Code can be generated manually or using code-generated software tools, but how do you interpret the two? This article looks at a design methodology that combines object-oriented design with autonomic code generation for attitude control flight software. Recent improvements in space flight computers are allowing software engineers to spend more time engineering the applications software. The application developed was the attitude control flight software for an astronomical satellite called the Microwave Anisotropy Probe (MAP). The MAP flight system is being designed, developed, and integrated at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center. The MAP controls engineers are using Integrated Systems Inc.'s MATRIXx for their controls analysis. In addition to providing a graphical analysis for an environment, MATRIXx includes an autonomic code generation facility called AutoCode. This article examines the forces that shaped the final design and describes three highlights of the design process: (1) Defining the manual to autonomic code interface; (2) Applying object-oriented design to the manual flight code; (3) Implementing the object-oriented design in C.
Report developed under STTR contract for topic AF02-T002. A path planner and trajectory generator for real time autonomous flight control was developed which is capable of generating extremely complicated paths that account for pop-up and dynamically chan...
M. L. Larsen, R. W. Beard, T. McLain
Elevation map generation is an essential component of any autonomous underwater vehicledesigned to navigate close to the seafloor because elevation maps are used for obstacle avoidance,path planning and self localization. We present an algorithm for the reconstruction of elevationmaps of the seafloor from side-scan sonar backscatter images and sparse bathymetric points coregisteredwithin the image. Given the trajectory for the underwater
Andrew Edie Johnson; Martial Hebert
An autonomous induction generator has limited output power capability, the limit of which is determined by the values of the rotor speed, per-phase shunt excitation capacitor, and the load. For self-excitation to be sustained, certain minimum airgap flux linkage and load impedance are required. This paper sets forth, using concepts of bifurcation theory, how these limits are affected by system parameters. The dynamic voltage collapse phenomena arising from loading the generator above the attainable maximum load or changing the load impedance to a lower than critical value and the process of self-excitation are also investigated. Theoretical analyses are supported by experimental results.
Ojo, O. [Tennessee Technological Univ., Cookeville, TN (United States). Dept. of Electrical Engineering] [Tennessee Technological Univ., Cookeville, TN (United States). Dept. of Electrical Engineering
Coupling local, slowly adapting variables to an attractor network allows to destabilize all attractors, turning them into attractor ruins. The resulting attractor relict network may show ongoing autonomous latching dynamics. We propose to use two generating functionals for the construction of attractor relict networks, a Hopfield energy functional generating a neural attractor network and a functional based on information-theoretical principles, encoding the information content of the neural firing statistics, which induces latching transition from one transiently stable attractor ruin to the next. We investigate the influence of stress, in terms of conflicting optimization targets, on the resulting dynamics. Objective function stress is absent when the target level for the mean of neural activities is identical for the two generating functionals and the resulting latching dynamics is then found to be regular. Objective function stress is present when the respective target activity levels differ, inducing intermittent bursting latching dynamics.
Linkerhand, Mathias; Gros, Claudius
In recent decades, NASA's interest in spacecraft rendezvous and proximity operations has grown. Additional instrumentation is needed to improve manned docking operations' safety, as well as to enable telerobotic operation of spacecraft or completely autonomous rendezvous and docking. To address this need, Advanced Optical Systems, Inc., Orbital Sciences Corporation, and Marshall Space Flight Center have developed the Advanced Video Guidance Sensor (AVGS) under the auspices of the Demonstration of Autonomous Rendezvous Technology (DART) program. Given a cooperative target comprising several retro-reflectors, AVGS provides six-degree-of-freedom information at ranges of up to 300 meters for the DART target. It does so by imaging the target, then performing pattern recognition on the resulting image. Longer range operation is possible through different target geometries. Now that AVGS is being readied for its test flight in 2004, the question is: what next? Modifications can be made to AVGS, including different pattern recognition algorithms and changes to the retro-reflector targets, to make it more robust and accurate. AVGS could be coupled with other space-qualified sensors, such as a laser range-and-bearing finder, that would operate at longer ranges. Different target configurations, including the use of active targets, could result in significant miniaturization over the current AVGS package. We will discuss these and other possibilities for a next-generation docking sensor or sensor suite that involve AVGS.
Granade, Stephen R.
Currently Mars missions can collect more data than can be returned. Autonomous systems for data collection, processing and return will aid future Mars rovers in prioritizing and returning geologically important information. We have created a neural net detector that is able to successfully recognize carbonates from Visible/NIR (350-2500 nm) spectra of rocks collected from Mars analog environments (Gilmore et al. JGR 105, 29,223). In order to characterize and improve the detector's sensitivity, we are evaluating the performance of the detector under more realistic Martian environments: 1) carbonate minerals covered with palagonitic dust, and 2) carbonate minerals intimately mixed with basalt and palagonite. Lessons learned will be applied to the generation of additional detectors for minerals of interest (e.g., hydrothermal minerals). Aliquots of Martian Soil Simulant JSC Mars-1 palagonite were sieved to <45 microns and air fall deposited onto a calcite crystal and an adjacent glass slide. Spectra in the Vis/NIR were taken of the calcite after every layer up to a thickness of 270 microns (35 layers) with an Analytical Spectral Devices Field Spec Pro spectrometer operating from 350-2500 nm. The carbonate detector, operating over the range 2000-2400 nm, has an empirically established detection threshold based on training with thousands of synthetic linear combinations of laboratory mineral spectra designed to simulate expected Martian rocks. The detection threshold was reached in this experiment when the dust layer thickness reached 102 -116 microns (78-85% aerial coverage). This corresponds to a real change in the depth of the 2300 nm carbonate band (continuum depth, D= 1- [reflectance at trough center/reflectance at continuum] = ~0.1), and is similar to the detection threshold of the human experimenter. Very thin (~10-20 microns) coatings of palagonite dust had a large effect on the spectral response of the substrate, exemplifying the nonlinear mixing of the two components. We will report on experiments mixing known quantities of carbonate with basalt and palagonite at various grain sizes. We plan to assess the detector's ability to discern and quantify varying amounts of carbonate within the mixtures, and model the spectra as nonlinear mixtures to ascertain if any improvements in the accuracy of the neural net can be achieved. Finally, we will report on the generation and performance of a detector capable of identifying phyllosilicate minerals individually and as a mineral class.
Merrill, M. D.; Gilmore, M. S.; Castaño, R.; Bornstein, B.; Greenwood, J.
A blimp is a small airship that has no metal framework and collapses when deflated. In the first part of this paper, dynamic modeling of small autonomous non rigid airships is presented, using the Newton-Euler approach. This study discusses the motion in 6 degrees of freedom since 6 independent coordinates are necessary to determine the position and orientation of this
Salim HIMA; Yasmina BESTAOUI
We present a practical path planning algorithm based on Be?zier curves for autonomous vehicles operating under waypoints and corridor constraints. Be?zier curves have useful properties for the trajectory generation problem. This paper describes how the algorithm apply these properties to generate the reference trajectory for vehicles to satisfy the path constraints. The algorithm generates the piecewise-Be?zier-curves path such that the
Ji-wung Choi; Renwick E. Curry; Gabriel Hugh Elkaim
Abstract This research focuses on the generation of soundscapes using unstructured sound databases for the sonication,of virtual environments. A generalized methodology for design based on soundscape categorization, perceptual discrimination of sources and media design principles is proposed, with the underlying principle of the compo- sition of a source and a textural layer within any soundscape. A generative model is proposed
Unmanned aerial vehicle and smart munition systems need robust, real- time path generation and guidance systems to avoid terrain obstructions, navigate in hazardous weather conditions, and react to mobile threats such as radar, jammers, and unfriendly air...
M. Larsen R. W. Beard T. W. McLain
This paper presents a method for solving the short term generation scheduling problem in a small autonomous system with both conventional and unconventional energy sources and storage battery. The system generation consists of diesel generators, wind turbine generators and photovoltaic panels. This is the generation mix of the power system of the Greek island of Kythnos, and may be applied to other Greek islands. A dynamic programming algorithm together with a standard unit commitment algorithm is employed to determine the optimal short term scheduling which minimizes the fuel consumption for a certain scheduling horizon, e.g. for the next 24 hours. An application of this method to the power system of the Greek island of Kythnos is discussed.
Bakirtzis, A.G.; Dokopoulos, P.S. (Aristotelian Univ. of Thessaloniki (GR))
In this paper, we will describe a value-driven graph search technique that is capable of generating a rich variety of single and multiple vehicle behaviors. The generation of behaviors depends on cost and benefit computations that may involve terrain characteristics, line of sight to enemy positions, and cost, benefit, and risk of traveling on roads. Depending on mission priorities and cost values, real-time planners can autonomously build appropriate behaviors on the fly that include road following, cross-country movement, stealthily movement, formation keeping, and bounding overwatch. This system follows NIST's 4D/RCS architecture, and a discussion of the world model, value judgment, and behavior generation components is provided. In addition, techniques for collapsing a multidimensional model space into a cost space and planning graph constraints are discussed. The work described in this paper has been performed under the Army Research Laboratory's Robotics Demo III program.
Balakirsky, Stephen B.; Lacaze, Alberto
The Mars Global Reference Atmospheric Model (Mars-GRAM) is an engineering-level atmospheric model widely used for diverse mission applications. Mars-GRAM 2010 is currently being used to develop the onboard atmospheric density estimator that is part of the Autonomous Aerobraking Development Plan. In previous versions, Mars-GRAM was less than realistic when used for sensitivity studies for Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) MapYear=0 and large optical depth values, such as tau=3. A comparison analysis has been completed between Mars-GRAM, TES and data from the Planetary Data System (PDS) resulting in updated coefficients for the functions relating density, latitude, and longitude of the sun. The adjustment factors are expressed as a function of height (z), Latitude (Lat) and areocentric solar longitude (Ls). The latest release of Mars-GRAM 2010 includes these adjustment factors that alter the in-put data from MGCM and MTGCM for the Mapping Year 0 (user-controlled dust) case. The greatest adjustment occurs at large optical depths such as tau greater than 1. The addition of the adjustment factors has led to better correspondence to TES Limb data from 0-60 km as well as better agreement with MGS, ODY and MRO data at approximately 90-135 km. Improved simulations utilizing Mars-GRAM 2010 are vital to developing the onboard atmospheric density estimator for the Autonomous Aerobraking Development Plan. Mars-GRAM 2010 was not the only planetary GRAM utilized during phase 1 of this plan; Titan-GRAM and Venus-GRAM were used to generate density data sets for Aerobraking Design Reference Missions. These data sets included altitude profiles (both vertical and along a trajectory), GRAM perturbations (tides, gravity waves, etc.) and provided density and scale height values for analysis by other Autonomous Aero-braking team members.
Justh, Hilary L.; Justus, Carl G.; Ramey, Holly S.
This paper presents a study about the frequency and power control in an autonomous power system consisting of wind turbines, diesel generation units and energy storage devices. The system configuration and operation principles of the power system are presented. The characteristics of the generation units are described. The frequency and power control is discussed on the basis of the characteristics
Y. Hu; Z. Chen
The paper presents an autonomous programmable current generator module for multi-frequency EIT systems. The module incorporates all stages from the sine wave generation with frequency and amplitude tuning, D/A converter and filter, a high output resistance voltage-to-current converter to the associated digital communication and control. The paper presents in depth the original digital quadrature signal generator and the output current generator with a high resistance. The other main blocks of the design use current practice specifications, since recent technological solutions proposed in the literature were found appropriate. The proposed signal generator circuit, characterized by a very low complexity, is analyzed in its capacity to produce multiple accurate signals up to 1 MHz in frequency. The precision output current source uses a modified current conveyor of type CCII with a high output resistance and low distortion. The output current frequency spectrum and linearity parameters obtained in the simulations are also described. The simulation results indicate a good linearity and high output resistance with an acceptable output voltage swing. The calculated performance parameters are validated with simulations, and future work for the prototype fabrication of the IC is outlined. PMID:18544811
Jivet, I; Dragoi, B
This article describes an autonomous power source for a domestic refrigeration unit which is powered by a field of photovoltaic panels backed-up by a generator set. Salient design features and results from some of the tests on the unit are presented. methodologies for reliable and efficient operation of the refrigerator have been evolved. A finite time delay between cut-out and cut-in of the compressor, changes in invertor design to meet the demands at start and at run of the motor, choice of battery capacity so as to eliminate the need for a power conditioner are found to result in energy conservation. The entire unit has been made from indigenously available components and uses minimal electronic controls. Such units have applications for the storage of vaccines and life saving medicines which require uninterrupted refrigeration, in medical shops, rural health centres, veterinary laboratories, etc. 12 refs., 13 figs.
Kattakayam, T.A.; Srinivasan, K. [Indian Inst. of Science, Bangalore (India)] [Indian Inst. of Science, Bangalore (India)
This paper introduces a new three-dimensional quadratic autonomous system, which can generate a pair of double-wing chaotic attractors. More importantly, this new system can generate three-wing and four-wing chaotic attractors with very complicated topological structures over a large range of parameters. Several issues, such as some basic dynamical behaviors, bifurcations, and the dynamical structure of the new chaotic system, are investigated either analytically or numerically. PMID:19334971
This paper focuses on the load-tracking performance of an autonomous hybrid power generation\\/energy storage system (PG\\/ESS) with two solid-oxide fuel cells (SOFCs), a diesel-engine generator (DEG), a battery ESS (BESS), two dc-dc converters, and a dc-ac inverter. The system can sustain PG to supply suddenly changed loads, one of which is an emergency load that must have uninterruptible power supply.
Li Wang; Dong-Jing Lee
The validation of safety-critical applications, such as autonomous UAV operations in an environment which may include human actors, is an ill posed problem. To confidence in the autonomous control technology, numerous scenarios must be considered. This paper expands upon previous work, related to autonomous testing of robotic control algorithms in a two dimensional plane, to evaluate the suitability of similar techniques for validating artificial intelligence control in three dimensions, where a minimum level of airspeed must be maintained. The results of human-conducted testing are compared to this automated testing, in terms of error detection, speed and testing cost.
Straub, Jeremy; Huber, Justin
We address the problem of constructing and executing control plans for safe, fully-autonomous operation within a complex real-time domain where the combination of an incomplete knowledge base, limited computational resources, and hard real-time deadlines precludes the success of traditional planning and scheduling algorithms. To meet hard deadlines with limited computational resources, we employ a stochastic world model to prioritize the state-space during planning, then utilize feedback from the scheduler to set a threshold below which the planner removes unlikely states from consideration in order to generate a schedulable plan. Our probabilistic planning algorithm minimizes domain knowledge size and explicitly provides for the construction of real-time control plans. Although approximate instead of optimal, the representational efficiency gained by our approach makes it a viable alternative to the well-established Markov Decision Process for complex real-time problem domains. When resource limits require plan modification, our heuristic algorithms for communicating task resource utilization information from real-time scheduler to planner provide a novel method for directing the expensive planner backtracking process specifically toward a schedulable plan. The tradeoff in ignoring reachable but unlikely states, as well as allowing incomplete domain knowledge, is that we must now provide explicitly for the detection of and reaction to these "unexpected" states our system may encounter while executing a plan. By detecting such unhandled states and caching contingency plans for events which, though unlikely, could lead to catastrophic failure, we can still guarantee system safety in the probabilistic sense. Ultimately, however, we are still constrained by plan-execution resource limits regardless of the tradeoff algorithms employed. We apply the resultant architecture (CIRCA-II) to simulated autonomous aircraft flight and demonstrate its utility for intelligently making tradeoffs that maximize mission success probability even under adverse circumstances in which other planner/scheduler algorithms would fail. We also describe progress toward fully-automating the University of Michigan Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle (UAV). When UAV hardware and low-level control software development are complete, we hope to apply a combination of CIRCA-II and state-of-the-art dynamic model identification algorithms to detect and react in real-time to dangerous in-flight emergencies including engine failure and airframe icing.
Atkins, Ella Marie
The optimal control strategy for autonomous micro-grids proposed in this paper highlights the possibility to minimize the overall micro-grid operating cost, minimizing at the same time the pollutants emissions and assuming that all the power made available by the renewable generators (photovoltaic and wind systems) and the storage systems is injected into the micro-grid. The proposed procedure is based on
S. Conti; R. Nicolosi; S. A. Rizzo
The Aegean Archipelago is a remote Hellenic area, including several hundreds of scattered islands of various sizes. The electricity demand in the Aegean Archipelago islands has up to now been covered by the existing autonomous power stations (APS) at very high electricity production cost. In order to face the continuous load demand increase an integrated solution based on the exploitation
K. A. Kavadias; D. Zafirakis; E. Kondili; J. K. Kaldellis
Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinases (CaMKKs) phosphorylate and activate specific downstream protein kinases, including CaMKI, CaMKIV, and 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase, which mediates a variety of Ca(2+) signaling cascades. CaMKKs have been shown to undergo autophosphorylation, although their role in enzymatic regulation remains unclear. Here, we found that CaMKK? and ? isoforms expressed in nonstimulated transfected COS-7 cells, as well as recombinant CaMKKs expressed in and purified from Escherichia coli, were phosphorylated at Thr residues. Introduction of a kinase-dead mutation completely impaired the Thr phosphorylation of these recombinant CaMKK isoforms. In addition, wild-type recombinant CaMKKs were unable to transphosphorylate the kinase-dead mutants, suggesting that CaMKK isoforms undergo Ca(2+)/CaM-independent autophosphorylation in an intramolecular manner. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis identified Thr(482) in the autoinhibitory domain as one of the autophosphorylation sites in CaMKK?, but phosphorylation of the equivalent Thr residue (Thr(446)) in the ? isoform was not observed. Unlike CaMKK? that has high Ca(2+)/CaM-dependent activity, wild-type CaMKK? displays enhanced autonomous activity (Ca(2+)/CaM-independent activity, 71% of total activity). This activity was significantly reduced (to 37%) by substitution of Thr(482) with a nonphosphorylatable Ala, without significant changes in Ca(2+)/CaM binding. In addition, a CaMKK? mutant containing the CaMKK? regulatory domain was shown to be partially phosphorylated at Thr(446), resulting in a modest elevation of its autonomous activity. The combined results indicate that, in contrast to the ? isoform, CaMKK? exhibited increased autonomous activity, which was caused, at least in part, by autophosphorylation at Thr(482), resulting in partial disruption of the autoinhibitory mechanism. PMID:21859090
Tokumitsu, Hiroshi; Hatano, Naoya; Fujimoto, Tomohito; Yurimoto, Saki; Kobayashi, Ryoji
A watershed in systems engineering is represented by the advent of swarm-based systems that accomplish missions through cooperative action by a (large) group of autonomous individuals each having simple capabilities and no global knowledge of the group s objective. Such systems, with individuals capable of surviving in hostile environments, pose unprecedented challenges to system developers. Design and testing and verification at much higher levels will be required, together with the corresponding tools, to bring such systems to fruition. Concepts for possible future NASA space exploration missions include autonomous, autonomic swarms. Engineering swarm-based missions begins with understanding autonomy and autonomicity and how to design, test, and verify systems that have those properties and, simultaneously, the capability to accomplish prescribed mission goals. Formal methods-based technologies, both projected and in development, are described in terms of their potential utility to swarm-based system developers.
Hinchey, Michael G.; Rash, James L.; Truszkowski, Walter F.; Rouff, Christopher A.; Sterritt, Roy
In earlier research the Center for Self-Organizing and Intelligent Systems (CSOIS) at Utah State University (USU) have been funded by the US Army Tank-Automotive and Armaments Command's (TACOM) Intelligent Mobility Program to develop and demonstrate enhanced mobility concepts for unmanned ground vehicles (UGVs). One among the several out growths of this work has been the development of a grammar-based approach to intelligent behavior generation for commanding autonomous robotic vehicles. In this paper we describe the use of this grammar for enabling autonomous behaviors. A supervisory task controller (STC) sequences high-level action commands (taken from the grammar) to be executed by the robot. It takes as input a set of goals and a partial (static) map of the environment and produces, from the grammar, a flexible script (or sequence) of the high-level commands that are to be executed by the robot. The sequence is derived by a planning function that uses a graph-based heuristic search (A* -algorithm). Each action command has specific exit conditions that are evaluated by the STC following each task completion or interruption (in the case of disturbances or new operator requests). Depending on the system's state at task completion or interruption (including updated environmental and robot sensor information), the STC invokes a reactive response. This can include sequencing the pending tasks or initiating a re-planning event, if necessary. Though applicable to a wide variety of autonomous robots, an application of this approach is demonstrated via simulations of ODIS, an omni-directional inspection system developed for security applications.
Shah, Hitesh K.; Bahl, Vikas; Martin, Jason; Flann, Nicholas S.; Moore, Kevin L.
The success of JPL's AutoNav system at comet Tempel-1 on July 4, 2005, demonstrated the power of autonomous navigation technology for the Deep Impact Mission. This software is being planned for use as the onboard navigation, tracking and rendezvous system for a Mars Sample Return Mission technology demonstration, and several mission proposals are evaluating its use for rendezvous with, and landing on asteroids. Before this however, extensive re-engineering of AutoNav will take place. This paper describes the AutoNav systems-engineering effort in several areas: extending the capabilities, improving operability, utilizing new hardware elements, and demonstrating the new possibilities of AutoNav in simulations.
Riedel, Joseph Ed; Bhaskaran, Shyam; Eldred, Dan B.; Gaskell, Robert A.; Grasso, Christopher A.; Kennedy, Brian; Kubitscheck, Daniel; Mastrodemos, Nickolaos; Synnott, Stephen. P.; Vaughan, Andrew; Werner, Robert A.
This paper presents small-signal analysis of isolated as well as interconnected autonomous hybrid distributed generation system for sudden variation in load demand, wind speed and solar radiation. The hybrid systems comprise of different renewable energy resources such as wind, photovoltaic (PV) fuel cell (FC) and diesel engine generator (DEG) along with the energy storage devices such as flywheel energy storage system (FESS) and battery energy storage system (BESS). Further ultracapacitors (UC) as an alternative energy storage element and interconnection of hybrid systems through tie-line is incorporated into the system for improved performance. A comparative assessment of deviation of frequency profile for different hybrid systems in the presence of different storage system combinations is carried out graphically as well as in terms of the performance index (PI),
Ray, Prakash K.; Mohanty, Soumya R.; Kishor, Nand
A quantum dot semiconductor sensitized hierarchically shelled one-dimensional ZnO nanostructure has been applied as a quasi-artificial leaf for hydrogen generation. The optimized ZnO nanostructure consists of one dimensional nanowire as a core and two-dimensional nanosheet on the nanowire surface. Furthermore, the quantum dot semiconductors deposited on the ZnO nanostructures provide visible light harvesting properties. To realize the artificial leaf, we applied the ZnO based nanostructure as a photoelectrode with non-wired Z-scheme system. The demonstrated un-assisted photoelectrochemical system showed the hydrogen generation properties under 1 sun condition irradiation. In addition, the quantum dot modified photoelectrode showed 2 mA/cm2 current density at the un-assisted condition.
Kim, Heejin; Yong, Kijung
Background Expression of autonomous bioluminescence from human cells was previously reported to be impossible, suggesting that all bioluminescent-based mammalian reporter systems must therefore require application of a potentially influential chemical substrate. While this was disproven when the bacterial luciferase (lux) cassette was demonstrated to function in a human cell, its expression required multiple genetic constructs, was functional in only a single cell type, and generated a significantly reduced signal compared to substrate-requiring systems. Here we investigate the use of a humanized, viral 2A-linked lux genetic architecture for the efficient introduction of an autobioluminescent phenotype across a variety of human cell lines. Methodology/Principal Findings The lux cassette was codon optimized and assembled into a synthetic human expression operon using viral 2A elements as linker regions. Human kidney, breast cancer, and colorectal cancer cell lines were both transiently and stably transfected with the humanized operon and the resulting autobioluminescent phenotype was evaluated using common imaging instrumentation. Autobioluminescent cells were screened for cytotoxic effects resulting from lux expression and their utility as bioreporters was evaluated through the demonstration of repeated monitoring of single populations over a prolonged period using both a modified E-SCREEN assay for estrogen detection and a classical cytotoxic compound detection assay for the antibiotic Zeocin. Furthermore, the use of self-directed bioluminescent initiation in response to target detection was assessed to determine its amenability towards deployment as fully autonomous sensors. In all cases, bioluminescent measurements were supported with traditional genetic and transcriptomic evaluations. Conclusions/Significance Our results demonstrate that the viral 2A-linked, humanized lux genetic architecture successfully produced autobioluminescent phenotypes in all cell lines tested without the induction of cytotoxicity. This autobioluminescent phenotype allowed for repeated interrogation of populations and self-directed control of bioluminescent activation with detection limits and EC50 values similar to traditional reporter systems, making the autobioluminescent cells amenable to automated monitoring and significantly reducing the time and cost required to perform bioluminescent workflows.
Xu, Tingting; Ripp, Steven; Sayler, Gary S.; Close, Dan M.
Through their repetitive discharge, GABAergic neurons of the substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr) tonically inhibit the target nuclei of the basal ganglia and the dopamine neurons of the midbrain. As the repetitive firing of SNr neurons persists in vitro, perforated, whole-cell and cell-attached patch-clamp recordings were made from rat brain slices to determine the mechanisms underlying this activity. The spontaneous activity of SNr neurons was not perturbed by the blockade of fast synaptic transmission, demonstrating that it was autonomous in nature. A subthreshold, slowly inactivating, voltage-dependent, tetrodotoxin (TTX)-sensitive Na+ current and a TTX-insensitive inward current that was mediated in part by Na+ were responsible for depolarization to action potential (AP) threshold. An apamin-sensitive spike afterhyperpolarization mediated by small-conductance Ca2+-dependent K+ (SK) channels was critical for the precision of autonomous activity. SK channels were activated, in part, by Ca(2+) flowing throughomega-conotoxin GVIA-sensitive, class 2.2 voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels. Although Cs+/ZD7288 (4-ethylphenylamino-1,2-dimethyl-6-methylaminopyrimidinium chloride)-sensitive hyperpolarization-activated currents were also observed in SNr neurons, they were activated at voltages that were in general more hyperpolarized than those associated with autonomous activity. Simultaneous somatic and dendritic recordings revealed that autonomously generated APs were observed first at the soma before propagating into dendrites up to 120 microm from the somatic recording site. Backpropagation of autonomously generated APs was reliable with no observable incidence of failure. Together, these data suggest that the resting inhibitory output of the basal ganglia relies, in large part, on the intrinsic firing properties of the neurons that convey this signal. PMID:16148235
Atherton, Jeremy F; Bevan, Mark D
Neuronal connectivity and synaptic remodeling are fundamental substrates for higher brain functions. Understanding their dynamics in the mammalian allocortex emerges as a critical step to tackle the cellular basis of cognitive decline that occurs during normal aging and in neurodegenerative disorders. In this work we have designed a novel approach to assess alterations in the dynamics of functional and structural connectivity elicited by chronic cell-autonomous overexpression of the human amyloid precursor protein (hAPP). We have taken advantage of the fact that the hippocampus continuously generates new dentate granule cells (GCs) to probe morphofunctional development of GCs expressing different variants of hAPP in a healthy background. hAPP was expressed together with a fluorescent reporter in neural progenitor cells of the dentate gyrus of juvenile mice by retroviral delivery. Neuronal progeny was analyzed several days post infection (dpi). Amyloidogenic cleavage products of hAPP such as the ?-C terminal fragment (?-CTF) induced a substantial reduction in glutamatergic connectivity at 21 dpi, at which time new GCs undergo active growth and synaptogenesis. Interestingly, this effect was transient, since the strength of glutamatergic inputs was normal by 35 dpi. This delay in glutamatergic synaptogenesis was paralleled by a decrease in dendritic length with no changes in spine density, consistent with a protracted dendritic development without alterations in synapse formation. Finally, similar defects in newborn GC development were observed by overexpression of ?-CTF, a non-amyloidogenic cleavage product of hAPP. These results indicate that hAPP can elicit protracted dendritic development independently of the amyloidogenic processing pathway. PMID:23851186
Morgenstern, Nicolás A; Giacomini, Damiana; Lombardi, Gabriela; Castaño, Eduardo M; Schinder, Alejandro F
Information on subsurface processes is required for a broad range of applications, including site remediation, groundwater management, fossil fuel production and CO2 sequestration. Data on these processes is obtained from diverse sensor networks, includes physical, hydrological and chemical sensors and semi permanent geophysical sensors (mainly seismic and resistivity). Currently, processing is done by specialists through the use of commercial and research software packages such as numerical inverse and forward models, statistical data analysis software and visualization and data presentation packages. Information is presented to stakeholders as tables, images and reports. Processing steps, data and assumptions used for information generation are mostly opaque to endusers. As data migrates between applications the steps taken in each application (e.g. in data reduction)are often only partly documented, resulting in irreproducible results. In this approach, interactive tuning of data processing in a systematic way (e.g. changing model parameters, visualization parameters or data used) or using data processing as a discovery tool is de facto impossible. We implemented a web accessible scientific workflow system for subsurface performance monitoring. This system integrates distributed, automated data acquisition from autonomous sensor networks with server side data management and information visualization through flexible browser based data access tools. Webservices are used for communication with the sensor networks and interaction with applications. This system was originally developed for a monitoring network at the Gilt Edge Mine Superfund site, but has now been implemented for a range of different sensor networks of different complexity. The workflow framework allows for rapid and easy integration in a modular, transparent and reproducible manner of a multitude of existing applications for data analysis and processes. By embedding applications in webservice wrappers existing applications can be used without any recoding. Webservices are used for application configuration, resource allocation and communication of data and parameters. We implemented both the statistical package R as well as geophysical inverse codes and hydrological forward models as webservices. This framework and implementation allows for reproducible, transparent result generation by a diverse user base through an easy to use web interface. The use of webservices allows this system to integrate seamlessly with current and future efforts in distributed computing.
Versteeg, R.; Richardson, A.; Thomas, S.; Lu, B.; Neto, J.; Wheeler, M.; Rowe, T.; Parashar, M.; Ankeny, M.
A autonomous borehole data transmission apparatus is described for transmitting measurement data from measuring instruments at the downhole end of a drill string by generating pressure pulses utilizing a transducer longitudinally responsive to magnetic field pulses caused by electrical pulses corresponding to the measured downhole parameters. 4 figs.
Inositol phosphates (InsPs) and diacyglycerol (DAG) are second messengers derived via the breakdown of inositol phospholipids, and which play important signalling roles in the regulation of proliferation of some cell types. The authors have studied the operation of this pathway during the early stages of retionic acid (RA)-induced granulocytic differentiation of HL60 myeloid leukemia cells. The autonomous breakdown of inositol lipids that occurred in HL60 cells labeled with (3H) inositol was completely abolished following 48 hours of RA treatment. The rate of influx of 45Ca2+ was also significantly decreased at 48 hours, consistent with the role of inositol lipid-derived second messengers in regulating Ca2+ entry into cells. The downregulation of inositol lipid metabolism clearly preceded the onset of reduced proliferation induced by RA treatment, and was therefore not a consequence of decreased cell growth. The generation of InsPs in RA-treated cells was reactivated by the fluoroaluminate ion, a direct activator of guanine nucleotide-binding protein(s) (G proteins) that regulate the inositol lipid signalling pathway. Subtle alterations to a regulatory mechanism may therefore mediate the RA-induced downregulation of this pathway. The data are consistent with the hypothesis that the autonomous generation of inositol lipid-derived second messengers may contribute to the continuous proliferation of HL60 cells, and that the RA-induced downregulation of this pathway may, in turn, play a role in signalling the cessation of proliferation that preceedes granulocytic differentiation.
Porfiri, E.; Hoffbrand, A.V.; Wickremasinghe, R.G. (Royal Free Hospital School of Medicine (London))
This viewgraph presentation reviews the autonomous soaring flight of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV). It reviews energy sources for UAVs, and two examples of UAV's that used alternative energy sources, and thermal currents for soaring. Examples of flight tests, plans, and results are given. Ultimately, the concept of a UAV harvesting energy from the atmosphere has been shown to be feasible with existing technology.
Lin, Victor P.
KSC has been developing the Knowledge-Based Autonomous Test Engineer (KATE), which is a tool for performing automated monitoring, diagnosis, and control of electromechanical devices. KATE employs artificial intelligence computing techniques to perform these functions. The KATE system consists of a generic shell and a knowledge base. The KATE shell is the portion of the system which performs the monitoring, diagnosis, and control functions. It is generic in the sense that it is application independent. This means that the monitoring activity, for instance, will be performed with the same algorithms regardless of the particular physical device being used. The knowledge base is the portion of the system which contains specific functional and behavorial information about the physical device KATE is working with. Work is nearing completion on a project at KSC to interface a Texas Instruments Explorer running a LISP version of KATE with a Generic Checkout System (GCS) test-bed to control a physical simulation of a shuttle tanking system (humorously called the Red Wagon because of its color and mobility). The Autonomous Control System (ACS) project supplements and extends the KATE/GCS project by adding three other major activities. The activities include: porting KATE from the Texas Instruments Explorer machine to an Intel 80386-based UNIX workstation in the LISP language; rewriting KATE as necessary to run on the same 80386 workstation but in the Ada language; and investigating software and techniques to translate ANSI Standard Common LISP to Mil Standard Ada. Primary goals of this task are as follows: (1) establish the advantages of using expert systems to provide intelligent autonomous software for Space Station Freedom applications; (2) determine the feasibility of using Ada as the run-time environment for model-based expert systems; (3) provide insight into the advantages and disadvantagesof using LISP or Ada in the run-time environment for expert systems; and (4) compare the performance of the 80386 processor to a symbolic processor as a delivery vehicle for expert systems.
Lamina X surrounds the central canal of the spinal cord and is an important site for the convergence of somatic and visceral afferent inputs relaying nociceptive information. Lamina X contains sympathetic preganglionic neurons (SPN) in the so-called central autonomic nucleus which may participate to viscero-autonomic reflexes. Here, we describe a transversal slice preparation of postnatal rat thoracolumbar spinal cord which
Amyaouch Bradaïa; Riad Seddik; Rémy Schlichter; Jérôme Trouslard
Nonlinearity is required to produce autonomous oscillations without external time dependent source, and an example is the pendulum clock. The escapement mechanism of the clock imparts an impulse for each swing direction, which keeps the pendulum oscillating at the resonance frequency. Among nature's observed autonomous oscillators, examples are the quasi-biennial oscillation and bimonthly oscillation of the Earth atmosphere, and the 22-year solar oscillation. The oscillations have been simulated in numerical models without external time dependent source, and in Section 2 we summarize the results. Specifically, we shall discuss the nonlinearities that are involved in generating the oscillations, and the processes that produce the periodicities. In biology, insects have flight muscles, which function autonomously with wing frequencies that far exceed the animals' neural capacity; Stretch-activation of muscle contraction is the mechanism that produces the high frequency oscillation of insect flight, discussed in Section 3. The same mechanism is also invoked to explain the functioning of the cardiac muscle. In Section 4, we present a tutorial review of the cardio-vascular system, heart anatomy, and muscle cell physiology, leading up to Starling's Law of the Heart, which supports our notion that the human heart is also a nonlinear oscillator. In Section 5, we offer a broad perspective of the tenuous links between the fluid dynamical oscillators and the human heart physiology.
Mayr, H. G.; Yee, J.-H.; Mayr, M.; Schnetzler, R.
Lamina X surrounds the central canal of the spinal cord and is an important site for the convergence of somatic and visceral afferent inputs relaying nociceptive information. Lamina X contains sympathetic preganglionic neurons (SPN) in the so-called central autonomic nucleus which may participate to viscero-autonomic reflexes. Here, we describe a transversal slice preparation of postnatal rat thoracolumbar spinal cord which allows the detailed characterization of the morphology, electrophysiological properties, synaptic activities and receptor pharmacology of neurons surrounding the central canal. By means of the patch clamp technique, in its whole cell configuration, and by the use of various pharmacological tools, we show here that lamina X neurons of the central autonomic nucleus express functional alpha7 nicotinic receptors which are located postsynaptically on SPNs where they are involved in a fast cholinergic transmission. Thus, this in vitro preparation is useful to study the mechanisms and the pharmacology of viscero-autonomic reflexes. PMID:15862469
Bradaïa, Amyaouch; Seddik, Riad; Schlichter, Rémy; Trouslard, Jérôme
A generalized framework has been developed for systems validation that can be applied to both traditional and autonomous systems. The framework consists of an automated test case generation and execution system called Nemesis that rapidly and thoroughly identifies flaws or vulnerabilities within a system. By applying genetic optimization and goal-seeking algorithms on the test equipment side, a "war game" is conducted between a system and its complementary nemesis. The end result of the war games is a collection of scenarios that reveals any undesirable behaviors of the system under test. The software provides a reusable framework to evolve test scenarios using genetic algorithms using an operation model of the system under test. It can automatically generate and execute test cases that reveal flaws in behaviorally complex systems. Genetic algorithms focus the exploration of tests on the set of test cases that most effectively reveals the flaws and vulnerabilities of the system under test. It leverages advances in state- and model-based engineering, which are essential in defining the behavior of autonomous systems. It also uses goal networks to describe test scenarios.
Barltrop, Kevin J.; Lee, Cin-Young; Horvath, Gregory A,; Clement, Bradley J.
A viewgraph presentation on autonomous soaring flight results for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV)'s is shown. The topics include: 1) Background; 2) Thermal Soaring Flight Results; 3) Autonomous Dolphin Soaring; and 4) Future Plans.
Allen, Michael J.
Information necessary to understand the Autonomous Attitude Determination System (AADS) is presented. Topics include AADS requirements, program structure, algorithms, and system generation and execution.
Saralkar, K.; Frenkel, Y.; Klitsch, G.; Liu, K. S.; Lefferts, E.; Tasaki, K.; Snow, F.; Garrahan, J.
Autonomic communications has been gaining ground as a vision for next generation communications. The success and flexibility of the Internet has lead to evaluations of utilizing IP for communications in space. The limitations of today's Internet ultimately also imply limitations for an IP deployment in space. Issues affecting the design of a future self-directing and self-managing data communications network for future space missions based on autonomic communications concepts are described and examined.
Rash, James L.; Sterritt, Roy; Hinchey, Michael G.
We introduce our latest autonomous learning and interaction system instance ALIS 2. It comprises different sensing modalities for visual (depth blobs, planar surfaces, motion) and auditory (speech, localization) signals and self-collision free behavior generation on the robot ASIMO. The system design emphasizes the split into a completely autonomous reactive layer and an expectation generation layer. Different feature channels can be
Bram Bolder; Holger Brandl; Martin Heracles; Herbert Janssen; Inna Mikhailova; Jens Schmiidderich; Christian Goerick
Background: There are no studies of autonomic function comparing Alzheimer’s disease (AD), vascular dementia (VAD), dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) and Parkinson’s disease dementia (PDD).Aims: To assess cardiovascular autonomic function in 39 patients with AD, 30 with VAD, 30 with DLB, 40 with PDD and 38 elderly controls by Ewing’s battery of autonomic function tests and power spectral analysis of
L M Allan; C G Ballard; J Allen; A Murray; A W Davidson; I G McKeith; R A Kenny
Disorders associated with dysfunction of autonomic nervous system are quite common yet frequently unrecognized. Quantitative autonomic testing can be invaluable tool for evaluation of these disorders, both in clinic and research. There are number of autonomic tests, however, only few were validated clinically or are quantitative. Here, fully quantitative and clinically validated protocol for testing of autonomic functions is presented. As a bare minimum the clinical autonomic laboratory should have a tilt table, ECG monitor, continuous noninvasive blood pressure monitor, respiratory monitor and a mean for evaluation of sudomotor domain. The software for recording and evaluation of autonomic tests is critical for correct evaluation of data. The presented protocol evaluates 3 major autonomic domains: cardiovagal, adrenergic and sudomotor. The tests include deep breathing, Valsalva maneuver, head-up tilt, and quantitative sudomotor axon test (QSART). The severity and distribution of dysautonomia is quantitated using Composite Autonomic Severity Scores (CASS). Detailed protocol is provided highlighting essential aspects of testing with emphasis on proper data acquisition, obtaining the relevant parameters and unbiased evaluation of autonomic signals. The normative data and CASS algorithm for interpretation of results are provided as well.
In-phase single-codon insertion mutations were constructed in the open reading frames of the NS-1 and NS-2 genes of the autonomous parvovirus minute virus of mice. A viral mutant containing an isoleucine insertion exclusively within NS-1 between residues 229 and 230 was isolated that produced approximately 3 orders of magnitude fewer plaques at 39 degrees C than at 32 degrees C. Preliminary characterization of the mutant demonstrated that the NS-1 gene product is independently required for both genome amplification and the regulation of the temporal expression between the two viral transcription units during lytic infection. Images
Tullis, G E; Labieniec-Pintel, L; Clemens, K E; Pintel, D
Net-centric networking environments are often faced with limited resources and must utilize bandwidth as efficiently as possible. In networking environments that span wide areas, the data transmission has to be efficient without any redundant or exuberant metadata. The Autonomous Byte Stream Randomizer software provides an extra level of security on top of existing data encryption methods. Randomizing the data s byte stream adds an extra layer to existing data protection methods, thus making it harder for an attacker to decrypt protected data. Based on a generated crypto-graphically secure random seed, a random sequence of numbers is used to intelligently and efficiently swap the organization of bytes in data using the unbiased and memory-efficient in-place Fisher-Yates shuffle method. Swapping bytes and reorganizing the crucial structure of the byte data renders the data file unreadable and leaves the data in a deconstructed state. This deconstruction adds an extra level of security requiring the byte stream to be reconstructed with the random seed in order to be readable. Once the data byte stream has been randomized, the software enables the data to be distributed to N nodes in an environment. Each piece of the data in randomized and distributed form is a separate entity unreadable on its own right, but when combined with all N pieces, is able to be reconstructed back to one. Reconstruction requires possession of the key used for randomizing the bytes, leading to the generation of the same cryptographically secure random sequence of numbers used to randomize the data. This software is a cornerstone capability possessing the ability to generate the same cryptographically secure sequence on different machines and time intervals, thus allowing this software to be used more heavily in net-centric environments where data transfer bandwidth is limited.
Paloulian, George K.; Woo, Simon S.; Chow, Edward T.
Cardiovascular autonomic dysfunction in uremia. Cardiovascular morbidity and mortality is common in chronic renal failure patients, and may be explained in part by abnormalities in cardiovascular autonomic regulation. This review discusses the results of cardiovascular autonomic function studies in chronic renal failure patients. While covering most methods of assessing autonomic function, we focus particularly on power spectral analysis methods. These
Thompson G Robinson; Susan J Carr
Affordability and responsiveness are two key requirements for the next generation of aircraft support systems. Aircraft have to be repaired with minimum downtime and the support process has to be economical and efficient. The vision of autonomic logistics (AL) entails a maintenance and support system that can autonomously respond to “events”, e.g. problems detected on-board the aircraft. The response includes
Gabor Karsai; George Bloor; Jon Doyle
Autonomous landing is a challenging problem for aerial robots. An autonomous landing manoeuver depends largely on two capabilities: the decision of where to land and the generation of control signals to guide the vehicle to a safe landing. We focus on the first capability here by presenting a strategy and an underlying fast algorithm as the computer vision basis to
Pedro J. Garcia-pardo; Gaurav S. Sukhatme; James F. Montgomery
An autonomous aircraft capable of utilising soar- ing flight in a dynamic wind field could considerably extend flight duration by limiting the use of on-board energy for propulsion. While soaring flight is relatively well understood for known wind, an autonomous soaring aircraft would have to generate paths based only on local observations of the wind made during the flight. This
Nicholas R. J. Lawrance; Salah Sukkarieh
Under this DURIP grant, ten profiling ALACE autonomous floats were procured and prepared for deployment. These floats included vertical velocity measurements at depth. They also provided profiles of temperature and salinity every time that they traveled f...
W. B. Owens
It is our aim by launching a series of workshops on the topic of highly autonomous systems to reach out to the larger community interested in technology development for remotely deployed systems, particularly those for exploration.
Doyle, R.; Rasmussen, R.; Man, G.; Patel, K.
The Autonomous Flight Safety System (AFSS) is an independent self-contained subsystem mounted onboard a launch vehicle. AFSS has been developed by and is owned by the US Government. Autonomously makes flight termination/destruct decisions using configurable software-based rules implemented on redundant flight processors using data from redundant GPS/IMU navigation sensors. AFSS implements rules determined by the appropriate Range Safety officials.
The efficient implementation of on-line adaptation in real time is an important research problem in fuzzy control. The goal is to develop autonomous self-organizing controllers employing system-independent control meta-knowledge which enables them to adjust their control policies depending on the systems they control and the environments in which they operate. An autonomous fuzzy controller would continuously observe system behavior while implementing its control actions and would use the outcomes of these actions to refine its control policy. It could be designed to lie dormant when its control actions give rise to adequate performance characteristics but could rapidly and autonomously initiate real-time adaptation whenever its performance degrades. Such an autonomous fuzzy controller would have immense practical value. It could accommodate individual variations in system characteristics and also compensate for degradations in system characteristics caused by wear and tear. It could also potentially deal with black-box systems and control scenarios. On-going research in autonomous fuzzy control is reported. The ultimate research objective is to develop robust and relatively inexpensive autonomous fuzzy control hardware suitable for use in real time environments.
Shenoi, Sujeet; Ramer, Arthur
A novel approach for landmark recognition based on the perception, reasoning, action, and expectation (PREACTE) paradigm is presented for the navigation of autonomous mobile robots. PREACTE uses expectations to predict the appearance and disappearance of objects, thereby reducing computational complexity and locational uncertainty. It uses an innovative concept called dynamic model matching (DMM), which is based on the automatic generation
Hatem Nasr; Bir Bhanu
Autonomic cardiac neurons have a common origin in the neural crest but undergo distinct developmental differentiation as they mature toward their adult phenotype. Progenitor cells respond to repulsive cues during migration, followed by differentiation cues from paracrine sources that promote neurochemistry and differentiation. When autonomic axons start to innervate cardiac tissue, neurotrophic factors from vascular tissue are essential for maintenance of neurons before they reach their targets, upon which target-derived trophic factors take over final maturation, synaptic strength and postnatal survival. Although target-derived neurotrophins have a central role to play in development, alternative sources of neurotrophins may also modulate innervation. Both developing and adult sympathetic neurons express proNGF, and adult parasympathetic cardiac ganglion neurons also synthesize and release NGF. The physiological function of these “non-classical” cardiac sources of neurotrophins remains to be determined, especially in relation to autocrine/paracrine sustenance during development. Cardiac autonomic nerves are closely spatially associated in cardiac plexuses, ganglia and pacemaker regions and so are sensitive to release of neurotransmitter, neuropeptides and trophic factors from adjacent nerves. As such, in many cardiac pathologies, it is an imbalance within the two arms of the autonomic system that is critical for disease progression. Although this crosstalk between sympathetic and parasympathetic nerves has been well established for adult nerves, it is unclear whether a degree of paracrine regulation occurs across the autonomic limbs during development. Aberrant nerve remodeling is a common occurrence in many adult cardiovascular pathologies, and the mechanisms regulating outgrowth or denervation are disparate. However, autonomic neurons display considerable plasticity in this regard with neurotrophins and inflammatory cytokines having a central regulatory function, including in possible neurotransmitter changes. Certainly, neurotrophins and cytokines regulate transcriptional factors in adult autonomic neurons that have vital differentiation roles in development. Particularly for parasympathetic cardiac ganglion neurons, additional examinations of developmental regulatory mechanisms will potentially aid in understanding attenuated parasympathetic function in a number of conditions, including heart failure.
The Aerial Onboard Autonomous Science Investigation System (AerOASIS) system provides autonomous planning and execution capabilities for aerial vehicles (see figure). The system is capable of generating high-quality operations plans that integrate observation requests from ground planning teams, as well as opportunistic science events detected onboard the vehicle while respecting mission and resource constraints. AerOASIS allows an airborne planetary exploration vehicle to summarize and prioritize the most scientifically relevant data; identify and select high-value science sites for additional investigation; and dynamically plan, schedule, and monitor the various science activities being performed, even during extended communications blackout periods with Earth.
Gaines, Daniel M.; Estlin, Tara A.; Schaffer, Steven R.; Chouinard, Caroline M.
The time has come for the commercial buildings industries to reconsider the very nature of the systems installed in facilities today and to establish a vision for future buildings that differs from anything in the history of human shelter. Drivers for this examination include reductions in building operation staffs; uncertain costs and reliability of electric power; growing interest in energy-efficient and resource-conserving?green? and?high-performance? commercial buildings; and a dramatic increase in security concerns since the tragic events of September 11. This paper introduces a new paradigm? autonomic buildings? which parallels the concept of autonomic computing, introduced by IBM as a fundamental change in the way computer networks work. Modeled after the human nervous system,?autonomic systems? themselves take responsibility for a large portion of their own operation and even maintenance. For commercial buildings, autonomic systems could provide environments that afford occupants greater opportunity to focus on the things we do in buildings rather than on operation of the building itself, while achieving higher performance levels, increased security, and better use of energy and other natural resources. The author uses the human body and computer networking to introduce and illustrate this new paradigm for high-performance commercial buildings. He provides a vision for the future of commercial buildings based on autonomicity, identifies current research that could contribute to this future, and highlights research and technological gaps. The paper concludes with a set of issues and needs that are key to converting this idealized future into reality.
Brambley, Michael R. (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB))
Successful operation of next-generation unmanned air vehicles will demand a high level of autonomy. Autonomous low-level operation in a complex environment dictates a need for onboard, robust, reliable and efficient trajectory optimization. In this report...
B. Yang E. Johnson J. E. Corban S. Twigg T. Ries
Target acquisition is often needed in a deep space mission where the detector on board the space vehicle must be able to perform the decision making process in acquiring the target. That is, the system for target acquisition must be autonomous. This paper presents several autonomous target acquisition techniques, applicable to deep space mission, for detecting stationary and moving targets. These techniques are useful for sensors such as radar, star tracker and television since the target must be found before it can be tracked. A minimum signal-to-noise ratio can be specified for successful acquisition of target.
Brock, H. I.; Hung, J. C.
Much work is underway on issues associated with the development of tools and services to reduce worldwide energy consumption. Current trends in energy consumption show clear evidence that it is increasing whilst reserves of carbon based energy are reducing and green technologies for energy generation are yet to prove themselves. In industry, numerous instrument manufacturers support the MODBUS protocol as
Nicholas McLauchlan; Nik Bessis
Improved recognition and availability of noninvasive testing of autonomic disorders has prompted a better understanding of\\u000a disease mechanisms of some disease forms, especially potentially treatable immune-mediated autonomic neuropathies. Development\\u000a is acute, subacute, or less commonly chronic. Autonomic involvement is common and an important cause of morbidity and mortality\\u000a in Guillain-Barré syndrome. Acute autonomic neuropathy can affect parasympathetic, sympathetic, and enteric
Mill Etienne; Louis H. Weimer
In Drosophila imaginal epithelia, cells mutant for the endocytic neoplastic tumor suppressor gene vps25 stimulate nearby untransformed cells to express Drosophila Inhibitor-of-Apoptosis-Protein-1 (DIAP-1), conferring resistance to apoptosis non-cell autonomously. Here, we show that the non-cell autonomous induction of DIAP-1 is mediated by Yorkie, the conserved downstream effector of Hippo signaling. The non-cell autonomous induction of Yorkie is due to Notch signaling from vps25 mutant cells. Moreover, activated Notch in normal cells is sufficient to induce non-cell autonomous Yorkie activity in wing imaginal discs. Our data identify a novel mechanism by which Notch promotes cell survival non-cell autonomously and by which neoplastic tumor cells generate a supportive microenvironment for tumor growth. PMID:22679484
Graves, Hillary K; Woodfield, Sarah E; Yang, Chih-Chao; Halder, Georg; Bergmann, Andreas
In Drosophila imaginal epithelia, cells mutant for the endocytic neoplastic tumor suppressor gene vps25 stimulate nearby untransformed cells to express Drosophila Inhibitor-of-Apoptosis-Protein-1 (DIAP-1), conferring resistance to apoptosis non-cell autonomously. Here, we show that the non-cell autonomous induction of DIAP-1 is mediated by Yorkie, the conserved downstream effector of Hippo signaling. The non-cell autonomous induction of Yorkie is due to Notch signaling from vps25 mutant cells. Moreover, activated Notch in normal cells is sufficient to induce non-cell autonomous Yorkie activity in wing imaginal discs. Our data identify a novel mechanism by which Notch promotes cell survival non-cell autonomously and by which neoplastic tumor cells generate a supportive microenvironment for tumor growth.
Graves, Hillary K.; Woodfield, Sarah E.; Yang, Chih-Chao; Halder, Georg; Bergmann, Andreas
. This paper describes the New Millennium Remote Agent (NMRA) architecture for autonomous spacecraft control systems. The architecture supports challenging requirements of the autonomous spacecraft domain not usually addressed in mobile robot architectures, including highly reliable autonomous operations over extended time periods in the presence of tight resource constraints, hard deadlines, limited observability, and concurrent activity. A hybrid architecture, NMRA
Barney Pell; Douglas E. Bernard; Steve A. Chien; Erann Gat; Nicola Muscettola; P. Pandurang Nayak; Michael D. Wagner; Brian C. Williams
Background Autoimmune autonomic ganglionopathy (AAG) is an acquired immune-mediated form of diffuse autonomic failure. Many patients have serum antibodies that bind to the ganglionic acetylcholine receptors (AChRs) that mediate fast synaptic transmission in autonomic ganglia. Previous clinical studies and observations in animal models suggest that AAG is an antibody-mediated neurologic disorder. Methods Using whole-cell patch clamp techniques, we recorded ganglionic AChR currents in cultured human IMR-32 cells and examined the effects of bath application of IgG derived from patients with AAG. Results IgG from seven patients with AAG all produced a progressive decline in whole-cell ganglionic AChR current, whereas IgG from control subjects had no effect. The effect was abolished at low temperature. Fab antibody fragments had no effect unless a secondary antibody was added concurrently. IgG from one patient also produced a more immediate reduction of ganglionic AChR current. Conclusions The characteristics of antibody-mediated inhibition of ganglionic acetylcholine receptor (AChR) current are consistent with modulation and blocking of the membrane AChR, analogous to the effects of muscle AChR antibodies in myasthenia gravis. Our observations demonstrate that antibodies in patients with autoimmune autonomic ganglionopathy (AAG) cause physiologic changes in ganglionic AChR function and confirm that AAG is an antibody-mediated disorder.
Wang, Z.; Low, P.A.; Jordan, J.; Freeman, R.; Gibbons, C.H.; Schroeder, C.; Sandroni, P.; Vernino, S.
This paper considers the vehicle navigation problem for an autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) with six degrees of freedom. We approach this problem using an error state formulation of the Kalman filter. Integration of the vehicle's high-rate inertial measurement unit's (IMU's) accelerometers and gyros allow time propagation while other sensors provide measurement corrections. The low-rate aiding sensors include a Doppler velocity
Paul A. Miller; Jay A. Farrell; Yuanyuan Zhao; Vladimir Djapic
The performance of optical autonomous navigation is investigated for low lunar orbits and for high elliptical lunar orbits. Various options for employing the camera measurements are presented and compared. Strategies for improving navigation performance are developed and applied to the Orion vehicle lunar mission
Zanetti, Renato; Crouse, Brian; D'souza, Chris
Autonomous off-road navigation of robotic ground vehicles has important applications on Earth and in space exploration. Progress in this domain has been retarded by the limited lookahead range of 3-D sensors and by the difficulty of preprogramming systems to understand the traversability of the wide variety of terrain they can encounter.
Angelova, Anelia; Howard, Andrew; Matthies, Larry; Tang, Benyang; Turmon, Michael; Mjolsness, Eric
This article describes an approach to close-formation flight of autonomous aircraft. A standard LQ-based structure was synthesized for each vehicle and for formation position error control using linearized equations of motion and a lifting line model of the aircraft wake. We also consider the definition of a formation management structure, capable of dealing with a variety of generic transmission and
F. Giulietti; L. Pollini; M. Innocenti
This paper describes the design of a lighter than air autonomous robot and its natural l andmark navigation system that operates in three dimensions. The robot has successfully flown the University banner at science shows and op en days under public scrutiny. The robot i s nearly 2m long and 0 .8m wide, making the robot suitable for use in
Gordon Wyeth; Ivan Barron
The acquisition of new goals: the case of norms It is generally acknowledged that norms and normative action em phasise autonomy on the side of decision. But what about the autonomous formation of normative goals? In a recent paper (Dignum & Conte 1997), the treatment of goal- acquisition in the Agent Theory (AT) literature was found ina dequate, some formal
Rosaria Conte; Cristiano Castelfranchi; Frank Dignum
The efficient implementation of on-line adaptation in real time is an important research problem in fuzzy control. The goal is to develop autonomous self-organizing controllers employing system-independent control meta-knowledge which enables them to adju...
S. Shenoi A. Ramer
Systems, methods and apparatus are provided through which in some embodiments an autonomic entity manages a system by generating one or more stay alive signals based on the functioning status and operating state of the system. In some embodiments, an evolvable synthetic neural system is operably coupled to one or more evolvable synthetic neural systems in a hierarchy. The evolvable neural interface receives and generates heartbeat monitor signals and pulse monitor signals that are used to generate a stay alive signal that is used to manage the operations of the synthetic neural system. In another embodiment an asynchronous Alice signal (Autonomic license) requiring valid credentials of an anonymous autonomous agent is initiated. An unsatisfactory Alice exchange may lead to self-destruction of the anonymous autonomous agent for self-protection.
Hinchey, Michael G. (Inventor); Sterritt, Roy (Inventor)
Systems, methods and apparatus are provided through which in some embodiments an autonomic entity manages a system by generating one or more stay alive signals based on the functioning status and operating state of the system. In some embodiments, an evolvable synthetic neural system is operably coupled to one or more evolvable synthetic neural systems in a hierarchy. The evolvable neural interface receives and generates heartbeat monitor signals and pulse monitor signals that are used to generate a stay alive signal that is used to manage the operations of the synthetic neural system. In another embodiment an asynchronous Alice signal (Autonomic license) requiring valid credentials of an anonymous autonomous agent is initiated. An unsatisfactory Alice exchange may lead to self-destruction of the anonymous autonomous agent for self-protection.
Hinchey, Michael G. (Inventor); Sterritt, Roy (Inventor)
Background The neural stem cells discovered in the adult ciliary epithelium (CE) in higher vertebrates have emerged as an accessible source of retinal progenitors; these cells can self-renew and possess retinal potential. However, recent studies have cast doubt as to whether these cells could generate functional neurons and differentiate along the retinal lineage. Here, we have systematically examined the pan neural and retinal potential of CE stem cells. Results Molecular and cellular analysis was carried out to examine the plasticity of CE stem cells, obtained from mice expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) under the influence of the promoter of the rod photoreceptor-specific gene, Nrl, using the neurospheres assay. Differentiation was induced by specific culture conditions and evaluated by both transcripts and protein levels of lineage-specific regulators and markers. Temporal pattern of their levels were examined to determine the expression of genes and proteins underlying the regulatory hierarchy of cells specific differentiation in vitro. Functional attributes of differentiation were examined by the presence of current profiles and pharmacological mobilization of intracellular calcium using whole cell recordings and Fura-based calcium imaging, respectively. We demonstrate that stem cells in adult CE not only have the capacity to generate functional neurons, acquiring the expression of sodium and potassium channels, but also respond to specific cues in culture and preferentially differentiate along the lineages of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) and rod photoreceptors, the early and late born retinal neurons, respectively. The retinal differentiation of CE stem cells was characterized by the temporal acquisition of the expression of the regulators of RGCs and rod photoreceptors, followed by the display of cell type-specific mature markers and mobilization of intracellular calcium. Conclusions Our study demonstrates the bonafide retinal potential of adult CE stem cells and suggests that their plasticity could be harnessed for clinical purposes once barriers associated with any lineage conversion, i.e., low efficiency and fidelity is overcome through the identification of conducive culture conditions.
The Autonomous Sciencecraft Experiment (ASE) will fly onboard the Air Force TechSat 21 constellation of three spacecraft scheduled for launch in 2006. ASE uses onboard continuous planning, robust task and goal-based execution, model-based mode identification and reconfiguration, and onboard machine learning and pattern recognition to radically increase science return by enabling intelligent downlink selection and autonomous retargeting. In this paper we discuss how these AI technologies are synergistically integrated in a hybrid multi-layer control architecture to enable a virtual spacecraft science agent. Demonstration of these capabilities in a flight environment will open up tremendous new opportunities in planetary science, space physics, and earth science that would be unreachable without this technology.
Sherwood, R. L.; Chien, S.; Castano, R.; Rabideau, G.
The clinical picture of autonomic failure is characterized by severe and disabling orthostatic hypotension. These disorders can develop as a result of damage of central neural pathways or peripheral autonomic nerves, caused either by a primary autonomic neurodegenerative disorder or secondary to systemic illness. Treatment should be focused on decreasing presyncopal symptoms instead of achieving blood pressure goals. Non-pharmacologic strategies such as physical counter-maneuvers, dietary changes (i.e. high salt diet, rapid water drinking or compression garments) are the first line therapy. Affected patients should be screened for co-morbid conditions such as post-prandial hypotension and supine hypertension that can worsen orthostatic hypotension if not treated. If symptoms are not controlled with these conservative measures the next step is to start pharmacological agents; these interventions should be aimed at increasing intravascular volume either by promoting water and salt retention (fludrocortisone) or by increasing red blood cell mass when anemia is present (recombinant erythropoietin). When pressor agents are needed, direct pressor agents (midodrine) or agents that potentiate sympathetic activity (atomoxetine, yohimbine, pyridostigmine) can be used. It is preferable to use short-acting pressor agents that can be taken on as needed basis in preparation for upright activities.
Shibao, Cyndya; Okamoto, Luis; Biaggioni, Italo
The clinical picture of autonomic failure is characterized by severe and disabling orthostatic hypotension. These disorders can develop as a result of damage of central neural pathways or peripheral autonomic nerves, caused either by a primary autonomic neurodegenerative disorder or secondary to systemic illness. Treatment should be focused on decreasing pre-syncopal symptoms instead of achieving blood pressure goals. Non-pharmacologic strategies such as physical counter-maneuvers, dietary changes (i.e. high salt diet, rapid water drinking or compression garments) are the first line therapy. Affected patients should be screened for co-morbid conditions such as post-prandial hypotension and supine hypertension that can worsen orthostatic hypotension if not treated. If symptoms are not controlled with these conservative measures the next step is to start pharmacological agents; these interventions should be aimed at increasing intravascular volume either by promoting water and salt retention (fludrocortisone) or by increasing red blood cell mass when anemia is present (recombinant erythropoietin). When pressor agents are needed, direct pressor agents (midodrine) or agents that potentiate sympathetic activity (atomoxetine, yohimbine, pyridostigmine) can be used. It is preferable to use short-acting pressor agents that can be taken on as needed basis in preparation for upright activities. PMID:21664375
Shibao, Cyndya; Okamoto, Luis; Biaggioni, Italo
The goal of the Autonomous Power System (APS) program is to develop and apply intelligent problem solving and control technologies to the Space Station Freedom Electrical Power Systems (SSF/EPS). The objectives of the program are to establish artificial intelligence/expert system technology paths, to create knowledge based tools with advanced human-operator interfaces, and to integrate and interface knowledge-based and conventional control schemes. This program is being developed at the NASA-Lewis. The APS Brassboard represents a subset of a 20 KHz Space Station Power Management And Distribution (PMAD) testbed. A distributed control scheme is used to manage multiple levels of computers and switchgear. The brassboard is comprised of a set of intelligent switchgear used to effectively switch power from the sources to the loads. The Autonomous Power Expert System (APEX) portion of the APS program integrates a knowledge based fault diagnostic system, a power resource scheduler, and an interface to the APS Brassboard. The system includes knowledge bases for system diagnostics, fault detection and isolation, and recommended actions. The scheduler autonomously assigns start times to the attached loads based on temporal and power constraints. The scheduler is able to work in a near real time environment for both scheduling and dynamic replanning.
Ringer, Mark J.; Quinn, Todd M.
The goal of the Autonomous Power System (APS) program is to develop and apply intelligent problem solving and control technologies to the Space Station Freedom Electrical Power Systems (SSF/EPS). The objectives of the program are to establish artificial intelligence/expert system technology paths, to create knowledge based tools with advanced human-operator interfaces, and to integrate and interface knowledge-based and conventional control schemes. This program is being developed at the NASA-Lewis. The APS Brassboard represents a subset of a 20 KHz Space Station Power Management And Distribution (PMAD) testbed. A distributed control scheme is used to manage multiple levels of computers and switchgear. The brassboard is comprised of a set of intelligent switchgear used to effectively switch power from the sources to the loads. The Autonomous Power Expert System (APEX) portion of the APS program integrates a knowledge based fault diagnostic system, a power resource scheduler, and an interface to the APS Brassboard. The system includes knowledge bases for system diagnostics, fault detection and isolation, and recommended actions. The scheduler autonomously assigns start times to the attached loads based on temporal and power constraints. The scheduler is able to work in a near real time environment for both scheduling an dynamic replanning.
Ringer, Mark J.; Quinn, Todd M.
Recursion operators for infinitesimal symmetries for a class of nonlinear equations are obtained with the help of the Wronskian formalism of Calogero et al. Our consideration includes both autonomous and nonautonomous systems. The formalism helps us to obtain the symmetry generators and recursion operator for the coupled system of Boomeson equation which is otherwise quite difficult to obtain.Translated AbstractÜber den Rekursionsoperator der infinitesimalen Symmetrien autonomer und nichtautonomer SystemeEs werden Rekursionsoperatoren für infinitesimale Symmetrietransformationen für eine Klasse nichtlinearer Gleichungen abgeleitet mit Hilfe des Formalismus der Wronski-determinanten von Calogero u.a. Unsere Betrachtungen schließen sowohl autonome wie nichtautonome Systeme ein. Der Formalismus wird benutzt, um die Erzeugenden der Symmetrietransformationen und den Rekursionsoperator für die Boomesonengleichungen abzuleiten, was auf andere Weise recht kompliziert wäre.
Chowdhury, A. Roy; Ahmad, Siraj
QT dispersion is considered to reflect nonhomogeneity of ventricular repolarization. The autonomic nervous system modulates\\u000a QT interval duration, but the effect may not be spatially homogenous. Magnetocardiography (MCG) registers the weak magnetik\\u000a fields generated by myocardial electric currents with high localizing accuracy. We studied the effect of rapid cardiovascular\\u000a autonomic nervous adjustment on QT dispersion in MCG. Ten healthy male
Petri Haapalahti; Markku Mäkijärvi; Petri Korhonen; Panu Takala; Juha Montonen; Yrjö Salorinne; Lasse Oikarinen; Matti Viitasalo; Lauri Toivonen
Autonomous formation flight is a mechanism for achieving a pre-specified formation between a group of unmanned aerial vehicles. This paper presents an approach to autonomous formation flight in a leader-follower configuration using an adaptive output feedback control technique. Using measurements of the line-of-sight range and angles, an adaptive guidance law is formulated for the follower that generates velocity commands so
Jongki Moon; Ramachandra Sattigeri; J. V. R. Prasad; Anthony J. Calise
This paper describes an error analysis of an autonomous navigator using refraction measurements of starlight passing through the upper atmosphere. The analysis is based on a discrete linear Kalman filter. The filter generated steady-state values of navigator performance for a variety of test cases. Results of these simulations show that in low-earth orbit position-error standard deviations of less than 0.100 km may be obtained using only 40 star sightings per orbit.
Gounley, R.; White, R.; Gai, E.
Résumé Objectif Sensibiliser davantage les médecins de famille à la dysréflexie autonome (DA) chez les patients victimes d’une lésion médullaire (LM) et proposer certaines interventions. Sources de l’information On a fait une recension dans MEDLINE de 1970 à juillet 2011 à l’aide des expressions en anglais autonomic dysreflexia et spinal cord injury, ainsi que family medicine ou primary care. On a aussi passé en revue et utilisé d’autres ressources et guides de pratique pertinents. Message principal Il arrive souvent que les médecins de famille ne se sentent pas confiants de traiter des patients ayant une LM dont les problèmes sont complexes et exigent beaucoup de temps. Les médecins de famille ont l’impression de n’avoir pas la formation nécessaire pour répondre à leurs besoins. Pourtant, ils offrent une composante essentielle des soins à de tels patients et il est important qu’ils comprennent les problèmes médicaux particuliers aux LM. La dysréflexie autonome est un important et fréquent problème potentiellement sérieux que connaissent mal de nombreux médecins de famille. Cet article passe en revue les signes et les symptômes de la DA et présente certaines options de prise en charge aiguë, ainsi que des stratégies de prévention à l’intention des médecins de famille. Conclusion Les médecins de famille devraient savoir quels patients traumatisés médullaires sont susceptibles d’avoir une DA et surveiller ceux qui sont touchés par ce problème. Une explication est donnée dans cet article quant à l’approche à suivre pour la prise en charge aiguë. Les médecins de famille jouent un rôle essentiel dans la prévention de la DA, notamment par l’éducation (du patient et des autres professionnels de la santé) et la consignation dans le dossier médical de stratégies comme les soins appropriés de la vessie, de l’intestin et de la peau, d’avertissements et de plans de prise en charge.
Milligan, James; Lee, Joseph; McMillan, Colleen; Klassen, Hilary
This paper describes autonomous mobile robot teams performing tasks in unstructured environments. The behavior and the intelligence of the group is distributed, and the system does not include a central command base or leader. The novel concept of the Tropism-Based Cognitive Architecture is introduced, which is used by the robots in order to produce behavior transforming their sensory information to proper action. The results of a number of simulation experiments are presented. These experiments include worlds where the robot teams must locate, decompose, and gather objects, and defend themselves against hostile predators, while navigating around stationary and mobile obstacles.
Agah, Arvin; Bekey, George A.
According to NASA's integrated space technology roadmaps, space-based infrastructures are envisioned as necessary ingredients to a sustained effort in continuing space exploration. Whether it be for extra-terrestrial habitats, roving/cargo vehicles, or space tourism, autonomous space networks will provide a vital communications lifeline for both future robotic and human missions alike. Projecting that the Moon will be a bustling hub of activity within a few decades, a near-term opportunity for in-situ infrastructure development is within reach. This dissertation addresses the anticipated need for in-space infrastructure by investigating a general design methodology for autonomous interplanetary constellations; to illustrate the theory, this manuscript presents results from an application to the Earth-Moon neighborhood. The constellation design methodology is formulated as an optimization problem, involving a trajectory design step followed by a spacecraft placement sequence. Modeling the dynamics as a restricted 3-body problem, the investigated design space consists of families of periodic orbits which play host to the constellations, punctuated by arrangements of spacecraft autonomously guided by a navigation strategy called LiAISON (Linked Autonomous Interplanetary Satellite Orbit Navigation). Instead of more traditional exhaustive search methods, a numerical continuation approach is implemented to map the admissible configuration space. In particular, Keller's pseudo-arclength technique is used to follow folding/bifurcating solution manifolds, which are otherwise inaccessible with other parameter continuation schemes. A succinct characterization of the underlying structure of the local, as well as global, extrema is thus achievable with little a priori intuition of the solution space. Furthermore, the proposed design methodology offers benefits in computation speed plus the ability to handle mildly stochastic systems. An application of the constellation design methodology to the restricted Earth-Moon system, reveals optimal pairwise configurations for various L1, L2, and L5 (halo, axial, and vertical) periodic orbit families. Navigation accuracies, ranging from O (10+/-1) meters in position space, are obtained for the optimal Earth-Moon constellations, given measurement noise on the order of 1 meter.
Chow, Cornelius Channing, II
Ways in which autonomous behavior of spacecraft can be extended to treat situations wherein a closed loop control by a human may not be appropriate or even possible are explored. Predictive models that minimize mean least squared error and arbitrary cost functions are discussed. A methodology for extracting cyclic components for an arbitrary environment with respect to usual and arbitrary criteria is developed. An approach to prediction and control based on evolutionary programming is outlined. A computer program capable of predicting time series is presented. A design of a control system for a robotic dense with partially unknown physical properties is presented.
Fogel, L. J.; Calabrese, P. G.; Walsh, M. J.; Owens, A. J.
NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory has undertaken the Autonomous Sciencecraft Experiment (ASE) to "demonstrate the potential for space missions to use onboard decision-making to detect, analyze, and respond to science events, and to downlink only the highest value science data." The website features ASE updates, publications, and a list of the potential impacts of this research. Users can discover the autonomy software components that are aboard the ASE flight. The site includes links to information about the Artificial Intelligence Group at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and its other projects.
The Palomar Adaptive Optics System actively corrects for changing aberrations in light due to atmospheric turbulence. However, the underlying internal static error is unknown and uncorrected by this process. The dedicated wavefront sensor device necessarily lies along a different path than the science camera, and, therefore, doesn't measure the true errors along the path leading to the final detected imagery. This is a standard problem in adaptive optics (AO) called "non-common path error." The Autonomous Phase Retrieval Calibration (APRC) software suite performs automated sensing and correction iterations to calibrate the Palomar AO system to levels that were previously unreachable.
Estlin, Tara A.; Chien, Steve A.; Castano, Rebecca; Gaines, Daniel M.; Doubleday, Joshua R.; Schoolcraft, Josua B.; Oyake, Amalaye; Vaughs, Ashton G.; Torgerson, Jordan L.
We present the case of a 64-year-old woman who, in the past 5 years, complained of constipation/diarrhea, hyposudoresis, xerostomia and xerophthalmia, dysuria and orthostatic hypotension. Cardiovascular reflexes analysis revealed sympathetic and parasympathetic failure. Norepinephrine was markedly reduced, both lying and after tilt. Norepinephrine infusion determined a significant rise in blood pressure, allowing the diagnosis of denervation hypersensitivity. The diagnosis of pure autonomic failure was made. Therapy with 9 alpha fludrocortisone and metoclopramide was initiated with marked and sustained symptomatic effect. PMID:8140921
Ducla-Soares, J L; Guerreiro, A S; Póvoa, P; Alvares, E; Guerreiro, L; Carrilho, F; Santos, M; Figueirinhas, J; Carvalho, M
New missions of exploration and space operations will require unprecedented levels of autonomy to successfully accomplish their objectives. Inherently high levels of complexity, cost, and communication distances will preclude the degree of human involvement common to current and previous space flight missions. With exponentially increasing capabilities of computer hardware and software, including networks and communication systems, a new balance of work is being developed between humans and machines. This new balance holds the promise of not only meeting the greatly increased space exploration requirements, but simultaneously dramatically reducing the design, development, test, and operating costs. New information technologies, which take advantage of knowledge-based software, model-based reasoning, and high performance computer systems, will enable the development of a new generation of design and development tools, schedulers, and vehicle and system health management capabilities. Such tools will provide a degree of machine intelligence and associated autonomy that has previously been unavailable. These capabilities are critical to the future of advanced space operations, since the science and operational requirements specified by such missions, as well as the budgetary constraints will limit the current practice of monitoring and controlling missions by a standing army of ground-based controllers. System autonomy capabilities have made great strides in recent years, for both ground and space flight applications. Autonomous systems have flown on advanced spacecraft, providing new levels of spacecraft capability and mission safety. Such on-board systems operate by utilizing model-based reasoning that provides the capability to work from high-level mission goals, while deriving the detailed system commands internally, rather than having to have such commands transmitted from Earth. This enables missions of such complexity and communication` distances as are not otherwise possible, as well as many more efficient and low cost applications. In addition, utilizing component and system modeling and reasoning capabilities, autonomous systems will play an increasing role in ground operations for space missions, where they will both reduce the human workload as well as provide greater levels of monitoring and system safety. This paper will focus specifically on new and innovative software for remote, autonomous, space systems flight operations. Topics to be presented will include a brief description of key autonomous control concepts, the Remote Agent program that commanded the Deep Space 1 spacecraft to new levels of system autonomy, recent advances in distributed autonomous system capabilities, and concepts for autonomous vehicle health management systems. A brief description of teaming spacecraft and rovers for complex exploration missions will also be provided. New on-board software for autonomous science data acquisition for planetary exploration will be described, as well as advanced systems for safe planetary landings. A new multi-agent architecture that addresses some of the challenges of autonomous systems will be presented. Autonomous operation of ground systems will also be considered, including software for autonomous in-situ propellant production and management, and closed- loop ecological life support systems (CELSS). Finally, plans and directions for the future will be discussed.
Gross, A. R.; Smith, B. D.; Muscettola, N.; Barrett, A.; Mjolssness, E.; Clancy, D. J.
This paper presents operational innovations which will be introduced on NASA's Wide Field Infrared Explorer (WIRE) mission. These innovations include an end-to-end design architecture for an autonomous commanding capability for the uplink of command loads during unattended station contacts. The WIRE mission is the fifth and final mission of NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center Small Explorer (SMEX) series to be launched in March of 1999. Its primary mission is the targeting of deep space fields using an ultra-cooled infrared telescope. Due to its mission design WIRE command loads are large (approximately 40 Kbytes per 24 hours) and must be performed daily. To reduce the cost of mission operations support that would be required in order to uplink command loads, the WIRE Flight Operations Team has implemented all autonomous command loading capability. This capability allows completely unattended operations over a typical two-day weekend period. The key factors driving design and implementation of this capability were: 1) integration with already existing ground system autonomous capabilities and systems, 2) the desire to evolve autonomous operations capabilities based upon previous SMEX operations experience - specifically the TRACE mission, 3) integration with ground station operations - both autonomous and man-tended, 4) low cost and quick implementation, and 5) end-to-end system robustness. A trade-off study was performed to examine these factors in light of the low-cost, higher-risk SMEX mission philosophy. The study concluded that a STOL (Spacecraft Test and Operations Language) based script, highly integrated with other scripts used to perform autonomous operations, was best suited given the budget and goals of the mission. Each of these factors is discussed in addition to use of the TRACE mission as a testbed for autonomous commanding prior to implementation on WIRE. The capabilities implemented on the WIRE mission are an example of a low-cost, robust, and efficient method for autonomous command loading when implemented with other autonomous features of the ground system. They call be used as a design and implementation template by other missions interested in evolving toward autonomous and lower cost operations. Additionally, the WIRE spacecraft will be used as an operational testbed upon completion of its nominal mission later in 1999. One idea being studied is advanced on-board modeling. Advanced on-board modeling techniques will be used to more efficiently display the spacecraft state. This health and safety information could be used by engineers on the ground or could be used by tile spacecraft for its own assessments. Additionally, this same state information could also be input into the event-driven scheduling system, as the scheduling system will need to assess the spacecraft state before undertaking a new activity. Advanced modeling techniques are being evaluated for a number of NASA missions including The Next Generation Space Telescope (NGST), which is scheduled to launch in 2007.
Walyus, Keith; Prior, Mike; Saylor, Richard
Autonomous Flight Safety System (AFSS) is an independent flight safety system designed for small to medium sized expendable launch vehicles launching from or needing range safety protection while overlying relatively remote locations. AFSS replaces the need for a man-in-the-loop to make decisions for flight termination. AFSS could also serve as the prototype for an autonomous manned flight crew escape advisory system. AFSS utilizes onboard sensors and processors to emulate the human decision-making process using rule-based software logic and can dramatically reduce safety response time during critical launch phases. The Range Safety flight path nominal trajectory, its deviation allowances, limit zones and other flight safety rules are stored in the onboard computers. Position, velocity and attitude data obtained from onboard global positioning system (GPS) and inertial navigation system (INS) sensors are compared with these rules to determine the appropriate action to ensure that people and property are not jeopardized. The final system will be fully redundant and independent with multiple processors, sensors, and dead man switches to prevent inadvertent flight termination. AFSS is currently in Phase III which includes updated algorithms, integrated GPS/INS sensors, large scale simulation testing and initial aircraft flight testing.
Ferrell, Bob; Santuro, Steve; Simpson, James; Zoerner, Roger; Bull, Barton; Lanzi, Jim
The purpose of this report is to describe how changes in autonomic nervous system responses may be used as an index of individual differences in adaptational capacity to space flight. During two separate Spacelab missions, six crewmembers wore an ambulatory monitoring system which enabled continuous recording of their physiological responses for up to twelve hours a day for 3 to 5 mission days. The responses recorded were electrocardiography, respiration wave form, skin conductance level, hand temperature, blood flow to the hands and triaxial accelerations of the head and upper body. Three of these subjects had been given training, before the mission, in voluntary control of these autonomic responses as a means of facilitating adaptation to space. Three of these subjects served as Controls, i.e., did not receive this training but took anti-motion sickness medication. Nearly 300 hours of flight data are summarized. These data were examined using time-series analyses, spectral analyses of heart rate variability, and analyses of variance. Information was obtained on responses to space motion sickness, inflight medications, circadian rhythm, workload and fatigue. Preliminary assessment was made on the effectiveness of self-regulation training as a means of facilitating adaptation, with recommendations for future flights.
Toscano, W. B.; Cowings, P. S.; Miller, N. E.
Maintaining a solid radio communication link between a mobile robot entering a building and an external base station is a well-recognized problem. Modern digital radios, while affording high bandwidth and Internet-protocol-based automatic routing capabilities, tend to operate on line-of-sight links. The communication link degrades quickly as a robot penetrates deeper into the interior of a building. This project investigates the use of mobile autonomous communication relay nodes to extend the effective range of a mobile robot exploring a complex interior environment. Each relay node is a small mobile slave robot equipped with sonar, ladar, and 802.11b radio repeater. For demonstration purposes, four Pioneer 2-DX robots are used as autonomous mobile relays, with SSC-San Diego's ROBART III acting as the lead robot. The relay robots follow the lead robot into a building and are automatically deployed at various locations to maintain a networked communication link back to the remote operator. With their on-board external sensors, they also act as rearguards to secure areas already explored by the lead robot. As the lead robot advances and RF shortcuts are detected, relay nodes that become unnecessary will be reclaimed and reused, all transparent to the operator. This project takes advantage of recent research results from several DARPA-funded tasks at various institutions in the areas of robotic simulation, ad hoc wireless networking, route planning, and navigation. This paper describes the progress of the first six months of the project.
Nguyen, Hoa G.; Everett, Hobart R.; Manouk, Narek; Verma, Ambrish
NASA's Strategic Plan for the Aerospace Technology Enterprise includes ambitious objectives focused on affordable air travel, reduced emissions, and expanded aviation-system capacity. NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, in cooperation with NASA Ames Research Center, the Boeing Company, and the University of California, Los Angeles, has embarked on an autonomous-formation-flight project that promises to make significant strides towards these goals. For millions of years, birds have taken advantage of the aerodynamic benefit of flying in formation. The traditional "V" formation flown by many species of birds (including gulls, pelicans, and geese) enables each of the trailing birds to fly in the upwash flow field that exists just outboard of the bird immediately ahead in the formation. The result for each trailing bird is a decrease in induced drag and thus a reduction in the energy needed to maintain a given speed. Hence, for migratory birds, formation flight extends the range of the system of birds over the range of birds flying solo. The Autonomous Formation Flight (AFF) Project is seeking to extend this symbiotic relationship to aircraft.
Schkolnik, Gerard S.; Cobleigh, Brent
Robotic ground vehicles for outdoor applications have achieved some remarkable successes, notably in autonomous highway following (Dickmanns, 1987), planetary exploration (1), and off-road navigation on Earth (1). Nevertheless, major challenges remain to enable reliable, high-speed, autonomous navigation in a wide variety of complex, off-road terrain. 3-D perception of terrain geometry with imaging range sensors is the mainstay of off-road driving systems. However, the stopping distance at high speed exceeds the effective lookahead distance of existing range sensors. Prospects for extending the range of 3-D sensors is strongly limited by sensor physics, eye safety of lasers, and related issues. Range sensor limitations also allow vehicles to enter large cul-de-sacs even at low speed, leading to long detours. Moreover, sensing only terrain geometry fails to reveal mechanical properties of terrain that are critical to assessing its traversability, such as potential for slippage, sinkage, and the degree of compliance of potential obstacles. Rovers in the Mars Exploration Rover (MER) mission have got stuck in sand dunes and experienced significant downhill slippage in the vicinity of large rock hazards. Earth-based off-road robots today have very limited ability to discriminate traversable vegetation from non-traversable vegetation or rough ground. It is impossible today to preprogram a system with knowledge of these properties for all types of terrain and weather conditions that might be encountered.
Angelova, Anelia; Howard, Andrew; Matthies, Larry; Tang, Benyang; Turmon, Michael; Mjolsness, Eric
Until recently, problems resulting from fires in forests and natural areas were solved on a national rather than international level. This resulted in duplicating research efforts. The Commission of the European Communities (CEC) tries to enhance the cooperation between European countries to stimulate research on the causes and the technological developments for wildfire prevention, detection, and fighting. One result of these efforts has been the start of an international project on the development of a demonstration system that will be used to aid wild land managers and fire fighters in preventing and fighting wild fires. The system will consist of a decision support system and an autonomous wild fire detection system. The basic information that is used by the decision support system is on the one hand a database system with historical, topographical, logistic, meteorological and geographic information and on the other hand `real-time' data from automated cameras and weather sensors. Also, in other large countries outside Europe, such as Canada, the United States and Australia, technological approaches are being developed to reduce hazards as a result of wild fires. In this paper a summary is given on the various problems and solutions in the area of autonomous wild fire detection and surveillance in the CEC and some other parts of the world.
de Vries, Jan S.
For autonomous helicopter flight, it is common to separate the flight control problem into an innerloop that controls attitude and an outerloop that controls the trajectory of the helicopter. The outerloop generates attitude commands that orient the main ro- tor forces appropriately to generate required translational accelerations. Recent work in Neural Network based adaptive flight control may be applied to
Eric N. Johnson; Suresh K. Kannany
Autonomous unmanned air vehicle ?ight con- trol systems require robust path generation to ac- count for terrain obstructions, weather, and moving threats such as radar, jammers, and unfriendly air- craft. In this paper, we outline a feasible, hierarchal approach for real-time motion planning of small au- tonomous flxed-wing UAVs. The approach divides the trajectory generation into four tasks: waypoint path
Derek Kingston; Randal Beard; Timothy McLain; Michael Larsen; Wei Ren
The key to the autonomous exploration of an unknown area by a scientific robotic rover is the ability of the vehicle to autonomously recognize objects of interest and generalize about the region. This paper presents a Bayesian framework under which a mobile robot can learn how different classes of objects are distributed over a geographical region, using imperfect observations and
This talk provides a retrospective on the first decade of autonomic computing, an assessment of the extent to which the original vision has been realized, and some discussion and speculation about the the remaining research challenges. Nearly a decade has elapsed since Paul Horn, IBM's senior vice president of research, introduced the concept of autonomic computing during a keynote address
Jeffrey O. Kephart
Autonomic computing, a new deployment technology introduced by IBM a decade ago, to manage the ever increasing complexity of IT systems, has become a part of many large scale deployments today. A lot of inroads have been made by autonomic computing in the areas of networking, data centers, storage, and database management. But few attempts have been exercised in business
Devasia Kurian; Pethuru Raj
Nonmotor symptoms such as autonomic and neuropsychiatric dysfunctions, are commonly seen in Parkinson disease (PD). Recent studies have shown that PD is accompanied by cardiac sympathetic denervation and constipation even in the early stage. Neuropathological studies confirmed changes in the cardiac sympathetic nerves and the gastrointestinal tract. These findings suggest that PD neuropathology may occur first in the peripheral autonomic pathways and extend to the central autonomic pathways, in agreement with the "Braak theory". This article will reviews the symptoms and pathophysiology of gastrointestinal dysfunction, urinary disturbance, sexual dysfunction, sweating dysfunction, pupillary autonomic dysfunction, and orthostatic and postprandial hypotension in PD patients, and discuss to organ selectiveness in autonomic dysfunction in PD. PMID:22481512
Yamamoto, Toshimasa; Tamura, Naotoshi
The Flying Controls Testbed (FLiC) is a relatively small and inexpensive unmanned aerial vehicle developed specifically to test highly experimental flight control approaches. The most recent version of the FLiC is configured with 16 independent aileron segments, supports the implementation of C-coded experimental controllers, and is capable of fully autonomous flight from takeoff roll to landing, including flight test maneuvers. The test vehicle is basically a modified Army target drone, AN/FQM-117B, developed as part of a collaboration between the Aviation Applied Technology Directorate (AATD) at Fort Eustis,Virginia and NASA Langley Research Center. Several vehicles have been constructed and collectively have flown over 600 successful test flights.
Motter, Mark A.
This paper demonstrates artificial intelligence through the construction of a simple robot developed by converting a toy vehicle. The circuitry of the toy vehicle was redesigned and incorporated with proximity sensors, thereby turning the vehicle into an autonomous self-contained robot ("Tigerbot"). This robot has the ability to roam, avoid obstacles without human intervention, and is speech capable. The authors demonstrate how machines can be designed to be aware of their surroundings and adapt accordingly. In the future, artificial intelligence concepts employed in this project may be applied in the design of other machines that would assist humans in performing common household chores. This article represents efforts by students implementing knowledge acquired in a Capstone Senior Project course.
Darayan, Shahryar; Fakunle, Oyekunmi; Saneifard, Rasoul
A remotely programmable, autonomous flying rover is proposed to extensively survey the Martian surface environment. A Mach .3, solar powered, modified flying wing could cover roughly a 2000 mile range during Martian daylight hours. Multiple craft launched from an orbiting mother ship could provide near-global coverage. Each craft is envisioned to fly at about 1 km above the surface and measure atmospheric composition, pressure and temperature, map surface topography, and remotely penetrate the near subsurface looking for water (ice) and perhaps evidence of life. Data collected are relayed to Earth via the orbiting mother ship. Near surface guidance and control capability is an adaptation of current cruise missile technology. A solar powered aircraft designed to fly in the low temperature, low density, carbon dioxide Martian atmosphere near the surface appears feasible.
The Remote Agent (RA) is an Artificial Intelligence (AI) system which automates some of the tasks normally reserved for human mission operators and performs these tasks autonomously on-board the spacecraft. These tasks include activity generation, sequencing, spacecraft analysis, and failure recovery. The RA will be demonstrated as a flight experiment on Deep Space One (DSI), the first deep space mission of the NASA's New Millennium Program (NMP). As we moved from prototyping into actual flight code development and teamed with ground operators, we made several major extensions to the RA architecture to address the broader operational context in which PA would be used. These extensions support ground operators and the RA sharing a long-range mission profile with facilities for asynchronous ground updates; support ground operators monitoring and commanding the spacecraft at multiple levels of detail simultaneously; and enable ground operators to provide additional knowledge to the RA, such as parameter updates, model updates, and diagnostic information, without interfering with the activities of the RA or leaving the system in an inconsistent state. The resulting architecture supports incremental autonomy, in which a basic agent can be delivered early and then used in an increasingly autonomous manner over the lifetime of the mission. It also supports variable autonomy, as it enables ground operators to benefit from autonomy when L'@ey want it, but does not inhibit them from obtaining a detailed understanding and exercising tighter control when necessary. These issues are critical to the successful development and operation of autonomous spacecraft.
Pell, Barney; Sawyer, Scott R.; Muscettola, Nicola; Smith, Benjamin; Bernard, Douglas E.
(WSNs) applications are often required to balance the tradeoffs among conflicting operational objectives (e.g., latency and power consumption) and operate at an optimal tradeoff. This chapter proposes and evaluates a architecture, called BiSNET/e, which allows WSN applications to overcome this issue. BiSNET/e is designed to support three major types of WSN applications: , and hybrid applications. Each application is implemented as a decentralized group of, which is analogous to a bee colony (application) consisting of bees (agents). Agents collect sensor data or detect an event (a significant change in sensor reading) on individual nodes, and carry sensor data to base stations. They perform these data collection and event detection functionalities by sensing their surrounding network conditions and adaptively invoking behaviors such as pheromone emission, reproduction, migration, swarming and death. Each agent has its own behavior policy, as a set of genes, which defines how to invoke its behaviors. BiSNET/e allows agents to evolve their behavior policies (genes) across generations and autonomously adapt their performance to given objectives. Simulation results demonstrate that, in all three types of applications, agents evolve to find optimal tradeoffs among conflicting objectives and adapt to dynamic network conditions such as traffic fluctuations and node failures/additions. Simulation results also illustrate that, in hybrid applications, data collection agents and event detection agents coevolve to augment their adaptability and performance.
Boonma, Pruet; Suzuki, Junichi
Mind-body health practices aim to regulate activation of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) to maintain homeostasis within the autonomic nervous system (ANS). The activation of the SNS is directly related to stress response, which, if persistent or prol...
D. Brown M. Bates P. Brierley-Bowers S. Sexton
A laboratory evaluation of an Interferometric Landmark Tracker (ILT) for an autonomous spacecraft navigation system was conducted. The system processes ILT, inertial reference unit, and star sensor data in a Kalman filter to provide in-space navigation. S...
R. L. Fritz D. H. Aldrich N. F. Toda
This paper describes the architecture of a system being developed to defend information systems using coordinated autonomic responses. The system will also be used to test the hypothesis that an effective defense against fast, distributed information atta...
S. M. Lewandowsky D. J. Van Hook G. C. O'Leary J. W. Haines L. M. Rossey
This paper describes a technique for coordinating the subsystems of autonomous robots which takes advantage of a distributed blackboard mechanism and a high degree of functional distribution between subsystems to minimize communications and simplify the i...
S. Y. Harmon, W. A. Aviles, D. W. Gage
Autonomic communications seek to improve the ability of network and services to cope with unpredicted change, including changes in topology, load, task, the physical and logical characteristics of the networks that can be accessed, and so forth. Broad-ranging autonomic solutions require designers to account for a range of end-to-end issues affecting programming models, network and contextual modeling and reasoning, decentralised
Simon Dobson; Spyros G. Denazis; Antonio Fernández; Dominique Gaïti; Erol Gelenbe; Fabio Massacci; Paddy Nixon; Fabrice Saffre; Nikita Schmidt; Franco Zambonelli
The swimbladder of teleost fishes is the primary organ for controlling whole-body density, and thus buoyancy. The volume of gas in the swimbladder is adjusted to bring the organism to near neutral buoyancy at a particular depth. Swimbladder morphology varies widely among teleosts, but all species are capable of inflating and deflating this organ under reflex control by the autonomic nervous system, to achieve neutral buoyancy. Here we review the control of effectors within the swimbladder, including acid-secreting cells, vasculature and musculature, that are involved in determining gas volume. This control system is complex. It incorporates the "classical" efferent elements of the autonomic nervous system, the spinal autonomic and cranial autonomic limbs and their neurotransmitters (typically noradrenaline (NA)/adrenaline (ADR), and acetylcholine, respectively), but also non-adrenergic, non-cholinergic neurotransmitters such as peptides, purines and nitric oxide. The detailed patterns of autonomic innervation of swimbladder effectors are not well understood, nor are the relationships of terminals releasing non-adrenergic, non-cholinergic neurotransmitters onto these effectors. Furthermore, in most cases the complement of postjunctional receptor subtypes activated by adrenergic, cholinergic and other neurotransmitters, and the biological effects of these neurochemicals, have not been completely established. In order to clarify some of these issues and to provide insight into basic principles underlying autonomic control of swimbladder function, we propose the zebrafish as a potentially useful model teleost. PMID:20817620
Smith, Frank M; Croll, Roger P
NASA's Advanced Exploration Systems Autonomous Mission Operations (AMO) project conducted an empirical investigation of the impact of time delay on today's mission operations, and of the effect of processes and mission support tools designed to mitigate time-delay related impacts. Mission operation scenarios were designed for NASA's Deep Space Habitat (DSH), an analog spacecraft habitat, covering a range of activities including nominal objectives, DSH system failures, and crew medical emergencies. The scenarios were simulated at time delay values representative of Lunar (1.2-5 sec), Near Earth Object (NEO) (50 sec) and Mars (300 sec) missions. Each combination of operational scenario and time delay was tested in a Baseline configuration, designed to reflect present-day operations of the International Space Station, and a Mitigation configuration in which a variety of software tools, information displays, and crew-ground communications protocols were employed to assist both crews and Flight Control Team (FCT) members with the long-delay conditions. Preliminary findings indicate: 1) Workload of both crewmembers and FCT members generally increased along with increasing time delay. 2) Advanced procedure execution viewers, caution and warning tools, and communications protocols such as text messaging decreased the workload of both flight controllers and crew, and decreased the difficulty of coordinating activities. 3) Whereas crew workload ratings increased between 50 sec and 300 sec of time delay in the Baseline configuration, workload ratings decreased (or remained flat) in the Mitigation configuration.
Frank, J.; Spirkovska, L.; McCann, R.; Wang, Lui; Pohlkamp, K.; Morin, L.
The autonomous production of propellants is addressed. Since 80 to 90 percent of a spacecraft's mass is typically propellants, it is advantageous to produce propellants in strategic locations en route to, and at, the desired mission destination. This reduces the weight of the spacecraft and the cost of each mission. Since one of the primary goals of the space program is safety, a totally automated propellant production system is desirable. This system would remove, from hostile, high-risk extraterrestrial environments, the constant human intervention currently required in the production of many propellants. This enables the exploration of space to be more than the search for and production of fuel. As a proof-of-concept demonstration, one specific case was chosen for this study. That case was a composite propellant processor (the principle is more important than the application), and the specific processor used saved SERC the considerable cost of acquiring a new liquid propellant processor that would also have required similar automation.
Ramohalli, Kumar; Schallhorn, P. A.
Aerobraking has become a proven approach for orbital missions at Mars. A launch of a 1000 kg class spacecraft on a Delta class booster saves 90% of the post-MOI fuel otherwise required to circularize the orbit. In 1997, Mars Global Surveyor demonstrated the feasibility and Mars 2001 Odyssey completed a nearly trouble free aerobraking phase in January 2002. In 2006, Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter will also utilize aerobraking. From the flight operations standpoint, however, aerobraking is labor intensive and high risk due to the large density variability in the Mars thermosphere. The maximum rate of aerobraking is typically limited by the maximum allowable temperature of the solar array which is the primary drag surface. Prior missions have used a surrogate variable, usually maximum free stream heat flux, as a basis for performing periapsis altitude corridor control maneuvers. This paper provides an adaptive sequential method for operationally relating measured temperatures to heat flux profile characteristics and performing maneuvers based directly on measured temperatures and atmospheric properties derived from the heat flux profiles. Simulations of autonomous aerobraking are performed using Odyssey mission data.
Hanna, Jill L.; Tolson, Robert; Cianciolo, Alicia Dwyer; Dec, John
Successful operation of next-generation unmanned air vehicles will demand a high level of autonomy. Autonomous low-level operation in a high-threat environment dictates a need for on-hoard, robust, reliable and efficient trajectory optimization. in this r...
J. E. Corban E. N. Johnson A. J. Calise S. Twigg
The work presented here is in the area of decision and control for autonomous unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). Specifically, we formulate the problem of generating near-optimal trajectories to follow in order for several UAVs to cooperatively search for targets in a given area for which some a priori data about target distribution is available. An algorithm that utilizes a model
Flint Marios; M. Polycarpou; E. Fernandez-Gaucherand
Denial of service attacks, viruses and worms are com- mon tools for malicious adversarial behaviour in networks. In this paper we propose the use of our autonomic routing protocol, the Cognitive Packet Network (CPN), as a means to defend nodes from Distributed Denial of Service Attacks (DDoS), where one or more attackers generate flooding traffic from multiple sources towards selected
Erol Gelenbe; Michael Gellman; George Loukas
In this paper the dynamics of a small autonomous system, comprising a diesel generator and a wind turbine, are investigated. The analysis is performed both in the frequency and time domain, using simplified models of the system components and taking into account the diesel engine speed governor and the wind turbine pitch controller (for pitch regulated machines). The investigation is
Stavros A. Papathanassiou; Michael P. Papadopoulos
Receiver Autonomous Integrity Monitoring (RAIM) procedures for Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) are required for safety and liability critical applications. While existing RAIM techniques, generally based on a single outlier assumption model, are adequate today they will not be justifiable for the next generation of GNSS. In this paper, a scheme for outlier identification, which uses the w-test and the
STEVE HEWITSON; JINLING WANG
The development of an unmanned airship capable of autonomous flight over user-defined locations for aerial data and imagery acquisition is the objective of the AURORA project. One important mission problem is the flight path following of the vehicle through a set of pre-defined points at a given altitude and velocity. In this article, a path tracking error generation methodology is
Jose Raul Azinheira; E. Carneiro de Paiva; Josué Jr. Guimarães Ramos; Samuel Siqueira Bueno
In this paper, the stability of an autonomous microgrid with multiple distributed generators (DG) is studied through eigenvalue analysis. It is assumed that all the DGs are connected through Voltage Source Converter (VSC) and all connected loads are passive. The VSCs are controlled by state feedback controller to achieve desired voltage and current outputs that are decided by a droop
Ritwik Majumder; Arindam Ghosh; Gerard Ledwich; Firuz Zare
IPEX is a 1u Cubesat sponsored by NASA Earth Science Technology Office (ESTO), the goals or which are: (1) Flight validate high performance flight computing, (2) Flight validate onboard instrument data processing product generation software, (3) flight validate autonomous operations for instrument processing, (4) enhance NASA outreach and university ties.
Chien, Steve; Doubleday, Joshua; Ortega, Kevin; Flatley, Tom; Crum, Gary; Geist, Alessandro; Lin, Michael; Williams, Austin; Bellardo, John; Puig-Suari, Jordi; Stanton, Eric; Yee, Edmond
. In this article we investigate how to generate flight trajectoriesfor an autonomous helicopter. The planning strategy that we proposereflects the controller architecture. It is reasonable to identify differentflight modes such as take-off, cruise, turn and landing, which can be usedto compose an entire flight path. Given a set of nominal waypoints wegenerate trajectories that interpolate close to these points.
Magnus Egerstedt; Tak-john Koo; Frank Hoffmann; Shankar Sastry
Cluster computing, whereby a large number of simple processors or nodes are combined together to apparently function as a single powerful computer, has emerged as a research area in its own right. The approach offers a relatively inexpensive means of providing a fault-tolerant environment and achieving significant computational capabilities for high-performance computing applications. However, the task of manually managing and configuring a cluster quickly becomes daunting as the cluster grows in size. Autonomic computing, with its vision to provide self-management, can potentially solve many of the problems inherent in cluster management. We describe the development of a prototype Autonomic Cluster Management System (ACMS) that exploits autonomic properties in automating cluster management and its evolution to include reflex reactions via pulse monitoring.
Truszkowski, Walt; Hinchey, Mike; Sterritt, Roy
ROAMAN is a computer program for autonomous navigation of a mobile robot on a long (as much as hundreds of meters) traversal of terrain. Developed for use aboard a robotic vehicle (rover) exploring the surface of a remote planet, ROAMAN could also be adapted to similar use on terrestrial mobile robots. ROAMAN implements a combination of algorithms for (1) long-range path planning based on images acquired by mast-mounted, wide-baseline stereoscopic cameras, and (2) local path planning based on images acquired by body-mounted, narrow-baseline stereoscopic cameras. The long-range path-planning algorithm autonomously generates a series of waypoints that are passed to the local path-planning algorithm, which plans obstacle-avoiding legs between the waypoints. Both the long- and short-range algorithms use an occupancy-grid representation in computations to detect obstacles and plan paths. Maps that are maintained by the long- and short-range portions of the software are not shared because substantial localization errors can accumulate during any long traverse. ROAMAN is not guaranteed to generate an optimal shortest path, but does maintain the safety of the rover.
Huntsberger, Terrance; Aghazarian, Hrand
Advances in volumetric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technology are beginning to provide structural correlates to functional dysautonomic syndromes in the brain. This paper highlights several interesting recent discoveries in which measurable variations in general or regional subcortical or cortical brain volume corresponded to changes in blood pressure or heart rate. Although these MRI findings currently lack diagnostic value in routine clinical practice, they may provide important clues to the pathophysiology of autonomic disorders and to links between autonomic and cognitive disorders. If validated by further studies, they also have potential implications for the management of orthostatic hypotension, particularly when combined with hypertension. PMID:24862160
Cheshire, William P
Human beings by nature are relational and in relating to others modulate their autonomic responses. Interpersonal relationships may be stressful or calming depending on social contexts, individual temperaments and personality traits. Not only human relationships, but also interactions with affectionate pets and virtual relationships via social networking technology can elicit autonomic responses. These responses range from sympathetic arousal to vagal modulation of cardiovascular activity, and from changes in energy intake and expenditure to modification of physical exercise habits, all of which have potential implications for health and well-being. PMID:23361045
Cheshire, William P
A team consisting of Teledyne Scientific Company, the University of California at Santa Barbara, the Army Research Laboratory, the Engineer Research and Development Center, and IBM UK is developing technologies in support of automated data exfiltration from heterogeneous battlefield sensor networks to enhance situational awareness for dismounts and command echelons. Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) provide an effective means to autonomously collect data from a sparse network of unattended ground sensors (UGSs) that cannot communicate with each other. UAVs are used to reduce the system reaction time by generating autonomous collection routes that are data-driven. Bioinspired techniques for autonomous search provide a novel strategy to detect, capture and fuse data from heterogeneous sensor networks. The bio-inspired algorithm is based on chemotaxis or the motion of bacteria seeking nutrients in their environment. Field tests of a bio-inspired system that routed UAVs were conducted in June 2011 at Camp Roberts, CA. The field test results showed that such a system can autonomously detect and locate the source of terrestrial events with very high accuracy and visually verify the event. In June 2011, field tests of the system were completed and include the use of multiple autonomously controlled UAVs, detection and disambiguation of multiple acoustic events occurring in short time frames, optimal sensor placement based on local phenomenology and the use of the International Technology Alliance (ITA) Sensor Network Fabric. The system demonstrated TRL 6 performance in the field at Camp Roberts.
Burman, Jerry; Hespanha, Joao; Madhow, Upamanyu; Isaacs, Jason; Venkateswaran, Sriram; Pham, Tien
Contemporary theories to explain the autoimmune aetiology of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) include the "hygiene", "accelerator" and "thrifty phenotype" hypotheses though none accounts for its natural history, or, epidemiology. Early-onset, T1DM is much more common in Western countries and shares features of its epidemiology with other major childhood diseases. In the autonomic denervation view, early-onset, T1DM results from injury to autonomic nerves supplying the pancreas through persistent physical efforts during defaecation in infancy. Pancreatic denervation results in loss of islets of Langerhans and reduced insulin production that may present in infancy or later life. Early introduction of cows milk and solids to the infants' diet cause increased rates of bowel problems whereas exclusive breastfeeding in non-Western countries, protects the infant from both constipation and diarrhoea. Other important Western diseases may result from the varying effects of injuries to nerves at different sites in the autonomic nervous system. PMID:19850417
Quinn, M J
During GFY 91, Draper Laboratory was awarded a task by NASA-JSC under contract number NAS9-18426 to study and evaluate the potential for achieving safe autonomous landings on Mars using an on-board autonomous hazard detection and avoidance (AHDA) system. This report describes the results of that study. The AHDA task had four objectives: to demonstrate, via a closed-loop simulation, the ability to autonomously select safe landing sites and the ability to maneuver to the selected site; to identify key issues in the development of AHDA systems; to produce strawman designs for AHDA sensors and algorithms; and to perform initial trade studies leading to better understanding of the effect of sensor/terrain/viewing parameters on AHDA algorithm performance. This report summarizes the progress made during the first year, with primary emphasis on describing the tools developed for simulating a closed-loop AHDA landing. Some cursory performance evaluation results are also presented.
Background and Purpose: Symptoms of autonomic dysfunctions are common in the patients with parkinsonian disorders. Because clinical features of autonomic dysfunctions are diverse, the comprehensive evaluation is essential for the appropriate management. For the appreciation of autonomic dysfunctions and the identification of differences, patients with degenerative parkinsonisms are evaluated using structured questionnaire for autonomic dysfunction (ADQ). Methods: Total 259 patients, including 192 patients with [idiopathic Parkinson’s disease (IPD, age 64.6 ± 9.6 years)], 37 with [multiple system atrophy (MSA, 62.8 ± 9.1)], 9 with [dementia with Lewy body (DLB, 73.9 ± 4.3)], and 21 with [progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP, 69.4 ± 9.6)]. The ADQ was structured for evaluation of the presence of symptoms and its severity due to autonomic dysfunction, covering gastrointestinal, urinary, sexual, cardiovascular and thermoregulatory domains. Patients were also evaluated for the orthostatic hypotension. Results: Although dementia with Lewy body (DLB) patients were oldest and duration of disease was longest in IPD, total ADQ scores of MSA and PSP (23.9 ± 12.6 and 21.1 ± 7.8) were significantly increased than that of IPD (15.1 ± 10.6). Urinary and cardiovascular symptom scores of MSA and gastrointestinal symptom score of PSP were significantly worse than those of IPD. The ratio of patient with orthostatic hypotension in IPD was 31.2% and not differed between groups (35.1% in MSA, 33.3% in DLB and 33.3% in PSP). But the systolic blood pressure dropped drastically after standing in patients with MSA and DLB than in patients with IPD and PSP. Conclusions: Patients with degenerative parkinsonism showed widespread symptoms of autonomic dysfunctions. The severity of those symptoms in patients with PSP were comparing to that of MSA patients and worse than that of IPD.
Bae, Hyo-Jin; Cheon, Sang-Myung; Kim, Jae Woo
Polymer stomatocytes are bowl-shaped structures of nanosize dimensions formed by the controlled deformation of polymer vesicles. The stable nanocavity and strict control of the opening are ideal for the physical entrapment of nanoparticles which, when catalytically active, can turn the stomatocyte morphology into a nanoreactor. Herein we report an approach to generate autonomous movement of the polymer stomatocytes by selectively entrapping catalytically active platinum nanoparticles within their nanocavities and subsequently using catalysis as a driving force for movement. Hydrogen peroxide is free to access the inner stomatocyte cavity, where it is decomposed by the active catalyst (the entrapped platinum nanoparticles) into oxygen and water. This generates a rapid discharge, which induces thrust and directional movement. The design of the platinum-loaded stomatocytes resembles a miniature monopropellant rocket engine, in which the controlled opening of the stomatocytes directs the expulsion of the decomposition products away from the reaction chamber (inner stomatocyte cavity). PMID:22437710
Wilson, Daniela A; Nolte, Roeland J M; van Hest, Jan C M
The Space Station is expected to be equipped with intelligent, autonomous capabilities; to achieve and incorporate these capabilities, the required technologies need to be identitifed, developed and validated within realistic application scenarios. The critical technologies for the development of intelligent, autonomous systems are discussed in the context of a generalized functional architecture. The present state of this technology implies that it be introduced and applied in an evolutionary process which must start during the Space Station design phase. An approach is proposed to accomplish design information acquisition and management for knowledge-base development.
Lum, H.; Heer, E.
Cluster headache, paroxysmal hemicrania and short-lasting unilateral neuralgiform headache attacks with conjunctival injection and tearing (SUNCT syndrome) are classified under trigeminal autonomic cephalalgia (TAC). The proposed revision of the international classification of headache disorders (ICDH-3 beta) adds hemicrania continua to this diagnostic group. Moreover, diagnostic criteria of the other TACs were modified and are characterized by persistent headache or headache attacks accompanied by cranial autonomic symptoms. The main difference between the various TACs is the duration of attacks. Differentiation is important because different pharmacological strategies are necessary. PMID:24212418
Gaul, C; Holle, D; May, A
The olfactory epithelium is extensively innervated by sympathetic nerve endings, which release norepinephrine, and parasympathetic nerve endings, which release acetylcholine. Because olfactory sensory neurons have adrenergic and muscarinic receptors in addition to odorant receptors, autonomic stimulation can modulate the responses of olfactory sensory neurons to odorants. Recent studies have shed light on the molecular mechanisms that underlie crosstalk between muscarinic and odorant receptor signaling. The emerging view is that the stimulation of odorant receptor signaling by odorants, which is the earliest step in olfaction, can be substantially regulated by the autonomic nervous system.
Randy A. Hall (Emory University School of Medicine;Department of Pharmacology REV)
Cleaning is a major problem associated with pools. Since the manual cleaning is tedious and boring there is an interest in automating the task. This paper presents methods for autonomous localization and navigation for a pool cleaner to enable full coverage of pools. Path following cannot be ensured through use of internal position estimation methods alone; therefore sensing is needed.
M. Simoncelli; G. Zunino; H. I. Christensen; K. Lange
Groups naturally promote their strengths and prefer values and rules that give them an identity and an advantage. This shows up as generational tensions across cohorts who share common experiences, including common elders. Dramatic cultural events in America since 1925 can help create an understanding of the differing value structures of the Silents, the Boomers, Gen Xers, and the Millennials. Differences in how these generations see motivation and values, fundamental reality, relations with others, and work are presented, as are some applications of these differences to the dental profession. PMID:16623137
Chambers, David W
In this thesis, an innovative architecture for real-time adaptive and cooperative control of autonomous sensor platforms in a marine sensor network is described in the context of the autonomous oceanographic network scenario. This architecture has three m...
D. P. Eickstedt
Space exploration applications can benefit greatly from autonomous systems. Great distances, limited communications and high costs make direct operations impossible while mandating operations reliability and efficiency beyond what traditional commanding can provide. Autonomous systems can improve reliability and enhance spacecraft capability significantly. However, there is reluctance to utilizing autonomous systems. In part this is due to general hesitation about new technologies, but a more tangible concern is that of reliability of predictability of autonomous software. In this paper, we describe ongoing work aimed at increasing robustness and predictability of autonomous software, with the ultimate goal of building trust in such systems. The work combines state-of-the-art technologies and capabilities in autonomous systems with advanced validation and synthesis techniques. The focus of this paper is on the autonomous system architecture that has been defined, and on how it enables the application of validation techniques for resulting autonomous systems.
Brat, Guillaume; Deney, Ewen; Farrell, Kimberley; Giannakopoulos, Dimitra; Jonsson, Ari; Frank, Jeremy; Bobby, Mark; Carpenter, Todd; Estlin, Tara
The study was designed to investigate the autonomic-response components accompanying a simulated interrogation of the type appropriate to a preemployment screening interview. Autonomic responses produced during such interviews provide a basis for excludin...
J. Berkhout D. O. Walter W. R. Adey
Autonomic automation is viewed as a new approach to business process automation. In this work, we propose a method to identify the best-suited business processes as candidates for an autonomic automation. Generally, this decision is made by process automation experts or inspired by management preferences. Moreover, the best candidate to an autonomic automation is possibly different from a candidate to
Luciano D. Terres; José A. Rodrigues Nt; Jano Moreira de Souza
Database systems were a solution to the problem of shared access to heterogeneous files created by multiple autonomous applications in a centralized environment. To make data usage easier, the files were replaced by a globally integrated database. To a large extent, the idea was successful, and many databases are now accessible through local and long-haul networks. Unavoidably, users now need
Witold Litwin; Leo Mark; Nick Roussopoulos
For military aviation, an autonomous landing (AL) capability is sought to enable operations out of landing fields which are battle-damaged, or have less than adequate approach aids or lighting. The author focus on an AL capability for future transport and special operations aircraft. Attention is given to AL requirements, the satisfaction of approach requirements, vision systems, and functional capability requirements
K. Fitschen; A. Zembower
Algorithms for onboard autonomous star identification are presented. The algorithms are applicable to two types of spacecraft missions, those flown with nearly inertially fixed attitude (solar maximum mission type); and those flown with smoothly time varying attitude (LANDSAT-D type).
This viewgraph document reviews the Autonomous Airborne Refueling Demonstration program, and NASA Dryden's work in the program. The primary goal of the program is to make one fully automatic probe-to-drogue engagement using the AARD system. There are pictures of the aircraft approaching to the docking.
The swimbladder of teleost fishes is the primary organ for controlling whole-body density, and thus buoyancy. The volume of gas in the swimbladder is adjusted to bring the organism to near neutral buoyancy at a particular depth. Swimbladder morphology varies widely among teleosts, but all species are capable of inflating and deflating this organ under reflex control by the autonomic
Frank M. Smith; Roger P. Croll
The proliferation of diesel electric submarines has impacted undersea warfare (USW) world wide. They are acoustically nearly undetectable, but can be detected by their periscope or snorkel. Since the US Navy has no diesel electric submarine, the Autonomous Mobile Periscope System (AMPS) is being developed to meet the requirement for an inexpensive readily available periscope detection target for the training
Stan Rollins; Richard Knutson; Hung Vo; Steve Ebner
As the number of robots in the world increases, from automatic vacuum cleaners, to toy robot dogs, to autonomous vehicles for the military, the need for effective algorithms to control these agents is becoming increasingly more important. Conventional path finding techniques have relied on having a representation of the world that could be analysed mathematically to find the best path.
Daniel Flower; Burkhard Wünsche; Werner Guesgen
In this paper, we describe the demonstration of autonomous mobile networked robots for ubiquitous computing. While these robots are sensing the surro unding environment, they move from an initial position to destination in order to complete their tasks by con tinuously planning their motion to adapt to changing environm ent conditions (obstacles and other moving robots). The demonstration is executed
Takashi Okada; Junya Nakata; Razvan Beuran; Yasuo Tan; Yoichi Shinoda
The Phoenix autonomous underwater collaboration with other scientists interested in either vehicle (AUV) is a robot for student research in r obot or virtual world. Repeated validation of shallow-water sensing and control (Figure 1). Phoenix simulation extensions through real-world testing is neutrally buoyant at 387 pounds (176 kg) with a hull remains essential. Details are provided on process length of
Don Brutzman; Tony Healey; Dave Marco; Bob McGhee
Light excitation powers the reversible shuttling movement of the ring component of a rotaxane between two stations located at a 1.3-nm distance on its dumbbell-shaped component. The photoinduced shuttling movement, which occurs in solution, is based on a “four-stroke” synchronized sequence of electronic and nuclear processes. At room temperature the deactivation time of the high-energy charge-transfer state obtained by light excitation is ?10 ?s, and the time period required for the ring-displacement process is on the order of 100 ?s. The rotaxane behaves as an autonomous linear motor and operates with a quantum efficiency up to ?12%. The investigated system is a unique example of an artificial linear nanomotor because it gathers together the following features: (i) it is powered by visible light (e.g., sunlight); (ii) it exhibits autonomous behavior, like motor proteins; (iii) it does not generate waste products; (iv) its operation can rely only on intramolecular processes, allowing in principle operation at the single-molecule level; (v) it can be driven at a frequency of 1 kHz; (vi) it works in mild environmental conditions (i.e., fluid solution at ambient temperature); and (vii) it is stable for at least 103 cycles.
Balzani, Vincenzo; Clemente-Leon, Miguel; Credi, Alberto; Ferrer, Belen; Venturi, Margherita; Flood, Amar H.; Stoddart, J. Fraser
Light excitation powers the reversible shuttling movement of the ring component of a rotaxane between two stations located at a 1.3-nm distance on its dumbbell-shaped component. The photoinduced shuttling movement, which occurs in solution, is based on a "four-stroke" synchronized sequence of electronic and nuclear processes. At room temperature the deactivation time of the high-energy charge-transfer state obtained by light excitation is 10 ?s, and the time period required for the ring-displacement process is on the order of 100 ?s. The rotaxane behaves as an autonomous linear motor and operates with a quantum efficiency up to 12%. The investigated system is a unique example of an artificial linear nanomotor because it gathers together the following features: (i) it is powered by visible light (e.g., sunlight); (ii) it exhibits autonomous behavior, like motor proteins; (iii) it does not generate waste products; (iv) its operation can rely only on intramolecular processes, allowing in principle operation at the single-molecule level; (v) it can be driven at a frequency of 1 kHz; (vi) it works in mild environmental conditions (i.e., fluid solution at ambient temperature); and (vii) it is stable for at least 103 cycles. molecular machine | nanoscience | photochemistry | rotaxane | supramolecular chemistry
Balzani, Vincenzo; Clemente-León, Miguel; Credi, Alberto; Ferrer, Belén; Venturi, Margherita; Flood, Amar H.; Fraser Stoddart, J.
Investigations of blood pressure, heart rate (HR), and heart rate variability (HRV) during long term space flights on board the "ISS" have shown characteristic changes of autonomic cardiovascular control. Therefore, alterations of the autonomic nervous system occurring during spaceflight may be responsible for in- and post-flight disturbances. The device "Pneumocard" was developed to further investigate autonomic cardiovascular and respiratory function aboard the ISS. The hard-software diagnostic complex "Pneumocard" was used during in-flight experiment aboard ISS for autonomic function testing. ECG, photoplethysmography, respiration, transthoracic bioimpedance and seismocardiography were assessed in one male cosmonaut (flight lengths six month). Recordings were made prior to the flight, late during flight, and post-flight during spontaneous respiration and controlled respiration at different rates. HR remained stable during flight. The values were comparable to supine measurements on earth. Respiratory frequency and blood pressure decreased during flight. Post flight HR and BP values increased compared to in-flight data exceeding pre-flight values. Cardiac time intervals did not change dramatically during flight. Pulse wave transit time decreased during flight. The maximum of the first time derivative of the impedance cardiogram, which is highly correlated with stroke volume was not reduced in-flight. Our results demonstrate that autonomic function testing aboard the ISS using "Pneumocard" is feasible and generates data of good quality. Despite the decrease in BP, pulse wave transit time was found reduced in space as shown earlier. However, cardiac output did not decrease profoundly in the investigated cosmonaut. Autonomic testing during space flight detects individual changes in cardiovascular control and may add important information to standard medical control. The recent plans to support a flight to Mars, makes these kinds of observations all the more relevant and compelling.
Baevsky, R. M.; Funtova, I. I.; Diedrich, A.; Chernikova, A. G.; Drescher, J.; Baranov, V. M.; Tank, J.
No longer is the question whether autonomic computing will gain general acceptance but when. Experts expect autonomic computing to be widely used within 10 years. When it does become mainstream, how will autonomics change system administration and corporations, and will the change be for better or worse? The answer depends on how well we anticipate the limitations of what autonomic systems are suited to do, whether we can collectively address the vulnerabilities of autonomic approaches as we draw upon the advantages, and whether administrators, companies, partners, and users are prepared for the transition. This article presents some design considerations to address the first two issues and some suggested survival techniques for the third.
Fink, Glenn A.; Frincke, Deb
Working on the ACLO (Autonomous Cryogenics Loading Operations) project I have had the opportunity to add functionality to the physics simulation software known as KATE (Knowledgebase Autonomous Test Engineer), create a new application allowing WYSIWYG (what-you-see-is-what-you-get) creation of KATE schematic files and begin a preliminary design and implementation of a new subsystem that will provide vision services on the IHM (Integrated Health Management) bus. The functionality I added to KATE over the past few months includes a dynamic visual representation of the fluid height in a pipe based on number of gallons of fluid in the pipe and implementing the IHM bus connection within KATE. I also fixed a broken feature in the system called the Browser Display, implemented many bug fixes and made changes to the GUI (Graphical User Interface).
Wehner, Walter S., Jr.
The Simulation Software, KATE (Knowledgebase Autonomous Test Engineer), is used to demonstrate the automatic identification of faults in a system. The ACLO (Autonomous Cryogenics Loading Operation) project uses KATE to monitor and find faults in the loading of the cryogenics int o a vehicle fuel tank. The KATE software interfaces with the IHM (Integrated Health Management) systems bus to communicate with other systems that are part of ACLO. One system that KATE uses the IHM bus to communicate with is AIS (Advanced Inspection System). KATE will send messages to AIS when there is a detected anomaly. These messages include visual inspection of specific valves, pressure gauges and control messages to have AIS open or close manual valves. My goals include implementing the connection to the IHM bus within KATE and for the AIS project. I will also be working on implementing changes to KATE's Ul and implementing the physics objects in KATE that will model portions of the cryogenics loading operation.
Wehner, Walter S.
A synchronized target subsystem for use in an automated docking system for docking a chase vehicle with a target vehicle wherein the chase vehicle is provided with a video camera for feeding digitized frames to an image processing unit which controls a timing circuit. 'Me timing circuit turns on the video camera to digitize a foreground frame and at the same time turns on a transmitter on the chase vehicle. A power generating antenna on the target vehicle receives the transmitted signal from the transmitter and actuates lights on the chase vehicle so that these lights appear in the foreground frame. After the foreground frame has been grabbed, the timing circuit turns the transmitter off and signals the video camera to digitize a background frame. The image processing unit subtracts the background frame from the foreground frame and provides a docking signal.
Howard, Richard T. (Inventor); Book, Michael L. (Inventor); Bryan, Thomas C. (Inventor)
This paper presents a distributed design methodology where designs emerge as a result of the negotiations between different stake holders in the process, such as cost, performance, reliability, etc. The proposed methodology uses autonomous agents to represent design decision makers. Each agent influences specific design parameters in order to maximize their utility. Since the design parameters depend on the aggregate demand of all the agents in the system, design agents need to negotiate with others in the market economy in order to reach an acceptable utility value. This paper addresses several interesting research issues related to distributed design architectures. First, we present a flexible framework which facilitates decomposition of the design problem. Second, we present overview of a market mechanism for generating acceptable design configurations. Finally, we integrate learning mechanisms in the design process to reduce the computational overhead.
Deshmukh, Abhijit; Middelkoop, Timothy; Krothapalli, Anjaneyulu; Smith, Charles
Quantum Magnetics has developed an autonomous battery-powered magnetic sensor node for distributed wireless sensor networks. The device digitizes the sensor output signals and transmits data over an RF link using a ZigBee 802.15.4 protocol. The prototype node incorporates Magneto-Resistive (MR) chips configured to measure all three components of the magnetic field, a logic device, analog-to-digital converters, a two-axis tilt sensor, a wireless transceiver, and a set of batteries. For use in outdoor environments, the sensor node is also GPS-ready. At present, the unit measures approximately 4 inches on a side, with about 40% of the volume occupied by the batteries. Using battery power, the node can operate for about 10 hours in a continuous mode and up to 40 hours with a 10% duty cycle. Efforts are underway to develop the next-generation magnetic node with significant reduction in size and part count.
Dalichaouch, Yacine; Shelby, Richard A.; Trammell, Hoke S.; Mathis, Kevin
A plan to incorporate autonomous spacecraft maintenance (ASM) capabilities into Air Force spacecraft by 1989 is outlined. It includes the successful operation of the spacecraft without ground operator intervention for extended periods of time. Mechanisms, along with a fault tolerant data processing system (including a nonvolatile backup memory) and an autonomous navigation capability, are needed to replace the routine servicing that is presently performed by the ground system. The state of the art fault handling capabilities of various spacecraft and computers are described, and a set conceptual design requirements needed to achieve ASM is established. Implementations for near term technology development needed for an ASM proof of concept demonstration by 1985, and a research agenda addressing long range academic research for an advanced ASM system for 1990s are established.
Marshall, M. H.; Low, G. D.
The Gemini Planet Imager (GPI) is an "extreme" adaptive optics coronagraph system that will have the ability to directly detect and characterize young Jovian-mass exoplanets. The design of this instrument involves eight principal institutions geographically spread across North America, with four of those sites writing software that must run seamlessly together while maintaining autonomous behaviour. The objective of the software teams is to provide Gemini with a unified software system that not only performs well but also is easy to maintain. Issues such as autonomous behaviour in a unified environment, common memory to share status and information, examples of how this is being implemented, plans for early software integration and testing, command hierarchy, plans for common documentation and updates are explored in this paper. The project completed its preliminary design phase in 2007, and has just recently completed its critical design phase.
Dunn, Jennifer; Wooff, Robert; Smith, Malcolm; Kerley, Dan; Palmer, Dave; Jones, Steve; Weiss, Jason; Angione, John; Graham, James R.
This paper describes the validation process for the Autonomous Science Agent, a software agent that will fly onboard the EO-1 spacecraft from 2003-2004. This agent will recognize science events, retarget the spacecraft to respond to the science events, and reduce data downlink to only the highest value science data. The autonomous science agent has been designed using a layered architectural approach with specific redundant safeguards to reduce the risk of an agent malfunction to the EO-1 spacecraft. This 'safe' design is also in the process of being thoroughly validated by informal validation methods and extensive testing. This paper describes the analysis used to define agent safety, elements of the design that increase the safety of the agent, and the process being used to validate agent safety prior to the agent software controlling the spacecraft.
Chien, Steve; Cichy, Benjamin; Schaffer, Steve; Tran, Danny; Rabideau, Gregg; Sherwood, Rob; Bote, Robert; Mandl, Dan; Frye, Stu; Shulman, Seth; Van Gaasbeck, Jim; Boyer, Darrell
We realize autonomous Boolean networks by using logic gates in their autonomous mode of operation on a field-programmable gate array. This allows us to implement time-continuous systems with complex dynamical behaviors that can be conveniently interconnected into large-scale networks with flexible topologies that consist of time-delay links and a large number of nodes. We demonstrate how we realize networks with periodic, chaotic, and excitable dynamics and study their properties. Field-programmable gate arrays define a new experimental paradigm that holds great potential to test a large body of theoretical results on the dynamics of complex networks, which has been beyond reach of traditional experimental approaches. PMID:23822500
Rosin, David P; Rontani, Damien; Gauthier, Daniel J; Schöll, Eckehard
Opinion statement Autonomic disorders may present in a varied fashion. Symptoms that may require treatment include orthostatic intolerance,\\u000a gastrointestinal distress, sudomotor abnormalities, and urologic and sexual dysfunction. Realistic treatment goals should\\u000a be outlined for patients, with the expectations that symptoms can be improved, but that the disease is unlikely to be cured\\u000a and long-term therapy may be required. Orthostatic intolerance is
Christopher H. Gibbons; Roy Freeman
The Autonomous Decentralized Traffic Management System is a completely renovated rail traffic control system, which is quite different from the conventional CTC (centralized traffic control)\\/PRC (programmed route control) type system. The features of the system are fully automatic route control for large-scale stations, a maintenance-work management system and an advanced man-machine system for dispatchers to adjust a disturbed diagram quickly.
Fumio Kitahara; K. Kera; Keisuke Bekki
CMMAD is a risk reduction effort for the AMDS program. As part of CMMAD, multiple instances of semi autonomous robotic mine detection systems were created. Each instance consists of a robotic vehicle equipped with sensors required for navigation and marking, a countermine sensors and a number of integrated software packages which provide for real time processing of the countermine sensor data as well as integrated control of the robotic vehicle, the sensor actuator and the sensor. These systems were used to investigate critical interest functions (CIF) related to countermine robotic systems. To address the autonomy CIF, the INL developed RIK was extended to allow for interaction with a mine sensor processing code (MSPC). In limited field testing this system performed well in detecting, marking and avoiding both AT and AP mines. Based on the results of the CMMAD investigation we conclude that autonomous robotic mine detection is feasible. In addition, CMMAD contributed critical technical advances with regard to sensing, data processing and sensor manipulation, which will advance the performance of future fieldable systems. As a result, no substantial technical barriers exist which preclude – from an autonomous robotic perspective – the rapid development and deployment of fieldable systems.
Douglas Few; Roelof Versteeg; Herman Herman
CMMAD is a risk reduction effort for the AMDS program. As part of CMMAD, multiple instances of semi autonomous robotic mine detection systems were created. Each instance consists of a robotic vehicle equipped with sensors required for navigation and marking, countermine sensors and a number of integrated software packages which provide for real time processing of the countermine sensor data as well as integrated control of the robotic vehicle, the sensor actuator and the sensor. These systems were used to investigate critical interest functions (CIF) related to countermine robotic systems. To address the autonomy CIF, the INL developed RIK was extended to allow for interaction with a mine sensor processing code (MSPC). In limited field testing this system performed well in detecting, marking and avoiding both AT and AP mines. Based on the results of the CMMAD investigation we conclude that autonomous robotic mine detection is feasible. In addition, CMMAD contributed critical technical advances with regard to sensing, data processing and sensor manipulation, which will advance the performance of future fieldable systems. As a result, no substantial technical barriers exist which preclude - from an autonomous robotic perspective - the rapid development and deployment of fieldable systems.
Few, Doug; Versteeg, Roelof; Herman, Herman
The New Millennium Program Space Technology 6 Project Autonomous Sciencecraft software implements an integrated system for autonomous planning and execution of scientific, engineering, and spacecraft-coordination actions. A prior version of this software was reported in "The TechSat 21 Autonomous Sciencecraft Experiment" (NPO-30784), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 28, No. 3 (March 2004), page 33. This software is now in continuous use aboard the Earth Orbiter 1 (EO-1) spacecraft mission and is being adapted for use in the Mars Odyssey and Mars Exploration Rovers missions. This software enables EO-1 to detect and respond to such events of scientific interest as volcanic activity, flooding, and freezing and thawing of water. It uses classification algorithms to analyze imagery onboard to detect changes, including events of scientific interest. Detection of such events triggers acquisition of follow-up imagery. The mission-planning component of the software develops a response plan that accounts for visibility of targets and operational constraints. The plan is then executed under control by a task-execution component of the software that is capable of responding to anomalies.
Chien, Steve; Sherwood, Robert; Tran, Daniel; Cichy, Benjamin; Davies, Ashley; Castano, Rebecca; Rabideau, Gregg; Frye, Stuart; Trout, Bruce; Shulman, Seth; Doggett, Thomas; Ip, Felipe; Greeley, Ron; Baker, Victor; Dohn, James; Boyer, Darrell
A retrospective, cross-sectional study was performed on a series of HCV-related mixed cryoglobulinemia (HCV-MC) patients to assess autonomic neuropathy (AN) and its relation to peripheral neuropathy (PN). Thirty consecutive patients affected by HCV-MC underwent clinical, neurological and electrodiagnostic examinations. Autonomic nervous system (ANS) involvement was assessed by functional cardiovascular tests and sympathetic skin response (SSR) evaluation. Sural nerve biopsy was performed in 10 patients with PN. All patients received steroids, 15 also received recombinant interferon-alpha2b (RIfn-alpha2b). PN occurred in 27 patients (90.0%) and AN in 4 (13.3 %) all with signs of PN. SSR was the autonomic test more frequently altered. Biopsy disclosed axonal degeneration more evident in the 4 patients with AN. Three out of 4 patients with AN received steroids and rIFN-alpha2b and 1 steroids alone. In our study on HCV-MC, it was concluded that AN can occur also without dysautonomic symptoms, SSR appears to be one of the optional tests to use together with dysautonomic tests to identify AN and finally PN and AN do not seem to be positively influenced by addition of rIFN-alpha2b to steroid treatment. PMID:17334955
Ammendola, A; Sampaolo, S; Migliaresi, S; Ambrosone, L; Ammendola, E; Ciccone, G; Di Iorio, G
Autonomic Computing arose out of a need for a means to cope with rapidly growing complexity of integrating, managing, and operating computer-based systems as well as a need to reduce the total cost of ownership of today's systems. Autonomic Computing (AC) as a discipline was proposed by IBM in 2001, with the vision to develop self-managing systems. As the name implies, the influence for the new paradigm is the human body's autonomic system, which regulates vital bodily functions such as the control of heart rate, the body's temperature and blood flow-all without conscious effort. The vision is to create selfivare through self-* properties. The initial set of properties, in terms of objectives, were self-configuring, self-healing, self-optimizing and self-protecting, along with attributes of self-awareness, self-monitoring and self-adjusting. This self-* list has grown: self-anticipating, self-critical, self-defining, self-destructing, self-diagnosis, self-governing, self-organized, self-reflecting, and self-simulation, for instance.
Sterritt, Roy; Hinchey, Mike
The Orbital Express Demonstration System (OEDS) flight test successfully demonstrated technologies required to autonomously service satellites on-orbit. The mission's integrated robotics solution, the Orbital Express Demonstration Manipulator System (OEDMS) developed by MDA, performed critical flight test operations. The OEDMS comprised a six-jointed robotic manipulator arm and its avionics, non-proprietary servicing and ORU (Orbital Replacement Unit) interfaces, a vision and arm control system for autonomous satellite capture, and a suite of Ground Segment and Flight Segment software allowing script generation and execution under supervised or full autonomy. The arm was mounted on ASTRO, the servicer spacecraft developed by Boeing. The NextSat, developed by Ball Aerospace, served as the client satellite. The OEDMS demonstrated two key goals of the OEDS flight test: autonomous free-flyer capture and berthing of a client satellite, and autonomous transfer of ORUs from servicer to client and back. The paper provides a description of the OEDMS and the key operations it performed.
Ogilvie, Andrew; Allport, Justin; Hannah, Michael; Lymer, John
This paper studies the development of autonomic and secure Virtual Organisations (VOs) when following the chemical-programming paradigm. We have selected the Higher-Order Chemical Language (HOCL) as the representative of the chemical paradigm, due mainly to its generality, its implicit autonomic property, and its potential application to emerging computing paragidms such as Grid computing and service computing. We have advocated the use of aspect-oriented techniques, where autonomicity and security can be seen as cross-cutting concerns impacting the whole system. We show how HOCL can be used to model VOs, exemplified by a VO system for the generation of digital products. We develop patterns for HOCL, including patterns for traditional security properties such as authorisation and secure logs, as well as autonomic properties such as self-protection and self-healing. The patterns are applied to HOCL programs following an aspect-oriented approach, where aspects are modelled as transformation functions that add to a program a cross-cutting concern.
Arenas, Alvaro E.; Banâtre, Jean-Pierre; Priol, Thierry
The present technique for generating a search graph depicting topologically unique paths around mountain boundaries at constant altitudes involves a description of mountain boundaries as polygons; the search graph is then generated on the basis of a geometric construct. All nodes and arcs of the search graph are guaranteed to lie in free space, thereby ensuring an autonomous aircraft's avoidance of mountain obstacles. The solution path is generated by searching the graph for the optimal path from a start location to a finish location.
Krozel, Jimmy; Andrisani, Dominick, II
In this paper we describe the autonomous behavior control architecture of SDR-4X, which serves to integrate multi-modal recognition and motion control technologies. We overview the entire software architecture of SDR-4X, which is composed of perception, short and long term memory, behavior control, and motion control parts. Regarding autonomous behavior control, we further focus on issues such as spontaneous behavior generation
Masahiro Fujita; Yoshihiro Kuroki; Tatsuzo Ishida; Toshi T. Doi
A sophisticated 3D laser radar sensor simulation, developed and applied to the task of autonomous hazard detection and avoidance, is presented. This simulation includes a backward ray trace to sensor subpixels, incoherent subpixel integration, range dependent noise, sensor point spread function effects, digitization noise, and AM-CW modulation. Specific sensor parameters, spacecraft lander trajectory, and terrain type have been selected to generate simulated sensor data.
Reiley, Michael F.; Carmer, Dwayne C.; Pont, W. F.
Recent developments in Artificial Intelligence and Computer Science have influenced the way police forces and law enforcement agencies are operating and combating crime. The evolvement of autonomous and semi-autonomous technologies has led to the adoption of new investigating and evidence gathering methods. This new generation of technologies, such as Trojans, RFID tags and autonomous software agents, features unique abilities which
The Knowledge-Based Autonomous Test Engineer (KATE) program has a long history at KSC. Now a part of the Autonomous Cryogenic Load Operations (ACLO) mission, this software system has been sporadically developed over the past 20 years. Originally designed to provide health and status monitoring for a simple water-based fluid system, it was proven to be a capable autonomous test engineer for determining sources of failure in the system. As part of a new goal to provide this same anomaly-detection capability for a complicated cryogenic fluid system, software engineers, physicists, interns and KATE experts are working to upgrade the software capabilities and graphical user interface. Much progress was made during this effort to improve KATE. A display of the entire cryogenic system's graph, with nodes for components and edges for their connections, was added to the KATE software. A searching functionality was added to the new graph display, so that users could easily center their screen on specific components. The GUI was also modified so that it displayed information relevant to the new project goals. In addition, work began on adding new pneumatic and electronic subsystems into the KATE knowledge base, so that it could provide health and status monitoring for those systems. Finally, many fixes for bugs, memory leaks, and memory errors were implemented and the system was moved into a state in which it could be presented to stakeholders. Overall, the KATE system was improved and necessary additional features were added so that a presentation of the program and its functionality in the next few months would be a success.
Schrading, J. Nicolas
The KSC Autonomous Test Engineer (KATE) program has a long history at KSC. Now a part of the Autonomous Cryogenic Load Operations (ACLO) mission, this software system has been sporadically developed over the past 20+ years. Originally designed to provide health and status monitoring for a simple water-based fluid system, it was proven to be a capable autonomous test engineer for determining sources of failure in. the system, As part.of a new goal to provide this same anomaly-detection capability for a complicated cryogenic fluid system, software engineers, physicists, interns and KATE experts are working to upgrade the software capabilities and graphical user interface. Much progress was made during this effort to improve KATE. A display ofthe entire cryogenic system's graph, with nodes for components and edges for their connections, was added to the KATE software. A searching functionality was added to the new graph display, so that users could easily center their screen on specific components. The GUI was also modified so that it displayed information relevant to the new project goals. In addition, work began on adding new pneumatic and electronic subsystems into the KATE knowledgebase, so that it could provide health and status monitoring for those systems. Finally, many fixes for bugs, memory leaks, and memory errors were implemented and the system was moved into a state in which it could be presented to stakeholders. Overall, the KATE system was improved and necessary additional features were added so that a presentation of the program and its functionality in the next few months would be a success.
Shrading, Nicholas J.
The trigeminal autonomic cephalalgias (TACs) are a group of primary headache disorders characterized by unilateral head pain\\u000a that occurs in association with ipsilateral cranial autonomic features. The TACs include cluster headache, paroxysmal hemicrania,\\u000a and short-lasting unilateral neuralgiform headache attacks with conjunctival injection and tearing (SUNCT) and its close relative\\u000a short-lasting unilateral neuralgiform headache attacks with cranial autonomic symptoms (SUNA). These
Peter J. Goadsby; Anna S. Cohen; Manjit S. Matharu
Visions for future space exploration have long term science missions in sight, resulting in the need for sustainable missions. Survivability is a critical property of sustainable systems and may be addressed through autonomicity, an emerging paradigm for self-management of future computer-based systems based on inspiration from the human autonomic nervous system. This paper examines some of the ongoing research efforts to realize these survivable systems visions, with specific emphasis on developments in Autonomic Policies.
Hinchey, Michael G.; Sterritt, Roy; Rouff, Christopher; Rash, James L.; Truszkowski, Walter
In this chapter, we address autonomic networking in termsof wireless sensor networks (WSNs), a typical example of wirelessnetworks\\u000a in pervasive computing. In order to investigate the stateof the art of autonomic networking in sensor networks and its futureprospects,\\u000a we start with a short summary of autonomic networking andSensor networks. It follows the discussion of the appliance ofautonomic\\u000a networking in WSNs
Mengjie Yu; Hala Mokhtar; Madjid Merabti
An Autonomous Science Agent is currently flying onboard the Earth Observing One Spacecraft. This software enables the spacecraft to autonomously detect and respond to science events occurring on the Earth. The package includes software systems that perform science data analysis, deliberative planning, and run-time robust execution. Because of the deployment to a remote spacecraft, this Autonomous Science Agent has stringent constraints of autonomy, reliability, and limited computing resources. We describe these constraints and how they are reflected in our agent architecture.
Chien, Steve; Sherwood, Rob; Tran, Daniel; Cichy, Benjamin; Rabideau, Gregg; Castano, Rebecca; Davies, Ashley; Lee, Rachel; Mandl, Dan; Frye, Stuart; Trout, Bruce; Hengemihle, Jerry; D'Agostino, Jeff; Shulman, Seth; Ungar, Stephen; Brakke, Thomas; Boyer, Darrell; Van Gaasbeck, Jim; Greeley, Ronald; Doggett, Thomas; Baker, Victor; Dohm, James; Ip, Felipe
Autonomic computing for spacecraft ground systems increases the system reliability and reduces the cost of spacecraft operations and software maintenance. In this paper, we present an autonomic computing solution for spacecraft ground systems at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), which consists of an open standard for a message oriented architecture referred to as the GMSEC architecture (Goddard Mission Services Evolution Center), and an autonomic computing tool, the Criteria Action Table (CAT). This solution has been used in many upgraded ground systems for NASA 's missions, and provides a framework for developing solutions with higher autonomic maturity.
Li, Zhenping; Savkli, Cetin; Jones, Lori
Interaction in heterogeneous mission operations teams is not well matched to classical models of coordination with autonomous systems. We describe methods of loose coordination and information management in mission operations. We describe an information agent and information management tool suite for managing information from many sources, including autonomous agents. We present an integrated model of levels of complexity of agent and human behavior, which shows types of information processing and points of potential error in agent activities. We discuss the types of information needed for diagnosing problems and planning interactions with an autonomous system. We discuss types of coordination for which designs are needed for autonomous system functions.
Malin, Jane T.; Johnson, Kathy A.
One of the more challenging aspects of software development is the ability to verify and validate the functional software requirements dictated by the Software Requirements Specification (SRS) and the Software Detail Design (SDD). Insuring the software has achieved the intended requirements is the responsibility of the Software Quality team and the Software Test team. The utilization of Timeliner-TLX(sup TM) Auto-Procedures for relocating ground operations positions to ISS automated on-board operations has begun the transition that would be required for manned deep space missions with minimal crew requirements. This transition also moves the auto-procedures from the procedure realm into the flight software arena and as such the operational requirements and testing will be more structured and rigorous. The autoprocedures would be required to meet NASA software standards as specified in the Software Safety Standard (NASASTD- 8719), the Software Engineering Requirements (NPR 7150), the Software Assurance Standard (NASA-STD-8739) and also the Human Rating Requirements (NPR-8705). The Autonomous Fluid Transfer System (AFTS) test-bed utilizes the Timeliner-TLX(sup TM) Language for development of autonomous command and control software. The Timeliner- TLX(sup TM) system has the unique feature of providing the current line of the statement in execution during real-time execution of the software. The feature of execution line number internal reporting unlocks the capability of monitoring the execution autonomously by use of a companion Timeliner-TLX(sup TM) sequence as the line number reporting is embedded inside the Timeliner-TLX(sup TM) execution engine. This negates I/O processing of this type data as the line number status of executing sequences is built-in as a function reference. This paper will outline the design and capabilities of the AFTS Autonomous Requirements Tracker, which traces and logs SRS requirements as they are being met during real-time execution of the targeted system. It is envisioned that real time requirements tracing will greatly assist the movement of autoprocedures to flight software enhancing the software assurance of auto-procedures and also their acceptance as reliable commanders
Plattsmier, George I.; Stetson, Howard K.
One of the more challenging aspects of software development is the ability to verify and validate the functional software requirements dictated by the Software Requirements Specification (SRS) and the Software Detail Design (SDD). Insuring the software has achieved the intended requirements is the responsibility of the Software Quality team and the Software Test team. The utilization of Timeliner-TLX(sup TM) Auto- Procedures for relocating ground operations positions to ISS automated on-board operations has begun the transition that would be required for manned deep space missions with minimal crew requirements. This transition also moves the auto-procedures from the procedure realm into the flight software arena and as such the operational requirements and testing will be more structured and rigorous. The autoprocedures would be required to meet NASA software standards as specified in the Software Safety Standard (NASASTD- 8719), the Software Engineering Requirements (NPR 7150), the Software Assurance Standard (NASA-STD-8739) and also the Human Rating Requirements (NPR-8705). The Autonomous Fluid Transfer System (AFTS) test-bed utilizes the Timeliner-TLX(sup TM) Language for development of autonomous command and control software. The Timeliner-TLX(sup TM) system has the unique feature of providing the current line of the statement in execution during real-time execution of the software. The feature of execution line number internal reporting unlocks the capability of monitoring the execution autonomously by use of a companion Timeliner-TLX(sup TM) sequence as the line number reporting is embedded inside the Timeliner-TLX(sup TM) execution engine. This negates I/O processing of this type data as the line number status of executing sequences is built-in as a function reference. This paper will outline the design and capabilities of the AFTS Autonomous Requirements Tracker, which traces and logs SRS requirements as they are being met during real-time execution of the targeted system. It is envisioned that real time requirements tracing will greatly assist the movement of autoprocedures to flight software enhancing the software assurance of auto-procedures and also their acceptance as reliable commanders.
Plattsmier, George; Stetson, Howard
Software has been developed to perform a number of functions essential to autonomous operation in the Autonomous Sciencecraft Experiment (ASE), which is scheduled to be demonstrated aboard a constellation of three spacecraft, denoted TechSat 21, to be launched by the Air Force into orbit around the Earth in January 2006. A prior version of this software was reported in Software for an Autonomous Constellation of Satellites (NPO-30355), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 26, No. 11 (November 2002), page 44. The software includes the following components: Algorithms to analyze image data, generate scientific data products, and detect conditions, features, and events of potential scientific interest; A program that uses component-based computational models of hardware to analyze anomalous situations and to generate novel command sequences, including (when possible) commands to repair components diagnosed as faulty; A robust-execution-management component that uses the Spacecraft Command Language (SCL) software to enable event-driven processing and low-level autonomy; and The Continuous Activity Scheduling, Planning, Execution, and Replanning (CASPER) program for replanning activities, including downlink sessions, on the basis of scientific observations performed during previous orbit cycles.
Sherwood, Robert; Knight, Russell; Rabideau, Gregg; Chien, Steve; Tran, Daniel; Cichy, Benjamin; Castano, Rebecca; Stough, Timothy; Davies, Ashley
We have examined whether a human chromosome has distinct segments that can replicate autonomously as extrachromosomal elements. Human 293S cells were transfected with a set of human chromosomal DNA fragments of 8-15 kilobase pairs that were cloned on an Escherichia coli plasmid vector. The transfected cells were subsequently cultured in the presence of 5-bromodeoxyuridine during two cell generations, and several plasmid clones labeled in both of the daughter DNA strands were isolated. Efficiency of replication of these clones, as determined from the ratios of heavy-heavy and one-half of heavy-light molecules to total molecules recovered from density-labeled cells, was 9.4% per cell generation on the average. Replication efficiency of control clones excluded during the selection was about 2.2% and that of the vector plasmid alone was 0.3%. A representative clone p1W1 replicated in a semiconservative manner only one round during the S phase of the cell cycle. It replicated extrachromosomally without integration into chromosome. The human segment of the clone was composed of several subsegments that promoted autonomous replication at different efficiencies. Our results suggest that certain specific nucleotide sequences are involved in autonomous replication of human segments. Images
Masukata, H; Satoh, H; Obuse, C; Okazaki, T
An autonomous stochastic system with nonlinear time-delayed feedback is investigated employing the stochastic simulation method. In the autonomous stochastic system with quadratic time-delayed feedback or under positive feedback, the nonlinear delay time fails to possess the role improving the noisy state of the system. In the autonomous stochastic system with cubic time-delayed feedback and under negative feedback, the nonlinear delay time can improve the noisy state, tuning the signal output, and generating incoherence and coherence maximization. We reveal a new kind of anti-coherence and coherence resonance phenomena induced by the nonlinear time delay in the autonomous stochastic system without external periodic force, discussing further the effects of the noise strength, the control parameter, and the feedback strength on anti-coherence and coherence resonance.
Zhu, Ping; Mei, Dong Cheng
A multi-agent autonomous system for exploration of hazardous or inaccessible locations. The multi-agent autonomous system includes simple surface-based agents or craft controlled by an airborne tracking and command system. The airborne tracking and command system includes an instrument suite used to image an operational area and any craft deployed within the operational area. The image data is used to identify the craft, targets for exploration, and obstacles in the operational area. The tracking and command system determines paths for the surface-based craft using the identified targets and obstacles and commands the craft using simple movement commands to move through the operational area to the targets while avoiding the obstacles. Each craft includes its own instrument suite to collect information about the operational area that is transmitted back to the tracking and command system. The tracking and command system may be further coupled to a satellite system to provide additional image information about the operational area and provide operational and location commands to the tracking and command system.
Fink, Wolfgang (Inventor); Dohm, James (Inventor); Tarbell, Mark A. (Inventor)
Trigeminal autonomic cephalgias (TAC) are characterized by severe and strictly unilateral headaches with a frontotemporal and periorbital preponderance in combination with ipsilateral cranial autonomic symptoms, such as lacrimation, conjunctival injection, rhinorrhea, nasal congestion, and restlessness or agitation. One main differentiating factor is the duration of painful attacks. While attacks typically last 5 s to 10 min in SUNCT syndrome (short-lasting unilateral neuralgiform headache attacks with conjunctival injection and tearing), paroxysmal hemicrania lasts 2-30 min and cluster headaches 15-180 min. Hemicrania continua represents a continuous TAC variant. From a therapeutic view, TACs differ substantially. Lamotrigine is used as first-choice prevention in SUNCT syndrome and indometacin in paroxysmal hemicrania. For cluster headaches, acute therapy with inhaled pure oxygen and fast-acting triptans (sumatriptan s.c. and intranasal zolmitriptan) is equally important to short-term preventive therapy with methysergide and cortisone and long-term prophylactic treatment comprising verapamil as drug of first choice and lithium carbonate and topiramate as drugs of second choice. In refractory cases of chronic cluster headache, neuromodulatory approaches such as occipital nerve stimulation and sphenopalatine ganglion stimulation are increasingly applied. PMID:25005009
Jürgens, Tim Patrick
Hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathies have different phenotypes. We report 2 cousins with differing clinical courses of a hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy. The progressive disease in case 1 is dominated by loss of sensation, autonomic crises, and pain. Case 2 shows loss of sensation, mental retardation, and deafness, clinically similar to patients with hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy type II. Detailed molecular studies in case 1 for all known genes that are associated with hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathies were negative. However, the occurrence of the 2 cases within 1 kindred makes a common genetic background likely. We, therefore, propose a Turkish variant of familial dysautonomia in these 2 patients. PMID:22140130
Koy, Anne; Freynhagen, Rainer; Mayatepek, Ertan; Tibussek, Daniel
Voltage regulation using distributed energy resources (DE) or distributed generators (DG) with power electronics interfaces and logic control has drawn increasing interests. This paper addresses the challenges of controlling multiple DEs to regulate voltages in distribution systems using an autonomous and adaptive control approach. Theoretical analysis shows that there exists a corresponding formulation of the dynamic control parameters with multiple DEs. Hence, the proposed control method is theoretically solid. Simulation results confirm that this method is capable of satisfying the fast response requirement for operational use without causing oscillation or inefficiency. This method is autonomous based on local information and the other DEs input without the instructions from any control center, is widely adaptive to variable power system operational situations, and has a high tolerance to data shortage of systems parameter. Hence, it is suitable for broad utility application
Li, Huijuan [ORNL; Li, Fangxing [ORNL; Xu, Yan [ORNL; Rizy, D Tom [ORNL
With each new rover mission to Mars, rovers are traveling significantly longer distances. This distance increase raises not only the opportunities for science data collection, but also amplifies the amount of environment and rover state uncertainty that must be handled in rover operations. This paper describes how planning, scheduling and execution techniques can be used onboard a rover to autonomously generate and execute rover activities and in particular to handle new science opportunities that have been identified dynamically. We also discuss some of the particular challenges we face in supporting autonomous rover decision-making. These include interaction with rover navigation and path-planning software and handling large amounts of uncertainty in state and resource estimations. Finally, we describe our experiences in testing this work using several Mars rover prototypes in a realistic environment.
Estlin, Tara A.; Gaines, Daniel M.; Chouinard, Caroline M.; Fisher, Forest W.; Castano, Rebecca; Judd, Michele J.; Nesnas, Issa A.
In this paper we focus on modeling autonomous learning to improve performance of a humanoid robot through a modular artificial neural networks architecture. A model of a neural controller is presented, which allows a humanoid robot iCub to autonomously improve its sensorimotor skills. This is achieved by endowing the neural controller with a secondary neural system that, by exploiting the sensorimotor skills already acquired by the robot, is able to generate additional imaginary examples that can be used by the controller itself to improve the performance through a simulated mental training. Results and analysis presented in the paper provide evidence of the viability of the approach proposed and help to clarify the rational behind the chosen model and its implementation. PMID:23122490
Di Nuovo, Alessandro G; Marocco, Davide; Di Nuovo, Santo; Cangelosi, Angelo
The Institute of Ocean and Systems Engineering at Florida Atlantic University is currently developing a new generation of autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV), the MiniAUV. One major objective in its development is to provide a higher degree of navigation accuracy than the former generation of vehicle, the Ocean Explorer could achieve. To this end an embedded, real-time inertial navigation system has
Gabriel GRENON; Edgar AN; Samuel SMITH
Autonomous air vehicles have numerous applications, all of which require the vehicle to have stable and accurate control of its motion. In the paper, a hierarchical control system for small autonomous helicopters is described. The control system consists of four components: a navigation filter, an inner-loop hover control system, a waypoint guidance system, and a ground-based flight manager. All four
Christopher P. Sanders; Paul A. DeBitetto; Eric Feron; Hon Fai Vuong; Nancy Leveson
This paper presents a visual odometer for autonomous helicopter flight. The odometer estimates helicopter position by visually locking on to and tracking ground objects. The paper describes the philosophy behind the odometer as well as its tracking algorithm and implementation. The paper concludes by presenting test flight data of the odometer's performance on-board indoor and outdoor prototype autonomous helicopters.
Omead Amidi; Takeo Kanade; Keisuke Fujita
Autonomous helicopter flight represents a challenging control problem, with complex, noisy, dynamics. In this paper, we describe a successful application of reinforcement learning to autonomous helicopter flight. We first fit a stochastic, nonlinear model of the helicopter dynamics. We then use the model to learn to hover in place, and to fly a number of maneuvers taken from an RC
Andrew Y. Ng; H. Jin Kim; Michael I. Jordan; Shankar Sastry
Advances in autonomous vehicles and intelligent transportation systems indicate a rapidly approaching future in which intelligent vehicles will automatically handle the process of driving. However, increasing the efficiency of today's transportation infrastructure will require intelligent traffic control mechanisms that work hand in hand with intelligent vehicles. To this end, Dresner and Stone proposed a new intersection control mechanism called Autonomous
Matthew Hausknecht; Tsz-Chiu Au; Peter Stone
Background—Approximately 50% of patients with primary autonomic failure have supine hypertension. We investigated whether this supine hypertension could be driven by residual sympathetic activity. Methods and Results—In patients with multiple system atrophy (MSA) or pure autonomic failure (PAF), we studied the effect of oral yohimbine on seated systolic blood pressure (SBP), the effect of ganglionic blockade (with trimethaphan) on supine
John R. Shannon; Jens Jordan; Andre Diedrich; Bojan Pohar; Bonnie K. Black; David Robertson; Italo Biaggioni
We examined autonomic physiological responses induced by six different cognitive ability tasks, varying in complexity, that were selected on the basis of on Guilford's Structure of Intellect model. In a group of 52 participants, task performance was measured together with nine different autonomic response measures and respiration rate. Weighted…
Melis, Cor; van Boxtel, Anton
The World Wide Web is revolutionizing the way that researchers access scientific information. Articles are increasingly being made available on the homepages of authors or institutions, at journal Web sites, or in online archives. However, scientific information on the Web is largely disorganized. This article introduces the creation of digital libraries incorporating Autonomous Citation Indexing (ACI). ACI autonomously creates citation
Steve Lawrence; C. Lee Giles; Kurt D. Bollacker
A formal theory for characterizing the control of autonomous, dynamical systems is outlined. The main goal is to establish a coherent blend of conventional feedback control and logic-based model theories that provides a unified framework for design and analysis of autonomous systems. A descriptive style is used to highlight the elements of the theory and some basic results. The theory
A. Nerode; W. Kohn
The main challenge for autonomic systems operating in remote environments is how to deal with uncertainties. This paper develops a framework of coping strategies for autonomic systems to deal with uncertain situations, new environments, conflicting sensory inputs and diverse mission objectives. Important aspects of the coping strategies include learning mechanisms, for which the concept of dream functions is presented. More
To meet the rapidly expanding requirements for Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUVs), Falmouth Scientific, Inc. (FSI) is working in cooperation with the Autonomous Undersea Systems Institute (AUSI) and Technology Systems Inc. (TSI) to develop a vehicle capable of long-term deployment and station-keeping duties. It has long been considered that AUV platforms, in principle, could provide an effective solution for surveillance (security
J. Jalbert; J. Baker; J. Duchesney; P. Pietryka; W. Dalton; D. R. Blidberg; S. Chappell; R. Nitzel; K. Holappa
The main task of perception for autonomous vehicles is to build a representation of the observed environment in order to carry out a mission. In particular, terrain modeling, that is modeling the geomeny of the environment observed by the vehicle's sensors, is crucial for autonomous underwater exploration. The purpose of this work is to analyze the components of the terrain
Current approaches towards achieving mobility in the workplace are reviewed. The role of automatic guided vehicles (AGVs) and some of the preliminary work of other groups in autonomous vehicles are described. An overview is presented of the autonomous robot architecture (AuRA), a general-purpose system designed for experimentation in the domain of intelligent mobility. The means by which navigation is accomplished
R. C. Arkin; R. R. Murphy
This paper introduces an autonomous decentralized ATC (Automatic Train Control device) system developed by East Japan Railway Company (JR East). In the current ATC, the central ATC logic device calculates permissive speed of each blocking section and controls speed of all trains. On the other hand, in the autonomous decentralized ATC, the central logic system calculates the position at which
Masayula Matsumoto; Mitsuharu Sato; Satoru Kitamura; Tatsuya Shigeta; Noriharu Amiya
The nociceptive and the autonomic systems interact at the level of the periphery, spinal cord, brainstem, and forebrain. Spinal and visceral afferents provide converging information to spinothalamic neurons in the dorsal horn and to neurons of the nucleus tractus solitarius and parabrachial nuclei. These structures project to areas involved in reflex, homeostatic, and behavioral control of autonomic outflow, endocrine function,
Eduardo E. Benarroch
Autonomic computing is a promising approach to the problem of effectively managing large complex software systems such as database management systems (DBMSs). In order to be self-managing, an autonomic DBMS (ADBMS) must understand key aspects of its workload, including composition, frequency patterns, intensity and resource requirements. It must therefore use and maintain different characterizations, or models, of the workload to
Patrick Martin; Said Elnaffar; Ted J. Wasserman
Underwater operations present unique challenges and opportunities for robotic applications. These can be at- tributed in part to limited sensing capabilities, and to lo- comotion behaviours requiring control schemes adapted to specific tasks or changes in the environment. From enhancing teleoperation procedures, to providing high-level instruction, all the way to fully autonomous operations, enabling autonomous capabilities is fundamental for the
Junaed Sattar; Gregory Dudek; Olivia Chiu; Ioannis M. Rekleitis; Philippe Giguère; Alec Mills; Nicolas Plamondon; Chris Prahacs; Yogesh Girdhar; Meyer Nahon; John-paul Lobos
The Autonomous Sciencecraft Experiment (ASE), currently flying onboard the Earth Observing-1 (EO-1) spacecraft, integrates several autonomy software technologies enabling autonomous science analysis and mission planning.
Tran, Daniel; Chien, Steve; Sherwood, Rob; Castano, Rebecca; Cichy, Benjamin; Davies, Ashley; Rabideau, Gregg
The Autonomous Power System (APS) project at NASA Lewis Research Center is designed to demonstrate the abilities of integrated intelligent diagnosis, control, and scheduling techniques to space power distribution hardware. Knowledge-based software provides a robust method of control for highly complex space-based power systems that conventional methods do not allow. The project consists of three elements: the Autonomous Power Expert System (APEX) for fault diagnosis and control, the Autonomous Intelligent Power Scheduler (AIPS) to determine system configuration, and power hardware (Brassboard) to simulate a space based power system. The operation of the Autonomous Power System as a whole is described and the responsibilities of the three elements - APEX, AIPS, and Brassboard - are characterized. A discussion of the methodologies used in each element is provided. Future plans are discussed for the growth of the Autonomous Power System.
Ringer, Mark J.; Quinn, Todd M.; Merolla, Anthony
10 th ESA Workshop on Advanced Space Technologies for Robotics and Automation 'ASTRA 2008' 11-13 November 2008 at ESTEC, Noordwijk, the Netherlands REALISTIC IMAGE GENERATION FOR TESTING VISION-BASED AUTONOMOUS RENDEZVOUS
This paper describes the development of a tool for generating realistic synthetic images of planetary rovers and planet surfaces for the purpose of testing vision-based au tonomy algorithms. Such algorithms have been used on the NASA Mars rovers and will be used heavily on ExoMars for navigation. Computer simulation is a useful comple ment to testing in artificial physical test
M. McCrum; S. Parkes; M. Dunstan; I. Martin
Objectives: Autonomic deficits in chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP) have not been adequately quantitated. The Composite Autonomic Severity Score (CASS) is a validated instrument for laboratory quantitation of autonomic failure derived from standard autonomic reflex tests. We characterized dysautonomia in CIDP using CASS. Methods: Autonomic function was retrospectively analyzed in 47 patients meeting CIDP criteria. CASS ranges from 0 (normal) to 10 (pandysautonomia), reflecting summation of sudomotor (0–3), cardiovagal (0–3), and adrenergic (0–4) subscores. Severity of neurologic deficits was measured with Neuropathy Impairment Score (NIS). Degree of small fiber involvement was assessed with quantitative sensation testing. Thermoregulatory sweat test (TST) was available in 8 patients. Results: Patients (25 men) were middle-aged (45.0 ± 14.9 years) with longstanding CIDP (3.5 ± 4.3 years) of moderate severity (NIS, 46.5 ± 32.7). Autonomic symptoms were uncommon, mainly gastrointestinal (9/47; 19%) and genitourinary (8/47; 17%). Autonomic deficits (CASS ?1) were frequent (22/47; 47%) but very mild (CASS, 0.8 ± 0.9; CASS ?3, all cases). Deficits were predominantly sudomotor (16/47; 34%) and cardiovagal (10/47; 21%) with relative adrenergic sparing (4/47; 9%). TST was abnormal in 5 of 8 patients (anhidrosis range, 2%–59%). Sudomotor impairment was predominantly distal and postganglionic. Somatic deficits (disease duration, severity, small fiber deficits) did not predict presence of autonomic deficits. Conclusion: Our data characterize the autonomic involvement in classic CIDP as mild, cholinergic, and predominantly sudomotor mainly as a result of lesions at the distal postganglionic axon. Extensive or severe autonomic involvement (CASS ?4) in suspected CIDP should raise concern for an alternative diagnosis.
Figueroa, J.J.; Dyck, P.J.B.; Laughlin, R.S.; Mercado, J.A.; Massie, R.; Sandroni, P.; Dyck, P.J.
In this paper, the consequences were there greater autonomy in nursing practice, are considered. Autonomous practice implies accountability which entails both personal and professional responsibility: a personal responsibility to endorse ethical conduct consistent with professional practice; and a professional responsibility to exercise discretionary powers to the ultimate benefit of the patient. In this context, discretionary responsibility implies: recognizing a patient's wants may not be consistent with a patient's needs; abstaining from collusion with noncompliant patients; supporting the patient's right to refuse treatment only after full psychological exploration; understanding the psychological ramifications of informed consent from a practitioner and recipient point of view; maintaining appropriate personal and professional boundaries; and fostering collegiate relationships with the medical fraternity grounded on egalitarian principles. The author provides a philosophical and psychological analysis of responsibility in an effort to achieve a deeper understanding of the relationship this has with the concepts of 'freedom' and 'accountability'. PMID:2061502
Holden, R J
A robot platform includes perceptors, locomotors, and a system controller, which executes instructions for autonomously navigating a robot. The instructions repeat, on each iteration through an event timing loop, the acts of defining an event horizon based on the robot's current velocity, detecting a range to obstacles around the robot, testing for an event horizon intrusion by determining if any range to the obstacles is within the event horizon, and adjusting rotational and translational velocity of the robot accordingly. If the event horizon intrusion occurs, rotational velocity is modified by a proportion of the current rotational velocity reduced by a proportion of the range to the nearest obstacle and translational velocity is modified by a proportion of the range to the nearest obstacle. If no event horizon intrusion occurs, translational velocity is set as a ratio of a speed factor relative to a maximum speed.
Bruemmer, David J. (Idaho Falls, ID) [Idaho Falls, ID; Few, Douglas A. (Idaho Falls, ID) [Idaho Falls, ID
The goal of the Autonomous Power System program is to develop and apply intelligent problem solving and control to the Space Station Freedom's electric power testbed being developed at NASA's Lewis Research Center. Objectives are to establish artificial intelligence technology paths, craft knowledge-based tools and products for power systems, and integrate knowledge-based and conventional controllers. This program represents a joint effort between the Space Station and Office of Aeronautics and Space Technology to develop and demonstrate space electric power automation technology capable of: (1) detection and classification of system operating status, (2) diagnosis of failure causes, and (3) cooperative problem solving for power scheduling and failure recovery. Program details, status, and plans will be presented.
Dolce, Jim; Kish, Jim
An external reference system suitable for deep space navigation can be defined by fast spinning and strongly magnetized neutron stars, called pulsars. Their beamed periodic signals have timing stabilities comparable to atomic clocks and provide characteristic temporal signatures that can be used as natural navigation beacons, quite similar to the use of GPS satellites for navigation on Earth. By comparing pulse arrival times measured on-board a spacecraft with predicted pulse arrivals at a reference location, the spacecraft position can be determined autonomously and with high accuracy everywhere in the solar system and beyond. The unique properties of pulsars make clear already today that such a navigation system will have its application in future astronautics. We will describe the basic principle of spacecraft navigation using pulsars and report on the current development status of this novel technology.
Mobile robots currently cannot detect and read arbitrary signs. This is a major hindrance to mobile robot usability, since they cannot be tasked using directions that are intuitive to humans. It also limits their ability to report their position relative to intuitive landmarks. Other researchers have demonstrated some success on traffic sign recognition, but using template based methods limits the set of recognizable signs. There is a clear need for a sign detection and recognition system that can process a much wider variety of signs: traffic signs, street signs, store-name signs, building directories, room signs, etc. We are developing a system for Sign Understanding in Support of Autonomous Navigation (SUSAN), that detects signs from various cues common to most signs: vivid colors, compact shape, and text. We have demonstrated the feasibility of our approach on a variety of signs in both indoor and outdoor locations.
Goodsell, Thomas G.; Snorrason, Magnús S.; Cartwright, Dustin; Stube, Brian; Stevens, Mark R.; Ablavsky, Vitaly X.
A method of communicating information from a wireless autonomous device (WAD) to a base station. The WAD has a data element having a predetermined profile having a total number of sequenced possible data element combinations. The method includes receiving at the WAD an RF profile transmitted by the base station that includes a triggering portion having a number of pulses, wherein the number is at least equal to the total number of possible data element combinations. The method further includes keeping a count of received pulses and wirelessly transmitting a piece of data, preferably one bit, to the base station when the count reaches a value equal to the stored data element's particular number in the sequence. Finally, the method includes receiving the piece of data at the base station and using the receipt thereof to determine which of the possible data element combinations the stored data element is.
Sammel, Jr., David W. (Inventor); Cain, James T. (Inventor); Mickle, Marlin H. (Inventor); Mi, Minhong (Inventor)
The Autonomous Flight Safety System (AFSS) being developed by NASA s Goddard Space Flight Center s Wallops Flight Facility and Kennedy Space Center has completed two successful developmental flights and is preparing for a third. AFSS has been demonstrated to be a viable architecture for implementation of a completely vehicle based system capable of protecting life and property in event of an errant vehicle by terminating the flight or initiating other actions. It is capable of replacing current human-in-the-loop systems or acting in parallel with them. AFSS is configured prior to flight in accordance with a specific rule set agreed upon by the range safety authority and the user to protect the public and assure mission success. This paper discusses the motivation for the project, describes the method of development, and presents an overview of the evolving architecture and the current status.
Bull, James B.; Lanzi, Raymond J.
In the last decade, a variety of robotic/intelligent wheelchairs have been proposed to meet the need in aging society. Their main research topics are autonomous functions such as moving toward some goals while avoiding obstacles, or user-friendly interfaces. Although it is desirable for wheelchair users to go out alone, caregivers often accompany them. Therefore we have to consider not only autonomous functions and user interfaces but also how to reduce caregivers' load and support their activities in a communication aspect. From this point of view, we have proposed a robotic wheelchair moving with a caregiver side by side based on the MATLAB process. In this project we discussing about robotic wheel chair to follow a caregiver by using a microcontroller, Ultrasonic sensor, keypad, Motor drivers to operate robot. Using camera interfaced with the DM6437 (Davinci Code Processor) image is captured. The captured image are then processed by using image processing technique, the processed image are then converted into voltage levels through MAX 232 level converter and given it to the microcontroller unit serially and ultrasonic sensor to detect the obstacle in front of robot. In this robot we have mode selection switch Automatic and Manual control of robot, we use ultrasonic sensor in automatic mode to find obstacle, in Manual mode to use the keypad to operate wheel chair. In the microcontroller unit, c language coding is predefined, according to this coding the robot which connected to it was controlled. Robot which has several motors is activated by using the motor drivers. Motor drivers are nothing but a switch which ON/OFF the motor according to the control given by the microcontroller unit.
Ratnam, E. Venkata; Sivaramalingam, Sethurajan; Vignesh, A. Sri; Vasanth, Elanthendral; Joans, S. Mary
Purpose of Review Supine hypertension is a common finding in autonomic failure that can worsen orthostatic hypotension and predispose to end-organ damage. This review focuses on non-pharmacologic and pharmacologic approaches to manage hypertension in these patients, in the face of disabling orthostatic hypotension. Recent Findings The hypertension of autonomic failure can be driven by sympathetic dependent or independent mechanisms, depending on the site of autonomic lesions. Management of supine hypertension should include simple non-pharmacologic approaches including avoiding the supine position during the daytime and head-up tilt at night. Most patients, however, require pharmacologic treatment. Several antihypertensive therapies lower night-time pressure in autonomic failure, but none improve nocturnal volume depletion or morning orthostatic tolerance. Regardless, treatment may still be beneficial in some patients but must be determined on an individual basis, considering disease type and overnight monitoring. Further, doses must be carefully titrated as these patients are hypersensitive to depressor agents due to loss of baroreceptor reflexes. Summary Autonomic failure provides a unique opportunity to study blood pressure regulation independent of autonomic influences. Understanding mechanisms driving supine hypertension will have important implications for the treatment of autonomic failure and will improve our knowledge of cardiovascular regulation in other populations, including essential hypertension and elderly hypertensives with comorbid orthostatic hypotension.
Arnold, Amy C.; Biaggioni, Italo
The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) Project Prometheus, the Nuclear Systems Program, is investigating a possible Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter (JIMO) mission, which would conduct in-depth studies of three of the moons of Jupiter by using a space reactor power system (SRPS) to provide energy for propulsion and spacecraft power for more than a decade. Terrestrial nuclear power plants rely upon varying degrees of direct human control and interaction for operations and maintenance over a forty to sixty year lifetime. In contrast, an SRPS is intended to provide continuous, remote, unattended operation for up to fifteen years with no maintenance. Uncertainties, rare events, degradation, and communications delays with Earth are challenges that SRPS control must accommodate. Autonomous control is needed to address these challenges and optimize the reactor control design. In this paper, we describe an autonomous control concept for generic SRPS designs. The formulation of an autonomous control concept, which includes identification of high-level functional requirements and generation of a research and development plan for enabling technologies, is among the technical activities that are being conducted under the U.S. Department of Energy's Space Reactor Technology Program in support of the NASA's Project Prometheus. The findings from this program are intended to contribute to the successful realization of the JIMO mission.
Wood, Richard T.; Neal, John S.; Brittain, C. Ray; Mullens, James A.
In November 1990 the Autonomous Rendezvous & Docking (AR&D) system was first demonstrated for members of NASA's Strategic Avionics Technology Working Group. This simulation utilized prototype hardware from the Cruise Missile and Advanced Centaur Avionics systems. The object was to show that all the accuracy, reliability and operational requirements established for a space craft to dock with Space Station Freedom could be met by the proposed system. The rapid prototyping capabilities of the Advanced Avionics Systems Development Laboratory were used to evaluate the proposed system in a real time, hardware in the loop simulation of the rendezvous and docking reference mission. The simulation permits manual, supervised automatic and fully autonomous operations to be evaluated. It is also being upgraded to be able to test an Autonomous Approach and Landing (AA&L) system. The AA&L and AR&D systems are very similar. Both use inertial guidance and control systems supplemented by GPS. Both use an Image Processing System (IPS), for target recognition and tracking. The IPS includes a general purpose multiprocessor computer and a selected suite of sensors that will provide the required relative position and orientation data. Graphic displays can also be generated by the computer, providing the astronaut / operator with real-time guidance and navigation data with enhanced video or sensor imagery.
Jones, Ruel Edwin
Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (AChR) are ligand-gated cation channels that are present throughout the nervous system. The muscle AChR mediates transmission at the neuromuscular junction; antibodies against the muscle AChR are the cause of myasthenia gravis. The ganglionic (?3-type) neuronal AChR mediates fast synaptic transmission in sympathetic, parasympathetic, and enteric autonomic ganglia. Impaired cholinergic ganglionic synaptic transmission is one important cause of autonomic failure. Pharmacological enhancement of ganglionic synaptic transmission may be a novel way to improve autonomic function. Ganglionic AChR antibodies are found in patients with autoimmune autonomic ganglionopathy (AAG). Patients with AAG typically present with rapid onset of severe autonomic failure. Major clinical features include orthostatic hypotension, gastrointestinal dysmotility, anhidrosis, bladder dysfunction, and sicca symptoms. Impaired pupillary light reflex is often seen. Like myasthenia, AAG is an antibody-mediated neurological disorder. The disease can be reproduced in experimental animals by active immunization or passive antibody transfer. Patient may improve with plasma exchange treatment or other immunomodulatory treatment. Antibodies from patients with AAG inhibit ganglionic AChR currents. Other phenotypes of AAG are now recognized based on the results of antibody testing. These other presentations are generally associated with lower levels of ganglionic AChR antibodies. A chronic progressive form of AAG may resemble pure autonomic failure. Milder forms of dysautonomia, such as postural tachycardia syndrome, are associated with ganglionic AChR in 10–15% of cases. Since ganglionic synaptic transmission is a common pathway for all autonomic traffic, enhancement of autonomic function through inhibition of acetylcholinesterase is a potential specific therapeutic strategy for autonomic disorders. Increasing the strength of ganglionic transmission can ameliorate neurogenic orthostatic hypotension without aggravating supine hypertension. Recent evidence also suggests a potential role for acetylcholinesterase inhibitors in the treatment of postural tachycardia syndrome.
Vernino, Steven; Sandroni, Paola; Singer, Wolfgang; Low, Phillip A.
Recent advances in many multi-discipline technologies have allowed small, low-cost fixed wing unmanned air vehicles (UAV) or more complicated unmanned ground vehicles (UGV) to be a feasible solution in many scientific, civil and military applications. Cameras can be mounted on-board of the unmanned vehicles for the purpose of scientific data gathering, surveillance for law enforcement and homeland security, as well as to provide visual information to detect and avoid imminent collisions for autonomous navigation. However, most current computer vision algorithms are highly complex computationally and usually constitute the bottleneck of the guidance and control loop. In this paper, we present a novel computer vision algorithm for collision detection and time-to-impact calculation based on feature density distribution (FDD) analysis. It does not require accurate feature extraction, tracking, or estimation of focus of expansion (FOE). Under a few reasonable assumptions, by calculating the expansion rate of the FDD in space, time-to-impact can be accurately estimated. A sequence of monocular images is studied, and different features are used simultaneously in FDD analysis to show that our algorithm can achieve a fairly good accuracy in collision detection. In this paper we also discuss reactive path planning and trajectory generation techniques that can be accomplished without violating the velocity and heading rate constraints of the UAV.
Lee, Dah-Jye; Beard, Randal W.; Merrell, Paul C.; Zhan, Pengcheng
Combining advanced sensor technologies, with optimised data acquisition and diagnostic and prognostic capability, structural health monitoring (SHM) systems provide real-time assessment of the integrity of bridges, buildings, aircraft, wind turbines, oil pipelines and ships, leading to improved safety and reliability and reduced inspection and maintenance costs. The implementation of power harvesting, using energy scavenged from ambient sources such as thermal gradients and sources of vibration in conjunction with wireless transmission enables truly autonomous systems, reducing the need for batteries and associated maintenance in often inaccessible locations, alongside bulky and expensive wiring looms. The design and implementation of such a system however presents numerous challenges. A suitable energy source or multiple sources capable of meeting the power requirements of the system, over the entire monitoring period, in a location close to the sensor must be identified. Efficient power management techniques must be used to condition the power and deliver it, as required, to enable appropriate measurements to be taken. Energy storage may be necessary, to match a continuously changing supply and demand for a range of different monitoring states including sleep, record and transmit. An appropriate monitoring technique, capable of detecting, locating and characterising damage and delivering reliable information, whilst minimising power consumption, must be selected. Finally a wireless protocol capable of transmitting the levels of information generated at the rate needed in the required operating environment must be chosen. This paper considers solutions to some of these challenges, and in particular examines SHM in the context of the aircraft environment.
Featherston, Carol A.; Holford, Karen M.; Pullin, Rhys; Lees, Jonathan; Eaton, Mark; Pearson, Matthew
In order to accommodate the increasing number of computerized subsystems aboard today's more fuel efficient aircraft, the Boeing Co. has developed the DATAC (Digital Autonomous Terminal Access Control) bus to minimize the need for point-to-point wiring to interconnect these various systems, thereby reducing total aircraft weight and maintaining an economical flight configuration. The DATAC bus is essentially a local area network providing interconnections for any of the flight management and control systems aboard the aircraft. The task of developing a Bus Monitor Unit was broken down into four subtasks: (1) providing a hardware interface between the DATAC bus and the Z8000-based microcomputer system to be used as the bus monitor; (2) establishing a communication link between the Z8000 system and a CP/M-based computer system; (3) generation of data reduction and display software to output data to the console device; and (4) development of a DATAC Terminal Simulator to facilitate testing of the hardware and software which transfer data between the DATAC's bus and the operator's console in a near real time environment. These tasks are briefly discussed.
Novacki, Stanley M., III
We review the main components of autonomous scientific discovery, and how they lead to the concept of a Robot Scientist. This is a system which uses techniques from artificial intelligence to automate all aspects of the scientific discovery process: it generates hypotheses from a computer model of the domain, designs experiments to test these hypotheses, runs the physical experiments using robotic systems, analyses and interprets the resulting data, and repeats the cycle. We describe our two prototype Robot Scientists: Adam and Eve. Adam has recently proven the potential of such systems by identifying twelve genes responsible for catalysing specific reactions in the metabolic pathways of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. This work has been formally recorded in great detail using logic. We argue that the reporting of science needs to become fully formalised and that Robot Scientists can help achieve this. This will make scientific information more reproducible and reusable, and promote the integration of computers in scientific reasoning. We believe the greater automation of both the physical and intellectual aspects of scientific investigations to be essential to the future of science. Greater automation improves the accuracy and reliability of experiments, increases the pace of discovery and, in common with conventional laboratory automation, removes tedious and repetitive tasks from the human scientist.
An overview of the NASA Ames Research Center Autonomous Rotorcraft Project (ARP) is presented. The project brings together several technologies to address NASA and US Army autonomous vehicle needs, including a reactive planner for mission planning and execution, control system design incorporating a detailed understanding of the platform dynamics, and health monitoring and diagnostics. A candidate reconnaissance and surveillance mission is described. The autonomous agent architecture and its application to the candidate mission are presented. Details of the vehicle hardware and software development are provided.
Whalley, M.; Freed, M.; Takahashi, M.; Christian, D.; Patterson-Hine, A.; Schulein, G.; Harris, R.
Autonomic dysreflexia occurs in patients with spinal cord injury, and is characterized by unbalanced sympathetic discharge, precipitated by noxious stimuli from a site below the spinal cord lesion. An 11-year-old boy with acute disseminated encephalomyelitis and spinal cord involvement manifested episodes of intense flushing and sweating, confined to the head and neck region, and associated with hypertension and tachycardia. His signs improved after changing a partly blocked bladder catheter. The clinical features suggested autonomic dysreflexia. Early recognition of autonomic dysreflexia is important because removal of the trigger precipitating the event may be life-saving. PMID:22964449
Jayakrishnan, Machinary P; Krishnakumar, Padinharath; Gauthamen, Rajendran; Sabitha, Sasidharanpillai; Devarajan, Ellezhuthil
Antarctic astronomical site-testing has been conducted using autonomous self-powered observatories for more than a decade (the AASTO at South Pole, the AASTINO at Dome C, and PLATO at Dome A/Dome F). More recently autonomous (PLATO) observatories have been developed and deployed to support small-scale scientific instruments, such as HEAT, a 0.6 m aperture terahertz telescope at Ridge A, and AST3, a 0.5 m optical telescope array at Dome A. This paper reviews the evolution of autonomous Antarctic astronomical observatories, and discusses the requirements and implications for observatories that will be needed for future larger-scale facilities.
Lawrence, J. S.; Ashley, M. C. B.; Storey, J. W. V.
Developing autonomous flying vehicles has been a growing field in aeronautical research within the last decade and will continue into the next century. With concerns about safety, size, and cost of manned aircraft, several autonomous vehicle projects are currently being developed; uninhabited rotorcraft offer solutions to requirements for hover, vertical take-off and landing, as well as slung load transportation capabilities. The newness of the technology requires flight control engineers to question what design approaches, control law architectures, and performance criteria apply to control law development and handling quality evaluation. To help answer these questions, this paper documents the control law design process for Kaman Aerospace BURRO project. This paper will describe the approach taken to design control laws and develop math models which will be used to convert the manned K-MAX into the BURRO autonomous rotorcraft. With the ability of the K-MAX to lift its own weight (6000 lb) the load significantly affects the dynamics of the system; the paper addresses the additional design requirements for slung load autonomous flight. The approach taken in this design was to: 1) generate accurate math models of the K-MAX helicopter with and without slung loads, 2) select design specifications that would deliver good performance as well as satisfy mission criteria, and 3) develop and tune the control system architecture to meet the design specs and mission criteria. An accurate math model was desired for control system development. The Comprehensive Identification from Frequency Responses (CIFER(R)) software package was used to identify a linear math model for unloaded and loaded flight at hover, 50 kts, and 100 kts. The results of an eight degree-of-freedom CIFER(R)-identified linear model for the unloaded hover flight condition are presented herein, and the identification of the two-body slung-load configuration is in progress.
Colbourne, Jason D.; Frost, Chad R.; Tischler, Mark B.; Ciolani, Luigi; Sahai, Ranjana; Tomoshofski, Chris; LaMontagne, Troy; Rutkowski, Michael (Technical Monitor)
A Modular Autonomous Robotic System (MARS), consisting of a modular autonomous vehicle control system that can be retrofit on to any vehicle to convert it to autonomous control and support a modular payload for multiple applications is being developed. The MARS design is scalable, reconfigurable, and cost effective due to the use of modern open system architecture design methodologies, including serial control bus technology to simplify system wiring and enhance scalability. The design is augmented with modular, object oriented (C++) software implementing a hierarchy of five levels of control including teleoperated, continuous guidepath following, periodic guidepath following, absolute position autonomous navigation, and relative position autonomous navigation. The present effort is focused on producing a system that is commercially viable for routine autonomous patrolling of known, semistructured environments, like environmental monitoring of chemical and petroleum refineries, exterior physical security and surveillance, perimeter patrolling, and intrafacility transport applications.
Parish, David W.; Grabbe, Robert D.; Marzwell, Neville I.
ABSTRACT An overview of an autonomous helicopter test - bed project at the Autonomous Robots Lab of the University of Southern California is presented The core of this test - bed is a new autonomous helicopter, the Autonomous Flying Vehicle - II (AFV - II) The AFV - II is an evolution of the origi - nal AFV vehicle described
M. Anthony Lewis
This project included modifying an existing teleoperated robot to include autonomous navigation, large object avoidance, and air monitoring and demonstrating that prototype robot system in indoor and outdoor environments. An existing teleoperated "Surveyor" robot developed by ARD...
The functions, characteristics, and benefits of autonomous control are outlined. An autonomous control functional architecture for future space vehicles that incorporates the concepts and characteristics described is presented. The controller is hierarchical, with an execution level (the lowest level), coordination level (middle level), and management and organization level (highest level). The general characteristics of the overall architecture, including those of the three levels, are explained, and an example to illustrate their functions is given. Mathematical models for autonomous systems, including 'logical' discrete event system models, are discussed. An approach to the quantitative, systematic modeling, analysis, and design of autonomous controllers is also discussed. It is a hybrid approach since it uses conventional analysis techniques based on difference and differential equations and new techniques for the analysis of the systems described with a symbolic formalism such as finite automata. Some recent results from the areas of planning and expert systems, machine learning, artificial neural networks, and the area restructurable controls are briefly outlined.
Antsaklis, Panos J.; Passino, Kevin M.; Wang, S. J.
Mind-body health practices aim to regulate activation of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) to maintain homeostasis within the autonomic nervous system (ANS). The activation of the SNS is directly related to stress response, which, if persistent or prol...
D. Brown M. Bates P. Brierley-Bowers S. Sexton
Interaction in heterogeneous mission operations teams is not well matched to classical models of coordination with autonomous systems. We describe methods of loose coordination and information management in mission operations. We describe an information a...
J. T. Malin K. A. Johnson
The centralized management of large distributed systems is often impractical, particularly when the both the topology and status of the system change dynamically. This paper proposes an approach to application-centric self-management in large distributed systems consisting of a collection of autonomic components that join and leave the system dynamically. Cooperative autonomic components self-organize into a dynamically created overlay network. Through local information sharing with neighbors, each component gains access to global information as needed for optimizing performance of applications. The approach has been validated and evaluated by developing a decentralized autonomic system consisting of multiple autonomic application managers previously developed for the In-VIGO grid-computing system. Using analytical results from complex random network and measurements done in a prototype system, we demonstrate the robustness, self-organization and adaptability of our approach, both theoretically and experimentally.
Xu, Jing; Zhao, Ming; Fortes, José A. B.
The goal of this project is to motivate development of control concepts for autonomous munitions that overcome limitations of conventional approaches by applying principles derived from studying the biology of flying organisms. The research is focused on ...
J. H. Evers
This project investigated and implemented an ethical basis for deployment of lethality in autonomous robotic systems. Two main thrusts were explored. The first addresses the ethical dimensions of robotic weaponry in two contexts: the robot as an extension...
R. C. Arkin
This project is part of a portfolio comprising four other projects to investigate the possibility of operating a collection of intelligent autonomous agents so that the collection can undertakes complex missions. To determine this, we are testing a new ro...
This report describes progress in research on an autonomous robot for planetary exploration performed during 1991 at the Robotics Institute, Carnegie Mellon University. The report summarizes the achievements during calendar year 1991, and lists personnel ...
E. Krotkov R. Simmons W. Whittaker
This paper describes recent research in automatic learning by the autonomous mobile robot HERMIES-IIB at the Center for Engineering Systems Advanced Research (CESAR). By acting on the environment and observing the consequences during a set of training exa...
G. de Saussure P. F. Spelt S. M. Killough F. G. Pin C. R. Weisbin
The development of performance metrics is critical in the evaluation and advancement of intelligent systems. Obtaining the pinnacle of intelligence in autonomous vehicles requires evolutionary standards and community support. In order to analyze and compa...
B. Weiss C. Scrapper S. Balakirsky
Enabling multiple assets to coordinate their activities autonomously via space networking techniques can significantly improve the way we explore Mars by enabling collaborative observations to improve science return and flexibility to reduce risk.
Wyatt, E. J.; Burleigh, S. C.; Clare, L. P.; Torgerson, J. L.; Wagstaff, K. L.
This paper discusses the importance of implementing advanced autonomous technologies supporting operations of future NASA missions. The ability for crewed, uncrewed and even ground support systems to be capable of mission support without external interaction or control has become essential as space exploration moves further out into the solar system. The push to develop and utilize autonomous technologies for NASA mission operations stems in part from the need to reduce operations cost while improving and increasing capability and safety. This paper will provide examples of autonomous technologies currently in use at NASA and will identify opportunities to advance existing autonomous technologies that will enhance mission success by reducing operations cost, ameliorating inefficiencies, and mitigating catastrophic anomalies.
Cruzen, Craig; Thompson, Jerry Todd
A method is presented for isolating DNA segments capable of autonomous replication from Saccharomyces cerevisiae chromosomal DNA based on the differential transforming ability of autonomously replicating plasmids and nonreplicating plasmids. DNA plasmids that are capable of self-replication in yeast transform yeast spheroplasts at about 1000-fold higher frequency than nonreplicating plasmids. We have cloned from total yeast DNA a number of DNA segments that permit the pBR322 plasmid carrying the yeast LEU2 gene to replicate autonomously. These plasmid clones are characterized by their ability to transform Leu- spheroplasts to Leu+ at a high frequency and their ability to replicate autonomously. Analysis of the insert DNAs carried in some of these self-replicating plasmids divides them into two categories: those that are unique in the yeast genome and those that are repetitive. Images
Chan, C S; Tye, B K
This paper documents near-autonomous negotiation of synthetic and natural climbing terrain by a rugged legged robot,achieved through sequential composition of appropriate perceptually triggered locomotion primitives. The first, simple composition achieves...
A. M. Johnson D. E. Koditschek G. C. Haynes M. T. Hale
Research in mobile robot navigation has demonstrated some success in navigating flat indoor environments while avoiding obstacles. However, the challenge of analyzing complex environments to climb obstacles autonomously has had very little success due to the complexity of the task. Unmanned ground vehicles currently exhibit simple autonomous behaviours compared to the human ability to move in the world. This paper presents the control algorithms designed for a tracked mobile robot to autonomously climb obstacles by varying its tracks configuration. Two control algorithms are proposed to solve the autonomous locomotion problem for climbing obstacles. First, a reactive controller evaluates the appropriate geometric configuration based on terrain and vehicle geometric considerations. Then, a reinforcement learning algorithm finds alternative solutions when the reactive controller gets stuck while climbing an obstacle. The methodology combines reactivity to learning. The controllers have been demonstrated in box and stair climbing simulations. The experiments illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach for crossing obstacles.
In mid-2003, we will fly software to detect science events that will drive autonomous scene selectionon board the New Millennium Earth Observing 1 (EO-1) spacecraft. This software will demonstrate the potential for future space missions to use onboard decision-making to detect science events and respond autonomously to capture short-lived science events and to downlink only the highest value science data.
Chien, S.; Sherwood, R.; Tran, D.; Castano, R.; Cichy, B.; Davies, A.; Rabideau, G.; Tang, N.; Burl, M.; Mandl, D.; Frye, S.; Hengemihle, J.; Agostino, J. D.; Bote, R.; Trout, B.; Shulman, S.; Ungar, S.; Gaasbeck, J. Van; Boyer, D.; Griffin, M.; Burke, H.; Greeley, R.; Doggett, T.; Williams, K.; Baker, V.
Abstract We describe an architecturalapproach,to achieving the goals of autonomic ,computing. The architecture that we outline ,describes interfaces and behavioral requirements for individual system components, describes how ,interactions among ,components ,are established, and recommends design patterns that engender,the desired system-level properties of self- configuration, self-optimization, self-healing and self- protection. We have ,validated many ,of these ideas in two prototype autonomic,computing,systems.
Steve R. White; James E. Hanson; Ian Whalley; David M. Chess; Jeffrey O. Kephart
Autonomic computing is emerging as a significant new approach for the design of computing systems. Its goal is the production of systems that are self-managing, self-healing, self-protecting and self-optimizing. Achieving this goal involve techniques from both software engineering and artificial intelligence. We discuss one particular aspect of autonomic computing: event management. It considers the range of event handling techniques in
Synthetic biology has recently provided functional single-cell oscillators. With a few exceptions, however, synchronization\\u000a across a population has not been achieved yet. In particular, designing a cell coupling mechanism to achieve autonomous synchronization\\u000a is not straightforward since there are usually several different design alternatives. Here, we propose a method to mathematically\\u000a predict autonomous synchronization properties, and to identify the network
Moritz Lang; Tatiana T. Marquez-Lago; Jörg Stelling; Steffen Waldherr
The Autonomous Sciencecraft Experiment (ASE) will fly onboard the Air Force TechSat-21 constellation of three spacecraft scheduled for launch in 2004. ASE uses onboard continuous planning, robust task and goal-based execution, model-based mode identification and reconfiguration, and onboard machine learning and pattern recognition to radically increase science return by enabling intelligent downlink selection and autonomous retargeting. In this paper we
Steve A. Chien; Rob Sherwood; Gregg Rabideau; Rebecca Castano; Ashley Davies; Michael C. Burl; Russell Knight; Timothy M. Stough; Joseph Roden; Paul Zetocha; Ross Wainwright; Pete Klupar; Jim Van Gaasbeck; Pat Cappelaere; Dean Oswald
This paper describes the infrastructure and protocols necessary to enable near-real-time commanding, access to space-based assets, and the secure interoperation between sensor webs owned and controlled by various entities. Select terrestrial and aeronautics-base sensor webs will be used to demonstrate time-critical interoperability between integrated, intelligent sensor webs both terrestrial and between terrestrial and space-based assets. For this work, a Secure, Autonomous, Intelligent Controller and knowledge generation unit is implemented using Virtual Mission Operation Center technology.
Ivancic, William D.
An autonomous power plant composed of a wind energy converter and a diesel generator was tested in laboratory and in the field to assess the wind energy supply as a noninfluenceable parameter in the regulation of the mono and bivalent operation of the power plant, for control of the dynamic behavior of the electrical components, for tuning of the regulation expenditure with comfort requirements, and for model evaluation of energy cost analysis. The interaction between meteorological, technical, economic and energy policy aspects was assessed. The relationship between economical use and comfort limits technical improvement. Development of the concept of a bivalent power supply with wind and diesel is recommended.
Fritzsche, A.; Knoebel, U.; Ruckert, W.
\\u000a We present two practical path planning algorithms based on Bezier curves for autonomous vehicles operating under waypoints\\u000a and corridor constraints. Bezier curves have useful properties for the trajectory generation problem. This paper describes\\u000a how the algorithms apply these properties to generate the reference trajectory for vehicles to satisfy the path constraints.\\u000a Both algorithms generate the piecewise-Bezier-curves path such that the
Ji-Wung Choi; Renwick Curry; Gabriel Elkaim
Recently, reconfigurable devices are widely used in the fields of small amount production and trial production. They are also expected to be utilized in such mission-critical fields as space development, because system update and pseudo-repair can be achieved remotely by reconfiguring. However, in the case of conventional reconfigurable devices, configuration memory upsets caused by radiation and alpha particles reconfigure the device unpredictably, resulting in fatal system failures. Therefore, a reconfigurable device with high fault-tolerance against configuration upsets is required. In this paper, we propose an architecture of a fault-tolerant reconfigurable device that autonomously repairs configuration upsets by itself without interrupting system operations. The device consists of a 2D array of “Autonomous-Repair Cells” each of which repairs its upsets autonomously. The architecture has a scalability in fault tolerance; a finer-grained Autonomous-Repair Cell provides higher fault-tolerance. To determine the architecture, we analyze four autonomous repair techniques of the cell experimentally. Then, two autonomous repair techniques, simple multiplexing (S.M.) and memory multiplexing (M.M.), are applied; the former to programmable logics and the latter to cell-to-cell routing resources. Through evaluation, we show that proposed device achieves more than 10 years average lifetime against configuration upsets even in a severe situation such as a satellite orbit.
Nakahara, Kentaro; Kouyama, Shin'ichi; Izumi, Tomonori; Ochi, Hiroyuki; Nakamura, Yukihiro
In this paper the question of autonomy in delusional disorders is investigated using a phenomenological approach. I refer to the distinction between freedom of intentional action, and freedom of the will, and develop phenomenological descriptions of lived autonomy, taking into account the distinction between a pre-reflective and a reflective type. Drawing on a case report, I deliver finely-grained phenomenological descriptions of lived autonomy and experienced self-determination when acting on delusions. This analysis seeks to demonstrate that a person with delusions can be described as responsible for her behaviour on a ‘framed’ level (level of freedom of intentional action), even though she is not autonomous on a higher (‘framing’) level (level of freedom of the will), if, and only if, the goods of agency for herself and others are respected. In these cases the person with delusions is very nearly comparable to people in love, who are also not free to choose their convictions, and who could also be rightly held responsible for the behaviour flowing from their convictions.
In this thesis, I explore and discuss a system that uses the platinum catalyzed decomposition of hydrogen peroxide to induce interfacial effects that result in the autonomous motion of micro-/nanosized particles. Chapter 2 describes the behavior of platinum-gold (PtAu) striped nanorods in hydrogen peroxide and its dependence on a number of factors. Chapter 3 explores several different mechanisms that may contribute to the motion of the PtAu nanorods, and discusses an interfacial tension mechanism for motion in depth. In Chapter 4, I discuss the electrochemical decomposition of hydrogen peroxide involving both Pt and Au and how this bimetallic catalytic process can induce electrokinetic effects to drive the motion of PtAu nanorods in H2O2 solutions. In Chapter 5, I describe a switchable catalytic micropump composed of a Pt/Au interdigitated array electrode in contact with H2O 2 solution, expanding on the concept of catalytically induced electrokinetics discussed in Chapter 4. This work has important implications when considering the development of functional nano- and micromachines powered by catalytic reactions, particularly those that utilize oxidation reduction processes to induce electrokinetic effects.
Paxton, Walter F.
We present an adaptive optics system incorporating a holographic wavefront sensor with the autonomous closed-loop control of a MEMS deformable mirror. HALOS incorporates a multiplexed holographic recording of the response functions of each actuator in a deformable mirror. On reconstruction with an arbitrary input beam, multiple focal spots are produced. By measuring the relative intensities of these spots a full measurement of the absolute phase can be constructed. Using fast photodiodes, direct feedback correction can be applied to the actuators.In this talk we will present the results from an all-optical, ultra-compact system that runs in closed-loop without the need for a computer. The 32-actuator HALOS runs at a 100kHz bandwidth, but the speed is independent of the number of actuators and should run equally fast with 32 million. Additionally, the system is largely insensitive to obscuration unlike the more conventional Shack-Hartmann WFS. We will present information on how HALOS can be used for image correction and beam propagation as well as several other novel applications.
Andersen, Geoff; Ghebremichael, Fassil; Gelsinger-Austin, Paul; MacDonald, Ken; Gaddipati, Ravi; Gaddipati, Phani
Based on our experience in the DARPA Urban Challenge and on current trends in con- sumer automobiles, we believe that driver assistance systems can be significantly improved by new techniques in control and sensing that have been developed for fully-autonomous driving. In particular, from the control community, real-time Model Predictive Control (MPC) can be used as the next generation of
Humberto Gonzalez; Esten I. Grøtli; Todd R. Templeton; Jan O. Biermeyer; Jonathan SprinkleS; Shankar Sastry
Global supply chains (GSCs) are confronted with the phenomenon of hyper-competition. For this reason there seems to be an increasing necessity for GSCs to build up competitive advantage in order to survive. Strategic flexibility is assumed to have positive effects on generating required competitive advantage by replicating and reconfiguring competences to manage GSCs, while keeping GSCs stable. Autonomous cooperation and
Michael Hülsmann; Jörn Grapp; Ying Li
A navigation strategy that exploits the optic flow and inertial information to con- tinuously avoid collisions with both lateral and frontal obstacles has been used to control a simulated helicopter flying autonomously in a textured urban environment. Experimental results demonstrate that the corresponding controller generates cau- tious behavior, whereby the helicopter tends to stay in the middle of narrow corri-
Laurent Muratet; Stéphane Doncieux; Yves Briere; Jean-arcady Meyer
This paper presents a novel vision-based hybrid controller for parking of mobile robots. Parking or docking is an essential behavioral unit for autonomous robots. The proposed hybrid controller comprises a discrete event controller to change the direction of travel and a pixel error-driven proportional controller to generate motion commands to achieve the continuous motion. At the velocity control level, the
Dilan Amarasinghe; George K. I. Mann; Raymond G. Gosine
We report the design of an autonomous sensing device, which employs a thermotropic nematic liquid crystal (LC) to conduct chemical or biological sensing tasks. The development of highly reproducible methods to create uniform LC thin film is critical for utilizing LCs for sensing. Herein, we describe the use of shear forces generated by the laminar flow of liquid within a
D. Cheng; I. H. Lin; N. L. Abbott; H. Jiang
In this paper, the modelling of an autonomous variable speed micro hydropower station is presented. It is composed of a doubly fed induction generator linked mechanically and electrically to a permanent magnet synchronous machine which may recover or supply the slip power and which feeds the DFIG with its magnetizing reactive power leading to classical capacitor removing. The model lies
A. Ansel; B. Robyns
A novel autonomous micromotor, based on catalytically pneumatic behaviour of balloon-like MnOx-graphene crumples, has been synthesized via an ultrasonic spray pyrolysis method. Through catalytic decomposition of H2O2 into O2, the gas accumulated in a confined space and was released to generate a strong force to push the micromotor. PMID:24854005
Chen, Xueli; Wu, Guan; Lan, Tian; Chen, Wei
An algorithm is developed for determining the optimal operation scheduling over a period of T hours for an autonomous energy system consisting of diesel units and wind generators. The proposed algorithm requires the load and wind velocity statistics during the scheduling period. Thus, the solution procedure involves the sequential execution of two separate algorithms solving the following two problems: the
G. C. Contaxis; J. Kabouris
Abstract :Th e objective ofthis paper is to generate adesired ,flight path to be ,followed by, an, autonomous airship. The space is supposed without obstacles. As there is six degrees of ,freedom and only three inputs for the LSC airship in a low velocity flight, three equality constraints appear due to the under-actuation. When the roll ? and pitch ?
In this paper, an optimisation model based on Pickup and Delivery Problem with Time Windows (PDPTW), and an exact algorithm based on Branch-and-Bound with Column Generation (BBCG), are presented for Autonomous Straddle Carriers Scheduling (ASCS) problem at automated container terminals. The ASCS problem is firstly modeled into a PDPTW, which is formulated as a Binary Integer Programming (BIP) and then
Binghuang Cai; Shoudong Huang; Dikai Liu; Shuai Yuan; Gamini Dissanayake; Haye Lau; Daniel Pagac
In this paper, an optimisation model based on Pickup and Delivery Problem with Time Windows (PDPTW), and an exact algorithm based on Branch-and-Bound with Column Generation (BBCG), are presented for Autonomous Straddle Carriers Scheduling (ASCS) problem at automated container terminals. The ASCS problem is firstly modeled into a PDPTW, which is formulated as a Binary Integer Programming (BIP) and then
Binghuang Cai; Shoudong Huang; Dikai Liu; Shuai Yuan; Gamini Dissanayake; Haye Lau; Daniel Pagac
Here, we describe a human physiology laboratory class measuring changes in autonomic function over time in response to atropine. Students use themselves as subjects, generating ownership and self-interest in the learning as well as directly experiencing the active link between physiology and pharmacology in people. The class is designed to…
Fry, Jeffrey R.; Burr, Steven A.
This paper presents an algorithm to generate approach waypoints in autonomous mobile navigation, in order to take a vehicle to a target point, arriving to it with a specified entry angle. Here, we present an improved technique in the approximation phase for the route planner presented in Part I. This algorithm can be added to the one presented in the
L. M. Di Matteo; A. C. Mangone; M. L. Muzzio; C. Verrastro
Solar System Exploration camera implementations to date have involved either single cameras with wide field-of-view (FOV) and consequently coarser spatial resolution, cameras on a movable mast, or single cameras necessitating rotation of the host vehicle to afford visibility outside a relatively narrow FOV. These cameras require detailed commanding from the ground or separate onboard computers to operate properly, and are incapable of making decisions based on image content that control pointing and downlink strategy. For color, a filter wheel having selectable positions was often added, which added moving parts, size, mass, power, and reduced reliability. A system was developed based on a general-purpose miniature visible-light camera using advanced CMOS (complementary metal oxide semiconductor) imager technology. The baseline camera has a 92 FOV and six cameras are arranged in an angled-up carousel fashion, with FOV overlaps such that the system has a 360 FOV (azimuth). A seventh camera, also with a FOV of 92 , is installed normal to the plane of the other 6 cameras giving the system a > 90 FOV in elevation and completing the hemispheric vision system. A central unit houses the common electronics box (CEB) controlling the system (power conversion, data processing, memory, and control software). Stereo is achieved by adding a second system on a baseline, and color is achieved by stacking two more systems (for a total of three, each system equipped with its own filter.) Two connectors on the bottom of the CEB provide a connection to a carrier (rover, spacecraft, balloon, etc.) for telemetry, commands, and power. This system has no moving parts. The system's onboard software (SW) supports autonomous operations such as pattern recognition and tracking.
Pingree, Paula J.; Cunningham, Thomas J.; Werne, Thomas A.; Eastwood, Michael L.; Walch, Marc J.; Staehle, Robert L.
Rovers will play a critical role in the exploration of Mars. Near-term mission plans call for long traverses over unknown terrain, robust navigation and instrument placement, and reliable operations for extended periods of time. Longer-term missions may visit multiple science sites in a single day and perform opportunistic science data collection, as well as complex scouting, construction, and maintenance tasks in preparation for an eventual human presence. The Pathfinder mission demonstrated the potential for robotic Mars exploration but at the same time indicated the need for more rover autonomy. The highly ground-intensive control with infrequent communication and high latency limited the effectiveness of the Sojourner rover. When failures occurred, Sojourner often sat idle for extended periods of time, awaiting further commands from earth. In future missions, the tasks will be more complex and extended; hence there will be even more situations where things do not go exactly as planned. Significant advances in rover autonomy are needed to cope with increasing task complexity and greater execution uncertainty. Towards this end, we have designed an on-board executive architecture that incorporates robust operation, resource utilization, and failure recovery. In addition, we have designed ground tools to produce and refine contingent schedules that take advantage of the on-board architecture's flexible execution characteristics. Together, the on-board executive and the ground tools constitute an integrated rover autonomy architecture. This work draws from our experience with the Deep Space One autonomy experiment, with enhancements to ensure robust operation in the face of the unpredictable, complex environment that the rover will encounter on Mars. The rover autonomy architecture is currently being developed and deployed on the Marsokhod rover platform at NASA Ames Research Center. The capabilities of the rover autonomy architecture to support autonomous operations will be demonstrated concretely in upcoming field tests.
Anderson, Corin; Bresina, John; Golden, Keith; Smith, David E.; Smith, Trey; Washington, Richard; Koga, Dennis (Technical Monitor)
Long terminal repeat (LTR) retrotransposons, the most abundant genomic components in flowering plants, are classifiable into autonomous and nonautonomous elements based on their structural completeness and transposition capacity. It has been proposed that selection is the major force for maintaining sequence (e.g., LTR) conservation between nonautonomous elements and their autonomous counterparts. Here, we report the structural, evolutionary, and expression characterization of a giant retrovirus-like soybean (Glycine max) LTR retrotransposon family, SNARE. This family contains two autonomous subfamilies, SAREA and SAREB, that appear to have evolved independently since the soybean genome tetraploidization event ?13 million years ago, and a nonautonomous subfamily, SNRE, that originated from SAREA. Unexpectedly, a subset of the SNRE elements, which amplified from a single founding SNRE element within the last ?3 million years, have been dramatically homogenized with either SAREA or SAREB primarily in the LTR regions and bifurcated into distinct subgroups corresponding to the two autonomous subfamilies. We uncovered evidence of region-specific swapping of nonautonomous elements with autonomous elements that primarily generated various nonautonomous recombinants with LTR sequences from autonomous elements of different evolutionary lineages, thus revealing a molecular mechanism for the enhancement of preexisting partnership and the establishment of new partnership between autonomous and nonautonomous elements.
Du, Jianchang; Tian, Zhixi; Bowen, Nathan J.; Schmutz, Jeremy; Shoemaker, Randy C.; Ma, Jianxin
This report describes progress in research on an autonomous robot for planetary exploration. In 1989, the year covered by this report, a six-legged walking robot, the Ambler, was configured, designed, and constructed. This configuration was used to overcome shortcomings exhibited by existing wheeled and walking robot mechanisms. The fundamental advantage of the Ambler is that the actuators for body support are independent of those for propulsion; a subset of the planar joints propel the body, and the vertical actuators support and level the body over terrain. Models of the Ambler's dynamics were developed and the leveling control was studied. An integrated system capable of walking with a single leg over rugged terrain was implemented and tested. A prototype of an Ambler leg is suspended below a carriage that slides along rails. To walk, the system uses a laser scanner to find a clear, flat foothold, positions the leg above the foothold, contacts the terrain with the foot, and applies force enough to advance the carriage along the rails. Walking both forward and backward, the system has traversed hundreds of meters of rugged terrain including obstacles too tall to step over, trenches too deep to step in, closely spaced rocks, and sand hills. In addition, preliminary experiments were conducted with concurrent planning and execution, and a leg recovery planner that generates time and power efficient 3D trajectories using 2D search was developed. A Hero robot was used to demonstrate mobile manipulation. Indoor tasks include collecting cups from the lab floor, retrieving printer output, and recharging when its battery gets low. The robot monitors its environment, and handles exceptional conditions in a robust fashion, using vision to track the appearance and disappearance of cups, onboard sonars to detect imminent collisions, and monitors to detect the battery level.
Whittaker, William; Kanade, Takeo; Mitchell, Tom
We report the observation of the induction of electromotive force (emf) into a Faraday coil by an autonomously moving composite magnetic particle in aqueous medium. The particle consisted of a micron-sized polymer sphere, which was decorated with catalytic Pd nanoparticles (NPs) and attached to a micron-scale (N-42 grade) rare-earth magnet. The Pd NPs catalytically decomposed H2 O2 to generate O2 , resulting in buoyancy-driven vertical motion of the particle, while the micromagnet induced emf during the flight. Because a small volume of ethanol was layered on top of the liquid, the bubble burst when the particle ascended to the top and thus nearly continuous vertical motion was achieved. Spikes of alternating electrical signal could be observed up to 20?times per minute. The signal was sufficiently strong to illuminate light-emitting diodes following appropriate amplification. This distinctive approach is expected to pave the way to developing synthetic bots which are autonomously propelled, generating their own signal for running complex circuitry. PMID:24492970
Sailapu, Sunil Kumar; Chattopadhyay, Arun
Diabetic autonomic neural imbalance is a severe complication of long-term diabetes patients and may progress to diabetic autonomic neuropathy (DAN). The prevalence of DAN is reported to be between 20 and 70%, depending on the studies. The pathogenesis of DAN remains unresolved. However, emerging evidence suggests that glycemic variability (GV) may be associated with autonomic imbalance in patients with both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. As symptoms are initially weak and uncharacteristic, the condition often remains undiagnosed until late manifestations present themselves. Predominant symptoms may include nausea, vomiting, gastroparesis, involuntary diarrhea, postural hypotension, voiding difficulties, and sexual dysfunction. Analyzing the patterns of heart rate variability carries the potential for detection of autonomic imbalance in the subclinical and asymptomatic stages. In this context, GV may affect the sympathovagal balance by increasing oxidative stress and proinflammatory cytokines. Establishing a GV risk profile could therefore be important in determining risk factors in diabetes patients. This review addresses the issues above and in particular the possible association between diabetic autonomic imbalance and GV.
Future robotic space missions will employ a precision soft-landing capability that will enable exploration of previously inaccessible sites that have strong scientific significance. To enable this capability, a fully autonomous onboard system that identifies and avoids hazardous features such as steep slopes and large rocks is required. Such a system will also provide greater functionality in unstructured terrain to unmanned aerial vehicles. This paper describes an algorithm for landing hazard avoidance based on images from a single moving camera. The core of the algorithm is an efficient application of structure from motion to generate a dense elevation map of the landing area. Hazards are then detected in this map and a safe landing site is selected. The algorithm has been implemented on an autonomous helicopter testbed and demonstrated four times resulting in the first autonomous landing of an unmanned helicopter in unknown and hazardous terrain.
Johnson, Andrew E.; Montgomery, Jim
Muscular dystrophies are a heterogeneous group of genetically inherited disorders whose most prominent clinical feature is progressive degeneration of skeletal muscle. In several forms of the disease, the function of cardiac muscle is likewise affected. The primary defect in this group of diseases is caused by mutations in myocyte proteins important to cellular structure and/or performance. That being stated, a growing body of evidence suggests that the development of autonomic dysfunction may secondarily contribute to the generation of skeletal and cardio-myopathy in muscular dystrophy. Indeed, abnormalities in the regulation of both sympathetic and parasympathetic nerve activity have been reported in a number of muscular dystrophy variants. However, the mechanisms mediating this autonomic dysfunction remain relatively unknown. An autonomic reflex originating in skeletal muscle, the exercise pressor reflex, is known to contribute significantly to the control of sympathetic and parasympathetic activity when stimulated. Given the skeletal myopathy that develops with muscular dystrophy, it is logical to suggest that the function of this reflex might also be abnormal with the pathogenesis of disease. As such, it may contribute to or exacerbate the autonomic dysfunction that manifests. This possibility along with a basic description of exercise pressor reflex function in health and disease are reviewed. A better understanding of the mechanisms that possibly underlie autonomic dysfunction in muscular dystrophy may not only facilitate further research but could also lead to the identification of new therapeutic targets for the treatment of muscular dystrophy.
Smith, Scott A.; Downey, Ryan M.; Williamson, Jon W.; Mizuno, Masaki
We describe a high-speed physical random number generator based on a hybrid Boolean network with autonomous and clocked logic gates, realized on a reconfigurable chip. The autonomous logic gates are arranged in a bidirectional ring topology and generate broadband chaos. The clocked logic gates receive input from the autonomous logic gates so that random numbers are generated physically that pass standard randomness tests without further postprocessing. The large number of logic gates on reconfigurable chips allows for parallel generation of random numbers, as demonstrated by our implementation of 128 physical random number generators that achieve a real-time bit rate of 12.8Gbits/s. PMID:23679363
Rosin, David P; Rontani, Damien; Gauthier, Daniel J
Autonomic dysreflexia is a syndrome of massive imbalanced reflex sympathetic discharge in patients who had a spinal cord injury above the splanchnic sympathetic outflow resulting in a sudden increase in blood pressure. Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) refers to a clinicoradiologic entity characterized by headache, consciousness impairment, visual disturbances, seizures, and posterior transient changes on neuroimaging (cerebral vasogenic edema). Hypertension is a common cause of PRES. The authors describe two case reports of patients with tetraplegia who developed PRES after an autonomic dysreflexia episode. One of them had recurrence of PRES in a similar clinical context. The authors discuss further aspects of PRES and its recurrence, which seems to be unusual particularly after autonomic dysreflexia. PMID:23117272
Matias, Ana Catarina; Rocha, João; Cerqueira, Maria Emília; Pereira, João Manuel
This project will advance the Autonomous Deep-space navigation capability applied to Autonomous Rendezvous and Docking (AR&D) Guidance, Navigation and Control (GNC) system by testing it on hardware, particularly in a flight processor, with a goal of limited testing in the Integrated Power, Avionics and Software (IPAS) with the ARCM (Asteroid Retrieval Crewed Mission) DRO (Distant Retrograde Orbit) Autonomous Rendezvous and Docking (AR&D) scenario. The technology, which will be harnessed, is called 'optical flow', also known as 'visual odometry'. It is being matured in the automotive and SLAM (Simultaneous Localization and Mapping) applications but has yet to be applied to spacecraft navigation. In light of the tremendous potential of this technique, we believe that NASA needs to design a optical navigation architecture that will use this technique. It is flexible enough to be applicable to navigating around planetary bodies, such as asteroids.
It is becoming increasingly clear that quality of life (QOL) is impaired in those with chronic liver disease (CLD). One of the most important contributors to impaired QOL is the symptomatic burden which can range from slight to debilitating. Autonomic dysfunction accounts for a significant proportion of these symptoms, which can be common, non-specific and challenging to treat. Investigating the autonomic nervous system can be straight forward and can assist the clinician to diagnose and treat specific symptoms. Evidence-based treatment options for autonomic symptoms, specifically in CLD, can be lacking and must be extrapolated from other studies and expert opinion. For those with severely impaired quality of life, liver transplantation may offer an improvement; however, more research is needed to confirm this.
Frith, James; Newton, Julia L
To ensure smooth functioning of numerous handheld devices anywhere anytime, the importance of a self-healing mechanism cannot be overlooked. This is one of the main challenges to growing autonomic pervasive computing. Incorporation of efficient fault detection and recovery in the device itself is the ultimate quest but there is no existing selfhealing scheme for devices running in autonomic pervasive computing environments that can be claimed as the ultimate solution. Moreover, the highest degree of transparency, security and privacy should also be maintained. In this book chapter, an approach to develop a self-healing service for autonomic pervasive computing is presented. The self-healing service has been developed and integrated into the middleware named MARKS+ (Middleware Adaptability for Resource discovery, Knowledge usability, and Self-healing). The self-healing approach has been evaluated on a test bed of PDAs. An application has been developed by using the service. The evaluation results are also presented in this book chapter.
Ahmed, Shameem; Ahamed, Sheikh I.; Sharmin, Moushumi; Hasan, Chowdhury S.
Autonomic networking aims to give network components self-managing capabilities. Several autonomic architectures have been proposed. Each of these architectures includes sort of a knowledge plane which is very important to mimic an autonomic behavior. Knowledge plane has a central role for self-functions by providing suitable knowledge to equipment and needs to learn new strategies for more accuracy.However, defining knowledge plane's architecture is still a challenge for researchers. Specially, defining the way cognitive supports interact each other in knowledge plane and implementing them. Decision making process depends on these interactions between reasoning and learning parts of knowledge plane. In this paper we propose a knowledge plane's architecture based on machine learning (inductive logic programming) paradigm and situated view to deal with distributed environment. This architecture is focused on two self-functions that include all other self-functions: self-adaptation and self-organization. Study cases are given and implemented.
Mbaye, Maïssa; Krief, Francine
The Autonomous Sciencecraft Experiment (ASE), part of the New Millennium Space Technology 6 Project, is flying onboard the Earth Orbiter 1 (EO-1) mission. The ASE software enables EO-1 to autonomously detect and respond to science events such as: volcanic activity, flooding, and water freeze/thaw. ASE uses classification algorithms to analyze imagery onboard to detect chang-e and science events. Detection of these events is then used to trigger follow-up imagery. Onboard mission planning software then develops a response plan that accounts for target visibility and operations constraints. This plan is then executed using a task execution system that can deal with run-time anomalies. In this paper we describe the autonomy flight software and how it enables a new paradigm of autonomous science and mission operations. We will also describe the current experiment status and future plans.
Sherwood, Rob; Chien, Steve; Tran, Daniel; Cichy, Benjamin; Castano, Rebecca; Davies, Ashley; Rabideau, Gregg
Next-generation science and exploration systems will employ new observation strategies that will use multiple sensors in a dynamic environment to provide high quality monitoring, self-consistent analyses and informed decision making. The Science Goal Monitor (SGM) is a prototype software tool being developed to explore the nature of automation necessary to enable dynamic observing of earth phenomenon. The tools being developed in SGM improve our ability to autonomously monitor multiple independent sensors and coordinate reactions to better observe the dynamic phenomena. The SGM system enables users to specify events of interest and how to react when an event is detected. The system monitors streams of data to identify occurrences of the key events previously specified by the scientist/user. When an event occurs, the system autonomously coordinates the execution of the users desired reactions between different sensors. The information can be used to rapidly respond to a variety of fast temporal events. Investigators will no longer have to rely on after-the-fact data analysis to determine what happened. Our paper describes a series of prototype demonstrations that we have developed using SGM and NASA's Earth Observing-1 (EO-1) satellite and Earth Observing Systems Aqua/Terra spacecrafts MODIS instrument. Our demonstrations show the promise of coordinating data from different sources, analyzing the data for a relevant event, autonomously updating and rapidly obtaining a follow-on relevant image. SGM is being used to investigate forest fires, floods and volcanic eruptions. We are now identifying new earth science scenarios that will have more complex SGM reasoning. By developing and testing a prototype in an operational environment, we are also establishing and gathering metrics to gauge the success of automating science campaigns.
Koratkar, Anuradha; Jung, John; Geiger, Jenny; Grosvenor, Sandy
Evolving systems rely on the storage and replication of genetic information. Here we present an autonomous, purely thermally driven replication mechanism. A pool of hairpin molecules, derived from transfer RNA replicates the succession of a two-letter code. Energy is first stored thermally in metastable hairpins. Thereafter, energy is released by a highly specific and exponential replication with a duplication time of 30 s, which is much faster than the tendency to produce false positives in the absence of template. Our experiments propose a physical rather than a chemical scenario for the autonomous replication of protein encoding information in a disequilibrium setting.
Krammer, Hubert; Möller, Friederike M.; Braun, Dieter
Mathematical models of system components have long been used to allow simulators to predict system behavior to various stimuli. Recent efforts to monitor, diagnose, and control real-time systems using component models have experienced similar success. NASA Kennedy is continuing the development of a tool for implementing real-time knowledge-based diagnostic and control systems called KATE (Knowledge based Autonomous Test Engineer). KATE is a model-based reasoning shell designed to provide autonomous control, monitoring, fault detection, and diagnostics for complex engineering systems by applying its reasoning techniques to an exchangeable quantitative model describing the structure and function of the various system components and their systemic behavior.
Parrish, Carrie L.; Brown, Barbara L.
This viewgraph presentation reviews the work towards technology that will result in an autonomous landing on the lunar surface, that will avoid the hazards of lunar landing. In October 2005, the Exploration Systems Mission Directorate at NASA Headquarters assigned the development of new technologies to support the return to the moon. One of these was Autonomous Precision Landing and Hazard Detection and Avoidance Technology now known as ALHAT ALHAT is a lunar descent and landing GNC technology development project led by Johnson Space Center (JSC) with team members from Langley Research Center (LaRC), Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), Draper Laboratories (CSDL) and the Applied Physics Laboratory (APL)
This paper discusses the requirements and preliminary design of robotic vehicle designed for performing autonomous exterior perimeter security patrols around warehouse areas, ammunition supply depots, and industrial parks for the U.S. Department of Defense. The preliminary design allows for the operation of up to eight vehicles in a six kilometer by six kilometer zone with autonomous navigation and obstacle avoidance. In addition to detection of crawling intruders at 100 meters, the system must perform real-time inventory checking and database comparisons using a microwave tags system.
Myers, Scott D.
The Autonomous Flight Safety System (AFSS) is a launch vehicle subsystem whose ultimate goal is an autonomous capability to assure range safety (people and valuable resources), flight personnel safety, flight assets safety (recovery of valuable vehicles and cargo), and global coverage with a dramatic simplification of range infrastructure. The AFSS is capable of determining current vehicle position and predicting the impact point with respect to flight restriction zones. Additionally, it is able to discern whether or not the launch vehicle is an immediate threat to public safety, and initiate the appropriate range safety response. These features provide for a dramatic cost reduction in range operations and improved reliability of mission success. .
Ferrell, Bob; Haley, Sam
An approach is presented for the evolutionary development of supervised autonomous navigation capabilities for small 'backpackable' ground robots, in the context of a DARPA- sponsored program to provide robotic support to small units of dismounted warfighters. This development approach relies on the implementation of a baseline visual serving navigation capability, including tools to support operator oversight and override, which is then enhanced with semantically referenced commands and a mission scripting structure. As current and future machine perception techniques are able to automatically designate visual serving goal points, this approach should provide a natural evolutionary pathway to higher levels of autonomous operation and reduced requirements for operator intervention.
Gage, Douglas W.
An Autonomous Science Agent has been flying onboard the Earth Observing One Spacecraft since 2003. This software enables the spacecraft to autonomously detect and responds to science events occurring on the Earth such as volcanoes, flooding, and snow melt. The package includes AI-based software systems that perform science data analysis, deliberative planning, and run-time robust execution. This software is in routine use to fly the EO-l mission. In this paper we briefly review the agent architecture and discuss lessons learned from this multi-year flight effort pertinent to deployment of software agents to critical applications.
Chien, Steve A.; Sherwood, Rob; Tran, Daniel; Cichy, Benjamin; Rabideau, Gregg; Castano, Rebecca; Davies, Ashley; Mandl, Dan; Frye, Stuart; Trout, Bruce; D'Agostino, Jeff; Shulman, Seth; Boyer, Darrell; Hayden, Sandra; Sweet, Adam; Christa, Scott
The concept of adapting social media technologies is introduced as a means of achieving information sharing across autonomous sensor systems. Historical examples of interoperability as an underlying principle in loosely-coupled systems is compared and contrasted with corresponding tightly-coupled, integrated systems. Examples of ad hoc information sharing solutions based on Web 2.0 social networks, mashups, blogs, wikis, and data tags are presented and discussed. The underlying technologies of these solutions are isolated and defined, and Sensorpedia is presented as a formalized application for implementing sensor information sharing across large-scale enterprises with incompatible autonomous sensor systems.
Gorman, Bryan L [ORNL; Resseguie, David R [ORNL; Tomkins-Tinch, Christopher H [ORNL
Future Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) will be ubiquitous, large-scale networks interconnected with the existing IP infrastructure. Autonomic functionalities have to be designed in order to reduce the complexity of their operation and management, and support the dissemination of knowledge within a WSN. In this paper a novel protocol for energy efficient deployment, clustering and routing in WSNs is proposed that focuses on the incorporation of autonomic functionalities in the existing approaches. The design of the protocol facilitates the design of innovative applications and services that are based on overlay topologies created through cooperation among the sensor nodes.
Zafeiropoulos, Anastasios; Gouvas, Panagiotis; Liakopoulos, Athanassios; Mentzas, Gregoris; Mitrou, Nikolas
Future Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) will be ubiquitous, large-scale networks interconnected with the existing IP infrastructure. Autonomic functionalities have to be designed in order to reduce the complexity of their operation and management, and support the dissemination of knowledge within a WSN. In this paper a novel protocol for energy efficient deployment, clustering and routing in WSNs is proposed that focuses on the incorporation of autonomic functionalities in the existing approaches. The design of the protocol facilitates the design of innovative applications and services that are based on overlay topologies created through cooperation among the sensor nodes. PMID:22399931
Zafeiropoulos, Anastasios; Gouvas, Panagiotis; Liakopoulos, Athanassios; Mentzas, Gregoris; Mitrou, Nikolas
The Autonomous Sciencecraft Experiment (ASE) will fly onboard the Air Force TechSat 21 constellation of three spacecraft scheduled for launch in 2006. ASE uses onboard continuous planning, robust task and goal-based execution, model-based mode identification and reconfiguration, and onboard machine learning and pattern recognition to radically increase science return by enabling intelligent downlink selection and autonomous retargeting. Demonstration of these capabilities in a flight environment will open up tremendous new opportunities in planetary science, space physics, and earth science that would be unreachable without this technology.
Sherwood, R. L.; Chien, S.; Castano, R.; Rabideau, G.
In contrast to the time-dependent case, the time-t-section of Mañé set of autonomous Lagrangian systems is independent of time, thus, it is nowhere disconnected. This causes some difference in the study of dynamics, for instance, Mather's c-equivalence cannot exist among different cohomology classes if they are not in a flat of the ?-function (cf (Bernard 2002 Ann. Inst. Fourier 52 1533-68.)). In this paper, we show how to construct connecting orbits in autonomous systems, and propose a modified notion of c-equivalence. We also apply the result to construct diffusion orbits in an energy surface.
Li, Xia; Cheng, Chong-Qing
This report documents a 1000-line Symbolics LISP program that automatically calibrates all 15 fluid admittances in KATE's Autonomous Launch Operations (ALO) model. (KATE is Kennedy Space Center's Knowledge-based Autonomous Test Engineer, a diagnosis and r...
Autonomic Computing (AC), a self-managing systems initiative based on the biological metaphor of the autonomic nervous system, is increasingly gaining momentum as the way forward in designing reliable systems. Agent technologies have been identiiied as a ...
R. Sterritt M. Hinchey
This paper describes tickets, a computational mechanism for hard-real-time autonomous resource management. Autonomous spacecraftcontrol can be considered abstractly as a computational process whose outputs are spacecraft commands.
Developing autonomous flying vehicles has been a growing field in aeronautical research within the last decade and will continue into the next century. With concerns about safety, size, and cost of manned aircraft, several autonomous vehicle projects are ...
J. D. Colbourne C. R. Frost M. B. Tischler L. Ciolani R. Sahai C. Tomoshofski T. LaMontagne
This paper describes a method for the design of autonomous spacecraft, based upon behavioral approaches to intelligent robotics. First, a number of previous spacecraft automation projects are reviewed. A methodology for the design of autonomous spacecraft...
C. A. Lindley
This paper describes a new approach in semi-autonomous mobile robots. In this approach the robot has sufficient computerized intelligence to function autonomously under a certain set of conditions, while the local system is a cooperative decision making u...
E. Rogers R. R. Murphy
The objective of this paper is to discuss why computer-based systems should be autonomic, where autonomicity implies self-managing, often conceptualized in terms of being self-configuring, self-healing, self-optimizing, self-protecting and self-aware. We look at motivations for autonomicity, examine how more and more systems are exhibiting autonomic behavior, and finally look at future directions.
Sterritt, Roy; Hinchey, Mike
Autonomic dysfunction is common in parkinsonian syndromes, particularly those involving dysregulation of alpha-synuclein, and may result from neurodegeneration in autonomic regulatory regions of the brain or peripherial autonomic ganglia. The most limiting cardiovascular autonomic dysfunction in these diseases is orthostatic hypotension, which is particularly prominent in multiple system atrophy. Postprandial hypotension and supine hypertension, as well as dopaminergic therapy, often complicate the management of orthostatic hypotension in patients with parkinsonian syndromes. PMID:18540148
Walter, Benjamin L
The concept that multiple system atrophy (MSA, Shy-Drager syndrome) is a disorder of the autonomic nervous system is several decades old. While there has been renewed interest in the movement disorder associated with MSA, two recent consensus statements confirm the centrality of the autonomic disorder to the diagnosis. Here, we reexamine the autonomic pathophysiology in MSA. Whereas MSA is often
Samir M Parikh; André Diedrich; Italo Biaggioni; David Robertson
This paper summarizes the enabling technologies for an autonomous tactical unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). Current technologies are adequate for semi-autonomous UAVs that operate in a relatively structured environment. For tactical UAVs in a rapidly changing uncertain environment the present techniques are inadequate. The essence of autonomous control is rapid in-flight replanning under uncertainty. This is cast as a large optimization
P. R. Chandler; M. Pachter
There have been numerous studies on autonomous learning competence, but most of them deal principally with the introduction and analysis of the theoretical background, application, strategy implementation and course design principles for autonomous language learning. So far no effort has been made to construct an evaluation index system and evaluation model to evaluate EFL learners' autonomous English learning competence in
Weiping Wu; Jinfen Xu
Batteries are an important part in autonomous sensors power supply chain, so extracting all available energy is a determinant runtime affair. Autonomous sensors have a pulsed power consumption profile that causes high voltage drops in high impedance batteries. These voltage drops can make battery voltage go under the specified autonomous sensors' voltage supply range leading to a runtime reduction from
Maria Teresa Penella; Manel Gasulla
Pollinator unpredictability favors evolutionary shifts from outcrossing to autonomous selfing, which provides reproductive assurance. Our goal was to quantify the reproductive assurance benefit of autonomous selfing and the stochastic nature of pollinator- mediated pollen receipt using three wild populations of the annual species Collinsia verna (Scrophulariaceae) over three years. The timing of autonomous self-pollination in C. verna ranges from competing
Susan Kalisz; Donna W. Vogler
An autonomous navigation and guidance system scheme for pinpoint lunar soft landing is studied in this paper. First, the descriptions of outline of lunar soft landing process are provided. Second, a GNC system scheme for lunar soft landing spacecraft is described. Third, the autonomous navigation based on measurement-updated IMU for lunar soft landing is presented. Fourth, the autonomous explicit guidance
Xiangyu Huang; Dayi Wang
Autonomous robotic wheelchairs play important roles to disabled persons or elders. In general, an autonomous robotic wheelchair includes the techniques of obstacle sensing and avoidance, local path navigation, and friendly interactions with users when compared to conventional powered wheelchairs. Most of researches on autonomous robotic wheelchairs used the personal computer as the supervisory controller since its powerful computing capacity and
Chung-Hsien Kuo; Hung-Wen Yeh; Chin-En Wu; Ko-Ming Hsiao
Detecting rocks in images is a valuable capability for autonomous planetary science. Rock detection facilitates selective data collection and return. It also assists with image analysis on Earth. This work reviews seven rock detection algorithms from the autonomous science literature. We evaluate each algorithm with respect to several autonomous geology applications. Tests show the algorithms' performance on Mars Exploration Rover
David R. Thompson; Rebecca Castano
This thesis was part of the ongoing research conducted at the Naval Postgraduate School to achieve greater collaboration between heterogeneous autonomous vehicles. The research addresses optimal control issues in the collaboration between an Unmanned Aeri...
N. S. Phang
Human world is becoming more and more dependent on computers and information technology (IT). The autonomic capabilities in computers and IT have become the need of the day. These capabilities in software and systems increase performance, accuracy, availability and reliability with less or no human intervention (HI). Database has become the integral part of information system in most of the
Basit Raza; Abdul Mateen; Muhammad Sher; Mian Muhammad Awais; Tauqeer Hussain
We study the existence of periodic solutions for a second order non-autonomous dynamical system containing variable kinetic energy terms. Our assumptions balance the interaction between the kinetic energy and the potential energy with neither one dominating the other. We study sublinear problems and the existence of non-constant solutions.
Pipan, John; Schechter, Martin
With recent advances in battery capacity and the development of hydrogen fuel cells, autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs) are being used to undertake longer missions that were previously performed by manned or tethered vehicles. As a result, more advanced navigation systems are needed to maintain an accurate position over a larger operational area. The accuracy of the navigation system is critical
Luke Stutters; Honghai Liu; Carl Tiltman; David J. Brown
A major goal of the education of the gifted and talented is the development of the student as an independent, self-directed life-long learner. In other words, to help students develop as autonomous learners, with the appropriate skills, concepts, and attitudes necessary for their journeys. This is a complex task. The concepts of curriculum…
The Autonomous Sciencecraft Constellation flight demonstration (ASC) will fly onboard the Air Forces's TechSat-21 constellation. Demonstration of its capabilities in a flight environment will open up tremendous new opportunities in planetary science, space physics, and earth science that would be unreadable without this technology.
Chien, S.; Sherwood, R.; Burl, M.; Knight, R.; Rabideau, G.; Engelhardt, B.; Davies, A.; Zetocha, P.; Wainright, R.; Klupar, P.; Cappelaere, P.; Williams, B.; Surka, D.; Greeley, R.; Baker, V.
For autonomous helicopter ?ight, it is common to separate the ?ight control problem into an inner loop that controls attitude and an outer loop that controls the translational trajectory of the helicopter. In previous work, dynamic inversion and neural-network-based adaptation was used to increase performance of the attitude control system and the method of pseudocontrol hedging (PCH) was used to
Eric N. Johnson; Suresh K. Kannany
We present the design and implementation of an omnidirectionalvision system used for sideways-looking sensingon an autonomous helicopter. To demonstrate the capabilitiesof the system, a visual servoing task was designedwhich required the helicopter to locate and move towardsthe centroid of a number of visual targets. Results are presentedshowing that the task was successfully completedby a Pioneer ground robot equipped with the
Stefan Hrabar; Gaurav S. Sukhatme
Autonomous unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) require avionics systems that enable them to maintain a stable attitude and to follow a desired flight path. This paper considers the design and development of such an avionics system that provides navigational and terrain information to the flight computer of a rotorcraft UAV. The process includes the design and testing of flight hardware and
Joerg S. Dittrich; Eric N. Johnson
As autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs) are becoming routinely used in an exploratory context for ocean science, the goal of visually augmented navigation (VAN) is to improve the near-seafloor navigation precision of such vehicles without imposing the burden of having to deploy additional infrastructure. This is in contrast to traditional acoustic long baseline navigation techniques, which require the deployment, calibration, and
Ryan M. Eustice; Oscar Pizarro; Hanumant Singh
To make the transition from a technological curiosity to productive tools, humanoid robots will require key advances in many areas, including, mechanical design, sensing, embedded avionics, power, and navigation. Using the NASA Johnson Space Center's Robonaut as a testbed, the DARPA mobile autonomous robot software (MARS) humanoids team is investigating technologies that will enable humanoid robots to work effectively with
WILLIAM BLUETHMANN; ROBERT AMBROSE; MYRON DIFTLER; ERIC HUBER; ANDY FAGG; MICHAEL ROSENSTEIN; ROBERT PLATT; RODERIC GRUPEN; CYNTHIA BREAZEAL; ANDREW BROOKS; ANDREA LOCKERD; R. ALAN PETERS; O. CHAD JENKINS; MAJA MATARIC; M. Bugajska
Spilled oil damages not only the ocean environment but also the regional economy. In order to minimize such damages we are now developing a spilled oil tracking autonomous buoy system. The buoys used in this system are expected to send their location, and the meteorological and oceanographic data around them, to the land base in real-time while they drift with
Hidetaka Senga; Naomi Kato; Asuka Ito; Hiroki Niou; Muneo Yoshie; Isamu Fujita; Kazuyuki Igarashi; Etsuro Okuyama
The computer programs which control autonomous mobile robots can make use of fuzzy processing and computing with words in order to extend their capabilities by allowing them to be less literal and exact match oriented. Both sensor data interpretation and planned activities subtleties benefit from fuzzy inexact processing.(1) The sciences of astronomy and physics have long used conceptual metaphor productively,
Eleven states have established autonomous professional standards boards responsible for teacher licensure. Supporters of these boards feel that they create higher standards than state boards of education do, are better able to address complex issues related to teachers and teaching, and are an important statewide component in the nationwide effort…
Suarez, Tanya M.; And Others
Abstract A brief introduction to the main ideas in Autonomous Con - trol Systems is rst given and certain important issues in modeling, anal - ysis and design are discussed Control systems with high degree of auton - omy should perform well under signi cant uncertainties in the system and environment for extended periods of time, and they must be
James A. Stiver; Michael Lemmon; Panos J. Antsaklis
An autonomous underwater robot named “Twin-Burger” was developed as a versatile test bed to establish the techniques which realize intelligent robot behaviors. The robot was designed to have necessary functions for complex tasks including cooperative task execution with other robots and divers. The first robot “Twin-Burger I” was completed and launched in November 1992. This paper describes hardware and software
Teruo Fujii; Tamaki Ura
Abstract To be maximally e ective, autonomous agents such as robots must be able both to react appropriately in dynamic environments and to plan new courses of action in novel situations Reliable planning requires accurate models of the e ects of actions| models which are often more appropriately learned through experience than designed This thesis describes TRAIL (Teleo - Reactive
S. S. Benson
Nearly all metals and their alloys are subject to corrosion that causes them to lose their structural integrity or other critical functionality. Protective coatings are the most commonly used method of corrosion control. However, progressively stricter environmental regulations have resulted in the ban of many commercially available corrosion protective coatings due to the harmful effects of their solvents or corrosion inhibitors. This work concerns the development of a multifunctional smart coating for the autonomous control of corrosion. This coating is being developed to have the inherent ability to detect the chemical changes associated with the onset of corrosion and respond autonomously to indicate it and control it. The multi-functionality of the coating is based on microencapsulation technology specifically designed for corrosion control applications. This design has, in addition to all the advantages of existing microcapsulation designs, the corrosion controlled release function that triggers the delivery of corrosion indicators and inhibitors on demand, only when and where needed. Microencapsulation of self-healing agents for autonomous repair of mechanical damage to the coating is also being pursued. Corrosion indicators, corrosion inhibitors, as well as self-healing agents, have been encapsulated and dispersed into several paint systems to test the corrosion detection, inhibition, and self-healing properties of the coating. Key words: Corrosion, coating, autonomous corrosion control, corrosion indication, corrosion inhibition, self-healing coating, smart coating, multifunctional coating, microencapsulation.
Calle, Luz M.; Li, Wenyan; Buhrow, Jerry W.; Jolley, Scott t.
This paper describes the development, flight-testing and demonstration of technologies for the autonomous landing of a Yamaha RMAX helicopter at noncooperative sites without the aid of GPS. The Yamaha RMAX used for these flight trials has been modified in...
C. T. Theodore M. B. Tischler
Work was performed during a study program to define the parameters of a low duty cycle orbital space radar altimeter which could be used to update the autonomous navigation of earth satellites without betraying the satellite location. This report also con...
G. A. Murdock W. Pagels
A 4-year-old Jack Russell terrier was presented with an array of clinical signs suggestive of autonomic dysfunction. Many of the clinical signs were consistent with a diagnosis of dysautonomia; however, both chronicity and resolution of signs contradicted a diagnosis of this disease.
Caines, Deanne; Pinard, Chantale L.; Kruth, Stephen; Orr, Jeremy; James, Fiona
Periods of bond formation are accompanied by physiological and emotional changes, yet, little is known about the effects of falling in love on the individual's physiological response to emotions. We examined autonomic reactivity to the presentation of negative and positive films in 112 young adults, including 57 singles and 55 new lovers who began a romantic relationship 2.5 months prior
Inna Schneiderman; Yael Zilberstein-Kra; James F. Leckman; Ruth Feldman
This paper describes a project designed to investigate and demonstrate communication between two autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs). The basic concept of multiple cooperating AUVs implies that these systems must, of necessity be able to communicate with each other in some meaningful way. This paper presents the results of in-water field experiments in which two AUV systems were able to communicate
Steven G. Chappell; James C. Jalbert; P. Pietryka; J. Duchesney
The high-bandwidth digital radio link between a mobile robot and its remote control station degrades quickly as the robot penetrates the interior of a building or becomes shielded by intervening terrain. This paper describes a current project that uses mobile autonomous communication relay nodes to overcome this problem. Each node is a small slave robot equipped with sonar, ladar, and
H. G. Nguyen; N. Pezeshkian; M. Raymond; J. M. Spector; Anoop Gupta
A novel method was developed for locating and allowing gliders to stay in thermals (convective updrafts). The method was applied to a 5 kg, glider, called ALOFT (autonomous locator of thermals), that was entered in the 2008 Montague Cross-Country Challenge held on 13-15 June 2008 in Montague, California. In this competition, RC (remote controlled) gliders in the 5 kg class competed on the basis of speed and distance. ALOFT was the first known autonomously soaring aircraft to enter a soaring competition and its entry provided a valuable comparison between the effectiveness of manual soaring and autonomous soaring. ALOFT placed third in the competition in overall points, outperforming manually-flown aircraft in its ability to center and utilize updrafts, especially at higher altitudes and in the presence of wind, to fly more optimal airspeeds, and to fly directly between turn points. The results confirm that autonomous soaring is a bona fide engineering sub-discipline, which is expected to be of interest to engineers who might find this has some utility in the aviation industry.
Edwards, Daniel J.
A novel approach for the autonomous virulence adaptation (AVA) of competing populations in a coevolutionary optimization framework is presented. Previous work has demon- strated that setting an appropriate virulence, v, of populations accelerates coevolutionary optimization by avoiding detrimental periods of disengagement. However, since the likelihood of disen- gagement varies both between systems and over time, choosing the ideal value of
John Cartlidge; Djamel Ait-Boudaoud
Six male patients with narcolepsy for several years, were studied without and with amphetamine in order to evaluate possible abnormalities in autonomic control of the cardiovascular system. Studies were made of (1) heart rate and blood flow in the resting forearm during contralateral isometric handgrip, (2) respiratory sinus arrhythmia and (3) heart rate response to the Valsalva manoeuvre. The patients
C Sachs; L Kaijser
Original and published data on the antimutagenic role of autonomous 3' ? 5'-exonucleases (AE) are analyzed. AE are not bound covalently to DNA polymerases but are often involved in replicative complexes. AE overproduction in bacterial cells is accompanied by a sharp suppression of mutagenesis, whereas AE inactivation in bacteria and higher fungi results in the increase in mutation rates by
V. M. Krutyakov
This paper is to present the design, development and prototyping of an electrically actuated thruster as a direct drive propulsion system based on a 3-phase permanent magnet brushless machine for an autonomous underwater vehicle. The non-linear design and analysis of the permanent magnet brushless motor are entirely performed in 2-d finite element method. The motor is then coupled directly to
D. Ishak; N. A. A. Manap; M. S. Ahmad; M. R. Arshad
Hybrid adaptive control of autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) is investigated. Dynamics of AUV vary by change in operating conditions and even theoretically or experimentally driven dynamical coefficients reflect an approximate to the exact ones. Adaptive control technique is employed to handle the uncertainty problems in the system dynamics. In the applied hybrid adaptive control, the system is simulated in a
S. S. Tabaii; F. El-Hawary; M. El-Hawary
Systems that act autonomously in the environment have to be able to integrate three basic behaviors: planning, execution, and learn- ing. Planning involves describing a set of actions that will allow the au- tonomous system to achieve high utility (a similar concept to goals in high-level classical planning) in an unknown world. Execution deals with the interaction with the environment
Ramón García-martínez; Daniel Borrajo
One aspect of autonomic computing is the abil- ity to identify, separate and automatically tune parameters related to performance, security, ro- bustness and other properties of a software sys- tem. Often the response to events aecting these properties consists of adjusting tuneable system parameters such as table sizes, time- out limits, restart checks and so on. One can think of
Elizabeth Dancy; James R. Cordy
The Meter Class Autonomous Telescope (MCAT) is the newest optical sensor dedicated to NASA s mission to characterize the space debris environment. It is the successor to a series of optical telescopes developed and operated by the JSC Orbital Debris Progr...
E. G. Stansbery H. M. Cowardin L. F. Pace P. Hickson S. M. Lederer
We are interested in blimps. A blimp is a small airship that has no metal framework and collapses when deflated. In this paper, dynamic modeling of autonomous blimps is presented, using the Newton-Euler approach. This study discusses the motion in 6 degrees of freedom since 6 independent coordinates are necessary to determine the position and orientation of this vehicle.
Yasmina BESTAOUI; Tarek HAMEL
The observation of orthostatic hypotension in an index case of manganese toxicity lead to this prospective attempt to evaluate cardiovascular autonomic function and cognitive and emotional neurotoxicity in eight manganese alloy welders and machinists. The subjects consisted of a convenience sample consisting of an index case of manganese dementia, his four co-workers in a “frog shop” for gouging, welding, and
William W. Barrington; Carol R. Angle; Nancy K. Willcockson; Marjorie A. Padula; Thomas Korn
This article discusses the software architecture of an autonomous robotic system designed to explore and map abandoned mines. A new set of software tools is presented, enabling robots to acquire maps of unprecedented size and accuracy. On 30 May 2003, the robot \\
SEBASTIAN THRUN; SCOTT THAYER; WILLIAM WHITTAKER; CHRISTOPHER BAKER; WOLFRAM BURGARD; DAVID FERGUSON; DIRK HÄHNEL; D. Montemerlo; AARON MORRIS; ZACHARY OMOHUNDRO; CHARLIE REVERTE; WARREN WHITTAKER
Abandoned mines pose significant threats to society, yet a large fraction of them lack ac- curate maps. This article discusses the software architecture of an autonomous robotic system designed to explore and map abandoned mines. We have built a robot capable of au- tonomously exploring abandoned mines. A new set of software tools is presented, enabling robots to acquire maps
Sebastian Thrun; Scott Thayer; William Whittaker; Christopher Baker; Wolfram Burgard; David Ferguson; Michael Montemerlo; Aaron Morris; Zachary Omohundro; Charlie Reverte; Warren Whittaker
Unknown, unexplored and abandoned subterranean voids threaten mining operations, surface developments and the environment. Hazards within these spaces preclude human access to create and verify extensive maps or to characterize and analyze the environment. To that end, we have developed a mobile robot capable of autonomously exploring and mapping abandoned mines. To operate without communications in a harsh environment with
Christopher Baker; Aaron Morris; David I. Ferguson; Scott Thayer; Warren Whittaker; Zachary Omohundro; Carlos F. Reverte; Dirk Hähnel; Sebastian Thrun
The ALHAT project is funded by NASA to develop an integrated AGNC (autonomous guidance, navigation and control) hardware and software system capable of detecting and avoiding surface hazards and guiding humans and cargo safely, precisely and repeatedly to designated lunar landing sites. There are important interdependencies driving the design of a lunar landing system including such things as lander hazard
Chirold D. Epp; Edward A. Robertson; T. Brady
This paper discusses why self-assessment is an important tool in the toolkit of autonomous language learners. It can be used both as a testing device leading to accred- itation and as a device for personal self-monitoring. It provides the learner with imme- diate feedback to determine language proficiency and to reflect on learning strategies. There are great benefits to be
This paper presents a methodology, called CAPTAIN, to build adaptive agents in an integrated framework that facilitates both building agents through knowledge elicitation and interactive apprenticeship learning from subject matter experts, and making these agents adapt and improve during their normal use through autonomous learning. Such an automated adaptive agent consists of an adversarial planner and a muitistrategy learner. CAPTAIN
Gheorghe Tecuci I; Michael R. Hieb; David Hille; J. Mark Pullen
Periods of bond formation are accompanied by physiological and emotional changes, yet, little is known about the effects of falling in love on the individual's physiological response to emotions. We examined autonomic reactivity to the presentation of negative and positive films in 112 young adults, including 57 singles and 55 new lovers who began a romantic relationship 2.5 months prior to the experiment Autonomic reactivity was measured by Respiratory Sinus Arrhythmia (RSA) to two baseline emotionally neutral films, two negative films, and two positive films. Results demonstrated that RSA in singles decreased during the presentation of negative emotions, indicating physiological stress response. However, no such decrease was found among new lovers, pointing to more optimal vagal regulation during the period of falling in love. Autonomic reactivity, indexed by RSA decrease from the positive to the negative films, was greater among singles as compared to lovers, suggesting that love buffers against autonomic stress and facilitates emotion regulation. Findings suggest that vagal regulation may be one mechanism through which love and attachment reduce stress and promote well-being and health. PMID:22142209
Schneiderman, Inna; Zilberstein-Kra, Yael; Leckman, James F; Feldman, Ruth
This paper examines control algorithm requirements for autonomous robot navigation outside laboratory environments. Three aspects of navigation are considered: navigation control in explored terrain, environment interactions with robot sensors, and navigation control in unanticipated situations. Major navigation methods are presented and relevance of traditional human learning theory is discussed. A new navigation technique linking graph theory and incidental learning is introduced.
We study the movement of an autonomous roving object (ARO) having no knowledge of its territory, very limited memory, and limited intelligence. The ARO lives at discrete time steps in a two-dimensional universe consisting of discrete cells. The mission of the ARO is to cover its entire universe, without leaving any cell un-visited. We study the degree of success, that
Bruno N. Di Stefano; Anna T. Lawniczak
Urban settings represent a challenging environment for teleoperated and autonomous robot systems. We present a new design for a highly terrain adaptable robot system, detailing the major mechanical, electrical and control systems. The Pandora robot system is a tracked robot system with self-contained computing, power and wireless communications systems. A sensor suite including stereoscopic and panospheric cameras, light-strippers and acoustic
Hagen Schempf; Edward Mutschler; C. Piepgras; J. Warwick; Brian Chemel; Scott K. Boehmke; William Crowley; Robert Fuchs; J. Guyot
We show that the Aubry sets, the Mañé sets and the barrier functions are the same for two commuting autonomous Tonelli Hamiltonians. We also show the quasi-linearity of ?-functions from the viewpoint of dynamics and the existence of common C critical subsolution for their associated Hamilton-Jacobi equations.
Cui, Xiaojun; Li, Ji
We are developing onboard planning and execution technologies to provide robust and opportunistic mission operations for a potential Titan aerobot. Aerobot have the potential for collecting a vast amount of high priority science data. However, to be effective, an aerobot must address several challenges including communication constraints, extended periods without contact with Earth, uncertain and changing environmental conditions, maneuverability constraints and potentially short-lived science opportunities. We are developing the AerOASIS system to develop and test technology to support autonomous science operations for a potential Titan Aerobot. The planning and execution component of AerOASIS is able to generate mission operations plans that achieve science and engineering objectives while respecting mission and resource constraints as well as adapting the plan to respond to new science opportunities. Our technology leverages prior work on the OASIS system for autonomous rover exploration. In this paper we describe how the OASIS planning component was adapted to address the unique challenges of a Titan Aerobot and we describe a field demonstration of the system with the JPL prototype aerobot.
Gaines, Daniel M.; Estlin, Tara; Schaffer, Steve; Castano, Rebecca; Elfes, Alberto
Summary Background Many organisms, from bacteria to human hunter-gatherers, use specialized random walk strategies to explore their environment. Such behaviors are an efficient stratagem for sampling the environment and usually consist of an alternation between straight runs and turns that redirect these runs. Drosophila larvae execute an exploratory routine of this kind that consists of sequences of straight crawls, pauses, turns, and redirected crawls. Central pattern generating networks underlying rhythmic movements are distributed along the anteroposterior axis of the nervous system. The way in which the operation of these networks is incorporated into extended behavioral routines such as substrate exploration has not yet been explored. In particular, the part played by the brain in dictating the sequence of movements required is unknown. Results We report the use of a genetic method to block synaptic activity acutely in the brain and subesophageal ganglia (SOG) of larvae during active exploratory behavior. We show that the brain and SOG are not required for the normal performance of an exploratory routine. Alternation between crawls and turns is an intrinsic property of the abdominal and/or thoracic networks. The brain modifies this autonomous routine during goal-directed movements such as those of chemotaxis. Nonetheless, light avoidance behavior can be mediated in the absence of brain activity solely by the sensorimotor system of the abdomen and thorax. Conclusions The sequence of movements for substrate exploration is an autonomous capacity of the thoracic and abdominal nervous system. The brain modulates this exploratory routine in response to environmental cues.
Berni, Jimena; Pulver, Stefan R.; Griffith, Leslie C.; Bate, Michael
A fuzzy logic based expert system for resource management has been developed that automatically allocates electronic attack (EA) resources in real-time over many dissimilar autonomous naval platforms defending their group against attackers. The platforms can be very general, e.g., ships, planes, robots, land based facilities, etc. Potential foes the platforms deal with can also be general. This paper provides an overview of the resource manager including the four fuzzy decision trees that make up the resource manager; the fuzzy EA model; genetic algorithm based optimization; co-evolutionary data mining through gaming; and mathematical, computational and hardware based validation. Methods of automatically designing new multi-platform EA techniques are considered. The expert system runs on each defending platform rendering it an autonomous system requiring no human intervention. There is no commanding platform. Instead the platforms work cooperatively as a function of battlespace geometry; sensor data such as range, bearing, ID, uncertainty measures for sensor output; intelligence reports; etc. Computational experiments will show the defending networked platform's ability to self- organize. The platforms' ability to self-organize is illustrated through the output of the scenario generator, a software package that automates the underlying data mining problem and creates a computer movie of the platforms' interaction for evaluation.
Smith, James F.
The ocean is by far the largest carbon reservoir in rapid communication with the atmosphere. Understanding both ocean carbon chemistry and ocean carbon biology are critical for carbon prediction. Marine carbon biomass accounts for roughly 50% of global carbon photosynthesis and a ~10 Pg C/year particulate carbon flux through 100 m into the deep sea. The latter export is commonly referred to as the biological carbon pump. The entire plant biomass of the ocean turns over on week time scales. We lack predictive skill for the biological pump mainly because observations of the biological pump have to be tied to ships which are unable to remain at sea at any location longer than several weeks. Since 2001, a dozen low cost, long lived, robotic Carbon Explorers have been deployed to operate in the ocean for year-long time scales and return real-time information on the daily variation of Particulate Organic Carbon (POC) concentration of the upper 1000 m of the ocean. On June 22 2007 the next generation of Explorer, the Carbon Flux Explorer (CFE) was recovered after a successful two day test and routine operation as deep as 800 m in waters of the San Clemente Basin off shore of San Diego. The CFE represents integration of the Optical Sedimentation Recorder (engineered at Berkeley Laboratory) and the Sounding Ocean Lagrangian Observer (SOLO) profiling float engineered at Scripps. Every eight hours, the CFE surfaced and transmitted in real time engineering and position information in minutes to shore and ship via Iridium satellite link. This fully autonomous and robotic free vehicle/instrument is designed to follow (at hourly resolution) variations of particulate organic and inorganic carbon sedimentation for seasons. Beyond enhanced predictability of the ocean biological carbon pump brought by such enhanced technology, it is fully feasible in the next decade to implement a low cost real-time ocean carbon observing system (a CARBON-ARGO), capable of real time assessment of ocean carbon flux which when coupled with atmospheric CO2 measurements will constrain the balance between carbon emissions and natural and human mediated carbon sinks on land.
Bishop, J. K.
Caves on other planetary bodies offer sheltered habitat for future human explorers and numerous clues to a planet's past for scientists. While recent orbital imagery provides exciting new details about cave entrances on the Moon and Mars, the interiors of these caves are still unknown and not observable from orbit. Multi-robot teams offer unique solutions for exploration and modeling subsurface voids during precursor missions. Robot teams that are diverse in terms of size, mobility, sensing, and capability can provide great advantages, but this diversity, coupled with inherently distinct low-level behavior architectures, makes coordination a challenge. This paper presents a framework that consists of an autonomous frontier and capability-based task generator, a distributed market-based strategy for coordinating and allocating tasks to the different team members, and a communication paradigm for seamless interaction between the different robots in the system. Robots have different sensors, (in the representative robot team used for testing: 2D mapping sensors, 3D modeling sensors, or no exteroceptive sensors), and varying levels of mobility. Tasks are generated to explore, model, and take science samples. Based on an individual robot's capability and associated cost for executing a generated task, a robot is autonomously selected for task execution. The robots create coarse online maps and store collected data for high resolution offline modeling. The coordination approach has been field tested at a mock cave site with highly-unstructured natural terrain, as well as an outdoor patio area. Initial results are promising for applicability of the proposed multi-robot framework to exploration and modeling of planetary caves.
Husain, Ammar; Jones, Heather; Kannan, Balajee; Wong, Uland; Pimentel, Tiago; Tang, Sarah; Daftry, Shreyansh; Huber, Steven; Whittaker, William L.
Bad bedfellows – autonomic dysfunction, inflammation, and diabetes! Are they related? How? Evidence suggests the activation of inflammatory cytokines like IL-6 and TNF? in newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes and that the inflammatory change correlates with abnormalities in sympathovagal balance. Dysfunction of the autonomic system predicts cardiovascular risk and sudden death in patients with type 2 diabetes. It occurs in prediabetes, providing opportunities for early intervention. The importance of recognizing autonomic dysfunction as a predictor of morbidity and mortality with intensification of treatment suggests that all patients with type 2 diabetes at onset, and those with type 1 diabetes after 5?years should be screened for autonomic imbalance. These tests can be performed at the bedside with real time output of information – within the scope of the practicing physician – facilitates diagnosis and allows the application of sound strategies for management. The window of opportunity for aggressive control of all the traditional risk factors for cardiovascular events or sudden death with intensification of therapy is with short duration diabetes, the absence of cardiovascular disease, and a history of severe hypoglycemic events. To this list we can now add autonomic dysfunction and neuropathy, which have become the most powerful predictors of risk for mortality. It seems prudent that practitioners should be encouraged to become familiar with this information and apply risk stratification in clinical practice. After all, how difficult is it to ask patients “do you have numb feet?” and to determine their heart rate variability – it could be lifesaving. Ultimately methods to reset the hypothalamus and the inflammatory cascade are needed if we are to impact the care of patients with this compendium of conditions.
Vinik, Aaron I.
The present review assesses the current state of literature defining integrative autonomic-immune physiological processing, focusing on studies that have employed electrophysiological, pharmacological, molecular biological, and central nervous system experimental approaches. Central autonomic neural networks are informed of peripheral immune status via numerous communicating pathways, including neural and non-neural. Cytokines and other immune factors affect the level of activity and responsivity of discharges in sympathetic and parasympathetic nerves innervating diverse targets. Multiple levels of the neuraxis contribute to cytokine-induced changes in efferent parasympathetic and sympathetic nerve outflows, leading to modulation of peripheral immune responses. The functionality of local sympathoimmune interactions depends on the microenvironment created by diverse signaling mechanisms involving integration between sympathetic nervous system neurotransmitters and neuromodulators; specific adrenergic receptors; and the presence or absence of immune cells, cytokines, and bacteria. Functional mechanisms contributing to the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway likely involve novel cholinergic-adrenergic interactions at peripheral sites, including autonomic ganglion and lymphoid targets. Immune cells express adrenergic and nicotinic receptors. Neurotransmitters released by sympathetic and parasympathetic nerve endings bind to their respective receptors located on the surface of immune cells and initiate immune-modulatory responses. Both sympathetic and parasympathetic arms of the autonomic nervous system are instrumental in orchestrating neuroimmune processes, although additional studies are required to understand dynamic and complex adrenergic-cholinergic interactions. Further understanding of regulatory mechanisms linking the sympathetic nervous, parasympathetic nervous, and immune systems is critical for understanding relationships between chronic disease development and immune-associated changes in autonomic nervous system function. © 2014 American Physiological Society. Compr Physiol 4:1177-1200, 2014. PMID:24944034
Kenney, M J; Ganta, C K
Autonomic Computing (AC), a self-managing systems initiative based on the biological metaphor of the autonomic nervous system, is increasingly gaining momentum as the way forward in designing reliable systems. Agent technologies have been identified as a key enabler for engineering autonomicity in systems, both in terms of retrofitting autonomicity into legacy systems and designing new systems. The AC initiative provides an opportunity to consider other biological systems and principles in seeking new design strategies. This paper reports on one such investigation; utilizing the apoptosis metaphor of biological systems to provide a dynamic health indicator signal between autonomic agents.
Sterritt, Roy; Hinchey, Mike
Surface science sample acquisition is a critical activity within any planetary and lunar exploration mission, and our research is focused upon the design, implementation, experimentation and demonstration of an onboard autonomous surface sample acquisition capability for a rover equipped with a robotic arm upon which are mounted appropriate science instruments. Images captured by a rover stereo camera system can be processed using shape from stereo methods and a digital elevation model (DEM) generated. We have developed a terrain feature identification algorithm that can determine autonomously from DEM data suitable regions for instrument placement and/or surface sample acquisition. Once identified, surface normal data can be generated autonomously which are then used to calculate an arm trajectory for instrument placement and sample acquisition. Once an instrument placement and sample acquisition trajectory has been calculated, a collision detection algorithm is required to ensure the safe operation of the arm during sample acquisition.We have developed a novel adaptive 'bounding spheres' approach to this problem. Once potential science targets have been identified, and these are within the reach of the arm and will not cause any undesired collision, then the 'cost' of executing the sample acquisition activity is required. Such information which includes power expenditure and duration can be used to select the 'best' target from a set of potential targets. We have developed a science sample acquisition resource requirements calculation that utilises differential inverse kinematics methods to yield a high fidelity result, thus improving upon simple 1st order approximations. To test our algorithms a new Planetary Analogue Terrain (PAT) Laboratory has been created that has a terrain region composed of Mars Soil Simulant-D from DLR Germany, and rocks that have been fully characterised in the laboratory. These have been donated by the UK Planetary Analogue Field Study network, and constitute the science targets for our autonomous sample acquisition work. Our PAT Lab. terrain has been designed to support our new rover chassis which is based upon the ExoMars rover Concept-E mechanics which were investigated during the ESA ExoMars Phase A study. The rover has 6 wheel drives, 6 wheels steering, and a 6 wheel walking capability. Mounted on the rover chassis is the UWA robotic arm and mast. We have designed and built a PanCam system complete with a computer controlled pan and tilt mechanism. The UWA PanCam is based upon the ExoMars PanCam (Phase A study) and hence supports two Wide Angle Cameras (WAC - 64 degree FOV), and a High Resolution Camera (HRC - 5 degree FOV). WAC separation is 500 mm. Software has been developed to capture images which form the data input into our on-board autonomous surface sample acquisition algorithms.
Barnes, D. P.
Supine hypertension is difficult to manage in patients with pure autonomic failure because treatment can worsen orthostatic hypotension. Supine hypertension in pure autonomic failure has been associated with left ventricular hypertrophy, but end-organ damage in the kidney has not been assessed. We reviewed hemodynamic and laboratory data of 64 male patients with pure autonomic failure, 69±11 (mean±SD) years old. Systolic blood pressure fell by 67±40 mmHg within 10 minutes of standing, with an inappropriately low 13±11 beats per minute increase in heart rate. Plasma norepinephrine levels were below normal (0.62±0.32 nmol/L supine and 1.28±1.25 nmol/L standing). A control dataset of 75 males (67±12 years) was obtained from a de-identified version of Vanderbilt University Medical Center's electronic medical record database. Compared with controls, pure autonomic failure patients had lower hemoglobin (8.3±0.9 mmol/L vs. 9.3±0.8 mmol/L, P<0.001), packed cell volume (0.40±0.04 vs. 0.45±0.04, P<0.001) and red blood cell count (4.4±0.5 × 1012 cells/L vs. 5.0±0.5 × 1012 cells/L, P<0.001). Serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen were elevated in patients. Forty-eight percent of patients with pure autonomic failure had supine hypertension (supine systolic blood pressure?150 mmHg). Serum creatinine was higher in patients with supine hypertension (133±44 ?mol/L vs. 106±27 ?mol/L, P=0.021), and estimated glomerular filtration rate was lower (57±22 mL/min/1.73m2 vs. 70±20 mL/min/1.73m2, P=0.022), compared with patients who did not have supine hypertension. These findings may indicate that renal function is diminished in pure autonomic failure in association with supine hypertension.
Garland, Emily M.; Gamboa, Alfredo; Okamoto, Luis; Raj, Satish R.; Black, Bonnie K.; Davis, Thomas L.; Biaggioni, Italo; Robertson, David
An autonomous robotic refuelling system is being developed to achieve rapid aircraft turnaround, notably during combat operations. The proposed system includes a gantry positioner with sufficient reach to position a robotic arm that performs the refuelling tasks; a six degree of freedom manipulator equipped with a remote center of compliance, torque sensor, and a gripper that can handle standard tools; a computer vision system to locate and guide the refuelling nozzle, inspect the nozzle, and avoid collisions; and an operator interface with video and graphics display. The control system software will include components designed for trajectory planning and generation, collision detection, sensor interfacing, sensory processing, and human interfacing. The robotic system will be designed so that upgrading to perform additional tasks will be relatively straightforward.
Williams, O. R.; Jackson, E.; Rueb, K.; Thompson, B.; Powell, K.
Star trackers are opto-electronic sensors used onboard of satellites for the autonomous inertial attitude determination. During the last years, star trackers became more and more important in the field of the attitude and orbit control system (AOCS) sensors. High performance star trackers are based up today on charge coupled device (CCD) optical camera heads. The Jena-Optronik GmbH is active in the field of opto-electronic sensors like star trackers since the early 80-ties. Today, with the product family ASTRO5, ASTRO10 and ASTRO15, all marked segments like earth observation, scientific applications and geo-telecom are supplied to European and Overseas customers. A new generation of star trackers can be designed based on the APS detector technical features. The measurement performance of the current CCD based star trackers can be maintained, the star tracker functionality, reliability and robustness can be increased while the unit costs are saved.
Autonomous Instrument Placement (AutoPlace) is onboard software that enables a Mars Exploration Rover to act autonomously in using its manipulator to place scientific instruments on or near designated rock and soil targets. Prior to the development of AutoPlace, it was necessary for human operators on Earth to plan every motion of the manipulator arm in a time-consuming process that included downlinking of images from the rover, analysis of images and creation of commands, and uplinking of commands to the rover. AutoPlace incorporates image analysis and planning algorithms into the onboard rover software, eliminating the need for the downlink/uplink command cycle. Many of these algorithms are derived from the existing groundbased image analysis and planning algorithms, with modifications and augmentations for onboard use.
Leger, P. Chris; Maimone, Mark
Previous studies have already demonstrated that auditory stimulation with music influences the cardiovascular system. In this study, we described the relationship between musical auditory stimulation and heart rate variability. Searches were performed with the Medline, SciELO, Lilacs and Cochrane databases using the following keywords: “auditory stimulation”, “autonomic nervous system”, “music” and “heart rate variability”. The selected studies indicated that there is a strong correlation between noise intensity and vagal-sympathetic balance. Additionally, it was reported that music therapy improved heart rate variability in anthracycline-treated breast cancer patients. It was hypothesized that dopamine release in the striatal system induced by pleasurable songs is involved in cardiac autonomic regulation. Musical auditory stimulation influences heart rate variability through a neural mechanism that is not well understood. Further studies are necessary to develop new therapies to treat cardiovascular disorders.
Valenti, Vitor E.; Guida, Heraldo L.; Frizzo, Ana C. F.; Cardoso, Ana C. V.; Vanderlei, Luiz Carlos M.; de Abreu, Luiz Carlos
Previous studies have already demonstrated that auditory stimulation with music influences the cardiovascular system. In this study, we described the relationship between musical auditory stimulation and heart rate variability. Searches were performed with the Medline, SciELO, Lilacs and Cochrane databases using the following keywords: "auditory stimulation", "autonomic nervous system", "music" and "heart rate variability". The selected studies indicated that there is a strong correlation between noise intensity and vagal-sympathetic balance. Additionally, it was reported that music therapy improved heart rate variability in anthracycline-treated breast cancer patients. It was hypothesized that dopamine release in the striatal system induced by pleasurable songs is involved in cardiac autonomic regulation. Musical auditory stimulation influences heart rate variability through a neural mechanism that is not well understood. Further studies are necessary to develop new therapies to treat cardiovascular disorders. PMID:22948465
Valenti, Vitor E; Guida, Heraldo L; Frizzo, Ana C F; Cardoso, Ana C V; Vanderlei, Luiz Carlos M; Abreu, Luiz Carlos de
Miniaturization of analytical devices through the advent of microfluidics and micro total analysis systems is an important step forward for applications such as medical diagnostics and environmental monitoring. The development of field-deployable instruments requires that the entire system, including all necessary peripheral components, be miniaturized and packaged in a portable device. A sensor for long-term monitoring of phosphate levels has been developed that incorporates sampling, reagent and waste storage, detection, and wireless communication into a complete, miniaturized system. The device employs a low-power detection and communication system, so the entire instrument can operate autonomously for 7 days on a single rechargeable, 12V battery. In addition, integration of a wireless communication device allows the instrument to be controlled and results to be downloaded remotely. This autonomous system has a limit of detection of 0.3mg/L and a linear dynamic range between 0 and 20mg/L. PMID:19071430
McGraw, Christina M; Stitzel, Shannon E; Cleary, John; Slater, Conor; Diamond, Dermot
The performance of a new type of autonomous solar navigation system is analyzed in this paper. Such efficient autonomous navigation systems will reduce operation costs and alleviate the Deep Space Network workload in future space missions. The method is demonstrated by applying it to the STEREO mission. Orbit determination is simulated through the use of the mission-defined trajectory profile and solar angular data acquired by the on-board science instruments currently being considered. The study shows that the orbit solution derived by this new type of solar navigation system can satisfy the mission's navigation requirements; the position uncertainties obtained in the simulations are well below the mission allowable values, and are comparable to the results obtained with the conventional Doppler tracking system in some cases.
Guo, Yanping; Strikwerda, Thomas E.
A 16-year-old boy had a gradual onset of post-exercise myalgia with progressive fatigue and dizziness. He had bradycardia (37 beats/minute) with low supine and normal standing norepinephrine levels (56 and 311 pg/mL, respectively). He had absent sympathetically mediated vasoconstrictor responses during Valsalva maneuver testing. Circulating ganglionic acetylcholine receptor antibodies were identified. Response was gradual to treatment with intravenous immunoglobulin combined with aggressive symptomatic interventions (permanent pacemaker implantation and treatment with pyridostigmine, midodrine, and modafinil). After the intravenous immunoglobulin treatment, his autoantibody levels decreased and the autonomic abnormalities resolved. After a reconditioning exercise program and eventually undetectable antibody titers, he achieved complete recovery. The patient continued to do well after his pacemaker was removed and his medications were discontinued. Thus, severe isolated sympathetic nervous system failure can occur in adolescents with autoimmune autonomic ganglionopathy, and multifaceted treatment can be effective. PMID:20837310
Fischer, Philip R; Sandroni, Paola; Pittock, Sean J; Porter, Co-burn J; Lehwald, Lenora M; Raj, Satish R
Dryden Flight Research Center has the responsibility for flight testing of advanced remotely piloted research vehicles (RPRV) to explore highly maneuverable aircraft technology, and to test advanced structural concepts, and related aeronautical technologies which can yield important research results with significant cost benefits. The primary purpose is to provide the preliminary design of an upgraded automatic approach and landing control system and flight director display to improve landing performance and reduce pilot workload. A secondary purpose is to determine the feasibility of an onboard autonomous navigation, orbit, and landing capability for safe vehicle recovery in the event of loss of telemetry uplink communication with the vehicles. The current RPRV approach and landing method, the proposed automatic and manual approach and autoland system, and an autonomous navigation, orbit, and landing system concept which is based on existing operational technology are described.
Johnston, Donald E.; Myers, Thomas T.; Zellner, John W.
The goal of the Carnegie Mellon University Autonomous Helicopter Project is to develop a vision-guided robot helicopter that can self-start, take off, safely fly to a designated area, search for and locate a designated object, track or pursue objects, and return home, all "within any weather conditions and using only on-board intelligence and computing power.ÃÂ¯ÃÂ¿ÃÂ½ Recent flight tests of the linear robust controller for the Yamaha R-50 Robotic Helicopter are presented along with some animation videos. Some applications for the technologies are also described and include search and rescue, surveillance, law enforcement, inspection, mapping, and aerial cinematography. In addition, the site discusses some of the capabilities project researchers have developed over the years, such as vision-based stability and control, autonomous takeoff, trajectory following and landing, aerial mapping, and object recognition and manipulation. Publications are listed online and available upon request.
On February 3, 2005, Kennedy Space Center (KSC) conducted the first Autonomous Flight Safety System (AFSS) test on a moving vehicle -- a van driven around the KSC industrial area. A subset of the Phase III design was used consisting of a single computer, GPS receiver, and UPS antenna. The description and results of this road test are described in this report.AFSS is a joint KSC and Wallops Flight Facility project that is in its third phase of development. AFSS is an independent subsystem intended for use with Expendable Launch Vehicles that uses tracking data from redundant onboard sensors to autonomously make flight termination decisions using software-based rules implemented on redundant flight processors. The goals of this project are to increase capabilities by allowing launches from locations that do not have or cannot afford extensive ground-based range safety assets, to decrease range costs, and to decrease reaction time for special situations.
Simpson, James C.; Zoemer, Roger D.; Forney, Chris S.
We have developed and deployed two over-snow autonomous rovers able to conduct remote science campaigns on Polar ice sheets. Yeti is an 80-kg, four-wheel-drive (4WD) battery-powered robot with 3 - 4 hr endurance, and Cool Robot is a 60-kg 4WD solar-powered robot with unlimited endurance during Polar summers. Both robots navigate using GPS waypoint-following to execute pre-planned courses autonomously, and they can each carry or tow 20 - 160 kg instrument payloads over typically firm Polar snowfields. In 2008 - 12, we deployed Yeti to conduct autonomous ground-penetrating radar (GPR) surveys to detect hidden crevasses to help establish safe routes for overland resupply of research stations at South Pole, Antarctica, and Summit, Greenland. We also deployed Yeti with GPR at South Pole in 2011 to identify the locations of potentially hazardous buried buildings from the original 1950's-era station. Autonomous surveys remove personnel from safety risks posed during manual GPR surveys by undetected crevasses or buried buildings. Furthermore, autonomous surveys can yield higher quality and more comprehensive data than manual ones: Yeti's low ground pressure (20 kPa) allows it to cross thinly bridged crevasses or other voids without interrupting a survey, and well-defined survey grids allow repeated detection of buried voids to improve detection reliability and map their extent. To improve survey efficiency, we have automated the mapping of detected hazards, currently identified via post-survey manual review of the GPR data. Additionally, we are developing machine-learning algorithms to detect crevasses autonomously in real time, with reliability potentially higher than manual real-time detection. These algorithms will enable the rover to relay crevasse locations to a base station for near real-time mapping and decision-making. We deployed Cool Robot at Summit Station in 2005 to verify its mobility and power budget over Polar snowfields. Using solar power, this zero-emissions rover could travel more than 500 km per week during Polar summers and provide 100 - 200 W to power instrument payloads to help investigate the atmosphere, magnetosphere, glaciology and sub-glacial geology in Antarctica and Greenland. We are currently upgrading Cool Robot's navigation and solar-power systems and will deploy it during 2013 to map the emissions footprint around Summit Station to demonstrate its potential to execute long-endurance Polar science campaigns. These rovers could assist science traverses to chart safe routes into the interior of Antarctica and Greenland or conduct autonomous, remote science campaigns to extend spatial and temporal coverage for data collection. Our goals include 1,000 - 2,000-km summertime traverses of Antarctica and Greenland, safe navigation through 0.5-m amplitude sastrugi fields, survival in blizzards, and rover-network adaptation to research events of opportunity. We are seeking Polar scientists interested in autonomous, mobile data collection and can adapt the rovers to meet their requirements.
Lever, J. H.; Ray, L. E.; Williams, R. M.; Morlock, A. M.; Burzynski, A. M.
The objective of the autonomous micro-explosive subsurface tracing system is to image the location and geometry of hydraulically induced fractures in subsurface petroleum reservoirs. This system is based on the insertion of a swarm of autonomous micro-explosive packages during the fracturing process, with subsequent triggering of the energetic material to create an array of micro-seismic sources that can be detected and analyzed using existing seismic receiver arrays and analysis software. The project included investigations of energetic mixtures, triggering systems, package size and shape, and seismic output. Given the current absence of any technology capable of such high resolution mapping of subsurface structures, this technology has the potential for major impact on petroleum industry, which spends approximately $1 billion dollar per year on hydraulic fracturing operations in the United States alone.
Engler, Bruce Phillip; Nogan, John; Melof, Brian Matthew; Uhl, James Eugene; Dulleck, George R., Jr.; Ingram, Brian V.; Grubelich, Mark Charles; Rivas, Raul R.; Cooper, Paul W.; Warpinski, Norman Raymond; Kravitz, Stanley H.
Fuzzy logic can be used advantageously in autonomous orbital operations that require the capability of handling imprecise measurements from sensors. Several applications are underway to investigate fuzzy logic approaches and develop guidance and control algorithms for autonomous orbital operations. Translational as well as rotational control of a spacecraft have been demonstrated using space shuttle simulations. An approach to a camera tracking system has been developed to support proximity operations and traffic management around the Space Station Freedom. Pattern recognition and object identification algorithms currently under development will become part of this camera system at an appropriate level in the future. A concept to control environment and life support systems for large Lunar based crew quarters is also under development. Investigations in the area of reinforcement learning, utilizing neural networks, combined with a fuzzy logic controller, are planned as a joint project with the Ames Research Center.
Lea, Robert N.; Jani, Yashvant
The Autonomous Exploration for Gathering Increased Science System (AEGIS) provides automated targeting for remote sensing instruments on the Mars Exploration Rover (MER) mission, which at the time of this reporting has had two rovers exploring the surface of Mars (see figure). Currently, targets for rover remote-sensing instruments must be selected manually based on imagery already on the ground with the operations team. AEGIS enables the rover flight software to analyze imagery onboard in order to autonomously select and sequence targeted remote-sensing observations in an opportunistic fashion. In particular, this technology will be used to automatically acquire sub-framed, high-resolution, targeted images taken with the MER panoramic cameras. This software provides: 1) Automatic detection of terrain features in rover camera images, 2) Feature extraction for detected terrain targets, 3) Prioritization of terrain targets based on a scientist target feature set, and 4) Automated re-targeting of rover remote-sensing instruments at the highest priority target.
Bornstein, Benjamin J.; Castano, Rebecca; Estlin, Tara A.; Gaines, Daniel M.; Anderson, Robert C.; Thompson, David R.; DeGranville, Charles K.; Chien, Steve A.; Tang, Benyang; Burl, Michael C.; Judd, Michele A.
Research in resistant hypertension has again focused on autonomic nervous system denervation – 50 years after it had been stopped due to postural hypotension and availability of newer drugs. These (ganglionic blockers) drugs have all been similarly stopped, due to postural hypotension and yet newer antihypertensive agents. Recent demonstration of the feasibility of limited regional transcatheter sympathetic denervation has excited clinicians due to potential therapeutic implications. Standard use of ambulatory blood pressure recording equipment may alter our understanding of the diagnosis, potential treatment strategies, and health care outcomes – when faced with patients whose office blood pressure remains in the hypertensive range – while under treatment with three antihypertensive drugs at the highest tolerable doses, plus a diuretic. We review herein clinical relationships between autonomic function, resistant hypertension, current treatment strategies, and reflect upon the possibility of changes in our approach to resistant hypertension.
D'Elia, John A; Weinrauch, Larry A
Systems, methods and apparatus are provided through which in some embodiments, an agent-oriented specification modeled with MaCMAS, is analyzed, flaws in the agent-oriented specification modeled with MaCMAS are corrected, and an implementation is derived from the corrected agent-oriented specification. Described herein are systems, method and apparatus that produce fully (mathematically) tractable development of agent-oriented specification(s) modeled with methodology fragment for analyzing complex multiagent systems (MaCMAS) and policies for autonomic systems from requirements through to code generation. The systems, method and apparatus described herein are illustrated through an example showing how user formulated policies can be translated into a formal mode which can then be converted to code. The requirements-based programming systems, method and apparatus described herein may provide faster, higher quality development and maintenance of autonomic systems based on user formulation of policies.
Hinchey, Michael G. (Inventor); Penn, Joaquin (Inventor); Sterritt, Roy (Inventor)
A new concept and devices for autonomous switching of valves and pumps in microfabricated flow channels are proposed. An electrowetting-based valve formed with a gold electrode was opened when an electrolyte solution reached a zinc electrode in a controlling flow channel. Following this, a H2O2 solution was introduced into a diaphragm micropump with manganese dioxide (MnO2) powder. Oxygen bubbles produced
K. Kojima; H. Suzuki
System and network security are vital parts of any autonomic computing solution. The ability of a system to react consistently and correctly to situations ranging from benign but unusual events to outright attacks is key to the achievement of the goals of self-protection, self-healing, and self-optimization. Because they are often built around the interconnection of elements from different administrative domains,
David M. Chess; Charles C. Palmer; Steve R. White
Prototype autonomous deicing system for airplane includes network of electronic and electromechanical modules at various locations in wings and connected to central data-processing unit. Small, integrated solid-state device, using long coils installed under leading edge, exciting small vibrations to detect ice and larger vibrations to knock ice off. In extension of concept, outputs of vibration sensors and other sensors used to detect rivet-line fractures, fatigue cracks, and other potentially dangerous defects.
Hickman, G. A.; Gerardi, J. J.
An autonomous learning device must solve the example bounding problem, i.e., it must divide the continuous universe into discrete examples from which to learn. We describe an architecture which incorporates an example bounder for learning. The architecture is implemented in the GPAL program. An example run with a real mobile robot shows that the program learns and uses new causal, qualitative, and quantitative relationships.
In the last three decades, there has been a rapid increase in the development of vision-based autonomous robots due to the advancement in computer technology. The ability to achieve real-time image processing was once considered as a pipe-dream is now made possible. However, the challenge still remains in the area of extracting relevant navigational data from 2-D image representations of
Quoc Vong Do; Peter Lozo; Lakhmi C. Jain
Internet protocol-based multimedia applications are gaining momentum thanks to the great proliferation of the Internet and mass deployment of broadband. The abundance of rich content, heterogeneity of networks, user terminals, and services, along with the surges of multimedia traffic, have convoluted ever-increasing complexity and costs in the operation and management of multimedia systems. Autonomic communications (AutoComm) promotes the autonomy of
Xiaoyuan Gu; John Strassner; Jiang Xie; Lars C. Wolf; Tatsuya Suda
This paper presents the design and development of a versatile autonomous tree climbing & pruning robot for arecanut farming. The robot has a linear frictional force based non-linear self-regulatory system with 9 DOF that adapts itself to changing trunk diameter. The robot chassis is made rigid and light-weight. An on-board battery is the power source. The motion is provided by
Devang P. Soni; M. Ranjana; N. A. Gokul; S. Swaminathan; B. N. Binoy
The main objective of this research is to develop and evaluate the performance of strategies for cooperative control of autonomous\\u000a air vehicles that seek to gather information about a dynamic target environment, evade threats, and coordinate strikes against\\u000a targets. The air vehicles are equipped with sensors to view a limited region of the environment they are visiting, and are\\u000a able
Kevin Passino; Marios Polycarpou; David Jacques; Meir Pachter; Yang Liu; Yanli Yang; Matt Flint; Michael Baum
A program to develop an autonomous radio receiver compatible with a variety of digital communication schemes is underway. The proposed receiver, to be implemented largely in software, would configure itself to receive an incoming signal without much a priori knowledge of defining characteristics of the signal. The proposed receiver would include estimating and classifying modules that would analyze the incoming signal to determine its defining characteristics and would then configure itself on the basis of the outputs of these modules.
Hamkins, Jon; Simon, Marvin; Divsalar, Dariush; Dolinar, Samuel
Objective: To investigate whether Huntington's disease (HD) affects autonomic nervous system (ANS) functioning. Methods: Twenty patients with HD who had positive genetic test results underwent standardised ANS function tests including sympathetic skin responses (SSRs) of the hands and feet, measurements of heart rate variability (HRV), both during five minutes of resting and deep respiration, and an orthostatic blood pressure test. Patients were classified according to the motor subscale of the unified Huntington's disease rating scale (UHDRS; mean (SD) score 26.4 (13.6)) and divided into two subgroups: UHDRS <25 points (early stages, E-HD) and UHDRS ?25 points (mid stages, M-HD). Autonomic indices were compared with those obtained for a group of well matched healthy controls (n=60). Results: Overall, patients showed lower HRV indices than controls. Multivariate analysis with the independent factor of "group" (controls, E-HD, M-HD) showed a significant group effect on both the high frequency power (F=4.32, p=0.017) and the coefficient of variation (F=4.23, p=0.018), indicating a significant reduction in vagal modulation in the M-HD group. There was a shift in autonomic neurocardiac balance towards sympathetic predominance in the M-HD group compared with controls (F=2.89, p=0.062). Moreover, we found an inverse correlation between the severity of clinical HD symptoms (assessed by the UHDRS) and the modulation of cardiovagal activity (p=0.028). Vagal dysregulation was present in two patients; one of them also showed a pathological blood pressure test and a latency prolongation in the SSRs of the hands. Two other patients had pathologically reduced SSR amplitudes. Only patients of the M-HD group were affected. Conclusion: Autonomic dysfunction is present even in the middle stages of HD and affects both the sympathetic and parasympathetic branch of the ANS.
Andrich, J; Schmitz, T; Saft, C; Postert, T; Kraus, P; Epplen, J; Przuntek, H; Agelink, M
Animal swarms displaying a variety of typical flocking patterns would not exist without the underlying safe, optimal and stable dynamics of the individuals. The emergence of these universal patterns can be efficiently reconstructed with agent-based models. If we want to reproduce these patterns with artificial systems, such as autonomous aerial robots, agent-based models can also be used in their control algorithms. However, finding the proper algorithms and thus understanding the essential characteristics of the emergent collective behaviour requires thorough and realistic modeling of the robot and also the environment. In this paper, we first present an abstract mathematical model of an autonomous flying robot. The model takes into account several realistic features, such as time delay and locality of communication, inaccuracy of the on-board sensors and inertial effects. We present two decentralized control algorithms. One is based on a simple self-propelled flocking model of animal collective motion, the other is a collective target tracking algorithm. Both algorithms contain a viscous friction-like term, which aligns the velocities of neighbouring agents parallel to each other. We show that this term can be essential for reducing the inherent instabilities of such a noisy and delayed realistic system. We discuss simulation results on the stability of the control algorithms, and perform real experiments to show the applicability of the algorithms on a group of autonomous quadcopters. In our case, bio-inspiration works in two ways. On the one hand, the whole idea of trying to build and control a swarm of robots comes from the observation that birds tend to flock to optimize their behaviour as a group. On the other hand, by using a realistic simulation framework and studying the group behaviour of autonomous robots we can learn about the major factors influencing the flight of bird flocks. PMID:24852272
Virágh, Csaba; Vásárhelyi, Gábor; Tarcai, Norbert; Szörényi, Tamás; Somorjai, Gerg?; Nepusz, Tamás; Vicsek, Tamás
Cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy (CAN) is one of the most clinically significant complications of diabetes mellitus. Even\\u000a though many ethological factors have been attributed for the pathogenesis of this disease no attempts were made to correlate\\u000a DNA damage as a causative factor. Hence the present study was undertaken to asses the extent of somatic DNA damages by cytokinesis-block\\u000a micronuclei assay (CBMN).
A. Supriya SimonD; D. Dinesh Roy; V. Jayapal; T. Vijayakumar
Autonomous rendezvous and capture (AR&C) is a critical space technology with significant application to a variety of missions. Martin Marietta Astronautics Group (MMAG) has been developing AR&C technical capability in support of several recent NASA contracts. The use of AR&C for the Mars Rover\\/Sample Return (MRSR) mission was studied through a contract with JSC. Incorporation of AR&C in the Space
Nick G. Smith; Jim A. McKinnis; Sid M. Early
This paper describes recent research in automatic learning by the autonomous mobile robot HERMIES-IIB at the Center for Engineering Systems Advanced Research (CESAR). By acting on the environment and observing the consequences during a set of training examples, the robot learns a sequence of successful manipulations on a simulated control panel. The robot learns to classify panel configurations in order to deal with new configurations that are not part of the original training set. 5 refs., 2 figs.
de Saussure, G.; Spelt, P.F.; Killough, S.M.; Pin, F.G.; Weisbin, C.R.
A bubble propulsion model based on catalyzed hydrogen peroxide decomposition and momentum change via O2 bubbles detaching from the catalytic surface is proposed to explain the autonomous motion of catalytic nanomotors. The propelling force closely depends upon the surface tension of the liquid as well as the bulk concentration of hydrogen peroxide, and the model predictions are supported by the experimental data of Pt-coated spherical silica microbead motors.
Gibbs, J. G.; Zhao, Y.-P.
A major challenge in nanoscience is the design of synthetic molecular devices that run autonomously (that is, without externally mediated changes per work-cycle) and are programmable(that is, their behav- ior can be modified without complete redesign of the device). DNA-based synthetic molecular devices have the advantage of being relatively simple to design and engineer, due to the predictable secondary structure
John H. Reif; Sudheer Sahu
Imagine a host of nanoscale DNA robots move autonomously over a microscale DNA nanostruc- ture, each following a programmable route and serv- ing as a nanoparticle and\\/or an information car- rier. The accomplishment of this goal has many applications in nanorobotics, nano-fabrication, nano- electronics, nano-diagnostics\\/therapeutics, and nano- computing. Recent success in constructing large scale DNA nanostructures in a programmable way
Peng Yin; Andrew J. Turberfield; John H. Reif
Abstract A major challenge in nanoscience is the design of synthetic molecular devices that run autonomously (that is, without externally mediated changes per work-cycle) and are programmable(that is, their behavior can be modified without complete redesign of the device). DNA-based synthetic molecular devices have the advantage of being relatively simple to design and engineer, due to the predictable secondary structure
John H. Reif; Sudheer Sahu
An autonomous blimp for a surveillance system, which is circling around a specified target with only one camera, is designed in this paper. For this purpose, an extension of Lucas-Kanade algorithm for detection and tracking of features with rotation and scaling is provided, and a simplified structure-from-motion algorithm is applied to improve the accuracy of state estimation. A tracking controller
T. Fukao; K. Fujitani; T. Kanade
Abstract—In disaster areas, office buildings, or at home, multiple autonomous,networked mobile robots may,act instead of human,beings. These robots have to move to their destination so as to perform their function. For this purpose they need to be able to recognize the changes in the surrounding environment. They are equipped with a motion-planning method in order to avoid in real time
Takashi Okada; Razvan Beuran; Junya Nakata; Yasuo Tanand; Yoichi Shinoda
The Autonomous Urban Reconnaissance Ingress System (AURIS™) addresses a significant limitation of current military and first responder robotics technology: the inability of reconnaissance robots to open doors. Leveraging user testing as a baseline, the program has derived specifications necessary for military personnel to open doors with fielded UGVs (Unmanned Ground Vehicles), and evaluates the technology's impact on operational mission areas: duration, timing, and user patience in developing a tactically relevant, safe, and effective system. Funding is provided through the US ARMY Tank Automotive Research, Development and Engineering Center (TARDEC) and the project represents a leap forward in perception, autonomy, robotic implements, and coordinated payload operation in UGVs. This paper describes high level details of specification generation, status of the last phase of development, an advanced view of the system autonomy capability, and a short look ahead towards the ongoing work on this compelling and important technology.
Shane, David J.; Rufo, Michael A.; Berkemeier, Matthew D.; Alberts, Joel A.
NASA increasingly will rely on autonomous systems concepts, not only in the mission control centers on the ground, but also on spacecraft and on rovers and other assets on extraterrestrial bodies. Automomy enables not only reduced operations costs, But also adaptable goal-driven functionality of mission systems. Space missions lacking autonomy will be unable to achieve the full range of advanced mission objectives, given that human control under dynamic environmental conditions will not be feasible due, in part, to the unavoidably high signal propagation latency and constrained data rates of mission communications links. While autonomy cost-effectively supports accomplishment of mission goals, autonomicity supports survivability of remote mission assets, especially when human tending is not feasible. Autonomic system properties (which ensure self-configuring, self-optimizing self-healing, and self-protecting behavior) conceptually may enable space missions of a higher order into any previously flown. Analysis of two NASA agent-based systems previously prototyped, and of a proposed future mission involving numerous cooperating spacecraft, illustrates how autonomous and autonomic system concepts may be brought to bear on future space missions.
Truszkowski, Walter F.; Hinchey, Michael G.; Rash, James L.; Rouff, Christopher A.
Autonomous cross-country navigation is essential for outdoor robots moving about in unstructured environments. Most existing systems use range sensors to determine the shape of the terrain, plan a trajectory that avoids obstacles, and then drive the trajectory. Performance has been limited by the range and accuracy of sensors, insufficient vehicle-terrain interaction models, and the availability of high-speed computers. As these elements improve, higher- speed navigation on rougher terrain becomes possible. We have developed a software system for autonomous navigation that provides for greater capability. The perception system supports a large braking distance by fusing multiple range images to build a map of the terrain in front of the vehicle. The system identifies range shadows and interpolates undersamples regions to account for rough terrain effects. The motion planner reduces computational complexity by investigating a minimum number of trajectories. Speeds along the trajectory are set to provide for dynamic stability. The entire system was tested in simulation, and a subset of the capability was demonstrated on a real vehicle. Results to date include a continuous 5.1 kilometer run across moderate terrain with obstacles. This paper begins with the applications, prior work, limitations, and current paradigms for autonomous cross-country navigation, and then describes our contribution to the area.
Stentz, Anthony; Brumitt, Barry L.; Coulter, R. C.; Kelly, Alonzo
Patient: Female, 32 Final Diagnosis: Gastrintestinal Autonomic Nerve Tumor (GANT) Symptoms: anemia • anorexia • fatigue • fever • hearburn • nausea • weight loss Medication: — Clinical Procedure: — Specialty: Gastroenterology and Hepatology Objective: Rare disease Background: Gastrointestinal autonomic nerve tumors (GANT) are extremely rare tumors that are related to gastrointestinal autonomic nervous plexuses. They are distinguished from stromal tumors by their unique ultrastructural features. Hence, their diagnosis is usually made on electron microscopy and immunohistochemical analyses. Although they are apparently slow-growing tumors, they run an aggressive clinical course and often associated with poor prognosis which eventually leads to death. Case Report: We report on a case of gastric GANT in a young female who was treated surgically by total gastrectomy. The disease, however ran an aggressive course with the development of distant (nodal, liver, lung, adrenal and musculo-skeletal) metastases two months after the radical resection. Conclusions: We believe this could be the first reported case of adrenal and musculo-skeletal metastases from gastric GANT soon after the radical gastric resection.
Meshikhes, Abdul-Wahed N.; Al-Garni, Ayed A.; Al-Momen, Sami A.; Al-Nahawi, Mamdouh; Abu Subaih, Jawad
The evidence describing the autonomic innervation of body fat is reviewed with a particular focus on the role of the sympathetic neurotransmitters. In compiling the evidence, a strong case emerges for the interaction between autonomic nerves and perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT). Adipocytes have been shown to express receptors for neurotransmitters released from nearby sympathetic varicosities such as adrenoceptors (ARs), purinoceptors and receptors for neuropeptide Y (NPY). Noradrenaline can modulate both lipolysis (via ?2- and ?3-ARs) and lipogenesis (via ?1- and ?3-ARs). ATP can inhibit lipolysis (via P1 purinoceptors) or stimulate lipolysis (via P2y purinoceptors). NPY, which can be produced by adipocytes and sympathetic nerves, inhibits lipolysis. Thus the sympathetic triad of transmitters can influence adipocyte free fatty acid (FFA) content. Substance P (SP) released from sensory nerves has also been shown to promote lipolysis. Therefore, we propose a mechanism whereby sympathetic neurotransmission can simultaneously activate smooth muscle cells in the tunica media to cause vasoconstriction and alter FFA content and release from adjacent adipocytes in PVAT. The released FFA can influence endothelial function. Adipocytes also release a range of vasoactive substances, both relaxing and contractile factors, including adiponectin and reactive oxygen species. The action of adipokines (such as adiponectin) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) on cells of the vascular adventitia and nerves has yet to be fully elucidated. We hypothesise a strong link between PVAT and autonomic fibres and suggest that this poorly understood relationship is extremely important for normal vascular function and warrants a detailed study. PMID:24560685
Bulloch, Janette M; Daly, Craig J
Within the DIRAC framework in the LHCb collaboration, we deployed an autonomous policy system acting as a central status information point for grid elements. Experts working as grid administrators have a broad and very deep knowledge about the underlying system which makes them very precious. We have attempted to formalize this knowledge in an autonomous system able to aggregate information, draw conclusions, validate them, and take actions accordingly. The DIRAC Resource Status System (RSS) is a monitoring and generic policy system that enforces managerial and operational actions automatically. As an example, the status of a grid entity can be evaluated using a number of policies, each making assessments relative to specific monitoring information. Individual results of these policies can be combined to evaluate and propose a global status for the resource. This evaluation goes through a validation step driven by a state machine and an external validation system. Once validated, actions can be triggered accordingly. External monitoring and testing systems such as Nagios or Hammercloud are used by policies for site commission and certification. This shows the flexibility of our system, and of what an autonomous policy system can achieve.
Ubeda Garcia, M.; Stagni, F.; Tsaregorodtsev, A.; Charpentier, P.; Bernardoff, V.
Autonomous wildfire detection systems may help to reduce hazards resulting from large wildland fires. In many situations wildfires start in the duff below trees and shrubs, which are hidden from direct view by groundbased sensors overlooking forests and wildlands. Mid- and thermal infrared measurements only detect wildfires when the fire has become a crownfire, and, by then, it usually has developed into a large wildfire. Therefore, the early discovery of wildfires using groundbased, autonomous sensors should be performed by detecting smoke clouds rather than the heat of the fire, since smoke becomes earlier visible above the trees as a result of convection than the heat of the fire. A demonstration sensor is being developed to show the feasibility of an affordable system for autonomous wildland fire detection. The system is designed to minimize false alarms by simultaneously analyzing the temporal, spatial and spectral information in the acquired imagery. The groundbased sensor will be horizon scanning and will employ linear CCD's for better contrast sensitivity in three different spectral bands.
de Vries, Jan S.; Kemp, Rob A.
The State-Operator Logic Machine (SOLON) Planner provides an architecture for effective real-time planning and replanning for an autonomous vehicle. The highlights of the system, which distinguish it from other AI-based planners that have been designed previously, are its hybrid application of state-driven control architecture and the use of both schematic representations and logic programming for the management of its knowledge base. SOLON is designed to provide multiple levels of planning for a single autonomous vehicle which is supplied with a skeletal, partially-specified mission plan at the outset of the vehicle's operations. This mission plan consists of a set of objectives, each of which will be decomposable by the planner into tasks. These tasks are themselves comparatively complex sets of actions which are executable by a conventional real-time control system which does not perform planning but which is capable of making adjustments or modifications to the provided tasks according to constraints and tolerances provided by the Planner. The current implementation of the SOLON is in the form of a real-time simulation of the Planner module of an Intelligent Vehicle Controller (IVC) on-board an autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV). The simulation is embedded within a larger simulator environment known as ICDS (Intelligent Controller Development System) operating on a Symbolics 3645/75 computer.
Dudziak, M. J.
Given that the hypothesis of a common origin of physical and moral disgust has received sparse empirical support, this study aimed to shed light on the subjective and autonomic signatures of these two facets of the same emotional response. Participants (20 men, 20 women) were randomly assigned to physical or moral disgust induction by the use of audio scripts while their electrocardiogram was continuously recorded. Affect ratings were obtained before and after the induction. Time and frequency domain heart rate variability (HRV) measures were obtained. After controlling for disgust sensitivity (DS-R) and obsessive-compulsive (OCI-R) tendencies, both scripts elicited disgust but whereas the physical script elicited a feeling of dirtiness, the moral script evoked more indignation and contempt. The disgust-induced subjective responses were associated with opposite patterns of autonomic reactivity: enhanced activity of the parasympathetic nervous system without concurrent changes in heart rate (HR) for physical disgust and decreased vagal tone and increased HR and autonomic imbalance for moral disgust. Results suggest that immorality relies on the same biological root of physical disgust only in subjects with obsessive compulsive tendencies. Disgust appears to be a heterogeneous response that varies based on the individuals' contamination-based appraisal. PMID:23684734
Ottaviani, Cristina; Mancini, Francesco; Petrocchi, Nicola; Medea, Barbara; Couyoumdjian, Alessandro
In small autonomous energy systems the wind power penetration may reduce drastically the cost of the produced energy. The solution of the short term scheduling problem faces great difficulties because of the randomness of wind speed and the resulting randomness of the wind generators production. This paper describes an algorithm developed at the National Technical University of Athens for determining the optimal operation scheduling over a period of T hours for an autonomous energy system consisting of diesel units and wind generators (WECs). The proposed method requires the solution of the following two problems: The short term forecasting of load and wind velocity; The short term unit commitment. In this paper results from the application of the proposed method to the system of a medium size Greek island are reported.
Contaxis, G.C.; Kabouris, J. (Dept. of Electrical Engineering, Electrical Power Div., National Technical Univ. of Athens (GR))
The general objectives of the NASA/UCF Automated Knowledge Generation Project were the development of an intelligent software system that could access CAD design data bases, interpret them, and generate a diagnostic knowledge base in the form of a system model. The initial area of concentration is in the diagnosis of the process control system using the Knowledge-based Autonomous Test Engineer (KATE) diagnostic system. A secondary objective was the study of general problems of automated knowledge generation. A prototype was developed, based on object-oriented language (Flavors).
Myler, Harley R.; Gonzalez, Avelino J.
We present the design and implementation of a vision-based feature tracking system for an autonomous helicopter. Visual sensing is used for estimating the position and velocity of features in the image plane (urban features like windows) in order to generate velocity references for the flight control. These visual-based references are\\u000athen combined with GPS-positioning references to navigate towards these features
Luis Mejias; Srikanth Saripalli; Pascual Campoy; Gaurav S. Sukhatme
This paper reports the development and implementation of an energy aware autonomous wireless condition monitoring sensor system (ACMS) powered by ambient vibrations. An electromagnetic (EM) generator has been designed to harvest sufficient energy to power a radio-frequency (RF) linked accelerometer-based sensor system. The ACMS is energy aware and will adjust the measurement\\/transmit duty cycle according to the available energy; this
R. Torah; P. Glynne-Jones; M. Tudor; T. O'Donnell; S. Roy; S. Beeby
Developed at National Chiao Tung University, TAIWAN iTS?1 is the first smart car with active safety systems and comfortable autonomous driving in Taiwan. An adaptive vision?based lane detection algorithm was proposed to help the lateral control unit to keep the car in its lane safely. It also carries a DSP system to generate warning signals for unintentional roadway departures. A
This article describes a human physiology laboratory class measuring changes in autonomic function over time in response to atropine. Students use themselves as subjects, generating ownership and self-interest in the learning as well as directly experiencing the active link between physiology and pharmacology in people. The class is designed to concomitantly convey the importance of bias in experimentation by adopting a double-blind placebo-controlled approach.
Jeffrey Fry (University of Nottingham); Steven Burr (University of Nottingham)
This paper describes a simple fuzzy navigation system for autonomous mobile robots. The navigation system achieves three different behaviours: obstacle-free navigation, reactive obstacle-avoidance, and a reflex; the executive monitors sensory inputs and activates the appropriate behavioural rules of navigation. The obstacle-free navigation rules drive the mobile robot on straight-line path segments, generated by a visibility graph planner in a polygonal
M. Alwan; P. Y. K. Cheung; A. Saleh; N. E. Cheikh Obeid
To explore high priority landing sites and to prepare for eventual human exploration, future Mars missions will involve rovers capable of traversing tens of kilometers. However, the current process by which scientists interact with a rover does not scale to such distances. Specifically, numerous command cycles are required to complete even simple tasks, such as, pointing the spectrometer at a variety of nearby rocks. In addition, the time required by scientists to interpret image data before new commands can be given and the limited amount of data that can be downlinked during a given command cycle constrain rover mobility and achievement of science goals. Experience with rover tests on Earth supports these concerns. As a result, traverses to science sites as identified in orbital images would require numerous science command cycles over a period of many weeks, months or even years, perhaps exceeding rover design life and other constraints. Autonomous onboard science analysis can address these problems in two ways. First, it will allow the rover to preferentially transmit "interesting" images, defined as those likely to have higher science content. Second, the rover will be able to anticipate future commands. For example, a rover might autonomously acquire and return spectra of "interesting" rocks along with a high-resolution image of those rocks in addition to returning the context images in which they were detected. Such approaches, coupled with appropriate navigational software, help to address both the data volume and command cycle bottlenecks that limit both rover mobility and science yield. We are developing fast, autonomous algorithms to enable such intelligent on-board decision making by spacecraft. Autonomous algorithms developed to date have the ability to identify rocks and layers in a scene, locate the horizon, and compress multi-spectral image data. We are currently investigating the possibility of reconstructing a 3D surface from a sequence of images acquired by a robotic arm camera. This would then allow the return of a single completely in focus image constructed only from those portions of individual images that lie within the camera's depth of field. Output from these algorithms could be used to autonomously obtain rock spectra, determine which images should be transmitted to the ground, or to aid in image compression. We will discuss these algorithms and their performance during a recent rover field test.
Gulick, V. C.; Morris, R. L.; Ruzon, M. A.; Bandari, E.; Roush, T. L.
This presentation will describe the concept of an autonomous, intelligent, rover-based rapid surveying system to identify and map several key lunar resources to optimize their ISRU (In Situ Resource Utilization) extraction potential. Prior to an extraction phase for any target resource, ground-based surveys are needed to provide confirmation of remote observation, to quantify and map their 3-D distribution, and to locate optimal extraction sites (e.g. ore bodies) with precision to maximize their economic benefit. The system will search for and quantify optimal minerals for oxygen production feedstock, water ice, and high glass-content regolith that can be used for building materials. These are targeted because of their utility and because they are, or are likely to be, variable in quantity over spatial scales accessible to a rover (i.e., few km). Oxygen has benefits for life support systems and as an oxidizer for propellants. Water is a key resource for sustainable exploration, with utility for life support, propellants, and other industrial processes. High glass-content regolith has utility as a feedstock for building materials as it readily sinters upon heating into a cohesive matrix more readily than other regolith materials or crystalline basalts. Lunar glasses are also a potential feedstock for oxygen production, as many are rich in iron and titanium oxides that are optimal for oxygen extraction. To accomplish this task, a system of sensors and decision-making algorithms for an autonomous prospecting rover is described. One set of sensors will be located in the wheel tread of the robotic search vehicle providing contact sensor data on regolith composition. Another set of instruments will be housed on the platform of the rover, including VIS-NIR imagers and spectrometers, both for far-field context and near-field characterization of the regolith in the immediate vicinity of the rover. Also included in the sensor suite are a neutron spectrometer, ground-penetrating radar, and an instrumented cone penetrometer for subsurface assessment. Output from these sensors will be evaluated autonomously in real-time by decision-making software to evaluate if any of the targeted resources has been detected, and if so, to quantify their abundance. Algorithms for optimizing the mapping strategy based on target resource abundance and distribution are also included in the autonomous software. This approach emphasizes on-the-fly survey measurements to enable efficient and rapid prospecting of large areas, which will improve the economics of ISRU system approaches. The mature technology will enable autonomous rovers to create in-situ resource maps of lunar or other planetary surfaces, which will facilitate human and robotic exploration.
Dissly, R. W.; Buehler, M. G.; Schaap, M. G.; Nicks, D.; Taylor, G. J.; Castano, R.; Suarez, D.
The aims of the present study were to investigate the relationship between severe hypoglycaemia and autonomic dysfunction in diabetic children, and to assess the glycaemic response to an insulin infusion test. In a one year period, 12 of 69 diabetic patients (17%) experienced at least one severe episode of hypoglycaemia, defined as an event which required outside assistance. All patients underwent five cardiovascular autonomic tests. Seven of the hypoglycaemic patients showed three or more abnormal autonomic tests. Among the 57 non-hypoglycaemic diabetics, there was no patient with three or more abnormal tests. In hypoglycaemic diabetics with and without autonomic dysfunction, and in eight healthy age matched subjects an insulin infusion test was performed. A pronounced blood glucose decline and a subnormal increase in heart rate during insulin infusion were obtained in patients with autonomic dysfunction. Thus, severe hypoglycaemia may be due to impaired defence mechanisms against blood glucose decline in diabetic children with autonomic dysfunction.
Barkai, L; Madacsy, L; Vamosi, I
The concept that multiple system atrophy (MSA, Shy-Drager syndrome) is a disorder of the autonomic nervous system is several decades old. While there has been renewed interest in the movement disorder associated with MSA, two recent consensus statements confirm the centrality of the autonomic disorder to the diagnosis. Here, we reexamine the autonomic pathophysiology in MSA. Whereas MSA is often thought of as "autonomic failure", new evidence indicates substantial persistence of functioning sympathetic and parasympathetic nerves even in clinically advanced disease. These findings help explain some of the previously poorly understood features of MSA. Recognition that MSA entails persistent, constitutive autonomic tone requires a significant revision of our concepts of its diagnosis and therapy. We will review recent evidence bearing on autonomic tone in MSA and discuss their therapeutic implications, particularly in terms of the possible development of a bionic baroreflex for better control of blood pressure.
Parikh, Samir M.; Diedrich, Andre; Biaggioni, Italo; Robertson, David
Both pathologic and clinical studies of autonomic pathways have expanded the concept of Parkinson disease (PD) from a movement disorder to a multi-level widespread neurodegenerative process with non-motor features spanning several organ systems. This review integrates neuropathologic findings and autonomic physiology in PD as it relates to end organ autonomic function. Symptoms, pathology and physiology of the cardiovascular, skin/sweat gland, urinary, gastrointestinal, pupillary and neuroendocrine systems can be probed by autopsy, biopsy and non-invasive electrophysiological techniques in vivo which assess autonomic anatomy and function. There is mounting evidence that PD affects a chain of neurons in autonomic pathways. Consequently, autonomic physiology may serve as a window into non-motor PD progression and allow the development of mechanistically based treatment strategies for several non-motor features of PD. End-organ physiologic markers may be used to inform a model of PD pathophysiology and non-motor progression.
This paper presents a systematic analytical approach for the well-being assessment of small autonomous power systems (SAPSs) with wind and solar energy sources. The proposed technique accounts for the uncertainties associated with solar irradiance, wind speed, demand, and outages of various generating units. The impact of wind power fluctuation on the system stability is also assessed by limiting the wind
Dheeraj Kumar Khatod; Vinay Pant; Jaydev Sharma
Pumped storage is generally viewed as the most promising technology to increase renewable energy source penetration levels in power systems and particularly in small autonomous island grids, where technical limitations are imposed by the conventional generating units. The Hybrid Power Station (HPS) of Ikaria Island, Greece, which is currently in the construction stage, will be one of the first wind-hydro-pumped-storage
Stefanos V. Papaefthymiou; Eleni G. Karamanou; Stavros A. Papathanassiou; Michael P. Papadopoulos
Frontal midline theta rhythm (Fm theta), recognized as distinct theta activity on EEG in the frontal midline area, reflects mental concentration as well as meditative state or relief from anxiety. Attentional network in anterior frontal lobes including anterior cingulate cortex is suspected to be the generator of this activity, and the regulative function of the frontal neural network over autonomic
Yasutaka Kubota; Wataru Sato; Motomi Toichi; Toshiya Murai; Takashi Okada; Akiko Hayashi; Akira Sengoku
This paper focuses on the analysis of frequency stability in an autonomous microgrid (MG) with renewable energy sources (RES), mainly wind power. Frequency control is directly related to the active power balance in the system. When RES are involved the generated active power is difficult to predict, and may have fluctuations mainly in the case of wind power plants. Therefore,
C. Marinescu; I. Serban
An Autonomous Science Agent is currently flying onboard the Earth Observing One Spacecraft. This software enables the spacecraft to autonomously detect and respond to science events occurring on the Earth. The package includes software systems that perform science data analysis, deliberative planning, and run-time robust execution. Because of the deployment to a remote spacecraft, this Autonomous Science Agent has stringent constraints of autonomy, reliability, and limited computing resources. We describe these constraints and how they are reflected in our agent architecture.
Sherwood, Rob; Chien, Steve; Tran, Daniel; Cichy, Benjamin; Castano, Rebecca; Davies, Ashley; Rabideau, Gregg
Autonomic Clouds emerge as a result of applying four self-management properties of Autonomic Computing (self configuration, self-healing, self-optimization, and self-protection) in Cloud environment. In this way, Autonomic Cloud Computing is seen as a Cloud with autonomy to take important decisions about resource management, such as the resource allocation for incoming requests, and the optimization decisions of resource utilization. The main
Patricia Takako Endo; Djamel Sadok; Judith Kelner
In contrast to diabetic autonomic neuropathy, cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy (CAN) in long-term alcoholics has been studied rarely. Using both standardized bedside tests and computer-assisted analysis of heart rate variability (HRV), we prospectively compared autonomic neurocardial function between 35 strictly selected, detoxified alcoholics (DSM-III-R), and 80 well matched healthy controls. Evidence for a potential CAN was found in 25.7% of all
M. W Agelink; R Malessa; U Weisser; W Lemmer; T Zeit; T Majewski; E Klieser
The combination of functional brain imaging with measurement of peripheral autonomic responses in humans can provide insight into the embodiment of mental processes and the integration of cognition and emotion with changes in somatic physiology. Initial studies in healthy people and patents validate inferences from more detailed animal experiments regarding the organization of central autonomic control. In particular these have illustrated the coupling of behaviour with sympathetic arousal. Over the last two decades, the growth of emotional neuroscience alongside advances in functional brain imaging has fuelled investigations of relationships between perception, feeling states, somatic and autonomic bodily reactions. These studies have driven a more mechanistic understanding of brain systems through which bodily state is regulated and modified to support adaptive behaviour. In parallel, they have enabled the application of human neuroimaging to autonomic neuroscience. Specific methodological challenges are posed by combining physiological recordings with neuroimaging techniques, particularly functional magnetic resonance brain imaging, which are nevertheless addressable. Using such methods, the neural correlates of dynamic autonomic control has been systematically examined in studies of healthy individuals and patients with specific autonomic dysfunction (including autonomic failure, autonomic (neurally) mediated syncope and the postural tachycardia syndrome). These studies reveal antagonistic interaction of systems underpinning autonomic cardiovascular control (involving mid and subgenual cingulate cortices) and partial organ-specificity of other axes of autonomic response. Current and anticipated technical advances, including the integration of autonomically-focused microneurography and neural stimulation with advanced neuroimaging, will continue to provide detailed insight into dynamics of autonomic control. Translating these insights into clinical benefits remains a priority. PMID:20926356
Critchley, Hugo D; Nagai, Yoko; Gray, Marcus A; Mathias, Christopher J
The objective is to identify the pathogenesis of each autonomic manifestation in cluster headache (CH). Through a deductive statistics method (factor analysis) we analysed the type of autonomic symptoms reported by 157 CH patients. Three principal components were identified in the analysis: parasympathetic activation (lacrimation, conjunctival injection and rhinorrhoea), sympathetic defect (miosis and ptosis) and parasympathetic mediated effect (nasal congestion, eyelid oedema and forehead sweating). This work suggests that there are three different mechanisms underlying autonomic manifestations in CH. PMID:16362187
Gouveia, Raquel Gil; Parreira, Elsa; Pavão Martins, Isabel
Opinion statement Autonomic nervous system (ANS) dysfunction is common in Parkinson’s disease (PD), affects 70% to 80% of patients, and causes\\u000a significant morbidity and discomfort. Autonomic nervous system dysfunction symptoms in PD include sexual dysfunction, swallowing\\u000a and gastrointestinal disorders, bowel and bladder abnormalities, sleep disturbances, and derangements of cardiovascular regulation,\\u000a particularly, orthostatic hypotension. Autonomic nervous system dysfunction in PD may be
Theresa A. Zesiewicz; Matthew J. Baker; Mervat Wahba; Robert A. Hauser
The Real-time Control System (RCS) Methodology has evolved over a number of years as a technique to capture task knowledge and organize it into a framework conducive to implementation in computer control systems. The fundamental premise of this methodology is that the present state of the task activities sets the context that identifies the requirements for all of the support processing. In particular, the task context at any time determines what is to be sensed in the world, what world model states are to be evaluated, which situations are to be analyzed, what plans should be invoked, and which behavior generation knowledge is to be accessed. This methodology concentrates on the task behaviors explored through scenario examples to define a task decomposition tree that clearly represents the branching of tasks into layers of simpler and simpler subtask activities. There is a named branching condition/situation identified for every fork of this task tree. These become the input conditions of the if-then rules of the knowledge set that define how the task is to respond to input state changes. Detailed analysis of each branching condition/situation is used to identify antecedent world states and these, in turn, are further analyzed to identify all of the entities, objects, and attributes that have to be sensed to determine if any of these world states exist. This paper explores the use of this 4D/RCS methodology in some detail for the particular task of autonomous on-road driving, which work was funded under the Defense Advanced Research Project Agency (DARPA) Mobile Autonomous Robot Software (MARS) effort (Doug Gage, Program Manager).
Barbera, Anthony J.; Horst, John A.; Schlenoff, Craig I.; Aha, David W.
Autonomous driving is a challenging problem, particularly when the domain is unstructured, as in an outdoor agricultural setting. Thus, advanced perception systems are primarily required to sense and understand the surrounding environment recognizing artificial and natural structures, topology, vegetation and paths. In this paper, a self-learning framework is proposed to automatically train a ground classifier for scene interpretation and autonomous navigation based on multi-baseline stereovision. The use of rich 3D data is emphasized where the sensor output includes range and color information of the surrounding environment. Two distinct classifiers are presented, one based on geometric data that can detect the broad class of ground and one based on color data that can further segment ground into subclasses. The geometry-based classifier features two main stages: an adaptive training stage and a classification stage. During the training stage, the system automatically learns to associate geometric appearance of 3D stereo-generated data with class labels. Then, it makes predictions based on past observations. It serves as well to provide training labels to the color-based classifier. Once trained, the color-based classifier is able to recognize similar terrain classes in stereo imagery. The system is continuously updated online using the latest stereo readings, thus making it feasible for long range and long duration navigation, over changing environments. Experimental results, obtained with a tractor test platform operating in a rural en