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Sample records for autonomous decentralized systems

  1. Organically Grown Architectures: Creating Decentralized, Autonomous Systems by Embryomorphic Engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doursat, René

    Exploding growth growth in computational systems forces us to gradually replace rigid design and control with decentralization and autonomy. Information technologies will progress, instead, by"meta-designing" mechanisms of system self-assembly, self-regulation and evolution. Nature offers a great variety of efficient complex systems, in which numerous small elements form large-scale, adaptive patterns. The new engineering challenge is to recreate this self-organization and let it freely generate innovative designs under guidance. This article presents an original model of artificial system growth inspired by embryogenesis. A virtual organism is a lattice of cells that proliferate, migrate and self-pattern into differentiated domains. Each cell's fate is controlled by an internal gene regulatory network network. Embryomorphic engineering emphasizes hyperdistributed architectures, and their development as a prerequisite of evolutionary design.

  2. Autonomous Decentralized System and Its Strategic Approach for Research and Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mori, Kinji

    Autonomous Decentralized System (ADS) has been making progress in these 31 years since it was proposed in 1977. During these long years in the rapidly advancing computer and communication technologies, the ADS concept has not been changed but its technologies have been growing in accordance with the change and diversity of the social, economical and personal requirements and through the globalization of the market and the restructuring organizations. The ADS technologies are system-atized to cover all processes of system design, operation, maintenance and modification. This paper reviews the work done in fields of ADS in past 31 years from not only technological perspectives, but it also encompasses users requirements and value, system design, industrial activity, academic activity and standardization [1]-[26]. Moreover the new directions of the ADS are suggested.

  3. Numerical Study on an Autonomous Decentralized Model-Based Simulation of Resources Circulation Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumoto, Takuya; Tamaki, Hisashi; Murao, Hajime; Kitamura, Shinzo

    In this paper, a methodology for modeling and controlling of resources circulation systems is studied. We propose a model structure by introducing two kinds of sub-models: a physical model and an information model. The physical model is used for simulating the flow of materials, products and also money, while the information model is used for representing flow of information and decision-making on production, consumption, recycling/reuse, discard, etc. Moreover, we introduce an additional top-level component, a supervisor, who observes the global behavior of the system and controls it indirectly. Based on the proposed approach, we implement a prototype of simulation model including producers, consumers and recyclers. Through some computer simulations based on the model, it is shown that the model has price adjustment function and its global behavior is very complicated. Then, we examine influences of the informational as well as the physical indirect control on the resources circulation.

  4. Decentralized autonomous planning of cluster reconfiguration for fractionated spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Jing; Guo, Jian; Gill, Eberhard

    2016-06-01

    Autonomous cluster operation such as cluster reconfiguration is one of the enabling technologies for fractionated spacecraft. By virtue of the multi-agent system theory, this paper presents an organizational architecture for fractionated spacecraft, which not only enables autonomous cluster operations but also facilitates its non-traditional attributes. Within this organizational architecture, a decentralized framework is proposed to solve cluster reconfiguration problems based on primal and dual decomposition, where subgradient methods are adopted to include reconfiguration cases with non-differentiable objectives. Two typical constraints are considered: final configuration constraints representing coupling variables and collision avoidance constraints representing coupling constraints, both of which are non-convex. General schemes are proposed to convexify those constraints via the linearization and convex restriction technology. Then final configuration constraints are tackled by primal decomposition, while collision avoidance constraints by dual decomposition. To the end, multi-level primal and dual decompositions are employed to solve reconfiguration problems with both coupling variables and coupling constraints. For illustration an example of in-plane cluster reconfiguration is solved and compared with the centralized approach the solution is optimal.

  5. Autonomous, Decentralized Grid Architecture: Prosumer-Based Distributed Autonomous Cyber-Physical Architecture for Ultra-Reliable Green Electricity Networks

    SciTech Connect

    2012-01-11

    GENI Project: Georgia Tech is developing a decentralized, autonomous, internet-like control architecture and control software system for the electric power grid. Georgia Tech’s new architecture is based on the emerging concept of electricity prosumers—economically motivated actors that can produce, consume, or store electricity. Under Georgia Tech’s architecture, all of the actors in an energy system are empowered to offer associated energy services based on their capabilities. The actors achieve their sustainability, efficiency, reliability, and economic objectives, while contributing to system-wide reliability and efficiency goals. This is in marked contrast to the current one-way, centralized control paradigm.

  6. Robust control of multi-jointed arm with a decentralized autonomous control mechanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kimura, Shinichi; Miyazaki, Ken; Suzuki, Yoshiaki

    1994-01-01

    A decentralized autonomous control mechanism applied to the control of three dimensional manipulators and its robustness to partial damage was assessed by computer simulation. Decentralized control structures are believed to be quite robust to time delay between the operator and the target system. A 10-jointed manipulator based on our control mechanism was able to continue its positioning task in three-dimensional space without revision of the control program, even after some of its joints were damaged. These results suggest that this control mechanism can be effectively applied to space telerobots, which are associated with serious time delay between the operator and the target system, and which cannot be easily repaired after being partially damaged.

  7. Decentralized energy systems for clean electricity access

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alstone, Peter; Gershenson, Dimitry; Kammen, Daniel M.

    2015-04-01

    Innovative approaches are needed to address the needs of the 1.3 billion people lacking electricity, while simultaneously transitioning to a decarbonized energy system. With particular focus on the energy needs of the underserved, we present an analytic and conceptual framework that clarifies the heterogeneous continuum of centralized on-grid electricity, autonomous mini- or community grids, and distributed, individual energy services. A historical analysis shows that the present day is a unique moment in the history of electrification where decentralized energy networks are rapidly spreading, based on super-efficient end-use appliances and low-cost photovoltaics. We document how this evolution is supported by critical and widely available information technologies, particularly mobile phones and virtual financial services. These disruptive technology systems can rapidly increase access to basic electricity services and directly inform the emerging Sustainable Development Goals for quality of life, while simultaneously driving action towards low-carbon, Earth-sustaining, inclusive energy systems.

  8. Decentralized autonomous attitude determination using an inertially stabilized payload

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oshman, Yaakov; Isakow, Michael

    1993-02-01

    A novel method is introduced for the autonomous determination of the attitude angles of a mini remotely piloted vehicle (RPV) with an inertially stabilized payload. The method is based on measurements of rate gyros used to inertially stabilize the payload, and other data which are normally available from conventional aircraft-mounted sensors. These measurements are used to drive a decentralized estimation algorithm, which uses the aircraft/payload mathematical models to bound the estimation errors. Exploiting modern multi-processor computer technology, the new estimation algorithm comprises two extended Kalman filters (EKF) working in parallel, and a data fusion algorithm. Real-time simulation tests, incorporating a payload model with real rate gyros mounted on a three-axis flight table, have validated the feasibility of the concept. The presented theoretical and experimental investigation demonstrates that the estimation algorithm is capable of estimating the attitude angles with an estimation error not exceeding one degree, at ouput rates of 13 Hz, thus constituting an efficient and reliable replacement for the conventional vertical gyroscope.

  9. Decentralized Grid Scheduling with Evolutionary Fuzzy Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fölling, Alexander; Grimme, Christian; Lepping, Joachim; Papaspyrou, Alexander

    In this paper, we address the problem of finding workload exchange policies for decentralized Computational Grids using an Evolutionary Fuzzy System. To this end, we establish a non-invasive collaboration model on the Grid layer which requires minimal information about the participating High Performance and High Throughput Computing (HPC/HTC) centers and which leaves the local resource managers completely untouched. In this environment of fully autonomous sites, independent users are assumed to submit their jobs to the Grid middleware layer of their local site, which in turn decides on the delegation and execution either on the local system or on remote sites in a situation-dependent, adaptive way. We find for different scenarios that the exchange policies show good performance characteristics not only with respect to traditional metrics such as average weighted response time and utilization, but also in terms of robustness and stability in changing environments.

  10. Power Source Status Estimation and Drive Control Method for Autonomous Decentralized Hybrid Train

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furuya, Takemasa; Ogawa, Kenichi; Yamamoto, Takamitsu; Hasegawa, Hitoshi

    A hybrid control system has two main functions: power sharing and equipment protection. In this paper, we discuss the design, construction and testing of a drive control method for an autonomous decentralized hybrid train with 100-kW-class fuel cells (FC) and 36-kWh lithium-ion batteries (Li-Batt). The main objectives of this study are to identify the operation status of the power sources on the basis of the input voltage of the traction inverter and to estimate the maximum traction power control basis of the power-source status. The proposed control method is useful in preventing overload operation of the onboard power sources in an autonomous decentralized hybrid system that has a flexible main circuit configuration and a few control signal lines. Further, with this method, the initial cost of a hybrid system can be reduced and the retrofit design of the hybrid system can be simplified. The effectiveness of the proposed method is experimentally confirmed by using a real-scale hybrid train system.

  11. Redundant manipulator techniques for partially decentralized path planning and control of a platoon of autonomous vehicles.

    PubMed

    Stilwell, Daniel J; Bishop, Bradley E; Sylvester, Caleb A

    2005-08-01

    An approach to real-time trajectory generation for platoons of autonomous vehicles is developed from well-known control techniques for redundant robotic manipulators. The partially decentralized structure of this approach permits each vehicle to independently compute its trajectory in real-time using only locally generated information and low-bandwidth feedback generated by a system exogenous to the platoon. Our work is motivated by applications for which communications bandwidth is severely limited, such for platoons of autonomous underwater vehicles. The communication requirements for our trajectory generation approach are independent of the number of vehicles in the platoon, enabling platoons composed of a large number of vehicles to be coordinated despite limited communication bandwidth. PMID:16128465

  12. Automated decentralized pharmacy dispensing systems.

    PubMed

    1996-12-01

    Automated decentralized pharmacy dispensing systems (ADPDSs) are medication management systems that allow hospitals to store and dispense drugs near the point of use. These systems, which can be compared with the automated teller machines used by banks, provide nurses with ready access to medications while maintaining tight control of drug distribution. In this study, we evaluated three ADPDSs from two suppliers, focusing on whether these systems can store and dispense drugs in a safe, secure, and effective manner. When rating the systems, we considered their applicability to two different implementation schemes: The use of a system with a pharmacy profile interface. This feature broadens the capabilities of the system by allowing more information to be provided at the dispensing cabinet and by providing better integration of the information from this cabinet with the pharmacy's information system. Two of the evaluated systems have this feature and were rated Acceptable. The use of a system without a pharmacy profile interface. We rated all three of the evaluated systems Acceptable for such implementations. To decide which scheme is most appropriate for a particular hospital, the facility will need to determine both how it intends to use the ADPDS and what it hopes to achieve by implementing the system. By performing this type of analysis, the facility can then determine which ADPDS features and capabilities are needed to accomplish its goals. To help facilities make these decisions, we have provided an Equipment Management Guide, "Improving the Drug Distribution Process-Do You Need an Automated Decentralized Pharmacy Dispensing System?," which precedes this Evaluation. In addition, readers unfamiliar with the roles of both the pharmacy and the pharmacist within the hospital can refer to the Primer, "Functions of a Hospital Pharmacy," also published in this issue. PMID:8968721

  13. INL Autonomous Navigation System

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2005-03-30

    The INL Autonomous Navigation System provides instructions for autonomously navigating a robot. The system permits high-speed autonomous navigation including obstacle avoidance, waypoing navigation and path planning in both indoor and outdoor environments.

  14. Optimal decentralized control for multimachine power systems--

    SciTech Connect

    Quali, A. ); Fantin, J. )

    1989-01-01

    This paper provides a method for determining an optimal decentralized control for multimachine power systems with quadratic performance measure. An iterative algorithm is developed whereby a local minimum is attained. The constraint of decentralization is tackled with in minimization algorithm by using the method of feasible directions. An example of three synchronous machines is given to illustrate the proposed algorithm.

  15. Decentralized Modular Systems Versus Centralized Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crossey, R. E.

    Building design, planning, and construction programing for modular decentralized mechanical building systems are outlined in terms of costs, performance, expansion and flexibility. Design strategy, approach, and guidelines for implementing such systems for buildings are suggested, with emphasis on mechanical equipment and building element…

  16. Autonomous Decentralized Control of Supply and Demand by Inverter Based Distributed Generations in Isolated Microgrid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiki, Akira; Yokoyama, Akihiko; Baba, Jyunpei; Takano, Tomihiro; Gouda, Takahiro; Izui, Yoshio

    Recently, because of the environmental burden mitigation, energy conservations, energy security, and cost reductions, distributed generations are attracting our strong attention. These distributed generations (DGs) have been already installed to the distribution system, and much more DGs will be expected to be connected in the future. On the other hand, a new concept called “Microgrid” which is a small power supply network consisting of only DGs was proposed and some prototype projects are ongoing in Japan. The purpose of this paper is to develop the three-phase instantaneous valued digital simulator of microgrid consisting of a lot of inverter based DGs and to develop a supply and demand control method in isolated microgrid. First, microgrid is modeled using MATLAB/SIMULINK. We develop models of three-phase instantaneous valued inverter type CVCF generator, PQ specified generator, PV specified generator, PQ specified load as storage battery, photovoltaic generation, fuel cell and inverter load respectively. Then we propose an autonomous decentralized control method of supply and demand in isolated microgrid where storage batteries, fuel cells, photovoltaic generations and loads are connected. It is proposed here that the system frequency is used as a means to control DG output. By changing the frequency of the storage battery due to unbalance of supply and demand, all inverter based DGs detect the frequency fluctuation and change their own outputs. Finally, a new frequency control method in autonomous decentralized control of supply and demand is proposed. Though the frequency is used to transmit the information on the supply and demand unbalance to DGs, after the frequency plays the role, the frequency finally has to return to a standard value. To return the frequency to the standard value, the characteristic curve of the fuel cell is shifted in parallel. This control is carried out corresponding to the fluctuation of the load. The simulation shows that the

  17. Autonomic Nervous System Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    Your autonomic nervous system is the part of your nervous system that controls involuntary actions, such as the beating of your heart ... breathing and swallowing Erectile dysfunction in men Autonomic nervous system disorders can occur alone or as the result ...

  18. Autonomic Nervous System Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    Your autonomic nervous system is the part of your nervous system that controls involuntary actions, such as the beating ... with breathing and swallowing Erectile dysfunction in men Autonomic nervous system disorders can occur alone or as ...

  19. Decentralized Multisensory Information Integration in Neural Systems

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wen-hao; Chen, Aihua

    2016-01-01

    How multiple sensory cues are integrated in neural circuitry remains a challenge. The common hypothesis is that information integration might be accomplished in a dedicated multisensory integration area receiving feedforward inputs from the modalities. However, recent experimental evidence suggests that it is not a single multisensory brain area, but rather many multisensory brain areas that are simultaneously involved in the integration of information. Why many mutually connected areas should be needed for information integration is puzzling. Here, we investigated theoretically how information integration could be achieved in a distributed fashion within a network of interconnected multisensory areas. Using biologically realistic neural network models, we developed a decentralized information integration system that comprises multiple interconnected integration areas. Studying an example of combining visual and vestibular cues to infer heading direction, we show that such a decentralized system is in good agreement with anatomical evidence and experimental observations. In particular, we show that this decentralized system can integrate information optimally. The decentralized system predicts that optimally integrated information should emerge locally from the dynamics of the communication between brain areas and sheds new light on the interpretation of the connectivity between multisensory brain areas. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT To extract information reliably from ambiguous environments, the brain integrates multiple sensory cues, which provide different aspects of information about the same entity of interest. Here, we propose a decentralized architecture for multisensory integration. In such a system, no processor is in the center of the network topology and information integration is achieved in a distributed manner through reciprocally connected local processors. Through studying the inference of heading direction with visual and vestibular cues, we show that

  20. Cooperative Autonomic Management in Dynamic Distributed Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jing; Zhao, Ming; Fortes, José A. B.

    The centralized management of large distributed systems is often impractical, particularly when the both the topology and status of the system change dynamically. This paper proposes an approach to application-centric self-management in large distributed systems consisting of a collection of autonomic components that join and leave the system dynamically. Cooperative autonomic components self-organize into a dynamically created overlay network. Through local information sharing with neighbors, each component gains access to global information as needed for optimizing performance of applications. The approach has been validated and evaluated by developing a decentralized autonomic system consisting of multiple autonomic application managers previously developed for the In-VIGO grid-computing system. Using analytical results from complex random network and measurements done in a prototype system, we demonstrate the robustness, self-organization and adaptability of our approach, both theoretically and experimentally.

  1. Towards a Decentralized Magnetic Indoor Positioning System

    PubMed Central

    Kasmi, Zakaria; Norrdine, Abdelmoumen; Blankenbach, Jörg

    2015-01-01

    Decentralized magnetic indoor localization is a sophisticated method for processing sampled magnetic data directly on a mobile station (MS), thereby decreasing or even avoiding the need for communication with the base station. In contrast to central-oriented positioning systems, which transmit raw data to a base station, decentralized indoor localization pushes application-level knowledge into the MS. A decentralized position solution has thus a strong feasibility to increase energy efficiency and to prolong the lifetime of the MS. In this article, we present a complete architecture and an implementation for a decentralized positioning system. Furthermore, we introduce a technique for the synchronization of the observed magnetic field on the MS with the artificially-generated magnetic field from the coils. Based on real-time clocks (RTCs) and a preemptive operating system, this method allows a stand-alone control of the coils and a proper assignment of the measured magnetic fields on the MS. A stand-alone control and synchronization of the coils and the MS have an exceptional potential to implement a positioning system without the need for wired or wireless communication and enable a deployment of applications for rescue scenarios, like localization of miners or firefighters. PMID:26690145

  2. Towards a Decentralized Magnetic Indoor Positioning System.

    PubMed

    Kasmi, Zakaria; Norrdine, Abdelmoumen; Blankenbach, Jörg

    2015-01-01

    Decentralized magnetic indoor localization is a sophisticated method for processing sampled magnetic data directly on a mobile station (MS), thereby decreasing or even avoiding the need for communication with the base station. In contrast to central-oriented positioning systems, which transmit raw data to a base station, decentralized indoor localization pushes application-level knowledge into the MS. A decentralized position solution has thus a strong feasibility to increase energy efficiency and to prolong the lifetime of the MS. In this article, we present a complete architecture and an implementation for a decentralized positioning system. Furthermore, we introduce a technique for the synchronization of the observed magnetic field on the MS with the artificially-generated magnetic field from the coils. Based on real-time clocks (RTCs) and a preemptive operating system, this method allows a stand-alone control of the coils and a proper assignment of the measured magnetic fields on the MS. A stand-alone control and synchronization of the coils and the MS have an exceptional potential to implement a positioning system without the need for wired or wireless communication and enable a deployment of applications for rescue scenarios, like localization of miners or firefighters. PMID:26690145

  3. Decentralized nuclear materials management system at SNLA

    SciTech Connect

    James, R.M.

    1981-01-01

    This paper discusses the approach that Sandia took in deciding to implement a nuclear material control and accountability system on a stand-alone minicomputer despite the existence of a Univac 1108 and Univac 1100/82 centralized facility. The benefits which have been obtained by the decentralization and future applications are discussed.

  4. Ecology Based Decentralized Agent Management System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peysakhov, Maxim D.; Cicirello, Vincent A.; Regli, William C.

    2004-01-01

    The problem of maintaining a desired number of mobile agents on a network is not trivial, especially if we want a completely decentralized solution. Decentralized control makes a system more r e bust and less susceptible to partial failures. The problem is exacerbated on wireless ad hoc networks where host mobility can result in significant changes in the network size and topology. In this paper we propose an ecology-inspired approach to the management of the number of agents. The approach associates agents with living organisms and tasks with food. Agents procreate or die based on the abundance of uncompleted tasks (food). We performed a series of experiments investigating properties of such systems and analyzed their stability under various conditions. We concluded that the ecology based metaphor can be successfully applied to the management of agent populations on wireless ad hoc networks.

  5. Highly Autonomous Systems Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doyle, R.; Rasmussen, R.; Man, G.; Patel, K.

    1998-01-01

    It is our aim by launching a series of workshops on the topic of highly autonomous systems to reach out to the larger community interested in technology development for remotely deployed systems, particularly those for exploration.

  6. The snow system: A decentralized medical data processing system.

    PubMed

    Bellika, Johan Gustav; Henriksen, Torje Starbo; Yigzaw, Kassaye Yitbarek

    2015-01-01

    Systems for large-scale reuse of electronic health record data is claimed to have the potential to transform the current health care delivery system. In principle three alternative solutions for reuse exist: centralized, data warehouse, and decentralized solutions. This chapter focuses on the decentralized system alternative. Decentralized systems may be categorized into approaches that move data to enable computations or move computations to the where data is located to enable computations. We describe a system that moves computations to where the data is located. Only this kind of decentralized solution has the capabilities to become ideal systems for reuse as the decentralized alternative enables computation and reuse of electronic health record data without moving or exposing the information to outsiders. This chapter describes the Snow system, which is a decentralized medical data processing system, its components and how it has been used. It also describes the requirements this kind of systems need to support to become sustainable and successful in recruiting voluntary participation from health institutions. PMID:25417082

  7. Autonomous Flight Safety System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simpson, James

    2010-01-01

    The Autonomous Flight Safety System (AFSS) is an independent self-contained subsystem mounted onboard a launch vehicle. AFSS has been developed by and is owned by the US Government. Autonomously makes flight termination/destruct decisions using configurable software-based rules implemented on redundant flight processors using data from redundant GPS/IMU navigation sensors. AFSS implements rules determined by the appropriate Range Safety officials.

  8. Architecture of autonomous systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dikshit, Piyush; Guimaraes, Katia; Ramamurthy, Maya; Agrawala, Ashok; Larsen, Ronald L.

    1989-01-01

    Automation of Space Station functions and activities, particularly those involving robotic capabilities with interactive or supervisory human control, is a complex, multi-disciplinary systems design problem. A wide variety of applications using autonomous control can be found in the literature, but none of them seem to address the problem in general. All of them are designed with a specific application in mind. In this report, an abstract model is described which unifies the key concepts underlying the design of automated systems such as those studied by the aerospace contractors. The model has been kept as general as possible. The attempt is to capture all the key components of autonomous systems. With a little effort, it should be possible to map the functions of any specific autonomous system application to the model presented here.

  9. Architecture of autonomous systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dikshit, Piyush; Guimaraes, Katia; Ramamurthy, Maya; Agrawala, Ashok; Larsen, Ronald L.

    1986-01-01

    Automation of Space Station functions and activities, particularly those involving robotic capabilities with interactive or supervisory human control, is a complex, multi-disciplinary systems design problem. A wide variety of applications using autonomous control can be found in the literature, but none of them seem to address the problem in general. All of them are designed with a specific application in mind. In this report, an abstract model is described which unifies the key concepts underlying the design of automated systems such as those studied by the aerospace contractors. The model has been kept as general as possible. The attempt is to capture all the key components of autonomous systems. With a little effort, it should be possible to map the functions of any specific autonomous system application to the model presented here.

  10. The Autonomous Helicopter System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilmore, John F.

    1984-06-01

    This paper describes an autonomous airborne vehicle being developed at the Georgia Tech Engineering Experiment Station. The Autonomous Helicopter System (AHS) is a multi-mission system consisting of three distinct sections: vision, planning and control. Vision provides the local and global scene analysis which is symbolically represented and passed to planning as the initial route planning constraints. Planning generates a task dependent path for the vehicle to traverse which assures maximum mission system success as well as safety. Control validates the path and either executes the given route or feeds back to previous sections in order to resolve conflicts.

  11. Microflora of drinking water distributed through decentralized supply systems (Tomsk)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khvaschevskaya, A. A.; Nalivaiko, N. G.; Shestakova, A. V.

    2016-03-01

    The paper considers microbiological quality of waters from decentralized water supply systems in Tomsk. It has been proved that there are numerous microbial contaminants of different types. The authors claim that the water distributed through decentralized supply systems is not safe to drink without preliminary treatment.

  12. Purchasing a decentralized medication management system.

    PubMed

    2006-03-01

    Decentralized medication management systems (DMMSs) are used in hospitals, long-term care facilities, prisons, outpatient clinics, surgery centers, and other places to manage the distribution of drugs. DMMSs consist of storage compartments for medications, with an internal computer that controls and records the administration of drugs. Some DMMSs are stationary cabinets and others are mobile carts. There have been important advances in DMMS technology since we evaluated these products in 1996, including enhanced computer memory and processing power, wider adoption of wireless networking, better user interfaces, and greater integration with other hospital information systems. To get the most out of a DMMS purchase or upgrade, facilities will need careful planning that involves assessing their own needs, selecting hardware and software configurations that meet those needs, and then choosing the right vendor and model. A properly selected DMMS can help to enforce medication distribution policies, prevent errors, and streamline processes. PMID:16610453

  13. Autonomous power expert system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walters, Jerry L.; Petrik, Edward J.; Roth, Mary Ellen; Truong, Long Van; Quinn, Todd; Krawczonek, Walter M.

    1990-01-01

    The Autonomous Power Expert (APEX) system was designed to monitor and diagnose fault conditions that occur within the Space Station Freedom Electrical Power System (SSF/EPS) Testbed. APEX is designed to interface with SSF/EPS testbed power management controllers to provide enhanced autonomous operation and control capability. The APEX architecture consists of three components: (1) a rule-based expert system, (2) a testbed data acquisition interface, and (3) a power scheduler interface. Fault detection, fault isolation, justification of probable causes, recommended actions, and incipient fault analysis are the main functions of the expert system component. The data acquisition component requests and receives pertinent parametric values from the EPS testbed and asserts the values into a knowledge base. Power load profile information is obtained from a remote scheduler through the power scheduler interface component. The current APEX design and development work is discussed. Operation and use of APEX by way of the user interface screens is also covered.

  14. Autonomous power expert system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ringer, Mark J.; Quinn, Todd M.

    1990-01-01

    The goal of the Autonomous Power System (APS) program is to develop and apply intelligent problem solving and control technologies to the Space Station Freedom Electrical Power Systems (SSF/EPS). The objectives of the program are to establish artificial intelligence/expert system technology paths, to create knowledge based tools with advanced human-operator interfaces, and to integrate and interface knowledge-based and conventional control schemes. This program is being developed at the NASA-Lewis. The APS Brassboard represents a subset of a 20 KHz Space Station Power Management And Distribution (PMAD) testbed. A distributed control scheme is used to manage multiple levels of computers and switchgear. The brassboard is comprised of a set of intelligent switchgear used to effectively switch power from the sources to the loads. The Autonomous Power Expert System (APEX) portion of the APS program integrates a knowledge based fault diagnostic system, a power resource scheduler, and an interface to the APS Brassboard. The system includes knowledge bases for system diagnostics, fault detection and isolation, and recommended actions. The scheduler autonomously assigns start times to the attached loads based on temporal and power constraints. The scheduler is able to work in a near real time environment for both scheduling and dynamic replanning.

  15. Autonomous power expert system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ringer, Mark J.; Quinn, Todd M.

    1990-01-01

    The goal of the Autonomous Power System (APS) program is to develop and apply intelligent problem solving and control technologies to the Space Station Freedom Electrical Power Systems (SSF/EPS). The objectives of the program are to establish artificial intelligence/expert system technology paths, to create knowledge based tools with advanced human-operator interfaces, and to integrate and interface knowledge-based and conventional control schemes. This program is being developed at the NASA-Lewis. The APS Brassboard represents a subset of a 20 KHz Space Station Power Management And Distribution (PMAD) testbed. A distributed control scheme is used to manage multiple levels of computers and switchgear. The brassboard is comprised of a set of intelligent switchgear used to effectively switch power from the sources to the loads. The Autonomous Power Expert System (APEX) portion of the APS program integrates a knowledge based fault diagnostic system, a power resource scheduler, and an interface to the APS Brassboard. The system includes knowledge bases for system diagnostics, fault detection and isolation, and recommended actions. The scheduler autonomously assigns start times to the attached loads based on temporal and power constraints. The scheduler is able to work in a near real time environment for both scheduling an dynamic replanning.

  16. Energy and air emission implications of a decentralized wastewater system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shehabi, Arman; Stokes, Jennifer R.; Horvath, Arpad

    2012-06-01

    Both centralized and decentralized wastewater systems have distinct engineering, financial and societal benefits. This paper presents a framework for analyzing the environmental effects of decentralized wastewater systems and an evaluation of the environmental impacts associated with two currently operating systems in California, one centralized and one decentralized. A comparison of energy use, greenhouse gas emissions and criteria air pollutants from the systems shows that the scale economies of the centralized plant help lower the environmental burden to less than a fifth of that of the decentralized utility for the same volume treated. The energy and emission burdens of the decentralized plant are reduced when accounting for high-yield wastewater reuse if it supplants an energy-intensive water supply like a desalination one. The centralized facility also reduces greenhouse gases by flaring methane generated during the treatment process, while methane is directly emitted from the decentralized system. The results are compelling enough to indicate that the life-cycle environmental impacts of decentralized designs should be carefully evaluated as part of the design process.

  17. Analysis and design of robust decentralized controllers for nonlinear systems

    SciTech Connect

    Schoenwald, D.A.

    1993-07-01

    Decentralized control strategies for nonlinear systems are achieved via feedback linearization techniques. New results on optimization and parameter robustness of non-linear systems are also developed. In addition, parametric uncertainty in large-scale systems is handled by sensitivity analysis and optimal control methods in a completely decentralized framework. This idea is applied to alleviate uncertainty in friction parameters for the gimbal joints on Space Station Freedom. As an example of decentralized nonlinear control, singular perturbation methods and distributed vibration damping are merged into a control strategy for a two-link flexible manipulator.

  18. Survey of decentralized control methods. [for large scale dynamic systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Athans, M.

    1975-01-01

    An overview is presented of the types of problems that are being considered by control theorists in the area of dynamic large scale systems with emphasis on decentralized control strategies. Approaches that deal directly with decentralized decision making for large scale systems are discussed. It is shown that future advances in decentralized system theory are intimately connected with advances in the stochastic control problem with nonclassical information pattern. The basic assumptions and mathematical tools associated with the latter are summarized, and recommendations concerning future research are presented.

  19. Security for decentralized health information systems.

    PubMed

    Bleumer, G

    1994-02-01

    Health care information systems must reflect at least two basic characteristics of the health care community: the increasing mobility of patients and the personal liability of everyone giving medical treatment. Open distributed information systems bear the potential to reflect these requirements. But the market for open information systems and operating systems hardly provides secure products today. This 'missing link' is approached by the prototype SECURE Talk that provides secure transmission and archiving of files on top of an existing operating system. Its services may be utilized by existing medical applications. SECURE Talk demonstrates secure communication utilizing only standard hardware. Its message is that cryptography (and in particular asymmetric cryptography) is practical for many medical applications even if implemented in software. All mechanisms are software implemented in order to be executable on standard-hardware. One can investigate more or less decentralized forms of public key management and the performance of many different cryptographic mechanisms. That of, e.g. hybrid encryption and decryption (RSA+DES-PCBC) is about 300 kbit/s. That of signing and verifying is approximately the same using RSA with a DES hash function. The internal speed, without disk accesses etc., is about 1.1 Mbit/s. (Apple Quadra 950 (MC 68040, 33 MHz, RAM: 20 MB, 80 ns. Length of RSA modulus is 512 bit). PMID:8188407

  20. Nemesis Autonomous Test System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barltrop, Kevin J.; Lee, Cin-Young; Horvath, Gregory A,; Clement, Bradley J.

    2012-01-01

    A generalized framework has been developed for systems validation that can be applied to both traditional and autonomous systems. The framework consists of an automated test case generation and execution system called Nemesis that rapidly and thoroughly identifies flaws or vulnerabilities within a system. By applying genetic optimization and goal-seeking algorithms on the test equipment side, a "war game" is conducted between a system and its complementary nemesis. The end result of the war games is a collection of scenarios that reveals any undesirable behaviors of the system under test. The software provides a reusable framework to evolve test scenarios using genetic algorithms using an operation model of the system under test. It can automatically generate and execute test cases that reveal flaws in behaviorally complex systems. Genetic algorithms focus the exploration of tests on the set of test cases that most effectively reveals the flaws and vulnerabilities of the system under test. It leverages advances in state- and model-based engineering, which are essential in defining the behavior of autonomous systems. It also uses goal networks to describe test scenarios.

  1. Autonomous Flight Safety System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferrell, Bob; Santuro, Steve; Simpson, James; Zoerner, Roger; Bull, Barton; Lanzi, Jim

    2004-01-01

    Autonomous Flight Safety System (AFSS) is an independent flight safety system designed for small to medium sized expendable launch vehicles launching from or needing range safety protection while overlying relatively remote locations. AFSS replaces the need for a man-in-the-loop to make decisions for flight termination. AFSS could also serve as the prototype for an autonomous manned flight crew escape advisory system. AFSS utilizes onboard sensors and processors to emulate the human decision-making process using rule-based software logic and can dramatically reduce safety response time during critical launch phases. The Range Safety flight path nominal trajectory, its deviation allowances, limit zones and other flight safety rules are stored in the onboard computers. Position, velocity and attitude data obtained from onboard global positioning system (GPS) and inertial navigation system (INS) sensors are compared with these rules to determine the appropriate action to ensure that people and property are not jeopardized. The final system will be fully redundant and independent with multiple processors, sensors, and dead man switches to prevent inadvertent flight termination. AFSS is currently in Phase III which includes updated algorithms, integrated GPS/INS sensors, large scale simulation testing and initial aircraft flight testing.

  2. Decentralized control of uncertain systems via sensitivity models

    SciTech Connect

    Schoenwald, D.A.; Oezguener, U.

    1993-06-01

    In this paper, we present a decentralized strategy for optimal control of interconnected systems exhibiting parametric uncertainty. First, we demonstrate that sensitivity models for linear interconnected systems can be generated at each subsystem using only locally available information. Second, we present an optimal control law that incorporates sensitivity functions in the feedback path. The control scheme is completely decentralized and is proposed as a means of making the closed loop system less sensitive to parameter deviations. Finally, we give an example of an interconnected system and show how this control strategy is implemented.

  3. Cybersecurity for aerospace autonomous systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Straub, Jeremy

    2015-05-01

    High profile breaches have occurred across numerous information systems. One area where attacks are particularly problematic is autonomous control systems. This paper considers the aerospace information system, focusing on elements that interact with autonomous control systems (e.g., onboard UAVs). It discusses the trust placed in the autonomous systems and supporting systems (e.g., navigational aids) and how this trust can be validated. Approaches to remotely detect the UAV compromise, without relying on the onboard software (on a potentially compromised system) as part of the process are discussed. How different levels of autonomy (task-based, goal-based, mission-based) impact this remote characterization is considered.

  4. Autonomous power system brassboard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merolla, Anthony

    1992-10-01

    The Autonomous Power System (APS) brassboard is a 20 kHz power distribution system which has been developed at NASA Lewis Research Center, Cleveland, Ohio. The brassboard exists to provide a realistic hardware platform capable of testing artificially intelligent (AI) software. The brassboard's power circuit topology is based upon a Power Distribution Control Unit (PDCU), which is a subset of an advanced development 20 kHz electrical power system (EPS) testbed, originally designed for Space Station Freedom (SSF). The APS program is designed to demonstrate the application of intelligent software as a fault detection, isolation, and recovery methodology for space power systems. This report discusses both the hardware and software elements used to construct the present configuration of the brassboard. The brassboard power components are described. These include the solid-state switches (herein referred to as switchgear), transformers, sources, and loads. Closely linked to this power portion of the brassboard is the first level of embedded control. Hardware used to implement this control and its associated software is discussed. An Ada software program, developed by Lewis Research Center's Space Station Freedom Directorate for their 20 kHz testbed, is used to control the brassboard's switchgear, as well as monitor key brassboard parameters through sensors located within these switches. The Ada code is downloaded from a PC/AT, and is resident within the 8086 microprocessor-based embedded controllers. The PC/AT is also used for smart terminal emulation, capable of controlling the switchgear as well as displaying data from them. Intelligent control is provided through use of a T1 Explorer and the Autonomous Power Expert (APEX) LISP software. Real-time load scheduling is implemented through use of a 'C' program-based scheduling engine. The methods of communication between these computers and the brassboard are explored. In order to evaluate the features of both the

  5. Autonomous power system brassboard

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merolla, Anthony

    1992-01-01

    The Autonomous Power System (APS) brassboard is a 20 kHz power distribution system which has been developed at NASA Lewis Research Center, Cleveland, Ohio. The brassboard exists to provide a realistic hardware platform capable of testing artificially intelligent (AI) software. The brassboard's power circuit topology is based upon a Power Distribution Control Unit (PDCU), which is a subset of an advanced development 20 kHz electrical power system (EPS) testbed, originally designed for Space Station Freedom (SSF). The APS program is designed to demonstrate the application of intelligent software as a fault detection, isolation, and recovery methodology for space power systems. This report discusses both the hardware and software elements used to construct the present configuration of the brassboard. The brassboard power components are described. These include the solid-state switches (herein referred to as switchgear), transformers, sources, and loads. Closely linked to this power portion of the brassboard is the first level of embedded control. Hardware used to implement this control and its associated software is discussed. An Ada software program, developed by Lewis Research Center's Space Station Freedom Directorate for their 20 kHz testbed, is used to control the brassboard's switchgear, as well as monitor key brassboard parameters through sensors located within these switches. The Ada code is downloaded from a PC/AT, and is resident within the 8086 microprocessor-based embedded controllers. The PC/AT is also used for smart terminal emulation, capable of controlling the switchgear as well as displaying data from them. Intelligent control is provided through use of a T1 Explorer and the Autonomous Power Expert (APEX) LISP software. Real-time load scheduling is implemented through use of a 'C' program-based scheduling engine. The methods of communication between these computers and the brassboard are explored. In order to evaluate the features of both the

  6. Decentralized diagnosis in a spacecraft attitude determination and control system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez, C. G.; Travé-Massuyès, L.; Chanthery, E.; Sotomayor, J.

    2015-11-01

    In model-based diagnosis (MBD), structural models can provide useful information for fault diagnosis and fault-tolerant control design. In particular, they are known for supporting the design of analytical redundancy relations (ARRs) which are widely used to generate residuals for diagnosis. On the other hand, systems are increasingly complex whereby it is necessary to develop decentralized architectures to perform the diagnosis task. Decentralized diagnosis is of interest for on-board systems as a way to reduce computational costs or for large geographically distributed systems that require to minimizing data transfer. Decentralized solutions allow proper separation of industrial knowledge, provided that inputs and outputs are clearly defined. This paper builds on the results of [1] and proposes an optimized approach for decentralized fault-focused residual generation. It also introduce the concept of Fault-Driven Minimal Structurally-Overdetermined set (FMSO) ensuring minimal redundancy. The method decreases communication cost involved in decentralization with respect to the algorithm proposed in [1] while still maintaining the same isolation properties as the centralized approach as well as the isolation on request capability.

  7. Asteroid Exploration with Autonomic Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Truszkowski, Walt; Rash, James; Rouff, Christopher; Hinchey, Mike

    2004-01-01

    NASA is studying advanced technologies for a future robotic exploration mission to the asteroid belt. The prospective ANTS (Autonomous Nano Technology Swarm) mission comprises autonomous agents including worker agents (small spacecra3) designed to cooperate in asteroid exploration under the overall authoriq of at least one ruler agent (a larger spacecraft) whose goal is to cause science data to be returned to Earth. The ANTS team (ruler plus workers and messenger agents), but not necessarily any individual on the team, will exhibit behaviors that qualify it as an autonomic system, where an autonomic system is defined as a system that self-reconfigures, self-optimizes, self-heals, and self-protects. Autonomic system concepts lead naturally to realistic, scalable architectures rich in capabilities and behaviors. In-depth consideration of a major mission like ANTS in terms of autonomic systems brings new insights into alternative definitions of autonomic behavior. This paper gives an overview of the ANTS mission and discusses the autonomic properties of the mission.

  8. Designing a Decentralized Traffic Information System — AutoNomos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wegener, Axel; Hellbrück, Horst; Fischer, Stefan; Hendriks, Björn; Schmidt, Christiane; Fekete, Sándor P.

    We propose a decentralized traffic information system—Auto-Nomos—that is based on a thorough investigation of the properties of traffic and recommends a hierarchical data aggregation and forwarding for providing individualized information and support to road users. Our approach differs from work in the field by consequently applying local rules and local decentralized data processing, which turns out to be a key property of robust and scalable computing systems. We present a flexible VANET middleware that assists the application development by providing generic functionality for traffic applications. We discuss the architectural design of the overall system and provide solutions of important design concepts demonstrating the innovation of the approach.

  9. Decentralization, stabilization, and estimation of large-scale linear systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siljak, D. D.; Vukcevic, M. B.

    1976-01-01

    In this short paper we consider three closely related aspects of large-scale systems: decentralization, stabilization, and estimation. A method is proposed to decompose a large linear system into a number of interconnected subsystems with decentralized (scalar) inputs or outputs. The procedure is preliminary to the hierarchic stabilization and estimation of linear systems and is performed on the subsystem level. A multilevel control scheme based upon the decomposition-aggregation method is developed for stabilization of input-decentralized linear systems Local linear feedback controllers are used to stabilize each decoupled subsystem, while global linear feedback controllers are utilized to minimize the coupling effect among the subsystems. Systems stabilized by the method have a tolerance to a wide class of nonlinearities in subsystem coupling and high reliability with respect to structural perturbations. The proposed output-decentralization and stabilization schemes can be used directly to construct asymptotic state estimators for large linear systems on the subsystem level. The problem of dimensionality is resolved by constructing a number of low-order estimators, thus avoiding a design of a single estimator for the overall system.

  10. Autonomous power system: Integrated scheduling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ringer, Mark J.

    1992-01-01

    The Autonomous Power System (APS) project at NASA Lewis Research Center is designed to demonstrate the abilities of integrated intelligent diagnosis, control and scheduling techniques to space power distribution hardware. The project consists of three elements: the Autonomous Power Expert System (APEX) for fault diagnosis, isolation, and recovery (FDIR), the Autonomous Intelligent Power Scheduler (AIPS) to determine system configuration, and power hardware (Brassboard) to simulate a space-based power system. Faults can be introduced into the Brassboard and in turn, be diagnosed and corrected by APEX and AIPS. The Autonomous Intelligent Power Scheduler controls the execution of loads attached to the Brassboard. Each load must be executed in a manner that efficiently utilizes available power and satisfies all load, resource, and temporal constraints. In the case of a fault situation on the Brassboard, AIPS dynamically modifies the existing schedule in order to resume efficient operation conditions. A database is kept of the power demand, temporal modifiers, priority of each load, and the power level of each source. AIPS uses a set of heuristic rules to assign start times and resources to each load based on load and resource constraints. A simple improvement engine based upon these heuristics is also available to improve the schedule efficiency. This paper describes the operation of the Autonomous Intelligent Power Scheduler as a single entity, as well as its integration with APEX and the Brassboard. Future plans are discussed for the growth of the Autonomous Intelligent Power Scheduler.

  11. Progress towards autonomous, intelligent systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lum, Henry; Heer, Ewald

    1987-01-01

    An aggressive program has been initiated to develop, integrate, and implement autonomous systems technologies starting with today's expert systems and evolving to autonomous, intelligent systems by the end of the 1990s. This program includes core technology developments and demonstration projects for technology evaluation and validation. This paper discusses key operational frameworks in the content of systems autonomy applications and then identifies major technological challenges, primarily in artificial intelligence areas. Program content and progress made towards critical technologies and demonstrations that have been initiated to achieve the required future capabilities in the year 2000 era are discussed.

  12. Gas House Autonomous System Monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Luke; Edsall, Ashley

    2015-01-01

    Gas House Autonomous System Monitoring (GHASM) will employ Integrated System Health Monitoring (ISHM) of cryogenic fluids in the High Pressure Gas Facility at Stennis Space Center. The preliminary focus of development incorporates the passive monitoring and eventual commanding of the Nitrogen System. ISHM offers generic system awareness, adept at using concepts rather than specific error cases. As an enabler for autonomy, ISHM provides capabilities inclusive of anomaly detection, diagnosis, and abnormality prediction. Advancing ISHM and Autonomous Operation functional capabilities enhances quality of data, optimizes safety, improves cost effectiveness, and has direct benefits to a wide spectrum of aerospace applications.

  13. Some notions of decentralization and coordination in large-scale dynamic systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chong, C. Y.

    1975-01-01

    Some notions of decentralization and coordination in the control of large-scale dynamic systems are discussed. Decentralization and coordination have always been important concepts in the study of large systems. Roughly speaking decentralization is the process of dividing a large problem into subproblems so that it can be handled more easily. Coordination is the manipulation of the subproblem so that the original problem is solved. The various types of decentralization and coordination that have been used to control dynamic systems are discussed. The emphasis was to distinguish between on-line and off-line operations to understand the results available by indicating the aspects of the problem which are decentralized.

  14. Game-Based Virtual Worlds as Decentralized Virtual Activity Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scacchi, Walt

    There is widespread interest in the development and use of decentralized systems and virtual world environments as possible new places for engaging in collaborative work activities. Similarly, there is widespread interest in stimulating new technological innovations that enable people to come together through social networking, file/media sharing, and networked multi-player computer game play. A decentralized virtual activity system (DVAS) is a networked computer supported work/play system whose elements and social activities can be both virtual and decentralized (Scacchi et al. 2008b). Massively multi-player online games (MMOGs) such as World of Warcraft and online virtual worlds such as Second Life are each popular examples of a DVAS. Furthermore, these systems are beginning to be used for research, deve-lopment, and education activities in different science, technology, and engineering domains (Bainbridge 2007, Bohannon et al. 2009; Rieber 2005; Scacchi and Adams 2007; Shaffer 2006), which are also of interest here. This chapter explores two case studies of DVASs developed at the University of California at Irvine that employ game-based virtual worlds to support collaborative work/play activities in different settings. The settings include those that model and simulate practical or imaginative physical worlds in different domains of science, technology, or engineering through alternative virtual worlds where players/workers engage in different kinds of quests or quest-like workflows (Jakobsson 2006).

  15. Decentralized, cooperative control of multivehicle systems: Design and stability analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weitz, Lesley Anne

    2009-12-01

    This dissertation addresses the design and stability analysis of decentralized, cooperative control laws for multivehicle systems. Advances in communication, navigation, and surveillance systems have enabled greater autonomy in multivehicle systems, and there is a shift toward decentralized, cooperative systems for computational efficiency and robustness. In a decentralized control scheme, control inputs are determined onboard each vehicle; therefore, decentralized controllers are more efficient for large numbers of vehicles, and the system is more robust to communication failures and reconfiguration. The design of decentralized, cooperative control laws is explored for a nonlinear vehicle model that can be represented in a double-integrator form. Cooperative controllers are functions of spacing errors with respect to other vehicles in the system, where the communication structure defines the information that is available to each vehicle. Control inputs are selected to achieve internal stability, or zero steady-state spacing errors, between vehicles in the system. Closed-loop equations of motion for the cooperative system can be written in a structural form, where damping and stiffness matrices contain control gains acting on the velocity and positions of the vehicles, respectively. The form of the stiffness matrix is determined by the communication structure, where different communication structures yield different control forms. Communication structures are compared using two structural analysis tools: modal cost and frequency-response functions, which evaluate the response of the multivehicle systems to disturbances. The frequency-response information is shown to reveal the string stability of different cooperative control forms. The effects of time delays in the feedback states of the cooperative control laws on system stability are also investigated. Closed-loop equations of motion are modeled as delay differential equations, and two stability notions are

  16. Contingency Software in Autonomous Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lutz, Robyn; Patterson-Hine, Ann

    2006-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the development of contingency software for autonomous systems. Autonomous vehicles currently have a limited capacity to diagnose and mitigate failures. There is a need to be able to handle a broader range of contingencies. The goals of the project are: 1. Speed up diagnosis and mitigation of anomalous situations.2.Automatically handle contingencies, not just failures.3.Enable projects to select a degree of autonomy consistent with their needs and to incrementally introduce more autonomy.4.Augment on-board fault protection with verified contingency scripts

  17. Intelligent, autonomous systems in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lum, H.; Heer, E.

    1988-01-01

    The Space Station is expected to be equipped with intelligent, autonomous capabilities; to achieve and incorporate these capabilities, the required technologies need to be identitifed, developed and validated within realistic application scenarios. The critical technologies for the development of intelligent, autonomous systems are discussed in the context of a generalized functional architecture. The present state of this technology implies that it be introduced and applied in an evolutionary process which must start during the Space Station design phase. An approach is proposed to accomplish design information acquisition and management for knowledge-base development.

  18. Decentralized receding horizon control of large scale dynamically decoupled systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keviczky, Tamas

    Decentralized control techniques today can be found in a broad spectrum of applications ranging from robotics and formation flight to civil engineering. Their importance for dynamically decoupled systems arises from the abundance of networks of independently actuated systems and the necessity of avoiding centralized design when this becomes computationally prohibitive or would require unrealistic expectations regarding information exchange. A decentralized optimal control framework using distributed Receding Horizon Control (RHC) schemes is proposed to address this problem, which helps overcome drawbacks of currently available methods. Stability of the proposed scheme is analyzed in detail and a number of methodologies are enlisted to address the problem of feasibility. In particular, a feasible decentralized RHC scheme based on hierarchical decomposition and feasible set projection is developed. Another approach for guaranteed constraint fulfillment is described as well using invariant sets of emergency controllers and switching. A hybrid decentralized RHC framework is also introduced based on coordinating functions and logic rules. The proposed framework makes use of algorithms that rely on results from computational geometry, mathematical programming solvers, constrained optimal control, invariant set computation and hybrid systems. These techniques allow the formulation of constrained optimal control problems and the computation of their equivalent look-up tables which are easily implementable in real-time. A summary of relevant background material related to these underlying techniques is provided in this thesis as well. Applicability of the proposed framework is explored using the formation control problem of multiple Unmanned Air Vehicles (UAVs) as a motivating example. This particular application problem has a wide range of envisioned applications including distributed sensing and monitoring, which appear to be the most promising ones. The challenge in UAV

  19. A Robust Compositional Architecture for Autonomous Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brat, Guillaume; Deney, Ewen; Farrell, Kimberley; Giannakopoulos, Dimitra; Jonsson, Ari; Frank, Jeremy; Bobby, Mark; Carpenter, Todd; Estlin, Tara

    2006-01-01

    Space exploration applications can benefit greatly from autonomous systems. Great distances, limited communications and high costs make direct operations impossible while mandating operations reliability and efficiency beyond what traditional commanding can provide. Autonomous systems can improve reliability and enhance spacecraft capability significantly. However, there is reluctance to utilizing autonomous systems. In part this is due to general hesitation about new technologies, but a more tangible concern is that of reliability of predictability of autonomous software. In this paper, we describe ongoing work aimed at increasing robustness and predictability of autonomous software, with the ultimate goal of building trust in such systems. The work combines state-of-the-art technologies and capabilities in autonomous systems with advanced validation and synthesis techniques. The focus of this paper is on the autonomous system architecture that has been defined, and on how it enables the application of validation techniques for resulting autonomous systems.

  20. Decentralized optimal control of dynamical systems under uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabasov, R.; Dmitruk, N. M.; Kirillova, F. M.

    2011-07-01

    The problem of optimal control of a group of interconnected dynamical objects under uncertainty is considered. The cases are examined in which the centralized control of the group of objects is impossible due to delay in the channel for information exchange between the group members. Optimal self-control algorithms in real time for each dynamical object are proposed. Various types of a priori and current information about the behavior of the group members and about uncertainties in the system are examined. The proposed methods supplement the earlier developed optimal control methods for an individual dynamical system and the methods of decentralized optimal control of deterministic objects. The results are illustrated with examples.

  1. Semi autonomous mine detection system

    SciTech Connect

    Douglas Few; Roelof Versteeg; Herman Herman

    2010-04-01

    CMMAD is a risk reduction effort for the AMDS program. As part of CMMAD, multiple instances of semi autonomous robotic mine detection systems were created. Each instance consists of a robotic vehicle equipped with sensors required for navigation and marking, a countermine sensors and a number of integrated software packages which provide for real time processing of the countermine sensor data as well as integrated control of the robotic vehicle, the sensor actuator and the sensor. These systems were used to investigate critical interest functions (CIF) related to countermine robotic systems. To address the autonomy CIF, the INL developed RIK was extended to allow for interaction with a mine sensor processing code (MSPC). In limited field testing this system performed well in detecting, marking and avoiding both AT and AP mines. Based on the results of the CMMAD investigation we conclude that autonomous robotic mine detection is feasible. In addition, CMMAD contributed critical technical advances with regard to sensing, data processing and sensor manipulation, which will advance the performance of future fieldable systems. As a result, no substantial technical barriers exist which preclude – from an autonomous robotic perspective – the rapid development and deployment of fieldable systems.

  2. Knowledge acquisition for autonomous systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lum, Henry; Heer, Ewald

    1988-01-01

    Knowledge-based capabilities for autonomous aerospace systems, such as the NASA Space Station, must encompass conflict-resolution functions comparable to those of human operators, with all elements of the system working toward system goals in a concurrent, asynchronous-but-coordinated fashion. Knowledge extracted from a design database will support robotic systems by furnishing geometric, structural, and causal descriptions required for repair, disassembly, and assembly. The factual knowledge for these databases will be obtained from a master database through a technical management information system, and it will in many cases have to be augmented by domain-specific heuristic knowledge acquired from domain experts.

  3. Linear decentralized systems with special structure. [for twin lift helicopters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, C. F.

    1982-01-01

    Certain fundamental structures associated with linear systems having internal symmetries are outlined. It is shown that the theory of finite-dimensional algebras and their representations are closely related to such systems. It is also demonstrated that certain problems in the decentralized control of symmetric systems are equivalent to long-standing problems of linear systems theory. Even though the structure imposed arose in considering the problems of twin-lift helicopters, any large system composed of several identical intercoupled control systems can be modeled by a linear system that satisfies the constraints imposed. Internal symmetry can be exploited to yield new system-theoretic invariants and a better understanding of the way in which the underlying structure affects overall system performance.

  4. Decentralized and efficient control of transboundary pollution in federal systems

    SciTech Connect

    Silva, E.C.D.

    1997-01-01

    Decentralized control of transboundary pollution in federal systems can be efficient when population crowding is socially costly. In this paper, an upstream region abates pollution or makes an interregional income transfer to the downstream region with the sole intent of deterring immigration. Because either instrument, abatement expenditure or interregional income transfer, alone implements an efficient population distribution between the regions, interregional income transfers are unnecessary for efficiency. Without explicit income transfers, each region provides the efficient portion of the aggregate level of pollution abatement in the Nash equilibrium. 12 refs.

  5. Is the avionics system of the Hermes Spaceplane centralized or decentralized?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vannier, Jean-Claude

    The avionics system of Hermes is called spacionics. Spacionics is defined as a set of onboard items which treat, exchange, or store information in electrical form, and provide and distribute electrical power. The main drivers for spacionics design are mass and safety. The spacionics organization depends on the priorities assigned to different criteria. These priorities can lead to either a centralized or a decentralized data processing architecture. It has been necessary to centralize the widest part of the data processing, which is split into two pools of computers, one dedicated to guidance, navigation and control and one dedicated to mission and vehicle management. The first one, made of 4 computers and 4 data busses, is able to perform its functions autonomously and automatically even after 2 failures. The second one, including only 2 strings, requires the implementation of safety protection, activated, if necessary, either by the crew or by the control.

  6. Decentralized regulation of dynamic systems. [for controlling large scale linear systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chu, K. C.

    1975-01-01

    A special class of decentralized control problem is discussed in which the objectives of the control agents are to steer the state of the system to desired levels. Each agent is concerned about certain aspects of the state of the entire system. The state and control equations are given for linear time-invariant systems. Stability and coordination, and the optimization of decentralized control are analyzed, and the information structure design is presented.

  7. Multi-agent autonomous system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fink, Wolfgang (Inventor); Dohm, James (Inventor); Tarbell, Mark A. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A multi-agent autonomous system for exploration of hazardous or inaccessible locations. The multi-agent autonomous system includes simple surface-based agents or craft controlled by an airborne tracking and command system. The airborne tracking and command system includes an instrument suite used to image an operational area and any craft deployed within the operational area. The image data is used to identify the craft, targets for exploration, and obstacles in the operational area. The tracking and command system determines paths for the surface-based craft using the identified targets and obstacles and commands the craft using simple movement commands to move through the operational area to the targets while avoiding the obstacles. Each craft includes its own instrument suite to collect information about the operational area that is transmitted back to the tracking and command system. The tracking and command system may be further coupled to a satellite system to provide additional image information about the operational area and provide operational and location commands to the tracking and command system.

  8. Integrated System for Autonomous Science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chien, Steve; Sherwood, Robert; Tran, Daniel; Cichy, Benjamin; Davies, Ashley; Castano, Rebecca; Rabideau, Gregg; Frye, Stuart; Trout, Bruce; Shulman, Seth; Doggett, Thomas; Ip, Felipe; Greeley, Ron; Baker, Victor; Dohn, James; Boyer, Darrell

    2006-01-01

    The New Millennium Program Space Technology 6 Project Autonomous Sciencecraft software implements an integrated system for autonomous planning and execution of scientific, engineering, and spacecraft-coordination actions. A prior version of this software was reported in "The TechSat 21 Autonomous Sciencecraft Experiment" (NPO-30784), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 28, No. 3 (March 2004), page 33. This software is now in continuous use aboard the Earth Orbiter 1 (EO-1) spacecraft mission and is being adapted for use in the Mars Odyssey and Mars Exploration Rovers missions. This software enables EO-1 to detect and respond to such events of scientific interest as volcanic activity, flooding, and freezing and thawing of water. It uses classification algorithms to analyze imagery onboard to detect changes, including events of scientific interest. Detection of such events triggers acquisition of follow-up imagery. The mission-planning component of the software develops a response plan that accounts for visibility of targets and operational constraints. The plan is then executed under control by a task-execution component of the software that is capable of responding to anomalies.

  9. The Autonomous Pathogen Detection System

    SciTech Connect

    Dzenitis, J M; Makarewicz, A J

    2009-01-13

    We developed, tested, and now operate a civilian biological defense capability that continuously monitors the air for biological threat agents. The Autonomous Pathogen Detection System (APDS) collects, prepares, reads, analyzes, and reports results of multiplexed immunoassays and multiplexed PCR assays using Luminex{copyright} xMAP technology and flow cytometer. The mission we conduct is particularly demanding: continuous monitoring, multiple threat agents, high sensitivity, challenging environments, and ultimately extremely low false positive rates. Here, we introduce the mission requirements and metrics, show the system engineering and analysis framework, and describe the progress to date including early development and current status.

  10. APDS: Autonomous Pathogen Detection System

    SciTech Connect

    Langlois, R G; Brown, S; Burris, L; Colston, B; Jones, L; Makarewicz, T; Mariella, R; Masquelier, D; McBride, M; Milanovich, F; Masarabadi, S; Venkateswaran, K; Marshall, G; Olson, D; Wolcott, D

    2002-02-14

    An early warning system to counter bioterrorism, the Autonomous Pathogen Detection System (APDS) continuously monitors the environment for the presence of biological pathogens (e.g., anthrax) and once detected, it sounds an alarm much like a smoke detector warns of a fire. Long before September 11, 2001, this system was being developed to protect domestic venues and events including performing arts centers, mass transit systems, major sporting and entertainment events, and other high profile situations in which the public is at risk of becoming a target of bioterrorist attacks. Customizing off-the-shelf components and developing new components, a multidisciplinary team developed APDS, a stand-alone system for rapid, continuous monitoring of multiple airborne biological threat agents in the environment. The completely automated APDS samples the air, prepares fluid samples in-line, and performs two orthogonal tests: immunoassay and nucleic acid detection. When compared to competing technologies, APDS is unprecedented in terms of flexibility and system performance.

  11. Efforts to Desegregate and Decentralize the Administration of a Large City School System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Redmond, James F.

    The superintendent of schools in Chicago discusses concurrent efforts to desegregate and decentralize the city's public school systems. He stresses the financial limitations which cripple efforts to ameliorate the urban school crisis. He feels that effective decentralization does not necessitate multiple local boards of education, for the central…

  12. Towards an Autonomic Cluster Management System (ACMS) with Reflex Autonomicity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Truszkowski, Walt; Hinchey, Mike; Sterritt, Roy

    2005-01-01

    Cluster computing, whereby a large number of simple processors or nodes are combined together to apparently function as a single powerful computer, has emerged as a research area in its own right. The approach offers a relatively inexpensive means of providing a fault-tolerant environment and achieving significant computational capabilities for high-performance computing applications. However, the task of manually managing and configuring a cluster quickly becomes daunting as the cluster grows in size. Autonomic computing, with its vision to provide self-management, can potentially solve many of the problems inherent in cluster management. We describe the development of a prototype Autonomic Cluster Management System (ACMS) that exploits autonomic properties in automating cluster management and its evolution to include reflex reactions via pulse monitoring.

  13. Environmental Systems and Local Actors: Decentralizing Environmental Policy in Uganda

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oosterveer, Peter; van Vliet, Bas

    2010-02-01

    In Uganda, environmental and natural resource management is decentralized and has been the responsibility of local districts since 1996. This environmental management arrangement was part of a broader decentralization process and was intended to increase local ownership and improve environmental policy; however, its implementation has encountered several major challenges over the last decade. This article reviews some of the key structural problems facing decentralized environmental policy in this central African country and examines these issues within the wider framework of political decentralization. Tensions have arisen between technical staff and politicians, between various levels of governance, and between environmental and other policy domains. This review offers a critical reflection on the perspectives and limitations of decentralized environmental governance in Uganda. Our conclusions focus on the need to balance administrative staff and local politicians, the mainstreaming of local environmental policy, and the role of international donors.

  14. A Design of Decentralized Control System in Unstructured Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ito, Daiki; Kageyama, Takashi; Suzuki, Jun; Tsuji, Toshiaki; Morisawa, Mitsuharu; Ohnishi, Kouhei

    Motion control is developed in control of industrial machines. However, some kind of machines working in an open environment are required in our future society. Then it is necessary to design general methodology for motion controller in open environment. In this paper, decentralized control system is applied as a motion controller for this purpose. This paper is constructed from two parts roughly: the first is a method to abstract environmental mode from environmental information, and the second is a method to design the motion controller with the environmental information. This paper applied this method to biped robot as a model case. The effectiveness of proposed method is confirmed by several simulation and experimental results.

  15. Autonomic Computing for Spacecraft Ground Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Zhenping; Savkli, Cetin; Jones, Lori

    2007-01-01

    Autonomic computing for spacecraft ground systems increases the system reliability and reduces the cost of spacecraft operations and software maintenance. In this paper, we present an autonomic computing solution for spacecraft ground systems at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), which consists of an open standard for a message oriented architecture referred to as the GMSEC architecture (Goddard Mission Services Evolution Center), and an autonomic computing tool, the Criteria Action Table (CAT). This solution has been used in many upgraded ground systems for NASA 's missions, and provides a framework for developing solutions with higher autonomic maturity.

  16. Testbed for an autonomous system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dikshit, Piyush; Guimaraes, Katia; Ramamurthy, Maya; Agrawala, Ashok K.; Larsen, Ronald L.

    1989-01-01

    In previous works we have defined a general architectural model for autonomous systems, which can easily be mapped to describe the functions of any automated system (SDAG-86-01), and we illustrated that model by applying it to the thermal management system of a space station (SDAG-87-01). In this note, we will further develop that application and design the detail of the implementation of such a model. First we present the environment of our application by describing the thermal management problem and an abstraction, which was called TESTBED, that includes a specific function for each module in the architecture, and the nature of the interfaces between each pair of blocks.

  17. An Autonomous Flight Safety System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bull, James B.; Lanzi, Raymond J.

    2007-01-01

    The Autonomous Flight Safety System (AFSS) being developed by NASA s Goddard Space Flight Center s Wallops Flight Facility and Kennedy Space Center has completed two successful developmental flights and is preparing for a third. AFSS has been demonstrated to be a viable architecture for implementation of a completely vehicle based system capable of protecting life and property in event of an errant vehicle by terminating the flight or initiating other actions. It is capable of replacing current human-in-the-loop systems or acting in parallel with them. AFSS is configured prior to flight in accordance with a specific rule set agreed upon by the range safety authority and the user to protect the public and assure mission success. This paper discusses the motivation for the project, describes the method of development, and presents an overview of the evolving architecture and the current status.

  18. Wave Upon Wave: Fiji's Experiments in Decentralizing Its Health Care System.

    PubMed

    Mohammed, Jalal; Ashton, Toni; North, Nicola

    2016-04-01

    Decentralization in the health sector has been widely implemented since the 1970s as a reform mechanism with mixed results. This study describes Fiji's 2 attempts at decentralizing its health sector and examines the implications they have had for the functions of planning, financing, and delivery of health services. The first wave attempted a major restructure by devolving Fiji's health system. Political instability, along with a lack of acceptance, stalled its implementation resulting in a delegated system. While the functions of planning and financing remained centralized, the function of delivery was delegated to geographic regions. The second wave was a more focused effort that targeted the deconcentration of outpatient services in one division. This attempt also decentralized the delivery function while keeping the other 2 functions centralized. Fiji's incremental approach to decentralization could provide lessons for Asia-Pacific countries that have had failed attempts in large scale decentralization efforts. PMID:26969639

  19. Information for Successful Interaction with Autonomous Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malin, Jane T.; Johnson, Kathy A.

    2003-01-01

    Interaction in heterogeneous mission operations teams is not well matched to classical models of coordination with autonomous systems. We describe methods of loose coordination and information management in mission operations. We describe an information agent and information management tool suite for managing information from many sources, including autonomous agents. We present an integrated model of levels of complexity of agent and human behavior, which shows types of information processing and points of potential error in agent activities. We discuss the types of information needed for diagnosing problems and planning interactions with an autonomous system. We discuss types of coordination for which designs are needed for autonomous system functions.

  20. Autonomous navigation system and method

    SciTech Connect

    Bruemmer, David J; Few, Douglas A

    2009-09-08

    A robot platform includes perceptors, locomotors, and a system controller, which executes instructions for autonomously navigating a robot. The instructions repeat, on each iteration through an event timing loop, the acts of defining an event horizon based on the robot's current velocity, detecting a range to obstacles around the robot, testing for an event horizon intrusion by determining if any range to the obstacles is within the event horizon, and adjusting rotational and translational velocity of the robot accordingly. If the event horizon intrusion occurs, rotational velocity is modified by a proportion of the current rotational velocity reduced by a proportion of the range to the nearest obstacle and translational velocity is modified by a proportion of the range to the nearest obstacle. If no event horizon intrusion occurs, translational velocity is set as a ratio of a speed factor relative to a maximum speed.

  1. Design of decentralized multivariable excitation controllers in multimachine power systems by projective controls

    SciTech Connect

    Arnautovic, D.; Medanic, J.

    1987-12-01

    A methodology for the design of decentralized multivariable excitation and controllers in multimachine power systems is developed using projective controls. The existing methodology, is extended to permit the coordinated design of AVR and PSS controllers in power systems.

  2. Compact Autonomous Hemispheric Vision System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pingree, Paula J.; Cunningham, Thomas J.; Werne, Thomas A.; Eastwood, Michael L.; Walch, Marc J.; Staehle, Robert L.

    2012-01-01

    Solar System Exploration camera implementations to date have involved either single cameras with wide field-of-view (FOV) and consequently coarser spatial resolution, cameras on a movable mast, or single cameras necessitating rotation of the host vehicle to afford visibility outside a relatively narrow FOV. These cameras require detailed commanding from the ground or separate onboard computers to operate properly, and are incapable of making decisions based on image content that control pointing and downlink strategy. For color, a filter wheel having selectable positions was often added, which added moving parts, size, mass, power, and reduced reliability. A system was developed based on a general-purpose miniature visible-light camera using advanced CMOS (complementary metal oxide semiconductor) imager technology. The baseline camera has a 92 FOV and six cameras are arranged in an angled-up carousel fashion, with FOV overlaps such that the system has a 360 FOV (azimuth). A seventh camera, also with a FOV of 92 , is installed normal to the plane of the other 6 cameras giving the system a > 90 FOV in elevation and completing the hemispheric vision system. A central unit houses the common electronics box (CEB) controlling the system (power conversion, data processing, memory, and control software). Stereo is achieved by adding a second system on a baseline, and color is achieved by stacking two more systems (for a total of three, each system equipped with its own filter.) Two connectors on the bottom of the CEB provide a connection to a carrier (rover, spacecraft, balloon, etc.) for telemetry, commands, and power. This system has no moving parts. The system's onboard software (SW) supports autonomous operations such as pattern recognition and tracking.

  3. MASDynamics: Toward Systemic Modeling of Decentralized Agent Coordination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sudeikat, Jan; Renz, Wolfgang

    Enabling distributed software systems to purposefully self-organize, i.e. to adapt to dynamically changing execution contexts by the collective adjustment of individual components, challenges current development practices. Since the dynamics of self-organizing systems arise from agent coaction, developers cannot directly infer the macroscopic system behavior from established agent design models. This paper plays a part in an ongoing research effort that addresses the provision of self-organizing processes as design elements, i.e. reusable patterns of agent interrelations. We propose a systemic modeling approach and support the application independent description of (inter-) agent coordination patterns by a domain specific language that allows to map interrelations of agent activity to detailed agent design models. This facilitates the separation of decentralized coordination strategies from domain specific agent implementations and enables development teams to treat nature-inspired coordination strategies, which steer self-organizing dynamics, as design concepts. In addition, we show how this modeling conception provides a declarative programming approach by the automated supplementation of conventional developed agent models with non-linear, inter-agent coordination mechanisms.

  4. A review on full-scale decentralized wastewater treatment systems: techno-economical approach.

    PubMed

    Singh, Nitin Kumar; Kazmi, A A; Starkl, M

    2015-01-01

    As a solution to the shortcomings of centralized systems, over the last two decades large numbers of decentralized wastewater treatment plants of different technology types have been installed all over the world. This paper aims at deriving lessons learned from existing decentralized wastewater treatment plants that are relevant for smaller towns (and peri-urban areas) as well as rural communities in developing countries, such as India. Only full-scale implemented decentralized wastewater treatment systems are reviewed in terms of performance, land area requirement, capital cost, and operation and maintenance costs. The results are presented in tables comparing different technology types with respect to those parameters. PMID:25746636

  5. System Engineering of Autonomous Space Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, Michael D.; Johnson, Stephen B.; Trevino, Luis

    2014-01-01

    Human exploration of the solar system requires fully autonomous systems when travelling more than 5 light minutes from Earth. This autonomy is necessary to manage a large, complex spacecraft with limited crew members and skills available. The communication latency requires the vehicle to deal with events with only limited crew interaction in most cases. The engineering of these systems requires an extensive knowledge of the spacecraft systems, information theory, and autonomous algorithm characteristics. The characteristics of the spacecraft systems must be matched with the autonomous algorithm characteristics to reliably monitor and control the system. This presents a large system engineering problem. Recent work on product-focused, elegant system engineering will be applied to this application, looking at the full autonomy stack, the matching of autonomous systems to spacecraft systems, and the integration of different types of algorithms. Each of these areas will be outlined and a general approach defined for system engineering to provide the optimal solution to the given application context.

  6. Autonomous intelligent cruise control system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baret, Marc; Bomer, Thierry T.; Calesse, C.; Dudych, L.; L'Hoist, P.

    1995-01-01

    Autonomous intelligent cruise control (AICC) systems are not only controlling vehicles' speed but acting on the throttle and eventually on the brakes they could automatically maintain the relative speed and distance between two vehicles in the same lane. And more than just for comfort it appears that these new systems should improve the safety on highways. By applying a technique issued from the space research carried out by MATRA, a sensor based on a charge coupled device (CCD) was designed to acquire the reflected light on standard-mounted car reflectors of pulsed laser diodes emission. The CCD is working in a unique mode called flash during transfer (FDT) which allows identification of target patterns in severe optical environments. It provides high accuracy for distance and angular position of targets. The absence of moving mechanical parts ensures high reliability for this sensor. The large field of view and the high measurement rate give a global situation assessment and a short reaction time. Then, tracking and filtering algorithms have been developed in order to select the target, on which the equipped vehicle determines its safety distance and speed, taking into account its maneuvering and the behaviors of other vehicles.

  7. Control System Validation In The Autonomous Helicopter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilmore, John F.; Fugedy, John; Friedel, Thomas

    1989-03-01

    Autonomous systems require the ability to analyze their environment and develop responsive plans of action. Autonomous vehicle research has led to the development of several land, sea, and air vehicle prototypes. These systems integrate vision, diagnostics, planning, situation assessment, tactical reasoning, and intelligent control at a variety of levels to function in limited environments or computer simulation. Route planning in these systems has historically focused on pure numerical computations unable to adapt to the dynamic nature of the world. This paper describes a knowledge-based system for autonomous route planning that has been applied to airborne vehicles. Specific focus is the vehicle model knowledge source that validates routes based upon the physical capabilities of the helicopter system. An overview of the autonomous helicopter is present to establish system context with specific results in validated route planning presented.

  8. The Secure, Transportable, Autonomous Reactor System

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, N.W.; Hassberger, J.A.; Smith, C.; Carelli, M.; Greenspan, E.; Peddicord, K.L.; Stroh, K.; Wade, D.C.; Hill, R.N.

    1999-05-27

    The Secure, Transportable, Autonomous Reactor (STAR) system is a development architecture for implementing a small nuclear power system, specifically aimed at meeting the growing energy needs of much of the developing world. It simultaneously provides very high standards for safety, proliferation resistance, ease and economy of installation, operation, and ultimate disposition. The STAR system accomplishes these objectives through a combination of modular design, factory manufacture, long lifetime without refueling, autonomous control, and high reliability.

  9. Organizational precedents for ownership and management of decentralized renewable-energy systems

    SciTech Connect

    Meunier, R.; Silversmith, J.A.

    1981-03-01

    Three existing organizational types that meet the decentralization criteria of local consumer ownership and control - cooperatives, Rural Electric Cooperatives, and municipal utilities - are examined. These three organizational precedents are analyzed in terms of their histories, structures, legal powers, sources of capital, and social and political aspects. Examples of related experiments with renewable energy technologies are given, and inferences are drawn regarding the organizations' suitability as vehicles for future implementation of decentralized renewable energy systems.

  10. An introduction to autonomous control systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Antsaklis, Panos J.; Passino, Kevin M.; Wang, S. J.

    1991-01-01

    The functions, characteristics, and benefits of autonomous control are outlined. An autonomous control functional architecture for future space vehicles that incorporates the concepts and characteristics described is presented. The controller is hierarchical, with an execution level (the lowest level), coordination level (middle level), and management and organization level (highest level). The general characteristics of the overall architecture, including those of the three levels, are explained, and an example to illustrate their functions is given. Mathematical models for autonomous systems, including 'logical' discrete event system models, are discussed. An approach to the quantitative, systematic modeling, analysis, and design of autonomous controllers is also discussed. It is a hybrid approach since it uses conventional analysis techniques based on difference and differential equations and new techniques for the analysis of the systems described with a symbolic formalism such as finite automata. Some recent results from the areas of planning and expert systems, machine learning, artificial neural networks, and the area restructurable controls are briefly outlined.

  11. Autonomous control systems - Architecture and fundamental issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Antsaklis, P. J.; Passino, K. M.; Wang, S. J.

    1988-01-01

    A hierarchical functional autonomous controller architecture is introduced. In particular, the architecture for the control of future space vehicles is described in detail; it is designed to ensure the autonomous operation of the control system and it allows interaction with the pilot and crew/ground station, and the systems on board the autonomous vehicle. The fundamental issues in autonomous control system modeling and analysis are discussed. It is proposed to utilize a hybrid approach to modeling and analysis of autonomous systems. This will incorporate conventional control methods based on differential equations and techniques for the analysis of systems described with a symbolic formalism. In this way, the theory of conventional control can be fully utilized. It is stressed that autonomy is the design requirement and intelligent control methods appear at present, to offer some of the necessary tools to achieve autonomy. A conventional approach may evolve and replace some or all of the `intelligent' functions. It is shown that in addition to conventional controllers, the autonomous control system incorporates planning, learning, and FDI (fault detection and identification).

  12. Autonomous underwater pipeline monitoring navigation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, Byrel; Mahmoudian, Nina; Meadows, Guy

    2014-06-01

    This paper details the development of an autonomous motion-control and navigation algorithm for an underwater autonomous vehicle, the Ocean Server IVER3, to track long linear features such as underwater pipelines. As part of this work, the Nonlinear and Autonomous Systems Laboratory (NAS Lab) developed an algorithm that utilizes inputs from the vehicles state of the art sensor package, which includes digital imaging, digital 3-D Sidescan Sonar, and Acoustic Doppler Current Profilers. The resulting algorithms should tolerate real-world waterway with episodic strong currents, low visibility, high sediment content, and a variety of small and large vessel traffic.

  13. Resource allocation and budgetary mechanisms for decentralized health systems: experiences from Balochistan, Pakistan.

    PubMed Central

    Green, A.; Ali, B.; Naeem, A.; Ross, D.

    2000-01-01

    This paper identifies key political and technical issues involved in the development of an appropriate resource allocation and budgetary system for the public health sector, using experience gained in the Province of Balochistan, Pakistan. The resource allocation and budgetary system is a critical, yet often neglected, component of any decentralization policy. Current systems are often based on historical incrementalism that is neither efficient nor equitable. This article describes technical work carried out in Balochistan to develop a system of resource allocation and budgeting that is needs-based, in line with policies of decentralization, and implementable within existing technical constraints. However, the development of technical systems, while necessary, is not a sufficient condition for the implementation of a resource allocation and decentralized budgeting system. This is illustrated by analysing the constraints that have been encountered in the development of such a system in Balochistan. PMID:10994286

  14. Financial management systems under decentralization and their effect on malaria control in Uganda.

    PubMed

    Kivumbi, George W; Nangendo, Florence; Ndyabahika, Boniface Rutagira

    2004-01-01

    A descriptive case study with multiple sites and a single level of analysis was carried out in four purposefully selected administrative districts of Uganda to investigate the effect of financial management systems under decentralization on malaria control. Data were primarily collected from 36 interviews with district managers, staff at health units and local leaders. A review of records and documents related to decentralization at the central and district level was also used to generate data for the study. We found that a long, tedious, and bureaucratic process combined with lack of knowledge in working with new financial systems by several actors characterized financial flow under decentralization. This affected the timely use of financial resources for malaria control in that there were funds in the system that could not be accessed for use. We were also told that sometimes these funds were returned to the central government because of non-use due to difficulties in accessing them and/or stringent conditions not to divert them to other uses. Our data showed that a cocktail of bureaucratic control systems, corruption and incompetence make the financial management system under decentralization counter-productive for malaria control. The main conclusion is that good governance through appropriate and efficient financial management systems is very important for effective malaria control under decentralization. PMID:15686065

  15. Autonomous Attitude Determination System (AADS). Volume 1: System description

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saralkar, K.; Frenkel, Y.; Klitsch, G.; Liu, K. S.; Lefferts, E.; Tasaki, K.; Snow, F.; Garrahan, J.

    1982-01-01

    Information necessary to understand the Autonomous Attitude Determination System (AADS) is presented. Topics include AADS requirements, program structure, algorithms, and system generation and execution.

  16. Towards real-time decentralized operating systems for ballistic missile defense

    SciTech Connect

    Van Tilborg, A.M.

    1982-01-01

    To satisfy the data processing needs of future ballistic missile defense systems, the US Army's ballistic missile defense advanced technology center is sponsoring extensive research on the subject of parallel computers. Both loosely coupled and tightly coupled machines consisting of numerous microcomputer processing elements are being evaluated for use in endoatmospheric, exoatmospheric, and space-based BMD systems. For various reasons, it is important that these parallel computers operate under the control of decentralized operating systems. This paper reports on the current status of research to develop decentralized operating systems for parallel computers used in ballistic missile defense. 24 references.

  17. Sensorpedia: Information Sharing Across Autonomous Sensor Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Gorman, Bryan L; Resseguie, David R; Tomkins-Tinch, Christopher H

    2009-01-01

    The concept of adapting social media technologies is introduced as a means of achieving information sharing across autonomous sensor systems. Historical examples of interoperability as an underlying principle in loosely-coupled systems is compared and contrasted with corresponding tightly-coupled, integrated systems. Examples of ad hoc information sharing solutions based on Web 2.0 social networks, mashups, blogs, wikis, and data tags are presented and discussed. The underlying technologies of these solutions are isolated and defined, and Sensorpedia is presented as a formalized application for implementing sensor information sharing across large-scale enterprises with incompatible autonomous sensor systems.

  18. Vocational Training in Chile: A Decentralized and Market Oriented System. Training Policy Study No. 8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Espinoza, Eduardo Martinez

    From 1976 to 1983 major reforms were enacted in Chile in the vocational training systems, based on four principles: decentralization, integration, diversification, and participation. The vocational training system in Chile is a legally established, market-oriented system in which many private training agencies compete to sell their services to…

  19. The decentralization of the health system in Colombia and Brazil and its impact on leprosy control.

    PubMed

    Kalk, Andreas; Fleischer, Klaus

    2004-03-01

    Decentralization policies are an integrated component of health sector reform in an increasing number of countries. The ability of such policies to improve the health system's quality and efficiency is backed up by limited scientific evidence. This study intends to evaluate the impact of decentralization on a specialized field of disease control (leprosy control) in Colombia and Brazil. It analyses the respective juridical base, epidemiological indicators and local publications. Furthermore, 39 semi-structured interviews with key informants were conducted. In both countries, the devolution of technical responsibility and financial resources to the municipalities was the implemented form of decentralization. Access to preventive and curative health care and the community participation in decision-making improved clearly only in Brazil. The decentralization to private providers in Colombia had dubious effects on service quality in general and still more on public health. The flow of finances (including finance collection through state-owned taxes instead of insurance companies) seemed to be better controlled in Brazil. Leprosy control in Brazil took advantage of the decentralization process; in Colombia, it came close to a collapse. PMID:15072128

  20. Advanced Autonomous Systems for Space Operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gross, A. R.; Smith, B. D.; Muscettola, N.; Barrett, A.; Mjolssness, E.; Clancy, D. J.

    2002-01-01

    New missions of exploration and space operations will require unprecedented levels of autonomy to successfully accomplish their objectives. Inherently high levels of complexity, cost, and communication distances will preclude the degree of human involvement common to current and previous space flight missions. With exponentially increasing capabilities of computer hardware and software, including networks and communication systems, a new balance of work is being developed between humans and machines. This new balance holds the promise of not only meeting the greatly increased space exploration requirements, but simultaneously dramatically reducing the design, development, test, and operating costs. New information technologies, which take advantage of knowledge-based software, model-based reasoning, and high performance computer systems, will enable the development of a new generation of design and development tools, schedulers, and vehicle and system health management capabilities. Such tools will provide a degree of machine intelligence and associated autonomy that has previously been unavailable. These capabilities are critical to the future of advanced space operations, since the science and operational requirements specified by such missions, as well as the budgetary constraints will limit the current practice of monitoring and controlling missions by a standing army of ground-based controllers. System autonomy capabilities have made great strides in recent years, for both ground and space flight applications. Autonomous systems have flown on advanced spacecraft, providing new levels of spacecraft capability and mission safety. Such on-board systems operate by utilizing model-based reasoning that provides the capability to work from high-level mission goals, while deriving the detailed system commands internally, rather than having to have such commands transmitted from Earth. This enables missions of such complexity and communication` distances as are not

  1. A Feasibility Analysis Methodology for Decentralized Wastewater Systems - Energy-Efficiency and Cost.

    PubMed

    Naik, Kartiki S; Stenstrom, Michael K

    2016-03-01

    Centralized wastewater treatment, widely practiced in developed areas, involves transporting wastewater from large urban areas to a large capacity plant using a single network of sewers, whereas decentralization is the concept of wastewater collection, treatment and reuse at or near its point of generation. Smaller decentralized plants can achieve extensive reclamation and wastewater management with energy-efficient reclaimed water pumping, modularized expansion and lower capital investment. We devised a methodology to preliminarily assess these alternatives using local constraints and conducted a feasibility analysis for each option. It addressed various scenarios using the pump-back energy consumption, sewer and treatment plant construction and capacity expansion cost. We demonstrated this methodology by applying it to the Hollywood vicinity (California). In this study, the decentralized configuration was more economical and energy-efficient than the centralized system. The pump-back energy consumption was about 50% of the aeration energy consumption for the centralized option. PMID:26730575

  2. Autonomous Systems, Robotics, and Computing Systems Capability Roadmap: NRC Dialogue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zornetzer, Steve; Gage, Douglas

    2005-01-01

    Contents include the following: Introduction. Process, Mission Drivers, Deliverables, and Interfaces. Autonomy. Crew-Centered and Remote Operations. Integrated Systems Health Management. Autonomous Vehicle Control. Autonomous Process Control. Robotics. Robotics for Solar System Exploration. Robotics for Lunar and Planetary Habitation. Robotics for In-Space Operations. Computing Systems. Conclusion.

  3. Advances in autonomous systems for space exploration missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, B. D.; Gross, A. R.; Clancy, D. J.; Cannon, H. N.; Barrett, A.; Mjolssness, E.; Muscettola, N.; Chien, S.; Johnson, A.

    2001-01-01

    This paper focuses on new and innovative software for remote, autonomous, space systems flight operation, including distributed autonomous systems, flight test results, and implications and directions for future systems.

  4. Decentralized Adaptive Control of Systems with Uncertain Interconnections, Plant-Model Mismatch and Actuator Failures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patre, Parag; Joshi, Suresh M.

    2011-01-01

    Decentralized adaptive control is considered for systems consisting of multiple interconnected subsystems. It is assumed that each subsystem s parameters are uncertain and the interconnection parameters are not known. In addition, mismatch can exist between each subsystem and its reference model. A strictly decentralized adaptive control scheme is developed, wherein each subsystem has access only to its own state but has the knowledge of all reference model states. The mismatch is estimated online for each subsystem and the mismatch estimates are used to adaptively modify the corresponding reference models. The adaptive control scheme is extended to the case with actuator failures in addition to mismatch.

  5. De-centralized and centralized control for realistic EMS Maglev systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moawad, Mohamed M. Aly M.

    A comparative study of de-centralized and centralized controllers when used with real EMS Maglev Systems is introduced. This comparison is divided into two parts. Part I is concerned with numerical simulation and experimental testing on a two ton six-magnet EMS Maglev vehicle. Levitation and lateral control with these controllers individually and when including flux feedback control in combination with these controllers to enhance stability are introduced. The centralized controller is better than the de-centralized one when the system is exposed to a lateral disturbing force such as wind gusts. The flux feedback control when combined with de-centralized or centralized controllers does improve the stability and is more resistant and robust with respect to the air gap variations. Part II is concerned with the study of Maglev vehicle-girder dynamic interaction system and the comparison between these two controllers on this typical system based on performance and ride quality achieved. Numerical simulations of the ODU EMS Maglev vehicle interacting with girder are conducted with these two different controllers. The de-centralized and centralized control for EMS Maglev systems that interact with a flexible girder provides similar ride quality. Centralized control with flux feedback could be the best controller for the ODU Maglev system when operating on girder. The centralized control will guarantee the suppression of the undesired lateral displacements; hence it will provide smoother ride quality. Flux feedback will suppress air gap variations due to the track discontinuities.

  6. Back to basics: does decentralization improve health system performance? Evidence from Ceara in north-east Brazil.

    PubMed Central

    Atkinson, Sarah; Haran, Dave

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine whether decentralization has improved health system performance in the State of Ceara, north-east Brazil. METHODS: Ceara is strongly committed to decentralization. A survey across 45 local (municipio) health systems collected data on performance and formal organization, including decentralization, informal management and local political culture. The indicators for informal management and local political culture were based on prior ethnographic research. Data were analysed using analysis of variance, Duncan's post-hoc test and multiple regression. FINDINGS: Decentralization was associated with improved performance, but only for 5 of our 22 performance indicators. Moreover, in the multiple regression, decentralization explained the variance in only one performance indicator; indicators for informal management and political culture appeared to be more important influences. However, some indicators for informal management were themselves associated with decentralization but not any of the political culture indicators. CONCLUSION: Good management practices in the study led to decentralized local health systems rather than vice versa. Any apparent association between decentralization and performance seems to be an artefact of the informal management, and the wider political culture in which a local health system is embedded strongly influences the performance of local health systems. PMID:15640917

  7. Comparative anatomy of the autonomic nervous system.

    PubMed

    Nilsson, Stefan

    2011-11-16

    This short review aims to point out the general anatomical features of the autonomic nervous systems of non-mammalian vertebrates. In addition it attempts to outline the similarities and also the increased complexity of the autonomic nervous patterns from fish to tetrapods. With the possible exception of the cyclostomes, perhaps the most striking feature of the vertebrate autonomic nervous system is the similarity between the vertebrate classes. An evolution of the complexity of the system can be seen, with the segmental ganglia of elasmobranchs incompletely connected longitudinally, while well developed paired sympathetic chains are present in teleosts and the tetrapods. In some groups the sympathetic chains may be reduced (dipnoans and caecilians), and have yet to be properly described in snakes. Cranial autonomic pathways are present in the oculomotor (III) and vagus (X) nerves of gnathostome fish and the tetrapods, and with the evolution of salivary and lachrymal glands in the tetrapods, also in the facial (VII) and glossopharyngeal (IX) nerves. PMID:20444653

  8. The Norwegian Regional College System in the Context of Decentralization Policies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanisch, Thor Einar

    1979-01-01

    The author discusses efforts being made in Norway to decentralize policy decision making, allowing greater regional participation in educational policymaking. As an outcome of this process, the Norwegian Regional College System aims at achieving equal access to education, diffusing educational resources, and contributing to the cultural and…

  9. Control problems in Autonomous Life Support Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colombano, S. P.; Schwartzkopf, S. H.; Macelroy, R. D.

    1981-01-01

    Autonomous Life Support Systems (ALSS) are envisioned for long range permanence in space. ALSS would require little or no input of matter for extended periods of time. The design of such a system involves an understanding of both ecological principles and control theory of nonlinear, ill-defined systems. A distinction is drawn between ecosystem survival strategies and the aims of control theory. Experimental work is under way to help combine the two approaches.

  10. Integrated constructed wetland systems: design, operation, and performance of low-cost decentralized wastewater treatment systems.

    PubMed

    Behrends, L L; Bailey, E; Jansen, P; Houke, L; Smith, S

    2007-01-01

    Several different types of constructed wetland systems are being used as decentralized treatment systems including surface-flow, subsurface-flow, vertical-flow, and hybrid systems. Archetypical wetland systems have design strengths and weaknesses, and therefore it should be possible to design combined (integrated) systems to optimize a number of important treatment processes. This study provides comparative efficacy data for two integrated wetland treatment systems (IWTS) designed to enhance treatment of medium strength wastewater generated from a pilot-scale intensive fish farm. Results from the twenty eight months study included consistently high removal of COD (84% +) and ammonia nitrogen (93%) in both systems. Initially, phosphorus removal was also high (>90%) in both systems, but removal efficacy declined significantly over time. Nitrate removal was significantly better in the system that provided sequential aerobic and anoxic environments. Short hydraulic retention times coupled with sustained removal of COD and ammonia indicate that the ReCip components could be a least-cost wastewater treatment technology in the decentralized market sector. PMID:17506433

  11. Development of a Commercially Viable, Modular Autonomous Robotic Systems for Converting any Vehicle to Autonomous Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parish, David W.; Grabbe, Robert D.; Marzwell, Neville I.

    1994-01-01

    A Modular Autonomous Robotic System (MARS), consisting of a modular autonomous vehicle control system that can be retrofit on to any vehicle to convert it to autonomous control and support a modular payload for multiple applications is being developed. The MARS design is scalable, reconfigurable, and cost effective due to the use of modern open system architecture design methodologies, including serial control bus technology to simplify system wiring and enhance scalability. The design is augmented with modular, object oriented (C++) software implementing a hierarchy of five levels of control including teleoperated, continuous guidepath following, periodic guidepath following, absolute position autonomous navigation, and relative position autonomous navigation. The present effort is focused on producing a system that is commercially viable for routine autonomous patrolling of known, semistructured environments, like environmental monitoring of chemical and petroleum refineries, exterior physical security and surveillance, perimeter patrolling, and intrafacility transport applications.

  12. Autonomous Flight Safety System - Phase III

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    The Autonomous Flight Safety System (AFSS) is a joint KSC and Wallops Flight Facility project that uses tracking and attitude data from onboard Global Positioning System (GPS) and inertial measurement unit (IMU) sensors and configurable rule-based algorithms to make flight termination decisions. AFSS objectives are to increase launch capabilities by permitting launches from locations without range safety infrastructure, reduce costs by eliminating some downrange tracking and communication assets, and reduce the reaction time for flight termination decisions.

  13. Autonomous microexplosives subsurface tracing system final report.

    SciTech Connect

    Engler, Bruce Phillip; Nogan, John; Melof, Brian Matthew; Uhl, James Eugene; Dulleck, George R., Jr.; Ingram, Brian V.; Grubelich, Mark Charles; Rivas, Raul R.; Cooper, Paul W.; Warpinski, Norman Raymond; Kravitz, Stanley H.

    2004-04-01

    The objective of the autonomous micro-explosive subsurface tracing system is to image the location and geometry of hydraulically induced fractures in subsurface petroleum reservoirs. This system is based on the insertion of a swarm of autonomous micro-explosive packages during the fracturing process, with subsequent triggering of the energetic material to create an array of micro-seismic sources that can be detected and analyzed using existing seismic receiver arrays and analysis software. The project included investigations of energetic mixtures, triggering systems, package size and shape, and seismic output. Given the current absence of any technology capable of such high resolution mapping of subsurface structures, this technology has the potential for major impact on petroleum industry, which spends approximately $1 billion dollar per year on hydraulic fracturing operations in the United States alone.

  14. Autonomous system for cross-country navigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stentz, Anthony; Brumitt, Barry L.; Coulter, R. C.; Kelly, Alonzo

    1993-05-01

    Autonomous cross-country navigation is essential for outdoor robots moving about in unstructured environments. Most existing systems use range sensors to determine the shape of the terrain, plan a trajectory that avoids obstacles, and then drive the trajectory. Performance has been limited by the range and accuracy of sensors, insufficient vehicle-terrain interaction models, and the availability of high-speed computers. As these elements improve, higher- speed navigation on rougher terrain becomes possible. We have developed a software system for autonomous navigation that provides for greater capability. The perception system supports a large braking distance by fusing multiple range images to build a map of the terrain in front of the vehicle. The system identifies range shadows and interpolates undersamples regions to account for rough terrain effects. The motion planner reduces computational complexity by investigating a minimum number of trajectories. Speeds along the trajectory are set to provide for dynamic stability. The entire system was tested in simulation, and a subset of the capability was demonstrated on a real vehicle. Results to date include a continuous 5.1 kilometer run across moderate terrain with obstacles. This paper begins with the applications, prior work, limitations, and current paradigms for autonomous cross-country navigation, and then describes our contribution to the area.

  15. Mission planning for autonomous systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pearson, G.

    1987-01-01

    Planning is a necessary task for intelligent, adaptive systems operating independently of human controllers. A mission planning system that performs task planning by decomposing a high-level mission objective into subtasks and synthesizing a plan for those tasks at varying levels of abstraction is discussed. Researchers use a blackboard architecture to partition the search space and direct the focus of attention of the planner. Using advanced planning techniques, they can control plan synthesis for the complex planning tasks involved in mission planning.

  16. Autonomous omnidirectional spacecraft antenna system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, T. H.

    1983-01-01

    The development of a low gain Electronically Switchable Spherical Array Antenna is discussed. This antenna provides roughly 7 dBic gain for receive/transmit operation between user satellites and the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System. When used as a pair, the antenna provides spherical coverage. The antenna was tested in its primary operating modes: directed beam, retrodirective, and Omnidirectional.

  17. System for autonomous monitoring of bioagents

    SciTech Connect

    Langlois, Richard G.; Milanovich, Fred P.; Colston, Jr, Billy W.; Brown, Steve B.; Masquelier, Don A.; Mariella, Jr., Raymond P.; Venkateswaran, Kodomudi

    2015-06-09

    An autonomous monitoring system for monitoring for bioagents. A collector gathers the air, water, soil, or substance being monitored. A sample preparation means for preparing a sample is operatively connected to the collector. A detector for detecting the bioagents in the sample is operatively connected to the sample preparation means. One embodiment of the present invention includes confirmation means for confirming the bioagents in the sample.

  18. Decentralizing Agricultural Extension: Alternative Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivera, William M.

    1997-01-01

    Examines government strategies for decentralizing agricultural extension, concluding that such changes are largely determined by the country's constitutional status. Reviews decentralization guidelines for structural and fiscal reforms and participatory management systems. (SK)

  19. Autonomous grain combine control system

    SciTech Connect

    Hoskinson, Reed L.; Kenney, Kevin L.; Lucas, James R.; Prickel, Marvin A.

    2013-06-25

    A system for controlling a grain combine having a rotor/cylinder, a sieve, a fan, a concave, a feeder, a header, an engine, and a control system. The feeder of the grain combine is engaged and the header is lowered. A separator loss target, engine load target, and a sieve loss target are selected. Grain is harvested with the lowered header passing the grain through the engaged feeder. Separator loss, sieve loss, engine load and ground speed of the grain combine are continuously monitored during the harvesting. If the monitored separator loss exceeds the selected separator loss target, the speed of the rotor/cylinder, the concave setting, the engine load target, or a combination thereof is adjusted. If the monitored sieve loss exceeds the selected sieve loss target, the speed of the fan, the size of the sieve openings, or the engine load target is adjusted.

  20. Why Computer-Based Systems Should be Autonomic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sterritt, Roy; Hinchey, Mike

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to discuss why computer-based systems should be autonomic, where autonomicity implies self-managing, often conceptualized in terms of being self-configuring, self-healing, self-optimizing, self-protecting and self-aware. We look at motivations for autonomicity, examine how more and more systems are exhibiting autonomic behavior, and finally look at future directions.

  1. The autonomic nervous system and renal physiology

    PubMed Central

    D’Elia, John A; Weinrauch, Larry A

    2013-01-01

    Research in resistant hypertension has again focused on autonomic nervous system denervation – 50 years after it had been stopped due to postural hypotension and availability of newer drugs. These (ganglionic blockers) drugs have all been similarly stopped, due to postural hypotension and yet newer antihypertensive agents. Recent demonstration of the feasibility of limited regional transcatheter sympathetic denervation has excited clinicians due to potential therapeutic implications. Standard use of ambulatory blood pressure recording equipment may alter our understanding of the diagnosis, potential treatment strategies, and health care outcomes – when faced with patients whose office blood pressure remains in the hypertensive range – while under treatment with three antihypertensive drugs at the highest tolerable doses, plus a diuretic. We review herein clinical relationships between autonomic function, resistant hypertension, current treatment strategies, and reflect upon the possibility of changes in our approach to resistant hypertension. PMID:24039445

  2. Autonomous Flight Safety System Road Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simpson, James C.; Zoemer, Roger D.; Forney, Chris S.

    2005-01-01

    On February 3, 2005, Kennedy Space Center (KSC) conducted the first Autonomous Flight Safety System (AFSS) test on a moving vehicle -- a van driven around the KSC industrial area. A subset of the Phase III design was used consisting of a single computer, GPS receiver, and UPS antenna. The description and results of this road test are described in this report.AFSS is a joint KSC and Wallops Flight Facility project that is in its third phase of development. AFSS is an independent subsystem intended for use with Expendable Launch Vehicles that uses tracking data from redundant onboard sensors to autonomously make flight termination decisions using software-based rules implemented on redundant flight processors. The goals of this project are to increase capabilities by allowing launches from locations that do not have or cannot afford extensive ground-based range safety assets, to decrease range costs, and to decrease reaction time for special situations.

  3. Seizures and brain regulatory systems: Consciousness, sleep, and autonomic systems

    PubMed Central

    Sedigh-Sarvestani, Madineh; Blumenfeld, Hal; Loddenkemper, Tobias; Bateman, Lisa M

    2014-01-01

    Research into the physiological underpinnings of epilepsy has revealed reciprocal relationships between seizures and the activity of several regulatory systems in the brain, including those governing sleep, consciousness and autonomic functions. This review highlights recent progress in understanding and utilizing the relationships between seizures and the arousal or consciousness system, the sleep-wake and associated circadian system, and the central autonomic network. PMID:25233249

  4. Agent Technology, Complex Adaptive Systems, and Autonomic Systems: Their Relationships

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Truszkowski, Walt; Rash, James; Rouff, Chistopher; Hincheny, Mike

    2004-01-01

    To reduce the cost of future spaceflight missions and to perform new science, NASA has been investigating autonomous ground and space flight systems. These goals of cost reduction have been further complicated by nanosatellites for future science data-gathering which will have large communications delays and at times be out of contact with ground control for extended periods of time. This paper describes two prototype agent-based systems, the Lights-out Ground Operations System (LOGOS) and the Agent Concept Testbed (ACT), and their autonomic properties that were developed at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) to demonstrate autonomous operations of future space flight missions. The paper discusses the architecture of the two agent-based systems, operational scenarios of both, and the two systems autonomic properties.

  5. On the decentralized control of large-scale systems. Ph.D. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chong, C.

    1973-01-01

    The decentralized control of stochastic large scale systems was considered. Particular emphasis was given to control strategies which utilize decentralized information and can be computed in a decentralized manner. The deterministic constrained optimization problem is generalized to the stochastic case when each decision variable depends on different information and the constraint is only required to be satisfied on the average. For problems with a particular structure, a hierarchical decomposition is obtained. For the stochastic control of dynamic systems with different information sets, a new kind of optimality is proposed which exploits the coupled nature of the dynamic system. The subsystems are assumed to be uncoupled and then certain constraints are required to be satisfied, either in a off-line or on-line fashion. For off-line coordination, a hierarchical approach of solving the problem is obtained. The lower level problems are all uncoupled. For on-line coordination, distinction is made between open loop feedback optimal coordination and closed loop optimal coordination.

  6. Nonlinear joint transmit-receive processing for coordinated multi-cell systems: centralized and decentralized

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Zhirui; Feng, Chunyan; Zhang, Tiankui; Niu, Qin; Chen, Yue

    2015-12-01

    This paper proposes a nonlinear joint transmit-receive (tx-rx) processing scheme for downlink-coordinated multi-cell systems with multi-stream multi-antenna users. The nonlinear joint tx-rx processing is formulated as an optimization problem to maximize the minimum signal-to-interference noise ratio (SINR) of streams to guarantee the fairness among streams of each user. Nonlinear Tomlinson-Harashima precoding (THP) is applied at transmitters, and linear receive processing is applied at receivers, to eliminate the inter-user interference and inter-stream interference. We consider multi-cell systems under two coordinated modes: centralized and decentralized, corresponding to systems with high- and low-capacity backhaul links, respectively. For the centralized coordinated mode, transmit and receive processing matrices are jointly determined by the central processing unit based on the global channel state information (CSI) shared by base stations (BSs). For the decentralized coordinated mode, transmit and receive processing matrices are computed independently based on the local CSI at each BS. In correspondence, we propose both a centralized and a decentralized algorithm to solve the optimization problem under the two modes, respectively. Feasibility and computational complexity of the proposed algorithms are also analyzed. Simulation results prove that the proposed nonlinear joint tx-rx processing scheme can achieve user fairness by equalizing the bit error rate (BER) among streams of each user and the proposed scheme outperforms the existing linear joint tx-rx processing. Moreover, consistent with previous research results, performance of the proposed centralized nonlinear joint tx-rx processing scheme is proved to be better than that of the decentralized nonlinear joint tx-rx processing.

  7. BISMARC: a biologically inspired system for map-based autonomous rover control.

    PubMed

    Huntsberger, Terry; Rose, John

    1998-10-01

    As the complexity of the missions to planetary surfaces increases, so too does the need for autonomous rover systems. This need is complicated by the power, mass and computer storage restrictions on such systems (Miller, D. P. (1992). Reducing software mass through behaviour control. In Proceedings SPIE conference on cooperative intelligent robotics in space III (Vol. 1829, pp. 472-475, 1992). Boston, MA. To address these problems, we have recently developed a system called BISMARC (Biologically Inspired System for Map-based Autonomous Rover Control) for planetary missions involving multiple small, lightweight surface rovers (Huntsberger, T. L. (1997). Autonomous multirover system for complex planetary retrieval operations. In P. S. Schenker, and G. T. McKee (Eds.), Proceedings SPIE symposium on sensor fusion and decentralized control in autonomous robotic systems (pp. 221-227). Pittsburgh, PA). BISMARC is capable of cooperative planetary surface retrieval operations such as a multiple cache recovery mission to Mars. The system employs autonomous navigation techniques, behavior-based control for surface retrieval operations, and an action selection mechanism based on a modified form of free flow hierarchy (Rosenblatt, J. K. and Payton, D. W. (1989). A fine-grained alternative to the subsumption architecture for mobile robot control. In Proceedings IEEE/INNS joint conference on neural networks (pp. 317-324). Washington, DC). This paper primarily describes the navigation and map-mapping subsystems of BISMARC. They are inspired by some recent studies of London taxi drivers indicating that the right hippocampal region of the brain is activated for path planning but not for landmark identification (Maguire, E. A. et al. (1997). Recalling routes around London: activation of the right hippocampus in taxi drivers. Journal of Neuroscience, 17(18), 7103-7110). We also report the results of some experimental studies of simulated navigation in planetary environments. PMID

  8. Verification of Autonomous Systems for Space Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brat, G.; Denney, E.; Giannakopoulou, D.; Frank, J.; Jonsson, A.

    2006-01-01

    Autonomous software, especially if it is based on model, can play an important role in future space applications. For example, it can help streamline ground operations, or, assist in autonomous rendezvous and docking operations, or even, help recover from problems (e.g., planners can be used to explore the space of recovery actions for a power subsystem and implement a solution without (or with minimal) human intervention). In general, the exploration capabilities of model-based systems give them great flexibility. Unfortunately, it also makes them unpredictable to our human eyes, both in terms of their execution and their verification. The traditional verification techniques are inadequate for these systems since they are mostly based on testing, which implies a very limited exploration of their behavioral space. In our work, we explore how advanced V&V techniques, such as static analysis, model checking, and compositional verification, can be used to gain trust in model-based systems. We also describe how synthesis can be used in the context of system reconfiguration and in the context of verification.

  9. Malicious Hubs: Detecting Abnormally Malicious Autonomous Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Kalafut, Andrew J.; Shue, Craig A; Gupta, Prof. Minaxi

    2010-01-01

    While many attacks are distributed across botnets, investigators and network operators have recently targeted malicious networks through high profile autonomous system (AS) de-peerings and network shut-downs. In this paper, we explore whether some ASes indeed are safe havens for malicious activity. We look for ISPs and ASes that exhibit disproportionately high malicious behavior using 12 popular blacklists. We find that some ASes have over 80% of their routable IP address space blacklisted and others account for large fractions of blacklisted IPs. Overall, we conclude that examining malicious activity at the AS granularity can unearth networks with lax security or those that harbor cybercrime.

  10. Physiology of the Autonomic Nervous System

    PubMed Central

    2007-01-01

    This manuscript discusses the physiology of the autonomic nervous system (ANS). The following topics are presented: regulation of activity; efferent pathways; sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions; neurotransmitters, their receptors and the termination of their activity; functions of the ANS; and the adrenal medullae. In addition, the application of this material to the practice of pharmacy is of special interest. Two case studies regarding insecticide poisoning and pheochromocytoma are included. The ANS and the accompanying case studies are discussed over 5 lectures and 2 recitation sections during a 2-semester course in Human Physiology. The students are in the first-professional year of the doctor of pharmacy program. PMID:17786266

  11. Nutritional stimulation of the autonomic nervous system.

    PubMed

    Luyer, Misha D P; Habes, Quirine; van Hak, Richard; Buurman, Wim

    2011-09-14

    Disturbance of the inflammatory response in the gut is important in several clinical diseases ranging from inflammatory bowel disease to postoperative ileus. Several feedback mechanisms exist that control the inflammatory cascade and avoid collateral damage. In the gastrointestinal tract, it is of particular importance to control the immune response to maintain the balance that allows dietary uptake and utilization of nutrients on one hand, while preventing invasion of bacteria and toxins on the other hand. The process of digestion and absorption of nutrients requires a relative hyporesponsiveness of the immune cells in the gut to luminal contents which is not yet fully understood. Recently, the autonomic nervous system has been identified as an important pathway to control local and systemic inflammation and gut barrier integrity. Activation of the pathway is possible via electrical or via pharmacological interventions, but is also achieved in a physiological manner by ingestion of dietary lipids. Administration of dietary lipids has been shown to be very effective in reducing the inflammatory cascade and maintaining intestinal barrier integrity in several experimental studies. This beneficial effect of nutrition on the inflammatory response and intestinal barrier integrity opens new therapeutic opportunities for treatment of certain gastrointestinal disorders. Furthermore, this neural feedback mechanism provides more insight in the relative hyporesponsiveness of the immune cells in the gut. Here, we will discuss the regulatory function of the autonomic nervous system on the inflammatory response and gut barrier function and the potential benefit in a clinical setting. PMID:22025873

  12. Nutritional stimulation of the autonomic nervous system

    PubMed Central

    Luyer, Misha DP; Habes, Quirine; van Hak, Richard; Buurman, Wim

    2011-01-01

    Disturbance of the inflammatory response in the gut is important in several clinical diseases ranging from inflammatory bowel disease to postoperative ileus. Several feedback mechanisms exist that control the inflammatory cascade and avoid collateral damage. In the gastrointestinal tract, it is of particular importance to control the immune response to maintain the balance that allows dietary uptake and utilization of nutrients on one hand, while preventing invasion of bacteria and toxins on the other hand. The process of digestion and absorption of nutrients requires a relative hyporesponsiveness of the immune cells in the gut to luminal contents which is not yet fully understood. Recently, the autonomic nervous system has been identified as an important pathway to control local and systemic inflammation and gut barrier integrity. Activation of the pathway is possible via electrical or via pharmacological interventions, but is also achieved in a physiological manner by ingestion of dietary lipids. Administration of dietary lipids has been shown to be very effective in reducing the inflammatory cascade and maintaining intestinal barrier integrity in several experimental studies. This beneficial effect of nutrition on the inflammatory response and intestinal barrier integrity opens new therapeutic opportunities for treatment of certain gastrointestinal disorders. Furthermore, this neural feedback mechanism provides more insight in the relative hyporesponsiveness of the immune cells in the gut. Here, we will discuss the regulatory function of the autonomic nervous system on the inflammatory response and gut barrier function and the potential benefit in a clinical setting. PMID:22025873

  13. Visual navigation system for autonomous indoor blimps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campos, Mario F.; de Souza Coelho, Lucio

    1999-07-01

    Autonomous dirigibles - aerial robots that are a blimp controlled by computer based on information gathered by sensors - are a new and promising research field in Robotics, offering several original work opportunities. One of them is the study of visual navigation of UAVs. In the work described in this paper, a Computer Vision and Control system was developed to perform automatically very simple navigation task for a small indoor blimp. The vision system is able to track artificial visual beacons - objects with known geometrical properties - and from them a geometrical methodology can extract information about orientation of the blimp. The tracking of natural landmarks is also a possibility for the vision technique developed. The control system uses that data to keep the dirigible on a programmed orientation. Experimental results showing the correct and efficient functioning of the system are shown and have your implications and future possibilities discussed.

  14. Autonomous Underwater Vehicle Magnetic Mapping System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steigerwalt, R.; Johnson, R. M.; Trembanis, A. C.; Schmidt, V. E.; Tait, G.

    2012-12-01

    An Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV) Magnetic Mapping (MM) System has been developed and tested for military munitions detection as well as pipeline locating, wreck searches, and geologic surveys in underwater environments. The system is comprised of a high sensitivity Geometrics G-880AUV cesium vapor magnetometer integrated with a Teledyne-Gavia AUV and associated Doppler enabled inertial navigation further utilizing traditional acoustic bathymetric and side scan imaging. All onboard sensors and associated electronics are managed through customized crew members to autonomously operate through the vehicles primary control module. Total field magnetic measurements are recorded with asynchronous time-stamped data logs which include position, altitude, heading, pitch, roll, and electrical current usage. Pre-planned mission information can be uploaded to the system operators to define data collection metrics including speed, height above seafloor, and lane or transect spacing specifically designed to meet data quality objectives for the survey. As a result of the AUVs modular design, autonomous navigation and rapid deployment capabilities, the AUV MM System provides cost savings over current surface vessel surveys by reducing the mobilization/demobilization effort, thus requiring less manpower for operation and reducing or eliminating the need for a surface support vessel altogether. When the system completes its mission, data can be remotely downloaded via W-LAN and exported for use in advanced signal processing platforms. Magnetic compensation software has been concurrently developed to accept electrical current measurements directly from the AUV to address distortions from permanent and induced magnetization effects on the magnetometer. Maneuver and electrical current compensation terms can be extracted from the magnetic survey missions to perform automated post-process corrections. Considerable suppression of system noise has been observed over traditional

  15. The MAP Autonomous Mission Control System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breed, Juile; Coyle, Steven; Blahut, Kevin; Dent, Carolyn; Shendock, Robert; Rowe, Roger

    2000-01-01

    The Microwave Anisotropy Probe (MAP) mission is the second mission in NASA's Office of Space Science low-cost, Medium-class Explorers (MIDEX) program. The Explorers Program is designed to accomplish frequent, low cost, high quality space science investigations utilizing innovative, streamlined, efficient management, design and operations approaches. The MAP spacecraft will produce an accurate full-sky map of the cosmic microwave background temperature fluctuations with high sensitivity and angular resolution. The MAP spacecraft is planned for launch in early 2001, and will be staffed by only single-shift operations. During the rest of the time the spacecraft must be operated autonomously, with personnel available only on an on-call basis. Four (4) innovations will work cooperatively to enable a significant reduction in operations costs for the MAP spacecraft. First, the use of a common ground system for Spacecraft Integration and Test (I&T) as well as Operations. Second, the use of Finite State Modeling for intelligent autonomy. Third, the integration of a graphical planning engine to drive the autonomous systems without an intermediate manual step. And fourth, the ability for distributed operations via Web and pager access.

  16. Human resources for health and decentralization policy in the Brazilian health system

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The Brazilian health reform process, following the establishment of the Unified Health System (SUS), has had a strong emphasis on decentralization, with a special focus on financing, management and inter-managerial agreements. Brazil is a federal country and the Ministry of Health (MoH), through the Secretary of Labour Management and Health Education, is responsible for establishing national policy guidelines for health labour management, and also for implementing strategies for the decentralization of management of labour and education in the federal states. This paper assesses whether the process of decentralizing human resources for health (HRH) management and organization to the level of the state and municipal health departments has involved investments in technical, political and financial resources at the national level. Methods The research methods used comprise a survey of HRH managers of states and major municipalities (including capitals) and focus groups with these HRH managers - all by geographic region. The results were obtained by combining survey and focus group data, and also through triangulation with the results of previous research. Results The results of this evaluation showed the evolution policy, previously restricted to the field of 'personnel administration', now expanded to a conceptual model for health labour management and education-- identifying progress, setbacks, critical issues and challenges for the consolidation of the decentralized model for HRH management. The results showed that 76.3% of the health departments have an HRH unit. It was observed that 63.2% have an HRH information system. However, in most health departments, the HRH unit uses only the payroll and administrative records as data sources. Concerning education in health, 67.6% of the HRH managers mentioned existing cooperation with educational and teaching institutions for training and/or specialization of health workers. Among them, specialization courses

  17. Fully decentralized control of a soft-bodied robot inspired by true slime mold.

    PubMed

    Umedachi, Takuya; Takeda, Koichi; Nakagaki, Toshiyuki; Kobayashi, Ryo; Ishiguro, Akio

    2010-03-01

    Animals exhibit astoundingly adaptive and supple locomotion under real world constraints. In order to endow robots with similar capabilities, we must implement many degrees of freedom, equivalent to animals, into the robots' bodies. For taming many degrees of freedom, the concept of autonomous decentralized control plays a pivotal role. However a systematic way of designing such autonomous decentralized control system is still missing. Aiming at understanding the principles that underlie animals' locomotion, we have focused on a true slime mold, a primitive living organism, and extracted a design scheme for autonomous decentralized control system. In order to validate this design scheme, this article presents a soft-bodied amoeboid robot inspired by the true slime mold. Significant features of this robot are twofold: (1) the robot has a truly soft and deformable body stemming from real-time tunable springs and protoplasm, the former is used for an outer skin of the body and the latter is to satisfy the law of conservation of mass; and (2) fully decentralized control using coupled oscillators with completely local sensory feedback mechanism is realized by exploiting the long-distance physical interaction between the body parts stemming from the law of conservation of protoplasmic mass. Simulation results show that this robot exhibits highly supple and adaptive locomotion without relying on any hierarchical structure. The results obtained are expected to shed new light on design methodology for autonomous decentralized control system. PMID:20204398

  18. Health system performance at the district level in Indonesia after decentralization

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Assessments over the last two decades have showed an overall low level of performance of the health system in Indonesia with wide variation between districts. The reasons advanced for these low levels of performance include the low level of public funding for health and the lack of discretion for health system managers at the district level. When, in 2001, Indonesia implemented a radical decentralization and significantly increased the central transfer of funds to district governments it was widely expected that the performance of the health system would improve. This paper assesses the extent to which the performance of the health system has improved since decentralization. Methods We measured a set of indicators relevant to assessing changes in performance of the health system between two surveys in three areas: utilization of maternal antenatal and delivery care; immunization coverage; and contraceptive source and use. We also measured respondents' demographic characteristics and their living circumstances. These measurements were made in population-based surveys in 10 districts in 2002-03 and repeated in 2007 in the same 10 districts using the same instruments and sampling methods. Results The dominant providers of maternal and child health in these 10 districts are in the private sector. There was a significant decrease in birth deliveries at home, and a corresponding increase in deliveries in health facilities in 5 of the 10 districts, largely due to increased use of private facilities with little change in the already low use of public facilities. Overall, there was no improvement in vaccination of mothers and their children. Of those using modern contraceptive methods, the majority obtained them from the private sector in all districts. Conclusions There has been little improvement in the performance of the health system since decentralization occurred in 2001 even though there have also been significant increases in public funding for health. In

  19. Intelligent data reduction for autonomous power systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Floyd, Stephen A.

    1988-01-01

    Since 1984 Marshall Space Flight Center was actively engaged in research and development concerning autonomous power systems. Much of the work in this domain has dealt with the development and application of knowledge-based or expert systems to perform tasks previously accomplished only through intensive human involvement. One such task is the health status monitoring of electrical power systems. Such monitoring is a manpower intensive task which is vital to mission success. The Hubble Space Telescope testbed and its associated Nickel Cadmium Battery Expert System (NICBES) were designated as the system on which the initial proof of concept for intelligent power system monitoing will be established. The key function performed by an engineer engaged in system monitoring is to analyze the raw telemetry data and identify from the whole only those elements which can be considered significant. This function requires engineering expertise on the functionality of the system, the mode of operation and the efficient and effective reading of the telemetry data. Application of this expertise to extract the significant components of the data is referred to as data reduction. Such a function possesses characteristics which make it a prime candidate for the application of knowledge-based systems' technologies. Such applications are investigated and recommendations are offered for the development of intelligent data reduction systems.

  20. A flexible, open, decentralized system for digital pathology networks.

    PubMed

    Schuler, Robert; Smith, David E; Kumaraguruparan, Gowri; Chervenak, Ann; Lewis, Anne D; Hyde, Dallas M; Kesselman, Carl

    2012-01-01

    High-resolution digital imaging is enabling digital archiving and sharing of digitized microscopy slides and new methods for digital pathology. Collaborative research centers, outsourced medical services, and multi-site organizations stand to benefit from sharing pathology data in a digital pathology network. Yet significant technological challenges remain due to the large size and volume of digitized whole slide images. While information systems do exist for managing local pathology laboratories, they tend to be oriented toward narrow clinical use cases or offer closed ecosystems around proprietary formats. Few solutions exist for networking digital pathology operations. Here we present a system architecture and implementation of a digital pathology network and share results from a production system that federates major research centers. PMID:22941985

  1. Track-to-track association in decentralized tracking systems with feedback

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malmberg, Anders; Karlsson, Mathias

    2000-07-01

    In air combat, information advantage over the opponent is vital for the success of the operation. For that reason, modern fighter aircraft have extensive sensor suites to track other objects. In order to form a unified picture of the vicinity; all sensor information is fused. Since system modularity and high computational performance are key issues in the application, a decentralized tracking approach, where the information from the decentralized trackers is fused in a central node, is preferable. Furthermore, in order to improve the sensor tracking performance, it is often desired to feed back information to the sensors from the central node. In this paper, track-to-track association in such a decentralized tracking system with feedback is addressed. The central fusion node has to associate the sensor tracks to each other to be able to fuse them. In a system without feedback, the track-to-track association algorithm bases its conclusions on the assumption that the estimation errors of the tracks from different local trackers are not correlated. However, when information is fed back to the local trackers, this assumption is not valid, since the sensor tracks then consist of common information. System configurations that deal with this problem are proposed and tested in a fighter aircraft application. One approach is to extract the uncorrelated information from the sensor data and use that in the association process. Another approach is to keep parallel trackers in the sensors that only contain the local sensor information. Both approaches produce sensor tracks that contain the same information as the sensor tracks in a system without feedback. Also, a track-to-track association algorithm that recursively uses information from multiple time steps is proposed. The use of multiple time step data separates it from conventional track-to-track association algorithms that mostly use only current information. The result is an algorithm that improves the performance and

  2. Minimization of transmission cost in decentralized control systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, S.-H.; Davison, E. J.

    1978-01-01

    This paper considers the problem of stabilizing a linear time-invariant multivariable system by using local feedback controllers and some limited information exchange among local stations. The problem of achieving a given degree of stability with minimum transmission cost is solved.

  3. Decentralized robust nonlinear model predictive controller for unmanned aerial systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia Garreton, Gonzalo A.

    The nonlinear and unsteady nature of aircraft aerodynamics together with limited practical range of controls and state variables make the use of the linear control theory inadequate especially in the presence of external disturbances, such as wind. In the classical approach, aircraft are controlled by multiple inner and outer loops, designed separately and sequentially. For unmanned aerial systems in particular, control technology must evolve to a point where autonomy is extended to the entire mission flight envelope. This requires advanced controllers that have sufficient robustness, track complex trajectories, and use all the vehicles control capabilities at higher levels of accuracy. In this work, a robust nonlinear model predictive controller is designed to command and control an unmanned aerial system to track complex tight trajectories in the presence of internal and external perturbance. The Flight System developed in this work achieves the above performance by using: 1. A nonlinear guidance algorithm that enables the vehicle to follow an arbitrary trajectory shaped by moving points; 2. A formulation that embeds the guidance logic and trajectory information in the aircraft model, avoiding cross coupling and control degradation; 3. An artificial neural network, designed to adaptively estimate and provide aerodynamic and propulsive forces in real-time; and 4. A mixed sensitivity approach that enhances the robustness for a nonlinear model predictive controller overcoming the effect of un-modeled dynamics, external disturbances such as wind, and measurement additive perturbations, such as noise and biases. These elements have been integrated and tested in simulation and with previously stored flight test data and shown to be feasible.

  4. The nature of the autonomic dysfunction in multiple system atrophy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parikh, Samir M.; Diedrich, Andre; Biaggioni, Italo; Robertson, David

    2002-01-01

    The concept that multiple system atrophy (MSA, Shy-Drager syndrome) is a disorder of the autonomic nervous system is several decades old. While there has been renewed interest in the movement disorder associated with MSA, two recent consensus statements confirm the centrality of the autonomic disorder to the diagnosis. Here, we reexamine the autonomic pathophysiology in MSA. Whereas MSA is often thought of as "autonomic failure", new evidence indicates substantial persistence of functioning sympathetic and parasympathetic nerves even in clinically advanced disease. These findings help explain some of the previously poorly understood features of MSA. Recognition that MSA entails persistent, constitutive autonomic tone requires a significant revision of our concepts of its diagnosis and therapy. We will review recent evidence bearing on autonomic tone in MSA and discuss their therapeutic implications, particularly in terms of the possible development of a bionic baroreflex for better control of blood pressure.

  5. Concept of an innovative water management system with decentralized water reclamation and cascading material-cycle for agricultural areas.

    PubMed

    Fujiwara, T

    2012-01-01

    Unlike in urban areas where intensive water reclamation systems are available, development of decentralized technologies and systems is required for water use to be sustainable in agricultural areas. To overcome various water quality issues in those areas, a research project entitled 'Development of an innovative water management system with decentralized water reclamation and cascading material-cycle for agricultural areas under the consideration of climate change' was launched in 2009. This paper introduces the concept of this research and provides detailed information on each of its research areas: (1) development of a diffuse agricultural pollution control technology using catch crops; (2) development of a decentralized differentiable treatment system for livestock and human excreta; and (3) development of a cascading material-cycle system for water pollution control and value-added production. The author also emphasizes that the innovative water management system for agricultural areas should incorporate a strategy for the voluntary collection of bio-resources. PMID:22828292

  6. Autonomic Middleware for Automotive Embedded Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anthony, Richard; Chen, Dejiu; Törngren, Martin; Scholle, Detlef; Sanfridson, Martin; Rettberg, Achim; Naseer, Tahir; Persson, Magnus; Feng, Lei

    This chapter describes DySCAS: an advanced autonomic platform-independent middleware framework for automotive embedded systems. The concepts and architecture are motivated and described in detail, focusing on the need for, and achievement of, high flexibility and automatic run-time reconfiguration. The design of the middleware is positioned with respect to the way it overcomes the specific technical, environmental, and performance challenges of the automotive domain. Self-management is achieved in terms of automatic configuration for context-aware behavior, resource-use efficiency, and self-healing to handle run-time detected faults. The self-management is governed by the use of policies distributed throughout the middleware components. The simulation techniques that have been used for extensive validation are described and some key results presented. A reference implementation is presented, illustrating the way in which the various concepts and mechanisms can be realized and orchestrated.

  7. Autonomous Formations of Multi-Agent Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dhali, Sanjana; Joshi, Suresh M.

    2013-01-01

    Autonomous formation control of multi-agent dynamic systems has a number of applications that include ground-based and aerial robots and satellite formations. For air vehicles, formation flight ("flocking") has the potential to significantly increase airspace utilization as well as fuel efficiency. This presentation addresses two main problems in multi-agent formations: optimal role assignment to minimize the total cost (e.g., combined distance traveled by all agents); and maintaining formation geometry during flock motion. The Kuhn-Munkres ("Hungarian") algorithm is used for optimal assignment, and consensus-based leader-follower type control architecture is used to maintain formation shape despite the leader s independent movements. The methods are demonstrated by animated simulations.

  8. Decentralized operating procedures for orchestrating data and behavior across distributed military systems and assets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peach, Nicholas

    2011-06-01

    In this paper, we present a method for a highly decentralized yet structured and flexible approach to achieve systems interoperability by orchestrating data and behavior across distributed military systems and assets with security considerations addressed from the beginning. We describe an architecture of a tool-based design of business processes called Decentralized Operating Procedures (DOP) and the deployment of DOPs onto run time nodes, supporting the parallel execution of each DOP at multiple implementation nodes (fixed locations, vehicles, sensors and soldiers) throughout a battlefield to achieve flexible and reliable interoperability. The described method allows the architecture to; a) provide fine grain control of the collection and delivery of data between systems; b) allow the definition of a DOP at a strategic (or doctrine) level by defining required system behavior through process syntax at an abstract level, agnostic of implementation details; c) deploy a DOP into heterogeneous environments by the nomination of actual system interfaces and roles at a tactical level; d) rapidly deploy new DOPs in support of new tactics and systems; e) support multiple instances of a DOP in support of multiple missions; f) dynamically add or remove run-time nodes from a specific DOP instance as missions requirements change; g) model the passage of, and business reasons for the transmission of each data message to a specific DOP instance to support accreditation; h) run on low powered computers with lightweight tactical messaging. This approach is designed to extend the capabilities of existing standards, such as the Generic Vehicle Architecture (GVA).

  9. Future evolution of distributed systems for smart grid - The challenges and opportunities to using decentralized energy system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konopko, Joanna

    2015-12-01

    A decentralized energy system is a relatively new approach in the power industry. Decentralized energy systems provide promising opportunities for deploying renewable energy sources locally available as well as for expanding access to clean energy services to remote communities. The electricity system of the future must produce and distribute electricity that is reliable and affordable. To accomplish these goals, both the electricity grid and the existing regulatory system must be smarter. In this paper, the major issues and challenges in distributed systems for smart grid are discussed and future trends are presented. The smart grid technologies and distributed generation systems are explored. A general overview of the comparison of the traditional grid and smart grid is also included.

  10. Contingency Software in Autonomous Systems: Technical Level Briefing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lutz, Robyn R.; Patterson-Hines, Ann

    2006-01-01

    Contingency management is essential to the robust operation of complex systems such as spacecraft and Unpiloted Aerial Vehicles (UAVs). Automatic contingency handling allows a faster response to unsafe scenarios with reduced human intervention on low-cost and extended missions. Results, applied to the Autonomous Rotorcraft Project and Mars Science Lab, pave the way to more resilient autonomous systems.

  11. Networks for Autonomous Formation Flying Satellite Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knoblock, Eric J.; Konangi, Vijay K.; Wallett, Thomas M.; Bhasin, Kul B.

    2001-01-01

    The performance of three communications networks to support autonomous multi-spacecraft formation flying systems is presented. All systems are comprised of a ten-satellite formation arranged in a star topology, with one of the satellites designated as the central or "mother ship." All data is routed through the mother ship to the terrestrial network. The first system uses a TCP/lP over ATM protocol architecture within the formation the second system uses the IEEE 802.11 protocol architecture within the formation and the last system uses both of the previous architectures with a constellation of geosynchronous satellites serving as an intermediate point-of-contact between the formation and the terrestrial network. The simulations consist of file transfers using either the File Transfer Protocol (FTP) or the Simple Automatic File Exchange (SAFE) Protocol. The results compare the IF queuing delay, and IP processing delay at the mother ship as well as application-level round-trip time for both systems, In all cases, using IEEE 802.11 within the formation yields less delay. Also, the throughput exhibited by SAFE is better than FTP.

  12. A low cost concept for data acquisition systems applied to decentralized renewable energy plants.

    PubMed

    Jucá, Sandro C S; Carvalho, Paulo C M; Brito, Fábio T

    2011-01-01

    The present paper describes experiences of the use of monitoring and data acquisition systems (DAS) and proposes a new concept of a low cost DAS applied to decentralized renewable energy (RE) plants with an USB interface. The use of such systems contributes to disseminate these plants, recognizing in real time local energy resources, monitoring energy conversion efficiency and sending information concerning failures. These aspects are important, mainly for developing countries, where decentralized power plants based on renewable sources are in some cases the best option for supplying electricity to rural areas. Nevertheless, the cost of commercial DAS is still a barrier for a greater dissemination of such systems in developing countries. The proposed USB based DAS presents a new dual clock operation philosophy, in which the acquisition system contains two clock sources for parallel information processing from different communication protocols. To ensure the low cost of the DAS and to promote the dissemination of this technology in developing countries, the proposed data acquisition firmware and the software for USB microcontrollers programming is a free and open source software, executable in the Linux and Windows® operating systems. PMID:22346600

  13. A Low Cost Concept for Data Acquisition Systems Applied to Decentralized Renewable Energy Plants

    PubMed Central

    Jucá, Sandro C. S.; Carvalho, Paulo C. M.; Brito, Fábio T.

    2011-01-01

    The present paper describes experiences of the use of monitoring and data acquisition systems (DAS) and proposes a new concept of a low cost DAS applied to decentralized renewable energy (RE) plants with an USB interface. The use of such systems contributes to disseminate these plants, recognizing in real time local energy resources, monitoring energy conversion efficiency and sending information concerning failures. These aspects are important, mainly for developing countries, where decentralized power plants based on renewable sources are in some cases the best option for supplying electricity to rural areas. Nevertheless, the cost of commercial DAS is still a barrier for a greater dissemination of such systems in developing countries. The proposed USB based DAS presents a new dual clock operation philosophy, in which the acquisition system contains two clock sources for parallel information processing from different communication protocols. To ensure the low cost of the DAS and to promote the dissemination of this technology in developing countries, the proposed data acquisition firmware and the software for USB microcontrollers programming is a free and open source software, executable in the Linux and Windows® operating systems. PMID:22346600

  14. Autonomous Control of Space Reactor Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Belle R. Upadhyaya; K. Zhao; S.R.P. Perillo; Xiaojia Xu; M.G. Na

    2007-11-30

    Autonomous and semi-autonomous control is a key element of space reactor design in order to meet the mission requirements of safety, reliability, survivability, and life expectancy. Interrestrial nuclear power plants, human operators are avilable to perform intelligent control functions that are necessary for both normal and abnormal operational conditions.

  15. Decentralized robust frequency control for power systems subject to wind power variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Juhua

    As the penetration of wind energy generation increases in electric power systems, the frequency performance degrades mainly for two reasons. First, the intermittency of wind power introduces additional generation-load imbalance in the system, causing frequency to deviate from nominal values. Second, modern wind turbine generators are often decoupled from the grid by power electronics, making the wind turbines contribute no inertia to the grid. When more conventional generation is displaced by such wind generation, the total system inertia will decrease and the grid is more susceptible to generation-load imbalance. Therefore, frequency control must be revisited and enhanced in order to accommodate large-scale integration of wind energy. This dissertation mainly concerns the re-design of generator compensators to improve frequency performance of power systems when the penetration of wind power is high. Hinfinity methods can be used to synthesize controllers to achieve stability and robust performance in the presence disturbances. However, standard Hinfinity methods tend to produce complex controllers when the order of the system is high. Furthermore, when standard Hinfinity methods are continued with a naive decentralized control design, the resulting decentralized controllers may compete against each other and lead to instability. Therefore, we develop a passivity-based decentralized control framework for power system frequency control. A storage function is derived from the entropy of individual generators. Tellegen's theorem is invoked to derive the storage function for the entire power network. With this storage function, the power network is shown to be passive with respect to a supply rate, which is the sum of decentralized input-output products. Stability can then be assured when passive controllers are connected in negative feedback interconnection to the system. Proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controllers with positive gains are passive controllers

  16. Digital Autonomous Terminal Access Communication (DATAC) system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novacki, Stanley M., III

    1987-05-01

    In order to accommodate the increasing number of computerized subsystems aboard today's more fuel efficient aircraft, the Boeing Co. has developed the DATAC (Digital Autonomous Terminal Access Control) bus to minimize the need for point-to-point wiring to interconnect these various systems, thereby reducing total aircraft weight and maintaining an economical flight configuration. The DATAC bus is essentially a local area network providing interconnections for any of the flight management and control systems aboard the aircraft. The task of developing a Bus Monitor Unit was broken down into four subtasks: (1) providing a hardware interface between the DATAC bus and the Z8000-based microcomputer system to be used as the bus monitor; (2) establishing a communication link between the Z8000 system and a CP/M-based computer system; (3) generation of data reduction and display software to output data to the console device; and (4) development of a DATAC Terminal Simulator to facilitate testing of the hardware and software which transfer data between the DATAC's bus and the operator's console in a near real time environment. These tasks are briefly discussed.

  17. Digital Autonomous Terminal Access Communication (DATAC) system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Novacki, Stanley M., III

    1987-01-01

    In order to accommodate the increasing number of computerized subsystems aboard today's more fuel efficient aircraft, the Boeing Co. has developed the DATAC (Digital Autonomous Terminal Access Control) bus to minimize the need for point-to-point wiring to interconnect these various systems, thereby reducing total aircraft weight and maintaining an economical flight configuration. The DATAC bus is essentially a local area network providing interconnections for any of the flight management and control systems aboard the aircraft. The task of developing a Bus Monitor Unit was broken down into four subtasks: (1) providing a hardware interface between the DATAC bus and the Z8000-based microcomputer system to be used as the bus monitor; (2) establishing a communication link between the Z8000 system and a CP/M-based computer system; (3) generation of data reduction and display software to output data to the console device; and (4) development of a DATAC Terminal Simulator to facilitate testing of the hardware and software which transfer data between the DATAC's bus and the operator's console in a near real time environment. These tasks are briefly discussed.

  18. Decentralized System Identification Using Stochastic Subspace Identification for Wireless Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Soojin; Park, Jong-Woong; Sim, Sung-Han

    2015-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) facilitate a new paradigm to structural identification and monitoring for civil infrastructure. Conventional structural monitoring systems based on wired sensors and centralized data acquisition systems are costly for installation as well as maintenance. WSNs have emerged as a technology that can overcome such difficulties, making deployment of a dense array of sensors on large civil structures both feasible and economical. However, as opposed to wired sensor networks in which centralized data acquisition and processing is common practice, WSNs require decentralized computing algorithms to reduce data transmission due to the limitation associated with wireless communication. In this paper, the stochastic subspace identification (SSI) technique is selected for system identification, and SSI-based decentralized system identification (SDSI) is proposed to be implemented in a WSN composed of Imote2 wireless sensors that measure acceleration. The SDSI is tightly scheduled in the hierarchical WSN, and its performance is experimentally verified in a laboratory test using a 5-story shear building model. PMID:25856325

  19. Alpha: A real-time decentralized operating system for mission-oriented system integration and operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jensen, E. Douglas

    1988-01-01

    Alpha is a new kind of operating system that is unique in two highly significant ways. First, it is decentralized transparently providing reliable resource management across physically dispersed nodes, so that distributed applications programming can be done largely as though it were centralized. And second, it provides comprehensive, high technology support for real-time system integration and operation, an application area which consists predominately of aperiodic activities having critical time constraints such as deadlines. Alpha is extremely adaptable so that it can be easily optimized for a wide range of problem-specific functionality, performance, and cost. Alpha is the first systems effort of the Archons Project, and the prototype was created at Carnegie-Mellon University directly on modified Sun multiprocessor workstation hardware. It has been demonstrated with a real-time C(sup 2) application. Continuing research is leading to a series of enhanced follow-ons to Alpha; these are portable but initially hosted on Concurrent's MASSCOMP line of multiprocessor products.

  20. Systems Architecture for Fully Autonomous Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Esper, Jamie; Schnurr, R.; VanSteenberg, M.; Brumfield, Mark (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The NASA Goddard Space Flight Center is working to develop a revolutionary new system architecture concept in support of fully autonomous missions. As part of GSFC's contribution to the New Millenium Program (NMP) Space Technology 7 Autonomy and on-Board Processing (ST7-A) Concept Definition Study, the system incorporates the latest commercial Internet and software development ideas and extends them into NASA ground and space segment architectures. The unique challenges facing the exploration of remote and inaccessible locales and the need to incorporate corresponding autonomy technologies within reasonable cost necessitate the re-thinking of traditional mission architectures. A measure of the resiliency of this architecture in its application to a broad range of future autonomy missions will depend on its effectiveness in leveraging from commercial tools developed for the personal computer and Internet markets. Specialized test stations and supporting software come to past as spacecraft take advantage of the extensive tools and research investments of billion-dollar commercial ventures. The projected improvements of the Internet and supporting infrastructure go hand-in-hand with market pressures that provide continuity in research. By taking advantage of consumer-oriented methods and processes, space-flight missions will continue to leverage on investments tailored to provide better services at reduced cost. The application of ground and space segment architectures each based on Local Area Networks (LAN), the use of personal computer-based operating systems, and the execution of activities and operations through a Wide Area Network (Internet) enable a revolution in spacecraft mission formulation, implementation, and flight operations. Hardware and software design, development, integration, test, and flight operations are all tied-in closely to a common thread that enables the smooth transitioning between program phases. The application of commercial software

  1. Unified formalism for higher order non-autonomous dynamical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prieto-Martínez, Pedro Daniel; Román-Roy, Narciso

    2012-03-01

    This work is devoted to giving a geometric framework for describing higher order non-autonomous mechanical systems. The starting point is to extend the Lagrangian-Hamiltonian unified formalism of Skinner and Rusk for these kinds of systems, generalizing previous developments for higher order autonomous mechanical systems and first-order non-autonomous mechanical systems. Then, we use this unified formulation to derive the standard Lagrangian and Hamiltonian formalisms, including the Legendre-Ostrogradsky map and the Euler-Lagrange and the Hamilton equations, both for regular and singular systems. As applications of our model, two examples of regular and singular physical systems are studied.

  2. Closed-loop autonomous docking system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dabney, Richard W. (Inventor); Howard, Richard T. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    An autonomous docking system is provided which produces commands for the steering and propulsion system of a chase vehicle used in the docking of that chase vehicle with a target vehicle. The docking system comprises a passive optical target affixed to the target vehicle and comprising three reflective areas including a central area mounted on a short post, and tracking sensor and process controller apparatus carried by the chase vehicle. The latter apparatus comprises a laser diode array for illuminating the target so as to cause light to be reflected from the reflective areas of the target; a sensor for detecting the light reflected from the target and for producing an electrical output signal in accordance with an image of the reflected light; a signal processor for processing the electrical output signal in accordance with an image of the reflected light; a signal processor for processing the electrical output signal and for producing, based thereon, output signals relating to the relative range, roll, pitch, yaw, azimuth, and elevation of the chase and target vehicles; and a docking process controller, responsive to the output signals produced by the signal processor, for producing command signals for controlling the steering and propulsion system of the chase vehicle.

  3. Distributed and decentralized state estimation in gas networks as distributed parameter systems.

    PubMed

    Ahmadian Behrooz, Hesam; Boozarjomehry, R Bozorgmehry

    2015-09-01

    In this paper, a framework for distributed and decentralized state estimation in high-pressure and long-distance gas transmission networks (GTNs) is proposed. The non-isothermal model of the plant including mass, momentum and energy balance equations are used to simulate the dynamic behavior. Due to several disadvantages of implementing a centralized Kalman filter for large-scale systems, the continuous/discrete form of extended Kalman filter for distributed and decentralized estimation (DDE) has been extended for these systems. Accordingly, the global model is decomposed into several subsystems, called local models. Some heuristic rules are suggested for system decomposition in gas pipeline networks. In the construction of local models, due to the existence of common states and interconnections among the subsystems, the assimilation and prediction steps of the Kalman filter are modified to take the overlapping and external states into account. However, dynamic Riccati equation for each subsystem is constructed based on the local model, which introduces a maximum error of 5% in the estimated standard deviation of the states in the benchmarks studied in this paper. The performance of the proposed methodology has been shown based on the comparison of its accuracy and computational demands against their counterparts in centralized Kalman filter for two viable benchmarks. In a real life network, it is shown that while the accuracy is not significantly decreased, the real-time factor of the state estimation is increased by a factor of 10. PMID:26138354

  4. Decentralized Energy Management System for Networked Microgrids in Grid-connected and Islanded Modes

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Zhaoyu; Chen, Bokan; Wang, Jianhui; Kim, Jinho

    2015-06-17

    This paper proposes a decentralized energy management system (EMS) for the coordinated operation of networked Microgirds (MGs) in a distribution system. In the grid-connected mode, the distribution network operator (DNO) and each MG are considered as distinct entities with individual objectives to minimize their own operation costs. It is assumed that both dispatchable and renewable energy source (RES)-based distributed generators (DGs) exist in the distribution network and the networked MGs. In order to coordinate the operation of all entities, we apply a decentralized bi-level algorithm to solve the problem with the first level to conduct negotiations among all entities and the second level to update the non-converging penalties. In the islanded mode, the objective of each MG is to maintain a reliable power supply to its customers. In order to take into account the uncertainties of DG outputs and load consumption, we formulate the problems as two-stage stochastic programs. The first stage is to determine base generation setpoints based on the forecasts and the second stage is to adjust the generation outputs based on the realized scenarios. Case studies of a distribution system with networked MGs demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed methodology in both grid-connected and islanded modes.

  5. Decentralized energy studies: bibliography

    SciTech Connect

    Ohi, J.M.; Unseld, C.T.; Levine, A.; Silversmith, J.A.

    1980-05-01

    This bibliography is a compilation of literature on decentralized energy systems. It is arranged according to topical (e.g., lifestyle and values, institutions, and economics) and geographical scale to facilitate quick reference to specific areas of interest. Also included are articles by and about Amory B. Lovins who has played a pivotal role in making energy decentralization an important topic of national debate. Periodicals, other bibliographies, and directories are also listed.

  6. Active State Model for Autonomous Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, Han; Chien, Steve; Zak, Michail; James, Mark; Mackey, Ryan; Fisher, Forest

    2003-01-01

    The concept of the active state model (ASM) is an architecture for the development of advanced integrated fault-detection-and-isolation (FDI) systems for robotic land vehicles, pilotless aircraft, exploratory spacecraft, or other complex engineering systems that will be capable of autonomous operation. An FDI system based on the ASM concept would not only provide traditional diagnostic capabilities, but also integrate the FDI system under a unified framework and provide mechanism for sharing of information between FDI subsystems to fully assess the overall health of the system. The ASM concept begins with definitions borrowed from psychology, wherein a system is regarded as active when it possesses self-image, self-awareness, and an ability to make decisions itself, such that it is able to perform purposeful motions and other transitions with some degree of autonomy from the environment. For an engineering system, self-image would manifest itself as the ability to determine nominal values of sensor data by use of a mathematical model of itself, and selfawareness would manifest itself as the ability to relate sensor data to their nominal values. The ASM for such a system may start with the closed-loop control dynamics that describe the evolution of state variables. As soon as this model was supplemented with nominal values of sensor data, it would possess self-image. The ability to process the current sensor data and compare them with the nominal values would represent self-awareness. On the basis of self-image and self-awareness, the ASM provides the capability for self-identification, detection of abnormalities, and self-diagnosis.

  7. APDS: The Autonomous Pathogen Detection System

    SciTech Connect

    Hindson, B; Makarewicz, A; Setlur, U; Henderer, B; McBride, M; Dzenitis, J

    2004-10-04

    We have developed and tested a fully autonomous pathogen detection system (APDS) capable of continuously monitoring the environment for airborne biological threat agents. The system was developed to provide early warning to civilians in the event of a bioterrorism incident and can be used at high profile events for short-term, intensive monitoring or in major public buildings or transportation nodes for long-term monitoring. The APDS is completely automated, offering continuous aerosol sampling, in-line sample preparation fluidics, multiplexed detection and identification immunoassays, and nucleic-acid based polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification and detection. Highly multiplexed antibody-based and duplex nucleic acid-based assays are combined to reduce false positives to a very low level, lower reagent costs, and significantly expand the detection capabilities of this biosensor. This article provides an overview of the current design and operation of the APDS. Certain sub-components of the ADPS are described in detail, including the aerosol collector, the automated sample preparation module that performs multiplexed immunoassays with confirmatory PCR, and the data monitoring and communications system. Data obtained from an APDS that operated continuously for seven days in a major U.S. transportation hub is reported.

  8. APDS: the autonomous pathogen detection system.

    PubMed

    Hindson, Benjamin J; Makarewicz, Anthony J; Setlur, Ujwal S; Henderer, Bruce D; McBride, Mary T; Dzenitis, John M

    2005-04-15

    We have developed and tested a fully autonomous pathogen detection system (APDS) capable of continuously monitoring the environment for airborne biological threat agents. The system was developed to provide early warning to civilians in the event of a bioterrorism incident and can be used at high profile events for short-term, intensive monitoring or in major public buildings or transportation nodes for long-term monitoring. The APDS is completely automated, offering continuous aerosol sampling, in-line sample preparation fluidics, multiplexed detection and identification immunoassays, and nucleic acid-based polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification and detection. Highly multiplexed antibody-based and duplex nucleic acid-based assays are combined to reduce false positives to a very low level, lower reagent costs, and significantly expand the detection capabilities of this biosensor. This article provides an overview of the current design and operation of the APDS. Certain sub-components of the ADPS are described in detail, including the aerosol collector, the automated sample preparation module that performs multiplexed immunoassays with confirmatory PCR, and the data monitoring and communications system. Data obtained from an APDS that operated continuously for 7 days in a major U.S. transportation hub is reported. PMID:15741059

  9. Lightweight autonomous chemical identification system (LACIS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lozos, George; Lin, Hai; Burch, Timothy

    2012-06-01

    Smiths Detection and Intelligent Optical Systems have developed prototypes for the Lightweight Autonomous Chemical Identification System (LACIS) for the US Department of Homeland Security. LACIS is to be a handheld detection system for Chemical Warfare Agents (CWAs) and Toxic Industrial Chemicals (TICs). LACIS is designed to have a low limit of detection and rapid response time for use by emergency responders and could allow determination of areas having dangerous concentration levels and if protective garments will be required. Procedures for protection of responders from hazardous materials incidents require the use of protective equipment until such time as the hazard can be assessed. Such accurate analysis can accelerate operations and increase effectiveness. LACIS is to be an improved point detector employing novel CBRNE detection modalities that includes a militaryproven ruggedized ion mobility spectrometer (IMS) with an array of electro-resistive sensors to extend the range of chemical threats detected in a single device. It uses a novel sensor data fusion and threat classification architecture to interpret the independent sensor responses and provide robust detection at low levels in complex backgrounds with minimal false alarms. The performance of LACIS prototypes have been characterized in independent third party laboratory tests at the Battelle Memorial Institute (BMI, Columbus, OH) and indoor and outdoor field tests at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS). LACIS prototypes will be entering operational assessment by key government emergency response groups to determine its capabilities versus requirements.

  10. Autonomous and Autonomic Systems: A Paradigm for Future Space Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Truszkowski, Walter F.; Hinchey, Michael G.; Rash, James L.; Rouff, Christopher A.

    2004-01-01

    NASA increasingly will rely on autonomous systems concepts, not only in the mission control centers on the ground, but also on spacecraft and on rovers and other assets on extraterrestrial bodies. Automomy enables not only reduced operations costs, But also adaptable goal-driven functionality of mission systems. Space missions lacking autonomy will be unable to achieve the full range of advanced mission objectives, given that human control under dynamic environmental conditions will not be feasible due, in part, to the unavoidably high signal propagation latency and constrained data rates of mission communications links. While autonomy cost-effectively supports accomplishment of mission goals, autonomicity supports survivability of remote mission assets, especially when human tending is not feasible. Autonomic system properties (which ensure self-configuring, self-optimizing self-healing, and self-protecting behavior) conceptually may enable space missions of a higher order into any previously flown. Analysis of two NASA agent-based systems previously prototyped, and of a proposed future mission involving numerous cooperating spacecraft, illustrates how autonomous and autonomic system concepts may be brought to bear on future space missions.

  11. Cost-benefit evaluation of a decentralized water system for wastewater reuse and environmental protection.

    PubMed

    Chen, R; Wang, X C

    2009-01-01

    This paper proposed a net benefit value (NBV) model for cost-benefit evaluation of wastewater treatment and reuse projects, and attention was mainly paid to decentralized systems which are drawing wide interests all over the world especially in the water-deficient countries and regions. In the NBV model, all the factors related to project costs are monetary ones which can be calculated by using traditional methods, while many of the factors related to project benefits are non-monetary ones which need sophisticated methods for monetization. In this regard, the authors elaborated several methods for monetization of the benefits from wastewater discharge reduction, local environment improvement, and human health protection. The proposed model and methods were applied for the cost-benefit evaluation of a decentralized water reclamation and reuse project in a newly developed residential area in Xi'an, China. The system with dual-pipe collection and grey water treatment and reuse was found to be economically ineligible (NBV > 0) when all the treated water is reused for artificial pond replenishment, gardening and other non-potable purposes by taking into account the benefit of water saving. As environmental benefits are further considered, the economic advantage of the project is more significant. PMID:19403964

  12. Decentralized Online Social Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Datta, Anwitaman; Buchegger, Sonja; Vu, Le-Hung; Strufe, Thorsten; Rzadca, Krzysztof

    Current Online social networks (OSN) are web services run on logically centralized infrastructure. Large OSN sites use content distribution networks and thus distribute some of the load by caching for performance reasons, nevertheless there is a central repository for user and application data. This centralized nature of OSNs has several drawbacks including scalability, privacy, dependence on a provider, need for being online for every transaction, and a lack of locality. There have thus been several efforts toward decentralizing OSNs while retaining the functionalities offered by centralized OSNs. A decentralized online social network (DOSN) is a distributed system for social networking with no or limited dependency on any dedicated central infrastructure. In this chapter we explore the various motivations of a decentralized approach to online social networking, discuss several concrete proposals and types of DOSN as well as challenges and opportunities associated with decentralization.

  13. Decentralized stabilization for a class of continuous-time nonlinear interconnected systems using online learning optimal control approach.

    PubMed

    Liu, Derong; Wang, Ding; Li, Hongliang

    2014-02-01

    In this paper, using a neural-network-based online learning optimal control approach, a novel decentralized control strategy is developed to stabilize a class of continuous-time nonlinear interconnected large-scale systems. First, optimal controllers of the isolated subsystems are designed with cost functions reflecting the bounds of interconnections. Then, it is proven that the decentralized control strategy of the overall system can be established by adding appropriate feedback gains to the optimal control policies of the isolated subsystems. Next, an online policy iteration algorithm is presented to solve the Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman equations related to the optimal control problem. Through constructing a set of critic neural networks, the cost functions can be obtained approximately, followed by the control policies. Furthermore, the dynamics of the estimation errors of the critic networks are verified to be uniformly and ultimately bounded. Finally, a simulation example is provided to illustrate the effectiveness of the present decentralized control scheme. PMID:24807039

  14. Essays on remote monitoring as an emerging tool for centralized management of decentralized wastewater systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solomon, Clement

    According to the United States Environmental Protections Agency (USEPA), nearly one in four households in the United States depends on an individual septic system (commonly referred as an onsite system or a decentralized wastewater system) to treat and disperse wastewater. More than half of these systems are over 30 years old, and surveys indicate at least 10 to 20% might not be functioning properly. The USEPA concluded in its 1997 report to Congress that adequately managed decentralized wastewater systems (DWS) are a cost-effective and long-term option for meeting public health and water quality goals, particularly in less densely populated areas. The major challenge however is the absence of a guiding national regulatory framework based on consistent performance-based standards and lack of proper management of DWS. These inconsistencies pose a significant threat to our water resources, local economies, and public health. This dissertation addresses key policy and regulatory strategies needed in response to the new realities confronting decentralized wastewater management. The two core objectives of this research are to demonstrate the centralized management of DWS paradigm and to present a scientific methodology to develop performance-based standards (a regulatory shift from prescriptive methods) using remote monitoring. The underlying remote monitoring architecture for centralized DWS management and the value of science-based policy making are presented. Traditionally, prescriptive standards using conventional grab sampling data are the norm by which most standards are set. Three case studies that support the potential of remote monitoring as a tool for standards development and system management are presented. The results revealed a vital role for remote monitoring in the development of standardized protocols, policies and procedures that are greatly lacking in this field. This centralized management and remote monitoring paradigm fits well and complements

  15. The Autonomous Pathogen Detection System (APDS)

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, J; Dzenitis, J

    2004-09-22

    Shaped like a mailbox on wheels, it's been called a bioterrorism ''smoke detector.'' It can be found in transportation hubs such as airports and subways, and it may be coming to a location near you. Formally known as the Autonomous Pathogen Detection System, or APDS, this latest tool in the war on bioterrorism was developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory to continuously sniff the air for airborne pathogens and toxins such as anthrax or plague. The APDS is the modern day equivalent of the canaries miners took underground with them to test for deadly carbon dioxide gas. But this canary can test for numerous bacteria, viruses, and toxins simultaneously, report results every hour, and confirm positive samples and guard against false positive results by using two different tests. The fully automated system collects and prepares air samples around the clock, does the analysis, and interprets the results. It requires no servicing or human intervention for an entire week. Unlike its feathered counterpart, when an APDS unit encounters something deadly in the air, that's when it begins singing, quietly. The APDS unit transmits a silent alert and sends detailed data to public health authorities, who can order evacuation and begin treatment of anyone exposed to toxic or biological agents. It is the latest in a series of biodefense detectors developed at DOE/NNSA national laboratories. The manual predecessor to APDS, called BASIS (for Biological Aerosol Sentry and Information System), was developed jointly by Los Alamos and Lawrence Livermore national laboratories. That system was modified to become BioWatch, the Department of Homeland Security's biological urban monitoring program. A related laboratory instrument, the Handheld Advanced Nucleic Acid Analyzer (HANAA), was first tested successfully at LLNL in September 1997. Successful partnering with private industry has been a key factor in the rapid advancement and deployment of biodefense instruments such as these

  16. Development of an autonomous target tracking system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gidda, Venkata Ramaiah

    In recent years, surveillance and border patrol have become one of the key research areas in UAV research. Increase in the computational capability of the computers and embedded electronics, coupled with compatibility of various commercial vision algorithms and commercial off the shelf (COTS) embedded electronics, and has further fuelled the research. The basic task in these applications is perception of environment through the available visual sensors like camera. Visual tracking, as the name implies, is tracking of objects using a camera. The process of autonomous target tracking starts with the selection of the target in a sequence of video frames transmitted from the on-board camera. We use an improved fast dynamic template matching algorithm coupled with Kalman Filter to track the selected target in consecutive video frames. The selected target is saved as a reference template. On the ground station computer, the reference template is overlaid on the live streaming video from the on-board system, starting from the upper left corner of the video frame. The template is slid pixel by pixel over the entire source image. A comparison of the pixels is performed between the template and source image. A confidence value R of the match is calculated at each pixel. Based on the method used to perform the template matching, the best match pixel location is found according to the highest or lowest confidence value R. The best match pixel location is communicated to the on-board gimbal controller over the wireless Xbee network. The software on the controller actuates the pan-tilt servos to continuously to hold the selected target at the center of the video frame. The complete system is a portable control system assembled from commercial off the shelf parts. The tracking system is tested on a target having several motion patterns.

  17. Decentralized adaptive sliding mode control for beam synchronization of tethered InSAR system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jinxiu; Zhang, Zhigang; Wu, Baolin

    2016-10-01

    Beam synchronization problem of tethered interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) is addressed in this paper. Two antennas of the system are carried by separate satellites connected through a tether to obtain a preferable baseline. A Total Zero Doppler Steering (TZDS) is implemented to mother-satellite to cancel the residual Doppler. Subsequently attitude reference trajectories for the two satellites are generated to achieve the beam synchronization and TZDS. Thereafter, a decentralized adaptive sliding mode control law is proposed to track these reference trajectories in the presence of model uncertainties and external disturbances. Finally, the stability of closed-loop system is proved by the corollary of Barbalat's Lemma. Simulation results show the proposed control law is effective to achieve beam synchronization of the system.

  18. Decentralized PID controller for TITO systems using characteristic ratio assignment with an experimental application.

    PubMed

    Hajare, V D; Patre, B M

    2015-11-01

    This paper presents a decentralized PID controller design method for two input two output (TITO) systems with time delay using characteristic ratio assignment (CRA) method. The ability of CRA method to design controller for desired transient response has been explored for TITO systems. The design methodology uses an ideal decoupler to reduce the interaction. Each decoupled subsystem is reduced to first order plus dead time (FOPDT) model to design independent diagonal controllers. Based on specified overshoot and settling time, the controller parameters are computed using CRA method. To verify performance of the proposed controller, two benchmark simulation examples are presented. To demonstrate applicability of the proposed controller, experimentation is performed on real life interacting coupled tank level system. PMID:26521724

  19. Characteristics of decentralized electricity generation

    SciTech Connect

    Hyman, B.; Bereano, P.L.; King, S.

    1984-01-01

    The characteristics of decentralized electricity generation are examined at several different levels with the aid of twenty-three independent variables. This approach provides a systematic framework for assessing and comparing the decentralized nature of power generation facilities and systems. While the analysis reveals that decentralization is not an explicit measure of performance, the taxonomy provides a useful tool for improving the quality of the debate on this issue. 30 references, 2 figures.

  20. Characteristics of decentralized electricity generation

    SciTech Connect

    Hyman, B.; Bereano, P.L.; King, S.

    1984-01-01

    The characteristics of decentralized electricity generation are examined at several different levels with the aid of twenty-three independent variables. This approach provides a systematic framework for assessing and comparing the decentralized nature of power generation facilities and systems. While the analysis reveals that decentralization is not an explicit measure of performance, the taxonomy provides a useful tool for improving the quality of the debate on this issue.

  1. Different approaches for centralized and decentralized water system management in multiple decision makers' problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anghileri, D.; Giuliani, M.; Castelletti, A.

    2012-04-01

    There is a general agreement that one of the most challenging issues related to water system management is the presence of many and often conflicting interests as well as the presence of several and independent decision makers. The traditional approach to multi-objective water systems management is a centralized management, in which an ideal central regulator coordinates the operation of the whole system, exploiting all the available information and balancing all the operating objectives. Although this approach allows to obtain Pareto-optimal solutions representing the maximum achievable benefit, it is based on assumptions which strongly limits its application in real world contexts: 1) top-down management, 2) existence of a central regulation institution, 3) complete information exchange within the system, 4) perfect economic efficiency. A bottom-up decentralized approach seems therefore to be more suitable for real case applications since different reservoir operators may maintain their independence. In this work we tested the consequences of a change in the water management approach moving from a centralized toward a decentralized one. In particular we compared three different cases: the centralized management approach, the independent management approach where each reservoir operator takes the daily release decision maximizing (or minimizing) his operating objective independently from each other, and an intermediate approach, leading to the Nash equilibrium of the associated game, where different reservoir operators try to model the behaviours of the other operators. The three approaches are demonstrated using a test case-study composed of two reservoirs regulated for the minimization of flooding in different locations. The operating policies are computed by solving one single multi-objective optimal control problem, in the centralized management approach; multiple single-objective optimization problems, i.e. one for each operator, in the independent case

  2. A Generic Agent Organisation Framework for Autonomic Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kota, Ramachandra; Gibbins, Nicholas; Jennings, Nicholas R.

    Autonomic computing is being advocated as a tool for managing large, complex computing systems. Specifically, self-organisation provides a suitable approach for developing such autonomic systems by incorporating self-management and adaptation properties into large-scale distributed systems. To aid in this development, this paper details a generic problem-solving agent organisation framework that can act as a modelling and simulation platform for autonomic systems. Our framework describes a set of service-providing agents accomplishing tasks through social interactions in dynamically changing organisations. We particularly focus on the organisational structure as it can be used as the basis for the design, development and evaluation of generic algorithms for self-organisation and other approaches towards autonomic systems.

  3. Decentralized Observer with a Consensus Filter for Distributed Discrete-Time Linear Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acikmese, Behcet; Mandic, Milan

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a decentralized observer with a consensus filter for the state observation of a discrete-time linear distributed systems. In this setup, each agent in the distributed system has an observer with a model of the plant that utilizes the set of locally available measurements, which may not make the full plant state detectable. This lack of detectability is overcome by utilizing a consensus filter that blends the state estimate of each agent with its neighbors' estimates. We assume that the communication graph is connected for all times as well as the sensing graph. It is proven that the state estimates of the proposed observer asymptotically converge to the actual plant states under arbitrarily changing, but connected, communication and sensing topologies. As a byproduct of this research, we also obtained a result on the location of eigenvalues, the spectrum, of the Laplacian for a family of graphs with self-loops.

  4. The effect of decentralized behavioral decision making on system-level risk.

    PubMed

    Kaivanto, Kim

    2014-12-01

    Certain classes of system-level risk depend partly on decentralized lay decision making. For instance, an organization's network security risk depends partly on its employees' responses to phishing attacks. On a larger scale, the risk within a financial system depends partly on households' responses to mortgage sales pitches. Behavioral economics shows that lay decisionmakers typically depart in systematic ways from the normative rationality of expected utility (EU), and instead display heuristics and biases as captured in the more descriptively accurate prospect theory (PT). In turn, psychological studies show that successful deception ploys eschew direct logical argumentation and instead employ peripheral-route persuasion, manipulation of visceral emotions, urgency, and familiar contextual cues. The detection of phishing emails and inappropriate mortgage contracts may be framed as a binary classification task. Signal detection theory (SDT) offers the standard normative solution, formulated as an optimal cutoff threshold, for distinguishing between good/bad emails or mortgages. In this article, we extend SDT behaviorally by rederiving the optimal cutoff threshold under PT. Furthermore, we incorporate the psychology of deception into determination of SDT's discriminability parameter. With the neo-additive probability weighting function, the optimal cutoff threshold under PT is rendered unique under well-behaved sampling distributions, tractable in computation, and transparent in interpretation. The PT-based cutoff threshold is (i) independent of loss aversion and (ii) more conservative than the classical SDT cutoff threshold. Independently of any possible misalignment between individual-level and system-level misclassification costs, decentralized behavioral decisionmakers are biased toward underdetection, and system-level risk is consequently greater than in analyses predicated upon normative rationality. PMID:24984805

  5. Physics Simulation Software for Autonomous Propellant Loading and Gas House Autonomous System Monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Regalado Reyes, Bjorn Constant

    2015-01-01

    1. Kennedy Space Center (KSC) is developing a mobile launching system with autonomous propellant loading capabilities for liquid-fueled rockets. An autonomous system will be responsible for monitoring and controlling the storage, loading and transferring of cryogenic propellants. The Physics Simulation Software will reproduce the sensor data seen during the delivery of cryogenic fluids including valve positions, pressures, temperatures and flow rates. The simulator will provide insight into the functionality of the propellant systems and demonstrate the effects of potential faults. This will provide verification of the communications protocols and the autonomous system control. 2. The High Pressure Gas Facility (HPGF) stores and distributes hydrogen, nitrogen, helium and high pressure air. The hydrogen and nitrogen are stored in cryogenic liquid state. The cryogenic fluids pose several hazards to operators and the storage and transfer equipment. Constant monitoring of pressures, temperatures and flow rates are required in order to maintain the safety of personnel and equipment during the handling and storage of these commodities. The Gas House Autonomous System Monitoring software will be responsible for constantly observing and recording sensor data, identifying and predicting faults and relaying hazard and operational information to the operators.

  6. Decentralizing Data through Decision-Support Systems: The Impact of Increased Access to Data on Decision Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petrides, Lisa A.; McClelland, Sara I.

    2007-01-01

    This study examines the impact of a new Decision-Support System (DSS) on decision making in a community college in California. It looks at how attitudes and behaviors about data and their use were impacted by the implementation of a new DSS. The study found that the decentralization of data, through the DSS, produced a shift in terms of an…

  7. Indirect decentralized repetitive control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Soo Cheol; Longman, Richard W.

    1993-01-01

    Learning control refers to controllers that learn to improve their performance at executing a given task, based on experience performing this specific task. In a previous work, the authors presented a theory of indirect decentralized learning control based on use of indirect adaptive control concepts employing simultaneous identification and control. This paper extends these results to apply to the indirect repetitive control problem in which a periodic (i.e., repetitive) command is given to a control system. Decentralized indirect repetitive control algorithms are presented that have guaranteed convergence to zero tracking error under very general conditions. The original motivation of the repetitive control and learning control fields was learning in robots doing repetitive tasks such as on an assembly line. This paper starts with decentralized discrete time systems, and progresses to the robot application, modeling the robot as a time varying linear system in the neighborhood of the desired trajectory. Decentralized repetitive control is natural for this application because the feedback control for link rotations is normally implemented in a decentralized manner, treating each link as if it is independent of the other links.

  8. Formal Methods for Autonomic and Swarm-based Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rouff, Christopher; Vanderbilt, Amy; Hinchey, Mike; Truszkowski, Walt; Rash, James

    2004-01-01

    Swarms of intelligent rovers and spacecraft are being considered for a number of future NASA missions. These missions will provide MSA scientist and explorers greater flexibility and the chance to gather more science than traditional single spacecraft missions. These swarms of spacecraft are intended to operate for large periods of time without contact with the Earth. To do this, they must be highly autonomous, have autonomic properties and utilize sophisticated artificial intelligence. The Autonomous Nano Technology Swarm (ANTS) mission is an example of one of the swarm type of missions NASA is considering. This mission will explore the asteroid belt using an insect colony analogy cataloging the mass, density, morphology, and chemical composition of the asteroids, including any anomalous concentrations of specific minerals. Verifying such a system would be a huge task. This paper discusses ongoing work to develop a formal method for verifying swarm and autonomic systems.

  9. Nutrient removal by NF and RO membranes in a decentralized sanitation system.

    PubMed

    van Voorthuizen, Ellen M; Zwijnenburg, Arie; Wessling, Matthias

    2005-09-01

    Decentralized treatment of domestic wastewater offers the possibility of water and nutrient reuse. In a decentralized sanitation system the household wastewater streams are separated in a large diluted stream (gray water) and a small and concentrated stream (black water) containing important nutrients like ammonium and phosphate. Nanofiltration (NF) and reverse osmosis (RO) membranes might be used to recover the nutrients from anaerobically treated black water. The permeate might be used in a water reuse scheme. In case of water reuse the produced permeate should meet guidelines for potable water or meet new guidelines which might be applied in the future for intermediate quality of water, for example toilet flushwater; when this is not possible the permeate should meet guidelines for discharge. The most stringent guidelines apply for ammonium and phosphate. The focus of this paper is to test commercially available NF and RO membranes to remove nutrients from anaerobically treated black water in order to meet the Dutch guidelines. A large number of commercial tubular, capillary and flat sheet NF and RO membranes was tested on laboratory scale on their performance to meet the Dutch guidelines for ammonium and phosphate. The ammonium and phosphate concentrations used were based on the effluent composition of anaerobically treated black water. Ammonium and phosphate rejection were both measured in synthetic single salt and multi-ion mixtures and in anaerobic effluent. The rejection for ammonium (30-95%) is neither sufficient for discharge nor potable water use. The rejection of phosphate (74-99%) is in most cases almost sufficient to meet the standards for potable water. PMID:16054670

  10. An innovative integrated system utilizing solar energy as power for the treatment of decentralized wastewater.

    PubMed

    Han, Changfu; Liu, Junxin; Liang, Hanwen; Guo, Xuesong; Li, Lin

    2013-02-01

    This article reports an innovative integrated system utilizing solar energy as power for decentralized wastewater treatment, which consists of an oxidation ditch with double channels and a photovoltaic (PV) system without a storage battery. Because the system operates without a storage battery, which can reduce the cost of the PV system, the solar radiation intensity affects the amount of power output from the PV system. To ensure that the power output is sufficient in all different weather conditions, the solar radiation intensity of 78 W/m2 with 95% confidence interval was defined as a threshold of power output for the PV system according to the monitoring results in this study, and a step power output mode was used to utilize the solar energy as well as possible. The oxidation ditch driven by the PV system without storage battery ran during the day and stopped at night. Therefore, anaerobic, anoxic and aerobic conditions could periodically appear in the oxidation ditch, which was favorable to nitrogen and phosphate removal from the wastewater. The experimental results showed that the system was efficient, achieving average removal efficiencies of 88% COD, 98% NH4+-N, 70% TN and 83% TP, under the loading rates of 140 mg COD/(g MLSS x day), 32 mg NH4+-N/(g MLSS x day), 44 mg TN/(g MLSS x day) and 5 mg TP/(g MLSS x day). PMID:23596946

  11. Development of an Automatic Identification System Autonomous Positioning System

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Qing; Jiang, Yi; Zhang, Jingbo; Sun, Xiaowen; Zhang, Shufang

    2015-01-01

    In order to overcome the vulnerability of the global navigation satellite system (GNSS) and provide robust position, navigation and time (PNT) information in marine navigation, the autonomous positioning system based on ranging-mode Automatic Identification System (AIS) is presented in the paper. The principle of the AIS autonomous positioning system (AAPS) is investigated, including the position algorithm, the signal measurement technique, the geometric dilution of precision, the time synchronization technique and the additional secondary factor correction technique. In order to validate the proposed AAPS, a verification system has been established in the Xinghai sea region of Dalian (China). Static and dynamic positioning experiments are performed. The original function of the AIS in the AAPS is not influenced. The experimental results show that the positioning precision of the AAPS is better than 10 m in the area with good geometric dilution of precision (GDOP) by the additional secondary factor correction technology. This is the most economical solution for a land-based positioning system to complement the GNSS for the navigation safety of vessels sailing along coasts. PMID:26569258

  12. Development of an Automatic Identification System Autonomous Positioning System.

    PubMed

    Hu, Qing; Jiang, Yi; Zhang, Jingbo; Sun, Xiaowen; Zhang, Shufang

    2015-01-01

    In order to overcome the vulnerability of the global navigation satellite system (GNSS) and provide robust position, navigation and time (PNT) information in marine navigation, the autonomous positioning system based on ranging-mode Automatic Identification System (AIS) is presented in the paper. The principle of the AIS autonomous positioning system (AAPS) is investigated, including the position algorithm, the signal measurement technique, the geometric dilution of precision, the time synchronization technique and the additional secondary factor correction technique. In order to validate the proposed AAPS, a verification system has been established in the Xinghai sea region of Dalian (China). Static and dynamic positioning experiments are performed. The original function of the AIS in the AAPS is not influenced. The experimental results show that the positioning precision of the AAPS is better than 10 m in the area with good geometric dilution of precision (GDOP) by the additional secondary factor correction technology. This is the most economical solution for a land-based positioning system to complement the GNSS for the navigation safety of vessels sailing along coasts. PMID:26569258

  13. Defence R&D Canada's autonomous intelligent systems program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Digney, Bruce L.; Hubbard, Paul; Gagnon, Eric; Lauzon, Marc; Rabbath, Camille; Beckman, Blake; Collier, Jack A.; Penzes, Steven G.; Broten, Gregory S.; Monckton, Simon P.; Trentini, Michael; Kim, Bumsoo; Farell, Philip; Hopkin, Dave

    2004-09-01

    The Defence Research and Development Canada's (DRDC has been given strategic direction to pursue research to increase the independence and effectiveness of military vehicles and systems. This has led to the creation of the Autonomous Intelligent Systems (AIS) prgram and is notionally divide into air, land and marine vehicle systems as well as command, control and decision support systems. This paper presents an overarching description of AIS research issues, challenges and directions as well as a nominal path that vehicle intelligence will take. The AIS program requires a very close coordination between research and implementation on real vehicles. This paper briefly discusses the symbiotic relationship between intelligence algorithms and implementation mechanisms. Also presented are representative work from two vehicle specific research program programs. Work from the Autonomous Air Systems program discusses the development of effective cooperate control for multiple air vehicle. The Autonomous Land Systems program discusses its developments in platform and ground vehicle intelligence.

  14. Differential responses of components of the autonomic nervous system.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, David S

    2013-01-01

    This chapter conveys several concepts and points of view about the scientific and medical significance of differential alterations in activities of components of the autonomic nervous system in stress and disease. The use of terms such as "the autonomic nervous system," "autonomic failure," "dysautonomia," and "autonomic dysfunction" imply the existence of a single entity; however, the autonomic nervous system has functionally and neurochemically distinctive components, which are reflected in differential responses to stressors and differential involvement in pathophysiologic states. One can conceptualize the autonomic nervous system as having at least five components: the sympathetic noradrenergic system, the sympathetic cholinergic system, the parasympathetic cholinergic system, the sympathetic adrenergic system, and the enteric nervous system. Evidence has accumulated for differential noradrenergic vs. adrenergic responses in various situations. The largest sympathetic adrenergic system responses are seen when the organism encounters stressors that pose a global or metabolic threat. Sympathetic noradrenergic system activation dominates the responses to orthostasis, moderate exercise, and exposure to cold, whereas sympathetic adrenergic system activation dominates those to glucoprivation and emotional distress. There seems to be at least as good a justification for the concept of coordinated adrenocortical-adrenomedullary responses as for coordinated adrenomedullary-sympathoneural responses in stress. Fainting reactions involve differential adrenomedullary hormonal vs. sympathetic noradrenergic activation. Parkinson disease entails relatively selective dysfunction of the sympathetic noradrenergic system, with prominent loss of noradrenergic nerves in the heart, yet normal adrenomedullary function. Allostatic load links stress with degenerative diseases, and Parkinson disease may be a disease of the elderly because of allostatic load. PMID:24095112

  15. The Function of the Autonomic Nervous System during Spaceflight

    PubMed Central

    Mandsager, Kyle Timothy; Robertson, David; Diedrich, André

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Despite decades of study, a clear understanding of autonomic nervous system activity in space remains elusive. Differential interpretation of fundamental data have driven divergent theories of sympathetic activation and vasorelaxation. Methods This paper will review the available in-flight autonomic and hemodynamic data in an effort to resolve these discrepancies. The NASA NEUROLAB mission, the most comprehensive assessment of autonomic function in microgravity to date, will be highlighted. The mechanisms responsible for altered autonomic activity during spaceflight, which include the effects of hypovolemia, cardiovascular deconditioning, and altered central processing, will be presented. Results The NEUROLAB experiments demonstrated increased sympathetic activity and impairment of vagal baroreflex function during short-duration spaceflight. Subsequent non-invasive studies of autonomic function during spaceflight have largely reinforced these findings, and provide strong evidence that sympathetic activity is increased in space relative to the supine position on Earth. Others have suggested that microgravity induces a state of relative vasorelaxation and increased vagal activity when compared to upright posture on Earth. These ostensibly disparate theories are not mutually exclusive, but rather directly reflect different pre-flight postural controls. Conclusion When these results are taken together, they demonstrate that the effectual autonomic challenge of spaceflight is small, and represents an orthostatic stress less than that of upright posture on Earth. In-flight countermeasures, including aerobic and resistance exercise, as well as short-arm centrifugation have been successfully deployed to counteract these mechanisms. Despite subtle changes in autonomic activity during spaceflight, underlying neurohumoral mechanisms of the autonomic nervous system remain intact and cardiovascular function remains stable during long-duration flight. PMID:25820827

  16. Improving Human/Autonomous System Teaming Through Linguistic Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meszaros, Erica L.

    2016-01-01

    An area of increasing interest for the next generation of aircraft is autonomy and the integration of increasingly autonomous systems into the national airspace. Such integration requires humans to work closely with autonomous systems, forming human and autonomous agent teams. The intention behind such teaming is that a team composed of both humans and autonomous agents will operate better than homogenous teams. Procedures exist for licensing pilots to operate in the national airspace system and current work is being done to define methods for validating the function of autonomous systems, however there is no method in place for assessing the interaction of these two disparate systems. Moreover, currently these systems are operated primarily by subject matter experts, limiting their use and the benefits of such teams. Providing additional information about the ongoing mission to the operator can lead to increased usability and allow for operation by non-experts. Linguistic analysis of the context of verbal communication provides insight into the intended meaning of commonly heard phrases such as "What's it doing now?" Analyzing the semantic sphere surrounding these common phrases enables the prediction of the operator's intent and allows the interface to supply the operator's desired information.

  17. A Decentralized Multivariable Robust Adaptive Voltage and Speed Regulator for Large-Scale Power Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okou, Francis A.; Akhrif, Ouassima; Dessaint, Louis A.; Bouchard, Derrick

    2013-05-01

    This papter introduces a decentralized multivariable robust adaptive voltage and frequency regulator to ensure the stability of large-scale interconnnected generators. Interconnection parameters (i.e. load, line and transormer parameters) are assumed to be unknown. The proposed design approach requires the reformulation of conventiaonal power system models into a multivariable model with generator terminal voltages as state variables, and excitation and turbine valve inputs as control signals. This model, while suitable for the application of modern control methods, introduces problems with regards to current design techniques for large-scale systems. Interconnection terms, which are treated as perturbations, do not meet the common matching condition assumption. A new adaptive method for a certain class of large-scale systems is therefore introduces that does not require the matching condition. The proposed controller consists of nonlinear inputs that cancel some nonlinearities of the model. Auxiliary controls with linear and nonlinear components are used to stabilize the system. They compensate unknown parametes of the model by updating both the nonlinear component gains and excitation parameters. The adaptation algorithms involve the sigma-modification approach for auxiliary control gains, and the projection approach for excitation parameters to prevent estimation drift. The computation of the matrix-gain of the controller linear component requires the resolution of an algebraic Riccati equation and helps to solve the perturbation-mismatching problem. A realistic power system is used to assess the proposed controller performance. The results show that both stability and transient performance are considerably improved following a severe contingency.

  18. Decentralized control of large transient in power systems: theory and application. Final report, January 1981-August 1983

    SciTech Connect

    DeCarlo, R.; Hawley, P.; Sebok, D.

    1983-08-01

    Chapter 1 describes a continuation algorithm to construct decentralized state feedback gains which place the natural frequencies (natural modes of vibration or eigenvalues) of a linearized power system at desired locations. Chapter 2 and 3 address the problem of designing a decentralized dither control for linearly interconnected synchronous machines, each of which is nonlinear. In Chapter 2, the theory finds application to the nonlinear third order model of a single machine infinite bus system where the primary control is via an ac-dc converter. Similarly Chapter 3 considers a two machine system with individual machine converters acting as the primary control. Computer simulations of the control action given various system perturbations are found in both Chapters 2 and 3.

  19. A design strategy for autonomous systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forster, Pete

    1989-01-01

    Some solutions to crucial issues regarding the competent performance of an autonomously operating robot are identified; namely, that of handling multiple and variable data sources containing overlapping information and maintaining coherent operation while responding adequately to changes in the environment. Support for the ideas developed for the construction of such behavior are extracted from speculations in the study of cognitive psychology, an understanding of the behavior of controlled mechanisms, and the development of behavior-based robots in a few robot research laboratories. The validity of these ideas is supported by some simple simulation experiments in the field of mobile robot navigation and guidance.

  20. A novel test method to determine the filter material service life of decentralized systems treating runoff from traffic areas.

    PubMed

    Huber, Maximilian; Welker, Antje; Dierschke, Martina; Drewes, Jörg E; Helmreich, Brigitte

    2016-09-01

    In recent years, there has been a significant increase in the development and application of technical decentralized filter systems for the treatment of runoff from traffic areas. However, there are still many uncertainties regarding the service life and the performance of filter materials that are employed in decentralized treatment systems. These filter media are designed to prevent the transport of pollutants into the environment. A novel pilot-scale test method was developed to determine - within a few days - the service lives and long-term removal efficiencies for dissolved heavy metals in stormwater treatment systems. The proposed method consists of several steps including preloading the filter media in a pilot-scale model with copper and zinc by a load of n-1 years of the estimated service life (n). Subsequently, three representative rain events are simulated to evaluate the long-term performance by dissolved copper and zinc during the last year of application. The presented results, which verified the applicability of this method, were obtained for three filter channel systems and six filter shaft systems. The performance of the evaluated systems varied largely for both tested heavy metals and during all three simulated rain events. A validation of the pilot-scale assessment method with field measurements was also performed for two systems. Findings of this study suggest that this novel method does provide a standardized and accurate estimation of service intervals of decentralized treatment systems employing various filter materials. The method also provides regulatory authorities, designers, and operators with an objective basis for performance assessment and supports stormwater managers to make decisions for the installation of such decentralized treatment systems. PMID:27179341

  1. Values of decentralized systems that avoid investments in idle capacity within the wastewater sector: a theoretical justification.

    PubMed

    Wang, Sheng

    2014-04-01

    In this work, the values of decentralized (onsite) systems that avoid investments in idle capacity within wastewater plans are quantitatively justified using the specific net present value (SNPV) approach. SNPV is a currently proposed criterion in environmental engineering economics that is defined as the net present value of the cost per unit of service or per population equivalent (PE). The SNPV approach was reintroduced with bugs fixed and then applied to the economic analysis of the capital and operating costs of one-stage completed central plants, stage-expanded central plants, and decentralized treatment facilities. The results show that under a demand growth scenario, the central plant will inevitably reach idle capacity, which can be reduced by a staged expansion. However, the staged expansion plan will lose the economies of scale and, hence, is only viable under projections of a low or moderate price inflation rate or high demand growth rate. Onsite treatment systems can theoretically achieve 100% utilization. Assuming that the capital costs per PE of the onsite and central systems are equal, the former is economically favorable in most cases of price inflation as a result of its cost saving on idle capacity. Onsite treatment systems can be viable even though their capital expenditures per PE are higher than that of a comparable centralized option as to a capital investment. This finding suggests wide opening of onsite technology choices. Use of the SNPV showed that average operating expenses of centralized plants decrease as demand growth rates increase as a benefit of economies of scale, whereas those of onsite treatment systems depend only on price inflation. Semi-decentralized systems feature both the financial advantage of the onsite system (capital investment) and the superiority of centralized systems (operation and maintenance); thus, it is worth consideration. The results of this study illustrate not only the value of decentralized systems but

  2. Advances in Autonomous Systems for Missions of Space Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gross, A. R.; Smith, B. D.; Briggs, G. A.; Hieronymus, J.; Clancy, D. J.

    New missions of space exploration will require unprecedented levels of autonomy to successfully accomplish their objectives. Both inherent complexity and communication distances will preclude levels of human involvement common to current and previous space flight missions. With exponentially increasing capabilities of computer hardware and software, including networks and communication systems, a new balance of work is being developed between humans and machines. This new balance holds the promise of meeting the greatly increased space exploration requirements, along with dramatically reduced design, development, test, and operating costs. New information technologies, which take advantage of knowledge-based software, model-based reasoning, and high performance computer systems, will enable the development of a new generation of design and development tools, schedulers, and vehicle and system health monitoring and maintenance capabilities. Such tools will provide a degree of machine intelligence and associated autonomy that has previously been unavailable. These capabilities are critical to the future of space exploration, since the science and operational requirements specified by such missions, as well as the budgetary constraints that limit the ability to monitor and control these missions by a standing army of ground- based controllers. System autonomy capabilities have made great strides in recent years, for both ground and space flight applications. Autonomous systems have flown on advanced spacecraft, providing new levels of spacecraft capability and mission safety. Such systems operate by utilizing model-based reasoning that provides the capability to work from high-level mission goals, while deriving the detailed system commands internally, rather than having to have such commands transmitted from Earth. This enables missions of such complexity and communications distance as are not otherwise possible, as well as many more efficient and low cost

  3. Autonomic Cluster Management System (ACMS): A Demonstration of Autonomic Principles at Work

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baldassari, James D.; Kopec, Christopher L.; Leshay, Eric S.; Truszkowski, Walt; Finkel, David

    2005-01-01

    Cluster computing, whereby a large number of simple processors or nodes are combined together to apparently function as a single powerful computer, has emerged as a research area in its own right. The approach offers a relatively inexpensive means of achieving significant computational capabilities for high-performance computing applications, while simultaneously affording the ability to. increase that capability simply by adding more (inexpensive) processors. However, the task of manually managing and con.guring a cluster quickly becomes impossible as the cluster grows in size. Autonomic computing is a relatively new approach to managing complex systems that can potentially solve many of the problems inherent in cluster management. We describe the development of a prototype Automatic Cluster Management System (ACMS) that exploits autonomic properties in automating cluster management.

  4. Systems, methods and apparatus for quiesence of autonomic systems with self action

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinchey, Michael G. (Inventor); Sterritt, Roy (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    Systems, methods and apparatus are provided in which an autonomic unit or element is quiesced. A quiesce component of an autonomic unit can cause the autonomic unit to self-destruct if a stay-alive reprieve signal is not received after a predetermined time.

  5. Autonomous rendezvous and feature detection system using TV imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rice, R. B., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    Algorithms and equations are used for conversion of standard television imaging system information into directly usable spatial and dimensional information. System allows utilization of spacecraft imagery system as sensor in application to operations such as deriving spacecraft steering signal, tracking, autonomous rendezvous and docking and ranging.

  6. Autonomous navigation system based on GPS and magnetometer data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Julie, Thienel K. (Inventor); Richard, Harman R. (Inventor); Bar-Itzhack, Itzhack Y. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    This invention is drawn to an autonomous navigation system using Global Positioning System (GPS) and magnetometers for low Earth orbit satellites. As a magnetometer is reliable and always provides information on spacecraft attitude, rate, and orbit, the magnetometer-GPS configuration solves GPS initialization problem, decreasing the convergence time for navigation estimate and improving the overall accuracy. Eventually the magnetometer-GPS configuration enables the system to avoid costly and inherently less reliable gyro for rate estimation. Being autonomous, this invention would provide for black-box spacecraft navigation, producing attitude, orbit, and rate estimates without any ground input with high accuracy and reliability.

  7. Review of legal and institutional issues in the use of decentralized solar energy systems

    SciTech Connect

    Schweitzer, M.

    1980-04-01

    The legal and institutional issues involved in the use of decentralized solar energy systems are examined for the purpose of advising government planners and policymakers, the solar industry, solar researchers, and prospective solar users of present and potential impediments and incentives to solar commercialization. This information was gathered primarily through a comprehensive literature review, with supplementary data provided through interviews with representatives of organizations active in the solar field. Five major issue areas were identified in the course of this study: (1) prohibitions on the use of solar equipment, (2) regulation of the production and placement of solar systems, (3) access to sunlight, (4) financial incentives and impediments to the use of solar technologies, and (5) the public utility-solar user interface. Each can be important in its impacts on the incidence of solar usage. The major actors involved with the issues identified above represent both the private and public sectors. Important private sector participants include solar manufacturers and installers, labor unions, lending institutions, utility companies, solar users themselves, and other community property owners. In the public sector, local, state, and federal governments are all capable of acting in ways that can influence the solar commercialization effort. Implementation options are available for all levels of government seeking to take an active role in addressing the previously mentioned legal and institutional issues. The appropriate actions will vary from federal to state to local governments, but each level can be important in removing existing barriers and creating new incentives for solar use.

  8. Entrapped cell system for decentralized hospital wastewater treatment: inhibitory effect of disinfectants.

    PubMed

    Siripattanakul-Ratpukdi, Sumana

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to improve decentralized hospital wastewater treatment inhibited by disinfectants by using calcium alginate cell entrapment technique. The effects of disinfectant types (glutaraldehyde, povidone iodine (PI) and a potassium hydroxide solution) and disinfectant concentrations, cell entrapment conditions (cell-to-matrix ratios) and cell loadings were investigated. The batch experiments were conducted using synthetic wastewater with initial chemical oxygen demand (COD) of approximately 370 mg/L and acclimated activated sludge. Among three disinfectants, PI substantially affected the wastewater treatment efficiency (inhibition of 40%) while other disinfectants exhibited inhibition effects of less than 9%. The results also indicated that the entrapped cells obviously performed better than the free cells. The cell-to-matrix ratio of 1:20 (v/v) provided the highest treatment efficiency of 86% (inhibition of 9%) while the free cell system had inhibition of 47%. The system at the entrapped cell loading of 2000 mg/L performed the highest COD removal of 62% for ten-cycle sequencing batch operation. A scanning electron microscope image provided information on entrapped cell structure subjected to the disinfectant. PMID:23393973

  9. Indirect decentralized learning control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Longman, Richard W.; Lee, Soo C.; Phan, M.

    1992-01-01

    The new field of learning control develops controllers that learn to improve their performance at executing a given task, based on experience performing this specific task. In a previous work, the authors presented a theory of indirect learning control based on use of indirect adaptive control concepts employing simultaneous identification and control. This paper develops improved indirect learning control algorithms, and studies the use of such controllers in decentralized systems. The original motivation of the learning control field was learning in robots doing repetitive tasks such as on an assembly line. This paper starts with decentralized discrete time systems, and progresses to the robot application, modeling the robot as a time varying linear system in the neighborhood of the nominal trajectory, and using the usual robot controllers that are decentralized, treating each link as if it is independent of any coupling with other links. The basic result of the paper is to show that stability of the indirect learning controllers for all subsystems when the coupling between subsystems is turned off, assures convergence to zero tracking error of the decentralized indirect learning control of the coupled system, provided that the sample time in the digital learning controller is sufficiently short.

  10. Advances in Autonomous Systems for Missions of Space Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gross, A. R.; Smith, B. D.; Briggs, G. A.; Hieronymus, J.; Clancy, D. J.

    New missions of space exploration will require unprecedented levels of autonomy to successfully accomplish their objectives. Both inherent complexity and communication distances will preclude levels of human involvement common to current and previous space flight missions. With exponentially increasing capabilities of computer hardware and software, including networks and communication systems, a new balance of work is being developed between humans and machines. This new balance holds the promise of meeting the greatly increased space exploration requirements, along with dramatically reduced design, development, test, and operating costs. New information technologies, which take advantage of knowledge-based software, model-based reasoning, and high performance computer systems, will enable the development of a new generation of design and development tools, schedulers, and vehicle and system health monitoring and maintenance capabilities. Such tools will provide a degree of machine intelligence and associated autonomy that has previously been unavailable. These capabilities are critical to the future of space exploration, since the science and operational requirements specified by such missions, as well as the budgetary constraints that limit the ability to monitor and control these missions by a standing army of ground- based controllers. System autonomy capabilities have made great strides in recent years, for both ground and space flight applications. Autonomous systems have flown on advanced spacecraft, providing new levels of spacecraft capability and mission safety. Such systems operate by utilizing model-based reasoning that provides the capability to work from high-level mission goals, while deriving the detailed system commands internally, rather than having to have such commands transmitted from Earth. This enables missions of such complexity and communications distance as are not otherwise possible, as well as many more efficient and low cost

  11. Space station automation study: Autonomous systems and assembly, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bradford, K. Z.

    1984-01-01

    This final report, prepared by Martin Marietta Denver Aerospace, provides the technical results of their input to the Space Station Automation Study, the purpose of which is to develop informed technical guidance in the use of autonomous systems to implement space station functions, many of which can be programmed in advance and are well suited for automated systems.

  12. Autonomous satellite navigation with the Global Positioning System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fuchs, A. J.; Wooden, W. H., II; Long, A. C.

    1977-01-01

    This paper discusses the potential of using the Global Positioning System (GPS) to provide autonomous navigation capability to NASA satellites in the 1980 era. Some of the driving forces motivating autonomous navigation are presented. These include such factors as advances in attitude control systems, onboard science annotation, and onboard gridding of imaging data. Simulation results which demonstrate baseline orbit determination accuracies using GPS data on Seasat, Landsat-D, and the Solar Maximum Mission are presented. Emphasis is placed on identifying error sources such as GPS time, GPS ephemeris, user timing biases, and user orbit dynamics, and in a parametric sense on evaluating their contribution to the orbit determination accuracies.

  13. An autonomous control system for boiler-turbine units

    SciTech Connect

    Ben-Abdennour, A.; Lee, K.Y.

    1996-06-01

    Achieving a more autonomous power plant operation is an important part of power plant control. To be autonomous, a control system needs to provide adequate control actions in the presence of significant uncertainties and/or disturbances, such as actuator or component failures, with minimum or no human assistance. However, a reasonable degree of autonomy is difficult to obtain without incorporating intelligence in the control system. This paper presents a coordinated intelligent control scheme with a high degree of autonomy. In this scheme, a Fuzzy-Logic based supervisor monitors the overall plant operation and carries the tasks of coordination, fault diagnosis, fault isolation, and fault accommodation.

  14. Turning a remotely controllable observatory into a fully autonomous system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swindell, Scott; Johnson, Chris; Gabor, Paul; Zareba, Grzegorz; Kubánek, Petr; Prouza, Michael

    2014-08-01

    We describe a complex process needed to turn an existing, old, operational observatory - The Steward Observatory's 61" Kuiper Telescope - into a fully autonomous system, which observers without an observer. For this purpose, we employed RTS2,1 an open sourced, Linux based observatory control system, together with other open sourced programs and tools (GNU compilers, Python language for scripting, JQuery UI for Web user interface). This presentation provides a guide with time estimates needed for a newcomers to the field to handle such challenging tasks, as fully autonomous observatory operations.

  15. The experience of implementing the board of trustees’ policy in teaching hospitals in Iran: an example of health system decentralization

    PubMed Central

    Doshmangir, Leila; Rashidian, Arash; Ravaghi, Hamid; Takian, Amirhossein; Jafari, Mehdi

    2015-01-01

    Background: In 2004, the health system in Iran initiated an organizational reform aiming to increase the autonomy of teaching hospitals and make them more decentralized. The policy led to the formation of a board of trustees in each hospital and significant modifications in hospitals’ financing. Since the reform aimed to improve its predecessor policy (implementation of hospital autonomy began in 1995), it expected to increase user satisfaction, as well as enhance effectiveness and efficiency of healthcare services in targeted hospitals. However, such expectations were never realized. In this research, we explored the perceptions and views of expert stakeholders as to why the board of trustees’ policy did not achieve its perceived objectives. Methods: We conducted 47 semi-structured face-to-face interviews and two focus group discussions (involving 8 and 10 participants, respectively) with experts at high, middle, and low levels of Iran’s health system, using purposive and snowball sampling. We also collected a comprehensive set of relevant documents. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and analyzed thematically, following a mixed inductive-deductive approach. Results: Three main themes emerged from the analysis. The implementation approach (including the processes, views about the policy and the links between the policy components), using research evidence about the policy (local and global), and policy context (health system structure, health insurers capacity, hospitals’ organization and capacity and actors’ interrelationships) affected the policy outcomes. Overall, the implementation of hospital decentralization policies in Iran did not seem to achieve their intended targets as a result of assumed failure to take full consideration of the above factors in policy implementation into account. Conclusion: The implementation of the board of trustees’ policy did not achieve its desired goals in teaching hospitals in Iran. Similar decentralization

  16. Application of disease burden to quantitative assessment of health hazards for a decentralized water reuse system.

    PubMed

    Gao, Tingting; Chen, Rong; Wang, Xiaochang; Ngo, Huu Hao; Li, Yu-You; Zhou, Jinhong; Zhang, Lu

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this article is to introduce the methodology of disease burden (DB) to quantify the health impact of microbial regrowth during wastewater reuse, using the case study of a decentralized water reuse system in Xi'an Si-yuan University, located in Xi'an, China. Based on field investigation findings, Escherichia coli (E. coli), Salmonella and rotavirus were selected as typical regrowth pathogens causing potential health hazards during the reuse of reclaimed water. Subsequently, major exposure routes including sprinkler irrigation, landscape fountains and toilet flushing were identified. Mathematical models were established to build the relationship between exposure dose and disease burden by calculating the disability adjusted life year (DALY). Results of disease burden for this case study show that DALYs attributed to E. coli were significantly greater than those caused by other pathogens, and DALYs associated with sprinkler irrigation were higher than those originating from other routes. A correlation between exposure dose and disease was obtained by introducing a modified calculation of morbidity, which can extend the assessment endpoint of health risk to disease burden from the conventional infection rate. PMID:26874764

  17. Implicit numerical integration for periodic solutions of autonomous nonlinear systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thurston, G. A.

    1982-01-01

    A change of variables that stabilizes numerical computations for periodic solutions of autonomous systems is derived. Computation of the period is decoupled from the rest of the problem for conservative systems of any order and for any second-order system. Numerical results are included for a second-order conservative system under a suddenly applied constant load. Near the critical load for the system, a small increment in load amplitude results in a large increase in amplitude of the response.

  18. Using Multimodal Input for Autonomous Decision Making for Unmanned Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neilan, James H.; Cross, Charles; Rothhaar, Paul; Tran, Loc; Motter, Mark; Qualls, Garry; Trujillo, Anna; Allen, B. Danette

    2016-01-01

    Autonomous decision making in the presence of uncertainly is a deeply studied problem space particularly in the area of autonomous systems operations for land, air, sea, and space vehicles. Various techniques ranging from single algorithm solutions to complex ensemble classifier systems have been utilized in a research context in solving mission critical flight decisions. Realized systems on actual autonomous hardware, however, is a difficult systems integration problem, constituting a majority of applied robotics development timelines. The ability to reliably and repeatedly classify objects during a vehicles mission execution is vital for the vehicle to mitigate both static and dynamic environmental concerns such that the mission may be completed successfully and have the vehicle operate and return safely. In this paper, the Autonomy Incubator proposes and discusses an ensemble learning and recognition system planned for our autonomous framework, AEON, in selected domains, which fuse decision criteria, using prior experience on both the individual classifier layer and the ensemble layer to mitigate environmental uncertainty during operation.

  19. Expert system isssues in automated, autonomous space vehicle rendezvous

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodwin, Mary Ann; Bochsler, Daniel C.

    1987-01-01

    The problems involved in automated autonomous rendezvous are briefly reviewed, and the Rendezvous Expert (RENEX) expert system is discussed with reference to its goals, approach used, and knowledge structure and contents. RENEX has been developed to support streamlining operations for the Space Shuttle and Space Station program and to aid definition of mission requirements for the autonomous portions of rendezvous for the Mars Surface Sample Return and Comet Nucleus Sample return unmanned missions. The experience with REMEX to date and recommendations for further development are presented.

  20. Mamdani Fuzzy System for Indoor Autonomous Mobile Robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, M. K. A. Ahamed; Rashid, Razif; Elamvazuthi, I.

    2011-06-01

    Several control algorithms for autonomous mobile robot navigation have been proposed in the literature. Recently, the employment of non-analytical methods of computing such as fuzzy logic, evolutionary computation, and neural networks has demonstrated the utility and potential of these paradigms for intelligent control of mobile robot navigation. In this paper, Mamdani fuzzy system for an autonomous mobile robot is developed. The paper begins with the discussion on the conventional controller and then followed by the description of fuzzy logic controller in detail.

  1. Autonomous Frequency-Domain System-Identification Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yam, Yeung; Mettler, Edward; Bayard, David S.; Hadaegh, Fred Y.; Milman, Mark H.; Scheid, Robert E.

    1993-01-01

    Autonomous Frequency Domain Identification (AU-FREDI) computer program implements system of methods, algorithms, and software developed for identification of parameters of mathematical models of dynamics of flexible structures and characterization, by use of system transfer functions, of such models, dynamics, and structures regarded as systems. Software considered collection of routines modified and reassembled to suit system-identification and control experiments on large flexible structures.

  2. TOWARD HIGHLY SECURE AND AUTONOMIC COMPUTING SYSTEMS: A HIERARCHICAL APPROACH

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Hsien-Hsin S

    2010-05-11

    The overall objective of this research project is to develop novel architectural techniques as well as system software to achieve a highly secure and intrusion-tolerant computing system. Such system will be autonomous, self-adapting, introspective, with self-healing capability under the circumstances of improper operations, abnormal workloads, and malicious attacks. The scope of this research includes: (1) System-wide, unified introspection techniques for autonomic systems, (2) Secure information-flow microarchitecture, (3) Memory-centric security architecture, (4) Authentication control and its implication to security, (5) Digital right management, (5) Microarchitectural denial-of-service attacks on shared resources. During the period of the project, we developed several architectural techniques and system software for achieving a robust, secure, and reliable computing system toward our goal.

  3. Autonomous navigation system for the Marsokhod rover project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Proy, C.; Lamboley, M.; Rastel, L.

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents a general overview of the Marsokhod rover mission. The autonomous navigation for a Mars exploration rover is controlled by a vision system which has been developed on the basis of two CCD cameras, stereovision and path planning algorithms. Its performances have been tested on a Mars-like experimentation site.

  4. Is There Anything "Autonomous" in the Nervous System?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasia-Filho, Alberto A.

    2006-01-01

    The terms "autonomous" or "vegetative" are currently used to identify one part of the nervous system composed of sympathetic, parasympathetic, and gastrointestinal divisions. However, the concepts that are under the literal meaning of these words can lead to misconceptions about the actual nervous organization. Some clear-cut examples indicate…

  5. Random attractor of non-autonomous stochastic Boussinesq lattice system

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Min Zhou, Shengfan

    2015-09-15

    In this paper, we first consider the existence of tempered random attractor for second-order non-autonomous stochastic lattice dynamical system of nonlinear Boussinesq equations effected by time-dependent coupled coefficients and deterministic forces and multiplicative white noise. Then, we establish the upper semicontinuity of random attractors as the intensity of noise approaches zero.

  6. Biologically-inspired approaches for self-organization, adaptation, and collaboration of heterogeneous autonomous systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinberg, Marc

    2011-06-01

    This paper presents a selective survey of theoretical and experimental progress in the development of biologicallyinspired approaches for complex surveillance and reconnaissance problems with multiple, heterogeneous autonomous systems. The focus is on approaches that may address ISR problems that can quickly become mathematically intractable or otherwise impractical to implement using traditional optimization techniques as the size and complexity of the problem is increased. These problems require dealing with complex spatiotemporal objectives and constraints at a variety of levels from motion planning to task allocation. There is also a need to ensure solutions are reliable and robust to uncertainty and communications limitations. First, the paper will provide a short introduction to the current state of relevant biological research as relates to collective animal behavior. Second, the paper will describe research on largely decentralized, reactive, or swarm approaches that have been inspired by biological phenomena such as schools of fish, flocks of birds, ant colonies, and insect swarms. Next, the paper will discuss approaches towards more complex organizational and cooperative mechanisms in team and coalition behaviors in order to provide mission coverage of large, complex areas. Relevant team behavior may be derived from recent advances in understanding of the social and cooperative behaviors used for collaboration by tens of animals with higher-level cognitive abilities such as mammals and birds. Finally, the paper will briefly discuss challenges involved in user interaction with these types of systems.

  7. Central- and autonomic nervous system coupling in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Schulz, Steffen; Bolz, Mathias; Bär, Karl-Jürgen; Voss, Andreas

    2016-05-13

    The autonomic nervous system (ANS) dysfunction has been well described in schizophrenia (SZ), a severe mental disorder. Nevertheless, the coupling between the ANS and central brain activity has been not addressed until now in SZ. The interactions between the central nervous system (CNS) and ANS need to be considered as a feedback-feed-forward system that supports flexible and adaptive responses to specific demands. For the first time, to the best of our knowledge, this study investigates central-autonomic couplings (CAC) studying heart rate, blood pressure and electroencephalogram in paranoid schizophrenic patients, comparing them with age-gender-matched healthy subjects (CO). The emphasis is to determine how these couplings are composed by the different regulatory aspects of the CNS-ANS. We found that CAC were bidirectional, and that the causal influence of central activity towards systolic blood pressure was more strongly pronounced than such causal influence towards heart rate in paranoid schizophrenic patients when compared with CO. In paranoid schizophrenic patients, the central activity was a much stronger variable, being more random and having fewer rhythmic oscillatory components. This study provides a more in-depth understanding of the interplay of neuronal and autonomic regulatory processes in SZ and most likely greater insights into the complex relationship between psychotic stages and autonomic activity. PMID:27044986

  8. The Venezuelan School System: Some Important Features for the Definition of the Process of Educational Decentralization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jauregui, Luis Bravo; Blanco, Carlos Eduardo

    1994-01-01

    Reports initial results of an investigation into achievements of Venezuelan state policies since 1958. The state remains the main driving force for school development. Venezuelan education is both public and centrally organized; the central government is the highest authority in educational matters. Decentralization as a way to reform rural…

  9. The LEA's Role in a Decentralized School System: The School Principals' View

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Addi-Raccah, Audrey; Gavish, Yakov

    2010-01-01

    Since the wave of school reform decentralization, schools now maintain a more dynamic and diverse relationship with their environment than they did in the past. School principals' relationships with the local educational authority (LEA) are a prominent example of this change in Israel. LEAs try to gain more pedagogic influence over schools while…

  10. On Event-Triggered Adaptive Architectures for Decentralized and Distributed Control of Large-Scale Modular Systems.

    PubMed

    Albattat, Ali; Gruenwald, Benjamin C; Yucelen, Tansel

    2016-01-01

    The last decade has witnessed an increased interest in physical systems controlled over wireless networks (networked control systems). These systems allow the computation of control signals via processors that are not attached to the physical systems, and the feedback loops are closed over wireless networks. The contribution of this paper is to design and analyze event-triggered decentralized and distributed adaptive control architectures for uncertain networked large-scale modular systems; that is, systems consist of physically-interconnected modules controlled over wireless networks. Specifically, the proposed adaptive architectures guarantee overall system stability while reducing wireless network utilization and achieving a given system performance in the presence of system uncertainties that can result from modeling and degraded modes of operation of the modules and their interconnections between each other. In addition to the theoretical findings including rigorous system stability and the boundedness analysis of the closed-loop dynamical system, as well as the characterization of the effect of user-defined event-triggering thresholds and the design parameters of the proposed adaptive architectures on the overall system performance, an illustrative numerical example is further provided to demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed decentralized and distributed control approaches. PMID:27537894

  11. An autonomous rendezvous and docking system using cruise missile technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Ruel Edwin

    1991-01-01

    In November 1990 the Autonomous Rendezvous & Docking (AR&D) system was first demonstrated for members of NASA's Strategic Avionics Technology Working Group. This simulation utilized prototype hardware from the Cruise Missile and Advanced Centaur Avionics systems. The object was to show that all the accuracy, reliability and operational requirements established for a space craft to dock with Space Station Freedom could be met by the proposed system. The rapid prototyping capabilities of the Advanced Avionics Systems Development Laboratory were used to evaluate the proposed system in a real time, hardware in the loop simulation of the rendezvous and docking reference mission. The simulation permits manual, supervised automatic and fully autonomous operations to be evaluated. It is also being upgraded to be able to test an Autonomous Approach and Landing (AA&L) system. The AA&L and AR&D systems are very similar. Both use inertial guidance and control systems supplemented by GPS. Both use an Image Processing System (IPS), for target recognition and tracking. The IPS includes a general purpose multiprocessor computer and a selected suite of sensors that will provide the required relative position and orientation data. Graphic displays can also be generated by the computer, providing the astronaut / operator with real-time guidance and navigation data with enhanced video or sensor imagery.

  12. Blackboard architectures and their relationship to autonomous space systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thornbrugh, Allison

    1988-01-01

    The blackboard architecture provides a powerful paradigm for the autonomy expected in future spaceborne systems, especially SDI and Space Station. Autonomous systems will require skill in both the classic task of information analysis and the newer tasks of decision making, planning and system control. Successful blackboard systems have been built to deal with each of these tasks separately. The blackboard paradigm achieves success in difficult domains through its ability to integrate several uncertain sources of knowledge. In addition to flexible behavior during autonomous operation, the system must also be capable of incrementally growing from semiautonomy to full autonomy. The blackboard structure allows this development. The blackboard's ability to handle error, its flexible execution, and variants of this paradigm are discussed as they apply to specific problems of the space environment.

  13. Scheduling lessons learned from the Autonomous Power System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ringer, Mark J.

    1992-01-01

    The Autonomous Power System (APS) project at NASA LeRC is designed to demonstrate the applications of integrated intelligent diagnosis, control, and scheduling techniques to space power distribution systems. The project consists of three elements: the Autonomous Power Expert System (APEX) for Fault Diagnosis, Isolation, and Recovery (FDIR); the Autonomous Intelligent Power Scheduler (AIPS) to efficiently assign activities start times and resources; and power hardware (Brassboard) to emulate a space-based power system. The AIPS scheduler was tested within the APS system. This scheduler is able to efficiently assign available power to the requesting activities and share this information with other software agents within the APS system in order to implement the generated schedule. The AIPS scheduler is also able to cooperatively recover from fault situations by rescheduling the affected loads on the Brassboard in conjunction with the APEX FDIR system. AIPS served as a learning tool and an initial scheduling testbed for the integration of FDIR and automated scheduling systems. Many lessons were learned from the AIPS scheduler and are now being integrated into a new scheduler called SCRAP (Scheduler for Continuous Resource Allocation and Planning). This paper will service three purposes: an overview of the AIPS implementation, lessons learned from the AIPS scheduler, and a brief section on how these lessons are being applied to the new SCRAP scheduler.

  14. Global Positioning System Synchronized Active Light Autonomous Docking System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, Richard T. (Inventor); Book, Michael L. (Inventor); Bryan, Thomas C. (Inventor); Bell, Joseph L. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    A Global Positioning System Synchronized Active Light Autonomous Docking System (GPSSALADS) for automatically docking a chase vehicle with a target vehicle comprising at least one active light emitting target which is operatively attached to the target vehicle. The target includes a three-dimensional array of concomitantly flashing lights which flash at a controlled common frequency. The GPSSALADS further comprises a visual tracking sensor operatively attached to the chase vehicle for detecting and tracking the target vehicle. Its performance is synchronized with the flash frequency of the lights by a synchronization means which is comprised of first and second internal clocks operatively connected to the active light target and visual tracking sensor, respectively, for providing timing control signals thereto, respectively. The synchronization means further includes first and second Global Positioning System receivers operatively connected to the first and second internal clocks, respectively, for repeatedly providing simultaneous synchronization pulses to the internal clocks, respectively. In addition, the GPSSALADS includes a docking process controller means which is operatively attached to the chase vehicle and is responsive to the visual tracking sensor for producing commands for the guidance and propulsion system of the chase vehicle.

  15. Global Positioning System Synchronized Active Light Autonomous Docking System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, Richard (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A Global Positioning System Synchronized Active Light Autonomous Docking System (GPSSALADS) for automatically docking a chase vehicle with a target vehicle comprises at least one active light emitting target which is operatively attached to the target vehicle. The target includes a three-dimensional array of concomitantly flashing lights which flash at a controlled common frequency. The GPSSALADS further comprises a visual tracking sensor operatively attached to the chase vehicle for detecting and tracking the target vehicle. Its performance is synchronized with the flash frequency of the lights by a synchronization means which is comprised of first and second internal clocks operatively connected to the active light target and visual tracking sensor, respectively, for providing timing control signals thereto, respectively. The synchronization means further includes first and second Global Positioning System receivers operatively connected to the first and second internal clocks, respectively, for repeatedly providing simultaneous synchronization pulses to the internal clocks, respectively. In addition, the GPSSALADS includes a docking process controller means which is operatively attached to the chase vehicle and is responsive to the visual tracking sensor for producing commands for the guidance and propulsion system of the chase vehicle.

  16. Multisensor robotic system for autonomous space maintenance and repair

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abidi, M. A.; Green, W. L.; Chandra, T.; Spears, J.

    1988-01-01

    The feasibility of realistic autonomous space manipulation tasks using multisensory information is demonstrated. The system is capable of acquiring, integrating, and interpreting multisensory data to locate, mate, and demate a Fluid Interchange System (FIS) and a Module Interchange System (MIS). In both cases, autonomous location of a guiding light target, mating, and demating of the system are performed. Implemented visio-driven techniques are used to determine the arbitrary two-dimensional position and orientation of the mating elements as well as the arbitrary three-dimensional position and orientation of the light targets. A force/torque sensor continuously monitors the six components of force and torque exerted on the end-effector. Both FIS and MIS experiments were successfully accomplished on mock-ups built for this purpose. The method is immune to variations in the ambient light, in particular because of the 90-minute day-night shift in space.

  17. Verification of autonomous systems using embedded behavior auditors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dvorak, Daniel; Tailor, Eric

    1999-01-01

    The prospect of highly autonomous spacecraft and rovers is exciting for what they can do with onboard decision making, but also troubling for what they might do [improperly] without human-in-the-loop oversight. The single biggest obstacle to acceptance of highly autonomous software control systems is doubt about their trustworthiness as a replacement for human analysis and decision-making. Such doubts can be addressed with a comprehensive system verification effort, but techniques suitable for conventional sequencer-based systems are inadequate for reactive systems. This paper highlights some of the key features that distinguish autonomous systems from their predecessors and then focuses on one approach to aid in their verification using a ``lightweight'' formal method. Specifically, we present a little language that enables system engineers and designers to specify expected behavior in the form of invariants, state machines, episodes, and resource constraints, and a way of compiling such specifications and linking them into the operational code as embedded behavior auditors. Such auditors become part of the overall fault-detection design, checking system behavior in real-time, not only in the test-bed but also in flight.

  18. The organization of an autonomous learning system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kanerva, Pentti

    1988-01-01

    The organization of systems that learn from experience is examined, human beings and animals being prime examples of such systems. How is their information processing organized. They build an internal model of the world and base their actions on the model. The model is dynamic and predictive, and it includes the systems' own actions and their effects. In modeling such systems, a large pattern of features represents a moment of the system's experience. Some of the features are provided by the system's senses, some control the system's motors, and the rest have no immediate external significance. A sequence of such patterns then represents the system's experience over time. By storing such sequences appropriately in memory, the system builds a world model based on experience. In addition to the essential function of memory, fundamental roles are played by a sensory system that makes raw information about the world suitable for memory storage and by a motor system that affects the world. The relation of sensory and motor systems to the memory is discussed, together with how favorable actions can be learned and unfavorable actions can be avoided. Results in classical learning theory are explained in terms of the model, more advanced forms of learning are discussed, and the relevance of the model to the frame problem of robotics is examined.

  19. Autonomous Community Construction Technology to Achieve Service Assurance in ADCS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahmood, Khalid; Lu, Xiaodong; Mori, Kinji

    Autonomous Decentralized Community System (ADCS) makes its basis on offering customized and dynamic services to group of end-users having common preferences at specified time and location. Owing to extreme dynamism in the system caused by rapidly varying user's demands, and severe mobility of users, it is quite difficult to assure timely service provision to all community members. This paper presents autonomous decentralized community system construction by autonomous division and integration technologies to procure service assurance under dynamic situations, without involving significant communication overhead. By adopting the concept of size threshold, the proposed technique continuously maintains the appropriate size of community in constantly and rapidly changing operating environment, to deliver optimal quality of service in terms of response time. The effectiveness of proposed technology has been shown through simulation, which reveals remarkable improvement (up to 29%) in response time.

  20. Large autonomous spacecraft electrical power system (LASEPS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dugal-Whitehead, Norma R.; Johnson, Yvette B.

    1992-01-01

    NASA - Marshall Space Flight Center is creating a large high voltage electrical power system testbed called LASEPS. This testbed is being developed to simulate an end-to-end power system from power generation and source to loads. When the system is completed it will have several power configurations, which will include several battery configurations. These configurations are: two 120 V batteries, one or two 150 V batteries, and one 250 to 270 V battery. This breadboard encompasses varying levels of autonomy from remote power converters to conventional software control to expert system control of the power system elements. In this paper, the construction and provisions of this breadboard are discussed.

  1. Assessment of autonomic nervous system function in nursing students using an autonomic reflex orthostatic test by heart rate spectral analysis

    PubMed Central

    HASEGAWA, MAO; HAYANO, AZUSA; KAWAGUCHI, ATSUSHI; YAMANAKA, RYUYA

    2015-01-01

    Nursing students experience academic demands, such as tests, theoretical and practical coursework, research activities, various aspects of professional practice, and contact with health professionals and patients. Consequently, nursing students face numerous types of stress, and increased stress levels contribute to physical and psychological distress in nursing students. The aim of the present study was to investigate the autonomic nervous system function of nursing students by assessing active standing load using the autonomic reflex orthostatic tolerance test, which enables quantitative analysis of dynamic autonomic nervous system function. The autonomic nervous system activity in the resting state was low in fourth-year students, they had parasympathetic hypotension, and there was a tendency towards higher sympathetic nervous system activity of fourth-year students compared with first-, second- and third-year students. In the standing state, there was a trend towards a higher autonomic nervous system activity response of fourth-year students compared with first-, second- and third-year students. These results suggest that stress may influence autonomic nervous activity in fourth-year nursing students. By correcting stress in fourth-year nursing students, it may be possible to prevent the development of health problems. PMID:26623025

  2. Multi-agent autonomous system and method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fink, Wolfgang (Inventor); Dohm, James (Inventor); Tarbell, Mark A. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A method of controlling a plurality of crafts in an operational area includes providing a command system, a first craft in the operational area coupled to the command system, and a second craft in the operational area coupled to the command system. The method further includes determining a first desired destination and a first trajectory to the first desired destination, sending a first command from the command system to the first craft to move a first distance along the first trajectory, and moving the first craft according to the first command. A second desired destination and a second trajectory to the second desired destination are determined and a second command is sent from the command system to the second craft to move a second distance along the second trajectory.

  3. Intelligent systems for the autonomous exploration of Titan and Enceladus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furfaro, Roberto; Lunine, Jonathan I.; Kargel, Jeffrey S.; Fink, Wolfgang

    2008-04-01

    Future planetary exploration of the outer satellites of the Solar System will require higher levels of onboard automation, including autonomous determination of sites where the probability of significant scientific findings is highest. Generally, the level of needed automation is heavily influenced by the distance between Earth and the robotic explorer(s) (e.g. spacecraft(s), rover(s), and balloon(s)). Therefore, planning missions to the outer satellites mandates the analysis, design and integration within the mission architecture of semi- and/or completely autonomous intelligence systems. Such systems should (1) include software packages that enable fully automated and comprehensive identification, characterization, and quantification of feature information within an operational region with subsequent target prioritization and selection for close-up reexamination; and (2) integrate existing information with acquired, "in transit" spatial and temporal sensor data to automatically perform intelligent planetary reconnaissance, which includes identification of sites with the highest potential to yield significant geological and astrobiological information. In this paper we review and compare some of the available Artificial Intelligence (AI) schemes and their adaptation to the problem of designing expert systems for onboard-based, autonomous science to be performed in the course of outer satellites exploration. More specifically, the fuzzy-logic framework proposed is analyzed in some details to show the effectiveness of such a scheme when applied to the problem of designing expert systems capable of identifying and further exploring regions on Titan and/or Enceladus that have the highest potential to yield evidence for past or present life. Based on available information (e.g., Cassini data), the current knowledge and understanding of Titan and Enceladus environments is evaluated to define a path for the design of a fuzzy-based system capable of reasoning over

  4. A Test-Bed Configuration: Toward an Autonomous System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ocaña, F.; Castillo, M.; Uranga, E.; Ponz, J. D.; TBT Consortium

    2015-09-01

    In the context of the Space Situational Awareness (SSA) program of ESA, it is foreseen to deploy several large robotic telescopes in remote locations to provide surveillance and tracking services for man-made as well as natural near-Earth objects (NEOs). The present project, termed Telescope Test Bed (TBT) is being developed under ESA's General Studies and Technology Programme, and shall implement a test-bed for the validation of an autonomous optical observing system in a realistic scenario, consisting of two telescopes located in Spain and Australia, to collect representative test data for precursor NEO services. In order to fulfill all the security requirements for the TBT project, the use of a autonomous emergency system (AES) is foreseen to monitor the control system. The AES will monitor remotely the health of the observing system and the internal and external environment. It will incorporate both autonomous and interactive actuators to force the protection of the system (i.e., emergency dome close out).

  5. Intelligent vision system for autonomous vehicle operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scholl, Marija S.

    1991-01-01

    A complex optical system consisting of a 4f optical correlator with programmatic filters under the control of a digital on-board computer that operates at video rates for filter generation, storage, and management is described.

  6. Linear decentralized learning control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Soo C.; Longman, Richard W.; Phan, Minh

    1992-01-01

    The new field of learning control develops controllers that learn to improve their performance at executing a given task, based on experience performing this task. The simplest forms of learning control are based on the same concept as integral control, but operating in the domain of the repetitions of the task. This paper studies the use of such controllers in a decentralized system, such as a robot with the controller for each link acting independently. The basic result of the paper is to show that stability of the learning controllers for all subsystems when the coupling between subsystems is turned off, assures stability of the decentralized learning in the coupled system, provided that the sample time in the digital learning controller is sufficiently short.

  7. Mathematical biomarkers for the autonomic regulation of cardiovascular system

    PubMed Central

    Campos, Luciana A.; Pereira, Valter L.; Muralikrishna, Amita; Albarwani, Sulayma; Brás, Susana; Gouveia, Sónia

    2013-01-01

    Heart rate and blood pressure are the most important vital signs in diagnosing disease. Both heart rate and blood pressure are characterized by a high degree of short term variability from moment to moment, medium term over the normal day and night as well as in the very long term over months to years. The study of new mathematical algorithms to evaluate the variability of these cardiovascular parameters has a high potential in the development of new methods for early detection of cardiovascular disease, to establish differential diagnosis with possible therapeutic consequences. The autonomic nervous system is a major player in the general adaptive reaction to stress and disease. The quantitative prediction of the autonomic interactions in multiple control loops pathways of cardiovascular system is directly applicable to clinical situations. Exploration of new multimodal analytical techniques for the variability of cardiovascular system may detect new approaches for deterministic parameter identification. A multimodal analysis of cardiovascular signals can be studied by evaluating their amplitudes, phases, time domain patterns, and sensitivity to imposed stimuli, i.e., drugs blocking the autonomic system. The causal effects, gains, and dynamic relationships may be studied through dynamical fuzzy logic models, such as the discrete-time model and discrete-event model. We expect an increase in accuracy of modeling and a better estimation of the heart rate and blood pressure time series, which could be of benefit for intelligent patient monitoring. We foresee that identifying quantitative mathematical biomarkers for autonomic nervous system will allow individual therapy adjustments to aim at the most favorable sympathetic-parasympathetic balance. PMID:24109456

  8. Cloud Absorption Radiometer Autonomous Navigation System - CANS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kahle, Duncan; Gatebe, Charles; McCune, Bill; Hellwig, Dustan

    2013-01-01

    CAR (cloud absorption radiometer) acquires spatial reference data from host aircraft navigation systems. This poses various problems during CAR data reduction, including navigation data format, accuracy of position data, accuracy of airframe inertial data, and navigation data rate. Incorporating its own navigation system, which included GPS (Global Positioning System), roll axis inertia and rates, and three axis acceleration, CANS expedites data reduction and increases the accuracy of the CAR end data product. CANS provides a self-contained navigation system for the CAR, using inertial reference and GPS positional information. The intent of the software application was to correct the sensor with respect to aircraft roll in real time based upon inputs from a precision navigation sensor. In addition, the navigation information (including GPS position), attitude data, and sensor position details are all streamed to a remote system for recording and later analysis. CANS comprises a commercially available inertial navigation system with integral GPS capability (Attitude Heading Reference System AHRS) integrated into the CAR support structure and data system. The unit is attached to the bottom of the tripod support structure. The related GPS antenna is located on the P-3 radome immediately above the CAR. The AHRS unit provides a RS-232 data stream containing global position and inertial attitude and velocity data to the CAR, which is recorded concurrently with the CAR data. This independence from aircraft navigation input provides for position and inertial state data that accounts for very small changes in aircraft attitude and position, sensed at the CAR location as opposed to aircraft state sensors typically installed close to the aircraft center of gravity. More accurate positional data enables quicker CAR data reduction with better resolution. The CANS software operates in two modes: initialization/calibration and operational. In the initialization/calibration mode

  9. Experimental Verification of Fully Decentralized Control Inspired by Plasmodium of True Slime Mold

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umedachi, Takuya; Takeda, Koichi; Nakagaki, Toshiyuki; Kobayashi, Ryo; Ishiguro, Akio

    This paper presents a fully decentralized control inspired by plasmodium of true slime mold and its validity using a soft-bodied amoeboid robot. The notable features of this paper are twofold: (1) the robot has truly soft and deformable body stemming from real-time tunable springs and a balloon, the former is utilized as an outer skin of the body and the latter serves as protoplasm; and (2) a fully decentralized control using coupled oscillators with completely local sensory feedback mechanism is realized by exploiting the long-distance physical interaction between the body parts induced by the law of conservation of protoplasmic mass. Experimental results show that this robot exhibits truly supple locomotion without relying on any hierarchical structure. The results obtained are expected to shed new light on design scheme for autonomous decentralized control system.

  10. [State of the autonomic nervous system after induced abortion in the lst trimester].

    PubMed

    Bakuleva, L P; Gatina, G A; Kuz'mina, T I; Solov'eva, A D

    1990-04-01

    The autonomic nervous system has been examined in 271 patients with a history of first-trimester induced abortion. It was ascertained that induced abortion affected the autonomic nervous system, thus impairing adaptive potentials and entailing the onset or aggravation of preexisting autonomic vascular dystonia. PMID:2378404

  11. Batteries for autonomous renewable energy systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheridan, Norman R.

    Now that the Coconut Island plant has been running successfully for three years, it is appropriate to review the design decisions that were made with regard to the battery and to consider how these might be changed for future systems. The following aspects are discussed: type, package, energy storage, voltage, parallel operation, installation, charging, watering, life and quality assurance.

  12. Control Problems in Autonomous Life Support Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colombano, S.

    1982-01-01

    The problem of constructing life support systems which require little or no input of matter (food and gases) for long, or even indefinite, periods of time is addressed. Natural control in ecosystems, a control theory for ecosystems, and an approach to the design of an ALSS are addressed.

  13. Large minimal period orbits of periodic autonomous systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campos, Juan; Tarallo, Massimo

    2004-01-01

    We prove the existence of periodic orbits with minimal period greater than any prescribed number for a natural Lagrangian autonomous system in several variables that is analytic and periodic in each variable and whose potential is nonconstant. Work supported by Acción Integrada Italia-España HI2000-0112, Azione Integrata Italia-Spagna IT-117, MCYT BFM2002-01308, Spain.

  14. Robotic reactions: delay-induced patterns in autonomous vehicle systems.

    PubMed

    Orosz, Gábor; Moehlis, Jeff; Bullo, Francesco

    2010-02-01

    Fundamental design principles are presented for vehicle systems governed by autonomous cruise control devices. By analyzing the corresponding delay differential equations, it is shown that for any car-following model short-wavelength oscillations can appear due to robotic reaction times, and that there are tradeoffs between the time delay and the control gains. The analytical findings are demonstrated on an optimal velocity model using numerical continuation and numerical simulation. PMID:20365620

  15. Robotic reactions: Delay-induced patterns in autonomous vehicle systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orosz, Gábor; Moehlis, Jeff; Bullo, Francesco

    2010-02-01

    Fundamental design principles are presented for vehicle systems governed by autonomous cruise control devices. By analyzing the corresponding delay differential equations, it is shown that for any car-following model short-wavelength oscillations can appear due to robotic reaction times, and that there are tradeoffs between the time delay and the control gains. The analytical findings are demonstrated on an optimal velocity model using numerical continuation and numerical simulation.

  16. Autonomous Robot System for Sensor Characterization

    SciTech Connect

    David Bruemmer; Douglas Few; Frank Carney; Miles Walton; Heather Hunting; Ron Lujan

    2004-03-01

    This paper discusses an innovative application of new Markov localization techniques that combat the problem of odometry drift, allowing a novel control architecture developed at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) to be utilized within a sensor characterization facility developed at the Remote Sensing Laboratory (RSL) in Nevada. The new robotic capability provided by the INEEL will allow RSL to test and evaluate a wide variety of sensors including radiation detection systems, machine vision systems, and sensors that can detect and track heat sources (e.g. human bodies, machines, chemical plumes). By accurately moving a target at varying speeds along designated paths, the robotic solution allows the detection abilities of a wide variety of sensors to be recorded and analyzed.

  17. Autonomous Systems and Robotics: 2000-2004

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This custom bibliography from the NASA Scientific and Technical Information Program lists a sampling of records found in the NASA Aeronautics and Space Database. The scope of this topic includes technologies to monitor, maintain, and where possible, repair complex space systems. This area of focus is one of the enabling technologies as defined by NASA s Report of the President s Commission on Implementation of United States Space Exploration Policy, published in June 2004.

  18. Towards Co-Engineering Communicating Autonomous Cyber-Physical Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bujorianu, Marius C.; Bujorianu, Manuela L.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we sketch a framework for interdisciplinary modeling of space systems, by proposing a holistic view. We consider different system dimensions and their interaction. Specifically, we study the interactions between computation, physics, communication, uncertainty and autonomy. The most comprehensive computational paradigm that supports a holistic perspective on autonomous space systems is given by cyber-physical systems. For these, the state of art consists of collaborating multi-engineering efforts that prompt for an adequate formal foundation. To achieve this, we propose a leveraging of the traditional content of formal modeling by a co-engineering process.

  19. On non-autonomous dynamical systems

    SciTech Connect

    Anzaldo-Meneses, A.

    2015-04-15

    In usual realistic classical dynamical systems, the Hamiltonian depends explicitly on time. In this work, a class of classical systems with time dependent nonlinear Hamiltonians is analyzed. This type of problems allows to find invariants by a family of Veronese maps. The motivation to develop this method results from the observation that the Poisson-Lie algebra of monomials in the coordinates and momenta is clearly defined in terms of its brackets and leads naturally to an infinite linear set of differential equations, under certain circumstances. To perform explicit analytic and numerical calculations, two examples are presented to estimate the trajectories, the first given by a nonlinear problem and the second by a quadratic Hamiltonian with three time dependent parameters. In the nonlinear problem, the Veronese approach using jets is shown to be equivalent to a direct procedure using elliptic functions identities, and linear invariants are constructed. For the second example, linear and quadratic invariants as well as stability conditions are given. Explicit solutions are also obtained for stepwise constant forces. For the quadratic Hamiltonian, an appropriated set of coordinates relates the geometric setting to that of the three dimensional manifold of central conic sections. It is shown further that the quantum mechanical problem of scattering in a superlattice leads to mathematically equivalent equations for the wave function, if the classical time is replaced by the space coordinate along a superlattice. The mathematical method used to compute the trajectories for stepwise constant parameters can be applied to both problems. It is the standard method in quantum scattering calculations, as known for locally periodic systems including a space dependent effective mass.

  20. On non-autonomous dynamical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anzaldo-Meneses, A.

    2015-04-01

    In usual realistic classical dynamical systems, the Hamiltonian depends explicitly on time. In this work, a class of classical systems with time dependent nonlinear Hamiltonians is analyzed. This type of problems allows to find invariants by a family of Veronese maps. The motivation to develop this method results from the observation that the Poisson-Lie algebra of monomials in the coordinates and momenta is clearly defined in terms of its brackets and leads naturally to an infinite linear set of differential equations, under certain circumstances. To perform explicit analytic and numerical calculations, two examples are presented to estimate the trajectories, the first given by a nonlinear problem and the second by a quadratic Hamiltonian with three time dependent parameters. In the nonlinear problem, the Veronese approach using jets is shown to be equivalent to a direct procedure using elliptic functions identities, and linear invariants are constructed. For the second example, linear and quadratic invariants as well as stability conditions are given. Explicit solutions are also obtained for stepwise constant forces. For the quadratic Hamiltonian, an appropriated set of coordinates relates the geometric setting to that of the three dimensional manifold of central conic sections. It is shown further that the quantum mechanical problem of scattering in a superlattice leads to mathematically equivalent equations for the wave function, if the classical time is replaced by the space coordinate along a superlattice. The mathematical method used to compute the trajectories for stepwise constant parameters can be applied to both problems. It is the standard method in quantum scattering calculations, as known for locally periodic systems including a space dependent effective mass.

  1. Disorders of the Autonomic Nervous System after Hemispheric Cerebrovascular Disorders: An Update

    PubMed Central

    Al-Qudah, Zaid A.; Yacoub, Hussam A.; Souayah, Nizar

    2015-01-01

    Autonomic and cardiac dysfunction may occur after vascular brain injury without any evidence of primary heart disease. During acute stroke, autonomic dysfunction, for example, elevated arterial blood pressure, arrhythmia, and ischemic cardiac damage, has been reported, which may hinder the prognosis. Autonomic dysfunction after a stroke may involve the cardiovascular, respiratory, sudomotor, and sexual systems, but the exact mechanism is not fully understood. In this review paper, we will discuss the anatomy and physiology of the autonomic nervous system and discuss the mechanism(s) suggested to cause autonomic dysfunction after stroke. We will further elaborate on the different cerebral regions involved in autonomic dysfunction complications of stroke. Autonomic nervous system modulation is emerging as a new therapeutic target for stroke management. Understanding the pathogenesis and molecular mechanism(s) of parasympathetic and sympathetic dysfunction after stroke will facilitate the implementation of preventive and therapeutic strategies to antagonize the clinical manifestation of autonomic dysfunction and improve the outcome of stroke. PMID:26576215

  2. Disorders of the Autonomic Nervous System after Hemispheric Cerebrovascular Disorders: An Update.

    PubMed

    Al-Qudah, Zaid A; Yacoub, Hussam A; Souayah, Nizar

    2015-10-01

    Autonomic and cardiac dysfunction may occur after vascular brain injury without any evidence of primary heart disease. During acute stroke, autonomic dysfunction, for example, elevated arterial blood pressure, arrhythmia, and ischemic cardiac damage, has been reported, which may hinder the prognosis. Autonomic dysfunction after a stroke may involve the cardiovascular, respiratory, sudomotor, and sexual systems, but the exact mechanism is not fully understood. In this review paper, we will discuss the anatomy and physiology of the autonomic nervous system and discuss the mechanism(s) suggested to cause autonomic dysfunction after stroke. We will further elaborate on the different cerebral regions involved in autonomic dysfunction complications of stroke. Autonomic nervous system modulation is emerging as a new therapeutic target for stroke management. Understanding the pathogenesis and molecular mechanism(s) of parasympathetic and sympathetic dysfunction after stroke will facilitate the implementation of preventive and therapeutic strategies to antagonize the clinical manifestation of autonomic dysfunction and improve the outcome of stroke. PMID:26576215

  3. Autonomic nervous system correlates in movement observation and motor imagery

    PubMed Central

    Collet, C.; Di Rienzo, F.; El Hoyek, N.; Guillot, A.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the current article is to provide a comprehensive overview of the literature offering a better understanding of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) correlates in motor imagery (MI) and movement observation. These are two high brain functions involving sensori-motor coupling, mediated by memory systems. How observing or mentally rehearsing a movement affect ANS activity has not been extensively investigated. The links between cognitive functions and ANS responses are not so obvious. We will first describe the organization of the ANS whose main purposes are controlling vital functions by maintaining the homeostasis of the organism and providing adaptive responses when changes occur either in the external or internal milieu. We will then review how scientific knowledge evolved, thus integrating recent findings related to ANS functioning, and show how these are linked to mental functions. In turn, we will describe how movement observation or MI may elicit physiological responses at the peripheral level of the autonomic effectors, thus eliciting autonomic correlates to cognitive activity. Key features of this paper are to draw a step-by step progression from the understanding of ANS physiology to its relationships with high mental processes such as movement observation or MI. We will further provide evidence that mental processes are co-programmed both at the somatic and autonomic levels of the central nervous system (CNS). We will thus detail how peripheral physiological responses may be analyzed to provide objective evidence that MI is actually performed. The main perspective is thus to consider that, during movement observation and MI, ANS activity is an objective witness of mental processes. PMID:23908623

  4. Flight Control System Development for the BURRO Autonomous UAV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colbourne, Jason D.; Frost, Chad R.; Tischler, Mark B.; Ciolani, Luigi; Sahai, Ranjana; Tomoshofski, Chris; LaMontagne, Troy; Rutkowski, Michael (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Developing autonomous flying vehicles has been a growing field in aeronautical research within the last decade and will continue into the next century. With concerns about safety, size, and cost of manned aircraft, several autonomous vehicle projects are currently being developed; uninhabited rotorcraft offer solutions to requirements for hover, vertical take-off and landing, as well as slung load transportation capabilities. The newness of the technology requires flight control engineers to question what design approaches, control law architectures, and performance criteria apply to control law development and handling quality evaluation. To help answer these questions, this paper documents the control law design process for Kaman Aerospace BURRO project. This paper will describe the approach taken to design control laws and develop math models which will be used to convert the manned K-MAX into the BURRO autonomous rotorcraft. With the ability of the K-MAX to lift its own weight (6000 lb) the load significantly affects the dynamics of the system; the paper addresses the additional design requirements for slung load autonomous flight. The approach taken in this design was to: 1) generate accurate math models of the K-MAX helicopter with and without slung loads, 2) select design specifications that would deliver good performance as well as satisfy mission criteria, and 3) develop and tune the control system architecture to meet the design specs and mission criteria. An accurate math model was desired for control system development. The Comprehensive Identification from Frequency Responses (CIFER(R)) software package was used to identify a linear math model for unloaded and loaded flight at hover, 50 kts, and 100 kts. The results of an eight degree-of-freedom CIFER(R)-identified linear model for the unloaded hover flight condition are presented herein, and the identification of the two-body slung-load configuration is in progress.

  5. Autonomous Control Capabilities for Space Reactor Power Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, Richard T.; Neal, John S.; Brittain, C. Ray; Mullens, James A.

    2004-02-04

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) Project Prometheus, the Nuclear Systems Program, is investigating a possible Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter (JIMO) mission, which would conduct in-depth studies of three of the moons of Jupiter by using a space reactor power system (SRPS) to provide energy for propulsion and spacecraft power for more than a decade. Terrestrial nuclear power plants rely upon varying degrees of direct human control and interaction for operations and maintenance over a forty to sixty year lifetime. In contrast, an SRPS is intended to provide continuous, remote, unattended operation for up to fifteen years with no maintenance. Uncertainties, rare events, degradation, and communications delays with Earth are challenges that SRPS control must accommodate. Autonomous control is needed to address these challenges and optimize the reactor control design. In this paper, we describe an autonomous control concept for generic SRPS designs. The formulation of an autonomous control concept, which includes identification of high-level functional requirements and generation of a research and development plan for enabling technologies, is among the technical activities that are being conducted under the U.S. Department of Energy's Space Reactor Technology Program in support of the NASA's Project Prometheus. The findings from this program are intended to contribute to the successful realization of the JIMO mission.

  6. Autonomous Control Capabilities for Space Reactor Power Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, Richard T.; Neal, John S.; Brittain, C. Ray; Mullens, James A.

    2004-02-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) Project Prometheus, the Nuclear Systems Program, is investigating a possible Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter (JIMO) mission, which would conduct in-depth studies of three of the moons of Jupiter by using a space reactor power system (SRPS) to provide energy for propulsion and spacecraft power for more than a decade. Terrestrial nuclear power plants rely upon varying degrees of direct human control and interaction for operations and maintenance over a forty to sixty year lifetime. In contrast, an SRPS is intended to provide continuous, remote, unattended operation for up to fifteen years with no maintenance. Uncertainties, rare events, degradation, and communications delays with Earth are challenges that SRPS control must accommodate. Autonomous control is needed to address these challenges and optimize the reactor control design. In this paper, we describe an autonomous control concept for generic SRPS designs. The formulation of an autonomous control concept, which includes identification of high-level functional requirements and generation of a research and development plan for enabling technologies, is among the technical activities that are being conducted under the U.S. Department of Energy's Space Reactor Technology Program in support of the NASA's Project Prometheus. The findings from this program are intended to contribute to the successful realization of the JIMO mission.

  7. Autonomous system for pathogen detection and identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belgrader, Philip; Benett, William J.; Bergman, Werner; Langlois, Richard G.; Mariella, Raymond P., Jr.; Milanovich, Fred P.; Miles, Robin R.; Venkateswaran, Kodumudi; Long, Gary; Nelson, William

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this project is to build a prototype instrument that will, running unattended, detect, identify, and quantify BW agents. In order to accomplish this, we have chosen to start with the world's leading, proven assays for pathogens: surface-molecular recognition assays, such as antibody-based assays, implemented on a high-performance, identification (ID)-capable flow cytometer, and the polymerase chain reaction for nucleic-acid based assays. With these assays, we must integrate the capability to: (1) collect samples form aerosols, water, or surface; (2) perform sample preparation prior to the assays; (3) incubate the prepared samples, if necessary, for a period of time; (4) transport the prepared, incubated samples to the assays; (5) perform the assays; (6) interpret and report the result of the assays. Issues such as reliability, sensitivity and accuracy, quantify of consumables, maintenance schedule, etc. must be addressed satisfactorily to the end user. The highest possible sensitivity and specificity of the assay must be combined with no false alarms. Today, we have assays that can, in under 30 minutes, detect and identify simulants for BW agents at concentrations of a few hundred colony- forming units per ml of solution. If the bio-aerosol sampler of this system collects 1000 1/min and concentrates the respirable particles into 1 ml of solution with 70 percent processing efficiency over a period of 5 minutes, then this translates to a detection/ID capability of under 0.1 agent- containing particle/liter of air.

  8. Autonomous system for pathogen detection and identification

    SciTech Connect

    Belgrader, P.; Benett, W.; Bergman, W.; Langlois, R.; Mariella, R.; Milanovich, F.; Miles, R.; Venkateswaran, K.; Long, G.; Nelson, W.

    1998-09-24

    This purpose of this project is to build a prototype instrument that will, running unattended, detect, identify, and quantify BW agents. In order to accomplish this, we have chosen to start with the world' s leading, proven, assays for pathogens: surface-molecular recognition assays, such as antibody-based assays, implemented on a high-performance, identification (ID)-capable flow cytometer, and the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for nucleic-acid based assays. With these assays, we must integrate the capability to: l collect samples from aerosols, water, or surfaces; l perform sample preparation prior to the assays; l incubate the prepared samples, if necessary, for a period of time; l transport the prepared, incubated samples to the assays; l perform the assays; l interpret and report the results of the assays. Issues such as reliability, sensitivity and accuracy, quantity of consumables, maintenance schedule, etc. must be addressed satisfactorily to the end user. The highest possible sensitivity and specificity of the assay must be combined with no false alarms. Today, we have assays that can, in under 30 minutes, detect and identify simulants for BW agents at concentrations of a few hundred colony-forming units per ml of solution. If the bio-aerosol sampler of this system collects 1000 Ymin and concentrates the respirable particles into 1 ml of solution with 70% processing efficiency over a period of 5 minutes, then this translates to a detection/ID capability of under 0.1 agent-containing particle/liter of air.

  9. System safety analysis of an autonomous mobile robot

    SciTech Connect

    Bartos, R.J.

    1994-08-01

    Analysis of the safety of operating and maintaining the Stored Waste Autonomous Mobile Inspector (SWAMI) II in a hazardous environment at the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) was completed. The SWAMI II is a version of a commercial robot, the HelpMate{trademark} robot produced by the Transitions Research Corporation, which is being updated to incorporate the systems required for inspecting mixed toxic chemical and radioactive waste drums at the FEMP. It also has modified obstacle detection and collision avoidance subsystems. The robot will autonomously travel down the aisles in storage warehouses to record images of containers and collect other data which are transmitted to an inspector at a remote computer terminal. A previous study showed the SWAMI II has economic feasibility. The SWAMI II will more accurately locate radioactive contamination than human inspectors. This thesis includes a System Safety Hazard Analysis and a quantitative Fault Tree Analysis (FTA). The objectives of the analyses are to prevent potentially serious events and to derive a comprehensive set of safety requirements from which the safety of the SWAMI II and other autonomous mobile robots can be evaluated. The Computer-Aided Fault Tree Analysis (CAFTA{copyright}) software is utilized for the FTA. The FTA shows that more than 99% of the safety risk occurs during maintenance, and that when the derived safety requirements are implemented the rate of serious events is reduced to below one event per million operating hours. Training and procedures in SWAMI II operation and maintenance provide an added safety margin. This study will promote the safe use of the SWAMI II and other autonomous mobile robots in the emerging technology of mobile robotic inspection.

  10. Autonomous and Autonomic Swarms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinchey, Michael G.; Rash, James L.; Truszkowski, Walter F.; Rouff, Christopher A.; Sterritt, Roy

    2005-01-01

    A watershed in systems engineering is represented by the advent of swarm-based systems that accomplish missions through cooperative action by a (large) group of autonomous individuals each having simple capabilities and no global knowledge of the group s objective. Such systems, with individuals capable of surviving in hostile environments, pose unprecedented challenges to system developers. Design and testing and verification at much higher levels will be required, together with the corresponding tools, to bring such systems to fruition. Concepts for possible future NASA space exploration missions include autonomous, autonomic swarms. Engineering swarm-based missions begins with understanding autonomy and autonomicity and how to design, test, and verify systems that have those properties and, simultaneously, the capability to accomplish prescribed mission goals. Formal methods-based technologies, both projected and in development, are described in terms of their potential utility to swarm-based system developers.

  11. Decentral Smart Grid Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schäfer, Benjamin; Matthiae, Moritz; Timme, Marc; Witthaut, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    Stable operation of complex flow and transportation networks requires balanced supply and demand. For the operation of electric power grids—due to their increasing fraction of renewable energy sources—a pressing challenge is to fit the fluctuations in decentralized supply to the distributed and temporally varying demands. To achieve this goal, common smart grid concepts suggest to collect consumer demand data, centrally evaluate them given current supply and send price information back to customers for them to decide about usage. Besides restrictions regarding cyber security, privacy protection and large required investments, it remains unclear how such central smart grid options guarantee overall stability. Here we propose a Decentral Smart Grid Control, where the price is directly linked to the local grid frequency at each customer. The grid frequency provides all necessary information about the current power balance such that it is sufficient to match supply and demand without the need for a centralized IT infrastructure. We analyze the performance and the dynamical stability of the power grid with such a control system. Our results suggest that the proposed Decentral Smart Grid Control is feasible independent of effective measurement delays, if frequencies are averaged over sufficiently large time intervals.

  12. Multiple-Agent Air/Ground Autonomous Exploration Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fink, Wolfgang; Chao, Tien-Hsin; Tarbell, Mark; Dohm, James M.

    2007-01-01

    Autonomous systems of multiple-agent air/ground robotic units for exploration of the surfaces of remote planets are undergoing development. Modified versions of these systems could be used on Earth to perform tasks in environments dangerous or inaccessible to humans: examples of tasks could include scientific exploration of remote regions of Antarctica, removal of land mines, cleanup of hazardous chemicals, and military reconnaissance. A basic system according to this concept (see figure) would include a unit, suspended by a balloon or a blimp, that would be in radio communication with multiple robotic ground vehicles (rovers) equipped with video cameras and possibly other sensors for scientific exploration. The airborne unit would be free-floating, controlled by thrusters, or tethered either to one of the rovers or to a stationary object in or on the ground. Each rover would contain a semi-autonomous control system for maneuvering and would function under the supervision of a control system in the airborne unit. The rover maneuvering control system would utilize imagery from the onboard camera to navigate around obstacles. Avoidance of obstacles would also be aided by readout from an onboard (e.g., ultrasonic) sensor. Together, the rover and airborne control systems would constitute an overarching closed-loop control system to coordinate scientific exploration by the rovers.

  13. Brain, mind, body and society: autonomous system in robotics.

    PubMed

    Shimoda, Motomu

    2013-12-01

    In this paper I examine the issues related to the robot with mind. To create a robot with mind aims to recreate neuro function by engineering. The robot with mind is expected not only to process external information by the built-in program and behave accordingly, but also to gain the consciousness activity responding multiple conditions and flexible and interactive communication skills coping with unknown situation. That prospect is based on the development of artificial intelligence in which self-organizing and self-emergent functions have been available in recent years. To date, controllable aspects in robotics have been restricted to data making and programming of cognitive abilities, while consciousness activities and communication skills have been regarded as uncontrollable aspects due to their contingency and uncertainty. However, some researchers of robotics claim that every activity of the mind can be recreated by engineering and is therefore controllable. Based on the development of the cognitive abilities of children and the findings of neuroscience, researchers have attempted to produce the latest artificial intelligence with autonomous learning systems. I conclude that controllability is inconsistent with autonomy in the genuine sense and autonomous robots recreated by engineering cannot be autonomous partners of humans. PMID:24558734

  14. The role of the autonomic nervous system in Tourette Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Hawksley, Jack; Cavanna, Andrea E.; Nagai, Yoko

    2015-01-01

    Tourette Syndrome (TS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder, consisting of multiple involuntary movements (motor tics) and one or more vocal (phonic) tics. It affects up to one percent of children worldwide, of whom about one third continue to experience symptoms into adulthood. The central neural mechanisms of tic generation are not clearly understood, however recent neuroimaging investigations suggest impaired cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical activity during motor control. In the current manuscript, we will tackle the relatively under-investigated role of the peripheral autonomic nervous system, and its central influences, on tic activity. There is emerging evidence that both sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous activity influences tic expression. Pharmacological treatments which act on sympathetic tone are often helpful: for example, Clonidine (an alpha-2 adrenoreceptor agonist) is often used as first choice medication for treating TS in children due to its good tolerability profile and potential usefulness for co-morbid attention-deficit and hyperactivity disorder. Clonidine suppresses sympathetic activity, reducing the triggering of motor tics. A general elevation of sympathetic tone is reported in patients with TS compared to healthy people, however this observation may reflect transient responses coupled to tic activity. Thus, the presence of autonomic impairments in patients with TS remains unclear. Effect of autonomic afferent input to cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical circuit will be discussed schematically. We additionally review how TS is affected by modulation of central autonomic control through biofeedback and Vagus Nerve Stimulation (VNS). Biofeedback training can enable a patient to gain voluntary control over covert physiological responses by making these responses explicit. Electrodermal biofeedback training to elicit a reduction in sympathetic tone has a demonstrated association with reduced tic frequency. VNS, achieved through an implanted device

  15. The role of the autonomic nervous system in Tourette Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hawksley, Jack; Cavanna, Andrea E; Nagai, Yoko

    2015-01-01

    Tourette Syndrome (TS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder, consisting of multiple involuntary movements (motor tics) and one or more vocal (phonic) tics. It affects up to one percent of children worldwide, of whom about one third continue to experience symptoms into adulthood. The central neural mechanisms of tic generation are not clearly understood, however recent neuroimaging investigations suggest impaired cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical activity during motor control. In the current manuscript, we will tackle the relatively under-investigated role of the peripheral autonomic nervous system, and its central influences, on tic activity. There is emerging evidence that both sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous activity influences tic expression. Pharmacological treatments which act on sympathetic tone are often helpful: for example, Clonidine (an alpha-2 adrenoreceptor agonist) is often used as first choice medication for treating TS in children due to its good tolerability profile and potential usefulness for co-morbid attention-deficit and hyperactivity disorder. Clonidine suppresses sympathetic activity, reducing the triggering of motor tics. A general elevation of sympathetic tone is reported in patients with TS compared to healthy people, however this observation may reflect transient responses coupled to tic activity. Thus, the presence of autonomic impairments in patients with TS remains unclear. Effect of autonomic afferent input to cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical circuit will be discussed schematically. We additionally review how TS is affected by modulation of central autonomic control through biofeedback and Vagus Nerve Stimulation (VNS). Biofeedback training can enable a patient to gain voluntary control over covert physiological responses by making these responses explicit. Electrodermal biofeedback training to elicit a reduction in sympathetic tone has a demonstrated association with reduced tic frequency. VNS, achieved through an implanted device

  16. System control of an autonomous planetary mobile spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dias, William C.; Zimmerman, Barbara A.

    1990-01-01

    The goal is to suggest the scheduling and control functions necessary for accomplishing mission objectives of a fairly autonomous interplanetary mobile spacecraft, while maximizing reliability. Goals are to provide an extensible, reliable system conservative in its use of on-board resources, while getting full value from subsystem autonomy, and avoiding the lure of ground micromanagement. A functional layout consisting of four basic elements is proposed: GROUND and SYSTEM EXECUTIVE system functions and RESOURCE CONTROL and ACTIVITY MANAGER subsystem functions. The system executive includes six subfunctions: SYSTEM MANAGER, SYSTEM FAULT PROTECTION, PLANNER, SCHEDULE ADAPTER, EVENT MONITOR and RESOURCE MONITOR. The full configuration is needed for autonomous operation on Moon or Mars, whereas a reduced version without the planning, schedule adaption and event monitoring functions could be appropriate for lower-autonomy use on the Moon. An implementation concept is suggested which is conservative in use of system resources and consists of modules combined with a network communications fabric. A language concept termed a scheduling calculus for rapidly performing essential on-board schedule adaption functions is introduced.

  17. Role of the autonomic nervous system in tumorigenesis and metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Magnon, Claire

    2015-01-01

    Convergence of multiple stromal cell types is required to develop a tumorigenic niche that nurtures the initial development of cancer and its dissemination. Although the immune and vascular systems have been shown to have strong influences on cancer, a growing body of evidence points to a role of the nervous system in promoting cancer development. This review discusses past and current research that shows the intriguing role of autonomic nerves, aided by neurotrophic growth factors and axon cues, in creating a favorable environment for the promotion of tumor formation and metastasis.

  18. Component-Oriented Behavior Extraction for Autonomic System Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bakera, Marco; Wagner, Christian; Margaria,Tiziana; Hinchey, Mike; Vassev, Emil; Steffen, Bernhard

    2009-01-01

    Rich and multifaceted domain specific specification languages like the Autonomic System Specification Language (ASSL) help to design reliable systems with self-healing capabilities. The GEAR game-based Model Checker has been used successfully to investigate properties of the ESA Exo- Mars Rover in depth. We show here how to enable GEAR s game-based verification techniques for ASSL via systematic model extraction from a behavioral subset of the language, and illustrate it on a description of the Voyager II space mission.

  19. Systems, methods and apparatus for quiesence of autonomic safety devices with self action

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinchey, Michael G. (Inventor); Sterritt, Roy (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    Systems, methods and apparatus are provided through which in some embodiments an autonomic environmental safety device may be quiesced. In at least one embodiment, a method for managing an autonomic safety device, such as a smoke detector, based on functioning state and operating status of the autonomic safety device includes processing received signals from the autonomic safety device to obtain an analysis of the condition of the autonomic safety device, generating one or more stay-awake signals based on the functioning status and the operating state of the autonomic safety device, transmitting the stay-awake signal, transmitting self health/urgency data, and transmitting environment health/urgency data. A quiesce component of an autonomic safety device can render the autonomic safety device inactive for a specific amount of time or until a challenging situation has passed.

  20. Human Centered Autonomous and Assistant Systems Testbed for Exploration Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malin, Jane T.; Mount, Frances; Carreon, Patricia; Torney, Susan E.

    2001-01-01

    The Engineering and Mission Operations Directorates at NASA Johnson Space Center are combining laboratories and expertise to establish the Human Centered Autonomous and Assistant Systems Testbed for Exploration Operations. This is a testbed for human centered design, development and evaluation of intelligent autonomous and assistant systems that will be needed for human exploration and development of space. This project will improve human-centered analysis, design and evaluation methods for developing intelligent software. This software will support human-machine cognitive and collaborative activities in future interplanetary work environments where distributed computer and human agents cooperate. We are developing and evaluating prototype intelligent systems for distributed multi-agent mixed-initiative operations. The primary target domain is control of life support systems in a planetary base. Technical approaches will be evaluated for use during extended manned tests in the target domain, the Bioregenerative Advanced Life Support Systems Test Complex (BIO-Plex). A spinoff target domain is the International Space Station (ISS) Mission Control Center (MCC). Prodl}cts of this project include human-centered intelligent software technology, innovative human interface designs, and human-centered software development processes, methods and products. The testbed uses adjustable autonomy software and life support systems simulation models from the Adjustable Autonomy Testbed, to represent operations on the remote planet. Ground operations prototypes and concepts will be evaluated in the Exploration Planning and Operations Center (ExPOC) and Jupiter Facility.

  1. Distributed autonomous systems: resource management, planning, and control algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, James F., III; Nguyen, ThanhVu H.

    2005-05-01

    Distributed autonomous systems, i.e., systems that have separated distributed components, each of which, exhibit some degree of autonomy are increasingly providing solutions to naval and other DoD problems. Recently developed control, planning and resource allocation algorithms for two types of distributed autonomous systems will be discussed. The first distributed autonomous system (DAS) to be discussed consists of a collection of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) that are under fuzzy logic control. The UAVs fly and conduct meteorological sampling in a coordinated fashion determined by their fuzzy logic controllers to determine the atmospheric index of refraction. Once in flight no human intervention is required. A fuzzy planning algorithm determines the optimal trajectory, sampling rate and pattern for the UAVs and an interferometer platform while taking into account risk, reliability, priority for sampling in certain regions, fuel limitations, mission cost, and related uncertainties. The real-time fuzzy control algorithm running on each UAV will give the UAV limited autonomy allowing it to change course immediately without consulting with any commander, request other UAVs to help it, alter its sampling pattern and rate when observing interesting phenomena, or to terminate the mission and return to base. The algorithms developed will be compared to a resource manager (RM) developed for another DAS problem related to electronic attack (EA). This RM is based on fuzzy logic and optimized by evolutionary algorithms. It allows a group of dissimilar platforms to use EA resources distributed throughout the group. For both DAS types significant theoretical and simulation results will be presented.

  2. Autonomous system for Web-based microarray image analysis.

    PubMed

    Bozinov, Daniel

    2003-12-01

    Software-based feature extraction from DNA microarray images still requires human intervention on various levels. Manual adjustment of grid and metagrid parameters, precise alignment of superimposed grid templates and gene spots, or simply identification of large-scale artifacts have to be performed beforehand to reliably analyze DNA signals and correctly quantify their expression values. Ideally, a Web-based system with input solely confined to a single microarray image and a data table as output containing measurements for all gene spots would directly transform raw image data into abstracted gene expression tables. Sophisticated algorithms with advanced procedures for iterative correction function can overcome imminent challenges in image processing. Herein is introduced an integrated software system with a Java-based interface on the client side that allows for decentralized access and furthermore enables the scientist to instantly employ the most updated software version at any given time. This software tool is extended from PixClust as used in Extractiff incorporated with Java Web Start deployment technology. Ultimately, this setup is destined for high-throughput pipelines in genome-wide medical diagnostics labs or microarray core facilities aimed at providing fully automated service to its users. PMID:15376911

  3. Supervised autonomous rendezvous and docking system technology evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marzwell, Neville I.

    1991-01-01

    Technology for manned space flight is mature and has an extensive history of the use of man-in-the-loop rendezvous and docking, but there is no history of automated rendezvous and docking. Sensors exist that can operate in the space environment. The Shuttle radar can be used for ranges down to 30 meters, Japan and France are developing laser rangers, and considerable work is going on in the U.S. However, there is a need to validate a flight qualified sensor for the range of 30 meters to contact. The number of targets and illumination patterns should be minimized to reduce operation constraints with one or more sensors integrated into a robust system for autonomous operation. To achieve system redundancy, it is worthwhile to follow a parallel development of qualifying and extending the range of the 0-12 meter MSFC sensor and to simultaneously qualify the 0-30(+) meter JPL laser ranging system as an additional sensor with overlapping capabilities. Such an approach offers a redundant sensor suite for autonomous rendezvous and docking. The development should include the optimization of integrated sensory systems, packaging, mission envelopes, and computer image processing to mimic brain perception and real-time response. The benefits of the Global Positioning System in providing real-time positioning data of high accuracy must be incorporated into the design. The use of GPS-derived attitude data should be investigated further and validated.

  4. Autonomous Operation of the Nanosatellite URSA MAIOR Micropropulsion System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santoni, F.

    Università degli Studi di Roma "La Sapienza", Scuola di Ingegneria Aerospaziale, Via Eudossiana 16, 00184 At Università di Roma "La Sapienza" a nanosatellite bus is under development, with one liter target volume and one kilogram target weight. This nanosatellite, called URSA MAIOR (Università di Roma "la SApienza" Micro Autonomous Imager in ORbit) has a micro camera on board to take pictures of the Earth. The nanosatellite is three axis stabilized, using a micro momentum wheel, with magnetic coils for active nutation damping and pointing control. An experimental micropropulsion system is present on-board, together with the magnetic attitude control system. The design, construction and testing of the satellite is carried on by academic personnel and by students, which are directly involved in the whole process, as it is in the spirit of in the microsatellite program at Università di Roma "La Sapienza". Few technological payloads are present on-board: an Earth imaging experiment, using a few grams commercial-off-the-shelf microcamera; commercial Li-Ion batteries are the only energy storage device; a microwheel developed at our University laboratories provides for attitude stabilization. In addition, a micropropulsion experiment is planned on-board. The Austrian Company Mechatronic, and INFM, an Italian Research Institute at Trieste are developing a microthruster for nanosatelite applications. In the frame of a cooperation established between these two Institutions and Università di Roma "La Sapienza", this newly developed hardware will be tested in orbit. The thruster is made basically of an integrated microvalve, built on a silicon chip, and a micronozzle, etched on the same silicon chip, to get supersonic expansion of the gas flow. The nominal thrust of the system is about 100microN. The throat section is about 100 micron diameter. The first phase in the construction of the microthruster has been the construction of the micronozzle on a silicon chip. A

  5. A Decentralized Approach to the Formulation of Hypotheses: A Hierarchical Structural Model for a Prion Self-Assembled System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Mingyang; Zhang, Feifei; Song, Chao; Shi, Pengfei; Zhu, Jin

    2016-07-01

    Innovation in hypotheses is a key transformative driver for scientific development. The conventional centralized hypothesis formulation approach, where a dominant hypothesis is typically derived from a primary phenomenon, can, inevitably, impose restriction on the range of conceivable experiments and legitimate hypotheses, and ultimately impede understanding of the system of interest. We report herein the proposal of a decentralized approach for the formulation of hypotheses, through initial preconception-free phenomenon accumulation and subsequent reticular logical reasoning processes. The two-step approach can provide an unbiased, panoramic view of the system and as such should enable the generation of a set of more coherent and therefore plausible hypotheses. As a proof-of-concept demonstration of the utility of this open-ended approach, a hierarchical model has been developed for a prion self-assembled system, allowing insight into hitherto elusive static and dynamic features associated with this intriguing structure.

  6. A Decentralized Approach to the Formulation of Hypotheses: A Hierarchical Structural Model for a Prion Self-Assembled System

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Mingyang; Zhang, Feifei; Song, Chao; Shi, Pengfei; Zhu, Jin

    2016-01-01

    Innovation in hypotheses is a key transformative driver for scientific development. The conventional centralized hypothesis formulation approach, where a dominant hypothesis is typically derived from a primary phenomenon, can, inevitably, impose restriction on the range of conceivable experiments and legitimate hypotheses, and ultimately impede understanding of the system of interest. We report herein the proposal of a decentralized approach for the formulation of hypotheses, through initial preconception-free phenomenon accumulation and subsequent reticular logical reasoning processes. The two-step approach can provide an unbiased, panoramic view of the system and as such should enable the generation of a set of more coherent and therefore plausible hypotheses. As a proof-of-concept demonstration of the utility of this open-ended approach, a hierarchical model has been developed for a prion self-assembled system, allowing insight into hitherto elusive static and dynamic features associated with this intriguing structure. PMID:27464832

  7. A Decentralized Approach to the Formulation of Hypotheses: A Hierarchical Structural Model for a Prion Self-Assembled System.

    PubMed

    Wang, Mingyang; Zhang, Feifei; Song, Chao; Shi, Pengfei; Zhu, Jin

    2016-01-01

    Innovation in hypotheses is a key transformative driver for scientific development. The conventional centralized hypothesis formulation approach, where a dominant hypothesis is typically derived from a primary phenomenon, can, inevitably, impose restriction on the range of conceivable experiments and legitimate hypotheses, and ultimately impede understanding of the system of interest. We report herein the proposal of a decentralized approach for the formulation of hypotheses, through initial preconception-free phenomenon accumulation and subsequent reticular logical reasoning processes. The two-step approach can provide an unbiased, panoramic view of the system and as such should enable the generation of a set of more coherent and therefore plausible hypotheses. As a proof-of-concept demonstration of the utility of this open-ended approach, a hierarchical model has been developed for a prion self-assembled system, allowing insight into hitherto elusive static and dynamic features associated with this intriguing structure. PMID:27464832

  8. A Model-Driven Architecture Approach for Modeling, Specifying and Deploying Policies in Autonomous and Autonomic Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pena, Joaquin; Hinchey, Michael G.; Sterritt, Roy; Ruiz-Cortes, Antonio; Resinas, Manuel

    2006-01-01

    Autonomic Computing (AC), self-management based on high level guidance from humans, is increasingly gaining momentum as the way forward in designing reliable systems that hide complexity and conquer IT management costs. Effectively, AC may be viewed as Policy-Based Self-Management. The Model Driven Architecture (MDA) approach focuses on building models that can be transformed into code in an automatic manner. In this paper, we look at ways to implement Policy-Based Self-Management by means of models that can be converted to code using transformations that follow the MDA philosophy. We propose a set of UML-based models to specify autonomic and autonomous features along with the necessary procedures, based on modification and composition of models, to deploy a policy as an executing system.

  9. G2 Autonomous Control for Cryogenic Delivery Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dito, Scott J.

    2014-01-01

    The Independent System Health Management-Autonomous Control (ISHM-AC) application development for cryogenic delivery systems is intended to create an expert system that will require minimal operator involvement and ultimately allow for complete autonomy when fueling a space vehicle in the time prior to launch. The G2-Autonomous Control project is the development of a model, simulation, and ultimately a working application that will control and monitor the cryogenic fluid delivery to a rocket for testing purposes. To develop this application, the project is using the programming language/environment Gensym G2. The environment is an all-inclusive application that allows development, testing, modeling, and finally operation of the unique application through graphical and programmatic methods. We have learned G2 through training classes and subsequent application development, and are now in the process of building the application that will soon be used to test on cryogenic loading equipment here at the Kennedy Space Center Cryogenics Test Laboratory (CTL). The G2 ISHM-AC application will bring with it a safer and more efficient propellant loading system for the future launches at Kennedy Space Center and eventually mobile launches from all over the world.

  10. Autonomous Pathogen Detection System - FY02 Annual Progress Report

    SciTech Connect

    Colston, B; Brown, S; Burris, K; Elkin, C; Hindson, B; Langlois, R; Masquelier, D; McBride, M; Metz, T; Nasarabadi, S; Makarewicz, T; Milznovich, F; Venkateswaran, K S; Visuri, S

    2002-11-11

    The objective of this project is to design, fabricate and field demonstrate a biological agent detection and identification capability, the Autonomous Pathogen Detector System (APDS). Integrating a flow cytometer and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) detector with sample collection, sample preparation and fluidics will provide a compact, autonomously operating instrument capable of simultaneously detecting multiple pathogens and/or toxins. The APDS will operate in fixed locations, continuously monitoring air samples and automatically reporting the presence of specific biological agents. The APDS will utilize both multiplex immunoassays and nucleic acid assays to provide ''quasi-orthogonal'' multiple agent detection approaches to minimize false positives and increase the reliability of identification. Technical advances across several fronts must occur, however, to realize the full extent of the APDS. The end goal of a commercially available system for civilian biological weapon defense will be accomplished through three progressive generations of APDS instruments. The APDS is targeted for civilian applications in which the public is at high risk of exposure to covert releases of bioagent, such as major subway systems and other transportation terminals, large office complexes and convention centers. APDS is also designed to be part of a monitoring network of sensors integrated with command and control systems for wide-area monitoring of urban areas and major public gatherings. In this latter application there is potential that a fully developed APDS could add value to DoD monitoring architectures.

  11. The Spacecraft Emergency Response System (SERS) for Autonomous Mission Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breed, Julia; Chu, Kai-Dee; Baker, Paul; Starr, Cynthia; Fox, Jeffrey; Baitinger, Mick

    1998-01-01

    Today, most mission operations are geared toward lowering cost through unmanned operations. 7-day/24-hour operations are reduced to either 5-day/8-hour operations or become totally autonomous, especially for deep-space missions. Proper and effective notification during a spacecraft emergency could mean success or failure for an entire mission. The Spacecraft Emergency Response System (SERS) is a tool designed for autonomous mission operations. The SERS automatically contacts on-call personnel as needed when crises occur, either on-board the spacecraft or within the automated ground systems. Plus, the SERS provides a group-ware solution to facilitate the work of the person(s) contacted. The SERS is independent of the spacecraft's automated ground system. It receives and catalogues reports for various ground system components in near real-time. Then, based on easily configurable parameters, the SERS determines whom, if anyone, should be alerted. Alerts may be issued via Sky-Tel 2-way pager, Telehony, or e-mail. The alerted personnel can then review and respond to the spacecraft anomalies through the Netscape Internet Web Browser, or directly review and respond from the Sky-Tel 2-way pager.

  12. Verification and Validation of Model-Based Autonomous Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pecheur, Charles; Koga, Dennis (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents a three year project (FY99 to FY01) on the verification and validation of model based autonomous systems. The topics include: 1) Project Profile; 2) Model-Based Autonomy; 3) The Livingstone MIR; 4) MPL2SMV; 5) Livingstone to SMV Translation; 6) Symbolic Model Checking; 7) From Livingstone Models to SMV Models; 8) Application In-Situ Propellant Production; 9) Closed-Loop Verification Principle; 10) Livingstone PathFinder (LPF); 11) Publications and Presentations; and 12) Future Directions. This paper is presented in viewgraph form.

  13. Autonomous, teleoperated, and shared control of robot systems

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, R.J.

    1994-12-31

    This paper illustrates how different modes of operation such as bilateral teleoperation, autonomous control, and shared control can be described and implemented using combinations of modules in the SMART robot control architecture. Telerobotics modes are characterized by different ``grids`` of SMART icons, where each icon represents a portion of run-time code that implements a passive control law. By placing strict requirements on the module`s input-output behavior and using scattering theory to develop a passive sampling technique, a flexible, expandable telerobot architecture is achieved. An automatic code generation tool for generating SMART systems is also described.

  14. Autonomous Robotic Refueling System (ARRS) for rapid aircraft turnaround

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, O. R.; Jackson, E.; Rueb, K.; Thompson, B.; Powell, K.

    An autonomous robotic refuelling system is being developed to achieve rapid aircraft turnaround, notably during combat operations. The proposed system includes a gantry positioner with sufficient reach to position a robotic arm that performs the refuelling tasks; a six degree of freedom manipulator equipped with a remote center of compliance, torque sensor, and a gripper that can handle standard tools; a computer vision system to locate and guide the refuelling nozzle, inspect the nozzle, and avoid collisions; and an operator interface with video and graphics display. The control system software will include components designed for trajectory planning and generation, collision detection, sensor interfacing, sensory processing, and human interfacing. The robotic system will be designed so that upgrading to perform additional tasks will be relatively straightforward.

  15. Decentralized Output Feedback Adaptive NN Tracking Control for Time-Delay Stochastic Nonlinear Systems With Prescribed Performance.

    PubMed

    Hua, Changchun; Zhang, Liuliu; Guan, Xinping

    2015-11-01

    This paper studies the dynamic output feedback tracking control problem for stochastic interconnected time-delay systems with the prescribed performance. The subsystems are in the form of triangular structure. First, we design a reduced-order observer independent of time delay to estimate the unmeasured state variables online instead of the traditional full-order observer. Then, a new state transformation is proposed in consideration of the prescribed performance requirement. Using neural network to approximate the composite unknown nonlinear function, the corresponding decentralized output tracking controller is designed. It is strictly proved that the resulting closed-loop system is stable in probability in the sense of uniformly ultimately boundedness and that both transient-state and steady-state performances are preserved. Finally, a simulation example is given, and the result shows the effectiveness of the proposed control design method. PMID:25794398

  16. Non-autonomous lattice systems with switching effects and delayed recovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Xiaoying; Kloeden, Peter E.

    2016-09-01

    The long term behavior of a type of non-autonomous lattice dynamical systems is investigated, where these have a diffusive nearest neighborhood interaction and discontinuous reaction terms with recoverable delays. This problem is of both biological and mathematical interests, due to its application in systems of excitable cells as well as general biological systems involving delayed recovery. The problem is formulated as an evolution inclusion with delays and the existence of weak and strong solutions is established. It is then shown that the solutions generate a set-valued non-autonomous dynamical system and that this non-autonomous dynamical system possesses a non-autonomous global pullback attractor.

  17. Radar system on a large autonomous vehicle for personnel avoidance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silvious, Jerry; Wellman, Ron; Tahmoush, Dave; Clark, John

    2010-04-01

    The US Army Research Laboratory designed, developed and tested a novel switched beam radar system operating at 76 GHz for use in a large autonomous vehicle to detect and identify roadway obstructions including slowly-moving personnel. This paper discusses the performance requirements for the system to operate in an early collision avoidance mode to a range of 150 meters and at speeds of over 20 m/s. We report the measured capabilities of the system to operate in these modes under various conditions, such as rural and urban environments, and on various terrains, such as asphalt and grass. Finally, we discuss the range-Doppler map processing capabilities that were developed to correct for platform motion and identify roadway vehicles and personnel moving at 1 m/s or more along the path of the system.

  18. Method and system for providing autonomous control of a platform

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seelinger, Michael J. (Inventor); Yoder, John-David (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    The present application provides a system for enabling instrument placement from distances on the order of five meters, for example, and increases accuracy of the instrument placement relative to visually-specified targets. The system provides precision control of a mobile base of a rover and onboard manipulators (e.g., robotic arms) relative to a visually-specified target using one or more sets of cameras. The system automatically compensates for wheel slippage and kinematic inaccuracy ensuring accurate placement (on the order of 2 mm, for example) of the instrument relative to the target. The system provides the ability for autonomous instrument placement by controlling both the base of the rover and the onboard manipulator using a single set of cameras. To extend the distance from which the placement can be completed to nearly five meters, target information may be transferred from navigation cameras (used for long-range) to front hazard cameras (used for positioning the manipulator).

  19. Autonomously acquiring declarative and procedural knowledge for ICAT systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kovarik, Vincent J., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    The construction of Intelligent Computer Aided Training (ICAT) systems is critically dependent on the ability to define and encode knowledge. This knowledge engineering effort can be broadly divided into two categories: domain knowledge and expert or task knowledge. Domain knowledge refers to the physical environment or system with which the expert interacts. Expert knowledge consists of the set of procedures and heuristics employed by the expert in performing their task. Both these areas are a significant bottleneck in the acquisition of knowledge for ICAT systems. This paper presents a research project in the area of autonomous knowledge acquisition using a passive observation concept. The system observes an expert and then generalizes the observations into production rules representing the domain expert's knowledge.

  20. Educational Decentralization: Weak State or Strong State?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGinn, Noel; Street, Susan

    1986-01-01

    A government is a complex system of competing factions that adopts a decentralization policy when the dominant group sees current government structures or procedures as an obstacle to the realization of group interests. Case studies of educational decentralization in Peru, Chile, and Mexico demonstrate that the "state" tends to share power only…

  1. Sensing, Control, and System Integration for Autonomous Vehicles: A Series of Challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Özgüner, Ümit; Redmill, Keith

    One of the important examples of mechatronic systems can be found in autonomous ground vehicles. Autonomous ground vehicles provide a series of challenges in sensing, control and system integration. In this paper we consider off-road autonomous vehicles, automated highway systems and urban autonomous driving and indicate the unifying aspects. We specifically consider our own experience during the last twelve years in various demonstrations and challenges in attempting to identify unifying themes. Such unifying themes can be observed in basic hierarchies, hybrid system control approaches and sensor fusion techniques.

  2. Forest fire autonomous decision system based on fuzzy logic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Z.; Lu, Jianhua

    2010-11-01

    The proposed system integrates GPS / pseudolite / IMU and thermal camera in order to autonomously process the graphs by identification, extraction, tracking of forest fire or hot spots. The airborne detection platform, the graph-based algorithms and the signal processing frame are analyzed detailed; especially the rules of the decision function are expressed in terms of fuzzy logic, which is an appropriate method to express imprecise knowledge. The membership function and weights of the rules are fixed through a supervised learning process. The perception system in this paper is based on a network of sensorial stations and central stations. The sensorial stations collect data including infrared and visual images and meteorological information. The central stations exchange data to perform distributed analysis. The experiment results show that working procedure of detection system is reasonable and can accurately output the detection alarm and the computation of infrared oscillations.

  3. Forest fire autonomous decision system based on fuzzy logic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Z.; Lu, Jianhua

    2009-09-01

    The proposed system integrates GPS / pseudolite / IMU and thermal camera in order to autonomously process the graphs by identification, extraction, tracking of forest fire or hot spots. The airborne detection platform, the graph-based algorithms and the signal processing frame are analyzed detailed; especially the rules of the decision function are expressed in terms of fuzzy logic, which is an appropriate method to express imprecise knowledge. The membership function and weights of the rules are fixed through a supervised learning process. The perception system in this paper is based on a network of sensorial stations and central stations. The sensorial stations collect data including infrared and visual images and meteorological information. The central stations exchange data to perform distributed analysis. The experiment results show that working procedure of detection system is reasonable and can accurately output the detection alarm and the computation of infrared oscillations.

  4. Spherical vision cameras in a semi-autonomous wheelchair system.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Jordan S; Su, Steven W; Nguyen, Hung T

    2010-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the methods developed for extending the capabilities of a spherical vision camera system to allow detection of surrounding objects and whether or not they pose a danger for movement in that direction during autonomous navigation of a power wheelchair. A Point Grey Research (PGR) Ladybug2 spherical vision camera system was attached to the power wheelchair for surrounding vision. The objective is to use this Ladybug2 system to provide information about obstacles all around the wheelchair and aid the automated decision-making process involved during navigation. Through instantaneous neural network classification of individual camera images to determine whether obstacles are present, detection of obstacles have been successfully achieved with accuracies reaching 96%. This assistive technology has the purpose of automated obstacle detection, navigational path planning and decision-making, and collision avoidance during navigation. PMID:21097098

  5. Evolutionary Computational Methods for Identifying Emergent Behavior in Autonomous Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Terrile, Richard J.; Guillaume, Alexandre

    2011-01-01

    A technique based on Evolutionary Computational Methods (ECMs) was developed that allows for the automated optimization of complex computationally modeled systems, such as autonomous systems. The primary technology, which enables the ECM to find optimal solutions in complex search spaces, derives from evolutionary algorithms such as the genetic algorithm and differential evolution. These methods are based on biological processes, particularly genetics, and define an iterative process that evolves parameter sets into an optimum. Evolutionary computation is a method that operates on a population of existing computational-based engineering models (or simulators) and competes them using biologically inspired genetic operators on large parallel cluster computers. The result is the ability to automatically find design optimizations and trades, and thereby greatly amplify the role of the system engineer.

  6. Autonomous Flight Safety System September 27, 2005, Aircraft Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simpson, James C.

    2005-01-01

    This report describes the first aircraft test of the Autonomous Flight Safety System (AFSS). The test was conducted on September 27, 2005, near Kennedy Space Center (KSC) using a privately-owned single-engine plane and evaluated the performance of several basic flight safety rules using real-time data onboard a moving aerial vehicle. This test follows the first road test of AFSS conducted in February 2005 at KSC. AFSS is a joint KSC and Wallops Flight Facility (WEF) project that is in its third phase of development. AFSS is an independent subsystem intended for use with Expendable Launch Vehicles that uses tracking data from redundant onboard sensors to autonomously make flight termination decisions using software-based rules implemented on redundant flight processors. The goals of this project are to increase capabilities by allowing launches from locations that do not have or cannot afford extensive ground-based range safety assets, to decrease range costs, and to decrease reaction time for special situations. The mission rules are configured for each operation by the responsible Range Safety authorities and can be loosely categorized in four major categories: Parameter Threshold Violations, Physical Boundary Violations present position and instantaneous impact point (TIP), Gate Rules static and dynamic, and a Green-Time Rule. Examples of each of these rules were evaluated during this aircraft test.

  7. Low Temperature Shape Memory Alloys for Adaptive, Autonomous Systems Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Falker, John; Zeitlin, Nancy; Williams, Martha; Benafan, Othmane; Fesmire, James

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this joint activity between Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and Glenn Research Center (GRC) is to develop and evaluate the applicability of 2-way SMAs in proof-of-concept, low-temperature adaptive autonomous systems. As part of this low technology readiness (TRL) activity, we will develop and train low-temperature novel, 2-way shape memory alloys (SMAs) with actuation temperatures ranging from 0 C to 150 C. These experimental alloys will also be preliminary tested to evaluate their performance parameters and transformation (actuation) temperatures in low- temperature or cryogenic adaptive proof-of-concept systems. The challenge will be in the development, design, and training of the alloys for 2-way actuation at those temperatures.

  8. High accuracy autonomous navigation using the global positioning system (GPS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Truong, Son H.; Hart, Roger C.; Shoan, Wendy C.; Wood, Terri; Long, Anne C.; Oza, Dipak H.; Lee, Taesul

    1997-01-01

    The application of global positioning system (GPS) technology to the improvement of the accuracy and economy of spacecraft navigation, is reported. High-accuracy autonomous navigation algorithms are currently being qualified in conjunction with the GPS attitude determination flyer (GADFLY) experiment for the small satellite technology initiative Lewis spacecraft. Preflight performance assessments indicated that these algorithms are able to provide a real time total position accuracy of better than 10 m and a velocity accuracy of better than 0.01 m/s, with selective availability at typical levels. It is expected that the position accuracy will be increased to 2 m if corrections are provided by the GPS wide area augmentation system.

  9. Global Positioning System (GPS) advances in autonomous user system (Norway demonstration)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ananda, Mohan P.; Bernstein, Harold; Feess, William A.; Kells, Ronald C.; Wortham, J. H.

    Using a new autonomous user (AU) system algorithm extends the AU system concept by permitting the use of a crystal frequency reference instead of an atomic reference. Results obtained using both crystal and atomic frequency references are presented. To supply interim full-system accuracy in the event of loss of the operational control segment (OCS) of GPS, an AU system needing only user segment modification has been implemented. During the summer of 1988 a demonstration of the system was conducted in Tromso, Norway. It is indicated, that in this 180-day test period, the autonomous user with a crystal reference could achieve a navigation accuracy of the same order of magnitude as when the OCS was operating. Furthermore, other navigation systems may utilize the concepts of this autonomous user system.

  10. Regulation of autonomic nervous system in space and magnetic storms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baevsky, R. M.; Petrov, V. M.; Chernikova, A. G.

    Variations in the earth's magnetic field and magnetic storms are known to be a risk factor for the development of cardiovascular disorders. The main ``targets'' for geomagnetic perturbations are the central nervous system and the neural regulation of vascular tone and heart rate variability. This paper presents the data about effect of geomagnetic fluctuations on human body in space. As a method for research the analysis of heart rate variability was used, which allows evaluating the state of the sympathetic and parasympathetic parts of the autonomic nervous system, vasomotor center and subcortical neural centers activity. Heart rate variability data were analyzed for 30 cosmonauts at the 2-nd day of space flight on transport spaceship Soyuz (32nd orbit). There were formed three groups of cosmonauts: without magnetic storm (n=9), on a day with magnetic storm (n=12) and 1-2 days after magnetic storm (n=9). The present study was the first to demonstrate a specific impact of geomagnetic perturbations on the system of autonomic circulatory control in cosmonauts during space flight. The increasing of highest nervous centers activity was shown for group with magnetic storms, which was more significant on 1-2 days after magnetic storm. The use of discriminate analysis allowed to classify indicated three groups with 88 % precision. Canonical variables are suggested to be used as criterions for evaluation of specific and non-specific components of cardiovascular reactions to geomagnetic perturbations. The applied aspect of the findings from the present study should be emphasized. They show, in particular, the need to supplement the medical monitoring of cosmonauts with predictions of probable geomagnetic perturbations in view of the prevention of unfavorable states appearances if the adverse reactions to geomagnetic perturbations are added to the tension experienced by regulatory systems during various stresses situations (such as work in the open space).

  11. Decentralized reinforcement-learning control and emergence of motion patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svinin, Mikhail; Yamada, Kazuyaki; Okhura, Kazuhiro; Ueda, Kanji

    1998-10-01

    In this paper we propose a system for studying emergence of motion patterns in autonomous mobile robotic systems. The system implements an instance-based reinforcement learning control. Three spaces are of importance in formulation of the control scheme. They are the work space, the sensor space, and the action space. Important feature of our system is that all these spaces are assumed to be continuous. The core part of the system is a classifier system. Based on the sensory state space analysis, the control is decentralized and is specified at the lowest level of the control system. However, the local controllers are implicitly connected through the perceived environment information. Therefore, they constitute a dynamic environment with respect to each other. The proposed control scheme is tested under simulation for a mobile robot in a navigation task. It is shown that some patterns of global behavior--such as collision avoidance, wall-following, light-seeking--can emerge from the local controllers.

  12. Street Viewer: An Autonomous Vision Based Traffic Tracking System.

    PubMed

    Bottino, Andrea; Garbo, Alessandro; Loiacono, Carmelo; Quer, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    The development of intelligent transportation systems requires the availability of both accurate traffic information in real time and a cost-effective solution. In this paper, we describe Street Viewer, a system capable of analyzing the traffic behavior in different scenarios from images taken with an off-the-shelf optical camera. Street Viewer operates in real time on embedded hardware architectures with limited computational resources. The system features a pipelined architecture that, on one side, allows one to exploit multi-threading intensively and, on the other side, allows one to improve the overall accuracy and robustness of the system, since each layer is aimed at refining for the following layers the information it receives as input. Another relevant feature of our approach is that it is self-adaptive. During an initial setup, the application runs in learning mode to build a model of the flow patterns in the observed area. Once the model is stable, the system switches to the on-line mode where the flow model is used to count vehicles traveling on each lane and to produce a traffic information summary. If changes in the flow model are detected, the system switches back autonomously to the learning mode. The accuracy and the robustness of the system are analyzed in the paper through experimental results obtained on several different scenarios and running the system for long periods of time. PMID:27271627

  13. Street Viewer: An Autonomous Vision Based Traffic Tracking System

    PubMed Central

    Bottino, Andrea; Garbo, Alessandro; Loiacono, Carmelo; Quer, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    The development of intelligent transportation systems requires the availability of both accurate traffic information in real time and a cost-effective solution. In this paper, we describe Street Viewer, a system capable of analyzing the traffic behavior in different scenarios from images taken with an off-the-shelf optical camera. Street Viewer operates in real time on embedded hardware architectures with limited computational resources. The system features a pipelined architecture that, on one side, allows one to exploit multi-threading intensively and, on the other side, allows one to improve the overall accuracy and robustness of the system, since each layer is aimed at refining for the following layers the information it receives as input. Another relevant feature of our approach is that it is self-adaptive. During an initial setup, the application runs in learning mode to build a model of the flow patterns in the observed area. Once the model is stable, the system switches to the on-line mode where the flow model is used to count vehicles traveling on each lane and to produce a traffic information summary. If changes in the flow model are detected, the system switches back autonomously to the learning mode. The accuracy and the robustness of the system are analyzed in the paper through experimental results obtained on several different scenarios and running the system for long periods of time. PMID:27271627

  14. Mission-based guidance system design for autonomous UAVs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moon, Jongki

    The advantages of UAVs in the aviation arena have led to extensive research activities on autonomous technology of UAVs to achieve specific mission objectives. This thesis mainly focuses on the development of a mission-based guidance system. Among various missions expected for future needs, autonomous formation flight (AFF) and obstacle avoidance within safe operation limits are investigated. In the design of an adaptive guidance system for AFF, the leader information except position is assumed to be unknown to a follower. Thus, the only measured information related to the leader is the line-of-sight (LOS) range and angle. Adding an adaptive element with neural networks into the guidance system provides a capability to effectively handle leader's velocity changes. Therefore, this method can be applied to the AFF control systems that use a passive sensing method. In this thesis, an adaptive velocity command guidance system and an adaptive acceleration command guidance system are developed and presented. Since relative degrees of the LOS range and angle are different depending on the outputs from the guidance system, the architecture of the guidance system changes accordingly. Simulations and flight tests are performed using the Georgia Tech UAV helicopter, the GTMax, to evaluate the proposed guidance systems. The simulation results show that the neural network (NN) based adaptive element can improve the tracking performance by effectively compensating for the effect of unknown dynamics. It has also been shown that the combination of an adaptive velocity command guidance system and the existing GTMax autopilot controller performs better than the combination of an adaptive acceleration command guidance system and the GTMax autopilot controller. The successful flight evaluation using an adaptive velocity command guidance system clearly shows that the adaptive guidance control system is a promising solution for autonomous formation flight of UAVs. In addition, an

  15. Autonomous satellite navigation methods using the Global Positioning Satellite System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murata, M.; Tapley, B. D.; Schutz, B. E.

    1982-01-01

    This investigation considers the problem of autonomous satellite navigation using the NAVSTAR Global Positioning System (GPS). The major topics covered include the design, implementation, and validation of onboard navigation filter algorithms by means of computer simulations. The primary errors that the navigation filter design must minimize are computational effects and modeling inaccuracies due to limited capability of the onboard computer. The minimization of the effect of these errors is attained by applying the sequential extended Kalman filter using a factored covariance implementation with Q-matrix or dynamical model compensations. Peformance evaluation of the navigation filter design is carried out using both the CDC Cyber 170/750 computer and the PDP-11/60 computer. The results are obtained assuming the Phase I GPS constellation, consisting of six satellites, and a Landsat-D type spacecraft as the model for the user satellite orbit.

  16. The Montana ALE (Autonomous Lunar Excavator) Systems Engineering Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hull, Bethanne J.

    2012-01-01

    On May 2 1-26, 20 12, the third annual NASA Lunabotics Mining Competition will be held at the Kennedy Space Center in Florida. This event brings together student teams from universities around the world to compete in an engineering challenge. Each team must design, build and operate a robotic excavator that can collect artificial lunar soil and deposit it at a target location. Montana State University, Bozeman, is one of the institutions selected to field a team this year. This paper will summarize the goals of MSU's lunar excavator project, known as the Autonomous Lunar Explorer (ALE), along with the engineering process that the MSU team is using to fulfill these goals, according to NASA's systems engineering guidelines.

  17. Decentralized Management and School Finance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Odden, Allan

    1994-01-01

    Student achievement needs to rise much faster than resources to attain high levels of cognitive achievement for all. The article discusses the nature of funding changes, changes in achievement, productivity problems, central notions of systemic reform (decentralized management), and the new type of school finance policy structure. (SM)

  18. Challenges in verification and validation of autonomous systems for space exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brat, Guillaume; Jonsson, Ari

    2005-01-01

    Space exploration applications offer a unique opportunity for the development and deployment of autonomous systems, due to limited communications, large distances, and great expense of direct operation. At the same time, the risk and cost of space missions leads to reluctance to taking on new, complex and difficult-to-understand technology. A key issue in addressing these concerns is the validation of autonomous systems. In recent years, higher-level autonomous systems have been applied in space applications. In this presentation, we will highlight those autonomous systems, and discuss issues in validating these systems. We will then look to future demands on validating autonomous systems for space, identify promising technologies and open issues.

  19. ANTS: Exploring the Solar System with an Autonomous Nanotechnology Swarm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, P. E.; Curtis, S.; Rilee, M.; Truszkowski, W.; Marr, G.

    2002-01-01

    ANTS (Autonomous Nano-Technology Swarm), a NASA advanced mission concept, calls for a large (1000 member) swarm of pico-class (1 kg) totally autonomous spacecraft to prospect the asteroid belt. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  20. Airborne multisensor system for the autonomous detection of land mines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheerer, Klaus

    1997-07-01

    A concept of a modular multisensor system for use on an airborne platform is presented. THe sensor system comprises two high resolution IR sensors working in the mid and far IR spectral regions, a RGB video camera with its sensitivity extended to the near IR in connection with a laser illuminator, and a radar with a spatial resolution adapted to the expected mine sizes. The sensor concept emerged from the evaluation of comprehensive static and airborne measurements on numerous buried and unburied mines. The measurements were performed on single mines and on minefields, layed down according to military requirements. The system has an on-board realtime image processing capability and is intended to operate autonomously with a data link to a mobile groundstation. Data from a navigation unit serve to transform the location of identified mines into a geodetic coordinate system. The system will be integrated into a cylindrical structure of about 40 cm diameter. This may be a drone or simply a tube which can be mounted on any carrier whatever. The realization of a simplified demonstrator for captive flight tests is planned by 1998.

  1. Laser rangefinders for autonomous intelligent cruise control systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Journet, Bernard A.; Bazin, Gaelle

    1998-01-01

    THe purpose of this paper is to show to what kind of application laser range-finders can be used inside Autonomous Intelligent Cruise Control systems. Even if laser systems present good performances the safety and technical considerations are very restrictive. As the system is used in the outside, the emitted average output power must respect the rather low level of 1A class. Obstacle detection or collision avoidance require a 200 meters range. Moreover bad weather conditions, like rain or fog, ar disastrous. We have conducted measurements on laser rangefinder using different targets and at different distances. We can infer that except for cooperative targets low power laser rangefinder are not powerful enough for long distance measurement. Radars, like 77 GHz systems, are better adapted to such cases. But in case of short distances measurement, range around 10 meters, with a minimum distance around twenty centimeters, laser rangefinders are really useful with good resolution and rather low cost. Applications can have the following of white lines on the road, the target being easily cooperative, detection of vehicles in the vicinity, that means car convoy traffic control or parking assistance, the target surface being indifferent at short distances.

  2. Effect of operation parameters on the flux stabilization of gravity-driven membrane (GDM) filtration system for decentralized water supply.

    PubMed

    Tang, Xiaobin; Ding, An; Qu, Fangshu; Jia, Ruibao; Chang, Haiqing; Cheng, Xiaoxiang; Liu, Bin; Li, Guibai; Liang, Heng

    2016-08-01

    A pilot-scale gravity-driven membrane (GDM) filtration system under low gravitational pressure without any pre-treatment, backwash, flushing, or chemical cleaning was carried out to investigate the effect of operation parameters (including operation pressure, aeration mode, and intermittent filtration) on the effluent quality and permeability development. The results revealed that GDM system exhibited an efficient performance for the removal of suspended substances and organic compounds. The stabilization of flux occurred and the average values of stable flux were 6.6, 8.1, and 8.6 Lm(-2) h(-1) for pressures of 65, 120, and 200 mbar, respectively. In contrast, flux stabilization was not observed under continuous and intermittent aeration conditions. However, aeration (especially continuous aeration) was effective to improve flux and alleviate membrane fouling during 1-month operation. Moreover, intermittent filtration would influence the stabilization of permeate flux, resulting in a higher stable flux (ranging from 6 to 13 Lm(-2) h(-1)). The stable flux significantly improved with the increase of intermittent period. Additionally, GDM systems exhibited an efficient recovery of flux after simple physical cleaning and the analyses of resistance reversibility demonstrated that most of the total resistance was hydraulic reversible resistance (50-75 %). Therefore, it is expected that the results of this study can develop strategies to increase membrane permeability and reduce energy consumption in GDM systems for decentralized water supply. PMID:27189452

  3. Semi-decentralized adaptive fuzzy control for cooperative multirobot systems with H(infinity) motion/internal force tracking performance.

    PubMed

    Lian, Kuang-Yow; Chiu, Chian-Song; Liu, P

    2002-01-01

    We present a semi-decentralized adaptive fuzzy control scheme for cooperative multirobot systems to achieve H(infinity) performance in motion and internal force tracking. First, we reformulate the overall system dynamics into a fully actuated system with constraints. To cope with both parametric and nonparametric uncertainties, the controller for each robot consists of two parts: 1) model-based adaptive controller; and 2) adaptive fuzzy logic controller (FLC). The model-based adaptive controller handles the nominal dynamics which results in both zero motion and internal force errors for a pure parametric uncertain system. The FLC part handles the unstructured dynamics and external disturbances. An H(infinity) tracking problem defined by a novel performance criterion is given and solved in the sequel. Hence, a robust controller satisfying the disturbance attenuation is derived being simple and singularity-free. Asymptotic convergence is obtained when the fuzzy approximation error is bounded with finite energy. Maintaining the same results, the proposed controller is further simplified for easier implementation. Finally, the numerical simulation results for two cooperative planar robots transporting an object illustrate the expected performance. PMID:18238126

  4. Autonomous perception and decision making in cyber-physical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarkar, Soumik

    2011-07-01

    The cyber-physical system (CPS) is a relatively new interdisciplinary technology area that includes the general class of embedded and hybrid systems. CPSs require integration of computation and physical processes that involves the aspects of physical quantities such as time, energy and space during information processing and control. The physical space is the source of information and the cyber space makes use of the generated information to make decisions. This dissertation proposes an overall architecture of autonomous perception-based decision & control of complex cyber-physical systems. Perception involves the recently developed framework of Symbolic Dynamic Filtering for abstraction of physical world in the cyber space. For example, under this framework, sensor observations from a physical entity are discretized temporally and spatially to generate blocks of symbols, also called words that form a language. A grammar of a language is the set of rules that determine the relationships among words to build sentences. Subsequently, a physical system is conjectured to be a linguistic source that is capable of generating a specific language. The proposed technology is validated on various (experimental and simulated) case studies that include health monitoring of aircraft gas turbine engines, detection and estimation of fatigue damage in polycrystalline alloys, and parameter identification. Control of complex cyber-physical systems involve distributed sensing, computation, control as well as complexity analysis. A novel statistical mechanics-inspired complexity analysis approach is proposed in this dissertation. In such a scenario of networked physical systems, the distribution of physical entities determines the underlying network topology and the interaction among the entities forms the abstract cyber space. It is envisioned that the general contributions, made in this dissertation, will be useful for potential application areas such as smart power grids and

  5. Mechanical deployment system on aries an autonomous mobile robot

    SciTech Connect

    Rocheleau, D.N.

    1995-12-01

    ARIES (Autonomous Robotic Inspection Experimental System) is under development for the Department of Energy (DOE) to survey and inspect drums containing low-level radioactive waste stored in warehouses at DOE facilities. This paper focuses on the mechanical deployment system-referred to as the camera positioning system (CPS)-used in the project. The CPS is used for positioning four identical but separate camera packages consisting of vision cameras and other required sensors such as bar-code readers and light stripe projectors. The CPS is attached to the top of a mobile robot and consists of two mechanisms. The first is a lift mechanism composed of 5 interlocking rail-elements which starts from a retracted position and extends upward to simultaneously position 3 separate camera packages to inspect the top three drums of a column of four drums. The second is a parallelogram special case Grashof four-bar mechanism which is used for positioning a camera package on drums on the floor. Both mechanisms are the subject of this paper, where the lift mechanism is discussed in detail.

  6. Lagrangian-Hamiltonian unified formalism for autonomous higher order dynamical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prieto-Martínez, Pedro Daniel; Román-Roy, Narciso

    2011-09-01

    The Lagrangian-Hamiltonian unified formalism of Skinner and Rusk was originally stated for autonomous dynamical systems in classical mechanics. It has been generalized for non-autonomous first-order mechanical systems, as well as for first-order and higher order field theories. However, a complete generalization to higher order mechanical systems is yet to be described. In this work, after reviewing the natural geometrical setting and the Lagrangian and Hamiltonian formalisms for higher order autonomous mechanical systems, we develop a complete generalization of the Lagrangian-Hamiltonian unified formalism for these kinds of systems, and we use it to analyze some physical models from this new point of view.

  7. An Approach to Autonomous Control for Space Nuclear Power Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, Richard Thomas; Upadhyaya, Belle R.

    2011-01-01

    Under Project Prometheus, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) investigated deep space missions that would utilize space nuclear power systems (SNPSs) to provide energy for propulsion and spacecraft power. The initial study involved the Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter (JIMO), which was proposed to conduct in-depth studies of three Jovian moons. Current radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG) and solar power systems cannot meet expected mission power demands, which include propulsion, scientific instrument packages, and communications. Historically, RTGs have provided long-lived, highly reliable, low-power-level systems. Solar power systems can provide much greater levels of power, but power density levels decrease dramatically at {approx} 1.5 astronomical units (AU) and beyond. Alternatively, an SNPS can supply high-sustained power for space applications that is both reliable and mass efficient. Terrestrial nuclear reactors employ varying degrees of human control and decision-making for operations and benefit from periodic human interaction for maintenance. In contrast, the control system of an SNPS must be able to provide continuous operatio for the mission duration with limited immediate human interaction and no opportunity for hardware maintenance or sensor calibration. In effect, the SNPS control system must be able to independently operate the power plant while maintaining power production even when subject to off-normal events and component failure. This capability is critical because it will not be possible to rely upon continuous, immediate human interaction for control due to communications delays and periods of planetary occlusion. In addition, uncertainties, rare events, and component degradation combine with the aforementioned inaccessibility and unattended operation to pose unique challenges that an SNPS control system must accommodate. Autonomous control is needed to address these challenges and optimize the reactor control design.

  8. DualTrust: A Distributed Trust Model for Swarm-Based Autonomic Computing Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Maiden, Wendy M.; Dionysiou, Ioanna; Frincke, Deborah A.; Fink, Glenn A.; Bakken, David E.

    2011-02-01

    For autonomic computing systems that utilize mobile agents and ant colony algorithms for their sensor layer, trust management is important for the acceptance of the mobile agent sensors and to protect the system from malicious behavior by insiders and entities that have penetrated network defenses. This paper examines the trust relationships, evidence, and decisions in a representative system and finds that by monitoring the trustworthiness of the autonomic managers rather than the swarming sensors, the trust management problem becomes much more scalable and still serves to protect the swarm. We then propose the DualTrust conceptual trust model. By addressing the autonomic manager’s bi-directional primary relationships in the ACS architecture, DualTrust is able to monitor the trustworthiness of the autonomic managers, protect the sensor swarm in a scalable manner, and provide global trust awareness for the orchestrating autonomic manager.

  9. Lost among the trees? The autonomic nervous system and paediatrics.

    PubMed

    Rees, Corinne A

    2014-06-01

    The autonomic nervous system (ANS) has been strikingly neglected in Western medicine. Despite its profound importance for regulation, adjustment and coordination of body systems, it lacks priority in training and practice and receives scant attention in numerous major textbooks. The ANS is integral to manifestations of illness, underlying familiar physical and psychological symptoms. When ANS activity is itself dysfunctional, usual indicators of acute illness may prove deceptive. Recognising the relevance of the ANS can involve seeing the familiar through fresh eyes, challenging assumptions in clinical assessment and in approaches to practice. Its importance extends from physical and psychological well-being to parenting and safeguarding, public services and the functioning of society. Exploration of its role in conditions ranging from neurological, gastrointestinal and connective tissue disorders, diabetes and chronic fatigue syndrome, to autism, behavioural and mental health difficulties may open therapeutic avenues. The ANS offers a mechanism for so-called functional illnesses and illustrates the importance of recognising that 'stress' takes many forms, physical, psychological and environmental, desirable and otherwise. Evidence of intrauterine and post-natal programming of ANS reactivity suggests that neonatal care and safeguarding practice may offer preventive opportunity, as may greater understanding of epigenetic change of ANS activity through, for example, accidental or psychological trauma or infection. The aim of this article is to accelerate recognition of the importance of the ANS throughout paediatrics, and of the potential physical and psychological cost of neglecting it. PMID:24573884

  10. Autonomous mine detection system (AMDS) neutralization payload module

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majerus, M.; Vanaman, R.; Wright, N.

    2010-04-01

    The Autonomous Mine Detection System (AMDS) program is developing a landmine and explosive hazards standoff detection, marking, and neutralization system for dismounted soldiers. The AMDS Capabilities Development Document (CDD) has identified the requirement to deploy three payload modules for small robotic platforms: mine detection and marking, explosives detection and marking, and neutralization. This paper addresses the neutralization payload module. There are a number of challenges that must be overcome for the neutralization payload module to be successfully integrated into AMDS. The neutralizer must meet stringent size, weight, and power (SWaP) requirements to be compatible with a small robot. The neutralizer must be effective against a broad threat, to include metal and plastic-cased Anti-Personnel (AP) and Anti-Tank (AT) landmines, explosive devices, and Unexploded Explosive Ordnance (UXO.) It must adapt to a variety of threat concealments, overburdens, and emplacement methods, to include soil, gravel, asphalt, and concrete. A unique neutralization technology is being investigated for adaptation to the AMDS Neutralization Module. This paper will describe review this technology and how the other two payload modules influence its design for minimizing SWaP. Recent modeling and experimental efforts will be included.

  11. Systems and methods for autonomously controlling agricultural machinery

    DOEpatents

    Hoskinson, Reed L.; Bingham, Dennis N.; Svoboda, John M.; Hess, J. Richard

    2003-07-08

    Systems and methods for autonomously controlling agricultural machinery such as a grain combine. The operation components of a combine that function to harvest the grain have characteristics that are measured by sensors. For example, the combine speed, the fan speed, and the like can be measured. An important sensor is the grain loss sensor, which may be used to quantify the amount of grain expelled out of the combine. The grain loss sensor utilizes the fluorescence properties of the grain kernels and the plant residue to identify when the expelled plant material contains grain kernels. The sensor data, in combination with historical and current data stored in a database, is used to identify optimum operating conditions that will result in increased crop yield. After the optimum operating conditions are identified, an on-board computer can generate control signals that will adjust the operation of the components identified in the optimum operating conditions. The changes result in less grain loss and improved grain yield. Also, because new data is continually generated by the sensor, the system has the ability to continually learn such that the efficiency of the agricultural machinery is continually improved.

  12. Central Command Architecture for High Order Autonomous Unmanned Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bieber, Chad Michael

    This dissertation describes a High-Order Central Command (HOCC) architecture and presents a flight demonstration where a single user coordinates 4 unmanned fixed-wing aircraft. HOCC decouples the user from control of individual vehicles, eliminating human limits on the size of the system, and uses a non-iterative sequence of algorithms that permit easy estimation of how computational complexity scales. The Hungarian algorithm used to solve a min-sum assignment with a one-task planning horizon becomes the limiting complexity, scaling at O(x3) where x is the larger number of vehicles or tasks in the assignment. This method is shown to have a unique property of creating non-intersecting routes which is used to drastically reduce the computational cost of deconflicting planned routes. Results from several demonstration flights are presented where a single user commands a system of 4 fixed-wing aircraft. The results confirm that autonomous flight of a large number of UAVs is a bona fide engineering sub-discipline, which is expected to be of interest to engineers who will find its utility in the aviation industry and in other emerging markets.

  13. Partially decentralized control for ALSTOM gasifier.

    PubMed

    Tan, Wen; Lou, Guannan; Liang, Luping

    2011-07-01

    The gasifier plays a key role in the operation of the whole IGCC power plant. It is a typical multivariable control system with strict constraints on the inputs and outputs which makes it very difficult to control. This paper presents a partially decentralized controller design method based on the stabilizer idea. The method only requires identifying some closed-loop transfer functions and solving an H(∞) optimization problem. The final partially decentralized controller is easy to implement and test in practice. Two partially decentralized controllers are designed for the ALSTOM gasifier benchmark problem, and simulation results show that they both meet the design specifications. PMID:21356534

  14. Range Safety for an Autonomous Flight Safety System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lanzi, Raymond J.; Simpson, James C.

    2010-01-01

    The Range Safety Algorithm software encapsulates the various constructs and algorithms required to accomplish Time Space Position Information (TSPI) data management from multiple tracking sources, autonomous mission mode detection and management, and flight-termination mission rule evaluation. The software evaluates various user-configurable rule sets that govern the qualification of TSPI data sources, provides a prelaunch autonomous hold-launch function, performs the flight-monitoring-and-termination functions, and performs end-of-mission safing

  15. Autonomic nervous system pulmonary vasoregulation after hypoperfusion in conscious dogs.

    PubMed

    Clougherty, P W; Nyhan, D P; Chen, B B; Goll, H M; Murray, P A

    1988-05-01

    We investigated the role of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) in the pulmonary vascular response to increasing cardiac index after a period of hypoperfusion (defined as reperfusion) in conscious dogs. Base-line and reperfusion pulmonary vascular pressure-cardiac index (P/Q) plots were generated by stepwise constriction and release, respectively, of an inferior vena caval occluder to vary Q. Surprisingly, after 10-15 min of hypoperfusion (Q decreased from 139 +/- 9 to 46 +/- 3 ml.min-1.kg-1), the pulmonary vascular pressure gradient (pulmonary arterial pressure-pulmonary capillary wedge pressure) was unchanged over a broad range of Q during reperfusion compared with base line when the ANS was intact. In contrast, pulmonary vasoconstriction was observed during reperfusion after combined sympathetic beta-adrenergic and cholinergic receptor block, after beta-block alone, but not after cholinergic block alone. The pulmonary vasoconstriction during reperfusion was entirely abolished by combined sympathetic alpha- and beta-block. Although sympathetic alpha-block alone caused pulmonary vasodilation compared with the intact, base-line P/Q relationship, no further vasodilation was observed during reperfusion. Thus the ANS actively regulates the pulmonary circulation during reperfusion in conscious dogs. With the ANS intact, sympathetic beta-adrenergic vasodilation offsets alpha-adrenergic vasoconstriction and prevents pulmonary vasoconstriction during reperfusion. PMID:2896465

  16. Advancements in design of an autonomous satellite docking system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hays, Anthony B.; Tchoryk, Peter, Jr.; Pavlich, Jane C.; Ritter, Greg A.; Wassick, Gregory J.

    2004-08-01

    The past five years has witnessed a significant increase in the attention given to on-orbit satellite docking and servicing. Recent world events have proven how we have come to rely on our space assets, especially during times of crisis. It has become abundantly clear that the ability to autonomously rendezvous, dock, inspect and service both military and civilian assets is no longer a nicety, but a necessity. Reconnaissance and communications satellites, even the space shuttle and International Space Station, could benefit from this capability. Michigan Aerospace Corporation, with funding from the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) and the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), has been refining a compact, light, compliant soft-docking system. Earlier prototypes have been tested on the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) flat-floor as well as on the Johnson Space Flight Center (JSC) KC-135 micro-gravity aircraft. Over the past year, refinements have been made to the mechanism based on the lessons learned from these tests. This paper discusses the optimal design that has resulted.

  17. Computer system evolution requirements for autonomous checkout of exploration vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Tom; Sklar, Mike

    1991-01-01

    This study, now in its third year, has had the overall objective and challenge of determining the needed hooks and scars in the initial Space Station Freedom (SSF) system to assure that on-orbit assembly and refurbishment of lunar and Mars spacecraft can be accomplished with the maximum use of automation. In this study automation is all encompassing and includes physical tasks such as parts mating, tool operation, and human visual inspection, as well as non-physical tasks such as monitoring and diagnosis, planning and scheduling, and autonomous visual inspection. Potential tasks for automation include both extravehicular activity (EVA) and intravehicular activity (IVA) events. A number of specific techniques and tools have been developed to determine the ideal tasks to be automated, and the resulting timelines, changes in labor requirements and resources required. The Mars/Phobos exploratory mission developed in FY89, and the Lunar Assembly/Refurbishment mission developed in FY90 and depicted in the 90 Day Study as Option 5, have been analyzed in detailed in recent years. The complete methodology and results are presented in FY89 and FY90 final reports.

  18. Fuzzy Logic Based Autonomous Parallel Parking System with Kalman Filtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panomruttanarug, Benjamas; Higuchi, Kohji

    This paper presents an emulation of fuzzy logic control schemes for an autonomous parallel parking system in a backward maneuver. There are four infrared sensors sending the distance data to a microcontroller for generating an obstacle-free parking path. Two of them mounted on the front and rear wheels on the parking side are used as the inputs to the fuzzy rules to calculate a proper steering angle while backing. The other two attached to the front and rear ends serve for avoiding collision with other cars along the parking space. At the end of parking processes, the vehicle will be in line with other parked cars and positioned in the middle of the free space. Fuzzy rules are designed based upon a wall following process. Performance of the infrared sensors is improved using Kalman filtering. The design method needs extra information from ultrasonic sensors. Starting from modeling the ultrasonic sensor in 1-D state space forms, one makes use of the infrared sensor as a measurement to update the predicted values. Experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of sensor improvement.

  19. Versatile 360-deg panoramic optical system for autonomous robots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barton, George G.; Feldman, Sidney; Beckstead, Jeffrey A.; Nordhauser, Sidney R.

    1999-01-01

    Autonomous mobile robots require wide angle vision for navigation and threat detection and analysis, best served with full panoramic vision. The panoramic optical element is a unique inexpensive first surface reflective aspheric convex cone. This cone can be sized and configured for any vertical FOV desired. The cone acts as a negative optical element generating a panoramic virtual image. When this virtual image is viewed through a standard camera lens it produces at the lenses focal pane a panoramic toroidal image with a translational linearity of > 99 percent. One of three image transducers can be used to convert the toroidal panoramic image to a video signal. Raster scanned CCDs, radially scanned Vidicons and linear CCD arrays on a mechanically rotated state, each have their own particular advantage. Field object distances can be determined in two ways. If the robot is moving the range can be calculated by the size change of a field object versus the distance traversed in a specific time interval. By vertically displacing the panoramic camera by several inches a quasibinocular system is created and the range determined by simple math. Ranging thus produces the third dimension.

  20. Abnormally Malicious Autonomous Systems and their Internet Connectivity

    SciTech Connect

    Shue, Craig A; Kalafut, Prof. Andrew; Gupta, Prof. Minaxi

    2011-01-01

    While many attacks are distributed across botnets, investigators and network operators have recently targeted malicious networks through high profile autonomous system (AS) de-peerings and network shut-downs. In this paper, we explore whether some ASes indeed are safe havens for malicious activity. We look for ISPs and ASes that exhibit disproportionately high malicious behavior using ten popular blacklists, plus local spam data, and extensive DNS resolutions based on the contents of the blacklists. We find that some ASes have over 80% of their routable IP address space blacklisted. Yet others account for large fractions of blacklisted IP addresses. Several ASes regularly peer with ASes associated with significant malicious activity. We also find that malicious ASes as a whole differ from benign ones in other properties not obviously related to their malicious activities, such as more frequent connectivity changes with their BGP peers. Overall, we conclude that examining malicious activity at AS granularity can unearth networks with lax security or those that harbor cybercrime.

  1. Rapid laser prototyping of valves for microfluidic autonomous systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammed, M. I.; Abraham, E.; Y Desmulliez, M. P.

    2013-03-01

    Capillary forces in microfluidics provide a simple yet elegant means to direct liquids through flow channel networks. The ability to manipulate the flow in a truly automated manner has proven more problematic. The majority of valves require some form of flow control devices, which are manually, mechanically or electrically driven. Most demonstrated capillary systems have been manufactured by photolithography, which, despite its high precision and repeatability, can be labour intensive, requires a clean room environment and the use of fixed photomasks, limiting thereby the agility of the manufacturing process to readily examine alternative designs. In this paper, we describe a robust and rapid CO2 laser manufacturing process and demonstrate a range of capillary-driven microfluidic valve structures embedded within a microfluidic network. The manufacturing process described allows for advanced control and manipulation of fluids such that flow can be halted, triggered and delayed based on simple geometrical alterations to a given microchannel. The rapid prototyping methodology has been employed with PMMA substrates and a complete device has been created, ready for use, within 2-3 h. We believe that this agile manufacturing process can be applied to produce a range of complex autonomous fluidic platforms and allows subsequent designs to be rapidly explored.

  2. Autonomic Modulation by Electrical Stimulation of the Parasympathetic Nervous System: An Emerging Intervention for Cardiovascular Diseases.

    PubMed

    He, Bo; Lu, Zhibing; He, Wenbo; Huang, Bing; Jiang, Hong

    2016-06-01

    The cardiac autonomic nervous system has been known to play an important role in the development and progression of cardiovascular diseases. Autonomic modulation by electrical stimulation of the parasympathetic nervous system, which increases the parasympathetic activity and suppresses the sympathetic activity, is emerging as a therapeutic strategy for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. Here, we review the recent literature on autonomic modulation by electrical stimulation of the parasympathetic nervous system, including vagus nerve stimulation, transcutaneous auricular vagal stimulation, spinal cord stimulation, and ganglionated plexi stimulation, in the treatment of heart failure, atrial fibrillation, and ventricular arrhythmias. PMID:26914959

  3. Theory and applications survey of decentralized control methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Athans, M.

    1975-01-01

    A nonmathematical overview is presented of trends in the general area of decentralized control strategies which are suitable for hierarchical systems. Advances in decentralized system theory are closely related to advances in the so-called stochastic control problem with nonclassical information pattern. The basic assumptions and mathematical tools pertaining to the classical stochastic control problem are outlined. Particular attention is devoted to pitfalls in the mathematical problem formulation for decentralized control. Major conclusions are that any purely deterministic approach to multilevel hierarchical dynamic systems is unlikely to lead to realistic theories or designs, that the flow of measurements and decisions in a decentralized system should not be instantaneous and error-free, and that delays in information exchange in a decentralized system lead to reasonable approaches to decentralized control. A mathematically precise notion of aggregating information is not yet available.

  4. Decentralized optimal control of a class of interconnected nonlinear discrete-time systems by using online Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman formulation.

    PubMed

    Mehraeen, Shahab; Jagannathan, Sarangapani

    2011-11-01

    In this paper, the direct neural dynamic programming technique is utilized to solve the Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman equation forward-in-time for the decentralized near optimal regulation of a class of nonlinear interconnected discrete-time systems with unknown internal subsystem and interconnection dynamics, while the input gain matrix is considered known. Even though the unknown interconnection terms are considered weak and functions of the entire state vector, the decentralized control is attempted under the assumption that only the local state vector is measurable. The decentralized nearly optimal controller design for each subsystem consists of two neural networks (NNs), an action NN that is aimed to provide a nearly optimal control signal, and a critic NN which evaluates the performance of the overall system. All NN parameters are tuned online for both the NNs. By using Lyapunov techniques it is shown that all subsystems signals are uniformly ultimately bounded and that the synthesized subsystems inputs approach their corresponding nearly optimal control inputs with bounded error. Simulation results are included to show the effectiveness of the approach. PMID:21965197

  5. Autonomous reconfigurable GPS/INS navigation and pointing system for rendezvous and docking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Upadhyay, T. N.; Cotterill, S.; Deaton, A. W.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes the development of an autonomous integrated spacecraft navigation system which provides multiple modes of navigation, including relative and absolute navigation. The system provides attitude information from GPS or INS, or by tightly integrating the two systems. Interferometric GPS techniques are used when multiple antennas and integrated Doppler measurements are available. An important aspect of this research is the autonomously reconfigurable Kalman filter, controlled by an embedded knowledge base, designed to respond to component degradation and changes in mission goals.

  6. [Physiopathology of the autonomic nervous system activity during sleep].

    PubMed

    Bersano, C; Revera, M; Vanoli, E

    2001-08-01

    Sleep consists of two phases that periodically alternate: the rapid eye movement (REM) phase and the non-REM phase. The non-REM stage is characterized by wide synchronous waves in the electroencephalogram, by a low heart rate and by a decrease in arterial blood pressure and peripheral resistances. This hemodynamic setting is the consequence of the autonomic balance characterized by high vagal activity and low sympathetic activity. Such an autonomic condition is adequately described by the spectral analysis of heart rate variability documenting a prevalence in the high frequency band (the respiratory vagal band). The REM stage of sleep is characterized by asynchronous waves in the electroencephalogram and it is associated with a further increase in the vagal dominance of the autonomic balance resulting in a lower heart rate and decreased peripheral resistances. The REM phase of sleep is, however, also characterized by hemodynamic instability due to sudden bursts of sympathetic activity, associated with the rapid eye movements. These sympathetic bursts cause sudden changes in heart rate and peripheral resistance and may influence cardiac electrical stability both at the atrial and ventricular levels. Additionally, REM sleep may enhance the risk of anginal attacks in coronary artery disease patients. Analysis of the autonomic balance during the different phases of sleep may also help in the identification of autonomic derangements typically associated with myocardial infarction. PMID:11582715

  7. Autonomous Agents: The Origins and Co-Evolution of Reproducing Molecular Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kauffman, Stuart

    1999-01-01

    The central aim of this award concerned an investigation into, and adequate formulation of, the concept of an "autonomous agent." If we consider a bacterium swimming upstream in a glucose gradient, we are willing to say of the bacterium that it is going to get food. That is, we are willing, and do, describe the bacterium as acting on its own behalf in an environment. All free living cells are, in this sense, autonomous agents. But the bacterium is "just" a set of molecules. We define an autonomous agent as a physical system able to act on its own behalf in an environment, then ask, "What must a physical system be to be an autonomous agent?" The tentative definition for a molecular autonomous agent is that it must be self-reproducing and carry out at least one thermodynamic work cycle. The work carried out in this grant involved, among other features, the development of a detailed model of a molecular autonomous agent, and study of the kinetics of this system. In particular, a molecular autonomous agent must, by the above tentative definition, not only reproduce, but must carry out at least one work cycle. I took, as a simple example of a self-reproducing molecular system, the single-stranded DNA hexamer 3'CCGCGG5' which can line up and ligate its two complementary trimers, 5'CCG3' and 5'CGG3'. But the two ligated trimers constitute the same molecular sequence in the 3' to 5' direction as the initial hexamer, hence this system is autocatalytic. On the other hand the above system is not yet an autonomous agent. At the minimum, autonomous agents, as I have defined them, are a new class of chemical reaction network. At a maximum, they may constitute a proper definition of life itself.

  8. Role of the Autonomic Nervous System in Atrial Fibrillation: Pathophysiology and Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Peng-Sheng; Chen, Lan S.; Fishbein, Michael C.; Lin, Shien-Fong; Nattel, Stanley

    2014-01-01

    Autonomic nervous system activation can induce significant and heterogeneous changes of atrial electrophysiology and induce atrial tachyarrhythmias, including atrial tachycardia (AT) and atrial fibrillation (AF). The importance of the autonomic nervous system in atrial arrhythmogenesis is also supported by circadian variation in the incidence of symptomatic AF in humans. Methods that reduce autonomic innervation or outflow have been shown to reduce the incidence of spontaneous or induced atrial arrhythmias, suggesting that neuromodulation may be helpful in controlling AF. In this review we focus on the relationship between the autonomic nervous system and the pathophysiology of AF, and the potential benefit and limitations of neuromodulation in the management of this arrhythmia. We conclude that autonomic nerve activity plays an important role in the initiation and maintenance of AF, and modulating autonomic nerve function may contribute to AF control. Potential therapeutic applications include ganglionated plexus ablation, renal sympathetic denervation, cervical vagal nerve stimulation, baroreflex stimulation, cutaneous stimulation, novel drug approaches and biological therapies. While the role of the autonomic nervous system has long been recognized, new science and new technologies promise exciting prospects for the future. PMID:24763467

  9. Rapid Onboard Trajectory Design for Autonomous Spacecraft in Multibody Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trumbauer, Eric Michael

    This research develops automated, on-board trajectory planning algorithms in order to support current and new mission concepts. These include orbiter missions to Phobos or Deimos, Outer Planet Moon orbiters, and robotic and crewed missions to small bodies. The challenges stem from the limited on-board computing resources which restrict full trajectory optimization with guaranteed convergence in complex dynamical environments. The approach taken consists of leveraging pre-mission computations to create a large database of pre-computed orbits and arcs. Such a database is used to generate a discrete representation of the dynamics in the form of a directed graph, which acts to index these arcs. This allows the use of graph search algorithms on-board in order to provide good approximate solutions to the path planning problem. Coupled with robust differential correction and optimization techniques, this enables the determination of an efficient path between any boundary conditions with very little time and computing effort. Furthermore, the optimization methods developed here based on sequential convex programming are shown to have provable convergence properties, as well as generating feasible major iterates in case of a system interrupt -- a key requirement for on-board application. The outcome of this project is thus the development of an algorithmic framework which allows the deployment of this approach in a variety of specific mission contexts. Test cases related to missions of interest to NASA and JPL such as a Phobos orbiter and a Near Earth Asteroid interceptor are demonstrated, including the results of an implementation on the RAD750 flight processor. This method fills a gap in the toolbox being developed to create fully autonomous space exploration systems.

  10. Perinatally Influenced Autonomic System Fluctuations Drive Infant Vocal Sequences.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yisi S; Ghazanfar, Asif A

    2016-05-23

    The variable vocal behavior of human infants is the scaffolding upon which speech and social interactions develop. It is important to know what factors drive this developmentally critical behavioral output. Using marmoset monkeys as a model system, we first addressed whether the initial conditions for vocal output and its sequential structure are perinatally influenced. Using dizygotic twins and Markov analyses of their vocal sequences, we found that in the first postnatal week, twins had more similar vocal sequences to each other than to their non-twin siblings. Moreover, both twins and their siblings had more vocal sequence similarity with each other than with non-sibling infants. Using electromyography, we then investigated the physiological basis of vocal sequence structure by measuring respiration and arousal levels (via changes in heart rate). We tested the hypothesis that early-life influences on vocal output are via fluctuations of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) mediated by vocal biomechanics. We found that arousal levels fluctuate at ∼0.1 Hz (the Mayer wave) and that this slow oscillation modulates the amplitude of the faster, ∼1.0 Hz respiratory rhythm. The systematic changes in respiratory amplitude result in the different vocalizations that comprise infant vocal sequences. Among twins, the temporal structure of arousal level changes was similar and therefore indicates why their vocal sequences were similar. Our study shows that vocal sequences are tightly linked to respiratory patterns that are modulated by ANS fluctuations and that the temporal structure of ANS fluctuations is perinatally influenced. PMID:27068420

  11. Extended Decentralized Linear-Quadratic-Gaussian Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carpenter, J. Russell

    2000-01-01

    A straightforward extension of a solution to the decentralized linear-Quadratic-Gaussian problem is proposed that allows its use for commonly encountered classes of problems that are currently solved with the extended Kalman filter. This extension allows the system to be partitioned in such a way as to exclude the nonlinearities from the essential algebraic relationships that allow the estimation and control to be optimally decentralized.

  12. A feedback-trained autonomous control system for heterogeneous search and rescue applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Straub, Jeremy

    2012-06-01

    Due to the environment in which operation occurs, earch and rescue (SAR) applications present a challenge to autonomous systems. A control technique for a heterogeneous multi-robot group is discussed. The proposed methodology is not fully autonomous; however, human operators are freed from most control tasks and allowed to focus on perception tasks while robots execute a collaborative search and identification plan. Robotic control combines a centralized dispatch and learning system (which continuously refines heuristics used for planning) with local autonomous task ordering (based on existing task priority and proximity and local conditions). This technique was tested in a SAR analogous (from a control perspective) environment.

  13. [The decentralization of the Secretaría de Salud de México. The case of local health systems 1989-1994].

    PubMed

    González-Block, M A

    1997-01-01

    This article constitutes an analysis of the decentralization of the Ministry of Health of Mexico though the project to develop its jurisdictions to strengthen Local Health System (SILOS) implemented between 1989 and 1994. The relationship between decentralization and jurisdictional socioeconomic, demographic and resource availability differences was studied using qualitative and quantitative methods. The impact of jurisdictional strengthening on deconcentration and their combined effect on primary health care (PHC) and coverage were measured. The strengthening of technical capacity within the jurisdictions increased moderately but did not show a significant association with primary health care efficiency. However, when jurisdictions attain more autonomy, a significant association between strengthening and PHC efficiency appears. Deconcentration is a key factor to guarantee the strengthening of technical capacity and to assure that greater efficiency impacts on poverty reduction: however, deconcentration was limited due to the fact that the general strategies of the project were not differentiated according to the inequality across jurisdictions. To decentralize the Ministry of Health effectively, the federation must formulate objectives and strategies according to jurisdictional socioeconomic conditions and service need and capacity. Jurisdictions must be restructured and rescaled to improve their interaction with municipal governments, the health sector and the community. PMID:9303866

  14. Partially Decentralized Control Architectures for Satellite Formations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carpenter, J. Russell; Bauer, Frank H.

    2002-01-01

    In a partially decentralized control architecture, more than one but less than all nodes have supervisory capability. This paper describes an approach to choosing the number of supervisors in such au architecture, based on a reliability vs. cost trade. It also considers the implications of these results for the design of navigation systems for satellite formations that could be controlled with a partially decentralized architecture. Using an assumed cost model, analytic and simulation-based results indicate that it may be cheaper to achieve a given overall system reliability with a partially decentralized architecture containing only a few supervisors, than with either fully decentralized or purely centralized architectures. Nominally, the subset of supervisors may act as centralized estimation and control nodes for corresponding subsets of the remaining subordinate nodes, and act as decentralized estimation and control peers with respect to each other. However, in the context of partially decentralized satellite formation control, the absolute positions and velocities of each spacecraft are unique, so that correlations which make estimates using only local information suboptimal only occur through common biases and process noise. Covariance and monte-carlo analysis of a simplified system show that this lack of correlation may allow simplification of the local estimators while preserving the global optimality of the maneuvers commanded by the supervisors.

  15. Space station automation study. Volume I. Executive summary. Autonomous systems and assembly. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-11-01

    The purpose of the Space Station Automation Study (SSAS) was to develop informed technical guidance for NASA personnel in the use of autonomy and autonomous systems to implement Space Station functions.

  16. Space station automation study. Volume 1: Executive summary. Autonomous systems and assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    The purpose of the Space Station Automation Study (SSAS) was to develop informed technical guidance for NASA personnel in the use of autonomy and autonomous systems to implement space station functions.

  17. Decentralized Energy Studies: compendium of U. S. studies and projects

    SciTech Connect

    Quinn, J.; Ohi, J.M.

    1980-06-01

    This compendium was prepared as a part of the Decentralized Energy Studies task at the Solar Energy Research Institute. The compendium lists and briefly describes a number of studies, programs, and projects that involve decentralized energy systems. The purpose is to provide information about research activities in decentralized energy systems to researchers, government officials, and interested citizens. A contact person or address is given for each of the activities listed so that interested readers can obtain more information.

  18. An autonomous surveillance system for blind sources localization and separation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Sean; Kulkarni, Raghavendra; Duraiswamy, Srikanth

    2013-05-01

    This paper aims at developing a new technology that will enable one to conduct an autonomous and silent surveillance to monitor sound sources stationary or moving in 3D space and a blind separation of target acoustic signals. The underlying principle of this technology is a hybrid approach that uses: 1) passive sonic detection and ranging method that consists of iterative triangulation and redundant checking to locate the Cartesian coordinates of arbitrary sound sources in 3D space, 2) advanced signal processing to sanitizing the measured data and enhance signal to noise ratio, and 3) short-time source localization and separation to extract the target acoustic signals from the directly measured mixed ones. A prototype based on this technology has been developed and its hardware includes six B and K 1/4-in condenser microphones, Type 4935, two 4-channel data acquisition units, Type NI-9234, with a maximum sampling rate of 51.2kS/s per channel, one NI-cDAQ 9174 chassis, a thermometer to measure the air temperature, a camera to view the relative positions of located sources, and a laptop to control data acquisition and post processing. Test results for locating arbitrary sound sources emitting continuous, random, impulsive, and transient signals, and blind separation of signals in various non-ideal environments is presented. This system is invisible to any anti-surveillance device since it uses the acoustic signal emitted by a target source. It can be mounted on a robot or an unmanned vehicle to perform various covert operations, including intelligence gathering in an open or a confined field, or to carry out the rescue mission to search people trapped inside ruins or buried under wreckages.

  19. A stochastic perturbation theory for non-autonomous systems

    SciTech Connect

    Moon, W.; Wettlaufer, J. S.

    2013-12-15

    We develop a perturbation theory for a class of first order nonlinear non-autonomous stochastic ordinary differential equations that arise in climate physics. The perturbative procedure produces moments in terms of integral delay equations, whose order by order decay is characterized in a Floquet-like sense. Both additive and multiplicative sources of noise are discussed and the question of how the nature of the noise influences the results is addressed theoretically and numerically. By invoking the Martingale property, we rationalize the transformation of the underlying Stratonovich form of the model to an Ito form, independent of whether the noise is additive or multiplicative. The generality of the analysis is demonstrated by developing it both for a Brownian particle moving in a periodically forced quartic potential, which acts as a simple model of stochastic resonance, as well as for our more complex climate physics model. The validity of the approach is shown by comparison with numerical solutions. The particular climate dynamics problem upon which we focus involves a low-order model for the evolution of Arctic sea ice under the influence of increasing greenhouse gas forcing ΔF{sub 0}. The deterministic model, developed by Eisenman and Wettlaufer [“Nonlinear threshold behavior during the loss of Arctic sea ice,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 106(1), 28–32 (2009)] exhibits several transitions as ΔF{sub 0} increases and the stochastic analysis is used to understand the manner in which noise influences these transitions and the stability of the system.

  20. Hair-based sensors for micro-autonomous systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadeghi, Mahdi M.; Peterson, Rebecca L.; Najafi, Khalil

    2012-06-01

    We seek to harness microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) technologies to build biomimetic devices for low-power, high-performance, robust sensors and actuators on micro-autonomous robot platforms. Hair is used abundantly in nature for a variety of functions including balance and inertial sensing, flow sensing and aerodynamic (air foil) control, tactile and touch sensing, insulation and temperature control, particle filtering, and gas/chemical sensing. Biological hairs, which are typically characterized by large surface/volume ratios and mechanical amplification of movement, can be distributed in large numbers over large areas providing unprecedented sensitivity, redundancy, and stability (robustness). Local neural transduction allows for space- and power-efficient signal processing. Moreover by varying the hair structure and transduction mechanism, the basic hair form can be used for a wide diversity of functions. In this paper, by exploiting a novel wafer-level, bubble-free liquid encapsulation technology, we make arrays of micro-hydraulic cells capable of electrostatic actuation and hydraulic amplification, which enables high force/high deflection actuation and extremely sensitive detection (sensing) at low power. By attachment of cilia (hair) to the micro-hydraulic cell, air flow sensors with excellent sensitivity (< few cm/s) and dynamic range (> 10 m/s) have been built. A second-generation design has significantly reduced the sensor response time while maintaining sensitivity of about 2 cm/s and dynamic range of more than 15 m/s. These sensors can be used for dynamic flight control of flying robots or for situational awareness in surveillance applications. The core biomimetic technologies developed are applicable to a broad range of sensors and actuators.

  1. Remote wave measurements using autonomous mobile robotic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurkin, Andrey; Zeziulin, Denis; Makarov, Vladimir; Belyakov, Vladimir; Tyugin, Dmitry; Pelinovsky, Efim

    2016-04-01

    The project covers the development of a technology for monitoring and forecasting the state of the coastal zone environment using radar equipment transported by autonomous mobile robotic systems (AMRS). Sought-after areas of application are the eastern and northern coasts of Russia, where continuous collection of information on topographic changes of the coastal zone and carrying out hydrodynamic measurements in inaccessible to human environment are needed. The intensity of the reflection of waves, received by radar surveillance, is directly related to the height of the waves. Mathematical models and algorithms for processing experimental data (signal selection, spectral analysis, wavelet analysis), recalculation of landwash from data on heights of waves far from the shore, determination of the threshold values of heights of waves far from the shore have been developed. There has been developed the program complex for functioning of the experimental prototype of AMRS, comprising the following modules: data loading module, reporting module, module of georeferencing, data analysis module, monitoring module, hardware control module, graphical user interface. Further work will be connected with carrying out tests of manufactured experimental prototype in conditions of selected routes coastline of Sakhalin Island. Conducting field tests will allow to reveal the shortcomings of development and to identify ways of optimization of the structure and functioning algorithms of AMRS, as well as functioning the measuring equipment. The presented results have been obtained in Nizhny Novgorod State Technical University n.a. R. Alekseev in the framework of the Federal Target Program «Research and development on priority directions of scientific-technological complex of Russia for 2014 - 2020 years» (agreement № 14.574.21.0089 (unique identifier of agreement - RFMEFI57414X0089)).

  2. Optimized plan of centralized and decentralized wastewater reuse systems for housing development in the urban area of Xi'an, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, X C; Chen, R; Zhang, Q H; Li, K

    2008-01-01

    In an arid and water deficient urban area, such as Xi'an in the northwest region of China, gardening and forestation often use large amounts of tap water. Therefore, there is a need for treated wastewater reuse for such purpose to mitigate urban water shortage, especially in the newly developed housing area, where a high green coverage is often required for both commercial value and living condition improvement. Supply of the treated wastewater through a centralized system which has been planned and partially constructed is one measure to meet such need, but it may require an extension of the distribution system for a full coverage of the whole city area. A supplementary measure is to construct decentralized wastewater treatment and reuse (DESAR) systems in areas that are distant from the planned centralized system. In order to optimize the plan of wastewater reuse for housing development in the urban area, the authors analyzed the existing plan of centralized wastewater reuse and the envisaged plan of housing development in Xi'an urban area. A method was proposed for selection of a feasible way of reclaimed water reuse from two options, namely centralized and decentralized ones, by introducing a critical distance L0 which depends on the relationship between the cost for DESAR system installation and that for water delivery pipeline construction. If the distance from the project site to the nearest access point of the centralized system L is shorter than L0 then using reclaim water from the centralized system becomes more feasible, and otherwise DESAR system installation becomes more feasible. A distribution map was thus obtained to show an optimized plan of centralized and decentralized wastewater reuse systems for housing development in Xi'an city. An example was also given to show the advantage of a DESAR system installed. PMID:18824793

  3. The Best Path to Systemic Educational Policy: Standard/Centralized or Differentiated/Decentralized?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clune, William H.

    1993-01-01

    It is argued that the basic means-ends analysis of systemic educational policy may be mistaken in the current national context. The author agrees with the basic premises of systemic educational policy but thinks that a mandatory system of strong instructional guidance from the state has basic problems, as discussed. (SLD)

  4. Autonomic Nervous System Responses to Concussion: Arterial Pulse Contour Analysis

    PubMed Central

    La Fountaine, Michael F.; Toda, Michita; Testa, Anthony J.; Hill-Lombardi, Vicci

    2016-01-01

    The arterial pulse wave (APW) has a distinct morphology whose contours reflect dynamics in cardiac function and peripheral vascular tone as a result of sympathetic nervous system (SNS) control. With a transition from rest to increased metabolic demand, the expected augmentation of SNS outflow will not only affect arterial blood pressure and heart rate but it will also induce changes to the contours of the APW. Following a sports concussion, a transient state cardiovascular autonomic dysfunction is present. How this state affects the APW has yet to be described. A prospective, parallel-group study on cardiovascular autonomic control (i.e., digital electrocardiogram and continuous beat-to-beat blood pressure) was performed in the seated upright position in 10 athletes with concussion and 7 non-injured control athletes. Changes in APW were compared at rest and during the first 60 s (F60) of an isometric handgrip test (IHGT) in concussed athletes and non-injured controls within 48 h and 1 week of injury. The concussion group was further separated by the length of time until they were permitted to return to play (RTP > 1week; RTP ≤ 1week). SysSlope, an indirect measurement of stroke volume, was significantly lower in the concussion group at rest and during F60 at 48 h and 1week; a paradoxical decline in SysSlope occurred at each visit during the transition from rest to IHGT F60. The RTP > 1week group had lower SysSlope (405 ± 200; 420 ± 88; 454 ± 236 mmHg/s, respectively) at rest 48 h compared to the RTP ≤ 1week and controls. Similarly at 48 h rest, several measurements of arterial stiffness were abnormal in RTP > 1week compared to RTP ≤ 1week and controls: peak-to-notch latency (0.12 ± 0.04; 0.16 ± 0.02; 0.17 ± 0.05, respectively), notch relative amplitude (0.70 ± 0.03; 0.71 ± 0.04; 0.66 ± 0.14, respectively), and stiffness index (6.4 ± 0.2; 5.7 ± 0.4; 5.8 ± 0

  5. An autonomous observation and control system based on EPICS and RTS2 for Antarctic telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Guang-yu; Wang, Jian; Tang, Peng-yi; Jia, Ming-hao; Chen, Jie; Dong, Shu-cheng; Jiang, Fengxin; Wu, Wen-qing; Liu, Jia-jing; Zhang, Hong-fei

    2016-01-01

    For unattended telescopes in Antarctic, the remote operation, autonomous observation and control are essential. An EPICS-(Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System) and RTS2-(Remote Telescope System, 2nd Version) based autonomous observation and control system with remoted operation is introduced in this paper. EPICS is a set of open source software tools, libraries and applications developed collaboratively and used worldwide to create distributed soft real-time control systems for scientific instruments while RTS2 is an open source environment for control of a fully autonomous observatory. Using the advantage of EPICS and RTS2, respectively, a combined integrated software framework for autonomous observation and control is established that use RTS2 to fulfil the function of astronomical observation and use EPICS to fulfil the device control of telescope. A command and status interface for EPICS and RTS2 is designed to make the EPICS IOC (Input/Output Controller) components integrate to RTS2 directly. For the specification and requirement of control system of telescope in Antarctic, core components named Executor and Auto-focus for autonomous observation is designed and implemented with remote operation user interface based on browser-server mode. The whole system including the telescope is tested in Lijiang Observatory in Yunnan Province for practical observation to complete the autonomous observation and control, including telescope control, camera control, dome control, weather information acquisition with the local and remote operation.

  6. DualTrust: A Trust Management Model for Swarm-Based Autonomic Computing Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Maiden, Wendy M.

    2010-05-01

    Trust management techniques must be adapted to the unique needs of the application architectures and problem domains to which they are applied. For autonomic computing systems that utilize mobile agents and ant colony algorithms for their sensor layer, certain characteristics of the mobile agent ant swarm -- their lightweight, ephemeral nature and indirect communication -- make this adaptation especially challenging. This thesis looks at the trust issues and opportunities in swarm-based autonomic computing systems and finds that by monitoring the trustworthiness of the autonomic managers rather than the swarming sensors, the trust management problem becomes much more scalable and still serves to protect the swarm. After analyzing the applicability of trust management research as it has been applied to architectures with similar characteristics, this thesis specifies the required characteristics for trust management mechanisms used to monitor the trustworthiness of entities in a swarm-based autonomic computing system and describes a trust model that meets these requirements.

  7. Automated Generation and Assessment of Autonomous Systems Test Cases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barltrop, Kevin J.; Friberg, Kenneth H.; Horvath, Gregory A.

    2008-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews some of the issues concerning verification and validation testing of autonomous spacecraft routinely culminates in the exploration of anomalous or faulted mission-like scenarios using the work involved during the Dawn mission's tests as examples. Prioritizing which scenarios to develop usually comes down to focusing on the most vulnerable areas and ensuring the best return on investment of test time. Rules-of-thumb strategies often come into play, such as injecting applicable anomalies prior to, during, and after system state changes; or, creating cases that ensure good safety-net algorithm coverage. Although experience and judgment in test selection can lead to high levels of confidence about the majority of a system's autonomy, it's likely that important test cases are overlooked. One method to fill in potential test coverage gaps is to automatically generate and execute test cases using algorithms that ensure desirable properties about the coverage. For example, generate cases for all possible fault monitors, and across all state change boundaries. Of course, the scope of coverage is determined by the test environment capabilities, where a faster-than-real-time, high-fidelity, software-only simulation would allow the broadest coverage. Even real-time systems that can be replicated and run in parallel, and that have reliable set-up and operations features provide an excellent resource for automated testing. Making detailed predictions for the outcome of such tests can be difficult, and when algorithmic means are employed to produce hundreds or even thousands of cases, generating predicts individually is impractical, and generating predicts with tools requires executable models of the design and environment that themselves require a complete test program. Therefore, evaluating the results of large number of mission scenario tests poses special challenges. A good approach to address this problem is to automatically score the results

  8. Decentralized domestic wastewater systems in developing countries: the case study of Harare (Zimbabwe)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chirisa, Innocent; Bandauko, Elmond; Matamanda, Abraham; Mandisvika, Gladys

    2016-02-01

    Until recently there has been little, if any, concern over revamping let alone improving wastewater management system in Zimbabwe's urban areas given the dominance and institutionalised water-borne system. Yet, the current constraints in this system and the immensity of urbanisation in the country begs and compels planners, engineers and systems thinkers to rethink what best can work as a sustainable wastewater system. With particular reference to the ever-expanding Harare metropolitan region, this article provides an evaluative analysis on the potentiality, risks and strategies that can be adopted by Harare and its satellites in addressing the problems of the conventional wastewater management system. The suggested framework of operation is a decentralised domestic wastewater collection and treatment system which however has its own multifarious risks. Using systems dynamics conceptualisation of the potentiality, opportunities, risks and strategies, the paper seeks to model the path and outcomes of this decentralised domestic wastewater collection and treatment system and also suggests a number of policy measures and strategies that the city of Harare and its satellites can adopt.

  9. Systems, methods and apparatus for generation and verification of policies in autonomic computing systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinchey, Michael G. (Inventor); Rash, James L. (Inventor); Truszkowski, Walter F. (Inventor); Rouff, Christopher A. (Inventor); Sterritt, Roy (Inventor); Gracanin, Denis (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    Described herein is a method that produces fully (mathematically) tractable development of policies for autonomic systems from requirements through to code generation. This method is illustrated through an example showing how user formulated policies can be translated into a formal mode which can then be converted to code. The requirements-based programming method described provides faster, higher quality development and maintenance of autonomic systems based on user formulation of policies.Further, the systems, methods and apparatus described herein provide a way of analyzing policies for autonomic systems and facilities the generation of provably correct implementations automatically, which in turn provides reduced development time, reduced testing requirements, guarantees of correctness of the implementation with respect to the policies specified at the outset, and provides a higher degree of confidence that the policies are both complete and reasonable. The ability to specify the policy for the management of a system and then automatically generate an equivalent implementation greatly improves the quality of software, the survivability of future missions, in particular when the system will operate untended in very remote environments, and greatly reduces development lead times and costs.

  10. Teaching artificial neural systems to drive: Manual training techniques for autonomous systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shepanski, J. F.; Macy, S. A.

    1987-01-01

    A methodology was developed for manually training autonomous control systems based on artificial neural systems (ANS). In applications where the rule set governing an expert's decisions is difficult to formulate, ANS can be used to extract rules by associating the information an expert receives with the actions taken. Properly constructed networks imitate rules of behavior that permits them to function autonomously when they are trained on the spanning set of possible situations. This training can be provided manually, either under the direct supervision of a system trainer, or indirectly using a background mode where the networks assimilates training data as the expert performs its day-to-day tasks. To demonstrate these methods, an ANS network was trained to drive a vehicle through simulated freeway traffic.

  11. A Three Level Autonomous Software System for Increased Science Return

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, P. I.; Mancinelli, R. L.; Landheim, R.

    2005-12-01

    The development of smart science instruments for autonomous operation (on Earth or in space) has the potential to increase science return and reduce the risk of experiment failure. When researchers are confronted with unexpected data/results of the experimental test system, they must determine whether the experimental setup has failed, or scientific discovery is being made. These two classes of events could have the same time series signature. To directly address this issue, we have developed a three-level software system referred to as E3, which consists of an engineering level, an experiment level, and an executive level. Each level of the software system is designed in a modular fashion using model based feedback controllers. The same feedback control mechanism is used for each level; the model itself determines the level. To determine if failure of the experimental setup can explain the data/results, researchers run calibration tests for hardware (e.g., sensors and actuators) as well as verify that the software (e.g., controls and analog to digital conversion routines) is running as planned. If anomalies are found, then modifications are made to the experimental setup, or the anomaly is accepted as the new baseline state of the instrument. The engineering level of the E3 software system is responsible for this process. To determine if scientific discovery, as opposed to failure, can explain the data/results, a researcher tries to explain the difference between the observed and expected results. These explanations are terms of the basic processes of nature to determine the rate limiting step(s) of a complex set of processes, where the flux could be due to heat transfer, mass transfer, momentum transfer, or chemical reaction processes. Once the differences are understood, modifications are made to the software control of the experiment, as well as to the model the researcher is building over the course of repeated experiments. The experiment level of the E3

  12. Autonomous urban reconnaissance ingress system (AURIS): providing a tactically relevant autonomous door-opening kit for unmanned ground vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shane, David J.; Rufo, Michael A.; Berkemeier, Matthew D.; Alberts, Joel A.

    2012-06-01

    The Autonomous Urban Reconnaissance Ingress System (AURIS™) addresses a significant limitation of current military and first responder robotics technology: the inability of reconnaissance robots to open doors. Leveraging user testing as a baseline, the program has derived specifications necessary for military personnel to open doors with fielded UGVs (Unmanned Ground Vehicles), and evaluates the technology's impact on operational mission areas: duration, timing, and user patience in developing a tactically relevant, safe, and effective system. Funding is provided through the US ARMY Tank Automotive Research, Development and Engineering Center (TARDEC) and the project represents a leap forward in perception, autonomy, robotic implements, and coordinated payload operation in UGVs. This paper describes high level details of specification generation, status of the last phase of development, an advanced view of the system autonomy capability, and a short look ahead towards the ongoing work on this compelling and important technology.

  13. Stabilizing a multimachine power system via decentralized feedback linearizing excitation control

    SciTech Connect

    Chapman, J.W.; Ilic, M.D. ); King, C.A. ); Eng, L. ); Kaufman, H. )

    1993-08-01

    A new controller for the generator excitation system is described that uses a combination of feedback linearization and the observation decoupled state space. This creates a controller that can be realistically implemented using only local measurements, and whose performance is consistent with respect to changes in network configuration, loading and power transfer conditions. The control differs in this respect from linear constant-gain controllers such as power system stabilizers, whose characteristics can vary significantly with changes in operating conditions. The design is well-suited to a multimachine setting, in that it is not based on an infinite-bus approximation. Simulations are performed on a 38-bus reduced model of the Northeast Power Coordinating Council system and benchmarked against simulations in which automatic voltage regulators with power system stabilizers are substituted in place of the nonlinear controls.

  14. Systems, methods and apparatus for modeling, specifying and deploying policies in autonomous and autonomic systems using agent-oriented software engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinchey, Michael G. (Inventor); Penn, Joaquin (Inventor); Sterritt, Roy (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    Systems, methods and apparatus are provided through which in some embodiments, an agent-oriented specification modeled with MaCMAS, is analyzed, flaws in the agent-oriented specification modeled with MaCMAS are corrected, and an implementation is derived from the corrected agent-oriented specification. Described herein are systems, method and apparatus that produce fully (mathematically) tractable development of agent-oriented specification(s) modeled with methodology fragment for analyzing complex multiagent systems (MaCMAS) and policies for autonomic systems from requirements through to code generation. The systems, method and apparatus described herein are illustrated through an example showing how user formulated policies can be translated into a formal mode which can then be converted to code. The requirements-based programming systems, method and apparatus described herein may provide faster, higher quality development and maintenance of autonomic systems based on user formulation of policies.

  15. Scalable Distributed Automation System: Scalable Real-time Decentralized Volt/VAR Control

    SciTech Connect

    2012-03-01

    GENI Project: Caltech is developing a distributed automation system that allows distributed generators—solar panels, wind farms, thermal co-generation systems—to effectively manage their own power. To date, the main stumbling block for distributed automation systems has been the inability to develop software that can handle more than 100,000 distributed generators and be implemented in real time. Caltech’s software could allow millions of generators to self-manage through local sensing, computation, and communication. Taken together, localized algorithms can support certain global objectives, such as maintaining the balance of energy supply and demand, regulating voltage and frequency, and minimizing cost. An automated, grid-wide power control system would ease the integration of renewable energy sources like solar power into the grid by quickly transmitting power when it is created, eliminating the energy loss associated with the lack of renewable energy storage capacity of the grid.

  16. Systemic TLR2 agonist exposure regulates hematopoietic stem cells via cell-autonomous and cell-non-autonomous mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Herman, A C; Monlish, D A; Romine, M P; Bhatt, S T; Zippel, S; Schuettpelz, L G

    2016-01-01

    Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) is a member of the TLR family of receptors that play a central role in innate immunity. In addition to regulating effector immune cells, where it recognizes a wide variety of pathogen-associated and nonpathogen-associated endogenous ligands, TLR2 is expressed in hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). Its role in HSCs, however, is not well understood. Furthermore, augmented TLR2 signaling is associated with myelodysplastic syndrome, an HSC disorder characterized by ineffective hematopoiesis and a high risk of transformation to leukemia, suggesting that aberrant signaling through this receptor may have clinically significant effects on HSCs. Herein, we show that systemic exposure of mice to a TLR2 agonist leads to an expansion of bone marrow and spleen phenotypic HSCs and progenitors, but a loss of HSC self-renewal capacity. Treatment of chimeric animals shows that these effects are largely cell non-autonomous, with a minor contribution from cell-autonomous TLR2 signaling, and are in part mediated by granulocyte colony-stimulating factor and tumor necrosis factor-α. Together, these data suggest that TLR2 ligand exposure influences HSC cycling and function via unique mechanisms from TLR4, and support an important role for TLR2 in the regulation of HSCs. PMID:27315114

  17. Autonomous intelligent assembly systems LDRD 105746 final report.

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Robert J.

    2013-04-01

    This report documents a three-year to develop technology that enables mobile robots to perform autonomous assembly tasks in unstructured outdoor environments. This is a multi-tier problem that requires an integration of a large number of different software technologies including: command and control, estimation and localization, distributed communications, object recognition, pose estimation, real-time scanning, and scene interpretation. Although ultimately unsuccessful in achieving a target brick stacking task autonomously, numerous important component technologies were nevertheless developed. Such technologies include: a patent-pending polygon snake algorithm for robust feature tracking, a color grid algorithm for uniquely identification and calibration, a command and control framework for abstracting robot commands, a scanning capability that utilizes a compact robot portable scanner, and more. This report describes this project and these developed technologies.

  18. Handheld and portable test systems for decentralized testing: from lab to marketplace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faulstich, Konrad; Haberstroh, Klaus

    2009-05-01

    Emergency Diagnostics, Homeland Security, Epidemiological Preparedness and the high cost of the Health Care Systems have increased demand for affordable and mobile point of care (POC) devices with highest sensitivity, specificity and rapid time to result. We have developed pocket and brief case sized systems for point of care and field based tests based on fluorescence read-out. The core consists of battery operated, 90 gram electro-optical units with optional wireless data transfer, which have been optimized to achieve highest accuracy and sensitivity combined with simplicity of use. The robust systems have been applied to molecular diagnostics such as DNA based testing, immunodiagnostics as well as environmental monitoring and agricultural testing. Starting with the current bottlenecks of in-vitro diagnostics testing and a brief market overview, we will show commercially available portable test systems for molecular diagnostics and how we solve the current bottlenecks. We will further show battery operated handheld prototypes for DNA testing. ESE's handheld and portable testing platforms have been shown to provide sensitive, accurate, and specific results, as well as rapid turnaround. The stand-alone devices demonstrate operational and physical robustness, and they can be manufactured to be affordable.

  19. Hierarchical, decentralized control system for large-scale smart-structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Algermissen, Stephan; Fröhlich, Tim; Monner, Hans Peter

    2014-08-01

    Active control of sound and vibration has gained much attention in all kinds of industries in the past decade. Future prospects for maximizing airline passenger comfort are especially promising. The objectives of recent research projects in this area are the reduction of noise transmission through thin walled structures such as fuselages, linings or interior elements. Besides different external noise sources, such as the turbulent boundary layer, rotor or jet noise, the actuator and sensor placement as well as different control concepts are addressed. Mostly, the work is focused on a single panel or section of the fuselage, neglecting the fact that for effective noise reduction the entire fuselage has to be taken into account. Nevertheless, extending the scope of an active system from a single panel to the entire fuselage increases the effort for control hardware dramatically. This paper presents a control concept for large structures using distributed control nodes. Each node has the capability to execute a vibration or noise controller for a specific part or section of the fuselage. For maintenance, controller tuning or performance measurement, all nodes are connected to a host computer via Universal Serial Bus (USB). This topology allows a partitioning and distributing of tasks. The nodes execute the low-level control functions. High-level tasks like maintenance, system identification and control synthesis are operated by the host using streamed data from the nodes. By choosing low-price nodes, a very cost effective way of implementing an active system for large structures is realized. Besides the system identification and controller synthesis on the host computer, a detailed view on the hardware and software concept for the nodes is given. Finally, the results of an experimental test of a system running a robust vibration controller at an active panel demonstrator are shown.

  20. Autonomous mission planning and scheduling: Innovative, integrated, responsive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sary, Charisse; Liu, Simon; Hull, Larry; Davis, Randy

    1994-01-01

    Autonomous mission scheduling, a new concept for NASA ground data systems, is a decentralized and distributed approach to scientific spacecraft planning, scheduling, and command management. Systems and services are provided that enable investigators to operate their own instruments. In autonomous mission scheduling, separate nodes exist for each instrument and one or more operations nodes exist for the spacecraft. Each node is responsible for its own operations which include planning, scheduling, and commanding; and for resolving conflicts with other nodes. One or more database servers accessible to all nodes enable each to share mission and science planning, scheduling, and commanding information. The architecture for autonomous mission scheduling is based upon a realistic mix of state-of-the-art and emerging technology and services, e.g., high performance individual workstations, high speed communications, client-server computing, and relational databases. The concept is particularly suited to the smaller, less complex missions of the future.

  1. Autonomous star field identification for robotic solar system exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scholl, Marija S.

    A six-feature all-sky star field identification algorithm has been developed. The minimum identifiable star pattern element consists of an oriented star triplet defined by three stars, their celestial coordinates and visual magnitudes. This algorithm has been integrated with a CCD-based imaging camera. The autonomous intelligent camera identifies in real time any star field without a priori knowledge. Observatory tests on star fields with this intelligent camera are described.

  2. Autonomic hyperreflexia

    MedlinePlus

    The most common cause of autonomic hyperreflexia is spinal cord injury. The nervous system of people with this condition ... Flushed (red) skin above the level of the spinal cord injury High blood pressure Slow pulse or fast pulse ...

  3. Autonomic hyperreflexia

    MedlinePlus

    ... The most common cause of autonomic hyperreflexia is spinal cord injury. The nervous system of people with this condition ... Flushed (red) skin above the level of the spinal cord injury High blood pressure Slow pulse or fast pulse ...

  4. Decentralized and Tactical Air Traffic Flow Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bertsimas, Dimitris; Odoni, Amedeo R.

    1997-01-01

    This project dealt with the following topics: 1. Review and description of the existing air traffic flow management system (ATFM) and identification of aspects with potential for improvement. 2. Identification and review of existing models and simulations dealing with all system segments (enroute, terminal area, ground) 3. Formulation of concepts for overall decentralization of the ATFM system, ranging from moderate decentralization to full decentralization 4. Specification of the modifications to the ATFM system required to accommodate each of the alternative concepts. 5. Identification of issues that need to be addressed with regard to: determination of the way the ATFM system would be operating; types of flow management strategies that would be used; and estimation of the effectiveness of ATFM with regard to reducing delay and re-routing costs. 6. Concept evaluation through identification of criteria and methodologies for accommodating the interests of stakeholders and of approaches to optimization of operational procedures for all segments of the ATFM system.

  5. An Autonomous Control System for an Intra-Vehicular Spacecraft Mobile Monitor Prototype

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dorais, Gregory A.; Desiano, Salvatore D.; Gawdiak, Yuri; Nicewarner, Keith

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of an ongoing research and development effort at the NASA Ames Research Center to create an autonomous control system for an internal spacecraft autonomous mobile monitor. It primary functions are to provide crew support and perform intra- vehicular sensing activities by autonomously navigating onboard the International Space Station. We describe the mission roles and high-level functional requirements for an autonomous mobile monitor. The mobile monitor prototypes, of which two are operational and one is actively being designed, physical test facilities used to perform ground testing, including a 3D micro-gravity test facility, and simulators are briefly described. We provide an overview of the autonomy framework and describe each of its components, including those used for automated planning, goal-oriented task execution, diagnosis, and fault recovery. A sample mission test scenario is also described.

  6. Effectiveness and driver acceptance of a semi-autonomous forward obstacle collision avoidance system.

    PubMed

    Itoh, Makoto; Horikome, Tatsuya; Inagaki, Toshiyuki

    2013-09-01

    This paper proposes a semi-autonomous collision avoidance system for the prevention of collisions between vehicles and pedestrians and objects on a road. The system is designed to be compatible with the human-centered automation principle, i.e., the decision to perform a maneuver to avoid a collision is made by the driver. However, the system is partly autonomous in that it turns the steering wheel independently when the driver only applies the brake, indicating his or her intent to avoid the obstacle. With a medium-fidelity driving simulator, we conducted an experiment to investigate the effectiveness of this system for improving safety in emergency situations, as well as its acceptance by drivers. The results indicate that the system effectively improves safety in emergency situations, and the semi-autonomous characteristic of the system was found to be acceptable to drivers. PMID:23453775

  7. Robust adaptive transient damping in power systems. Volume 1, System identification and decentralized adaptive control with applications to power systems: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Pierre, D.A.; Sadighi, I.; Trudnowski, D.J.; Smith, J.R.; Nehrir, M.H.

    1992-09-01

    This Volume 1 of the final report on RP2665-1 contains two parts. part 1 consists of the following: (1) a literature review of real-time parameter identification algorithms which may be used in self-tuning adaptive control; (2) a description of mathematical discrete-time models that are linear in the parameters and that are useful for self-tuning adaptive control; (3) detailed descriptions of several variations of recursive-least-squares algorithms (RLS algorithms) and a unified representation of some of these algorithms; (4) a new variation of RLS called Corrector Least Squares (CLS); (5) a set of practical issues that need to be addressed in the implementation of RLS-based algorithms; (6) a set of simulation examples that illustrate properties of the identification methods; and (7) appendices With FORTRAN listings of several identification codes. Part 2 of this volume addresses the problem of damping electromechanical oscillations in power systems using advanced control theory. Two control strategies are developed. Controllers are then applied to a power system as power system stabilizer (PSS) units. The primary strategy is a decentralized indirect adaptive control scheme where multiple self-tuning adaptive controllers are coordinated. This adaptive scheme is presented in a general format and the stabilizing properties are demonstrated using examples. Both the adaptive and the conventional strategies are applied to a 17-machine computer-simulated power system. PSS units are applied to four generators in the system. Detailed simulation results are presented that show the feasibility and properties of both control schemes. FORTRAN codes for the control simulations are given in appendices of Part 2, as also are FORTRAN codes for the Prony identification method.

  8. Consensus algorithms in decentralized networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coduti, Leonardo Phillip

    We consider a decentralized network with the following goal: the state at each node of the network iteratively converges to the same value. Ensuring that this goal is achieved requires certain properties of the topology of the network and the function describing the evolution of the network. We will present these properties for deterministic systems, extending current results in the literature. As an additional contribution, we will show how the convergence results for stochastic systems are direct consequences of the corresponding deterministic systems, drastically simplifying many other current results. In general, these consensus systems can be both time invariant and time varying, and we will extend all our deterministic and stochastic results to include time varying systems as well. We will then consider a more complex consensus problem, the resource allocation problem. In this situation each node of the network has both a state and a capacity. The capacity is a monotone increasing function of the state, and the goal is for the nodes to exchange capacity in a decentralized manner in order to drive all of the states to the same value. Conditions ensuring consensus in the deterministic setting will be presented, and we will show how convergence in this system also comes from the fundamental deterministic result for consensus algorithms. The main results will again be extended to stochastic and time varying systems. The linear consensus system requires the construction of a matrix of weighting parameters with specific properties. We present an iterative algorithm for determining the weighting parameters in a decentralized fashion; the weighting parameters are specified by the nodes and each node only specifies the weighting parameters as sociated with that node. The results assume that the communication graph of the network is directed, and we consider both synchronous communication, and stochastic asynchronous networks.

  9. Decentralized energy studies: compendium of international studies and research

    SciTech Connect

    Wallace, C.

    1980-03-01

    The purpose of the compendium is to provide information about research activities in decentralized energy systems to researchers, government officials, and interested citizens. The compendium lists and briefly describes a number of studies in other industrialized nations that involve decentralized energy systems. A contact person is given for each of the activities listed so that interested readers can obtain more information.

  10. Decentralized control of large-scale systems: Fixed modes, sensitivity and parametric robustness. Ph.D. Thesis - Universite Paul Sabatier, 1985

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tarras, A.

    1987-01-01

    The problem of stabilization/pole placement under structural constraints of large scale linear systems is discussed. The existence of a solution to this problem is expressed in terms of fixed modes. The aim is to provide a bibliographic survey of the available results concerning the fixed modes (characterization, elimination, control structure selection to avoid them, control design in their absence) and to present the author's contribution to this problem which can be summarized by the use of the mode sensitivity concept to detect or to avoid them, the use of vibrational control to stabilize them, and the addition of parametric robustness considerations to design an optimal decentralized robust control.

  11. A Closed-Loop Hardware Simulation of Decentralized Satellite Formation Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ebimuma, Takuji; Lightsey, E. Glenn; Baur, Frank (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    In recent years, there has been significant interest in the use of formation flying spacecraft for a variety of earth and space science missions. Formation flying may provide smaller and cheaper satellites that, working together, have more capability than larger and more expensive satellites. Several decentralized architectures have been proposed for autonomous establishment and maintenance of satellite formations. In such architectures, each satellite cooperatively maintains the shape of the formation without a central supervisor, and processing only local measurement information. The Global Positioning System (GPS) sensors are ideally suited to provide such local position and velocity measurements to the individual satellites. An investigation of the feasibility of a decentralized approach to satellite formation flying was originally presented by Carpenter. He extended a decentralized linear-quadratic-Gaussian (LQG) framework proposed by Speyer in a fashion similar to an extended Kalman filter (EKE) which processed GPS position fix solutions. The new decentralized LQG architecture was demonstrated in a numerical simulation for a realistic scenario that is similar to missions that have been proposed by NASA and the U.S. Air Force. Another decentralized architecture was proposed by Park et al. using carrier differential-phase GPS (CDGPS). Recently, Busse et al demonstrated the decentralized CDGPS architecture in a hardware-in-the-loop simulation on the Formation Flying TestBed (FFTB) at Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), which features two Spirent Cox 16 channel GPS signal generator. Although representing a step forward by utilizing GPS signal simulators for a spacecraft formation flying simulation, only an open-loop performance, in which no maneuvers were executed based on the real-time state estimates, was considered. In this research, hardware experimentation has been extended to include closed-loop integrated guidance and navigation of multiple spacecraft

  12. Device-Based Approaches to Modulate the Autonomic Nervous System and Cardiac Electrophysiology

    PubMed Central

    Hucker, William J; Singh, Jagmeet P; Parks, Kimberly

    2014-01-01

    Alterations in resting autonomic tone can be pathogenic in many cardiovascular disease states, such as heart failure and hypertension. Indeed, autonomic modulation by way of beta-blockade is a standard treatment of these conditions. There is a significant interest in developing non-pharmacological methods of autonomic modulation as well. For instance, clinical trials of vagal stimulation and spinal cord stimulation in the treatment of heart failure are currently underway, and renal denervation has been studied recently in the treatment of resistant hypertension. Notably, autonomic stimulation is also a potent modulator of cardiac electrophysiology. Manipulating the autonomic nervous system in studies designed to treat heart failure and hypertension have revealed that autonomic modulation may have a role in the treatment of common atrial and ventricular arrhythmias as well. Experimental data on vagal nerve and spinal cord stimulation suggest that each technique may reduce ventricular arrhythmias. Similarly, renal denervation may play a role in the treatment of atrial fibrillation, as well as in controlling refractory ventricular arrhythmias. In this review, we present the current experimental and clinical data on the effect of these therapeutic modalities on cardiac electrophysiology and their potential role in arrhythmia management. PMID:26835062

  13. Evolution of autonomous selfing accompanies increased specialization in the pollination system of Schizanthus (Solanaceae).

    PubMed

    Pérez, Fernanda; Arroyo, Mary T K; Armesto, Juan J

    2009-06-01

    The co-occurrence of elaborate flowers visited by specific groups of pollinators and capacity for autonomous selfing in the same plant species has puzzled evolutionary biologists since the time of Charles Darwin. To examine whether autonomous selfing and floral specialization evolved in association, we quantified the autofertility level (AFI) in nine Schizanthus species characterized by a wide range of pollination specialization, revealing AFI values of 0.02 to complete selfing. An independent contrasts analysis conducted on AFIs and number of functional pollinator groups showed that autonomous selfing evolved from an ancestral outcrossing system as plants became increasingly specialized (r = -0.82). To assess whether autonomous selfing together with specialization acts as a reproductive assurance mechanism, we estimated spatial and interannual variation in fruit set due to pollinator failure in two closely related high Andean Schizanthus species differing in their specialization levels. Variation in pollinator failure rate was more pronounced and autonomous selfing increased fruit production over biotically assisted pollination in the more specialized species. Our study suggests that specialized pollination deems species more vulnerable to pollinator fluctuation thus promoting the evolution of delayed autonomous selfing. PMID:21628267

  14. On heart rate variability and autonomic activity in homeostasis and in systemic inflammation.

    PubMed

    Scheff, Jeremy D; Griffel, Benjamin; Corbett, Siobhan A; Calvano, Steve E; Androulakis, Ioannis P

    2014-06-01

    Analysis of heart rate variability (HRV) is a promising diagnostic technique due to the noninvasive nature of the measurements involved and established correlations with disease severity, particularly in inflammation-linked disorders. However, the complexities underlying the interpretation of HRV complicate understanding the mechanisms that cause variability. Despite this, such interpretations are often found in literature. In this paper we explored mathematical modeling of the relationship between the autonomic nervous system and the heart, incorporating basic mechanisms such as perturbing mean values of oscillating autonomic activities and saturating signal transduction pathways to explore their impacts on HRV. We focused our analysis on human endotoxemia, a well-established, controlled experimental model of systemic inflammation that provokes changes in HRV representative of acute stress. By contrasting modeling results with published experimental data and analyses, we found that even a simple model linking the autonomic nervous system and the heart confound the interpretation of HRV changes in human endotoxemia. Multiple plausible alternative hypotheses, encoded in a model-based framework, equally reconciled experimental results. In total, our work illustrates how conventional assumptions about the relationships between autonomic activity and frequency-domain HRV metrics break down, even in a simple model. This underscores the need for further experimental work towards unraveling the underlying mechanisms of autonomic dysfunction and HRV changes in systemic inflammation. Understanding the extent of information encoded in HRV signals is critical in appropriately analyzing prior and future studies. PMID:24680646

  15. On heart rate variability and autonomic activity in homeostasis and in systemic inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Scheff, Jeremy D.; Griffel, Benjamin; Corbett, Siobhan A.; Calvano, Steve E.; Androulakis, Ioannis P.

    2014-01-01

    Analysis of heart rate variability (HRV) is a promising diagnostic technique due to the noninvasive nature of the measurements involved and established correlations with disease severity, particularly in inflammation-linked disorders. However, the complexities underlying the interpretation of HRV complicate understanding the mechanisms that cause variability. Despite this, such interpretations are often found in literature. In this paper we explored mathematical modeling of the relationship between the autonomic nervous system and the heart, incorporating basic mechanisms such as perturbing mean values of oscillating autonomic activities and saturating signal transduction pathways to explore their impacts on HRV. We focused our analysis on human endotoxemia, a well-established, controlled experimental model of systemic inflammation that provokes changes in HRV representative of acute stress. By contrasting modeling results with published experimental data and analyses, we found that even a simple model linking the autonomic nervous system and the heart confound the interpretation of HRV changes in human endotoxemia. Multiple plausible alternative hypotheses, encoded in a model-based framework, equally reconciled experimental results. In total, our work illustrates how conventional assumptions about the relationships between autonomic activity and frequency-domain HRV metrics break down, even in a simple model. This underscores the need for further experimental work towards unraveling the underlying mechanisms of autonomic dysfunction and HRV changes in systemic inflammation. Understanding the extent of information encoded in HRV signals is critical in appropriately analyzing prior and future studies. PMID:24680646

  16. Autonomous power expert fault diagnostic system for Space Station Freedom electrical power system testbed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Truong, Long V.; Walters, Jerry L.; Roth, Mary Ellen; Quinn, Todd M.; Krawczonek, Walter M.

    1990-01-01

    The goal of the Autonomous Power System (APS) program is to develop and apply intelligent problem solving and control to the Space Station Freedom Electrical Power System (SSF/EPS) testbed being developed and demonstrated at NASA Lewis Research Center. The objectives of the program are to establish artificial intelligence technology paths, to craft knowledge-based tools with advanced human-operator interfaces for power systems, and to interface and integrate knowledge-based systems with conventional controllers. The Autonomous Power EXpert (APEX) portion of the APS program will integrate a knowledge-based fault diagnostic system and a power resource planner-scheduler. Then APEX will interface on-line with the SSF/EPS testbed and its Power Management Controller (PMC). The key tasks include establishing knowledge bases for system diagnostics, fault detection and isolation analysis, on-line information accessing through PMC, enhanced data management, and multiple-level, object-oriented operator displays. The first prototype of the diagnostic expert system for fault detection and isolation has been developed. The knowledge bases and the rule-based model that were developed for the Power Distribution Control Unit subsystem of the SSF/EPS testbed are described. A corresponding troubleshooting technique is also described.

  17. Robust Decentralized Controller Design: Subsystem Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosinová, Danica; Thuan, Nguyen Quang; Veselý, Vojtech; Marko, L'ubomír

    2012-01-01

    The paper addresses the problem of the robust output feedback PI controller design for complex large-scale stable systems with a state decentralized control structure. A decentralized control design procedure is proposed for static output feedback control which is based on solving robust control design problems of subsystems' size. The presented approach is based on the Generalized Gershgorin Theorem and uses the so-called equivalent subsystems approach to consider the interactions in the local robust controller design. The resulting decentralized control scheme has been successfully tested on two examples: a linearized model of three interconnected boiler-turbine subsystems and a linear model of four cooperating DC motors where the problem is to design four local PI controllers for a large scale system which will guarantee robust stability and performance of the closed-loop uncertain system.

  18. Territorial Decentration and Geographic Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoltman, Joseph P.

    Territorial decentration is a question of major significance to geographic educators. This paper reports the findings of a research project designed to determine the territorial decentration of an American sample of children. The primary purpose of the research was to determine if Piaget's territorial decentration stages are appropriate for…

  19. An ecological vegetation-activated sludge process (V-ASP) for decentralized wastewater treatment: system development, treatment performance, and mathematical modeling.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Jiajia; Dong, Wenyi; Sun, Feiyun; Li, Pu; Zhao, Ke

    2016-05-01

    An environment-friendly decentralized wastewater treatment process that is comprised of activated sludge process (ASP) and wetland vegetation, named as vegetation-activated sludge process (V-ASP), was developed for decentralized wastewater treatment. The long-term experimental results evidenced that the vegetation sequencing batch reactor (V-SBR) process had consistently stable higher removal efficiencies of organic substances and nutrients from domestic wastewater compared with traditional sequencing batch reactor (SBR). The vegetation allocated into V-SBR system could not only remove nutrients through its vegetation transpiration ratio but also provide great surface area for microorganism activity enhancement. This high vegetation transpiration ratio enhanced nutrients removal effectiveness from wastewater mainly by flux enhancement, oxygen and substrate transportation acceleration, and vegetation respiration stimulation. A mathematical model based on ASM2d was successfully established by involving the specific function of vegetation to simulate system performance. The simulation results on the influence of operational parameters on V-ASP treatment effectiveness demonstrated that V-SBR had a high resistance to seasonal temperature fluctuations and influent loading shocking. PMID:26880524

  20. SUMO/FREND: vision system for autonomous satellite grapple

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obermark, Jerome; Creamer, Glenn; Kelm, Bernard E.; Wagner, William; Henshaw, C. Glen

    2007-04-01

    SUMO/FREND is a risk reduction program for an advanced servicing spacecraft sponsored by DARPA and executed by the Naval Center for Space Technology at the Naval Research Laboratory in Washington, DC. The overall program will demonstrate the integration of many techniques needed in order to autonomously rendezvous and capture customer satellites at geosynchronous orbits. A flight-qualifiable payload is currently under development to prove out challenging aspects of the mission. The grappling process presents computer vision challenges to properly identify and guide the final step in joining the pursuer craft to the customer. This paper will provide an overview of the current status of the project with an emphasis on the challenges, techniques, and directions of the machine vision processes to guide the grappling.

  1. Multi-Window Controllers for Autonomous Space Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lurie, B, J.; Hadaegh, F. Y.

    1997-01-01

    Multi-window controllers select between elementary linear controllers using nonlinear windows based on the amplitude and frequency content of the feedback error. The controllers are relatively simple to implement and perform much better than linear controllers. The commanders for such controllers only order the destination point and are freed from generating the command time-profiles. The robotic missions rely heavily on the tasks of acquisition and tracking. For autonomous and optimal control of the spacecraft, the control bandwidth must be larger while the feedback can (and, therefore, must) be reduced.. Combining linear compensators via multi-window nonlinear summer guarantees minimum phase character of the combined transfer function. It is shown that the solution may require using several parallel branches and windows. Several examples of multi-window nonlinear controller applications are presented.

  2. On the Maximum Number of Periodical Solutions of a Class of Autonomous Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Raeva, M.

    2008-10-30

    The autonomous systems are investigated on a certain condition, assuming the existence of inner resonances. Nonlinear parts are polynomials of a certain class. The present article is a continuation of the last one, which was published by American Institute of Physics, New York in 2007. We are interested both in the existence and the number of periodical trajectories of the system with initial conditions.

  3. The Use of Software Agents for Autonomous Control of a DC Space Power System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    May, Ryan D.; Loparo, Kenneth A.

    2014-01-01

    In order to enable manned deep-space missions, the spacecraft must be controlled autonomously using on-board algorithms. A control architecture is proposed to enable this autonomous operation for an spacecraft electric power system and then implemented using a highly distributed network of software agents. These agents collaborate and compete with each other in order to implement each of the control functions. A subset of this control architecture is tested against a steadystate power system simulation and found to be able to solve a constrained optimization problem with competing objectives using only local information.

  4. New vision system and navigation algorithm for an autonomous ground vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tann, Hokchhay; Shakya, Bicky; Merchen, Alex C.; Williams, Benjamin C.; Khanal, Abhishek; Zhao, Jiajia; Ahlgren, David J.

    2013-12-01

    Improvements were made to the intelligence algorithms of an autonomously operating ground vehicle, Q, which competed in the 2013 Intelligent Ground Vehicle Competition (IGVC). The IGVC required the vehicle to first navigate between two white lines on a grassy obstacle course, then pass through eight GPS waypoints, and pass through a final obstacle field. Modifications to Q included a new vision system with a more effective image processing algorithm for white line extraction. The path-planning algorithm adopted the vision system, creating smoother, more reliable navigation. With these improvements, Q successfully completed the basic autonomous navigation challenge, finishing tenth out of over 50 teams.

  5. A testbed for a unified teleoperated-autonomous dual-arm robotic system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayati, S.; Lee, T.; Tso, K.; Backes, P.; Lloyd, J.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes a complete robot control facility built at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory as part of NASA a telerobotics program to develop a state-of-the-art robot control environment for laboratory based space-like experiments. This system, which is now fully operational, has the following features: separation of the computing facilities into local and remote sites, autonomous motion generation in joint or Cartesian coordinates, dual-arm force reflecting teleoperation with voice interaction between the operator and the robots, shared control between the autonomously generated motions and operator controlled teleoperation, and dual-arm coordinated trajectory generation. The system has been used to carry out realistic experiments such as the exchange of an Orbital Replacement Unit (ORU), bolt turning, and door opening, using a mixture of autonomous actions and teleoperation, with either a single arm or two cooperating arms.

  6. An intelligent hybrid behavior coordination system for an autonomous mobile robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Chaomin; Krishnan, Mohan; Paulik, Mark; Fallouh, Samer

    2013-12-01

    In this paper, development of a low-cost PID controller with an intelligent behavior coordination system for an autonomous mobile robot is described that is equipped with IR sensors, ultrasonic sensors, regulator, and RC filters on the robot platform based on HCS12 microcontroller and embedded systems. A novel hybrid PID controller and behavior coordination system is developed for wall-following navigation and obstacle avoidance of an autonomous mobile robot. Adaptive control used in this robot is a hybrid PID algorithm associated with template and behavior coordination models. Software development contains motor control, behavior coordination intelligent system and sensor fusion. In addition, the module-based programming technique is adopted to improve the efficiency of integrating the hybrid PID and template as well as behavior coordination model algorithms. The hybrid model is developed to synthesize PID control algorithms, template and behavior coordination technique for wall-following navigation with obstacle avoidance systems. The motor control, obstacle avoidance, and wall-following navigation algorithms are developed to propel and steer the autonomous mobile robot. Experiments validate how this PID controller and behavior coordination system directs an autonomous mobile robot to perform wall-following navigation with obstacle avoidance. Hardware configuration and module-based technique are described in this paper. Experimental results demonstrate that the robot is successfully capable of being guided by the hybrid PID controller and behavior coordination system for wall-following navigation with obstacle avoidance.

  7. Holarchical Systems and Emotional Holons : Biologically-Inspired System Designs for Control of Autonomous Aerial Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ippolito, Corey; Plice, Laura; Pisanich, Greg

    2003-01-01

    The BEES (Bio-inspired Engineering for Exploration Systems) for Mars project at NASA Ames Research Center has the goal of developing bio-inspired flight control strategies to enable aerial explorers for Mars scientific investigations. This paper presents a summary of our ongoing research into biologically inspired system designs for control of unmanned autonomous aerial vehicle communities for Mars exploration. First, we present cooperative design considerations for robotic explorers based on the holarchical nature of biological systems and communities. Second, an outline of an architecture for cognitive decision making and control of individual robotic explorers is presented, modeled after the emotional nervous system of cognitive biological systems. Keywords: Holarchy, Biologically Inspired, Emotional UAV Flight Control

  8. Decentralization of Management in Colleges and Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quinn, George M.

    1979-01-01

    Alfred University has developed a Management Information System intended to support decentralized management, with more decision-making responsibilities delegated to academic managers. Information systems, curriculum interaction modeling, program costs, budget preparation and planning, and a training program for academic managers are discussed.…

  9. Decentralization and Educational Reform in Florida.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pierce, Lawrence C.

    In 1973 Florida embarked on an ambitious adventure to improve the quality of public education by decentralizing many aspects of educational decision-making to the school site. The strategy incorporated a comprehensive reform of the state's school finance system, the development of a management information and accounting system, requirements for…

  10. Transition-Independent Decentralized Markov Decision Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Becker, Raphen; Silberstein, Shlomo; Lesser, Victor; Goldman, Claudia V.; Morris, Robert (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    There has been substantial progress with formal models for sequential decision making by individual agents using the Markov decision process (MDP). However, similar treatment of multi-agent systems is lacking. A recent complexity result, showing that solving decentralized MDPs is NEXP-hard, provides a partial explanation. To overcome this complexity barrier, we identify a general class of transition-independent decentralized MDPs that is widely applicable. The class consists of independent collaborating agents that are tied up by a global reward function that depends on both of their histories. We present a novel algorithm for solving this class of problems and examine its properties. The result is the first effective technique to solve optimally a class of decentralized MDPs. This lays the foundation for further work in this area on both exact and approximate solutions.

  11. System identification of closed-loop cardiovascular control mechanisms: diabetic autonomic neuropathy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mukkamala, R.; Mathias, J. M.; Mullen, T. J.; Cohen, R. J.; Freeman, R.

    1999-01-01

    We applied cardiovascular system identification (CSI) to characterize closed-loop cardiovascular regulation in patients with diabetic autonomic neuropathy (DAN). The CSI method quantitatively analyzes beat-to-beat fluctuations in noninvasively measured heart rate, arterial blood pressure (ABP), and instantaneous lung volume (ILV) to characterize four physiological coupling mechanisms, two of which are autonomically mediated (the heart rate baroreflex and the coupling of respiration, measured in terms of ILV, to heart rate) and two of which are mechanically mediated (the coupling of ventricular contraction to the generation of the ABP wavelet and the coupling of respiration to ABP). We studied 37 control and 60 diabetic subjects who were classified as having minimal, moderate, or severe DAN on the basis of standard autonomic tests. The autonomically mediated couplings progressively decreased with increasing severity of DAN, whereas the mechanically mediated couplings were essentially unchanged. CSI identified differences between the minimal DAN and control groups, which were indistinguishable based on the standard autonomic tests. CSI may provide a powerful tool for assessing DAN.

  12. Application of autonomous robotized systems for the collection of nearshore topographic changing and hydrodynamic measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belyakov, Vladimir; Makarov, Vladimir; Zezyulin, Denis; Kurkin, Andrey; Pelinovsky, Efim

    2015-04-01

    Hazardous phenomena in the coastal zone lead to the topographic changing which are difficulty inspected by traditional methods. It is why those autonomous robots are used for collection of nearshore topographic and hydrodynamic measurements. The robot RTS-Hanna is well-known (Wubbold, F., Hentschel, M., Vousdoukas, M., and Wagner, B. Application of an autonomous robot for the collection of nearshore topographic and hydrodynamic measurements. Coastal Engineering Proceedings, 2012, vol. 33, Paper 53). We describe here several constructions of mobile systems developed in Laboratory "Transported Machines and Transported Complexes", Nizhny Novgorod State Technical University. They can be used in the field surveys and monitoring of wave regimes nearshore.

  13. Small Autonomous Air/Sea System Concepts for Coast Guard Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Larry A.

    2005-01-01

    A number of small autonomous air/sea system concepts are outlined in this paper that support and enhance U.S. Coast Guard missions. These concepts draw significantly upon technology investments made by NASA in the area of uninhabited aerial vehicles and robotic/intelligent systems. Such concepts should be considered notional elements of a greater as-yet-not-defined robotic system-of-systems designed to enable unparalleled maritime safety and security.

  14. Reducing Size, Weight, and Power (SWaP) of Perception Systems in Small Autonomous Aerial Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Kennie H.; Gross, Jason

    2014-01-01

    The objectives are to examine recent trends in the reduction of size, weight, and power (SWaP) requirements of sensor systems for environmental perception and to explore new technology that may overcome limitations in current systems. Improving perception systems to facilitate situation awareness is critical in the move to introduce increasing autonomy in aerial systems. Whether the autonomy is in the current state-of-the-art of increasing automation or is enabling cognitive decisions that facilitate adaptive behavior, collection of environmental information and fusion of that information into knowledge that can direct actuation is imperative to decisions resulting in appropriate behavior. Artificial sensory systems such as cameras, radar, LIDAR, and acoustic sensors have been in use on aircraft for many years but, due to the large size and weight of the airplane and electrical power made available through powerful engines, the SWaP requirements of these sensors was inconsequential. With the proliferation of Remote Piloted Vehicles (RPV), the trend is in significant reduction in SWaP of the vehicles. This requires at least an equivalent reduction in SWaP for the sensory systems. A survey of some currently available sensor systems and changing technology will reveal the trend toward reduction of SWaP of these systems and will predict future reductions. A new technology will be introduced that provides an example of a desirable new trend. A new device replaces multiple conventional sensory devices facilitating synchronization, localization, altimetry, collision avoidance, terrain mapping, and data communication in a single integrated, small form-factor, extremely lightweight, and low power device that it is practical for integration into small autonomous vehicles and can facilitate cooperative behavior. The technology is based on Ultra WideBand (UWB) radio using short pulses of energy rather than continuous sine waves. The characteristics of UWB yield several

  15. Decentralized formation flying control in a multiple-team hierarchy.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Joseph B; Thomas, Stephanie J

    2005-12-01

    In recent years, formation flying has been recognized as an enabling technology for a variety of mission concepts in both the scientific and defense arenas. Examples of developing missions at NASA include magnetospheric multiscale (MMS), solar imaging radio array (SIRA), and terrestrial planet finder (TPF). For each of these missions, a multiple satellite approach is required in order to accomplish the large-scale geometries imposed by the science objectives. In addition, the paradigm shift of using a multiple satellite cluster rather than a large, monolithic spacecraft has also been motivated by the expected benefits of increased robustness, greater flexibility, and reduced cost. However, the operational costs of monitoring and commanding a fleet of close-orbiting satellites is likely to be unreasonable unless the onboard software is sufficiently autonomous, robust, and scalable to large clusters. This paper presents the prototype of a system that addresses these objectives-a decentralized guidance and control system that is distributed across spacecraft using a multiple team framework. The objective is to divide large clusters into teams of "manageable" size, so that the communication and computation demands driven by N decentralized units are related to the number of satellites in a team rather than the entire cluster. The system is designed to provide a high level of autonomy, to support clusters with large numbers of satellites, to enable the number of spacecraft in the cluster to change post-launch, and to provide for on-orbit software modification. The distributed guidance and control system will be implemented in an object-oriented style using a messaging architecture for networking and threaded applications (MANTA). In this architecture, tasks may be remotely added, removed, or replaced post launch to increase mission flexibility and robustness. This built-in adaptability will allow software modifications to be made on-orbit in a robust manner. The

  16. Child Abuse and Autonomic Nervous System Hyporesponsivity among Psychiatrically Impaired Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, Julian D.; Fraleigh, Lisa A.; Albert, David B.; Connor, Daniel F.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Sexually or physically abused children are at risk for neurobiological dysregulation as well as for internalizing and disruptive behavior disorders. Stress-related autonomic nervous system (ANS) down-regulation has been proposed as a sequela of abuse and was investigated in the present study. Methods: Child Protective Services…

  17. Case Studies in a Physiology Course on the Autonomic Nervous System: Design, Implementation, and Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimmermann, Martina

    2010-01-01

    The introduction of case studies on the autonomic nervous system in a fourth-semester physiology course unit for Pharmacy students is described in this article. This article considers how these case studies were developed and presents their content. Moreover, it reflects on their implementation and, finally, the reception of such a transformation…

  18. Investigating Autonomic Control of the Cardiovascular System: A Battery of Simple Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Christopher D.; Roe, Sean; Tansey, Etain A.

    2013-01-01

    Sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions of the autonomic nervous system constantly control the heart (sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions) and blood vessels (predominantly the sympathetic division) to maintain appropriate blood pressure and organ blood flow over sometimes widely varying conditions. This can be adversely affected by…

  19. Space station automation study. Volume 1: Executive summary. Autonomous systems and assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    The space station automation study (SSAS) was to develop informed technical guidance for NASA personnel in the use of autonomy and autonomous systems to implement space station functions. The initial step taken by NASA in organizing the SSAS was to form and convene a panel of recognized expert technologists in automation, space sciences and aerospace engineering to produce a space station automation plan.

  20. Development and Evaluation of an Airborne Separation Assurance System for Autonomous Aircraft Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barhydt, Richard; Palmer, Michael T.; Eischeid, Todd M.

    2004-01-01

    NASA Langley Research Center is developing an Autonomous Operations Planner (AOP) that functions as an Airborne Separation Assurance System for autonomous flight operations. This development effort supports NASA s Distributed Air-Ground Traffic Management (DAG-TM) operational concept, designed to significantly increase capacity of the national airspace system, while maintaining safety. Autonomous aircraft pilots use the AOP to maintain traffic separation from other autonomous aircraft and managed aircraft flying under today's Instrument Flight Rules, while maintaining traffic flow management constraints assigned by Air Traffic Service Providers. AOP is designed to facilitate eventual implementation through careful modeling of its operational environment, interfaces with other aircraft systems and data links, and conformance with established flight deck conventions and human factors guidelines. AOP uses currently available or anticipated data exchanged over modeled Arinc 429 data buses and an Automatic Dependent Surveillance Broadcast 1090 MHz link. It provides pilots with conflict detection, prevention, and resolution functions and works with the Flight Management System to maintain assigned traffic flow management constraints. The AOP design has been enhanced over the course of several experiments conducted at NASA Langley and is being prepared for an upcoming Joint Air/Ground Simulation with NASA Ames Research Center.

  1. Autonomic nervous system function in young children with functional abdominal pain or irritable bowel syndrome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Adults with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) have been reported to have alterations in autonomic nervous system function as measured by vagal activity via heart rate variability. Whether the same is true for children is unknown. We compared young children 7 to 10 years of age with functional abdominal...

  2. Autonomic and Apoptotic, Aeronautical and Aerospace Systems, and Controlling Scientific Data Generated Therefrom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sterritt, Roy (Inventor); Hinchey, Michael G. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A self-managing system that uses autonomy and autonomicity is provided with the self-* property of autopoiesis (self-creation). In the event of an agent in the system self-destructing, autopoiesis auto-generates a replacement. A self-esteem reward scheme is also provided and can be used for autonomic agents, based on their performance and trust. Art agent with greater self-esteem may clone at a greater rate compared to the rate of an agent with lower self-esteem. A self-managing system is provided for a high volume of distributed autonomic/self-managing mobile agents, and autonomic adhesion is used to attract similar agents together or to repel dissimilar agents from an event horizon. An apoptotic system is also provided that accords an "expiry date" to data and digital objects, for example, that are available on the internet, which finds usefulness not only in general but also for controlling the loaning and use of space scientific data.

  3. Tele-autonomous systems: New methods for projecting and coordinating intelligent action at a distance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conway, Lynn; Volz, Richard; Walker, Michael W.

    1989-01-01

    There is a growing need for humans to perform complex remote operations and to extend the intelligence and experience of experts to distant applications. It is asserted that a blending of human intelligence, modern information technology, remote control, and intelligent autonomous systems is required, and have coined the term tele-autonomous technology, or tele-automation, for methods producing intelligent action at a distance. Tele-automation goes beyond autonomous control by blending in human intelligence. It goes beyond tele-operation by incorporating as much autonomy as possible and/or reasonable. A new approach is discussed for solving one of the fundamental problems facing tele-autonomous systems: The need to overcome time delays due to telemetry and signal propagation. New concepts are introduced called time and position clutches, that allow the time and position frames between the local user control and the remote device being controlled, to be desynchronized respectively. The design and implementation of these mechanisms are described in detail. It is demonstrated that these mechanisms lead to substantial telemanipulation performance improvements, including the result of improvements even in the absence of time delays. The new controls also yield a simple protocol for control handoffs of manipulation tasks between local operators and remote systems.

  4. Modelling and properties of a nonlinear autonomous switching system in fed-batch culture of glycerol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Juan; Sun, Qingying; Feng, Enmin

    2012-11-01

    A nonlinear autonomous switching system is proposed to describe the coupled fed-batch fermentation with the pH as the feedback parameter. We prove the non-Zeno behaviors of the switching system and some basic properties of its solution, including the existence, uniqueness, boundedness and regularity. Numerical simulation is also carried out, which reveals that the proposed system can describe the factual fermentation process properly.

  5. RIACS Workshop on the Verification and Validation of Autonomous and Adaptive Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pecheur, Charles; Visser, Willem; Simmons, Reid

    2001-01-01

    The long-term future of space exploration at NASA is dependent on the full exploitation of autonomous and adaptive systems: careful monitoring of missions from earth, as is the norm now, will be infeasible due to the sheer number of proposed missions and the communication lag for deep-space missions. Mission managers are however worried about the reliability of these more intelligent systems. The main focus of the workshop was to address these worries and hence we invited NASA engineers working on autonomous and adaptive systems and researchers interested in the verification and validation (V&V) of software systems. The dual purpose of the meeting was to: (1) make NASA engineers aware of the V&V techniques they could be using; and (2) make the V&V community aware of the complexity of the systems NASA is developing.

  6. Genetic autonomic disorders.

    PubMed

    Axelrod, Felicia B

    2013-03-01

    Genetic disorders affecting the autonomic nervous system can result in abnormal development of the nervous system or they can be caused by neurotransmitter imbalance, an ion-channel disturbance or by storage of deleterious material. The symptoms indicating autonomic dysfunction, however, will depend upon whether the genetic lesion has disrupted peripheral or central autonomic centers or both. Because the autonomic nervous system is pervasive and affects every organ system in the body, autonomic dysfunction will result in impaired homeostasis and symptoms will vary. The possibility of genetic confirmation by molecular testing for specific diagnosis is increasing but treatments tend to remain only supportive and directed toward particular symptoms. PMID:23465768

  7. Collaborative experiments of small autonomous systems at the SOURCE ATO capstone experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gregory, Jason; Baran, David; Rogers, John; Fink, Jonathan; Delmerico, Jeffrey

    2013-05-01

    Autonomous systems operating in militarily-relevant environments are valuable assets due to the increased situational awareness they provide to the Warfighter. To further advance the current state of these systems, a collaborative experiment was conducted as part of the Safe Operations of Unmanned Systems for Reconnaissance in Complex Environments (SOURCE) Army Technology Objective (ATO). We present the findings from this large-scale experiment which spanned several research areas, including 3D mapping and exploration, communications maintenance, and visual intelligence. For 3D mapping and exploration, we evaluated loop closure using Iterative Closest Point (ICP). To improve current communications systems, the limitations of an existing mesh network were analyzed. Also, camera data from a Microsoft Kinect was used to test autonomous stairway detection and modeling algorithms. This paper will detail the experiment procedure and the preliminary results for each of these tests.

  8. Advances in Robotic, Human, and Autonomous Systems for Missions of Space Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gross, Anthony R.; Briggs, Geoffrey A.; Glass, Brian J.; Pedersen, Liam; Kortenkamp, David M.; Wettergreen, David S.; Nourbakhsh, I.; Clancy, Daniel J.; Zornetzer, Steven (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Space exploration missions are evolving toward more complex architectures involving more capable robotic systems, new levels of human and robotic interaction, and increasingly autonomous systems. How this evolving mix of advanced capabilities will be utilized in the design of new missions is a subject of much current interest. Cost and risk constraints also play a key role in the development of new missions, resulting in a complex interplay of a broad range of factors in the mission development and planning of new missions. This paper will discuss how human, robotic, and autonomous systems could be used in advanced space exploration missions. In particular, a recently completed survey of the state of the art and the potential future of robotic systems, as well as new experiments utilizing human and robotic approaches will be described. Finally, there will be a discussion of how best to utilize these various approaches for meeting space exploration goals.

  9. Chemokines and Heart Disease: A Network Connecting Cardiovascular Biology to Immune and Autonomic Nervous Systems

    PubMed Central

    Dusi, Veronica; Ghidoni, Alice; Ravera, Alice; De Ferrari, Gaetano M.; Calvillo, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Among the chemokines discovered to date, nineteen are presently considered to be relevant in heart disease and are involved in all stages of cardiovascular response to injury. Chemokines are interesting as biomarkers to predict risk of cardiovascular events in apparently healthy people and as possible therapeutic targets. Moreover, they could have a role as mediators of crosstalk between immune and cardiovascular system, since they seem to act as a “working-network” in deep linkage with the autonomic nervous system. In this paper we will describe the single chemokines more involved in heart diseases; then we will present a comprehensive perspective of them as a complex network connecting the cardiovascular system to both the immune and the autonomic nervous systems. Finally, some recent evidences indicating chemokines as a possible new tool to predict cardiovascular risk will be described. PMID:27242392

  10. The polyvagal theory: New insights into adaptive reactions of the autonomic nervous system

    PubMed Central

    PORGES, STEPHEN W.

    2011-01-01

    The polyvagal theory describes an autonomic nervous system that is influenced by the central nervous system, sensitive to afferent influences, characterized by an adaptive reactivity dependent on the phylogeny of the neural circuits, and interactive with source nuclei in the brainstem regulating the striated muscles of the face and head. The theory is dependent on accumulated knowledge describing the phylogenetic transitions in the vertebrate autonomic nervous system. Its specific focus is on the phylogenetic shift between reptiles and mammals that resulted in specific changes to the vagal pathways regulating the heart. As the source nuclei of the primary vagal efferent pathways regulating the heart shifted from the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus in reptiles to the nucleus ambiguus in mammals, a face–heart connection evolved with emergent properties of a social engagement system that would enable social interactions to regulate visceral state. PMID:19376991

  11. The polyvagal theory: new insights into adaptive reactions of the autonomic nervous system.

    PubMed

    Porges, Stephen W

    2009-04-01

    The polyvagal theory describes an autonomic nervous system that is influenced by the central nervous system, sensitive to afferent influences, characterized by an adaptive reactivity dependent on the phylogeny of the neural circuits, and interactive with source nuclei in the brainstem regulating the striated muscles of the face and head. The theory is dependent on accumulated knowledge describing the phylogenetic transitions in the vertebrate autonomic nervous system. Its specific focus is on the phylogenetic shift between reptiles and mammals that resulted in specific changes to the vagal pathways regulating the heart. As the source nuclei of the primary vagal efferent pathways regulating the heart shifted from the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus in reptiles to the nucleus ambiguus in mammals, a face-heart connection evolved with emergent properties of a social engagement system that would enable social interactions to regulate visceral state. PMID:19376991

  12. Transit times and mean ages for nonautonomous and autonomous compartmental systems

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Rasmussen, Martin; Hastings, Alan; Smith, Matthew J.; Agusto, Folashade B.; Chen-Charpentier, Benito M.; Hoffman, Forrest M.; Jiang, Jiang; Todd-Brown, Katherine E. O.; Wang, Ying; Wang, Ying -Ping; et al

    2016-04-01

    In this study, we develop a theory for transit times and mean ages for nonautonomous compartmental systems. Using the McKendrick–von Förster equation, we show that the mean ages of mass in a compartmental system satisfy a linear nonautonomous ordinary differential equation that is exponentially stable. We then define a nonautonomous version of transit time as the mean age of mass leaving the compartmental system at a particular time and show that our nonautonomous theory generalises the autonomous case. We apply these results to study a nine-dimensional nonautonomous compartmental system modeling the terrestrial carbon cycle, which is a modification of themore » Carnegie–Ames–Stanford approach model, and we demonstrate that the nonautonomous versions of transit time and mean age differ significantly from the autonomous quantities when calculated for that model.« less

  13. Model of human cardiovascular system with a loop of autonomic regulation of the mean arterial pressure.

    PubMed

    Karavaev, Anatoly S; Ishbulatov, Yurii M; Ponomarenko, Vladimir I; Prokhorov, Mikhail D; Gridnev, Vladimir I; Bezruchko, Boris P; Kiselev, Anton R

    2016-03-01

    A model of human cardiovascular system is proposed which describes the main heart rhythm, the regulation of heart function and blood vessels by the autonomic nervous system, baroreflex, and the formation of arterial blood pressure. The model takes into account the impact of respiration on these processes. It is shown that taking into account nonlinearity and introducing the autonomous loop of mean arterial blood pressure in the form of self-oscillating time-delay system allow to obtain the model signals whose statistical and spectral characteristics are qualitatively and quantitatively similar to those for experimental signals. The proposed model demonstrates the phenomenon of synchronization of mean arterial pressure regulatory system by the signal of respiration with the basic period close to 10 seconds, which is observed in the physiological experiments. PMID:26847603

  14. Autonomous navigation system. [gyroscopic pendulum for air navigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merhav, S. J. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    An inertial navigation system utilizing a servo-controlled two degree of freedom pendulum to obtain specific force components in the locally level coordinate system is described. The pendulum includes a leveling gyroscope and an azimuth gyroscope supported on a two gimbal system. The specific force components in the locally level coordinate system are converted to components in the geographical coordinate system by means of a single Euler transformation. The standard navigation equations are solved to determine longitudinal and lateral velocities. Finally, vehicle position is determined by a further integration.

  15. Sensor Data Qualification for Autonomous Operation of Space Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maul, William A.; Melcher, Kevin J.; Chicatelli, Amy K.; Sowers, T. Shane

    2006-01-01

    NASA's new Exploration initiative for both robotic and manned missions will require higher levels of reliability, autonomy and reconfiguration capability to make the missions safe, successful and affordable. Future systems will require diagnostic reasoning to assess the health of the system in order to maintain the system s functionality. The diagnostic reasoning and assessment will involve data qualification, fault detection, fault isolation and remediation control. A team of researchers at the NASA Glenn Research Center is currently working on a Sensor Data Qualification (SDQ) system that will support these critical evaluation processes, for both automated and human-in-the-loop applications. Data qualification is required as a first step so that critical safety and operational decisions are based on good data. The SDQ system would monitor a network of related sensors to determine the health of individual sensors within that network. Various diagnostic systems such as the Caution and Warning System would then use the sensor health information with confidence. The proposed SDQ technology will be demonstrated on a variety of subsystems that are relevant to NASA s Exploration systems, which currently include an electrical power system and a cryogenic fluid management system. The focus of this paper is the development and demonstration of a SDQ application for a prototype power distribution unit that is representative of a Crew Exploration Vehicle electrical power system; this provides a unique and relevant environment in which to demonstrate the feasibility of the SDQ technology.

  16. Autonomic, locomotor and cardiac abnormalities in a mouse model of muscular dystrophy: targeting the renin-angiotensin system.

    PubMed

    Sabharwal, Rasna; Chapleau, Mark W

    2014-04-01

    New Findings What is the topic of this review? This symposium report summarizes autonomic, cardiac and skeletal muscle abnormalities in sarcoglycan-δ-deficient mice (Sgcd-/-), a mouse model of limb girdle muscular dystrophy, with emphasis on the roles of autonomic dysregulation and activation of the renin-angiotensin system at a young age. What advances does it highlight? The contributions of the autonomic nervous system and the renin-angiotensin system to the pathogenesis of muscular dystrophy are highlighted. Results demonstrate that autonomic dysregulation precedes and predicts later development of cardiac dysfunction in Sgcd-/- mice and that treatment of young Sgcd-/- mice with the angiotensin type 1 receptor antagonist losartan or with angiotensin-(1-7) abrogates the autonomic dysregulation, attenuates skeletal muscle pathology and increases spontaneous locomotor activity. Muscular dystrophies are a heterogeneous group of genetic muscle diseases characterized by muscle weakness and atrophy. Mutations in sarcoglycans and other subunits of the dystrophin-glycoprotein complex cause muscular dystrophy and dilated cardiomyopathy in animals and humans. Aberrant autonomic signalling is recognized in a variety of neuromuscular disorders. We hypothesized that activation of the renin-angiotensin system contributes to skeletal muscle and autonomic dysfunction in mice deficient in the sarcoglycan-δ (Sgcd) gene at a young age and that this early autonomic dysfunction contributes to the later development of left ventricular (LV) dysfunction and increased mortality. We demonstrated that young Sgcd-/- mice exhibit histopathological features of skeletal muscle dystrophy, decreased locomotor activity and severe autonomic dysregulation, but normal LV function. Autonomic regulation continued to deteriorate in Sgcd-/- mice with age and was accompanied by LV dysfunction and dilated cardiomyopathy at older ages. Autonomic dysregulation at a young age predicted later development of

  17. Modulation of Cardiac Autonomic Dysfunction in Ischemic Stroke following Ayurveda (Indian System of Medicine) Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Jaideep, Sriranjini Sitaram; Nagaraja, Dindagur; Pal, Pramod Kumar; Sudhakara, D.; Talakad, Sathyaprabha N.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. Cardiac autonomic dysfunction in stroke has implications on morbidity and mortality. Ayurveda (Indian system of medicine) describes stroke as pakshaghata. We intended to study the effect of Ayurveda therapies on the cardiac autonomic dysfunction. Methods. Fifty patients of ischemic stroke (middle cerebral artery territory) (mean age 39.26 ± 9.88 years; male 43, female 7) were recruited within one month of ictus. All patients received standard allopathic medications as advised by neurologist. In addition, patients were randomized to receive physiotherapy (Group I) or Ayurveda treatment (Group II) for 14 days. Continuous electrocardiogram and finger arterial pressure were recorded for 15 min before and after treatments and analyzed offline to obtain heart rate and blood pressure variability and baroreflex sensitivity (BRS). Results were analysed by RMANOVA. Results. Patients in Group II showed statistically significant improvement in cardiac autonomic parameters. The standard deviation of normal to normal intervals,and total and low frequency powers were significantly enhanced (F = 8.16, P = 0.007, F = 9.73, P = 0.004, F = 13.51, and P = 0.001, resp.). The BRS too increased following the treatment period (F = 10.129, P = 0.004). Conclusions. The current study is the first to report a positive modulation of cardiac autonomic activity after adjuvant Ayurveda treatment in ischemic stroke. Further long term studies are warranted. PMID:24971149

  18. Nocturnal autonomic nervous system activity impairment in sickle cell trait carriers.

    PubMed

    Connes, Philippe; Martin, Cyril; Barthelemy, Jean-Claude; Monchanin, Géraldine; Atchou, Guillaume; Forsuh, Anthony; Massarelli, Raphaël; Wouassi, Dieudonné; Thiriet, Patrice; Pichot, Vincent

    2006-03-01

    Sickle cell trait (SCT) is a genetic disease affecting the synthesis of normal haemoglobin (Hb) and marked by the heterozygous presence of HbA and HbS. Some studies have suggested that SCT carriers might be prone to vascular alterations, cardiac ischaemia and arrhythmias leading, in some subjects, to sudden death. It is well known that a loss or a disequilibrium of autonomic activity are powerful predictors of sudden cardiac death. We hypothesized that SCT subjects might exhibit alterations in the activity of the autonomic nervous system that could constitute further risk factors for cardiac complications. Resting haemorheological parameters (eta(b), blood viscosity; eta(p), plasma viscosity; Hct, haematocrit; Tk, red blood cell rigidity), and sympathetic and parasympathetic indices of nocturnal autonomic activity (temporal and frequency analysis of heart rate variability) were thus compared between a group of nine SCT subjects and a group of nine control subjects. eta(b) was higher in the SCT group than in the control group while Hct, eta(p) and Tk were not different. Global variability (SDNN, SDNNIDX) and parasympathetic (PNN50, RMSSD, HF) indices were significantly lower in the SCT group compared with the control group, while the LF/HF ratio was highly increased, underlining a major sympathetic shift. The autonomic imbalance in SCT subjects was mainly related to lowered parasympathetic activity. Thus, our study suggests an additional global decrease and imbalance of autonomic nervous system activity to biological disorders of SCT carriers, that may constitute further risk factors for cardiac complications in this population. PMID:16494598

  19. System and method of self-properties for an autonomous and automatic computer environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinchey, Michael G. (Inventor); Sterritt, Roy (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    Systems, methods and apparatus are provided through which in some embodiments self health/urgency data and environment health/urgency data may be transmitted externally from an autonomic element. Other embodiments may include transmitting the self health/urgency data and environment health/urgency data together on a regular basis similar to the lub-dub of a heartbeat. Yet other embodiments may include a method for managing a system based on the functioning state and operating status of the system, wherein the method may include processing received signals from the system indicative of the functioning state and the operating status to obtain an analysis of the condition of the system, generating one or more stay alive signals based on the functioning status and the operating state of the system, transmitting the stay-alive signal, transmitting self health/urgency data, and transmitting environment health/urgency data. Still other embodiments may include an autonomic element that includes a self monitor, a self adjuster, an environment monitor, and an autonomic manager.

  20. An expert system concept for autonomous spacecraft energy management

    SciTech Connect

    Imamura, M.S.; Dietrich, E.

    1983-08-01

    This paper presents a concept for an on-board spacecraft energy management system utilizing an expert systems approach. The energy management system continuously monitors and predicts the power capability of the spacecraft power subsystem, determines the overall electrical load profile, defines necessary changes to the initial equipment timeline, and implements new mission timeline and electrical load sequencing activities with little or no ground intervention. The system is intended to not only permit continued spacecraft operation in a degraded power subsystem state due to internal or external causes, but also to significantly optimize mission operation via maximum utilization of available power. The paper discusses the present state of the art of artificial intelligence technology and why the expert system is an attractive option to automate the energy management system for high power spacecraft.

  1. An autonomous rendezvous and docking system using cruise missile technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, ED; Nicholson, Bruce

    1991-01-01

    In November 1990 General Dynamics demonstrated an AR&D system for members of the Strategic Avionics Technology Working Group. This simulation utilized prototype hardware derived from the Cruise Missile and Centaur avionics systems. The object of this proof of concept demonstration was to show that all the accuracy, reliability, and operational requirements established for a spacecraft to dock with Space Station Freedom could be met by the proposed AR&D system.

  2. A functional approach to emotion in autonomous systems.

    PubMed

    Sanz, Ricardo; Hernández, Carlos; Gómez, Jaime; Hernando, Adolfo

    2010-01-01

    The construction of fully effective systems seems to pass through the proper exploitation of goal-centric self-evaluative capabilities that let the system teleologically self-manage. Emotions seem to provide this kind of functionality to biological systems and hence the interest in emotion for function sustainment in artificial systems performing in changing and uncertain environments; far beyond the media hullabaloo of displaying human-like emotion-laden faces in robots. This chapter provides a brief analysis of the scientific theories of emotion and presents an engineering approach for developing technology for robust autonomy by implementing functionality inspired in that of biological emotions. PMID:20020352

  3. Development of an autonomous video rendezous and docking system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tietz, J. C.; Kelly, J. H.

    1982-01-01

    Video control systems using three flashing lights and two other types of docking aids were evaluated through computer simulation and other approaches. The three light system performed much better than the others. Its accuracy is affected little by tumbling of the target spacecraft, and in the simulations it was able to cope with attitude rates up to 20,000 degrees per hour about the docking axis. Its performance with rotation about other axes is determined primarily by the state estimation and goal setting portions of the control system, not by measurement accuracy. A suitable control system, and a computer program that can serve as the basis for the physical simulation are discussed.

  4. Safety Verification of a Fault Tolerant Reconfigurable Autonomous Goal-Based Robotic Control System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Braman, Julia M. B.; Murray, Richard M; Wagner, David A.

    2007-01-01

    Fault tolerance and safety verification of control systems are essential for the success of autonomous robotic systems. A control architecture called Mission Data System (MDS), developed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, takes a goal-based control approach. In this paper, a method for converting goal network control programs into linear hybrid systems is developed. The linear hybrid system can then be verified for safety in the presence of failures using existing symbolic model checkers. An example task is simulated in MDS and successfully verified using HyTech, a symbolic model checking software for linear hybrid systems.

  5. Autonomous space systems control incorporating automated maneuvers strategies in the presence of parameters uncertainties.

    PubMed

    Mazinan, A H; Shakhesi, S

    2016-05-01

    The research attempts to deal with the autonomous space systems incorporating new automated maneuvers strategies in the presence of parameters uncertainties. The main subject behind the investigation is to realize the high-resolution small amplitude orbital maneuvers via the first control strategy. And subsequently to realize the large amplitude orbital maneuvers via the second control strategy, as well. There is a trajectory optimization to provide the three-axis referenced commends for the aforementioned overactuated autonomous space system to be able to transfer from the initial orbit to its final ones, in finite burn, as long as the uncertainties of key parameters of the system such as the thrust vector, the center of the gravity, the moments of the inertia and so on are taken into real consideration. The strategies performances are finally considered through a series of experiments and a number of benchmarks to be tangibly verified. PMID:26895709

  6. An Autonomous Autopilot Control System Design for Small-Scale UAVs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ippolito, Corey; Pai, Ganeshmadhav J.; Denney, Ewen W.

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the design and implementation of a fully autonomous and programmable autopilot system for small scale autonomous unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) aircraft. This system was implemented in Reflection and has flown on the Exploration Aerial Vehicle (EAV) platform at NASA Ames Research Center, currently only as a safety backup for an experimental autopilot. The EAV and ground station are built on a component-based architecture called the Reflection Architecture. The Reflection Architecture is a prototype for a real-time embedded plug-and-play avionics system architecture which provides a transport layer for real-time communications between hardware and software components, allowing each component to focus solely on its implementation. The autopilot module described here, although developed in Reflection, contains no design elements dependent on this architecture.

  7. Development and Deployment of a Rule-Based Expert System for Autonomous Satellite Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, L.; Kronberg, F.; Hopkins, A.; Machi, F.; Eastham, P.

    In compliance with NASA administrator Daniel Goldin's call for faster, cheaper, better NASA projects, the Center for EUV Astrophysics (CEA) in cooperation with NASA Ames Research Center has developed and deployed a partially autonomous satellite-telemetry monitoring system to monitor the health of the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer (EUVE) payload. Originally, telemetry was monitored on a 24 hour basis by human operators. Using RTworks, a software package from Talarian Corporation, our development team has developed a rule-based, expert system capable of detecting critical EUVE payload anomalies and notifying an anomaly coordinator. This paper discusses the process of capturing and codifying the knowledge of EUVE operations into rules and how our rule-based system is applied in EUVE autonomous operations.

  8. A safety-based decision making architecture for autonomous systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Musto, Joseph C.; Lauderbaugh, L. K.

    1991-01-01

    Engineering systems designed specifically for space applications often exhibit a high level of autonomy in the control and decision-making architecture. As the level of autonomy increases, more emphasis must be placed on assimilating the safety functions normally executed at the hardware level or by human supervisors into the control architecture of the system. The development of a decision-making structure which utilizes information on system safety is detailed. A quantitative measure of system safety, called the safety self-information, is defined. This measure is analogous to the reliability self-information defined by McInroy and Saridis, but includes weighting of task constraints to provide a measure of both reliability and cost. An example is presented in which the safety self-information is used as a decision criterion in a mobile robot controller. The safety self-information is shown to be consistent with the entropy-based Theory of Intelligent Machines defined by Saridis.

  9. Autonomous learning by simple dynamical systems with delayed feedback

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaluza, Pablo; Mikhailov, Alexander S.

    2014-09-01

    A general scheme for the construction of dynamical systems able to learn generation of the desired kinds of dynamics through adjustment of their internal structure is proposed. The scheme involves intrinsic time-delayed feedback to steer the dynamics towards the target performance. As an example, a system of coupled phase oscillators, which can, by changing the weights of connections between its elements, evolve to a dynamical state with the prescribed (low or high) synchronization level, is considered and investigated.

  10. Autonomous manoeuvring systems for collision avoidance on single carriageway roads.

    PubMed

    Jiménez, Felipe; Naranjo, José Eugenio; Gómez, Oscar

    2012-01-01

    The accurate perception of the surroundings of a vehicle has been the subject of study of numerous automotive researchers for many years. Although several projects in this area have been successfully completed, very few prototypes have actually been industrialized and installed in mass produced cars. This indicates that these research efforts must continue in order to improve the present systems. Moreover, the trend to include communication systems in vehicles extends the potential of these perception systems transmitting their information via wireless to other vehicles that may be affected by the surveyed environment. In this paper we present a forward collision warning system based on a laser scanner that is able to detect several potential danger situations. Decision algorithms try to determine the most convenient manoeuvre when evaluating the obstacles' positions and speeds, road geometry, etc. Once detected, the presented system can act on the actuators of the ego-vehicle as well as transmit this information to other vehicles circulating in the same area using vehicle-to-vehicle communications. The system has been tested for overtaking manoeuvres under different scenarios and the correct actions have been performed. PMID:23443391

  11. Autonomous Manoeuvring Systems for Collision Avoidance on Single Carriageway Roads

    PubMed Central

    Jiménez, Felipe; Naranjo, José Eugenio; Gómez, Óscar

    2012-01-01

    The accurate perception of the surroundings of a vehicle has been the subject of study of numerous automotive researchers for many years. Although several projects in this area have been successfully completed, very few prototypes have actually been industrialized and installed in mass produced cars. This indicates that these research efforts must continue in order to improve the present systems. Moreover, the trend to include communication systems in vehicles extends the potential of these perception systems transmitting their information via wireless to other vehicles that may be affected by the surveyed environment. In this paper we present a forward collision warning system based on a laser scanner that is able to detect several potential danger situations. Decision algorithms try to determine the most convenient manoeuvre when evaluating the obstacles’ positions and speeds, road geometry, etc. Once detected, the presented system can act on the actuators of the ego-vehicle as well as transmit this information to other vehicles circulating in the same area using vehicle-to-vehicle communications. The system has been tested for overtaking manoeuvres under different scenarios and the correct actions have been performed. PMID:23443391

  12. Decentralized adaptive control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oh, B. J.; Jamshidi, M.; Seraji, H.

    1988-01-01

    A decentralized adaptive control is proposed to stabilize and track the nonlinear, interconnected subsystems with unknown parameters. The adaptation of the controller gain is derived by using model reference adaptive control theory based on Lyapunov's direct method. The adaptive gains consist of sigma, proportional, and integral combination of the measured and reference values of the corresponding subsystem. The proposed control is applied to the joint control of a two-link robot manipulator, and the performance in computer simulation corresponds with what is expected in theoretical development.

  13. [A multichannel telemetry system for autonomic neural signals, blood flow velocity, blood pressure, and ECG measurements].

    PubMed

    Yonezawa, Y; Takenoshita, M; Ninomiya, I

    1992-01-01

    A radio multichannel telemetry system has been developed for use with chronically instrumented, unrestrained, small animals. The system can simultaneously record autonomic neural signals, blood flow velocity, blood pressure, and ECG. The system is time-multiplexed and pulse width modulation (PWM)/FM device, which employs two sampling frequencies. The system is designed with 10 standard low power integrated circuits, a 3 terminal voltage regulator, and a transistor. The size is 53 x 42 x 20 mm, and the weight, including two batteries is 40 grams. The system is powered by two lithium cells, which provide 60 hours of continuous operation. PMID:1494988

  14. Autonomous Integrated Receive System (AIRS) requirements definition. Volume 2: Design and development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chie, C. M.; White, M. A.; Lindsey, W. C.; Davarian, F.; Dixon, R. C.

    1984-01-01

    Functional requirements and specifications are defined for an autonomous integrated receive system (AIRS) to be used as an improvement in the current tracking and data relay satellite system (TDRSS), and as a receiving system in the future tracking and data acquisition system (TDAS). The AIRS provides improved acquisition, tracking, bit error rate (BER), RFI mitigation techniques, and data operations performance compared to the current TDRSS ground segment receive system. A computer model of the AIRS is used to provide simulation results predicting the performance of AIRS. Cost and technology assessments are included.

  15. Autonomous antenna tracking system for mobile symphonie ground stations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ernsberger, K.; Lorch, G.; Waffenschmidt, E.

    1982-01-01

    The implementation of a satellite tracking and antenna control system is described. Due to the loss of inclination control for the symphonie satellites, it became necessary to equip the parabolic antennas of the mobile Symphonie ground station with tracking facilities. For the relatively low required tracking accuracy of 0.5 dB, a low cost, step track system was selected. The step track system developed for this purpose and tested over a long period of time in 7 ground stations is based on a search step method with subsequent parabola interpolation. As compared with the real search step method, the system has the advantage of a higher pointing angle resolution, and thus a higher tracking accuracy. When the pilot signal has been switched off for a long period of time, as for instance after the eclipse, the antenna is repointed towards the satellite by an automatically initiated spiral search scan. The function and design of the tracking system are detailed, while easy handling and tracking results.

  16. Fuzzily Connected Multimodel Systems Evolving Autonomously From Data Streams.

    PubMed

    Angelov, P

    2011-08-01

    A general framework and a holistic concept are proposed in this paper that combine computationally light machine learning from streaming data with the online identification and adaptation of dynamic systems in regard to their structure and parameters. According to this concept, the system is assumed to be decomposable into a set of fuzzily connected simple local models. The main thrust of this paper is in the development of an original approach for the self-design, self-monitoring, self-management, and self-learning of such systems in a dynamic manner from data streams which automatically detect and react to the shift in the data distribution by evolving the system structure. Novelties of this contribution lie in the following: 1) the computationally simple approach (simpl_e_Clustering-simplified evolving Clustering) to data space partitioning by recursive evolving clustering based on the relative position of the new data sample to the mean of the overall data, 2) the learning technique for online structure evolution as a reaction to the shift in the data distribution, 3) the method for online system structure simplification based on utility and inputs/feature selection, and 4) the novel graphical illustration of the spatiotemporal evolution of the data stream. The application domain for this computationally efficient technique ranges from clustering, modeling, prognostics, classification, and time-series prediction to pattern recognition, image segmentation, vector quantization, etc., to more general problems in various application areas, e.g., intelligent sensors, mobile robotics, advanced manufacturing processes, etc. PMID:21245012

  17. Autonomous sensor-transponder RFID with supply energy conditioning for object navigation systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skoczylas, M.; Kamuda, K.; Jankowski-Mihułowicz, P.; Kalita, W.; Weglarski, Mariusz

    2014-08-01

    The properties of energy conditioning electrical circuits that are developed for powering additional functional blocks of autonomous RFID transponders working in the HF band have been analyzed and presented in the paper. The concept of autonomy is realized by implementing extra functions in the typical transponder. First of all, the autonomous system should harvest energy, e.g. from the electromagnetic field of read/write devices but also the possibility of gathering information about environment should be available, e.g. by measuring different kind of physical quantities. In such an electrical device, the crucial problem consists in energy conditioning because the output voltage-current characteristic of an front-end (antenna with matching and harvesting circuit) as well as the total and instantaneous power load generated by internal circuits are strongly dependent on a realized function but also on energy and communication conditions in the RFID interface. The properly designed solution should improve harvesting efficiency, current leakage of supply storage, matching between antenna and input circuits, in order to save energy and increase operating time in such a battery-free system. The authors present methods how to increase the autonomous operation time even at advanced measuring algorithms. The measuring system with wide spectrum of sensors dedicated for different quantities (physical, chemical, etc.) has also been presented. The results of model calculations and experimental verifications have been also discussed on the basis of investigations conducted in the unique laboratory stand of object navigation systems.

  18. A unified teleoperated-autonomous dual-arm robotic system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayati, Samad; Lee, Thomas S.; Tso, Kam Sing; Backes, Paul G.; Lloyd, John

    1991-01-01

    A description is given of complete robot control facility built as part of a NASA telerobotics program to develop a state-of-the-art robot control environment for performing experiments in the repair and assembly of spacelike hardware to gain practical knowledge of such work and to improve the associated technology. The basic architecture of the manipulator control subsystem is presented. The multiarm Robot Control C Library (RCCL), a key software component of the system, is described, along with its implementation on a Sun-4 computer. The system's simulation capability is also described, and the teleoperation and shared control features are explained.

  19. Learning in tele-autonomous systems using Soar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laird, John E.; Yager, Eric S.; Tuck, Christopher M.; Hucka, Michael

    1989-01-01

    Robo-Soar is a high-level robot arm control system implemented in Soar. Robo-Soar learns to perform simple block manipulation tasks using advice from a human. Following learning, the system is able to perform similar tasks without external guidance. It can also learn to correct its knowledge, using its own problem solving in addition to outside guidance. Robo-Soar corrects its knowledge by accepting advice about relevance of features in its domain, using a unique integration of analytic and empirical learning techniques.

  20. Autonomous Integrated Receive System (AIRS) requirements definition. Volume 3: Performance and simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chie, C. M.; Su, Y. T.; Lindsey, W. C.; Koukos, J.

    1984-01-01

    The autonomous and integrated aspects of the operation of the AIRS (Autonomous Integrated Receive System) are discussed from a system operation point of view. The advantages of AIRS compared to the existing SSA receive chain equipment are highlighted. The three modes of AIRS operation are addressed in detail. The configurations of the AIRS are defined as a function of the operating modes and the user signal characteristics. Each AIRS configuration selection is made up of three components: the hardware, the software algorithms and the parameters used by these algorithms. A comparison between AIRS and the wide dynamics demodulation (WDD) is provided. The organization of the AIRS analytical/simulation software is described. The modeling and analysis is for simulating the performance of the PN subsystem is documented. The frequence acquisition technique using a frequency-locked loop is also documented. Doppler compensation implementation is described. The technological aspects of employing CCD's for PN acquisition are addressed.

  1. Evolutionary Computation for the Identification of Emergent Behavior in Autonomous Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Terrile, Richard J.; Guillaume, Alexandre

    2009-01-01

    Over the past several years the Center for Evolutionary Computation and Automated Design at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory has developed a technique based on Evolutionary Computational Methods (ECM) that allows for the automated optimization of complex computationally modeled systems. An important application of this technique is for the identification of emergent behaviors in autonomous systems. Mobility platforms such as rovers or airborne vehicles are now being designed with autonomous mission controllers that can find trajectories over a solution space that is larger than can reasonably be tested. It is critical to identify control behaviors that are not predicted and can have surprising results (both good and bad). These emergent behaviors need to be identified, characterized and either incorporated into or isolated from the acceptable range of control characteristics. We use cluster analysis of automatically retrieved solutions to identify isolated populations of solutions with divergent behaviors.

  2. An architectural approach to create self organizing control systems for practical autonomous robots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greiner, Helen

    1991-01-01

    For practical industrial applications, the development of trainable robots is an important and immediate objective. Therefore, the developing of flexible intelligence directly applicable to training is emphasized. It is generally agreed upon by the AI community that the fusion of expert systems, neural networks, and conventionally programmed modules (e.g., a trajectory generator) is promising in the quest for autonomous robotic intelligence. Autonomous robot development is hindered by integration and architectural problems. Some obstacles towards the construction of more general robot control systems are as follows: (1) Growth problem; (2) Software generation; (3) Interaction with environment; (4) Reliability; and (5) Resource limitation. Neural networks can be successfully applied to some of these problems. However, current implementations of neural networks are hampered by the resource limitation problem and must be trained extensively to produce computationally accurate output. A generalization of conventional neural nets is proposed, and an architecture is offered in an attempt to address the above problems.

  3. Space Station Freedom ECLSS: A step toward autonomous regenerative life support systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dewberry, Brandon S.

    1990-01-01

    The Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) is a Freedom Station distributed system with inherent applicability to extensive automation primarily due to its comparatively long control system latencies. These allow longer contemplation times in which to form a more intelligent control strategy and to prevent and diagnose faults. The regenerative nature of the Space Station Freedom ECLSS will contribute closed loop complexities never before encountered in life support systems. A study to determine ECLSS automation approaches has been completed. The ECLSS baseline software and system processes could be augmented with more advanced fault management and regenerative control systems for a more autonomous evolutionary system, as well as serving as a firm foundation for future regenerative life support systems. Emerging advanced software technology and tools can be successfully applied to fault management, but a fully automated life support system will require research and development of regenerative control systems and models. The baseline Environmental Control and Life Support System utilizes ground tests in development of batch chemical and microbial control processes. Long duration regenerative life support systems will require more active chemical and microbial feedback control systems which, in turn, will require advancements in regenerative life support models and tools. These models can be verified using ground and on orbit life support test and operational data, and used in the engineering analysis of proposed intelligent instrumentation feedback and flexible process control technologies for future autonomous regenerative life support systems, including the evolutionary Space Station Freedom ECLSS.

  4. Autonomous System for Monitoring the Integrity of Composite Fan Housings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Qing, Xinlin P.; Aquino, Christopher; Kumar, Amrita

    2010-01-01

    A low-cost and reliable system assesses the integrity of composite fan-containment structures. The system utilizes a network of miniature sensors integrated with the structure to scan the entire structural area for any impact events and resulting structural damage, and to monitor degradation due to usage. This system can be used to monitor all types of composite structures on aircraft and spacecraft, as well as automatically monitor in real time the location and extent of damage in the containment structures. This diagnostic information is passed to prognostic modeling that is being developed to utilize the information and provide input on the residual strength of the structure, and maintain a history of structural degradation during usage. The structural health-monitoring system would consist of three major components: (1) sensors and a sensor network, which is permanently bonded onto the structure being monitored; (2) integrated hardware; and (3) software to monitor in-situ the health condition of in-service structures.

  5. Holographic Adaptive Laser Optics System (HALOS): Fast, Autonomous Aberration Correction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersen, G.; MacDonald, K.; Gelsinger-Austin, P.

    2013-09-01

    We present an adaptive optics system which uses a multiplexed hologram to deconvolve the phase aberrations in an input beam. This wavefront characterization is extremely fast as it is based on simple measurements of the intensity of focal spots and does not require any computations. Furthermore, the system does not require a computer in the loop and is thus much cheaper, less complex and more robust as well. A fully functional, closed-loop prototype incorporating a 32-element MEMS mirror has been constructed. The unit has a footprint no larger than a laptop but runs at a bandwidth of 100kHz over an order of magnitude faster than comparable, conventional systems occupying a significantly larger volume. Additionally, since the sensing is based on parallel, all-optical processing, the speed is independent of actuator number running at the same bandwidth for one actuator as for a million. We are developing the HALOS technology with a view towards next-generation surveillance systems for extreme adaptive optics applications. These include imaging, lidar and free-space optical communications for unmanned aerial vehicles and SSA. The small volume is ideal for UAVs, while the high speed and high resolution will be of great benefit to the ground-based observation of space-based objects.

  6. Sensor Fusion for a Network of Processes/Systems with Highly Autonomous Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Figueroa, Fernando; Yuan, Xiao-Jing

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes a distributed sensor-data-fusion paradigm and theory based on a previously developed theory to model sensors as highly autonomous units. Generic procedures are defined to reason and make decisions at the qualitative level. This facilitates distribution of intelligence ( code and hardware) to the sensor level and peer-to-peer communication among sensors, controllers, and other devices in the system.

  7. Erythromelalgia as a manifestation of autonomic nervous system involvement in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Adamec, Ivan; Lakoš Jukić, Ines; Habek, Mario

    2016-07-01

    Erythromelalgia is a rare condition characterized by burning pain, erythema and increased temperature of the hands or the feet. Its etiology is not completely understood but it is believed that the underlying cause is a peripheral vascular dysfunction that leads to simultaneous tissue hypoxia and hyperemia. We present a rare co-occurrence of erythromelalgia and multiple sclerosis in a patient with autonomic nervous system dysfunction and propose a causative interconnection. PMID:27456866

  8. Fuzzy logic path planning system for collision avoidance by an autonomous rover vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, Michael G.

    1993-01-01

    The Space Exploration Initiative of the United States will make great demands upon NASA and its limited resources. One aspect of great importance will be providing for autonomous (unmanned) operation of vehicles and/or subsystems in space flight and surface exploration. An additional, complicating factor is that much of the need for autonomy of operation will take place under conditions of great uncertainty or ambiguity. Issues in developing an autonomous collision avoidance subsystem within a path planning system for application in a remote, hostile environment that does not lend itself well to remote manipulation by Earth-based telecommunications is addressed. A good focus is unmanned surface exploration of Mars. The uncertainties involved indicate that robust approaches such as fuzzy logic control are particularly appropriate. Four major issues addressed are (1) avoidance of a fuzzy moving obstacle; (2) backoff from a deadend in a static obstacle environment; (3) fusion of sensor data to detect obstacles; and (4) options for adaptive learning in a path planning system. Examples of the need for collision avoidance by an autonomous rover vehicle on the surface of Mars with a moving obstacle would be wind-blown debris, surface flow or anomalies due to subsurface disturbances, another vehicle, etc. The other issues of backoff, sensor fusion, and adaptive learning are important in the overall path planning system.

  9. Towards Autonomous Inspection of Space Systems Using Mobile Robotic Sensor Platforms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wong, Edmond; Saad, Ashraf; Litt, Jonathan S.

    2007-01-01

    The space transportation systems required to support NASA's Exploration Initiative will demand a high degree of reliability to ensure mission success. This reliability can be realized through autonomous fault/damage detection and repair capabilities. It is crucial that such capabilities are incorporated into these systems since it will be impractical to rely upon Extra-Vehicular Activity (EVA), visual inspection or tele-operation due to the costly, labor-intensive and time-consuming nature of these methods. One approach to achieving this capability is through the use of an autonomous inspection system comprised of miniature mobile sensor platforms that will cooperatively perform high confidence inspection of space vehicles and habitats. This paper will discuss the efforts to develop a small scale demonstration test-bed to investigate the feasibility of using autonomous mobile sensor platforms to perform inspection operations. Progress will be discussed in technology areas including: the hardware implementation and demonstration of robotic sensor platforms, the implementation of a hardware test-bed facility, and the investigation of collaborative control algorithms.

  10. Planning and Execution: The Spirit of Opportunity for Robust Autonomous Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muscettola, Nicola

    2004-01-01

    One of the most exciting endeavors pursued by human kind is the search for life in the Solar System and the Universe at large. NASA is leading this effort by designing, deploying and operating robotic systems that will reach planets, planet moons, asteroids and comets searching for water, organic building blocks and signs of past or present microbial life. None of these missions will be achievable without substantial advances in.the design, implementation and validation of autonomous control agents. These agents must be capable of robustly controlling a robotic explorer in a hostile environment with very limited or no communication with Earth. The talk focuses on work pursued at the NASA Ames Research center ranging from basic research on algorithm to deployed mission support systems. We will start by discussing how planning and scheduling technology derived from the Remote Agent experiment is being used daily in the operations of the Spirit and Opportunity rovers. Planning and scheduling is also used as the fundamental paradigm at the core of our research in real-time autonomous agents. In particular, we will describe our efforts in the Intelligent Distributed Execution Architecture (IDEA), a multi-agent real-time architecture that exploits artificial intelligence planning as the core reasoning engine of an autonomous agent. We will also describe how the issue of plan robustness at execution can be addressed by novel constraint propagation algorithms capable of giving the tightest exact bounds on resource consumption or all possible executions of a flexible plan.

  11. Problems in the development of autonomous mobile laser systems based on a cw chemical DF laser

    SciTech Connect

    Aleksandrov, B P; Bashkin, A S; Beznozdrev, V N; Parfen'ev, M V; Pirogov, N A; Semenov, S N

    2003-01-31

    The problems involved in designing autonomous mobile laser systems based on high-power cw chemical DF lasers, whose mass and size parameters would make it possible to install them on various vehicles, are discussed. The need for mobility of such lasers necessitates special attention to be paid to the quest for ways and means of reducing the mass and size of the main laser systems. The optimisation of the parameters of such lasers is studied for various methods of scaling their systems. A complex approach to analysis of the optical scheme of the laser system is developed. (special issue devoted to the 80th anniversary of academician n g basov's birth)

  12. Autonomous navigation system using a fuzzy adaptive nonlinear H∞ filter.

    PubMed

    Outamazirt, Fariz; Li, Fu; Yan, Lin; Nemra, Abdelkrim

    2014-01-01

    Although nonlinear H∞ (NH∞) filters offer good performance without requiring assumptions concerning the characteristics of process and/or measurement noises, they still require additional tuning parameters that remain fixed and that need to be determined through trial and error. To address issues associated with NH∞ filters, a new SINS/GPS sensor fusion scheme known as the Fuzzy Adaptive Nonlinear H∞ (FANH∞) filter is proposed for the Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) localization problem. Based on a real-time Fuzzy Inference System (FIS), the FANH∞ filter continually adjusts the higher order of the Taylor development thorough adaptive bounds  and adaptive disturbance attenuation , which significantly increases the UAV localization performance. The results obtained using the FANH∞ navigation filter are compared to the NH∞ navigation filter results and are validated using a 3D UAV flight scenario. The comparison proves the efficiency and robustness of the UAV localization process using the FANH∞ filter. PMID:25244587

  13. AI in Space: The Era of Autonomous Space Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doyle, Richard J.

    2000-01-01

    The development of autonomy capabilities is the key to three vastly important strategic technical challenges facing NASA: the reduction of mission costs, the continuing return of quality science products through limited communications bandwidth, and the launching of a new era of solar system exploration characterized by sustained presence and in-depth scientific studies, including the search for life. Autonomy will benefit future NASA missions by migrating routine, traditionally ground-based functions to the spacecraft, by directly supporting the decoupling of spacecraft from the ground through new operations concepts, by enabling direct links between scientists and the space platforms carrying their instruments of investigation, and by the closing, of planning and control loops onboard, enabling space platforms to directly address uncertainty in the real-time mission context. The talk will survey ongoing, autonomy technology development projects at NASA, many of which have been or will soon be the subject of flight technology experiments, or are already targeted for mission use. The talk will also survey the exciting suite of future NASA space exploration missions, and make the case for the central role of autonomy in achieving the goals of these bold, unprecedented missions: cooperating rovers on the surface of Mars, the search for Earth-like planets around nearby stars, asteroid and comet landers, aerobots in planetary atmospheres, and a series of missions to intriguing Europa, perhaps culminating in a submersible to investigate its putative ocean. Finally, the talk will conclude with some farther-reaching speculations on how to create properties such as long-term survivability and evolvability in future space systems, such that they will be well equipped to extend humanity exploratory presence into the interstellar realm.

  14. Autonomous Performance Monitoring System: Monitoring and Self-Tuning (MAST)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, Chariya; Ziyad, Nigel A.

    2000-01-01

    Maintaining the long-term performance of software onboard a spacecraft can be a major factor in the cost of operations. In particular, the task of controlling and maintaining a future mission of distributed spacecraft will undoubtedly pose a great challenge, since the complexity of multiple spacecraft flying in formation grows rapidly as the number of spacecraft in the formation increases. Eventually, new approaches will be required in developing viable control systems that can handle the complexity of the data and that are flexible, reliable and efficient. In this paper we propose a methodology that aims to maintain the accuracy of flight software, while reducing the computational complexity of software tuning tasks. The proposed Monitoring and Self-Tuning (MAST) method consists of two parts: a flight software monitoring algorithm and a tuning algorithm. The dependency on the software being monitored is mostly contained in the monitoring process, while the tuning process is a generic algorithm independent of the detailed knowledge on the software. This architecture will enable MAST to be applicable to different onboard software controlling various dynamics of the spacecraft, such as attitude self-calibration, and formation control. An advantage of MAST over conventional techniques such as filter or batch least square is that the tuning algorithm uses machine learning approach to handle uncertainty in the problem domain, resulting in reducing over all computational complexity. The underlying concept of this technique is a reinforcement learning scheme based on cumulative probability generated by the historical performance of the system. The success of MAST will depend heavily on the reinforcement scheme used in the tuning algorithm, which guarantees the tuning solutions exist.

  15. Astronavigation System as an Autonomous Enhancement Suite for a Strapdown Inertial Navigation System: An Evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Jamshaid

    2009-01-01

    The determination of spacecraft coordinates is embodied by a navigation solution with high degree of autonomy, high precision and reliability. The foremost requirement for the solution of this problem is a strapdown inertial navigation system (SINS), which is autonomous, reliable and jamming resistant, but at the same time, errors in SINS increase with time. Therefore, for the SINS eiror correction, astronavigation system (ANS) is used as an additional navaid. This paper considers the ANS as an enhancement source for the SINS and presents its theoretical and practical aspects. The typical ANS makes use of star-trackers which are expensive, complicated in their structure and demand a-priori definition and vigilant preparation of each onboard attitude fix. To make this system cost effective and simple, an advanced configuration employs a charge coupled device (CCD) based star sensor rigidly mounted on a strapdown inertial measurement unit (SIMU). Consequently, in this evaluation, the ANS makes use of CCD based star sensors. Simulation results are presented to demonstrate the validity of the method for improving the navigation reliability and performance.

  16. Getting it right the first time: predicted performance guarantees from the analysis of emergent behavior in autonomous and semi-autonomous systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arkin, Ronald C.; Lyons, Damian; Shu, Jiang; Nirmal, Prem; Zafar, Munzir

    2012-06-01

    A crucially important aspect for mission-critical robotic operations is ensuring as best as possible that an autonomous system be able to complete its task. In a project for the Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA) we are developing methods to provide such guidance, specifically for counter-Weapons of Mass Destruction (C-WMD) missions. In this paper, we describe the scenarios under consideration, the performance measures and metrics being developed, and an outline of the mechanisms for providing performance guarantees.

  17. (Non-invasive evaluation of the cardiac autonomic nervous system by PET)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    The proposed research addresses the development, validation and application of cardiac PET imaging techniques to characterize the autonomic nervous system of the heart. PET technology has significantly matured over the last two decades. Instrument design, image processing and production of radiochemical compounds have formed an integrative approach to provide a powerful and novel imaging modality for the quantitative in vivo evaluation of the autonomic nervous system of the heart. Animal studies using novel tracers for the sympathetic and parasympathetic nerve terminals will be employed to characterize the functional integrity of nerve terminals. This work will be complemented by the development of agents which bind to postsynaptic receptor sites. The combined evaluation of presynaptic and postsynaptic neuronal function will allow a unique characterization of neuronal function. Initial development in animal studies will be followed by feasibility studies in humans. These studies are designed to test sophisticated imaging protocols in the human heart and validate the scintigraphic findings with independent markers of autonomic innervation. Subsequent clinical application in various cardiac diseases is expected to provide new insights into the neuropathophysiology of the heart.

  18. System identification of closed-loop cardiovascular control: effects of posture and autonomic blockade

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mullen, T. J.; Appel, M. L.; Mukkamala, R.; Mathias, J. M.; Cohen, R. J.

    1997-01-01

    We applied system identification to the analysis of fluctuations in heart rate (HR), arterial blood pressure (ABP), and instantaneous lung volume (ILV) to characterize quantitatively the physiological mechanisms responsible for the couplings between these variables. We characterized two autonomically mediated coupling mechanisms [the heart rate baroreflex (HR baroreflex) and respiratory sinus arrhythmia (ILV-HR)] and two mechanically mediated coupling mechanisms [the blood pressure wavelet generated with each cardiac contraction (circulatory mechanics) and the direct mechanical effects of respiration on blood pressure (ILV-->ABP)]. We evaluated the method in humans studied in the supine and standing postures under control conditions and under conditions of beta-sympathetic and parasympathetic pharmacological blockades. Combined beta-sympathetic and parasympathetic blockade abolished the autonomically mediated couplings while preserving the mechanically mediated coupling. Selective autonomic blockade and postural changes also altered the couplings in a manner consistent with known physiological mechanisms. System identification is an "inverse-modeling" technique that provides a means for creating a closed-loop model of cardiovascular regulation for an individual subject without altering the underlying physiological control mechanisms.

  19. Response of Autonomic Nervous System to Body Positions:

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Aiguo; Gonnella, G.; Federici, A.; Stramaglia, S.; Simone, F.; Zenzola, A.; Santostasi, R.

    Two mathematical methods, the Fourier and wavelet transforms, were used to study the short term cardiovascular control system. Time series, picked from electrocardiogram and arterial blood pressure lasting 6 minutes, were analyzed in supine position (SUP), during the first (HD1) and the second parts (HD2) of 90° head down tilt, and during recovery (REC). The wavelet transform was performed using the Haar function of period T=2j (j=1,2,...,6) to obtain wavelet coefficients. Power spectra components were analyzed within three bands, VLF (0.003-0.04), LF (0.04-0.15) and HF (0.15-0.4) with the frequency unit cycle/interval. Wavelet transform demonstrated a higher discrimination among all analyzed periods than the Fourier transform. For the Fourier analysis, the LF of R-R intervals and VLF of systolic blood pressure show more evident difference for different body positions. For the wavelet analysis, the systolic blood pressures show much more evident differences than the R-R intervals. This study suggests a difference in the response of the vessels and the heart to different body positions. The partial dissociation between VLF and LF results is a physiologically relevant finding of this work.

  20. Autonomous Integrated Receive System (AIRS) requirements definition. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chie, C. M.; Lindsey, W. C.

    1984-08-01

    Distributed processing in the design and operation of the augmented TDRSS and the succeeding TDAS in the 1990's is discussed with the emphasis on the development of the autonomous integrated receive system (AIRS) for the operation of the S-band single access (SSA) return link in the White Sands ground terminal. This receive system has the capability of self configuration, real-time operation, and self diagnostic. The tasks of Doppler correction, demodulation, detection, and decoding are performed in an integrated manner where useful information are shared and used by ALL portions of AIRS performing these tasks. Operating modes, maintenance, system architecture, and performance characteristics are described.

  1. Autonomous Integrated Receive System (AIRS) requirements definition. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chie, C. M.; Lindsey, W. C.

    1984-01-01

    Distributed processing in the design and operation of the augmented TDRSS and the succeeding TDAS in the 1990's is discussed with the emphasis on the development of the autonomous integrated receive system (AIRS) for the operation of the S-band single access (SSA) return link in the White Sands ground terminal. This receive system has the capability of self configuration, real-time operation, and self diagnostic. The tasks of Doppler correction, demodulation, detection, and decoding are performed in an integrated manner where useful information are shared and used by ALL portions of AIRS performing these tasks. Operating modes, maintenance, system architecture, and performance characteristics are described.

  2. Immune systems are not just for making you feel better: they are for controlling autonomous robots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenblum, Mark

    2005-05-01

    The typical algorithm for robot autonomous navigation in off-road complex environments involves building a 3D map of the robot's surrounding environment using a 3D sensing modality such as stereo vision or active laser scanning, and generating an instantaneous plan to navigate around hazards. Although there has been steady progress using these methods, these systems suffer from several limitations that cannot be overcome with 3D sensing and planning alone. Geometric sensing alone has no ability to distinguish between compressible and non-compressible materials. As a result, these systems have difficulty in heavily vegetated environments and require sensitivity adjustments across different terrain types. On the planning side, these systems have no ability to learn from their mistakes and avoid problematic environmental situations on subsequent encounters. We have implemented an adaptive terrain classification system based on the Artificial Immune System (AIS) computational model, which is loosely based on the biological immune system, that combines various forms of imaging sensor inputs to produce a "feature labeled" image of the scene categorizing areas as benign or detrimental for autonomous robot navigation. Because of the qualities of the AIS computation model, the resulting system will be able to learn and adapt on its own through interaction with the environment by modifying its interpretation of the sensor data. The feature labeled results from the AIS analysis are inserted into a map and can then be used by a planner to generate a safe route to a goal point. The coupling of diverse visual cues with the malleable AIS computational model will lead to autonomous robotic ground vehicles that require less human intervention for deployment in novel environments and more robust operation as a result of the system's ability to improve its performance through interaction with the environment.

  3. Potential Interactions between the Autonomic Nervous System and Higher Level Functions in Neurological and Neuropsychiatric Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Bassi, Andrea; Bozzali, Marco

    2015-01-01

    The autonomic nervous system (ANS) maintains the internal homeostasis by continuously interacting with other brain structures. Its failure is commonly observed in many neurological and neuropsychiatric disorders, including neurodegenerative and vascular brain diseases, spinal cord injury, and peripheral neuropathies. Despite the different underlying pathophysiological mechanisms, ANS failure associates with various forms of higher level dysfunctions, and may also negatively impact on patients’ clinical outcome. In this review, we will discuss potential relationships between ANS and higher level dysfunctions in a selection of neurological and neuropsychiatric disorders. In particular, we will focus on the effect of a documented fall in blood pressure fulfilling the criteria for orthostatic hypotension and/or autonomic-reflex impairment on cognitive performances. Some evidence supports the hypothesis that cardiovascular autonomic failure may play a negative prognostic role in most neurological disorders. Despite a clear causal relationship between ANS involvement and higher level dysfunctions that is still controversial, this might have implications for neuro-rehabilitation strategies aimed at improving patients’ clinical outcome. PMID:26388831

  4. Effects of subthalamic nucleus stimulation and levodopa on the autonomic nervous system in Parkinson's disease

    PubMed Central

    Ludwig, Janne; Remien, Piet; Guballa, Christoph; Binder, Andreas; Binder, Sabine; Schattschneider, Jörn; Herzog, Jan; Volkmann, Jens; Deuschl, Günther; Wasner, Gunnar; Baron, Ralf

    2007-01-01

    Dysfunctions of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) are common in Parkinson's disease (PD). Regarding motor disability, deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) is an effective treatment option in long lasting PD. The aims of this study were to examine whether STN stimulation has an influence on functions of the ANS and to compare these effects to those induced by levodopa. Blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) during rest and orthostatic conditions, HR variability (HRV) and breathing‐induced cutaneous sympathetic vasoconstriction (CVC) were tested in 14 PD patients treated with STN stimulation during “ON” and “OFF” condition of the stimulator. The effects of a single dose of levodopa on ANS were tested in 15 PD patients without DBS. STN stimulation had no influence on cardiovascular ANS functions, whereas CVC was significantly increased. In contrast, levodopa significantly lowered BP and HR at rest and enhanced orthostatic hypotension. Further, HRV, skin perfusion and temperature increased after administration of levodopa. Our results suggest that in contrast to levodopa, STN stimulation has only minor effects on autonomic functions. Since less pharmacotherapy is needed after STN stimulation, reduced levodopa intake results in relative improvement of autonomic function in deep brain stimulated PD patients. PMID:17371906

  5. Depletion of catecholaminergic neurons of the rostral ventrolateral medulla in multiple systems atrophy with autonomic failure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benarroch, E. E.; Smithson, I. L.; Low, P. A.; Parisi, J. E.

    1998-01-01

    The ventrolateral portion of the intermediate reticular formation of the medulla (ventrolateral medulla, VLM), including the C1/A1 groups of catecholaminergic neurons, is thought to be involved in control of sympathetic cardiovascular outflow, cardiorespiratory interactions, and reflex control of vasopressin release. As all these functions are affected in patients with multiple systems atrophy (MSA) with autonomic failure, we sought to test the hypothesis that catecholaminergic (tyrosine hydroxylase [TH]-positive) neurons of the VLM are depleted in these patients. Medullas were obtained at autopsy from 4 patients with MSA with prominent autonomic failure and 5 patients with no neurological disease. Patients with MSA had laboratory evidence of severe adrenergic sudomotor and cardiovagal failure. Tissue was immersion fixed in 2% paraformaldehyde at 4 degrees C for 24 hours and cut into 1-cm blocks in the coronal plane from throughout the medulla. Serial 50-microm sections were collected and one section every 300 microm was stained for TH. There was a pronounced depletion of TH neurons in the rostral VLM in all cases of MSA. There was also significant reduction of TH neurons in the caudal VLM in 3 MSA patients compared with 3 control subjects. In 2 MSA cases and in 2 control subjects, the thoracic spinal cord was available for study. There was also depletion of TH fibers and sympathetic preganglionic neurons (SPNs) in the 2 MSA cases examined. Thus, depletion of catecholaminergic neurons in the VLM may provide a substrate for some of the autonomic and endocrine manifestations of MSA.

  6. Symptoms associated with orthostatic hypotension in pure autonomic failure and multiple system atrophy.

    PubMed

    Mathias, C J; Mallipeddi, R; Bleasdale-Barr, K

    1999-10-01

    The symptoms caused by or relating to orthostatic hypotension (over 20 mmHg systolic blood pressure) were evaluated using a questionnaire in 72 patients with primary chronic autonomic failure, 32 of whom had pure autonomic failure (PAF, and 40 multiple system atrophy (MSA). The most common posturally related symptoms were dizziness (84% PAF, 83% MSA), syncope (91% PAF, 45% MSA), visual disturbances (75% PAF, 53% MSA) and suboccipital/paracervical 'coat-hanger' neck pain (8 l% PAF, 53% MSA). Chest pain occurred mainly in patients with PAF (44% PAF, 13% MSA). Improvement occurred with sitting or lying flat. Non-specific symptoms (weakness, lethargy and fatigue) were common in both groups (91% PAF, 85% MSA); six patients (one PAF, five MSA) had these symptoms only. Postural symptoms (mainly dizziness and neck pain) were worse in the morning and with warm temperature, straining, exertion, arm movements and food ingestion; they were more common in PAF. Compensatory autonomic symptoms, such as palpitations and sweating, did not occur in either group. In conclusion, orthostatic hypotension caused symptoms of cerebral hypoperfusion (syncope, dizziness and visual disturbances); neck pain, presumably due to muscle hypoperfusion, also occurred frequently. These symptoms were exacerbated by various factors in daily life and were relieved by returning to the horizontal. Non-specific symptoms (such as fatigue) also were common. In MSA, despite substantial orthostatic hypotension, fewer patients had syncope, visual disturbance and neck pain; the reasons for this are unclear. Lack of these features does not exclude the need to assess and investigate orthostatic hypotension and possible autonomic failure. PMID:10552235

  7. Powered low cost autonomous attack system: a network-centric munition concept demonstration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savage, James C.; O'Neal, John K.; Brown, Robert A.

    2006-05-01

    The Powered Low Cost Autonomous Attack System (PLOCAAS) is an Air Force Research Laboratory Munitions Directorate Advanced Technology Demonstration (ATD) program. The PLOCAAS objective is to demonstrate a suite of technologies in an affordable miniature munition to autonomously search, detect, identify, attack and destroy ground mobile targets of military interest. PLOCAAS incorporates a solid state Laser Detection and Ranging (LADAR) seeker and Autonomous Target Acquisition (ATA) algorithms, miniature turbojet engine, multi-mode warhead, and an integrated INS/GPS into a 36" long, high lift-to-drag ratio airframe. Together, these technologies provide standoff beyond terminal defenses, wide area search capability, and high probability of target report with low false target attack rate with high loadouts. Four LADAR seeker captive flight tests provided the sequestered data for robust Air Force ATA algorithm performance assessment. During Part I of the ATD, three successful free-flight tests were completed in which the LADAR seeker and Autonomous Target Acquisition (ATA) algorithms have detected, acquired, identified, and tracked ground mobile targets. Part II of the ATD demonstrated the ability to redirect the munition post release via a commercial satellite datalink. In addition to summarizing all program accomplishments, this paper will present results and lessons learned from Part II of the ATD. Part II's objective was to demonstrate the military utility of a two- ay data-link. The data-link allows an Operator-In-The-Loop (OITL) to monitor and control multiple cooperative, wide-area-search munitions and enables these munitions to serve as non-traditional Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance (ISR) assets in a networkcentric environment.

  8. Autonomic nervous system activity assessment by heart rate variability in experimental bladder outlet obstruction.

    PubMed

    Dobrek, Łukasz; Baranowska, Agnieszka; Skowron, Beata; Thor, Piotr J

    2013-01-01

    A syndrome with urgency, with or without associated urine incontinence and usually accompanied by higher urinary frequency and nocturia has been named "overactive bladder; OAB". OAB is an entity with complex pathophysiology, involving both myogenic and neurogenic (afferent / efferent bladder innervation) disturbances. OAB symptoms accompany benign prostatic hypertrophy--BPH ("obstructive OAB"). The aim of the study was to estimate the autonomic nervous system activity (ANS) in the experimental bladder outlet obstruction (BOO) which was an animal model of the human BPH. The study was conducted using 30 female rats, divided into two groups: BOO animals (n=15), with surgically induced BOO (by partial ligation of the proximal urethra) and control ones (n=15), which underwent sham procedure (without urethral ligation). Two weeks after the surgery, in both groups, ANS activity was estimated using time- and spectral analysis of the heart rate variability recordings. The bladder overactivity in BOO animals was confirmed using urodynamic recordings and bladder histological assessment, juxtaposed against the results of the control group. The key finding of our study was the development of autonomic disturbances in bladder outlet obstruction (BOO) rats. Our study revealed that BOO animals were characterised by diminished rMSSD and spectral HRV parameters: TP, LF and HF, in comparison with the control group. The normalised nLF and nHF parameters did not differ significantly in both groups, although slight changes in the nLF (increased) and nHF (decreased) were noted in BOO group. The absolute VLF value was almost the same in both studied populations, however, the percentage part of this component in the appropriate HRV spectrum differed considerably in both studied groups. In BOO animals, VLF percentage amounted to about 90%, whereas in control animals this parameter reached only about 53% of the total power spectrum. Thus, to sum up, our findings suggest autonomic imbalance

  9. Light-powered autonomous and directional molecular motion of a dissipative self-assembling system.

    PubMed

    Ragazzon, Giulio; Baroncini, Massimo; Silvi, Serena; Venturi, Margherita; Credi, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Biomolecular motors convert energy into directed motion and operate away from thermal equilibrium. The development of dynamic chemical systems that exploit dissipative (non-equilibrium) processes is a challenge in supramolecular chemistry and a premise for the realization of artificial nanoscale motors. Here, we report the relative unidirectional transit of a non-symmetric molecular axle through a macrocycle powered solely by light. The molecular machine rectifies Brownian fluctuations by energy and information ratchet mechanisms and can repeat its working cycle under photostationary conditions. The system epitomizes the conceptual and practical elements forming the basis of autonomous light-powered directed motion with a minimalist molecular design. PMID:25420035

  10. Autonomous satellite orbit determination during the development phases of the global positioning system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunham, J. B.

    1980-01-01

    An onboard navigation system was developed to aid the design and evaluation of algorithms used in autonomous satellite navigation with Global Positioning System (GPS) data. The performance of the algorithms designed for a GPS Receiver/Processor Assembly (R/PA) intended for LANDSAT-D was investigated during the development phases of the GPS (four to six satellites in the constellation). This evaluation emphasized the effects on the orbit determination accuracy of the expected user clock errors, GPS satellite visibility, force model approximations, and state and covariance propagation approximations. Results are presented giving the sensitivity of orbit determination accuracy to these constraints.

  11. Examination of sludge accumulation rates and sludge characteristics for a decentralized community wastewater treatment systems with individual primary clarifier tanks located in Wardsville (Ontario, Canada).

    PubMed

    Lossing, Heather; Champagne, Pascale; McLellan, P James

    2010-01-01

    In conventional septic systems, settling and partial treatment via anaerobic digestion occurs in the septic tank. One of the byproducts of solids separation in the septic tank is a semi-liquid material known as septage, which must be periodically pumped out. Septage includes the liquid portion within the tank, as well as the sludge that settles at the bottom of the tank and the scum that floats to the surface of the liquid layer. A number of factors can influence septage characteristics, as well as the sludge and scum accumulation rates within the tank. This paper presents the results of a 2007 field sampling study conducted in Wardsville (Ontario, Canada). The field study examined 29 individual residential two-chamber septic tanks in a community serviced by a decentralized wastewater treatment system in operation for approximately 7 years without septage removal. The field investigation provided a comprehensive data set that allowed for statistical analysis of the data to assess the more critical factors influencing solids accumulation rates within each of the clarifier chambers. With this data, a number of predictive models were developed using water usage data for each residence as an explanatory variable. PMID:21123926

  12. Flocking algorithm for autonomous flying robots.

    PubMed

    Virágh, Csaba; Vásárhelyi, Gábor; Tarcai, Norbert; Szörényi, Tamás; Somorjai, Gergő; Nepusz, Tamás; Vicsek, Tamás

    2014-06-01

    Animal swarms displaying a variety of typical flocking patterns would not exist without the underlying safe, optimal and stable dynamics of the individuals. The emergence of these universal patterns can be efficiently reconstructed with agent-based models. If we want to reproduce these patterns with artificial systems, such as autonomous aerial robots, agent-based models can also be used in their control algorithms. However, finding the proper algorithms and thus understanding the essential characteristics of the emergent collective behaviour requires thorough and realistic modeling of the robot and also the environment. In this paper, we first present an abstract mathematical model of an autonomous flying robot. The model takes into account several realistic features, such as time delay and locality of communication, inaccuracy of the on-board sensors and inertial effects. We present two decentralized control algorithms. One is based on a simple self-propelled flocking model of animal collective motion, the other is a collective target tracking algorithm. Both algorithms contain a viscous friction-like term, which aligns the velocities of neighbouring agents parallel to each other. We show that this term can be essential for reducing the inherent instabilities of such a noisy and delayed realistic system. We discuss simulation results on the stability of the control algorithms, and perform real experiments to show the applicability of the algorithms on a group of autonomous quadcopters. In our case, bio-inspiration works in two ways. On the one hand, the whole idea of trying to build and control a swarm of robots comes from the observation that birds tend to flock to optimize their behaviour as a group. On the other hand, by using a realistic simulation framework and studying the group behaviour of autonomous robots we can learn about the major factors influencing the flight of bird flocks. PMID:24852272

  13. The autonomic laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Low, P. A.; Opfer-Gehrking, T. L.

    1999-01-01

    The autonomic nervous system can now be studied quantitatively, noninvasively, and reproducibly in a clinical autonomic laboratory. The approach at the Mayo Clinic is to study the postganglionic sympathetic nerve fibers of peripheral nerve (using the quantitative sudomotor axon reflex test [QSART]), the parasympathetic nerves to the heart (cardiovagal tests), and the regulation of blood pressure by the baroreflexes (adrenergic tests). Patient preparation is extremely important, since the state of the patient influences the results of autonomic function tests. The autonomic technologist in this evolving field needs to have a solid core of knowledge of autonomic physiology and autonomic function tests, followed by training in the performance of these tests in a standardized fashion. The range and utilization of tests of autonomic function will likely continue to evolve.

  14. Pure Autonomic Failure.

    PubMed

    Thaisetthawatkul, Pariwat

    2016-08-01

    Pure autonomic failure (PAF) is a rare sporadic neurodegenerative autonomic disorder characterized by slowly progressive pan autonomic failure without other features of neurologic dysfunctions. The main clinical symptoms result from neurogenic orthostatic hypotension and urinary and gastrointestinal autonomic dysfunctions. Autonomic failure in PAF is caused by neuronal degeneration of pre- and postganglionic sympathetic and parasympathetic neurons in the thoracic spinal cord and paravertebral autonomic ganglia. The presence of Lewy bodies and α-synuclein deposits in these neural structures suggests that PAF is one of Lewy body synucleinopathies, examples of which include multiple system atrophy, Parkinson disease, and Lewy body disease. There is currently no specific treatment to stop progression in PAF. Management of autonomic symptoms is the mainstay of treatment and includes management of orthostatic hypotension and supine hypertension. The prognosis for survival of PAF is better than for the other synucleinopathies. PMID:27338613

  15. Semi-autonomous wheelchair developed using a unique camera system configuration biologically inspired by equine vision.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Jordan S; Tran, Yvonne; Su, Steven W; Nguyen, Hung T

    2011-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the design and development of a semi-autonomous wheelchair system using cameras in a system configuration modeled on the vision system of a horse. This new camera configuration utilizes stereoscopic vision for 3-Dimensional (3D) depth perception and mapping ahead of the wheelchair, combined with a spherical camera system for 360-degrees of monocular vision. This unique combination allows for static components of an unknown environment to be mapped and any surrounding dynamic obstacles to be detected, during real-time autonomous navigation, minimizing blind-spots and preventing accidental collisions with people or obstacles. This novel vision system combined with shared control strategies provides intelligent assistive guidance during wheelchair navigation and can accompany any hands-free wheelchair control technology. Leading up to experimental trials with patients at the Royal Rehabilitation Centre (RRC) in Ryde, results have displayed the effectiveness of this system to assist the user in navigating safely within the RRC whilst avoiding potential collisions. PMID:22255649

  16. An integrated autonomous rendezvous and docking system architecture using Centaur modern avionics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, Kurt

    1991-01-01

    The avionics system for the Centaur upper stage is in the process of being modernized with the current state-of-the-art in strapdown inertial guidance equipment. This equipment includes an integrated flight control processor with a ring laser gyro based inertial guidance system. This inertial navigation unit (INU) uses two MIL-STD-1750A processors and communicates over the MIL-STD-1553B data bus. Commands are translated into load activation through a Remote Control Unit (RCU) which incorporates the use of solid state relays. Also, a programmable data acquisition system replaces separate multiplexer and signal conditioning units. This modern avionics suite is currently being enhanced through independent research and development programs to provide autonomous rendezvous and docking capability using advanced cruise missile image processing technology and integrated GPS navigational aids. A system concept was developed to combine these technologies in order to achieve a fully autonomous rendezvous, docking, and autoland capability. The current system architecture and the evolution of this architecture using advanced modular avionics concepts being pursued for the National Launch System are discussed.

  17. An integrated autonomous rendezvous and docking system architecture using Centaur modern avionics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, Kurt

    The avionics system for the Centaur upper stage is in the process of being modernized with the current state-of-the-art in strapdown inertial guidance equipment. This equipment includes an integrated flight control processor with a ring laser gyro based inertial guidance system. This inertial navigation unit (INU) uses two MIL-STD-1750A processors and communicates over the MIL-STD-1553B data bus. Commands are translated into load activation through a Remote Control Unit (RCU) which incorporates the use of solid state relays. Also, a programmable data acquisition system replaces separate multiplexer and signal conditioning units. This modern avionics suite is currently being enhanced through independent research and development programs to provide autonomous rendezvous and docking capability using advanced cruise missile image processing technology and integrated GPS navigational aids. A system concept was developed to combine these technologies in order to achieve a fully autonomous rendezvous, docking, and autoland capability. The current system architecture and the evolution of this architecture using advanced modular avionics concepts being pursued for the National Launch System are discussed.

  18. Pullback attractors of the two-dimensional non-autonomous simplified Ericksen-Leslie system for nematic liquid crystal flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    You, Bo; Li, Fang

    2016-08-01

    This paper is concerned with the long-time behaviour of the two-dimensional non-autonomous simplified Ericksen-Leslie system for nematic liquid crystal flows introduced in Lin and Liu (Commun Pure Appl Math, 48:501-537, 1995) with a non-autonomous forcing bulk term and order parameter field boundary conditions. In this paper, we prove the existence of pullback attractors and estimate the upper bound of its fractal dimension under some suitable assumptions.

  19. Barriers to healthcare coordination in market-based and decentralized public health systems: a qualitative study in healthcare networks of Colombia and Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Vargas, Ingrid; Mogollón-Pérez, Amparo Susana; De Paepe, Pierre; Ferreira da Silva, Maria Rejane; Unger, Jean-Pierre; Vázquez, María-Luisa

    2016-01-01

    Although integrated healthcare networks (IHNs) are promoted in Latin America in response to health system fragmentation, few analyses on the coordination of care across levels in these networks have been conducted in the region. The aim is to analyse the existence of healthcare coordination across levels of care and the factors influencing it from the health personnel’ perspective in healthcare networks of two countries with different health systems: Colombia, with a social security system based on managed competition and Brazil, with a decentralized national health system. A qualitative, exploratory and descriptive–interpretative study was conducted, based on a case study of healthcare networks in four municipalities. Individual semi-structured interviews were conducted with a three stage theoretical sample of (a) health (112) and administrative (66) professionals of different care levels, and (b) managers of providers (42) and insurers (14). A thematic content analysis was conducted, segmented by cases, informant groups and themes. The results reveal poor clinical information transfer between healthcare levels in all networks analysed, with added deficiencies in Brazil in the coordination of access and clinical management. The obstacles to care coordination are related to the organization of both the health system and the healthcare networks. In the health system, there is the existence of economic incentives to compete (exacerbated in Brazil by partisan political interests), the fragmentation and instability of networks in Colombia and weak planning and evaluation in Brazil. In the healthcare networks, there are inadequate working conditions (temporary and/or part-time contracts) which hinder the use of coordination mechanisms, and inadequate professional training for implementing a healthcare model in which primary care should act as coordinator in patient care. Reforms are needed in these health systems and networks in order to modify incentives

  20. Barriers to healthcare coordination in market-based and decentralized public health systems: a qualitative study in healthcare networks of Colombia and Brazil.

    PubMed

    Vargas, Ingrid; Mogollón-Pérez, Amparo Susana; De Paepe, Pierre; Ferreira da Silva, Maria Rejane; Unger, Jean-Pierre; Vázquez, María-Luisa

    2016-07-01

    Although integrated healthcare networks (IHNs) are promoted in Latin America in response to health system fragmentation, few analyses on the coordination of care across levels in these networks have been conducted in the region. The aim is to analyse the existence of healthcare coordination across levels of care and the factors influencing it from the health personnel' perspective in healthcare networks of two countries with different health systems: Colombia, with a social security system based on managed competition and Brazil, with a decentralized national health system. A qualitative, exploratory and descriptive-interpretative study was conducted, based on a case study of healthcare networks in four municipalities. Individual semi-structured interviews were conducted with a three stage theoretical sample of (a) health (112) and administrative (66) professionals of different care levels, and (b) managers of providers (42) and insurers (14). A thematic content analysis was conducted, segmented by cases, informant groups and themes. The results reveal poor clinical information transfer between healthcare levels in all networks analysed, with added deficiencies in Brazil in the coordination of access and clinical management. The obstacles to care coordination are related to the organization of both the health system and the healthcare networks. In the health system, there is the existence of economic incentives to compete (exacerbated in Brazil by partisan political interests), the fragmentation and instability of networks in Colombia and weak planning and evaluation in Brazil. In the healthcare networks, there are inadequate working conditions (temporary and/or part-time contracts) which hinder the use of coordination mechanisms, and inadequate professional training for implementing a healthcare model in which primary care should act as coordinator in patient care. Reforms are needed in these health systems and networks in order to modify incentives, strengthen