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1

Autonomous BDFIG-wind generator with torque and pitch control for maximum efficiency in a water pumping system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents and analyzes the operation strategy for an autonomous wind energy conversion system oriented to water pumping. It consists of a wind turbine with a Brushless Doubly-Fed Induction Generator (BDFIG), electrically coupled with a squirrel cage induction machine moving a centrifugal type water pump. Because of no brushes and slip rings, the BDFIG is suitable for autonomous systems,

P. Camocardi; P. Battaiotto; R. Mantz

2010-01-01

2

Advanced Video Guidance Sensor and Next Generation Autonomous Docking Sensors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In recent decades, NASA's interest in spacecraft rendezvous and proximity operations has grown. Additional instrumentation is needed to improve manned docking operations' safety, as well as to enable telerobotic operation of spacecraft or completely autonomous rendezvous and docking. To address this need, Advanced Optical Systems, Inc., Orbital Sciences Corporation, and Marshall Space Flight Center have developed the Advanced Video Guidance Sensor (AVGS) under the auspices of the Demonstration of Autonomous Rendezvous Technology (DART) program. Given a cooperative target comprising several retro-reflectors, AVGS provides six-degree-of-freedom information at ranges of up to 300 meters for the DART target. It does so by imaging the target, then performing pattern recognition on the resulting image. Longer range operation is possible through different target geometries. Now that AVGS is being readied for its test flight in 2004, the question is: what next? Modifications can be made to AVGS, including different pattern recognition algorithms and changes to the retro-reflector targets, to make it more robust and accurate. AVGS could be coupled with other space-qualified sensors, such as a laser range-and-bearing finder, that would operate at longer ranges. Different target configurations, including the use of active targets, could result in significant miniaturization over the current AVGS package. We will discuss these and other possibilities for a next-generation docking sensor or sensor suite that involve AVGS.

Granade, Stephen R.

2004-01-01

3

Autonomous Cleaning of Corrupted Scanned Documents - A Generative Modeling Approach  

E-print Network

We study the task of cleaning scanned text documents that are strongly corrupted by dirt such as manual line strokes, spilled ink etc. We aim at autonomously removing dirt from a single letter-size page based only on the information the page contains. Our approach, therefore, has to learn character representations without supervision and requires a mechanism to distinguish learned representations from irregular patterns. To learn character representations, we use a probabilistic generative model parameterizing pattern features, feature variances, the features' planar arrangements, and pattern frequencies. The latent variables of the model describe pattern class, pattern position, and the presence or absence of individual pattern features. The model parameters are optimized using a novel variational EM approximation. After learning, the parameters represent, independent of their absolute position, planar feature arrangements and their variances. A quality measure defined based on the learned representation the...

Dai, Zhenwen

2012-01-01

4

The Next Generation Autonomous Lawn Mower Rand C. Chandler, Dr. A. Antonio Arroyo, Dr. Michael Nechyba,  

E-print Network

. For example, if the vision system cannot identify an object but the infrared or sonar systems inform the mowerThe Next Generation Autonomous Lawn Mower Rand C. Chandler, Dr. A. Antonio Arroyo, Dr. Michael is to design an autonomous lawnmower that safely and effectively mows an area typical of a homeowner's yard

Schwartz, Eric M.

5

Analysis of series compensated self excited induction generators for autonomous power generation  

SciTech Connect

The paper presents an analytical technique to predict the steady state performance of a 3-phase self excited induction generator for autonomous power generation which employs both shunt and series capacitors for voltage regulation. The system is modeled using an equivalent circuit which interconnects the machine, capacitor and the load. Simplifying appropriate loop equations of the circuit leads to two non-linear equations in the unknown quantities namely the saturated magnetizing reactance and the generated per unit frequency for the given machine parameters, speed, capacitors and load. A numerical method based on newton Raphson technique is developed to solve these equations to predict the performance. The validity of the method is evaluated by computing predicted and experimental results on a laboratory machine. Performance results under different operating conditions are detailed, to study the effect of series compensation in practical realization of such systems.

Murthy, S.S.; Vaishya, M.O. [Indian Inst. of Tech., New Delhi (India); Prabhu, C. [Karnataka Power Corp., Bangalore (India); Tandon, A.K. [Delhi Coll. of Engineering (India)

1995-12-31

6

MOTION GENERATION ON TRIM TRAJECTORIES FOR AN AUTONOMOUS UNDERACTUATED AIRSHIP  

Microsoft Academic Search

A blimp is a small airship that has no metal framework and collapses when deflated. In the first part of this paper, dynamic modeling of small autonomous non rigid airships is presented, using the Newton-Euler approach. This study discusses the motion in 6 degrees of freedom since 6 independent coordinates are necessary to determine the position and orientation of this

Salim HIMA; Yasmina BESTAOUI

7

Three-phase Four-wire Autonomous Wind Energy Conversion System Using Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article deals with an autonomous wind energy conversion system employing a permanent magnet synchronous generator feeding three-phase four-wire local loads in stand-alone mode without using a mechanical position sensor. The proposed autonomous wind energy conversion system utilizes two back-to-back connected pulse width modulated insulated gate bipolar transistors based voltage source converters with a battery energy storage system at their

Puneet K. Goel; Bhim Singh; S. S. Murthy; Shailendra K. Tiwari

2010-01-01

8

Towards Autonomic Service Control In Next Generation Networks Andreas Klenk*  

E-print Network

multimedia subsystem is advocated as the candidate for building next generation networks (NGNs). However in telecommunications industry. An important building block for next generation converged networks is the IP Multimedia standardization efforts aim towards a unifying platform for fixed and mobile telecommunication services. The IP

Carle, Georg

9

An Autonomous Mobile Robot Guided by a Chaotic True Random Bits Generator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work a robot's controller, which ensures chaotic motion to an autonomous mobile robot, is presented. This new strategy, which is very useful in many robotic missions, generates an unpredictable trajectory by using a chaotic path planning generator. The proposed generator produces a trajectory, which is the result of a sequence of planned target locations. In contrary with other similar works, this one is based on a new chaotic true random bits generator, which has as a basic feature the coexistence of two different synchronization phenomena between mutually coupled identical nonlinear circuits. Simulation tests confirm that the whole robot's workplace is covered with unpredictable way in a very satisfactory time.

Volos, Ch. K.; Kyprianidis, I. M.; Stouboulos, I. N.; Stavrinides, S. G.; Anagnostopoulos, A. N.

10

Autonomous Decentralized Control of Supply and Demand by Inverter Based Distributed Generations in Isolated Microgrid  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, because of the environmental burden mitigation, energy conservations, energy security, and cost reductions, distributed generations are attracting our strong attention. These distributed generations (DGs) have been already installed to the distribution system, and much more DGs will be expected to be connected in the future. On the other hand, a new concept called “Microgrid” which is a small power supply network consisting of only DGs was proposed and some prototype projects are ongoing in Japan. The purpose of this paper is to develop the three-phase instantaneous valued digital simulator of microgrid consisting of a lot of inverter based DGs and to develop a supply and demand control method in isolated microgrid. First, microgrid is modeled using MATLAB/SIMULINK. We develop models of three-phase instantaneous valued inverter type CVCF generator, PQ specified generator, PV specified generator, PQ specified load as storage battery, photovoltaic generation, fuel cell and inverter load respectively. Then we propose an autonomous decentralized control method of supply and demand in isolated microgrid where storage batteries, fuel cells, photovoltaic generations and loads are connected. It is proposed here that the system frequency is used as a means to control DG output. By changing the frequency of the storage battery due to unbalance of supply and demand, all inverter based DGs detect the frequency fluctuation and change their own outputs. Finally, a new frequency control method in autonomous decentralized control of supply and demand is proposed. Though the frequency is used to transmit the information on the supply and demand unbalance to DGs, after the frequency plays the role, the frequency finally has to return to a standard value. To return the frequency to the standard value, the characteristic curve of the fuel cell is shifted in parallel. This control is carried out corresponding to the fluctuation of the load. The simulation shows that the frequency can be controlled well and has been made clear the effectiveness of the frequency control system.

Shiki, Akira; Yokoyama, Akihiko; Baba, Jyunpei; Takano, Tomihiro; Gouda, Takahiro; Izui, Yoshio

11

Autonomous trajectory generation for mobile robots with non-holonomic and steering angle constraints  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents an approach to the trajectory planning of mobile platforms characterized by non-holonomic constraints and constraints on the steering angle and steering angle rate. The approach is based on geometric reasoning and provides deterministic trajectories for all pairs of initial and final configurations (position x, y, and orientation {theta}) of the robot. Furthermore, the method generates trajectories taking into account the forward and reverse mode of motion of the vehicle, or combination of these when complex maneuvering is involved or when the environment is obstructed with obstacles. The trajectory planning algorithm is described, and examples of trajectories generated for a variety of environmental conditions are presented. The generation of the trajectories only takes a few milliseconds of run time on a micro Vax, making the approach quite attractive for use as a real-time motion planner for teleoperated or sensor-based autonomous vehicles in complex environments. 10 refs., 11 figs.

Pin, F.G.; Vasseur, H.A.

1990-01-01

12

The Next Generation of Mars-GRAM and Its Role in the Autonomous Aerobraking Development Plan  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Mars Global Reference Atmospheric Model (Mars-GRAM) is an engineering-level atmospheric model widely used for diverse mission applications. Mars-GRAM 2010 is currently being used to develop the onboard atmospheric density estimator that is part of the Autonomous Aerobraking Development Plan. In previous versions, Mars-GRAM was less than realistic when used for sensitivity studies for Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) MapYear=0 and large optical depth values, such as tau=3. A comparison analysis has been completed between Mars-GRAM, TES and data from the Planetary Data System (PDS) resulting in updated coefficients for the functions relating density, latitude, and longitude of the sun. The adjustment factors are expressed as a function of height (z), Latitude (Lat) and areocentric solar longitude (Ls). The latest release of Mars-GRAM 2010 includes these adjustment factors that alter the in-put data from MGCM and MTGCM for the Mapping Year 0 (user-controlled dust) case. The greatest adjustment occurs at large optical depths such as tau greater than 1. The addition of the adjustment factors has led to better correspondence to TES Limb data from 0-60 km as well as better agreement with MGS, ODY and MRO data at approximately 90-135 km. Improved simulations utilizing Mars-GRAM 2010 are vital to developing the onboard atmospheric density estimator for the Autonomous Aerobraking Development Plan. Mars-GRAM 2010 was not the only planetary GRAM utilized during phase 1 of this plan; Titan-GRAM and Venus-GRAM were used to generate density data sets for Aerobraking Design Reference Missions. These data sets included altitude profiles (both vertical and along a trajectory), GRAM perturbations (tides, gravity waves, etc.) and provided density and scale height values for analysis by other Autonomous Aero-braking team members.

Justh, Hilary L.; Justus, Carl G.; Ramey, Holly S.

2011-01-01

13

Automatic generation of modules of object categorization for autonomous mobile robots  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many robotic tasks require advanced systems of visual sensing. Robotic systems of visual sensing must be able to solve a number of different complex problems of visual data analysis. Object categorization is one of such problems. In this paper, we propose an approach to automatic generation of computationally effective modules of object categorization for autonomous mobile robots. This approach is based on the consideration of the stack cover problem. In particular, it is assumed that the robot is able to perform an initial inspection of the environment. After such inspection, the robot needs to solve the stack cover problem by using a supercomputer. A solution of the stack cover problem allows the robot to obtain a template for computationally effective scheduling of object categorization. Also, we consider an efficient approach to solve the stack cover problem. In particular, we consider an explicit reduction from the decision version of the stack cover problem to the satisfiability problem. For different satisfiability algorithms, the results of computational experiments are presented.

Gorbenko, Anna

2013-10-01

14

Validating a UAV artificial intelligence control system using an autonomous test case generator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The validation of safety-critical applications, such as autonomous UAV operations in an environment which may include human actors, is an ill posed problem. To confidence in the autonomous control technology, numerous scenarios must be considered. This paper expands upon previous work, related to autonomous testing of robotic control algorithms in a two dimensional plane, to evaluate the suitability of similar techniques for validating artificial intelligence control in three dimensions, where a minimum level of airspeed must be maintained. The results of human-conducted testing are compared to this automated testing, in terms of error detection, speed and testing cost.

Straub, Jeremy; Huber, Justin

2013-05-01

15

Design of a hybrid energy-generation system for autonomous kayaks  

E-print Network

The goal of this research is to design and analyze a series-hybrid energy-production system for an autonomous kayak. Currently these vehicles have limited range due to energy storage in lead acid batteries. Extending the ...

Plumer, Kevin E. (Kevin Edward)

2010-01-01

16

Self-Organization of Spiking Neural Network Generating Autonomous Behavior in a Real Mobile Robot  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we study the relation between neural dynamics and robot behavior to develop self-organization algorithm of spiking neural network applicable to autonomous robot. We first formulated a spiking neural network model whose inputs and outputs were analog. We then implemented it into a miniature mobile robot Khepera. In order to see whether or not a solution(s) for the

Fady Alnajjar; Kazuyuki Murase

2005-01-01

17

Mobility and Generation of Mosaic Non-Autonomous Transposons by Tn3-Derived Inverted-Repeat Miniature Elements (TIMEs)  

PubMed Central

Functional transposable elements (TEs) of several Pseudomonas spp. strains isolated from black shale ore of Lubin mine and from post-flotation tailings of Zelazny Most in Poland, were identified using a positive selection trap plasmid strategy. This approach led to the capture and characterization of (i) 13 insertion sequences from 5 IS families (IS3, IS5, ISL3, IS30 and IS1380), (ii) isoforms of two Tn3-family transposons – Tn5563a and Tn4662a (the latter contains a toxin-antitoxin system), as well as (iii) non-autonomous TEs of diverse structure, ranging in size from 262 to 3892 bp. The non-autonomous elements transposed into AT-rich DNA regions and generated 5- or 6-bp sequence duplications at the target site of transposition. Although these TEs lack a transposase gene, they contain homologous 38-bp-long terminal inverted repeat sequences (IRs), highly conserved in Tn5563a and many other Tn3-family transposons. The simplest elements of this type, designated TIMEs (Tn3 family-derived Inverted-repeat Miniature Elements) (262 bp), were identified within two natural plasmids (pZM1P1 and pLM8P2) of Pseudomonas spp. It was demonstrated that TIMEs are able to mobilize segments of plasmid DNA for transposition, which results in the generation of more complex non-autonomous elements, resembling IS-driven composite transposons in structure. Such transposon-like elements may contain different functional genetic modules in their core regions, including plasmid replication systems. Another non-autonomous element “captured” with a trap plasmid was a TIME derivative containing a predicted resolvase gene and a res site typical for many Tn3-family transposons. The identification of a portable site-specific recombination system is another intriguing example confirming the important role of non-autonomous TEs of the TIME family in shuffling genetic information in bacterial genomes. Transposition of such mosaic elements may have a significant impact on diversity and evolution, not only of transposons and plasmids, but also of other types of mobile genetic elements. PMID:25121765

Szuplewska, Magdalena; Ludwiczak, Marta; Lyzwa, Katarzyna; Czarnecki, Jakub; Bartosik, Dariusz

2014-01-01

18

Mobility and generation of mosaic non-autonomous transposons by Tn3-derived inverted-repeat miniature elements (TIMEs).  

PubMed

Functional transposable elements (TEs) of several Pseudomonas spp. strains isolated from black shale ore of Lubin mine and from post-flotation tailings of Zelazny Most in Poland, were identified using a positive selection trap plasmid strategy. This approach led to the capture and characterization of (i) 13 insertion sequences from 5 IS families (IS3, IS5, ISL3, IS30 and IS1380), (ii) isoforms of two Tn3-family transposons--Tn5563a and Tn4662a (the latter contains a toxin-antitoxin system), as well as (iii) non-autonomous TEs of diverse structure, ranging in size from 262 to 3892 bp. The non-autonomous elements transposed into AT-rich DNA regions and generated 5- or 6-bp sequence duplications at the target site of transposition. Although these TEs lack a transposase gene, they contain homologous 38-bp-long terminal inverted repeat sequences (IRs), highly conserved in Tn5563a and many other Tn3-family transposons. The simplest elements of this type, designated TIMEs (Tn3 family-derived Inverted-repeat Miniature Elements) (262 bp), were identified within two natural plasmids (pZM1P1 and pLM8P2) of Pseudomonas spp. It was demonstrated that TIMEs are able to mobilize segments of plasmid DNA for transposition, which results in the generation of more complex non-autonomous elements, resembling IS-driven composite transposons in structure. Such transposon-like elements may contain different functional genetic modules in their core regions, including plasmid replication systems. Another non-autonomous element "captured" with a trap plasmid was a TIME derivative containing a predicted resolvase gene and a res site typical for many Tn3-family transposons. The identification of a portable site-specific recombination system is another intriguing example confirming the important role of non-autonomous TEs of the TIME family in shuffling genetic information in bacterial genomes. Transposition of such mosaic elements may have a significant impact on diversity and evolution, not only of transposons and plasmids, but also of other types of mobile genetic elements. PMID:25121765

Szuplewska, Magdalena; Ludwiczak, Marta; Lyzwa, Katarzyna; Czarnecki, Jakub; Bartosik, Dariusz

2014-01-01

19

Intelligent behavior generator for autonomous mobile robots using planning-based AI decision making and supervisory control logic  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In earlier research the Center for Self-Organizing and Intelligent Systems (CSOIS) at Utah State University (USU) have been funded by the US Army Tank-Automotive and Armaments Command's (TACOM) Intelligent Mobility Program to develop and demonstrate enhanced mobility concepts for unmanned ground vehicles (UGVs). One among the several out growths of this work has been the development of a grammar-based approach to intelligent behavior generation for commanding autonomous robotic vehicles. In this paper we describe the use of this grammar for enabling autonomous behaviors. A supervisory task controller (STC) sequences high-level action commands (taken from the grammar) to be executed by the robot. It takes as input a set of goals and a partial (static) map of the environment and produces, from the grammar, a flexible script (or sequence) of the high-level commands that are to be executed by the robot. The sequence is derived by a planning function that uses a graph-based heuristic search (A* -algorithm). Each action command has specific exit conditions that are evaluated by the STC following each task completion or interruption (in the case of disturbances or new operator requests). Depending on the system's state at task completion or interruption (including updated environmental and robot sensor information), the STC invokes a reactive response. This can include sequencing the pending tasks or initiating a re-planning event, if necessary. Though applicable to a wide variety of autonomous robots, an application of this approach is demonstrated via simulations of ODIS, an omni-directional inspection system developed for security applications.

Shah, Hitesh K.; Bahl, Vikas; Martin, Jason; Flann, Nicholas S.; Moore, Kevin L.

2002-07-01

20

AutoNav Mark3: Engineering the Next Generation of Autonomous Onboard Navigation and Guidance  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The success of JPL's AutoNav system at comet Tempel-1 on July 4, 2005, demonstrated the power of autonomous navigation technology for the Deep Impact Mission. This software is being planned for use as the onboard navigation, tracking and rendezvous system for a Mars Sample Return Mission technology demonstration, and several mission proposals are evaluating its use for rendezvous with, and landing on asteroids. Before this however, extensive re-engineering of AutoNav will take place. This paper describes the AutoNav systems-engineering effort in several areas: extending the capabilities, improving operability, utilizing new hardware elements, and demonstrating the new possibilities of AutoNav in simulations.

Riedel, Joseph Ed; Bhaskaran, Shyam; Eldred, Dan B.; Gaskell, Robert A.; Grasso, Christopher A.; Kennedy, Brian; Kubitscheck, Daniel; Mastrodemos, Nickolaos; Synnott, Stephen. P.; Vaughan, Andrew; Werner, Robert A.

2006-01-01

21

Autonomous and Autonomic Swarms  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A watershed in systems engineering is represented by the advent of swarm-based systems that accomplish missions through cooperative action by a (large) group of autonomous individuals each having simple capabilities and no global knowledge of the group s objective. Such systems, with individuals capable of surviving in hostile environments, pose unprecedented challenges to system developers. Design and testing and verification at much higher levels will be required, together with the corresponding tools, to bring such systems to fruition. Concepts for possible future NASA space exploration missions include autonomous, autonomic swarms. Engineering swarm-based missions begins with understanding autonomy and autonomicity and how to design, test, and verify systems that have those properties and, simultaneously, the capability to accomplish prescribed mission goals. Formal methods-based technologies, both projected and in development, are described in terms of their potential utility to swarm-based system developers.

Hinchey, Michael G.; Rash, James L.; Truszkowski, Walter F.; Rouff, Christopher A.; Sterritt, Roy

2005-01-01

22

Energy harvesting technologies: Energy sources, generators and management for wireless autonomous applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Micro energy harvesting technologies have seen strong growth over the last several years. Many different generator concepts have been developed, converting a wide variety of physical energy sources into useable electrical energy. By integrating sensor modules and a wireless transmitter along with the generators, a high order of flexibility and mobility is obtained with these systems, enabling many new applications:

M. Kroener

2012-01-01

23

Small-Signal Analysis of Autonomous Hybrid Distributed Generation Systems in Presence of Ultracapacitor and Tie-Line Operation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents small-signal analysis of isolated as well as interconnected autonomous hybrid distributed generation system for sudden variation in load demand, wind speed and solar radiation. The hybrid systems comprise of different renewable energy resources such as wind, photovoltaic (PV) fuel cell (FC) and diesel engine generator (DEG) along with the energy storage devices such as flywheel energy storage system (FESS) and battery energy storage system (BESS). Further ultracapacitors (UC) as an alternative energy storage element and interconnection of hybrid systems through tie-line is incorporated into the system for improved performance. A comparative assessment of deviation of frequency profile for different hybrid systems in the presence of different storage system combinations is carried out graphically as well as in terms of the performance index (PI), ie integral square error (ISE). Both qualitative and quantitative analysis reflects the improvements of the deviation in frequency profiles in the presence of the ultracapacitors (UC) as compared to other energy storage elements.

Ray, Prakash K.; Mohanty, Soumya R.; Kishor, Nand

2010-07-01

24

Preprint version, final version at http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/ 2014 IEEE Int. Conf. on Robotics and Automation, Hong Kong, China Semi-autonomous Trajectory Generation for Mobile Robots  

E-print Network

Preprint version, final version at http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/ 2014 IEEE Int. Conf. on Robotics and Automation, Hong Kong, China Semi-autonomous Trajectory Generation for Mobile Robots with Integral Haptic-- A new framework for semi-autonomous path plan- ning for mobile robots that extends the classical

25

Photo-driven autonomous hydrogen generation system based on hierarchically shelled ZnO nanostructures  

SciTech Connect

A quantum dot semiconductor sensitized hierarchically shelled one-dimensional ZnO nanostructure has been applied as a quasi-artificial leaf for hydrogen generation. The optimized ZnO nanostructure consists of one dimensional nanowire as a core and two-dimensional nanosheet on the nanowire surface. Furthermore, the quantum dot semiconductors deposited on the ZnO nanostructures provide visible light harvesting properties. To realize the artificial leaf, we applied the ZnO based nanostructure as a photoelectrode with non-wired Z-scheme system. The demonstrated un-assisted photoelectrochemical system showed the hydrogen generation properties under 1 sun condition irradiation. In addition, the quantum dot modified photoelectrode showed 2 mA/cm{sup 2} current density at the un-assisted condition.

Kim, Heejin; Yong, Kijung [Surface Chemistry Laboratory of Electronic Materials, Department of Chemical Engineering, Pohang University of Science and Technology (POSTECH), Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of)] [Surface Chemistry Laboratory of Electronic Materials, Department of Chemical Engineering, Pohang University of Science and Technology (POSTECH), Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of)

2013-11-25

26

An architecture for the autonomous generation of preference-based trajectories  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Numerous techniques exist to optimize aircraft and spacecraft trajectories over cost functions that include terms such as fuel, time, and separation from obstacles. Relative weighting factors can dramatically alter solution characteristics, and engineers often must manually adjust either cost weights or the trajectory itself to obtain desirable solutions. Further, when humans and robots work together, or when humans task robots, they may express their performance expectations in a "fuzzy" natural language fashion, or else as an uncertain range of more or less acceptable values. This work describes a software architecture which accepts both fuzzy linguistic and hard numeric constraints on trajectory performance and, using a trajectory generator provided by the user, automatically constructs trajectories to meet these specifications as closely as possible. The system respects hard constraints imposed by system dynamics or by the user, and will not let the user's preferences interfere with the system and user needs. The architecture's evaluation agent translates these requirements into cost functional weights expected to produce the desired motion characteristics. The quality of the resulting full-state trajectory is then evaluated based on a set of computed trajectory features compared to the specified constraints. If constraints are not met, the cost functional weights are adjusted according to precomputed heuristic equations. Heuristics are not generated in an ad hoc fashion, but are instead the result of a systematic testing of the simulated system under a range of simple conditions. The system is tested in a 2DOF linear and a 6DOF nonlinear domain with a variety of constraints and in the presence of obstacles. Results show that the system consistently meets all hard numeric constraints placed on the trajectory. Desired characteristics are often attainable or else, in those cases where they are discounted in favor of the hard constraints, failed by small margins. Results are discussed as a function of obstacles and of constraints.

Lennon, Jamie

27

Autonomic Dysreflexia  

MedlinePLUS

... you have concerns, talk with your doctor. MEDICAL ALERT CARD Autonomic dysreflexia is a potentially fatal condition ... medical personnel and insist that the card MEDICAL ALERT Autonomic Dysreflexia (AD) A potentially life-threatening condition ...

28

PARISROC, an autonomous front-end ASIC for triggerless acquisition in next generation neutrino experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

PARISROC (Photomultiplier ARray Integrated in SiGe ReadOut Chip) is a complete readout chip in AustriaMicroSystems (AMS) SiGe 0.35 ?m technology designed to read array of 16 Photomultipliers (PMTs). The ASIC is realized in the context of the PMm2 (square meter PhotoMultiplier) project that has proposed a new system of “smart photo-detectors” composed by sensor and read-out electronics dedicated to next generation neutrino experiments. The future water Cherenkov detectors will take place in megaton size water tanks then with a large surface of photo-detection. We propose to segment the large surface in arrays with a single front-end electronics and only the useful data send in surface to be stocked and analyzed. This paper describes the second version of the ASIC and illustrates the chip principle of operation and the main characteristics thank to a series of measurements. It is a 16-channel ASIC with channels that work independently, in triggerless mode and all managed by a common digital part. Then main innovation is that all the channels are handled independently by the digital part so that only channels that have triggered are digitized. Then the data are transferred to the internal memory and sent out in a data driven way. The ASIC allows charge and time measurement. We measured a charge measurement range starting from 160 fC (1 photoelectron-p.e., at PMT gain of 106) to 100 pC (around 600 p.e.) at 1% of linearity; time tagging at 1 ns thanks to a 24-bit counter at 10 MHz and a Time to Digital Converter (TDC) on a 100 ns ramp.

Conforti Di Lorenzo, S.; Campagne, J. E.; Drouet, S.; Dulucq, F.; El Berni, M.; Genolini, B.; de La Taille, C.; Martin-Chassard, G.; Seguin Moreau, N.; Wanlin, E.; Xiangbo, Y.

2012-12-01

29

Autonomic neuropathies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A limited autonomic neuropathy may underlie some unusual clinical syndromes, including the postural tachycardia syndrome, pseudo-obstruction syndrome, heat intolerance, and perhaps chronic fatigue syndrome. Antibodies to autonomic structures are common in diabetes, but their specificity is unknown. The presence of autonomic failure worsens prognosis in the diabetic state. Some autonomic neuropathies are treatable. Familial amyloid polyneuropathy may respond to liver transplantation. There are anecdotal reports of acute panautonomic neuropathy responding to intravenous gamma globulin. Orthostatic hypotension may respond to erythropoietin or midodrine.

Low, P. A.

1998-01-01

30

Autonomic Nervous System Activity Distinguishes among Emotions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emotion-specific activity in the autonomic nervous system was generated by constructing facial prototypes of emotion muscle by muscle and by reliving past emotional experiences. The autonomic activity produced distinguished not only between positive and negative emotions, but also among negative emotions. This finding challenges emotion theories that have proposed autonomic activity to be undifferentiated or that have failed to address

Paul Ekman; Robert W. Levenson; Wallace V. Friesen

1983-01-01

31

Retinoic acid-induced granulocytic differentiation of HL60 human promyelocytic leukemia cells is preceded by downregulation of autonomous generation of inositol lipid-derived second messengers  

SciTech Connect

Inositol phosphates (InsPs) and diacyglycerol (DAG) are second messengers derived via the breakdown of inositol phospholipids, and which play important signalling roles in the regulation of proliferation of some cell types. The authors have studied the operation of this pathway during the early stages of retionic acid (RA)-induced granulocytic differentiation of HL60 myeloid leukemia cells. The autonomous breakdown of inositol lipids that occurred in HL60 cells labeled with (3H) inositol was completely abolished following 48 hours of RA treatment. The rate of influx of 45Ca2+ was also significantly decreased at 48 hours, consistent with the role of inositol lipid-derived second messengers in regulating Ca2+ entry into cells. The downregulation of inositol lipid metabolism clearly preceded the onset of reduced proliferation induced by RA treatment, and was therefore not a consequence of decreased cell growth. The generation of InsPs in RA-treated cells was reactivated by the fluoroaluminate ion, a direct activator of guanine nucleotide-binding protein(s) (G proteins) that regulate the inositol lipid signalling pathway. Subtle alterations to a regulatory mechanism may therefore mediate the RA-induced downregulation of this pathway. The data are consistent with the hypothesis that the autonomous generation of inositol lipid-derived second messengers may contribute to the continuous proliferation of HL60 cells, and that the RA-induced downregulation of this pathway may, in turn, play a role in signalling the cessation of proliferation that preceedes granulocytic differentiation.

Porfiri, E.; Hoffbrand, A.V.; Wickremasinghe, R.G. (Royal Free Hospital School of Medicine (London))

1991-08-15

32

Autonomous data transmission apparatus  

DOEpatents

A autonomous borehole data transmission apparatus for transmitting measurement data from measuring instruments at the downhole end of a drill string by generating pressure pulses utilizing a transducer longitudinally responsive to magnetic field pulses caused by electrical pulses corresponding to the measured downhole parameters.

Kotlyar, Oleg M. (4675 W. 3825 S, Salt Lake City, UT 84120)

1997-01-01

33

Autonomous data transmission apparatus  

DOEpatents

A autonomous borehole data transmission apparatus is described for transmitting measurement data from measuring instruments at the downhole end of a drill string by generating pressure pulses utilizing a transducer longitudinally responsive to magnetic field pulses caused by electrical pulses corresponding to the measured downhole parameters. 4 figs.

Kotlyar, O.M.

1997-03-25

34

Delphin2: an over actuated autonomous underwater vehicle for manoeuvring research  

E-print Network

Delphin2: an over actuated autonomous underwater vehicle for manoeuvring research Introduction The Delphin2 Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV) is a small ( the next generation of engineers to design and build an autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) capable

Sóbester, András

35

The intermedius nucleus of the medulla: a potential site for the integration of cervical information and the generation of autonomic responses.  

PubMed

The intermedius nucleus of the medulla (InM) is a small perihypoglossal brainstem nucleus, which receives afferent information from the neck musculature and also descending inputs from the vestibular nuclei, the gustatory portion of the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) and cortical areas involved in movements of the tongue. The InM sends monosynaptic projections to both the NTS and the hypoglossal nucleus. It is likely that the InM acts to integrate information from the head and neck and relays this information on to the NTS where suitable autonomic responses can be generated, and also to the hypoglossal nucleus to influence movements of the tongue and upper airways. Central to the integratory role of the InM is its neurochemical diversity. Neurones within the InM utilise the amino acid transmitters glutamate, GABA and glycine. A proportion of these excitatory and inhibitory neurones also use nitric oxide as a neurotransmitter. Peptidergic transmitters have also been found within InM neurones, although as yet the extent of the pattern of co-localisation between peptidergic and amino acid transmitters in neurones has not been established. The calcium binding proteins calretinin and parvalbumin are found within the InM in partially overlapping populations. Parvalbumin and calretinin appear to have complementary distributions within the InM, with parvalbumin being predominantly found within GABAergic neurones and calretinin being predominantly found within glutamatergic neurones. Neurones in the InM receive inputs from glutamatergic sensory afferents. This glutamatergic transmission is conducted through both NMDA and AMPA ionotropic glutamate receptors. In summary the InM contains a mixed pool of neurones including glutamatergic and GABAergic in addition to peptidergic neurones. Neurones within the InM receive inputs from the upper cervical region, descending inputs from brain regions involved in tongue movements and those involved in the coordination of the autonomic nervous system. Outputs from the InM to the NTS and hypoglossal nucleus suggest a possible role in the coordination of tongue movements and autonomic responses to changes in posture. PMID:19790285

Edwards, Ian J; Deuchars, Susan A; Deuchars, Jim

2009-11-01

36

Autonomic dysreflexia  

PubMed Central

Abstract Objective To raise family physicians’ awareness of autonomic dysreflexia (AD) in patients with spinal cord injury (SCI) and to provide some suggestions for intervention. Sources of information MEDLINE was searched from 1970 to July 2011 using the terms autonomic dysreflexia and spinal cord injury with family medicine or primary care. Other relevant guidelines and resources were reviewed and used. Main message Family physicians often lack confidence in treating patients with SCI, see them as complex and time-consuming, and feel undertrained to meet their needs. Family physicians provide a vital component of the health care of such patients, and understanding of the unique medical conditions related to SCI is important. Autonomic dysreflexia is an important, common, and potentially serious condition with which many family physicians are unfamiliar. This article will review the signs and symptoms of AD and offer some acute management options and preventive strategies for family physicians. Conclusion Family physicians should be aware of which patients with SCI are susceptible to AD and monitor those affected by it. Outlined is an approach to acute management. Family physicians play a pivotal role in prevention of AD through education (of the patient and other health care providers) and incorporation of strategies such as appropriate bladder, bowel, and skin care practices and warnings and management plans in the medical chart. PMID:22893332

Milligan, James; Lee, Joseph; McMillan, Colleen; Klassen, Hilary

2012-01-01

37

Nature's Autonomous Oscillators  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Nonlinearity is required to produce autonomous oscillations without external time dependent source, and an example is the pendulum clock. The escapement mechanism of the clock imparts an impulse for each swing direction, which keeps the pendulum oscillating at the resonance frequency. Among nature's observed autonomous oscillators, examples are the quasi-biennial oscillation and bimonthly oscillation of the Earth atmosphere, and the 22-year solar oscillation. The oscillations have been simulated in numerical models without external time dependent source, and in Section 2 we summarize the results. Specifically, we shall discuss the nonlinearities that are involved in generating the oscillations, and the processes that produce the periodicities. In biology, insects have flight muscles, which function autonomously with wing frequencies that far exceed the animals' neural capacity; Stretch-activation of muscle contraction is the mechanism that produces the high frequency oscillation of insect flight, discussed in Section 3. The same mechanism is also invoked to explain the functioning of the cardiac muscle. In Section 4, we present a tutorial review of the cardio-vascular system, heart anatomy, and muscle cell physiology, leading up to Starling's Law of the Heart, which supports our notion that the human heart is also a nonlinear oscillator. In Section 5, we offer a broad perspective of the tenuous links between the fluid dynamical oscillators and the human heart physiology.

Mayr, H. G.; Yee, J.-H.; Mayr, M.; Schnetzler, R.

2012-01-01

38

Autonomous, waste-free eluent generation and suppression in a single device: electrodialytic eluent reflux for ion chromatography.  

PubMed

Eluent reflux provides a new approach to suppress and reflux (recover) eluent without the continuous generation of chromatographic waste. The current work utilized a device containing ion exchange membranes at the electrodes, in order to prohibit electrolysis gases from entering the eluent stream. Two resin beds (separated by a membrane stack) were responsible for suppressing incoming eluent and regenerating the suppressed eluent to nearly its original concentration after detection. A greater than expected dilution in the eluent concentration was observed as a result of the minor leakage of potassium ions through the anion membrane stack into the electrode chamber. The incomplete recovery of the eluent was offset by the addition of a three port valve (DRV) to regulate eluent concentration. Over 48 h of continuous operation (192 injections), the device's performance was stable (RSD of 0.21% with the three port valve, compared to RSD 3.73% without). The device was able to operate for up to four weeks using 1L of eluent. Chromatograms showing the reproducibility of the device are presented for anions. PMID:24401425

Elkin, Kyle R; Riviello, John M

2014-02-01

39

Autonomous renewable energy conversion system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper briefly reviews the need for renewable power generation and describes a medium-power Autonomous Renewable Energy Conversion System (ARECS), integrating conversion of wind and solar energy sources. The objectives of the paper are to extract maximum power from the proposed wind energy conversion scheme and to transfer this power and the power derived by the photovoltaic system in a

Ventzislav Valtchev; Alex Van den Bossche; Jozef Ghijselen; Jan Melkebeek

2000-01-01

40

Autonomous Attitude Determination System (AADS). Volume 1: System description  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Information necessary to understand the Autonomous Attitude Determination System (AADS) is presented. Topics include AADS requirements, program structure, algorithms, and system generation and execution.

Saralkar, K.; Frenkel, Y.; Klitsch, G.; Liu, K. S.; Lefferts, E.; Tasaki, K.; Snow, F.; Garrahan, J.

1982-01-01

41

Autonomous Soaring Flight Results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A viewgraph presentation on autonomous soaring flight results for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV)'s is shown. The topics include: 1) Background; 2) Thermal Soaring Flight Results; 3) Autonomous Dolphin Soaring; and 4) Future Plans.

Allen, Michael J.

2006-01-01

42

Autoimmune Autonomic Ganglionopathy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Autoimmune autonomic ganglionopathy is an idiopathic acquired disorder of the autonomic nervous system associated with antibodies to the ganglionic nicotinic acetylcholine receptor found in sympathetic, parasympathetic and enteric ganglia. Symptoms and signs reflect diffuse impairment of autonomic functions. Prominent features are gastrointestinal dysmotility, orthostatic hypotension, and tonic pupils. Typical cases have a subacute onset (less than 3 months to maximum

Nicole Winston; Steven Vernino

2009-01-01

43

Autonomic failure in hydrencephaly  

PubMed Central

Autonomic functions were studied in three patients with hydrencephalus and five with hydrocephalus. Autonomic failure of central origin was found in the patients with hydrencephalus; whereas, those suffering from hydrocephalus had essentially normal autonomic function. In two patients with hydrencephalus, the hypothalamus was markedly abnormal but the rest of the autonomic nervous system was histologically normal. From this it is concluded that in some patients with mental and motor retardation, autonomic failure may be of cerebral origin but that this is not a feature of patients with hydrocephalus. Images PMID:5505683

Appenzeller, Otto; Snyder, Russell; Kornfeld, Mario

1970-01-01

44

Quantitative Autonomic Testing  

PubMed Central

Disorders associated with dysfunction of autonomic nervous system are quite common yet frequently unrecognized. Quantitative autonomic testing can be invaluable tool for evaluation of these disorders, both in clinic and research. There are number of autonomic tests, however, only few were validated clinically or are quantitative. Here, fully quantitative and clinically validated protocol for testing of autonomic functions is presented. As a bare minimum the clinical autonomic laboratory should have a tilt table, ECG monitor, continuous noninvasive blood pressure monitor, respiratory monitor and a mean for evaluation of sudomotor domain. The software for recording and evaluation of autonomic tests is critical for correct evaluation of data. The presented protocol evaluates 3 major autonomic domains: cardiovagal, adrenergic and sudomotor. The tests include deep breathing, Valsalva maneuver, head-up tilt, and quantitative sudomotor axon test (QSART). The severity and distribution of dysautonomia is quantitated using Composite Autonomic Severity Scores (CASS). Detailed protocol is provided highlighting essential aspects of testing with emphasis on proper data acquisition, obtaining the relevant parameters and unbiased evaluation of autonomic signals. The normative data and CASS algorithm for interpretation of results are provided as well. PMID:21788940

Novak, Peter

2011-01-01

45

Precision autonomous underwater navigation  

E-print Network

Deep-sea archaeology, an emerging application of autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) technology, requires precise navigation and guidance. As science requirements and engineering capabilities converge, navigating in the ...

Bingham, Brian S. (Brian Steven), 1973-

2003-01-01

46

Emergent Storylines Based on Autonomous Characters with Mindreading Capabilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Virtual storytelling often uses a fixed, pre-scripted storyline, constraining the characters' autonomy and behav- iour. An agent-based approach provides possibilities of a narrative emerging from interaction between a number of autonomous characters. In this paper such an approach is proposed, based on autonomous virtual agents that have min- dreading capabilities. The approach is applied to generate out of a number

Tibor Bosse; Zulfiqar A. Memon; Jan Treur

2007-01-01

47

Emergent Storylines Based on Autonomous Characters with Mindreading Capabilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Virtual storytelling often uses a fixed, pre-scripted storyline, constraining the characters' autonomy and behaviour. An agent-based approach provides possibilities of a narrative emerging from interaction between a number of autonomous characters. In this paper such an approach is proposed, based on autonomous virtual agents that have mindreading capabilities. The approach is applied to generate out of a number of interacting

Tibor Bosse; Zulfiqar A. Memon; Jan Treur

2007-01-01

48

Autoimmune autonomic ganglionopathy.  

PubMed

Autoimmune autonomic ganglionopathy is an idiopathic acquired disorder of the autonomic nervous system associated with antibodies to the ganglionic nicotinic acetylcholine receptor found in sympathetic, parasympathetic and enteric ganglia. Symptoms and signs reflect diffuse impairment of autonomic functions. Prominent features are gastrointestinal dysmotility, orthostatic hypotension, and tonic pupils. Typical cases have a subacute onset (less than 3 months to maximum symptoms), are monophasic, and may show partial improvement over the course of several months. Other cases have a slowly progressive course which can resemble degenerative forms of autonomic failure. Treatment for milder cases is supportive care for symptom management. Anecdotally, plasma exchange, intravenous immunoglobulin, corticosteroids or immunosuppression have been used successfully to treat more severe cases. Autoimmune autonomic ganglionopathy represents one of a small group of autoimmune neuromuscular disorders that are caused by antibodies against ion channels. PMID:19349706

Winston, Nicole; Vernino, Steven

2009-01-01

49

Autonomous Byte Stream Randomizer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Net-centric networking environments are often faced with limited resources and must utilize bandwidth as efficiently as possible. In networking environments that span wide areas, the data transmission has to be efficient without any redundant or exuberant metadata. The Autonomous Byte Stream Randomizer software provides an extra level of security on top of existing data encryption methods. Randomizing the data s byte stream adds an extra layer to existing data protection methods, thus making it harder for an attacker to decrypt protected data. Based on a generated crypto-graphically secure random seed, a random sequence of numbers is used to intelligently and efficiently swap the organization of bytes in data using the unbiased and memory-efficient in-place Fisher-Yates shuffle method. Swapping bytes and reorganizing the crucial structure of the byte data renders the data file unreadable and leaves the data in a deconstructed state. This deconstruction adds an extra level of security requiring the byte stream to be reconstructed with the random seed in order to be readable. Once the data byte stream has been randomized, the software enables the data to be distributed to N nodes in an environment. Each piece of the data in randomized and distributed form is a separate entity unreadable on its own right, but when combined with all N pieces, is able to be reconstructed back to one. Reconstruction requires possession of the key used for randomizing the bytes, leading to the generation of the same cryptographically secure random sequence of numbers used to randomize the data. This software is a cornerstone capability possessing the ability to generate the same cryptographically secure sequence on different machines and time intervals, thus allowing this software to be used more heavily in net-centric environments where data transfer bandwidth is limited.

Paloulian, George K.; Woo, Simon S.; Chow, Edward T.

2013-01-01

50

Autonomous search for mines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Research on demining includes many different aspects, and in particular the design of efficient and intelligent strategies for (1) determining regions of interest using a variety of sensors, (2) detecting and classifying mines, and (3) searching for mines by autonomous agents. This paper discusses strategies for directing autonomous search based on spatio-temporal distributions. We discuss a model for search assuming that the environment is static, except for the effect of identifying mine locations. Algorithms are designed and compared for autonomously directing a robot, in the case where a single search engine carrying a single sensor.

Gelenbe, Erol; Cao, Yonghuan

1997-07-01

51

Autonomous river navigation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Existing maritime navigation and reconnaissance systems require man-in-the-loop situation awareness for obstacle avoidance, area survey analysis, threat assessment, and mission re-planning. We have developed a boat with fully autonomous navigation, surveillance, and reactive behaviors. Autonomous water navigation is achieved with no prior maps or other data - the water surface, riverbanks obstacles, movers and salient objects are discovered and mapped in real-time using a circular array of cameras along with a self-directed pan-tilt camera. The autonomous boat has been tested on harbor and river domains. Results of the detection, tracking, mapping and navigation will be presented.

Snyder, Franklin D.; Morris, Daniel D.; Haley, Paul H.; Collins, Robert T.; Okerholm, Andrea M.

2004-12-01

52

AIAA-2003-6559 AUTONOMOUS VEHICLE TECHNOLOGIES  

E-print Network

AIAA-2003-6559 AUTONOMOUS VEHICLE TECHNOLOGIES FOR SMALL FIXED WING UAVS Derek Kingston1 , Randal to ac- count for terrain obstructions, weather, and moving threats such as radar, jammers planning of small au- tonomous fixed-wing UAVs. The approach divides the trajectory generation into four

Ren, Wei

53

Autonomic oil reservoir optimization on the Grid  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY The emerging Grid infrastructure and its support for seamless and secure interactions is enabling a new generation of autonomic applications where the application components, Grid services, resources, and data interact as peers to manage, adapt and optimize themselves and the overall application. In this paper we describe the design, development and operation of a prototype of such an application

Vincent Matossian; Viraj Bhat; Manish Parashar; Malgorzata Peszynska; Mrinal K. Sen; Paul L. Stoffa; Mary F. Wheeler

2005-01-01

54

Autonomous Virtual Mobile Nodes  

E-print Network

This paper presents a new abstraction for virtual infrastructure in mobile ad hoc networks. An AutonomousVirtual Mobile Node (AVMN) is a robust and reliable entity that is designed to cope with theinherent difficulties ...

Dolev, Shlomi

2005-06-15

55

An autonomous benthic lander  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new, multi-purpose autonomous benthic lander is described, and preliminary experimental data are presented relating to deployments in the Atlantic Frontier (eastern north Atlantic) during the recent UK Thematic Programme ‘BENBO’. The autonomous lander was deployed at two contrasting sites — Site A (mouth of Rockall Trough; 3570m) and Site B (Hatton-Rockall Bank; 1100m) — before and following the spring-time

Kevin S Black; Gary R Fones; Oli C Peppe; Hilary A Kennedy; Ilhem Bentaleb

2001-01-01

56

Autonomous Flight Safety System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Autonomous Flight Safety System (AFSS) is an independent self-contained subsystem mounted onboard a launch vehicle. AFSS has been developed by and is owned by the US Government. Autonomously makes flight termination/destruct decisions using configurable software-based rules implemented on redundant flight processors using data from redundant GPS/IMU navigation sensors. AFSS implements rules determined by the appropriate Range Safety officials.

Simpson, James

2010-01-01

57

Planning and Execution for an Autonomous Aerobot  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Aerial Onboard Autonomous Science Investigation System (AerOASIS) system provides autonomous planning and execution capabilities for aerial vehicles (see figure). The system is capable of generating high-quality operations plans that integrate observation requests from ground planning teams, as well as opportunistic science events detected onboard the vehicle while respecting mission and resource constraints. AerOASIS allows an airborne planetary exploration vehicle to summarize and prioritize the most scientifically relevant data; identify and select high-value science sites for additional investigation; and dynamically plan, schedule, and monitor the various science activities being performed, even during extended communications blackout periods with Earth.

Gaines, Daniel M.; Estlin, Tara A.; Schaffer, Steven R.; Chouinard, Caroline M.

2010-01-01

58

Towards autonomous fuzzy control  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The efficient implementation of on-line adaptation in real time is an important research problem in fuzzy control. The goal is to develop autonomous self-organizing controllers employing system-independent control meta-knowledge which enables them to adjust their control policies depending on the systems they control and the environments in which they operate. An autonomous fuzzy controller would continuously observe system behavior while implementing its control actions and would use the outcomes of these actions to refine its control policy. It could be designed to lie dormant when its control actions give rise to adequate performance characteristics but could rapidly and autonomously initiate real-time adaptation whenever its performance degrades. Such an autonomous fuzzy controller would have immense practical value. It could accommodate individual variations in system characteristics and also compensate for degradations in system characteristics caused by wear and tear. It could also potentially deal with black-box systems and control scenarios. On-going research in autonomous fuzzy control is reported. The ultimate research objective is to develop robust and relatively inexpensive autonomous fuzzy control hardware suitable for use in real time environments.

Shenoi, Sujeet; Ramer, Arthur

1993-01-01

59

[Autoimmune autonomic ganglionopathy].  

PubMed

Autoimmune autonomic ganglionopathy (AAG) is a disorder of isolated autonomic failure associated with antibodies to the nitotinic acetylcholine receptor of the autonomic ganglia resulting in severe autonomic dysfunction. The disorder is associated with and most likely caused by antibodies to gAChR. In this study, we attempted to develop a novel technique to detect antibodies that bind to gAChR. We established a simple in vitro system termed GLIP (gaussia luciferase-reporter immunoprecipitation), which can detect protein-protein interactions with high sensitivity and using no radioisotope. Using this new method, we extensively reviewed the case histories with current clinical and laboratory evaluations that include testing for antibodies to p3 and 34 subunits of gAChR in serum available from the time of symptom onset. Here, we describe 7 patients with gAChR autoantibody and autonomic dysfunction. Our observations also suggest that autoimmune-mediated impairment of autonomic function may be partially reversible. Six of 7 patients improved in response to immunotherapy (e.g. PP, IVMP, IVIg, and immunosuppressant drugs) with symptomatic therapy. We interpreted the improvement in clinical symptoms correlated with the decrease in the levels of anti gAChR antibodies in each case. Some patients with seropositive AAG respond to treatment with IVMP or PP or IVIg, although when used as a single agent, subsequent treatments are required in patients to maintain the improvement. PMID:24291882

Nakane, Shunya

2013-01-01

60

Systems, methods and apparatus for quiesence of autonomic safety devices with self action  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Systems, methods and apparatus are provided through which in some embodiments an autonomic environmental safety device may be quiesced. In at least one embodiment, a method for managing an autonomic safety device, such as a smoke detector, based on functioning state and operating status of the autonomic safety device includes processing received signals from the autonomic safety device to obtain an analysis of the condition of the autonomic safety device, generating one or more stay-awake signals based on the functioning status and the operating state of the autonomic safety device, transmitting the stay-awake signal, transmitting self health/urgency data, and transmitting environment health/urgency data. A quiesce component of an autonomic safety device can render the autonomic safety device inactive for a specific amount of time or until a challenging situation has passed.

Hinchey, Michael G. (Inventor); Sterritt, Roy (Inventor)

2011-01-01

61

Autonomic cardiac innervation  

PubMed Central

Autonomic cardiac neurons have a common origin in the neural crest but undergo distinct developmental differentiation as they mature toward their adult phenotype. Progenitor cells respond to repulsive cues during migration, followed by differentiation cues from paracrine sources that promote neurochemistry and differentiation. When autonomic axons start to innervate cardiac tissue, neurotrophic factors from vascular tissue are essential for maintenance of neurons before they reach their targets, upon which target-derived trophic factors take over final maturation, synaptic strength and postnatal survival. Although target-derived neurotrophins have a central role to play in development, alternative sources of neurotrophins may also modulate innervation. Both developing and adult sympathetic neurons express proNGF, and adult parasympathetic cardiac ganglion neurons also synthesize and release NGF. The physiological function of these “non-classical” cardiac sources of neurotrophins remains to be determined, especially in relation to autocrine/paracrine sustenance during development.   Cardiac autonomic nerves are closely spatially associated in cardiac plexuses, ganglia and pacemaker regions and so are sensitive to release of neurotransmitter, neuropeptides and trophic factors from adjacent nerves. As such, in many cardiac pathologies, it is an imbalance within the two arms of the autonomic system that is critical for disease progression. Although this crosstalk between sympathetic and parasympathetic nerves has been well established for adult nerves, it is unclear whether a degree of paracrine regulation occurs across the autonomic limbs during development. Aberrant nerve remodeling is a common occurrence in many adult cardiovascular pathologies, and the mechanisms regulating outgrowth or denervation are disparate. However, autonomic neurons display considerable plasticity in this regard with neurotrophins and inflammatory cytokines having a central regulatory function, including in possible neurotransmitter changes. Certainly, neurotrophins and cytokines regulate transcriptional factors in adult autonomic neurons that have vital differentiation roles in development. Particularly for parasympathetic cardiac ganglion neurons, additional examinations of developmental regulatory mechanisms will potentially aid in understanding attenuated parasympathetic function in a number of conditions, including heart failure. PMID:23872607

Hasan, Wohaib

2013-01-01

62

Swarm autonomic agents with self-destruct capability  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Systems, methods and apparatus are provided through which in some embodiments an autonomic entity manages a system by generating one or more stay alive signals based on the functioning status and operating state of the system. In some embodiments, an evolvable synthetic neural system is operably coupled to one or more evolvable synthetic neural systems in a hierarchy. The evolvable neural interface receives and generates heartbeat monitor signals and pulse monitor signals that are used to generate a stay alive signal that is used to manage the operations of the synthetic neural system. In another embodiment an asynchronous Alice signal (Autonomic license) requiring valid credentials of an anonymous autonomous agent is initiated. An unsatisfactory Alice exchange may lead to self-destruction of the anonymous autonomous agent for self-protection.

Hinchey, Michael G. (Inventor); Sterritt, Roy (Inventor)

2011-01-01

63

Swarm autonomic agents with self-destruct capability  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Systems, methods and apparatus are provided through which in some embodiments an autonomic entity manages a system by generating one or more stay alive signals based on the functioning status and operating state of the system. In some embodiments, an evolvable synthetic neural system is operably coupled to one or more evolvable synthetic neural systems in a hierarchy. The evolvable neural interface receives and generates heartbeat monitor signals and pulse monitor signals that are used to generate a stay alive signal that is used to manage the operations of the synthetic neural system. In another embodiment an asynchronous Alice signal (Autonomic license) requiring valid credentials of an anonymous autonomous agent is initiated. An unsatisfactory Alice exchange may lead to self-destruction of the anonymous autonomous agent for self-protection.

Hinchey, Michael G. (Inventor); Sterritt, Roy (Inventor)

2009-01-01

64

Thinking Ahead: Autonomic Buildings  

SciTech Connect

The time has come for the commercial buildings industries to reconsider the very nature of the systems installed in facilities today and to establish a vision for future buildings that differs from anything in the history of human shelter. Drivers for this examination include reductions in building operation staffs; uncertain costs and reliability of electric power; growing interest in energy-efficient and resource-conserving?green? and?high-performance? commercial buildings; and a dramatic increase in security concerns since the tragic events of September 11. This paper introduces a new paradigm? autonomic buildings? which parallels the concept of autonomic computing, introduced by IBM as a fundamental change in the way computer networks work. Modeled after the human nervous system,?autonomic systems? themselves take responsibility for a large portion of their own operation and even maintenance. For commercial buildings, autonomic systems could provide environments that afford occupants greater opportunity to focus on the things we do in buildings rather than on operation of the building itself, while achieving higher performance levels, increased security, and better use of energy and other natural resources. The author uses the human body and computer networking to introduce and illustrate this new paradigm for high-performance commercial buildings. He provides a vision for the future of commercial buildings based on autonomicity, identifies current research that could contribute to this future, and highlights research and technological gaps. The paper concludes with a set of issues and needs that are key to converting this idealized future into reality.

Brambley, Michael R. (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB))

2002-08-31

65

Architecture of autonomous systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Automation of Space Station functions and activities, particularly those involving robotic capabilities with interactive or supervisory human control, is a complex, multi-disciplinary systems design problem. A wide variety of applications using autonomous control can be found in the literature, but none of them seem to address the problem in general. All of them are designed with a specific application in mind. In this report, an abstract model is described which unifies the key concepts underlying the design of automated systems such as those studied by the aerospace contractors. The model has been kept as general as possible. The attempt is to capture all the key components of autonomous systems. With a little effort, it should be possible to map the functions of any specific autonomous system application to the model presented here.

Dikshit, Piyush; Guimaraes, Katia; Ramamurthy, Maya; Agrawala, Ashok; Larsen, Ronald L.

1989-01-01

66

Architecture of autonomous systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Automation of Space Station functions and activities, particularly those involving robotic capabilities with interactive or supervisory human control, is a complex, multi-disciplinary systems design problem. A wide variety of applications using autonomous control can be found in the literature, but none of them seem to address the problem in general. All of them are designed with a specific application in mind. In this report, an abstract model is described which unifies the key concepts underlying the design of automated systems such as those studied by the aerospace contractors. The model has been kept as general as possible. The attempt is to capture all the key components of autonomous systems. With a little effort, it should be possible to map the functions of any specific autonomous system application to the model presented here.

Dikshit, Piyush; Guimaraes, Katia; Ramamurthy, Maya; Agrawala, Ashok; Larsen, Ronald L.

1986-01-01

67

[Autoimmune autonomic ganglionopathy and acute autonomic and sensory neuropathy].  

PubMed

Autonomic neuropathies may occur primarily or secondarily to various underlying diseases. Primary autonomic neuropathies are divided into pure autonomic neuropathy, autonomic neuropathy with sensory impairment, and autonomic neuropathy with sensory and motor impairment based on the concomitance or absence of sensory or motor dysfunctions. Autoimmune autonomic ganglionopathy refers to a pure autonomic neuropathy, which typically affects both cholinergic and adrenergic functions. About a half of the patients with autoimmune autonomic ganglionopathy are positive for anti-ganglionic acetylcholine receptor antibodies. The mode of progression widely ranges from acute to chronic, including that mimicking pure autonomic failure. The number of unmyelinated fibers in the sural nerve biopsy specimens tends to decrease with the duration of disease become longer. Immunomodulatory treatments are suggested to be effective for autoimmune autonomic ganglionopathy. Acute autonomic and sensory neuropathy is characterized by autonomic and sensory impairment without motor dysfunction that reaches its nadir within a short period of time mimicking the progression of Guillain-Barré syndrome. The monophasic clinical course and frequent presence of a history of antecedent infections suggests a participation of immune mechanisms. The initial symptoms are those related to autonomic disturbance or superficial sensory impairment, while deep sensory impairment accompanied by sensory ataxia subsequently appears in some patients. Sural nerve biopsy specimens reveal small-fiber predominant axonal loss, and autopsy cases show neuronal loss in the thoracic sympathetic and dorsal root ganglia. Hence, small neurons in the autonomic and sensory ganglia may be affected in the initial phase and, subsequently, large neurons in the sensory ganglia are damaged in acute autonomic and sensory neuropathy. PMID:24291976

Koike, Haruki; Sobue, Gen

2013-01-01

68

Adult ciliary epithelial stem cells generate functional neurons and differentiate into both early and late born retinal neurons under non-cell autonomous influences  

PubMed Central

Background The neural stem cells discovered in the adult ciliary epithelium (CE) in higher vertebrates have emerged as an accessible source of retinal progenitors; these cells can self-renew and possess retinal potential. However, recent studies have cast doubt as to whether these cells could generate functional neurons and differentiate along the retinal lineage. Here, we have systematically examined the pan neural and retinal potential of CE stem cells. Results Molecular and cellular analysis was carried out to examine the plasticity of CE stem cells, obtained from mice expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) under the influence of the promoter of the rod photoreceptor-specific gene, Nrl, using the neurospheres assay. Differentiation was induced by specific culture conditions and evaluated by both transcripts and protein levels of lineage-specific regulators and markers. Temporal pattern of their levels were examined to determine the expression of genes and proteins underlying the regulatory hierarchy of cells specific differentiation in vitro. Functional attributes of differentiation were examined by the presence of current profiles and pharmacological mobilization of intracellular calcium using whole cell recordings and Fura-based calcium imaging, respectively. We demonstrate that stem cells in adult CE not only have the capacity to generate functional neurons, acquiring the expression of sodium and potassium channels, but also respond to specific cues in culture and preferentially differentiate along the lineages of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) and rod photoreceptors, the early and late born retinal neurons, respectively. The retinal differentiation of CE stem cells was characterized by the temporal acquisition of the expression of the regulators of RGCs and rod photoreceptors, followed by the display of cell type-specific mature markers and mobilization of intracellular calcium. Conclusions Our study demonstrates the bonafide retinal potential of adult CE stem cells and suggests that their plasticity could be harnessed for clinical purposes once barriers associated with any lineage conversion, i.e., low efficiency and fidelity is overcome through the identification of conducive culture conditions. PMID:24148749

2013-01-01

69

An Autonomous Blimp  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the design of a lighter than air autonomous robot and its natural l andmark navigation system that operates in three dimensions. The robot has successfully flown the University banner at science shows and op en days under public scrutiny. The robot i s nearly 2m long and 0 .8m wide, making the robot suitable for use in

Gordon Wyeth; Ivan Barron

70

Autonomic Computer Vision Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

For most real applications of computer vision, variations in operating conditions result in poor reliability. As a result, real world applications tend to require lengthy set-up and frequent intervention by qualified specialists. In this paper we describe how autonomic computing can be used to reduce the cost of installation and enhance reliability for practical computer vision systems. We begin by

James L. Crowley; Daniela Hall; Remi Emonet

2007-01-01

71

Autonomic solar panel  

Microsoft Academic Search

An autonomic solar heat collecting system is provided. The heart of the system is a solar panel including a flat outer surface adapted to be exposed to the direction of the radiation of the sun. A flat or formed inner sheet is provided which is closely spaced from the outer surface section. Preferably, a flat, transparent plate is provided, which

F. S. Savage; A. D. Long

1978-01-01

72

Autonomous Optical Lunar Navigation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The performance of optical autonomous navigation is investigated for low lunar orbits and for high elliptical lunar orbits. Various options for employing the camera measurements are presented and compared. Strategies for improving navigation performance are developed and applied to the Orion vehicle lunar mission

Zanetti, Renato; Crouse, Brian; D'souza, Chris

2009-01-01

73

Autoimmune autonomic ganglionopathy  

PubMed Central

Background Autoimmune autonomic ganglionopathy (AAG) is an acquired immune-mediated form of diffuse autonomic failure. Many patients have serum antibodies that bind to the ganglionic acetylcholine receptors (AChRs) that mediate fast synaptic transmission in autonomic ganglia. Previous clinical studies and observations in animal models suggest that AAG is an antibody-mediated neurologic disorder. Methods Using whole-cell patch clamp techniques, we recorded ganglionic AChR currents in cultured human IMR-32 cells and examined the effects of bath application of IgG derived from patients with AAG. Results IgG from seven patients with AAG all produced a progressive decline in whole-cell ganglionic AChR current, whereas IgG from control subjects had no effect. The effect was abolished at low temperature. Fab antibody fragments had no effect unless a secondary antibody was added concurrently. IgG from one patient also produced a more immediate reduction of ganglionic AChR current. Conclusions The characteristics of antibody-mediated inhibition of ganglionic acetylcholine receptor (AChR) current are consistent with modulation and blocking of the membrane AChR, analogous to the effects of muscle AChR antibodies in myasthenia gravis. Our observations demonstrate that antibodies in patients with autoimmune autonomic ganglionopathy (AAG) cause physiologic changes in ganglionic AChR function and confirm that AAG is an antibody-mediated disorder. PMID:17536048

Wang, Z.; Low, P.A.; Jordan, J.; Freeman, R.; Gibbons, C.H.; Schroeder, C.; Sandroni, P.; Vernino, S.

2008-01-01

74

Microscale autonomous sensor and communications module  

DOEpatents

Various technologies pertaining to a microscale autonomous sensor and communications module are described herein. Such a module includes a sensor that generates a sensor signal that is indicative of an environmental parameter. An integrated circuit receives the sensor signal and generates an output signal based at least in part upon the sensor signal. An optical emitter receives the output signal and generates an optical signal as a function of the output signal. An energy storage device is configured to provide power to at least the integrated circuit and the optical emitter, and wherein the module has a relatively small diameter and thickness.

Okandan, Murat; Nielson, Gregory N

2014-03-25

75

Local path control for an autonomous vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

A control system for an autonomous robot cart designed to operate in well-structured environments such as offices and factories is described. The onboard navigation system comprises a reference-state generator, an error-feedback controller, and cart-location sensing using odometry. There is a convenient separation between the path guidance and control logic. Under normal operating conditions, the controller ensures that the errors between

Winston L. Nelson; Ingeniar J. Cox

1988-01-01

76

Autonomous satellite navigation by stellar refraction  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes an error analysis of an autonomous navigator using refraction measurements of starlight passing through the upper atmosphere. The analysis is based on a discrete linear Kalman filter. The filter generated steady-state values of navigator performance for a variety of test cases. Results of these simulations show that in low-earth orbit position-error standard deviations of less than 0.100 km may be obtained using only 40 star sightings per orbit.

Gounley, R.; White, R.; Gai, E.

1983-01-01

77

Mobile Autonomous Humanoid Assistant  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A mobile autonomous humanoid robot is assisting human co-workers at the Johnson Space Center with tool handling tasks. This robot combines the upper body of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)/Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) Robonaut system with a Segway(TradeMark) Robotic Mobility Platform yielding a dexterous, maneuverable humanoid perfect for aiding human co-workers in a range of environments. This system uses stereo vision to locate human team mates and tools and a navigation system that uses laser range and vision data to follow humans while avoiding obstacles. Tactile sensors provide information to grasping algorithms for efficient tool exchanges. The autonomous architecture utilizes these pre-programmed skills to form human assistant behaviors. The initial behavior demonstrates a robust capability to assist a human by acquiring a tool from a remotely located individual and then following the human in a cluttered environment with the tool for future use.

Diftler, M. A.; Ambrose, R. O.; Tyree, K. S.; Goza, S. M.; Huber, E. L.

2004-01-01

78

Autoimmune autonomic failure.  

PubMed

Autoimmune autonomic ganglionopathy is a syndrome of panautonomic failure caused by antibodies to ganglionic acetylcholine receptors. The clinical syndrome is characterized by significant postural hypotension, diffuse cholinergic and adrenergic impairment, gastrointestinal dysmotility, urinary retention, and pupillary dysfunction. While acute to subacute onset of disease is commonly seen, chronic, slowly progressive variants have been described. Serological testing for ganglionic acetylcholine receptor antibodies helps confirm the diagnosis. These antibodies cause a similar phenotype of autonomic failure in animal models indicating that an antibody-mediated functional impairment of ganglionic transmission is the underlying etiology. Decrease in antibody levels correlates with clinical improvement. Patients may respond to immunomodulatory therapies such as prednisone, intravenous immunoglobulin, plasma exchange, and oral immunosuppressants. A combination treatment is often required as well as symptomatic therapy. PMID:24095135

Muppidi, Srikanth; Vernino, Steven

2013-01-01

79

Autonomous Mobile Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary form only given, as follows. Autonomous mobile networks are distributed ad-hoc networks of nodes that can sense, actuate, compute and communicate with each other using point-to-point multi-hop communication. The nodes in such networks include static sensors, mobile sensors, robots, and humans. Such systems combine the most advanced concepts in perception, communication and control to create computational systems capable of

Daniela Rus

2004-01-01

80

Autonomous mobile platform II  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presents design of autonomous mobile platform based on the all terrain 1\\/8th scale four wheel drive radio control model. In this paper was considered problem of automatic control of mobile platform using information from GPS system, electronic compass and encoder. The mobile platform is equipped in two-stroke glow engine, heavy-duty drive train and wide-track suspension and controller based

Krzysztof Jaskot; Artur Babiarz

2011-01-01

81

Autonomous star tracker performance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

First in NASA's New Frontiers series of missions, the New Horizons spacecraft was successfully launched on January 19, 2006. New Horizons is scheduled to perform a gravity assist at Jupiter on February 28, 2007, arrive at Pluto on July 14, 2015; completing an extended mission to at least one Kuiper Belt Object in subsequent years. The concept of operations requires a star tracker that operates autonomously both in a standard three-axis "staring" mode during operations involving instrument observations and in a spin stabilized mode during cruise operations with nominal rotational rates up to 5 rpm. With the support of the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, Galileo Avionica redesigned their Autonomous Star Trackers (ASTR) to use time-delayed integration techniques to provide autonomous spacecraft attitude estimates at 10 Hz at spin rates up to 10 rpm. This paper will present the performance of the upgraded ASTR in both inertial stare and spin stabilized modes for the first six months of the mission. In addition, effects of the vehicle motion on performance, effects of stray light and direct Sun blinding on tracking and performance, and unanticipated "features" or characteristics of the ASTRs will be discussed.

Rogers, Gabe D.; Schwinger, Marsha R.; Kaidy, James T.; Strikwerda, Thomas E.; Casini, Roberto; Landi, Andrea; Bettarini, Rossano; Lorenzini, Stefano

2009-07-01

82

Pharmacotherapy of autonomic failure  

PubMed Central

The clinical picture of autonomic failure is characterized by severe and disabling orthostatic hypotension. These disorders can develop as a result of damage of central neural pathways or peripheral autonomic nerves, caused either by a primary autonomic neurodegenerative disorder or secondary to systemic illness. Treatment should be focused on decreasing presyncopal symptoms instead of achieving blood pressure goals. Non-pharmacologic strategies such as physical counter-maneuvers, dietary changes (i.e. high salt diet, rapid water drinking or compression garments) are the first line therapy. Affected patients should be screened for co-morbid conditions such as post-prandial hypotension and supine hypertension that can worsen orthostatic hypotension if not treated. If symptoms are not controlled with these conservative measures the next step is to start pharmacological agents; these interventions should be aimed at increasing intravascular volume either by promoting water and salt retention (fludrocortisone) or by increasing red blood cell mass when anemia is present (recombinant erythropoietin). When pressor agents are needed, direct pressor agents (midodrine) or agents that potentiate sympathetic activity (atomoxetine, yohimbine, pyridostigmine) can be used. It is preferable to use short-acting pressor agents that can be taken on as needed basis in preparation for upright activities. PMID:21664375

Shibao, Cyndya; Okamoto, Luis; Biaggioni, Italo

2012-01-01

83

Adaptive Flight Control for an Autonomous Unmanned Helicopter  

Microsoft Academic Search

For autonomous helicopter flight, it is common to separate the flight control problem into an innerloop that controls attitude and an outerloop that controls the trajectory of the helicopter. The outerloop generates attitude commands that orient the main ro- tor forces appropriately to generate required translational accelerations. Recent work in Neural Network based adaptive flight control may be applied to

Eric N. Johnson; Suresh K. Kannany

84

AUTONOMOUS VEHICLE TECHNOLOGIES FOR SMALL FIXED WING UAVS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Autonomous unmanned air vehicle ?ight con- trol systems require robust path generation to ac- count for terrain obstructions, weather, and moving threats such as radar, jammers, and unfriendly air- craft. In this paper, we outline a feasible, hierarchal approach for real-time motion planning of small au- tonomous flxed-wing UAVs. The approach divides the trajectory generation into four tasks: waypoint path

Derek Kingston; Randal Beard; Timothy McLain; Michael Larsen; Wei Ren

2003-01-01

85

Autonomous Space Shuttle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The continued assembly and operation of the International Space Station (ISS) is the cornerstone within NASA's overall Strategic P an. As indicated in NASA's Integrated Space Transportation Plan (ISTP), the International Space Station requires Shuttle to fly through at least the middle of the next decade to complete assembly of the Station, provide crew transport, and to provide heavy lift up and down mass capability. The ISTP reflects a tight coupling among the Station, Shuttle, and OSP programs to support our Nation's space goal . While the Shuttle is a critical component of this ISTP, there is a new emphasis for the need to achieve greater efficiency and safety in transporting crews to and from the Space Station. This need is being addressed through the Orbital Space Plane (OSP) Program. However, the OSP is being designed to "complement" the Shuttle as the primary means for crew transfer, and will not replace all the Shuttle's capabilities. The unique heavy lift capabilities of the Space Shuttle is essential for both ISS, as well as other potential missions extending beyond low Earth orbit. One concept under discussion to better fulfill this role of a heavy lift carrier, is the transformation of the Shuttle to an "un-piloted" autonomous system. This concept would eliminate the loss of crew risk, while providing a substantial increase in payload to orbit capability. Using the guidelines reflected in the NASA ISTP, the autonomous Shuttle a simplified concept of operations can be described as; "a re-supply of cargo to the ISS through the use of an un-piloted Shuttle vehicle from launch through landing". Although this is the primary mission profile, the other major consideration in developing an autonomous Shuttle is maintaining a crew transportation capability to ISS as an assured human access to space capability.

Siders, Jeffrey A.; Smith, Robert H.

2004-01-01

86

Autonomous mobile robot teams  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes autonomous mobile robot teams performing tasks in unstructured environments. The behavior and the intelligence of the group is distributed, and the system does not include a central command base or leader. The novel concept of the Tropism-Based Cognitive Architecture is introduced, which is used by the robots in order to produce behavior transforming their sensory information to proper action. The results of a number of simulation experiments are presented. These experiments include worlds where the robot teams must locate, decompose, and gather objects, and defend themselves against hostile predators, while navigating around stationary and mobile obstacles.

Agah, Arvin; Bekey, George A.

1994-01-01

87

NASA: Autonomous Sciencecraft Experiment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory has undertaken the Autonomous Sciencecraft Experiment (ASE) to "demonstrate the potential for space missions to use onboard decision-making to detect, analyze, and respond to science events, and to downlink only the highest value science data." The website features ASE updates, publications, and a list of the potential impacts of this research. Users can discover the autonomy software components that are aboard the ASE flight. The site includes links to information about the Artificial Intelligence Group at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and its other projects.

88

Autonomous Phase Retrieval Calibration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Palomar Adaptive Optics System actively corrects for changing aberrations in light due to atmospheric turbulence. However, the underlying internal static error is unknown and uncorrected by this process. The dedicated wavefront sensor device necessarily lies along a different path than the science camera, and, therefore, doesn't measure the true errors along the path leading to the final detected imagery. This is a standard problem in adaptive optics (AO) called "non-common path error." The Autonomous Phase Retrieval Calibration (APRC) software suite performs automated sensing and correction iterations to calibrate the Palomar AO system to levels that were previously unreachable.

Estlin, Tara A.; Chien, Steve A.; Castano, Rebecca; Gaines, Daniel M.; Doubleday, Joshua R.; Schoolcraft, Josua B.; Oyake, Amalaye; Vaughs, Ashton G.; Torgerson, Jordan L.

2011-01-01

89

Ventricular repolarization during cardiovascular autonomic function testing.  

E-print Network

??The autonomic nervous system is an important modulator of ventricular repolarization and arrhythmia vulnerability. This study explored the effects of cardiovascular autonomic function tests on… (more)

Haapalahti, Petri

2008-01-01

90

Asteroid Exploration with Autonomic Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA is studying advanced technologies for a future robotic exploration mission to the asteroid belt. The prospective ANTS (Autonomous Nano Technology Swarm) mission comprises autonomous agents including worker agents (small spacecra3) designed to cooperate in asteroid exploration under the overall authoriq of at least one ruler agent (a larger spacecraft) whose goal is to cause science data to be returned to Earth. The ANTS team (ruler plus workers and messenger agents), but not necessarily any individual on the team, will exhibit behaviors that qualify it as an autonomic system, where an autonomic system is defined as a system that self-reconfigures, self-optimizes, self-heals, and self-protects. Autonomic system concepts lead naturally to realistic, scalable architectures rich in capabilities and behaviors. In-depth consideration of a major mission like ANTS in terms of autonomic systems brings new insights into alternative definitions of autonomic behavior. This paper gives an overview of the ANTS mission and discusses the autonomic properties of the mission.

Truszkowski, Walt; Rash, James; Rouff, Christopher; Hinchey, Mike

2004-01-01

91

Engineering autonomously controlled logistic systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Today enterprises are exposed to an increasingly dynamic environment. Last but not least increasing competition caused by globalization more and more requires gaining competitive advantages by improved process control, within and beyond an enterprise. Autonomous control of logistic processes is proposed as a means to better face dynamics and complexity. Autonomous control means the ability of logistic objects to process

B. Scholz-Reiter; J. Kolditz; T. Hildebrandt

2009-01-01

92

Immunotherapy for autoimmune autonomic ganglionopathy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose of reviewTo provide an update on recent advances in the treatment of autoimmune autonomic ganglionopathy (AAG). AAG is an immune-mediated disorder characterized by prominent and selective involvement of autonomic nerve fibers or ganglia. Treatment with intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) or plasma exchange (PE) has been reported to be effective in single case reports and recent case series. This review summarizes

Valeria Iodice; Kurt Kimpinski; Steven Vernino; Paola Sandroni; Phillip A. Low

2009-01-01

93

Autonomous Navigation for Forest Machines  

E-print Network

Inertial navigation system (INS) ..............................................................19 WheelAutonomous Navigation for Forest Machines a Pre-Study by Thomas Hellström Department of Computing Science Umeå University Umeå, Sweden 2002-10-18 #12;Autonomous Navigation for Forest Machines ­ a Pre

Hellström, Thomas

94

Autonomous Navigation for Airborne Applications  

E-print Network

of inertial navigation techniques are required in order to allow for prediction of state information, whichAutonomous Navigation for Airborne Applications Jonghyuk Kim A thesis submitted in fulfillment Navigation for Airborne Applications Autonomous navigation (or localisation) is the process of determining

Kim, Jonghyuk "Jon"

95

Learning for Autonomous Navigation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Robotic ground vehicles for outdoor applications have achieved some remarkable successes, notably in autonomous highway following (Dickmanns, 1987), planetary exploration (1), and off-road navigation on Earth (1). Nevertheless, major challenges remain to enable reliable, high-speed, autonomous navigation in a wide variety of complex, off-road terrain. 3-D perception of terrain geometry with imaging range sensors is the mainstay of off-road driving systems. However, the stopping distance at high speed exceeds the effective lookahead distance of existing range sensors. Prospects for extending the range of 3-D sensors is strongly limited by sensor physics, eye safety of lasers, and related issues. Range sensor limitations also allow vehicles to enter large cul-de-sacs even at low speed, leading to long detours. Moreover, sensing only terrain geometry fails to reveal mechanical properties of terrain that are critical to assessing its traversability, such as potential for slippage, sinkage, and the degree of compliance of potential obstacles. Rovers in the Mars Exploration Rover (MER) mission have got stuck in sand dunes and experienced significant downhill slippage in the vicinity of large rock hazards. Earth-based off-road robots today have very limited ability to discriminate traversable vegetation from non-traversable vegetation or rough ground. It is impossible today to preprogram a system with knowledge of these properties for all types of terrain and weather conditions that might be encountered.

Angelova, Anelia; Howard, Andrew; Matthies, Larry; Tang, Benyang; Turmon, Michael; Mjolsness, Eric

2005-01-01

96

Autonomous Flight Safety System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Autonomous Flight Safety System (AFSS) is an independent flight safety system designed for small to medium sized expendable launch vehicles launching from or needing range safety protection while overlying relatively remote locations. AFSS replaces the need for a man-in-the-loop to make decisions for flight termination. AFSS could also serve as the prototype for an autonomous manned flight crew escape advisory system. AFSS utilizes onboard sensors and processors to emulate the human decision-making process using rule-based software logic and can dramatically reduce safety response time during critical launch phases. The Range Safety flight path nominal trajectory, its deviation allowances, limit zones and other flight safety rules are stored in the onboard computers. Position, velocity and attitude data obtained from onboard global positioning system (GPS) and inertial navigation system (INS) sensors are compared with these rules to determine the appropriate action to ensure that people and property are not jeopardized. The final system will be fully redundant and independent with multiple processors, sensors, and dead man switches to prevent inadvertent flight termination. AFSS is currently in Phase III which includes updated algorithms, integrated GPS/INS sensors, large scale simulation testing and initial aircraft flight testing.

Ferrell, Bob; Santuro, Steve; Simpson, James; Zoerner, Roger; Bull, Barton; Lanzi, Jim

2004-01-01

97

Mission Operations with an Autonomous Agent  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Remote Agent (RA) is an Artificial Intelligence (AI) system which automates some of the tasks normally reserved for human mission operators and performs these tasks autonomously on-board the spacecraft. These tasks include activity generation, sequencing, spacecraft analysis, and failure recovery. The RA will be demonstrated as a flight experiment on Deep Space One (DSI), the first deep space mission of the NASA's New Millennium Program (NMP). As we moved from prototyping into actual flight code development and teamed with ground operators, we made several major extensions to the RA architecture to address the broader operational context in which PA would be used. These extensions support ground operators and the RA sharing a long-range mission profile with facilities for asynchronous ground updates; support ground operators monitoring and commanding the spacecraft at multiple levels of detail simultaneously; and enable ground operators to provide additional knowledge to the RA, such as parameter updates, model updates, and diagnostic information, without interfering with the activities of the RA or leaving the system in an inconsistent state. The resulting architecture supports incremental autonomy, in which a basic agent can be delivered early and then used in an increasingly autonomous manner over the lifetime of the mission. It also supports variable autonomy, as it enables ground operators to benefit from autonomy when L'@ey want it, but does not inhibit them from obtaining a detailed understanding and exercising tighter control when necessary. These issues are critical to the successful development and operation of autonomous spacecraft.

Pell, Barney; Sawyer, Scott R.; Muscettola, Nicola; Smith, Benjamin; Bernard, Douglas E.

1998-01-01

98

Autonomic and Coevolutionary Sensor Networking  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

(WSNs) applications are often required to balance the tradeoffs among conflicting operational objectives (e.g., latency and power consumption) and operate at an optimal tradeoff. This chapter proposes and evaluates a architecture, called BiSNET/e, which allows WSN applications to overcome this issue. BiSNET/e is designed to support three major types of WSN applications: , and hybrid applications. Each application is implemented as a decentralized group of, which is analogous to a bee colony (application) consisting of bees (agents). Agents collect sensor data or detect an event (a significant change in sensor reading) on individual nodes, and carry sensor data to base stations. They perform these data collection and event detection functionalities by sensing their surrounding network conditions and adaptively invoking behaviors such as pheromone emission, reproduction, migration, swarming and death. Each agent has its own behavior policy, as a set of genes, which defines how to invoke its behaviors. BiSNET/e allows agents to evolve their behavior policies (genes) across generations and autonomously adapt their performance to given objectives. Simulation results demonstrate that, in all three types of applications, agents evolve to find optimal tradeoffs among conflicting objectives and adapt to dynamic network conditions such as traffic fluctuations and node failures/additions. Simulation results also illustrate that, in hybrid applications, data collection agents and event detection agents coevolve to augment their adaptability and performance.

Boonma, Pruet; Suzuki, Junichi

99

Tigerbot: Autonomous Robot  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This paper demonstrates artificial intelligence through the construction of a simple robot developed by converting a toy vehicle. The circuitry of the toy vehicle was redesigned and incorporated with proximity sensors, thereby turning the vehicle into an autonomous self-contained robot ("Tigerbot"). This robot has the ability to roam, avoid obstacles without human intervention, and is speech capable. The authors demonstrate how machines can be designed to be aware of their surroundings and adapt accordingly. In the future, artificial intelligence concepts employed in this project may be applied in the design of other machines that would assist humans in performing common household chores. This article represents efforts by students implementing knowledge acquired in a Capstone Senior Project course.

Darayan, Shahryar

100

Autonomous docking ground demonstration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Autonomous Docking Ground Demonstration is an evaluation of the laser sensor system to support the docking phase (12 ft to contact) when operated in conjunction with the guidance, navigation, and control (GN&C) software. The docking mechanism being used was developed for the Apollo/Soyuz Test Program. This demonstration will be conducted using the 6-DOF Dynamic Test System (DTS). The DTS simulates the Space Station Freedom as the stationary or target vehicle and the Orbiter as the active or chase vehicle. For this demonstration, the laser sensor will be mounted on the target vehicle and the retroflectors will be on the chase vehicle. This arrangement was chosen to prevent potential damage to the laser. The laser sensor system, GN&C, and 6-DOF DTS will be operated closed-loop. Initial conditions to simulate vehicle misalignments, translational and rotational, will be introduced within the constraints of the systems involved.

Lamkin, Steve L.; Le, Thomas Quan; Othon, L. T.; Prather, Joseph L.; Eick, Richard E.; Baxter, Jim M.; Boyd, M. G.; Clark, Fred D.; Spehar, Peter T.; Teters, Rebecca T.

1991-01-01

101

Autonomous software: Myth or magic?  

E-print Network

We discuss work by the eSTAR project which demonstrates a fully closed loop autonomous system for the follow up of possible micro-lensing anomalies. Not only are the initial micro-lensing detections followed up in real time, but ongoing events are prioritised and continually monitored, with the returned data being analysed automatically. If the ``smart software'' running the observing campaign detects a planet-like anomaly, further follow-up will be scheduled autonomously and other telescopes and telescope networks alerted to the possible planetary detection. We further discuss the implications of this, and how such projects can be used to build more general autonomous observing and control systems.

Alasdair Allan; Tim Naylor; Eric S. Saunders

2008-02-04

102

Autonomous software: Myth or magic?  

E-print Network

We discuss work by the eSTAR project which demonstrates a fully closed loop autonomous system for the follow up of possible micro-lensing anomalies. Not only are the initial micro-lensing detections followed up in real time, but ongoing events are prioritised and continually monitored, with the returned data being analysed automatically. If the ``smart software'' running the observing campaign detects a planet-like anomaly, further follow-up will be scheduled autonomously and other telescopes and telescope networks alerted to the possible planetary detection. We further discuss the implications of this, and how such projects can be used to build more general autonomous observing and control systems.

Allan, Alasdair; Saunders, Eric S

2008-01-01

103

Autonomous software: Myth or magic?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We discuss work by the eSTAR project which demonstrates a fully closed loop autonomous system for the follow up of possible micro-lensing anomalies. Not only are the initial micro-lensing detections followed up in real time, but ongoing events are prioritised and continually monitored, with the returned data being analysed automatically. If the ``smart software'' running the observing campaign detects a planet-like anomaly, further follow-up will be scheduled autonomously and other telescopes and telescope networks alerted to the possible planetary detection. We further discuss the implications of this, and how such projects can be used to build more general autonomous observing and control systems.

Allan, A.; Naylor, T.; Saunders, E. S.

2008-03-01

104

Byzantine Fault Tolerant Event Stream Processing for Autonomic Computing  

E-print Network

systems that take input continuously from various sources (referred to as event producers), and generateByzantine Fault Tolerant Event Stream Processing for Autonomic Computing Hua Chai and Wenbing Zhao: wenbing@ieee.org Abstract--Event stream processing has been used to construct many mission-critical event

Zhao, Wenbing

105

Cooperative control for multiple autonomous UAV's searching for targets  

Microsoft Academic Search

The work presented here is in the area of decision and control for autonomous unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). Specifically, we formulate the problem of generating near-optimal trajectories to follow in order for several UAVs to cooperatively search for targets in a given area for which some a priori data about target distribution is available. An algorithm that utilizes a model

Flint Marios; M. Polycarpou; E. Fernandez-Gaucherand

2002-01-01

106

Autonomous spherical mobile robot for child-development studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the design process of a spherical robot capable of autonomous motion, and demonstrates how it can become a tool in child development studies. The robot, named Roball, is capable of intentional self- propelled movements and can generate various interplay situations using motion, messages, sounds, illuminated parts and other sensors. Such capabilities allow Roball to interact with young

François Michaud; Jean-françois Laplante; Hélène Larouche; Audrey Duquette; Serge Caron; Dominic Létourneau; Patrice Masson

2005-01-01

107

Onboard Processing and Autonomous Operations on the IPEX Cubesat  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

IPEX is a 1u Cubesat sponsored by NASA Earth Science Technology Office (ESTO), the goals or which are: (1) Flight validate high performance flight computing, (2) Flight validate onboard instrument data processing product generation software, (3) flight validate autonomous operations for instrument processing, (4) enhance NASA outreach and university ties.

Chien, Steve; Doubleday, Joshua; Ortega, Kevin; Flatley, Tom; Crum, Gary; Geist, Alessandro; Lin, Michael; Williams, Austin; Bellardo, John; Puig-Suari, Jordi; Stanton, Eric; Yee, Edmond

2012-01-01

108

Mission Path Following for an Autonomous Unmanned Airship  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of an unmanned airship capable of autonomous flight over user-defined locations for aerial data and imagery acquisition is the objective of the AURORA project. One important mission problem is the flight path following of the vehicle through a set of pre-defined points at a given altitude and velocity. In this article, a path tracking error generation methodology is

Jose Raul Azinheira; E. Carneiro de Paiva; Josué Jr. Guimarães Ramos; Samuel Siqueira Bueno

2000-01-01

109

Stability analysis and control of multiple converter based autonomous microgrid  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the stability of an autonomous microgrid with multiple distributed generators (DG) is studied through eigenvalue analysis. It is assumed that all the DGs are connected through Voltage Source Converter (VSC) and all connected loads are passive. The VSCs are controlled by state feedback controller to achieve desired voltage and current outputs that are decided by a droop

Ritwik Majumder; Arindam Ghosh; Gerard Ledwich; Firuz Zare

2009-01-01

110

Dynamic response and maneuvering strategies of a hybrid autonomous underwater vehicle in hovering  

E-print Network

The Odyssey IV autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) is the next generation of unmanned subsurface robots from the MIT Sea Grant AUV Laboratory. The Odyssey IV AUV has a novel propulsion system, which includes a pair of ...

Cooney, Lauren Alise

2009-01-01

111

State discovery for autonomous learning  

E-print Network

This thesis is devoted to the study of algorithms for early perceptual learning for an autonomous agent in the presence of feedback. In the framework of associative perceptual learning with indirect supervision, three ...

Ivanov, Yuri A., 1967-

2002-01-01

112

Autonomous adaptive acoustic relay positioning  

E-print Network

We consider the problem of maximizing underwater acoustic data transmission by adaptively positioning an autonomous mobile relay so as to learn and exploit spatial variations in channel performance. The acoustic channel ...

Cheung, Mei Yi, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2013-01-01

113

Autonomic dysfunction in neurodegenerative dementias.  

PubMed

Syncope associated to orthostatic hypotension (OH), urinary incontinence and constipation is common symptoms in demented patients, mainly in dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) and in Parkinson's disease dementia (PDD). Alzheimer's disease (AD) and fronto temporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) show less autonomic dysfunction. Urinary symptoms are a prominent component of normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH). There are non invasive tests including standard cardiovascular tests, 123 I-metaiodobenzylguanide (MIBG) cardiac scintigraphy, urodynamic tests, gastrointestinal motility studies, sweating reflexes and pupillary responses that assess autonomic dysfunction in these patients. The study of autonomic symptoms and abnormal tests in patients with dementia is useful to prevent morbidity due falls, severe constipation and to avoid side effects of drugs that interfere with autonomic function. PMID:21440258

Idiaquez, Juan; Roman, Gustavo C

2011-06-15

114

A survey of autonomic communications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Autonomic communications seek to improve the ability of network and services to cope with unpredicted change, including changes in topology, load, task, the physical and logical characteristics of the networks that can be accessed, and so forth. Broad-ranging autonomic solutions require designers to account for a range of end-to-end issues affecting programming models, network and contextual modeling and reasoning, decentralised

Simon Dobson; Spyros G. Denazis; Antonio Fernández; Dominique Gaïti; Erol Gelenbe; Fabio Massacci; Paddy Nixon; Fabrice Saffre; Nikita Schmidt; Franco Zambonelli

2006-01-01

115

Genetic engineering and autonomous agency.  

PubMed

In this paper I argue that the genetic manipulation of sexual orientation at the embryo stage could have a detrimental effect on the subsequent person's later capacity for autonomous agency. By focussing on an example of sexist oppression I show that the norms and expectations expressed with this type of genetic manipulation can threaten the development of autonomous agency and the kind of social environment that makes its exercise likely. PMID:14989287

Barclay, Linda

2003-01-01

116

Autonomous power system brassboard  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Autonomous Power System (APS) brassboard is a 20 kHz power distribution system which has been developed at NASA Lewis Research Center, Cleveland, Ohio. The brassboard exists to provide a realistic hardware platform capable of testing artificially intelligent (AI) software. The brassboard's power circuit topology is based upon a Power Distribution Control Unit (PDCU), which is a subset of an advanced development 20 kHz electrical power system (EPS) testbed, originally designed for Space Station Freedom (SSF). The APS program is designed to demonstrate the application of intelligent software as a fault detection, isolation, and recovery methodology for space power systems. This report discusses both the hardware and software elements used to construct the present configuration of the brassboard. The brassboard power components are described. These include the solid-state switches (herein referred to as switchgear), transformers, sources, and loads. Closely linked to this power portion of the brassboard is the first level of embedded control. Hardware used to implement this control and its associated software is discussed. An Ada software program, developed by Lewis Research Center's Space Station Freedom Directorate for their 20 kHz testbed, is used to control the brassboard's switchgear, as well as monitor key brassboard parameters through sensors located within these switches. The Ada code is downloaded from a PC/AT, and is resident within the 8086 microprocessor-based embedded controllers. The PC/AT is also used for smart terminal emulation, capable of controlling the switchgear as well as displaying data from them. Intelligent control is provided through use of a T1 Explorer and the Autonomous Power Expert (APEX) LISP software. Real-time load scheduling is implemented through use of a 'C' program-based scheduling engine. The methods of communication between these computers and the brassboard are explored. In order to evaluate the features of both the brassboard hardware and intelligent controlling software, fault circuits have been developed and integrated as part of the brassboard. A description of these fault circuits and their function is included. The brassboard has become an extremely useful test facility, promoting artificial intelligence (AI) applications for power distribution systems.

Merolla, Anthony

1992-10-01

117

Autonomous power system brassboard  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Autonomous Power System (APS) brassboard is a 20 kHz power distribution system which has been developed at NASA Lewis Research Center, Cleveland, Ohio. The brassboard exists to provide a realistic hardware platform capable of testing artificially intelligent (AI) software. The brassboard's power circuit topology is based upon a Power Distribution Control Unit (PDCU), which is a subset of an advanced development 20 kHz electrical power system (EPS) testbed, originally designed for Space Station Freedom (SSF). The APS program is designed to demonstrate the application of intelligent software as a fault detection, isolation, and recovery methodology for space power systems. This report discusses both the hardware and software elements used to construct the present configuration of the brassboard. The brassboard power components are described. These include the solid-state switches (herein referred to as switchgear), transformers, sources, and loads. Closely linked to this power portion of the brassboard is the first level of embedded control. Hardware used to implement this control and its associated software is discussed. An Ada software program, developed by Lewis Research Center's Space Station Freedom Directorate for their 20 kHz testbed, is used to control the brassboard's switchgear, as well as monitor key brassboard parameters through sensors located within these switches. The Ada code is downloaded from a PC/AT, and is resident within the 8086 microprocessor-based embedded controllers. The PC/AT is also used for smart terminal emulation, capable of controlling the switchgear as well as displaying data from them. Intelligent control is provided through use of a T1 Explorer and the Autonomous Power Expert (APEX) LISP software. Real-time load scheduling is implemented through use of a 'C' program-based scheduling engine. The methods of communication between these computers and the brassboard are explored. In order to evaluate the features of both the brassboard hardware and intelligent controlling software, fault circuits have been developed and integrated as part of the brassboard. A description of these fault circuits and their function is included. The brassboard has become an extremely useful test facility, promoting artificial intelligence (AI) applications for power distribution systems. However, there are elements of the brassboard which could be enhanced, thus improving system performance. Modifications and enhancements to improve the brassboard's operation are discussed.

Merolla, Anthony

1992-01-01

118

Innovative thermal energy harvesting for future autonomous applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As communicating autonomous systems market is booming, the role of energy harvesting will be a key enabler. As example, heat is one of the most abundant energy sources that can be converted into electricity in order to power circuits. Harvesting systems that use wasted heat open new ways to power autonomous sensors when the energy consumption is low, or to create systems of power generators when the conversion efficiency is high. The combination of different technologies (low power ?-processors, ?-batteries, radio, sensors...) with new energy harvesters compatible with large varieties of use-cases with allow to address this booming market. Thanks to the conjunction of ultra-low power electronic development, 3D technologies & Systems in Package approaches, the integration of autonomous sensors and electronics with ambient energy harvesting will be achievable. The applications are very wide, from environment and industrial sensors to medical portable applications, and the Internet of things may also represent in the future a several billions units market.

Monfray, Stephane

2013-12-01

119

Autonomous UAV persistent surveillance using bio-inspired strategies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A team consisting of Teledyne Scientific Company, the University of California at Santa Barbara, the Army Research Laboratory, the Engineer Research and Development Center, and IBM UK is developing technologies in support of automated data exfiltration from heterogeneous battlefield sensor networks to enhance situational awareness for dismounts and command echelons. Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) provide an effective means to autonomously collect data from a sparse network of unattended ground sensors (UGSs) that cannot communicate with each other. UAVs are used to reduce the system reaction time by generating autonomous collection routes that are data-driven. Bioinspired techniques for autonomous search provide a novel strategy to detect, capture and fuse data from heterogeneous sensor networks. The bio-inspired algorithm is based on chemotaxis or the motion of bacteria seeking nutrients in their environment. Field tests of a bio-inspired system that routed UAVs were conducted in June 2011 at Camp Roberts, CA. The field test results showed that such a system can autonomously detect and locate the source of terrestrial events with very high accuracy and visually verify the event. In June 2011, field tests of the system were completed and include the use of multiple autonomously controlled UAVs, detection and disambiguation of multiple acoustic events occurring in short time frames, optimal sensor placement based on local phenomenology and the use of the International Technology Alliance (ITA) Sensor Network Fabric. The system demonstrated TRL 6 performance in the field at Camp Roberts.

Burman, Jerry; Hespanha, Joao; Madhow, Upamanyu; Isaacs, Jason; Venkateswaran, Sriram; Pham, Tien

2012-06-01

120

Autonomous landing guidance program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Autonomous Landing Guidance program is partly funded by the US Government under the Technology Reinvestment Project. The program consortium consists of avionics and other equipment vendors, airlines and the USAF. A Sextant Avionique HUD is used to present flight symbology in cursive form as well as millimeter wave radar imagery from Lear Astronics equipment and FLIR Systems dual-channel, forward-looking, infrared imagery. All sensor imagery is presented in raster form. A future aim is to fuse all imagery data into a single presentation. Sensor testing has been accomplished in a Cessna 402 operated by the Maryland Advanced Development Laboratory. Development testing is under way in a Northwest Airlines simulator equipped with HUD and image simulation. Testing is also being carried out using United Airlines Boeing 727 and USAF C-135C (Boeing 707) test aircraft. The paper addresses the technology utilized in sensory and display systems as well as modifications made to accommodate the elements in the aircraft. Additions to the system test aircraft include global positioning systems, inertial navigation systems and extensive data collection equipment. Operational philosophy and benefits for both civil and military users are apparent. Approach procedures have been developed allowing use of Category 1 ground installations in Category 3 conditions.

Brown, John A.

1996-05-01

121

Simple autonomous Mars walker  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Under a contract with NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Martin Marietta has developed several alternative rover concepts for unmanned exploration of the planet Mars. One of those concepts, the 'Walking Beam', is the subject of this paper. This concept was developed with the goal of achieving many of the capabilities of more sophisticated articulated-leg walkers with a much simpler, more robust, less computationally demanding and more power efficient design. It consists of two large-base tripods nested one within the other which alternately translate with respect to each other along a 5-meter beam to propel the vehicle. The semiautonomous navigation system relies on terrain geometry sensors and tacticle feedback from each foot to autonomously select a path which avoids hazards along a route designated from earth. Both mobility and navigation features of this concept are discussed including a top-level description of the vehicle's physical characteristics, deployment strategy, mobility elements, sensor suite, theory of operation, navigation and control processes, and estimated performance.

Larimer, Stanley J.; Lisec, Thomas R.; Spiessbach, Andrew J.

1989-01-01

122

Autonomous Aerobraking at Mars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Aerobraking has become a proven approach for orbital missions at Mars. A launch of a 1000 kg class spacecraft on a Delta class booster saves 90% of the post-MOI fuel otherwise required to circularize the orbit. In 1997, Mars Global Surveyor demonstrated the feasibility and Mars 2001 Odyssey completed a nearly trouble free aerobraking phase in January 2002. In 2006, Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter will also utilize aerobraking. From the flight operations standpoint, however, aerobraking is labor intensive and high risk due to the large density variability in the Mars thermosphere. The maximum rate of aerobraking is typically limited by the maximum allowable temperature of the solar array which is the primary drag surface. Prior missions have used a surrogate variable, usually maximum free stream heat flux, as a basis for performing periapsis altitude corridor control maneuvers. This paper provides an adaptive sequential method for operationally relating measured temperatures to heat flux profile characteristics and performing maneuvers based directly on measured temperatures and atmospheric properties derived from the heat flux profiles. Simulations of autonomous aerobraking are performed using Odyssey mission data.

Hanna, Jill L.; Tolson, Robert; Cianciolo, Alicia Dwyer; Dec, John

2002-01-01

123

Autonomous Mission Operations Roadmap  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As light time delays increase, the number of such situations in which crew autonomy is the best way to conduct the mission is expected to increase. However, there are significant open questions regarding which functions to allocate to ground and crew as the time delays increase. In situations where the ideal solution is to allocate responsibility to the crew and the vehicle, a second question arises: should the activity be the responsibility of the crew or an automated vehicle function? More specifically, we must answer the following questions: What aspects of mission operation responsibilities (Plan, Train, Fly) should be allocated to ground based or vehicle based planning, monitoring, and control in the presence of significant light-time delay between the vehicle and the Earth?How should the allocated ground based planning, monitoring, and control be distributed across the flight control team and ground system automation? How should the allocated vehicle based planning, monitoring, and control be distributed between the flight crew and onboard system automation?When during the mission should responsibility shift from flight control team to crew or from crew to vehicle, and what should the process of shifting responsibility be as the mission progresses? NASA is developing a roadmap of capabilities for Autonomous Mission Operations for human spaceflight. This presentation will describe the current state of development of this roadmap, with specific attention to in-space inspection tasks that crews might perform with minimum assistance from the ground.

Frank, Jeremy David

2014-01-01

124

A power autonomous monopedal robot  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the design and initial results of a power-autonomous planar monopedal robot. The robot is a gasoline powered, two degree of freedom robot that runs in a circle, constrained by a boom. The robot uses hydraulic Series Elastic Actuators, force-controllable actuators which provide high force fidelity, moderate bandwidth, and low impedance. The actuators are mounted in the body of the robot, with cable drives transmitting power to the hip and knee joints of the leg. A two-stroke, gasoline engine drives a constant displacement pump which pressurizes an accumulator. Absolute position and spring deflection of each of the Series Elastic Actuators are measured using linear encoders. The spring deflection is translated into force output and compared to desired force in a closed loop force-control algorithm implemented in software. The output signal of each force controller drives high performance servo valves which control flow to each of the pistons of the actuators. In designing the robot, we used a simulation-based iterative design approach. Preliminary estimates of the robot's physical parameters were based on past experience and used to create a physically realistic simulation model of the robot. Next, a control algorithm was implemented in simulation to produce planar hopping. Using the joint power requirements and range of motions from simulation, we worked backward specifying pulley diameter, piston diameter and stroke, hydraulic pressure and flow, servo valve flow and bandwidth, gear pump flow, and engine power requirements. Components that meet or exceed these specifications were chosen and integrated into the robot design. Using CAD software, we calculated the physical parameters of the robot design, replaced the original estimates with the CAD estimates, and produced new joint power requirements. We iterated on this process, resulting in a design which was prototyped and tested. The Monopod currently runs at approximately 1.2 m/s with the weight of all the power generating components, but powered from an off-board pump. On a test stand, the eventual on-board power system generates enough pressure and flow to meet the requirements of these runs and we are currently integrating the power system into the real robot. When operated from an off-board system without carrying the weight of the power generating components, the robot currently runs at approximately 2.25 m/s. Ongoing work is focused on integrating the power system into the robot, improving the control algorithm, and investigating methods for improving efficiency.

Krupp, Benjamin T.; Pratt, Jerry E.

2006-05-01

125

Development of Methodology for Programming Autonomous Agents  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A brief report discusses the rationale for, and the development of, a methodology for generating computer code for autonomous-agent-based systems. The methodology is characterized as enabling an increase in the reusability of the generated code among and within such systems, thereby making it possible to reduce the time and cost of development of the systems. The methodology is also characterized as enabling reduction of the incidence of those software errors that are attributable to the human failure to anticipate distributed behaviors caused by the software. A major conceptual problem said to be addressed in the development of the methodology was that of how to efficiently describe the interfaces between several layers of agent composition by use of a language that is both familiar to engineers and descriptive enough to describe such interfaces unambivalently

Erol, Kutluhan; Levy, Renato; Lang, Lun

2004-01-01

126

Autonomic control of the eye.  

PubMed

The autonomic nervous system influences numerous ocular functions. It does this by way of parasympathetic innervation from postganglionic fibers that originate from neurons in the ciliary and pterygopalatine ganglia, and by way of sympathetic innervation from postganglionic fibers that originate from neurons in the superior cervical ganglion. Ciliary ganglion neurons project to the ciliary body and the sphincter pupillae muscle of the iris to control ocular accommodation and pupil constriction, respectively. Superior cervical ganglion neurons project to the dilator pupillae muscle of the iris to control pupil dilation. Ocular blood flow is controlled both via direct autonomic influences on the vasculature of the optic nerve, choroid, ciliary body, and iris, as well as via indirect influences on retinal blood flow. In mammals, this vasculature is innervated by vasodilatory fibers from the pterygopalatine ganglion, and by vasoconstrictive fibers from the superior cervical ganglion. Intraocular pressure is regulated primarily through the balance of aqueous humor formation and outflow. Autonomic regulation of ciliary body blood vessels and the ciliary epithelium is an important determinant of aqueous humor formation; autonomic regulation of the trabecular meshwork and episcleral blood vessels is an important determinant of aqueous humor outflow. These tissues are all innervated by fibers from the pterygopalatine and superior cervical ganglia. In addition to these classical autonomic pathways, trigeminal sensory fibers exert local, intrinsic influences on many of these regions of the eye, as well as on some neurons within the ciliary and pterygopalatine ganglia. © 2015 American Physiological Society. Compr Physiol 5: 439-473, 2015. PMID:25589275

McDougal, David H; Gamlin, Paul D

2015-01-01

127

A Robust Compositional Architecture for Autonomous Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Space exploration applications can benefit greatly from autonomous systems. Great distances, limited communications and high costs make direct operations impossible while mandating operations reliability and efficiency beyond what traditional commanding can provide. Autonomous systems can improve reliability and enhance spacecraft capability significantly. However, there is reluctance to utilizing autonomous systems. In part this is due to general hesitation about new technologies, but a more tangible concern is that of reliability of predictability of autonomous software. In this paper, we describe ongoing work aimed at increasing robustness and predictability of autonomous software, with the ultimate goal of building trust in such systems. The work combines state-of-the-art technologies and capabilities in autonomous systems with advanced validation and synthesis techniques. The focus of this paper is on the autonomous system architecture that has been defined, and on how it enables the application of validation techniques for resulting autonomous systems.

Brat, Guillaume; Deney, Ewen; Farrell, Kimberley; Giannakopoulos, Dimitra; Jonsson, Ari; Frank, Jeremy; Bobby, Mark; Carpenter, Todd; Estlin, Tara

2006-01-01

128

Adaptive sampling in autonomous marine sensor networks  

E-print Network

In this thesis, an innovative architecture for real-time adaptive and cooperative control of autonomous sensor platforms in a marine sensor network is described in the context of the autonomous oceanographic network scenario. ...

Eickstedt, Donald Patrick

2006-01-01

129

Issues in autonomous mobile sensor networks  

E-print Network

Autonomous mobile sensor networks consist of a number of autonomous mobile robots equipped with various sensors and tasked with a common mission. This thesis considers the topology control of such an ad hoc mobile sensor network. In particular, I...

Dharne, Avinash Gopal

2009-05-15

130

Autonomic Modulation of Olfactory Signaling  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The olfactory epithelium is extensively innervated by sympathetic nerve endings, which release norepinephrine, and parasympathetic nerve endings, which release acetylcholine. Because olfactory sensory neurons have adrenergic and muscarinic receptors in addition to odorant receptors, autonomic stimulation can modulate the responses of olfactory sensory neurons to odorants. Recent studies have shed light on the molecular mechanisms that underlie crosstalk between muscarinic and odorant receptor signaling. The emerging view is that the stimulation of odorant receptor signaling by odorants, which is the earliest step in olfaction, can be substantially regulated by the autonomic nervous system.

Randy A. Hall (Emory University School of Medicine; Department of Pharmacology REV)

2011-01-11

131

Autonomic function testing aboard the ISS using “PNEUMOCARD”  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Investigations of blood pressure, heart rate (HR), and heart rate variability (HRV) during long term space flights on board the "ISS" have shown characteristic changes of autonomic cardiovascular control. Therefore, alterations of the autonomic nervous system occurring during spaceflight may be responsible for in- and post-flight disturbances. The device "Pneumocard" was developed to further investigate autonomic cardiovascular and respiratory function aboard the ISS. The hard-software diagnostic complex "Pneumocard" was used during in-flight experiment aboard ISS for autonomic function testing. ECG, photoplethysmography, respiration, transthoracic bioimpedance and seismocardiography were assessed in one male cosmonaut (flight lengths six month). Recordings were made prior to the flight, late during flight, and post-flight during spontaneous respiration and controlled respiration at different rates. HR remained stable during flight. The values were comparable to supine measurements on earth. Respiratory frequency and blood pressure decreased during flight. Post flight HR and BP values increased compared to in-flight data exceeding pre-flight values. Cardiac time intervals did not change dramatically during flight. Pulse wave transit time decreased during flight. The maximum of the first time derivative of the impedance cardiogram, which is highly correlated with stroke volume was not reduced in-flight. Our results demonstrate that autonomic function testing aboard the ISS using "Pneumocard" is feasible and generates data of good quality. Despite the decrease in BP, pulse wave transit time was found reduced in space as shown earlier. However, cardiac output did not decrease profoundly in the investigated cosmonaut. Autonomic testing during space flight detects individual changes in cardiovascular control and may add important information to standard medical control. The recent plans to support a flight to Mars, makes these kinds of observations all the more relevant and compelling.

Baevsky, R. M.; Funtova, I. I.; Diedrich, A.; Chernikova, A. G.; Drescher, J.; Baranov, V. M.; Tank, J.

2009-10-01

132

Autonomous artificial nanomotor powered by sunlight  

PubMed Central

Light excitation powers the reversible shuttling movement of the ring component of a rotaxane between two stations located at a 1.3-nm distance on its dumbbell-shaped component. The photoinduced shuttling movement, which occurs in solution, is based on a “four-stroke” synchronized sequence of electronic and nuclear processes. At room temperature the deactivation time of the high-energy charge-transfer state obtained by light excitation is ?10 ?s, and the time period required for the ring-displacement process is on the order of 100 ?s. The rotaxane behaves as an autonomous linear motor and operates with a quantum efficiency up to ?12%. The investigated system is a unique example of an artificial linear nanomotor because it gathers together the following features: (i) it is powered by visible light (e.g., sunlight); (ii) it exhibits autonomous behavior, like motor proteins; (iii) it does not generate waste products; (iv) its operation can rely only on intramolecular processes, allowing in principle operation at the single-molecule level; (v) it can be driven at a frequency of 1 kHz; (vi) it works in mild environmental conditions (i.e., fluid solution at ambient temperature); and (vii) it is stable for at least 103 cycles. PMID:16432207

Balzani, Vincenzo; Clemente-León, Miguel; Credi, Alberto; Ferrer, Belén; Venturi, Margherita; Flood, Amar H.; Stoddart, J. Fraser

2006-01-01

133

Autonomous Software Michael Rovatsos Gerhard Weiss  

E-print Network

precise specifica- tion schemes for autonomous software systems can be build. There are diverse approaches problem has led to the much-attended vision of autonomous software, that is, software being able to handle the vision of autonomous software into practice requires, first and foremost, a clear notion of software

Rovatsos, Michael

134

Interoperability of multiple autonomous databases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Database systems were a solution to the problem of shared access to heterogeneous files created by multiple autonomous applications in a centralized environment. To make data usage easier, the files were replaced by a globally integrated database. To a large extent, the idea was successful, and many databases are now accessible through local and long-haul networks. Unavoidably, users now need

Witold Litwin; Leo Mark; Nick Roussopoulos

1990-01-01

135

The Functioning of Autonomous Colleges  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The college gets separated from the university, though not completely, when it is an autonomous college, which is practice in India. Academic package will become flexible and the decision-making is internalized, changes and updating could be easily carried out, depending on the need as reflected from the feedback taken from alumni, user sectors,…

Rao, V. Pala Prasada; Rao, Digumarti Bhaskara

2012-01-01

136

Autonomous Mobile Periscope System (AMPS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The proliferation of diesel electric submarines has impacted undersea warfare (USW) world wide. They are acoustically nearly undetectable, but can be detected by their periscope or snorkel. Since the US Navy has no diesel electric submarine, the Autonomous Mobile Periscope System (AMPS) is being developed to meet the requirement for an inexpensive readily available periscope detection target for the training

Stan Rollins; Richard Knutson; Hung Vo; Steve Ebner

1998-01-01

137

Autonomic dysfunction in Parkinson's disease.  

PubMed

This article is a review of autonomic dysfunction in idiopathic Parkinson's disease (iPD), as well as the clinical features of a specific form of PD, i.e. autonomic failure (AF) with PD, and is based mainly on the results obtained from our recent studies. Since James Parkinson's original discription, the definition of autonomic dysfunctions in iPD and their clinical characteristics have undergone changes. Autonomic dysfunction is considered to be uncommon and rarely severe on one hand, while not infrequent but not as severe as in Shy-Drager syndrome on the other hand. AF with PD is characterized by severe orthostatic hypotension, postprandial hypotension, supersensitivity to noradrenaline, low or absent uptake of m-[123I]iodobenzylguanidine scintigraphy of the limbs, and preserved arginine vasopressin response to head-up tilt, suggesting a postganglionic sympathetic lesion resembling pure AF (PAF). On the other hand, reduced cortical glucose metabolism in positron emission tomography study may indicate that AF with PD has diffuse nervous system lesions resembling diffuse Lewy body disease. PMID:9387797

Koike, Y; Takahashi, A

1997-01-01

138

Experiments in autonomous underground guidance  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the results of an experimental program for evaluating sensors and sensing technologies in an underground mining applications. The objective of the experiments is to infer what combinations of sensors will provide reliable navigation systems for autonomous vehicles operating in a harsh underground environment. Results from a wide range of sensors are presented and analysed. A conclusion as

S. Scheding; E. M. Nebot; M. Stevens; H. F. Durrant-whyte; J. Roberts; P. Corke; J. Cunningham; B. Cook

1997-01-01

139

An Autonomous Reliabilit Cloud Comput  

E-print Network

An Autonomous Reliabilit Ami Cloud Comput Department of Computing and Informa Abstract--Cloud computing paradigm allo based access to computing and storages s Internet. Since with advances of Cloud. Keywords- Cloud computing; SLA negotiat I. INTRODUCTION Cloud computing has transferred the services

Buyya, Rajkumar

140

Autonomous exploration and mapping of unknown environments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Autonomous exploration and mapping is a vital capability for future robotic systems expected to function in arbitrary complex environments. In this paper, we describe an end-to-end robotic solution for remotely mapping buildings. For a typical mapping system, an unmanned system is directed to enter an unknown building at a distance, sense the internal structure, and, barring additional tasks, while in situ, create a 2-D map of the building. This map provides a useful and intuitive representation of the environment for the remote operator. We have integrated a robust mapping and exploration system utilizing laser range scanners and RGB-D cameras, and we demonstrate an exploration and metacognition algorithm on a robotic platform. The algorithm allows the robot to safely navigate the building, explore the interior, report significant features to the operator, and generate a consistent map - all while maintaining localization.

Owens, Jason; Osteen, Phil; Fields, MaryAnne

2012-06-01

141

Emergent Aerospace Designs Using Negotiating Autonomous Agents  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents a distributed design methodology where designs emerge as a result of the negotiations between different stake holders in the process, such as cost, performance, reliability, etc. The proposed methodology uses autonomous agents to represent design decision makers. Each agent influences specific design parameters in order to maximize their utility. Since the design parameters depend on the aggregate demand of all the agents in the system, design agents need to negotiate with others in the market economy in order to reach an acceptable utility value. This paper addresses several interesting research issues related to distributed design architectures. First, we present a flexible framework which facilitates decomposition of the design problem. Second, we present overview of a market mechanism for generating acceptable design configurations. Finally, we integrate learning mechanisms in the design process to reduce the computational overhead.

Deshmukh, Abhijit; Middelkoop, Timothy; Krothapalli, Anjaneyulu; Smith, Charles

2000-01-01

142

3-D laser radar simulation for autonomous spacecraft landing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A sophisticated 3D laser radar sensor simulation, developed and applied to the task of autonomous hazard detection and avoidance, is presented. This simulation includes a backward ray trace to sensor subpixels, incoherent subpixel integration, range dependent noise, sensor point spread function effects, digitization noise, and AM-CW modulation. Specific sensor parameters, spacecraft lander trajectory, and terrain type have been selected to generate simulated sensor data.

Reiley, Michael F.; Carmer, Dwayne C.; Pont, W. F.

1991-01-01

143

Autonomous Cryogenics Loading Operations Simulation Software: Knowledgebase Autonomous Test Engineer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Working on the ACLO (Autonomous Cryogenics Loading Operations) project I have had the opportunity to add functionality to the physics simulation software known as KATE (Knowledgebase Autonomous Test Engineer), create a new application allowing WYSIWYG (what-you-see-is-what-you-get) creation of KATE schematic files and begin a preliminary design and implementation of a new subsystem that will provide vision services on the IHM (Integrated Health Management) bus. The functionality I added to KATE over the past few months includes a dynamic visual representation of the fluid height in a pipe based on number of gallons of fluid in the pipe and implementing the IHM bus connection within KATE. I also fixed a broken feature in the system called the Browser Display, implemented many bug fixes and made changes to the GUI (Graphical User Interface).

Wehner, Walter S., Jr.

2013-01-01

144

Experiments on autonomous Boolean networks.  

PubMed

We realize autonomous Boolean networks by using logic gates in their autonomous mode of operation on a field-programmable gate array. This allows us to implement time-continuous systems with complex dynamical behaviors that can be conveniently interconnected into large-scale networks with flexible topologies that consist of time-delay links and a large number of nodes. We demonstrate how we realize networks with periodic, chaotic, and excitable dynamics and study their properties. Field-programmable gate arrays define a new experimental paradigm that holds great potential to test a large body of theoretical results on the dynamics of complex networks, which has been beyond reach of traditional experimental approaches. PMID:23822500

Rosin, David P; Rontani, Damien; Gauthier, Daniel J; Schöll, Eckehard

2013-06-01

145

Autonomous spacecraft maintenance study group  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A plan to incorporate autonomous spacecraft maintenance (ASM) capabilities into Air Force spacecraft by 1989 is outlined. It includes the successful operation of the spacecraft without ground operator intervention for extended periods of time. Mechanisms, along with a fault tolerant data processing system (including a nonvolatile backup memory) and an autonomous navigation capability, are needed to replace the routine servicing that is presently performed by the ground system. The state of the art fault handling capabilities of various spacecraft and computers are described, and a set conceptual design requirements needed to achieve ASM is established. Implementations for near term technology development needed for an ASM proof of concept demonstration by 1985, and a research agenda addressing long range academic research for an advanced ASM system for 1990s are established.

Marshall, M. H.; Low, G. D.

1981-01-01

146

Autonomous agents and social norms  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we present concepts and their relations that are necessary for mod-\\u000aeling autonomous agents in an environment that is governed by some (social) norms.\\u000aWe divide the norms over three levels: the private level the contract level and the\\u000aconvention level. We show how deontic logic can be used to model the concepts and\\u000ahow the theory

F. P. M. Dignum

1996-01-01

147

Integrated Microsensors for Autonomous Microrobots  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the development of a miniature mobile microrobot device and several microsystems needed to create a miniature microsensor delivery platform. This work was funded under LDRD No.10785, entitled, ''Integrated Microsensors for Autonomous Microrobots''. The approach adopted in this project was to develop a mobile platform, to which would be attached wireless RF remote control and data acquisition in addition to various microsensors. A modular approach was used to produce a versatile microrobot platform and reduce power consumption and physical size.

ADKINS, DOUGLAS R.; BYRNE, RAYMOND H.; HELLER, EDWIN J.; WOLF, JIMMIE V.

2003-02-01

148

Autonomic neuropathy in diabetes mellitus.  

PubMed

Diabetic autonomic neuropathy (DAN) is a serious and common complication of diabetes, often overlooked and misdiagnosed. It is a systemic-wide disorder that may be asymptomatic in the early stages. The most studied and clinically important form of DAN is cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy defined as the impairment of autonomic control of the cardiovascular system in patients with diabetes after exclusion of other causes. The reported prevalence of DAN varies widely depending on inconsistent definition, different diagnostic method, different patient cohorts studied. The pathogenesis is still unclear and probably multifactorial. Once DAN becomes clinically evident, no form of therapy has been identified, which can effectively stop or reverse it. Prevention strategies are based on strict glycemic control with intensive insulin treatment, multifactorial intervention, and lifestyle modification including control of hypertension, dyslipidemia, stop smoking, weight loss, and adequate physical exercise. The present review summarizes the latest knowledge regarding clinical presentation, epidemiology, pathogenesis, and management of DAN, with some mention to childhood and adolescent population. PMID:25520703

Verrotti, Alberto; Prezioso, Giovanni; Scattoni, Raffaella; Chiarelli, Francesco

2014-01-01

149

Semi autonomous mine detection system  

SciTech Connect

CMMAD is a risk reduction effort for the AMDS program. As part of CMMAD, multiple instances of semi autonomous robotic mine detection systems were created. Each instance consists of a robotic vehicle equipped with sensors required for navigation and marking, a countermine sensors and a number of integrated software packages which provide for real time processing of the countermine sensor data as well as integrated control of the robotic vehicle, the sensor actuator and the sensor. These systems were used to investigate critical interest functions (CIF) related to countermine robotic systems. To address the autonomy CIF, the INL developed RIK was extended to allow for interaction with a mine sensor processing code (MSPC). In limited field testing this system performed well in detecting, marking and avoiding both AT and AP mines. Based on the results of the CMMAD investigation we conclude that autonomous robotic mine detection is feasible. In addition, CMMAD contributed critical technical advances with regard to sensing, data processing and sensor manipulation, which will advance the performance of future fieldable systems. As a result, no substantial technical barriers exist which preclude – from an autonomous robotic perspective – the rapid development and deployment of fieldable systems.

Douglas Few; Roelof Versteeg; Herman Herman

2010-04-01

150

Integrated System for Autonomous Science  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The New Millennium Program Space Technology 6 Project Autonomous Sciencecraft software implements an integrated system for autonomous planning and execution of scientific, engineering, and spacecraft-coordination actions. A prior version of this software was reported in "The TechSat 21 Autonomous Sciencecraft Experiment" (NPO-30784), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 28, No. 3 (March 2004), page 33. This software is now in continuous use aboard the Earth Orbiter 1 (EO-1) spacecraft mission and is being adapted for use in the Mars Odyssey and Mars Exploration Rovers missions. This software enables EO-1 to detect and respond to such events of scientific interest as volcanic activity, flooding, and freezing and thawing of water. It uses classification algorithms to analyze imagery onboard to detect changes, including events of scientific interest. Detection of such events triggers acquisition of follow-up imagery. The mission-planning component of the software develops a response plan that accounts for visibility of targets and operational constraints. The plan is then executed under control by a task-execution component of the software that is capable of responding to anomalies.

Chien, Steve; Sherwood, Robert; Tran, Daniel; Cichy, Benjamin; Davies, Ashley; Castano, Rebecca; Rabideau, Gregg; Frye, Stuart; Trout, Bruce; Shulman, Seth; Doggett, Thomas; Ip, Felipe; Greeley, Ron; Baker, Victor; Dohn, James; Boyer, Darrell

2006-01-01

151

Autonomic Computing: Panacea or Poppycock?  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Autonomic Computing arose out of a need for a means to cope with rapidly growing complexity of integrating, managing, and operating computer-based systems as well as a need to reduce the total cost of ownership of today's systems. Autonomic Computing (AC) as a discipline was proposed by IBM in 2001, with the vision to develop self-managing systems. As the name implies, the influence for the new paradigm is the human body's autonomic system, which regulates vital bodily functions such as the control of heart rate, the body's temperature and blood flow-all without conscious effort. The vision is to create selfivare through self-* properties. The initial set of properties, in terms of objectives, were self-configuring, self-healing, self-optimizing and self-protecting, along with attributes of self-awareness, self-monitoring and self-adjusting. This self-* list has grown: self-anticipating, self-critical, self-defining, self-destructing, self-diagnosis, self-governing, self-organized, self-reflecting, and self-simulation, for instance.

Sterritt, Roy; Hinchey, Mike

2005-01-01

152

Techno-economic comparison of energy storage systems for island autonomous electrical networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The oil-dependent electricity generation situation met in the Aegean Archipelago Islands is in great deal determined by increased rates of fuel consumption and analogous electricity production costs, this being also the case for other island autonomous electrical networks worldwide. Meanwhile, the contribution of renewable energy sources (RES) to the constant increase recorded in both the Aegean islands’ annual electricity generation

J. K. Kaldellis; D. Zafirakis; K. Kavadias

2009-01-01

153

Autonomous Intersection Management for Semi-Autonomous Vehicles Tsz-Chiu Au  

E-print Network

Autonomous Intersection Management for Semi-Autonomous Vehicles Tsz-Chiu Au School of Electrical and Computer Engineering Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology South Korea chiu@unist.ac.kr Shun

Stone, Peter

154

Tele/Autonomous Robot For Nuclear Facilities  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Fail-safe tele/autonomous robotic system makes it unnecessary for human technicians to enter nuclear-fuel-reprocessing facilities and other high-radiation or otherwise hazardous industrial environments. Used to carry out experiments as exchanging equipment modules, turning bolts, cleaning surfaces, and grappling turning objects by use of mixture of autonomous actions and teleoperation with either single arm or two cooperating arms. System capable of fully autonomous operation, teleoperation or shared control.

Backes, Paul G.; Tso, Kam S.

1994-01-01

155

Sustainable and Autonomic Space Exploration Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Visions for future space exploration have long term science missions in sight, resulting in the need for sustainable missions. Survivability is a critical property of sustainable systems and may be addressed through autonomicity, an emerging paradigm for self-management of future computer-based systems based on inspiration from the human autonomic nervous system. This paper examines some of the ongoing research efforts to realize these survivable systems visions, with specific emphasis on developments in Autonomic Policies.

Hinchey, Michael G.; Sterritt, Roy; Rouff, Christopher; Rash, James L.; Truszkowski, Walter

2006-01-01

156

Autonomic neuropathy, II: Specific peripheral neuropathies.  

PubMed

Autonomic dysfunction is a common complication of peripheral neuropathies. It is often of little clinical importance, but some conditions may cause profound disturbance of autonomic function. These conditions include acute dysautonomia, diabetes, primary and familial amyloidosis, Guillain-Barré syndrome, porphyria, and some inherited neuropathies. A wide range of neuropathies are associated with lesser degrees of autonomic dysfunction. These include hereditary neuropathies, and neuropathies associated with metabolic disturbances, alcohol abuse, malignancy, medications, infections, and connective tissue disorders. PMID:8791232

McDougall, A J; McLeod, J G

1996-06-01

157

Other autonomic neuropathies associated with ganglionic antibody  

Microsoft Academic Search

The acetylcholine receptor ganglionic (G-AchR) antibody is a very specific serologic test for autoimmune autonomic ganglionopathy. The spectrum of autoimmune (or presumed to be autoimmune) autonomic disorders, however, is quite broad and positivity to this antibody has been reported in a variety of other conditions, albeit infrequent and with low titer.This review describes the autonomic neuropathies most frequently encountered in

Paola Sandroni; Phillip A. Low

2009-01-01

158

Autonomous, teleoperated, and shared control of robot systems  

SciTech Connect

This paper illustrates how different modes of operation such as bilateral teleoperation, autonomous control, and shared control can be described and implemented using combinations of modules in the SMART robot control architecture. Telerobotics modes are characterized by different ``grids`` of SMART icons, where each icon represents a portion of run-time code that implements a passive control law. By placing strict requirements on the module`s input-output behavior and using scattering theory to develop a passive sampling technique, a flexible, expandable telerobot architecture is achieved. An automatic code generation tool for generating SMART systems is also described.

Anderson, R.J.

1994-12-31

159

General autonomic components of motion sickness  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report refers to a body of investigations directed toward the examination of autonomic nervous system responses to motion sickness. Heart rate, respiration rate, finger pulse volume, and basal skin resistance were measured on 127 men and women before, during, and after exposure to a nauseogenic rotating chair test. Significant changes in all autonomic responses were observed across the tests (p less than .05). Significant differences in autonomic responses among groups divided according to motion sickness susceptibility were also observed (p less than .05). Results suggest that the examination of autonomic responses as an objective indicator of motion sickness malaise is warranted and may contribute to the overall understanding of the syndrome.

Cowings, Patricia S.; Suter, Steve; Toscano, William B.; Kamiya, Joe; Naifeh, Karen

1986-01-01

160

Information for Successful Interaction with Autonomous Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Interaction in heterogeneous mission operations teams is not well matched to classical models of coordination with autonomous systems. We describe methods of loose coordination and information management in mission operations. We describe an information agent and information management tool suite for managing information from many sources, including autonomous agents. We present an integrated model of levels of complexity of agent and human behavior, which shows types of information processing and points of potential error in agent activities. We discuss the types of information needed for diagnosing problems and planning interactions with an autonomous system. We discuss types of coordination for which designs are needed for autonomous system functions.

Malin, Jane T.; Johnson, Kathy A.

2003-01-01

161

Autonomic Computing for Spacecraft Ground Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Autonomic computing for spacecraft ground systems increases the system reliability and reduces the cost of spacecraft operations and software maintenance. In this paper, we present an autonomic computing solution for spacecraft ground systems at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), which consists of an open standard for a message oriented architecture referred to as the GMSEC architecture (Goddard Mission Services Evolution Center), and an autonomic computing tool, the Criteria Action Table (CAT). This solution has been used in many upgraded ground systems for NASA 's missions, and provides a framework for developing solutions with higher autonomic maturity.

Li, Zhenping; Savkli, Cetin; Jones, Lori

2007-01-01

162

1Centre for Autonomous Marine Operations and Systems -AMOSwww.ntnu.edu/amos Autonomous Marine Operations  

E-print Network

#12;06.06.2013 2 3Centre for Autonomous Marine Operations and Systems - AMOSwww.ntnu.edu/amos Vision06.06.2013 1 1Centre for Autonomous Marine Operations and Systems - AMOSwww.ntnu.edu/amos Centre for Autonomous Marine Operations and Systems AMOS 2013-2022 Cost: NOK 566 million AMOS Funding: NOK 240 million

Nørvåg, Kjetil

163

Autonomous Cryogenic Load Operations: KSC Autonomous Test Engineer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The KSC Autonomous Test Engineer (KATE) program has a long history at KSC. Now a part of the Autonomous Cryogenic Load Operations (ACLO) mission, this software system has been sporadically developed over the past 20+ years. Originally designed to provide health and status monitoring for a simple water-based fluid system, it was proven to be a capable autonomous test engineer for determining sources of failure in. the system, As part.of a new goal to provide this same anomaly-detection capability for a complicated cryogenic fluid system, software engineers, physicists, interns and KATE experts are working to upgrade the software capabilities and graphical user interface. Much progress was made during this effort to improve KATE. A display ofthe entire cryogenic system's graph, with nodes for components and edges for their connections, was added to the KATE software. A searching functionality was added to the new graph display, so that users could easily center their screen on specific components. The GUI was also modified so that it displayed information relevant to the new project goals. In addition, work began on adding new pneumatic and electronic subsystems into the KATE knowledgebase, so that it could provide health and status monitoring for those systems. Finally, many fixes for bugs, memory leaks, and memory errors were implemented and the system was moved into a state in which it could be presented to stakeholders. Overall, the KATE system was improved and necessary additional features were added so that a presentation of the program and its functionality in the next few months would be a success.

Shrading, Nicholas J.

2012-01-01

164

Autonomous Cryogenic Load Operations: Knowledge-Based Autonomous Test Engineer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Knowledge-Based Autonomous Test Engineer (KATE) program has a long history at KSC. Now a part of the Autonomous Cryogenic Load Operations (ACLO) mission, this software system has been sporadically developed over the past 20 years. Originally designed to provide health and status monitoring for a simple water-based fluid system, it was proven to be a capable autonomous test engineer for determining sources of failure in the system. As part of a new goal to provide this same anomaly-detection capability for a complicated cryogenic fluid system, software engineers, physicists, interns and KATE experts are working to upgrade the software capabilities and graphical user interface. Much progress was made during this effort to improve KATE. A display of the entire cryogenic system's graph, with nodes for components and edges for their connections, was added to the KATE software. A searching functionality was added to the new graph display, so that users could easily center their screen on specific components. The GUI was also modified so that it displayed information relevant to the new project goals. In addition, work began on adding new pneumatic and electronic subsystems into the KATE knowledge base, so that it could provide health and status monitoring for those systems. Finally, many fixes for bugs, memory leaks, and memory errors were implemented and the system was moved into a state in which it could be presented to stakeholders. Overall, the KATE system was improved and necessary additional features were added so that a presentation of the program and its functionality in the next few months would be a success.

Schrading, J. Nicolas

2013-01-01

165

Autonomous metabolomics for rapid metabolite identification in global profiling.  

PubMed

An autonomous metabolomic workflow combining mass spectrometry analysis with tandem mass spectrometry data acquisition was designed to allow for simultaneous data processing and metabolite characterization. Although previously tandem mass spectrometry data have been generated on the fly, the experiments described herein combine this technology with the bioinformatic resources of XCMS and METLIN. As a result of this unique integration, we can analyze large profiling datasets and simultaneously obtain structural identifications. Validation of the workflow on bacterial samples allowed the profiling on the order of a thousand metabolite features with simultaneous tandem mass spectra data acquisition. The tandem mass spectrometry data acquisition enabled automatic search and matching against the METLIN tandem mass spectrometry database, shortening the current workflow from days to hours. Overall, the autonomous approach to untargeted metabolomics provides an efficient means of metabolomic profiling, and will ultimately allow the more rapid integration of comparative analyses, metabolite identification, and data analysis at a systems biology level. PMID:25496351

Benton, H Paul; Ivanisevic, Julijana; Mahieu, Nathaniel G; Kurczy, Michael E; Johnson, Caroline H; Franco, Lauren; Rinehart, Duane; Valentine, Elizabeth; Gowda, Harsha; Ubhi, Baljit K; Tautenhahn, Ralf; Gieschen, Andrew; Fields, Matthew W; Patti, Gary J; Siuzdak, Gary

2015-01-20

166

A cloud-assisted design for autonomous driving  

E-print Network

This paper presents Carcel, a cloud-assisted system for autonomous driving. Carcel enables the cloud to have access to sensor data from autonomous vehicles as well as the roadside infrastructure. The cloud assists autonomous ...

Suresh Kumar, Swarun

167

Autonomous sensor manager agents (ASMA)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Autonomous sensor manager agents are presented as an algorithm to perform sensor management within a multisensor fusion network. The design of the hybrid ant system/particle swarm agents is described in detail with some insight into their performance. Although the algorithm is designed for the general sensor management problem, a simulation example involving 2 radar systems is presented. Algorithmic parameters are determined by the size of the region covered by the sensor network, the number of sensors, and the number of parameters to be selected. With straight forward modifications, this algorithm can be adapted for most sensor management problems.

Osadciw, Lisa A.

2004-04-01

168

BLAST Autonomous Daytime Star Cameras  

E-print Network

We have developed two redundant daytime star cameras to provide the fine pointing solution for the balloon-borne submillimeter telescope, BLAST. The cameras are capable of providing a reconstructed pointing solution with an absolute accuracy camera combines a 1 megapixel CCD with a 200 mm f/2 lens to image a 2 degree x 2.5 degree field of the sky. The instruments are autonomous. An internal computer controls the temperature, adjusts the focus, and determines a real-time pointing solution at 1 Hz. The mechanical details and flight performance of these instruments are presented.

Marie Rex; Edward Chapin; Mark J. Devlin; Joshua Gundersen; Jeff Klein; Enzo Pascale; Donald Wiebe

2006-05-01

169

Autonomous Real Time Requirements Tracing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

One of the more challenging aspects of software development is the ability to verify and validate the functional software requirements dictated by the Software Requirements Specification (SRS) and the Software Detail Design (SDD). Insuring the software has achieved the intended requirements is the responsibility of the Software Quality team and the Software Test team. The utilization of Timeliner-TLX(sup TM) Auto- Procedures for relocating ground operations positions to ISS automated on-board operations has begun the transition that would be required for manned deep space missions with minimal crew requirements. This transition also moves the auto-procedures from the procedure realm into the flight software arena and as such the operational requirements and testing will be more structured and rigorous. The autoprocedures would be required to meet NASA software standards as specified in the Software Safety Standard (NASASTD- 8719), the Software Engineering Requirements (NPR 7150), the Software Assurance Standard (NASA-STD-8739) and also the Human Rating Requirements (NPR-8705). The Autonomous Fluid Transfer System (AFTS) test-bed utilizes the Timeliner-TLX(sup TM) Language for development of autonomous command and control software. The Timeliner-TLX(sup TM) system has the unique feature of providing the current line of the statement in execution during real-time execution of the software. The feature of execution line number internal reporting unlocks the capability of monitoring the execution autonomously by use of a companion Timeliner-TLX(sup TM) sequence as the line number reporting is embedded inside the Timeliner-TLX(sup TM) execution engine. This negates I/O processing of this type data as the line number status of executing sequences is built-in as a function reference. This paper will outline the design and capabilities of the AFTS Autonomous Requirements Tracker, which traces and logs SRS requirements as they are being met during real-time execution of the targeted system. It is envisioned that real time requirements tracing will greatly assist the movement of autoprocedures to flight software enhancing the software assurance of auto-procedures and also their acceptance as reliable commanders.

Plattsmier, George; Stetson, Howard

2014-01-01

170

The Autonomous Pathogen Detection System  

SciTech Connect

We developed, tested, and now operate a civilian biological defense capability that continuously monitors the air for biological threat agents. The Autonomous Pathogen Detection System (APDS) collects, prepares, reads, analyzes, and reports results of multiplexed immunoassays and multiplexed PCR assays using Luminex{copyright} xMAP technology and flow cytometer. The mission we conduct is particularly demanding: continuous monitoring, multiple threat agents, high sensitivity, challenging environments, and ultimately extremely low false positive rates. Here, we introduce the mission requirements and metrics, show the system engineering and analysis framework, and describe the progress to date including early development and current status.

Dzenitis, J M; Makarewicz, A J

2009-01-13

171

An Autonomous Sensor System Architecture for Active Flow and Noise Control Feedback  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Multi-channel sensor fusion represents a powerful technique to simply and efficiently extract information from complex phenomena. While the technique has traditionally been used for military target tracking and situational awareness, a study has been successfully completed that demonstrates that sensor fusion can be applied equally well to aerodynamic applications. A prototype autonomous hardware processor was successfully designed and used to detect in real-time the two-dimensional flow reattachment location generated by a simple separated-flow wind tunnel model. The success of this demonstration illustrates the feasibility of using autonomous sensor processing architectures to enhance flow control feedback signal generation.

Humphreys, William M, Jr.; Culliton, William G.

2008-01-01

172

Autonomous Exploration and Mapping of Abandoned Mines  

E-print Network

Autonomous Exploration and Mapping of Abandoned Mines Sebastian Thrun2 , Scott Thayer1 , William Computer Science Department, University of Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany Abstract Abandoned mines pose the software architecture of an autonomous robotic system designed to explore and map abandoned mines. We have

Thrun, Sebastian

173

Autonomic Management of Clustered Applications Sara Bouchenak  

E-print Network

the term administration to refer to management operations · human resources as administrators have to react. · Autonomic management is a means to save hardware resources as resources can be allocated only when reAutonomic Management of Clustered Applications Sara Bouchenak Universit´e Joseph Fourier, Grenoble

Pous, Damien

174

Autonomous Forest Vehicles: Historic, envisioned, and  

E-print Network

Autonomous Forest Vehicles: Historic, envisioned, and state-of-the-art Thomas Hellström Pär Lärkeryd Tomas Nordfjell Ola Ringdahl ABSTRACT The feasibility of using autonomous forest vehicles (which can be regarded as logical developments in the ongoing auto- mation of forest machines),the systems

Hellström, Thomas

175

Techniques tor autonomous, off-road navigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

To extend autonomous navigation to unpaved and off-road scenarios, vehicles in the AutoNav program bolster a 4D perception and control architecture with area-based vision techniques. This article describes how an autonomous vehicle uses directed real-time, area-based, stereo processing to determine the vertical profile of its path

Stefan Baten; M. Lutzeler; Ernst D. Dickmanns; R. Mandelbaum; P. J. Burt

1998-01-01

176

Planning Flight Paths of Autonomous Aerobots  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Algorithms for planning flight paths of autonomous aerobots (robotic blimps) to be deployed in scientific exploration of remote planets are undergoing development. These algorithms are also adaptable to terrestrial applications involving robotic submarines as well as aerobots and other autonomous aircraft used to acquire scientific data or to perform surveying or monitoring functions.

Kulczycki, Eric; Elfes, Alberto; Sharma, Shivanjli

2009-01-01

177

Autonomous Control of Space Reactor Systems  

SciTech Connect

Autonomous and semi-autonomous control is a key element of space reactor design in order to meet the mission requirements of safety, reliability, survivability, and life expectancy. Interrestrial nuclear power plants, human operators are avilable to perform intelligent control functions that are necessary for both normal and abnormal operational conditions.

Belle R. Upadhyaya; K. Zhao; S.R.P. Perillo; Xiaojia Xu; M.G. Na

2007-11-30

178

Autonomous Vehicle Following Using a Robotic Driver  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the development of autonomous control of a passenger vehicle for vehicle following using a robotic driver. The aim is to have a modular and transferable device that can autonomously control a standard passenger car. The robot controls the car in the same way as a human driver, by rotating the steering wheel and pushing the pedals. No

Nicholas Wong; Christopher Chambers; K. Stol; R. Halkyard

2008-01-01

179

Autonomic Physiological Response Patterns Related to Intelligence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We examined autonomic physiological responses induced by six different cognitive ability tasks, varying in complexity, that were selected on the basis of on Guilford's Structure of Intellect model. In a group of 52 participants, task performance was measured together with nine different autonomic response measures and respiration rate. Weighted…

Melis, Cor; van Boxtel, Anton

2007-01-01

180

Digital Libraries and Autonomous Citation Indexing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The World Wide Web is revolutionizing the way that researchers access scientific information. Articles are increasingly being made available on the homepages of authors or institutions, at journal Web sites, or in online archives. However, scientific information on the Web is largely disorganized. This article introduces the creation of digital libraries incorporating Autonomous Citation Indexing (ACI). ACI autonomously creates citation

Steve Lawrence; C. Lee Giles; Kurt D. Bollacker

1999-01-01

181

The Techsat-21 Autonomous Sciencecraft Constellation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Autonomous Sciencecraft Constellation flight demonstration (ASC) will fly onboard the Air Force's TechSat-21 constellation (an unclassified mission scheduled for launch in 2004). ASC will use onboard science analysis, replanning, robust execution, model- based estimation and control, and formation flying to radically increase science return by enabling intelligent downlink selection and autonomous retargeting. Demonstration of these capabilities in a flight

Steve Chien; Rob Sherwood; Michael Burl; Russell Knight; Gregg Rabideau

2005-01-01

182

Autonomous Control of Space Reactor Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Autonomous and semi-autonomous control is a key element of space reactor design in order to meet the mission requirements of safety, reliability, survivability, and life expectancy. Interrestrial nuclear power plants, human operators are avilable to perform intelligent control functions that are necessary for both normal and abnormal operational conditions.

Belle R. Upadhyaya; K. Zhao; S. R. P. Perillo; Xiaojia Xu; M. G. Na

2007-01-01

183

Autonomous power system intelligent diagnosis and control  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Autonomous Power System (APS) project at NASA Lewis Research Center is designed to demonstrate the abilities of integrated intelligent diagnosis, control, and scheduling techniques to space power distribution hardware. Knowledge-based software provides a robust method of control for highly complex space-based power systems that conventional methods do not allow. The project consists of three elements: the Autonomous Power Expert System (APEX) for fault diagnosis and control, the Autonomous Intelligent Power Scheduler (AIPS) to determine system configuration, and power hardware (Brassboard) to simulate a space based power system. The operation of the Autonomous Power System as a whole is described and the responsibilities of the three elements - APEX, AIPS, and Brassboard - are characterized. A discussion of the methodologies used in each element is provided. Future plans are discussed for the growth of the Autonomous Power System.

Ringer, Mark J.; Quinn, Todd M.; Merolla, Anthony

1991-01-01

184

Other Autonomic Neuropathies Associated with Ganglionic Antibody  

PubMed Central

The acetylcholine receptor ganglionic (G-AchR) antibody is a very specific serologic test for autoimmune autonomic ganglionopathy. The spectrum of autoimmune (or presumed to be autoimmune) autonomic disorders, however, is quite broad and positivity to this antibody has been reported in a variety of other conditions, albeit infrequent and with low titer. This review describes the autonomic neuropathies most frequently encountered in clinical practice in which an autoimmune etiology is suspected. They include a chronic form (pure autonomic failure) and limited autonomic neuropathies with predominant involvement of one neurotransmitter type (i.e., cholinergic vs. adrenergic) or one system (such as the gastrointestinal system) or a distal small fiber dysfunction. In each of these conditions, occasional positivity to the G-AchR antibody has been found, but the pathogenetic significance of such finding is still uncertain. Other antigens and antibodies yet to be identified are more likely to be responsible in these disorders. PMID:19058765

Sandroni, Paola; Low, Phillip A.

2009-01-01

185

Other autonomic neuropathies associated with ganglionic antibody.  

PubMed

The acetylcholine receptor ganglionic (G-AchR) antibody is a very specific serologic test for autoimmune autonomic ganglionopathy. The spectrum of autoimmune (or presumed to be autoimmune) autonomic disorders, however, is quite broad and positivity to this antibody has been reported in a variety of other conditions, albeit infrequent and with low titer. This review describes the autonomic neuropathies most frequently encountered in clinical practice in which an autoimmune etiology is suspected. They include a chronic form (pure autonomic failure) and limited autonomic neuropathies with predominant involvement of one neurotransmitter type (i.e., cholinergic vs. adrenergic) or one system (such as the gastrointestinal system) or a distal small fiber dysfunction. In each of these conditions, occasional positivity to the G-AchR antibody has been found, but the pathogenetic significance of such finding is still uncertain. Other antigens and antibodies yet to be identified are more likely to be responsible in these disorders. PMID:19058765

Sandroni, Paola; Low, Phillip A

2009-03-12

186

Multi-agent autonomous system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A multi-agent autonomous system for exploration of hazardous or inaccessible locations. The multi-agent autonomous system includes simple surface-based agents or craft controlled by an airborne tracking and command system. The airborne tracking and command system includes an instrument suite used to image an operational area and any craft deployed within the operational area. The image data is used to identify the craft, targets for exploration, and obstacles in the operational area. The tracking and command system determines paths for the surface-based craft using the identified targets and obstacles and commands the craft using simple movement commands to move through the operational area to the targets while avoiding the obstacles. Each craft includes its own instrument suite to collect information about the operational area that is transmitted back to the tracking and command system. The tracking and command system may be further coupled to a satellite system to provide additional image information about the operational area and provide operational and location commands to the tracking and command system.

Fink, Wolfgang (Inventor); Dohm, James (Inventor); Tarbell, Mark A. (Inventor)

2010-01-01

187

Autonomous perturbations of LISA orbits  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate autonomous perturbations on the orbits of LISA, namely the effects produced by gravitational fields that can be expressed only in terms of the position, but not of time in the Hill frame. This first step in the study of the LISA orbits has been the subject of recent papers which implement analytical techniques based on a 'post-epicyclic' approximation in the Hill frame to find optimal unperturbed orbits. The natural step forward is to analyze the perturbations to purely Keplerian orbits. In this work, a particular emphasis is put on the tidal field of the Earth assumed to be stationary in the Hill frame. Other relevant classes of autonomous perturbations are those given by the corrections to the solar field responsible for a slow precession and a global stationary field, associated with sources such as the interplanetary dust or a local dark matter component. The inclusion of simple linear contributions in the expansion of these fields produces secular solutions that can be compared with the measurements and possibly used to evaluate some morphological property of the perturbing components.

Pucacco, G.; Bassan, M.; Visco, M.

2010-12-01

188

Structured control for autonomous robots  

SciTech Connect

To operate in rich, dynamic environments, autonomous robots must be able to effectively utilize and coordinate their limited physical and occupational resources. As complexity increases, it becomes necessary to impose explicit constraints on the control of planning, perception, and action to ensure that unwanted interactions between behaviors do not occur. This paper advocates developing complex robot systems by layering reactive behaviors onto deliberative components. In this structured control approach, the deliberative components handle normal situations and the reactive behaviors, which are explicitly constrained as to when and how they are activated, handle exceptional situations. The Task Control Architecture (TCA) has been developed to support this approach. TCA provides an integrated set of control constructs useful for implementing deliberative and reactive behaviors. The control constructs facilitate modular and evolutionary system development: they are used to integrate and coordinate planning, perception, and execution, and to incrementally improve the efficiency and robustness of the robot systems. To date, TCA has been used in implementing a half-dozen mobile robot systems, including an autonomous six-legged rover and indoor mobile manipulator.

Simmons, R.G. (Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States). School of Computer Science)

1994-02-01

189

Autonomous uninterruptable power supply apparatus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This invention relates broadly to a power supply apparatus, and in particular to an autonomous uninterruptable power supply apparatus. The purpose of an uninterruptable power supply (UPS) is to protect critical electrical loads from transient or steady stage outages or disturbances in the primary power source. The basic configuration of a typical, commercially available, uninterruptable power supply is comprised at a minimum of a standby battery and a battery charger and may also include an inverter for AC applications. Systems of this type can be found in most computer installations and laboratory systems which cannot tolerate even momentary disturbances of input power. This document describes an autonomous uninterruptable power supply apparatus utilizing a digital processor unit as a control and monitor unit to measure and control input and output parameters in the power supply. A battery charger is utilized to maintain the voltage and current levels with the backup battery supply source which powers an inverter unit that converts the DC power to an AC output.

Masson, J. H.

1984-12-01

190

Autonomous Control Capabilities for Space Reactor Power Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) Project Prometheus, the Nuclear Systems Program, is investigating a possible Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter (JIMO) mission, which would conduct in-depth studies of three of the moons of Jupiter by using a space reactor power system (SRPS) to provide energy for propulsion and spacecraft power for more than a decade. Terrestrial nuclear power plants rely upon varying degrees of direct human control and interaction for operations and maintenance over a forty to sixty year lifetime. In contrast, an SRPS is intended to provide continuous, remote, unattended operation for up to fifteen years with no maintenance. Uncertainties, rare events, degradation, and communications delays with Earth are challenges that SRPS control must accommodate. Autonomous control is needed to address these challenges and optimize the reactor control design. In this paper, we describe an autonomous control concept for generic SRPS designs. The formulation of an autonomous control concept, which includes identification of high-level functional requirements and generation of a research and development plan for enabling technologies, is among the technical activities that are being conducted under the U.S. Department of Energy's Space Reactor Technology Program in support of the NASA's Project Prometheus. The findings from this program are intended to contribute to the successful realization of the JIMO mission.

Wood, Richard T.; Neal, John S.; Brittain, C. Ray; Mullens, James A.

2004-02-01

191

Flight Control System Development for the BURRO Autonomous UAV  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Developing autonomous flying vehicles has been a growing field in aeronautical research within the last decade and will continue into the next century. With concerns about safety, size, and cost of manned aircraft, several autonomous vehicle projects are currently being developed; uninhabited rotorcraft offer solutions to requirements for hover, vertical take-off and landing, as well as slung load transportation capabilities. The newness of the technology requires flight control engineers to question what design approaches, control law architectures, and performance criteria apply to control law development and handling quality evaluation. To help answer these questions, this paper documents the control law design process for Kaman Aerospace BURRO project. This paper will describe the approach taken to design control laws and develop math models which will be used to convert the manned K-MAX into the BURRO autonomous rotorcraft. With the ability of the K-MAX to lift its own weight (6000 lb) the load significantly affects the dynamics of the system; the paper addresses the additional design requirements for slung load autonomous flight. The approach taken in this design was to: 1) generate accurate math models of the K-MAX helicopter with and without slung loads, 2) select design specifications that would deliver good performance as well as satisfy mission criteria, and 3) develop and tune the control system architecture to meet the design specs and mission criteria. An accurate math model was desired for control system development. The Comprehensive Identification from Frequency Responses (CIFER(R)) software package was used to identify a linear math model for unloaded and loaded flight at hover, 50 kts, and 100 kts. The results of an eight degree-of-freedom CIFER(R)-identified linear model for the unloaded hover flight condition are presented herein, and the identification of the two-body slung-load configuration is in progress.

Colbourne, Jason D.; Frost, Chad R.; Tischler, Mark B.; Ciolani, Luigi; Sahai, Ranjana; Tomoshofski, Chris; LaMontagne, Troy; Rutkowski, Michael (Technical Monitor)

2000-01-01

192

An autonomous structural health monitoring solution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Combining advanced sensor technologies, with optimised data acquisition and diagnostic and prognostic capability, structural health monitoring (SHM) systems provide real-time assessment of the integrity of bridges, buildings, aircraft, wind turbines, oil pipelines and ships, leading to improved safety and reliability and reduced inspection and maintenance costs. The implementation of power harvesting, using energy scavenged from ambient sources such as thermal gradients and sources of vibration in conjunction with wireless transmission enables truly autonomous systems, reducing the need for batteries and associated maintenance in often inaccessible locations, alongside bulky and expensive wiring looms. The design and implementation of such a system however presents numerous challenges. A suitable energy source or multiple sources capable of meeting the power requirements of the system, over the entire monitoring period, in a location close to the sensor must be identified. Efficient power management techniques must be used to condition the power and deliver it, as required, to enable appropriate measurements to be taken. Energy storage may be necessary, to match a continuously changing supply and demand for a range of different monitoring states including sleep, record and transmit. An appropriate monitoring technique, capable of detecting, locating and characterising damage and delivering reliable information, whilst minimising power consumption, must be selected. Finally a wireless protocol capable of transmitting the levels of information generated at the rate needed in the required operating environment must be chosen. This paper considers solutions to some of these challenges, and in particular examines SHM in the context of the aircraft environment.

Featherston, Carol A.; Holford, Karen M.; Pullin, Rhys; Lees, Jonathan; Eaton, Mark; Pearson, Matthew

2013-05-01

193

Towards Robot Scientists for autonomous scientific discovery  

PubMed Central

We review the main components of autonomous scientific discovery, and how they lead to the concept of a Robot Scientist. This is a system which uses techniques from artificial intelligence to automate all aspects of the scientific discovery process: it generates hypotheses from a computer model of the domain, designs experiments to test these hypotheses, runs the physical experiments using robotic systems, analyses and interprets the resulting data, and repeats the cycle. We describe our two prototype Robot Scientists: Adam and Eve. Adam has recently proven the potential of such systems by identifying twelve genes responsible for catalysing specific reactions in the metabolic pathways of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. This work has been formally recorded in great detail using logic. We argue that the reporting of science needs to become fully formalised and that Robot Scientists can help achieve this. This will make scientific information more reproducible and reusable, and promote the integration of computers in scientific reasoning. We believe the greater automation of both the physical and intellectual aspects of scientific investigations to be essential to the future of science. Greater automation improves the accuracy and reliability of experiments, increases the pace of discovery and, in common with conventional laboratory automation, removes tedious and repetitive tasks from the human scientist. PMID:20119518

2010-01-01

194

Antibody titers predict clinical features of autoimmune autonomic ganglionopathy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Autoimmune autonomic ganglionopathy is a disorder of isolated autonomic failure associated with antibodies to the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor of the autonomic ganglia resulting in severe orthostatic intolerance, syncope, constipation, gastroparesis, urinary retention, dry mouth, dry eyes, blurred vision and anhidrosis. We report the autonomic test results, antibody titers and clinical findings in 8 patients with antibodies to the nicotinic acetylcholine

Christopher H. Gibbons; Roy Freeman

2009-01-01

195

Autonomous Off-Road Driving in the DARPA Grand Challenge  

E-print Network

learned from two years of autonomous vehicle develop- ment. Autonomous navigation in the off road that there is an unusually large divide between theory and practice in off-road autonomous vehicle navigation. PriorAutonomous Off-Road Driving in the DARPA Grand Challenge Eagle Jones, Brian Fulkerson, and Emilio

Soatto, Stefano

196

Autonomic Ganglia: Target and Novel Therapeutic Tool  

PubMed Central

Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (AChR) are ligand-gated cation channels that are present throughout the nervous system. The muscle AChR mediates transmission at the neuromuscular junction; antibodies against the muscle AChR are the cause of myasthenia gravis. The ganglionic (?3-type) neuronal AChR mediates fast synaptic transmission in sympathetic, parasympathetic, and enteric autonomic ganglia. Impaired cholinergic ganglionic synaptic transmission is one important cause of autonomic failure. Pharmacological enhancement of ganglionic synaptic transmission may be a novel way to improve autonomic function. Ganglionic AChR antibodies are found in patients with autoimmune autonomic ganglionopathy (AAG). Patients with AAG typically present with rapid onset of severe autonomic failure. Major clinical features include orthostatic hypotension, gastrointestinal dysmotility, anhidrosis, bladder dysfunction, and sicca symptoms. Impaired pupillary light reflex is often seen. Like myasthenia, AAG is an antibody-mediated neurological disorder. The disease can be reproduced in experimental animals by active immunization or passive antibody transfer. Patient may improve with plasma exchange treatment or other immunomodulatory treatment. Antibodies from patients with AAG inhibit ganglionic AChR currents. Other phenotypes of AAG are now recognized based on the results of antibody testing. These other presentations are generally associated with lower levels of ganglionic AChR antibodies. A chronic progressive form of AAG may resemble pure autonomic failure. Milder forms of dysautonomia, such as postural tachycardia syndrome, are associated with ganglionic AChR in 10–15% of cases. Since ganglionic synaptic transmission is a common pathway for all autonomic traffic, enhancement of autonomic function through inhibition of acetylcholinesterase is a potential specific therapeutic strategy for autonomic disorders. Increasing the strength of ganglionic transmission can ameliorate neurogenic orthostatic hypotension without aggravating supine hypertension. Recent evidence also suggests a potential role for acetylcholinesterase inhibitors in the treatment of postural tachycardia syndrome. PMID:18474849

Vernino, Steven; Sandroni, Paola; Singer, Wolfgang; Low, Phillip A.

2009-01-01

197

An Autonomous Flight Safety System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Autonomous Flight Safety System (AFSS) being developed by NASA s Goddard Space Flight Center s Wallops Flight Facility and Kennedy Space Center has completed two successful developmental flights and is preparing for a third. AFSS has been demonstrated to be a viable architecture for implementation of a completely vehicle based system capable of protecting life and property in event of an errant vehicle by terminating the flight or initiating other actions. It is capable of replacing current human-in-the-loop systems or acting in parallel with them. AFSS is configured prior to flight in accordance with a specific rule set agreed upon by the range safety authority and the user to protect the public and assure mission success. This paper discusses the motivation for the project, describes the method of development, and presents an overview of the evolving architecture and the current status.

Bull, James B.; Lanzi, Raymond J.

2007-01-01

198

Autonomous navigation system and method  

SciTech Connect

A robot platform includes perceptors, locomotors, and a system controller, which executes instructions for autonomously navigating a robot. The instructions repeat, on each iteration through an event timing loop, the acts of defining an event horizon based on the robot's current velocity, detecting a range to obstacles around the robot, testing for an event horizon intrusion by determining if any range to the obstacles is within the event horizon, and adjusting rotational and translational velocity of the robot accordingly. If the event horizon intrusion occurs, rotational velocity is modified by a proportion of the current rotational velocity reduced by a proportion of the range to the nearest obstacle and translational velocity is modified by a proportion of the range to the nearest obstacle. If no event horizon intrusion occurs, translational velocity is set as a ratio of a speed factor relative to a maximum speed.

Bruemmer, David J. (Idaho Falls, ID) [Idaho Falls, ID; Few, Douglas A. (Idaho Falls, ID) [Idaho Falls, ID

2009-09-08

199

Autonomous Spacecraft Navigation With Pulsars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An external reference system suitable for deep space navigation can be defined by fast spinning and strongly magnetized neutron stars, called pulsars. Their beamed periodic signals have timing stabilities comparable to atomic clocks and provide characteristic temporal signatures that can be used as natural navigation beacons, quite similar to the use of GPS satellites for navigation on Earth. By comparing pulse arrival times measured on-board a spacecraft with predicted pulse arrivals at a reference location, the spacecraft position can be determined autonomously and with high accuracy everywhere in the solar system and beyond. The unique properties of pulsars make clear already today that such a navigation system will have its application in future astronautics. We will describe the basic principle of spacecraft navigation using pulsars and report on the current development status of this novel technology.

Becker, Werner

2014-08-01

200

Autonomous Infrastructure for Observatory Operations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This is an era of rapid change from ancient human-mediated modes of astronomical practice to a vision of ever larger time domain surveys, ever bigger "big data", to increasing numbers of robotic telescopes and astronomical automation on every mountaintop. Over the past decades, facets of a new autonomous astronomical toolkit have been prototyped and deployed in support of numerous space missions. Remote and queue observing modes have gained significant market share on the ground. Archives and data-mining are becoming ubiquitous; astroinformatic techniques and virtual observatory standards and protocols are areas of active development. Astronomers and engineers, planetary and solar scientists, and researchers from communities as diverse as particle physics and exobiology are collaborating on a vast range of "multi-messenger" science. What then is missing?

Seaman, R.

201

Autonomous Medical Care for Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The goal of Autonomous Medical Care (AMC) is to ensure a healthy, well-performing crew which is a primary need for exploration. The end result of this effort will be the requirements and design for medical systems for the CEV, lunar operations, and Martian operations as well as a ground-based crew health optimization plan. Without such systems, we increase the risk of medical events occurring during a mission and we risk being unable to deal with contingencies of illness and injury, potentially threatening mission success. AMC has two major components: 1) pre-flight crew health optimization and 2) in-flight medical care. The goal of pre-flight crew health optimization is to reduce the risk of illness occurring during a mission by primary prevention and prophylactic measures. In-flight autonomous medical care is the capability to provide medical care during a mission with little or no real-time support from Earth. Crew medical officers or other crew members provide routine medical care as well as medical care to ill or injured crew members using resources available in their location. Ground support becomes telemedical consultation on-board systems/people collect relevant data for ground support to review. The AMC system provides capabilities to incorporate new procedures and training and advice as required. The on-board resources in an autonomous system should be as intelligent and integrated as is feasible, but autonomous does not mean that no human will be involved. The medical field is changing rapidly, and so a challenge is to determine which items to pursue now, which to leverage other efforts (e.g. military), and which to wait for commercial forces to mature. Given that what is used for the CEV or the Moon will likely be updated before going to Mars, a critical piece of the system design will be an architecture that provides for easy incorporation of new technologies into the system. Another challenge is to determine the level of care to provide for each mission type. The level of care refers to the amount and type of care one will render based on perceived need and ability. This is in contrast to the standard of care which is the benchmark by which that care is provided. There are certainly some devices and procedures that have unique microgravity or partial gravity requirements such that terrestrial methods will not work. For example, performing CPR on Mars cannot be done in exactly the same way as on Earth because the reduced gravity causes too large a reduction in the forces available for effective compression of the chest. Likewise, fluid behavior in microgravity may require a specialized water filtration and mixing system for the creation of intravenous fluids. This paper will outline the drivers for the design of the medical care systems, prioritization and planning techniques, key system components, and long term goals.

Johnson-Throop, Kathy A.; Polk, J. D.; Hines, John W.; Nall, Marsha M.

2005-01-01

202

Testbed for an autonomous system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In previous works we have defined a general architectural model for autonomous systems, which can easily be mapped to describe the functions of any automated system (SDAG-86-01), and we illustrated that model by applying it to the thermal management system of a space station (SDAG-87-01). In this note, we will further develop that application and design the detail of the implementation of such a model. First we present the environment of our application by describing the thermal management problem and an abstraction, which was called TESTBED, that includes a specific function for each module in the architecture, and the nature of the interfaces between each pair of blocks.

Dikshit, Piyush; Guimaraes, Katia; Ramamurthy, Maya; Agrawala, Ashok K.; Larsen, Ronald L.

1989-01-01

203

Autonomous caregiver following robotic wheelchair  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the last decade, a variety of robotic/intelligent wheelchairs have been proposed to meet the need in aging society. Their main research topics are autonomous functions such as moving toward some goals while avoiding obstacles, or user-friendly interfaces. Although it is desirable for wheelchair users to go out alone, caregivers often accompany them. Therefore we have to consider not only autonomous functions and user interfaces but also how to reduce caregivers' load and support their activities in a communication aspect. From this point of view, we have proposed a robotic wheelchair moving with a caregiver side by side based on the MATLAB process. In this project we discussing about robotic wheel chair to follow a caregiver by using a microcontroller, Ultrasonic sensor, keypad, Motor drivers to operate robot. Using camera interfaced with the DM6437 (Davinci Code Processor) image is captured. The captured image are then processed by using image processing technique, the processed image are then converted into voltage levels through MAX 232 level converter and given it to the microcontroller unit serially and ultrasonic sensor to detect the obstacle in front of robot. In this robot we have mode selection switch Automatic and Manual control of robot, we use ultrasonic sensor in automatic mode to find obstacle, in Manual mode to use the keypad to operate wheel chair. In the microcontroller unit, c language coding is predefined, according to this coding the robot which connected to it was controlled. Robot which has several motors is activated by using the motor drivers. Motor drivers are nothing but a switch which ON/OFF the motor according to the control given by the microcontroller unit.

Ratnam, E. Venkata; Sivaramalingam, Sethurajan; Vignesh, A. Sri; Vasanth, Elanthendral; Joans, S. Mary

2011-12-01

204

Secure, Autonomous, Intelligent Controller for Integrating Distributed Sensor Webs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes the infrastructure and protocols necessary to enable near-real-time commanding, access to space-based assets, and the secure interoperation between sensor webs owned and controlled by various entities. Select terrestrial and aeronautics-base sensor webs will be used to demonstrate time-critical interoperability between integrated, intelligent sensor webs both terrestrial and between terrestrial and space-based assets. For this work, a Secure, Autonomous, Intelligent Controller and knowledge generation unit is implemented using Virtual Mission Operation Center technology.

Ivancic, William D.

2007-01-01

205

Autonomous underwater pipeline monitoring navigation system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper details the development of an autonomous motion-control and navigation algorithm for an underwater autonomous vehicle, the Ocean Server IVER3, to track long linear features such as underwater pipelines. As part of this work, the Nonlinear and Autonomous Systems Laboratory (NAS Lab) developed an algorithm that utilizes inputs from the vehicles state of the art sensor package, which includes digital imaging, digital 3-D Sidescan Sonar, and Acoustic Doppler Current Profilers. The resulting algorithms should tolerate real-world waterway with episodic strong currents, low visibility, high sediment content, and a variety of small and large vessel traffic.

Mitchell, Byrel; Mahmoudian, Nina; Meadows, Guy

2014-06-01

206

Autonomous Demand Response for Primary Frequency Regulation  

SciTech Connect

The research documented within this report examines the use of autonomous demand response to provide primary frequency response in an interconnected power grid. The work builds on previous studies in several key areas: it uses a large realistic model (i.e., the interconnection of the western United States and Canada); it establishes a set of metrics that can be used to assess the effectiveness of autonomous demand response; and it independently adjusts various parameters associated with using autonomous demand response to assess effectiveness and to examine possible threats or vulnerabilities associated with the technology.

Donnelly, Matt; Trudnowski, Daniel J.; Mattix, S.; Dagle, Jeffery E.

2012-02-28

207

Autonomous observatories for the Antarctic plateau  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Antarctic astronomical site-testing has been conducted using autonomous self-powered observatories for more than a decade (the AASTO at South Pole, the AASTINO at Dome C, and PLATO at Dome A/Dome F). More recently autonomous (PLATO) observatories have been developed and deployed to support small-scale scientific instruments, such as HEAT, a 0.6 m aperture terahertz telescope at Ridge A, and AST3, a 0.5 m optical telescope array at Dome A. This paper reviews the evolution of autonomous Antarctic astronomical observatories, and discusses the requirements and implications for observatories that will be needed for future larger-scale facilities.

Lawrence, J. S.; Ashley, M. C. B.; Storey, J. W. V.

2013-01-01

208

Development of Autonomous Aerobraking - Phase 2  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Phase 1 of the Development of Autonomous Aerobraking (AA) Assessment investigated the technical capability of transferring the processes of aerobraking maneuver (ABM) decision-making (currently performed on the ground by an extensive workforce and communicated to the spacecraft via the deep space network) to an efficient flight software algorithm onboard the spacecraft. This document describes Phase 2 of this study, which was a 12-month effort to improve and rigorously test the AA Development Software developed in Phase 1. Aerobraking maneuver; Autonomous Aerobraking; Autonomous Aerobraking Development Software; Deep Space Network; NASA Engineering and Safety Center

Murri, Daniel G.

2013-01-01

209

DAYTIME WATER DETECTION BY FUSING MULTIPLE CUES FOR AUTONOMOUS OFF-ROAD NAVIGATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Detecting water hazards is a significant challenge to unmanned ground vehicle autonomous off-road navigation. This paper focuses on detecting the presence of water during the daytime using color cameras. A multi-cue approach is taken. Evidence of the presence of water is generated from color, texture, and the detection of reflections in stereo range data. A rule base for fusing water

A. L. Rankin; L. H. Matthies; A. Huertas

210

A Double-Blind Atropine Trial for Active Learning of Autonomic Function  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Here, we describe a human physiology laboratory class measuring changes in autonomic function over time in response to atropine. Students use themselves as subjects, generating ownership and self-interest in the learning as well as directly experiencing the active link between physiology and pharmacology in people. The class is designed to…

Fry, Jeffrey R.; Burr, Steven A.

2011-01-01

211

Carbon Footprint of Energy Consumption and Environmental Impact in Autonomous Regions of China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The research of the relationship between carbon footprint generated by energy consumption and environmental quality could provide scientific basis for the coordinated development of energy, environment and economy. This paper calculated the carbon footprint energy consumption in China's autonomous regions from the perspective of carbon cycle. Meanwhile, it adopts principal component method to make comprehensive evaluation of environmental quality in

Hua Honglian; Tong Yan; Pan Yujun; Zhang Qianduo

2012-01-01

212

Trajectory planning of manipulator for a hitting task with autonomous incremental learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new approach based on genetic algorithm (GA) and autonomous mental development for trajectory planning of robot manipulator is presented in this paper. The trajectory for the manipulator is optimized by the GA. To make the trajectory planning used in real time application, a developmental learning algorithm is proposed to generate an incremental hierarchical discriminating regression (IHDR) tree to form

Changyu You; Jianda Han

2007-01-01

213

Detecting surface boundaries on simple objects in an autonomous 3D machine vision system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes some of the first analytic work performed on data collected by an autonomous 3D machine vision system. The system, which is described in detail elsewhere and briefly described here, uses fast, dedicated hardware to generate a visible surface mapping directly into a memory array that can be accessed from a host computer. The techniques described here have

Craig McGarrity; R. L. Dalglish; J. Restrepo

1993-01-01

214

Setpoint Scheduling for Autonomous Vehicle Controllers Tsz-Chiu Au, Michael Quinlan, and Peter Stone  

E-print Network

algorithm for generating setpoints for the PID controllers for the brake and throttle actuators. I. INTRODUCTION Recent developments in robotic vehicles lead us to believe that fully autonomous are controlled by PID controllers, especially when starting from a stationary position or decelerating after

Au, Tsz-Chiu

215

Setpoint Scheduling for Autonomous Vehicle Controllers TszChiu Au, Michael Quinlan, and Peter Stone  

E-print Network

algorithm for generating setpoints for the PID controllers for the brake and throttle actuators. I. INTRODUCTION Recent developments in robotic vehicles lead us to believe that fully autonomous are controlled by PID controllers, especially when starting from a stationary position or decelerating after

Stone, Peter

216

Motion planning of an autonomous mobile robot considering regions with velocity constraint  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently various autonomous mobile robots are developed for practical use. For coexistence with the robots and human in the real environment, the consideration of safety is very important. We should consider a region with a limitation of a maximum velocity of a mobile robot for the safety. In this paper, we propose path planning and trajectory generation methods for a

Kiyohiro Goto; Kazuyuki Kon; Fumitoshi Matsuno

2010-01-01

217

Characterization of non Trim Trajectories of an Autonomous Underactuated Airship in a Low Velocity Flight  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract :Th e objective ofthis paper is to generate adesired ,flight path to be ,followed by, an, autonomous airship. The space is supposed without obstacles. As there is six degrees of ,freedom and only three inputs for the LSC airship in a low velocity flight, three equality constraints appear due to the under-actuation. When the roll ? and pitch ?

Yasmina Bestaoui

2005-01-01

218

Optimisation model and exact algorithm for Autonomous Straddle Carrier Scheduling at automated container terminals  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, an optimisation model based on Pickup and Delivery Problem with Time Windows (PDPTW), and an exact algorithm based on Branch-and-Bound with Column Generation (BBCG), are presented for Autonomous Straddle Carriers Scheduling (ASCS) problem at automated container terminals. The ASCS problem is firstly modeled into a PDPTW, which is formulated as a Binary Integer Programming (BIP) and then

Binghuang Cai; Shoudong Huang; Dikai Liu; Shuai Yuan; Gamini Dissanayake; Haye Lau; Daniel Pagac

2011-01-01

219

Optimisation model and exact algorithm for autonomous straddle carrier scheduling at automated container terminals  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, an optimisation model based on Pickup and Delivery Problem with Time Windows (PDPTW), and an exact algorithm based on Branch-and-Bound with Column Generation (BBCG), are presented for Autonomous Straddle Carriers Scheduling (ASCS) problem at automated container terminals. The ASCS problem is firstly modeled into a PDPTW, which is formulated as a Binary Integer Programming (BIP) and then

Binghuang Cai; Shoudong Huang; Dikai Liu; Shuai Yuan; Gamini Dissanayake; Haye Lau; Daniel Pagac

2011-01-01

220

Autonomic dysfunction in Guillain-Barré syndrome.  

PubMed Central

The following tests of autonomic function were performed on seven patients with the Guillain-Barré syndrome and compared with controls: (1) measurement of heart rate and blood pressure in the supine and erect positions, (2) measurement of baroreflex sensitivity, (3) Valsalva's manoeuvre, (4) sweat test. In two patients the heart rates were fixed and greater than 100/min and in three there was postural hypotension. The baroflex sensitivity of four patients was abnormal and heart rate response to Valsalva's manoeuvre was impaired in two of the three patients who were able to perform the manoeuvre. Areas of anhidrosis were found in all seven patients. These abnormalities probably reflect pathological alterations of the sympathetic and parasympathetic components of the autonomic nervous system of patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome. The severity of autonomic involvement is not related to the degree of sensory and motor disturbance which is consistent with the patchy distribution of lesions throughout the peripheral and autonomic nervous systems. PMID:7334398

Tuck, R R; McLeod, J G

1981-01-01

221

A flexible design framework for autonomous mowing  

E-print Network

This work outlines the creation of a flexible design framework for autonomous mowing to meet changing customer needs and functionality across a spectrum of applications from residential areas to sport complexes. The thesis ...

Kraft, Justin (Justin A.)

2011-01-01

222

System Engineering of Autonomous Space Vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Human exploration of the solar system requires fully autonomous systems when travelling more than 5 light minutes from Earth. This autonomy is necessary to manage a large, complex spacecraft with limited crew members and skills available. The communication latency requires the vehicle to deal with events with only limited crew interaction in most cases. The engineering of these systems requires an extensive knowledge of the spacecraft systems, information theory, and autonomous algorithm characteristics. The characteristics of the spacecraft systems must be matched with the autonomous algorithm characteristics to reliably monitor and control the system. This presents a large system engineering problem. Recent work on product-focused, elegant system engineering will be applied to this application, looking at the full autonomy stack, the matching of autonomous systems to spacecraft systems, and the integration of different types of algorithms. Each of these areas will be outlined and a general approach defined for system engineering to provide the optimal solution to the given application context.

Watson, Michael D.; Johnson, Stephen B.; Trevino, Luis

2014-01-01

223

Advancing Autonomous Operations Technologies for NASA Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper discusses the importance of implementing advanced autonomous technologies supporting operations of future NASA missions. The ability for crewed, uncrewed and even ground support systems to be capable of mission support without external interaction or control has become essential as space exploration moves further out into the solar system. The push to develop and utilize autonomous technologies for NASA mission operations stems in part from the need to reduce operations cost while improving and increasing capability and safety. This paper will provide examples of autonomous technologies currently in use at NASA and will identify opportunities to advance existing autonomous technologies that will enhance mission success by reducing operations cost, ameliorating inefficiencies, and mitigating catastrophic anomalies.

Cruzen, Craig; Thompson, Jerry Todd

2013-01-01

224

DEMONSTRATION OF AUTONOMOUS AIR MONITORING THROUGH ROBOTICS  

EPA Science Inventory

This project included modifying an existing teleoperated robot to include autonomous navigation, large object avoidance, and air monitoring and demonstrating that prototype robot system in indoor and outdoor environments. An existing teleoperated "Surveyor" robot developed by ARD...

225

Autonomous thruster failure recovery for underactuated spacecraft  

E-print Network

Thruster failures historically account for a large percentage of failures that have occurred on orbit. Therefore, autonomous thruster failure detection, isolation, and recovery (FDIR) is an essential component to any robust ...

Pong, Christopher Masaru

2010-01-01

226

Autonomous aerobatic maneuvering of miniature helicopters  

E-print Network

In this thesis, I present an experimentally proven control methodology for the autonomous execution of aerobatic maneuvers with small-scale helicopters, and a low-order dynamic model which adequately describes a miniature ...

Gavrilets, Vladislav, 1975-

2003-01-01

227

XAUV : modular high maneuverability autonomous underwater vehicle  

E-print Network

The design and construction of a modular test bed autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) is analyzed. Although a relatively common stacked-hull design is used, the state of the art is advanced through an aggressive power ...

Walker, Daniel G. (Daniel George)

2009-01-01

228

Advancing Autonomous Operations Technologies for NASA Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper discusses the importance of implementing advanced autonomous technologies supporting operations of future NASA missions. The ability for crewed, uncrewed and even ground support systems to be capable of mission support without external interaction or control has become essential as space exploration moves further out into the solar system. The push to develop and utilize autonomous technologies for NASA mission operations stems in part from the need to reduce cost while improving and increasing capability and safety. This paper will provide examples of autonomous technologies currently in use at NASA and will identify opportunities to advance existing autonomous technologies that will enhance mission success by reducing cost, ameliorating inefficiencies, and mitigating catastrophic anomalies

Cruzen, Craig; Thompson, Jerry T.

2013-01-01

229

Acupuncture Effect and Central Autonomic Regulation  

PubMed Central

Acupuncture is a therapeutic technique and part of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). Acupuncture has clinical efficacy on various autonomic nerve-related disorders, such as cardiovascular diseases, epilepsy, anxiety and nervousness, circadian rhythm disorders, polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and subfertility. An increasing number of studies have demonstrated that acupuncture can control autonomic nerve system (ANS) functions including blood pressure, pupil size, skin conductance, skin temperature, muscle sympathetic nerve activities, heart rate and/or pulse rate, and heart rate variability. Emerging evidence indicates that acupuncture treatment not only activates distinct brain regions in different kinds of diseases caused by imbalance between the sympathetic and parasympathetic activities, but also modulates adaptive neurotransmitter in related brain regions to alleviate autonomic response. This review focused on the central mechanism of acupuncture in modulating various autonomic responses, which might provide neurobiological foundations for acupuncture effects. PMID:23762116

Li, Qian-Qian; Shi, Guang-Xia; Xu, Qian; Wang, Jing; Liu, Cun-Zhi; Wang, Lin-Peng

2013-01-01

230

Autoimmune autonomic ganglionopathy after a CNS infection.  

PubMed

We report the first Greek case of autoimmune autonomic ganglionopathy seropositive for antibodies against ganglionic acetylcholine receptors, unique for an antecedent viral cerebellitis and long, slowly progressive course, with improvement after treatment with pyridostigmine. PMID:21210293

Maiovis, Pantelis; Ioannidis, Panagiotis; Balamoutsos, George; Karacostas, Dimitris

2011-06-01

231

Human inspiration for autonomous vehicle tactics  

E-print Network

Tactical control is needed in environments characterized by uncertainty and continuous, dynamic change. Given the likelihood of time constraints and high risks associated with poor tactical choices, current autonomous ...

Beaton, Jonathan Scott

2006-01-01

232

A Comparison of Autonomic Decision Making Techniques  

E-print Network

Autonomic computing systems are capable of adapting their behavior and resources thousands of times a second to automatically decide the best way to accomplish a given goal despite changing environmental conditions and ...

Maggio, Martina

2011-04-01

233

The Techsat-21 autonomous space science agent  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Autonomous Sciencecraft Experiment (ASE) will fly onboard the Air Force TechSat-21 constellation of three spacecraft scheduled for launch in 2004. ASE uses onboard continuous planning, robust task and goal-based execution, model-based mode identification and reconfiguration, and onboard machine learning and pattern recognition to radically increase science return by enabling intelligent downlink selection and autonomous retargeting. In this paper we

Steve A. Chien; Rob Sherwood; Gregg Rabideau; Rebecca Castano; Ashley Davies; Michael C. Burl; Russell Knight; Timothy M. Stough; Joseph Roden; Paul Zetocha; Ross Wainwright; Pete Klupar; Jim Van Gaasbeck; Pat Cappelaere; Dean Oswald

2002-01-01

234

ASTRO: Autonomous and Trustworthy Data Sharing  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present ASTRO, the first system that sup- ports trustworthy data sharing with strong consistency guarantees among a distributed collection of autonomous nodes. Autonomous nodes support data reads and writes without coordination with other nodes, share data oppor- tunistically in a peer-to-peer fashion, and are mutually distrustful. ASTRO enforces fork-causal consistency, a new consistency semantics that, though weaker than causal

Prince Mahajan; Sangmin Lee; Jiandan Zheng; Lorenzo Alvisi; Mike Dahlin

235

Towards autonomic computing: effective event management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Autonomic computing is emerging as a significant new approach for the design of computing systems. Its goal is the production of systems that are self-managing, self-healing, self-protecting and self-optimizing. Achieving this goal involve techniques from both software engineering and artificial intelligence. We discuss one particular aspect of autonomic computing: event management. It considers the range of event handling techniques in

Roy Sterritt

2002-01-01

236

Autonomous control systems - Architecture and fundamental issues  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A hierarchical functional autonomous controller architecture is introduced. In particular, the architecture for the control of future space vehicles is described in detail; it is designed to ensure the autonomous operation of the control system and it allows interaction with the pilot and crew/ground station, and the systems on board the autonomous vehicle. The fundamental issues in autonomous control system modeling and analysis are discussed. It is proposed to utilize a hybrid approach to modeling and analysis of autonomous systems. This will incorporate conventional control methods based on differential equations and techniques for the analysis of systems described with a symbolic formalism. In this way, the theory of conventional control can be fully utilized. It is stressed that autonomy is the design requirement and intelligent control methods appear at present, to offer some of the necessary tools to achieve autonomy. A conventional approach may evolve and replace some or all of the `intelligent' functions. It is shown that in addition to conventional controllers, the autonomous control system incorporates planning, learning, and FDI (fault detection and identification).

Antsaklis, P. J.; Passino, K. M.; Wang, S. J.

1988-01-01

237

Advancing Autonomous Operations for Deep Space Vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Starting in Jan 2012, the Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Autonomous Mission Operations (AMO) Project began to investigate the ability to create and execute "single button" crew initiated autonomous activities [1]. NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) designed and built a fluid transfer hardware test-bed to use as a sub-system target for the investigations of intelligent procedures that would command and control a fluid transfer test-bed, would perform self-monitoring during fluid transfers, detect anomalies and faults, isolate the fault and recover the procedures function that was being executed, all without operator intervention. In addition to the development of intelligent procedures, the team is also exploring various methods for autonomous activity execution where a planned timeline of activities are executed autonomously and also the initial analysis of crew procedure development. This paper will detail the development of intelligent procedures for the NASA MSFC Autonomous Fluid Transfer System (AFTS) as well as the autonomous plan execution capabilities being investigated. Manned deep space missions, with extreme communication delays with Earth based assets, presents significant challenges for what the on-board procedure content will encompass as well as the planned execution of the procedures.

Haddock, Angie T.; Stetson, Howard K.

2014-01-01

238

Autonomous maneuver of a farm vehicle with a trailed implement: motion planner and lateral-longitudinal controllers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper addresses the problem of path generation and motion control for the autonomous maneuver of a farm vehicle with a trailed implement in headland. A reverse turn planner is firstly investigated, based on primitives connected together to easily generate the reference motion. Then, both steering and speed control algorithms are presented to accurately guide the vehicle-trailer system. They are

Christophe Cariou; Roland Lenain; Benoit Thuilot; Philippe Martinet

2010-01-01

239

Autonomous synergic control of nanomotors.  

PubMed

Control is a hallmark of machines; effective control over a nanoscale system is necessary to turn it into a nanomachine. Nanomotors from biology often integrate a ratchet-like passive control and a power-stroke-like active control, and this synergic active-plus-passive control is critical to efficient utilization of energy. It remains a challenge to integrate the two differing types of control in rationally designed nanomotor systems. Recently a light-powered track-walking DNA nanomotor was developed from a bioinspired design principle that has the potential to integrate both controls. However, it is difficult to separate experimental signals for either control due to a tight coupling of both controls. Here we present a systematic study of the motor and new derivatives using different fluorescence labeling schemes and light operations. The experimental data suggest that the motor achieves the two controls autonomously through a mechanics-mediated symmetry breaking. This study presents an experimental validation for the bioinspired design principle of mechanical breaking of symmetry for synergic ratchet-plus-power stroke control. Augmented by mechanical and kinetic modeling, this experimental study provides mechanistic insights that may help advance molecular control in future nanotechnological systems. PMID:24422493

Liu, Meihan; Hou, Ruizheng; Cheng, Juan; Loh, Iong Ying; Sreelatha, Sarangapani; Tey, Ju Nie; Wei, Jun; Wang, Zhisong

2014-02-25

240

Induction of electromotive force by an autonomously moving magnetic bot.  

PubMed

We report the observation of the induction of electromotive force (emf) into a Faraday coil by an autonomously moving composite magnetic particle in aqueous medium. The particle consisted of a micron-sized polymer sphere, which was decorated with catalytic Pd nanoparticles (NPs) and attached to a micron-scale (N-42 grade) rare-earth magnet. The Pd NPs catalytically decomposed H2 O2 to generate O2 , resulting in buoyancy-driven vertical motion of the particle, while the micromagnet induced emf during the flight. Because a small volume of ethanol was layered on top of the liquid, the bubble burst when the particle ascended to the top and thus nearly continuous vertical motion was achieved. Spikes of alternating electrical signal could be observed up to 20?times per minute. The signal was sufficiently strong to illuminate light-emitting diodes following appropriate amplification. This distinctive approach is expected to pave the way to developing synthetic bots which are autonomously propelled, generating their own signal for running complex circuitry. PMID:24492970

Sailapu, Sunil Kumar; Chattopadhyay, Arun

2014-02-01

241

Assessment and evaluation of hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathies with autonomic and neurophysiological examinations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The five different types of the rare hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathies (HSAN) are classified by their mode of inheritance, pathology, natural history, biochemical, neurophysiologic and autonomic abnormalities. Clinically, the different types of HSANs can be identified by a detailed history and examination and 'bedside' tests of sympathetic or parasympathetic function such as active standing, metronomic breathing or the Valsalva

Max J. Hilz

2002-01-01

242

Bifurcation and Enhancement of Autonomous-Non-Autonomous Retrotransposon Partnership through LTR Swapping in Soybean  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Although non-autonomous LTR-retrotransposons lacking significant protein coding domains have been identified in eukaryotes, how they interact with their autonomous partners to maintain transpositional activity during host genome evolution is poorly understood. We performed a comprehensive analysis o...

243

A Neural Network Adaptive Controller for Autonomous Diving Control of an Autonomous Underwater Vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a neural network adaptive controller for autonomous diving control of an autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) using adaptive backstepping method. In general, the dynamics of underwater robotics vehicles (URVs) are highly nonlinear and the hydrodynamic coefficients of vehicles are difficult to be accurately determined a priori be- cause of variations of these coefficients with different operating conditions. In

Ji-Hong Li; Pan-Mook Lee; Bong-Huan Jun

244

Autonomous growth, but not autonomous function, in embryonic human thyroids: a clue to understanding autonomous goiter growth?  

PubMed

Thyroid glands from six 8- to 10-week-old fetuses obtained at the time of legal abortion were cryopreserved in liquid nitrogen and transplanted into nude nu/nu mice. Histological and autoradiographic studies of the grafts labeled with [3H]thymidine and [125I]iodine showed proliferation and functional differentiation of the fetal thyroid tissue. Despite T4-mediated suppression of host TSH secretion, up to 36% of the follicular cell nuclei incorporated the thymidine label, reflecting autonomous proliferation, while iodine organification was almost entirely obliterated. Methimazole-induced TSH hypersecretion readily stimulated both growth and function of the transplanted tissue. Thus, during early development, the human thyroid largely depends on TSH for function, but not for growth. Similar findings were obtained in newborn mice, in whom 58% of the thyroid follicular cells proliferated autonomously, i.e. in the absence of TSH. The number of autonomously proliferating cells gradually declined with increasing age to about 1% in 60-day-old animals and, as reported previously, in xenotransplanted normal human thyroid tissue, whereas the number of autonomously proliferating cells was previously found to be several times higher in xenotransplanted human multinodular goiters. We, therefore, hypothesize that the rapidly and autonomously replicating cells that initiate nodule formation in human multinodular goiters reflect the persistence in the adult gland of cells with fetal growth potential. PMID:3360903

Peter, H J; Studer, H; Groscurth, P

1988-05-01

245

Autonomous planetary rover at Carnegie Mellon  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report describes progress in research on an autonomous robot for planetary exploration. In 1989, the year covered by this report, a six-legged walking robot, the Ambler, was configured, designed, and constructed. This configuration was used to overcome shortcomings exhibited by existing wheeled and walking robot mechanisms. The fundamental advantage of the Ambler is that the actuators for body support are independent of those for propulsion; a subset of the planar joints propel the body, and the vertical actuators support and level the body over terrain. Models of the Ambler's dynamics were developed and the leveling control was studied. An integrated system capable of walking with a single leg over rugged terrain was implemented and tested. A prototype of an Ambler leg is suspended below a carriage that slides along rails. To walk, the system uses a laser scanner to find a clear, flat foothold, positions the leg above the foothold, contacts the terrain with the foot, and applies force enough to advance the carriage along the rails. Walking both forward and backward, the system has traversed hundreds of meters of rugged terrain including obstacles too tall to step over, trenches too deep to step in, closely spaced rocks, and sand hills. In addition, preliminary experiments were conducted with concurrent planning and execution, and a leg recovery planner that generates time and power efficient 3D trajectories using 2D search was developed. A Hero robot was used to demonstrate mobile manipulation. Indoor tasks include collecting cups from the lab floor, retrieving printer output, and recharging when its battery gets low. The robot monitors its environment, and handles exceptional conditions in a robust fashion, using vision to track the appearance and disappearance of cups, onboard sonars to detect imminent collisions, and monitors to detect the battery level.

Whittaker, William; Kanade, Takeo; Mitchell, Tom

1990-01-01

246

Autonomous Rovers for Human Exploration of Mars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Autonomous rovers are a critical element for the success of human exploration of Mars. The robotic tasks required for human presence on Mars are beyond the ability of current rovers; these tasks include emplacement and maintenance of a habitat, fuel production facility, and power generator, landing-site scouting, and mining. These tasks are required before and also during human presence; the ability of rovers to offload work from the human explorers will enable the humans to accomplish their mission. The capacity for these tasks will be realized by significant advancement toward full rover autonomy and, in particular, by overcoming current rover mission limitations in the areas of robust operation, resource utilization, and failure recovery. The Pathfinder mission demonstrated the potential for robotic Mars exploration, but at the same time indicated clearly the need for more rover autonomy. The highly interactive, ground-intensive control with significant downtime limited the effectiveness of the Sojourner rover. Advances in rover offer increased rover productivity without risk to rover safety. We are developing an integrated on-board executive architecture that incorporates robust operation, resource utilization, and failure recovery. This work draws from our experience with the architecture for the Deep Space One autonomy experiment, with enhancements in the area of ensuring robust operation in the face of unpredictable, complex environments, such as what a rover encounters on Mars. Our ultimate goal is to provide a complete agent architecture for rover autonomy. The complete architecture will include long-range mission and path planning, self-diagnosis and fault recovery, and continual monitoring and adjustment of execution resources. The architecture will enable robust operation over long ranges of time and distance, performing complex tasks in a planned and opportunistic manner, and serving as an intelligent, capable tool for human explorers.

Bresina, John; Dorais, Gregory; Golden, Keith; Washington, Richard; Lau, Sonie (Technical Monitor)

1998-01-01

247

Implementing autonomous crowds in a computer generated feature film  

E-print Network

have been possible. In particular, Mitch Kopelman designed the crowd system at Blue Sky Studios and got it on its feet. Rob Cavaleri was also instrumental in the early design and development of the system and the user interface. Of course, I would also... like to thank Ergun Akleman, Carol Lafayette and Jianer Chen for their time and patient guidance. vi TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER Page I INTRODUCTION AND MOTIVATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 II PREVIOUS WORK...

Patterson, John Andre

2006-04-12

248

Trajectory Generation and Path Planning for Autonomous Aerobots  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents global path planning algorithms for the Titan aerobot based on user defined waypoints in 2D and 3D space. The algorithms were implemented using information obtained through a planner user interface. The trajectory planning algorithms were designed to accurately represent the aerobot's characteristics, such as minimum turning radius. Additionally, trajectory planning techniques were implemented to allow for surveying of a planar area based solely on camera fields of view, airship altitude, and the location of the planar area's perimeter. The developed paths allow for planar navigation and three-dimensional path planning. These calculated trajectories are optimized to produce the shortest possible path while still remaining within realistic bounds of airship dynamics.

Sharma, Shivanjli; Kulczycki, Eric A.; Elfes, Alberto

2007-01-01

249

Marine animals: the next generation of autonomous underwater vehicle?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Advances in animal tag technologies now offer a significant method for gathering oceanographic information throughout the world's oceans. By employing marine organisms as oceanic samplers (MOOS), vast amounts of in situ data (e.g. temperature, productivity and salinity in relation to depth and location) can be archived and transmitted via satellite or obtained directly from the tag if the tag is

T. M. Thys; B. W. Hobson; H. Dewar

2001-01-01

250

Autonomic Involvement in Subacute and Chronic Immune-Mediated Neuropathies  

PubMed Central

Autonomic function can be impaired in many disorders in which sympathetic, parasympathetic, and enteric arms of the autonomic nervous system are affected. Signs and symptoms of autonomic involvement are related to impairment of cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, urogenital, thermoregulatory, sudomotor, and pupillomotor autonomic functions. Availability of noninvasive, sensitive, and reproducible tests can help to recognize these disorders and to better understand specific mechanisms of some, potentially treatable, immune-mediated autonomic neuropathies. This paper describes autonomic involvement in immune-mediated neuropathies with a subacute or chronic course. PMID:23853716

Mazzeo, Anna; Stancanelli, Claudia; Vita, Giuseppe

2013-01-01

251

Compact Autonomous Hemispheric Vision System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Solar System Exploration camera implementations to date have involved either single cameras with wide field-of-view (FOV) and consequently coarser spatial resolution, cameras on a movable mast, or single cameras necessitating rotation of the host vehicle to afford visibility outside a relatively narrow FOV. These cameras require detailed commanding from the ground or separate onboard computers to operate properly, and are incapable of making decisions based on image content that control pointing and downlink strategy. For color, a filter wheel having selectable positions was often added, which added moving parts, size, mass, power, and reduced reliability. A system was developed based on a general-purpose miniature visible-light camera using advanced CMOS (complementary metal oxide semiconductor) imager technology. The baseline camera has a 92 FOV and six cameras are arranged in an angled-up carousel fashion, with FOV overlaps such that the system has a 360 FOV (azimuth). A seventh camera, also with a FOV of 92 , is installed normal to the plane of the other 6 cameras giving the system a > 90 FOV in elevation and completing the hemispheric vision system. A central unit houses the common electronics box (CEB) controlling the system (power conversion, data processing, memory, and control software). Stereo is achieved by adding a second system on a baseline, and color is achieved by stacking two more systems (for a total of three, each system equipped with its own filter.) Two connectors on the bottom of the CEB provide a connection to a carrier (rover, spacecraft, balloon, etc.) for telemetry, commands, and power. This system has no moving parts. The system's onboard software (SW) supports autonomous operations such as pattern recognition and tracking.

Pingree, Paula J.; Cunningham, Thomas J.; Werne, Thomas A.; Eastwood, Michael L.; Walch, Marc J.; Staehle, Robert L.

2012-01-01

252

Autoimmune autonomic ganglionopathy with reversible cognitive impairment  

PubMed Central

Background Autoimmune autonomic ganglionopathy (AAG) is a rare disorder of antibody mediated impaired transmission across the autonomic ganglia resulting in severe autonomic failure. Some patients with AAG report cognitive impairment of unclear etiology despite treatment of autonomic symptoms. Objectives To investigate the relationship between orthostatic hypotension, antibody titers and cognitive impairment in patients with AAG. Design Prospective cohort. Setting Academic medical center. Participants Three patients with AAG underwent neuropsychological testing before and after cycles of plasma exchange in both the seated and standing position to determine the effects of orthostatic hypotension and antibody titers on cognition. Main Outcome Measures Patient responses to neuropsychological tests were measured by percent change from baseline in the seated and standing positions pre- and post-plasma exchange to determine the effects of orthostatic hypotension and antibody titers on cognition. Results Orthostatic hypotension and elevated antibody titer were associated independently with neuropsychological impairment (P<0.05), particularly in domains of executive function, sustained attention, and working memory. Cognitive dysfunction improved, even in the seated normotensive position, after plasmapheresis and consequent reduction in antibody levels. Conclusion The data presented in this study demonstrate reversible cognitive impairment is independently associated with both orthostatic hypotension and elevated nicotinic acetylcholine receptor autoantibodies thereby expanding the clinical spectrum of autonomic ganglionopathy and, in so doing, providing an additional treatable cause of cognitive impairment. PMID:22158721

Gibbons, Christopher H.; Centi, Justin; Vernino, Steven; Freeman, Roy

2012-01-01

253

Autonomous Multi-sensor Coordination: The Science Goal Monitor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Next-generation science and exploration systems will employ new observation strategies that will use multiple sensors in a dynamic environment to provide high quality monitoring, self-consistent analyses and informed decision making. The Science Goal Monitor (SGM) is a prototype software tool being developed to explore the nature of automation necessary to enable dynamic observing of earth phenomenon. The tools being developed in SGM improve our ability to autonomously monitor multiple independent sensors and coordinate reactions to better observe the dynamic phenomena. The SGM system enables users to specify events of interest and how to react when an event is detected. The system monitors streams of data to identify occurrences of the key events previously specified by the scientist/user. When an event occurs, the system autonomously coordinates the execution of the users desired reactions between different sensors. The information can be used to rapidly respond to a variety of fast temporal events. Investigators will no longer have to rely on after-the-fact data analysis to determine what happened. Our paper describes a series of prototype demonstrations that we have developed using SGM and NASA's Earth Observing-1 (EO-1) satellite and Earth Observing Systems Aqua/Terra spacecrafts MODIS instrument. Our demonstrations show the promise of coordinating data from different sources, analyzing the data for a relevant event, autonomously updating and rapidly obtaining a follow-on relevant image. SGM is being used to investigate forest fires, floods and volcanic eruptions. We are now identifying new earth science scenarios that will have more complex SGM reasoning. By developing and testing a prototype in an operational environment, we are also establishing and gathering metrics to gauge the success of automating science campaigns.

Koratkar, Anuradha; Jung, John; Geiger, Jenny; Grosvenor, Sandy

2004-01-01

254

Advanced avionics concepts: Autonomous spacecraft control  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A large increase in space operations activities is expected because of Space Station Freedom (SSF) and long range Lunar base missions and Mars exploration. Space operations will also increase as a result of space commercialization (especially the increase in satellite networks). It is anticipated that the level of satellite servicing operations will grow tenfold from the current level within the next 20 years. This growth can be sustained only if the cost effectiveness of space operations is improved. Cost effectiveness is operational efficiency with proper effectiveness. A concept is presented of advanced avionics, autonomous spacecraft control, that will enable the desired growth, as well as maintain the cost effectiveness (operational efficiency) in satellite servicing operations. The concept of advanced avionics that allows autonomous spacecraft control is described along with a brief description of each component. Some of the benefits of autonomous operations are also described. A technology utilization breakdown is provided in terms of applications.

1990-01-01

255

Implementation of GPS based trajectory control of an autonomous sailboat  

E-print Network

Autonomous robotic systems are increasingly becoming a major component of modern society. In order to gain a better understanding of the capabilities of these autonomous systems, experimentation was conducted using a ...

Wirekoh, Jackson O

2013-01-01

256

Genetics Home Reference: Hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy type IE  

MedlinePLUS

... addition of methyl groups, consisting of one carbon atom and three hydrogen atoms, to DNA molecules. In particular, the enzyme helps ... understanding hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy type IE? atom ; autonomic nervous system ; autosomal ; autosomal dominant ; cell ; cytosine ; ...

257

CATALOG OF ORBIT DETERMINATION RESULTS FOR LINKED, AUTONOMOUS,  

E-print Network

CATALOG OF ORBIT DETERMINATION RESULTS FOR LINKED, AUTONOMOUS, INTERPLANETARY SATELLITE ORBIT for Astrodynamics Research University of Colorado Boulder, CO 80309 Revised 3 Feb 2006 #12;CATALOG OF ORBIT DETERMINATION RESULTS FOR LINKED, AUTONOMOUS, INTERPLANETARY SATELLITE ORBIT NAVIGATION (Li

Born, George

258

Good Experimental Methodologies and Simulation in Autonomous Mobile Robotics  

E-print Network

Good Experimental Methodologies and Simulation in Autonomous Mobile Robotics Francesco Amigoni and Viola Schiaffonati Artificial Intelligence and Robotics Laboratory, Dipartimento di Elettronica e to characterize analytically, as it is often the case in autonomous mobile robotics. Although their importance

Amigoni, Francesco

259

Systems/Circuits The Autonomic Brain: An Activation Likelihood Estimation  

E-print Network

Systems/Circuits The Autonomic Brain: An Activation Likelihood Estimation Meta-Analysis for Central, Massachusetts General Hospital, Charlestown, Massachusetts 02129 The autonomic nervous system (ANS) is of paramount importance for daily life. Its regulatory action on respiratory, cardiovascular, digestive

Napadow, Vitaly

260

Decentralized planning for autonomous agents cooperating in complex missions  

E-print Network

Planning for autonomous vehicles remains an important and challenging research topic. This thesis focuses on decentralized planning for autonomous agents performing complex missions. These types of missions often involve ...

Whitten, Andrew (Andrew Koo)

2010-01-01

261

Service Oriented Approach for Autonomous Exception Management in Supply Chains  

E-print Network

Service Oriented Approach for Autonomous Exception Management in Supply Chains Armando Business Process to support Autonomous Exception Management in Supply chains. Keywords: Supply Chain and consequently this triggers a rescheduling task. Current Supply Chain Management Systems lack of systematic

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

262

Robust distributed planning strategies for autonomous multi-agent teams  

E-print Network

The increased use of autonomous robotic agents, such as unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) and ground rovers, for complex missions has motivated the development of autonomous task allocation and planning methods that ensure ...

Ponda, Sameera S

2012-01-01

263

Business-Oriented Autonomic Load Balancing for Multitiered Web Sites  

E-print Network

-oriented utility function. The autonomic LB was evaluated through very detailed and comprehensive simulation theory [5], machine-learning [6], and fuzzy logic [7]. This paper shows how autonomic techniques for self

Menascé, Daniel A.

264

ARCHITECTURAL SUPPORT FOR AUTONOMIC PROTECTION AGAINST STEALTH BY ROOTKIT  

E-print Network

of Technology Nov 2008 #12;ARCHITECTURAL SUPPORT FOR AUTONOMIC PROTECTION AGAINST STEALTH BY ROOTKIT EXPLOITSARCHITECTURAL SUPPORT FOR AUTONOMIC PROTECTION AGAINST STEALTH BY ROOTKIT EXPLOITS A Thesis Institute of Technology Professor Douglas M. Blough School of Electrical and Computer Engineering Georgia

Lee, Hsien-Hsin "Sean"

265

Zebrafish model of tuberous sclerosis complex reveals cell-autonomous and non-cell-autonomous functions of mutant tuberin.  

PubMed

Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is an autosomal dominant disease caused by mutations in either the TSC1 (encodes hamartin) or TSC2 (encodes tuberin) genes. Patients with TSC have hamartomas in various organs throughout the whole body, most notably in the brain, skin, eye, heart, kidney and lung. To study the development of hamartomas, we generated a zebrafish model of TSC featuring a nonsense mutation (vu242) in the tsc2 gene. This tsc2(vu242) allele encodes a truncated Tuberin protein lacking the GAP domain, which is required for inhibition of Rheb and of the TOR kinase within TORC1. We show that tsc2(vu242) is a recessive larval-lethal mutation that causes increased cell size in the brain and liver. Greatly elevated TORC1 signaling is observed in tsc2(vu242/vu242) homozygous zebrafish, and is moderately increased in tsc2(vu242/+) heterozygotes. Forebrain neurons are poorly organized in tsc2(vu242/vu242) homozygous mutants, which have extensive gray and white matter disorganization and ectopically positioned cells. Genetic mosaic analyses demonstrate that tsc2 limits TORC1 signaling in a cell-autonomous manner. However, in chimeric animals, tsc2(vu242/vu242) mutant cells also mislocalize wild-type host cells in the forebrain in a non-cell-autonomous manner. These results demonstrate a highly conserved role of tsc2 in zebrafish and establish a new animal model for studies of TSC. The finding of a non-cell-autonomous function of mutant cells might help explain the formation of brain hamartomas and cortical malformations in human TSC. PMID:20959633

Kim, Seok-Hyung; Speirs, Christina K; Solnica-Krezel, Lilianna; Ess, Kevin C

2011-03-01

266

Sudomotor dysfunction in autoimmune autonomic ganglionopathy  

PubMed Central

Background: Autoimmune autonomic ganglionopathy is characterized by impairment of multiple autonomic domains of which sudomotor function is among the most common. Many patients with this disorder have difficulties with thermoregulation and anhidrosis. Our objective was to characterize the distribution and severity of sudomotor dysfunction in this disorder. Methods: Sudomotor function was analyzed in a cohort of 21 patients with ganglionic ?3 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) antibody positive autoimmune autonomic ganglionopathy. Standard measurements of sudomotor function were used including the Thermoregulatory Sweat Test and Quantitative Sudomotor Axon Reflex Test. Results: The clinical presentation in all patients was characterized by widespread sudomotor dysfunction. Sudomotor impairment was predominantly postganglionic in 17 of the 21 patients studied. Higher ganglionic ?3 nAChR antibody levels resulted in progressive postganglionic predominant dysfunction (postganglionic, r = 0.637, p = 0.002; mixed ganglionic, r = 0.709, p < 0.001). The pattern of anhidrosis on Thermoregulatory Sweat Testing was consistent with a ganglionopathy in the majority of patients (14 of 21) and a distal pattern in a minority of patients (8 of 21). These patterns of anhidrosis coupled with increasing postganglionic dysfunction in a proximal to distal pattern (foot > distal leg > proximal leg > forearm) indicate lesions at both the ganglia and distal axon of the postganglionic sudomotor sympathetic neuron. Conclusions: Our data characterize the unique sudomotor dysfunction in autoimmune autonomic ganglionopathy as widespread, predominantly postganglionic, and a result of lesions at both the ganglia and distal axon. This study provides important support to the hypothesis that this disorder represents a ganglionic neuropathy. GLOSSARY AAG = autoimmune autonomic ganglionopathy; CASS = Composite Autonomic Severity Score; nAChR = nicotinic acetylcholine receptor; QSART = Quantitative Sudomotor Axon Reflex Testing; TST = Thermoregulatory Sweat Test. PMID:19884578

Kimpinski, K; Iodice, V; Sandroni, P; Fealey, R D.; Vernino, S; Low, P A.

2009-01-01

267

Why Computer-Based Systems Should be Autonomic  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objective of this paper is to discuss why computer-based systems should be autonomic, where autonomicity implies self-managing, often conceptualized in terms of being self-configuring, self-healing, self-optimizing, self-protecting and self-aware. We look at motivations for autonomicity, examine how more and more systems are exhibiting autonomic behavior, and finally look at future directions.

Sterritt, Roy; Hinchey, Mike

2005-01-01

268

Autonomic ganglia, acetylcholine receptor antibodies, and autoimmune ganglionopathy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (AChR) are ligand-gated cation channels that are present throughout the nervous system. The ganglionic (?3-type) neuronal AChR mediates fast synaptic transmission in sympathetic, parasympathetic and enteric autonomic ganglia. Autonomic ganglia are an important site of neural integration and regulation of autonomic reflexes. Impaired cholinergic ganglionic synaptic transmission is one important cause of autonomic failure.Ganglionic AChR antibodies are

Steven Vernino; Steve Hopkins; Zhengbei Wang

2009-01-01

269

Antibody testing as a diagnostic tool in autonomic disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some forms of peripheral autonomic dysfunction (especially enteric neuropathy and subacute panautonomic failure) occur as\\u000a autoimmune phenomena either in isolation or in the context of cancer. Autoimmune autonomic ganglionopathy is an example of\\u000a a severe, but potentially treatable, antibody-mediated form of autonomic failure. Diagnostic evaluation of autonomic disorders\\u000a can be supplemented by testing for paraneoplastic antibodies and antibodies against membrane

Steven Vernino

2009-01-01

270

Autonomous Environment-Monitoring Networks  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Autonomous environment-monitoring networks (AEMNs) are artificial neural networks that are specialized for recognizing familiarity and, conversely, novelty. Like a biological neural network, an AEMN receives a constant stream of inputs. For purposes of computational implementation, the inputs are vector representations of the information of interest. As long as the most recent input vector is similar to the previous input vectors, no action is taken. Action is taken only when a novel vector is encountered. Whether a given input vector is regarded as novel depends on the previous vectors; hence, the same input vector could be regarded as familiar or novel, depending on the context of previous input vectors. AEMNs have been proposed as means to enable exploratory robots on remote planets to recognize novel features that could merit closer scientific attention. AEMNs could also be useful for processing data from medical instrumentation for automated monitoring or diagnosis. The primary substructure of an AEMN is called a spindle. In its simplest form, a spindle consists of a central vector (C), a scalar (r), and algorithms for changing C and r. The vector C is constructed from all the vectors in a given continuous stream of inputs, such that it is minimally distant from those vectors. The scalar r is the distance between C and the most remote vector in the same set. The construction of a spindle involves four vital parameters: setup size, spindle-population size, and the radii of two novelty boundaries. The setup size is the number of vectors that are taken into account before computing C. The spindle-population size is the total number of input vectors used in constructing the spindle counting both those that arrive before and those that arrive after the computation of C. The novelty-boundary radii are distances from C that partition the neighborhood around C into three concentric regions (see Figure 1). During construction of the spindle, the changing spindle radius is denoted by h. It is the final value of h, reached before beginning construction on the next spindle, that is denoted by r. During construction of a spindle, if a new vector falls between C and the inner boundary, the vector is regarded as completely familiar and no action is taken. If the new vector falls into the region between the inner and outer boundaries, it is considered unusual enough to warrant the adjustment of C and r by use of the aforementioned algorithms, but not unusual enough to be considered novel. If a vector falls outside the outer boundary, it is considered novel, in which case one of several appropriate responses could be initiation of construction of a new spindle.

Hand, Charles

2004-01-01

271

NEURON: Enabling Autonomicity in Wireless Sensor Networks  

PubMed Central

Future Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) will be ubiquitous, large-scale networks interconnected with the existing IP infrastructure. Autonomic functionalities have to be designed in order to reduce the complexity of their operation and management, and support the dissemination of knowledge within a WSN. In this paper a novel protocol for energy efficient deployment, clustering and routing in WSNs is proposed that focuses on the incorporation of autonomic functionalities in the existing approaches. The design of the protocol facilitates the design of innovative applications and services that are based on overlay topologies created through cooperation among the sensor nodes. PMID:22399931

Zafeiropoulos, Anastasios; Gouvas, Panagiotis; Liakopoulos, Athanassios; Mentzas, Gregoris; Mitrou, Nikolas

2010-01-01

272

Design of an autonomous exterior security robot  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper discusses the requirements and preliminary design of robotic vehicle designed for performing autonomous exterior perimeter security patrols around warehouse areas, ammunition supply depots, and industrial parks for the U.S. Department of Defense. The preliminary design allows for the operation of up to eight vehicles in a six kilometer by six kilometer zone with autonomous navigation and obstacle avoidance. In addition to detection of crawling intruders at 100 meters, the system must perform real-time inventory checking and database comparisons using a microwave tags system.

Myers, Scott D.

1994-01-01

273

Road boundary detection for autonomous vehicle navigation  

SciTech Connect

The Computer Vision Laboratory at the University Maryland for the past year has been developing a computer vision system for autonomous ground navigation of roads and road networks for the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency's Strategic Computing Program. The complete system runs on a VAX 11/785, but certain parts of it have been reimplemented on a VICOM image processing sysem for experimentation on an autonomous vehicle built for the Martin Marietta Corp., Aerospace Division, in Denver, Colorado. A brief overview is given of the principal software components of the system and the VICOM implementation in detail.

Davis, L.S.; Kushner, T.R.; LeMoigne, J.J.; Waxman, A.M.

1986-03-01

274

Autonomous operations through onboard artificial intelligence  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Autonomous Sciencecraft Experiment (ASE) will fly onboard the Air Force TechSat 21 constellation of three spacecraft scheduled for launch in 2006. ASE uses onboard continuous planning, robust task and goal-based execution, model-based mode identification and reconfiguration, and onboard machine learning and pattern recognition to radically increase science return by enabling intelligent downlink selection and autonomous retargeting. Demonstration of these capabilities in a flight environment will open up tremendous new opportunities in planetary science, space physics, and earth science that would be unreachable without this technology.

Sherwood, R. L.; Chien, S.; Castano, R.; Rabideau, G.

2002-01-01

275

Autonomous scheduling technology for Earth orbital missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development of a dynamic autonomous system (DYASS) of resources for the mission support of near-Earth NASA spacecraft is discussed and the current NASA space data system is described from a functional perspective. The future (late 80's and early 90's) NASA space data system is discussed. The DYASS concept, the autonomous process control, and the NASA space data system are introduced. Scheduling and related disciplines are surveyed. DYASS as a scheduling problem is also discussed. Artificial intelligence and knowledge representation is considered as well as the NUDGE system and the I-Space system.

Srivastava, S.

1982-01-01

276

GROVER: An autonomous vehicle for ice sheet research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Goddard Remotely Operated Vehicle for Exploration and Research or Greenland Rover (GROVER) is a science enabling autonomous robot specifically designed to carry a low-power, large bandwidth radar for snow accumulation mapping over the Greenland Ice Sheet. This new and evolving technology enables reduced cost and increased safety for polar research. GROVER was field tested at Summit, Greenland in May 2013. The robot traveled over 30 km and was controlled both by line of sight wireless and completely autonomously with commands and telemetry via the Iridium Satellite Network, from Summit as well as remotely from Boise, Idaho. Here we describe GROVER's unique abilities and design. The software stack features a modular design that can be adapted for any application that requires autonomous behavior, reliable communications using different technologies and low level control of peripherals. The modules are built to communicate using the publisher-subscriber design pattern to maximize data-reuse and allow for graceful failures at the software level, along with the ability to be loaded or unloaded on-the-fly, enabling the software to adopt different behaviors based on power constraints or specific processing needs. These modules can also be loaded or unloaded remotely for servicing and telemetry can be configured to contain any kind of information being generated by the sensors or scientific instruments. The hardware design protects the electronic components and the control system can change functional parameters based on sensor input. Power failure modes built into the hardware prevent the vehicle from running out of energy permanently by monitoring voltage levels and triggering software reboots when the levels match pre-established conditions. This guarantees that the control software will be operational as soon as there is enough charge to sustain it, giving the vehicle increased longevity in case of a temporary power loss. GROVER demonstrates that autonomous rovers can be a revolutionary tool for data collection, and that both the technology and the software are available and ready to be implemented to create scientific data collection platforms.

Trisca, G. O.; Robertson, M. E.; Marshall, H.; Koenig, L.; Comberiate, M. A.

2013-12-01

277

Autonomous self-organizing resource manager for multiple networked platforms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A fuzzy logic based expert system for resource management has been developed that automatically allocates electronic attack (EA) resources in real-time over many dissimilar autonomous naval platforms defending their group against attackers. The platforms can be very general, e.g., ships, planes, robots, land based facilities, etc. Potential foes the platforms deal with can also be general. This paper provides an overview of the resource manager including the four fuzzy decision trees that make up the resource manager; the fuzzy EA model; genetic algorithm based optimization; co-evolutionary data mining through gaming; and mathematical, computational and hardware based validation. Methods of automatically designing new multi-platform EA techniques are considered. The expert system runs on each defending platform rendering it an autonomous system requiring no human intervention. There is no commanding platform. Instead the platforms work cooperatively as a function of battlespace geometry; sensor data such as range, bearing, ID, uncertainty measures for sensor output; intelligence reports; etc. Computational experiments will show the defending networked platform's ability to self- organize. The platforms' ability to self-organize is illustrated through the output of the scenario generator, a software package that automates the underlying data mining problem and creates a computer movie of the platforms' interaction for evaluation.

Smith, James F., III

2002-08-01

278

Autonomous Satellite Operations Via Secure Virtual Mission Operations Center  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The science community is interested in improving their ability to respond to rapidly evolving, transient phenomena via autonomous rapid reconfiguration, which derives from the ability to assemble separate but collaborating sensors and data forecasting systems to meet a broad range of research and application needs. Current satellite systems typically require human intervention to respond to triggers from dissimilar sensor systems. Additionally, satellite ground services often need to be coordinated days or weeks in advance. Finally, the boundaries between the various sensor systems that make up such a Sensor Web are defined by such things as link delay and connectivity, data and error rate asymmetry, data reliability, quality of service provisions, and trust, complicating autonomous operations. Over the past ten years, researchers from the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC), General Dynamics, Surrey Satellite Technology Limited (SSTL), Cisco, Universal Space Networks (USN), the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the Naval Research Laboratory, the DoD Operationally Responsive Space (ORS) Office, and others have worked collaboratively to develop a virtual mission operations capability. Called VMOC (Virtual Mission Operations Center), this new capability allows cross-system queuing of dissimilar mission unique systems through the use of a common security scheme and published application programming interfaces (APIs). Collaborative VMOC demonstrations over the last several years have supported the standardization of spacecraft to ground interfaces needed to reduce costs, maximize space effects to the user, and allow the generation of new tactics, techniques and procedures that lead to responsive space employment.

Miller, Eric; Paulsen, Phillip E.; Pasciuto, Michael

2011-01-01

279

Robust and Opportunistic Autonomous Science for a Potential Titan Aerobot  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We are developing onboard planning and execution technologies to provide robust and opportunistic mission operations for a potential Titan aerobot. Aerobot have the potential for collecting a vast amount of high priority science data. However, to be effective, an aerobot must address several challenges including communication constraints, extended periods without contact with Earth, uncertain and changing environmental conditions, maneuverability constraints and potentially short-lived science opportunities. We are developing the AerOASIS system to develop and test technology to support autonomous science operations for a potential Titan Aerobot. The planning and execution component of AerOASIS is able to generate mission operations plans that achieve science and engineering objectives while respecting mission and resource constraints as well as adapting the plan to respond to new science opportunities. Our technology leverages prior work on the OASIS system for autonomous rover exploration. In this paper we describe how the OASIS planning component was adapted to address the unique challenges of a Titan Aerobot and we describe a field demonstration of the system with the JPL prototype aerobot.

Gaines, Daniel M.; Estlin, Tara; Schaffer, Steve; Castano, Rebecca; Elfes, Alberto

2010-01-01

280

Research issues in autonomous control of tactical UAVs  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper summarizes the enabling technologies for an autonomous tactical unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). Current technologies are adequate for semi-autonomous UAVs that operate in a relatively structured environment. For tactical UAVs in a rapidly changing uncertain environment the present techniques are inadequate. The essence of autonomous control is rapid in-flight replanning under uncertainty. This is cast as a large optimization

P. R. Chandler; M. Pachter

1998-01-01

281

Searching with an Autonomous Robot Sandor P. Fekete  

E-print Network

for Autonomous Intelligent Systems (AIS) has developed au- tonomous mobile robots that can survey vision at all times, our autonomous robot has to stop and take some time for taking a survey of its enviSearching with an Autonomous Robot S´andor P. Fekete Department of Mathematical Optimization TU

Fekete, Sándor P.

282

Autonomous Learning of Object Models on Mobile Robots  

E-print Network

, Mohan Sridharan and Shiqi Zhang. Autonomous Learning of Vision-based Layered Object Models on Mobile the complementary properties of different visual cues 13 Xiang Li and Mohan Sridharan. Vision-basedAutonomous Learning of Object Models on a Mobile Robot. In the Autonomous Robots and Multirobot Systems Workshop (ARMS

Zhang, Yuanlin

283

An Autonomous Vehicle Navigation System using Panoramic Machine Vision Techniques  

E-print Network

An Autonomous Vehicle Navigation System using Panoramic Machine Vision Techniques Kevin Rushant a navigation system for an autonomous farm vehicle using machine vision techniques applied to panoramic images@essex.ac.uk Keywords: Horizon, panoramic images, autonomous vehicle navigation. Abstract This paper describes

Spacek, Libor

284

Vision-based handling tasks for an autonomous outdoor forklift  

E-print Network

Vision-based handling tasks for an autonomous outdoor forklift C´edric Pradalier CSIRO ICT Centre, Autonomous Systems Laboratory, Brisbane, Australia Summary. In the aluminium industry, Hot Metal Carriers of robust outdoor crucible handling capacities, relying on the autonomous tracking of especially designed

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

285

Integrating Active Perception with an Autonomous Robot Architecture  

E-print Network

of active research. We have integrated an active stereo vision system with an autonomous agent architecture an attention-based vision system based on proximity spaces 14,15] which has been integrated into an autonomous such systems have been developed, integrating them into an autonomous agent architecture remains an area

Kortenkamp, David

286

Low-level Vision for Autonomous Driving Raquel Urtasun  

E-print Network

Low-level Vision for Autonomous Driving Raquel Urtasun TTI Chicago Sep 4, 2013 R. Urtasun (TTIC systems that are able to help us in everyday's tasks R. Urtasun (TTIC) Autonomous Driving Sep 4, 2013 2 / 52 #12;My view of how to get there ... Autonomous systems need to: Sense the environment Recognize

Mayberry, Marty

287

Peripheral autonomic neuropathy: diagnostic contribution of skin biopsy.  

PubMed

Skin biopsy has gained widespread use for the diagnosis of somatic small-fiber neuropathy, but it also provides information on sympathetic fiber morphology. We aimed to ascertain the diagnostic accuracy of skin biopsy in disclosing sympathetic nerve abnormalities in patients with autonomic neuropathy. Peripheral nerve fiber autonomic involvement was confirmed by routine autonomic laboratory test abnormalities. Punch skin biopsies were taken from the thigh and lower leg of 28 patients with various types of autonomic neuropathy for quantitative evaluation of skin autonomic innervation. Results were compared with scores obtained from 32 age-matched healthy controls and 25 patients with somatic neuropathy. The autonomic cutoff score was calculated using the receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. Skin biopsy disclosed a significant autonomic innervation decrease in autonomic neuropathy patients versus controls and somatic neuropathy patients. Autonomic innervation density was abnormal in 96% of patients in the lower leg and in 79% of patients in the thigh. The abnormal findings disclosed by routine autonomic tests ranged from 48% to 82%. These data indicate the high sensitivity and specificity of skin biopsy in detecting sympathetic abnormalities; this method should be useful for the diagnosis of autonomic neuropathy, together with currently available routine autonomic testing. PMID:23037327

Donadio, Vincenzo; Incensi, Alex; Giannoccaro, Maria Pia; Cortelli, Pietro; Di Stasi, Vitantonio; Pizza, Fabio; Jaber, Masen Abdel; Baruzzi, Agostino; Liguori, Rocco

2012-11-01

288

Clinical laboratory evaluation of autoimmune autonomic ganglionopathy: Preliminary observations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several forms of chronic autonomic failure manifest as neurogenic orthostatic hypotension, including autoimmune autonomic ganglionopathy (AAG) and pure autonomic failure (PAF). AAG and PAF are thought to differ in pathogenesis, AAG reflecting decreased ganglionic neurotransmission due to circulating antibodies to the neuronal nicotinic receptor and PAF being a Lewy body disease with prominent loss of sympathetic noradrenergic nerves. AAG therefore

David S. Goldstein; Courtney Holmes; Richard Imrich

2009-01-01

289

RAVON --The Robust Autonomous Vehicle for Off-road Navigation  

E-print Network

RAVON -- The Robust Autonomous Vehicle for Off-road Navigation C. Armbrust, T. Braun, T. Föhst, M, the Robust Autonomous Vehicle for Off-road Navigation (see figure 1). A sophisticated hazard detection, proetzsch, renner, b_schaef, berns}@cs.uni-kl.de). 1 #12;RAVON -- The Robust Autonomous Vehicle for Off-road

Berns, Karsten

290

RAVON --The Robust Autonomous Vehicle for Off-road Navigation  

E-print Network

RAVON -- The Robust Autonomous Vehicle for Off-road Navigation C. Armbrust, T. Braun, T. Föhst, M}@cs.uni-kl.de). 1 #12;RAVON -- The Robust Autonomous Vehicle for Off-road Navigation 2 highly vegetated terrain. Their experimental platform is RAVON, the Robust Autonomous Vehicle for Off-road Navigation (see figure 1

Berns, Karsten

291

A Hybrid Controller for Autonomous Vehicles Driving on Automated Highways  

E-print Network

A Hybrid Controller for Autonomous Vehicles Driving on Automated Highways Alain Girault a aInria Rh of the hybrid control of autonomous vehicles driving on automated highways. Vehicles are autonomous, so they do driving in a single-lane highway must never collide with its leading vehicle; and a vehicle entering

Girault, Alain

292

A Modular Neurocontroller for Creative Mobile Autonomous Robots  

E-print Network

A Modular Neurocontroller for Creative Mobile Autonomous Robots Learning by Temporal Difference, Mobile Autonomous Robots, Temporal Difference Learning, Modular Neu- rocontrollers, Creativity Machines@cosy.sbg.ac.at Abstract ­ One of the most prominent research goals in the field of mobile autonomous robots is to create

Mayer, Helmut A.

293

Mapping planetary caves with an autonomous, heterogeneous robot team  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Caves on other planetary bodies offer sheltered habitat for future human explorers and numerous clues to a planet's past for scientists. While recent orbital imagery provides exciting new details about cave entrances on the Moon and Mars, the interiors of these caves are still unknown and not observable from orbit. Multi-robot teams offer unique solutions for exploration and modeling subsurface voids during precursor missions. Robot teams that are diverse in terms of size, mobility, sensing, and capability can provide great advantages, but this diversity, coupled with inherently distinct low-level behavior architectures, makes coordination a challenge. This paper presents a framework that consists of an autonomous frontier and capability-based task generator, a distributed market-based strategy for coordinating and allocating tasks to the different team members, and a communication paradigm for seamless interaction between the different robots in the system. Robots have different sensors, (in the representative robot team used for testing: 2D mapping sensors, 3D modeling sensors, or no exteroceptive sensors), and varying levels of mobility. Tasks are generated to explore, model, and take science samples. Based on an individual robot's capability and associated cost for executing a generated task, a robot is autonomously selected for task execution. The robots create coarse online maps and store collected data for high resolution offline modeling. The coordination approach has been field tested at a mock cave site with highly-unstructured natural terrain, as well as an outdoor patio area. Initial results are promising for applicability of the proposed multi-robot framework to exploration and modeling of planetary caves.

Husain, Ammar; Jones, Heather; Kannan, Balajee; Wong, Uland; Pimentel, Tiago; Tang, Sarah; Daftry, Shreyansh; Huber, Steven; Whittaker, William L.

294

Design for autonomous mission planning system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because of indeterminateness of the environment and delay of the communication, deep space spacecraft is required to be autonomous. Planning technology is studied in order to realize the spacecraft autonomy. First, a multi-agent planning system (MAPS) based on temporal constraint satisfaction is proposed for concurrency and distribution of spacecraft system. Second, timeline concept is used to describe simultaneous activity, continue

Xu Rui; Cui Ping-yuan; Xu Xiao-fei; Cui Hu-tao

2003-01-01

295

An autonomous race car design competition  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes an innovative collaboration between industry and academia in creating a meaningful design experience for undergraduate electrical engineering students. The design project involves designing, building and testing an autonomous model racecar. The course culminates in a competition. A primary goal of the competition is to provide undergraduates with a meaningful design experience with an emphasis on electronic circuits.

T. W. Matthews; R. R. Spencer

2001-01-01

296

An autonomous race car design competition  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes an innovative collaboration between industry and academia in creating a meaningful design experience for undergraduate electrical engineering students. The design project involves designing, building and testing an autonomous model race car. The course culminates in a competition. The competition included students from UC Davis, San Jose State University, and UC Berkeley and is sponsored by National Semiconductor.

T. W. Matthews; R. R. Spencer

1997-01-01

297

Autonomous Exploration and Mapping of Abandoned Mines  

E-print Network

Autonomous Exploration and Mapping of Abandoned Mines Sebastian Thrun 2 , Scott Thayer 1 , William, Stanford, CA 3 Computer Science Department, University of Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany Abstract Abandoned abandoned mines. We have built a robot capable of au­ tonomously exploring abandoned mines. A new set

Thrun, Sebastian

298

Intelligent Planning for Autonomous Underwater Vehicles  

E-print Network

techniques that will enable Autonomous Un- derwater Vehicles (AUVs) to locate hydrothermal vents on the ocean oor. Hydrothermal vents are superheated outgassings of water found on mid-ocean ridges, hydrothermal vents can be detected from a great distance because they emit a chemical-containing plume

Yao, Xin

299

Intelligent Planning for Autonomous Underwater Vehicles  

E-print Network

techniques that will enable Autonomous Un- derwater Vehicles (AUVs) to locate hydrothermal vents on the ocean floor. Hydrothermal vents are superheated outgassings of water found on mid-ocean ridges oceans, hydrothermal vents can be detected from a great distance because they emit a chemical

Yao, Xin

300

Fusion of Redundant Autonomous Sensors for Navigation  

E-print Network

Fusion of Redundant Autonomous Sensors for Navigation Geodetic Engineering Laboratory Web robustness (fault-detection and isolation capabilities) IMPROVED MODELING OF INERTIAL SENSOR ERRORS ) ? Standard model Improved model Development of an ultra-safe low-cost navigation system for Search- and

301

DYNAMIC MODELLING OF SMALL AUTONOMOUS BLIMPS  

Microsoft Academic Search

We are interested in blimps. A blimp is a small airship that has no metal framework and collapses when deflated. In this paper, dynamic modeling of autonomous blimps is presented, using the Newton-Euler approach. This study discusses the motion in 6 degrees of freedom since 6 independent coordinates are necessary to determine the position and orientation of this vehicle.

Yasmina BESTAOUI; Tarek HAMEL

302

Autonomous Organization-Based Adaptive Information Systems  

E-print Network

Autonomous Organization-Based Adaptive Information Systems Eric Matson Department of ComputerLoach Multi-agent and Cooperative Robotics Lab Department of Computing and Information Sciences, Kansas State of battle, a continual flow of information is necessary to achieve information superiority. The required

Deloach, Scott A.

303

A Multifunctional Coating for Autonomous Corrosion Control  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Nearly all metals and their alloys are subject to corrosion that causes them to lose their structural integrity or other critical functionality. Protective coatings are the most commonly used method of corrosion control. However, progressively stricter environmental regulations have resulted in the ban of many commercially available corrosion protective coatings due to the harmful effects of their solvents or corrosion inhibitors. This work concerns the development of a multifunctional smart coating for the autonomous control of corrosion. This coating is being developed to have the inherent ability to detect the chemical changes associated with the onset of corrosion and respond autonomously to indicate it and control it. The multi-functionality of the coating is based on microencapsulation technology specifically designed for corrosion control applications. This design has, in addition to all the advantages of existing microcapsulation designs, the corrosion controlled release function that triggers the delivery of corrosion indicators and inhibitors on demand, only when and where needed. Microencapsulation of self-healing agents for autonomous repair of mechanical damage to the coating is also being pursued. Corrosion indicators, corrosion inhibitors, as well as self-healing agents, have been encapsulated and dispersed into several paint systems to test the corrosion detection, inhibition, and self-healing properties of the coating. Key words: Corrosion, coating, autonomous corrosion control, corrosion indication, corrosion inhibition, self-healing coating, smart coating, multifunctional coating, microencapsulation.

Calle, Luz M.; Li, Wenyan; Buhrow, Jerry W.; Jolley, Scott t.

2011-01-01

304

Autonomous Language Learning: The Teachers' Perspectives.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports on a large-scale study on learner autonomy in language learning carried out with students and English teachers at the Hong Kong Polytechnic University. Examines the teachers' views of their roles and responsibilities, their assessment of their students'decision-making abilities and the autonomous language learning activities that they have…

Chan, Victoria

2003-01-01

305

Comparative anatomy of the autonomic nervous system.  

PubMed

This short review aims to point out the general anatomical features of the autonomic nervous systems of non-mammalian vertebrates. In addition it attempts to outline the similarities and also the increased complexity of the autonomic nervous patterns from fish to tetrapods. With the possible exception of the cyclostomes, perhaps the most striking feature of the vertebrate autonomic nervous system is the similarity between the vertebrate classes. An evolution of the complexity of the system can be seen, with the segmental ganglia of elasmobranchs incompletely connected longitudinally, while well developed paired sympathetic chains are present in teleosts and the tetrapods. In some groups the sympathetic chains may be reduced (dipnoans and caecilians), and have yet to be properly described in snakes. Cranial autonomic pathways are present in the oculomotor (III) and vagus (X) nerves of gnathostome fish and the tetrapods, and with the evolution of salivary and lachrymal glands in the tetrapods, also in the facial (VII) and glossopharyngeal (IX) nerves. PMID:20444653

Nilsson, Stefan

2011-11-16

306

Integrating the autonomous subsystems management process  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Ways in which the ranking of the Space Station Module Power Management and Distribution testbed may be achieved and an individual subsystem's internal priorities may be managed within the complete system are examined. The application of these results in the integration and performance leveling of the autonomously managed system is discussed.

Ashworth, Barry R.

1992-01-01

307

An architecture for reflexive autonomous vehicle control  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe a software architecture to support the planning and control requirements of an autonomous land vehicle. This architecture is designed specifically to handle diverse terrain with maximal speed, efficacy and versatility through the use of a library of reflexive strategies specialized to particular needs. A hierarchy of control is built in which lower level modules perform tasks requiring greatest

David W. Payton

1986-01-01

308

Evolutionary neurocontrollers for autonomous mobile robots  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article we describe a methodology for evolving neurocontrollers of autonomous mobile robots without human intervention. The presentation, which spans from technological and methodological issues to several experimental results on evolution of physical mobile robots, covers both previous and recent work in the attempt to provide a unified picture within which the reader can compare the effects of systematic

Dario Floreano; Francesco Mondada

1998-01-01

309

Sensory Architectures for Biologically Inspired Autonomous Robotics  

E-print Network

Vision and Robotic Systems Laboratory, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, The University, color, and form are quite unlike those employed by conventional computer vision systems. Neurobiological: Implications for Biologically Inspired Autonomous Systems. The workshop, which was held at the J. Erik Jonsson

310

Gradient method for autonomous robot navigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The analysis of global and local navigation methods for an autonomous mobile robot allowed to select the main lacks of existent methods of navigation. The improved local navigation method based on the use of potential fields for movement taking into account the gradient of direction to the goal is proposed.

Oleh Adamiv; Anatoly Sachenko; Viktor Kapura

2008-01-01

311

Multiple agent autonomous hybrid control systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current research efforts in the development of a formal model for the control of dynamic, real-time autonomous systems in which multiple decision makers, control the plant are surveyed. The model provides a formal framework for expressing the interaction between evolution (continuous) and knowledge (discrete) components. This is the central characteristic of hybrid systems. The essence of the interaction between the

Wolf Kohn; A. Nerode

1992-01-01

312

Autonomous Learning from a Social Cognitive Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current perspective of autonomous learning defines it as the agentive exhibition of resourcefulness, initiative, and persistence in self-directed learning. As a form of human agency, it has been argued in the literature that this perspective should be consistent with Bandura's (1986) Social Cognitive Theory (SCT). The purpose of this article…

Ponton, Michael K.; Rhea, Nancy E.

2006-01-01

313

Autonomic dysfunction in Guillain-Barré syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

The following tests of autonomic function were performed on seven patients with the Guillain-Barré syndrome and compared with controls: (1) measurement of heart rate and blood pressure in the supine and erect positions, (2) measurement of baroreflex sensitivity, (3) Valsalva's manoeuvre, (4) sweat test. In two patients the heart rates were fixed and greater than 100\\/min and in three there

R R Tuck; J G McLeod

1981-01-01

314

OCTOPUS: AN AUTONOMOUS WHEELED CLIMBING ROBOT  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an innovative off-road wheeled mobile robot, named Octopus, able to deal autonomously with obstacles in rough terrain without getting stuck. To achieve such a performance, the robot is equipped with tilt sensors and tactile wheels. The sophisticated locomotion mechanism of Octopus has 8 motorized wheels and a total of 15 degrees of freedom (14 of them are

M. Lauria; Y. Piguet; R. Siegwart

2002-01-01

315

Development of an autonomous underwater robot \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

An autonomous underwater robot named “Twin-Burger” was developed as a versatile test bed to establish the techniques which realize intelligent robot behaviors. The robot was designed to have necessary functions for complex tasks including cooperative task execution with other robots and divers. The first robot “Twin-Burger I” was completed and launched in November 1992. This paper describes hardware and software

Teruo Fujii; Tamaki Ura

1996-01-01

316

A neural architecture for autonomous learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Psychology and neurobiology nowadays provide a large amount of precise information on visual system function. This information can be used in the design of autonomous systems capable of learning and recognising objects and places important for survival in complex unknown (real or virtual) environments. Our work is based on the principles that perception is fundamentally a dynamic process in constant

P. Gaussier; C. Joulain; J. P. Banquet; A. Revel; S. Lepretre; S. Moga

1999-01-01

317

Injecting Robustness into Autonomic Grid Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Autonomic computational grids are self-organizing software sys- tems that pool the computational resources of large public net- works to solve computationally-intensive problems. While auto- nomic grids can scale to networks far larger than centralized grids, they have not seen the same adoption and success in industry due to an incomplete treatment of fault tolerance. In this paper, we pro- pose

Yuriy Brun; George Edwards; Nenad Medvidovic

318

6 Natural Resources Contested in Autonomous Councils  

E-print Network

processes at work. Conclusions are then drawn in section 6.7. #12;193 Natural Resources Contested191 6 Natural Resources Contested in Autonomous Councils: Assessing the Causes of Ethnic Conflict sovereignty, citizenship and control over natural resources in Karbi Anglong district. Karbi Anglong district

Richner, Heinz

319

Self-configuration in Autonomic Electronic Institutions  

E-print Network

Self-configuration in Autonomic Electronic Institutions Eva Bou 1 and Maite L´opez-S´anchez 2 and J their regulations to comply with their goals despite coping with varying popu- lations of self-interested agents and dynamical, has given rise to interest in the development of systems capable of self-management. Such systems

López-Sánchez, Maite

320

Nested Motion Planning for an Autonomous Robot  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gbstract This paper addresses some of the issues associated with the planning in ii hierarchical systems. Specifically, it is required that controls for an autonomous vehicle be synthesized as the result of the nested hierarchical analysis of the minimum time motion problem. It is demonstrated that search in the output space allows for efficient planningkontrol procedures. The results of 2-

J. Albus; A. Meystel; S. Uzzaman

1993-01-01

321

Autonomous blimp control with reinforcement learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Blimps are a special type of airship without rigid structure on the body. Most existing blimps are manually operated by a pilot directly or through radio control. One of the most famous examples is the Goodyear Blimp used for commercial advertising. With the fast development of microcontroller and electronic technologies, autonomous blimps have recently attracted great research interest as a

Yiwei Liu

2009-01-01

322

Ontogenetic reasoning system for autonomic logistics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Joint Strike Fighter Autonomic Logistics minimize operational and support costs by increasing system reliability, while reducing maintenance requirements to essential levels. Using Prognostics and Health Management, parts and service are ordered or performed only when needed, obviating costly routine scheduled maintenance, and reducing aircraft downtime. Realizing this vision requires communication between the aircraft, industrial contractors and suppliers, and the maintenance

Joel R. Bock; Tom W. Brotherton; Doug Gass

2005-01-01

323

Autoimmune autonomic ganglionopathy after a CNS infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report the first Greek case of autoimmune autonomic ganglionopathy seropositive for antibodies\\u000a against ganglionic acetylcholine receptors, unique for an antecedent viral cerebellitis and long, slowly\\u000a progressive course, with improvement after treatment with pyridostigmine.

Pantelis Maiovis; Panagiotis Ioannidis; George Balamoutsos; Dimitris Karacostas

2011-01-01

324

Love Alters Autonomic Reactivity to Emotions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Periods of bond formation are accompanied by physiological and emotional changes, yet, little is known about the effects of falling in love on the individual's physiological response to emotions. We examined autonomic reactivity to the presentation of negative and positive films in 112 young adults, including 57 singles and 55 new lovers who began a romantic relationship 2.5 months prior

Inna Schneiderman; Yael Zilberstein-Kra; James F. Leckman; Ruth Feldman

2011-01-01

325

Control algorithms for autonomous robot navigation  

SciTech Connect

This paper examines control algorithm requirements for autonomous robot navigation outside laboratory environments. Three aspects of navigation are considered: navigation control in explored terrain, environment interactions with robot sensors, and navigation control in unanticipated situations. Major navigation methods are presented and relevance of traditional human learning theory is discussed. A new navigation technique linking graph theory and incidental learning is introduced.

Jorgensen, C.C.

1985-09-20

326

Robotany : autonomous vehicles that care for houseplants  

E-print Network

Robotany is a system of autonomous robots that act on behalf of houseplants that rest on top of their chassis. Their duty is to do what plants would if they had the gift of mobility - namely to seek out sunlight or water ...

Cinnamon, Sara Elizabeth, 1979-

2004-01-01

327

Batch Reservations in Autonomous Intersection (Extended Abstract)  

E-print Network

@mail.utexas.edu Tsz-Chiu Au Dept. of Computer Science University of Texas at Austin Austin, Texas 78712, U.S.A. chiu (Extended Abstract), Neda Shahidi, Tsz-Chiu Au and Peter Stone, Proc. of 10th Int. Conf. on Autonomous

Au, Tsz-Chiu

328

Towards an Autonomous Global Ocean Carbon Observatory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ocean is by far the largest carbon reservoir in rapid communication with the atmosphere. Understanding both ocean carbon chemistry and ocean carbon biology are critical for carbon prediction. Marine carbon biomass accounts for roughly 50% of global carbon photosynthesis and a ~10 Pg C/year particulate carbon flux through 100 m into the deep sea. The latter export is commonly referred to as the biological carbon pump. The entire plant biomass of the ocean turns over on week time scales. We lack predictive skill for the biological pump mainly because observations of the biological pump have to be tied to ships which are unable to remain at sea at any location longer than several weeks. Since 2001, a dozen low cost, long lived, robotic Carbon Explorers have been deployed to operate in the ocean for year-long time scales and return real-time information on the daily variation of Particulate Organic Carbon (POC) concentration of the upper 1000 m of the ocean. On June 22 2007 the next generation of Explorer, the Carbon Flux Explorer (CFE) was recovered after a successful two day test and routine operation as deep as 800 m in waters of the San Clemente Basin off shore of San Diego. The CFE represents integration of the Optical Sedimentation Recorder (engineered at Berkeley Laboratory) and the Sounding Ocean Lagrangian Observer (SOLO) profiling float engineered at Scripps. Every eight hours, the CFE surfaced and transmitted in real time engineering and position information in minutes to shore and ship via Iridium satellite link. This fully autonomous and robotic free vehicle/instrument is designed to follow (at hourly resolution) variations of particulate organic and inorganic carbon sedimentation for seasons. Beyond enhanced predictability of the ocean biological carbon pump brought by such enhanced technology, it is fully feasible in the next decade to implement a low cost real-time ocean carbon observing system (a CARBON-ARGO), capable of real time assessment of ocean carbon flux which when coupled with atmospheric CO2 measurements will constrain the balance between carbon emissions and natural and human mediated carbon sinks on land.

Bishop, J. K.

2007-12-01

329

The Conductor of the Autonomic Orchestra  

PubMed Central

Bad bedfellows – autonomic dysfunction, inflammation, and diabetes! Are they related? How? Evidence suggests the activation of inflammatory cytokines like IL-6 and TNF? in newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes and that the inflammatory change correlates with abnormalities in sympathovagal balance. Dysfunction of the autonomic system predicts cardiovascular risk and sudden death in patients with type 2 diabetes. It occurs in prediabetes, providing opportunities for early intervention. The importance of recognizing autonomic dysfunction as a predictor of morbidity and mortality with intensification of treatment suggests that all patients with type 2 diabetes at onset, and those with type 1 diabetes after 5?years should be screened for autonomic imbalance. These tests can be performed at the bedside with real time output of information – within the scope of the practicing physician – facilitates diagnosis and allows the application of sound strategies for management. The window of opportunity for aggressive control of all the traditional risk factors for cardiovascular events or sudden death with intensification of therapy is with short duration diabetes, the absence of cardiovascular disease, and a history of severe hypoglycemic events. To this list we can now add autonomic dysfunction and neuropathy, which have become the most powerful predictors of risk for mortality. It seems prudent that practitioners should be encouraged to become familiar with this information and apply risk stratification in clinical practice. After all, how difficult is it to ask patients “do you have numb feet?” and to determine their heart rate variability – it could be lifesaving. Ultimately methods to reset the hypothalamus and the inflammatory cascade are needed if we are to impact the care of patients with this compendium of conditions. PMID:22737143

Vinik, Aaron I.

2012-01-01

330

Dynamic map building for an autonomous mobile robot  

SciTech Connect

This article presents an algorithm for autonomous map building and maintenance for a mobile robot. The authors believe that mobile robot navigation can be treated as a problem of tracking geometric features that occur naturally in the environment. They represent each feature in the map by a location estimate (the feature state vector) and two distinct measures of uncertainty: a covariance matrix to represent uncertainty in feature location, and a credibility measure to represent their belief in the validity of the feature. During each position update cycle, predicted measurements are generated for each geometric feature in the map and compared with actual sensor observations. Successful matches cause a feature's credibility to be increased. Unpredicted observations are used to initialize new geometric features, while unobserved predictions result in a geometric feature's credibility being decreased. They also describe experimental results obtained with the algorithm that demonstrate successful map building using real sonar data.

Leonard, J.J.; Durrant-Whyte, H.F. (Univ. of Oxford, (United Kingdom)); Cox, I.J. (NEC Research Inst., Princeton, NJ (United States))

1992-08-01

331

Robust chaos in autonomous time-delay system  

E-print Network

We consider an autonomous system constructed as modification of the logistic differential equation with delay that generates successive trains of oscillations with phases evolving according to chaotic maps. The system contains two feedback loops characterized by two generally distinct retarding time parameters. In the case of their equality, chaotic dynamics is associated with the Smale-Williams attractor that corresponds to the double-expanding circle map for the phases of the carrier of the oscillatory trains. Alternatively, at appropriately chosen two different delays attractor is close to torus with Anosov dynamics on it as the phases are governed by the Fibonacci map. In both cases the attractors manifest robustness (absence of regularity windows under variation of parameters) and presumably relate to the class of structurally stable hyperbolic attractors.

D. S. Arzhanukhina; S. P. Kuznetsov

2014-04-16

332

Autonomous Robotic Refueling System (ARRS) for rapid aircraft turnaround  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An autonomous robotic refuelling system is being developed to achieve rapid aircraft turnaround, notably during combat operations. The proposed system includes a gantry positioner with sufficient reach to position a robotic arm that performs the refuelling tasks; a six degree of freedom manipulator equipped with a remote center of compliance, torque sensor, and a gripper that can handle standard tools; a computer vision system to locate and guide the refuelling nozzle, inspect the nozzle, and avoid collisions; and an operator interface with video and graphics display. The control system software will include components designed for trajectory planning and generation, collision detection, sensor interfacing, sensory processing, and human interfacing. The robotic system will be designed so that upgrading to perform additional tasks will be relatively straightforward.

Williams, O. R.; Jackson, E.; Rueb, K.; Thompson, B.; Powell, K.

333

Biochemical modeling of an autonomously oscillatory circadian clock in Euglena.  

PubMed

Eukaryotic microorganisms, as well as higher animals and plants, display many autonomous physiological and biochemical rhythmicities having periods approximating 24 hours. In an attempt to determine the nature of the timing mechanisms that are responsible for these circadian periodicities, two primary operational assumptions were postulated. Both the perturbation of a putative element of a circadian clock within its normal oscillatory range and the direct activation as well as the inhibition of such an element should yield a phase shift of an overt rhythm generated by the underlying oscillator. Results of experiments conducted in the flagellate Euglena suggest that nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+), the mitochondrial Ca2+-transport system, Ca2+, calmodulin, NAD+ kinase, and NADP+ phosphatase represent clock "gears" that, in ensemble, might constitute a self-sustained circadian oscillating loop in this and other organisms. PMID:2988128

Goto, K; Laval-Martin, D L; Edmunds, L N

1985-06-14

334

Autonomous replication in human cells of multimers of specific human and bacterial DNA sequences.  

PubMed Central

Using modules of a specific 2,712-bp human DNA sequence and a specific 2,557-bp Escherichia coli DNA sequence, we created plasmids containing between 1 and 12 modules of single or chimeric sequence composition and tested them in human cells for their autonomous replication ability. We found that replication efficiency per generation increased with successive addition of human modules, to essentially 100% by six copies. Although a single copy of the bacterial module had negligible replication ability, the replication efficiency per generation of 12 bacterial modules was 66%. Chimeras composed of human and bacterial modules displayed intermediate replication levels. We also used two-dimensional gel electrophoresis to physically map where replication initiated on a half human-half E. coli plasmid. Our results suggest that autonomous replication in human cells is stimulated by simple sequence features which occur frequently in human DNA but are more rare in bacterial DNA. Images PMID:8386315

Krysan, P J; Smith, J G; Calos, M P

1993-01-01

335

Systems, methods and apparatus for modeling, specifying and deploying policies in autonomous and autonomic systems using agent-oriented software engineering  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Systems, methods and apparatus are provided through which in some embodiments, an agent-oriented specification modeled with MaCMAS, is analyzed, flaws in the agent-oriented specification modeled with MaCMAS are corrected, and an implementation is derived from the corrected agent-oriented specification. Described herein are systems, method and apparatus that produce fully (mathematically) tractable development of agent-oriented specification(s) modeled with methodology fragment for analyzing complex multiagent systems (MaCMAS) and policies for autonomic systems from requirements through to code generation. The systems, method and apparatus described herein are illustrated through an example showing how user formulated policies can be translated into a formal mode which can then be converted to code. The requirements-based programming systems, method and apparatus described herein may provide faster, higher quality development and maintenance of autonomic systems based on user formulation of policies.

Hinchey, Michael G. (Inventor); Penn, Joaquin (Inventor); Sterritt, Roy (Inventor)

2011-01-01

336

An overview of research in advanced microelectronics for micro-autonomous platforms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Army Research Laboratory established the Micro Autonomous Systems and Technology (MAST) Collaborative Technology Alliance (CTA) program in 2008 to leapfrog technological barriers toward achieving the autonomous operation of a collaborative ensemble of multifunctional, mobile microsystems. This goal will be realized through fundamental advancements by the MAST alliance, composed of four centers with focused research activities in Microsystems Mechanics, Processing for Autonomous Operation, Microelectronics, and Integration. A team of researchers assembled by the University of Michigan was chosen to lead the microelectronics center. This paper provides an overview of research activities in the MAST Microelectronics Center. Research activities in this center are organized around five major research thrusts: 1) sensing, 2) low power processing, 3) communications, 4) navigation, 5) efficient power generation. Such activities are envisioned to enable micro-autonomous sensor platforms by developing novel electronic sensors and devices having the following attributes: low power and power efficient characteristics, low mass and volume, enhanced functionality/sensitivity, survivability, durability, extended operation capability, low cost, and fault tolerance. Fundamental advances in microelectronics will be accomplished through implementation of bio-mimetic and bio-inspired techniques and technologies, utilization of Nano/micro fabrication processes, and incorporation of novel materials in fabrication of components and subsystems.

Sarabandi, Kamal; Pierce, Leland

2009-05-01

337

Autonomous recovery of global efficiency based local interaction for flexible transfer system (FTS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The flexible transfer system (FTS) is a self-organizing manufacturing system composed of autonomous transfer modules, which transfer a pallet loaded with machining parts. In the paper the central issue is the improvement of the performance of the FTS. By learning automata (LA), the FTS can generate a quasi-optimal transfer path by self-organization of a multi-layered strategic vector field corresponding to

Toshio Fukuda; Isao Takagawa; K. Sekiyama

2000-01-01

338

Planning Smooth and Obstacle-Avoiding B-Spline Paths for Autonomous Mining Vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study the problem of automatic generation of smooth and obstacle-avoiding planar paths for efficient guidance of autonomous mining vehicles. Fast traversal of a path is of special interest. We consider fourwheel four-gear articulated vehicles and assume that we have an a priori knowledge of the mine wall environment in the form of polygonal chains. Computing quartic uniform B-spline curves,

Tomas Berglund; Andrej Brodnik; Håkan Jonsson; Mats Staffanson; Inge Söderkvist

2010-01-01

339

A double-blind atropine trial for active learning of autonomic function  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article describes a human physiology laboratory class measuring changes in autonomic function over time in response to atropine. Students use themselves as subjects, generating ownership and self-interest in the learning as well as directly experiencing the active link between physiology and pharmacology in people. The class is designed to concomitantly convey the importance of bias in experimentation by adopting a double-blind placebo-controlled approach.

Jeffrey Fry (University of Nottingham); Steven Burr (University of Nottingham)

2011-12-01

340

Techno-economic analysis of autonomous hybrid photovoltaic-diesel-battery system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Detailed techno-economic analysis and thousands of hourly simulations were executed to design an optimal autonomous hybrid photovoltaic-diesel-battery system to meet the load of an off-grid house, located in a remote Jordanian settlement. The hybrid system with 23% of photovoltaic energy penetration and comprised of 2 kW PV array, diesel generator with a rated power of 4 kW and 2 storage batteries in

Eyad S. Hrayshat

2009-01-01

341

An Autonomous Ray-Like Swimming Robot with IPMC Artificial Muscle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ionic polymer-metal composite (IPMC) which is a flexible polymer actuator can work in water by applying low voltage (at most about 3(V)). By aligning IPMCs (16 strips for two fins) as the muscles we developed a ray-like swimming robot. A simple traveling wave input generates propulsion of the fins. For autonomous operation, miniaturization of the system is performed by developing

Masanori Yamamura; Kentaro Takagi; Zhi-Wei Luo; Kinji Asaka; Yoshikazu Hayakawa; Masaki Onishi; Shinya Hirano

342

Autonomous urban reconnaissance ingress system (AURIS): providing a tactically relevant autonomous door-opening kit for unmanned ground vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Autonomous Urban Reconnaissance Ingress System (AURIS™) addresses a significant limitation of current military and first responder robotics technology: the inability of reconnaissance robots to open doors. Leveraging user testing as a baseline, the program has derived specifications necessary for military personnel to open doors with fielded UGVs (Unmanned Ground Vehicles), and evaluates the technology's impact on operational mission areas: duration, timing, and user patience in developing a tactically relevant, safe, and effective system. Funding is provided through the US ARMY Tank Automotive Research, Development and Engineering Center (TARDEC) and the project represents a leap forward in perception, autonomy, robotic implements, and coordinated payload operation in UGVs. This paper describes high level details of specification generation, status of the last phase of development, an advanced view of the system autonomy capability, and a short look ahead towards the ongoing work on this compelling and important technology.

Shane, David J.; Rufo, Michael A.; Berkemeier, Matthew D.; Alberts, Joel A.

2012-06-01

343

Frontal midline theta rhythm is correlated with cardiac autonomic activities during the performance of an attention demanding meditation procedure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Frontal midline theta rhythm (Fm theta), recognized as distinct theta activity on EEG in the frontal midline area, reflects mental concentration as well as meditative state or relief from anxiety. Attentional network in anterior frontal lobes including anterior cingulate cortex is suspected to be the generator of this activity, and the regulative function of the frontal neural network over autonomic

Yasutaka Kubota; Wataru Sato; Motomi Toichi; Toshiya Murai; Takashi Okada; Akiko Hayashi; Akira Sengoku

2001-01-01

344

Demonstration of autonomous air monitoring through robotics  

SciTech Connect

The project included modifying an existing teleoperated robot to include autonomous navigation, large object avoidance, and air monitoring and demonstrating that prototype robot system in indoor and outdoor environments. The robot was also modified to carry a HNU PI-101 Photoionization Detector air monitoring device. A sonar range finder, which already was an integral part of the Surveyor, was repositioned to the front of the robot chassis to detect large obstacles in the path of the robot. In addition, the software of the onboard computer was also extensively modified to provide: navigation control, dynamic steering to smoothly follow the wire-course without hesitation, obstacle avoidance, autonomous shut down and remote reporting of toxic substance detection.

Rancatore, R.

1989-11-01

345

Autonomous Rovers for Polar Science Campaigns  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have developed and deployed two over-snow autonomous rovers able to conduct remote science campaigns on Polar ice sheets. Yeti is an 80-kg, four-wheel-drive (4WD) battery-powered robot with 3 - 4 hr endurance, and Cool Robot is a 60-kg 4WD solar-powered robot with unlimited endurance during Polar summers. Both robots navigate using GPS waypoint-following to execute pre-planned courses autonomously, and they can each carry or tow 20 - 160 kg instrument payloads over typically firm Polar snowfields. In 2008 - 12, we deployed Yeti to conduct autonomous ground-penetrating radar (GPR) surveys to detect hidden crevasses to help establish safe routes for overland resupply of research stations at South Pole, Antarctica, and Summit, Greenland. We also deployed Yeti with GPR at South Pole in 2011 to identify the locations of potentially hazardous buried buildings from the original 1950's-era station. Autonomous surveys remove personnel from safety risks posed during manual GPR surveys by undetected crevasses or buried buildings. Furthermore, autonomous surveys can yield higher quality and more comprehensive data than manual ones: Yeti's low ground pressure (20 kPa) allows it to cross thinly bridged crevasses or other voids without interrupting a survey, and well-defined survey grids allow repeated detection of buried voids to improve detection reliability and map their extent. To improve survey efficiency, we have automated the mapping of detected hazards, currently identified via post-survey manual review of the GPR data. Additionally, we are developing machine-learning algorithms to detect crevasses autonomously in real time, with reliability potentially higher than manual real-time detection. These algorithms will enable the rover to relay crevasse locations to a base station for near real-time mapping and decision-making. We deployed Cool Robot at Summit Station in 2005 to verify its mobility and power budget over Polar snowfields. Using solar power, this zero-emissions rover could travel more than 500 km per week during Polar summers and provide 100 - 200 W to power instrument payloads to help investigate the atmosphere, magnetosphere, glaciology and sub-glacial geology in Antarctica and Greenland. We are currently upgrading Cool Robot's navigation and solar-power systems and will deploy it during 2013 to map the emissions footprint around Summit Station to demonstrate its potential to execute long-endurance Polar science campaigns. These rovers could assist science traverses to chart safe routes into the interior of Antarctica and Greenland or conduct autonomous, remote science campaigns to extend spatial and temporal coverage for data collection. Our goals include 1,000 - 2,000-km summertime traverses of Antarctica and Greenland, safe navigation through 0.5-m amplitude sastrugi fields, survival in blizzards, and rover-network adaptation to research events of opportunity. We are seeking Polar scientists interested in autonomous, mobile data collection and can adapt the rovers to meet their requirements.

Lever, J. H.; Ray, L. E.; Williams, R. M.; Morlock, A. M.; Burzynski, A. M.

2012-12-01

346

Autonomous microexplosives subsurface tracing system final report.  

SciTech Connect

The objective of the autonomous micro-explosive subsurface tracing system is to image the location and geometry of hydraulically induced fractures in subsurface petroleum reservoirs. This system is based on the insertion of a swarm of autonomous micro-explosive packages during the fracturing process, with subsequent triggering of the energetic material to create an array of micro-seismic sources that can be detected and analyzed using existing seismic receiver arrays and analysis software. The project included investigations of energetic mixtures, triggering systems, package size and shape, and seismic output. Given the current absence of any technology capable of such high resolution mapping of subsurface structures, this technology has the potential for major impact on petroleum industry, which spends approximately $1 billion dollar per year on hydraulic fracturing operations in the United States alone.

Engler, Bruce Phillip; Nogan, John; Melof, Brian Matthew; Uhl, James Eugene; Dulleck, George R., Jr.; Ingram, Brian V.; Grubelich, Mark Charles; Rivas, Raul R.; Cooper, Paul W.; Warpinski, Norman Raymond; Kravitz, Stanley H.

2004-04-01

347

Fuzzy logic in autonomous orbital operations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Fuzzy logic can be used advantageously in autonomous orbital operations that require the capability of handling imprecise measurements from sensors. Several applications are underway to investigate fuzzy logic approaches and develop guidance and control algorithms for autonomous orbital operations. Translational as well as rotational control of a spacecraft have been demonstrated using space shuttle simulations. An approach to a camera tracking system has been developed to support proximity operations and traffic management around the Space Station Freedom. Pattern recognition and object identification algorithms currently under development will become part of this camera system at an appropriate level in the future. A concept to control environment and life support systems for large Lunar based crew quarters is also under development. Investigations in the area of reinforcement learning, utilizing neural networks, combined with a fuzzy logic controller, are planned as a joint project with the Ames Research Center.

Lea, Robert N.; Jani, Yashvant

1991-01-01

348

Advances in concurrent computers for autonomous robots  

SciTech Connect

Some of the most challenging computational requirements facing scientists and engineers today arise within the framework of intelligent autonomous systems. To enable robots to work effectively in real time in an unstructured environment, one needs to solve repeatedly a variety of highly complex mathematical problems such as on-line planning, vision, sensor fusion, navigation, manipulator dynamics and control. The computational requirements of most of these problems fall into the ''supercomputer'' class, but ultimately one needs to process them ''onboard'' the autonomous machine. Currently, the only realistic option is VLSI-based concurrent computation. This paper builds on the recent development of a VLSI hypercube supercomputer, to address the fundamental issue of implementing robotic algorithms on actual concurrent hardware. 26 refs.

Barhen, J.; Halbert, E.C.; Einstein, J.R.

1986-01-01

349

Carnegie Mellon University: Autonomous Helicopter Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The goal of the Carnegie Mellon University Autonomous Helicopter Project is to develop a vision-guided robot helicopter that can self-start, take off, safely fly to a designated area, search for and locate a designated object, track or pursue objects, and return home, all "within any weather conditions and using only on-board intelligence and computing power.ïÿý Recent flight tests of the linear robust controller for the Yamaha R-50 Robotic Helicopter are presented along with some animation videos. Some applications for the technologies are also described and include search and rescue, surveillance, law enforcement, inspection, mapping, and aerial cinematography. In addition, the site discusses some of the capabilities project researchers have developed over the years, such as vision-based stability and control, autonomous takeoff, trajectory following and landing, aerial mapping, and object recognition and manipulation. Publications are listed online and available upon request.

350

Autonomous RPRV Navigation, Guidance and Control  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Dryden Flight Research Center has the responsibility for flight testing of advanced remotely piloted research vehicles (RPRV) to explore highly maneuverable aircraft technology, and to test advanced structural concepts, and related aeronautical technologies which can yield important research results with significant cost benefits. The primary purpose is to provide the preliminary design of an upgraded automatic approach and landing control system and flight director display to improve landing performance and reduce pilot workload. A secondary purpose is to determine the feasibility of an onboard autonomous navigation, orbit, and landing capability for safe vehicle recovery in the event of loss of telemetry uplink communication with the vehicles. The current RPRV approach and landing method, the proposed automatic and manual approach and autoland system, and an autonomous navigation, orbit, and landing system concept which is based on existing operational technology are described.

Johnston, Donald E.; Myers, Thomas T.; Zellner, John W.

1983-01-01

351

Auditory stimulation and cardiac autonomic regulation  

PubMed Central

Previous studies have already demonstrated that auditory stimulation with music influences the cardiovascular system. In this study, we described the relationship between musical auditory stimulation and heart rate variability. Searches were performed with the Medline, SciELO, Lilacs and Cochrane databases using the following keywords: “auditory stimulation”, “autonomic nervous system”, “music” and “heart rate variability”. The selected studies indicated that there is a strong correlation between noise intensity and vagal-sympathetic balance. Additionally, it was reported that music therapy improved heart rate variability in anthracycline-treated breast cancer patients. It was hypothesized that dopamine release in the striatal system induced by pleasurable songs is involved in cardiac autonomic regulation. Musical auditory stimulation influences heart rate variability through a neural mechanism that is not well understood. Further studies are necessary to develop new therapies to treat cardiovascular disorders. PMID:22948465

Valenti, Vitor E.; Guida, Heraldo L.; Frizzo, Ana C. F.; Cardoso, Ana C. V.; Vanderlei, Luiz Carlos M.; de Abreu, Luiz Carlos

2012-01-01

352

Autonomous Exploration for Gathering Increased Science  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Autonomous Exploration for Gathering Increased Science System (AEGIS) provides automated targeting for remote sensing instruments on the Mars Exploration Rover (MER) mission, which at the time of this reporting has had two rovers exploring the surface of Mars (see figure). Currently, targets for rover remote-sensing instruments must be selected manually based on imagery already on the ground with the operations team. AEGIS enables the rover flight software to analyze imagery onboard in order to autonomously select and sequence targeted remote-sensing observations in an opportunistic fashion. In particular, this technology will be used to automatically acquire sub-framed, high-resolution, targeted images taken with the MER panoramic cameras. This software provides: 1) Automatic detection of terrain features in rover camera images, 2) Feature extraction for detected terrain targets, 3) Prioritization of terrain targets based on a scientist target feature set, and 4) Automated re-targeting of rover remote-sensing instruments at the highest priority target.

Bornstein, Benjamin J.; Castano, Rebecca; Estlin, Tara A.; Gaines, Daniel M.; Anderson, Robert C.; Thompson, David R.; DeGranville, Charles K.; Chien, Steve A.; Tang, Benyang; Burl, Michael C.; Judd, Michele A.

2010-01-01

353

Isolated sympathetic failure with autoimmune autonomic ganglionopathy.  

PubMed

A 16-year-old boy had a gradual onset of post-exercise myalgia with progressive fatigue and dizziness. He had bradycardia (37 beats/minute) with low supine and normal standing norepinephrine levels (56 and 311 pg/mL, respectively). He had absent sympathetically mediated vasoconstrictor responses during Valsalva maneuver testing. Circulating ganglionic acetylcholine receptor antibodies were identified. Response was gradual to treatment with intravenous immunoglobulin combined with aggressive symptomatic interventions (permanent pacemaker implantation and treatment with pyridostigmine, midodrine, and modafinil). After the intravenous immunoglobulin treatment, his autoantibody levels decreased and the autonomic abnormalities resolved. After a reconditioning exercise program and eventually undetectable antibody titers, he achieved complete recovery. The patient continued to do well after his pacemaker was removed and his medications were discontinued. Thus, severe isolated sympathetic nervous system failure can occur in adolescents with autoimmune autonomic ganglionopathy, and multifaceted treatment can be effective. PMID:20837310

Fischer, Philip R; Sandroni, Paola; Pittock, Sean J; Porter, Co-burn J; Lehwald, Lenora M; Raj, Satish R

2010-10-01

354

Autonomous Flight Safety System Road Test  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

On February 3, 2005, Kennedy Space Center (KSC) conducted the first Autonomous Flight Safety System (AFSS) test on a moving vehicle -- a van driven around the KSC industrial area. A subset of the Phase III design was used consisting of a single computer, GPS receiver, and UPS antenna. The description and results of this road test are described in this report.AFSS is a joint KSC and Wallops Flight Facility project that is in its third phase of development. AFSS is an independent subsystem intended for use with Expendable Launch Vehicles that uses tracking data from redundant onboard sensors to autonomously make flight termination decisions using software-based rules implemented on redundant flight processors. The goals of this project are to increase capabilities by allowing launches from locations that do not have or cannot afford extensive ground-based range safety assets, to decrease range costs, and to decrease reaction time for special situations.

Simpson, James C.; Zoemer, Roger D.; Forney, Chris S.

2005-01-01

355

Autonomous reinforcement learning with experience replay.  

PubMed

This paper considers the issues of efficiency and autonomy that are required to make reinforcement learning suitable for real-life control tasks. A real-time reinforcement learning algorithm is presented that repeatedly adjusts the control policy with the use of previously collected samples, and autonomously estimates the appropriate step-sizes for the learning updates. The algorithm is based on the actor-critic with experience replay whose step-sizes are determined on-line by an enhanced fixed point algorithm for on-line neural network training. An experimental study with simulated octopus arm and half-cheetah demonstrates the feasibility of the proposed algorithm to solve difficult learning control problems in an autonomous way within reasonably short time. PMID:23237972

Wawrzy?ski, Pawe?; Tanwani, Ajay Kumar

2013-05-01

356

Autonomous and Autonomic Systems: A Paradigm for Future Space Exploration Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA increasingly will rely on autonomous systems concepts, not only in the mission control centers on the ground, but also on spacecraft and on rovers and other assets on extraterrestrial bodies. Automomy enables not only reduced operations costs, But also adaptable goal-driven functionality of mission systems. Space missions lacking autonomy will be unable to achieve the full range of advanced mission objectives, given that human control under dynamic environmental conditions will not be feasible due, in part, to the unavoidably high signal propagation latency and constrained data rates of mission communications links. While autonomy cost-effectively supports accomplishment of mission goals, autonomicity supports survivability of remote mission assets, especially when human tending is not feasible. Autonomic system properties (which ensure self-configuring, self-optimizing self-healing, and self-protecting behavior) conceptually may enable space missions of a higher order into any previously flown. Analysis of two NASA agent-based systems previously prototyped, and of a proposed future mission involving numerous cooperating spacecraft, illustrates how autonomous and autonomic system concepts may be brought to bear on future space missions.

Truszkowski, Walter F.; Hinchey, Michael G.; Rash, James L.; Rouff, Christopher A.

2004-01-01

357

An autonomous blimp for a surveillance system  

Microsoft Academic Search

An autonomous blimp for a surveillance system, which is circling around a specified target with only one camera, is designed in this paper. For this purpose, an extension of Lucas-Kanade algorithm for detection and tracking of features with rotation and scaling is provided, and a simplified structure-from-motion algorithm is applied to improve the accuracy of state estimation. A tracking controller

T. Fukao; K. Fujitani; T. Kanade

2003-01-01

358

Adaptive autonomous underwater vehicles for littoral surveillance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs) have gained more interest in recent years for military as well as civilian applications.\\u000a One potential application of AUVs is for the purpose of undersea surveillance. As research into undersea surveillance using\\u000a AUVs progresses, issues arise as to how an AUV acquires, acts on, and shares information about the undersea battle space.\\u000a These issues naturally touch

Stephanie Kemna; Michael J. Hamilton; David T. Hughes; Kevin D. LePage

359

AUTONOMIC CHANGES IN BRAHMAKUMARIS RAJA YOGA MEDITATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report presents the changes in various autonomic and respiratory variables during the practice of Brahmakumaris Raja yoga meditation. This practice requires considerable commitment and involves concentrated thinking. 18 males in the age range of 20 to 52 years (mean 34.1 ± 8.1), with 5-25 years experience in meditation (mean 10.1± 6.2), participated in the study. Each subject was assessed

Shirley Telles; T. Desiraju

360

Autonomous Rendezvous and Docking Conference, volume 1  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This document consists of the presentation submitted at the Autonomous Rendezvous and Docking (ARD) Conference. It contains three volumes: ARD hardware technology; ARD software technology; and ARD operations. The purpose of this conference is to identify the technologies required for an on orbit demonstration of the ARD, assess the maturity of these technologies, and provide the necessary insight for a quality assessment of the programmatic management, technical, schedule, and cost risks.

1990-01-01

361

Autonomous models on a Cayley tree  

E-print Network

The most general single species autonomous reaction-diffusion model on a Cayley tree with nearest-neighbor interactions is introduced. The stationary solutions of such models, as well as their dynamics, are discussed. To study dynamics of the system, directionally-symmetric Green function for evolution equation of average number density is obtained. In some limiting cases the Green function is studied. Some examples are worked out in more detail.

Mohammad Khorrami; Amir Aghamohammadi

2014-07-21

362

Cooperative Control for Autonomous Air Vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main objective of this research is to develop and evaluate the performance of strategies for cooperative control of autonomous\\u000a air vehicles that seek to gather information about a dynamic target environment, evade threats, and coordinate strikes against\\u000a targets. The air vehicles are equipped with sensors to view a limited region of the environment they are visiting, and are\\u000a able

Kevin Passino; Marios Polycarpou; David Jacques; Meir Pachter; Yang Liu; Yanli Yang; Matt Flint; Michael Baum

363

A 16-element autonomous receiving array  

Microsoft Academic Search

An autonomous receiving array system has been designed, fabricated, and deployed at-sea for the collection of broadband underwater acoustic data. The system consists of a 16-element hydrophone array, a pressure case containing the data acquisition and disk storage hardware, and a mooring which includes floats for buoyancy, a RF-beacon and flasher, deep-sea batteries, and an acoustic release. The array cable

W. S. Hodgkiss; J. D. Skinner; R. A. Harriss

2003-01-01

364

Cardiovascular autonomic function in lateral medullary infarction.  

PubMed

Even though the medulla contains the baroreceptor regulatory centers, few studies have focused on the autonomic dysfunction of lateral medullary infarction (LMI). Therefore, cardiac parasympathetic and sympathetic functions were compared in LMI patients and age-matched controls. We prospectively recruited 25 LMI patients who had ipsilateral Horner's sign and cardiac autonomic function testing without a history of diabetes, cardiac disease, or previous stroke. Parasympathetic function tests included beat-to-beat heart rate variation during deep breathing, 30:15 heart rate ratio testing while standing, and the valsalva ratio. Sympathetic function tests included blood pressure during active standing and sustained handgrip. The composite autonomic score (CAS) was measured as a total of 10 points; parasympathetic dysfunction was designated as ?3 points in the parasympathetic subscores and sympathetic dysfunction as ?2 points in the sympathetic subscores. Multiple regression analysis was performed to predict parasympathetic or sympathetic dysfunction. The mean age and stroke risk factors of the study population were not significantly different between the LMI group (n = 25) and control group (n = 29). However, cardiac autonomic functions were significantly different in the groups: parasympathetic dysfunction (14 vs. 4 patients, p = 0.011) and sympathetic dysfunction (3 vs. 13 patients, p = 0.008). In univariate analysis, male-gender (p = 0.011), right-side involvement (p = 0.035) and ventral involvement (p = 0.007) were significantly associated with parasympathetic dysfunction (CAS subscore ?3). In multivariable analysis, the ventral involvement remained to be the independent predictor for parasympathetic dysfunction (OR 16.0; 95% CI 2.2-118.3, p = 0.007). This study suggests that LMI patients are susceptible to cardiac parasympathetic dysfunction, especially in the ventral medulla. PMID:23543393

Hong, Ji Man; Kim, Tae Jin; Shin, Dong Hoon; Lee, Jin Soo; Joo, In Soo

2013-11-01

365

Autonomous Spacecraft Communication Interface for Load Planning  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Ground-based controllers can remain in continuous communication with spacecraft in low Earth orbit (LEO) with near-instantaneous communication speeds. This permits near real-time control of all of the core spacecraft systems by ground personnel. However, as NASA missions move beyond LEO, light-time communication delay issues, such as time lag and low bandwidth, will prohibit this type of operation. As missions become more distant, autonomous control of manned spacecraft will be required. The focus of this paper is the power subsystem. For present missions, controllers on the ground develop a complete schedule of power usage for all spacecraft components. This paper presents work currently underway at NASA to develop an architecture for an autonomous spacecraft, and focuses on the development of communication between the Mission Manager and the Autonomous Power Controller. These two systems must work together in order to plan future load use and respond to unanticipated plan deviations. Using a nominal spacecraft architecture and prototype versions of these two key components, a number of simulations are run under a variety of operational conditions, enabling development of content and format of the messages necessary to achieve the desired goals. The goals include negotiation of a load schedule that meets the global requirements (contained in the Mission Manager) and local power system requirements (contained in the Autonomous Power Controller), and communication of off-plan disturbances that arise while executing a negotiated plan. The message content is developed in two steps: first, a set of rapid-prototyping "paper" simulations are preformed; then the resultant optimized messages are codified for computer communication for use in automated testing.

Dever, Timothy P.; May, Ryan D.; Morris, Paul H.

2014-01-01

366

An architecture for an autonomous learning robot  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An autonomous learning device must solve the example bounding problem, i.e., it must divide the continuous universe into discrete examples from which to learn. We describe an architecture which incorporates an example bounder for learning. The architecture is implemented in the GPAL program. An example run with a real mobile robot shows that the program learns and uses new causal, qualitative, and quantitative relationships.

Tillotson, Brian

1988-01-01

367

Autonomous Deicing System For Airplane Wing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Prototype autonomous deicing system for airplane includes network of electronic and electromechanical modules at various locations in wings and connected to central data-processing unit. Small, integrated solid-state device, using long coils installed under leading edge, exciting small vibrations to detect ice and larger vibrations to knock ice off. In extension of concept, outputs of vibration sensors and other sensors used to detect rivet-line fractures, fatigue cracks, and other potentially dangerous defects.

Hickman, G. A.; Gerardi, J. J.

1993-01-01

368

Autonomous Bursting in a Homoclinic System  

E-print Network

A continuous train of irregularly spaced spikes, peculiar of homoclinic chaos, transforms into clusters of regularly spaced spikes, with quiescent periods in between (bursting regime), by feeding back a low frequency portion of the dynamical output. Such autonomous bursting results to be extremely robust against noise; we provide experimental evidence of it in a CO2 laser with feedback. The phenomen here presented display qualitative analogies with bursting phenomena in neurons.

R. Meucci; A. Di Garbo; E. Allaria; F. T. Arecchi

2001-09-18

369

Autonomic nervous symptoms in primary Sjogren's; syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives. Objective signs of autonomic dysfunction (AD) have been reported in patients with primary SS (pSS) while the presence of associated symptoms has not been systematically studied. Therefore, the aims of this study were (i) to assess the presence and severity of various AD symptoms in pSS patients and (ii) to relate AD symptoms to other clinical features of pSS.

T. Mandl; V. Granberg; J. Apelqvist; P. Wollmer; R. Manthorpe; L. T. H. Jacobsson

2008-01-01

370

Preserved autonomic function in amenorrheic athletes.  

PubMed

Reproductive hormones such as estradiol and progesterone are known to influence autonomic cardiovascular regulation. The purpose of this study was to determine whether amenorrheic athletes (AA) have impaired autonomic cardiovascular regulation compared with eumenorrheic athletes (EA). Thirty-five athletes were tested: 13 AA (19 +/- 1 yr), 13 EA (21 +/- 1 yr), and 9 EA (23 +/- 1 yr) on oral contraceptives (EA-OC). Multiple indexes of autonomic cardiovascular regulation were assessed: respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA), cardiovagal baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) via phase IV and phase II of the Valsalva maneuver, a spontaneous index of BRS, and the heart rate and blood pressure responses to orthostatic stress (20-min 60 degrees head-up tilt). RSA was not different among the groups. There were no group differences in the spontaneous index of BRS (AA = 30 +/- 6, EA = 24 +/- 3, EA-OC = 29 +/- 5 ms/mmHg) or in phase II (AA = 8 +/- 2, EA = 7 +/- 1, EA-OC = 8 +/- 1 ms/mmHg) of the Valsalva. There was a difference in BRS during phase IV (AA = 21 +/- 3, EA = 15 +/- 1, EA-OC = 26 +/- 6 ms/mmHg; ANOVA P = 0.04). Tukey's post hoc test indicated that BRS was greater in the EA-OC group compared with the EA group (P = 0.04). There were no differences in cardiovascular responses to orthostatic stress among the groups. In conclusion, AA do not display signs of impaired autonomic function and orthostatic responses compared with EA or EA-OC during the follicular phase of the menstrual cycle. PMID:16709651

Wenner, Megan M; Prettyman, Allen V; Maser, Raelene E; Farquhar, William B

2006-08-01

371

Autonomous magnetically actuated continuous flow microimmunofluorocytometry assay  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents a microfluidic device which integrates autonomous serial immunofluorocytometry binding reactions of\\u000a cytometric beads with fluorescence detection and quantification in a continuous flow environment. The microdevice assay is\\u000a intended to alleviate the extensive benchwork and large sample volumes used when conducting traditional immunoassays, without\\u000a requiring complex external controls. The technology is based on the miniaturization and automation of

Lawrence A. Sasso; Akif Ündar; Jeffrey D. Zahn

2010-01-01

372

Flocking algorithm for autonomous flying robots.  

PubMed

Animal swarms displaying a variety of typical flocking patterns would not exist without the underlying safe, optimal and stable dynamics of the individuals. The emergence of these universal patterns can be efficiently reconstructed with agent-based models. If we want to reproduce these patterns with artificial systems, such as autonomous aerial robots, agent-based models can also be used in their control algorithms. However, finding the proper algorithms and thus understanding the essential characteristics of the emergent collective behaviour requires thorough and realistic modeling of the robot and also the environment. In this paper, we first present an abstract mathematical model of an autonomous flying robot. The model takes into account several realistic features, such as time delay and locality of communication, inaccuracy of the on-board sensors and inertial effects. We present two decentralized control algorithms. One is based on a simple self-propelled flocking model of animal collective motion, the other is a collective target tracking algorithm. Both algorithms contain a viscous friction-like term, which aligns the velocities of neighbouring agents parallel to each other. We show that this term can be essential for reducing the inherent instabilities of such a noisy and delayed realistic system. We discuss simulation results on the stability of the control algorithms, and perform real experiments to show the applicability of the algorithms on a group of autonomous quadcopters. In our case, bio-inspiration works in two ways. On the one hand, the whole idea of trying to build and control a swarm of robots comes from the observation that birds tend to flock to optimize their behaviour as a group. On the other hand, by using a realistic simulation framework and studying the group behaviour of autonomous robots we can learn about the major factors influencing the flight of bird flocks. PMID:24852272

Virágh, Csaba; Vásárhelyi, Gábor; Tarcai, Norbert; Szörényi, Tamás; Somorjai, Gerg?; Nepusz, Tamás; Vicsek, Tamás

2014-06-01

373

Architecture of an Autonomous Radio Receiver  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A program to develop an autonomous radio receiver compatible with a variety of digital communication schemes is underway. The proposed receiver, to be implemented largely in software, would configure itself to receive an incoming signal without much a priori knowledge of defining characteristics of the signal. The proposed receiver would include estimating and classifying modules that would analyze the incoming signal to determine its defining characteristics and would then configure itself on the basis of the outputs of these modules.

Hamkins, Jon; Simon, Marvin; Divsalar, Dariush; Dolinar, Samuel

2007-01-01

374

Gastrointestinal autonomic nerve tumor of the stomach  

PubMed Central

Patient: Female, 32 Final Diagnosis: Gastrintestinal Autonomic Nerve Tumor (GANT) Symptoms: anemia • anorexia • fatigue • fever • hearburn • nausea • weight loss Medication: — Clinical Procedure: — Specialty: Gastroenterology and Hepatology Objective: Rare disease Background: Gastrointestinal autonomic nerve tumors (GANT) are extremely rare tumors that are related to gastrointestinal autonomic nervous plexuses. They are distinguished from stromal tumors by their unique ultrastructural features. Hence, their diagnosis is usually made on electron microscopy and immunohistochemical analyses. Although they are apparently slow-growing tumors, they run an aggressive clinical course and often associated with poor prognosis which eventually leads to death. Case Report: We report on a case of gastric GANT in a young female who was treated surgically by total gastrectomy. The disease, however ran an aggressive course with the development of distant (nodal, liver, lung, adrenal and musculo-skeletal) metastases two months after the radical resection. Conclusions: We believe this could be the first reported case of adrenal and musculo-skeletal metastases from gastric GANT soon after the radical gastric resection. PMID:24454975

Meshikhes, Abdul-Wahed N.; Al-Garni, Ayed A.; Al-Momen, Sami A.; Al-Nahawi, Mamdouh; Abu Subaih, Jawad

2014-01-01

375

Autonomic dysfunction in reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndromes  

PubMed Central

Background Autonomic imbalance may play an important role in the pathogenesis of reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndromes (RCVS). This study aimed to assess the autonomic function by analyzing heart rate variability (HRV) in patients with RCVS. Methods Patients with RCVS and age- and gender-matched controls were consecutively recruited. All patients (both ictal and remission stage) and controls underwent 24-hour ambulatory electrocardiographic (ECG) recordings. HRV measures covering time and frequency domains were used to assess autonomic functioning. Results Thirty-nine patients with RCVS and 39 controls completed the study. Compared to the controls, RCVS patients during the ictal stage showed reductions in parasympathetic-related indices, including the root mean square of difference of consecutive interbeat intervals (RMSSD) (22.1?±?7.0 vs. 35.2?±?14.2, p

2013-01-01

376

Surveillance sensor for autonomous wildfire detection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Autonomous wildfire detection systems may help to reduce hazards resulting from large wildland fires. In many situations wildfires start in the duff below trees and shrubs, which are hidden from direct view by groundbased sensors overlooking forests and wildlands. Mid- and thermal infrared measurements only detect wildfires when the fire has become a crownfire, and, by then, it usually has developed into a large wildfire. Therefore, the early discovery of wildfires using groundbased, autonomous sensors should be performed by detecting smoke clouds rather than the heat of the fire, since smoke becomes earlier visible above the trees as a result of convection than the heat of the fire. A demonstration sensor is being developed to show the feasibility of an affordable system for autonomous wildland fire detection. The system is designed to minimize false alarms by simultaneously analyzing the temporal, spatial and spectral information in the acquired imagery. The groundbased sensor will be horizon scanning and will employ linear CCD's for better contrast sensitivity in three different spectral bands.

de Vries, Jan S.; Kemp, Rob A. W.

1993-11-01

377

Autonomous system for cross-country navigation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Autonomous cross-country navigation is essential for outdoor robots moving about in unstructured environments. Most existing systems use range sensors to determine the shape of the terrain, plan a trajectory that avoids obstacles, and then drive the trajectory. Performance has been limited by the range and accuracy of sensors, insufficient vehicle-terrain interaction models, and the availability of high-speed computers. As these elements improve, higher- speed navigation on rougher terrain becomes possible. We have developed a software system for autonomous navigation that provides for greater capability. The perception system supports a large braking distance by fusing multiple range images to build a map of the terrain in front of the vehicle. The system identifies range shadows and interpolates undersamples regions to account for rough terrain effects. The motion planner reduces computational complexity by investigating a minimum number of trajectories. Speeds along the trajectory are set to provide for dynamic stability. The entire system was tested in simulation, and a subset of the capability was demonstrated on a real vehicle. Results to date include a continuous 5.1 kilometer run across moderate terrain with obstacles. This paper begins with the applications, prior work, limitations, and current paradigms for autonomous cross-country navigation, and then describes our contribution to the area.

Stentz, Anthony; Brumitt, Barry L.; Coulter, R. C.; Kelly, Alonzo

1993-05-01

378

Multi-mission, autonomous, synthetic aperture radar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Unmanned aerial systems (UASs) have become a critical asset in current battlespaces and continue to play an increasing role for intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance (ISR) missions. With the development of medium-to-low altitude, rapidly deployable aircraft platforms, the ISR community has seen an increasing push to develop ISR sensors and systems with real-time mission support capabilities. This paper describes recent flight demonstrations and test results of the RASAR (Real-time, Autonomous, Synthetic Aperture Radar) sensor system. RASAR is a modular, multi-band (L and X) synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imaging sensor designed for self-contained, autonomous, real-time operation with mission flexibility to support a wide range of ISR needs within the size, weight and power constraints of Group III UASs. The sensor command and control and real-time image formation processing are designed to allow integration of RASAR into a larger, multi-intelligence system of systems. The multi-intelligence architecture and a demonstration of real-time autonomous cross-cueing of a separate optical sensor will be presented.

Walls, Thomas J.; Wilson, Michael L.; Madsen, David; Jensen, Mark; Sullivan, Stephanie; Addario, Michael; Hally, Iain

2014-05-01

379

Autonomous navigation for structured exterior environments  

SciTech Connect

The Telemanaged Mobile Security Station (TMSS) was developed at Sandia National Laboratories to investigate the role of mobile robotics in exterior perimeter security systems. A major feature of the system is its capability to perform autonomous patrols of the security site`s network of roads. Perimeter security sites are well known, structured environments; the locations of the roads, buildings, and fences are relatively static. A security robot has the advantage of being able to learn its new environment prior to autonomous travel. The TMSS robot combines information from a microwave beacon system and on-board dead reckoning sensors to determine its location within the site. The operator is required to teleoperate the robot in a teach mode over all desired paths before autonomous operations can commence. During this teach phase, TMSS stores points from its position location system at two meter intervals. This map data base is used for planning paths and for reference during path following. Details of the position location and path following systems will be described along with system performance and recommendations for future enhancements.

Pletta, J B

1993-12-01

380

Autonomic correlates of physical and moral disgust.  

PubMed

Given that the hypothesis of a common origin of physical and moral disgust has received sparse empirical support, this study aimed to shed light on the subjective and autonomic signatures of these two facets of the same emotional response. Participants (20 men, 20 women) were randomly assigned to physical or moral disgust induction by the use of audio scripts while their electrocardiogram was continuously recorded. Affect ratings were obtained before and after the induction. Time and frequency domain heart rate variability (HRV) measures were obtained. After controlling for disgust sensitivity (DS-R) and obsessive-compulsive (OCI-R) tendencies, both scripts elicited disgust but whereas the physical script elicited a feeling of dirtiness, the moral script evoked more indignation and contempt. The disgust-induced subjective responses were associated with opposite patterns of autonomic reactivity: enhanced activity of the parasympathetic nervous system without concurrent changes in heart rate (HR) for physical disgust and decreased vagal tone and increased HR and autonomic imbalance for moral disgust. Results suggest that immorality relies on the same biological root of physical disgust only in subjects with obsessive compulsive tendencies. Disgust appears to be a heterogeneous response that varies based on the individuals' contamination-based appraisal. PMID:23684734

Ottaviani, Cristina; Mancini, Francesco; Petrocchi, Nicola; Medea, Barbara; Couyoumdjian, Alessandro

2013-07-01

381

Experiences with a Requirements-Based Programming Approach to the Development of a NASA Autonomous Ground Control System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Requirements-to-Design-to-Code (R2D2C) is an approach to the engineering of computer-based systems that embodies the idea of requirements-based programming in system development. It goes further; however, in that the approach offers not only an underlying formalism, but full formal development from requirements capture through to the automatic generation of provably-correct code. As such, the approach has direct application to the development of systems requiring autonomic properties. We describe a prototype tool to support the method, and illustrate its applicability to the development of LOGOS, a NASA autonomous ground control system, which exhibits autonomic behavior. Finally, we briefly discuss other areas where the approach and prototype tool are being considered for application.

Hinchey, Michael G.; Rash, James L.; Rouff, Christopher A.; Gracanin, Denis; Erickson, John

2005-01-01

382

Autonomous In-Situ Resources Prospector  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This presentation will describe the concept of an autonomous, intelligent, rover-based rapid surveying system to identify and map several key lunar resources to optimize their ISRU (In Situ Resource Utilization) extraction potential. Prior to an extraction phase for any target resource, ground-based surveys are needed to provide confirmation of remote observation, to quantify and map their 3-D distribution, and to locate optimal extraction sites (e.g. ore bodies) with precision to maximize their economic benefit. The system will search for and quantify optimal minerals for oxygen production feedstock, water ice, and high glass-content regolith that can be used for building materials. These are targeted because of their utility and because they are, or are likely to be, variable in quantity over spatial scales accessible to a rover (i.e., few km). Oxygen has benefits for life support systems and as an oxidizer for propellants. Water is a key resource for sustainable exploration, with utility for life support, propellants, and other industrial processes. High glass-content regolith has utility as a feedstock for building materials as it readily sinters upon heating into a cohesive matrix more readily than other regolith materials or crystalline basalts. Lunar glasses are also a potential feedstock for oxygen production, as many are rich in iron and titanium oxides that are optimal for oxygen extraction. To accomplish this task, a system of sensors and decision-making algorithms for an autonomous prospecting rover is described. One set of sensors will be located in the wheel tread of the robotic search vehicle providing contact sensor data on regolith composition. Another set of instruments will be housed on the platform of the rover, including VIS-NIR imagers and spectrometers, both for far-field context and near-field characterization of the regolith in the immediate vicinity of the rover. Also included in the sensor suite are a neutron spectrometer, ground-penetrating radar, and an instrumented cone penetrometer for subsurface assessment. Output from these sensors will be evaluated autonomously in real-time by decision-making software to evaluate if any of the targeted resources has been detected, and if so, to quantify their abundance. Algorithms for optimizing the mapping strategy based on target resource abundance and distribution are also included in the autonomous software. This approach emphasizes on-the-fly survey measurements to enable efficient and rapid prospecting of large areas, which will improve the economics of ISRU system approaches. The mature technology will enable autonomous rovers to create in-situ resource maps of lunar or other planetary surfaces, which will facilitate human and robotic exploration.

Dissly, R. W.; Buehler, M. G.; Schaap, M. G.; Nicks, D.; Taylor, G. J.; Castano, R.; Suarez, D.

2004-01-01

383

Autonomous Image Analysis for Future Mars Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

To explore high priority landing sites and to prepare for eventual human exploration, future Mars missions will involve rovers capable of traversing tens of kilometers. However, the current process by which scientists interact with a rover does not scale to such distances. Specifically, numerous command cycles are required to complete even simple tasks, such as, pointing the spectrometer at a variety of nearby rocks. In addition, the time required by scientists to interpret image data before new commands can be given and the limited amount of data that can be downlinked during a given command cycle constrain rover mobility and achievement of science goals. Experience with rover tests on Earth supports these concerns. As a result, traverses to science sites as identified in orbital images would require numerous science command cycles over a period of many weeks, months or even years, perhaps exceeding rover design life and other constraints. Autonomous onboard science analysis can address these problems in two ways. First, it will allow the rover to preferentially transmit "interesting" images, defined as those likely to have higher science content. Second, the rover will be able to anticipate future commands. For example, a rover might autonomously acquire and return spectra of "interesting" rocks along with a high-resolution image of those rocks in addition to returning the context images in which they were detected. Such approaches, coupled with appropriate navigational software, help to address both the data volume and command cycle bottlenecks that limit both rover mobility and science yield. We are developing fast, autonomous algorithms to enable such intelligent on-board decision making by spacecraft. Autonomous algorithms developed to date have the ability to identify rocks and layers in a scene, locate the horizon, and compress multi-spectral image data. We are currently investigating the possibility of reconstructing a 3D surface from a sequence of images acquired by a robotic arm camera. This would then allow the return of a single completely in focus image constructed only from those portions of individual images that lie within the camera's depth of field. Output from these algorithms could be used to autonomously obtain rock spectra, determine which images should be transmitted to the ground, or to aid in image compression. We will discuss these algorithms and their performance during a recent rover field test.

Gulick, V. C.; Morris, R. L.; Ruzon, M. A.; Bandari, E.; Roush, T. L.

1999-01-01

384

Autonomic function in manganese alloy workers.  

PubMed

The observation of orthostatic hypotension in an index case of manganese toxicity lead to this prospective attempt to evaluate cardiovascular autonomic function and cognitive and emotional neurotoxicity in eight manganese alloy welders and machinists. The subjects consisted of a convenience sample consisting of an index case of manganese dementia, his four co-workers in a "frog shop" for gouging, welding, and grinding repair of high manganese railway track and a convenience sample of three mild steel welders with lesser manganese exposure also referred because of cognitive or autonomic symptoms. Frog shop air manganese samples 9.6-10 years before and 1.2-3.4 years after the diagnosis of the index case exceeded 1.0 mg/m3 in 29% and 0.2 mg/m3 in 62%. Twenty-four-hour electrocardiographic (Holter) monitoring was used to determine the temporal variability of the heartrate (RR' interval) and the rates of change at low frequency (0.04-0.15 Hz) and high frequency (0.15-0.40 Hz). MMPI and MCMI personality assessment and short-term memory, figure copy, controlled oral word association, and symbol digit tests were used. The five frog shop workers had abnormal sympathovagal balance with decreased high frequency variability (increased ln LF/ln HF). Seven of the eight workers had symptoms of autonomic dysfunction and significantly decreased heart rate variability (rMSSD) but these did not distinguish the relative exposure. Mood or affect was disturbed in all with associated changes in short-term memory and attention in four of the subjects. There were no significant correlations with serum or urine manganese. Power spectrum analysis of 24-h ambulatory ECG indicating a decrease in parasympathetic high frequency activation of heart rate variability may provide a sensitive index of central autonomic dysfunction reflecting increased exposure to manganese, although the contribution of exposures to solvents and other metals cannot be excluded. Neurotoxicity due to the gouging, welding, and grinding of mild steel and high manganese alloys (11-25%) merits air manganese and neuropsychologic surveillance including autonomic function by Holter monitoring of cardiovagal activation. PMID:9630445

Barrington, W W; Angle, C R; Willcockson, N K; Padula, M A; Korn, T

1998-07-01

385

Task analysis of autonomous on-road driving  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Real-time Control System (RCS) Methodology has evolved over a number of years as a technique to capture task knowledge and organize it into a framework conducive to implementation in computer control systems. The fundamental premise of this methodology is that the present state of the task activities sets the context that identifies the requirements for all of the support processing. In particular, the task context at any time determines what is to be sensed in the world, what world model states are to be evaluated, which situations are to be analyzed, what plans should be invoked, and which behavior generation knowledge is to be accessed. This methodology concentrates on the task behaviors explored through scenario examples to define a task decomposition tree that clearly represents the branching of tasks into layers of simpler and simpler subtask activities. There is a named branching condition/situation identified for every fork of this task tree. These become the input conditions of the if-then rules of the knowledge set that define how the task is to respond to input state changes. Detailed analysis of each branching condition/situation is used to identify antecedent world states and these, in turn, are further analyzed to identify all of the entities, objects, and attributes that have to be sensed to determine if any of these world states exist. This paper explores the use of this 4D/RCS methodology in some detail for the particular task of autonomous on-road driving, which work was funded under the Defense Advanced Research Project Agency (DARPA) Mobile Autonomous Robot Software (MARS) effort (Doug Gage, Program Manager).

Barbera, Anthony J.; Horst, John A.; Schlenoff, Craig I.; Aha, David W.

2004-12-01

386

Highly-autonomous event-driven spacecraft control  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Future JPL missions will continue to be scientifically and technically more ambitious, and will demand more autonomy to accomplish complex tasks in uncertain environments and in close proximity to extraterrestrial surfaces. A prime example is small body rendezvous and sample return. In addition to mission demands, affordability is now a primary driver. The call is for smaller missions with greatly reduced cost of operation and less expensive spacecraft designs. Spacecraft with highly-autonomous, goal-directed control systems are proposed to meet these challenges. This paper discusses the plan to design and develop a proof-of-concept attitude and control subsystem (ACS) that has the ability to capture science events and enable a small body rendezvous and sample return mission while requiring only one person level-of-effort for ACS ground operation support. The technology to be developed and demonstrated includes: on-board sequence generation and execution, precision closed-loop maneuver and attitude control, target acquisition and tracking, and sensing and representation of spacecraft system state. A reference mission development scenario, complete with a representative mission, spacecraft design concept, and development process, will be used in order to incorporate all the nuances of a real mission, where experience has shown that the real problems lurk. Previously-conducted JPL studies will be used to develop the scenarios. The representative spacecraft will be small to micro and consistent with a Discovery class mission. Possible approaches for the new paradigms in system architecture, ground commanding and test and verification that will be necessary for highly-autonomous event-driven controls will be addressed.

Aljabri, A. S.; Kia, T.; Lai, J. Y.

1995-01-01

387

A viable multivariable adaptive controller with application to autonomous helicopters  

E-print Network

Autonomous helicopters carry out missions in inaccessible hazardous environments. Their performance capability in speed, maneuverability and trajectory tracking must be comparable, if not superior, to manned vehicles. ...

Krupadanam, Ashish Samuel, 1974-

2001-01-01

388

The Relationship between Vascular Function and the Autonomic Nervous System  

PubMed Central

Endothelial dysfunction and autonomic nervous system dysfunction are both risk factors for atherosclerosis. There is evidence demonstrating that there is a close interrelationship between these two systems. In hypertension, endothelial dysfunction affects the pathologic process through autonomic nervous pathways, and the pathophysiological process of autonomic neuropathy in diabetes mellitus is closely related with vascular function. However, detailed mechanisms of this interrelationship have not been clearly explained. In this review, we summarize findings concerning the interrelationship between vascular function and the autonomic nervous system from both experimental and clinical studies. The clarification of this interrelationship may provide more comprehensive risk stratification and a new effective therapeutic strategy against atherosclerosis. PMID:24995054

2014-01-01

389

Autonomous non-linear classification of LPI radar signal modulations .  

E-print Network

??In this thesis, an autonomous feature extraction algorithm for classification of Low Probability of Intercept (LPI) radar modulations is investigated. A software engineering architecture that… (more)

Gulum, Taylan O.

2007-01-01

390

Antibody testing as a diagnostic tool in autonomic disorders.  

PubMed

Some forms of peripheral autonomic dysfunction (especially enteric neuropathy and subacute panautonomic failure) occur as autoimmune phenomena either in isolation or in the context of cancer. Autoimmune autonomic ganglionopathy is an example of a severe, but potentially treatable, antibody-mediated form of autonomic failure. Diagnostic evaluation of autonomic disorders can be supplemented by testing for paraneoplastic antibodies and antibodies against membrane receptors. The diagnostic antibodies most commonly associated with dysautonomia are paraneoplastic antibodies (anti-Hu and CRMP-5) and ganglionic acetylcholine receptor antibodies. PMID:18726055

Vernino, Steven

2009-02-01

391

The clinical approach to autonomic failure in neurological disorders.  

PubMed

Central or peripheral neurological disorders can manifest with autonomic failure or autonomic hyperactivity, which may affect the sympathetic, parasympathetic and/or enteric nervous systems. Disorders causing autonomic failure can be classified according to the presence or absence of associated neurological manifestations, such as peripheral neuropathy or parkinsonism, and their temporal profile (acute or subacute, chronic progressive, static, or episodic). A systematic approach allows focused evaluation to detect treatable, potentially disabling or life-threatening conditions. Subacute isolated autonomic failure affecting sympathetic, parasympathetic and enteric nervous system function, in various combinations, occurs in autoimmune autonomic ganglionopathy, which might be the first manifestation of an underlying neoplasm. Autonomic failure can be an important feature of several types of peripheral neuropathy, including sensorimotor peripheral neuropathies, sensory ganglionopathy, and distal painful peripheral neuropathies. Progressive autonomic failure occurs in neurodegenerative synucleinopathies such as multiple system atrophy and Lewy body disorders. Autonomic failure may also occur in hereditary leukoencephalopathies or prion disorders. This Review outlines the clinical approach to patients with generalized autonomic failure, focusing predominantly on classification and diagnosis, but also touching briefly on treatment and management. PMID:24866874

Benarroch, Eduardo E

2014-07-01

392

What's Next? The New Era of Autonomous Virtual Humans  

E-print Network

scale to complex multi-agent interac- tions and global narrative constraints. We present this broad (IVW) applications demand functional, purposeful, heterogeneous autonomous virtual humans, that exhibit

Plotkin, Joshua B.

393

?-catenin activation regulates tissue growth non-cell autonomously in the hair stem cell niche  

PubMed Central

Wnt/?-catenin signaling is critical for tissue regeneration. However, it is unclear how ?-catenin controls stem cell behaviors to coordinate organized growth. Using live imaging, we show that activation of ?-catenin specifically within mouse hair follicle stem cells generates new hair growth through oriented cell divisions and cellular displacement. ?-catenin activation is sufficient to induce hair growth independently of mesenchymal dermal papilla-niche signals normally required for hair regeneration. Remarkably, wild-type cells are co-opted into new hair growths by ?-catenin mutant cells, which non-cell autonomously activate Wnt signaling within the wild-type cells via Wnt ligands. This study demonstrates a mechanism by which Wnt/?-catenin signaling controls stem cell-dependent tissue growth non–cell autonomously and advances our understanding of the mechanisms that drive coordinated regeneration. PMID:24653033

Deschene, Elizabeth R.; Myung, Peggy; Rompolas, Panteleimon; Zito, Giovanni; Sun, Thomas Yang; Taketo, Makoto M.; Saotome, Ichiko; Greco, Valentina

2014-01-01

394

Docosahexaenoic acid and cognitive function: Is the link mediated by the autonomic nervous system?  

PubMed Central

Docosahexaenoic acid is a long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid that is found in large quantity in the brain and which has repeatedly been observed to be related in positive ways to both cognitive function and cardiovascular health. The mechanisms through which docosahexaenoic acid affects cognition are not well understood, but in this article, we propose a hypothesis that integrates the positive effects of docosahexaenoic acid in the cognitive and cardiovascular realms through the autonomic nervous system. The autonomic nervous system is known to regulate vital functions such as heart rate and respiration, and has also been linked to basic cognitive components related to arousal and attention. We review the literature from this perspective, and delineate the predictions generated by the hypothesis. In addition, we provide new data showing a link between docosahexaenoic acid and fetal heart rate that is consistent with the hypothesis. PMID:18930644

Gustafson, Kathleen M.; Colombo, John; Carlson, Susan E.

2013-01-01

395

Let it Learn: A Curious Vision System for Autonomous Object Learning  

E-print Network

Let it Learn: A Curious Vision System for Autonomous Object Learning Pramod Chandrashekhariah Keywords: Active vision, Unsupervised learning, Autonomous vision system, Vision for robotics, Humanoid present a "curious" active vision system for a humanoid robot that autonomously explores its environment

Triesch, Jochen

396

79 FR 13375 - Waiver of Autonomous Reentry Restriction for a Reentry Vehicle  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Federal Aviation Administration Waiver of Autonomous Reentry Restriction for a Reentry Vehicle...issues raised by the risk waivers and autonomous reentry waivers, respectively. 1...the safety of property. 2. Safety of Autonomous Reentry Waiver Because Orion's...

2014-03-10

397

Autonomous adaptation and collaboration of unmanned vehicles for tracking submerged contacts  

E-print Network

Autonomous operations are vital to future naval operations. Unmanned systems, including autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs) and autonomous surface vehicles (ASVs), are anticipated to play a key role for critical tasks ...

Privette, Andrew Jamie

2012-01-01

398

Parametric Competition in non-autonomous Hamiltonian Systems  

E-print Network

In this work we use the formalism of chord functions (\\emph{i.e.} characteristic functions) to analytically solve quadratic non-autonomous Hamiltonians coupled to a reservoir composed by an infinity set of oscillators, with Gaussian initial state. We analytically obtain a solution for the characteristic function under dissipation, and therefore for the determinant of the covariance matrix and the von Neumann entropy, where the latter is the physical quantity of interest. We study in details two examples that are known to show dynamical squeezing and instability effects: the inverted harmonic oscillator and an oscillator with time dependent frequency. We show that it will appear in both cases a clear competition between instability and dissipation. If the dissipation is small when compared to the instability, the squeezing generation is dominant and one can see an increasing in the von Neumann entropy. When the dissipation is large enough, the dynamical squeezing generation in one of the quadratures is retained, thence the growth in the von Neumann entropy is contained.

L. A. M. Souza; J. G. P. Faria; M. C. Nemes

2014-05-30

399

Parametric competition in non-autonomous Hamiltonian systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work we use the formalism of chord functions (i.e. characteristic functions) to analytically solve quadratic non-autonomous Hamiltonians coupled to a reservoir composed by an infinity set of oscillators, with Gaussian initial state. We analytically obtain a solution for the characteristic function under dissipation, and therefore for the determinant of the covariance matrix and the von Neumann entropy, where the latter is the physical quantity of interest. We study in details two examples that are known to show dynamical squeezing and instability effects: the inverted harmonic oscillator and an oscillator with time dependent frequency. We show that it will appear in both cases a clear competition between instability and dissipation. If the dissipation is small when compared to the instability, the squeezing generation is dominant and one can see an increasing in the von Neumann entropy. When the dissipation is large enough, the dynamical squeezing generation in one of the quadratures is retained, thence the growth in the von Neumann entropy is contained.

Souza, L. A. M.; Faria, J. G. P.; Nemes, M. C.

2014-11-01

400

Autonomous and autonomic systems: a paradigm for future space exploration missions  

Microsoft Academic Search

More and more, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) will rely on concepts from autonomous systems not only in mission control centers on the ground, but also on spacecraft and on rovers and other space assets on extraterrestrial bodies. Autonomy facilitates not only reduced operations costs, but also adaptable goal-driven functionality of mission systems. Space missions lacking autonomy will

Walter F. Truszkowski; Michael G. Hinchey; James L. Rash; Christopher A. Rouff

2006-01-01

401

Autonomous Mission Operations for Sensor Webs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present interim results of a 2005 ROSES AIST project entitled, "Using Intelligent Agents to Form a Sensor Web for Autonomous Mission Operations", or SWAMO. The goal of the SWAMO project is to shift the control of spacecraft missions from a ground-based, centrally controlled architecture to a collaborative, distributed set of intelligent agents. The network of intelligent agents intends to reduce management requirements by utilizing model-based system prediction and autonomic model/agent collaboration. SWAMO agents are distributed throughout the Sensor Web environment, which may include multiple spacecraft, aircraft, ground systems, and ocean systems, as well as manned operations centers. The agents monitor and manage sensor platforms, Earth sensing systems, and Earth sensing models and processes. The SWAMO agents form a Sensor Web of agents via peer-to-peer coordination. Some of the intelligent agents are mobile and able to traverse between on-orbit and ground-based systems. Other agents in the network are responsible for encapsulating system models to perform prediction of future behavior of the modeled subsystems and components to which they are assigned. The software agents use semantic web technologies to enable improved information sharing among the operational entities of the Sensor Web. The semantics include ontological conceptualizations of the Sensor Web environment, plus conceptualizations of the SWAMO agents themselves. By conceptualizations of the agents, we mean knowledge of their state, operational capabilities, current operational capacities, Web Service search and discovery results, agent collaboration rules, etc. The need for ontological conceptualizations over the agents is to enable autonomous and autonomic operations of the Sensor Web. The SWAMO ontology enables automated decision making and responses to the dynamic Sensor Web environment and to end user science requests. The current ontology is compatible with Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) Sensor Web Enablement (SWE) Sensor Model Language (SensorML) concepts and structures. The agents are currently deployed on the U.S. Naval Academy MidSTAR-1 satellite and are actively managing the power subsystem on-orbit without the need for human intervention.

Underbrink, A.; Witt, K.; Stanley, J.; Mandl, D.

2008-12-01

402

Pipeline inspection using an autonomous underwater vehicle  

SciTech Connect

Pipeline inspection can be carried out by means of small Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUVs), operating either with a control link to a surface vessel, or totally independently. The AUV offers an attractive alternative to conventional inspection methods where Remotely Operated Vehicles (ROVs) or paravanes are used. A flatfish type AUV ``MARTIN`` (Marine Tool for Inspection) has been developed for this purpose. The paper describes the proposed types of inspection jobs to be carried out by ``MARTIN``. The design and construction of the vessel, its hydrodynamic properties, its propulsion and control systems are discussed. The pipeline tracking and survey systems, as well as the launch and recovery systems are described.

Egeskov, P.; Bech, M. [Maridan Aps., Hoersholm (Denmark); Bowley, R. [TSS Ltd., Weston-on-the-Green (United Kingdom); Aage, C. [Technical Univ. of Denmark, Lyngby (Denmark). Dept. of Ocean Engineering

1995-12-31

403

Autonomous Rendezvous and Docking Conference, volume 2  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Autonomous Rendezvous and Docking (ARD) will be a requirement for future space programs. Clear examples include satellite servicing, repair, recovery, and reboost in the near term, and the longer range lunar and planetary exploration programs. ARD will permit more aggressive unmanned space activities, while providing a valuable operational capability for manned missions. The purpose of the conference is to identify the technologies required for an on-orbit demonstration of ARD, assess the maturity of those technologies, and provide the necessary insight for a quality assessment of programmatic management, technical, schedule, and cost risks.

1990-01-01

404

A Generalized Non-Autonomous SIRVS Model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A non-autonomous SIRVS epidemic model, with incidence rates are represented by functions ?(t,S)I and ?(t,V)I, where S, I and V stand for the Susceptible, Infective and Vaccinated populations respectively, is proposed. The global dynamics of the system is investigated and sufficient conditions for the permanence and extinction of the infection are obtained. In particular numbers to measure the force of infection in terms of the threshold conditions are provided. Numerical simulations are performed to validate the analytical theory. Examples with periodic functions are used to describe phenomena of common diseases.

Silva, César M.; Pereira, Edgar; da Silva, Jacques A. L.

2010-09-01

405

Localization of Autonomic Nervous System Dysfunction in Dialysis Patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Autonomic nervous system dysfunction has been described frequently in uremic patients. The purpose of this study is to determine the localization of this abnormality and to study the possible relationship between autonomic dysfunction and the occurrence of dialysis hypotension. Sixteen consecutive patients participated in the study, 5 of whom had a history of dialysis-induced hypotension. These 5 patients were compared

Yoshiyuki Nakashima; Fetnat M. Fouad; Satoru Nakamoto; Stephen C. Textor; Emmanuel L. Bravo; Robert C. Tarazi

1987-01-01

406

Flying Between Obstacles with an Autonomous Knife-Edge Maneuver  

E-print Network

Flying Between Obstacles with an Autonomous Knife-Edge Maneuver by Andrew J. Barry Submitted with an Autonomous Knife-Edge Maneuver by Andrew J. Barry Submitted to the Department of Electrical Engineering speed (7m/s or 16 MPH) "knife-edge" maneuver through a gap that is smaller than the aircraft's wingspan

Tedrake, Russ

407

The autonomic nervous system and Dretske on phenomenal consciousness  

E-print Network

1 The autonomic nervous system and Dretske on phenomenal consciousness Dan Ryder1 and C.B. Martin2 to be phenomenally conscious. It turns out that insofar as these conditions have been worked out in detail, the autonomic nervous system (ANS) ought to be conscious - but of course it's not. In this paper, we'll describe

Ryder, Dan

408

Paradoxical Autonomic Response to Mental Tasks in Autism.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Autonomic response to mental tasks requiring sustained attention were examined in 20 adolescents with autism and 20 controls. Cardiac autonomic function (CAF) was evaluated based on heart rate variability. While controls showed a significant decrease in the parasympathetic function during mental tasks, subjects showed no significant change in CAF.…

Toichi, Motomi; Kamio, Yoko

2003-01-01

409

Visual Control of an Autonomous Indoor Robotic Blimp  

E-print Network

Visual Control of an Autonomous Indoor Robotic Blimp L. M. Alkurdi, R. B. Fisher University of Edinburgh ABSTRACT The problem of visual control of an indoor blimp autonomously is investigated used for advertisements, terrain mapping, surveillance and environmental research. Blimps are a special

Fisher, Bob

410

Q-Learning for Navigation Control of an Autonomous Blimp  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this research, an autonomous control system for blimp navigation was developed using reinforcement learning algorithm. The aim of this research is to provide a blimp the capability to approach a goal position autonomously in an environment, where the dynamical models of the blimp and the environment are unknown. Webots™ Robotics Simulator (WRS) was used to simulate and evaluate the

Yiwei Liu; Zengxi Pan; David Stirling; Fazel Naghdy

2009-01-01

411

A SemiAutonomous Robotic Airship for Environmental Monitoring Missions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses Project AURORA (autonomous unmanned remote monitoring robotic airship) which focuses on the development of the control, navigation, sensing, and inference technologies required for substantially autonomous robotic airships. Our target application areas include the use of robotic airships for environmental, biodiversity, and climate research and monitoring. Based on typical mission requirements, we present arguments that favour airships over

Alberto Elfes; Samuel Siqueira Bueno; Marcel Bergerman; Josué Jr. Guimarães Ramos

1998-01-01

412

Formation Control of Autonomous Agents in 3D Workspace  

Microsoft Academic Search

A general method of controller design is developed in this paper for the purpose of formation keeping and reconfiguration of multiple autonomous vehicles. Controllers are designed to keep multiple vehicles in a required formation, and to coordinate the vehicles in the presence of environmental changes. The method is applicable to a large variety of autonomous agents. Examples and simulations are

Wei Kang; Ning Xi; Andy Sparks

2000-01-01

413

Autonomic Cardiovascular Responses to Heme Oxygenase Inhibition in Conscious Rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carbon monoxide (CO) is produced in the course of heme degradation from biliverdin by heme oxygenase (HO) in various tissues, including the central nervous system. Recent studies suggest the inhibition of HO activity increases arterial pressure mediated by the autonomic nervous system. The present study was designed to investigate the autonomic regulation of cardiovascular responses to inhibition of endogenous CO

Haruhisa Hirakawa; Yoshiaki Hayashida

2010-01-01

414

Control of Construction Vibrations with an Autonomous Crack Comparometer  

E-print Network

Control of Construction Vibrations with an Autonomous Crack Comparometer Charles H. Dowding-induced cracking has led to development of a new approach to vibration monitoring, an autonomous crack comparometer in crack width and those produced by habitation and ground motion-induced vibration. This comparison

415

Autonomic Mechanisms and Therapeutic Implications of Postural Diabetic Cardiovascular Abnormalities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy (CAN) is a disorder of progressive autonomic dysfunction (AD) associated with diabetes and other chronic diseases. Orthostatic hypotension (OH) is one of the most incapacitating symptoms of CAN and AD. AD in OH can include sympathetic withdrawal (SW). To detect and diagnose SW, parasympathetic and sympathetic changes must be clearly differentiated from each other. This is

Rohit R. Arora; Robert J. Bulgarelli; Samanwoy Ghosh-Dastidar; Joseph Colombo

416

Safety Assessment of Autonomous Cars using Verification Techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

A common requirement for autonomous cars is a safe locomotion which is evaluated by the method of hybrid verification applied online. The approach checks avoidance of static obstacles and dynamic traffic participants, which are described by imprecise data on their positions and velocities. The nonlinear dynamics of the autonomous car and other traffic participants is conservatively abstracted to Markov chains,

Matthias Althoff; Olaf Stursberg; Martin Buss

2007-01-01

417

Cardiac Autonomic Control in Individuals With Down Syndrome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Our goal in this study was to compare cardiac autonomic control at rest between 50 individuals with Down syndrome and 24 control participants without disabilities. Resting autonomic function was assessed using analysis of heart rate variability. Participants with Down syndrome had reduced total heart rate variability, which indicates possible…

Goulopoulou, Styliani; Baynard, Tracy; Collier, Scott; Giannopoulou, Ifigenia; Figueroa, Arturo; Beets, Michael; Pitetti, Kenneth; Fernhall, Bo

2006-01-01

418

UAV Coordination for Autonomous Target Tracking Richard A. Wise  

E-print Network

UAV Coordination for Autonomous Target Tracking Richard A. Wise and Rolf T. Rysdyk Autonomous different methodologies for tracking a moving target with multiple Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs). Relative position coordination of UAVs is en- forced. The comparison considers minimization of heuristics

Washington at Seattle, University of

419

2014 D.A. Menasce. All Rights Reserved. Autonomic Computing  

E-print Network

© 2014 D.A. Menasce. All Rights Reserved. 1 Autonomic Computing: a new design principle for complex Rights Reserved. 5 #@*%#! #12;Outline · Motivation for Autonomic Computing · Techniques used in AC ­ Model-driven · Performance model · Control theory ­ Model-free · Machine learning (e.g., reinforcement

Menascé, Daniel A.

420

Real-time vision system for autonomous mobile robot  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to realize a vision system for an autonomous mobile robot used in a human living environment, it is necessary to observe human behaviors and to react to those actions. In this paper, we propose a real-time human tracking method based on vision system for an autonomous mobile robot. First, the system detects body parts as moving areas in

M. Doi; M. Nakakita; Y. Aoki; S. Hashimoto

2001-01-01

421

A Vision System for an Autonomous Underwater Vehicle  

E-print Network

A Vision System for an Autonomous Underwater Vehicle Ian Fitzgerald October 1999 Supervisors: Mr vision system that is intended for use on the Autonomous Underwater Vehicle, Kambara. The vision system an automated calibration routine to determine the vision systems camera parameters. Using this information

422

Color machine vision for autonomous vehicles Shashi D. Buluswar  

E-print Network

Color machine vision for autonomous vehicles Shashi D. Buluswar Bruce A. Draper Dept. of Computer vehicles, Machine learning in computer vision. Abstract Color can be a useful feature in autonomous vehicle systems that are based on machine vision, for tasks such as obstacle detection, lane road following

Draper, Bruce A.

423

Cognitive Concepts in Autonomous Soccer Playing Martin Lauer  

E-print Network

the development of autonomous, cognitive systems requires ap- proaches that develop the system as a whole taking of development, robot soccer has brought the ideas of an integrated develop- ment of cognitive techniquesCognitive Concepts in Autonomous Soccer Playing Robots Martin Lauer Institute of Measurement

Teschner, Matthias

424

Evolving Spiking Neural Network Controllers for Autonomous Robots  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we introduce a novel mechanism for controlling autonomous mobile robots that is based on using Spiking Neural Networks (SNNs). SNNs are inspired by biological neurons that communicate using pulses or spikes. As SNNs have shown to be excellent control systems for biological organisms, they have the potential to produce good control systems for autonomous robots. In this

Hani Hagras; Anthony Pounds-cornish; Martin Colley; Victor Callaghan; Graham Clarke

2004-01-01

425

Passive and Active Acoustics Using an Autonomous Wave Glider  

E-print Network

Passive and Active Acoustics Using an Autonomous Wave Glider developed wave glider has the potential to be an effective unmanned platform for acoustic ap- plications. We of the autonomous platform is evaluated using an integrated passive acoustic recorder during a set of field trials

Frandsen, Jannette B.

426

Analysis of the Autonomous System Network Topology Damien Magoni  

E-print Network

Analysis of the Autonomous System Network Topology Damien Magoni LSIIT-ULP Bld S´ebastien Brant, AS network topology analysis, power laws 1. INTRODUCTION For network researchers and engineers, the study. It is the topology made by the Autonomous Systems of the Internet. These network enti- ties are used at the inter

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

427

An Autonomous Sensor for Force Measurements in Human Knee Implants  

Microsoft Academic Search

In vivo monitoring of human knee implants after total arthroplasty increases the knowledge about articular motion and loading conditions. The proposed autonomous sensor executes autonomously force measurements into a protected environment and wirelessly transmits data directly from the inside of the implant to an external readout unit. The forces transmitted across the knee joint during normal human activities such as

D. Crescini; E. Sardini; M. Serpelloni

2009-01-01

428

Autonomous Flight Experiment with a Robotic Unmanned Airship  

Microsoft Academic Search

Project AURORA aims at the development of an unmanned airship capable of autonomous flight over user-defined locations for aerial inspection and imagery acquisition. In this article the authors report a successful autonomous flight achieved through a set of pre-defined points, one of the first of its kind in the literature. The guidance control strategy is based on a path tracking

Josué Jr. Guimarães Ramos; Ely Carneiro de Paiva; Jose Raul Azinheira; Samuel Siqueira Bueno; Silvio Mano Maeta; Luiz G. B. Mirisola; Marcel Bergerman; B. G. Faria

2001-01-01

429

CONTINUOUS FLOW "RAIL-AND-TRAP" MICROFLUIDIC PROCESSORS FOR AUTONOMOUS  

E-print Network

CONTINUOUS FLOW "RAIL-AND-TRAP" MICROFLUIDIC PROCESSORS FOR AUTONOMOUS BEAD-BASED MIXING, here we present a microfluidic "rail-and-trap" processor that functions autonomously under continuous step of multi-stage fluidic processes. Experimental results revealed railing efficiencies and trapping

Lin, Liwei

430

Autonomous Low Earth Orbit Station-Keeping with Electric Propulsion  

E-print Network

Autonomous Low Earth Orbit Station-Keeping with Electric Propulsion Andrea Garulli1 , Antonio of an electric propulsion system for autonomous station-keeping of a remote sensing spacecraft flying at low altitude. The consid- ered propulsion system exploits a Xenon propellant bus, which operates both a low

Giannitrapani, Antonello

431

An Embedded Real-Time System for Autonomous Flight Control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Unmanned Autonomous Vehicles (UAV) represent an attractive solution for those monitoring applications in hazardous environments, where direct human intervention is difficult or impossible to achieve. Small autonomous aircrafts represents a convenient possibility for monitoring large areas, for example for detecting fires and following their evolution. Controlling such systems, however, is very challenging due to the limited resources available onboard and

Mauro Marinoni; Tullio Facchinetti; Giorgio Buttazzo; Gianluca Franchino

432

Unmanned autonomous helicopter system design and its flight test  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes an unmanned autonomous helicopter system developed by KAIST UAV team. The developed RUAV (Rotary-Wing Unmanned Aerial Vehicle) system consists of the guidance and control system for autonomous flight, ground control system (GCS), mission payloads, and communication system. The implemented autopilot in RUAV has four control channels for longitudinal and lateral velocities, altitude, and heading angle. A new

Byoung-Mun Min; Il-Hyung Lee; Tae-Won Hwang; Jin-Sung Hong; Hyo-Choong Bang; Min-Jea Tahk

2007-01-01

433

Modeling of an autonomous microgrid for renewable energy sources integration  

Microsoft Academic Search

The frequency stability analysis in an autonomous microgrid (MG) with renewable energy sources (RES) is a continuously studied issue. This paper presents an original method for modeling an autonomous MG with a battery energy storage system (BESS) and a wind power plant (WPP), with the purpose of frequency stability analysis. A reduced order model is developed, considering only the dominant

I. Serban; R. Teodorescu; J. M. Guerrero; C. Marinescu

2009-01-01

434

Autonomous Distributed System Paradigm to Secure Safety Critical  

Microsoft Academic Search

To secure modern complex system activities, rigid and heavily centralized organization is rather obstacle. To facilitate quick decision, mutual collaboration, and to maintain performability in unexpected severe situation, autonomous decision unit should act at best in intelligent way by itself. Autonomous distributed system concept plays a central role for operating complex systems commonly existing in todays networked society of 21st

Sadatoshi Kumagai; T. Miyamoto; Y. Morihiro

2006-01-01

435

Towards Performance-Aware Engineering of Autonomic Component Ensembles  

E-print Network

Towards Performance-Aware Engineering of Autonomic Component Ensembles Tomás Bures1, 2 , Vojtch components are a novel software engineering paradigm for development of open-ended distributed highly dynamic the engineering process of autonomic com- ponents and their ensembles. These methods highlight the importance

436

AUTONOMOUS CRACK MEASUREMENT FOR COMPARISON OF VIBRATORY COMPACTION EXCITATION AND  

E-print Network

width (or distance between sensor and target- i.e. displacement) provides a comparison of the potentialAUTONOMOUS CRACK MEASUREMENT FOR COMPARISON OF VIBRATORY COMPACTION EXCITATION AND CLIMATOLOGICAL displacement or proximity sensors used with the Autonomous Crack Measurement (ACM) system is then compared

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

437

Autonomic ganglia, acetylcholine receptor antibodies, and autoimmune ganglionopathy  

PubMed Central

Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (AChR) are ligand-gated cation channels that are present throughout the nervous system. The ganglionic (?3-type) neuronal AChR mediates fast synaptic transmission in sympathetic, parasympathetic and enteric autonomic ganglia. Autonomic ganglia are an important site of neural integration and regulation of autonomic reflexes. Impaired cholinergic ganglionic synaptic transmission is one important cause of autonomic failure. Ganglionic AChR antibodies are found in many patients with autoimmune autonomic ganglionopathy (AAG). These antibodies recognize the ?3 subunit of the ganglionic AChR, and thus do not bind non-specifically to other nicotinic AChR. Patients with high levels of ganglionic AChR antibodies typically present with rapid onset of severe autonomic failure, with orthostatic hypotension, gastrointestinal dysmotility, anhidrosis, bladder dysfunction and sicca symptoms. Impaired pupillary light reflex is often seen. Like myasthenia gravis, AAG is an antibody-mediated neurological disorder. Antibodies from patients with AAG inhibit ganglionic AChR currents and impair transmission in autonomic ganglia. An animal model of AAG in the rabbit recapitulates the important clinical features of the human disease and provides additional evidence that AAG is an antibody-mediated disorder caused by impairment of synaptic transmission in autonomic ganglia. PMID:18951069

Vernino, Steven; Hopkins, Steve; Wang, Zhengbei

2009-01-01

438

Autonomic ganglia, acetylcholine receptor antibodies, and autoimmune ganglionopathy.  

PubMed

Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (AChR) are ligand-gated cation channels that are present throughout the nervous system. The ganglionic (alpha3-type) neuronal AChR mediates fast synaptic transmission in sympathetic, parasympathetic and enteric autonomic ganglia. Autonomic ganglia are an important site of neural integration and regulation of autonomic reflexes. Impaired cholinergic ganglionic synaptic transmission is one important cause of autonomic failure. Ganglionic AChR antibodies are found in many patients with autoimmune autonomic ganglionopathy (AAG). These antibodies recognize the alpha3 subunit of the ganglionic AChR, and thus do not bind non-specifically to other nicotinic AChR. Patients with high levels of ganglionic AChR antibodies typically present with rapid onset of severe autonomic failure, with orthostatic hypotension, gastrointestinal dysmotility, anhidrosis, bladder dysfunction and sicca symptoms. Impaired pupillary light reflex is often seen. Like myasthenia gravis, AAG is an antibody-mediated neurological disorder. Antibodies from patients with AAG inhibit ganglionic AChR currents and impair transmission in autonomic ganglia. An animal model of AAG in the rabbit recapitulates the important clinical features of the human disease and provides additional evidence that AAG is an antibody-mediated disorder caused by impairment of synaptic transmission in autonomic ganglia. PMID:18951069

Vernino, Steven; Hopkins, Steve; Wang, Zhengbei

2009-03-12

439

Autonomic nervous system dysfunction after spinal cord injury.  

PubMed

The autonomic nervous system (ANS) plays a key role in the regulation of many physiologic processes, mediated by supraspinal control from centers in the central nervous system. The role of autonomic dysfunction in persons with spinal cord injuries is crucial to understand because many aspects of the altered physiology seen in these individuals are directly caused by ANS dysregulation. PMID:17543773

Garstang, Susan V; Miller-Smith, Stacey A

2007-05-01

440

Significance of Autonomic Nervous System Activity in Functional Dyspepsia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to examine if patients with functional dyspepsia could be separated into meaningful groups based on their autonomic function. Subjects were divided into two groups, and symptoms, gastric myoelectrical activity, gastric emptying, and psychological factors were compared. Group 1 had less autonomic variability but more cardiac reactivity than group 2. Symptom reports did not differ

Eric R. Muth; Kenneth L. Koch; Robert M. Stern

2000-01-01

441

A Hybrid Controller for Autonomous Vehicles Driving on Automated Highways #  

E-print Network

A Hybrid Controller for Autonomous Vehicles Driving on Automated Highways # Alain Girault a a Inria the problem of the hybrid control of autonomous vehicles driving on automated highways. Vehicles to be dealt with: a vehicle driving in a single­lane highway must never collide with its leading vehicle

Girault, Alain

442

Autonomous and cooperative multi-UAV guidance in adversarial environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The research presented in this dissertation is aimed at developing rule-based autonomous and cooperative guidance strategies for UAVs to perform missions such as path planning, target tracking and rendezvous while reducing their risk/threat exposure level, and avoiding threats and/or obstacles by utilizing measurement information provided by sensors. First, a mathematical formulation is developed to represent the area of operation that contains various types of threats, obstacles, and restricted areas, in a single framework. Once constructed, there will be no need to distinguish between threats, obstacles and restricted areas as the framework already contains the information on what needs to be avoided and the level of penalty for a given position in the area. This framework provides the mathematical foundation for the guidance strategies to make intelligent decisions during the execution of the mission and also provides scalar metrics to assess the performance of a guidance strategy in a given mission. The autonomous guidance strategies are developed by using a rule-based expert system approach with the requirements of completing assigned mission or task, avoiding obstacle/restricted-areas, minimizing threat exposure level, considering the dynamic and communication constraints of the UAVs and avoiding collision. All these requirements and objectives are quantified and prioritized to facilitate the development of guidance algorithms that can be executed in real-time. The strategies consist of a set of "decision states", which contain rules to determine how the host UAV should move by generating heading and speed signals. Cooperation of multiple UAVs is modeled by minimizing a cost function, which is constructed based on the level of threat exposure for each UAV and distance of each UAV relative to the target. This improves the performance of the system in the terms of increasing the total area of coverage of the sensors onboard the UAVs, increasing the flexibility of the UAVs to search for better trajectories in terms of obstacle/restricted-area avoidance and threat exposure minimization, and improving the estimation by providing additional sources of measurement. Finally, the performances of the algorithms are evaluated in a MATLAB/Simulink (c) based simulation environment, which includes the dynamics of each vehicle involved, the models of sensor measurement and data communication with different sampling rates, and the discrete execution of the algorithms. The simulation results demonstrate that the proposed algorithms successfully generates the trajectories that satisfy the given mission objectives and requirements.

Zengin, Ugur

443

Autonomous controller employing 155IP3 arithmetic-logic unit  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes an autonomous CAMAC crate controller and its software. The controller is intended for use in autonomous subsystems designed for autonomous control, measurement, preselection, storage, representation and transmission of data. The software that has been developed contains a number of common subroutines, a computer-communications program and the CAMAC-oriented language COMPAX, which allows the operator to program the controller in convenient text form from the crate terminal. At the present time, the autonomous controller is being used at the Leningrad Institute of Nuclear Physics to develop and build an autonomous measuring station for the GNEIS neutron time-of-flight spectrometer and a local plane for a dose-monitoring system for the PIK reactor under construction.

Laptev, A.B.; Fokin, E.Y.; Marchenkov, V.V.; Tubol'tsev, Y.V.

1985-05-01

444

Acceptance Criteria Framework for Autonomous Biological Detectors  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this study was to examine a set of user acceptance criteria for autonomous biological detection systems for application in high-traffic, public facilities. The test case for the acceptance criteria was the Autonomous Pathogen Detection System (APDS) operating in high-traffic facilities in New York City (NYC). However, the acceptance criteria were designed to be generally applicable to other biological detection systems in other locations. For such detection systems, ''users'' will include local authorities (e.g., facility operators, public health officials, and law enforcement personnel) and national authorities [including personnel from the Department of Homeland Security (DHS), the BioWatch Program, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), and the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI)]. The panel members brought expertise from a broad range of backgrounds to complete this picture. The goals of this document are: (1) To serve as informal guidance for users in considering the benefits and costs of these systems. (2) To serve as informal guidance for developers in understanding the needs of users. In follow-up work, this framework will be used to systematically document the APDS for appropriateness and readiness for use in NYC.

Dzenitis, J M

2006-12-12

445

Autonomous uninterruptible power-supply apparatus  

SciTech Connect

This invention relates broadly to a power supply apparatus, and in particular to an autonomous uninterruptible power supply apparatus. The purpose of an uninterruptible power supply (UPS) is to protect critical electrical loads from transient or steady-stage outages or disturbances in the primary power source. The basic configuration of a typical, commercially available, uninterruptible power supply is comprised at a minimum of a standby battery and a battery charger and may also include an inverter for AC applications. Systems of this type can be found in most computer installations and laboratory systems that cannot tolerate even momentary disturbances of input power. This document describes an autonomous uninterruptible power-supply apparatus utilizing a digital-processor unit as a control and monitor unit to measure and control input and output parameters in the power supply. A battery charger is utilized to maintain the voltage and current levels with the backup battery supply source which powers an inverter unit that converts the DC power to an AC output.

Masson, J.H.

1984-12-20

446

Autonomously Calibrating a Quadrupole Mass Spectrometer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A computer program autonomously manages the calibration of a quadrupole ion mass spectrometer intended for use in monitoring concentrations and changes in concentrations of organic chemicals in the cabin air of the International Space Station. The instrument parameters calibrated include the voltage on a channel electron multiplier, a discriminator threshold, and an ionizer current. Calibration is achieved by analyzing the mass spectrum obtained while sweeping the parameter ranges in a heuristic procedure, developed by mass spectrometer experts, that involves detection of changes in signal trends that humans can easily recognize but cannot necessarily be straightforwardly codified in an algorithm. The procedure includes calculation of signal-to-noise ratios, signal-increase rates, and background-noise-increase rates; finding signal peaks; and identifying peak patterns. The software provides for several recovery-from-error scenarios and error-handling schemes. The software detects trace amounts of contaminant gases in the mass spectrometer and notifies associated command- and-data-handling software to schedule a cleaning. Furthermore, the software autonomously analyzes the mass spectrum to determine whether the parameters of a radio-frequency ramp waveform are set properly so that the peaks of the mass spectrum are at expected locations.

Lee, Seungwon; Bornstein, Benjamin J.

2009-01-01

447

Autonomic regulation of hepatic glucose production.  

PubMed

Glucose produced by the liver is a major energy source for the brain. Considering its critical dependence on glucose, it seems only natural that the brain is capable of monitoring and controlling glucose homeostasis. In addition to neuroendocrine pathways, the brain uses the autonomic nervous system to communicate with peripheral organs. Within the brain, the hypothalamus is the key region to integrate signals on energy status, including signals from lipid, glucose, and hormone sensing cells, with afferent neural signals from the internal and external milieu. In turn, the hypothalamus regulates metabolism in peripheral organs, including the liver, not only via the anterior pituitary gland but also via multiple neuropeptidergic pathways in the hypothalamus that have been identified as regulators of hepatic glucose metabolism. These pathways comprise preautonomic neurons projecting to nuclei in the brain stem and spinal cord, which relay signals from the hypothalamus to the liver via the autonomic nervous system. The neuroendocrine and neuronal outputs of the hypothalamus are not separate entities. They appear to act as a single integrated regulatory system, far more subtle, and complex than when each is viewed in isolation. Consequently, hypothalamic regulation should be viewed as a summation of both neuroendocrine and neural influences. As a result, our endocrine-based understanding of diseases such as diabetes and obesity should be expanded by integration of neural inputs into our concept of the pathophysiological process. © 2014 American Physiological Society. Compr Physiol 5: 147-165, 2014. PMID:25589267

Bisschop, Peter H; Fliers, Eric; Kalsbeek, Andries

2015-01-01

448

Autonomous support for microorganism research in space  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A preliminary design for performing on-orbit, autonomous research on microorganisms and cultured cells/tissues is presented. An understanding of gravity and its effects on cells is crucial for space exploration as well as for terrestrial applications. The payload is designed to be compatible with the COMmercial Experiment Transported (COMET) launch vehicle, an orbiter middeck locker interface, and with Space Station Freedom. Uplink/downlink capabilities and sample return through controlled reentry are available for all carriers. Autonomous testing activities are preprogrammed with inflight reprogrammability. Sensors for monitoring temperature, pH, light, gravity levels, vibration, and radiation are provided for environmental regulation and experimental data collection. Additional experiment data acquisition includes optical density measurement, microscopy, video, and file photography. Onboard full data storage capabilities are provided. A fluid transfer mechanism is utilized for inoculation, sampling, and nutrient replenishment of experiment cultures. In addition to payload design, representative experiments were developed to ensure scientific objectives remained compatible with hardware capabilities. The project is defined to provide biological data pertinent to extended duration crewed space flight including crew health issues and development of a Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS). In addition, opportunities are opened for investigations leading to commercial applications of space, such as pharmaceutical development, modeling of terrestrial diseases, and material processing.

Luttges, M. W.; Klaus, D. M.; Fleet, M. L.; Miller, M. S.; Shipley, D. E.; Smith, J. D.

1992-01-01

449

Small Autonomous Aircraft Servo Health Monitoring  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Small air vehicles offer challenging power, weight, and volume constraints when considering implementation of system health monitoring technologies. In order to develop a testbed for monitoring the health and integrity of control surface servos and linkages, the Autonomous Aircraft Servo Health Monitoring system has been designed for small Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle (UAV) platforms to detect problematic behavior from servos and the air craft structures they control, This system will serve to verify the structural integrity of an aircraft's servos and linkages and thereby, through early detection of a problematic situation, minimize the chances of an aircraft accident. Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University's rotary-winged UAV has an Airborne Power management unit that is responsible for regulating, distributing, and monitoring the power supplied to the UAV's avionics. The current sensing technology utilized by the Airborne Power Management system is also the basis for the Servo Health system. The Servo Health system measures the current draw of the servos while the servos are in Motion in order to quantify the servo health. During a preflight check, deviations from a known baseline behavior can be logged and their causes found upon closer inspection of the aircraft. The erratic behavior nay include binding as a result of dirt buildup or backlash caused by looseness in the mechanical linkages. Moreover, the Servo Health system will allow elusive problems to be identified and preventative measures taken to avoid unnecessary hazardous conditions in small autonomous aircraft.

Quintero, Steven

2008-01-01

450

Autonomous support for microorganism research in space  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A preliminary design for performing on orbit, autonomous research on microorganisms and cultured cells/tissues is presented. An understanding of gravity and its effects on cells is crucial for space exploration as well as for terrestrial applications. The payload is designed to be compatible with the Commercial Experiment Transporter (COMET) launch vehicle, an orbiter middeck locker interface, and with Space Station Freedom. Uplink/downlink capabilities and sample return through controlled reentry are available for all carriers. Autonomous testing activities are preprogrammed with in-flight reprogrammability. Sensors for monitoring temperature, pH, light, gravity levels, vibrations, and radiation are provided for environmental regulation and experimental data collection. Additional experimental data acquisition includes optical density measurement, microscopy, video, and film photography. On-board full data storage capabilities are provided. A fluid transfer mechanism is utilized for inoculation, sampling, and nutrient replenishment of experiment cultures. In addition to payload design, representative experiments were developed to ensure scientific objectives remained compatible with hardware capabilities. The project is defined to provide biological data pertinent to extended duration crewed space flight including crew health issues and development of a Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS). In addition, opportunities are opened for investigations leading to commercial applications of space, such as pharmaceutical development, modeling of terrestrial diseases, and material processing.

Fleet, Mary L.; Miller, Mark S.; Shipley, Derek, E.; Smith, Jeff D.

1992-01-01

451

Autonomous Navigation for Deep Space Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Navigation (determining where the spacecraft is at any given time, controlling its path to achieve desired targets), performed using ground-in- the-loop techniques: (1) Data includes 2-way radiometric (Doppler, range), interferometric (Delta- Differential One-way Range), and optical (images of natural bodies taken by onboard camera) (2) Data received on the ground, processed to determine orbit, commands sent to execute maneuvers to control orbit. A self-contained, onboard, autonomous navigation system can: (1) Eliminate delays due to round-trip light time (2) Eliminate the human factors in ground-based processing (3) Reduce turnaround time from navigation update to minutes, down to seconds (4) React to late-breaking data. At JPL, we have developed the framework and computational elements of an autonomous navigation system, called AutoNav. It was originally developed as one of the technologies for the Deep Space 1 mission, launched in 1998; subsequently used on three other spacecraft, for four different missions. The primary use has been on comet missions to track comets during flybys, and impact one comet.

Bhaskaran, Shyam

2012-01-01

452

Autonomic function in manganese alloy workers  

SciTech Connect

The observation of orthostatic hypotension in an index case of manganese toxicity lead to this prospective attempt to evaluate cardiovascular autonomic function and cognitive and emotional neurotoxicity in eight manganese alloy welders and machinists. The subjects consisted of a convenience sample consisting of an index case of manganese dementia, his four co-workers in a frog shop for gouging, welding, and grinding repair of high manganese railway track and a convenience sample of three mild steel welders with lesser manganese exposure also referred because of cognitive or autonomic symptoms. Frog shop air manganese samples 9.6--10 years before and 1.2--3.4 years after the diagnosis of the index case exceeded 1.0 mg/m{sup 3} in 29% and 0.2 mg/m{sup 3} in 62%. Twenty-four-hour electrocardiographic (Holter) monitoring was used to determine the temporal variability of the heartrate (RR{prime} interval) and the rates of change at low frequency and high frequency. MMPI and MCMI personality assessment and short-term memory, figure copy, controlled oral word association, and symbol digit tests were used.

Barrington, W.W.; Angle, C.R.; Willcockson, N.K.; Padula, M.A. [Univ. of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE (United States)] [Univ. of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE (United States); Korn, T.

1998-07-01

453

Autonomous Space Processor for Orbital Debris (ASPOD)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A project in the Advanced Design Program at the University of Arizona is described. The project is named the Autonomous Space Processor for Orbital Debris (ASPOD) and is a Universities Space Research Association (USRA) sponsored design project. The development of ASPOD and the students' abilities in designing and building a prototype spacecraft are the ultimate goals of this project. This year's focus entailed the development of a secondary robotic arm and end-effector to work in tandem with an existent arm in the removal of orbital debris. The new arm features the introduction of composite materials and a linear drive system, thus producing a light-weight and more accurate prototype. The main characteristic of the end-effector design is that it incorporates all of the motors and gearing internally, thus not subjecting them to the harsh space environment. Furthermore, the arm and the end-effector are automated by a control system with positional feedback. This system is composed of magnetic and optical encoders connected to a 486 PC via two servo-motor controller cards. Programming a series of basic routines and sub-routines allowed the ASPOD prototype to become more autonomous. The new system is expected to perform specified tasks with a positional accuracy of 0.5 cm.

Ramohalli, Kumar; Mitchell, Dominique; Taft, Brett

1992-01-01

454

The MAP Autonomous Mission Control System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Microwave Anisotropy Probe (MAP) mission is the second mission in NASA's Office of Space Science low-cost, Medium-class Explorers (MIDEX) program. The Explorers Program is designed to accomplish frequent, low cost, high quality space science investigations utilizing innovative, streamlined, efficient management, design and operations approaches. The MAP spacecraft will produce an accurate full-sky map of the cosmic microwave background temperature fluctuations with high sensitivity and angular resolution. The MAP spacecraft is planned for launch in early 2001, and will be staffed by only single-shift operations. During the rest of the time the spacecraft must be operated autonomously, with personnel available only on an on-call basis. Four (4) innovations will work cooperatively to enable a significant reduction in operations costs for the MAP spacecraft. First, the use of a common ground system for Spacecraft Integration and Test (I&T) as well as Operations. Second, the use of Finite State Modeling for intelligent autonomy. Third, the integration of a graphical planning engine to drive the autonomous systems without an intermediate manual step. And fourth, the ability for distributed operations via Web and pager access.

Breed, Juile; Coyle, Steven; Blahut, Kevin; Dent, Carolyn; Shendock, Robert; Rowe, Roger

2000-01-01

455

Autonomous docking ground demonstration (category 3)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) is involved in the development of an autonomous docking ground demonstration. The demonstration combines the technologies, expertise and facilities of the JSC Tracking and Communications Division (EE), Structures and Mechanics Division (ES), and the Navigation, Guidance and Control Division (EG) and their supporting contractors. The autonomous docking ground demonstration is an evaluation of the capabilities of the laser sensor system to support the docking phase (12ft to contact) when operated in conjunction with the Guidance, Navigation and Control Software. The docking mechanism being used was developed for the Apollo Soyuz Test Program. This demonstration will be conducted using the Six-Degrees of Freedom (6-DOF) Dynamic Test System (DTS). The DTS environment simulates the Space Station Freedom as the stationary or target vehicle and the Orbiter as the active or chase vehicle. For this demonstration the laser sensor will be mounted on the target vehicle and the retroreflectors on the chase vehicle. This arrangement was used to prevent potential damage to the laser. The sensor system. GN&C and 6-DOF DTS will be operated closed-loop. Initial condition to simulate vehicle misalignments, translational and rotational, will be introduced within the constraints of the systems involved. Detailed description of each of the demonstration components (e.g., Sensor System, GN&C, 6-DOF DTS and supporting computer configuration) including their capabilities and limitations will be discussed. A demonstration architecture drawing and photographs of the test configuration will be presented.

Lamkin, Steve L.; Eick, Richard E.; Baxter, James M.; Boyd, M. G.; Clark, Fred D.; Lee, Thomas Q.; Othon, L. T.; Prather, Joseph L.; Spehar, Peter T.; Teders, Rebecca J.

1991-01-01

456

Autonomous Decentralized Voltage Profile Control of Super Distributed Energy System using Multi-agent Technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A super distributed energy system is a future energy system in which the large part of its demand is fed by a huge number of distributed generators. At one time some nodes in the super distributed energy system behave as load, however, at other times they behave as generator - the characteristic of each node depends on the customers' decision. In such situation, it is very difficult to regulate voltage profile over the system due to the complexity of power flows. This paper proposes a novel control method of distributed generators that can achieve the autonomous decentralized voltage profile regulation by using multi-agent technology. The proposed multi-agent system employs two types of agent; a control agent and a mobile agent. Control agents generate or consume reactive power to regulate the voltage profile of neighboring nodes and mobile agents transmit the information necessary for VQ-control among the control agents. The proposed control method is tested through numerical simulations.

Tsuji, Takao; Hara, Ryoichi; Oyama, Tsutomu; Yasuda, Keiichiro

457

Approach for Autonomous Control of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Using Intelligent Agents for Knowledge Creation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes the development of a planned approach for Autonomous operation of an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV). A Hybrid approach will seek to provide Knowledge Generation through the application of Artificial Intelligence (AI) and Intelligent Agents (IA) for UAV control. The applications of several different types of AI techniques for flight are explored during this research effort. The research concentration is directed to the application of different AI methods within the UAV arena. By evaluating AI and biological system approaches. which include Expert Systems, Neural Networks. Intelligent Agents, Fuzzy Logic, and Complex Adaptive Systems, a new insight may be gained into the benefits of AI and CAS techniques applied to achieving true autonomous operation of these systems. Although flight systems were explored, the benefits should apply to many Unmanned Vehicles such as: Rovers. Ocean Explorers, Robots, and autonomous operation systems. A portion of the flight system is broken down into control agents that represent the intelligent agent approach used in AI. After the completion of a successful approach, a framework for applying an intelligent agent is presented. The initial results from simulation of a security agent for communication are presented.

Dufrene, Warren R., Jr.

2004-01-01

458

Autonomous target tracking of UAVs based on low-power neural network hardware  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Detecting and identifying targets in unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) images and videos have been challenging problems due to various types of image distortion. Moreover, the significantly high processing overhead of existing image/video processing techniques and the limited computing resources available on UAVs force most of the processing tasks to be performed by the ground control station (GCS) in an off-line manner. In order to achieve fast and autonomous target identification on UAVs, it is thus imperative to investigate novel processing paradigms that can fulfill the real-time processing requirements, while fitting the size, weight, and power (SWaP) constrained environment. In this paper, we present a new autonomous target identification approach on UAVs, leveraging the emerging neuromorphic hardware which is capable of massively parallel pattern recognition processing and demands only a limited level of power consumption. A proof-of-concept prototype was developed based on a micro-UAV platform (Parrot AR Drone) and the CogniMemTMneural network chip, for processing the video data acquired from a UAV camera on the y. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the feasibility and potential of incorporating emerging neuromorphic hardware into next-generation UAVs and their superior performance and power advantages towards the real-time, autonomous target tracking.

Yang, Wei; Jin, Zhanpeng; Thiem, Clare; Wysocki, Bryant; Shen, Dan; Chen, Genshe

2014-05-01

459

Autonomous sensor-transponder RFID with supply energy conditioning for object navigation systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The properties of energy conditioning electrical circuits that are developed for powering additional functional blocks of autonomous RFID transponders working in the HF band have been analyzed and presented in the paper. The concept of autonomy is realized by implementing extra functions in the typical transponder. First of all, the autonomous system should harvest energy, e.g. from the electromagnetic field of read/write devices but also the possibility of gathering information about environment should be available, e.g. by measuring different kind of physical quantities. In such an electrical device, the crucial problem consists in energy conditioning because the output voltage-current characteristic of an front-end (antenna with matching and harvesting circuit) as well as the total and instantaneous power load generated by internal circuits are strongly dependent on a realized function but also on energy and communication conditions in the RFID interface. The properly designed solution should improve harvesting efficiency, current leakage of supply storage, matching between antenna and input circuits, in order to save energy and increase operating time in such a battery-free system. The authors present methods how to increase the autonomous operation time even at advanced measuring algorithms. The measuring system with wide spectrum of sensors dedicated for different quantities (physical, chemical, etc.) has also been presented. The results of model calculations and experimental verifications have been also discussed on the basis of investigations conducted in the unique laboratory stand of object navigation systems.

Skoczylas, M.; Kamuda, K.; Jankowski-Mihu?owicz, P.; Kalita, W.; Weglarski, Mariusz

2014-08-01

460

Approach for Autonomous Control of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Using Intelligent Agents for Knowledge Creation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes the development of a planned approach for Autonomous operation of an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV). A Hybrid approach will seek to provide Knowledge Generation thru the application of Artificial Intelligence (AI) and Intelligent Agents (IA) for UAV control. The application of many different types of AI techniques for flight will be explored during this research effort. The research concentration will be directed to the application of different AI methods within the UAV arena. By evaluating AI approaches, which will include Expert Systems, Neural Networks, Intelligent Agents, Fuzzy Logic, and Complex Adaptive Systems, a new insight may be gained into the benefits of AI techniques applied to achieving true autonomous operation of these systems thus providing new intellectual merit to this research field. The major area of discussion will be limited to the UAV. The systems of interest include small aircraft, insects, and miniature aircraft. Although flight systems will be explored, the benefits should apply to many Unmanned Vehicles such as: Rovers, Ocean Explorers, Robots, and autonomous operation systems. The flight system will be broken down into control agents that will represent the intelligent agent approach used in AI. After the completion of a successful approach, a framework of applying a Security Overseer will be added in an attempt to address errors, emergencies, failures, damage, or over dynamic environment. The chosen control problem was the landing phase of UAV operation. The initial results from simulation in FlightGear are presented.

Dufrene, Warren R., Jr.

2004-01-01

461

Autonomous perception and decision making in cyber-physical systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The cyber-physical system (CPS) is a relatively new interdisciplinary technology area that includes the general class of embedded and hybrid systems. CPSs require integration of computation and physical processes that involves the aspects of physical quantities such as time, energy and space during information processing and control. The physical space is the source of information and the cyber space makes use of the generated information to make decisions. This dissertation proposes an overall architecture of autonomous perception-based decision & control of complex cyber-physical systems. Perception involves the recently developed framework of Symbolic Dynamic Filtering for abstraction of physical world in the cyber space. For example, under this framework, sensor observations from a physical entity are discretized temporally and spatially to generate blocks of symbols, also called words that form a language. A grammar of a language is the set of rules that determine the relationships among words to build sentences. Subsequently, a physical system is conjectured to be a linguistic source that is capable of generating a specific language. The proposed technology is validated on various (experimental and simulated) case studies that include health monitoring of aircraft gas turbine engines, detection and estimation of fatigue damage in polycrystalline alloys, and parameter identification. Control of complex cyber-physical systems involve distributed sensing, computation, control as well as complexity analysis. A novel statistical mechanics-inspired complexity analysis approach is proposed in this dissertation. In such a scenario of networked physical systems, the distribution of physical entities determines the underlying network topology and the interaction among the entities forms the abstract cyber space. It is envisioned that the general contributions, made in this dissertation, will be useful for potential application areas such as smart power grids and buildings, distributed energy systems, advanced health care procedures and future ground and air transportation systems.

Sarkar, Soumik

2011-07-01

462

Autonomous Underwater Vehicle Magnetic Mapping System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV) Magnetic Mapping (MM) System has been developed and tested for military munitions detection as well as pipeline locating, wreck searches, and geologic surveys in underwater environments. The system is comprised of a high sensitivity Geometrics G-880AUV cesium vapor magnetometer integrated with a Teledyne-Gavia AUV and associated Doppler enabled inertial navigation further utilizing traditional acoustic bathymetric and side scan imaging. All onboard sensors and associated electronics are managed through customized crew members to autonomously operate through the vehicles primary control module. Total field magnetic measurements are recorded with asynchronous time-stamped data logs which include position, altitude, heading, pitch, roll, and electrical current usage. Pre-planned mission information can be uploaded to the system operators to define data collection metrics including speed, height above seafloor, and lane or transect spacing specifically designed to meet data quality objectives for the survey. As a result of the AUVs modular design, autonomous navigation and rapid deployment capabilities, the AUV MM System provides cost savings over current surface vessel surveys by reducing the mobilization/demobilization effort, thus requiring less manpower for operation and reducing or eliminating the need for a surface support vessel altogether. When the system completes its mission, data can be remotely downloaded via W-LAN and exported for use in advanced signal processing platforms. Magnetic compensation software has been concurrently developed to accept electrical current measurements directly from the AUV to address distortions from permanent and induced magnetization effects on the magnetometer. Maneuver and electrical current compensation terms can be extracted from the magnetic survey missions to perform automated post-process corrections. Considerable suppression of system noise has been observed over traditional compensation methods that do not use electrical current terms. Recent demonstrations of the AUV MM System conducted at test plots seeded with inert munitions show reliable detection of 75mm and larger projectiles at altitudes of over 2 meters above the seafloor. Improvement ratios between 11 and 12.4 were observed in the survey data after magnetic compensation, reducing system noise to approximately ±0.25 nano-Tesla. Co-registered side scan sonar images were acquired with the magnetic data to augment target analysis and interpretation. No net drift of the navigation solution was observed during survey missions thus confirming target positional accuracy to better than 1 meter.;

Steigerwalt, R.; Johnson, R. M.; Trembanis, A. C.; Schmidt, V. E.; Tait, G.

2012-12-01

463

View generated database  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This document represents the final report for the View Generated Database (VGD) project, NAS7-1066. It documents the work done on the project up to the point at which all project work was terminated due to lack of project funds. The VGD was to provide the capability to accurately represent any real-world object or scene as a computer model. Such models include both an accurate spatial/geometric representation of surfaces of the object or scene, as well as any surface detail present on the object. Applications of such models are numerous, including acquisition and maintenance of work models for tele-autonomous systems, generation of accurate 3-D geometric/photometric models for various 3-D vision systems, and graphical models for realistic rendering of 3-D scenes via computer graphics.

Downward, James G.

1992-01-01

464

Growing Up of Autonomous Agents: an Emergent Phenomenon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A fundamental research challenge is the design of robust artifacts that are capable of operating under changing environments and noisy input, and yet exhibit the desired behavior and response time. These systems should be able to adapt and learn how to react to unforeseen scenarios as well as to display properties comparable to biological entities. The turn to nature has brought us many unforeseen great concepts. Biological systems are able to handle many of these challenges with an elegance and efficiency still far beyond current human artifacts. A living artifact grows up when its capabilities, abilities/knowledge, shift to a further level of complexity, i.e. the complexity rank of its internal capabilities performs a step forward. In the attempt to define an architecture for autonomous growing up agents [1]. We conducted an experiment on the abstraction process in children as natural parts of a cognitive system. We found that linguistic growing up involve a number of different trial processes. We identified a fixed number of distinct paths that were crossed by children. Once a given interpretation paths was discovered useless, they tried to follow another path, until the new meaning was emerging. This study generates suggestion about the evolutionary conditions conducive to the emergence of growing up in robots and provides guidelines for designing artificial evolutionary systems displaying spontaneous adaptation abilities. The importance of multi-sensor perception, motivation and emotional drives are underlined and, above all, the growing up insights shows similarities to emergent self-organized behaviors.

Morgavi, Giovanna; Marconi, Lucia

2008-10-01

465

Semi-autonomous wheelchair system using stereoscopic cameras.  

PubMed

This paper is concerned with the design and development of a semi-autonomous wheelchair system using stereoscopic cameras to assist hands-free control technologies for severely disabled people. The stereoscopic cameras capture an image from both the left and right cameras, which are then processed with a Sum of Absolute Differences (SAD) correlation algorithm to establish correspondence between image features in the different views of the scene. This is used to produce a stereo disparity image containing information about the depth of objects away from the camera in the image. A geometric projection algorithm is then used to generate a 3-Dimensional (3D) point map, placing pixels of the disparity image in 3D space. This is then converted to a 2-Dimensional (2D) depth map allowing objects in the scene to be viewed and a safe travel path for the wheelchair to be planned and followed based on the user's commands. This assistive technology utilising stereoscopic cameras has the purpose of automated obstacle detection, path planning and following, and collision avoidance during navigation. Experimental results obtained in an indoor environment displayed the effectiveness of this assistive technology. PMID:19964855

Nguyen, Jordan S; Nguyen, Thanh H; Nguyen, Hung T

2009-01-01

466

Boxfishes as unusually well-controlled autonomous underwater vehicles.  

PubMed

Boxfishes (family Ostraciidae) are tropical reef-dwelling marine bony fishes that have about three-fourths of their body length encased in a rigid bony test. As a result, almost all of their swimming movements derive from complex combinations of movements of their median and paired fins (MPF locomotion). In terms of both body design and swimming performance, they are among the most sophisticated examples known of naturally evolved vertebrate autonomous underwater vehicles. Quantitative studies of swimming performance, biomechanics, and energetics in one model species have shown that (i) they are surprisingly strong, fast swimmers with great endurance; (ii) classical descriptions of how they swim were incomplete: they swim at different speeds using three different gaits; (iii) they are unusually dynamically well controlled and stable during sustained and prolonged rectilinear swimming; and (iv) despite unusually high parasite (fuselage) drag, they show energetic costs of transport indistinguishable from those of much better streamlined fishes using body and caudal fin (BCF) swimming modes at similar water temperatures and over comparable ranges of swimming speeds. We summarize an analysis of these properties based on a dynamic model of swimming in these fishes. This model accounts for their control, stability, and efficiency in moving through the water at moderate speeds in terms of gait changes, of water-flow patterns over body surfaces, and of complex interactions of thrust vectors generated by fin movements. PMID:11121341

Gordon, M S; Hove, J R; Webb, P W; Weihs, D

2000-01-01

467

Fuzzy Logic Based Autonomous Parallel Parking System with Kalman Filtering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents an emulation of fuzzy logic control schemes for an autonomous parallel parking system in a backward maneuver. There are four infrared sensors sending the distance data to a microcontroller for generating an obstacle-free parking path. Two of them mounted on the front and rear wheels on the parking side are used as the inputs to the fuzzy rules to calculate a proper steering angle while backing. The other two attached to the front and rear ends serve for avoiding collision with other cars along the parking space. At the end of parking processes, the vehicle will be in line with other parked cars and positioned in the middle of the free space. Fuzzy rules are designed based upon a wall following process. Performance of the infrared sensors is improved using Kalman filtering. The design method needs extra information from ultrasonic sensors. Starting from modeling the ultrasonic sensor in 1-D state space forms, one makes use of the infrared sensor as a measurement to update the predicted values. Experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of sensor improvement.

Panomruttanarug, Benjamas; Higuchi, Kohji

468

Progression of cardiovascular autonomic dysfunction in Holmes-Adie syndrome.  

PubMed

The Holmes-Adie Syndrome (HAS) is a disorder of unknown aetiology comprising unilateral or bilateral tonic pupils with near light dissociation and tendon areflexia. Although considered to be benign, troublesome symptoms may result from autonomic disturbances, affecting vasomotor, sudomotor and respiratory function. It is unclear if the autonomic manifestations of the disease remain stable or progress, as longitudinal studies with detailed autonomic assessments have not been described. The authors report four HAS patients studied at intervals over 16, 8, 4 and 2 years with cardiovascular autonomic tests (head-up tilt, isometric exercise, mental arithmetic, cutaneous cold, deep breathing, Valsalva manoeuvre and standing). In each, there was progression of cardiovascular autonomic deficits with time, accompanied by symptomatic worsening. These observations in HAS, for the first time, indicate progression of cardiovascular autonomic dysfunction of clinical significance. This has a number of implications, including those relating to aetiology and prognosis. The authors recommend regular clinical and laboratory follow-up, especially of cardiovascular autonomic function, in patients with HAS. PMID:20562402

Guaraldi, P; Mathias, C J

2011-09-01

469

Autonomic Function following Acute Organophosphorus Poisoning: A Cohort Study  

PubMed Central

Autonomic dysfunction after chronic low level exposure to organophosphorus (OP) pesticides has been consistently reported in the literature, but not following a single acute overdose. In order to study autonomic function after an acute OP overdose, sixty-six overdose patients were compared to 70 matched controls. Assessment of autonomic function was done by heart rate response to standing, deep breathing (HR-DB) and Valsalva manoeuvre; blood pressure (BP) response to standing and sustained hand grip; amplitude and latency of sympathetic skin response (SSR); pupil size and post-void urine volume. The patients were assessed one and six weeks after the exposure. The number of patients who showed abnormal autonomic function compared to standard cut-off values did not show statistically significantly difference from that of controls by Chi-Square test. When compared to the controls at one week the only significant differences consistent with autonomic dysfunction were change of diastolic BP 3 min after standing, HR-DB, SSR-Amplitude, SSR-Latency, post-void urine volume and size of the pupil. At 6 weeks significant recovery of autonomic function was observed and only HR-DB was decreased to a minor degree, ?5 beats/min [95%CI 2–8]. This study provides good evidence for the lack of long term autonomic dysfunction following acute exposure to OP pesticides. PMID:22655091

Jayasinghe, Sudheera S.; Pathirana, Kithsiri D.

2012-01-01

470

[Pure autonomic failure and acetylcholine: historical and current aspects].  

PubMed

The discovery of acetylcholine was closely related to research on the autonomic nervous system. At the onset of the twentieth century, John Newport Langley (1852-1925), a patriarch of modern autonomic research, classified the autonomic nervous system into the sympathetic, parasympathetic, and enteral systems, proposed the concept of preganglionic and postganglionic autonomic nerves, and suggested the presence of a "receptive substance" allowing the interaction of postganglionic nerve terminals and effector visceral organs. Around the same time, Henry Hallett Dale (1875-1968) revealed the pharmacological properties of acetylcholine, and he and his colleague, Wilhelm Feldberg (1900-1993), demonstrated that acetylcholine acts as a mediator of nerve impulses across nerve junctions (synapses) between nerves (sympathetic ganglia), and between the vagus nerve and heart (parasympathetic nerve terminals). On the other hand, Bradbury and Eggleston first described 3 patients with orthostatic hypotension in 1925, introducing the term "idiopathic orthostatic hypotension". However, this term was used loosely. Therefore, Roger Bannister proposed "pure autonomic failure" as the term for idiopathic orthostatic hypotension without other neurological symptoms. Recently, autoimmune autonomic ganglionopathy associated with anti-ganglionic acetylcholine receptor antibodies has attracted attention as a differential diagnosis of pure autonomic failure, which is characterized by Lewy body pathology. PMID:24807370

Asahina, Masato

2014-05-01

471

Real and Generated Internet AS Topologies: Structure, Spectrum, Robustness  

E-print Network

-mail:{vukadin,erlebach,huang}@tik.ee.ethz.ch; {mrueegg,rschilte}@ee.ethz.ch The Internet AS (Autonomous System) topology structure is a subject of high for simulations. Power-law degree Internet topology generators, now state-of-the-art, re- sult in different kindsReal and Generated Internet AS Topologies: Structure, Spectrum, Robustness Danica Vukadinovi

Huang, Polly

472

Targeting the autonomic nervous system: measuring autonomic function and novel devices for heart failure management.  

PubMed

Neurohumoral activation, in which enhanced activity of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) is a key component, plays a pivotal role in heart failure. The neurohumoral system affects several organs and currently our knowledge of the molecular and systemic pathways involved in the neurohumoral activation is incomplete. All the methods of assessing the degree of activation of the autonomic system have limitations and they are not interchangeable. The methods considered include noradrenaline spillover, microneurography, radiotracer imaging and analysis of heart rate and blood pressure (heart rate variability, baroreceptor sensitivity, heart rate turbulence). Despite the difficulties, medications that affect the ANS have been shown to improve mortality in heart failure and the mechanism is related to attenuation of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) and stimulation of the parasympathetic nervous system. However, limitations of compliance with medication, side effects and inadequate SNS attenuation are issues of concern with the pharmacological approach. The newer device based therapies for sympathetic modulation are showing encouraging results. As they directly influence the autonomic nervous system, more mechanistic information can be gleaned if appropriate investigations are performed at the time of the outcome trials. However, clinicians should be reminded that the ANS is an evolutionary survival mechanism and therefore there is a need to proceed with caution when trying to completely attenuate its effects. So our enthusiasm for the application of these devices in heart failure should be controlled, especially as none of the devices have trial data powered to assess effects on mortality or cardiovascular events. PMID:24200312

Patel, Hitesh C; Rosen, Stuart D; Lindsay, Alistair; Hayward, Carl; Lyon, Alexander R; di Mario, Carlo

2013-12-10

473

Visual Servoing of an Autonomous Helicopter in Urban Areas Using Feature Tracking  

E-print Network

of a vision-based feature tracking system for an autonomous helicopter. Visual sensing is used for estimating, autonomous helicopter I. INTRODUCTION Our goal is to build vision-guided autonomous flying robots. Vision estimation, inertial navigation, GPS, and non-linear system modeling An autonomous helicopter is highly

Sukhatme, Gaurav S.

474

Invited Article: Autonomic ganglia: target and novel therapeutic tool.  

PubMed

Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (AChR) are ligand-gated cation channels that are present throughout the nervous system. The muscle AChR mediates transmission at the neuromuscular junction; antibodies against the muscle AChR are the cause of myasthenia gravis. The ganglionic (alpha 3-type) neuronal AChR mediates fast synaptic transmission in sympathetic, parasympathetic, and enteric autonomic ganglia. Impaired cholinergic ganglionic synaptic transmission is one important cause of autonomic failure. Pharmacologic enhancement of ganglionic synaptic transmission may be a novel way to improve autonomic function. Ganglionic AChR antibodies are found in patients with autoimmune autonomic ganglionopathy (AAG). Patients with AAG typically present with rapid onset of severe autonomic failure. Major clinical features include orthostatic hypotension, gastrointestinal dysmotility, anhidrosis, bladder dysfunction, and sicca symptoms. Impaired pupillary light reflex is often seen. Like myasthenia, AAG is an antibody-mediated neurologic disorder. The disease can be reproduced in experimental animals by active immunization or passive antibody transfer. The patient may improve with plasma exchange treatment or other immunomodulatory treatment. Antibodies from patients with AAG inhibit ganglionic AChR currents. Other phenotypes of AAG are now recognized based on the results of antibody testing. These other presentations are generally associated with lower levels of ganglionic AChR antibodies. A chronic progressive form of AAG may resemble pure autonomic failure. Milder forms of dysautonomia, such as postural tachycardia syndrome, are associated with ganglionic AChR in 10-15% of cases. Since ganglionic synaptic transmission is a common pathway for all autonomic traffic, enhancement of autonomic function through inhibition of acetylcholinesterase is a potential specific therapeutic strategy for autonomic disorders. Increasing the strength of ganglionic transmission can ameliorate neurogenic orthostatic hypotension without aggravating supine hypertension. Recent evidence also suggests a potential role for acetylcholinesterase inhibitors in the treatment of postural tachycardia syndrome. PMID:18474849

Vernino, Steven; Sandroni, Paola; Singer, Wolfgang; Low, Phillip A

2008-05-13

475

Visual navigation system for autonomous indoor blimps  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Autonomous dirigibles - aerial robots that are a blimp controlled by computer based on information gathered by sensors - are a new and promising research field in Robotics, offering several original work opportunities. One of them is the study of visual navigation of UAVs. In the work described in this paper, a Computer Vision and Control system was developed to perform automatically very simple navigation task for a small indoor blimp. The vision system is able to track artificial visual beacons - objects with known geometrical properties - and from them a geometrical methodology can extract information about orientation of the blimp. The tracking of natural landmarks is also a possibility for the vision technique developed. The control system uses that data to keep the dirigible on a programmed orientation. Experimental results showing the correct and efficient functioning of the system are shown and have your implications and future possibilities discussed.

Campos, Mario F.; de Souza Coelho, Lucio

1999-07-01

476

Clinical assessment of autonomic functions in anemics.  

PubMed

Sixty five anemics and 20 healthy control subjects carefully age and sex matched were subjected to seven standardised tests to evaluate autonomic status. Due care was taken to remove factors which could interfare with the results. Tests concerned with the basal parasympalhetec tone viz heart rate response to standing (p < 0.001) and intravenous atropine test (p < 0.05) showed significant difference which persisted with severity and type of anemia. Test requiring stimulation of the parasympathatic system i.e. deep breathing test, valsalva maneuver and carotid sinus massage did show not significant difference. No difference of significance was found with postural fall of blood pressure and sustained hand grip test, chiefly concerned with the sympathatic system. These results suggest that anemics have low basal parasympathatic outflow to increase the heart rate as compensatory mechanism. Stimulation of parasympathatic and sympathetic system arouse normal response. PMID:9251425

Lakhotia, M; Shah, P K; Gupta, A; Jain, S S; Agarwal, M; Dadhich, S

1996-08-01

477

Pathfinder autonomous rendezvous and docking project  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Capabilities are being developed and demonstrated to support manned and unmanned vehicle operations in lunar and planetary orbits. In this initial phase, primary emphasis is placed on definition of the system requirements for candidate Pathfinder mission applications and correlation of these system-level requirements with specific requirements. The FY-89 activities detailed are best characterized as foundation building. The majority of the efforts were dedicated to assessing the current state of the art, identifying desired elaborations and expansions to this level of development and charting a course that will realize the desired objectives in the future. Efforts are detailed across all work packages in developing those requirements and tools needed to test, refine, and validate basic autonomous rendezvous and docking elements.

Lamkin, Stephen (editor); Mccandless, Wayne (editor)

1990-01-01

478

Autonomous Rule Creation for Intrusion Detection  

SciTech Connect

Many computational intelligence techniques for anomaly based network intrusion detection can be found in literature. Translating a newly discovered intrusion recognition criteria into a distributable rule can be a human intensive effort. This paper explores a multi-modal genetic algorithm solution for autonomous rule creation. This algorithm focuses on the process of creating rules once an intrusion has been identified, rather than the evolution of rules to provide a solution for intrusion detection. The algorithm was demonstrated on anomalous ICMP network packets (input) and Snort rules (output of the algorithm). Output rules were sorted according to a fitness value and any duplicates were removed. The experimental results on ten test cases demonstrated a 100 percent rule alert rate. Out of 33,804 test packets 3 produced false positives. Each test case produced a minimum of three rule variations that could be used as candidates for a production system.

Todd Vollmer; Jim Alves-Foss; Milos Manic

2011-04-01

479

Autonomous Formations of Multi-Agent Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Autonomous formation control of multi-agent dynamic systems has a number of applications that include ground-based and aerial robots and satellite formations. For air vehicles, formation flight ("flocking") has the potential to significantly increase airspace utilization as well as fuel efficiency. This presentation addresses two main problems in multi-agent formations: optimal role assignment to minimize the total cost (e.g., combined distance traveled by all agents); and maintaining formation geometry during flock motion. The Kuhn-Munkres ("Hungarian") algorithm is used for optimal assignment, and consensus-based leader-follower type control architecture is used to maintain formation shape despite the leader s independent movements. The methods are demonstrated by animated simulations.

Dhali, Sanjana; Joshi, Suresh M.

2013-01-01

480

Objective speckle velocimetry for autonomous vehicle odometry.  

PubMed

Speckle velocimetry is investigated as a means of determining odometry data with potential for application on autonomous robotic vehicles. The technique described here relies on the integration of translation measurements made by normalized cross-correlation of speckle patterns to determine the change in position over time. The use of objective (non-imaged) speckle offers a number of advantages over subjective (imaged) speckle, such as a reduction in the number of optical components, reduced modulation of speckles at the edges of the image, and improved light efficiency. The influence of the source/detector configuration on the speckle translation to vehicle translation scaling factor for objective speckle is investigated using a computer model and verified experimentally. Experimental measurements are presented at velocities up to 80??mm?s(-1) which show accuracy better than 0.4%. PMID:22695586

Francis, D; Charrett, T O H; Waugh, L; Tatam, R P

2012-06-01