  16. Autonomous Real Time Requirements Tracing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plattsmier, George I.; Stetson, Howard K.

    2014-01-01

    One of the more challenging aspects of software development is the ability to verify and validate the functional software requirements dictated by the Software Requirements Specification (SRS) and the Software Detail Design (SDD). Insuring the software has achieved the intended requirements is the responsibility of the Software Quality team and the Software Test team. The utilization of Timeliner-TLX(sup TM) Auto-Procedures for relocating ground operations positions to ISS automated on-board operations has begun the transition that would be required for manned deep space missions with minimal crew requirements. This transition also moves the auto-procedures from the procedure realm into the flight software arena and as such the operational requirements and testing will be more structured and rigorous. The autoprocedures would be required to meet NASA software standards as specified in the Software Safety Standard (NASASTD- 8719), the Software Engineering Requirements (NPR 7150), the Software Assurance Standard (NASA-STD-8739) and also the Human Rating Requirements (NPR-8705). The Autonomous Fluid Transfer System (AFTS) test-bed utilizes the Timeliner-TLX(sup TM) Language for development of autonomous command and control software. The Timeliner- TLX(sup TM) system has the unique feature of providing the current line of the statement in execution during real-time execution of the software. The feature of execution line number internal reporting unlocks the capability of monitoring the execution autonomously by use of a companion Timeliner-TLX(sup TM) sequence as the line number reporting is embedded inside the Timeliner-TLX(sup TM) execution engine. This negates I/O processing of this type data as the line number status of executing sequences is built-in as a function reference. This paper will outline the design and capabilities of the AFTS Autonomous Requirements Tracker, which traces and logs SRS requirements as they are being met during real-time execution of the

  17. Knowledge acquisition for autonomous systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lum, Henry; Heer, Ewald

    1988-01-01

    Knowledge-based capabilities for autonomous aerospace systems, such as the NASA Space Station, must encompass conflict-resolution functions comparable to those of human operators, with all elements of the system working toward system goals in a concurrent, asynchronous-but-coordinated fashion. Knowledge extracted from a design database will support robotic systems by furnishing geometric, structural, and causal descriptions required for repair, disassembly, and assembly. The factual knowledge for these databases will be obtained from a master database through a technical management information system, and it will in many cases have to be augmented by domain-specific heuristic knowledge acquired from domain experts.

  18. Autonomous Real Time Requirements Tracing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plattsmier, George; Stetson, Howard

    2014-01-01

    One of the more challenging aspects of software development is the ability to verify and validate the functional software requirements dictated by the Software Requirements Specification (SRS) and the Software Detail Design (SDD). Insuring the software has achieved the intended requirements is the responsibility of the Software Quality team and the Software Test team. The utilization of Timeliner-TLX(sup TM) Auto- Procedures for relocating ground operations positions to ISS automated on-board operations has begun the transition that would be required for manned deep space missions with minimal crew requirements. This transition also moves the auto-procedures from the procedure realm into the flight software arena and as such the operational requirements and testing will be more structured and rigorous. The autoprocedures would be required to meet NASA software standards as specified in the Software Safety Standard (NASASTD- 8719), the Software Engineering Requirements (NPR 7150), the Software Assurance Standard (NASA-STD-8739) and also the Human Rating Requirements (NPR-8705). The Autonomous Fluid Transfer System (AFTS) test-bed utilizes the Timeliner-TLX(sup TM) Language for development of autonomous command and control software. The Timeliner-TLX(sup TM) system has the unique feature of providing the current line of the statement in execution during real-time execution of the software. The feature of execution line number internal reporting unlocks the capability of monitoring the execution autonomously by use of a companion Timeliner-TLX(sup TM) sequence as the line number reporting is embedded inside the Timeliner-TLX(sup TM) execution engine. This negates I/O processing of this type data as the line number status of executing sequences is built-in as a function reference. This paper will outline the design and capabilities of the AFTS Autonomous Requirements Tracker, which traces and logs SRS requirements as they are being met during real-time execution of the

  19. The Autonomous Pathogen Detection System

    SciTech Connect

    Dzenitis, J M; Makarewicz, A J

    2009-01-13

    We developed, tested, and now operate a civilian biological defense capability that continuously monitors the air for biological threat agents. The Autonomous Pathogen Detection System (APDS) collects, prepares, reads, analyzes, and reports results of multiplexed immunoassays and multiplexed PCR assays using Luminex{copyright} xMAP technology and flow cytometer. The mission we conduct is particularly demanding: continuous monitoring, multiple threat agents, high sensitivity, challenging environments, and ultimately extremely low false positive rates. Here, we introduce the mission requirements and metrics, show the system engineering and analysis framework, and describe the progress to date including early development and current status.

  20. Laterality effects of human pudendal nerve stimulation on corticoanal pathways: evidence for functional asymmetry

    PubMed Central

    Hamdy, S; Enck, P; Aziz, Q; Uengoergil, S; Hobson, A; Thompson, D

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Although motor and sensory pathways to the human external anal sphincter are bilateral, a unilateral pudendal neuropathy may still disrupt anal continence. Anal continence can, however, be preserved despite unilateral pudendal damage, and so to explain those differing observations, we postulated that pudendal innervation might be asymmetric.
AIMS—To explore the individual effects of right and left pudendal nerve stimulation on the corticofugal pathways to the human external anal sphincter and thus assess evidence for functional asymmetric pelvic innervation.
METHODS—In eight healthy subjects, anal sphincter electromyographic responses, evoked to transcranial magnetic stimulation of the motor cortex, were recorded 5-500 msec after digital transrectal electrical conditioning stimuli applied to each pudendal nerve.
RESULTS—Right or left pudendal nerve stimulation evoked anal responses of similar latencies but asymmetric amplitudes in six subjects: dominant responses (>50% contralateral side) from the right pudendal in four subjects and from the left in two. Cortical stimulation also evoked anal responses with amplitude 448 (121) µV and latency 20.9 (1.1) msec. When cortical stimulation was preceded by pudendal nerve stimulation, the cortical responses were facilitated at interstimulus intervals of 5-20 msec. Dominant pudendal nerve stimulation induced greater facilitation of the cortically evoked responses than the non-dominant nerve.
CONCLUSIONS—Cortical pathways to the external anal sphincter are facilitated by pudendal nerve conditioning, in an asymmetric manner. This functional asymmetry may explain the presence and absence of anal incontinence after unilateral pudendal nerve injury.


Keywords: cerebral cortex; continence; electromyography; external anal sphincter; incontinence; magnetic stimulation PMID:10369705

  1. Morphological studies of the vestibular nerve

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bergstroem, B.

    1973-01-01

    The anatomy of the intratemporal part of the vestibular nerve in man, and the possible age related degenerative changes in the nerve were studied. The form and structure of the vestibular ganglion was studied with the light microscope. A numerical analysis of the vestibular nerve, and caliber spectra of the myelinated fibers in the vestibular nerve branches were studied in individuals of varying ages. It was found that the peripheral endings of the vestibular nerve form a complicated pattern inside the vestibular sensory epithelia. A detailed description of the sensory cells and their surface organelles is included.

  2. Vascular Endothelial Function and Blood Pressure Regulation in Afferent Autonomic Failure

    PubMed Central

    Jelani, Qurat-ul-ain; Norcliffe-Kaufmann, Lucy; Kaufmann, Horacio

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Familial dysautonomia (FD) is a rare hereditary disease characterized by loss of afferent autonomic neural fiber signaling and consequent profound impairment of arterial baroreflex function and blood pressure regulation. Whether vascular endothelial dysfunction contributes to defective vasomotor control in this form of afferent autonomic failure is not known. METHODS We assessed blood pressure response to orthostatic stress and vascular endothelial function with brachial artery reactivity testing in 34 FD subjects with afferent autonomic failure and 34 healthy control subjects. RESULTS Forty-four percent of the afferent autonomic failure subjects had uncontrolled hypertension at supine rest (median systolic blood pressure = 148mm Hg, interquartile range (IQR) = 144–155mm Hg; median diastolic blood pressure = 83mm Hg, IQR = 78–105mm Hg), and 88% had abnormal response to orthostatic stress (median decrease in systolic blood pressure after upright tilt = 48mm Hg, IQR = 29–61mm Hg). Flow-mediated brachial artery reactivity did not differ in subjects with afferent autonomic failure vs. healthy control subjects (median = 6.00%, IQR = 1.86–11.77%; vs. median = 6.27%, IQR = 4.65–9.34%; P = 0.75). In afferent autonomic failure subjects, brachial artery reactivity was not associated with resting blood pressure or the magnitude of orthostatic hypotension but was decreased in association with reduced glomerular filtration rate (r = 0.62; P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS Brachial artery reactivity was preserved in subjects with afferent autonomic failure despite the presence of marked blood pressure dysregulation. Comorbid renal dysfunction was associated with reduced brachial artery reactivity. PMID:25128693

  3. Origin of Heart Rate Variability and Turbulence: An Appraisal of Autonomic Modulation of Cardiovascular Function

    PubMed Central

    Lombardi, Federico; Stein, Phyllis K.

    2011-01-01

    Heart period constantly changes on a beat to beat basis, due to autonomic influences on the sinoatrial node, and changes can be quantified as heart rate variability (HRV). In addition, after a premature ventricular beat, there are reproducible variations in RR interval, also due to baroreflex mediated autonomic influences on the sinoatrial node, that can be measured as heart rate turbulence (HRT). Impaired autonomic function as measured by HRV and HRT has proven to predict adverse outcomes in clinical settings. The ability of reduced HRV and HRT to predict adverse outcomes has been explained by their dependency on vagal mechanisms that could reflect an increased sympathetic and a reduced vagal modulation of sinus node, thus favoring cardiac electrical instability. Analysis of non-linear dynamics of HRV has also been utilized to describe the fractal like characteristic of the variability signal and proven effective in identify patients at risk for sudden cardiac death. Despite the clinical validity of these measures, it has also been evident that the relationship between neural input and sinus node responsiveness is extremely complex and variable in different clinical conditions. Thus, abnormal HRV or HRT on a clinical Holter recordings may reflect non-neural as well as autonomic mechanisms, and this also needs to be taken into account when interpreting any findings. However, under controlled conditions, the computation of the low and high frequency components of HRV and of their normalized powers or ratio seems capable of providing valid information on sympatho-vagal balance in normal subjects, as well as in most patients with a preserved left ventricular function. Thus, analysis of HRV does provide a unique tool to specifically assess autonomic control mechanisms in association with various perturbations. In conclusion, HRV measures are of substantial utility to identify patients with an increased cardiac mortality and to evaluate autonomic control mechanisms, but

  4. Origin of heart rate variability and turbulence: an appraisal of autonomic modulation of cardiovascular function.

    PubMed

    Lombardi, Federico; Stein, Phyllis K

    2011-01-01

    Heart period constantly changes on a beat to beat basis, due to autonomic influences on the sinoatrial node, and changes can be quantified as heart rate variability (HRV). In addition, after a premature ventricular beat, there are reproducible variations in RR interval, also due to baroreflex mediated autonomic influences on the sinoatrial node, that can be measured as heart rate turbulence (HRT). Impaired autonomic function as measured by HRV and HRT has proven to predict adverse outcomes in clinical settings. The ability of reduced HRV and HRT to predict adverse outcomes has been explained by their dependency on vagal mechanisms that could reflect an increased sympathetic and a reduced vagal modulation of sinus node, thus favoring cardiac electrical instability. Analysis of non-linear dynamics of HRV has also been utilized to describe the fractal like characteristic of the variability signal and proven effective in identify patients at risk for sudden cardiac death. Despite the clinical validity of these measures, it has also been evident that the relationship between neural input and sinus node responsiveness is extremely complex and variable in different clinical conditions. Thus, abnormal HRV or HRT on a clinical Holter recordings may reflect non-neural as well as autonomic mechanisms, and this also needs to be taken into account when interpreting any findings. However, under controlled conditions, the computation of the low and high frequency components of HRV and of their normalized powers or ratio seems capable of providing valid information on sympatho-vagal balance in normal subjects, as well as in most patients with a preserved left ventricular function. Thus, analysis of HRV does provide a unique tool to specifically assess autonomic control mechanisms in association with various perturbations. In conclusion, HRV measures are of substantial utility to identify patients with an increased cardiac mortality and to evaluate autonomic control mechanisms, but

  5. Continuous peripheral nerve blocks in children.

    PubMed

    Dadure, C; Capdevila, X

    2005-06-01

    In recent years, regional anaesthesia in children has generated increasing interest. Continuous peripheral nerve blocks have an important role in the anaesthetic arsenal, allowing effective, safe and prolonged postoperative pain management. Indications for continuous peripheral nerve blocks depend on benefits/risks analysis of each technique for each patient. The indications include surgery associated with intense postoperative pain, surgery requiring painful physical therapy, and complex regional pain syndrome. Continuous peripheral nerve blocks are usually performed under general anaesthesia or sedation, and require appropriate equipment in order to decrease the risk of nerve injury. New techniques, such as transcutaneous stimulation or ultrasound guidance, appear to facilitate nerve and plexus identification in paediatric patients. Nevertheless, continuous peripheral nerve block may mask compartment syndrome in certain surgical procedure or trauma. Finally, ropivacaine appears to be the best local anaesthetic for continuous peripheral nerve blocks in children, requiring low flow rate with low concentration of the local anaesthetic. PMID:15966500

  6. Amniotic membrane covering for facial nerve repair☆

    PubMed Central

    Karaman, Murat; Tuncel, Arzu; Sheidaei, Shahrouz; Şenol, Mehmet Güney; Karabulut, Murat Hakan; Deveci, Ildem; Karaman, Nihan

    2013-01-01

    Amniotic membranes have been widely used in ophthalmology and skin injury repair because of their anti-inflammatory properties. In this study, we measured therapeutic efficacy and determined if amniotic membranes could be used for facial nerve repair. The facial nerves of eight rats were dissected and end-to-end anastomosis was performed. Amniotic membranes were covered on the anastomosis sites in four rats. Electromyography results showed that, at the end of the 3rd and 8th weeks after amniotic membrane covering, the latency values of the facial nerves covered by amniotic membranes were significantly shortened and the amplitude values were significantly increased. Compared with simple facial nerve anastomosis, after histopathological examination, facial nerve anastomosed with amniotic membrane showed better continuity, milder inflammatory reactions, and more satisfactory nerve conduction. These findings suggest that amniotic membrane covering has great potential in facial nerve repair. PMID:25206390

  7. Multi-agent autonomous system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fink, Wolfgang (Inventor); Dohm, James (Inventor); Tarbell, Mark A. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A multi-agent autonomous system for exploration of hazardous or inaccessible locations. The multi-agent autonomous system includes simple surface-based agents or craft controlled by an airborne tracking and command system. The airborne tracking and command system includes an instrument suite used to image an operational area and any craft deployed within the operational area. The image data is used to identify the craft, targets for exploration, and obstacles in the operational area. The tracking and command system determines paths for the surface-based craft using the identified targets and obstacles and commands the craft using simple movement commands to move through the operational area to the targets while avoiding the obstacles. Each craft includes its own instrument suite to collect information about the operational area that is transmitted back to the tracking and command system. The tracking and command system may be further coupled to a satellite system to provide additional image information about the operational area and provide operational and location commands to the tracking and command system.

  8. Autonomous Mine Detection Sensors (AMDS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navish, Frank, III; May, Michael

    2006-05-01

    The Autonomous Mine Detection Sensors (AMDS) program is developing a prototype autonomous mine-detection sensor suite designed to be mounted on a small robotic platform that can find buried anti-personnel mines. Over the past two years, CyTerra Corp. and NIITEK, Inc. have developed complementary senor suites using a variety of ground penetrating radar (GPR) and electromagnetic induction (EMI) sensor configurations. The AMDS program is also working with industry and academia to develop automatic target recognition (ATR) algorithms. This paper provides a brief overview of evaluations that have been performed at Army facilities. Probability of Detection (Pd) and Probability of False Alarm (Pfa) results are provided for signal-to-noise type detection algorithms and also for promising pattern classification and neural network algorithms that were developed by Duke University, the University of Missouri-Columbia, and the University of Florida. After an evaluation in October 2005, both contractors' sensors performed comparably (about 90% Pd and 40% Pfa) against low-metal anti-personnel mines at an Army test site seeded with typical clutter. In some cases, university-developed pattern classification and neural network algorithms have reduced the Pfa by a factor of two against these clutter sets.

  9. Autonomous Robotic Inspection in Tunnels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Protopapadakis, E.; Stentoumis, C.; Doulamis, N.; Doulamis, A.; Loupos, K.; Makantasis, K.; Kopsiaftis, G.; Amditis, A.

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, an automatic robotic inspector for tunnel assessment is presented. The proposed platform is able to autonomously navigate within the civil infrastructures, grab stereo images and process/analyse them, in order to identify defect types. At first, there is the crack detection via deep learning approaches. Then, a detailed 3D model of the cracked area is created, utilizing photogrammetric methods. Finally, a laser profiling of the tunnel's lining, for a narrow region close to detected crack is performed; allowing for the deduction of potential deformations. The robotic platform consists of an autonomous mobile vehicle; a crane arm, guided by the computer vision-based crack detector, carrying ultrasound sensors, the stereo cameras and the laser scanner. Visual inspection is based on convolutional neural networks, which support the creation of high-level discriminative features for complex non-linear pattern classification. Then, real-time 3D information is accurately calculated and the crack position and orientation is passed to the robotic platform. The entire system has been evaluated in railway and road tunnels, i.e. in Egnatia Highway and London underground infrastructure.

  10. Complement components of nerve regeneration conditioned fluid influence the microenvironment of nerve regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Li, Guang-shuai; Li, Qing-feng; Dong, Ming-min; Zan, Tao; Ding, Shuang; Liu, Lin-bo

    2016-01-01

    Nerve regeneration conditioned fluid is secreted by nerve stumps inside a nerve regeneration chamber. A better understanding of the proteinogram of nerve regeneration conditioned fluid can provide evidence for studying the role of the microenvironment in peripheral nerve regeneration. In this study, we used cylindrical silicone tubes as the nerve regeneration chamber model for the repair of injured rat sciatic nerve. Isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation proteomics technology and western blot analysis confirmed that there were more than 10 complement components (complement factor I, C1q-A, C1q-B, C2, C3, C4, C5, C7, C8β and complement factor D) in the nerve regeneration conditioned fluid and each varied at different time points. These findings suggest that all these complement components have a functional role in nerve regeneration. PMID:27212935

  11. [Monitoring of recurrent laryngeal nerve injury using an electromyographic endotracheal tube in thyroid and parathyroid surgery. Anesthetic aspects].

    PubMed

    Martín Jaramago, J; Tamarit Conejeros, M; Escudero Torrella, M; Solaz Roldán, C

    2013-12-01

    Recurrent laryngeal nerve injury remains one of the main complications in thyroid and parathyroid surgery. When this injury is bilateral, an acute upper airway obstruction may occur, leading to a potentially life-threatening situation for the patient. The visual identification of the nerve during surgery is the best way to preserve its integrity. However identification of the nerves by means of electromyographic stimuli through electrodes attached to endotracheal tubes could help in decreasing nerve injury. In these cases the experience and role of the anesthetist is essential to correctly place the electromyographic endotracheal tube and ensure that the electrodes are in touch with the vocal cords during the surgery. Moreover, the results of the electromyography can be affected by the neuromuscular blocking agents. Therefore, the choice and dose must be adapted, in order to ensure a suitable anesthetic depth, and adequate response. PMID:23886448

  12. The longitudinal epineural incision and complete nerve transection method for modeling sciatic nerve injury

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Xing-long; Wang, Pei; Sun, Bo; Liu, Shi-bo; Gao, Yun-feng; He, Xin-ze; Yu, Chang-yu

    2015-01-01

    Injury severity, operative technique and nerve regeneration are important factors to consider when constructing a model of peripheral nerve injury. Here, we present a novel peripheral nerve injury model and compare it with the complete sciatic nerve transection method. In the experimental group, under a microscope, a 3-mm longitudinal incision was made in the epineurium of the sciatic nerve to reveal the nerve fibers, which were then transected. The small, longitudinal incision in the epineurium was then sutured closed, requiring no stump anastomosis. In the control group, the sciatic nerve was completely transected, and the epineurium was repaired by anastomosis. At 2 and 4 weeks after surgery, Wallerian degeneration was observed in both groups. In the experimental group, at 8 and 12 weeks after surgery, distinct medullary nerve fibers and axons were observed in the injured sciatic nerve. Regular, dense myelin sheaths were visible, as well as some scarring. By 12 weeks, the myelin sheaths were normal and intact, and a tight lamellar structure was observed. Functionally, limb movement and nerve conduction recovered in the injured region between 4 and 12 weeks. The present results demonstrate that longitudinal epineural incision with nerve transection can stably replicate a model of Sunderland grade IV peripheral nerve injury. Compared with the complete sciatic nerve transection model, our method reduced the difficulties of micromanipulation and surgery time, and resulted in good stump restoration, nerve regeneration, and functional recovery. PMID:26692866

  13. Effect of oblique nerve grafting on peripheral nerve regeneration in rats.

    PubMed

    Kotulska, Katarzyna; Marcol, Wiesław; Larysz-Brysz, Magdalena; Tendera, Zofia; Malinowska-Kołodziej, Izabela; Slusarczyk, Wojciech; Jedrzejowska-Szypułka, Halina; Lewin-Kowalik, Joanna

    2006-01-01

    Current methods of peripheral nerve repair are to rejoin cut nerve stumps directly or to bridge large gaps with autologous nerve grafts. In both cases the surface of nerve stump endings is typically cut perpendicularly to the long axis of the nerve. The outcome of such operations, however, is still not satisfactory. In this study, we examine the effect of oblique nerve cutting and grafting on morphological as well as functional features of regeneration. In adult rats, sciatic nerve was cut and rejoined either directly or using an autologous graft, at 90 degrees or 30 degrees angle. Functional regeneration was assessed by walking track analysis during 12-week follow-up. Afterwards muscle weight was measured and histological studies were performed. The latter included nerve fibers and Schwann cells counting, as well as visualization of scar formation and epineural fibrosis. Nerves cut obliquely and rejoined showed better functional recovery than perpendicularly transected. Similar effect was observed after oblique grafting when compared to perpendicular one. Numbers of nerve fibers growing into the distal stump of the nerve as well as the number of Schwann cells were significantly higher in obliquely than in perpendicularly operated nerves. Moreover, growing axons were arranged more regularly following oblique treatment. These data indicate that joining or grafting the nerve stumps at acute angle is a more profitable method of nerve repair than the standard procedure performed at right angle. PMID:17066410

  14. Nonrecurrent inferior laryngeal nerves and anatomical findings during thyroid surgery: report of three cases.

    PubMed

    Kato, Kumiko; Toriumi, Yasuo; Kamio, Makiko; Nogi, Hiroko; Shioya, Hisashi; Takeyama, Hiroshi

    2016-12-01

    A nonrecurrent inferior laryngeal nerve (NRILN) is found more frequently on the right side than on the left, and it is closely associated with an aberrant right subclavian artery. The presence of the aberrant right subclavian artery on preoperative computed tomography (CT) scan suggests NRILN; however, different types of branching locations and pathways exist. Here, we report three NRILN cases with different pathways where the vagus nerve arises more medial than usual and a review of the literature. Case 1: A 30-year-old Japanese female presented with papillary thyroid carcinoma. Preoperative CT scan revealed an aberrant right subclavian artery, and an operation was performed under suspicion of NRILN. During the operation, the vagus nerve was found to arise more medially than usual and two NRILNs originated from it at the level of the cricoid cartilage and at a more caudal position; the two NRILNs were preserved. Case 2: A 33-year-old Japanese female with a thyroid nodule of increased size underwent surgery. Preoperative CT scan revealed an aberrant right subclavian artery, which suggested NRILN. During the operation, the vagus nerve was identified to run more medially than usual and NRILN was found to originate at the level of the cricoid cartilage; NRILN was preserved. Case 3: A 78-year-old Japanese female underwent an operation with a diagnosis of papillary thyroid carcinoma. Preoperative CT scan showed an aberrant right subclavian artery. During the operation, NRILN was found to originate from the vagus nerve at the level of the lower pole of the thyroid gland, and the vagus nerve ran medial to the common carotid artery at the caudal level. PMID:27188389

  15. New Small Autonomous Schools District Policy. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oakland Unified School District, CA.

    Inspired by the gains in student achievement realized by the small schools movement in New York City, the Oakland Unified School District (California) has proposed creating a network of 10 new, small autonomous (NSA) schools over the next 3 years. School size will range between 250 and 500 students, depending on grade level. "Autonomous" means…

  16. Autonomic Physiological Response Patterns Related to Intelligence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melis, Cor; van Boxtel, Anton

    2007-01-01

    We examined autonomic physiological responses induced by six different cognitive ability tasks, varying in complexity, that were selected on the basis of on Guilford's Structure of Intellect model. In a group of 52 participants, task performance was measured together with nine different autonomic response measures and respiration rate. Weighted…

  17. Planning Flight Paths of Autonomous Aerobots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kulczycki, Eric; Elfes, Alberto; Sharma, Shivanjli

    2009-01-01

    Algorithms for planning flight paths of autonomous aerobots (robotic blimps) to be deployed in scientific exploration of remote planets are undergoing development. These algorithms are also adaptable to terrestrial applications involving robotic submarines as well as aerobots and other autonomous aircraft used to acquire scientific data or to perform surveying or monitoring functions.

  18. Autonomous Control of Space Reactor Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Belle R. Upadhyaya; K. Zhao; S.R.P. Perillo; Xiaojia Xu; M.G. Na

    2007-11-30

    Autonomous and semi-autonomous control is a key element of space reactor design in order to meet the mission requirements of safety, reliability, survivability, and life expectancy. Interrestrial nuclear power plants, human operators are avilable to perform intelligent control functions that are necessary for both normal and abnormal operational conditions.

  19. Synthetic Modeling of Autonomous Learning with a Chaotic Neural Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Funabashi, Masatoshi

    We investigate the possible role of intermittent chaotic dynamics called chaotic itinerancy, in interaction with nonsupervised learnings that reinforce and weaken the neural connection depending on the dynamics itself. We first performed hierarchical stability analysis of the Chaotic Neural Network model (CNN) according to the structure of invariant subspaces. Irregular transition between two attractor ruins with positive maximum Lyapunov exponent was triggered by the blowout bifurcation of the attractor spaces, and was associated with riddled basins structure. We secondly modeled two autonomous learnings, Hebbian learning and spike-timing-dependent plasticity (STDP) rule, and simulated the effect on the chaotic itinerancy state of CNN. Hebbian learning increased the residence time on attractor ruins, and produced novel attractors in the minimum higher-dimensional subspace. It also augmented the neuronal synchrony and established the uniform modularity in chaotic itinerancy. STDP rule reduced the residence time on attractor ruins, and brought a wide range of periodicity in emerged attractors, possibly including strange attractors. Both learning rules selectively destroyed and preserved the specific invariant subspaces, depending on the neuron synchrony of the subspace where the orbits are situated. Computational rationale of the autonomous learning is discussed in connectionist perspective.

  20. Alcohol neurolysis of digital nerves

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Garrett K.; Burnett, Christopher J.

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol neurolysis is a well-established treatment in chronic pain management, often used in cases of intractable cancer-related pain that is refractory to other management therapies. We describe a 76-year-old woman with chronic toe neuritis who failed multiple treatments, including oral and topical analgesics, nerve blocks, and radiofrequency ablations. Alcohol neurolysis was performed via digit block of the toe resulting in 100% pain relief. PMID:27365891