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Sample records for autonomous growth potential

  1. Potential interactions among linguistic, autonomic, and motor factors in speech.

    PubMed

    Kleinow, Jennifer; Smith, Anne

    2006-05-01

    Though anecdotal reports link certain speech disorders to increases in autonomic arousal, few studies have described the relationship between arousal and speech processes. Additionally, it is unclear how increases in arousal may interact with other cognitive-linguistic processes to affect speech motor control. In this experiment we examine potential interactions between autonomic arousal, linguistic processing, and speech motor coordination in adults and children. Autonomic responses (heart rate, finger pulse volume, tonic skin conductance, and phasic skin conductance) were recorded simultaneously with upper and lower lip movements during speech. The lip aperture variability (LA variability index) across multiple repetitions of sentences that varied in length and syntactic complexity was calculated under low- and high-arousal conditions. High arousal conditions were elicited by performance of the Stroop color word task. Children had significantly higher lip aperture variability index values across all speaking tasks, indicating more variable speech motor coordination. Increases in syntactic complexity and utterance length were associated with increases in speech motor coordination variability in both speaker groups. There was a significant effect of Stroop task, which produced increases in autonomic arousal and increased speech motor variability in both adults and children. These results provide novel evidence that high arousal levels can influence speech motor control in both adults and children. PMID:16617462

  2. Robust and Opportunistic Autonomous Science for a Potential Titan Aerobot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaines, Daniel M.; Estlin, Tara; Schaffer, Steve; Castano, Rebecca; Elfes, Alberto

    2010-01-01

    We are developing onboard planning and execution technologies to provide robust and opportunistic mission operations for a potential Titan aerobot. Aerobot have the potential for collecting a vast amount of high priority science data. However, to be effective, an aerobot must address several challenges including communication constraints, extended periods without contact with Earth, uncertain and changing environmental conditions, maneuverability constraints and potentially short-lived science opportunities. We are developing the AerOASIS system to develop and test technology to support autonomous science operations for a potential Titan Aerobot. The planning and execution component of AerOASIS is able to generate mission operations plans that achieve science and engineering objectives while respecting mission and resource constraints as well as adapting the plan to respond to new science opportunities. Our technology leverages prior work on the OASIS system for autonomous rover exploration. In this paper we describe how the OASIS planning component was adapted to address the unique challenges of a Titan Aerobot and we describe a field demonstration of the system with the JPL prototype aerobot.

  3. Receiver autonomous integrity monitoring (RAIM) - Techniques, performance and potential

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farrell, James L.; Van Graas, Frank

    1991-01-01

    The goal of receiver autonomous integrity monitoring (RAIM) for the Global Positioning System (GPS) is to provide a sufficient level of navigation integrity for all phases of flight based on the signals transmitted by the GPS satellites only. Integrity requirements for airborne use of GPS are reviewed. This is followed by the description of a baseline fault detection algorithm which is shown to be capable of satisfying tentative integrity requirements. The related issue of testing the fault detection algorithm is also briefly addressed. Preliminary performance results for the baseline fault detection algorithm are presented, along with the potential of RAIM techniques for achieving GPS integrity.

  4. Event-related potentials increase the discrimination performance of the autonomic-based concealed information test.

    PubMed

    Matsuda, Izumi; Nittono, Hiroshi; Ogawa, Tokihiro

    2011-12-01

    The concealed information test (CIT) assesses an examinee's crime-relevant memory on the basis of physiological differences between crime-relevant and irrelevant items. The CIT based on autonomic measures has been used for criminal investigations, while the CIT based on event-related potentials (ERPs) has been suggested as a useful alternative. To combine these two methods, we developed a quantification method of ERPs measured in the autonomic-based CIT where each item was repeated only 5 times. Results showed that the peak amplitude of the ERP difference wave between crime-relevant and irrelevant items could discriminate between guilty and innocent participants effectively even when only 5 trials were used for averaging. This ERP measure could detect some participants who were missed by the autonomic measures. Combining the ERP and autonomic measures significantly improved the discrimination performance of the autonomic-based CIT. PMID:21806637

  5. Implementation of Autonomous Control Technology for Plant Growth Chambers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Costello, Thomas A.; Sager, John C.; Krumins, Valdis; Wheeler, Raymond M.

    2002-01-01

    The Kennedy Space Center has significant infrastructure for research using controlled environment plant growth chambers. Such research supports development of bioregenerative life support technology for long-term space missions. Most of the existing chambers in Hangar L and Little L will be moved to the new Space Experiment Research and Processing Laboratory (SERPL) in the summer of 2003. The impending move has created an opportunity to update the control system technologies to allow for greater flexibility, less labor for set-up and maintenance, better diagnostics, better reliability and easier data retrieval. Part of these improvements can be realized using hardware which communicates through an ethernet connection to a central computer for supervisory control but can be operated independently of the computer during routine run-time. Both the hardware and software functionality of an envisioned system were tested on a prototype plant growth chamber (CEC-4) in Hangar L. Based upon these tests, recommendations for hardware and software selection and system design for implementation in SERPL are included.

  6. Autonomous Mobile Robot Navigation Using Harmonic Potential Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panati, Subbash; Baasandorj, Bayanjargal; Chong, Kil To

    2015-05-01

    Mobile robot navigation has been an area of robotics which has gained massive attention among the researchers of robotics community. Path planning and obstacle avoidance are the key aspects of mobile robot navigation. This paper presents harmonic potential field based navigation algorithm for mobile robots. Harmonic potential field method overcomes the issue of local minima which was a major bottleneck in the case of artificial potential field method. The harmonic potential field is calculated using harmonic functions and Dirichlet boundary conditions are used for the obstacles, goal and initial position. The simulation results shows that the proposed method is able to overcome the local minima issue and navigate successfully from initial position to the goal without colliding into obstacles in static environment.

  7. FGF signaling in the osteoprogenitor lineage non-autonomously regulates postnatal chondrocyte proliferation and skeletal growth.

    PubMed

    Karuppaiah, Kannan; Yu, Kai; Lim, Joohyun; Chen, Jianquan; Smith, Craig; Long, Fanxin; Ornitz, David M

    2016-05-15

    Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signaling is important for skeletal development; however, cell-specific functions, redundancy and feedback mechanisms regulating bone growth are poorly understood. FGF receptors 1 and 2 (Fgfr1 and Fgfr2) are both expressed in the osteoprogenitor lineage. Double conditional knockout mice, in which both receptors were inactivated using an osteoprogenitor-specific Cre driver, appeared normal at birth; however, these mice showed severe postnatal growth defects that include an ∼50% reduction in body weight and bone mass, and impaired longitudinal bone growth. Histological analysis showed reduced cortical and trabecular bone, suggesting cell-autonomous functions of FGF signaling during postnatal bone formation. Surprisingly, the double conditional knockout mice also showed growth plate defects and an arrest in chondrocyte proliferation. We provide genetic evidence of a non-cell-autonomous feedback pathway regulating Fgf9, Fgf18 and Pthlh expression, which led to increased expression and signaling of Fgfr3 in growth plate chondrocytes and suppression of chondrocyte proliferation. These observations show that FGF signaling in the osteoprogenitor lineage is obligately coupled to chondrocyte proliferation and the regulation of longitudinal bone growth. PMID:27052727

  8. Autonomous and Autonomic Swarms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinchey, Michael G.; Rash, James L.; Truszkowski, Walter F.; Rouff, Christopher A.; Sterritt, Roy

    2005-01-01

    A watershed in systems engineering is represented by the advent of swarm-based systems that accomplish missions through cooperative action by a (large) group of autonomous individuals each having simple capabilities and no global knowledge of the group s objective. Such systems, with individuals capable of surviving in hostile environments, pose unprecedented challenges to system developers. Design and testing and verification at much higher levels will be required, together with the corresponding tools, to bring such systems to fruition. Concepts for possible future NASA space exploration missions include autonomous, autonomic swarms. Engineering swarm-based missions begins with understanding autonomy and autonomicity and how to design, test, and verify systems that have those properties and, simultaneously, the capability to accomplish prescribed mission goals. Formal methods-based technologies, both projected and in development, are described in terms of their potential utility to swarm-based system developers.

  9. Cell-autonomous cytokinin-independent growth of tobacco cells transformed by Agrobacterium tumefaciens strains lacking the cytokinin biosynthesis gene.

    PubMed Central

    Black, R C; Binns, A N; Chang, C F; Lynn, D G

    1994-01-01

    Mutations at the cytokinin biosynthesis locus (tmr) of Agrobacterium tumefaciens usually result in strains that induce tumors exhibiting the rooty phenotype associated with high auxin-to-cytokinin ratios. However, tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum cv Havana 425) leaf disc explants responded to tmr- mutant strain A356 by producing rapidly growing, unorganized tumors, indicating that these lines can grow in a cytokinin-independent fashion despite the absence of a functional tmr gene. Several methods have been used to characterize the physiological and cellular basis of this phenotype. The results indicate that tmr- tumors have a physiologically distinct mechanism for cytokinin-independent growth in comparison to tumors induced by wild-type bacteria. The cytokinin-independent phenotype of the tmr- transformants appears to be cell autonomous in nature: only the transformed cells and their progeny were capable of cytokinin-independent growth. Specifically, the tmr- tumors did not accumulate cytokinin, and clonal analysis indicated the tmr- transformed cells were not capable of stimulating the growth of neighboring nontransformed cells. Finally, the cytokinin-independent phenotype of the tmr- transformants was shown to be cold sensitive, whereas the wild-type tumors exhibited a cold-resistant cytokinin-independent phenotype. Potential mechanisms for this novel form of cytokinin-independent growth, including the role of the dehydrodiconiferyl alcohol glucosides found in both tumor types, are discussed. PMID:8058843

  10. Potential Interactions between the Autonomic Nervous System and Higher Level Functions in Neurological and Neuropsychiatric Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Bassi, Andrea; Bozzali, Marco

    2015-01-01

    The autonomic nervous system (ANS) maintains the internal homeostasis by continuously interacting with other brain structures. Its failure is commonly observed in many neurological and neuropsychiatric disorders, including neurodegenerative and vascular brain diseases, spinal cord injury, and peripheral neuropathies. Despite the different underlying pathophysiological mechanisms, ANS failure associates with various forms of higher level dysfunctions, and may also negatively impact on patients’ clinical outcome. In this review, we will discuss potential relationships between ANS and higher level dysfunctions in a selection of neurological and neuropsychiatric disorders. In particular, we will focus on the effect of a documented fall in blood pressure fulfilling the criteria for orthostatic hypotension and/or autonomic-reflex impairment on cognitive performances. Some evidence supports the hypothesis that cardiovascular autonomic failure may play a negative prognostic role in most neurological disorders. Despite a clear causal relationship between ANS involvement and higher level dysfunctions that is still controversial, this might have implications for neuro-rehabilitation strategies aimed at improving patients’ clinical outcome. PMID:26388831

  11. Neural correlates of the behavioral-autonomic interaction response to potentially threatening stimuli

    PubMed Central

    Farrow, Tom F. D.; Johnson, Naomi K.; Hunter, Michael D.; Barker, Anthony T.; Wilkinson, Iain D.; Woodruff, Peter W. R.

    2013-01-01

    Subjective assessment of emotional valence is typically associated with both brain activity and autonomic arousal. Accurately assessing emotional salience is particularly important when perceiving threat. We sought to characterize the neural correlates of the interaction between behavioral and autonomic responses to potentially threatening visual and auditory stimuli. Twenty-five healthy male subjects underwent fMRI scanning whilst skin conductance responses (SCR) were recorded. One hundred and eighty pictures, sentences, and sounds were assessed as “harmless” or “threatening.” Individuals' stimulus-locked, phasic SCRs and trial-by-trial behavioral assessments were entered as regressors into a flexible factorial design to establish their separate autonomic and behavioral neural correlates, and convolved to examine psycho-autonomic interaction (PAI) effects. Across all stimuli, “threatening,” compared with “harmless” behavioral assessments were associated with mainly frontal and precuneus activation with specific within-modality activations including bilateral parahippocampal gyri (pictures), bilateral anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and frontal pole (sentences), and right Heschl's gyrus and bilateral temporal gyri (sounds). Across stimulus modalities SCRs were associated with activation of parieto-occipito-thalamic regions, an activation pattern which was largely replicated within-modality. In contrast, PAI analyses revealed modality-specific activations including right fusiform/parahippocampal gyrus (pictures), right insula (sentences), and mid-cingulate gyrus (sounds). Phasic SCR activity was positively correlated with an individual's propensity to assess stimuli as “threatening.” SCRs may modulate cognitive assessments on a “harmless–threatening” dimension, thereby modulating affective tone and hence behavior. PMID:23335893

  12. Association of autonomic nervous system and EEG scalp potential during playing 2D Grand Turismo 5.

    PubMed

    Subhani, Ahmad Rauf; Likun, Xia; Saeed Malik, Aamir

    2012-01-01

    Cerebral activation and autonomic nervous system have importance in studies such as mental stress. The aim of this study is to analyze variations in EEG scalp potential which may influence autonomic activation of heart while playing video games. Ten healthy participants were recruited in this study. Electroencephalogram (EEG) and electrocardiogram (ECG) signals were measured simultaneously during playing video game and rest conditions. Sympathetic and parasympathetic innervations of heart were evaluated from heart rate variability (HRV), derived from the ECG. Scalp potential was measured by the EEG. The results showed a significant upsurge in the value theta Fz/alpha Pz (p<0.001) while playing game. The results also showed tachycardia while playing video game as compared to rest condition (p<0.005). Normalized low frequency power and ratio of low frequency/high frequency power were significantly increased while playing video game and normalized high frequency power sank during video games. Results showed synchronized activity of cerebellum and sympathetic and parasympathetic innervation of heart. PMID:23366661

  13. Decreased growth-induced water potential: A primary cause of growth inhibition at low water potentials

    SciTech Connect

    Nonami, Hiroshi; Wu, Yajun; Boyer, J.S.

    1997-06-01

    Cell enlargement depends on a growth-induced difference in water potential to move water into the cells. Water deficits decrease this potential difference and inhibit growth. To investigate whether the decrease causes the growth inhibition, pressure was applied to the roots of soybean seedlings and the growth and potential difference were monitored in the stems. In water-limited plants, the inhibited stem growth increased when the roots were pressurized and it reverted to the previous rate when the pressure was released. The pressure around the roots was perceived as an increased turgor in the stem in small cells next to the xylem, but not in outlying cortical cells. This local effect implied that water transport was impeded by the small cells. The diffusivity for water was much less in the small cells than in the outlying cells. The small cells thus were a barrier that caused the growth-induced potential difference to be large during rapid growth, but to reverse locally during the early part of a water deficit. Such a barrier may be a frequent property of meristems. Because stem growth responded to the pressure-induced recovery of the potential difference across this barrier, we conclude that a decrease in the growth-induced potential difference was a primary cause of the inhibition.

  14. X-linked intellectual disability gene CASK regulates postnatal brain growth in a non-cell autonomous manner.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Sarika; McMillan, Ryan; Willis, Jeffery; Clark, Helen; Chavan, Vrushali; Liang, Chen; Zhang, Haiyan; Hulver, Matthew; Mukherjee, Konark

    2016-01-01

    The phenotypic spectrum among girls with heterozygous mutations in the X-linked intellectual disability (XLID) gene CASK (calcium/calmodulin-dependent serine protein kinase) includes postnatal microcephaly, ponto-cerebellar hypoplasia, seizures, optic nerve hypoplasia, growth retardation and hypotonia. Although CASK knockout mice were previously reported to exhibit perinatal lethality and a 3-fold increased apoptotic rate in the brain, CASK deletion was not found to affect neuronal physiology and their electrical properties. The pathogenesis of CASK associated disorders and the potential function of CASK therefore remains unknown. Here, using Cre-LoxP mediated gene excision experiments; we demonstrate that deleting CASK specifically from mouse cerebellar neurons does not alter the cerebellar architecture or function. We demonstrate that the neuron-specific deletion of CASK in mice does not cause perinatal lethality but induces severe recurrent epileptic seizures and growth retardation before the onset of adulthood. Furthermore, we demonstrate that although neuron-specific haploinsufficiency of CASK is inconsequential, the CASK mutation associated human phenotypes are replicated with high fidelity in CASK heterozygous knockout female mice (CASK ((+/-))). These data suggest that CASK-related phenotypes are not purely neuronal in origin. Surprisingly, the observed microcephaly in CASK ((+/-)) animals is not associated with a specific loss of CASK null brain cells indicating that CASK regulates postnatal brain growth in a non-cell autonomous manner. Using biochemical assay, we also demonstrate that CASK can interact with metabolic proteins. CASK knockdown in human cell lines cause reduced cellular respiration and CASK ((+/-)) mice display abnormalities in muscle and brain oxidative metabolism, suggesting a novel function of CASK in metabolism. Our data implies that some phenotypic components of CASK heterozygous deletion mutation associated disorders represent systemic

  15. Autonomous actions of the human growth hormone long-range enhancer

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Eung Jae; Brown, Christopher D.; Tsai, Yu-Cheng; Cooke, Nancy E.; Liebhaber, Stephen A.

    2015-01-01

    The human growth hormone (hGH) gene is controlled by a long-range enhancer, HSI, located 14.5 kb 5′ to the hGH promoter. HSI establishes a domain of noncoding transcription that is ‘looped’ to the hGH promoter as an essential step in initiating hGH gene expression. Thus, defining how HSI generates its domain of noncoding transcription is central to understanding its long-range function. Here, we demonstrate that activation of noncoding transcription reflects an HSI-autonomous activity fully independent of interactions with linked gene promoters and occurring in spatial and temporal synchrony with initiation of GH expression in the embryonic pituitary. HSI establishes its noncoding transcription start sites (TSS) over a defined distance from its core determinants and in a manner independent of local primary sequences. The interval between HSI and it TSS co-maps with a domain of disordered and/or highly mobile nucleosomes specific to the pituitary locus. Thus, a localized chromatin reconfiguration by HSI and consequent establishment of an adjacent domain of noncoding transcription constitute initiating events in long-range enhancer function within the hGH locus. PMID:25662214

  16. Laplacian growth, elliptic growth, and singularities of the Schwarz potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lundberg, Erik

    2011-04-01

    The Schwarz function has played an elegant role in understanding and in generating new examples of exact solutions to the Laplacian growth (or 'Hele-Shaw') problem in the plane. The guiding principle in this connection is the fact that 'non-physical' singularities in the 'oil domain' of the Schwarz function are stationary, and the 'physical' singularities obey simple dynamics. We give an elementary proof that the same holds in any number of dimensions for the Schwarz potential, introduced by Khavinson and Shapiro (1989 Technical Report TRITA-MAT-1989-36 Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm). An extension is also given for the so-called elliptic growth problem by defining a generalized Schwarz potential. New exact solutions are constructed, and we solve inverse problems of describing the driving singularities of a given flow. We demonstrate, by example, how {C}^n-techniques can be used to locate the singularity set of the Schwarz potential. One of our methods is to prolong available local extension theorems by constructing 'globalizing families'.

  17. Origin of growth-induced water potential

    SciTech Connect

    Nonami, H.; Boyer, J.S.

    1987-03-01

    The authors developed a new method to measure the solute concentration in the apoplast of stem tissue involving pressurizing the roots of intact seedlings (Glycine max (L.) Merr. or Pisum sativum L.), collecting a small amount of exudate from the surface of the stem under saturating humidities, and determining the osmotic potential of the solution with a micro-osmometer capable of measuring small volumes (0.5 microliter). In the elongating region, the apoplast concentrations were very low (equivalent to osmotic potentials of -0.03 to -0.04 megapascal) and negligible compared to the water potential of the apoplast (-0.15 to -0.30 megapascal) measured directly by isopiestic psychrometry in intact plants. Most of the apoplast water potential consisted of a negative pressure that could be measured with a pressure chamber (-0.15 to -0.28 megapascal). Tests showed that earlier methods involving infiltration of intercellular spaces or pressurizing cut segments caused solute to be released to the apoplast and resulted in spuriously high concentrations. These results indicate that, although a small amount of solute is present in the apoplast, the major component is a tension that is part of a growth-induced gradient in water potential in the enlarging tissue. The gradient originates from the extension of the cell walls, which prevents turgor from reaching its maximum and creates a growth-induced water potential that causes water to move from the xylem at a rate that satisfies the rate of enlargement. The magnitude of the gradient implies that growing tissue contains a large resistance to water movement.

  18. Transient receptor potential channel ankyrin-1 is not a cold sensor for autonomic thermoregulation in rodents.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Cristiane; Garami, Andras; Lehto, Sonya G; Pakai, Eszter; Tekus, Valeria; Pohoczky, Krisztina; Youngblood, Beth D; Wang, Weiya; Kort, Michael E; Kym, Philip R; Pinter, Erika; Gavva, Narender R; Romanovsky, Andrej A

    2014-03-26

    The rodent transient receptor potential ankyrin-1 (TRPA1) channel has been hypothesized to serve as a temperature sensor for thermoregulation in the cold. We tested this hypothesis by using deletion of the Trpa1 gene in mice and pharmacological blockade of the TRPA1 channel in rats. In both Trpa1(-/-) and Trpa1(+/+) mice, severe cold exposure (8°C) resulted in decreases of skin and deep body temperatures to ∼8°C and 13°C, respectively, both temperatures being below the reported 17°C threshold temperature for TRPA1 activation. Under these conditions, Trpa1(-/-) mice had the same dynamics of body temperature as Trpa1(+/+) mice and showed no weakness in the tail skin vasoconstriction response or thermogenic response to cold. In rats, the effects of pharmacological blockade were studied by using two chemically unrelated TRPA1 antagonists: the highly potent and selective compound A967079, which had been characterized earlier, and the relatively new compound 43 ((4R)-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-4-[3-(3-methoxypropoxy)phenyl]-2-thioxo-5H-indeno[1,2-d]pyrimidin-5-one), which we further characterized in the present study and found to be highly potent (IC50 against cold of ∼8 nm) and selective. Intragastric administration of either antagonist at 30 mg/kg before severe (3°C) cold exposure did not affect the thermoregulatory responses (deep body and tail skin temperatures) of rats, even though plasma concentrations of both antagonists well exceeded their IC50 value at the end of the experiment. In the same experimental setup, blocking the melastatin-8 (TRPM8) channel with AMG2850 (30 mg/kg) attenuated cold-defense mechanisms and led to hypothermia. We conclude that TRPA1 channels do not drive autonomic thermoregulatory responses to cold in rodents. PMID:24671991

  19. Functional Ser205Leu polymorphism of the nerve growth factor receptor (NGFR) gene is associated with vagal autonomic dysregulation in humans

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Chuan-Chia; Fang, Wen-Hui; Chang, Hsin-An; Huang, San-Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Evidence indicates that reduced cardiac vagal (parasympathetic) tone, a robust cardiovascular risk factor, is a trait vulnerability marker of major depressive disorder (MDD). The Ser205/Ser205 genotype of the functional polymorphism (Ser205Leu) of the nerve growth factor receptor (NGFR), also called p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75NTR), gene is reported to increase the risk of MDD. Here, we hypothesized that the NGFR Ser205Leu polymorphism may have an effect on vagal control. A sample of 810 healthy, drug-free, unrelated Han Chinese (413 males, 397 females; mean age 35.17 ± 8.53 years) was included in the NGFR genotyping. Short-term heart rate variability (HRV) was used to assess vagus-mediated autonomic function. Potential HRV covariates, such as mood/anxiety status and serum metabolic parameters, were assessed. Homozygotes of the Ser205 allele had significantly lower high frequency power and root mean square of successive heartbeat interval differences, both HRV indices of vagal modulation, compared to Leu205 allele carriers. Even after adjusting for relevant confounders, these associations remained significant. Further stratification by sex revealed that the associations were observed only in males. Our results implicate that decreased parasympathetic activity is associated with the NGFR Ser205/Ser205 genotype in a gender-specific manner, suggesting a potential role of NGFR polymorphism in modulating cardiac autonomic function. PMID:26278479

  20. Autoimmune autonomic disorders.

    PubMed

    Mckeon, Andrew; Benarroch, Eduardo E

    2016-01-01

    Autoimmune autonomic disorders occur because of an immune response directed against sympathetic, parasympathetic, and enteric ganglia, autonomic nerves, or central autonomic pathways. In general, peripheral autoimmune disorders manifest with either generalized or restricted autonomic failure, whereas central autoimmune disorders manifest primarily with autonomic hyperactivity. Some autonomic disorders are generalized, and others are limited in their anatomic extent, e.g., isolated gastrointestinal dysmotility. Historically, these disorders were poorly recognized, and thought to be neurodegenerative. Over the last 20 years a number of autoantibody biomarkers have been discovered that have enabled the identification of certain patients as having an autoimmune basis for either autonomic failure or hyperactivity. Peripheral autoimmune autonomic disorders include autoimmune autonomic ganglionopathy (AAG), paraneoplastic autonomic neuropathy, and acute autonomic and sensory neuropathy. AAG manifests with acute or subacute onset of generalized or selective autonomic failure. Antibody targeting the α3 subunit of the ganglionic-type nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α3gAChR) is detected in approximately 50% of cases of AAG. Some other disorders are characterized immunologically by paraneoplastic antibodies with a high positive predictive value for cancer, such as antineuronal nuclear antibody, type 1 (ANNA-1: anti-Hu); others still are seronegative. Recognition of an autoimmune basis for autonomic disorders is important, as their manifestations are disabling, may reflect an underlying neoplasm, and have the potential to improve with a combination of symptomatic and immune therapies. PMID:27112689

  1. The Potential of Growth Mixture Modelling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muthen, Bengt

    2006-01-01

    The authors of the paper on growth mixture modelling (GMM) give a description of GMM and related techniques as applied to antisocial behaviour. They bring up the important issue of choice of model within the general framework of mixture modelling, especially the choice between latent class growth analysis (LCGA) techniques developed by Nagin and…

  2. Development of an Autonomous, Dual Chamber Bioreactor for the Growth of 3-Dimensional Epithelial-Stromal Tissues in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patel, Zarana S.; Wettergreen, Matthew A.; Huff, Janice L.

    2014-01-01

    We are developing a novel, autonomous bioreactor that can provide for the growth and maintenance in microgravity of 3-D organotypic epithelial-stromal cultures that require an air-liquid interface. These complex 3-D tissue models accurately represent the morphological features, differentiation markers, and growth characteristics observed in normal human epithelial tissues, including the skin, esophagus, lung, breast, pancreas, and colon. However, because of their precise and complex culture requirements, including that of an air-liquid interface, these 3-D models have yet to be utilized for life sciences research aboard the International Space Station. The development of a bioreactor for these cultures will provide the capability to perform biological research on the ISS using these realistic, tissue-like human epithelial-stromal cell models and will contribute significantly to advances in fundamental space biology research on questions regarding microgravity effects on normal tissue development, aging, cancer, and other disease processes. It will also allow for the study of how combined stressors, such as microgravity with radiation and nutritional deficiencies, affect multiple biological processes and will provide a platform for conducting countermeasure investigations on the ISS without the use of animal models. The technology will be autonomous and consist of a cell culture chamber that provides for air-liquid, liquid-liquid, and liquid-air exchanges within the chambers while maintaining the growth and development of the biological samples. The bioreactor will support multiple tissue types and its modular design will provide for incorporation of add-on capabilities such as microfluidics drug delivery, media sampling, and in situ biomarker analysis. Preliminary flight testing of the hardware will be conducted on a parabolic platform through NASA's Flight Opportunities Program.

  3. Potential role of human growth hormone in melanoma growth promotion.

    PubMed

    Handler, Marc Z; Ross, Andrew L; Shiman, Michael I; Elgart, George W; Grichnik, James M

    2012-10-01

    BACKGROUND Human growth hormone (HGH) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) have been shown to play a role in the malignant transformation and progression of a variety of cancers. HGH is also known to upregulate molecular signaling pathways implicated in the pathogenesis of melanoma. Although HGH has previously been implicated in promoting the clinical growth of both benign and malignant melanocytic neoplasms, to our knowledge there are no conclusive studies demonstrating an increased risk of melanoma following HGH therapy. Nevertheless, there are reports of melanoma developing subsequent to HGH coadministered with either other hormones or following irradiation. OBSERVATION A 49-year-old white man presented with a new pigmented papule that was diagnosed as melanoma. The patient reported using HGH for 3 months prior to the diagnosis. His 51-year-old wife, who also was white, had also been using exogenous HGH for 3 months and had been diagnosed as having a melanoma 2 weeks prior. CONCLUSIONS Given the unlikelihood of 2 unrelated people developing melanoma within a short time span, it is reasonable to assume that a common environmental component (HGH or other shared exposure) contributed to the development of both melanomas. Because of the increased use of exogenous HGH as an antiaging agent, it is important to be aware of the growth-promoting effects of this hormone. Until better data are available that determines the true risk of exogenous HGH, its use as an antiaging agent merits increased surveillance. PMID:23069955

  4. A hypothesis: autonomic rhythms are reflected in growth lines of teeth in humans and extinct archosaurs.

    PubMed

    Appenzeller, O; Gunga, H-C; Qualls, C; Furlan, R; Porta, A; Lucas, S G; Heckert, A B; Kirsch, K; Costa-Junqueira, M A; Guillén, S E; Sander, M; Schneider, T; Blottner, B

    2005-02-01

    A major determinant of tooth architecture is the arrangement of lines in dentin and in the enamel following the contour of the surface. Since the original description of these lines in the 19th century, they have been attributed to recurring events during tooth development. They have also attracted the attention of dental scientists and anthropologists; however, to date, studies of these structures have been largely theoretical and microscopic. We show here that the statistical properties of the spacing between the lines are similar in teeth from both ancient and modern humans and from extinct archosaurs, reptiles that lived tens or hundreds of millions of years ago-they also resemble heart rate variability of living humans. We propose that the deposition of these recurring structures is controlled by the autonomic nervous system. This control accounts for their regularity and recurrent nature and implies that the lines are an expression of a biologic rhythm which has been conserved throughout evolution. Details of the rhythms give clues to life styles in ancient civilizations and to the physiology of extinct archosaurs. PMID:15664564

  5. MeCP2 Affects Skeletal Muscle Growth and Morphology through Non Cell-Autonomous Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Galli, Francesco; Tirone, Mario; Bellini, Elisa; Campana, Lara; Kilstrup-Nielsen, Charlotte; Rovere-Querini, Patrizia; Brunelli, Silvia; Landsberger, Nicoletta

    2015-01-01

    Rett syndrome (RTT) is an autism spectrum disorder mainly caused by mutations in the X-linked MECP2 gene and affecting roughly 1 out of 10.000 born girls. Symptoms range in severity and include stereotypical movement, lack of spoken language, seizures, ataxia and severe intellectual disability. Notably, muscle tone is generally abnormal in RTT girls and women and the Mecp2-null mouse model constitutively reflects this disease feature. We hypothesized that MeCP2 in muscle might physiologically contribute to its development and/or homeostasis, and conversely its defects in RTT might alter the tissue integrity or function. We show here that a disorganized architecture, with hypotrophic fibres and tissue fibrosis, characterizes skeletal muscles retrieved from Mecp2-null mice. Alterations of the IGF-1/Akt/mTOR pathway accompany the muscle phenotype. A conditional mouse model selectively depleted of Mecp2 in skeletal muscles is characterized by healthy muscles that are morphologically and molecularly indistinguishable from those of wild-type mice raising the possibility that hypotonia in RTT is mainly, if not exclusively, mediated by non-cell autonomous effects. Our results suggest that defects in paracrine/endocrine signaling and, in particular, in the GH/IGF axis appear as the major cause of the observed muscular defects. Remarkably, this is the first study describing the selective deletion of Mecp2 outside the brain. Similar future studies will permit to unambiguously define the direct impact of MeCP2 on tissue dysfunctions. PMID:26098633

  6. MeCP2 Affects Skeletal Muscle Growth and Morphology through Non Cell-Autonomous Mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Conti, Valentina; Gandaglia, Anna; Galli, Francesco; Tirone, Mario; Bellini, Elisa; Campana, Lara; Kilstrup-Nielsen, Charlotte; Rovere-Querini, Patrizia; Brunelli, Silvia; Landsberger, Nicoletta

    2015-01-01

    Rett syndrome (RTT) is an autism spectrum disorder mainly caused by mutations in the X-linked MECP2 gene and affecting roughly 1 out of 10.000 born girls. Symptoms range in severity and include stereotypical movement, lack of spoken language, seizures, ataxia and severe intellectual disability. Notably, muscle tone is generally abnormal in RTT girls and women and the Mecp2-null mouse model constitutively reflects this disease feature. We hypothesized that MeCP2 in muscle might physiologically contribute to its development and/or homeostasis, and conversely its defects in RTT might alter the tissue integrity or function. We show here that a disorganized architecture, with hypotrophic fibres and tissue fibrosis, characterizes skeletal muscles retrieved from Mecp2-null mice. Alterations of the IGF-1/Akt/mTOR pathway accompany the muscle phenotype. A conditional mouse model selectively depleted of Mecp2 in skeletal muscles is characterized by healthy muscles that are morphologically and molecularly indistinguishable from those of wild-type mice raising the possibility that hypotonia in RTT is mainly, if not exclusively, mediated by non-cell autonomous effects. Our results suggest that defects in paracrine/endocrine signaling and, in particular, in the GH/IGF axis appear as the major cause of the observed muscular defects. Remarkably, this is the first study describing the selective deletion of Mecp2 outside the brain. Similar future studies will permit to unambiguously define the direct impact of MeCP2 on tissue dysfunctions. PMID:26098633

  7. Drosophila ribosomal protein mutants control tissue growth non-autonomously via effects on the prothoracic gland and ecdysone.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jane I; Mitchell, Naomi C; Kalcina, Marina; Tchoubrieva, Elly; Stewart, Mary J; Marygold, Steven J; Walker, Cherryl D; Thomas, George; Leevers, Sally J; Pearson, Richard B; Quinn, Leonie M; Hannan, Ross D

    2011-12-01

    The ribosome is critical for all aspects of cell growth due to its essential role in protein synthesis. Paradoxically, many Ribosomal proteins (Rps) act as tumour suppressors in Drosophila and vertebrates. To examine how reductions in Rps could lead to tissue overgrowth, we took advantage of the observation that an RpS6 mutant dominantly suppresses the small rough eye phenotype in a cyclin E hypomorphic mutant (cycE(JP)). We demonstrated that the suppression of cycE(JP) by the RpS6 mutant is not a consequence of restoring CycE protein levels or activity in the eye imaginal tissue. Rather, the use of UAS-RpS6 RNAi transgenics revealed that the suppression of cycE(JP) is exerted via a mechanism extrinsic to the eye, whereby reduced Rp levels in the prothoracic gland decreases the activity of ecdysone, the steroid hormone, delaying developmental timing and hence allowing time for tissue and organ overgrowth. These data provide for the first time a rationale to explain the counter-intuitive organ overgrowth phenotypes observed for certain members of the Minute class of Drosophila Rp mutants. They also demonstrate how Rp mutants can affect growth and development cell non-autonomously. PMID:22194697

  8. Thermal design and turbidity sensor for autonomous bacterial growth measurements in spaceflight.

    PubMed

    van Benthem, Roel; Krooneman, Janneke; de Grave, Wubbo; Hammenga-Dorenbos, Hilma

    2009-04-01

    For application of biological air filters in manned spacecraft, research on bacterial growth is carried out under microgravity conditions. For the BIOFILTER experiment, flown in 2005 on FOTON M2, eight turbidity sensors to measure the growth rate of the bacterium Xanthobacter autotrophicus GJ10 were used. Also thermal management provisions were implemented to control the internal temperature. The design and performance of the BIOFILTER equipment as well as results of the biological ground reference experiments performed in 2006 are discussed. High-performance thermal (vacuum) insulation (lambda= 0.7 mW/mK) and phase change material were implemented, keeping the BIOFILTER internal temperature below 16 degrees C during the 4-day integration period between transport and launch. After launch, in microgravity, the growth of X. autotrophicus GJ10 was successfully triggered by a temperature increase by using an internal heater to 26 degrees C. Although the operation of the sensor electronics was not fully satisfying, the bacterial growth was measured with the sensors, revealing growth rates between 0.046 and 0.077 h(-1) in microgravity, that is, approximately 1.5-2.5 times slower than routinely measured on Earth under optimal laboratory conditions. For the ground-reference experiments the equipment box, containing the eight sensors, was placed on a random positioning machine performing random rotations at 0.5 degrees /min (settling compensation) and 90 degrees /min (microgravity simulation) while the environment was controlled, accurately repeating the BIOFILTER internal temperature profile. Despite the rotation speed differences, growth rates of 0.115 h(-1) were confirmed by both the ground reference experiments. Biological interpretation of the measurements is, however, compromised owing to poor mixing and other unknown physical and biological phenomena that need to be addressed for further space experiments using these kinds of systems. PMID:19426313

  9. Autonomous control system for Czochralski growth of LEC GaAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luger, B.; White, R. C.

    The consolidation of the Czochralski Growth Control System (CGCS) is a revision of the hardware and software within the constraints of the first generation. The consolidation consists of: a cabinet that is physically more compatible with the Cambridge console; a more modular hardware arrangement that facilitates calibration, servicing, and expansion; increased accuracy and stability of the system variable measurements; and many software enhancements, including increased controller flexibility and improved diameter estimation and control. The hardware and software installation was completed and crystal growth with complete digital control was demonstrated.

  10. Autonomic dysreflexia

    PubMed Central

    Milligan, James; Lee, Joseph; McMillan, Colleen; Klassen, Hilary

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Objective To raise family physicians’ awareness of autonomic dysreflexia (AD) in patients with spinal cord injury (SCI) and to provide some suggestions for intervention. Sources of information MEDLINE was searched from 1970 to July 2011 using the terms autonomic dysreflexia and spinal cord injury with family medicine or primary care. Other relevant guidelines and resources were reviewed and used. Main message Family physicians often lack confidence in treating patients with SCI, see them as complex and time-consuming, and feel undertrained to meet their needs. Family physicians provide a vital component of the health care of such patients, and understanding of the unique medical conditions related to SCI is important. Autonomic dysreflexia is an important, common, and potentially serious condition with which many family physicians are unfamiliar. This article will review the signs and symptoms of AD and offer some acute management options and preventive strategies for family physicians. Conclusion Family physicians should be aware of which patients with SCI are susceptible to AD and monitor those affected by it. Outlined is an approach to acute management. Family physicians play a pivotal role in prevention of AD through education (of the patient and other health care providers) and incorporation of strategies such as appropriate bladder, bowel, and skin care practices and warnings and management plans in the medical chart. PMID:22893332

  11. PROPERTIES AND PLANT GROWTH POTENTIAL OF MINELAND OVERBURDEN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Overburden materials from surface coal mines in southwestern Indiana were analyzed for physical and chemical properties. Plant growth potential of selected materials, with and without sewage sludge and fertilizer amendments, was evaluated in greenhouse pot culture and outdoor con...

  12. Cell non-autonomous regulation of hepatic IGF-1 and neonatal growth by Kinase Suppressor of Ras 2 (KSR2).

    PubMed

    Guo, Lili; Costanzo-Garvey, Diane L; Smith, Deandra R; Zavorka, Megan E; Venable-Kang, Megan; MacDonald, Richard G; Lewis, Robert E

    2016-01-01

    Individuals with poor postnatal growth are at risk for cardiovascular and metabolic problems as adults. Here we show that disruption of the molecular scaffold Kinase Suppressor of Ras 2 (KSR2) causes selective inhibition of hepatic GH signaling in neonatal mice with impaired expression of IGF-1 and IGFBP3. ksr2(-/-) mice are normal size at birth but show a marked increase in FGF21 accompanied by reduced body mass, shortened body length, and reduced bone mineral density (BMD) and content (BMC) first evident during postnatal development. However, disrupting FGF21 in ksr2(-/-) mice does not normalize mass, length, or bone density and content in fgf21(-/-)ksr2(-/-) mice. Body length, BMC and BMD, but not body mass, are rescued by infection of two-day-old ksr2(-/-) mice with a recombinant adenovirus encoding human IGF-1. Relative to wild-type mice, GH injections reveal a significant reduction in JAK2 and STAT5 phosphorylation in liver, but not in skeletal muscle, of ksr2(-/-) mice. However, primary hepatocytes isolated from ksr2(-/-) mice show no reduction in GH-stimulated STAT5 phosphorylation. These data indicate that KSR2 functions in a cell non-autonomous fashion to regulate GH-stimulated IGF-1 expression in the liver of neonatal mice, which plays a key role in the development of body length. PMID:27561547

  13. Cell non-autonomous regulation of hepatic IGF-1 and neonatal growth by Kinase Suppressor of Ras 2 (KSR2)

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Lili; Costanzo-Garvey, Diane L.; Smith, Deandra R.; Zavorka, Megan E.; Venable-Kang, Megan; MacDonald, Richard G.; Lewis, Robert E.

    2016-01-01

    Individuals with poor postnatal growth are at risk for cardiovascular and metabolic problems as adults. Here we show that disruption of the molecular scaffold Kinase Suppressor of Ras 2 (KSR2) causes selective inhibition of hepatic GH signaling in neonatal mice with impaired expression of IGF-1 and IGFBP3. ksr2−/− mice are normal size at birth but show a marked increase in FGF21 accompanied by reduced body mass, shortened body length, and reduced bone mineral density (BMD) and content (BMC) first evident during postnatal development. However, disrupting FGF21 in ksr2−/− mice does not normalize mass, length, or bone density and content in fgf21−/−ksr2−/− mice. Body length, BMC and BMD, but not body mass, are rescued by infection of two-day-old ksr2−/− mice with a recombinant adenovirus encoding human IGF-1. Relative to wild-type mice, GH injections reveal a significant reduction in JAK2 and STAT5 phosphorylation in liver, but not in skeletal muscle, of ksr2−/− mice. However, primary hepatocytes isolated from ksr2−/− mice show no reduction in GH-stimulated STAT5 phosphorylation. These data indicate that KSR2 functions in a cell non-autonomous fashion to regulate GH-stimulated IGF-1 expression in the liver of neonatal mice, which plays a key role in the development of body length. PMID:27561547

  14. Tubulin transport by IFT is upregulated during ciliary growth by a cilium-autonomous mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Craft, Julie M.; Harris, J. Aaron; Hyman, Sebastian; Kner, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The assembly of the axoneme, the structural scaffold of cilia and flagella, requires translocation of a vast quantity of tubulin into the growing cilium, but the mechanisms that regulate the targeting, quantity, and timing of tubulin transport are largely unknown. In Chlamydomonas, GFP-tagged α-tubulin enters cilia as an intraflagellar transport (IFT) cargo and by diffusion. IFT-based transport of GFP-tubulin is elevated in growing cilia and IFT trains carry more tubulin. Cells possessing both nongrowing and growing cilia selectively target GFP-tubulin into the latter. The preferential delivery of tubulin boosts the concentration of soluble tubulin in the matrix of growing versus steady-state cilia. Cilia length mutants show abnormal kinetics of tubulin transport. We propose that cells regulate the extent of occupancy of IFT trains by tubulin cargoes. During ciliary growth, IFT concentrates soluble tubulin in cilia and thereby promotes elongation of the axonemal microtubules. PMID:25583998

  15. Is There Hidden Potential for Rural Population Growth in Sweden?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niedomysl, Thomas; Amcoff, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Rural depopulation is a concern in many countries, and various policy initiatives have been taken to combat such trends. This article examines whether hidden potential for rural population growth can be found in Sweden. If such potential exists, it implies that the development prospects for many rural areas are not as unpromising as they may seem…

  16. Autonomic regulation of brown adipose tissue thermogenesis in health and disease: potential clinical applications for altering BAT thermogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Tupone, Domenico; Madden, Christopher J.; Morrison, Shaun F.

    2014-01-01

    From mouse to man, brown adipose tissue (BAT) is a significant source of thermogenesis contributing to the maintenance of the body temperature homeostasis during the challenge of low environmental temperature. In rodents, BAT thermogenesis also contributes to the febrile increase in core temperature during the immune response. BAT sympathetic nerve activity controlling BAT thermogenesis is regulated by CNS neural networks which respond reflexively to thermal afferent signals from cutaneous and body core thermoreceptors, as well as to alterations in the discharge of central neurons with intrinsic thermosensitivity. Superimposed on the core thermoregulatory circuit for the activation of BAT thermogenesis, is the permissive, modulatory influence of central neural networks controlling metabolic aspects of energy homeostasis. The recent confirmation of the presence of BAT in human and its function as an energy consuming organ have stimulated interest in the potential for the pharmacological activation of BAT to reduce adiposity in the obese. In contrast, the inhibition of BAT thermogenesis could facilitate the induction of therapeutic hypothermia for fever reduction or to improve outcomes in stroke or cardiac ischemia by reducing infarct size through a lowering of metabolic oxygen demand. This review summarizes the central circuits for the autonomic control of BAT thermogenesis and highlights the potential clinical relevance of the pharmacological inhibition or activation of BAT thermogenesis. PMID:24570653

  17. Plans for the Meter Class Autonomous Telescope and Potential Coordinated Measurements with Kwajalein Radars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stansberry, Gene; Kervin, Paul; Mulrooney, Mark

    2010-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Orbital Debris Program Office is teaming with the US Air Force Research Laboratory's (AFRL) Maui Optical Site to deploy a moderate field-of-view, 1.3 m aperture, optical telescope for orbital debris applications. The telescope will be located on the island of Legan in the Kwajalein Atoll and is scheduled for completion in the Spring of 2011. The telescope is intended to sample both low inclination/high eccentricity orbits and near geosynchronous orbits. The telescope will have a 1 deg diagonal field-of-view on a 4K x 4K CCD. The telescope is expected to be able to detect 10-cm diameter debris at geosynchronous altitudes (5 sec exposure assuming a spherical specular phase function w/ albedo =0.13). Once operational, the telescope has the potential of conducting simultaneous observations with radars operated by the US Army at Kwajalein Atoll (USAKA) and located on the island of Roi-Namur, approximately 55 km to the north of Legan. Four radars, representing 6 frequency bands, are available for use: ALTAIR (ARPA-Long Range Tracking and Instrumentation Radar) operating at VHF & UHF, TRADEX (Target Resolution and Discrimination Experiment) operating at L-band and S-band, ALCOR (ARPA-Lincoln C-band Observables Radar) operating at S-band, and MMW (Millimeter Wave) Radar operating at Ka-band. Also potentially available is the X-band GBRP (Ground Based Radar-Prototype located 25 km to the southeast of Legan on the main island of Kwajalein.

  18. On the rational monodromy-free potentials with sextic growth

    SciTech Connect

    Gibbons, J.; Veselov, A. P.

    2009-01-15

    We study the rational potentials V(x), with sextic growth at infinity, such that the corresponding one-dimensional Schroedinger equation has no monodromy in the complex domain for all values of the spectral parameter. We investigate in detail the subclass of such potentials which can be constructed by the Darboux transformations from the well-known class of quasiexactly solvable potentials V=x{sup 6}-{nu}x{sup 2}+l(l+1)/x{sup 2}. We show that, in contrast with the case of quadratic growth, there are monodromy-free potentials which have quasirational eigenfunctions, but which cannot be given by this construction. We discuss the relations between the corresponding algebraic varieties and present some elementary solutions of the Calogero-Moser problem in the external field with sextic potential.

  19. The impact of growth promoters on muscle growth and the potential consequences for meat quality.

    PubMed

    Parr, Tim; Mareko, Molebeledi H D; Ryan, Kevin J P; Hemmings, Krystal M; Brown, David M; Brameld, John M

    2016-10-01

    To meet the demands of increased global meat consumption, animal production systems will have to become more efficient, or at least maintain the current efficiency utilizing feed ingredients that are not also used for human consumption. Use of growth promoters is a potential option for increasing production animal feed efficiency and increased muscle growth. The objective of this manuscript is to describe the mechanisms by which the growth promoters, beta-adrenergic agonists and growth hormone, mediate their effects, with specific consideration of the aspects which have implications for meat quality. PMID:27179582

  20. Effect of Precipitation During Key Months on Forage Growth Potential

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ranchers and range managers find themselves at the mercy of Mother Nature when making stocking decisions early in the spring. Most forage growth potential is determined by precipitation during key months in the spring (Heitschmidt et al., 1999) – often multiple spring months are important with resp...

  1. Autonomous surveillance for biosecurity.

    PubMed

    Jurdak, Raja; Elfes, Alberto; Kusy, Branislav; Tews, Ashley; Hu, Wen; Hernandez, Emili; Kottege, Navinda; Sikka, Pavan

    2015-04-01

    The global movement of people and goods has increased the risk of biosecurity threats and their potential to incur large economic, social, and environmental costs. Conventional manual biosecurity surveillance methods are limited by their scalability in space and time. This article focuses on autonomous surveillance systems, comprising sensor networks, robots, and intelligent algorithms, and their applicability to biosecurity threats. We discuss the spatial and temporal attributes of autonomous surveillance technologies and map them to three broad categories of biosecurity threat: (i) vector-borne diseases; (ii) plant pests; and (iii) aquatic pests. Our discussion reveals a broad range of opportunities to serve biosecurity needs through autonomous surveillance. PMID:25744760

  2. Selection theory of free dendritic growth in a potential flow.

    PubMed

    von Kurnatowski, Martin; Grillenbeck, Thomas; Kassner, Klaus

    2013-04-01

    The Kruskal-Segur approach to selection theory in diffusion-limited or Laplacian growth is extended via combination with the Zauderer decomposition scheme. This way nonlinear bulk equations become tractable. To demonstrate the method, we apply it to two-dimensional crystal growth in a potential flow. We omit the simplifying approximations used in a preliminary calculation for the same system [Fischaleck, Kassner, Europhys. Lett. 81, 54004 (2008)], thus exhibiting the capability of the method to extend mathematical rigor to more complex problems than hitherto accessible. PMID:23679427

  3. Transpiration- and growth-induced water potentials in maize

    SciTech Connect

    Westgate, M.E.; Boyer, J.S.

    1984-01-01

    Recent evidence from leaves and stems indicates that gradients in water potential (psi/sub w/) necessary for water movement through growing tissues are larger than previously assumed. Because growth is sensitive to tissue psi/sub w/ and the behavior of these gradients has not been investigated in transpiring plants, the authors examined the water status of all the growing and mature vegetative tissues of maize (Zea mays L.) during high and low rates of transpiration. The psi/sub w/ measured in the mature regions of the plant responded primarily to transpiration, while the psi/sub w/ in the growing regions was affected both by transpiration and growth. The transpiration-induced potentials of the mature tissue formed a gradient of decreasing psi/sub w/ along the transpiration stream while the growth-induced potentials formed a gradient of decreasing psi/sub w/ from the transpiration stream to the expanding cells in the growing tissue. The growth-induced gradient in psi/sub w/ within the leaf remained fairly constant as the xylem psi/sub w/ decreased during the day and was associated with a decreased osmotic potential (psi/sub s/) of the growing region (osmotic adjustment). The growth-induced gradient in psi/sub w/ was not caused by excision of the tissue because intact maize stems exhibited a similar psi/sub w/. These observations support the concept that large gradients in psi/sub w/ are required to maintain water flow to expanding cells within all the vegetative tissues and suggest that the maintenance of a favorable gradient in psi/sub w/ for cell enlargement may be an important role for osmotic adjustment. 33 references, 7 figures, 1 table.

  4. Autonomic neuropathies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Low, P. A.

    1998-01-01

    A limited autonomic neuropathy may underlie some unusual clinical syndromes, including the postural tachycardia syndrome, pseudo-obstruction syndrome, heat intolerance, and perhaps chronic fatigue syndrome. Antibodies to autonomic structures are common in diabetes, but their specificity is unknown. The presence of autonomic failure worsens prognosis in the diabetic state. Some autonomic neuropathies are treatable. Familial amyloid polyneuropathy may respond to liver transplantation. There are anecdotal reports of acute panautonomic neuropathy responding to intravenous gamma globulin. Orthostatic hypotension may respond to erythropoietin or midodrine.

  5. Effect of autonomic blocking agents on the respiratory-related oscillations of ventricular action potential duration in humans

    PubMed Central

    van Duijvenboden, Stefan; Hanson, Ben; Child, Nick; Orini, Michele; Rinaldi, Christopher A.; Gill, Jaswinder S.

    2015-01-01

    Ventricular action potential duration (APD) is an important component of many physiological functions including arrhythmogenesis. APD oscillations have recently been reported in humans at the respiratory frequency. This study investigates the contribution of the autonomic nervous system to these oscillations. In 10 patients undergoing treatment for supraventricular arrhythmias, activation recovery intervals (ARI; a conventional surrogate for APD) were measured from multiple left and right ventricular (RV) endocardial sites, together with femoral artery pressure. Respiration was voluntarily regulated and heart rate clamped by RV pacing. Sympathetic and parasympathetic blockade was achieved using intravenous metoprolol and atropine, respectively. Metroprolol reduced the rate of pressure development (maximal change in pressure over time): 1,271 (± 646) vs. 930 (± 433) mmHg/s; P < 0.01. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) showed a trend to decrease after metoprolol, 133 (± 21) vs. 128 (± 25) mmHg; P = 0.06, and atropine infusion, 122 (± 26) mmHg; P < 0.05. ARI and SBP exhibited significant cyclical variations (P < 0.05) with respiration in all subjects with peak-to-peak amplitudes ranging between 0.7 and 17.0 mmHg and 1 and 16 ms, respectively. Infusion of metoprolol reduced the mean peak-to-peak amplitude [ARI, 6.2 (± 1.4) vs. 4.4 (± 1.0) ms, P = 0.008; SBP, 8.4 (± 1.6) vs. 6.2 (± 2.0) mmHg, P = 0.002]. The addition of atropine had no significant effect. ARI, SBP, and respiration showed significant coupling (P < 0.05) at the breathing frequency in all subjects. Directed coherence from respiration to ARI was high and reduced after metoprolol infusion [0.70 (± 0.17) vs. 0.50 (± 0.23); P < 0.05]. These results suggest a role of respiration in modulating the electrophysiology of ventricular myocardium in humans, which is partly, but not totally, mediated by β-adrenergic mechanisms. PMID:26475587

  6. Effect of autonomic blocking agents on the respiratory-related oscillations of ventricular action potential duration in humans.

    PubMed

    van Duijvenboden, Stefan; Hanson, Ben; Child, Nick; Orini, Michele; Rinaldi, Christopher A; Gill, Jaswinder S; Taggart, Peter

    2015-12-15

    Ventricular action potential duration (APD) is an important component of many physiological functions including arrhythmogenesis. APD oscillations have recently been reported in humans at the respiratory frequency. This study investigates the contribution of the autonomic nervous system to these oscillations. In 10 patients undergoing treatment for supraventricular arrhythmias, activation recovery intervals (ARI; a conventional surrogate for APD) were measured from multiple left and right ventricular (RV) endocardial sites, together with femoral artery pressure. Respiration was voluntarily regulated and heart rate clamped by RV pacing. Sympathetic and parasympathetic blockade was achieved using intravenous metoprolol and atropine, respectively. Metroprolol reduced the rate of pressure development (maximal change in pressure over time): 1,271 (± 646) vs. 930 (± 433) mmHg/s; P < 0.01. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) showed a trend to decrease after metoprolol, 133 (± 21) vs. 128 (± 25) mmHg; P = 0.06, and atropine infusion, 122 (± 26) mmHg; P < 0.05. ARI and SBP exhibited significant cyclical variations (P < 0.05) with respiration in all subjects with peak-to-peak amplitudes ranging between 0.7 and 17.0 mmHg and 1 and 16 ms, respectively. Infusion of metoprolol reduced the mean peak-to-peak amplitude [ARI, 6.2 (± 1.4) vs. 4.4 (± 1.0) ms, P = 0.008; SBP, 8.4 (± 1.6) vs. 6.2 (± 2.0) mmHg, P = 0.002]. The addition of atropine had no significant effect. ARI, SBP, and respiration showed significant coupling (P < 0.05) at the breathing frequency in all subjects. Directed coherence from respiration to ARI was high and reduced after metoprolol infusion [0.70 (± 0.17) vs. 0.50 (± 0.23); P < 0.05]. These results suggest a role of respiration in modulating the electrophysiology of ventricular myocardium in humans, which is partly, but not totally, mediated by β-adrenergic mechanisms. PMID:26475587

  7. Putative floral brood-site mimicry, loss of autonomous selfing, and reduced vegetative growth are significantly correlated with increased diversification in Asarum (Aristolochiaceae).

    PubMed

    Sinn, Brandon T; Kelly, Lawrence M; Freudenstein, John V

    2015-08-01

    The drivers of angiosperm diversity have long been sought and the flower-arthropod association has often been invoked as the most powerful driver of the angiosperm radiation. We now know that features that influence arthropod interactions cannot only affect the diversification of lineages, but also expedite or constrain their rate of extinction, which can equally influence the observed asymmetric richness of extant angiosperm lineages. The genus Asarum (Aristolochiaceae; ∼100 species) is widely distributed in north temperate forests, with substantial vegetative and floral divergence between its three major clades, Euasarum, Geotaenium, and Heterotropa. We used Binary-State Speciation and Extinction Model (BiSSE) Net Diversification tests of character state distributions on a Maximum Likelihood phylogram and a Coalescent Bayesian species tree, inferred from seven chloroplast markers and nuclear rDNA, to test for signal of asymmetric diversification, character state transition, and extinction rates of floral and vegetative characters. We found that reduction in vegetative growth, loss of autonomous self-pollination, and the presence of putative fungal-mimicking floral structures are significantly correlated with increased diversification in Asarum. No significant difference in model likelihood was identified between symmetric and asymmetric rates of character state transitions or extinction. We conclude that the flowers of the Heterotropa clade may have converged on some aspects of basidiomycete sporocarp morphology and that brood-site mimicry, coupled with a reduction in vegetative growth and the loss of autonomous self-pollination, may have driven diversification within Asarum. PMID:25937558

  8. ETV6/ARG oncoprotein confers autonomous cell growth by enhancing c-Myc expression via signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 activation in the acute promyelocytic leukemia cell line HT93A.

    PubMed

    Iriyama, Noriyoshi; Hatta, Yoshihiro; Takei, Masami

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the role of ETV6/ARG fusion gene by exposing the HT93A cell line to nilotinib. HT93A cells were cultured with or without nilotinib±50 ng/mL of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF). Nilotinib treatment inhibited cell growth by increasing the percentage of cells in G0/G1 phase through the decrease of phosphorylated signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) (Y705), STAT5 (Y694) and c-Myc expression. After stimulation with G-CSF, STAT5 but not STAT3 was significantly phosphorylated in both nilotinib-treated and untreated cells. Moreover, combination therapy with nilotinib and G-CSF returned the expression level of c-Myc, cell growth and cell cycle distribution to the control level. These findings suggest that the ETV6/ARG oncoprotein contributes to autonomous cell growth by compensating for the requirement of growth factor through activating STAT5 signaling, which leads to the up-regulation of c-Myc. Our data suggest that ETV6/ARG oncoprotein is a potential target in the treatment of leukemia. PMID:25373509

  9. Growth potential of Clostridium perfringens during cooling of cooked meats.

    PubMed

    Taormina, Peter J; Dorsa, Warren J

    2004-07-01

    Many meat-based food products are cooked to temperatures sufficient to inactivate vegetative cells of Clostridium perfringens, but spores of this bacterium can survive, germinate, and grow in these products if sufficient time, temperature, and other variables exist. Because ingestion of large numbers of vegetative cells can lead to concomitant sporulation, enterotoxin release in the gastrointestinal tract, and diarrhea-like illness, a necessary food safety objective is to ensure that not more than acceptable levels of C. perfringens are in finished products. As cooked meat items cool they will pass through the growth temperature range of C. perfringens (50 to 15 degrees C). Therefore, an important step in determining the likely level of C. perfringens in the final product is the estimation of growth of the pathogen during cooling of the cooked product. Numerous studies exist dealing with just such estimations, yet consensual methodologies, results, and conclusions are lacking. There is a need to consider the bulk of C. perfringens work relating to cooling of cooked meat-based products and attempt to move toward a better understanding of the true growth potential of the organism. This review attempts to summarize observations made by researchers and highlight variations in experimental approach as possible explanations for different outcomes. An attempt is also made here to identify and justify optimal procedures for conducting C. perfringens growth estimation in meat-based cooked food products during cooling. PMID:15270517

  10. Algal Growth Potential of Microcystis aeruginosa from Reclaimed Water.

    PubMed

    Joo, Jin Chul; Ahn, Chang Hyuk; Lee, Saeromi; Jang, Dae-Gyu; Lee, Woo Hyoung; Ryu, Byong Ro

    2016-01-01

    Algal growth potential (AGP) of the cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa (M. aeruginosa, NIES-298) using reclaimed water from various wastewater reclamation pilot plants was investigated to evaluate the feasibility of the reclaimed water usage for recreational purposes. After completing the coagulation and ultrafiltration processes, the concentrations of most contaminants in the reclaimed water were lower than the reuse guidelines for recreational water. However, M. aeruginosa successfully adapted to low levels of soluble reactive phosphorus (PO(3-)(4)) concentrations. The AGP values of M. aeruginosa decreased with the progression of treatment processes, and with the increases in the dilution volume. Also, both the AGP and chlorophyll-a values can be estimated a priori without conducting the AGP tests. Therefore, aquatic ecosystems in locations prone to environmental conditions favorable for the growth of M. aeruginosa require more rigorous nutrient management plans (e.g., reverse osmosis and dilution with clean water resources) to reduce the nutrient availability. PMID:26803027

  11. Nutritionally directed compensatory growth enhances heifer development and lactation potential.

    PubMed

    Ford, J A; Park, C S

    2001-07-01

    The objectives of this study were 1) to examine the interactive influence of a compensatory nutrition regimen and lasalocid supplementation on dairy heifer growth performance and 2) to document the extent to which compensatory growth sustains lactation potential over the first two lactation cycles. Twelve Holstein heifers, weighing an average of 160 kg (about 6 mo of age) were randomly assigned to treatments arranged in a 2 x 2 factorial design. Treatment variables were two dietary regimens (control and stair-step compensatory nutrition) and two levels of lasalocid (0 and 200 mg/d). The control heifers were fed a diet containing 12% crude protein (CP) and 2.35 Mcal of metabolizable energy (ME) per kilogram of dry matter. The stair-step compensatory nutrition heifers were subjected to a phased nutrition regimen and reared according to an alternating 3-2-4-3-4-2-mo schedule. The first stair-step (prepubertal phase) consisted of energy restriction [17% CP and 2.35 Mcal/kg of ME] for 3 mo followed by realimentation (12% CP and 3.05 Mcal/kg of ME) for 2 mo. The second step (puberty and breeding) consisted of energy restriction for 4 mo followed by realimentation for 3 mo. The third step (gestation period) was energy restriction for 4 mo concluding with realimentation for 2 mo. Dry matter intake of heifers during the restriction phase was limited to 70% of the control intake. Heifers were given ad libitum access to a high energy density diet during realimentation to allow compensatory development. Stair-step heifers supplemented with lasalocid had the highest efficiency of growth (body weight gain/dry matter intake), suggesting synergistic metabolism of lasalocid with compensatory growth action. Compensatory growth induced during the last trimester enhanced metabolic status by increasing circulating insulin and decreasing triglyceride levels. Heifers on the stair-step regimen had a significant increase in milk yield during the first (21%) and second (15%) lactation

  12. Autonomic hyperreflexia

    MedlinePlus

    The most common cause of autonomic hyperreflexia is spinal cord injury. The nervous system of people with this condition ... Flushed (red) skin above the level of the spinal cord injury High blood pressure Slow pulse or fast pulse ...

  13. Autonomic hyperreflexia

    MedlinePlus

    ... The most common cause of autonomic hyperreflexia is spinal cord injury. The nervous system of people with this condition ... Flushed (red) skin above the level of the spinal cord injury High blood pressure Slow pulse or fast pulse ...

  14. On the potential of recording earthquakes for global seismic tomography by low-cost autonomous instruments in the oceans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simons, Frederik J.; Nolet, Guust; Georgief, Paul; Babcock, Jeff M.; Regier, Lloyd A.; Davis, Russ E.

    2009-05-01

    We describe the development and testing of an autonomous device designed to revolutionize Earth structure determination via global seismic tomography by detecting earthquakes at teleseismic distances in the oceans. One prototype MERMAID, short for Mobile Earthquake Recording in Marine Areas by Independent Divers, was constructed and tested at sea. The instrument combines two readily available, relatively low-cost but state-of-the-art components: a Sounding Oceanographic Lagrangian Observer, or SOLO float, and an off-the-shelf hydrophone, with custom-built data logging hardware. We report on the development of efficient wavelet-based algorithms for the detection and discrimination of seismic events and analyze three time series of acoustic pressure collected at a depth of 700 m in pilot experiments conducted offshore San Diego, CA. In these tests, over 120 hours of data were gathered, and five earthquakes, of which one was teleseismic, were recorded and identified. Quantitative estimates based on these results suggest that instruments of the MERMAID type may collect up to a hundred tomographically useful teleseismic events per year. The final design will also incorporate a Global Positioning System receiver, onboard signal processing software optimized for low-power chips, and high-throughput satellite communication equipment for telemetered data transfer. With these improvements, we hope to realize our vision of a global array of autonomous floating sensors for whole-earth seismic tomography.

  15. Phosphodiesterase 4D Inhibitors Limit Prostate Cancer Growth Potential

    PubMed Central

    Powers, Ginny L.; Hammer, Kimberly D.P.; Domenech, Maribella; Frantskevich, Katsiaryna; Malinowski, Rita L.; Bushman, Wade; Beebe, David J.; Marker, Paul C.

    2014-01-01

    Phosphodiesterase 4D (PDE4D) has recently been implicated as a proliferation-promoting factor in prostate cancer and is over-expressed in human prostate carcinoma. However, the effects of PDE4D inhibition using pharmacological inhibitors have not been examined in prostate cancer. These studies examined the effects of selective PDE4D inhibitors, NVP-ABE171 and cilomilast, as anti-prostate cancer therapies in both in vitro and in vivo models. The effects of PDE4D inhibitors on pathways that are critical in prostate cancer and/or downstream of cyclic AMP (cAMP) were examined. Both NVP-ABE171 and cilomilast decreased cell growth. In vitro, PDE4D inhibitors lead to decreased signaling of the sonic hedgehog (SHH), Androgen Receptor (AR), and MAPK pathways, but growth inhibition was best correlated to the sonic hedgehog pathway. PDE4D inhibition also reduced proliferation of epithelial cells induced by paracrine signaling from co-cultured stromal cells that had activated hedgehog signaling. In addition, PDE4D inhibitors decreased the weight of the prostate in wild-type mice. Prostate cancer xenografts grown in nude mice that were treated with cilomilast or NVP-ABE171 had decreased wet weight and increased apoptosis compared to vehicle treated controls. These studies suggest the pharmacological inhibition of PDE4D using small molecule inhibitors is an effective option for prostate cancer therapy. Implications PDE4D inhibitors decrease the growth of prostate cancer cells in vivo and in vitro, and PDE4D inhibition has therapeutic potential in prostate cancer. PMID:25149359

  16. Autonomous Soaring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Victor P.

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the autonomous soaring flight of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV). It reviews energy sources for UAVs, and two examples of UAV's that used alternative energy sources, and thermal currents for soaring. Examples of flight tests, plans, and results are given. Ultimately, the concept of a UAV harvesting energy from the atmosphere has been shown to be feasible with existing technology.

  17. Autonomous Landing Hazard Avoidance Technology

    NASA Video Gallery

    Future NASA space crafts will be able to safely land on the Moon, Marsand even an asteroid, in potentially hazardous terrain areas, allautonomously. And NASA’s Autonomous Landing Hazard Avoidan...

  18. The Drosophila insulin-degrading enzyme restricts growth by modulating the PI3K pathway in a cell-autonomous manner

    PubMed Central

    Galagovsky, Diego; Katz, Maximiliano J.; Acevedo, Julieta M.; Sorianello, Eleonora; Glavic, Alvaro; Wappner, Pablo

    2014-01-01

    Mammalian insulin-degrading enzyme (IDE) cleaves insulin, among other peptidic substrates, but its function in insulin signaling is elusive. We use the Drosophila system to define the function of IDE in the regulation of growth and metabolism. We find that either loss or gain of function of Drosophila IDE (dIDE) can restrict growth in a cell-autonomous manner by affecting both cell size and cell number. dIDE can modulate Drosophila insulin-like peptide 2 levels, thereby restricting activation of the phosphatidylinositol-3-phosphate kinase pathway and promoting activation of Drosophila forkhead box, subgroup O transcription factor. Larvae reared in high sucrose exhibit delayed developmental timing due to insulin resistance. We find that dIDE loss of function exacerbates this phenotype and that mutants display increased levels of circulating sugar, along with augmented expression of a lipid biosynthesis marker. We propose that dIDE is a modulator of insulin signaling and that its loss of function favors insulin resistance, a hallmark of diabetes mellitus type II. PMID:24430872

  19. Individual insurance: health insurers try to tap potential market growth.

    PubMed

    November, Elizabeth A; Cohen, Genna R; Ginsburg, Paul B; Quinn, Brian C

    2009-11-01

    Individual insurance is the only source of health coverage for people without access to employer-sponsored insurance or public insurance. Individual insurance traditionally has been sought by older, sicker individuals who perceive the need for insurance more than younger, healthier people. The attraction of a sicker population to the individual market creates adverse selection, leading insurers to employ medical underwriting--which most states allow--to either avoid those with the greatest health needs or set premiums more reflective of their expected medical use. Recently, however, several factors have prompted insurers to recognize the growth potential of the individual market: a declining proportion of people with employer-sponsored insurance, a sizeable population of younger, healthier people forgoing insurance, and the likelihood that many people receiving subsidies to buy insurance under proposed health insurance reforms would buy individual coverage. Insurers are pursuing several strategies to expand their presence in the individual insurance market, including entering less-regulated markets, developing lower-cost, less-comprehensive products targeting younger, healthy consumers, and attracting consumers through the Internet and other new distribution channels, according to a new study by the Center for Studying Health System Change (HSC). Insurers' strategies in the individual insurance market are unlikely to meet the needs of less-than-healthy people seeking affordable, comprehensive coverage. Congressional health reform proposals, which envision a larger role for the individual market under a sharply different regulatory framework, would likely supersede insurers' current individual market strategies. PMID:19899193

  20. Crack Growth Monitoring in Harsh Environments by Electric Potential Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Lloyd, Wilson Randolph; Reuter, Walter Graham; Weinberg, David Michael

    1999-09-01

    Electric potential measurement (EPM) technology offers an attractive alternative to conventional nondestructive evaluation (NDE) for monitoring crack growth in harsh environments. Where conventional NDE methods typically require localized human interaction, the EPM technique developed at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) can be operated remotely and automatically. Once a crack-like defect is discovered via conventional means, EPM can be applied to monitor local crack size changes. This is of particular interest in situations where an identified structural defect is not immediately rejectable from a fitness-for-service viewpoint, but due to operational and environmental conditions may grow to an unsafe size with continuing operation. If the location is in a harsh environment where periodic monitoring by normal means is either too costly or not possible, a very expensive repair may be immediately mandated. However, the proposed EPM methodology may offer a unique monitoring capability that would allow for continuing service. INEEL has developed this methodology, supporting equipment, and calibration information to apply EPM in a field environment for just this purpose. Laboratory and pilot scale tests on full-size engineering structures (pressure vessels and piping) have been successfully performed. The technique applicable is many severe environments because the sensitive equipment (electronics, operators) can be situated in a remote location, with only current and voltage probe electrical leads entering into the harsh environment. Experimental results showing the utility of the methodology are presented, and unique application concepts that have been examined by multiple experiments are discussed.

  1. Crack growth monitoring in harsh environments by electrical potential measurements

    SciTech Connect

    W. R. Lloyd; W. G. Reuter; D. M. Weinberg

    1999-09-19

    Electric potential measurement (EPM) technology offers an attractive alternative to conventional nondestructive evaluation (NDE) for monitoring crack growth in harsh environments. Where conventional NDE methods typically require localized human interaction, the EPM technique developed at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) can be operated remotely and automatically. Once a crack-like defect is discovered via conventional means, EPM can be applied to monitor local crack size changes. This is of particular interest in situations where an identified structural defect is not immediately rejectable from a fitness-for-service viewpoint, but due to operational and environmental conditions may grow to an unsafe size with continuing operation. If the location is in a harsh environment where periodic monitoring by normal means is either too costly or not possible, a very expensive repair may be immediately mandated. However, the proposed EPM methodology may offer a unique monitoring capability that would allow for continuing service. INEEL has developed this methodology, supporting equipment, and calibration information to apply EPM in a field environment for just this purpose. Laboratory and pilot scale tests on full-size engineering structures (pressure vessels and piping) have been successfully performed. The technique is applicable to many severe environments because the sensitive equipment (electronics, operators) can be situated in a remote location, with only current and voltage probe electrical leads entering into the harsh environment. Experimental results showing the utility of the methodology are presented, and unique application concepts that have been examined by multiple experiments are discussed.

  2. Projections from the parabrachial nucleus to the vestibular nuclei: potential substrates for autonomic and limbic influences on vestibular responses.

    PubMed

    Balaban, Carey D

    2004-01-16

    Previous anatomical studies in rabbits and rats have shown that the superior vestibular nucleus (SVN), medial vestibular nucleus (MVN) and inferior vestibular nucleus (IVN) project to the parabrachial nucleus (PBN) and Kölliker-Fuse (KF) nucleus. Adult male albino rabbits and Long-Evans rats received iontophoretic injections of biotinylated dextran amine, Phaseolus vulgaris leucoagglutinin, Fluoro-Gold or tetramethylrhodamine dextran amine into either the vestibular nuclei or the PBN and KF nuclei. The results were similar in both rats and rabbits. Injections of retrograde tracers into the vestibular nuclei produced retrogradely labeled neurons bilaterally in caudal third of the medial, external medial, and external lateral PBN in both species, with more variable labeling in KF. Rats also had consistent bilateral (predominantly contralateral) labeling in the ventrolateral PBN. The most prominent labeling was produced from injections that included the SVN, with fewer labeled neurons observed from injections in the caudal MVN and the IVN. Anterograde transport of BDA from injections into the PBN and KF nuclei of rabbits revealed prominent projections to the SVN, dorsal aspect of the rostral MVN, caudal MVN, pars beta of the LVN and IVN. These connections appear to contain a component that is reciprocal to the vestibulo-parabrachial pathway and a non-reciprocal component to regions connected with the vestibulocerebellum and vestibulo-motor reflex pathways. These connections support the concept that a synthesis of autonomic, vestibular and limbic information is an integral property of pathways related to balance control in both the brain stem and forebrain. It is suggested that these projections may contribute broadly to both performance tradeoffs in vestibular-related pathways during variations in the behavioral context and affective state and the close association between anxiety and balance function. PMID:14670639

  3. Growth reproductive potential and control strategies for deeproot sedge (Cyperus entreianus)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Greenhouse, growth chamber, and field studies were conducted at Stoneville, MS in 2000-2008 to determine the growth rate, reproductive and overwintering potential, and control of deeproot sedge. In growth chamber studies, deeproot sedge growth rate (height) and plant dry weights were greatest for 2...

  4. Autonomous vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Meyrowitz, A.L.; Blidberg, D.R.; Michelson, R.C. |

    1996-08-01

    There are various kinds of autonomous vehicles (AV`s) which can operate with varying levels of autonomy. This paper is concerned with underwater, ground, and aerial vehicles operating in a fully autonomous (nonteleoperated) mode. Further, this paper deals with AV`s as a special kind of device, rather than full-scale manned vehicles operating unmanned. The distinction is one in which the AV is likely to be designed for autonomous operation rather than being adapted for it as would be the case for manned vehicles. The authors provide a survey of the technological progress that has been made in AV`s, the current research issues and approaches that are continuing that progress, and the applications which motivate this work. It should be noted that issues of control are pervasive regardless of the kind of AV being considered, but that there are special considerations in the design and operation of AV`s depending on whether the focus is on vehicles underwater, on the ground, or in the air. The authors have separated the discussion into sections treating each of these categories.

  5. Histomorphometric Evidence of Growth Plate Recovery Potential after Fractionated Radiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Damron, Timothy A.; Horton, Jason A.; Pritchard, Meredith R.; Stringer, Matthew T.; Margulies, Bryan S.; Strauss, Judith A.; Spadaro, Joseph A.; Farnum, Cornelia E.

    2008-01-01

    This study evaluated the hypothesis that early growth plate radiorecovery is evident by growth rate, histomorphometric and immunohistochemical end points after exposure to clinically relevant fractionated radiation in vivo. Twenty-four weanling 5-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized into eight groups. In each animal, the right distal femur and proximal tibia were exposed to five daily fractions of 3.5 Gy (17.5 Gy) with the left leg serving as a control. Rats were killed humanely at 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 14, 15 and 16 days after the first day of radiation exposure. Quantitative end points calculated included individual zonal and overall growth plate heights, area matrix fraction, OTC-labeled growth rate, chondrocyte clone volume and numeric density, and BrdU immunohistochemical labeling for proliferative index. Transient postirradiation reductions occurred early and improved during observation for growth rate, proliferative indices, transitional/hypertrophic zone matrix area fraction, proliferative height, and clonal volume. Reserve and hypertrophic zone height remained increased during the period of observation. The current model, using a more clinically relevant fractionation scheme than used previously, shows early evidence of growth plate recovery and provides a model that can be used to correlate temporal changes in RNA and protein expression during the early period of growth plate recovery. PMID:18763859

  6. Cybersecurity for aerospace autonomous systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Straub, Jeremy

    2015-05-01

    High profile breaches have occurred across numerous information systems. One area where attacks are particularly problematic is autonomous control systems. This paper considers the aerospace information system, focusing on elements that interact with autonomous control systems (e.g., onboard UAVs). It discusses the trust placed in the autonomous systems and supporting systems (e.g., navigational aids) and how this trust can be validated. Approaches to remotely detect the UAV compromise, without relying on the onboard software (on a potentially compromised system) as part of the process are discussed. How different levels of autonomy (task-based, goal-based, mission-based) impact this remote characterization is considered.

  7. Autonomous control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Barbara

    1990-01-01

    KSC has been developing the Knowledge-Based Autonomous Test Engineer (KATE), which is a tool for performing automated monitoring, diagnosis, and control of electromechanical devices. KATE employs artificial intelligence computing techniques to perform these functions. The KATE system consists of a generic shell and a knowledge base. The KATE shell is the portion of the system which performs the monitoring, diagnosis, and control functions. It is generic in the sense that it is application independent. This means that the monitoring activity, for instance, will be performed with the same algorithms regardless of the particular physical device being used. The knowledge base is the portion of the system which contains specific functional and behavorial information about the physical device KATE is working with. Work is nearing completion on a project at KSC to interface a Texas Instruments Explorer running a LISP version of KATE with a Generic Checkout System (GCS) test-bed to control a physical simulation of a shuttle tanking system (humorously called the Red Wagon because of its color and mobility). The Autonomous Control System (ACS) project supplements and extends the KATE/GCS project by adding three other major activities. The activities include: porting KATE from the Texas Instruments Explorer machine to an Intel 80386-based UNIX workstation in the LISP language; rewriting KATE as necessary to run on the same 80386 workstation but in the Ada language; and investigating software and techniques to translate ANSI Standard Common LISP to Mil Standard Ada. Primary goals of this task are as follows: (1) establish the advantages of using expert systems to provide intelligent autonomous software for Space Station Freedom applications; (2) determine the feasibility of using Ada as the run-time environment for model-based expert systems; (3) provide insight into the advantages and disadvantagesof using LISP or Ada in the run-time environment for expert systems; and (4

  8. Gene Expression of Growth Factors and Growth Factor Receptors for Potential Targeted Therapy of Canine Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    IIDA, Gentoku; ASANO, Kazushi; SEKI, Mamiko; SAKAI, Manabu; KUTARA, Kenji; ISHIGAKI, Kumiko; KAGAWA, Yumiko; YOSHIDA, Orie; TESHIMA, Kenji; EDAMURA, Kazuya; WATARI, Toshihiro

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT The purpose of this study was to evaluate the gene expression of growth factors and growth factor receptors of primary hepatic masses, including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and nodular hyperplasia (NH), in dogs. Quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction was performed to measure the expression of 18 genes in 18 HCCs, 10 NHs, 11 surrounding non-cancerous liver tissues and 4 healthy control liver tissues. Platelet-derived growth factor-B (PDGF-B), transforming growth factor-α, epidermal growth factor receptor, epidermal growth factor and hepatocyte growth factor were found to be differentially expressed in HCC compared with NH and the surrounding non-cancerous and healthy control liver tissues. PDGF-B is suggested to have the potential to become a valuable ancillary target for the treatment of canine HCC. PMID:24189579

  9. INL Autonomous Navigation System

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2005-03-30

    The INL Autonomous Navigation System provides instructions for autonomously navigating a robot. The system permits high-speed autonomous navigation including obstacle avoidance, waypoing navigation and path planning in both indoor and outdoor environments.

  10. Autonomous power system: Integrated scheduling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ringer, Mark J.

    1992-01-01

    The Autonomous Power System (APS) project at NASA Lewis Research Center is designed to demonstrate the abilities of integrated intelligent diagnosis, control and scheduling techniques to space power distribution hardware. The project consists of three elements: the Autonomous Power Expert System (APEX) for fault diagnosis, isolation, and recovery (FDIR), the Autonomous Intelligent Power Scheduler (AIPS) to determine system configuration, and power hardware (Brassboard) to simulate a space-based power system. Faults can be introduced into the Brassboard and in turn, be diagnosed and corrected by APEX and AIPS. The Autonomous Intelligent Power Scheduler controls the execution of loads attached to the Brassboard. Each load must be executed in a manner that efficiently utilizes available power and satisfies all load, resource, and temporal constraints. In the case of a fault situation on the Brassboard, AIPS dynamically modifies the existing schedule in order to resume efficient operation conditions. A database is kept of the power demand, temporal modifiers, priority of each load, and the power level of each source. AIPS uses a set of heuristic rules to assign start times and resources to each load based on load and resource constraints. A simple improvement engine based upon these heuristics is also available to improve the schedule efficiency. This paper describes the operation of the Autonomous Intelligent Power Scheduler as a single entity, as well as its integration with APEX and the Brassboard. Future plans are discussed for the growth of the Autonomous Intelligent Power Scheduler.

  11. (Metabolic mechanisms of plant growth at low water potentials)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    The work supported by DOE showed that water-limitation inhibits plant growth first by imposing a physical limitation that is followed in a few h by metabolic changes leading to reduced wall extensibility in the enlarging cells. After the wall extensibility decreased, a 28kD protein accumulated particularly in the walls of the growth-affected cells. Antibodies were used to identify cDNA for the protein. The base sequence of the cDNA was typical of an enzyme rather than known structural components of walls. The sequence was identical to one published by another laboratory at the same time and encoding a protein that accumulates in vacuoles of depodded soybean plants.

  12. Autonomic disorders predicting Parkinson disease

    PubMed Central

    Palma, Jose-Alberto; Kaufmann, Horacio

    2014-01-01

    It is now well recognized that there is a premotor phase of Parkinson disease with hyposmia and REM sleep behavior disorder caused by degeneration of specific CNS neurons. Most patients with PD describe autonomic symptoms at the time of diagnosis suggesting that these features may have potential sensitivity as clinical biomarkers of the premotor phase. The recognition that damage to peripheral autonomic neurons is present in the early stages of Parkinson disease has led to a search for specific abnormalities in autonomic function that could serve as predictive biomarkers. There is evidence that constipation, urinary and sexual dysfunction and more recently decreased cardiac chronotropic response during exercise, are part of the premotor parkinsonian phenotype. The sensitivity and specificity of these features has yet to be accurately assessed. We briefly review the evidence for autonomic dysfunction as biomarkers of premotor PD. PMID:24262198

  13. Multiple disturbances accelerate clonal growth in a potentially monodominant bamboo.

    PubMed

    Gagnon, Paul R; Platt, William J

    2008-03-01

    Organisms capable of rapid clonal growth sometimes monopolize newly freed space and resources. We hypothesize that sequential disturbances might change short-term clonal demography of these organisms in ways that promote formation of monotypic stands. We examined this hypothesis by studying the clonal response of Arundinaria gigantea (giant cane, a bamboo) to windstorm and fire. We studied giant cane growing in both a large tornado-blowdown gap and under forest canopy, in burned and unburned plots, using a split-block design. We measured density of giant cane ramets (culms) and calculated finite rates of increase (lamda) for populations of ramets over three years. Ramet density nearly doubled in stands subjected to both windstorm and fire; the high ramet densities that resulted could inhibit growth in other plants. In comparison, ramet density increased more slowly after windstorm alone, decreased after fire alone, and remained in stasis in controls. We predict that small, sparse stands of giant cane could spread and amalgamate to form dense, monotypic stands (called "canebrakes") that might influence fire return intervals and act as an alternative state to bottomland forest. Other clonal species may similarly form monotypic stands following successive disturbances via rapid clonal growth. PMID:18459325

  14. An overview of reliability growth models and their potential use for NASA applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taneja, V. S.; Safie, F. M.

    1992-01-01

    An overview is provided of reliability growth literature over the past 25 years. This includes a thorough literature review of different areas of the application of reliability growth such as design, prediction, tracking/management, and demonstration. Various reliability growth models use different bases on how they characterize growth. Different models are discussed. Also, the use is addressed of reliability growth models to NASA applications. This includes the application of these models to the space shuttle main engine. For potential NASA applications, we classify growth models in two groups, which are characterized.

  15. Projected Demand and Potential Impacts to the National Airspace System of Autonomous, Electric, On-Demand Small Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Jeremy C.; Viken, Jeffrey K.; Guerreiro, Nelson M.; Dollyhigh, Samuel M.; Fenbert, James W.; Hartman, Christopher L.; Kwa, Teck-Seng; Moore, Mark D.

    2012-01-01

    Electric propulsion and autonomy are technology frontiers that offer tremendous potential to achieve low operating costs for small-aircraft. Such technologies enable simple and safe to operate vehicles that could dramatically improve regional transportation accessibility and speed through point-to-point operations. This analysis develops an understanding of the potential traffic volume and National Airspace System (NAS) capacity for small on-demand aircraft operations. Future demand projections use the Transportation Systems Analysis Model (TSAM), a tool suite developed by NASA and the Transportation Laboratory of Virginia Polytechnic Institute. Demand projections from TSAM contain the mode of travel, number of trips and geographic distribution of trips. For this study, the mode of travel can be commercial aircraft, automobile and on-demand aircraft. NASA's Airspace Concept Evaluation System (ACES) is used to assess NAS impact. This simulation takes a schedule that includes all flights: commercial passenger and cargo; conventional General Aviation and on-demand small aircraft, and operates them in the simulated NAS. The results of this analysis projects very large trip numbers for an on-demand air transportation system competitive with automobiles in cost per passenger mile. The significance is this type of air transportation can enhance mobility for communities that currently lack access to commercial air transportation. Another significant finding is that the large numbers of operations can have an impact on the current NAS infrastructure used by commercial airlines and cargo operators, even if on-demand traffic does not use the 28 airports in the Continental U.S. designated as large hubs by the FAA. Some smaller airports will experience greater demand than their current capacity allows and will require upgrading. In addition, in future years as demand grows and vehicle performance improves other non-conventional facilities such as short runways incorporated into

  16. The Shark Strikes Twice: Hypervariable Loop 2 of Shark IgNAR Antibody Variable Domains and Its Potential to Function as an Autonomous Paratope.

    PubMed

    Zielonka, Stefan; Empting, Martin; Könning, Doreen; Grzeschik, Julius; Krah, Simon; Becker, Stefan; Dickgießer, Stephan; Kolmar, Harald

    2015-08-01

    In this present study, we engineered hypervariable loop 2 (HV2) of the IgNAR variable domain in a way that it solely facilitates antigen binding, potentially functioning as an autonomous paratope. For this, the surface-exposed loop corresponding to HV2 was diversified and antigen-specific variable domain of IgNAR antibody (vNAR) molecules were isolated by library screening using yeast surface display (YSD) as platform technology. An epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM)-specific vNAR was used as starting material, and nine residues in HV2 were randomized. Target-specific clones comprising a new HV2-mediated paratope were isolated against cluster of differentiation 3ε (CD3ε) and human Fcγ while retaining high affinity for EpCAM. Essentially, we demonstrate that a new paratope comprising moderate affinities against a given target molecule can be engineered into the vNAR scaffold that acts independent of the original antigen-binding site, composed of complementarity-determining region 3 (CDR3) and CDR1. PMID:26003538

  17. Autonomous Navigation Using Celestial Objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Folta, David; Gramling, Cheryl; Leung, Dominic; Belur, Sheela; Long, Anne

    1999-01-01

    In the twenty-first century, National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Enterprises envision frequent low-cost missions to explore the solar system, observe the universe, and study our planet. Satellite autonomy is a key technology required to reduce satellite operating costs. The Guidance, Navigation, and Control Center (GNCC) at the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) currently sponsors several initiatives associated with the development of advanced spacecraft systems to provide autonomous navigation and control. Autonomous navigation has the potential both to increase spacecraft navigation system performance and to reduce total mission cost. By eliminating the need for routine ground-based orbit determination and special tracking services, autonomous navigation can streamline spacecraft ground systems. Autonomous navigation products can be included in the science telemetry and forwarded directly to the scientific investigators. In addition, autonomous navigation products are available onboard to enable other autonomous capabilities, such as attitude control, maneuver planning and orbit control, and communications signal acquisition. Autonomous navigation is required to support advanced mission concepts such as satellite formation flying. GNCC has successfully developed high-accuracy autonomous navigation systems for near-Earth spacecraft using NASA's space and ground communications systems and the Global Positioning System (GPS). Recently, GNCC has expanded its autonomous navigation initiative to include satellite orbits that are beyond the regime in which use of GPS is possible. Currently, GNCC is assessing the feasibility of using standard spacecraft attitude sensors and communication components to provide autonomous navigation for missions including: libration point, gravity assist, high-Earth, and interplanetary orbits. The concept being evaluated uses a combination of star, Sun, and Earth sensor measurements along with forward-link Doppler

  18. Stimulation of human thyroid growth via the inhibitory guanine nucleotide binding (G) protein Gi: constitutive expression of the G-protein alpha subunit Gi alpha-1 in autonomous adenoma.

    PubMed Central

    Selzer, E; Wilfing, A; Schiferer, A; Hermann, M; Grubeck-Loebenstein, B; Freissmuth, M

    1993-01-01

    The alpha subunits of the stimulatory and inhibitory G proteins, Gs alpha and Gi alpha, activate transmembrane-signaling systems involved in the control of cell proliferation. We have investigated the pattern of expression of Gi alpha subtypes and Gi alpha-mediated proliferative responses in the human thyroid. Human thyroid membranes contain two subtypes of Gi alpha, Gi alpha-1 and Gi alpha-2, as assessed by using specific antibodies. The expression of Gi alpha-1 is under tight control by thyrotropin in vivo and in primary cultures of thyroid epithelial cells. In contrast, Gi alpha-1 is expressed in the absence of thyrotropin in thyroid autonomous adenoma, an endocrine-active tumor, and its levels are not regulated by thyrotropin in thyroid epithelial cells prepared from these tumors. If thyroid epithelial cells are treated with pertussis toxin to block signal transduction via Gi, the mitogenic response to serum factors is reduced. These observations demonstrate that Gi subtypes transmit growth stimuli in the human thyroid. The constitutive expression of Gi alpha-1 in autonomous adenoma may allow for the unregulated stimulation of thyroid cell proliferation by a yet unidentified signaling pathway and, thus, be causally related to autonomous growth of thyroid cells. Images PMID:8434024

  19. (Metabolic mechanisms of plant growth at low-water potentials)

    SciTech Connect

    Boyer, J.S.

    1989-01-01

    For the year 1989, the progress made on this DOE sponsored research will be described by considering the questions presented in the original proposal and describing the work on each one. We used soybean seedlings grown in vermiculite in a dark, humid environment because they are convenient to grow, undergo most of the physiological changes induced by low water potentials in large plants, and have exposed growing regions on which molecular experiments can be done.

  20. Primary events regulating stem growth at low water potentials. [Glycine max (L. )

    SciTech Connect

    Nonami, Hiroshi; Boyer, J.S. )

    1990-08-01

    Cell enlargement is inhibited by inadequate water. As a first step toward understanding the mechanism, all the physical parameters affecting enlargement were monitored to identify those that changed first, particularly in coincidence with the inhibition. The osmotic potential, turgor, yield threshold turgor, growth-induced water potential, wall extensibility, and conductance to water were measured in the elongating region, and the water potential was measured in the xylem of stems of dark-grown soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) seedlings. The results indicate that the primary event during the growth inhibition was the change in the growth-induced water potential. Because the growth limitation subsequently shifted to the low wall extensibility and tissue conductance for water, the initial change in potential may have set in motion subsequent metabolic changes that altered the characteristics of the wall and cell membranes.

  1. Metabolic mechanisms of plant growth at low water potentials. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Boyer, J.S.

    1986-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to identify primary and secondary factors that cause cell enlargement to be inhibited in the stems of soybean seedlings exposed to low water potentials. The factors that were analyzed are wall extensibility, yield threshold of the walls, hydraulic conductance of the tissue, turgor, osmotic potential, and growth-induced water potentials.

  2. Information for Successful Interaction with Autonomous Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malin, Jane T.; Johnson, Kathy A.

    2003-01-01

    Interaction in heterogeneous mission operations teams is not well matched to classical models of coordination with autonomous systems. We describe methods of loose coordination and information management in mission operations. We describe an information agent and information management tool suite for managing information from many sources, including autonomous agents. We present an integrated model of levels of complexity of agent and human behavior, which shows types of information processing and points of potential error in agent activities. We discuss the types of information needed for diagnosing problems and planning interactions with an autonomous system. We discuss types of coordination for which designs are needed for autonomous system functions.

  3. Adaptability of growth and nutrient uptake potential of Chlorella sorokiniana with variable nutrient loading.

    PubMed

    Shriwastav, Amritanshu; Gupta, Sanjay Kumar; Ansari, Faiz Ahmad; Rawat, Ismail; Bux, Faizal

    2014-12-01

    Chlorella sorokiniana can sustain growth in conditions hostile to other species, and possesses good nutrient removal and lipid accumulation potentials. However, the effects of variable nutrient levels (N and P) in wastewaters on growth, productivity, and nutrient uptake by C. sorokiniana have not been studied in detail. This study demonstrates the ability of this alga to sustain uniform growth and productivity, while regulating the relative nutrient uptake in accordance to their availability in the bulk medium. These results highlight the potential of C. sorokiniana as a suitable candidate for fulfilling the coupled objectives of nutrient removal and biomass production for bio-fuel with wastewaters having great variability in nutrient levels. PMID:25463782

  4. Towards an Autonomic Cluster Management System (ACMS) with Reflex Autonomicity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Truszkowski, Walt; Hinchey, Mike; Sterritt, Roy

    2005-01-01

    Cluster computing, whereby a large number of simple processors or nodes are combined together to apparently function as a single powerful computer, has emerged as a research area in its own right. The approach offers a relatively inexpensive means of providing a fault-tolerant environment and achieving significant computational capabilities for high-performance computing applications. However, the task of manually managing and configuring a cluster quickly becomes daunting as the cluster grows in size. Autonomic computing, with its vision to provide self-management, can potentially solve many of the problems inherent in cluster management. We describe the development of a prototype Autonomic Cluster Management System (ACMS) that exploits autonomic properties in automating cluster management and its evolution to include reflex reactions via pulse monitoring.

  5. Effect of water treatment on the growth potential of Vibrio cholerae and Vibrio parahaemolyticus in seawater.

    PubMed

    Wennberg, Aina Charlotte; Tryland, Ingun; Østensvik, Øyvin; Secic, Indira; Monshaugen, Marte; Liltved, Helge

    2013-02-01

    In laboratory experiments we added Vibrio cholerae and Vibrio parahaemolyticus to bottles with seawater previously treated by filtration, UV, chlorine or ozone. The purpose was to investigate the influence of different treatment techniques on the growth potential of these bacteria in simulated ballast water tanks. Residual oxidants were removed before inoculation, and the bottles were incubated at 21 ± 1 °C. The growth potential of the vibrios was investigated in two different experimental setups, i.e. in presence and absence of added natural microorganisms. In general, V. cholerae and V. parahaemolyticus rapidly lost their culturability after inoculation and storage in untreated seawater, but showed increased survival or growth in the treated water. Highest growth was observed in water previously exposed to high concentrations of ozone. Addition of natural microorganisms reduced the growth of V. cholerae and V. parahaemolyticus. PMID:23127287

  6. Learning for Autonomous Navigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Angelova, Anelia; Howard, Andrew; Matthies, Larry; Tang, Benyang; Turmon, Michael; Mjolsness, Eric

    2005-01-01

    Robotic ground vehicles for outdoor applications have achieved some remarkable successes, notably in autonomous highway following (Dickmanns, 1987), planetary exploration (1), and off-road navigation on Earth (1). Nevertheless, major challenges remain to enable reliable, high-speed, autonomous navigation in a wide variety of complex, off-road terrain. 3-D perception of terrain geometry with imaging range sensors is the mainstay of off-road driving systems. However, the stopping distance at high speed exceeds the effective lookahead distance of existing range sensors. Prospects for extending the range of 3-D sensors is strongly limited by sensor physics, eye safety of lasers, and related issues. Range sensor limitations also allow vehicles to enter large cul-de-sacs even at low speed, leading to long detours. Moreover, sensing only terrain geometry fails to reveal mechanical properties of terrain that are critical to assessing its traversability, such as potential for slippage, sinkage, and the degree of compliance of potential obstacles. Rovers in the Mars Exploration Rover (MER) mission have got stuck in sand dunes and experienced significant downhill slippage in the vicinity of large rock hazards. Earth-based off-road robots today have very limited ability to discriminate traversable vegetation from non-traversable vegetation or rough ground. It is impossible today to preprogram a system with knowledge of these properties for all types of terrain and weather conditions that might be encountered.

  7. Development of autonomous control in a closed microbial bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Smernoff, D T; Mancinelli, R L

    1999-01-01

    Space-based life support systems which include ecological components will rely on sophisticated hardware and software to monitor and control key system parameters. Autonomous closed artificial ecosystems are useful for research in numerous fields. We are developing a bioreactor designed to study both microbe-environment interactions and autonomous control systems. Currently we are investigating N-cycling and N-mass balance in closed microbial systems. The design features of the system involve real-time monitoring of physical parameters (e.g. temperature, light), growth solution composition (e.g. pH, NOx, CO2), cell density and the status of important hardware components. Control of key system parameters is achieved by incorporation of artificial intelligence software tools that permit autonomous decision-making by the instrument. These developments provide a valuable research tool for terrestrial microbial ecology, as well as a testbed for implementation of artificial intelligence concepts. Autonomous instrumentation will be necessary for robust operation of space-based life support systems, and for use on robotic spacecraft. Sample data acquired from the system, important features of software components, and potential applications for terrestrial and space research will be presented. PMID:11542540

  8. Development of Autonomous Control in a Closed Microbial Bioreactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smernoff, D. T.; Mancinelli, R. L.

    1999-01-01

    Space-based life support systems which include ecological components will rely on sophisticated hardware and software to monitor and control key system parameters. Autonomous closed artificial ecosystems are useful for research in numerous fields. We are developing a bioreactor designed to study both microbe-environment interactions and autonomous control systems. Currently we are investigating N-cycling and N-mass balance in closed microbial systems. The design features of the system involve real-time monitoring of physical parameters (e.g. temperature, light), growth solution composition (e.g. pH, NOX, CO2), cell density and the status of important hardware components. Control of key system parameters is achieved by incorporation of artificial intelligence software tools that permit autonomous decision-making by the instrument. These developments provide a valuable research tool for terrestrial microbial ecology, as well as a testbed for implementation of artificial intelligence concepts. Autonomous instrumentation will be necessary for robust operation of space-based life support systems, and for use on robotic spacecraft. Sample data acquired from the system, important features of software components, and potential applications for terrestrial and space research will be presented.

  9. Influence of electrolytes on growth, phototropism, nutation and surface potential in etiolated cucumber seedlings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spalding, E. P.; Cosgrove, D. J.

    1993-01-01

    A variety of electrolytes (10-30 mol m-3) increased the relative growth rate of etiolated cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. cv. Burpee's Pickler) hypocotyls by 20-50% relative to water-only controls. The nonelectrolyte mannitol inhibited growth by 10%. All salts tested were effective, regardless of chemical composition or valence. Measurements of cell-sap osmolality ruled out an osmotic mechanism for the growth stimulation by electrolytes. This, and the nonspecificity of the response, indicate that an electrical property of the solutions was responsible for their growth-stimulating activity. Measurements of surface electrical potential supported this reasoning. Treatment with electrolytes also enhanced nutation and altered the pattern of phototropic curvature development. A novel analytical method for quantitating these effects on growth was developed. The evidence indicates that electrolytes influence an electrophysiological parameter that is involved in the control of cell expansion and the coordination of growth underlying tropisms and nutations.

  10. Bone morphogenetic protein-4 strongly potentiates growth factor-induced proliferation of mammary epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Montesano, Roberto Sarkoezi, Rita; Schramek, Herbert

    2008-09-12

    Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are multifunctional cytokines that elicit pleiotropic effects on biological processes such as cell proliferation, cell differentiation and tissue morphogenesis. With respect to cell proliferation, BMPs can exert either mitogenic or anti-mitogenic activities, depending on the target cells and their context. Here, we report that in low-density cultures of immortalized mammary epithelial cells, BMP-4 did not stimulate cell proliferation by itself. However, when added in combination with suboptimal concentrations of fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-2, FGF-7, FGF-10, epidermal growth factor (EGF) or hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), BMP-4 potently enhanced growth factor-induced cell proliferation. These results reveal a hitherto unsuspected interplay between BMP-4 and growth factors in the regulation of mammary epithelial cell proliferation. We suggest that the ability of BMP-4 to potentiate the mitogenic activity of multiple growth factors may contribute to mammary gland ductal morphogenesis as well as to breast cancer progression.

  11. Autonomous Soaring Flight Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, Michael J.

    2006-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation on autonomous soaring flight results for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV)'s is shown. The topics include: 1) Background; 2) Thermal Soaring Flight Results; 3) Autonomous Dolphin Soaring; and 4) Future Plans.

  12. Autonomic Nervous System Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    Your autonomic nervous system is the part of your nervous system that controls involuntary actions, such as the beating of your heart ... breathing and swallowing Erectile dysfunction in men Autonomic nervous system disorders can occur alone or as the result ...

  13. Autonomic Nervous System Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    Your autonomic nervous system is the part of your nervous system that controls involuntary actions, such as the beating ... with breathing and swallowing Erectile dysfunction in men Autonomic nervous system disorders can occur alone or as ...

  14. Autonomous hazard detection and avoidance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pien, Homer

    1992-01-01

    During GFY 91, Draper Laboratory was awarded a task by NASA-JSC under contract number NAS9-18426 to study and evaluate the potential for achieving safe autonomous landings on Mars using an on-board autonomous hazard detection and avoidance (AHDA) system. This report describes the results of that study. The AHDA task had four objectives: to demonstrate, via a closed-loop simulation, the ability to autonomously select safe landing sites and the ability to maneuver to the selected site; to identify key issues in the development of AHDA systems; to produce strawman designs for AHDA sensors and algorithms; and to perform initial trade studies leading to better understanding of the effect of sensor/terrain/viewing parameters on AHDA algorithm performance. This report summarizes the progress made during the first year, with primary emphasis on describing the tools developed for simulating a closed-loop AHDA landing. Some cursory performance evaluation results are also presented.

  15. Vertebral Growth Modulation by Electrical Current in an Animal Model: Potential Treatment for Scoliosis

    PubMed Central

    Dodge, George R.; Bowen, J. Richard; Jeong, Changhoon

    2010-01-01

    Background The concept of modulating spinal growth to correct scoliosis is intriguing, and this study proposes a new model. Inhibition of vertebral growth on the convex side of a curve would allow continued normal growth on the concave side to correct the scoliosis. In a previous study, we induced bony bridges across the physis of the femur producing an epiphysiodesis in rabbits by using a stimulator modified to deliver a current of 50 μA. The present study builds on this finding to design a model with an aim of inhibiting growth in a unilateral peripheral portion of the vertebral endplate physis, which induces asymmetric spinal growth. Methods The study was conducted with 8-week-old rabbits; six were treated with electrical current via an implantable 4-lead device; three were age matched normal rabbits. The device was implanted and delivered a constant current of 50 μA from each electrode, continuously for 6 weeks. Weekly radiograph monitoring and endpoint histology were performed. Results Spinal growth was modified by inducing asymmetric growth of the vertebra of young rabbits using electric stimulators delivering 50 μA of direct current through electrodes implanted in a left peripheral portion of the endplate physis. Conclusion This concept study, based on our previous study, involved a method and device for inhibiting growth in one aspect of the vertebral endplate using electrical current at an amplitude that induced a hemiepiphysiodesis. Our results demonstrated that this technique both establishes an in vivo model of scoliosis and suggests that if this technique were applied to an existing curve it could potentially induce asymmetrical growth of the spine, thereby correcting scoliosis by continuing the normal growth on the concavity of the curve. Clinical Relevance A potential new method for modulating spinal growth was developed, and, with further research, this method may be useful in treating children with scoliosis by delivering a growth

  16. Water potential affects Coniothyrium minitans growth, germination and parasitism of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum sclerotia.

    PubMed

    Jones, E Eirian; Stewart, Alison; Whipps, John M

    2011-09-01

    Water availability is an important environmental factor which has major effects on fungal activity. The effects of osmotic (KCl amended agar) and matric Polyethylene glycol ((PEG) 8000 amended agar) potentials over the range -0.1 to -5.0MPa on mycelial growth and conidial germination of eight isolates of the sclerotial parasite Coniothyrium minitans was assessed. The influence of soil water potential on the ability of three selected isolates (LU112, LU545, and T5R42i) to parasitise sclerotia of the plant pathogen Sclerotinia sclerotiorum was determined. For all eight C. minitans isolates, decreasing osmotic and matric potentials caused a reduction in mycelial growth and conidial germination. Isolates were more sensitive to decreasing matric potential than osmotic potential. Across the isolates, growth at an osmotic potential of -5.0MPa was 30-70% of the growth seen in the control, whereas less than 20% of the control growth was seen at the corresponding matric potential. Across all isolates no conidial germination was seen at matric potential of -5.0MPa. The C. minitans isolates varied in their sensitivity to decreasing water potentials. Mycelial growth and conidial germination of three isolates (LU112, Conio, and CH1) were more tolerant of low osmotic potential and matric potential with respect to mycelial growth. Isolates T5R42i and LU430 were least tolerant. In contrast, conidial germination of isolates Conio, LU545, and T5R42i were less sensitive to decreasing matric potential. Soil water potential was seen to affect infection and viability of sclerotia by the three C. minitans isolates. Isolate LU545 reduced sclerotial viability over a wider water potential range (-0.01 to -1.5MPa) compared with LU112 (-0.01 to -1.0MPa), with isolate T5R42i being intermediate. Indigenous soil fungi (Trichoderma spp. and Clonostachys rosea) were recovered from sclerotia but did not result in reduction in sclerotial viability. The relevance of these results in relation to

  17. Autonomous Space Shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siders, Jeffrey A.; Smith, Robert H.

    2004-01-01

    The continued assembly and operation of the International Space Station (ISS) is the cornerstone within NASA's overall Strategic P an. As indicated in NASA's Integrated Space Transportation Plan (ISTP), the International Space Station requires Shuttle to fly through at least the middle of the next decade to complete assembly of the Station, provide crew transport, and to provide heavy lift up and down mass capability. The ISTP reflects a tight coupling among the Station, Shuttle, and OSP programs to support our Nation's space goal . While the Shuttle is a critical component of this ISTP, there is a new emphasis for the need to achieve greater efficiency and safety in transporting crews to and from the Space Station. This need is being addressed through the Orbital Space Plane (OSP) Program. However, the OSP is being designed to "complement" the Shuttle as the primary means for crew transfer, and will not replace all the Shuttle's capabilities. The unique heavy lift capabilities of the Space Shuttle is essential for both ISS, as well as other potential missions extending beyond low Earth orbit. One concept under discussion to better fulfill this role of a heavy lift carrier, is the transformation of the Shuttle to an "un-piloted" autonomous system. This concept would eliminate the loss of crew risk, while providing a substantial increase in payload to orbit capability. Using the guidelines reflected in the NASA ISTP, the autonomous Shuttle a simplified concept of operations can be described as; "a re-supply of cargo to the ISS through the use of an un-piloted Shuttle vehicle from launch through landing". Although this is the primary mission profile, the other major consideration in developing an autonomous Shuttle is maintaining a crew transportation capability to ISS as an assured human access to space capability.

  18. Growth Potential

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barry, Dana M.

    2004-01-01

    Students enjoy carrying out an exciting and challenging research project that combines science with computers and mathematics to investigate how polyacrylate animals change in size over time when placed in water and aqueous salt solutions. The hands-on activity motivates students and provides them with the necessary skills and information to have…

  19. Autonomous Science Decisions for Mars Sample Return

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roush, T. L.; Gulick, V.; Morris, R.; Gazis, P.; Benedix, G.; Glymour, C.; Ramsey, J.; Pedersen, L.; Ruzon, M.; Buntine, W.; Oliver, J.

    1999-03-01

    Robotic explorers, e.g. rovers, need to make crucial science decisions autonomously that are distinct from control, health, and navigation issues. We have investigated potential tools that can be applied to imaging and near-infrared spectral data.

  20. Effects of water potential on mycelial growth, sclerotial production, and germination of Rhizoctonia solani from potato.

    PubMed

    Ritchie, Faye; McQuilken, Mark P; Bain, Ruairidh A

    2006-06-01

    The effects of osmotic and matric potential on mycelial growth, sclerotial production and germination of isolates of Rhizoctonia solani [anastomosis groups (AGs) 2-1 and 3] from potato were studied on potato dextrose agar (PDA) adjusted osmotically with sodium chloride, potassium chloride, glycerol, and matrically with polyethylene glycol (PEG) 6000. All isolates from AGs 2-1 and AG-3 exhibited fastest mycelial growth on unamended PDA (-0.4MPa), and growth generally declined with decreasing osmotic and matric potentials. Growth ceased between -3.5 and -4.0MPa on osmotically adjusted media, and at -2.0MPa on matrically adjusted media, with slight differences between isolates and osmotica. Sclerotium yield declined with decreasing osmotic potential, and formation by AG 2-1 and AG-3 isolates ceased between -1.5 and -3.0MPa and -2.5 and -3.5MPa, respectively. On matrically adjusted media, sclerotial formation by AG 2-1 isolates ceased at -0.8MPa, whereas formation by AG-3 isolates ceased at the lower matric potential of -1.5MPa. Sclerotial germination also declined with decreasing osmotic and matric potential, with total inhibition occurring over the range -3.0 to -4.0MPa on osmotically adjusted media, and at -2.0MPa on matrically adjusted media. In soil, mycelial growth and sclerotial germination of AG-3 isolates declined with decreasing total water potential, with a minimum potential of -6.3MPa permitting both growth and germination. The relevance of these results to the behaviour of R. solani AGs in soil and their pathogenicity on potato is discussed. PMID:16765034

  1. Integrated kinetic and probabilistic modeling of the growth potential of bacterial populations.

    PubMed

    George, S M; Métris, A; Baranyi, J

    2015-05-01

    When bacteria are exposed to osmotic stress, some cells recover and grow, while others die or are unculturable. This leads to a viable count growth curve where the cell number decreases before the onset of the exponential growth phase. From such curves, it is impossible to estimate what proportion of the initial cells generates the growth because it leads to an ill-conditioned numerical problem. Here, we applied a combination of experimental and statistical methods, based on optical density measurements, to infer both the probability of growth and the maximum specific growth rate of the culture. We quantified the growth potential of a bacterial population as a quantity composed from the probability of growth and the "suitability" of the growing subpopulation to the new environment. We found that, for all three laboratory media studied, the probability of growth decreased while the "work to be done" by the growing subpopulation (defined as the negative logarithm of their suitability parameter) increased with NaCl concentration. The results suggest that the effect of medium on the probability of growth could be described by a simple shift parameter, a differential NaCl concentration that can be accounted for by the change in the medium composition. Finally, we highlighted the need for further understanding of the effect of the osmoprotectant glycine betaine on metabolism. PMID:25747002

  2. Genetic autonomic disorders.

    PubMed

    Axelrod, Felicia B

    2013-03-01

    Genetic disorders affecting the autonomic nervous system can result in abnormal development of the nervous system or they can be caused by neurotransmitter imbalance, an ion-channel disturbance or by storage of deleterious material. The symptoms indicating autonomic dysfunction, however, will depend upon whether the genetic lesion has disrupted peripheral or central autonomic centers or both. Because the autonomic nervous system is pervasive and affects every organ system in the body, autonomic dysfunction will result in impaired homeostasis and symptoms will vary. The possibility of genetic confirmation by molecular testing for specific diagnosis is increasing but treatments tend to remain only supportive and directed toward particular symptoms. PMID:23465768

  3. The autonomic laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Low, P. A.; Opfer-Gehrking, T. L.

    1999-01-01

    The autonomic nervous system can now be studied quantitatively, noninvasively, and reproducibly in a clinical autonomic laboratory. The approach at the Mayo Clinic is to study the postganglionic sympathetic nerve fibers of peripheral nerve (using the quantitative sudomotor axon reflex test [QSART]), the parasympathetic nerves to the heart (cardiovagal tests), and the regulation of blood pressure by the baroreflexes (adrenergic tests). Patient preparation is extremely important, since the state of the patient influences the results of autonomic function tests. The autonomic technologist in this evolving field needs to have a solid core of knowledge of autonomic physiology and autonomic function tests, followed by training in the performance of these tests in a standardized fashion. The range and utilization of tests of autonomic function will likely continue to evolve.

  4. Pure Autonomic Failure.

    PubMed

    Thaisetthawatkul, Pariwat

    2016-08-01

    Pure autonomic failure (PAF) is a rare sporadic neurodegenerative autonomic disorder characterized by slowly progressive pan autonomic failure without other features of neurologic dysfunctions. The main clinical symptoms result from neurogenic orthostatic hypotension and urinary and gastrointestinal autonomic dysfunctions. Autonomic failure in PAF is caused by neuronal degeneration of pre- and postganglionic sympathetic and parasympathetic neurons in the thoracic spinal cord and paravertebral autonomic ganglia. The presence of Lewy bodies and α-synuclein deposits in these neural structures suggests that PAF is one of Lewy body synucleinopathies, examples of which include multiple system atrophy, Parkinson disease, and Lewy body disease. There is currently no specific treatment to stop progression in PAF. Management of autonomic symptoms is the mainstay of treatment and includes management of orthostatic hypotension and supine hypertension. The prognosis for survival of PAF is better than for the other synucleinopathies. PMID:27338613

  5. Seasonal growth potential of rare lake water bacteria suggest their disproportional contribution to carbon fluxes.

    PubMed

    Neuenschwander, Stefan M; Pernthaler, Jakob; Posch, Thomas; Salcher, Michaela M

    2015-03-01

    We studied the seasonal growth potential of opportunistic bacterial populations in Lake Zurich (Switzerland) by a series of grazer-free dilution culture assays. Pronounced shifts in the composition of the bacterial assemblages were observed within one doubling of total cell numbers, from initially abundant Actinobacteria to other fast-growing microbial lineages. Small populations with growth potentials far above community average were detected throughout the year with striking seasonal differences in their respective taxonomic affiliations. Members of Cytophaga-Flavobacteria (CF) were disproportionally proliferating only during phytoplankton blooms in spring and summer, while Beta- and Gammaproteobacteria showed superior growth at all other occasions. Growth rates of Alphaproteobacteria and esp. Sphingomonadaceae were significantly correlated to water temperatures and were far above community average in summer. Within the genus Flavobacterium, two species-like populations showed a tendency for fast growth in most experiments, while four others were exclusively proliferating either during a spring or during a summer phytoplankton bloom. Their high growth potentials but low in situ abundances hint at a tight control by bacterivorous grazers and at a consequently accelerated carbon flux to higher trophic levels. PMID:24903166

  6. Maximum Growth Potential and Periods of Resource Limitation in Apple Tree

    PubMed Central

    Reyes, Francesco; DeJong, Theodore; Franceschi, Pietro; Tagliavini, Massimo; Gianelle, Damiano

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge of seasonal maximum potential growth rates are important for assessing periods of resource limitations in fruit tree species. In this study we assessed the periods of resource limitation for vegetative (current year stems, and woody biomass) and reproductive (fruit) organs of a major agricultural crop: the apple tree. This was done by comparing relative growth rates (RGRs) of individual organs in trees with reduced competition for resources to trees grown under standard field conditions. Special attention was dedicated to disentangling patterns and values of maximum potential growth for each organ type. The period of resource limitation for vegetative growth was much longer than in another fruit tree species (peach): from late May until harvest. Two periods of resource limitation were highlighted for fruit: from the beginning of the season until mid-June, and about 1 month prior to harvest. By investigating the variability in individual organs growth we identified substantial differences in RGRs among different shoot categories (proleptic and epicormic) and within each group of monitored organs. Qualitatively different and more accurate values of growth rates for vegetative organs, compared to the use of the simple compartmental means, were estimated. Detailed, source-sink based tree growth models, commonly in need of fine parameter tuning, are expected to benefit from the results produced by these analyses. PMID:26973676

  7. Growth potential of exponential- and stationary-phase Salmonella Typhimurium during sausage fermentation.

    PubMed

    Birk, T; Henriksen, S; Müller, K; Hansen, T B; Aabo, S

    2016-11-01

    Raw meat for sausage production can be contaminated with Salmonella. For technical reasons, meat is often frozen prior to mincing but it is unknown how growth of Salmonella in meat prior to freezing affects its growth potential during sausage fermentation. We investigated survival of exponential- and stationary-phase Salmonella Typhimurium (DT12 and DTU292) during freezing at -18°C and their subsequent growth potential during 72h sausage fermentation at 25°C. After 0, 7 and >35d of frozen storage, sausage batters were prepared with NaCl (3%) and NaNO2 (0, 100ppm) and fermented with and without starter culture. With no starter culture, both strains grew in both growth phases. In general, a functional starter culture abolished S. Typhimurium growth independent of growth phase and we concluded that ensuring correct fermentation is important for sausage safety. However, despite efficient fermentation, sporadic growth of exponential-phase cells of S. Typhimurium was observed drawing attention to the handling and storage of sausage meat. PMID:27423056

  8. Foraging and growth potential of juvenile Chinook Salmon after tidal restoration of a large river delta

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    David, Aaron T.; Ellings, Christopher; Woo, Isa; Simenstad, Charles A.; Takekawa, John Y.; Turner, Kelley L.; Smith, Ashley L.; Takekawa, Jean E.

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated whether restoring tidal flow to previously diked estuarine wetlands also restores foraging and growth opportunities for juvenile Chinook Salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha. Several studies have assessed the value of restored tidal wetlands for juvenile Pacific salmon Oncorhynchus spp., but few have used integrative measures of salmon performance, such as habitat-specific growth potential, to evaluate restoration. Our study took place in the Nisqually River delta, Washington, where recent dike removals restored tidal flow to 364 ha of marsh—the largest tidal marsh restoration project in the northwestern contiguous United States. We sampled fish assemblages, water temperatures, and juvenile Chinook Salmon diet composition and consumption rates in two restored and two reference tidal channels during a 3-year period after restoration; these data were used as inputs to a bioenergetics model to compare Chinook Salmon foraging performance and growth potential between the restored and reference channels. We found that foraging performance and growth potential of juvenile Chinook Salmon were similar between restored and reference tidal channels. However, Chinook Salmon densities were significantly lower in the restored channels than in the reference channels, and growth potential was more variable in the restored channels due to their more variable and warmer (2°C) water temperatures. These results indicate that some—but not all—ecosystem attributes that are important for juvenile Pacific salmon can recover rapidly after large-scale tidal marsh restoration.

  9. Potential Targets for Antifungal Drug Discovery Based on Growth and Virulence in Candida albicans

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiuyun; Hou, Yinglong; Yue, Longtao; Liu, Shuyuan; Du, Juan

    2015-01-01

    Fungal infections, especially infections caused by Candida albicans, remain a challenging problem in clinical settings. Despite the development of more-effective antifungal drugs, their application is limited for various reasons. Thus, alternative treatments with drugs aimed at novel targets in C. albicans are needed. Knowledge of growth and virulence in fungal cells is essential not only to understand their pathogenic mechanisms but also to identify potential antifungal targets. This article reviews the current knowledge of the mechanisms of growth and virulence in C. albicans and examines potential targets for the development of new antifungal drugs. PMID:26195510

  10. Autonomous docking ground demonstration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lamkin, Steve L.; Le, Thomas Quan; Othon, L. T.; Prather, Joseph L.; Eick, Richard E.; Baxter, Jim M.; Boyd, M. G.; Clark, Fred D.; Spehar, Peter T.; Teters, Rebecca T.

    1991-01-01

    The Autonomous Docking Ground Demonstration is an evaluation of the laser sensor system to support the docking phase (12 ft to contact) when operated in conjunction with the guidance, navigation, and control (GN&C) software. The docking mechanism being used was developed for the Apollo/Soyuz Test Program. This demonstration will be conducted using the 6-DOF Dynamic Test System (DTS). The DTS simulates the Space Station Freedom as the stationary or target vehicle and the Orbiter as the active or chase vehicle. For this demonstration, the laser sensor will be mounted on the target vehicle and the retroflectors will be on the chase vehicle. This arrangement was chosen to prevent potential damage to the laser. The laser sensor system, GN&C, and 6-DOF DTS will be operated closed-loop. Initial conditions to simulate vehicle misalignments, translational and rotational, will be introduced within the constraints of the systems involved.

  11. Turgor and growth at low water potentials. [Glycine max (L. ) Merr

    SciTech Connect

    Nonami, H.; Boyer, J.S. )

    1989-03-01

    Turgor affects cell enlargement but has not been measured in enlarging tissue of intact plants when growth is inhibited by inadequate water. Mature or excised tissue can be problematic for these measurements because turgor may not be the same as in intact enlarging cells. Therefore, we measured the average turgor in the elongating region of intact stems of soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) while the seedlings were exposed to low water potentials by transplanting to vermiculite of low water content. Stem growth was completely inhibited by the transplanting, and the average turgor decreased in the mature stem tissue. However, it did not decrease in the elongating region whether measured in intact or excised tissue (total of four methods). At the cellular level, turgor was uniform in the elongating tissue except at transplanting, when turgor decreased in a small number of cortical cells near the xylem. The reduced turgor in these cells, but constant turgor in most of the cells confirmed that no general turgor loss had occurred but indicated that gradients in water potential extending from the xylem into the enlarging tissue were reduced, thus decreasing the movement of water into the tissue for cell enlargement. A modest growth recovery occurred after 2 days and was preceded by a recovery of the gradient. This suggests that under these conditions, growth initially was inhibited not by turgor loss but by a collapse of the water potential gradient necessary for the growth process.

  12. Growth of the Maize Primary Root at Low Water Potentials 1

    PubMed Central

    Voetberg, Gary S.; Sharp, Robert E.

    1991-01-01

    Seedlings of maize (Zea mays L. cv WF9 × Mo 17) growing at low water potentials in vermiculite contained greatly increased proline concentrations in the primary root growth zone. Proline levels were particularly high toward the apex, where elongation rates have been shown to be completely maintained over a wide range of water potentials. Proline concentration increased even in quite mild treatments and reached 120 millimolal in the apical millimeter of roots growing at a water potential of −1.6 megapascal. This accounted for almost half of the osmotic adjustment in this region. Increases in concentration of other amino acids and glycinebetaine were comparatively small. We have assessed the relative contributions of increased rates of proline deposition and decreased tissue volume expansion to the increases in proline concentration. Proline content profiles were combined with published growth velocity distributions to calculate net proline deposition rate profiles using the continuity equation. At low water potential, proline deposition per unit length increased by up to 10-fold in the apical region of the growth zone compared to roots at high water potential. This response accounted for most of the increase in proline concentration in this region. The results suggest that osmotic adjustment due to increased proline deposition plays an important role in the maintenance of root elongation at low water potentials. PMID:16668308

  13. Changes in muscle gene expression related to metabolism according to growth potential in young bulls.

    PubMed

    Bernard, Carine; Cassar-Malek, Isabelle; Renand, Gilles; Hocquette, Jean-François

    2009-06-01

    To analyse the effects of genetic selection in favour of high muscle development on muscle gene expression, oligonucleotide microarrays were used to compare the transcriptome of Longissimusthoracis muscle from 15- and 19-month-old Charolais bull calves divergently selected for high (H) or low (L) muscle growth. Transcriptome data revealed that about two thirds of the genes involved in glycolysis were up-regulated at 15 and at 19months of age in H animals. Lastly, some differentially expressed genes were associated with muscle mass in the carcass (FGF6, PLD2) independently of fat deposition and meat quality. Selection for muscle growth potential is associated with modified expression of some genes involved in growth, and also with increased expression of genes involved in glycolysis. Furthermore, this change in muscle metabolism is likely to be dissociated from fat deposition and beef quality, providing new criteria for genetic selection in favour of muscle growth. PMID:20416758

  14. Predicting Reading Growth with Event-Related Potentials: Thinking Differently about Indexing "Responsiveness"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lemons, Christopher J.; Key, Alexandra P. F.; Fuchs, Douglas; Yoder, Paul J.; Fuchs, Lynn S.; Compton, Donald L.; Williams, Susan M.; Bouton, Bobette

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if event-related potential (ERP) data collected during three reading-related tasks (Letter Sound Matching, Nonword Rhyming, and Nonword Reading) could be used to predict short-term reading growth on a curriculum-based measure of word identification fluency over 19 weeks in a sample of 29 first-grade…

  15. Influence of microbial growth in the redox potential of fermented cucumbers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Commonly, pH measurements are used during the production of fermented cucumbers to indirectly monitor growth of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and acid production. Redox potential (Eh) measurements, which are determined by the flux of electrons in a system, could serve as a more accurate tool to monitor...

  16. Pediatric autonomic disorders.

    PubMed

    Axelrod, Felicia B; Chelimsky, Gisela G; Weese-Mayer, Debra E

    2006-07-01

    The scope of pediatric autonomic disorders is not well recognized. The goal of this review is to increase awareness of the expanding spectrum of pediatric autonomic disorders by providing an overview of the autonomic nervous system, including the roles of its various components and its pervasive influence, as well as its intimate relationship with sensory function. To illustrate further the breadth and complexities of autonomic dysfunction, some pediatric disorders are described, concentrating on those that present at birth or appear in early childhood. PMID:16818580

  17. Autonomous Science on the EO-1 Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chien, S.; Sherwood, R.; Tran, D.; Castano, R.; Cichy, B.; Davies, A.; Rabideau, G.; Tang, N.; Burl, M.; Mandl, D.; Frye, S.; Hengemihle, J.; Agostino, J. D.; Bote, R.; Trout, B.; Shulman, S.; Ungar, S.; Gaasbeck, J. Van; Boyer, D.; Griffin, M.; Burke, H.; Greeley, R.; Doggett, T.; Williams, K.; Baker, V.

    2003-01-01

    In mid-2003, we will fly software to detect science events that will drive autonomous scene selectionon board the New Millennium Earth Observing 1 (EO-1) spacecraft. This software will demonstrate the potential for future space missions to use onboard decision-making to detect science events and respond autonomously to capture short-lived science events and to downlink only the highest value science data.

  18. Impact of water potential on growth and germination of Fusarium solani soilborne pathogen of peanut.

    PubMed

    Palacios, Sofia; Casasnovas, Francisco; Ramirez, María L; Reynoso, María M; Torres, Adriana M

    2014-01-01

    Studies were conducted to determine the effect of osmotic and matric stress on germination and growth of two Fusarium solani strains, the etiological agent responsible of peanut brown root rot. Both strains had similar osmotic and matric potential ranges that allowed growth, being the latter one narrower. F. solani showed the ability to grow down to -14 MPa at 25 °C in non-ionic modified osmotic medium, while under matric stress this was limited to -8.4 MPa at 25 °C. However, both strains were seen to respond differently to decreasing osmotic and matric potentials, during early stages of germination. One strain (RC 338) showed to be more sensitive to matric than osmotic (non ionic) and the other one (RC 386) showed to be more sensitive to osmotic than matric imposed water stress. After 24 h of incubation, both isolates behaved similarly. The minimum water potential for germination was -8.4 MPa on glycerol amended media and -5.6 MPa for NaCl and PEG amended media, respectively. The knowledge of the water potential range which allow mycelia growth and spore germination of F. solani provides an inside to the likely behaviour of this devastating soilborne plant pathogen in nature and has important practical implications. PMID:25477950

  19. Impact of water potential on growth and germination of Fusarium solani soilborne pathogen of peanut

    PubMed Central

    Palacios, Sofia; Casasnovas, Francisco; Ramirez, María L.; Reynoso, María. M.; Torres, Adriana M.

    2014-01-01

    Studies were conducted to determine the effect of osmotic and matric stress on germination and growth of two Fusarium solani strains, the etiological agent responsible of peanut brown root rot. Both strains had similar osmotic and matric potential ranges that allowed growth, being the latter one narrower. F. solani showed the ability to grow down to −14 MPa at 25 °C in non-ionic modified osmotic medium, while under matric stress this was limited to −8.4 MPa at 25 °C. However, both strains were seen to respond differently to decreasing osmotic and matric potentials, during early stages of germination. One strain (RC 338) showed to be more sensitive to matric than osmotic (non ionic) and the other one (RC 386) showed to be more sensitive to osmotic than matric imposed water stress. After 24 h of incubation, both isolates behaved similarly. The minimum water potential for germination was −8.4 MPa on glycerol amended media and −5.6 MPa for NaCl and PEG amended media, respectively. The knowledge of the water potential range which allow mycelia growth and spore germination of F. solani provides an inside to the likely behaviour of this devastating soilborne plant pathogen in nature and has important practical implications. PMID:25477950

  20. Vascular endothelial growth factor is a potential tumour angiogenesis factor in human gliomas in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plate, Karl H.; Breier, Georg; Weich, Herbert A.; Risau, Werner

    1992-10-01

    CLINICAL and experimental studies suggest that angiogenesis is a prerequisite for solid tumour growth1,2. Several growth factors with mitogenic or chemotactic activity for endothelial cells in vitro have been described, but it is not known whether these mediate tumour vascularization in vivo3,4. Glioblastoma, the most common and most malignant brain tumour in humans, is distinguished from astrocytoma by the presence of necroses and vascular prolifer-ations5'6. Here we show that expression of an endothelial cell-specific mitogen, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), is induced in astrocytoma cells but is dramatically upregulated in two apparently different subsets of glioblastoma cells. The high-affinity tyrosine kinase receptor for VEGF, flt, although not expressed in normal brain endothelium, is upregulated in tumour endothelial cells in vivo. These observations strongly support the concept that tumour angiogenesis is regulated by paracrine mechanisms and identify VEGF as a potential tumour angiogenesis factor in vivo.

  1. Growth potential limits drought morphological plasticity in seedlings from six Eucalyptus provenances.

    PubMed

    Maseda, Pablo H; Fernández, Roberto J

    2016-02-01

    Water stress modifies plant above- vs belowground biomass allocation, i.e., morphological plasticity. It is known that all species and genotypes reduce their growth rate in response to stress, but in the case of water stress it is unclear whether the magnitude of such reduction is linked to the genotype's growth potential, and whether the reduction can be largely attributed to morphological adjustments such as plant allocation and leaf and root anatomy. We subjected seedlings of six seed sources, three from each of Eucalyptus camaldulensis (potentially fast growing) and E. globulus (inherently slow growing), to three experimental water regimes. Biomass, leaf area and root length were measured in a 6-month glasshouse experiment. We then performed functional growth analysis of relative growth rate (RGR), and aboveground (leaf area ratio (LAR), specific leaf area (SLA) and leaf mass ratio (LMR)) and belowground (root length ratio (RLR), specific root length (SRL) and root mass ratio (RMR)) morphological components. Total biomass, root biomass and leaf area were reduced for all Eucalyptus provenances according to drought intensity. All populations exhibited drought plasticity, while those of greater growth potential (RGRmax) had a larger reduction in growth (discounting the effect of size). A positive correlation was observed between drought sensitivity and RGRmax. Aboveground, drought reduced LAR and LMR; under severe drought a negative correlation was found between LMR and RGRmax. Belowground, drought reduced SRL but increased RMR, resulting in no change in RLR. Under severe drought, a negative correlation was found between RLR, SRL and RGRmax. Our evidence strongly supports the classic ecophysiological trade-off between growth potential and drought tolerance for woody seedlings. It also suggests that slow growers would have a low capacity to adjust their morphology. For shoots, this constraint on plasticity was best observed in partition (i.e., LMR) whereas for

  2. Advanced avionics concepts: Autonomous spacecraft control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    A large increase in space operations activities is expected because of Space Station Freedom (SSF) and long range Lunar base missions and Mars exploration. Space operations will also increase as a result of space commercialization (especially the increase in satellite networks). It is anticipated that the level of satellite servicing operations will grow tenfold from the current level within the next 20 years. This growth can be sustained only if the cost effectiveness of space operations is improved. Cost effectiveness is operational efficiency with proper effectiveness. A concept is presented of advanced avionics, autonomous spacecraft control, that will enable the desired growth, as well as maintain the cost effectiveness (operational efficiency) in satellite servicing operations. The concept of advanced avionics that allows autonomous spacecraft control is described along with a brief description of each component. Some of the benefits of autonomous operations are also described. A technology utilization breakdown is provided in terms of applications.

  3. Evaluation of Brevibacillus brevis as a potential plant growth promoting rhizobacteria for cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) crop.

    PubMed

    Nehra, Vibha; Saharan, Baljeet Singh; Choudhary, Madhu

    2016-01-01

    The present investigation was undertaken to isolate, screen and evaluate a selected promising PGPR Brevibacillus brevis on cotton crop. Out of 156 bacterial isolates one of the most promising isolate was analyzed for the various PGP traits. A seed germination analysis was conducted with cotton seeds to evaluate the potential of the isolate to promote plant growth. The bacterial isolate was checked for its growth and survival at high temperatures. The isolate was also analyzed for the PGP traits exhibited after the heat treatment. To identify the isolate morphological, biochemical and molecular characterization was performed. The isolate was found positive for many of the PGP attributes like IAA, ARA, anti-fungal activity and ammonia production. Effect of seed bacterization on various plant growth parameters was used as an indicator. The isolate showed significant growth and exhibited various PGP traits at high temperature making it suitable as an inoculant for cotton crop. Isolate was identified as Brevibacillus brevis [SVC(II)14] based on phenotypic as well as genotypic attributes and after conducting this research we propose that the B. brevis which is reported for the first time for its PGP potential in cotton, exerts its beneficial effects on cotton crop through combined modes of actions. PMID:27386392

  4. Development and evaluation of formulations of microbial biotransformed extract of tobacco leaves for hair growth potential

    PubMed Central

    Murkute, Ashlesh V.; Sahu, Mahesh S.; Mali, Prashant Y.; Rangari, Vinod D.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Extensive researches are going on to explore the effective and safe drug for their hair growth. Tobacco leaves are traditionally known to potentiate hair growth promotion. Therefore, the aim of present study was to formulate and evaluate the microbial biotransformed extract of tobacco leaves for hair growth potential in male albino wister rats. Materials and Methods: The extract of was prepared by microbial biotransformation of tobacco leaves in cow urine for 28 days. The herbal formulations (lotion) were formulated by general method using o/w type base in various rations or concentrations such as 10%, 20% and 30% of extract. These lotions were applied on shaved skin area of rats for 30 days once in a day and hair length, serum total protein, and total testosterone were measured. Results: Our formulations show increase in hair growth and serum total protein at concentration dependent manner with effect to standard and control groups. Serum total testosterone decreases according to a concentration dependent manner. Conclusion: Further, series of investigations are, however, necessary to remain exploration, which includes their structural elucidation, characterization, clinical safety, reliability and molecular mechanism involved in this pharmacological activity. PMID:21589756

  5. Direct current electrical potential measurement of the growth of small cracks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gangloff, Richard P.; Slavik, Donald C.; Piascik, Robert S.; Van Stone, Robert H.

    1992-01-01

    The analytical and experimental aspects of the direct-current electrical potential difference (dcEPD) method for continuous monitoring of the growth kinetics of short (50 to 500 microns) fatigue cracks are reviewed, and successful applications of the deEPD method to study fatigue crack propagation in a variety of metallic alloys exposed to various environments are described. Particular attention is given to the principle of the dcEPD method, the analytical electrical potential calibration relationships, and the experimental procedures and equipment.

  6. Direct current electrical potential measurement of the growth of small cracks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gangloff, Richard P.; Slavik, Donald C.; Piascik, Robert S.; van Stone, Robert H.

    The analytical and experimental aspects of the direct-current electrical potential difference (dcEPD) method for continuous monitoring of the growth kinetics of short (50 to 500 microns) fatigue cracks are reviewed, and successful applications of the deEPD method to study fatigue crack propagation in a variety of metallic alloys exposed to various environments are described. Particular attention is given to the principle of the dcEPD method, the analytical electrical potential calibration relationships, and the experimental procedures and equipment.

  7. Potentiation of fibroblast growth by nodular sclerosing Hodgkin's disease cell cultures.

    PubMed

    Newcom, S R; O'Rourke, L

    1982-07-01

    Cell cultures were established from 8 lymph nodes replaced by nodular sclerosing Hodgkin's disease. Serum-containing and serum-free conditioned media from these cultures potentiated fibroblast growth and were found to be consistently more potent than fibroblast growth factor, 100 ng/ml, every other day. Both a proliferative response and transformation-like growth were observed using BALB/c 3T3 cells, human diploid fibroblasts, and human embryonic fibroblasts as target cells. The Hodgkin's disease growth factor(s) was not produced by fibroblasts or lymphocytes in the Hodgkin's cultures and was most potent when the Hodgkin's cultures had been enriched with Hodgkin's giant cells. Removal of normal macrophages decreased the proliferative activity but did not eliminate it or nonadherent growth of 3T3 cells in agar. Control cultures of 6 nonmalignant lymph nodes, a Lennert's lymphoma, a mixed cellularity Hodgkin's disease lymph node, and a malignant histiocytosis cell line suggested that among lymph node disorders, this feature may be relatively specific for nodular sclerosing Hodgkin's disease. PMID:6211204

  8. Phylogenetically diverse AM fungi from Ecuador strongly improve seedling growth of native potential crop trees.

    PubMed

    Schüßler, Arthur; Krüger, Claudia; Urgiles, Narcisa

    2016-04-01

    In many deforested regions of the tropics, afforestation with native tree species could valorize a growing reservoir of degraded, previously overused and abandoned land. The inoculation of tropical tree seedlings with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AM fungi) can improve tree growth and viability, but efficiency may depend on plant and AM fungal genotype. To study such effects, seven phylogenetically diverse AM fungi, native to Ecuador, from seven genera and a non-native AM fungus (Rhizophagus irregularis DAOM197198) were used to inoculate the tropical potential crop tree (PCT) species Handroanthus chrysanthus (synonym Tabebuia chrysantha), Cedrela montana, and Heliocarpus americanus. Twenty-four plant-fungus combinations were studied in five different fertilization and AMF inoculation treatments. Numerous plant growth parameters and mycorrhizal root colonization were assessed. The inoculation with any of the tested AM fungi improved seedling growth significantly and in most cases reduced plant mortality. Plants produced up to threefold higher biomass, when compared to the standard nursery practice. AM fungal inoculation alone or in combination with low fertilization both outperformed full fertilization in terms of plant growth promotion. Interestingly, root colonization levels for individual fungi strongly depended on the host tree species, but surprisingly the colonization strength did not correlate with plant growth promotion. The combination of AM fungal inoculation with a low dosage of slow release fertilizer improved PCT seedling performance strongest, but also AM fungal treatments without any fertilization were highly efficient. The AM fungi tested are promising candidates to improve management practices in tropical tree seedling production. PMID:26260945

  9. Inhibition of hydroxyapatite growth by casein, a potential salivary phosphoprotein homologue.

    PubMed

    Romero, Maria J R H; Nakashima, Syozi; Nikaido, Toru; Ichinose, Shizuko; Sadr, Alireza; Tagami, Junji

    2015-08-01

    Salivary phosphoproteins are essential in tooth mineral regulation but are often overlooked in vitro. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of casein, as a salivary phosphoprotein homologue, on the deposition and growth of hydroxyapatite (HA) on tooth surfaces. Hydroxyapatite growth was quantified using seeded crystal systems. Artificial saliva (AS) containing HA powder and 0, 10, 20, 50, or 100 μg ml(-1) of casein, or 100 μg ml(-1) of dephosphorylated casein (Dcasein), was incubated for 0-8 h at 37°C, pH 7.2. Calcium concentrations were measured using atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS). Surface precipitation of HA on bovine enamel and dentine blocks, incubated in similar conditions for 7 d, was examined using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) with selected area electron diffraction (SAED). Casein adsorption was assessed using modified Lowry assays and zeta-potential measurements. The AAS results revealed a concentration-dependent inhibition of calcium consumption. Hydroxyapatite precipitation occurred when no casein was present, whereas precipitation of HA was apparently completely inhibited in casein-containing groups. Adsorption data demonstrated increasingly negative zeta-potential with increased casein concentration and an affinity constant similar to proline-rich proteins with Langmuir modelling. Casein inhibited the deposition and growth of HA primarily through the binding of esterized phosphate to HA active sites, indicating its potential as a mineral-regulating salivary phosphoprotein homologue in vitro. PMID:26083784

  10. Model-driven evaluation of the production potential for growth-coupled products of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Feist, Adam M; Zielinski, Daniel C; Orth, Jeffrey D; Schellenberger, Jan; Herrgard, Markus J; Palsson, Bernhard Ø

    2010-05-01

    Integrated approaches utilizing in silico analyses will be necessary to successfully advance the field of metabolic engineering. Here, we present an integrated approach through a systematic model-driven evaluation of the production potential for the bacterial production organism Escherichia coli to produce multiple native products from different representative feedstocks through coupling metabolite production to growth rate. Designs were examined for 11 unique central metabolism and amino acid targets from three different substrates under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Optimal strain designs were reported for designs which possess maximum yield, substrate-specific productivity, and strength of growth-coupling for up to 10 reaction eliminations (knockouts). In total, growth-coupled designs could be identified for 36 out of the total 54 conditions tested, corresponding to eight out of the 11 targets. There were 17 different substrate/target pairs for which over 80% of the theoretical maximum potential could be achieved. The developed method introduces a new concept of objective function tilting for strain design. This study provides specific metabolic interventions (strain designs) for production strains that can be experimentally implemented, characterizes the potential for E. coli to produce native compounds, and outlines a strain design pipeline that can be utilized to design production strains for additional organisms. PMID:19840862

  11. An Autonomously Reciprocating Transmembrane Nanoactuator.

    PubMed

    Watson, Matthew A; Cockroft, Scott L

    2016-01-22

    Biological molecular machines operate far from equilibrium by coupling chemical potential to repeated cycles of dissipative nanomechanical motion. This principle has been exploited in supramolecular systems that exhibit true machine behavior in solution and on surfaces. However, designed membrane-spanning assemblies developed to date have been limited to simple switches or stochastic shuttles, and true machine behavior has remained elusive. Herein, we present a transmembrane nanoactuator that turns over chemical fuel to drive autonomous reciprocating (back-and-forth) nanomechanical motion. Ratcheted reciprocating motion of a DNA/PEG copolymer threaded through a single α-hemolysin pore was induced by a combination of DNA strand displacement processes and enzyme-catalyzed reactions. Ion-current recordings revealed saw-tooth patterns, indicating that the assemblies operated in autonomous, asymmetric cycles of conformational change at rates of up to one cycle per minute. PMID:26661295

  12. Experiments on autonomous Boolean networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosin, David P.; Rontani, Damien; Gauthier, Daniel J.; Schöll, Eckehard

    2013-06-01

    We realize autonomous Boolean networks by using logic gates in their autonomous mode of operation on a field-programmable gate array. This allows us to implement time-continuous systems with complex dynamical behaviors that can be conveniently interconnected into large-scale networks with flexible topologies that consist of time-delay links and a large number of nodes. We demonstrate how we realize networks with periodic, chaotic, and excitable dynamics and study their properties. Field-programmable gate arrays define a new experimental paradigm that holds great potential to test a large body of theoretical results on the dynamics of complex networks, which has been beyond reach of traditional experimental approaches.

  13. Carbon sequestration potential of second-growth forest regeneration in the Latin American tropics.

    PubMed

    Chazdon, Robin L; Broadbent, Eben N; Rozendaal, Danaë M A; Bongers, Frans; Zambrano, Angélica María Almeyda; Aide, T Mitchell; Balvanera, Patricia; Becknell, Justin M; Boukili, Vanessa; Brancalion, Pedro H S; Craven, Dylan; Almeida-Cortez, Jarcilene S; Cabral, George A L; de Jong, Ben; Denslow, Julie S; Dent, Daisy H; DeWalt, Saara J; Dupuy, Juan M; Durán, Sandra M; Espírito-Santo, Mario M; Fandino, María C; César, Ricardo G; Hall, Jefferson S; Hernández-Stefanoni, José Luis; Jakovac, Catarina C; Junqueira, André B; Kennard, Deborah; Letcher, Susan G; Lohbeck, Madelon; Martínez-Ramos, Miguel; Massoca, Paulo; Meave, Jorge A; Mesquita, Rita; Mora, Francisco; Muñoz, Rodrigo; Muscarella, Robert; Nunes, Yule R F; Ochoa-Gaona, Susana; Orihuela-Belmonte, Edith; Peña-Claros, Marielos; Pérez-García, Eduardo A; Piotto, Daniel; Powers, Jennifer S; Rodríguez-Velazquez, Jorge; Romero-Pérez, Isabel Eunice; Ruíz, Jorge; Saldarriaga, Juan G; Sanchez-Azofeifa, Arturo; Schwartz, Naomi B; Steininger, Marc K; Swenson, Nathan G; Uriarte, Maria; van Breugel, Michiel; van der Wal, Hans; Veloso, Maria D M; Vester, Hans; Vieira, Ima Celia G; Bentos, Tony Vizcarra; Williamson, G Bruce; Poorter, Lourens

    2016-05-01

    Regrowth of tropical secondary forests following complete or nearly complete removal of forest vegetation actively stores carbon in aboveground biomass, partially counterbalancing carbon emissions from deforestation, forest degradation, burning of fossil fuels, and other anthropogenic sources. We estimate the age and spatial extent of lowland second-growth forests in the Latin American tropics and model their potential aboveground carbon accumulation over four decades. Our model shows that, in 2008, second-growth forests (1 to 60 years old) covered 2.4 million km(2) of land (28.1% of the total study area). Over 40 years, these lands can potentially accumulate a total aboveground carbon stock of 8.48 Pg C (petagrams of carbon) in aboveground biomass via low-cost natural regeneration or assisted regeneration, corresponding to a total CO2 sequestration of 31.09 Pg CO2. This total is equivalent to carbon emissions from fossil fuel use and industrial processes in all of Latin America and the Caribbean from 1993 to 2014. Ten countries account for 95% of this carbon storage potential, led by Brazil, Colombia, Mexico, and Venezuela. We model future land-use scenarios to guide national carbon mitigation policies. Permitting natural regeneration on 40% of lowland pastures potentially stores an additional 2.0 Pg C over 40 years. Our study provides information and maps to guide national-level forest-based carbon mitigation plans on the basis of estimated rates of natural regeneration and pasture abandonment. Coupled with avoided deforestation and sustainable forest management, natural regeneration of second-growth forests provides a low-cost mechanism that yields a high carbon sequestration potential with multiple benefits for biodiversity and ecosystem services. PMID:27386528

  14. Carbon sequestration potential of second-growth forest regeneration in the Latin American tropics

    PubMed Central

    Chazdon, Robin L.; Broadbent, Eben N.; Rozendaal, Danaë M. A.; Bongers, Frans; Zambrano, Angélica María Almeyda; Aide, T. Mitchell; Balvanera, Patricia; Becknell, Justin M.; Boukili, Vanessa; Brancalion, Pedro H. S.; Craven, Dylan; Almeida-Cortez, Jarcilene S.; Cabral, George A. L.; de Jong, Ben; Denslow, Julie S.; Dent, Daisy H.; DeWalt, Saara J.; Dupuy, Juan M.; Durán, Sandra M.; Espírito-Santo, Mario M.; Fandino, María C.; César, Ricardo G.; Hall, Jefferson S.; Hernández-Stefanoni, José Luis; Jakovac, Catarina C.; Junqueira, André B.; Kennard, Deborah; Letcher, Susan G.; Lohbeck, Madelon; Martínez-Ramos, Miguel; Massoca, Paulo; Meave, Jorge A.; Mesquita, Rita; Mora, Francisco; Muñoz, Rodrigo; Muscarella, Robert; Nunes, Yule R. F.; Ochoa-Gaona, Susana; Orihuela-Belmonte, Edith; Peña-Claros, Marielos; Pérez-García, Eduardo A.; Piotto, Daniel; Powers, Jennifer S.; Rodríguez-Velazquez, Jorge; Romero-Pérez, Isabel Eunice; Ruíz, Jorge; Saldarriaga, Juan G.; Sanchez-Azofeifa, Arturo; Schwartz, Naomi B.; Steininger, Marc K.; Swenson, Nathan G.; Uriarte, Maria; van Breugel, Michiel; van der Wal, Hans; Veloso, Maria D. M.; Vester, Hans; Vieira, Ima Celia G.; Bentos, Tony Vizcarra; Williamson, G. Bruce; Poorter, Lourens

    2016-01-01

    Regrowth of tropical secondary forests following complete or nearly complete removal of forest vegetation actively stores carbon in aboveground biomass, partially counterbalancing carbon emissions from deforestation, forest degradation, burning of fossil fuels, and other anthropogenic sources. We estimate the age and spatial extent of lowland second-growth forests in the Latin American tropics and model their potential aboveground carbon accumulation over four decades. Our model shows that, in 2008, second-growth forests (1 to 60 years old) covered 2.4 million km2 of land (28.1% of the total study area). Over 40 years, these lands can potentially accumulate a total aboveground carbon stock of 8.48 Pg C (petagrams of carbon) in aboveground biomass via low-cost natural regeneration or assisted regeneration, corresponding to a total CO2 sequestration of 31.09 Pg CO2. This total is equivalent to carbon emissions from fossil fuel use and industrial processes in all of Latin America and the Caribbean from 1993 to 2014. Ten countries account for 95% of this carbon storage potential, led by Brazil, Colombia, Mexico, and Venezuela. We model future land-use scenarios to guide national carbon mitigation policies. Permitting natural regeneration on 40% of lowland pastures potentially stores an additional 2.0 Pg C over 40 years. Our study provides information and maps to guide national-level forest-based carbon mitigation plans on the basis of estimated rates of natural regeneration and pasture abandonment. Coupled with avoided deforestation and sustainable forest management, natural regeneration of second-growth forests provides a low-cost mechanism that yields a high carbon sequestration potential with multiple benefits for biodiversity and ecosystem services. PMID:27386528

  15. Natural Variation in the Degree of Autonomous Endosperm Formation Reveals Independence and Constraints of Embryo Growth During Seed Development in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Ungru, Alexander; Nowack, Moritz K.; Reymond, Matthieu; Shirzadi, Reza; Kumar, Manoj; Biewers, Sandra; Grini, Paul E.; Schnittger, Arp

    2008-01-01

    Seed development in flowering plants is a paradigm for the coordination of different tissues during organ growth. It requires a tight interplay between the two typically sexually produced structures: the embryo, developing from the fertilized egg cell, and the endosperm, originating from a fertilized central cell, along with the surrounding maternal tissues. Little is known about the presumptive signal transduction pathways administering and coordinating these different tissues during seed growth and development. Recently, a new signal has been identified emanating from the fertilization of the egg cell that triggers central cell proliferation without prior fertilization. Here, we demonstrate that there exists a large natural genetic variation with respect to the outcome of this signaling process in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. By using a recombinant inbred line population between the two Arabidopsis accessions Bayreuth-0 and Shahdara, we have identified two genetic components that influence the development of unfertilized endosperm. Exploiting this natural variation, we could further dissect the interdependence of embryo and endosperm growth during early seed development. Our data show an unexpectedly large degree of independence in embryo growth, but also reveal the embryo's developmental restrictions with respect to endosperm size. This work provides a genetic framework for dissection of the interplay between embryo and endosperm during seed growth in plants. PMID:18505878

  16. Chemical diversity of microbial volatiles and their potential for plant growth and productivity

    PubMed Central

    Kanchiswamy, Chidananda Nagamangala; Malnoy, Mickael; Maffei, Massimo E.

    2015-01-01

    Microbial volatile organic compounds (MVOCs) are produced by a wide array of microorganisms ranging from bacteria to fungi. A growing body of evidence indicates that MVOCs are ecofriendly and can be exploited as a cost-effective sustainable strategy for use in agricultural practice as agents that enhance plant growth, productivity, and disease resistance. As naturally occurring chemicals, MVOCs have potential as possible alternatives to harmful pesticides, fungicides, and bactericides as well as genetic modification. Recent studies performed under open field conditions demonstrate that efficiently adopting MVOCs may contribute to sustainable crop protection and production. We review here the chemical diversity of MVOCs by describing microbial–plants and microbial–microbial interactions. Furthermore, we discuss MVOCs role in inducing phenotypic plant responses and their potential physiological effects on crops. Finally, we analyze potential and actual limitations for MVOC use and deployment in field conditions as a sustainable strategy for improving productivity and reducing pesticide use. PMID:25821453

  17. Volasertib suppresses tumor growth and potentiates the activity of cisplatin in cervical cancer

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Feng-Feng; Pan, Shi-Shi; Ou, Rong-Ying; Zheng, Zhen-Zhen; Huang, Xiao-Xiu; Jian, Meng-Ting; Qiu, Jian-Ge; Zhang, Wen-Ji; Jiang, Qi-Wei; Yang, Yang; Li, Wen-Feng; Shi, Zhi; Yan, Xiao-Jian

    2015-01-01

    Volasertib (BI 6727), a highly selective and potent inhibitor of PLK1, has shown broad antitumor activities in the preclinical and clinical studies for the treatment of several types of cancers. However, the anticancer effect of volasertib on cervical cancer cells is still unknown. In the present study, we show that volasertib can markedly induce cell growth inhibition, cell cycle arrest at G2/M phase and apoptosis with the decreased protein expressions of PLK1 substrates survivin and wee1 in human cervical cancer cells. Furthermore, volasertib also enhances the intracellular reactive oxidative species (ROS) levels, and pretreated with ROS scavenger N-acety-L-cysteine totally blocks ROS generation but partly reverses volasertib-induced apoptosis. In addition, volasertib significantly potentiates the activity of cisplatin to inhibit the growth of cervical cancer in vitro and in vivo. In brief, volasertib suppresses tumor growth and potentiates the activity of cisplatin in cervical cancer, suggesting the combination of volasertib and cisplatin may be a promising strategy for the treatment of patients with cervical cancer. PMID:26885445

  18. Potential for Plant Growth Promotion of Rhizobacteria Associated with Salicornia Growing in Tunisian Hypersaline Soils

    PubMed Central

    Mapelli, Francesca; Marasco, Ramona; Rolli, Eleonora; Barbato, Marta; Cherif, Hanene; Guesmi, Amel; Ouzari, Imen; Daffonchio, Daniele; Borin, Sara

    2013-01-01

    Soil salinity and drought are among the environmental stresses that most severely affect plant growth and production around the world. In this study the rhizospheres of Salicornia plants and bulk soils were collected from Sebkhet and Chott hypersaline ecosystems in Tunisia. Depiction of bacterial microbiome composition by Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis unveiled the occurrence of a high bacterial diversity associated with Salicornia root system. A large collection of 475 halophilic and halotolerant bacteria was established from Salicornia rhizosphere and the surrounding bulk soil, and the bacteria were characterized for the resistance to temperature, osmotic and saline stresses, and plant growth promotion (PGP) features. Twenty Halomonas strains showed resistance to a wide set of abiotic stresses and were able to perform different PGP activities in vitro at 5% NaCl, including ammonia and indole-3-acetic acid production, phosphate solubilisation, and potential nitrogen fixation. By using a gfp-labelled strain it was possible to demonstrate that Halomonas is capable of successfully colonising Salicornia roots in the laboratory conditions. Our results indicated that the culturable halophilic/halotolerant bacteria inhabiting salty and arid ecosystems have a potential to contribute to promoting plant growth under the harsh salinity and drought conditions. These halophilic/halotolerant strains could be exploited in biofertilizer formulates to sustain crop production in degraded and arid lands. PMID:23781499

  19. Sildenafil Potentiates a cGMP-Dependent Pathway to Promote Melanoma Growth.

    PubMed

    Dhayade, Sandeep; Kaesler, Susanne; Sinnberg, Tobias; Dobrowinski, Hyazinth; Peters, Stefanie; Naumann, Ulrike; Liu, He; Hunger, Robert E; Thunemann, Martin; Biedermann, Tilo; Schittek, Birgit; Simon, Hans-Uwe; Feil, Susanne; Feil, Robert

    2016-03-22

    Sildenafil, an inhibitor of the cGMP-degrading phosphodiesterase 5 that is used to treat erectile dysfunction, has been linked to an increased risk of melanoma. Here, we have examined the potential connection between cGMP-dependent signaling cascades and melanoma growth. Using a combination of biochemical assays and real-time monitoring of melanoma cells, we report a cGMP-dependent growth-promoting pathway in murine and human melanoma cells. We document that C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP), a ligand of the membrane-bound guanylate cyclase B, enhances the activity of cGMP-dependent protein kinase I (cGKI) in melanoma cells by increasing the intracellular levels of cGMP. Activation of this cGMP pathway promotes melanoma cell growth and migration in a p44/42 MAPK-dependent manner. Sildenafil treatment further increases intracellular cGMP concentrations, potentiating activation of this pathway. Collectively, our data identify this cGMP-cGKI pathway as the link between sildenafil usage and increased melanoma risk. PMID:26971999

  20. A Two-Stage-to-Orbit Spaceplane Concept With Growth Potential

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehta, Unmeel B.; Bowles, Jeffrey V.

    2001-01-01

    A two-stage-to-orbit (TSTO) spaceplane concept developed in 1993 is revisited, and new information is provided to assist in the development of the next-generation space transportation vehicles. The design philosophy, TSTO spaceplane concept, and the design method are briefly described. A trade study between cold and hot structures leads to the choice of cold structures with external thermal protection systems. The optimal Mach number for staging the second stage of the TSTO spaceplane (with air-breathing propulsion on the first stage) is 10, based on life-cycle cost analysis. The performance and specification of a prototype/experimental (P/X) TSTO spaceplane with a turbo/ram/scramjet propulsion system and built-in growth potential are presented and discussed. The internal rate of return on investment is the highest for the proposed TSTO spaceplane, vis-A-vis a single-stage-to-orbit (SSTO) rocket vehicle and a TSTO spaceplane without built-in growth. Additional growth potentials for the proposed spaceplane are suggested. This spaceplane can substantially decrease access-to-space cost and risk, and increase safety and reliability in the near term It can be a serious candidate for the next-generation space transportation system.

  1. Remote coral reefs can sustain high growth potential and may match future sea-level trends

    PubMed Central

    Perry, Chris T.; Murphy, Gary N.; Graham, Nicholas A. J.; Wilson, Shaun K.; Januchowski-Hartley, Fraser A.; East, Holly K.

    2015-01-01

    Climate-induced disturbances are contributing to rapid, global-scale changes in coral reef ecology. As a consequence, reef carbonate budgets are declining, threatening reef growth potential and thus capacity to track rising sea-levels. Whether disturbed reefs can recover their growth potential and how rapidly, are thus critical research questions. Here we address these questions by measuring the carbonate budgets of 28 reefs across the Chagos Archipelago (Indian Ocean) which, while geographically remote and largely isolated from compounding human impacts, experienced severe (>90%) coral mortality during the 1998 warming event. Coral communities on most reefs recovered rapidly and we show that carbonate budgets in 2015 average +3.7 G (G = kg CaCO3 m−2 yr−1). Most significantly the production rates on Acropora-dominated reefs, the corals most severely impacted in 1998, averaged +8.4 G by 2015, comparable with estimates under pre-human (Holocene) disturbance conditions. These positive budgets are reflected in high reef growth rates (4.2 mm yr−1) on Acropora-dominated reefs, demonstrating that carbonate budgets on these remote reefs have recovered rapidly from major climate-driven disturbances. Critically, these reefs retain the capacity to grow at rates exceeding measured regional mid-late Holocene and 20th century sea-level rise, and close to IPCC sea-level rise projections through to 2100. PMID:26669758

  2. Remote coral reefs can sustain high growth potential and may match future sea-level trends.

    PubMed

    Perry, Chris T; Murphy, Gary N; Graham, Nicholas A J; Wilson, Shaun K; Januchowski-Hartley, Fraser A; East, Holly K

    2015-01-01

    Climate-induced disturbances are contributing to rapid, global-scale changes in coral reef ecology. As a consequence, reef carbonate budgets are declining, threatening reef growth potential and thus capacity to track rising sea-levels. Whether disturbed reefs can recover their growth potential and how rapidly, are thus critical research questions. Here we address these questions by measuring the carbonate budgets of 28 reefs across the Chagos Archipelago (Indian Ocean) which, while geographically remote and largely isolated from compounding human impacts, experienced severe (>90%) coral mortality during the 1998 warming event. Coral communities on most reefs recovered rapidly and we show that carbonate budgets in 2015 average +3.7 G (G = kg CaCO3 m(-2) yr(-1)). Most significantly the production rates on Acropora-dominated reefs, the corals most severely impacted in 1998, averaged +8.4 G by 2015, comparable with estimates under pre-human (Holocene) disturbance conditions. These positive budgets are reflected in high reef growth rates (4.2 mm yr(-1)) on Acropora-dominated reefs, demonstrating that carbonate budgets on these remote reefs have recovered rapidly from major climate-driven disturbances. Critically, these reefs retain the capacity to grow at rates exceeding measured regional mid-late Holocene and 20th century sea-level rise, and close to IPCC sea-level rise projections through to 2100. PMID:26669758

  3. Highly Autonomous Systems Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doyle, R.; Rasmussen, R.; Man, G.; Patel, K.

    1998-01-01

    It is our aim by launching a series of workshops on the topic of highly autonomous systems to reach out to the larger community interested in technology development for remotely deployed systems, particularly those for exploration.

  4. Effect of 'Azotobacter' Bioinoculant on the Growth and Substrate Utilization Potential of Pleurotus eous Seed Spawn

    PubMed Central

    Parani, K.; Pothiraj, C.; Rajapandy, V.

    2005-01-01

    We investigated the effect of nitrogen fixing Azotobacter bioinoculant on the mycelial growth and the rate of substrate utilization by Pleurotus eous. The synergistic or antagonistic role of the microorganism during dual culturing with the mushroom or the competitor molds Trichoderma viride, and Trichoderma reesi was studied. Azotobacter was inhibitory to the molds, which are competitive to the mushroom in the seed spawn substrate, but was synergistic towards the mushroom. The growth, substrate utilization potential as total nitrogen content and cellulase enzyme activities of the mushroom in the seed spawn substrate were also enhanced in the presence of the bioinoculant at lower inoculum concentrations, upto 5 ml broth culture per spawn bottle. PMID:24049469

  5. In vivo and in vitro evaluation of hair growth potential of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis Linn.

    PubMed

    Adhirajan, N; Ravi Kumar, T; Shanmugasundaram, N; Babu, Mary

    2003-10-01

    Petroleum ether extract of leaves and flowers of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis was evaluated for its potential on hair growth by in vivo and in vitro methods. In vivo, 1% extract of leaves and flowers in liquid paraffin was applied topically over the shaved skin of albino rats and monitored and assessed for 30 days. The length of hair and the different cyclic phases of hair follicles, like anagen and telogen phases, were determined at different time periods. In vitro, the hair follicles from albino rat neonates were isolated and cultured in DMEM supplemented with 0.01 mg/ml petroleum ether extract of leaves and flowers. From the study it is concluded that the leaf extract, when compared to flower extract, exhibits more potency on hair growth. PMID:12963149

  6. Growth of Sobolev Norms in Linear Schrödinger Equations with Quasi-Periodic Potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourgain, J.

    In this paper, we consider the following problem. Let iut+Δu+V(x,t)u= 0 be a linear Schrödinger equation ( periodic boundary conditions) where V is a real, bounded, real analytic potential which is periodic in x and quasi periodic in t with diophantine frequency vector λ. Denote S(t) the corresponding flow map. Thus S(t) preserves the L2-norm and our aim is to study its behaviour on Hs(TD), s> 0. Our main result is the growth in time is at most logarithmic; thus if φ∈Hs, then More precisely, (*) is proven in 1D and 2D when V is small. We also exhibit examples showing that a growth of higher Sobolev norms may occur in this context and (*) is thus essentially best possible.

  7. Detection of Virulence Genes and Growth Potential in Listeria monocytogenes Strains Isolated from Ricotta Salata Cheese.

    PubMed

    Coroneo, Valentina; Carraro, Valentina; Aissani, Nadhem; Sanna, Adriana; Ruggeri, Alessandra; Succa, Sara; Meloni, Barbara; Pinna, Antonella; Sanna, Clara

    2016-01-01

    Ricotta Salata is a traditional ripened and salted whey cheese made in Sardinia (Italy) from sheep's milk. This product is catalogued as ready-to-eat food (RTE) since it is not submitted to any further treatment before consumption. Thus, foodborne pathogens, such as Listeria monocytogenes, can represent a health risk for consumers. In September 2012, the FDA ordered the recall of several batches of Ricotta Salata imported from Italy linked to 22 cases of Listeriosis in the United States. This study was aimed at evaluating the presence and virulence properties of L. monocytogenes in 87 samples of Ricotta Salata produced in Sardinia. The ability of this product to support its growth under foreseen packing and storing conditions was also evaluated in 252 samples. Of the 87 samples 17.2% were positive for the presence of L. monocytogenes with an average concentration of 2.2 log10 cfu/g. All virulence-associated genes (prfA, rrn, hlyA, actA, inlA, inlB, iap, plcA, and plcB) were detected in only one isolated strain. The Ricotta Salata samples were artificially inoculated and growth potential (δ) was assessed over a period of 3 mo. The value of the growth potential was always >0.5 log10 cfu/g under foreseen packing and storing conditions. This study indicates that Ricotta Salata supports the L. monocytogenes growth to levels that may present a serious risk to public health, even while stored at refrigeration temperatures. PMID:26666835

  8. Effect of dsRNA on growth rate and reproductive potential of Monosporascus cannonballus.

    PubMed

    Armengol, Josep; Alaniz, Sandra; Vicent, Antonio; Beltrán, Roberto; Abad-Campos, Paloma; Pérez-Sierra, Ana; García-Jiménez, José; Ben Salem, Ibtissem; Souli, Mounira; Boughalleb, Naima

    2011-03-01

    The effect of double stranded RNA (dsRNA) infection on growth rate and the reproductive potential of Monosporascus cannonballus was studied in 21 isolates collected in cucurbit growing areas of Spain and Tunisia. The isolates were incubated on potato dextrose agar (PDA) under different conditions of temperature, pH, and water potential (Ψ(s)). They showed optimal growth temperatures over the range of 27-34°C and perithecia formation was obtained mainly at 25 and 30°C, although some isolates were able to produce perithecia at 35°C. All isolates were able to produce perithecia in a broad range of pHs (4-8). Regarding the effect of Ψ(s,) the isolates were more tolerant to grow on KCl than on NaCl. For each solute, radial growth decreased progressively as Ψ(s) decreased and was severely limited at -5.0 to -6.0MPa. Perithecia formation was highest at -0.5MPa, decreased at -1.0MPa and occurred just in some isolates at -2.0MPa. Nine of the M. cannonballus isolates harboured dsRNA with 2-6 bands each and a size range of 1.9-18.0Kb. Phenotypical data were subjected to multivariate factorial analysis. Most of the isolates clustered in two groups corresponding with the presence/absence of dsRNA elements. Isolates without detectable dsRNA produced more perithecia. However, isolates with dsRNA produced lower number of perithecia depending on the pH, Ψ(s,) or solute used. These results improve our understanding of the behaviour and growth of this pathogen in soil, and can be useful to implement effective disease control. PMID:21354530

  9. Autonomous Flight Safety System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simpson, James

    2010-01-01

    The Autonomous Flight Safety System (AFSS) is an independent self-contained subsystem mounted onboard a launch vehicle. AFSS has been developed by and is owned by the US Government. Autonomously makes flight termination/destruct decisions using configurable software-based rules implemented on redundant flight processors using data from redundant GPS/IMU navigation sensors. AFSS implements rules determined by the appropriate Range Safety officials.

  10. Growth Kinetics and Transmission Potential of Existing and Emerging Field Strains of Infectious Laryngotracheitis Virus

    PubMed Central

    Coppo, Mauricio J. C.; Vaz, Paola K.; Legione, Alistair R.; Quinteros, José A.; Noormohammadi, Amir H.; Markham, Phillip F.; Browning, Glenn F.; Devlin, Joanne M.

    2015-01-01

    Attenuated live infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) vaccines are widely used in the poultry industry to control outbreaks of disease. Natural recombination between commercial ILTV vaccines has resulted in virulent recombinant viruses that cause severe disease, and that have now emerged as the dominant field strains in important poultry producing regions in Australia. Genotype analysis using PCR—restriction fragment length polymorphism has shown one recombinant virus (class 9) has largely replaced the previously dominant class 2 field strain. To examine potential reasons for this displacement we compared the growth kinetics and transmission potential of class 2 and class 9 viruses. The class 9 ILTV grew to higher titres in cell culture and embryonated eggs, but no differences were observed in entry kinetics or egress into the allantoic fluid from the chorioallantoic membrane. In vivo studies showed that birds inoculated with class 9 ILTV had more severe tracheal pathology and greater weight loss than those inoculated with the class 2 virus. Consistent with the predominance of class 9 field strains, birds inoculated with 102 or 103 plaque forming units of class 9 ILTV consistently transmitted virus to in-contact birds, whereas this could only be seen in birds inoculated with 104 PFU of the class 2 virus. Taken together, the improved growth kinetics and transmission potential of the class 9 virus is consistent with improved fitness of the recombinant virus over the previously dominant field strain. PMID:25785629

  11. Growth kinetics and transmission potential of existing and emerging field strains of infectious laryngotracheitis virus.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang-Won; Hartley, Carol A; Coppo, Mauricio J C; Vaz, Paola K; Legione, Alistair R; Quinteros, José A; Noormohammadi, Amir H; Markham, Phillip F; Browning, Glenn F; Devlin, Joanne M

    2015-01-01

    Attenuated live infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) vaccines are widely used in the poultry industry to control outbreaks of disease. Natural recombination between commercial ILTV vaccines has resulted in virulent recombinant viruses that cause severe disease, and that have now emerged as the dominant field strains in important poultry producing regions in Australia. Genotype analysis using PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism has shown one recombinant virus (class 9) has largely replaced the previously dominant class 2 field strain. To examine potential reasons for this displacement we compared the growth kinetics and transmission potential of class 2 and class 9 viruses. The class 9 ILTV grew to higher titres in cell culture and embryonated eggs, but no differences were observed in entry kinetics or egress into the allantoic fluid from the chorioallantoic membrane. In vivo studies showed that birds inoculated with class 9 ILTV had more severe tracheal pathology and greater weight loss than those inoculated with the class 2 virus. Consistent with the predominance of class 9 field strains, birds inoculated with 10(2) or 10(3) plaque forming units of class 9 ILTV consistently transmitted virus to in-contact birds, whereas this could only be seen in birds inoculated with 10(4) PFU of the class 2 virus. Taken together, the improved growth kinetics and transmission potential of the class 9 virus is consistent with improved fitness of the recombinant virus over the previously dominant field strain. PMID:25785629

  12. Stalagmite growth perturbations from the Kumaun Himalaya as potential earthquake recorders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajendran, C. P.; Sanwal, Jaishri; Morell, Kristin D.; Sandiford, Mike; Kotlia, B. S.; Hellstrom, John; Rajendran, Kusala

    2016-04-01

    The central part of the Himalaya (Kumaun and Garhwal Provinces of India) is noted for its prolonged seismic quiescence, and therefore, developing a longer-term time series of past earthquakes to understand their recurrence pattern in this segment assumes importance. In addition to direct observations of offsets in stratigraphic exposures or other proxies like paleoliquefaction, deformation preserved within stalagmites (speleothems) in karst system can be analyzed to obtain continuous millennial scale time series of earthquakes. The Central Indian Himalaya hosts natural caves between major active thrusts forming potential storehouses for paleoseismological records. Here, we present results from the limestone caves in the Kumaun Himalaya and discuss the implications of growth perturbations identified in the stalagmites as possible earthquake recorders. This article focuses on three stalagmites from the Dharamjali Cave located in the eastern Kumaun Himalaya, although two other caves, one of them located in the foothills, were also examined for their suitability. The growth anomalies in stalagmites include abrupt tilting or rotation of growth axes, growth termination, and breakage followed by regrowth. The U-Th age data from three specimens allow us to constrain the intervals of growth anomalies, and these were dated at 4273 ± 410 years BP (2673-1853 BC), 2782 ± 79 years BP (851-693 BC), 2498 ± 117 years BP (605-371 BC), 1503 ± 245 years BP (262-752 AD), 1346 ± 101 years BP (563-765 AD), and 687 ± 147 years BP (1176-1470 AD). The dates may correspond to the timings of major/great earthquakes in the region and the youngest event (1176-1470 AD) shows chronological correspondence with either one of the great medieval earthquakes (1050-1250 and 1259-1433 AD) evident from trench excavations across the Himalayan Frontal Thrust.

  13. Chronic Oxidative Stress Increases Growth and Tumorigenic Potential of MCF-7 Breast Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Mahalingaiah, Prathap Kumar S.; Singh, Kamaleshwar P.

    2014-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that exposures to elevated levels of either endogenous estrogen or environmental estrogenic chemicals are associated with breast cancer development and progression. These natural or synthetic estrogens are known to produce reactive oxygen species (ROS) and increased ROS has been implicated in both cellular apoptosis and carcinogenesis. Though there are several studies on direct involvement of ROS in cellular apoptosis using short-term exposure model, there is no experimental evidence to directly implicate chronic exposure to ROS in increased growth and tumorigenicity of breast cancer cells. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of chronic oxidative stress on growth, survival and tumorigenic potential of MCF-7 breast cancer cells. MCF-7 cells were exposed to exogenous hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) as a source of ROS at doses of 25 µM and 250 µM for acute (24 hours) and chronic period (3 months) and their effects on cell growth/survival and tumorigenic potential were evaluated. The results of cell count, MTT and cell cycle analysis showed that while acute exposure inhibits the growth of MCF-7 cells in a dose-dependent manner, the chronic exposure to H2O2-induced ROS leads to increased cell growth and survival of MCF-7 cells. This was further confirmed by gene expression analysis of cell cycle and cell survival related genes. Significant increase in number of soft agar colonies, up-regulation of pro-metastatic genes VEGF, WNT1 and CD44, whereas down-regulation of anti-metastatic gene E-Cadherin in H2O2 treated MCF-7 cells observed in this study further suggests that persistent exposure to oxidative stress increases tumorigenic and metastatic potential of MCF-7 cells. Since many chemotherapeutic drugs are known to induce their cytotoxicity by increasing ROS levels, the results of this study are also highly significant in understanding the mechanism for adaptation to ROS-induced toxicity leading to acquired

  14. Diabetic autonomic neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Clarke, B F; Ewing, D J; Campbell, I W

    1979-10-01

    This review attempts to outline the present understanding of diabetic autonomic neuropathy. The clinical features have been increasinly recognised but knowledge of the localization and morphology of the lesions and their pathogenesis remains fragmentary. A metabolic causation as postulated in somatic nerves accords best with clinical observations. Most bodily systems, particularly the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal and urogenital, are involved with added disturbances of thermoregulatory function and pupillary reflexes. Possible effects on neuroendocrine and peptidergic secretion and respiratory control await definition. Current interest centres around the development of a new generation of tests of autonomic nerve function that are simple, non-invasive, reproducible and allow precision in diagnosis and accurate quantitation. Most are based on cardiovascular reflexes and abnormality in them is assumed to reflect autonomic damage elsewhere. Probably no single test suffices and a battery of tests reflecting both parasympathetic and sympathetic function is preferable. Little is known of the natural history. The prevalence may be greater than previously suspected and although symptoms are mild in the majority, a few develop florid features. The relation of control and duration of diabetes to the onset and progression of autonomic neuropathy is not clearly established. Once tests of autonomic function become abnormal they usually remain abnormal. Symptomatic autonomic neuropathy carries a greatly increased mortality rate possibly due to indirect mechanisms such as renal failure and direct mechanisms such as cardio-resiratory arrest. Improved treatment of some of the more disabling symptoms has been possible in recent years. PMID:387501

  15. Predicting Fish Growth Potential and Identifying Water Quality Constraints: A Spatially-Explicit Bioenergetics Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budy, Phaedra; Baker, Matthew; Dahle, Samuel K.

    2011-10-01

    Anthropogenic impairment of water bodies represents a global environmental concern, yet few attempts have successfully linked fish performance to thermal habitat suitability and fewer have distinguished co-varying water quality constraints. We interfaced fish bioenergetics, field measurements, and Thermal Remote Imaging to generate a spatially-explicit, high-resolution surface of fish growth potential, and next employed a structured hypothesis to detect relationships among measures of fish performance and co-varying water quality constraints. Our thermal surface of fish performance captured the amount and spatial-temporal arrangement of thermally-suitable habitat for three focal species in an extremely heterogeneous reservoir, but interpretation of this pattern was initially confounded by seasonal covariation of water residence time and water quality. Subsequent path analysis revealed that in terms of seasonal patterns in growth potential, catfish and walleye responded to temperature, positively and negatively, respectively; crappie and walleye responded to eutrophy (negatively). At the high eutrophy levels observed in this system, some desired fishes appear to suffer from excessive cultural eutrophication within the context of elevated temperatures whereas others appear to be largely unaffected or even enhanced. Our overall findings do not lead to the conclusion that this system is degraded by pollution; however, they do highlight the need to use a sensitive focal species in the process of determining allowable nutrient loading and as integrators of habitat suitability across multiple spatial and temporal scales. We provide an integrated approach useful for quantifying fish growth potential and identifying water quality constraints on fish performance at spatial scales appropriate for whole-system management.

  16. Integrated geologic and engineering determination of oil-reserve-growth potential in carbonate reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Holtz, M.H.; Rupel, S.C.; Hocott, C.R. )

    1992-11-01

    Leonardian restricted-platform carbonate reservoirs in the Permian Basin in West Texas and southeastern New Mexico exhibit abnormally low recovery efficiencies. Cumulative production form these mature reservoirs is only 18% of the original oil in place (OOIP), or about one-half the average recovery efficiency of Permian Basin carbonate reservoirs. Low recovery efficiency is directly related to high degrees of vertical and lateral facies heterogeneity caused by high-frequency, cyclic sedimentation in low-energy, carbonate platform environments and by equally complex postdepositional diagenesis. This paper reports that because of their geologic complexity, these reservoirs have high reserve-growth potential.

  17. Predicting Reading Growth with Event-Related Potentials: Thinking Differently about Indexing "Responsiveness"

    PubMed

    Lemons, Christopher J; Key, Alexandra P F; Fuchs, Douglas; Yoder, Paul J; Fuchs, Lynn S; Compton, Donald L; Williams, Susan M; Bouton, Bobette

    2010-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if event-related potential (ERP) data collected during three reading-related tasks (Letter Sound Matching, Nonword Rhyming, and Nonword Reading) could be used to predict short-term reading growth on a curriculum-based measure of word identification fluency over 19 weeks in a sample of 29 first-grade children. Results indicate that ERP responses to the Letter Sound Matching task were predictive of reading change and remained so after controlling for two previously validated behavioral predictors of reading, Rapid Letter Naming and Segmenting. ERP data for the other tasks were not correlated with reading change. The potential for cognitive neuroscience to enhance current methods of indexing responsiveness in a response-to-intervention (RTI) model is discussed. PMID:20514353

  18. Platelet derived growth factor inhibitors: A potential therapeutic approach for ocular neovascularization.

    PubMed

    Sadiq, Mohammad Ali; Hanout, Mostafa; Sarwar, Salman; Hassan, Muhammad; Do, Diana V; Nguyen, Quan Dong; Sepah, Yasir Jamal

    2015-01-01

    Retinochoroidal vascular diseases are the leading causes of blindness in the developed world. They include diabetic retinopathy (DR), retinal vein occlusion, retinopathy of prematurity, age-related macular degeneration (AMD), and pathological myopia, among many others. Several different therapies are currently under consideration for the aforementioned disorders. In the following section, agents targeting platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) are discussed as a potential therapeutic option for retinochoroidal vascular diseases. PDGF plays an important role in the angiogenesis cascade that is activated in retinochoroidal vascular diseases. The mechanism of action, side effects, efficacy, and the potential synergistic role of these agents in combination with other treatment options is discussed. The future of treatment of retinochoroidal vascular diseases, particularly AMD, has become more exciting due to agents such as PDGF antagonists. PMID:26586980

  19. Platelet-Derived Growth Factor Inhibitors: A Potential Therapeutic Approach for Ocular Neovascularization.

    PubMed

    Sadiq, Mohammad Ali; Hanout, Mostafa; Sarwar, Salman; Hassan, Muhammad; Agarwal, Aniruddha; Sepah, Yasir Jamal; Do, Diana V; Nguyen, Quan Dong

    2016-01-01

    Retinochoroidal vascular diseases are the leading causes of blindness in the developed world. They include diabetic retinopathy, retinal vein occlusion, retinopathy of prematurity, age-related macular degeneration (AMD), and pathological myopia, among many others. Several different therapies are currently under consideration for the aforementioned disorders. In the following section, agents targeting platelet-derived growth factors (PDGF) are discussed as a potential therapeutic option for retinochoroidal vascular diseases. PDGF play an important role in the angiogenesis cascade that is activated in retinochoroidal vascular diseases. The mechanism of action, side effects, efficacy, and the potential synergistic role of these agents in combination with other treatment options is discussed. The future of treatment of retinochoroidal vascular diseases, particularly neovascular AMD, has become more exciting due to agents like PDGF antagonists. PMID:26501397

  20. Platelet derived growth factor inhibitors: A potential therapeutic approach for ocular neovascularization

    PubMed Central

    Sadiq, Mohammad Ali; Hanout, Mostafa; Sarwar, Salman; Hassan, Muhammad; Do, Diana V.; Nguyen, Quan Dong; Sepah, Yasir Jamal

    2015-01-01

    Retinochoroidal vascular diseases are the leading causes of blindness in the developed world. They include diabetic retinopathy (DR), retinal vein occlusion, retinopathy of prematurity, age-related macular degeneration (AMD), and pathological myopia, among many others. Several different therapies are currently under consideration for the aforementioned disorders. In the following section, agents targeting platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) are discussed as a potential therapeutic option for retinochoroidal vascular diseases. PDGF plays an important role in the angiogenesis cascade that is activated in retinochoroidal vascular diseases. The mechanism of action, side effects, efficacy, and the potential synergistic role of these agents in combination with other treatment options is discussed. The future of treatment of retinochoroidal vascular diseases, particularly AMD, has become more exciting due to agents such as PDGF antagonists. PMID:26586980

  1. A potential-energy scaling model to simulate the initial stages of thin-film growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heinbockel, J. H.; Outlaw, R. A.; Walker, G. H.

    1983-01-01

    A solid on solid (SOS) Monte Carlo computer simulation employing a potential energy scaling technique was used to model the initial stages of thin film growth. The model monitors variations in the vertical interaction potential that occur due to the arrival or departure of selected adatoms or impurities at all sites in the 400 sq. ft. array. Boltzmann ordered statistics are used to simulate fluctuations in vibrational energy at each site in the array, and the resulting site energy is compared with threshold levels of possible atomic events. In addition to adsorption, desorption, and surface migration, adatom incorporation and diffusion of a substrate atom to the surface are also included. The lateral interaction of nearest, second nearest, and third nearest neighbors is also considered. A series of computer experiments are conducted to illustrate the behavior of the model.

  2. Allelopathic and bioherbicidal potential of Cladonia verticillaris on the germination and growth of Lactuca sativa.

    PubMed

    Tigre, R C; Silva, N H; Santos, M G; Honda, N K; Falcão, E P S; Pereira, E C

    2012-10-01

    Responses to germination and initial growth of Lactuca sativa (lettuce) submitted to organic extracts and purified compounds of Cladonia verticillaris ("salambaia") were analyzed in this work. The experiments were conducted in laboratory conditions using extracts and pure compounds at different concentrations. None of the assays showed any influence on the germination of L. sativa seeds using C. verticillaris extracts; however, modifications in leaf area and seedling hypocotyl and root development occurred. In the growth experiments, seedlings exposed to ether or acetone extract showed diminished hypocotyl growth in detriment to the root stimulus, compared to controls. Increases in extract concentrations led to the formation of abnormal seedlings. To determine the allelochemicals of C. verticillaris, its principal components, fumarprotocetraric and protocetraric acids, were isolated and then analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). When the seedlings were exposed to the two acids separately, presented increased leaf area at all concentrations. In contrast, hypocotyl and root stimulus was observed only in the presence of protocetraric acid at different concentrations. Fumarprotocetraric as well as protocetraric acids, isolated and purified from C. verticillaris and Parmotrema dilatatum respectively, influenced the development of L. sativa seedlings at high concentrations, indicating a possible bioherbicide potential of these acids. PMID:22835725

  3. Growth Potential of Halophilic Bacteria Isolated from Solar Salt Environments: Carbon Sources and Salt Requirements

    PubMed Central

    Javor, Barbara J.

    1984-01-01

    Eighteen strains of extremely halophilic bacteria and three strains of moderately halophilic bacteria were isolated from four different solar salt environments. Growth tests on carbohydrates, low-molecular-weight carboxylic acids, and complex medium demonstrated that the moderate halophiles and strains of the extreme halophiles Haloarcula and Halococcus grew on most of the substrates tested. Among the Halobacterium isolates were several metabolic groups: strains that grew on a broad range of substrates and strains that were essentially confined to either amino acid (peptone) or carbohydrate oxidation. One strain (WS-4) only grew well on pyruvate and acetate. Most strains of extreme halophiles grew by anaerobic fermentation and possibly by nitrate reduction. Tests of growth potential in natural saltern brines demonstrated that none of the halobacteria grew well in brines which harbor the densest populations of these bacteria in solar salterns. All grew best in brines which were unsaturated with NaCl. The high concentrations of Na+ and Mg2+ found in saltern crystallizer brines limited bacterial growth, but the concentrations of K+ found in these brines had little effect. MgSO4 was relatively more inhibitory to the extreme halophiles than was MgCl2, but the reverse was true for the moderate halophiles. PMID:16346609

  4. Hair growth promoting potential of phospholipids purified from porcine lung tissues.

    PubMed

    Choi, Seong-Hyun; Moon, Jeong-Su; Jeon, Byung-Suk; Jeon, Yeon-Jeong; Yoon, Byung-Il; Lim, Chang-Jin

    2015-03-01

    BP201, porcine lung tissue-derived phospholipids, consists of phosphatidylcholine as a major phospholipid species. BP201 promoted hair growth after application onto the shaved backs of BALB/c and C3H mice. Its effect was enhanced when applied together with minoxidil (MNX) in C3H mice. When the tissue specimens prepared from the shaved skins of BP201-treated and control mice were microscopically examined, the total numbers of hair follicles in both anagen and telogen phases of BP201-treated mice were significantly higher than those of control mice. The numbers of hair follicles in the anagen phase of BP201-treated mice were also higher than those of control mice. In combination with MNX, BP201 further increased the total number of hair follicles, but did not alter the percentage of hair follicles in the anagenic phase. BP201 also increased the proliferation of human hair follicle dermal papilla cells. Collectively, BP201 possesses hair growth promoting potential, which would suggest its use singly or in combination for hair growth products. PMID:25767686

  5. Hair Growth Promoting Potential of Phospholipids Purified from Porcine Lung Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Seong-Hyun; Moon, Jeong-Su; Jeon, Byung-Suk; Jeon, Yeon-Jeong; Yoon, Byung-Il; Lim, Chang-Jin

    2015-01-01

    BP201, porcine lung tissue-derived phospholipids, consists of phosphatidylcholine as a major phospholipid species. BP201 promoted hair growth after application onto the shaved backs of BALB/c and C3H mice. Its effect was enhanced when applied together with minoxidil (MNX) in C3H mice. When the tissue specimens prepared from the shaved skins of BP201-treated and control mice were microscopically examined, the total numbers of hair follicles in both anagen and telogen phases of BP201-treated mice were significantly higher than those of control mice. The numbers of hair follicles in the anagen phase of BP201-treated mice were also higher than those of control mice. In combination with MNX, BP201 further increased the total number of hair follicles, but did not alter the percentage of hair follicles in the anagenic phase. BP201 also increased the proliferation of human hair follicle dermal papilla cells. Collectively, BP201 possesses hair growth promoting potential, which would suggest its use singly or in combination for hair growth products. PMID:25767686

  6. WISP1/CCN4: A Potential Target for Inhibiting Prostate Cancer Growth and Spread to Bone

    PubMed Central

    Sonn, Robert; Kilts, Tina M.; de Castro, Luis F.; Maeda, Azusa; Fisher, Larry W.; Robey, Pamela G.; Berendsen, Agnes D.; Li, Li; McCartney-Francis, Nancy; Brown, Aaron C.; Crawford, Nigel P. S.; Molinolo, Alfredo; Jain, Alka; Fedarko, Neal S.; Young, Marian F.

    2013-01-01

    Prostate cancer (PC) is a leading cause of death in men however the factors that regulate its progression and eventual metastasis to bone remain unclear. Here we show that WISP1/CCN4 expression in prostate cancer tissues was up-regulated in early stages of the disease and, further, that it correlated with increased circulating levels of WISP1 in the sera of patients at early stages of the disease. WISP1 was also elevated in the mouse prostate cancer model TRAMP in the hypoplastic diseased tissue that develops prior to advanced carcinoma formation. When the ability of anti-WISP1 antibodies to reduce the spread of PC3-Luc cells to distant sites was tested it showed that twice weekly injections of anti-WISP1 antibodies reduced the number and overall size of distant tumors developed after intracardiac (IC) injection of PC3-Luc cells in mice. The ability of antibodies against WISP1 to inhibit growth of PC3-Luc cancer cells in mice was also evaluated and showed that twice weekly injections of anti-WISP1 antibodies reduced local tumor growth when examined in xenografts. To better understand the mechanism of action, the migration of PC3-Luc cells through membranes with or without a Matrigel™ barrier showed the cells were attracted to WISP1, and that this attraction was inhibited by treatment with anti-WISP1 antibodies. We also show the expression of WISP1 at the bone-tumor interface and in the stroma of early grade cancers suggested WISP1 expression is well placed to play roles in both fostering growth of the cancer and its spread to bone. In summary, the up-regulation of WISP1 in the early stages of cancer development coupled with its ability to inhibit spread and growth of prostate cancer cells makes it both a potential target and an accessible diagnostic marker for prostate cancer. PMID:23977121

  7. Thinking Ahead: Autonomic Buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Brambley, Michael R. )

    2002-08-31

    The time has come for the commercial buildings industries to reconsider the very nature of the systems installed in facilities today and to establish a vision for future buildings that differs from anything in the history of human shelter. Drivers for this examination include reductions in building operation staffs; uncertain costs and reliability of electric power; growing interest in energy-efficient and resource-conserving?green? and?high-performance? commercial buildings; and a dramatic increase in security concerns since the tragic events of September 11. This paper introduces a new paradigm? autonomic buildings? which parallels the concept of autonomic computing, introduced by IBM as a fundamental change in the way computer networks work. Modeled after the human nervous system,?autonomic systems? themselves take responsibility for a large portion of their own operation and even maintenance. For commercial buildings, autonomic systems could provide environments that afford occupants greater opportunity to focus on the things we do in buildings rather than on operation of the building itself, while achieving higher performance levels, increased security, and better use of energy and other natural resources. The author uses the human body and computer networking to introduce and illustrate this new paradigm for high-performance commercial buildings. He provides a vision for the future of commercial buildings based on autonomicity, identifies current research that could contribute to this future, and highlights research and technological gaps. The paper concludes with a set of issues and needs that are key to converting this idealized future into reality.

  8. Pure autonomic failure.

    PubMed

    Garland, Emily M; Hooper, William B; Robertson, David

    2013-01-01

    A 1925 report by Bradbury and Eggleston first described patients with extreme orthostatic hypotension and a low, steady heart rate. Evidence accumulated over the next two decades that patients with orthostatic hypotension include those with pure autonomic failure (PAF), characterized by isolated peripheral autonomic dysfunction and decreased norepinephrine synthesis; multiple system atrophy (MSA) with symptoms of a central Parkinson-like syndrome and normal resting plasma norepinephrine; and Parkinson's disease (PD), with lesions in postganglionic noradrenergic neurons and signs of autonomic dysfunction. All three disorders are classified as α-synucleinopathies. Insoluble deposits of α-synuclein are found in glia in MSA, whereas they take the form of neuronal cytoplasmic inclusions called Lewy bodies in PAF and PD. The exact relationship between α-synuclein deposits and the pathology remains undetermined. PAF occurs sporadically, and progresses slowly with a relatively good prognosis. However, it has been proposed that some cases of PAF may develop a central neurodegenerative disorder. Differentiation between PAF, MSA, and PD with autonomic failure can be facilitated by a number of biochemical and functional tests and by imaging studies. Cardiac sympathetic innervation is generally intact in MSA but decreased or absent in Parkinson's disease with autonomic failure and PAF. Treatment of PAF is directed at relieving symptoms with nonpharmacological interventions and with medications producing volume expansion and vasoconstriction. Future studies should focus on determining the factors that lead to central rather than solely peripheral neurodegeneration. PMID:24095130

  9. SYNTHESIS OF HAPTENS AND POTENTIAL RADIOLIGANDS AND DEVELOPMENT OF ANTIBODIES TO INSECT GROWTH REGULATORS DIFLUBENZURON AND BAY SIR 8514

    EPA Science Inventory

    A variety of synthetic approaches were undertaken, leading to potential haptens and radioligands for the benzoylphenylurea insect growth regulators diflubenzuron and BAY SIR 8514. One successful approach involved derivatization of the aniline nitrogen by ethyl 4-bromobutyrate fol...

  10. The Autonomic Brain: An Activation Likelihood Estimation Meta-Analysis for Central Processing of Autonomic Function

    PubMed Central

    Meissner, Karin; Bär, Karl-Jürgen; Napadow, Vitaly

    2013-01-01

    The autonomic nervous system (ANS) is of paramount importance for daily life. Its regulatory action on respiratory, cardiovascular, digestive, endocrine, and many other systems is controlled by a number of structures in the CNS. While the majority of these nuclei and cortices have been identified in animal models, neuroimaging studies have recently begun to shed light on central autonomic processing in humans. In this study, we used activation likelihood estimation to conduct a meta-analysis of human neuroimaging experiments evaluating central autonomic processing to localize (1) cortical and subcortical areas involved in autonomic processing, (2) potential subsystems for the sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions of the ANS, and (3) potential subsystems for specific ANS responses to different stimuli/tasks. Across all tasks, we identified a set of consistently activated brain regions, comprising left amygdala, right anterior and left posterior insula and midcingulate cortices that form the core of the central autonomic network. While sympathetic-associated regions predominate in executive- and salience-processing networks, parasympathetic regions predominate in the default mode network. Hence, central processing of autonomic function does not simply involve a monolithic network of brain regions, instead showing elements of task and division specificity. PMID:23785162

  11. Architecture of autonomous systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dikshit, Piyush; Guimaraes, Katia; Ramamurthy, Maya; Agrawala, Ashok; Larsen, Ronald L.

    1989-01-01

    Automation of Space Station functions and activities, particularly those involving robotic capabilities with interactive or supervisory human control, is a complex, multi-disciplinary systems design problem. A wide variety of applications using autonomous control can be found in the literature, but none of them seem to address the problem in general. All of them are designed with a specific application in mind. In this report, an abstract model is described which unifies the key concepts underlying the design of automated systems such as those studied by the aerospace contractors. The model has been kept as general as possible. The attempt is to capture all the key components of autonomous systems. With a little effort, it should be possible to map the functions of any specific autonomous system application to the model presented here.

  12. Architecture of autonomous systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dikshit, Piyush; Guimaraes, Katia; Ramamurthy, Maya; Agrawala, Ashok; Larsen, Ronald L.

    1986-01-01

    Automation of Space Station functions and activities, particularly those involving robotic capabilities with interactive or supervisory human control, is a complex, multi-disciplinary systems design problem. A wide variety of applications using autonomous control can be found in the literature, but none of them seem to address the problem in general. All of them are designed with a specific application in mind. In this report, an abstract model is described which unifies the key concepts underlying the design of automated systems such as those studied by the aerospace contractors. The model has been kept as general as possible. The attempt is to capture all the key components of autonomous systems. With a little effort, it should be possible to map the functions of any specific autonomous system application to the model presented here.

  13. Exercise and autonomic function.

    PubMed

    Goldsmith, R L; Bloomfield, D M; Rosenwinkel, E T

    2000-03-01

    The complex interplay between the dichotomous subdivisions of the autonomic nervous system establishes and maintains a delicately tuned homeostasis in spite of an ever-changing environment. Aerobic exercise training can increase activity of the parasympathetic nervous system and decrease sympathetic activity. Conversely, it is well-documented that cardiac disease is often characterized by attenuated parasympathetic activity and heightened sympathetic tone. A correlation between autonomic disequilibrium and disease has led to the hypothesis that exercise training, as a therapy that restores the autonomic nervous system towards normal function, may be associated with, and possibly responsible for, outcome improvements in various populations. This is merely one of the many benefits that is conferred by chronic exercise training and reviewed in this issue. PMID:10758814

  14. Supervised autonomous robotic soft tissue surgery.

    PubMed

    Shademan, Azad; Decker, Ryan S; Opfermann, Justin D; Leonard, Simon; Krieger, Axel; Kim, Peter C W

    2016-05-01

    The current paradigm of robot-assisted surgeries (RASs) depends entirely on an individual surgeon's manual capability. Autonomous robotic surgery-removing the surgeon's hands-promises enhanced efficacy, safety, and improved access to optimized surgical techniques. Surgeries involving soft tissue have not been performed autonomously because of technological limitations, including lack of vision systems that can distinguish and track the target tissues in dynamic surgical environments and lack of intelligent algorithms that can execute complex surgical tasks. We demonstrate in vivo supervised autonomous soft tissue surgery in an open surgical setting, enabled by a plenoptic three-dimensional and near-infrared fluorescent (NIRF) imaging system and an autonomous suturing algorithm. Inspired by the best human surgical practices, a computer program generates a plan to complete complex surgical tasks on deformable soft tissue, such as suturing and intestinal anastomosis. We compared metrics of anastomosis-including the consistency of suturing informed by the average suture spacing, the pressure at which the anastomosis leaked, the number of mistakes that required removing the needle from the tissue, completion time, and lumen reduction in intestinal anastomoses-between our supervised autonomous system, manual laparoscopic surgery, and clinically used RAS approaches. Despite dynamic scene changes and tissue movement during surgery, we demonstrate that the outcome of supervised autonomous procedures is superior to surgery performed by expert surgeons and RAS techniques in ex vivo porcine tissues and in living pigs. These results demonstrate the potential for autonomous robots to improve the efficacy, consistency, functional outcome, and accessibility of surgical techniques. PMID:27147588

  15. Potential Effects of Chlorpyrifos on Fetal Growth Outcomes: Implications for Risk Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Mink, Pamela J.; Kimmel, Carole A.; Li, Abby A.

    2012-01-01

    Chlorpyrifos (CPF) is one of the most widely used organophosphate insecticides in the United States. By December 2000, nearly all residential uses were voluntarily canceled, so that today, CPF is only used to control insect pests on a variety of crops. Periodic review of the potential effects of CPF on all developmental outcomes is necessary in the United States because the Food Quality Protection Act mandates special consideration of risk assessments for infants and children. This article reviews epidemiologic studies examining the association of potential CPF exposure with growth indices, including birth weight, birth length, and head circumference, and animal studies focusing on related somatic developmental endpoints. It differs from earlier reviews by including an additional cohort study and providing in-depth systematic evaluation of the patterns of association across different studies with respect to specificity of biomarkers for CPF, consistency, dose response, strength of association, temporality, and biological plausibility (Hill 1965), as well as consideration of the potential role of effect modification and bias. The review did not identify any strong associations exhibiting consistent exposure-response patterns that were observed in more than one of the four cohort studies evaluated. In addition, the animal data indicate that developmental effects occur at doses that produce substantial maternal toxicity and red blood cell (RBC) acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition. Based on consideration of both the epidemiologic and animal data, maternal RBC AChE inhibition is a more sensitive endpoint for risk assessment than somatic developmental effects reviewed in this article. PMID:22571222

  16. Growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waag, Andreas

    This chapter is devoted to the growth of ZnO. It starts with various techniques to grow bulk samples and presents in some detail the growth of epitaxial layers by metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD), molecular beam epitaxy (MBE), and pulsed laser deposition (PLD). The last section is devoted to the growth of nanorods. Some properties of the resulting samples are also presented. If a comparison between GaN and ZnO is made, very often the huge variety of different growth techniques available to fabricate ZnO is said to be an advantage of this material system. Indeed, growth techniques range from low cost wet chemical growth at almost room temperature to high quality MOCVD growth at temperatures above 1, 000∘C. In most cases, there is a very strong tendency of c-axis oriented growth, with a much higher growth rate in c-direction as compared to other crystal directions. This often leads to columnar structures, even at relatively low temperatures. However, it is, in general, not straight forward to fabricate smooth ZnO thin films with flat surfaces. Another advantage of a potential ZnO technology is said to be the possibility to grow thin films homoepitaxially on ZnO substrates. ZnO substrates are mostly fabricated by vapor phase transport (VPT) or hydrothermal growth. These techniques are enabling high volume manufacturing at reasonable cost, at least in principle. The availability of homoepitaxial substrates should be beneficial to the development of ZnO technology and devices and is in contrast to the situation of GaN. However, even though a number of companies are developing ZnO substrates, only recently good quality substrates have been demonstrated. However, these substrates are not yet widely available. Still, the situation concerning ZnO substrates seems to be far from low-cost, high-volume production. The fabrication of dense, single crystal thin films is, in general, surprisingly difficult, even when ZnO is grown on a ZnO substrate. However

  17. Autonomous electrochromic assembly

    DOEpatents

    Berland, Brian Spencer; Lanning, Bruce Roy; Stowell, Jr., Michael Wayne

    2015-03-10

    This disclosure describes system and methods for creating an autonomous electrochromic assembly, and systems and methods for use of the autonomous electrochromic assembly in combination with a window. Embodiments described herein include an electrochromic assembly that has an electrochromic device, an energy storage device, an energy collection device, and an electrochromic controller device. These devices may be combined into a unitary electrochromic insert assembly. The electrochromic assembly may have the capability of generating power sufficient to operate and control an electrochromic device. This control may occur through the application of a voltage to an electrochromic device to change its opacity state. The electrochromic assembly may be used in combination with a window.

  18. Cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy

    PubMed Central

    McCarty, Niamh

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy often goes unrecognized. We present a case of a 22-year-old man with multiple manifestations of this disease, including weakness, dizziness, fatigue, tachycardia, abnormal QTc, and orthostasis, which occurred 2 years after his type 1 diabetes diagnosis. He exhibited parasympathetic denervation with resting tachycardia and exercise intolerance but also had evidence of orthostatic hypotension, which suggests sympathetic denervation. He did not have complete cardiovascular autonomic reflex testing, which would have been helpful, but improved with aggressive diabetes treatment and the increase of beta-blockade. It is important to identify these patients to understand their signs and symptoms and consider appropriate therapies. PMID:27034552

  19. Cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy.

    PubMed

    McCarty, Niamh; Silverman, Barry

    2016-04-01

    Cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy often goes unrecognized. We present a case of a 22-year-old man with multiple manifestations of this disease, including weakness, dizziness, fatigue, tachycardia, abnormal QTc, and orthostasis, which occurred 2 years after his type 1 diabetes diagnosis. He exhibited parasympathetic denervation with resting tachycardia and exercise intolerance but also had evidence of orthostatic hypotension, which suggests sympathetic denervation. He did not have complete cardiovascular autonomic reflex testing, which would have been helpful, but improved with aggressive diabetes treatment and the increase of beta-blockade. It is important to identify these patients to understand their signs and symptoms and consider appropriate therapies. PMID:27034552

  20. The Autonomous Helicopter System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilmore, John F.

    1984-06-01

    This paper describes an autonomous airborne vehicle being developed at the Georgia Tech Engineering Experiment Station. The Autonomous Helicopter System (AHS) is a multi-mission system consisting of three distinct sections: vision, planning and control. Vision provides the local and global scene analysis which is symbolically represented and passed to planning as the initial route planning constraints. Planning generates a task dependent path for the vehicle to traverse which assures maximum mission system success as well as safety. Control validates the path and either executes the given route or feeds back to previous sections in order to resolve conflicts.

  1. Potential effects of environmental contamination on Yuma Myotis demography and population growth.

    PubMed

    Frick, Winifred F; Rainey, William E; Pierson, Elizabeth D

    2007-06-01

    Unplanned natural and anthropogenic disasters provide unique opportunities for investigating the influence of perturbations on population vital rates and species recovery times. We investigated the potential effects of a major pesticide spill by comparing annual survival rates using mark-recapture techniques on a riparian bat species, Yuma Myotis (Myotis yumanensis). Demography and population dynamics for most bat species remain poorly understood despite advances in mark-recapture estimation and modeling techniques. We compared survival and population growth rates of two roost populations exposed to a large chemical (metam sodium) spill in the upper Sacramento River in Northern California with two roost populations outside the contaminated area from 1992 to 1996. Hypotheses about long-term effects of the spill on female juvenile and adult survival were tested using an information-theoretic approach (AIC). Working hypotheses included effects of age, chemical spill, and time trend on survival. Female adult survival was higher than female juvenile survival across all sites, suggesting stage-specific mortality risks. Model-averaged estimates of female juvenile survival in the contaminated area (0.50-0.74) were lower than in control roosts (0.60-0.78) for each year in the study, suggesting that the spill may have reduced juvenile survival for several years. Female adult survival (0.73-0.89) did not appear to be strongly affected by the spill during the years of the study. There was an increase in survival for both stage-classes across all populations during the study period, which may have been caused by the end of an extended drought in California in the winter of 1993. The spill-affected population was in decline for the first year of the study as indicated by an estimated growth rate (lambda) < 1, but population growth rates increased during the four-year period. PMID:17555229

  2. Suitable Days for Plant Growth Disappear under Projected Climate Change: Potential Human and Biotic Vulnerability.

    PubMed

    Mora, Camilo; Caldwell, Iain R; Caldwell, Jamie M; Fisher, Micah R; Genco, Brandon M; Running, Steven W

    2015-06-01

    Ongoing climate change can alter conditions for plant growth, in turn affecting ecological and social systems. While there have been considerable advances in understanding the physical aspects of climate change, comprehensive analyses integrating climate, biological, and social sciences are less common. Here we use climate projections under alternative mitigation scenarios to show how changes in environmental variables that limit plant growth could impact ecosystems and people. We show that although the global mean number of days above freezing will increase by up to 7% by 2100 under "business as usual" (representative concentration pathway [RCP] 8.5), suitable growing days will actually decrease globally by up to 11% when other climatic variables that limit plant growth are considered (i.e., temperature, water availability, and solar radiation). Areas in Russia, China, and Canada are projected to gain suitable plant growing days, but the rest of the world will experience losses. Notably, tropical areas could lose up to 200 suitable plant growing days per year. These changes will impact most of the world's terrestrial ecosystems, potentially triggering climate feedbacks. Human populations will also be affected, with up to ~2,100 million of the poorest people in the world (~30% of the world's population) highly vulnerable to changes in the supply of plant-related goods and services. These impacts will be spatially variable, indicating regions where adaptations will be necessary. Changes in suitable plant growing days are projected to be less severe under strong and moderate mitigation scenarios (i.e., RCP 2.6 and RCP 4.5), underscoring the importance of reducing emissions to avoid such disproportionate impacts on ecosystems and people. PMID:26061091

  3. Suitable Days for Plant Growth Disappear under Projected Climate Change: Potential Human and Biotic Vulnerability

    PubMed Central

    Mora, Camilo; Caldwell, Iain R.; Caldwell, Jamie M.; Fisher, Micah R.; Genco, Brandon M.; Running, Steven W.

    2015-01-01

    Ongoing climate change can alter conditions for plant growth, in turn affecting ecological and social systems. While there have been considerable advances in understanding the physical aspects of climate change, comprehensive analyses integrating climate, biological, and social sciences are less common. Here we use climate projections under alternative mitigation scenarios to show how changes in environmental variables that limit plant growth could impact ecosystems and people. We show that although the global mean number of days above freezing will increase by up to 7% by 2100 under “business as usual” (representative concentration pathway [RCP] 8.5), suitable growing days will actually decrease globally by up to 11% when other climatic variables that limit plant growth are considered (i.e., temperature, water availability, and solar radiation). Areas in Russia, China, and Canada are projected to gain suitable plant growing days, but the rest of the world will experience losses. Notably, tropical areas could lose up to 200 suitable plant growing days per year. These changes will impact most of the world’s terrestrial ecosystems, potentially triggering climate feedbacks. Human populations will also be affected, with up to ~2,100 million of the poorest people in the world (~30% of the world’s population) highly vulnerable to changes in the supply of plant-related goods and services. These impacts will be spatially variable, indicating regions where adaptations will be necessary. Changes in suitable plant growing days are projected to be less severe under strong and moderate mitigation scenarios (i.e., RCP 2.6 and RCP 4.5), underscoring the importance of reducing emissions to avoid such disproportionate impacts on ecosystems and people. PMID:26061091

  4. Glucocorticoid Receptor as a Potential Target to Decrease Aromatase Expression and Inhibit Leydig Tumor Growth.

    PubMed

    Panza, Salvatore; Malivindi, Rocco; Chemi, Francesca; Rago, Vittoria; Giordano, Cinzia; Barone, Ines; Bonofiglio, Daniela; Gelsomino, Luca; Giordano, Francesca; Andò, Sebastiano; Catalano, Stefania

    2016-05-01

    Leydig cell tumors are the most frequent interstitial neoplasms of the testis with increased incidence in recent years. They are hormonally active and are considered one of the steroid-secreting tumors. Although usually benign, the malignant phenotype responds poorly to conventional chemotherapy or radiation, highlighting the need to identify new therapeutic targets for treatment. Here, we identified a novel glucocorticoid-mediated mechanism that controls cell growth in Leydig cell tumors. We found that a synthetic glucocorticoid receptor agonist, dexamethasone, reduces cell proliferation in rat Leydig tumor cells by decreasing the expression and the enzymatic activity of the estrogen-producing enzyme aromatase. This inhibitory effect relies on the ability of activated glucocorticoid receptor to regulate the aromatase gene transcriptional activity through the recruitment of nuclear receptor corepressor protein and silencing mediator of retinoid and thyroid hormone receptors to a newly identified putative glucocorticoid responsive element within the aromatase promoter II. Our in vivo studies reveal a reduction of tumor growth, after dexamethasone treatment, in animal xenografts. Tumors from dexamethasone-treated mice exhibit a decrease in the expression of the proliferation marker Ki-67 and the aromatase enzyme. Our data demonstrate that activated glucocorticoid receptor, decreasing aromatase expression, induces Leydig tumor regression both in vitro and in vivo, suggesting that glucocorticoid receptor might be a potential target for the therapy of Leydig cell tumors. PMID:26968343

  5. Enterococci as indicator of potential growth of Salmonella in fresh minced meat at retail.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Tina Beck; Nielsen, Niels L; Christensen, Bjarke Bak; Aabo, Søren

    2016-10-01

    The present study had the purpose of demonstrating a positive correlation between enterococci and Salmonella in minced pork and beef. Data from 2001 to 2002 from retail minced pork and beef in Denmark were used and the association between concentration of enterococci and prevalence and concentration of Salmonella was examined. A total of 2187 and 2747 samples of minced pork and beef, respectively, were collected from butcher shops and supermarkets throughout the country. In pork, 2.1% of all samples were positive for Salmonella whereas 1.5% of beef samples were positive. Among samples with ≥100 CFU/g of enterococci, prevalence of Salmonella positive samples was 3.4%, which was significantly higher than 1.2% observed in minced meat with less than 100 CFU/g of enterococci (P < 0.001). A positive association between occurrence of enterococci and presence of Salmonella in retail minced meat was supported as both prevalence and concentration of Salmonella in positive samples increased with increasing concentrations of enterococci in minced meat. From our data, we suggest that minced meat containing more than 500 enterococci per gram is suspected of having been exposed to temperatures allowing growth of Salmonella. This is to our knowledge the first report, which links presence of an indicator to potential growth of Salmonella. PMID:27375248

  6. Salinity as a constraint on growth of oligohaline marsh macrophytes. II. Salt pulses and recovery potential

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Howard, R.J.; Mendelssohn, I.A.

    1999-01-01

    The ability of common oligohaline marsh macrophytes of the northern Gulf of Mexico coast to recover from pulses of increased salinity was investigated in a greenhouse experiment with Eleocharis palustris, Panicum hemitomon, Sagittaria lancifolia, and Scirpus americanus monocultures. Components of salinity pulses applied were final salinity reached (6 or 12 g/L), salinity influx rate (3 d or 3 wk), and duration of exposure (1, 2, or 3 mo). After each exposure period, we placed plants into freshwater until the end of the 120-d experiment to determine recovery potential. The four species varied in their ability to recover from the salinity pulses. Within a species, recovery varied with final salinity level and duration of exposure, and to a lesser extent with salinity influx rate. Scirpus americanus, growth of which was stimulated by <3 mo of exposure to 6 g/L, was able to recover even under the most extreme conditions of exposure to 12 g/L salinity for 3 mo. Ability to recover decreased with increased salinity and increased duration of exposure for the remaining three species. Recovery of specific aspects of growth was also suppressed in these species by a rapid salinity influx rate compared to a slow influx rate. The complex variations in recovery patterns displayed by the different species may lead to changes in species dominance following the short-term salinity pulses that can occur during storm events, which in turn may affect marsh plant community composition and structure.

  7. Autonomous Exploration for 3D Map Learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joho, Dominik; Stachniss, Cyrill; Pfaff, Patrick; Burgard, Wolfram

    Autonomous exploration is a frequently addressed problem in the robotics community. This paper presents an approach to mobile robot exploration that takes into account that the robot acts in the three-dimensional space. Our approach can build compact three-dimensional models autonomously and is able to deal with negative obstacles such as abysms. It applies a decision-theoretic framework which considers the uncertainty in the map to evaluate potential actions. Thereby, it trades off the cost of executing an action with the expected information gain taking into account possible sensor measurements. We present experimental results obtained with a real robot and in simulation.

  8. [State of the autonomic nervous system after induced abortion in the lst trimester].

    PubMed

    Bakuleva, L P; Gatina, G A; Kuz'mina, T I; Solov'eva, A D

    1990-04-01

    The autonomic nervous system has been examined in 271 patients with a history of first-trimester induced abortion. It was ascertained that induced abortion affected the autonomic nervous system, thus impairing adaptive potentials and entailing the onset or aggravation of preexisting autonomic vascular dystonia. PMID:2378404

  9. Variations in Environmental Signals in Tree-Ring Indices in Trees with Different Growth Potential.

    PubMed

    Hafner, Polona; Gričar, Jožica; Skudnik, Mitja; Levanič, Tom

    2015-01-01

    We analysed two groups of Quercus robur trees, growing at nearby plots with different micro-location condition (W-wet and D-dry) in the floodplain Krakovo forest, Slovenia. In the study we compared the growth response of two different tree groups to environmental variables, the potential signal stored in earlywood (EW) structure and the potential difference of the information stored in carbon isotope discrimination of EW and latewood (LW). For that purpose EW and LW widths and carbon isotope discrimination for the period 1970-2008 AD were measured. EW and LW widths were measured on stained microscopic slides and chronologies were standardised using the ARSTAN program. α-cellulose was extracted from pooled EW and LW samples and homogenized samples were further analysed using an elemental analyser and IRMS. We discovered that W oaks grew significantly better over the whole analysed period. The difference between D and W oaks was significant in all analysed variables with the exception of stable carbon isotope discrimination in latewood. In W oaks, latewood widths correlated with summer (June to August) climatic variables, while carbon isotope discrimination was more connected to River Krka flow during the summer. EW discrimination correlated with summer and autumn River Krka flow of the previous year, while latewood discrimination correlated with flow during the current year. In the case of D oaks, the environmental signal appears to be vague, probably due to less favourable growth conditions resulting in markedly reduced increments. Our study revealed important differences in responses to environmental factors between the two oak groups of different physiological conditions that are preconditioned by environmental stress. Environmental information stored in tree-ring features may vary, even within the same forest stand, and largely depends on the micro-environment. Our analysis confirmed our assumptions that separate EW and LW analysis of widths and carbon isotope

  10. Variations in Environmental Signals in Tree-Ring Indices in Trees with Different Growth Potential

    PubMed Central

    Hafner, Polona; Gričar, Jožica; Skudnik, Mitja; Levanič, Tom

    2015-01-01

    We analysed two groups of Quercus robur trees, growing at nearby plots with different micro-location condition (W-wet and D-dry) in the floodplain Krakovo forest, Slovenia. In the study we compared the growth response of two different tree groups to environmental variables, the potential signal stored in earlywood (EW) structure and the potential difference of the information stored in carbon isotope discrimination of EW and latewood (LW). For that purpose EW and LW widths and carbon isotope discrimination for the period 1970–2008 AD were measured. EW and LW widths were measured on stained microscopic slides and chronologies were standardised using the ARSTAN program. α-cellulose was extracted from pooled EW and LW samples and homogenized samples were further analysed using an elemental analyser and IRMS. We discovered that W oaks grew significantly better over the whole analysed period. The difference between D and W oaks was significant in all analysed variables with the exception of stable carbon isotope discrimination in latewood. In W oaks, latewood widths correlated with summer (June to August) climatic variables, while carbon isotope discrimination was more connected to River Krka flow during the summer. EW discrimination correlated with summer and autumn River Krka flow of the previous year, while latewood discrimination correlated with flow during the current year. In the case of D oaks, the environmental signal appears to be vague, probably due to less favourable growth conditions resulting in markedly reduced increments. Our study revealed important differences in responses to environmental factors between the two oak groups of different physiological conditions that are preconditioned by environmental stress. Environmental information stored in tree-ring features may vary, even within the same forest stand, and largely depends on the micro-environment. Our analysis confirmed our assumptions that separate EW and LW analysis of widths and carbon

  11. Autonomous Deep-Space Optical Navigation Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    D'Souza, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    This project will advance the Autonomous Deep-space navigation capability applied to Autonomous Rendezvous and Docking (AR&D) Guidance, Navigation and Control (GNC) system by testing it on hardware, particularly in a flight processor, with a goal of limited testing in the Integrated Power, Avionics and Software (IPAS) with the ARCM (Asteroid Retrieval Crewed Mission) DRO (Distant Retrograde Orbit) Autonomous Rendezvous and Docking (AR&D) scenario. The technology, which will be harnessed, is called 'optical flow', also known as 'visual odometry'. It is being matured in the automotive and SLAM (Simultaneous Localization and Mapping) applications but has yet to be applied to spacecraft navigation. In light of the tremendous potential of this technique, we believe that NASA needs to design a optical navigation architecture that will use this technique. It is flexible enough to be applicable to navigating around planetary bodies, such as asteroids.

  12. Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent transcriptional pathways: potential mediators of skeletal muscle growth and development.

    PubMed

    Al-Shanti, Nasser; Stewart, Claire E

    2009-11-01

    The loss of muscle mass with age and disuse has a significant impact on the physiological and social well-being of the aged; this is an increasingly important problem as the population becomes skewed towards older age. Exercise has psychological benefits but it also impacts on muscle protein synthesis and degradation, increasing muscle tissue volume in both young and older individuals. Skeletal muscle hypertrophy involves an increase in muscle mass and cross-sectional area and associated increased myofibrillar protein content. Attempts to understand the molecular mechanisms that underlie muscle growth, development and maintenance, have focused on characterising the molecular pathways that initiate, maintain and regenerate skeletal muscle. Such understanding may aid in improving targeted interventional therapies for age-related muscle loss and muscle wasting associated with diseases. Two major routes through which skeletal muscle development and growth are regulated are insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) and Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent transcriptional pathways. Many reviews have focused on understanding the signalling pathways of IGF-I and its receptor, which govern skeletal muscle hypertrophy. However, alternative molecular signalling pathways such as the Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent transcriptional pathways should also be considered as potential mediators of muscle growth. These latter pathways have received relatively little attention and the purpose herein is to highlight the progress being made in the understanding of these pathways and associated molecules: calmodulin, calmodulin kinases (CaMKs), calcineurin and nuclear factor of activated T-cell (NFAT), which are involved in skeletal muscle regulation. We describe: (1) how conformational changes in the Ca(2+) sensor calmodulin result in the exposure of binding pockets for the target proteins (CaMKs and calcineurin). (2) How Calmodulin consequently activates either the Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent kinases

  13. Learning for autonomous navigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Angelova, Anelia; Howard, Andrew; Matthies, Larry; Tang, Benyang; Turmon, Michael; Mjolsness, Eric

    2005-01-01

    Autonomous off-road navigation of robotic ground vehicles has important applications on Earth and in space exploration. Progress in this domain has been retarded by the limited lookahead range of 3-D sensors and by the difficulty of preprogramming systems to understand the traversability of the wide variety of terrain they can encounter.

  14. Developing Autonomous Learners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulcahy, Robert F.

    1991-01-01

    Defines the concept of autonomous learning. Presents the Strategies Program for Effective Learning/Thinking (SPELT), including its underlying assumptions, instructional model, teacher training procedures, research findings, and anticipated future development. Research results include implications for learning-disabled and gifted students. (KS)

  15. Autonomous data transmission apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Kotlyar, Oleg M.

    1997-01-01

    A autonomous borehole data transmission apparatus for transmitting measurement data from measuring instruments at the downhole end of a drill string by generating pressure pulses utilizing a transducer longitudinally responsive to magnetic field pulses caused by electrical pulses corresponding to the measured downhole parameters.

  16. Biophysical basis of growth promotion in primary leaves of Phaseolus vulgaris L. by hormones versus light: solute accumulation and the growth potential

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brock, T. G.; Cleland, R. E.

    1990-01-01

    Rapid cell enlargement in primary leaves of bean is induced by bright white light (WL), gibberellic acid (GA3) or the cytokinin N6-benzyladenine (BA). In previous studies it has been show that all three agents cause an increase in wall extensibility, although by different mechanisms. Here we examine the effects of the three growth promoters on the osmotic potential difference (delta Psi), the accumulation of solutes (delta TSC), the wall yield threshold (Y) and the growth potential (delta Psi -Y). With GA3 and BA, but not WL, there was a rapid decline in delta Psi as measured by the osmotic concentration of expressed sap. Unlike WL, neither GA3 nor BA promoted the accumulation of osmotic solutes. The decline in delta Psi, however, was apparently counteracted by a decline in Y since the growth potential, as measured by the external-osmoticum method, remained unchanged. It is concluded that WL, GA3 and BA all promote cell enlargement of bean leaves by increasing one cellular growth parameter, wall extensibility. Only WL, however, promotes osmotic adjustment during growth.

  17. Software Architecture for Autonomous Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shih, Jimmy S.

    1997-01-01

    The thesis objective is to design an autonomous spacecraft architecture to perform both deliberative and reactive behaviors. The Autonomous Small Planet In-Situ Reaction to Events (ASPIRE) project uses the architecture to integrate several autonomous technologies for a comet orbiter mission.

  18. Stromal interactions as regulators of tumor growth and therapeutic response: A potential target for photodynamic therapy?

    PubMed Central

    Celli, Jonathan P.

    2013-01-01

    It has become increasingly widely recognized that the stroma plays several vital roles in tumor growth and development and that tumor-stroma interactions can in many cases account poor therapeutic response. Inspired by an emerging body of literature, we consider the potential role of photodynamic therapy (PDT) for targeting interactions with stromal fibroblasts and mechano-sensitive signaling with the extracellular matrix as a means to drive tumors toward a more therapeutically responsive state and synergize with other treatments. This concept is particularly relevant for cancer of the pancreas, which is characterized by tumors with a profoundly dense, rigid fibrous stroma. Here we introduce new in vitro systems to model interactions between pancreatic tumors and their mechanical microenvironment and restore signaling with stromal fibroblasts. Using one such model as a test bed it is shown here that PDT treatment is able to destroy fibroblasts in an in vitro 3D pancreatic tumor-fibroblast co-culture. These results and the literature suggest the further development of PDT as a potential modality for stromal depletion. PMID:23457416

  19. Synergy of enediyne antibiotic lidamycin and temozolomide in suppressing glioma growth with potentiated apoptosis induction.

    PubMed

    Li, Xing-Qi; Ouyang, Zhi-Gang; Zhang, Sheng-Hua; Liu, Hong; Shang, Yue; Li, Yi; Zhen, Yong-Su

    2014-08-01

    The present work evaluated the synergistic efficacy of an enediyne antibiotic lidamycin (LDM) plus temozolomide (TMZ) against glioma in vitro and in vivo. LDM plus TMZ inhibited the proliferations of rat glioma C6 cells and human glioma U87 cells more efficiently than the single usage of LDM or TMZ. In addition, LDM also potentiated the apoptosis inductions by TMZ in rat C6 cells and human U87 cells. Meanwhile, the results of TdT-mediated dUTP Nick End Labeling assay for subcutaneous U87 tumor sections indicated an enhanced apoptosis induction in vivo by LDM plus TMZ, which confirmed the high potency of the combination for glioma therapy. As determined by Western blot, apoptosis signal pathways in C6 cells and U87 cells were markedly affected by the synergistic alteration of P53, bax, procaspase 3, and bcd-2 expression. In both subcutaneous U87 xenograft and C6 intracerebral orthotopic implant model, TMZ-induced glioma growth suppression was dramatically potentiated by LDM. As shown, the combination therapy efficiently reduced the tumor volumes and tumor weights of the human glioma U87 xenograft. Kaplan-Meier assay revealed that LDM plus TMZ dramatically prolonged the life span of C6 intracerebral tumor-bearing rats with decreased tumor size. This study indicates that the combination of LDM with TMZ might be a promising strategy for glioma therapy. PMID:24842385

  20. Potential effects of climate change on the growth of fishes from different thermal guilds in Lakes Michigan and Huron

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kao, Yu-Chun; Madenjian, Charles P.; Bunnell, David B.; Lofgren, Brent M.; Perroud, Marjorie

    2015-01-01

    We used a bioenergetics modeling approach to investigate potential effects of climate change on the growth of two economically important native fishes: yellow perch (Perca flavescens), a cool-water fish, and lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis), a cold-water fish, in deep and oligotrophic Lakes Michigan and Huron. For assessing potential changes in fish growth, we contrasted simulated fish growth in the projected future climate regime during the period 2043-2070 under different prey availability scenarios with the simulated growth during the baseline (historical reference) period 1964-1993. Results showed that effects of climate change on the growth of these two fishes are jointly controlled by behavioral thermoregulation and prey availability. With the ability of behavioral thermoregulation, temperatures experienced by yellow perch in the projected future climate regime increased more than those experienced by lake whitefish. Thus simulated future growth decreased more for yellow perch than for lake whitefish under scenarios where prey availability remains constant into the future. Under high prey availability scenarios, simulated future growth of these two fishes both increased but yellow perch could not maintain the baseline efficiency of converting prey consumption into body weight. We contended that thermal guild should not be the only factor used to predict effects of climate change on the growth of a fish, and that ecosystem responses to climate change should be also taken into account.

  1. Autonomous Robotic Inspection in Tunnels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Protopapadakis, E.; Stentoumis, C.; Doulamis, N.; Doulamis, A.; Loupos, K.; Makantasis, K.; Kopsiaftis, G.; Amditis, A.

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, an automatic robotic inspector for tunnel assessment is presented. The proposed platform is able to autonomously navigate within the civil infrastructures, grab stereo images and process/analyse them, in order to identify defect types. At first, there is the crack detection via deep learning approaches. Then, a detailed 3D model of the cracked area is created, utilizing photogrammetric methods. Finally, a laser profiling of the tunnel's lining, for a narrow region close to detected crack is performed; allowing for the deduction of potential deformations. The robotic platform consists of an autonomous mobile vehicle; a crane arm, guided by the computer vision-based crack detector, carrying ultrasound sensors, the stereo cameras and the laser scanner. Visual inspection is based on convolutional neural networks, which support the creation of high-level discriminative features for complex non-linear pattern classification. Then, real-time 3D information is accurately calculated and the crack position and orientation is passed to the robotic platform. The entire system has been evaluated in railway and road tunnels, i.e. in Egnatia Highway and London underground infrastructure.

  2. Extracellular matrix protein in calcified endoskeleton: a potential additive for crystal growth and design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azizur Rahman, M.; Fujimura, Hiroyuki; Shinjo, Ryuichi; Oomori, Tamotsu

    2011-06-01

    In this study, we demonstrate a key function of extracellular matrix proteins (ECMPs) on seed crystals, which are isolated from calcified endoskeletons of soft coral and contain only CaCO 3 without any living cells. This is the first report that an ECMP protein extracted from a marine organism could potentially influence in modifying the surface of a substrate for designing materials via crystallization. We previously studied with the ECMPs from a different type of soft coral ( Sinularia polydactyla) without introducing any seed crystals in the process , which showed different results. Thus, crystallization on the seed in the presence of ECMPs of present species is an important first step toward linking function to individual proteins from soft coral. For understanding this interesting phenomenon, in vitro crystallization was initiated in a supersaturated solution on seed particles of calcite (1 0 4) with and without ECMPs. No change in the crystal growth shape occurred without ECMPs present during the crystallization process. However, with ECMPs, the morphology and phase of the crystals in the crystallization process changed dramatically. Upon completion of crystallization with ECMPs, an attractive crystal morphology was found. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was utilized to observe the crystal morphologies on the seeds surface. The mineral phases of crystals nucleated by ECMPs on the seeds surface were examined by Raman spectroscopy. Although 50 mM Mg 2+ is influential in making aragonite in the crystallization process, the ECMPs significantly made calcite crystals even when 50 mM Mg 2+ was present in the process. Crystallization with the ECMP additive seems to be a technically attractive strategy to generate assembled micro crystals that could be used in crystals growth and design in the Pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries.

  3. Reuse potential of laundry greywater for irrigation based on growth, water and nutrient use of tomato

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misra, R. K.; Patel, J. H.; Baxi, V. R.

    2010-05-01

    SummaryGreywater is considered as a valuable resource with a high reuse potential for irrigation of household lawns and gardens. However, there are possibilities of surfactant and sodium accumulation in soil from reuse of greywater which may affect agricultural productivity and environmental sustainability adversely. We conducted a glasshouse experiment to examine variation in growth, water and nutrient use of tomato ( Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. cv. Grosse Lisse) using tap water (TW), laundry greywater (GW) and solutions of low and high concentration of a detergent surfactant (LC and HC, respectively) as irrigation treatments. Each treatment was replicated five times using a randomised block design. Measurements throughout the experiment showed greywater to be significantly more alkaline and saline than the other types of irrigation water. Although all plants received 16 irrigations over a period of 9 weeks until flowering, there were little or no significant effects of irrigation treatments on plant growth. Soil water retention following irrigation reduced significantly when plants were irrigated with GW or surfactant solutions on only three of 12 occasions. On one occasion, water use measured as evapotranspiration (ET) with GW irrigation was similar to TW, but it was significantly higher than the plants receiving HC irrigation. At harvest, various components of plant biomass and leaf area for GW irrigated plants were found to be similar or significantly higher than the TW irrigated plants with a common trend of GW ⩾ TW > LC ⩾ HC. Whole-plant concentration was measured for 12 essential plant nutrients (N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S, Fe, Cu, Mn, Zn, Mo and B) and Na (often considered as a beneficial nutrient). Irrigation treatments affected the concentration of four nutrients (P, Fe, Zn and Na) and uptake of seven nutrients (P, K, Ca, Mg, Na, Fe and B) significantly. Uptake of these seven nutrients by tomato was generally in the order GW ⩾ TW > HC ⩾ LC. GW

  4. Symmetries and solutions of the non-autonomous von Bertalanffy equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, Maureen P.; Anderssen, Robert S.

    2015-05-01

    For growth in a closed environment, which is indicative of the situation in laboratory experiments, autonomous ODE models do not necessarily capture the dynamics under investigation. The importance and impact of a closed environment arise when the question under examination relates, for example, to the number of the surviving microbes, such as in a study of the spoilage and contamination of food, the gene silencing activity of fungi or the production of a chemical compound by bacteria or fungi. Autonomous ODE models are inappropriate as they assume that only the current size of the population controls the growth-decay dynamics. This is reflected in the fact that, asymptotically, their solutions can only grow or decay monotonically or asymptote. Non-autonomous ODE models are not so constrained. A natural strategy for the choice of non-autonomous ODEs is to take appropriate autonomous ones and change them to be non-autonomous through the introduction of relevant non-autonomous terms. This is the approach in this paper with the focus being the von Bertalanffy equation. Since this equation has independent importance in relation to practical applications in growth modelling, it is natural to explore the deeper relationships between the introduced non-autonomous terms through a symmetry analysis, which is the purpose and goal of the current paper. Infinitesimals are derived which allow particular forms of the non-autonomous von Bertalanffy equation to be transformed into autonomous forms for which some new analytic solutions have been found.

  5. Comparative assessment of growth and biodegradation potential of soil isolate in the presence of pesticides.

    PubMed

    Jilani, Seema

    2013-07-01

    In Pakistan, to increase agricultural production, higher amounts of fertilizers and pesticides are being used. The residues of the applied pesticides stay in the environment and therefore causing contamination of air, water and land. Moreover, agricultural industries are also contributing relatively high quantities of toxic pesticides into the environment. Since most of them have no treatment facilities. These pesticides may be toxic, mutagenic or carcinogenic. They may be bioaccumulated or biomagnified by the biota. Therefore its removal from environmental systems needs special attention. In this study, bacterial isolate, Pseudomonas, designated as IES-Ps-1, was used to assess its potential for pesticide removal from industrial wastewater using the biosimulator (activated sludge process). During experimental studies conducted in the flask as well as in biosimulator, it was observed that IES-Ps-1 grows normally at low concentrations of added insecticides when compared with the control test (without pesticide). However, at high concentrations the microbial count decreased but no death occurred and the culture remained in lag phase. In many cases, the growth of organisms in the presence of the particular substrate serves as an indication about its metabolic potential. However, to confirm these results, chemical oxygen demand (COD) and HPLC analysis were performed. Under aerobic culture conditions using mechanical aerators in biosimulator, almost complete removal of Cypermethrin at 20 mg/L dose occurred during 48 h. The study findings indicate that IES-Ps-1 strain, can be used for the treatment of the pesticide contaminated environment. Such study may be valuable to scientist and engineers, who are trying to develop methods for the treatment of toxic organic waste using the biological treatment process. PMID:23961243

  6. Comparative assessment of growth and biodegradation potential of soil isolate in the presence of pesticides

    PubMed Central

    Jilani, Seema

    2013-01-01

    In Pakistan, to increase agricultural production, higher amounts of fertilizers and pesticides are being used. The residues of the applied pesticides stay in the environment and therefore causing contamination of air, water and land. Moreover, agricultural industries are also contributing relatively high quantities of toxic pesticides into the environment. Since most of them have no treatment facilities. These pesticides may be toxic, mutagenic or carcinogenic. They may be bioaccumulated or biomagnified by the biota. Therefore its removal from environmental systems needs special attention. In this study, bacterial isolate, Pseudomonas, designated as IES-Ps-1, was used to assess its potential for pesticide removal from industrial wastewater using the biosimulator (activated sludge process). During experimental studies conducted in the flask as well as in biosimulator, it was observed that IES-Ps-1 grows normally at low concentrations of added insecticides when compared with the control test (without pesticide). However, at high concentrations the microbial count decreased but no death occurred and the culture remained in lag phase. In many cases, the growth of organisms in the presence of the particular substrate serves as an indication about its metabolic potential. However, to confirm these results, chemical oxygen demand (COD) and HPLC analysis were performed. Under aerobic culture conditions using mechanical aerators in biosimulator, almost complete removal of Cypermethrin at 20 mg/L dose occurred during 48 h. The study findings indicate that IES-Ps-1 strain, can be used for the treatment of the pesticide contaminated environment. Such study may be valuable to scientist and engineers, who are trying to develop methods for the treatment of toxic organic waste using the biological treatment process. PMID:23961243

  7. Growth of Acinetobacter baumannii in Pellicle Enhanced the Expression of Potential Virulence Factors

    PubMed Central

    Alexandre, Stéphane; Coquet, Laurent; Vila, Jordi; Jouenne, Thierry; Dé, Emmanuelle

    2011-01-01

    Background Interestingly, Acinetobacter baumannii presents an enhanced capacity to form biofilms (also named pellicles) at the air-liquid interface as compared to the other Acinetobacter species. This characteristic questions the contribution of this phenotype to an increased risk of clinical infections by this pathogen. Methodology/Principal Findings By a proteomic approach using 2-D gel electrophoresis-LC-MS/MS mass spectrometry, we compared the membrane protein patterns of A. baumannii 77, a pellicle-forming clinical isolate, grown in planktonic and in sessile modes. We identified 52 proteins with a differential expression, including 32 up-regulated and 20 down-regulated in the pellicle state. Several proteins, differentially expressed during pellicle development, were of particular interest. We determined the over-expression of four siderophore iron uptake systems including the acinetobactin and enterobactin receptors and confirmed that the development of this type of biofilm is promoted by ferric ions. Two over-expressed proteins, CarO and an OprD-homologue, putative carbapenem-resistance associated porins, would be involved in the transport of specific compounds, like ornithine, a biosynthesis precursor of a siderophore from the hydroxamate family. We evidenced the overexpression of a lipase and a transporter of LCFA that may be involved in the recycling of lipids inside the pellicle matrix. Finally, we demonstrated both by proteomic and by AFM studies that this particular type of biofilm required multiple pili systems to maintain this cohesive structure at the air-liquid interface; two of these systems have never been described in A. baumannii. Conclusions/Significance Our study demonstrated that several proteins, overexpressed at a late state of pellicle development, could be potentially involved in virulence processes. Therefore, regarding the number of potential virulence factors that are over-expressed in this growth mode, the pellicle-forming clinical

  8. Chemical dispersant potentiates crude oil impacts on growth, reproduction, and gene expression in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yanqiong; Chen, Dongliang; Ennis, Adrien C; Polli, Joseph R; Xiao, Peng; Zhang, Baohong; Stellwag, Edmund J; Overton, Anthony; Pan, Xiaoping

    2013-02-01

    The economic, environmental, and human health impacts of the deepwater horizon (DWH) oil spill have been of significant concern in the general public and among scientists. This study employs parallel experiments to test the effects of crude oil from the DWH oil well, chemical dispersant Corexit 9500A, and dispersant-oil mixture on growth and reproduction in the model organism Caenorhabditis elegans. Both the crude oil and the dispersant significantly inhibited the reproduction of C. elegans. Dose-dependent inhibitions of hatched larvae production were observed in worms exposed to both crude oil and dispersant. Importantly, the chemical dispersant Corexit 9500A potentiated crude oil effects; dispersant-oil mixture induced more significant effects than oil or dispersant-alone exposures. While oil-alone exposure and dispersant-alone exposure have none to moderate inhibitory effects on hatched larvae production, respectively, the mixture of dispersant and oil induced much more significant inhibition of offspring production. The production of hatched larvae was almost completely inhibited by several high concentrations of the dispersant-oil mixture. This suggests a sensitive bioassay for future investigation of oil/dispersant impacts on organisms. We also investigated the effects of crude oil/dispersant exposure at the molecular level by measuring the expressions of 31 functional genes. Results showed that the dispersant and the dispersant-oil mixture induced aberrant expressions of 12 protein-coding genes (cat-4, trxr-2, sdhb-1, lev-8, lin-39, unc-115, prdx-3, sod-1, acr-16, ric-3, unc-68, and acr-8). These 12 genes are associated with a variety of biological processes, including egg-laying, oxidative stress, muscle contraction, and neurological functions. In summary, the toxicity potentiating effect of chemical dispersant must be taken into consideration in future crude oil cleanup applications. PMID:22990136

  9. Autonomous power expert system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walters, Jerry L.; Petrik, Edward J.; Roth, Mary Ellen; Truong, Long Van; Quinn, Todd; Krawczonek, Walter M.

    1990-01-01

    The Autonomous Power Expert (APEX) system was designed to monitor and diagnose fault conditions that occur within the Space Station Freedom Electrical Power System (SSF/EPS) Testbed. APEX is designed to interface with SSF/EPS testbed power management controllers to provide enhanced autonomous operation and control capability. The APEX architecture consists of three components: (1) a rule-based expert system, (2) a testbed data acquisition interface, and (3) a power scheduler interface. Fault detection, fault isolation, justification of probable causes, recommended actions, and incipient fault analysis are the main functions of the expert system component. The data acquisition component requests and receives pertinent parametric values from the EPS testbed and asserts the values into a knowledge base. Power load profile information is obtained from a remote scheduler through the power scheduler interface component. The current APEX design and development work is discussed. Operation and use of APEX by way of the user interface screens is also covered.

  10. Mobile Autonomous Humanoid Assistant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diftler, M. A.; Ambrose, R. O.; Tyree, K. S.; Goza, S. M.; Huber, E. L.

    2004-01-01

    A mobile autonomous humanoid robot is assisting human co-workers at the Johnson Space Center with tool handling tasks. This robot combines the upper body of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)/Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) Robonaut system with a Segway(TradeMark) Robotic Mobility Platform yielding a dexterous, maneuverable humanoid perfect for aiding human co-workers in a range of environments. This system uses stereo vision to locate human team mates and tools and a navigation system that uses laser range and vision data to follow humans while avoiding obstacles. Tactile sensors provide information to grasping algorithms for efficient tool exchanges. The autonomous architecture utilizes these pre-programmed skills to form human assistant behaviors. The initial behavior demonstrates a robust capability to assist a human by acquiring a tool from a remotely located individual and then following the human in a cluttered environment with the tool for future use.

  11. The role of the autonomic ganglia in atrial fibrillation

    PubMed Central

    Stavrakis, Stavros; Nakagawa, Hiroshi; Po, Sunny S.; Scherlag, Benjamin J.; Lazzara, Ralph; Jackman, Warren M.

    2015-01-01

    Recent experimental and clinical studies have shown that the epicardial autonomic ganglia play an important role in the initiation and maintenance of atrial fibrillation (AF). In this review, we present the current data on the role of the autonomic ganglia in the pathogenesis of AF and discuss potential therapeutic implications. Experimental studies have demonstrated that acute autonomic remodeling may play a crucial role in AF maintenance in the very early stages. The benefit of adding ablation of the autonomic ganglia to the standard pulmonary vein (PV) isolation procedure for patients with paroxysmal AF is supported by both experimental and clinical data. The interruption of axons from these hyperactive autonomic ganglia to the PV myocardial sleeves may be an important factor in the success of PV isolation procedures. The vagus nerve exerts an inhibitory control over the autonomic ganglia and attenuation or loss of this control may allow these ganglia to become hyperactive. Autonomic neuromodulation using low-level vagus nerve stimulation inhibits the activity of the autonomic ganglia and reverses acute electrical atrial remodeling during rapid atrial pacing and may provide an alternative non-ablative approach for the treatment of AF, especially in the early stages. This notion is supported by a preliminary human study. Further studies are warranted to confirm these findings. PMID:26301262

  12. Changes in bacterial flora of Japanese cabbage during growth and potential source of flora.

    PubMed

    Izumi, Hidemi; Sera, Kaori

    2011-04-01

    Bacterial flora of cabbage were identified and enumerated during various stages of growth, and the potential sources of contamination in the field were determined. Bacterial counts increased from below the level of detection (2.4 log CFU/g) on seeds to 2.5 to 5.7 log CFU/g on seedlings. After transplanting, the counts of mesophilic aerobic bacteria on leaves decreased and then increased to 5.7 log CFU/g on outer leaves, 5.0 log CFU/g on middle leaves, and 3.0 log CFU/g on inner leaves at the harvesting stage. Counts of coliforms were below the level of detection during the growing period of the leaves. Bacteria isolated from cabbage seeds, seedlings, and leaves were soilborne organisms such as Bacillus, Curtobacterium, and Delftia and phytopathogenic organisms such as Pseudomonas, Pantoea, and Stenotrophomonas. These bacteria were found frequently in seeding machines, potting soil mix, soil, agricultural water, pesticide solutions mixed with the agricultural water, liquid fertilizers, and chemical fertilizers. Contamination from these environmental sites occurred throughout the cabbage growing period rather than only at the harvesting stage. These results indicate that use of clean water for irrigation and for mixing with pesticides and amendments from seeding to the harvesting stage is an important part of a good agricultural practices program for cabbage in Japan. PMID:21477482

  13. Calcitonin and vitamin D3 have high therapeutic potential for improving diabetic mandibular growth

    PubMed Central

    Abbassy, Mona A; Watari, Ippei; Bakry, Ahmed S; Ono, Takashi; Hassan, Ali H

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this study was to assess the effect of the intermittent combination of an antiresorptive agent (calcitonin) and an anabolic agent (vitamin D3) on treating the detrimental effects of Type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM) on mandibular bone formation and growth. Forty 3-week-old male Wistar rats were divided into four groups: the control group (normal rats), the control C+D group (normal rats injected with calcitonin and vitamin D3), the diabetic C+D group (diabetic rats injected with calcitonin and vitamin D3) and the diabetic group (uncontrolled diabetic rats). An experimental DM condition was induced in the male Wistar rats in the diabetic and diabetic C+D groups using a single dose of 60 mg·kg−1 body weight of streptozotocin. Calcitonin and vitamin D3 were simultaneously injected in the rats of the control C+D and diabetic C+D groups. All rats were killed after 4 weeks, and the right mandibles were evaluated by micro-computed tomography and histomorphometric analysis. Diabetic rats showed a significant deterioration in bone quality and bone formation (diabetic group). By contrast, with the injection of calcitonin and vitamin D3, both bone parameters and bone formation significantly improved (diabetic C+D group) (P < 0.05). These findings suggest that these two hormones might potentially improve various bone properties. PMID:27025264

  14. The therapeutic potential of insulin-like growth factor-1 in central nervous system disorders.

    PubMed

    Costales, Jesse; Kolevzon, Alexander

    2016-04-01

    Central nervous system (CNS) development is a finely tuned process that relies on multiple factors and intricate pathways to ensure proper neuronal differentiation, maturation, and connectivity. Disruption of this process can cause significant impairments in CNS functioning and lead to debilitating disorders that impact motor and language skills, behavior, and cognitive functioning. Recent studies focused on understanding the underlying cellular mechanisms of neurodevelopmental disorders have identified a crucial role for insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) in normal CNS development. Work in model systems has demonstrated rescue of pathophysiological and behavioral abnormalities when IGF-1 is administered, and several clinical studies have shown promise of efficacy in disorders of the CNS, including autism spectrum disorder (ASD). In this review, we explore the molecular pathways and downstream effects of IGF-1 and summarize the results of completed and ongoing pre-clinical and clinical trials using IGF-1 as a pharmacologic intervention in various CNS disorders. This aim of this review is to provide evidence for the potential of IGF-1 as a treatment for neurodevelopmental disorders and ASD. PMID:26780584

  15. Determination of cypermethrin degradation potential of soil bacteria along with plant growth-promoting characteristics.

    PubMed

    Akbar, Shamsa; Sultan, Sikander; Kertesz, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The pyrethroid insecticide cypermethrin is in extensive use since 1980s for insect control. However, its toxicity toward aquatic animals and humans requires its complete removal from contaminated areas that can be done using indigenous microbes through bioremediation. In this study, three bacterial strains isolated from agricultural soil and identified as Acinetobacter calcoaceticus MCm5, Brevibacillus parabrevis FCm9, and Sphingomonas sp. RCm6 were found highly efficient in degrading cypermethrin and other pyrethroids. These bacterial strains were able to degrade more than 85 % of cypermethrin (100 mg L(-1)) within 10 days. Degradation kinetics of cypermethrin (200 mg kg(-1)) in soils inoculated with isolates MCm5, FCm9, and RCm6 suggested time-dependent disappearance of cypermethrin with rate constants of 0.0406, 0.0722, and 0.0483 d(-1) following first-order rate kinetics. Enzyme assays for Carboxylesterase, 3-PBA dioxygenase, Phenol hydroxylase, and Catechol-1,2 dioxygenase showed higher activities with cypermethrin treated cell-free extracts compared to non-treated cell-free extracts. Meanwhile, SDS-PAGE analysis showed upregulation of some bands in cypermethrin-treated cells. This might suggest that cypermethrin degradation in these strains involves inducible enzymes. Besides, the isolates displayed substantial plant growth-promoting traits such as phosphate solubilization, Indole acetic acid production, and ammonia production. Implying the efficient biodegradation potential along with multiple biological properties, these isolates can be valuable candidates for the development of bioremediation strategies. PMID:25194282

  16. Carcinogenic Parasite Secretes Growth Factor That Accelerates Wound Healing and Potentially Promotes Neoplasia.

    PubMed

    Smout, Michael J; Sotillo, Javier; Laha, Thewarach; Papatpremsiri, Atiroch; Rinaldi, Gabriel; Pimenta, Rafael N; Chan, Lai Yue; Johnson, Michael S; Turnbull, Lynne; Whitchurch, Cynthia B; Giacomin, Paul R; Moran, Corey S; Golledge, Jonathan; Daly, Norelle; Sripa, Banchob; Mulvenna, Jason P; Brindley, Paul J; Loukas, Alex

    2015-10-01

    Infection with the human liver fluke Opisthorchis viverrini induces cancer of the bile ducts, cholangiocarcinoma (CCA). Injury from feeding activities of this parasite within the human biliary tree causes extensive lesions, wounds that undergo protracted cycles of healing, and re-injury over years of chronic infection. We show that O. viverrini secreted proteins accelerated wound resolution in human cholangiocytes, an outcome that was compromised following silencing of expression of the fluke-derived gene encoding the granulin-like growth factor, Ov-GRN-1. Recombinant Ov-GRN-1 induced angiogenesis and accelerated mouse wound healing. Ov-GRN-1 was internalized by human cholangiocytes and induced gene and protein expression changes associated with wound healing and cancer pathways. Given the notable but seemingly paradoxical properties of liver fluke granulin in promoting not only wound healing but also a carcinogenic microenvironment, Ov-GRN-1 likely holds marked potential as a therapeutic wound-healing agent and as a vaccine against an infection-induced cancer of major public health significance in the developing world. PMID:26485648

  17. Calcitonin and vitamin D3 have high therapeutic potential for improving diabetic mandibular growth.

    PubMed

    Abbassy, Mona A; Watari, Ippei; Bakry, Ahmed S; Ono, Takashi; Hassan, Ali H

    2016-03-01

    The goal of this study was to assess the effect of the intermittent combination of an antiresorptive agent (calcitonin) and an anabolic agent (vitamin D3) on treating the detrimental effects of Type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM) on mandibular bone formation and growth. Forty 3-week-old male Wistar rats were divided into four groups: the control group (normal rats), the control C+D group (normal rats injected with calcitonin and vitamin D3), the diabetic C+D group (diabetic rats injected with calcitonin and vitamin D3) and the diabetic group (uncontrolled diabetic rats). An experimental DM condition was induced in the male Wistar rats in the diabetic and diabetic C+D groups using a single dose of 60 mg·kg(-1) body weight of streptozotocin. Calcitonin and vitamin D3 were simultaneously injected in the rats of the control C+D and diabetic C+D groups. All rats were killed after 4 weeks, and the right mandibles were evaluated by micro-computed tomography and histomorphometric analysis. Diabetic rats showed a significant deterioration in bone quality and bone formation (diabetic group). By contrast, with the injection of calcitonin and vitamin D3, both bone parameters and bone formation significantly improved (diabetic C+D group) (P < 0.05). These findings suggest that these two hormones might potentially improve various bone properties. PMID:27025264

  18. CCL5 Neutralization Restricts Cancer Growth and Potentiates the Targeting of PDGFRβ in Colorectal Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Cambien, Béatrice; Richard-Fiardo, Peggy; Karimdjee, Babou F.; Martini, Violette; Ferrua, Bernard; Pitard, Bruno; Schmid-Antomarchi, Heidy; Schmid-Alliana, Annie

    2011-01-01

    Increased CCL5 levels are markers of an unfavourable outcome in patients with melanoma, breast, cervical, prostate, gastric or pancreatic cancer. Here, we have assessed the role played by CCL5/CCR5 interactions in the development of colon cancer. To do so, we have examined a number of human colorectal carcinoma clinical specimens and found CCL5 and its receptors over-expressed within primary as well as liver and pulmonary metastases of patients compared to healthy tissues. In vitro, CCL5 increased the growth and migratory responses of colon cancer cells from both human and mouse origins. In addition, systemic treatment of mice with CCL5-directed antibodies reduced the extent of development of subcutaneous colon tumors, of liver metastases and of peritoneal carcinosis. Consistently, we found increased numbers of CD45-immunoreactive cells within the stroma of the remaining lesions as well as at the interface with the healthy tissue. In contrast, selective targeting of CCR5 through administration of TAK-779, a CCR5 antagonist, only partially compromised colon cancer progression. Furthermore, CCL5 neutralization rendered the tumors more sensitive to a PDGFRβ-directed strategy in mice, this combination regimen offering the greatest protection against liver metastases and suppressing macroscopic peritoneal carcinosis. Collectively, our data demonstrate the involvement of CCL5 in the pathogenesis of colorectal carcinoma and point to its potential value as a therapeutic target. PMID:22205974

  19. Arsenite and insulin exhibit opposing effects on epidermal growth factor receptor and keratinocyte proliferative potential

    SciTech Connect

    Patterson, Timothy J.; Rice, Robert H. . E-mail: rhrice@ucdavis.edu

    2007-05-15

    Previous work has suggested that arsenic exposure contributes to skin carcinogenesis by preserving the proliferative potential of human epidermal keratinocytes, thereby slowing the exit of putative target stem cells into the differentiation pathway. To find a molecular basis for this action, present work has explored the influence of arsenite on keratinocyte responses to epidermal growth factor (EGF). The ability of cultured keratinocytes to found colonies upon passaging several days after confluence was preserved by arsenite and EGF in an additive fashion, but neither was effective when the receptor tyrosine kinase activity was inhibited. Arsenite prevented the loss of EGF receptor protein and phosphorylation of tyrosine 1173, preserving its capability to signal. The level of nuclear {beta}-catenin was higher in cells treated with arsenite and EGF in parallel to elevated colony forming ability, and expression of a dominant negative {beta}-catenin suppressed the increase in both colony forming ability and yield of putative stem cells induced by arsenite and EGF. As judged by expression of three genes regulated by {beta}-catenin, this transcription factor had substantially higher activity in the arsenite/EGF-treated cells. Trivalent antimony exhibited the same effects as arsenite. A novel finding is that insulin in the medium induced the loss of EGF receptor protein, which was largely prevented by arsenite exposure.

  20. Widespread potential for growth-factor-driven resistance to anticancer kinase inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Timothy R.; Fridlyand, Jane; Yan, Yibing; Penuel, Elicia; Burton, Luciana; Chan, Emily; Peng, Jing; Lin, Eva; Wang, Yulei; Sosman, Jeff; Ribas, Antoni; Li, Jiang; Moffat, John; Sutherlin, Daniel P.; Koeppen, Hartmut; Merchant, Mark; Neve, Richard; Settleman, Jeff

    2013-01-01

    Mutationally activated kinases define a clinically validated class of targets for cancer drug therapy1. However, the efficacy of kinase inhibitors in patients whose tumours harbour such alleles is invariably limited by innate or acquired drug resistance2,3. The identification of resistance mechanisms has revealed a recurrent theme—the engagement of survival signals redundant to those transduced by the targeted kinase4. Cancer cells typically express multiple receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) that mediate signals that converge on common critical downstream cell-survival effectors—most notably, phosphatidylinositol-3-OH kinase (PI(3)K) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)5. Consequently, an increase in RTK-ligand levels, through autocrine tumour-cell production, paracrine contribution from tumour stroma6 or systemic production, could confer resistance to inhibitors of an oncogenic kinase with a similar signalling output. Here, using a panel of kinase-‘addicted’ human cancer cell lines, we found that most cells can be rescued from drug sensitivity by simply exposing them to one or more RTK ligands. Among the findings with clinical implications was the observation that hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) confers resistance to the BRAF inhibitor PLX4032 (vemurafenib) in BRAF-mutant melanoma cells. These observations highlight the extensive redundancy of RTK-transduced signalling in cancer cells and the potentially broad role of widely expressed RTK ligands in innate and acquired resistance to drugs targeting oncogenic kinases. PMID:22763448

  1. Widespread potential for growth-factor-driven resistance to anticancer kinase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Timothy R; Fridlyand, Jane; Yan, Yibing; Penuel, Elicia; Burton, Luciana; Chan, Emily; Peng, Jing; Lin, Eva; Wang, Yulei; Sosman, Jeff; Ribas, Antoni; Li, Jiang; Moffat, John; Sutherlin, Daniel P; Koeppen, Hartmut; Merchant, Mark; Neve, Richard; Settleman, Jeff

    2012-07-26

    Mutationally activated kinases define a clinically validated class of targets for cancer drug therapy. However, the efficacy of kinase inhibitors in patients whose tumours harbour such alleles is invariably limited by innate or acquired drug resistance. The identification of resistance mechanisms has revealed a recurrent theme—the engagement of survival signals redundant to those transduced by the targeted kinase. Cancer cells typically express multiple receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) that mediate signals that converge on common critical downstream cell-survival effectors—most notably, phosphatidylinositol-3-OH kinase (PI(3)K) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). Consequently, an increase in RTK-ligand levels, through autocrine tumour-cell production, paracrine contribution from tumour stroma or systemic production, could confer resistance to inhibitors of an oncogenic kinase with a similar signalling output. Here, using a panel of kinase-'addicted' human cancer cell lines, we found that most cells can be rescued from drug sensitivity by simply exposing them to one or more RTK ligands. Among the findings with clinical implications was the observation that hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) confers resistance to the BRAF inhibitor PLX4032 (vemurafenib) in BRAF-mutant melanoma cells. These observations highlight the extensive redundancy of RTK-transduced signalling in cancer cells and the potentially broad role of widely expressed RTK ligands in innate and acquired resistance to drugs targeting oncogenic kinases. PMID:22763448

  2. Carcinogenic Parasite Secretes Growth Factor That Accelerates Wound Healing and Potentially Promotes Neoplasia

    PubMed Central

    Smout, Michael J.; Sotillo, Javier; Laha, Thewarach; Papatpremsiri, Atiroch; Rinaldi, Gabriel; Pimenta, Rafael N.; Chan, Lai Yue; Johnson, Michael S.; Turnbull, Lynne; Whitchurch, Cynthia B.; Giacomin, Paul R.; Moran, Corey S.; Golledge, Jonathan; Daly, Norelle; Sripa, Banchob; Mulvenna, Jason P.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Infection with the human liver fluke Opisthorchis viverrini induces cancer of the bile ducts, cholangiocarcinoma (CCA). Injury from feeding activities of this parasite within the human biliary tree causes extensive lesions, wounds that undergo protracted cycles of healing, and re-injury over years of chronic infection. We show that O. viverrini secreted proteins accelerated wound resolution in human cholangiocytes, an outcome that was compromised following silencing of expression of the fluke-derived gene encoding the granulin-like growth factor, Ov-GRN-1. Recombinant Ov-GRN-1 induced angiogenesis and accelerated mouse wound healing. Ov-GRN-1 was internalized by human cholangiocytes and induced gene and protein expression changes associated with wound healing and cancer pathways. Given the notable but seemingly paradoxical properties of liver fluke granulin in promoting not only wound healing but also a carcinogenic microenvironment, Ov-GRN-1 likely holds marked potential as a therapeutic wound-healing agent and as a vaccine against an infection-induced cancer of major public health significance in the developing world. PMID:26485648

  3. Nature's Autonomous Oscillators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mayr, H. G.; Yee, J.-H.; Mayr, M.; Schnetzler, R.

    2012-01-01

    Nonlinearity is required to produce autonomous oscillations without external time dependent source, and an example is the pendulum clock. The escapement mechanism of the clock imparts an impulse for each swing direction, which keeps the pendulum oscillating at the resonance frequency. Among nature's observed autonomous oscillators, examples are the quasi-biennial oscillation and bimonthly oscillation of the Earth atmosphere, and the 22-year solar oscillation. The oscillations have been simulated in numerical models without external time dependent source, and in Section 2 we summarize the results. Specifically, we shall discuss the nonlinearities that are involved in generating the oscillations, and the processes that produce the periodicities. In biology, insects have flight muscles, which function autonomously with wing frequencies that far exceed the animals' neural capacity; Stretch-activation of muscle contraction is the mechanism that produces the high frequency oscillation of insect flight, discussed in Section 3. The same mechanism is also invoked to explain the functioning of the cardiac muscle. In Section 4, we present a tutorial review of the cardio-vascular system, heart anatomy, and muscle cell physiology, leading up to Starling's Law of the Heart, which supports our notion that the human heart is also a nonlinear oscillator. In Section 5, we offer a broad perspective of the tenuous links between the fluid dynamical oscillators and the human heart physiology.

  4. Autonomous power expert system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ringer, Mark J.; Quinn, Todd M.

    1990-01-01

    The goal of the Autonomous Power System (APS) program is to develop and apply intelligent problem solving and control technologies to the Space Station Freedom Electrical Power Systems (SSF/EPS). The objectives of the program are to establish artificial intelligence/expert system technology paths, to create knowledge based tools with advanced human-operator interfaces, and to integrate and interface knowledge-based and conventional control schemes. This program is being developed at the NASA-Lewis. The APS Brassboard represents a subset of a 20 KHz Space Station Power Management And Distribution (PMAD) testbed. A distributed control scheme is used to manage multiple levels of computers and switchgear. The brassboard is comprised of a set of intelligent switchgear used to effectively switch power from the sources to the loads. The Autonomous Power Expert System (APEX) portion of the APS program integrates a knowledge based fault diagnostic system, a power resource scheduler, and an interface to the APS Brassboard. The system includes knowledge bases for system diagnostics, fault detection and isolation, and recommended actions. The scheduler autonomously assigns start times to the attached loads based on temporal and power constraints. The scheduler is able to work in a near real time environment for both scheduling and dynamic replanning.

  5. Autonomous power expert system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ringer, Mark J.; Quinn, Todd M.

    1990-01-01

    The goal of the Autonomous Power System (APS) program is to develop and apply intelligent problem solving and control technologies to the Space Station Freedom Electrical Power Systems (SSF/EPS). The objectives of the program are to establish artificial intelligence/expert system technology paths, to create knowledge based tools with advanced human-operator interfaces, and to integrate and interface knowledge-based and conventional control schemes. This program is being developed at the NASA-Lewis. The APS Brassboard represents a subset of a 20 KHz Space Station Power Management And Distribution (PMAD) testbed. A distributed control scheme is used to manage multiple levels of computers and switchgear. The brassboard is comprised of a set of intelligent switchgear used to effectively switch power from the sources to the loads. The Autonomous Power Expert System (APEX) portion of the APS program integrates a knowledge based fault diagnostic system, a power resource scheduler, and an interface to the APS Brassboard. The system includes knowledge bases for system diagnostics, fault detection and isolation, and recommended actions. The scheduler autonomously assigns start times to the attached loads based on temporal and power constraints. The scheduler is able to work in a near real time environment for both scheduling an dynamic replanning.

  6. Trigeminal autonomic cephalalgias.

    PubMed

    Eller, M; Goadsby, P J

    2016-01-01

    The trigeminal autonomic cephalalgias (TACs) are a group of primary headache disorders characterised by lateralized symptoms: prominent headache and ipsilateral cranial autonomic features, such as conjunctival injection, lacrimation and rhinorrhea. The TACs are: cluster headache (CH), paroxysmal hemicrania (PH), short-lasting unilateral neuralgiform headache attacks with conjunctival injection and tearing (SUNCT)/short-lasting neuralgiform headache attacks with cranial autonomic features (SUNA) and hemicrania continua (HC). Their diagnostic criteria are outlined in the International Classification of Headache Disorders, third edition-beta (ICHD-IIIb). These conditions are distinguished by their attack duration and frequency, as well as response to treatment. HC is continuous and by definition responsive to indomethacin. The main differential when considering this headache is chronic migraine. Other TACs are remarkable for their short duration and must be distinguished from other short-lasting painful conditions, such as trigeminal neuralgia and primary stabbing headache. Cluster headache is characterised by exquisitely painful attacks that occur in discrete episodes lasting 15-180 min a few times a day. In comparison, PH occurs more frequently and is of shorter duration, and like HC is responsive to indomethacin. SUNCT/SUNA is the shortest duration and highest frequency TAC; attacks can occur over a hundred times every day. PMID:24888770

  7. Development and validation of a tertiary simulation model for predicting the potential growth of Salmonella typhimurium on cooked chicken.

    PubMed

    Oscar, Thomas P

    2002-06-25

    The growth of Salmonella typhimurium (ATCC 14028) on the surface of autoclaved ground chicken breast and thigh burgers incubated at constant temperatures from 8 to 48 degrees C in 2 degrees C increments was investigated and modeled. Growth curves at each temperature were fit to a two-phase linear primary model to determine lag time (lambda) and specific growth rate (mu). Growth of S. typhimurium on breast and thigh meat was not different. Consequently, secondary models that predicted lag time and specific growth rate as a function of temperature were developed with the combined data for breast and thigh meat. Five secondary models for lag time and three secondary models for specific growth rate were compared. A new version of the hyperbola model and a cardinal temperature model were selected as the best secondary models for lag time and specific growth rate, respectively. The secondary models were combined in a computer spreadsheet to create a tertiary simulation model that predicted the potential growth (log10) increase) of S. typhimurium on cooked chicken as a function of time and temperature. Probability distributions and simulation were used in the tertiary model to model the secondary model parameters and the times and temperatures of abuse. The outputs of the tertiary model were validated (prediction bias of -4% for lambda and 1% for mu and prediction accuracy of 10% for lambda and 8% for mu) and integrated with a previously developed risk assessment model for Salmonella. PMID:12051474

  8. The effect of potential upon the high-temperature fatigue crack growth response of low-alloy steels. Part 1: Crack growth results

    SciTech Connect

    James, L.A.; Moshier, W.C.

    1997-04-01

    Corrosion-fatigue crack propagation experiments were conducted on several low-alloy steels in elevated temperature aqueous environments, and experimental parameters included temperature, sulfur content of the steel, applied potential level, and dissolved hydrogen (and in one case, dissolved oxygen) concentration in the water. Specimen potentials were controlled potentiostatically, and the observation (or non-observation) of accelerated fatigue crack growth rates was a complex function of the above parameters. Electrochemical results and the postulated explanation for the complex behavior are given in Part II.

  9. Antifungal, insecticidal, and plant growth promoting potential of Streptomyces hydrogenans DH16.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Talwinder; Manhas, Rajesh Kumari

    2014-11-01

    In the present study, an actinobacterium strain, possessing antagonistic activity against different fungal phytopathogens viz. Colletotrichum acutatum, Cladosporium herbarum, Alternaria brassicicola, Exserohilum sp., Alternaria mali, Colletotrichum gleospoiroides, Alternaria alternata, Cercospora sp., Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. dianthi and Fusarium moniliformae, was isolated from soil and identified as Streptomyces hydrogenans DH16. Application of culture supernatant (5%)/cells (10(7)  cfu ml(-1) ), 2 h post inoculation with A. brassicicola (10(5)  spores ml(-1) ), resulted in 85.95 and 93.75% suppression of black leaf spot of Raphanus sativus, respectively on detached leaves. Whereas cells/culture supernatant (above 5%) completely suppressed the disease incidence when co inoculated with fungal pathogen. The crude extract containing antifungal components was completely stable at 70 °C for 1 h retaining 90 and 67.67% activity after boiling (for 1 h) and autoclaving (121 °C for 30 min), respectively. No loss in activity was observed when treated with proteinase K and on exposure to sun and UV light and found to be active over a wide range of pH (2 to 14). Bioautography of the solvent extract against test phytopathogens revealed the presence of three active components. Ethyl acetate extract of DH16 also demonstrated insecticidal activity against Spodoptera litura, causing 40% larval mortality and extension of larval period. In addition, it produced 30 µg ml(-1) of Indole Acetic Acid (IAA) in a medium containing tryptophan which promoted lateral root formation in Vigna radiata (green gram). These results indicate that Streptomyces hydrogenans holds the potential to be used as antifungal, insecticidal, and plant growth promoting agent. PMID:23765423

  10. Transferrin-Targeted Nanoparticles Containing Zoledronic Acid as a Potential Tool to Inhibit Glioblastoma Growth.

    PubMed

    Salzano, G; Zappavigna, S; Luce, A; D'Onofrio, N; Balestrieri, M L; Grimaldi, A; Lusa, S; Ingrosso, D; Artuso, S; Porru, M; Leonetti, C; Caraglia, M; De Rosa, G

    2016-04-01

    The treatment of glioblastoma (GBM) is a challenge for the biomedical research since cures remain elusive. Its current therapy, consisted on surgery, radiotherapy, and concomitant chemotherapy with temozolomide (TMZ), is often uneffective. Here, we proposed the use of zoledronic acid (ZOL) as a potential agent for the treatment of GBM. Our group previously developed self-assembling nanoparticles, also named PLCaPZ NPs, to use ZOL in the treatment of prostate cancer. Here, we updated the previously developed nanoparticles (NPs) by designing transferrin (Tf)-targeted self-assembling NPs, also named Tf-PLCaPZ NPs, to use ZOL in the treatment of brain tumors, e.g., GBM. The efficacy of Tf-PLCaPZ NPs was evaluated in different GBM cell lines and in an animal model of GBM, in comparison with PLCaPZ NPs and free ZOL. Tf-PLCaPZ NPs were characterized by a narrow size distribution and a high incorporation efficiency of ZOL. Moreover, the presence of Tf significantly reduced the hemolytic activity of the formulation. In vitro, in LN229 cells, a significant uptake and cell growth inhibition after treatment with Tf-PLCaPZ NPs was achieved. Moreover, the sequential therapy of TMZ and Tf-PLCaPZ NPs lead to a superior therapeutic activity compared to their single administration. The results obtained in mice xenografted with U373MG, revealed a significant anticancer activity of Tf-PLCaPZ NPs, while the tumors remained unaffected with free TMZ. These promising results introduce a novel type of easy-to-obtain NPs for the delivery of ZOL in the treatment of GBM tumors. PMID:27301207

  11. Phenolic acid degradation potential and growth behavior of lactic acid bacteria in sunflower substrates.

    PubMed

    Fritsch, Caroline; Heinrich, Veronika; Vogel, Rudi F; Toelstede, Simone

    2016-08-01

    Sunflower flour provides a high content of protein with a well-balanced amino acid composition and is therefore regarded as an attractive source for protein. The use for human nutrition is hindered by phenolic compounds, mainly chlorogenic acid, which can lead under specific circumstances to undesirable discolorations. In this study, growth behavior and degradation ability of chlorogenic acid of four lactic acid bacteria were explored. Data suggested that significant higher fermentation performances on sunflower flour as compared to sunflower protein concentrate were reached by Lactobacillus plantarum, Pediococcus pentosaceus, Lactobacillus gasseri and Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis. In fermentation with the latter two strains reduced amounts of chlorogenic acid were observed in sunflower flour (-11.4% and -19.8%, respectively), which were more pronounced in the protein concentrate (-50.7% and -95.6%, respectively). High tolerances against chlorogenic acid and the cleavage product quinic acid with a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of ≥20.48 mg/ml after 48 h were recorded for all strains except Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis, which was more sensitive. The second cleavage compound, caffeic acid revealed a higher antimicrobial potential with MIC values of 0.64-5.12 mg/ml. In this proof of concept study, degradation versus inhibitory effect suggest the existence of basic mechanisms of interaction between phenolic acids in sunflower and lactic acid bacteria and a feasible way to reduce the chlorogenic acid content, which may help to avoid undesired color changes. PMID:27052717

  12. Functional Imaging of Autonomic Regulation: Methods and Key Findings

    PubMed Central

    Macey, Paul M.; Ogren, Jennifer A.; Kumar, Rajesh; Harper, Ronald M.

    2016-01-01

    Central nervous system processing of autonomic function involves a network of regions throughout the brain which can be visualized and measured with neuroimaging techniques, notably functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The development of fMRI procedures has both confirmed and extended earlier findings from animal models, and human stroke and lesion studies. Assessments with fMRI can elucidate interactions between different central sites in regulating normal autonomic patterning, and demonstrate how disturbed systems can interact to produce aberrant regulation during autonomic challenges. Understanding autonomic dysfunction in various illnesses reveals mechanisms that potentially lead to interventions in the impairments. The objectives here are to: (1) describe the fMRI neuroimaging methodology for assessment of autonomic neural control, (2) outline the widespread, lateralized distribution of function in autonomic sites in the normal brain which includes structures from the neocortex through the medulla and cerebellum, (3) illustrate the importance of the time course of neural changes when coordinating responses, and how those patterns are impacted in conditions of sleep-disordered breathing, and (4) highlight opportunities for future research studies with emerging methodologies. Methodological considerations specific to autonomic testing include timing of challenges relative to the underlying fMRI signal, spatial resolution sufficient to identify autonomic brainstem nuclei, blood pressure, and blood oxygenation influences on the fMRI signal, and the sustained timing, often measured in minutes of challenge periods and recovery. Key findings include the lateralized nature of autonomic organization, which is reminiscent of asymmetric motor, sensory, and language pathways. Testing brain function during autonomic challenges demonstrate closely-integrated timing of responses in connected brain areas during autonomic challenges, and the involvement with brain

  13. Regional growth decline of sugar maple (Acer saccharum) and its potential causes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bishop, Daniel A.; Beier, Colin M.; Pederson, Neil; Lawrence, Gregory B.; Stella, John C; Sullivan, Timothy J.

    2015-01-01

    Sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh) has experienced poor vigor, regeneration failure, and elevated mortality across much of its range, but there has been relatively little attention to its growth rates. Based on a well-replicated dendrochronological network of range-centered populations in the Adirondack Mountains (USA), which encompassed a wide gradient of soil fertility, we observed that the majority of sugar maple trees exhibited negative growth trends in the last several decades, regardless of age, diameter, or soil fertility. Such growth patterns were unexpected, given recent warming and increased moisture availability, as well as reduced acidic deposition, which should have favored growth. Mean basal area increment was greater on base-rich soils, but these stands also experienced sharp reductions in growth. Growth sensitivity of sugar maple to temperature and precipitation was non-stationary during the last century, with overall weaker relationships than expected. Given the favorable competitive status and age structure of the Adirondack sugar maple populations sampled, evidence of widespread growth reductions raises concern over this ecologically and economically important tree. Further study will be needed to establish whether growth declines of sugar maple are occurring more widely across its range.

  14. Effect of Soil Water Potential on Growth of Apple Trees Infected with Pratylenchus penetrans.

    PubMed

    Jaffee, B A; Mai, W F

    1979-04-01

    Malling-Merton 106 apple rootstocks inoculated with Pratylenchus penetrans, or uninoculated, were grown in a growth chamber in pots of loamy sand maintained at two moisture levels, 0 to -0.4 bar or 0 to -10 bars. Either inoculation or low soil moisture suppressed shoot growth and increased root necrosis. However, the nematode-soil moisture interaction was not significant. PMID:19305552

  15. Evaluating the MaizSim model in simulating potential corn growth

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Models that simply calculate crop growth rate as the product of intercepted light and radiation use efficiency may not be able to adequately simulate plant growth under stress conditions. We developed a new corn model MaizSim. In MaizSim, photosynthesis is mechanistically related to environmental co...

  16. Isolation of Bacteria Whose Growth Is Dependent on High Levels of CO2 and Implications of Their Potential Diversity▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Ueda, Kenji; Tagami, Yudai; Kamihara, Yuka; Shiratori, Hatsumi; Takano, Hideaki; Beppu, Teruhiko

    2008-01-01

    Although some bacteria require an atmosphere with high CO2 levels for their growth, CO2 is not generally supplied to conventional screening cultures. Here, we isolated 84 bacterial strains exhibiting high-CO2 dependence. Their phylogenetic affiliations imply that high-CO2 culture has potential as an effective method to isolate unknown microorganisms. PMID:18487395

  17. Identification of alpha-1 acid glycoprotein (AGP) as a potential marker of impaired growth in the newborn piglet

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two studies were conducted to investigate the relationship between the circulating levels of the acute phase proteins haptoglobin (HP) and alpha 1 acid glycoprotein (AGP) and growth potential in neonatal pigs. In runts, the circulating level of AGP, but not HP in serum of newborn piglets was higher...

  18. Growth and invasive potential of Sapium sebiferum (Euphorbiaceae) within the coastal prairie region: the effects of soil and moisture regime

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barrilleaux, T.C.; Grace, J.B.

    2000-01-01

    The introduced tree Sapium sebiferum (Euphorbiaceae) is considered a serious threat to the preservation of the coastal prairie region of Louisiana and Texas, although it is currently uncommon in the western part of the region. The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential effects of location, soils, and available moisture on the growth and survival of S. sebiferum in coastal prairie. In a field experiment, S. sebiferum mortality was significantly greater at a western site than at central and eastern sites. The greatest mortality and least growth of surviving plants occurred on a soil from the western region, regardless of site. A greenhouse study also found that S. sebiferum growth was lowest on the western soil. Watering frequency significantly affected S. sebiferum growth, except on the western soil. Sapium sebiferum growth responded to both nitrogen and phosphorum additions for all soils. Soil analyses revealed the highest sand, sodium, and phosphorus contents, and much higher electrical conductivity in the western soil. It is concluded that the soil examined from the western region is unfavorable for S. sebiferum growth, though not to the extent to preclude S. sebiferum completely. Evidence suggests that soil salinity may be the primary cause of the poor S. sebiferum growth at the western site.

  19. Understanding the development of roots exposed to contaminants and the potential of plant-associated bacteria for optimization of growth

    PubMed Central

    Remans, Tony; Thijs, Sofie; Truyens, Sascha; Weyens, Nele; Schellingen, Kerim; Keunen, Els; Gielen, Heidi; Cuypers, Ann; Vangronsveld, Jaco

    2012-01-01

    Background and Scope Plant responses to the toxic effects of soil contaminants, such as excess metals or organic substances, have been studied mainly at physiological, biochemical and molecular levels, but the influence on root system architecture has received little attention. Nevertheless, the precise position, morphology and extent of roots can influence contaminant uptake. Here, data are discussed that aim to increase the molecular and ecological understanding of the influence of contaminants on root system architecture. Furthermore, the potential of plant-associated bacteria to influence root growth by their growth-promoting and stress-relieving capacities is explored. Methods Root growth parameters of Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings grown in vertical agar plates are quantified. Mutants are used in a reverse genetics approach to identify molecular components underlying quantitative changes in root architecture after exposure to excess cadmium, copper or zinc. Plant-associated bacteria are isolated from contaminated environments, genotypically and phenotypically characterized, and used to test plant root growth improvement in the presence of contaminants. Key Results The molecular determinants of primary root growth inhibition and effects on lateral root density by cadmium were identified. A vertical split-root system revealed local effects of cadmium and copper on root development. However, systemic effects of zinc exposure on root growth reduced both the avoidance of contaminated areas and colonization of non-contaminated areas. The potential for growth promotion and contaminant degradation of plant-associated bacteria was demonstrated by improved root growth of inoculated plants exposed to 2,4-di-nitro-toluene (DNT) or cadmium. Conclusions Knowledge concerning the specific influence of different contaminants on root system architecture and the molecular mechanisms by which this is achieved can be combined with the exploitation of plant-associated bacteria to

  20. The autonomic nervous system and renal physiology

    PubMed Central

    D’Elia, John A; Weinrauch, Larry A

    2013-01-01

    Research in resistant hypertension has again focused on autonomic nervous system denervation – 50 years after it had been stopped due to postural hypotension and availability of newer drugs. These (ganglionic blockers) drugs have all been similarly stopped, due to postural hypotension and yet newer antihypertensive agents. Recent demonstration of the feasibility of limited regional transcatheter sympathetic denervation has excited clinicians due to potential therapeutic implications. Standard use of ambulatory blood pressure recording equipment may alter our understanding of the diagnosis, potential treatment strategies, and health care outcomes – when faced with patients whose office blood pressure remains in the hypertensive range – while under treatment with three antihypertensive drugs at the highest tolerable doses, plus a diuretic. We review herein clinical relationships between autonomic function, resistant hypertension, current treatment strategies, and reflect upon the possibility of changes in our approach to resistant hypertension. PMID:24039445

  1. Collaborating with Autonomous Agents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trujillo, Anna C.; Cross, Charles D.; Fan, Henry; Hempley, Lucas E.; Motter, Mark A.; Neilan, James H.; Qualls, Garry D.; Rothhaar, Paul M.; Tran, Loc D.; Allen, B. Danette

    2015-01-01

    With the anticipated increase of small unmanned aircraft systems (sUAS) entering into the National Airspace System, it is highly likely that vehicle operators will be teaming with fleets of small autonomous vehicles. The small vehicles may consist of sUAS, which are 55 pounds or less that typically will y at altitudes 400 feet and below, and small ground vehicles typically operating in buildings or defined small campuses. Typically, the vehicle operators are not concerned with manual control of the vehicle; instead they are concerned with the overall mission. In order for this vision of high-level mission operators working with fleets of vehicles to come to fruition, many human factors related challenges must be investigated and solved. First, the interface between the human operator and the autonomous agent must be at a level that the operator needs and the agents can understand. This paper details the natural language human factors e orts that NASA Langley's Autonomy Incubator is focusing on. In particular these e orts focus on allowing the operator to interact with the system using speech and gestures rather than a mouse and keyboard. With this ability of the system to understand both speech and gestures, operators not familiar with the vehicle dynamics will be able to easily plan, initiate, and change missions using a language familiar to them rather than having to learn and converse in the vehicle's language. This will foster better teaming between the operator and the autonomous agent which will help lower workload, increase situation awareness, and improve performance of the system as a whole.

  2. Autonomous Phase Retrieval Calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estlin, Tara A.; Chien, Steve A.; Castano, Rebecca; Gaines, Daniel M.; Doubleday, Joshua R.; Schoolcraft, Josua B.; Oyake, Amalaye; Vaughs, Ashton G.; Torgerson, Jordan L.

    2011-01-01

    The Palomar Adaptive Optics System actively corrects for changing aberrations in light due to atmospheric turbulence. However, the underlying internal static error is unknown and uncorrected by this process. The dedicated wavefront sensor device necessarily lies along a different path than the science camera, and, therefore, doesn't measure the true errors along the path leading to the final detected imagery. This is a standard problem in adaptive optics (AO) called "non-common path error." The Autonomous Phase Retrieval Calibration (APRC) software suite performs automated sensing and correction iterations to calibrate the Palomar AO system to levels that were previously unreachable.

  3. Autonomous mobile robot teams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Agah, Arvin; Bekey, George A.

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes autonomous mobile robot teams performing tasks in unstructured environments. The behavior and the intelligence of the group is distributed, and the system does not include a central command base or leader. The novel concept of the Tropism-Based Cognitive Architecture is introduced, which is used by the robots in order to produce behavior transforming their sensory information to proper action. The results of a number of simulation experiments are presented. These experiments include worlds where the robot teams must locate, decompose, and gather objects, and defend themselves against hostile predators, while navigating around stationary and mobile obstacles.

  4. Toward autonomous spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fogel, L. J.; Calabrese, P. G.; Walsh, M. J.; Owens, A. J.

    1982-01-01

    Ways in which autonomous behavior of spacecraft can be extended to treat situations wherein a closed loop control by a human may not be appropriate or even possible are explored. Predictive models that minimize mean least squared error and arbitrary cost functions are discussed. A methodology for extracting cyclic components for an arbitrary environment with respect to usual and arbitrary criteria is developed. An approach to prediction and control based on evolutionary programming is outlined. A computer program capable of predicting time series is presented. A design of a control system for a robotic dense with partially unknown physical properties is presented.

  5. Autonomous interplanetary constellation design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chow, Cornelius Channing, II

    According to NASA's integrated space technology roadmaps, space-based infrastructures are envisioned as necessary ingredients to a sustained effort in continuing space exploration. Whether it be for extra-terrestrial habitats, roving/cargo vehicles, or space tourism, autonomous space networks will provide a vital communications lifeline for both future robotic and human missions alike. Projecting that the Moon will be a bustling hub of activity within a few decades, a near-term opportunity for in-situ infrastructure development is within reach. This dissertation addresses the anticipated need for in-space infrastructure by investigating a general design methodology for autonomous interplanetary constellations; to illustrate the theory, this manuscript presents results from an application to the Earth-Moon neighborhood. The constellation design methodology is formulated as an optimization problem, involving a trajectory design step followed by a spacecraft placement sequence. Modeling the dynamics as a restricted 3-body problem, the investigated design space consists of families of periodic orbits which play host to the constellations, punctuated by arrangements of spacecraft autonomously guided by a navigation strategy called LiAISON (Linked Autonomous Interplanetary Satellite Orbit Navigation). Instead of more traditional exhaustive search methods, a numerical continuation approach is implemented to map the admissible configuration space. In particular, Keller's pseudo-arclength technique is used to follow folding/bifurcating solution manifolds, which are otherwise inaccessible with other parameter continuation schemes. A succinct characterization of the underlying structure of the local, as well as global, extrema is thus achievable with little a priori intuition of the solution space. Furthermore, the proposed design methodology offers benefits in computation speed plus the ability to handle mildly stochastic systems. An application of the constellation design

  6. Potentiation of growth factor signaling by insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-3 in breast epithelial cells requires sphingosine kinase activity.

    PubMed

    Martin, Janet L; Lin, Mike Z; McGowan, Eileen M; Baxter, Robert C

    2009-09-18

    We have investigated the mechanism underlying potentiation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and type 1 insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGFR1) signaling by IGF-binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) in MCF-10A breast epithelial cells, focusing on a possible involvement of the sphingosine kinase (SphK) system. IGFBP-3 potentiated EGF-stimulated EGF receptor activation and DNA synthesis, and this was blocked by inhibitors of SphK activity or small interference RNA-mediated silencing of SphK1, but not SphK2, expression. Similarly, IGFR1 phosphorylation and DNA synthesis stimulated by LR3-IGF-I (an IGF-I analog not bound by IGFBP-3), were enhanced by IGFBP-3, and this was blocked by SphK1 silencing. SphK1 expression and activity were stimulated by IGFBP-3 approximately 2-fold over 24 h. Silencing of sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor 1 (S1P1) or S1P3, but not S1P2, abolished the effect of IGFBP-3 on EGF-stimulated EGFR activation. The effects of IGFBP-3 could be reproduced with exogenous S1P or medium conditioned by cells treated with IGFBP-3, and this was also blocked by inhibition of S1P1 and S1P3. These data indicate that potentiation of growth factor signaling by IGFBP-3 in MCF-10A cells requires SphK1 activity and S1P1/S1P3, suggesting that S1P, the product of SphK activity and ligand for S1P1 and S1P3, is the "missing link" mediating IGF and EGFR transactivation and cell growth stimulation by IGFBP-3. PMID:19633297

  7. Heterogeneity of cytokine and growth factor gene expression in human melanoma cells with different metastatic potentials.

    PubMed

    Singh, R K; Gutman, M; Radinsky, R

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the mRNA expression level of multiple cytokine and growth factor genes in human malignant melanoma. Melanoma cells were isolated from several surgical specimens, adapted to growth in culture, characterized for their ability to produce experimental metastases in nude mice, and assessed for cytokine and growth factor steady-state gene expression. Highly metastatic in vivo- and in vitro-derived variants isolated from a single melanoma, A375, were also analyzed. Northern blot analyses revealed that all melanomas analyzed constitutively expressed steady-state mRNA transcripts for the growth and angiogenic factors, basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), and transforming growth factor alpha (TGF-alpha), which correlated with metastatic propensity. Only one highly metastatic melanoma, TXM-1, originally isolated from a lymph node metastasis, expressed mRNA transcripts specific for monocyte chemotactic and activating factor (MCAF) and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF). Similarly, of the nine melanomas examined, only TXM-1 expressed interleukin (IL)-1 alpha, IL-1 beta, and IL-6, important immunomodulatory cytokines. These data demonstrate the differential and heterogeneous expression of cytokine and growth factor genes in human malignant melanoma. PMID:7648437

  8. Autonomous rendezvous and docking technologies: status and prospects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wertz, James R.; Bell, Robert

    2003-08-01

    In general, autonomous rendezvous and docking requires that two spacecraft start at a remote distance (i.e., out of sight of each other), come together into a common orbit, rendezvous, dock, and control the new combined spacecraft in both orbit and attitude. Doing this requires developing and testing a variety of new technologies including absolute and relative autonomous navigation, autonomous rendezvous and docking hardware and software (both sensors and actuators), and autonomous control of a "new" spacecraft with different mass and inertia properties than either of the two original spacecraft. While these are very workable technologies, they do require a significant change in mindset -- turning over control of thrusters and other actuators to an on-board computer. While there is substantial potential for cost savings, risk reduction, and new mission modes by use of these technologies, there is a very strong reticence to allowing operational spacecraft to control their own destiny, particularly in firing thrusters. This paper summarizes work at Microcosm and elsewhere in each of the above technologies. Autonomous navigation and absolute orbit control have been demonstrated on orbit. In conjunction with Michigan Aerospace, autonomous rendezvous and docking hardware and algorithms have been demonstrated in parabolic flights and zero-g simulations. Approaches have been proposed for more precise and robust autonomous navigation and autonomous on-orbit estimation of combined mass and inertia properties, leading to efficient orbit and attitude control of the combined spacecraft. Many of these technologies can be tested at low cost in parabolic flights, suborbital flights, and evaluation of data from existing or planned missions. Thus, a "coordinated attack" on the complete problem of fully autonomous rendezvous and docking is both feasible and potentially very low cost.

  9. Cumulative role of bioinoculants on growth, antioxidant potential and artemisinin content in Artemisia annua L. under organic field conditions.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Rupali; Singh, Akanksha; Gupta, M M; Pandey, Rakesh

    2016-10-01

    Artemisia annua L. is mostly known for a bioactive metabolite, artemisinin, an effective sesquiterpene lactone used against malaria without any reputed cases of resistance. In this experiment, bioinoculants viz., Streptomyces sp. MTN14, Bacillus megaterium MTN2RP and Trichoderma harzianum Thu were applied as growth promoting substances to exploit full genetic potential of crops in terms of growth, yield, nutrient uptake and particularly artemisinin content. Further, multi-use of the bioinoculants singly and in combinations for the enhancement of antioxidant potential and therapeutic value was also undertaken which to our knowledge has never been investigated in context with microbial application. The results demonstrated that a significant (P < 0.05) increase in growth, nutrient uptake, total phenolic, flavonoid, free radical scavenging activity, ferric reducing antioxidant power, reducing power and total antioxidant capacity were observed in the A. annua treated with a combination of bioinoculants in comparison to control. Most importantly, an increase in artemisinin content and yield by 34 and 72 % respectively in the treatment having all the three microbes was observed. These results were further authenticated by the PCA analysis which showed positive correlation between plant macronutrients and antioxidant content with plant growth and artemisinin yield of A. annua. The present study thus highlights a possible new application of compatible bioinoculants for enhancing the growth along with antioxidant and therapeutic value of A. annua. PMID:27565777

  10. Effect of cinnamomum zeylanicum blume essential oil on the growth and morphogenesis of some potentially pathogenic Aspergillus species

    PubMed Central

    Carmo, Egberto Santos; de Oliveira Lima, Edeltrudes; de Souza, Evandro Leite; de Sousa, Frederico Barbosa

    2008-01-01

    Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume is known for a wide range of medicinal properties. This study aimed to assess the interference of C. zeylanicum essential oil on the growth and morphogenesis of some potentially pathogenic Aspergillus species. The essential oil presented strong antifungal effect causing the growth inhibition of the assayed strains and development of large growth inhibition zones. MIC50 and MIC90 values were 40 and 80 μL/mL, respectively. 80, 40 and 20 μL/mL of the oil strongly inhibited the radial mycelial growth of A. niger, A. flavus and A. fumigatus along 14 days. 80 and 40 μL/mL of the oil caused a 100% inhibition of the fungal spore germination. Main morphological changes observed under light microscopy provided by the essential oil in the fungal strains were decreased conidiation, leakage of cytoplasm, loss of pigmentation and disrupted cell structure indicating fungal wall degeneration. It is concluded that C. zeylanicum essential oil could be known as potential antifungal compound, particularly, to protect against the growth of Aspergillus species. PMID:24031186

  11. Autonomic consequences of spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Hou, Shaoping; Rabchevsky, Alexander G

    2014-10-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) results not only in motor and sensory deficits but also in autonomic dysfunctions. The disruption of connections between higher brain centers and the spinal cord, or the impaired autonomic nervous system itself, manifests a broad range of autonomic abnormalities. This includes compromised cardiovascular, respiratory, urinary, gastrointestinal, thermoregulatory, and sexual activities. These disabilities evoke potentially life-threatening symptoms that severely interfere with the daily living of those with SCI. In particular, high thoracic or cervical SCI often causes disordered hemodynamics due to deregulated sympathetic outflow. Episodic hypertension associated with autonomic dysreflexia develops as a result of massive sympathetic discharge often triggered by unpleasant visceral or sensory stimuli below the injury level. In the pelvic floor, bladder and urethral dysfunctions are classified according to upper motor neuron versus lower motor neuron injuries; this is dependent on the level of lesion. Most impairments of the lower urinary tract manifest in two interrelated complications: bladder storage and emptying. Inadequate or excessive detrusor and sphincter functions as well as detrusor-sphincter dyssynergia are examples of micturition abnormalities stemming from SCI. Gastrointestinal motility disorders in spinal cord injured-individuals are comprised of gastric dilation, delayed gastric emptying, and diminished propulsive transit along the entire gastrointestinal tract. As a critical consequence of SCI, neurogenic bowel dysfunction exhibits constipation and/or incontinence. Thus, it is essential to recognize neural mechanisms and pathophysiology underlying various complications of autonomic dysfunctions after SCI. This overview provides both vital information for better understanding these disorders and guides to pursue novel therapeutic approaches to alleviate secondary complications. PMID:25428850

  12. Heparin-binding growth factor type 1 (acidic fibroblast growth factor): a potential biphasic autocrine and paracrine regulator of hepatocyte regeneration.

    PubMed Central

    Kan, M; Huang, J S; Mansson, P E; Yasumitsu, H; Carr, B; McKeehan, W L

    1989-01-01

    Heparin-binding growth factor type 1 (HBGF-1; sometimes termed acidic fibroblast growth factor) is potentially an important factor in liver regeneration. HBGF-1 alone (half-maximal effect at 60 pM) stimulated hepatocyte DNA synthesis and bound to a high-affinity receptor (Kd = 62 pM; 5000 per cell). Epidermal growth factor (EGF) neutralized or masked the mitogenic effect of HBGF-1 concurrent with appearance of low-affinity HBGF-1 binding sites. HBGF-1 reduced the inhibitory effect of transforming growth factor type beta (TGF-beta) on the EGF stimulus. Nanomolar levels of HBGF-1 decreased the EGF stimulus. An increase in hepatic HBGF-1 gene expression after partial hepatectomy precedes increases in expression of the EGF homolog, TGF-alpha, and nonparenchymal-cell-derived TGF-beta in the regenerating liver. Expression of HBGF-1 mRNA occurs in both hepatocytes and nonparenchymal cells and persists for 7 days in liver tissue after partial hepatectomy. HBGF-1 acting through a high-affinity receptor is a candidate for the early autocrine stimulus that drives hepatocyte DNA synthesis prior to or concurrent with the EGF/TGF-alpha stimulus. It may allow hepatocyte proliferation to proceed in the presence of low levels of TGF-beta. An EGF/TGF-alpha-dependent change in HBGF-1 receptor phenotype and increasing levels of nonparenchymal-cell-derived HBGF-1 and TGF-beta may serve to limit hepatocyte proliferation. Images PMID:2477840

  13. Autonomous Formation Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schkolnik, Gerard S.; Cobleigh, Brent

    2004-01-01

    NASA's Strategic Plan for the Aerospace Technology Enterprise includes ambitious objectives focused on affordable air travel, reduced emissions, and expanded aviation-system capacity. NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, in cooperation with NASA Ames Research Center, the Boeing Company, and the University of California, Los Angeles, has embarked on an autonomous-formation-flight project that promises to make significant strides towards these goals. For millions of years, birds have taken advantage of the aerodynamic benefit of flying in formation. The traditional "V" formation flown by many species of birds (including gulls, pelicans, and geese) enables each of the trailing birds to fly in the upwash flow field that exists just outboard of the bird immediately ahead in the formation. The result for each trailing bird is a decrease in induced drag and thus a reduction in the energy needed to maintain a given speed. Hence, for migratory birds, formation flight extends the range of the system of birds over the range of birds flying solo. The Autonomous Formation Flight (AFF) Project is seeking to extend this symbiotic relationship to aircraft.

  14. Autonomic Responses to Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toscano, W. B.; Cowings, P. S.; Miller, N. E.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to describe how changes in autonomic nervous system responses may be used as an index of individual differences in adaptational capacity to space flight. During two separate Spacelab missions, six crewmembers wore an ambulatory monitoring system which enabled continuous recording of their physiological responses for up to twelve hours a day for 3 to 5 mission days. The responses recorded were electrocardiography, respiration wave form, skin conductance level, hand temperature, blood flow to the hands and triaxial accelerations of the head and upper body. Three of these subjects had been given training, before the mission, in voluntary control of these autonomic responses as a means of facilitating adaptation to space. Three of these subjects served as Controls, i.e., did not receive this training but took anti-motion sickness medication. Nearly 300 hours of flight data are summarized. These data were examined using time-series analyses, spectral analyses of heart rate variability, and analyses of variance. Information was obtained on responses to space motion sickness, inflight medications, circadian rhythm, workload and fatigue. Preliminary assessment was made on the effectiveness of self-regulation training as a means of facilitating adaptation, with recommendations for future flights.

  15. Autonomous mobile communication relays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Hoa G.; Everett, Hobart R.; Manouk, Narek; Verma, Ambrish

    2002-07-01

    Maintaining a solid radio communication link between a mobile robot entering a building and an external base station is a well-recognized problem. Modern digital radios, while affording high bandwidth and Internet-protocol-based automatic routing capabilities, tend to operate on line-of-sight links. The communication link degrades quickly as a robot penetrates deeper into the interior of a building. This project investigates the use of mobile autonomous communication relay nodes to extend the effective range of a mobile robot exploring a complex interior environment. Each relay node is a small mobile slave robot equipped with sonar, ladar, and 802.11b radio repeater. For demonstration purposes, four Pioneer 2-DX robots are used as autonomous mobile relays, with SSC-San Diego's ROBART III acting as the lead robot. The relay robots follow the lead robot into a building and are automatically deployed at various locations to maintain a networked communication link back to the remote operator. With their on-board external sensors, they also act as rearguards to secure areas already explored by the lead robot. As the lead robot advances and RF shortcuts are detected, relay nodes that become unnecessary will be reclaimed and reused, all transparent to the operator. This project takes advantage of recent research results from several DARPA-funded tasks at various institutions in the areas of robotic simulation, ad hoc wireless networking, route planning, and navigation. This paper describes the progress of the first six months of the project.

  16. Nemesis Autonomous Test System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barltrop, Kevin J.; Lee, Cin-Young; Horvath, Gregory A,; Clement, Bradley J.

    2012-01-01

    A generalized framework has been developed for systems validation that can be applied to both traditional and autonomous systems. The framework consists of an automated test case generation and execution system called Nemesis that rapidly and thoroughly identifies flaws or vulnerabilities within a system. By applying genetic optimization and goal-seeking algorithms on the test equipment side, a "war game" is conducted between a system and its complementary nemesis. The end result of the war games is a collection of scenarios that reveals any undesirable behaviors of the system under test. The software provides a reusable framework to evolve test scenarios using genetic algorithms using an operation model of the system under test. It can automatically generate and execute test cases that reveal flaws in behaviorally complex systems. Genetic algorithms focus the exploration of tests on the set of test cases that most effectively reveals the flaws and vulnerabilities of the system under test. It leverages advances in state- and model-based engineering, which are essential in defining the behavior of autonomous systems. It also uses goal networks to describe test scenarios.

  17. Autonomous Flight Safety System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferrell, Bob; Santuro, Steve; Simpson, James; Zoerner, Roger; Bull, Barton; Lanzi, Jim

    2004-01-01

    Autonomous Flight Safety System (AFSS) is an independent flight safety system designed for small to medium sized expendable launch vehicles launching from or needing range safety protection while overlying relatively remote locations. AFSS replaces the need for a man-in-the-loop to make decisions for flight termination. AFSS could also serve as the prototype for an autonomous manned flight crew escape advisory system. AFSS utilizes onboard sensors and processors to emulate the human decision-making process using rule-based software logic and can dramatically reduce safety response time during critical launch phases. The Range Safety flight path nominal trajectory, its deviation allowances, limit zones and other flight safety rules are stored in the onboard computers. Position, velocity and attitude data obtained from onboard global positioning system (GPS) and inertial navigation system (INS) sensors are compared with these rules to determine the appropriate action to ensure that people and property are not jeopardized. The final system will be fully redundant and independent with multiple processors, sensors, and dead man switches to prevent inadvertent flight termination. AFSS is currently in Phase III which includes updated algorithms, integrated GPS/INS sensors, large scale simulation testing and initial aircraft flight testing.

  18. Transglutaminase activity in equine strongyles and its potential role in growth and development.

    PubMed

    Rao, U R; Chapman, M R; Singh, R N; Mehta, K; Klei, T R

    1999-06-01

    Transglutaminases (E.C. 2.3.3.13) are a family of Ca(2+)-dependent enzymes that stabilize protein structure by catalyzing the formation of isopeptide bonds. A novel form of transglutaminase has been identified and characterized that seem to play an important role in growth, development, and molting in adult and larval stages of filarial nematodes. The aim of this study was to identify the ubiquitous nature of this enzyme in other nematodes and to measure its significance to larval growth, molting, and development. For this purpose, equine Strongylus spp. were used. Activity of this enzyme was identified in extracts of larvae and adults of Strongylus vulgaris, S. edentatus, Parascaris equorum and Cylicocyclus insigne. The significance of transglutaminase in the early growth and development of Strongylus vulgaris, S. edentatus and S. equinus was tested by adding specific inhibitors, monodansylcadaverine (MDC) or cystamine (CS), to in vitro cultures of third (L3) and fourth stage larvae (L4). The viability, molting and growth of these nematode species were affected by both inhibitors. Cystamine promoted abnormal development of Strongylus edentatus L3, resulting in an aberrant expansion of the anterior end. Addition of these inhibitors to cultures of L4 also reduced growth of the three species. The results indicated that transglutaminase is present in a wide array of nematode parasites and may be important in growth and development of their larval stages. PMID:10416187

  19. Extrapolation of gas-reserve growth potential: Development of examples from macro approaches. Final report, October 1990-November 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, M.L.W.; Finley, R.J.

    1992-08-01

    An analysis of infield completions and reserve growth potential was made in Tertiary nonassociated gas reservoirs in South Texas. Infield well completions were defined from a concurrent GRI project involving macro-scale prediction of reserve growth. The report validates 78 percent, or 5.6 Tcf, of a high-end infill estimate of 7.2 Tcf for nine stratigraphic units in South Texas. This is a significant resource volume given the historical expectation that natural gas can be efficiently drained with widely spaced wells (1 or 2 per square mile) in conventional reservoirs. Groups of infield completions, or reservoir sections, from Frio, Vicksburg, Wilcox, and Miocene reservoirs were examined using geophysical well logs and production and pressure analyses. Seven reservoir-section types that contributed to the macro reserve growth estimate were evaluated. About 20 percent of the estimate consists of gas volumes extrapolated using consolidated reservoir groups, cycled reservoirs with invalid data. Additional gas volumes in the estimate were extrapolated from reservoir sections representing rate acceleration. The estimate also includes reservoir volumes from the low-permeability Wilcox Lobo trend, where limited drainage radii lead to expected reserve growth. Volumes that represent within-reservoir reserve growth and volumes that represent shallower- or deeper-pool reservoirs determined not to be in pressure communication with preceding completions in a reservoir section formed most of the macro reserve growth estimate.

  20. Maintenance of high proliferation and multipotent potential of human hair follicle-derived mesenchymal stem cells by growth factors.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xueyan; Wang, Yimei; Gao, Yunhe; Liu, Xuejuan; Bai, Tingting; Li, Meiying; Li, Lisha; Chi, Guanfan; Xu, Hui; Liu, Feilin; Liu, Jin Yu; Li, Yulin

    2013-04-01

    Cell therapy and cell-based tissue engineering is becoming increasingly important in regenerative medicine. Stem cells that are characterized by self-renewal, high proliferation and multiple differentiation potentials have attracted attention in cell-based regenerative medicine. Maintaining the aforementioned characteristics of stem cells is the first key step in cell-based regenerative medicine. Basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) is a well-known growth factor that efficiently maintains the self-renewal, high proliferation and multilineage differentiation potential of stem cells. Whether or not other growth factors, such as acidic fibroblast growth factor (aFGF) and epidermal growth factor (EGF) have similar effects has yet to be fully elucidated. Human hair follicle-derived mesenchymal stem cells (HF-MSCs) were obtained by organ culture. They exhibited surface markers of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells as shown by positive staining for CD44, CD73, CD90 and CD105, and they also displayed trilineage differentiation potentials into adipocytes, chondrocytes and osteoblasts by cytochemistry and qRT-PCR. Flow cytometry analysis showed that up to 70% of HF-MSCs cultured in the presence of aFGF, bFGF or EGF stayed at the G0/G1 phase. Proliferation analysis showed that both bFGF and EGF at as low as 1 ng/ml and aFGF at above 5 ng/ml levels significantly increased the proliferation of HF-MSCs by cell counting. Consistent with proliferation analysis, immunofluorescence staining showed that more than 95% of HF-MSCs cultured in the presence of aFGF, bFGF and EGF were positively stained for proliferating cell nuclear antigen. HF-MSCs cultured in the presence of aFGF, bFGF or EGF retained marked trilineage differentiation potentials. By contrast, HF-MSCs cultured in the absence of bFGF, aFGF and EGF lost multipotency. PMID:23403715

  1. Coral reef ecosystem decline: changing dynamics of coral reef carbonate production and implications for reef growth potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perry, Chris

    2016-04-01

    Global-scale deteriorations in coral reef health have caused major shifts in species composition and are likely to be exacerbated by climate change. It has been suggested that one effect of these ecological changes will be to lower reef carbonate production rates, which will impair reef growth potential and, ultimately, may lead to states of net reef erosion. However, quantitative data to support such assertions are limited, and linkages between the ecological state of coral reefs and their past and present geomorphic performance (in other words their growth potential) are poorly resolved. Using recently collected data from sites in the Caribbean and Indian Ocean, and which have undergone very different post-disturbance ecological trajectories over the last ~20-30 years, the differential impacts of disturbance on contemporary carbonate production regimes and on reef growth potential can be explored. In the Caribbean, a region which has been severely impacted ecological over the last 30+ years, our datasets show that average carbonate production rates on reefs are now less than 50% of pre-disturbance rates, and that calculated accretion rates (mm yr-1) are an about order of magnitude lower within shallow water habitats compared to Holocene averages. Collectively, these data suggest that recent ecological declines are now propagating through the system to impact on the geomorphic performance of Caribbean reefs and will impair their future growth potential. In contrast, the carbonate budgets of most reefs across the Chagos archipelago (central Indian Ocean), which is geographically remote and largely isolated from direct human disturbances, have recovered rapidly from major past disturbances (specifically the 1998 coral bleaching event). The carbonate budgets on these remote reefs now average +3.7 G (G = kg CaCO3 m-2 yr-1). Most significantly the production rates on Acropora-dominated reefs, which were most severely impacted by the 1998 bleaching event, average +8.4 G

  2. Autonomic dysfunction in early breast cancer: Incidence, clinical importance, and underlying mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Lakoski, Susan G; Jones, Lee W; Krone, Ronald J; Stein, Phyllis K; Scott, Jessica M

    2015-08-01

    Autonomic dysfunction represents a loss of normal autonomic control of the cardiovascular system associated with both sympathetic nervous system overdrive and reduced efficacy of the parasympathetic nervous system. Autonomic dysfunction is a strong predictor of future coronary heart disease, vascular disease, and sudden cardiac death. In the current review, we will discuss the clinical importance of autonomic dysfunction as a cardiovascular risk marker among breast cancer patients. We will review the effects of antineoplastic therapy on autonomic function, as well as discuss secondary exposures, such as psychological stress, sleep disturbances, weight gain/metabolic derangements, and loss of cardiorespiratory fitness, which may negatively impact autonomic function in breast cancer patients. Lastly, we review potential strategies to improve autonomic function in this population. The perspective can help guide new therapeutic interventions to promote longevity and cardiovascular health among breast cancer survivors. PMID:26299219

  3. Autonomic Dysfunction in Early Breast Cancer: Incidence, Clinical Importance, and Underlying Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Lakoski, Susan G.; Jones, Lee W.; Krone, Ronald J.; Stein, Phyllis K.; Scott, Jessica M.

    2015-01-01

    Autonomic dysfunction represents a loss of normal autonomic control of the cardiovascular system associated with both sympathetic nervous system overdrive and reduced efficacy of the parasympathetic nervous system. Autonomic dysfunction is a strong predictor of future coronary heart disease, vascular disease and sudden cardiac death. In the current review, we will discuss the clinical importance of autonomic dysfunction as a cardiovascular risk marker among breast cancer patients. We will review the effects of antineoplastic therapy on autonomic function, as well as discuss secondary exposures, such as psychological stress, sleep disturbances, weight gain/metabolic derangements, and loss of cardiorespiratory fitness which may negatively impact autonomic function in breast cancer patients. Lastly, we review potential strategies to improve autonomic function in this population. The perspective can help guide new therapeutic interventions to promote longevity and cardiovascular health among breast cancer survivors. PMID:26299219

  4. Autonomous Medical Care for Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson-Throop, Kathy A.; Polk, J. D.; Hines, John W.; Nall, Marsha M.

    2005-01-01

    The goal of Autonomous Medical Care (AMC) is to ensure a healthy, well-performing crew which is a primary need for exploration. The end result of this effort will be the requirements and design for medical systems for the CEV, lunar operations, and Martian operations as well as a ground-based crew health optimization plan. Without such systems, we increase the risk of medical events occurring during a mission and we risk being unable to deal with contingencies of illness and injury, potentially threatening mission success. AMC has two major components: 1) pre-flight crew health optimization and 2) in-flight medical care. The goal of pre-flight crew health optimization is to reduce the risk of illness occurring during a mission by primary prevention and prophylactic measures. In-flight autonomous medical care is the capability to provide medical care during a mission with little or no real-time support from Earth. Crew medical officers or other crew members provide routine medical care as well as medical care to ill or injured crew members using resources available in their location. Ground support becomes telemedical consultation on-board systems/people collect relevant data for ground support to review. The AMC system provides capabilities to incorporate new procedures and training and advice as required. The on-board resources in an autonomous system should be as intelligent and integrated as is feasible, but autonomous does not mean that no human will be involved. The medical field is changing rapidly, and so a challenge is to determine which items to pursue now, which to leverage other efforts (e.g. military), and which to wait for commercial forces to mature. Given that what is used for the CEV or the Moon will likely be updated before going to Mars, a critical piece of the system design will be an architecture that provides for easy incorporation of new technologies into the system. Another challenge is to determine the level of care to provide for each

  5. Asteroid Exploration with Autonomic Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Truszkowski, Walt; Rash, James; Rouff, Christopher; Hinchey, Mike

    2004-01-01

    NASA is studying advanced technologies for a future robotic exploration mission to the asteroid belt. The prospective ANTS (Autonomous Nano Technology Swarm) mission comprises autonomous agents including worker agents (small spacecra3) designed to cooperate in asteroid exploration under the overall authoriq of at least one ruler agent (a larger spacecraft) whose goal is to cause science data to be returned to Earth. The ANTS team (ruler plus workers and messenger agents), but not necessarily any individual on the team, will exhibit behaviors that qualify it as an autonomic system, where an autonomic system is defined as a system that self-reconfigures, self-optimizes, self-heals, and self-protects. Autonomic system concepts lead naturally to realistic, scalable architectures rich in capabilities and behaviors. In-depth consideration of a major mission like ANTS in terms of autonomic systems brings new insights into alternative definitions of autonomic behavior. This paper gives an overview of the ANTS mission and discusses the autonomic properties of the mission.

  6. Expanded Perspectives on Autonomous Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oxford, Rebecca L.

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores two general perspectives on autonomous learners: psychological and sociocultural. These perspectives introduce a range of theoretically grounded facets of autonomous learners, facets such as the self-regulated learner, the emotionally intelligent learner, the self-determined learner, the mediated learner, the socioculturally…

  7. Glypican-1 nanoliposomes for potentiating growth factor activity in therapeutic angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Monteforte, Anthony J; Lam, Brian; Das, Subhamoy; Mukhopadhyay, Somshuvra; Wright, Catherine S; Martin, Patricia E; Dunn, Andrew K; Baker, Aaron B

    2016-07-01

    Therapeutic angiogenesis is a highly appealing concept for treating tissues that become ischemic due to vascular disease. A major barrier to the clinical translation of angiogenic therapies is that the patients that are in the greatest need of these treatments often have long term disease states and co-morbidities, such as diabetes and obesity, that make them resistant to angiogenic stimuli. In this study, we identified that human patients with type 2 diabetes have reduced levels of glypican-1 in the blood vessels of their skin. The lack of this key co-receptor in the tissue may make the application of exogenous angiogenic growth factors or cell therapies ineffective. We created a novel therapeutic enhancer for growth factor activity consisting of glypican-1 delivered in a nanoliposomal carrier (a "glypisome"). Here, we demonstrate that glypisomes enhance FGF-2 mediated endothelial cell proliferation, migration and tube formation. In addition, glypisomes enhance FGF-2 trafficking by increasing both uptake and endosomal processing. We encapsulated FGF-2 or FGF-2 with glypisomes in alginate beads and used these to deliver localized growth factor therapy in a murine hind limb ischemia model. Co-delivery of glypisomes with FGF-2 markedly increased the recovery of perfusion and vessel formation in ischemic hind limbs of wild type and diabetic mice in comparison to mice treated with FGF-2 alone. Together, our findings support that glypisomes are effective means for enhancing growth factor activity and may improve the response to local angiogenic growth factor therapies for ischemia. PMID:27101205

  8. Isolation of Pantoea ananatis from sugarcane and characterization of its potential for plant growth promotion.

    PubMed

    da Silva, J F; Barbosa, R R; de Souza, A N; da Motta, O V; Teixeira, G N; Carvalho, V S; de Souza, A L S R; de Souza Filho, G A

    2015-01-01

    Each year, approximately 170 million metric tons of chemical fertilizer are consumed by global agriculture. Furthermore, some chemical fertilizers contain toxic by-products and their long-term use may contaminate groundwater, lakes, and rivers. The use of plant growth-promoting bacteria may be a cost-effective strategy for partially replacing conventional chemical fertilizers, and may become an integrated plant nutrient solution for sustainable crop production. The main direct bacteria-activated mechanisms of plant growth promotion are based on improvement of nutrient acquisition, siderophore biosynthesis, nitrogen fixation, and hormonal stimulation. The aim of this study was to isolate and identify bacteria with growth-promoting activities from sugarcane. We extracted the bacterial isolate SCB4789F-1 from sugarcane leaves and characterized it with regard to its profile of growth-promoting activities, including its ability to colonize Arabidopsis thaliana. Based on its biochemical characteristics and 16S rDNA sequence analysis, this isolate was identified as Pantoea ananatis. The bacteria were efficient at phosphate and zinc solubilization, and production of siderophores and indole-3-acetic acid in vitro. The isolate was characterized by Gram staining, resistance to antibiotics, and use of carbon sources. This is the first report on zinc solubilization in vitro by this bacterium, and on plant growth promotion following its inoculation into A. thaliana. The beneficial effects to plants of this bacterium justify future analysis of inoculation of economically relevant crops. PMID:26634494

  9. [Autonomic features in Parkinson disease].

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Toshimasa; Tamura, Naotoshi

    2012-04-01

    Nonmotor symptoms such as autonomic and neuropsychiatric dysfunctions, are commonly seen in Parkinson disease (PD). Recent studies have shown that PD is accompanied by cardiac sympathetic denervation and constipation even in the early stage. Neuropathological studies confirmed changes in the cardiac sympathetic nerves and the gastrointestinal tract. These findings suggest that PD neuropathology may occur first in the peripheral autonomic pathways and extend to the central autonomic pathways, in agreement with the "Braak theory". This article will reviews the symptoms and pathophysiology of gastrointestinal dysfunction, urinary disturbance, sexual dysfunction, sweating dysfunction, pupillary autonomic dysfunction, and orthostatic and postprandial hypotension in PD patients, and discuss to organ selectiveness in autonomic dysfunction in PD. PMID:22481512

  10. Growth of Sobolev Norms in the Cubic Nonlinear Schrödinger Equation with a Convolution Potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guardia, Marcel

    2014-07-01

    Fix s > 1. Colliander et al. proved in (Invent Math 181:39-113, 2010) the existence of solutions of the cubic defocusing nonlinear Schrödinger equation in the two torus whose s-Sobolev norm undergoes arbitrarily large growth as time evolves. In this paper we generalize their result to the cubic defocusing nonlinear Schrödinger equation with a convolution potential. Moreover, we show that the speed of growth is the same as the one obtained for the cubic defocusing nonlinear Schrödinger equation in Guardia and Kaloshin (Growth of Sobolev norms in the cubic defocusing Nonlinear Schrödinger Equation. To appear in the Journal of the European Mathematical Society, 2012).

  11. Impact of matric potential and pore size distribution on growth dynamics of filamentous and non-filamentous soil bacteria.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Alexandra B; Vos, Michiel; de Boer, Wietse; Kowalchuk, George A

    2013-01-01

    The filamentous growth form is an important strategy for soil microbes to bridge air-filled pores in unsaturated soils. In particular, fungi perform better than bacteria in soils during drought, a property that has been ascribed to the hyphal growth form of fungi. However, it is unknown if, and to what extent, filamentous bacteria may also display similar advantages over non-filamentous bacteria in soils with low hydraulic connectivity. In addition to allowing for microbial interactions and competition across connected micro-sites, water films also facilitate the motility of non-filamentous bacteria. To examine these issues, we constructed and characterized a series of quartz sand microcosms differing in matric potential and pore size distribution and, consequently, in connection of micro-habitats via water films. Our sand microcosms were used to examine the individual and competitive responses of a filamentous bacterium (Streptomyces atratus) and a motile rod-shaped bacterium (Bacillus weihenstephanensis) to differences in pore sizes and matric potential. The Bacillus strain had an initial advantage in all sand microcosms, which could be attributed to its faster growth rate. At later stages of the incubation, Streptomyces became dominant in microcosms with low connectivity (coarse pores and dry conditions). These data, combined with information on bacterial motility (expansion potential) across a range of pore-size and moisture conditions, suggest that, like their much larger fungal counterparts, filamentous bacteria also use this growth form to facilitate growth and expansion under conditions of low hydraulic conductivity. The sand microcosm system developed and used in this study allowed for precise manipulation of hydraulic properties and pore size distribution, thereby providing a useful approach for future examinations of how these properties influence the composition, diversity and function of soil-borne microbial communities. PMID:24391805

  12. Impact of Matric Potential and Pore Size Distribution on Growth Dynamics of Filamentous and Non-Filamentous Soil Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Wolf, Alexandra B.; Vos, Michiel; de Boer, Wietse; Kowalchuk, George A.

    2013-01-01

    The filamentous growth form is an important strategy for soil microbes to bridge air-filled pores in unsaturated soils. In particular, fungi perform better than bacteria in soils during drought, a property that has been ascribed to the hyphal growth form of fungi. However, it is unknown if, and to what extent, filamentous bacteria may also display similar advantages over non-filamentous bacteria in soils with low hydraulic connectivity. In addition to allowing for microbial interactions and competition across connected micro-sites, water films also facilitate the motility of non-filamentous bacteria. To examine these issues, we constructed and characterized a series of quartz sand microcosms differing in matric potential and pore size distribution and, consequently, in connection of micro-habitats via water films. Our sand microcosms were used to examine the individual and competitive responses of a filamentous bacterium (Streptomyces atratus) and a motile rod-shaped bacterium (Bacillus weihenstephanensis) to differences in pore sizes and matric potential. The Bacillus strain had an initial advantage in all sand microcosms, which could be attributed to its faster growth rate. At later stages of the incubation, Streptomyces became dominant in microcosms with low connectivity (coarse pores and dry conditions). These data, combined with information on bacterial motility (expansion potential) across a range of pore-size and moisture conditions, suggest that, like their much larger fungal counterparts, filamentous bacteria also use this growth form to facilitate growth and expansion under conditions of low hydraulic conductivity. The sand microcosm system developed and used in this study allowed for precise manipulation of hydraulic properties and pore size distribution, thereby providing a useful approach for future examinations of how these properties influence the composition, diversity and function of soil-borne microbial communities. PMID:24391805

  13. Autonomous Flying Controls Testbed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Motter, Mark A.

    2005-01-01

    The Flying Controls Testbed (FLiC) is a relatively small and inexpensive unmanned aerial vehicle developed specifically to test highly experimental flight control approaches. The most recent version of the FLiC is configured with 16 independent aileron segments, supports the implementation of C-coded experimental controllers, and is capable of fully autonomous flight from takeoff roll to landing, including flight test maneuvers. The test vehicle is basically a modified Army target drone, AN/FQM-117B, developed as part of a collaboration between the Aviation Applied Technology Directorate (AATD) at Fort Eustis,Virginia and NASA Langley Research Center. Several vehicles have been constructed and collectively have flown over 600 successful test flights.

  14. Autonomous microexplosives subsurface tracing system final report.

    SciTech Connect

    Engler, Bruce Phillip; Nogan, John; Melof, Brian Matthew; Uhl, James Eugene; Dulleck, George R., Jr.; Ingram, Brian V.; Grubelich, Mark Charles; Rivas, Raul R.; Cooper, Paul W.; Warpinski, Norman Raymond; Kravitz, Stanley H.

    2004-04-01

    The objective of the autonomous micro-explosive subsurface tracing system is to image the location and geometry of hydraulically induced fractures in subsurface petroleum reservoirs. This system is based on the insertion of a swarm of autonomous micro-explosive packages during the fracturing process, with subsequent triggering of the energetic material to create an array of micro-seismic sources that can be detected and analyzed using existing seismic receiver arrays and analysis software. The project included investigations of energetic mixtures, triggering systems, package size and shape, and seismic output. Given the current absence of any technology capable of such high resolution mapping of subsurface structures, this technology has the potential for major impact on petroleum industry, which spends approximately $1 billion dollar per year on hydraulic fracturing operations in the United States alone.

  15. Alginate Oligosaccharides Inhibit Fungal Cell Growth and Potentiate the Activity of Antifungals against Candida and Aspergillus spp

    PubMed Central

    Tøndervik, Anne; Sletta, Håvard; Klinkenberg, Geir; Emanuel, Charlotte; Powell, Lydia C.; Pritchard, Manon F.; Khan, Saira; Craine, Kieron M.; Onsøyen, Edvar; Rye, Phil D.; Wright, Chris; Thomas, David W.; Hill, Katja E.

    2014-01-01

    The oligosaccharide OligoG, an alginate derived from seaweed, has been shown to have anti-bacterial and anti-biofilm properties and potentiates the activity of selected antibiotics against multi-drug resistant bacteria. The ability of OligoG to perturb fungal growth and potentiate conventional antifungal agents was evaluated using a range of pathogenic fungal strains. Candida (n = 11) and Aspergillus (n = 3) spp. were tested using germ tube assays, LIVE/DEAD staining, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and high-throughput minimum inhibition concentration assays (MICs). In general, the strains tested showed a significant dose-dependent reduction in cell growth at ≥6% OligoG as measured by optical density (OD600; P<0.05). OligoG (>0.5%) also showed a significant inhibitory effect on hyphal growth in germ tube assays, although strain-dependent variations in efficacy were observed (P<0.05). SEM and AFM both showed that OligoG (≥2%) markedly disrupted fungal biofilm formation, both alone, and in combination with fluconazole. Cell surface roughness was also significantly increased by the combination treatment (P<0.001). High-throughput robotic MIC screening demonstrated the potentiating effects of OligoG (2, 6, 10%) with nystatin, amphotericin B, fluconazole, miconazole, voriconazole or terbinafine with the test strains. Potentiating effects were observed for the Aspergillus strains with all six antifungal agents, with an up to 16-fold (nystatin) reduction in MIC. Similarly, all the Candida spp. showed potentiation with nystatin (up to 16-fold) and fluconazole (up to 8-fold). These findings demonstrate the antifungal properties of OligoG and suggest a potential role in the management of fungal infections and possible reduction of antifungal toxicity. PMID:25409186

  16. Siderophore as a potential plant growth-promoting agent produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa JAS-25.

    PubMed

    Sulochana, M B; Jayachandra, S Y; Kumar, S Anil; Parameshwar, A B; Reddy, K Mohan; Dayanand, A

    2014-09-01

    Siderophores scavenges Fe(+3) from the vicinity of the roots of plants, and thus limit the amount of iron required for the growth of pathogens such as Fusarium oxysporum, Pythium ultimum, and Fusarium udum, which cause wilt and root rot disease in crops. The ability of Pseudomonas to grow and to produce siderophore depends upon the iron content, pH, and temperature. Maximum yield of siderophore of 130 μM was observed at pH 7.0 ± 0.2 and temperature of 30 °C at 30 h. The threshold level of iron was 50 μM, which increases up to 150 μM, favoring growth but drastically affecting the production of siderophore by Pseudomonas aeruginosa JAS-25. The seeds of agricultural crops like Cicer arietinum (chick pea), Cajanus cajan (pigeon pea), and Arachis hypogaea (ground nut) were treated with P. aeruginosa JAS-25, which enhanced the seed germination, root length, shoot length, and dry weight of chick pea, pigeon pea, and ground nut plants under pot studies. The efficient growth of the plants was not only due to the biocontrol activity of the siderophore produced by P. aeruginosa JAS-25 but also may be by the production of indole acetic acid (IAA), which influences the growth of the plants as phytohormones. PMID:25062779

  17. Size variation of 0-group plaice: Are earlier influences on growth potential a contributing factor?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fox, Clive J.; Targett, Timothy E.; Ciotti, Benjamin J.; de Kroon, Kasper; Hortsmeyer, Lena; Burrows, Michael T.

    2014-04-01

    Over a decade of sampling has shown that there are consistent differences in the sizes of 0-group plaice by late summer comparing 21 nursery sites on the Scottish west coast. However, when young fish were collected from two sites which produce particularly small and large fish and reared using a common garden design, growth rates between fish from the two sites were indistinguishable. Either there is little selection for fast or slow growth up to a few weeks post-settlement, or such effects do not persist sufficiently strongly to influence later growth. There were also no significant correlations between the time-series of fish size comparing sites, although within some sites there was evidence of inter-annual density-dependent effects. Any influences of offshore regional-scale factors, such as sea temperature or pelagic primary productivity on growth thus appear to be heavily modified by local conditions on the nursery grounds. The field observations combined with the experimental results lead us to conclude that the size 0-group plaice attain in late summer is mainly controlled by post-settlement habitat quality.

  18. Complete Genome Sequence of Bacillus methylotrophicus Strain B25, a Potential Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacterium

    PubMed Central

    Brutel, Aline; Lemainque, Arnaud; Mairey, Barbara; Médigue, Claudine; Vallenet, David; Lefort, Francois; Grizard, Damien

    2016-01-01

    The complete genome of Bacillus methylotrophicus strain B25, isolated in Switzerland, was sequenced. Its size is 3.85 Mb, and several genes that may contribute to plant growth-promoting activities were identified in silico. PMID:26966215

  19. Microplate-based method for high-throughput screening of microalgae growth potential.

    PubMed

    Van Wagenen, Jon; Holdt, Susan Løvstad; De Francisci, Davide; Valverde-Pérez, Borja; Plósz, Benedek Gy; Angelidaki, Irini

    2014-10-01

    Microalgae cultivation conditions in microplates will differ from large-scale photobioreactors in crucial parameters such as light profile, mixing and gas transfer. Hence volumetric productivity (P(v)) measurements made in microplates cannot be directly scaled up. Here we demonstrate that it is possible to use microplates to measure characteristic exponential growth rates and determine the specific growth rate light intensity dependency (μ-I curve), which is useful as the key input for several models that predict P(v). Nannochloropsis salina and Chlorella sorokiniana specific growth rates were measured by repeated batch culture in microplates supplied with continuous light at different intensities. Exponential growth unlimited by gas transfer or self-shading was observable for a period of several days using fluorescence, which is an order of magnitude more sensitive than optical density. The microplate datasets were comparable to similar datasets obtained in photobioreactors and were used an input for the Huesemann model to accurately predict P(v). PMID:25103033

  20. [BETA-III TUBULIN AS A POTENTIAL TARGET FOR BLOCKING INVASIVE GROWTH OF MALIGNANT EPITHELIAL TUMORS].

    PubMed

    Portyanko, A S; Akalovich, S T; Doroshenko, T M

    2015-01-01

    Invasive growth is the first step of metastatic cascade in the growth of malignant tumors. The mobility of cells, which is a necessary factor of the invasive growth of malignant tumors, is closely linked to the dynamic structure of cytoskeleton. An important role in cell motility is played by microtubules and actin microfilaments. Microtubules consist of tubulin--a heterodimer comprising α and β subunits, which can be represented by different isotypes. The appearance of beta-III tubulin in a tumor is essential for chemoresistance and prognosis of some tumors in humans. This study focuses on determining the possibility of using beta-III tubulin as a target molecule for the suppression of invasive growth. It is established that blocking of the beta-III tubulin expression in colorectal cancer cells does not affect their viability, but reduces the cell adhesion to the extracellular matrix by 40% for HT-29 (∂ = 0.0044) and by 15% (p = 0.0436) for HCT 116) and produces a four-fold decrease in the invasive activity (p = 0.0000 and 0.0001, respectively). These facts allow considering beta-III tubulin as a target molecule in the development of antitumor drugs. PMID:26591579

  1. Growth and xylem water potential of white oak and loblolly pine seedlings as affected by simulated acidic rain

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, R.F. ); McLaughlin, S.B. )

    1993-01-01

    Effects of simulated acidic rainfall on the growth and water relations of white oak (Quercus albya L.) and loblolly pin (Pinus taeda L.) seedlings grown under two fertility regimes were examined. Seedling of each species grown in a loam soil were exposed to two simulated rains per week of pH 4.8, 4.2 or 3.6 for 26 wk. High and low fertility regimes were imposed by monthly application of one-half and one-quarter concentration, respectively, of Hoagland's solution No. 2. Diameter growth of both species was reduced by exposure to rains of the higher acidities regardless of fertility treatment, and seedlings that received pH 4.2 and 3.6 rains also exhibited greater foliar chlorosis and necrosis than those that received rains of pH 4.8. The high fertility treatment stimulated diameter growth of white oak, but height growth, shoot and root dry weights and total root length were no substantially affected b acid rain or fertility treatments in either species. Following the final rain applications, drought was simulated by withholding irrigation for 2 wk, and seedling xylem pressure potential was then measured using the pressure chamber technique. Xylem pressure potential of white oak seedlings which had received rains of pH 3.6 was significantly lower than that of seedlings which had received rains of higher pH, a result that became more pronounced as soil water potential decreased. Rain acidity had little effect on the xylem pressure potential of loblolly pine, however. Soil pH analyses before initiation and after completion of the rain applications indicated that rainfall of pH 3.6 increased soil acidity more than rains of pH 4.2 or 4.8, although changes in soil pH were small overall. 26 refs., 1 fig. 2 tabs.

  2. Cell growth stimulating effect of Ganoderma lucidum spores and their potential application for Chinese hamster ovary K1 cell cultivation.

    PubMed

    Li, Ding; Zhong, Qi; Liu, Tingting; Wang, Jufang

    2016-06-01

    In this work, water-soluble extracts of Ganoderma lucidum spores (Gls), a Chinese medicinal herb that possesses cell growth stimulating function, were found to be an effective growth factor for Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell cultivation. The Gls extract was prepared and supplemented to CHO K1 cell culture media with various serum levels. Our results obtained from both the static culture and the spinner-flask suspension culture showed that use of small-amount Gls extract effectively promoted cell growth and suppressed cell apoptosis induced by serum deprivation with normal cell cycle maintained in a low-serum medium. The low-serum medium containing 1 % (v/v) fetal bovine serum (FBS) and 0.01 % (w/v) Gls extract showed a comparable performance on both cell growth and fusion protein productivity with the conventional CHO culture medium containing 10 % (v/v) FBS and a commercial serum-free medium. This is the first study of the potential of Gls extracts for use as an alternative cell growth factor and nutrient for CHO cells. The findings have presented a new approach to economic cultivation of CHO cells for therapeutic protein production. PMID:26921102

  3. Separating water-potential induced swelling and shrinking from measured radial stem variations reveals a cambial growth and osmotic concentration signal.

    PubMed

    Chan, Tommy; Hölttä, Teemu; Berninger, Frank; Mäkinen, Harri; Nöjd, Pekka; Mencuccini, Maurizio; Nikinmaa, Eero

    2016-02-01

    The quantification of cambial growth over short time periods has been hampered by problems to discern between growth and the swelling and shrinking of a tree stem. This paper presents a model, which separates cambial growth and reversible water-potential induced diurnal changes from simultaneously measured whole stem and xylem radial variations, from field-measured Scots pine trees in Finland. The modelled growth, which includes osmotic concentration changes, was compared with (direct) dendrometer measurements and microcore samples. In addition, the relationship of modelled growth and dendrometer measurements to environmental factors was analysed. The results showed that the water-potential induced changes of tree radius were successfully separated from stem growth. Daily growth predicted by the model exhibited a high correlation with the modelled daily changes of osmotic concentration in phloem, and a temperature dependency in early summer. Late-summer growth saw higher dependency on water availability and temperature. Evaluation of the model against dendrometer measurements showed that the latter masked a true environmental signal in stem growth due to water-potential induced changes. The model provides better understanding of radial growth physiology and offers potential to examine growth dynamics and changes due to osmotic concentration, and how the environment affects growth. PMID:25808847

  4. Mycelium-Like Networks Increase Bacterial Dispersal, Growth, and Biodegradation in a Model Ecosystem at Various Water Potentials.

    PubMed

    Worrich, Anja; König, Sara; Miltner, Anja; Banitz, Thomas; Centler, Florian; Frank, Karin; Thullner, Martin; Harms, Hauke; Kästner, Matthias; Wick, Lukas Y

    2016-05-15

    Fungal mycelia serve as effective dispersal networks for bacteria in water-unsaturated environments, thereby allowing bacteria to maintain important functions, such as biodegradation. However, poor knowledge exists on the effects of dispersal networks at various osmotic (Ψo) and matric (Ψm) potentials, which contribute to the water potential mainly in terrestrial soil environments. Here we studied the effects of artificial mycelium-like dispersal networks on bacterial dispersal dynamics and subsequent effects on growth and benzoate biodegradation at ΔΨo and ΔΨm values between 0 and -1.5 MPa. In a multiple-microcosm approach, we used a green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged derivative of the soil bacterium Pseudomonas putida KT2440 as a model organism and sodium benzoate as a representative of polar aromatic contaminants. We found that decreasing ΔΨo and ΔΨm values slowed bacterial dispersal in the system, leading to decelerated growth and benzoate degradation. In contrast, dispersal networks facilitated bacterial movement at ΔΨo and ΔΨm values between 0 and -0.5 MPa and thus improved the absolute biodegradation performance by up to 52 and 119% for ΔΨo and ΔΨm, respectively. This strong functional interrelationship was further emphasized by a high positive correlation between population dispersal, population growth, and degradation. We propose that dispersal networks may sustain the functionality of microbial ecosystems at low osmotic and matric potentials. PMID:26944849

  5. Methods for Facilitating Microbial Growth on Pulp Mill Waste Streams and Characterization of the Biodegradation Potential of Cultured Microbes

    PubMed Central

    Mathews, Stephanie L.; Ayoub, Ali S.; Pawlak, Joel; Grunden, Amy M.

    2013-01-01

    The kraft process is applied to wood chips for separation of lignin from the polysaccharides within lignocellulose for pulp that will produce a high quality paper. Black liquor is a pulping waste generated by the kraft process that has potential for downstream bioconversion. However, the recalcitrant nature of the lignocellulose resources, its chemical derivatives that constitute the majority of available organic carbon within black liquor, and its basic pH present challenges to microbial biodegradation of this waste material. Methods for the collection and modification of black liquor for microbial growth are aimed at utilization of this pulp waste to convert the lignin, organic acids, and polysaccharide degradation byproducts into valuable chemicals. The lignocellulose extraction techniques presented provide a reproducible method for preparation of lignocellulose growth substrates for understanding metabolic capacities of cultured microorganisms. Use of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry enables the identification and quantification of the fermentation products resulting from the growth of microorganisms on pulping waste. These methods when used together can facilitate the determination of the metabolic activity of microorganisms with potential to produce fermentation products that would provide greater value to the pulping system and reduce effluent waste, thereby increasing potential paper milling profits and offering additional uses for black liquor. PMID:24378616

  6. Methods for facilitating microbial growth on pulp mill waste streams and characterization of the biodegradation potential of cultured microbes.

    PubMed

    Mathews, Stephanie L; Ayoub, Ali S; Pawlak, Joel; Grunden, Amy M

    2013-01-01

    The kraft process is applied to wood chips for separation of lignin from the polysaccharides within lignocellulose for pulp that will produce a high quality paper. Black liquor is a pulping waste generated by the kraft process that has potential for downstream bioconversion. However, the recalcitrant nature of the lignocellulose resources, its chemical derivatives that constitute the majority of available organic carbon within black liquor, and its basic pH present challenges to microbial biodegradation of this waste material. Methods for the collection and modification of black liquor for microbial growth are aimed at utilization of this pulp waste to convert the lignin, organic acids, and polysaccharide degradation byproducts into valuable chemicals. The lignocellulose extraction techniques presented provide a reproducible method for preparation of lignocellulose growth substrates for understanding metabolic capacities of cultured microorganisms. Use of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry enables the identification and quantification of the fermentation products resulting from the growth of microorganisms on pulping waste. These methods when used together can facilitate the determination of the metabolic activity of microorganisms with potential to produce fermentation products that would provide greater value to the pulping system and reduce effluent waste, thereby increasing potential paper milling profits and offering additional uses for black liquor. PMID:24378616

  7. Autonomous Rovers for Polar Science Campaigns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lever, J. H.; Ray, L. E.; Williams, R. M.; Morlock, A. M.; Burzynski, A. M.

    2012-12-01

    We have developed and deployed two over-snow autonomous rovers able to conduct remote science campaigns on Polar ice sheets. Yeti is an 80-kg, four-wheel-drive (4WD) battery-powered robot with 3 - 4 hr endurance, and Cool Robot is a 60-kg 4WD solar-powered robot with unlimited endurance during Polar summers. Both robots navigate using GPS waypoint-following to execute pre-planned courses autonomously, and they can each carry or tow 20 - 160 kg instrument payloads over typically firm Polar snowfields. In 2008 - 12, we deployed Yeti to conduct autonomous ground-penetrating radar (GPR) surveys to detect hidden crevasses to help establish safe routes for overland resupply of research stations at South Pole, Antarctica, and Summit, Greenland. We also deployed Yeti with GPR at South Pole in 2011 to identify the locations of potentially hazardous buried buildings from the original 1950's-era station. Autonomous surveys remove personnel from safety risks posed during manual GPR surveys by undetected crevasses or buried buildings. Furthermore, autonomous surveys can yield higher quality and more comprehensive data than manual ones: Yeti's low ground pressure (20 kPa) allows it to cross thinly bridged crevasses or other voids without interrupting a survey, and well-defined survey grids allow repeated detection of buried voids to improve detection reliability and map their extent. To improve survey efficiency, we have automated the mapping of detected hazards, currently identified via post-survey manual review of the GPR data. Additionally, we are developing machine-learning algorithms to detect crevasses autonomously in real time, with reliability potentially higher than manual real-time detection. These algorithms will enable the rover to relay crevasse locations to a base station for near real-time mapping and decision-making. We deployed Cool Robot at Summit Station in 2005 to verify its mobility and power budget over Polar snowfields. Using solar power, this zero

  8. Growth of Bulk Wide Bandgap Semiconductor Crystals and Their Potential Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Kuo-Tong; Shi, Detang; Morgan, S. H.; Collins, W. Eugene; Burger, Arnold

    1997-01-01

    Developments in bulk crystal growth research for electro-optical devices in the Center for Photonic Materials and Devices since its establishment have been reviewed. Purification processes and single crystal growth systems employing physical vapor transport and Bridgman methods were assembled and used to produce high purity and superior quality wide bandgap materials such as heavy metal halides and II-VI compound semiconductors. Comprehensive material characterization techniques have been employed to reveal the optical, electrical and thermodynamic properties of crystals, and the results were used to establish improved material processing procedures. Postgrowth treatments such as passivation, oxidation, chemical etching and metal contacting during the X-ray and gamma-ray device fabrication process have also been investigated and low noise threshold with improved energy resolution has been achieved.

  9. Loss of CSL Unlocks a Hypoxic Response and Enhanced Tumor Growth Potential in Breast Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Braune, Eike-Benjamin; Tsoi, Yat Long; Phoon, Yee Peng; Landor, Sebastian; Silva Cascales, Helena; Ramsköld, Daniel; Deng, Qiaolin; Lindqvist, Arne; Lian, Xiaojun; Sahlgren, Cecilia; Jin, Shao-Bo; Lendahl, Urban

    2016-05-10

    Notch signaling is an important regulator of stem cell differentiation. All canonical Notch signaling is transmitted through the DNA-binding protein CSL, and hyperactivated Notch signaling is associated with tumor development; thus it may be anticipated that CSL deficiency should reduce tumor growth. In contrast, we report that genetic removal of CSL in breast tumor cells caused accelerated growth of xenografted tumors. Loss of CSL unleashed a hypoxic response during normoxic conditions, manifested by stabilization of the HIF1α protein and acquisition of a polyploid giant-cell, cancer stem cell-like, phenotype. At the transcriptome level, loss of CSL upregulated more than 1,750 genes and less than 3% of those genes were part of the Notch transcriptional signature. Collectively, this suggests that CSL exerts functions beyond serving as the central node in the Notch signaling cascade and reveals a role for CSL in tumorigenesis and regulation of the cellular hypoxic response. PMID:27066863

  10. Biological potential of extraterrestrial materials - 1. Nutrients in carbonaceous meteorites, and effects on biological growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mautner, Michael N.

    1997-06-01

    Soil nutrient analysis of the Murchison C2 carbonaceous chondrite shows biologically available S, P, Ca, Mg, Na, K and Fe and cation exchange capacity (CEC) at levels comparable with terrestrial agricultural soils. Weathering, and aqueous, hydrothermal (121°C, 15 min) and high-temperature (550°C, 3 h) processing increase the extractable nutrients. Extractable phosphorus (by 0.3 M NH 4F + 0.1 M HCl) content, which may be growth-limiting, is 6.3 μg g -1 in the unprocessed meteorite, but increases to 81 μg g -1 by hydrothermal processing and weathering, and to 130 μg g -1 by high temperature processing. The cation exchange capacity (CEC), attributed mainly to the organic fraction, corresponds responds to 345 meq per 100 g of the polymer, suggesting one ionizable COOH or OH group per 3-4 aromatic rings. The Allende C3(V) meteorite has low extractable Ca, Mg and K, in parallel to its low organic content and CEC, but high extractable P levels (160 μg g -1). Biological effects are observed on growth of the soil microorganisms Flavobacterium oryzihabitans and Nocardia asteroides in meteorite extracts, and the population levels suggest that P is the limiting nutrient. Effects on plant growth are examined on Solanum tuberosum (potato), where extracts of the Murchison meteorite lead to enhanced growth and pigmentation. The biologically available organic and inorganic nutrients in carbonaceous chondrites can provide concentrated solutions for prebiotic and early life processes, and serve as soils and fertilizers for future space-based biological expansion.

  11. Autonomous software: Myth or magic?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allan, A.; Naylor, T.; Saunders, E. S.

    2008-03-01

    We discuss work by the eSTAR project which demonstrates a fully closed loop autonomous system for the follow up of possible micro-lensing anomalies. Not only are the initial micro-lensing detections followed up in real time, but ongoing events are prioritised and continually monitored, with the returned data being analysed automatically. If the ``smart software'' running the observing campaign detects a planet-like anomaly, further follow-up will be scheduled autonomously and other telescopes and telescope networks alerted to the possible planetary detection. We further discuss the implications of this, and how such projects can be used to build more general autonomous observing and control systems.

  12. New insights on Antarctic gorgonians' age, growth and their potential as paleorecords

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez-Dios, Ariadna; Dominguez-Carrió, Carlos; Zapata-Guardiola, Rebeca; Gili, Josep-Maria

    2016-06-01

    Antarctic benthic communities have long been regarded as relicts of the past, since they have developed in a very stable environment and are formed by slow-growing and extraordinary long-lived organisms. However, little is known about the life history traits of gorgonian species, which are considered key components of the Antarctic benthos. In this study, age, Radial Growth Rates (RGR) and skeletal composition of Thouarella variabilis, Fannyella abies and Fannyella rossii colonies (Octocorallia, Primnoidae) that inhabit Antarctic shelf waters were examined. The radioisotopes 14C and 210Pb used for dating revealed that these colonies are long-lived, with ages spanning from 50 to 1100 years, thus confirming the archaic character of the Antarctic ecosystem. Some RGR obtained are among the lowest rates ever reported for primnoid species and gorgonians as a whole, with Thouarella species showing rates of 5.08 μm yr-1. Growth ring deposition seemed to occur every 2-3 years on average, although this result cannot be confirmed. Irregularities in the growth rings could be observed under the Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) as fluctuations in the skeletal composition, which may be indicative of changes in the environmental conditions, most possibly primary production.

  13. Growth of InGaN nanopyramid arrays on Si for potential photovoltaic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, Jian-Wei; Tan, Rayson J. N.; Heuken, Michael; Tay, Andrew A. O.; Chua, Soo-Jin

    2015-06-01

    InGaN/Si multijunction solar cells form a cost-effective approach for full-spectrum photovoltaics. However, heteroepitaxial InGaN films with high In content are highly defective. To overcome this, nanostructured InGaN growth is explored in this work. Ordered arrays of InxGa1-xN nanopyramids were grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition on AlN(0001)/Si(111) substrates in a selective area heteroepitaxy approach. The effect of growth temperature and pressure on the morphology, structure and photoluminescence of the nanopyramids, and their In content x were studied. Reduction in temperature increases x but temperatures <750 °C are correlated with lower structural quality, polycrystalline deposits and In droplet formation. To maintain the quality, a moderately high temperature (~775 °C) may be used. Together with lower pressure, x can be improved. This also enhances the growth rate and improves nanopyramid size uniformity. Nanopyramid arrays generally exhibit greater lattice tilt than their control films due to dislocation bending. While lattice twist is increased with higher x, it is offset by epitaxial lateral overgrowth. Compared to control films, nanopyramid samples consistently yielded higher x, lower average reflectance (<5.5%) and a multi-fold increase in photoluminescence intensity with tunable emission from 3.05 eV to 1.93 eV.

  14. Selective potentiation of lometrexol growth inhibition by dipyridamole through cell-specific inhibition of hypoxanthine salvage.

    PubMed Central

    Turner, R. N.; Aherne, G. W.; Curtin, N. J.

    1997-01-01

    The novel antifolate lometrexol (5,10-dideazatetrahydrofolate) inhibits de novo purine biosynthesis, and co-incubation with hypoxanthine abolishes its cytotoxicity. The prevention of hypoxanthine rescue from an antipurine antifolate by the nucleoside transport inhibitor dipyridamole was investigated for the first time in nine human and rodent cell lines from seven different tissues of origin. In A549, HeLa and CHO cells, dipyridamole prevented hypoxanthine rescue and so growth was inhibited by the combination of lometrexol, dipyridamole and hypoxanthine, but in HT29, HCT116, KK47, MDA231, CCRF CEM and L1210 cells dipyridamole had no effect and the combination did not inhibit growth. Dipyridamole inhibited hypoxanthine uptake in A549 but not in CCRF CEM cells. Dipyridamole prevented the hypoxanthine-induced repletion of dGTP pools, depleted by lometrexol, in A549 but not in CCRF CEM cells. Thus, the selective growth-inhibitory effect of the combination of lometrexol, dipyridamole and hypoxanthine is apparently due to the dipyridamole sensitivity (ds) or insensitivity (di) of hypoxanthine transport. Both the human and murine leukaemic cells are of the di phenotype. If this reflects the transport phenotype of normal bone marrow it would suggest that the combination of lometrexol, dipyridamole and hypoxanthine might be selectively toxic to certain tumour types and have reduced toxicity to the bone marrow. PMID:9374375

  15. Mass spectrometric analysis of muscle samples to detect potential antibiotic growth promoter misuse in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Gibson, R; Cooper, K M; Kennedy, D G; Elliott, C T

    2012-01-01

    Mass spectrometric methods were developed and validated for the analysis in chicken muscle of a range of antibiotic growth promoters: spiramycin, tylosin, virginiamycin and bacitracin, and separately for two marker metabolites of carbadox (quinoxaline-2-carboxylic acid and 1,4-bisdesoxycarbadox), and a marker metabolite of olaquindox (3-methyl-quinoxaline-2-carboxylic acid). The use of these compounds as antibiotic growth promoters has been banned by the European Commission. This study aimed to develop methods to detect their residues in muscle samples as a means of checking for the use of these drugs during the rearing of broiler chickens. When fed growth-promoting doses for 6 days, spiramycin (31.4 µg kg(-1)), tylosin (1.0 µg kg(-1)), QCA (6.5 µg kg(-1)), DCBX (71.2 µg kg(-1)) and MQCA (0.2 µg kg(-1)) could be detected in the muscle 0 days after the withdrawal of fortified feed. Only spiramycin could consistently be detected beyond a withdrawal period of 1 day. All analytes showed stability to a commercial cooking process, therefore raw or cooked muscle could be used for monitoring purposes. PMID:22784097

  16. Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR): Their potential as antagonists and biocontrol agents

    PubMed Central

    Beneduzi, Anelise; Ambrosini, Adriana; Passaglia, Luciane M.P.

    2012-01-01

    Bacteria that colonize plant roots and promote plant growth are referred to as plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR). PGPR are highly diverse and in this review we focus on rhizobacteria as biocontrol agents. Their effects can occur via local antagonism to soil-borne pathogens or by induction of systemic resistance against pathogens throughout the entire plant. Several substances produced by antagonistic rhizobacteria have been related to pathogen control and indirect promotion of growth in many plants, such as siderophores and antibiotics. Induced systemic resistance (ISR) in plants resembles pathogen-induced systemic acquired resistance (SAR) under conditions where the inducing bacteria and the challenging pathogen remain spatially separated. Both types of induced resistance render uninfected plant parts more resistant to pathogens in several plant species. Rhizobacteria induce resistance through the salicylic acid-dependent SAR pathway, or require jasmonic acid and ethylene perception from the plant for ISR. Rhizobacteria belonging to the genera Pseudomonas and Bacillus are well known for their antagonistic effects and their ability to trigger ISR. Resistance-inducing and antagonistic rhizobacteria might be useful in formulating new inoculants with combinations of different mechanisms of action, leading to a more efficient use for biocontrol strategies to improve cropping systems. PMID:23411488

  17. odd-skipped genes and lines organize the notum anterior-posterior axis using autonomous and non-autonomous mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Del Signore, Steven J; Hayashi, Teru; Hatini, Victor

    2012-07-01

    The growth and patterning of Drosophila wing and notum primordia depend on their subdivision into progressively smaller domains by secreted signals that emanate from localized sources termed organizers. While the mechanisms that organize the wing primordium have been studied extensively, those that organize the notum are incompletely understood. The genes odd-skipped (odd), drumstick (drm), sob, and bowl comprise the odd-skipped family of C(2)H(2) zinc finger genes, which has been implicated in notum growth and patterning. Here we show that drm, Bowl, and eyegone (eyg), a gene required for notum patterning, accumulate in nested domains in the anterior notum. Ectopic drm organized the nested expression of these anterior notum genes and downregulated the expression of posterior notum genes. The cell-autonomous induction of Bowl and Eyg required bowl, while the non-autonomous effects were independent of bowl. The homeodomain protein Bar is expressed along the anterior border of the notum adjacent to cells expressing the Notch (N) ligand Delta (Dl). bowl was required to promote Bar and repress Dl expression to pattern the anterior notum in a cell-autonomous manner, while lines acted antagonistically to bowl posterior to the Bowl domain. Our data suggest that the odd-skipped genes act at the anterior notum border to organize the notum anterior-posterior (AP) axis using both autonomous and non-autonomous mechanisms. PMID:22613630

  18. Growth potential of Clostridium perfringens from spores in acidified beef, pork, and poultry products during chilling.

    PubMed

    Juneja, Vijay K; Baker, David A; Thippareddi, H; Snyder, O Peter; Mohr, Tim B

    2013-01-01

    The ability of Clostridium perfringens to germinate and grow in acidified ground beef as well as in 10 commercially prepared acidified beef, pork, and poultry products was assessed. The pH of ground beef was adjusted with organic vinegar to achieve various pH values between 5.0 and 5.6; the pH of the commercial products ranged from 4.74 to 6.35. Products were inoculated with a three-strain cocktail of C. perfringens spores to achieve ca. 2-log (low) or 4-log (high) inoculum levels, vacuum packaged, and cooled exponentially from 54.4 to 7.2°C for 6, 9, 12, 15, 18, or 21 h to simulate abusive cooling; the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Food Safety and Inspection Service (USDA-FSIS) recommends a cooling time of 6.5 h. Total germinated C. perfringens populations were determined after plating on tryptose-sulfite-cycloserine agar and incubating the plates anaerobically at 37°C for 48 h. In addition, C. perfringens growth from spores was assessed at an isothermal temperature of 44°C. Growth from spores was inhibited in ground beef with a pH of 5.5 or below, even during extended cooling from 54.4 to 7.2°C in 21 h. In ground beef with a pH of 5.6, the growth was >1 log after 18 h of cooling from 54.4 to 7.2°C. However, 15 h of cooling controlled the growth to <1 log, regardless of the inoculum level. In addition, no growth was observed in any product with a pH ranging from 4.74 to 5.17, both during exponential abusive cooling periods of up to 21 h and during storage for 21 h at 44°C. While <1-log growth of C. perfringens from spores was observed in the pH 5.63 product cooled exponentially from 54.4 to 7.2°C in 15 h or less, the pH 6.35 product supported growth, even after 6 h of cooling from 54.4 to 7.2°C. These challenge tests demonstrate that adjustment of ground beef to pH of 5.5 or less and of barbeque products to pH of 5.63 or less inhibits C. perfringens spore germination and outgrowth during extended cooling periods from 54.4 to 7.2°C up to 15 h. Therefore

  19. Bulls grazing Kentucky 31 tall fescue exhibit impaired growth, semen quality, and decreased semen freezing potential

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Serum prolactin (PRL) and testosterone concentrations, body weight, body composition, semen quality, and semen freezing potential for bulls grazing the toxic tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum [Schreb.] Darbysh. ¼ Schedonorous arundinaceum [Schreb.] Dumort.) cultivar Kentucky 31 (E+) compared with a n...

  20. Do cell-autonomous and non-cell-autonomous effects drive the structure of tumor ecosystems?

    PubMed

    Tissot, Tazzio; Ujvari, Beata; Solary, Eric; Lassus, Patrice; Roche, Benjamin; Thomas, Frédéric

    2016-04-01

    By definition, a driver mutation confers a growth advantage to the cancer cell in which it occurs, while a passenger mutation does not: the former is usually considered as the engine of cancer progression, while the latter is not. Actually, the effects of a given mutation depend on the genetic background of the cell in which it appears, thus can differ in the subclones that form a tumor. In addition to cell-autonomous effects generated by the mutations, non-cell-autonomous effects shape the phenotype of a cancer cell. Here, we review the evidence that a network of biological interactions between subclones drives cancer cell adaptation and amplifies intra-tumor heterogeneity. Integrating the role of mutations in tumor ecosystems generates innovative strategies targeting the tumor ecosystem's weaknesses to improve cancer treatment. PMID:26845682

  1. Physics Simulation Software for Autonomous Propellant Loading and Gas House Autonomous System Monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Regalado Reyes, Bjorn Constant

    2015-01-01

    1. Kennedy Space Center (KSC) is developing a mobile launching system with autonomous propellant loading capabilities for liquid-fueled rockets. An autonomous system will be responsible for monitoring and controlling the storage, loading and transferring of cryogenic propellants. The Physics Simulation Software will reproduce the sensor data seen during the delivery of cryogenic fluids including valve positions, pressures, temperatures and flow rates. The simulator will provide insight into the functionality of the propellant systems and demonstrate the effects of potential faults. This will provide verification of the communications protocols and the autonomous system control. 2. The High Pressure Gas Facility (HPGF) stores and distributes hydrogen, nitrogen, helium and high pressure air. The hydrogen and nitrogen are stored in cryogenic liquid state. The cryogenic fluids pose several hazards to operators and the storage and transfer equipment. Constant monitoring of pressures, temperatures and flow rates are required in order to maintain the safety of personnel and equipment during the handling and storage of these commodities. The Gas House Autonomous System Monitoring software will be responsible for constantly observing and recording sensor data, identifying and predicting faults and relaying hazard and operational information to the operators.

  2. Autonomous power system brassboard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merolla, Anthony

    1992-10-01

    The Autonomous Power System (APS) brassboard is a 20 kHz power distribution system which has been developed at NASA Lewis Research Center, Cleveland, Ohio. The brassboard exists to provide a realistic hardware platform capable of testing artificially intelligent (AI) software. The brassboard's power circuit topology is based upon a Power Distribution Control Unit (PDCU), which is a subset of an advanced development 20 kHz electrical power system (EPS) testbed, originally designed for Space Station Freedom (SSF). The APS program is designed to demonstrate the application of intelligent software as a fault detection, isolation, and recovery methodology for space power systems. This report discusses both the hardware and software elements used to construct the present configuration of the brassboard. The brassboard power components are described. These include the solid-state switches (herein referred to as switchgear), transformers, sources, and loads. Closely linked to this power portion of the brassboard is the first level of embedded control. Hardware used to implement this control and its associated software is discussed. An Ada software program, developed by Lewis Research Center's Space Station Freedom Directorate for their 20 kHz testbed, is used to control the brassboard's switchgear, as well as monitor key brassboard parameters through sensors located within these switches. The Ada code is downloaded from a PC/AT, and is resident within the 8086 microprocessor-based embedded controllers. The PC/AT is also used for smart terminal emulation, capable of controlling the switchgear as well as displaying data from them. Intelligent control is provided through use of a T1 Explorer and the Autonomous Power Expert (APEX) LISP software. Real-time load scheduling is implemented through use of a 'C' program-based scheduling engine. The methods of communication between these computers and the brassboard are explored. In order to evaluate the features of both the

  3. Autonomous power system brassboard

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merolla, Anthony

    1992-01-01

    The Autonomous Power System (APS) brassboard is a 20 kHz power distribution system which has been developed at NASA Lewis Research Center, Cleveland, Ohio. The brassboard exists to provide a realistic hardware platform capable of testing artificially intelligent (AI) software. The brassboard's power circuit topology is based upon a Power Distribution Control Unit (PDCU), which is a subset of an advanced development 20 kHz electrical power system (EPS) testbed, originally designed for Space Station Freedom (SSF). The APS program is designed to demonstrate the application of intelligent software as a fault detection, isolation, and recovery methodology for space power systems. This report discusses both the hardware and software elements used to construct the present configuration of the brassboard. The brassboard power components are described. These include the solid-state switches (herein referred to as switchgear), transformers, sources, and loads. Closely linked to this power portion of the brassboard is the first level of embedded control. Hardware used to implement this control and its associated software is discussed. An Ada software program, developed by Lewis Research Center's Space Station Freedom Directorate for their 20 kHz testbed, is used to control the brassboard's switchgear, as well as monitor key brassboard parameters through sensors located within these switches. The Ada code is downloaded from a PC/AT, and is resident within the 8086 microprocessor-based embedded controllers. The PC/AT is also used for smart terminal emulation, capable of controlling the switchgear as well as displaying data from them. Intelligent control is provided through use of a T1 Explorer and the Autonomous Power Expert (APEX) LISP software. Real-time load scheduling is implemented through use of a 'C' program-based scheduling engine. The methods of communication between these computers and the brassboard are explored. In order to evaluate the features of both the

  4. Potential use of duckweed based anaerobic digester effluent as a feed source for heterotrophic growth of micro-algae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmadi, L.; Dupont, R.

    2013-12-01

    Finding an alternative source of energy for the growing world's demand is a challenging task being considered by many scientists. Various types of renewable energy alternatives are being investigated by researchers around the world. The abundance of duckweed (i.e., Lemna and Wolfia sp.) in wetlands and wastewater lagoons, their rapid growth, and their capacity for nutrient, metal and other contaminant removal from wastewater suggests their potential as an inexpensive source of biomass for biofuel production. Another source of biomass for biofuel and energy production is micro-algae. The large-scale growth of micro-algae can potentially be achieved in a smaller footprint and at a higher rate and lower cost via heterotrophic growth compared to autotrophic growth for specific species that can grow under both conditions. Here we describe two types of research. First, two lab-scale, 5 L anaerobic digesters containing municipal raw wastewater that were set up, maintained and monitored over the course of 6 months using duckweed as the feed source. The pH, salinity, amount of gas production and gas composition were measured on a daily basis. The results from these measurements show that duckweed can be used as a good source of biofuel production in the form of methane gas. The second set of reactors consisted of two 1 L batch fed reactors containing algae (Chlorella vulgaris) grown in the lab environment heterotrophically. The pH and DO were monitored on a daily basis in order to investigate their effect on algae growth. Lipid analysis of the harvested algal biomass was done to investigate the efficiency of harvestable biofuel products. A nutrient solution containing glucose as an energy source was used as the initial feed solution, and the potential substitution of the glucose solution with the organic carbon residue from the duckweed digester effluent was investigated. Methane production, carbon stabilization, and gas composition results from the duckweed fed anaerobic

  5. Successful survival, growth, and reproductive potential of quagga mussels in low calcium lake water: is there uncertainty of establishment risk?

    PubMed

    Davis, Clinton J; Ruhmann, Emma K; Acharya, Kumud; Chandra, Sudeep; Jerde, Christopher L

    2015-01-01

    The risk of quagga mussel (Dreissena rostriformis bugensis Andrusov 1897) establishment into water-bodies of the western US has expanded the geographic concern regarding the ecological and economic impacts this species will have in aquatic ecosystems. Thresholds based on calcium concentrations, an element critical for mussel growth and physiology, have been used as a primary predictor of quagga mussel establishment success to aid management decisions. We evaluated the invasion potential of quagga mussels in low calcium waters using laboratory experiments to compare the survival, growth and reproductive potential of adult mussels held for 90 days at low (9 and 12 ppm), moderate (15 to 32 ppm) and high (72 ppm) calcium water concentrations. In conjunction with adult experiments, veliger stage survival, growth and settlement were evaluated under similar low, moderate, and high calcium water treatments. Adult mussels survived, grew and showed reproductive potential in low calcium water (12 ppm). Veligers were also able to survive, grow and settle in low calcium water. Higher levels of natural seston biomass appeared to improve adult mussel life history performance in low calcium water. Survival curve analysis predicted that 99% adult mortality could occur in <170 days at 9 ppm and 12 ppm, however water with >15 ppm could have adults surviving more than a year. The results from these bioassays provide further evidence that quagga mussels have higher risk of establishment in low calcium lakes if habitats exist that have slightly elevated calcium. These results should help emphasize the vulnerability of water-body in the 12 to 15 ppm calcium range that could potentially be at risk of establishing sustainable quagga mussel populations. Furthermore, these results provide insights into the uncertainty of using a single parameter in assigning establishment risk given the complexity of variables in specific water-bodies that influence life history performance of introduced

  6. Connective tissue growth factor differentially binds to members of the cystine knot superfamily and potentiates platelet-derived growth factor-B signaling in rabbit corneal fibroblast cells

    PubMed Central

    Pi, Liya; Chung, Pei-Yu; Sriram, Sriniwas; Rahman, Masmudur M; Song, Wen-Yuan; Scott, Edward W; Petersen, Bryon E; Schultz, Gregory S

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To study the binding of connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) to cystine knot-containing ligands and how this impacts platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-B signaling. METHODS: The binding strengths of CTGF to cystine knot-containing growth factors including vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A, PDGF-B, bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-4, and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 were compared using the LexA-based yeast two-hybrid system. EYG48 reporter strain that carried a wild-type LEU2 gene under the control of LexA operators and a lacZ reporter plasmid (p80p-lacZ) containing eight high affinity LexA binding sites were used in the yeast two-hybrid analysis. Interactions between CTGF and the tested growth factors were evaluated based on growth of transformed yeast cells on selective media and colorimetric detection in a liquid β-galactosidase activity assay. Dissociation constants of CTGF to VEGF-A isoform 165 or PDGF-BB homo-dimer were measured in surface plasma resonance (SPR) analysis. CTGF regulation in PDGF-B presentation to the PDGF receptor β (PDGFRβ) was also quantitatively assessed by the SPR analysis. Combinational effects of CTGF protein and PDGF-BB on activation of PDGFRβ and downstream signaling molecules ERK1/2 and AKT were assessed in rabbit corneal fibroblast cells by Western analysis. RESULTS: In the LexA-based yeast two-hybrid system, cystine knot motifs of tested growth factors were fused to the activation domain of the transcriptional factor GAL4 while CTGF was fused to the DNA binding domain of the bacterial repressor protein LexA. Yeast co-transformants containing corresponding fusion proteins for CTGF and all four tested cystine knot motifs survived on selective medium containing galactose and raffinose but lacking histidine, tryptophan, and uracil. In liquid β-galactosidase assays, CTGF expressing cells that were co-transformed with the cystine knot of VEGF-A had the highest activity, at 29.88 ± 0.91 fold above controls

  7. Growth and heavy metals accumulation potential of microalgae grown in sewage wastewater and petrochemical effluents.

    PubMed

    Ajayan, K V; Selvaraju, M; Thirugnanamoorthy, K

    2011-08-15

    Microalgae exhibit a number of heavy metal uptake process by different metabolism. In this study, the ability of microalgae for removal of heavy metal from wastewater was studied. Growth and biochemical contents of microalgae were determined by spectrophotometer. Heavy metal analysis of wastewater effluents were performed by atomic absorption spectrophotometer before and after treatment at laboratory scale. The growth of Scenedesmus bijuga and Oscillatoria quadripunctulata in sewage wastewater was higher than those grown in synthetic medium. Whereas, the growth of S. bijuga and O. quadripunctulata in sterilized petrochemical effluents was slightly lower than that grown in the standard synthetic medium. The chlorophyll, carotenoid and protein content of S. bijuga and O. quadripunctulata grown in sterilized sewage wastewater were higher than those grown in the standard medium. Similarly S. bijuga and O. quadripunctulata grown in sterilized petrochemical effluents showed lower contents of pigments and protein than those grown in sewage and synthetic medium. Heavy metals copper, cobalt, lead and zinc were removed by 37-50, 20.3-33.3, 34.6-100 and 32.1-100%, respectively from sewage wastewater and petrochemical effluent using Ocillatoria culture. The metal absorption by S. bijuga were (Cu, Co, Pb, Zn) 60-50, 29.6-66, 15.4-25 and 42.9-50%, respectively from sewage and petrochemical effluents. Both species showed high level of heavy metal removal efficiency and metal sorption efficiency of both microalgae depended on the type of biosorbent, the physiological status of the cells, availability of heavy metal, concentration of heavy metal and chemical composition of wastewater. PMID:22545355

  8. Growth differentiating factor 15 enhances the tumor-initiating and self-renewal potential of multiple myeloma cells

    PubMed Central

    Tanno, Toshihiko; Lim, Yiting; Wang, Qiuju; Chesi, Marta; Bergsagel, P. Leif; Matthews, Geoff; Johnstone, Ricky W.; Ghosh, Nilanjan; Borrello, Ivan; Huff, Carol Ann

    2014-01-01

    Disease relapse remains a major factor limiting the survival of cancer patients. In the plasma cell malignancy multiple myeloma (MM), nearly all patients ultimately succumb to disease relapse and progression despite new therapies that have improved remission rates. Tumor regrowth indicates that clonogenic growth potential is continually maintained, but the determinants of self-renewal in MM are not well understood. Normal stem cells are regulated by extrinsic niche factors, and the tumor microenvironment (TME) may similarly influence tumor cell clonogenic growth and self-renewal. Growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF15) is aberrantly secreted by bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) in MM. We found that GDF15 is produced by BMSCs after direct contact with plasma cells and enhances the tumor-initiating potential and self-renewal of MM cells in a protein kinase B- and SRY (sex-determining region Y)-box–dependent manner. Moreover, GDF15 induces the expansion of MM tumor-initiating cells (TICs), and changes in the serum levels of GDF15 were associated with changes in the frequency of clonogenic MM cells and the progression-free survival of MM patients. These findings demonstrate that GDF15 plays a critical role in mediating the interaction among mature tumor cells, the TME, and TICs, and strategies targeting GDF15 may affect long-term clinical outcomes in MM. PMID:24345755

  9. Landscape scale measures of steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) bioenergetic growth rate potential in Lake Michigan and comparison with angler catch rates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hook, T.O.; Rutherford, E.S.; Brines, Shannon J.; Geddes, C.A.; Mason, D.M.; Schwab, D.J.; Fleischer, G.W.

    2004-01-01

    The relative quality of a habitat can influence fish consumption, growth, mortality, and production. In order to quantify habitat quality, several authors have combined bioenergetic and foraging models to generate spatially explicit estimates of fish growth rate potential (GRP). However, the capacity of GRP to reflect the spatial distributions of fishes over large areas has not been fully evaluated. We generated landscape scale estimates of steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) GRP throughout Lake Michigan for 1994-1996, and used these estimates to test the hypotheses that GRP is a good predictor of spatial patterns of steelhead catch rates. We used surface temperatures (measured with AVHRR satellite imagery) and acoustically measured steelhead prey densities (alewife, Alosa pseudoharengus) as inputs for the GRP model. Our analyses demonstrate that potential steelhead growth rates in Lake Michigan are highly variable in both space and time. Steelhead GRP tended to increase with latitude, and mean GRP was much higher during September 1995, compared to 1994 and 1996. In addition, our study suggests that landscape scale measures of GRP are not good predictors of steelhead catch rates throughout Lake Michigan, but may provide an index of interannual variation in system-wide habitat quality.

  10. Evaluating the growth potential of sea lampreys (Petromyzon marinus) feeding on siscowet lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) in Lake Superior

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moody, E.K.; Weidel, B.C.; Ahrenstorff, T.D.; Mattes, W.P.; Kitchell, J.F.

    2011-01-01

    Differences in the preferred thermal habitat of Lake Superior lake trout morphotypes create alternative growth scenarios for parasitic sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) attached to lake trout hosts. Siscowet lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) inhabit deep, consistently cold water (4–6 °C) and are more abundant than lean lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) which occupy temperatures between 8 and 12 °C during summer thermal stratification. Using bioenergetics models we contrasted the growth potential of sea lampreys attached to siscowet and lean lake trout to determine how host temperature influences the growth and ultimate size of adult sea lamprey. Sea lampreys simulated under the thermal regime of siscowets are capable of reaching sizes within the range of adult sea lamprey sizes observed in Lake Superior tributaries. High lamprey wounding rates on siscowets suggest siscowets are important lamprey hosts. In addition, siscowets have higher survival rates from lamprey attacks than those observed for lean lake trout which raises the prospect that siscowets serve as a buffer to predation on more commercially desirable hosts such as lean lake trout, and could serve to subsidize lamprey growth.

  11. Synthesis of octadecyl esters of histidine-containing tripeptides as potential regulators of plant growth

    SciTech Connect

    Ogrel, A.A.; Zvonkova, E.N.; Gafurov, R.G.

    1995-08-01

    Octadecyl esters of dipeptides and tripeptides of the type Phe-His, Val-His, Phe-Val-His and Val-Phe-His were synthesized using different methods. The minimum energy conformations of these peptides were calculated with computer minimization programs and compared with those of paclobutrazol, a well-known regulator of plant growth. It was demonstrated that the elongation of the peptide chain leads to a higher topochemical correspondence between paclobutrazol and the peptide derivatives than between paclobutrazol and amino acid derivatives. 9 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  12. Microtubules are potential regulators of growth-plate chondrocyte differentiation and hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Farquharson, C; Lester, D; Seawright, E; Jefferies, D; Houston, B

    1999-10-01

    Terminal differentiation of growth-plate chondrocytes is accompanied by the acquisition of a spherical morphology and a large increase in cell volume. These changes are likely to be associated with rearrangement of the cytoskeleton, but little information on this aspect of chondrocyte hypertrophy is available. We report a role for microtubules in the control of chondrocyte maturation and hypertrophy. Chick growth-plate chondrocytes were fractionated into five maturationally distinct populations by Percoll density gradient centrifugation, and agarose gel differential display analysis was performed. We identified a 1200 bp cDNA fragment derived from a transcript that was most highly expressed in the hypertrophic chondrocytes. After cloning and sequencing, FASTA and BLAST analysis revealed 100% identity to chick beta7-tubulin. Differential expression was confirmed in a reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay using specific primers for a 343 bp fragment from the 3' untranslated region of beta7-tubulin. Beta7-tubulin was upregulated three-fold in fully hypertrophic chondrocytes compared with the other four fractions, which all had similar levels of expression. Immunocytochemical localization of beta-tubulin in chick growth-plate sections demonstrated little staining in the chondrocytes of the proliferating zone, but intense cytoplasmic staining was present in the large hypertrophic chondrocytes. In cell culture studies, the addition of colchicine (10(-6) mol/L) resulted in a higher rate of [3H]-thymidine uptake (36.0%; p < 0.001), but lower amounts of alkaline phosphatase activity (69.1%; p < 0.001), collagen (49.1%; p < 0.01), and glycosaminoglycan (43.3%; p < 0.01) accumulation within the cell-matrix layer. Further evidence for the involvement of microtubules in chondrocyte differentiation and hypertrophy was obtained by morphological assessment of colchicine-treated growth-plate explant cultures. A partial failure of chondrocyte hypertrophy was

  13. Autonomic Dysregulation in Multiple Sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Pintér, Alexandra; Cseh, Domonkos; Sárközi, Adrienn; Illigens, Ben M; Siepmann, Timo

    2015-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic, progressive central neurological disease characterized by inflammation and demyelination. In patients with MS, dysregulation of the autonomic nervous system may present with various clinical symptoms including sweating abnormalities, urinary dysfunction, orthostatic dysregulation, gastrointestinal symptoms, and sexual dysfunction. These autonomic disturbances reduce the quality of life of affected patients and constitute a clinical challenge to the physician due to variability of clinical presentation and inconsistent data on diagnosis and treatment. Early diagnosis and initiation of individualized interdisciplinary and multimodal strategies is beneficial in the management of autonomic dysfunction in MS. This review summarizes the current literature on the most prevalent aspects of autonomic dysfunction in MS and provides reference to underlying pathophysiological mechanisms as well as means of diagnosis and treatment. PMID:26213927

  14. Autonomic closure for turbulence simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, Ryan N.; Hamlington, Peter E.; Dahm, Werner J. A.

    2016-03-01

    A new approach to turbulence closure is presented that eliminates the need to specify a predefined turbulence model and instead provides for fully adaptive, self-optimizing, autonomic closures. The closure is autonomic in the sense that the simulation itself determines the optimal local, instantaneous relation between any unclosed term and resolved quantities through the solution of a nonlinear, nonparametric system identification problem. This nonparametric approach allows the autonomic closure to freely adapt to varying nonlinear, nonlocal, nonequilibrium, and other turbulence characteristics in the flow. Even a simple implementation of the autonomic closure for large eddy simulations provides remarkably more accurate results in a priori tests than do dynamic versions of traditional prescribed closures.

  15. Autonomic closure for turbulence simulations.

    PubMed

    King, Ryan N; Hamlington, Peter E; Dahm, Werner J A

    2016-03-01

    A new approach to turbulence closure is presented that eliminates the need to specify a predefined turbulence model and instead provides for fully adaptive, self-optimizing, autonomic closures. The closure is autonomic in the sense that the simulation itself determines the optimal local, instantaneous relation between any unclosed term and resolved quantities through the solution of a nonlinear, nonparametric system identification problem. This nonparametric approach allows the autonomic closure to freely adapt to varying nonlinear, nonlocal, nonequilibrium, and other turbulence characteristics in the flow. Even a simple implementation of the autonomic closure for large eddy simulations provides remarkably more accurate results in a priori tests than do dynamic versions of traditional prescribed closures. PMID:27078285

  16. Autonomic Dysregulation in Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Pintér, Alexandra; Cseh, Domonkos; Sárközi, Adrienn; Illigens, Ben M.; Siepmann, Timo

    2015-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic, progressive central neurological disease characterized by inflammation and demyelination. In patients with MS, dysregulation of the autonomic nervous system may present with various clinical symptoms including sweating abnormalities, urinary dysfunction, orthostatic dysregulation, gastrointestinal symptoms, and sexual dysfunction. These autonomic disturbances reduce the quality of life of affected patients and constitute a clinical challenge to the physician due to variability of clinical presentation and inconsistent data on diagnosis and treatment. Early diagnosis and initiation of individualized interdisciplinary and multimodal strategies is beneficial in the management of autonomic dysfunction in MS. This review summarizes the current literature on the most prevalent aspects of autonomic dysfunction in MS and provides reference to underlying pathophysiological mechanisms as well as means of diagnosis and treatment. PMID:26213927

  17. ISS Update: Autonomous Mission Operations

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA Public Affairs Officer Brandi Dean interviews Jeff Mauldin, Simulation Supervisor for Autonomous Mission Operations at Johnson Space Center in Houston, Texas. Ask us on Twitter @NASA_Johnson a...

  18. Nerve growth factor signaling following unilateral pelvic ganglionectomy in the rat ventral prostate is age dependent.

    PubMed

    Podlasek, Carol A; Ghosh, Rudrani; Onur Cakir, Omer; Bond, Christopher; McKenna, Kevin E; McVary, Kevin T

    2013-11-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is a serious health concern and is an underlying cause of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) in many men. In affected men, LUTS/BPH is believed to result from benign proliferation of the prostate resulting in bladder outlet obstruction. Postnatal growth of the prostate is controlled via growth factor and endocrine mechanisms. However, little attention had been given to the function of the autonomic nervous system in prostate growth and differentiation. Nerve growth factor (NGF) is a prostatic mitogen that has a trophic role in autonomic sensory end organ interaction. In this study, we examine how the autonomic nervous system influences prostate growth as a function of age by quantifying NGF in the rat ventral prostate (VP) after pelvic ganglionectomy. Unilateral pelvic ganglionectomy was performed on postnatal days 30 (P30), 60 and 120 Sprague-Dawley rats in comparison to sham controls (n=39). Semiquantitative RT-PCR, Western blotting and immunohistochemical analysis for NGF were performed on denervated, intact (contralateral side) and sham control VP 7 days after surgery. Ngf RNA expression was significantly increased in the denervated and intact hyperplastic VP. Western blotting showed age-dependent increases in NGF protein at P60 in the contralateral intact VP. NGF was localized in the nerves, basal cells and columnar epithelium of the prostatic ducts. Denervation causes age-dependent increases in NGF in the VP, which is a potential mechanism by which the autonomic nervous system may regulate prostate growth and lead to BPH/LUTS. PMID:23872662

  19. Autonomous Gaussian Decomposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindner, Robert R.; Vera-Ciro, Carlos; Murray, Claire E.; Stanimirović, Snežana; Babler, Brian; Heiles, Carl; Hennebelle, Patrick; Goss, W. M.; Dickey, John

    2015-04-01

    We present a new algorithm, named Autonomous Gaussian Decomposition (AGD), for automatically decomposing spectra into Gaussian components. AGD uses derivative spectroscopy and machine learning to provide optimized guesses for the number of Gaussian components in the data, and also their locations, widths, and amplitudes. We test AGD and find that it produces results comparable to human-derived solutions on 21 cm absorption spectra from the 21 cm SPectral line Observations of Neutral Gas with the EVLA (21-SPONGE) survey. We use AGD with Monte Carlo methods to derive the H i line completeness as a function of peak optical depth and velocity width for the 21-SPONGE data, and also show that the results of AGD are stable against varying observational noise intensity. The autonomy and computational efficiency of the method over traditional manual Gaussian fits allow for truly unbiased comparisons between observations and simulations, and for the ability to scale up and interpret the very large data volumes from the upcoming Square Kilometer Array and pathfinder telescopes.

  20. Autonomous landing guidance program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, John A.

    1996-05-01

    The Autonomous Landing Guidance program is partly funded by the US Government under the Technology Reinvestment Project. The program consortium consists of avionics and other equipment vendors, airlines and the USAF. A Sextant Avionique HUD is used to present flight symbology in cursive form as well as millimeter wave radar imagery from Lear Astronics equipment and FLIR Systems dual-channel, forward-looking, infrared imagery. All sensor imagery is presented in raster form. A future aim is to fuse all imagery data into a single presentation. Sensor testing has been accomplished in a Cessna 402 operated by the Maryland Advanced Development Laboratory. Development testing is under way in a Northwest Airlines simulator equipped with HUD and image simulation. Testing is also being carried out using United Airlines Boeing 727 and USAF C-135C (Boeing 707) test aircraft. The paper addresses the technology utilized in sensory and display systems as well as modifications made to accommodate the elements in the aircraft. Additions to the system test aircraft include global positioning systems, inertial navigation systems and extensive data collection equipment. Operational philosophy and benefits for both civil and military users are apparent. Approach procedures have been developed allowing use of Category 1 ground installations in Category 3 conditions.

  1. Autonomous underwater barcode recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulze, Karl R.

    2003-11-01

    Wide area symbol recognition is a task that plagues many autonomous vehicles. A process is needed first to recognize if the symbol is present, and if so where it is. Once the symbol's position is detected it must be analyzed and recognized. In this scenario we have a submersible attempting to locate man made objects on the bottom of a large water basin. These man made objects have bar codes on them that need to be read and the position of the code needs to be recorded relative to where it is in the entire pond. A two step process has been developed to allow the position recognition within a frame to be dealt with on a separate DSP associated with one of three total cameras. The object recognition is then dealt with on a high speed computer aboard the vehicle to read the proper code. The reading is done using a statistics based approach that assumes a noisy, but contrasting background. This approach has proven to be effective in environments in which the background has very little ordered noise, such as the bottom of lakes and ponds, but requires very high clarity in order to capture a suitable image.

  2. Autonomous mission operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frank, J.; Spirkovska, L.; McCann, R.; Wang, Lui; Pohlkamp, K.; Morin, L.

    NASA's Advanced Exploration Systems Autonomous Mission Operations (AMO) project conducted an empirical investigation of the impact of time delay on today's mission operations, and of the effect of processes and mission support tools designed to mitigate time-delay related impacts. Mission operation scenarios were designed for NASA's Deep Space Habitat (DSH), an analog spacecraft habitat, covering a range of activities including nominal objectives, DSH system failures, and crew medical emergencies. The scenarios were simulated at time delay values representative of Lunar (1.2-5 sec), Near Earth Object (NEO) (50 sec) and Mars (300 sec) missions. Each combination of operational scenario and time delay was tested in a Baseline configuration, designed to reflect present-day operations of the International Space Station, and a Mitigation configuration in which a variety of software tools, information displays, and crew-ground communications protocols were employed to assist both crews and Flight Control Team (FCT) members with the long-delay conditions. Preliminary findings indicate: 1) Workload of both crewmembers and FCT members generally increased along with increasing time delay. 2) Advanced procedure execution viewers, caution and warning tools, and communications protocols such as text messaging decreased the workload of both flight controllers and crew, and decreased the difficulty of coordinating activities. 3) Whereas crew workload ratings increased between 50 sec and 300 sec of time delay in the Baseline configuration, workload ratings decreased (or remained flat) in the Mitigation configuration.

  3. Simple autonomous Mars walker

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larimer, Stanley J.; Lisec, Thomas R.; Spiessbach, Andrew J.

    1989-01-01

    Under a contract with NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Martin Marietta has developed several alternative rover concepts for unmanned exploration of the planet Mars. One of those concepts, the 'Walking Beam', is the subject of this paper. This concept was developed with the goal of achieving many of the capabilities of more sophisticated articulated-leg walkers with a much simpler, more robust, less computationally demanding and more power efficient design. It consists of two large-base tripods nested one within the other which alternately translate with respect to each other along a 5-meter beam to propel the vehicle. The semiautonomous navigation system relies on terrain geometry sensors and tacticle feedback from each foot to autonomously select a path which avoids hazards along a route designated from earth. Both mobility and navigation features of this concept are discussed including a top-level description of the vehicle's physical characteristics, deployment strategy, mobility elements, sensor suite, theory of operation, navigation and control processes, and estimated performance.

  4. Is paramecium swimming autonomic?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bandyopadhyay, Promode R.; Toplosky, Norman; Hansen, Joshua

    2010-11-01

    We seek to explore if the swimming of paramecium has an underlying autonomic mechanism. Such robotic elements may be useful in capturing the disturbance field in an environment in real time. Experimental evidence is emerging that motion control neurons of other animals may be present in paramecium as well. The limit cycle determined using analog simulation of the coupled nonlinear oscillators of olivo-cerebellar dynamics (ieee joe 33, 563-578, 2008) agrees with the tracks of the cilium of a biological paramecium. A 4-motor apparatus has been built that reproduces the kinematics of the cilium motion. The motion of the biological cilium has been analyzed and compared with the results of the finite element modeling of forces on a cilium. The modeling equates applied torque at the base of the cilium with drag, the cilium stiffness being phase dependent. A low friction pendulum apparatus with a multiplicity of electromagnetic actuators is being built for verifying the maps of the attractor basin computed using the olivo-cerebellar dynamics for different initial conditions. Sponsored by ONR 33.

  5. Autonomous Aerobraking at Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanna, Jill L.; Tolson, Robert; Cianciolo, Alicia Dwyer; Dec, John

    2002-01-01

    Aerobraking has become a proven approach for orbital missions at Mars. A launch of a 1000 kg class spacecraft on a Delta class booster saves 90% of the post-MOI fuel otherwise required to circularize the orbit. In 1997, Mars Global Surveyor demonstrated the feasibility and Mars 2001 Odyssey completed a nearly trouble free aerobraking phase in January 2002. In 2006, Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter will also utilize aerobraking. From the flight operations standpoint, however, aerobraking is labor intensive and high risk due to the large density variability in the Mars thermosphere. The maximum rate of aerobraking is typically limited by the maximum allowable temperature of the solar array which is the primary drag surface. Prior missions have used a surrogate variable, usually maximum free stream heat flux, as a basis for performing periapsis altitude corridor control maneuvers. This paper provides an adaptive sequential method for operationally relating measured temperatures to heat flux profile characteristics and performing maneuvers based directly on measured temperatures and atmospheric properties derived from the heat flux profiles. Simulations of autonomous aerobraking are performed using Odyssey mission data.

  6. Autonomous production of propellants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramohalli, Kumar; Schallhorn, P. A.

    1990-01-01

    The autonomous production of propellants is addressed. Since 80 to 90 percent of a spacecraft's mass is typically propellants, it is advantageous to produce propellants in strategic locations en route to, and at, the desired mission destination. This reduces the weight of the spacecraft and the cost of each mission. Since one of the primary goals of the space program is safety, a totally automated propellant production system is desirable. This system would remove, from hostile, high-risk extraterrestrial environments, the constant human intervention currently required in the production of many propellants. This enables the exploration of space to be more than the search for and production of fuel. As a proof-of-concept demonstration, one specific case was chosen for this study. That case was a composite propellant processor (the principle is more important than the application), and the specific processor used saved SERC the considerable cost of acquiring a new liquid propellant processor that would also have required similar automation.

  7. Autonomous Mission Operations Roadmap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frank, Jeremy David

    2014-01-01

    As light time delays increase, the number of such situations in which crew autonomy is the best way to conduct the mission is expected to increase. However, there are significant open questions regarding which functions to allocate to ground and crew as the time delays increase. In situations where the ideal solution is to allocate responsibility to the crew and the vehicle, a second question arises: should the activity be the responsibility of the crew or an automated vehicle function? More specifically, we must answer the following questions: What aspects of mission operation responsibilities (Plan, Train, Fly) should be allocated to ground based or vehicle based planning, monitoring, and control in the presence of significant light-time delay between the vehicle and the Earth?How should the allocated ground based planning, monitoring, and control be distributed across the flight control team and ground system automation? How should the allocated vehicle based planning, monitoring, and control be distributed between the flight crew and onboard system automation?When during the mission should responsibility shift from flight control team to crew or from crew to vehicle, and what should the process of shifting responsibility be as the mission progresses? NASA is developing a roadmap of capabilities for Autonomous Mission Operations for human spaceflight. This presentation will describe the current state of development of this roadmap, with specific attention to in-space inspection tasks that crews might perform with minimum assistance from the ground.

  8. Biomimetic smart sensors for autonomous robotic behavior I: acoustic processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deligeorges, Socrates; Xue, Shuwan; Soloway, Aaron; Lichtenstein, Lee; Gore, Tyler; Hubbard, Allyn

    2009-05-01

    Robotics are rapidly becoming an integral tool on the battlefield and in homeland security, replacing humans in hazardous conditions. To enhance the effectiveness of robotic assets and their interaction with human operators, smart sensors are required to give more autonomous function to robotic platforms. Biologically inspired sensors are an essential part of this development of autonomous behavior and can increase both capability and performance of robotic systems. Smart, biologically inspired acoustic sensors have the potential to extend autonomous capabilities of robotic platforms to include sniper detection, vehicle tracking, personnel detection, and general acoustic monitoring. The key to enabling these capabilities is biomimetic acoustic processing using a time domain processing method based on the neural structures of the mammalian auditory system. These biologically inspired algorithms replicate the extremely adaptive processing of the auditory system yielding high sensitivity over broad dynamic range. The algorithms provide tremendous robustness in noisy and echoic spaces; properties necessary for autonomous function in real world acoustic environments. These biomimetic acoustic algorithms also provide highly accurate localization of both persistent and transient sounds over a wide frequency range, using baselines on the order of only inches. A specialized smart sensor has been developed to interface with an iRobot Packbot® platform specifically to enhance its autonomous behaviors in response to personnel and gunfire. The low power, highly parallel biomimetic processor, in conjunction with a biomimetic vestibular system (discussed in the companion paper), has shown the system's autonomous response to gunfire in complicated acoustic environments to be highly effective.

  9. Abnormal Cardiac Autonomic Regulation in Mice Lacking ASIC3

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Ching-Feng; Kuo, Terry B. J.; Chen, Wei-Nan

    2014-01-01

    Integration of sympathetic and parasympathetic outflow is essential in maintaining normal cardiac autonomic function. Recent studies demonstrate that acid-sensing ion channel 3 (ASIC3) is a sensitive acid sensor for cardiac ischemia and prolonged mild acidification can open ASIC3 and evoke a sustained inward current that fires action potentials in cardiac sensory neurons. However, the physiological role of ASIC3 in cardiac autonomic regulation is not known. In this study, we elucidate the role of ASIC3 in cardiac autonomic function using Asic3−/− mice. Asic3−/− mice showed normal baseline heart rate and lower blood pressure as compared with their wild-type littermates. Heart rate variability analyses revealed imbalanced autonomic regulation, with decreased sympathetic function. Furthermore, Asic3−/− mice demonstrated a blunted response to isoproterenol-induced cardiac tachycardia and prolonged duration to recover to baseline heart rate. Moreover, quantitative RT-PCR analysis of gene expression in sensory ganglia and heart revealed that no gene compensation for muscarinic acetylcholines receptors and beta-adrenalin receptors were found in Asic3−/− mice. In summary, we unraveled an important role of ASIC3 in regulating cardiac autonomic function, whereby loss of ASIC3 alters the normal physiological response to ischemic stimuli, which reveals new implications for therapy in autonomic nervous system-related cardiovascular diseases. PMID:24804235

  10. Abnormal cardiac autonomic regulation in mice lacking ASIC3.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Ching-Feng; Kuo, Terry B J; Chen, Wei-Nan; Lin, Chao-Chieh; Chen, Chih-Cheng

    2014-01-01

    Integration of sympathetic and parasympathetic outflow is essential in maintaining normal cardiac autonomic function. Recent studies demonstrate that acid-sensing ion channel 3 (ASIC3) is a sensitive acid sensor for cardiac ischemia and prolonged mild acidification can open ASIC3 and evoke a sustained inward current that fires action potentials in cardiac sensory neurons. However, the physiological role of ASIC3 in cardiac autonomic regulation is not known. In this study, we elucidate the role of ASIC3 in cardiac autonomic function using Asic3(-/-) mice. Asic3(-/-) mice showed normal baseline heart rate and lower blood pressure as compared with their wild-type littermates. Heart rate variability analyses revealed imbalanced autonomic regulation, with decreased sympathetic function. Furthermore, Asic3(-/-) mice demonstrated a blunted response to isoproterenol-induced cardiac tachycardia and prolonged duration to recover to baseline heart rate. Moreover, quantitative RT-PCR analysis of gene expression in sensory ganglia and heart revealed that no gene compensation for muscarinic acetylcholines receptors and beta-adrenalin receptors were found in Asic3(-/-) mice. In summary, we unraveled an important role of ASIC3 in regulating cardiac autonomic function, whereby loss of ASIC3 alters the normal physiological response to ischemic stimuli, which reveals new implications for therapy in autonomic nervous system-related cardiovascular diseases. PMID:24804235

  11. Interactions between arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and bacteria and their potential for stimulating plant growth.

    PubMed

    Artursson, Veronica; Finlay, Roger D; Jansson, Janet K

    2006-01-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi and bacteria can interact synergistically to stimulate plant growth through a range of mechanisms that include improved nutrient acquisition and inhibition of fungal plant pathogens. These interactions may be of crucial importance within sustainable, low-input agricultural cropping systems that rely on biological processes rather than agrochemicals to maintain soil fertility and plant health. Although there are many studies concerning interactions between AM fungi and bacteria, the underlying mechanisms behind these associations are in general not very well understood, and their functional properties still require further experimental confirmation. Future mycorrhizal research should therefore strive towards an improved understanding of the functional mechanisms behind such microbial interactions, so that optimized combinations of microorganisms can be applied as effective inoculants within sustainable crop production systems. In this context, the present article seeks to review and discuss the current knowledge concerning interactions between AM fungi and plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria, the physical interactions between AM fungi and bacteria, enhancement of phosphorus and nitrogen bioavailability through such interactions, and finally the associations between AM fungi and their bacterial endosymbionts. Overall, this review summarizes what is known to date within the present field, and attempts to identify promising lines of future research. PMID:16343316

  12. Potential sites of bioactive gibberellin production during reproductive growth in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jianhong; Mitchum, Melissa G; Barnaby, Neel; Ayele, Belay T; Ogawa, Mikihiro; Nam, Edward; Lai, Wei-Chu; Hanada, Atsushi; Alonso, Jose M; Ecker, Joseph R; Swain, Stephen M; Yamaguchi, Shinjiro; Kamiya, Yuji; Sun, Tai-Ping

    2008-02-01

    Gibberellin 3-oxidase (GA3ox) catalyzes the final step in the synthesis of bioactive gibberellins (GAs). We examined the expression patterns of all four GA3ox genes in Arabidopsis thaliana by promoter-beta-glucuronidase gene fusions and by quantitative RT-PCR and defined their physiological roles by characterizing single, double, and triple mutants. In developing flowers, GA3ox genes are only expressed in stamen filaments, anthers, and flower receptacles. Mutant plants that lack both GA3ox1 and GA3ox3 functions displayed stamen and petal defects, indicating that these two genes are important for GA production in the flower. Our data suggest that de novo synthesis of active GAs is necessary for stamen development in early flowers and that bioactive GAs made in the stamens and/or flower receptacles are transported to petals to promote their growth. In developing siliques, GA3ox1 is mainly expressed in the replums, funiculi, and the silique receptacles, whereas the other GA3ox genes are only expressed in developing seeds. Active GAs appear to be transported from the seed endosperm to the surrounding maternal tissues where they promote growth. The immediate upregulation of GA3ox1 and GA3ox4 after anthesis suggests that pollination and/or fertilization is a prerequisite for de novo GA biosynthesis in fruit, which in turn promotes initial elongation of the silique. PMID:18310462

  13. Noninvasive Index of Cryorecovery and Growth Potential for Human Follicles In Vitro1

    PubMed Central

    Barrett, Susan L.; Shea, Lonnie D.; Woodruff, Teresa K.

    2010-01-01

    Cryopreservation of oocytes and embryos is commonly used to preserve fertility. However, women undergoing cancer treatment may not have the time or may not be good candidates for these options. Ovarian cortical tissue cryopreservation and subsequent tissue transplant has been proven successful yet inefficient in preserving larger secondary follicles, and is not recommended as a fertility preservation option for women with certain cancers. We evaluated cryopreservation of individual follicles as an alternative option in rodents, nonhuman primates, and human primates. Under optimal conditions, cryopreserved mouse secondary follicles were able to reestablish granulosa cell-oocyte interactions, which are essential for subsequent follicle growth. Individual secondary follicles survived cryopreservation, were able to be cultured in a three-dimensional alginate hydrogel matrix to the antral stage, and the enclosed oocytes were competent for fertilization. Using a vital imaging technique (pol-scope) employed in many fertility centers, we were able to bioassay the thawed, cultured follicles for the presence of transzonal connections between the somatic and germ cells. Perturbations in these linkages were shown to be reversed when follicles were cryopreserved under optimal freezing conditions. We applied the optimized cryopreservation protocol to isolated rhesus monkey and human secondary follicles, and using the birefringent bioassay, we were able to show good correlation between early follicle growth and healthy somatic cell-oocyte connections. Our results suggest that ovarian follicles can be cryopreserved, thawed, and analyzed noninvasively, making follicle preservation an additional option for young cancer patients. PMID:20200211

  14. Emerging molecular targets in oncology: clinical potential of MET/hepatocyte growth-factor inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Smyth, Elizabeth C; Sclafani, Francesco; Cunningham, David

    2014-01-01

    The MET/hepatocyte growth-factor (HGF) signaling pathway plays a key role in the processes of embryogenesis, wound healing, and organ regeneration. Aberrant activation of MET/HGF occurs through multiple mechanisms including gene amplification, mutation, protein overexpression, and abnormal gene splicing interrupting autocrine and paracrine regulatory feedback mechanisms. In many cancers including non-small-cell lung cancer, colorectal, gastric, renal, and hepatocellular cancer, dysregulation of MET may lead to a more aggressive cancer phenotype and may be a negative prognostic indicator. Successful therapeutic targeting of the MET/HGF pathway has been achieved using monoclonal antibodies against the MET receptor and its ligand HGF in addition to MET-specific and multitargeted small-molecule tyrosine-kinase inhibitors with several drugs in late-phase clinical trials including onartuzumab, rilotumumab, tivantinib, and cabozantinib. MET frequently interacts with other key oncogenic tyrosine kinases including epidermal growth-factor receptor (EGFR) and HER-3 and these interactions may be responsible for resistance to anti-EGFR therapies. Similarly, resistance to MET inhibition may be mediated through EGFR activation, or alternatively by increasing levels of MET amplification or acquisition of novel “gatekeeper” mutations. In order to optimize development of effective inhibitors of the MET/HGF pathway clinical trials must be enriched for patients with demonstrable MET-pathway dysregulation for which robustly standardized and validated assays are required. PMID:24959087

  15. Breeding practices, growth, and carcass potential of fat-tailed Washera sheep breed in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Getachew, Tesfaye; Gizaw, Solomon; Lemma, Sisay; Taye, Mengistie

    2011-10-01

    On-farm survey of farmers' breeding practices, breeding objectives, and selection criteria and on-station feedlot performance evaluation of Washera sheep were undertaken in Ethiopia. The survey revealed that most (79.8%) of the farmers had no breeding ram. The mating system was predominantly uncontrolled. A majority (75.5%) of the sheep owners reported that they herded their sheep flock by mixing with other livestock species mainly with cattle. During grazing, 44.6% of the farmers mix their sheep flock with neighboring sheep flocks. The major sheep production objective was to generate income from the sale of live sheep. Fast growth, appearance, coat color, and pedigree performance were important ram selection criteria, respectively. Ability to breed at early age, pedigree information, mothering ability, and lambing interval were important selection criteria for ewe, respectively. The on-station performance study involved evaluation of feedlot gains and carcass production under five levels of feeding regimes (300, 400, 500, 600, and 700 g day(-1) of concentrate feed) for a period of 93 days. The results indicated that the feedlot growth and carcass performance of Washera sheep were very high, with average daily weight gains of up to 126 g and carcass weight of 16 kg, with the optimal level of supplementation for Washera sheep being at 500 g of concentrate per day for a period of 93 days. PMID:21523493

  16. Controlling Heteroepitaxy by Oxygen Chemical Potential: Exclusive Growth of (100) Oriented Ceria Nanostructures on Cu(111)

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Höcker, Jan; Duchoň, Tomáš; Veltruská, Kateřina; Matolín, Vladimír; Falta, Jens; Senanayake, Sanjaya D.; Flege, J. Ingo

    2016-01-06

    We present a novel and simple method for the preparation of a well-defined CeO2(100) model system on Cu(111) based on the adjustment of the Ce/O ratio during growth. The method yields micrometer-sized, several nanometers high, single-phase CeO2(100) islands with controllable size and surface termination that can be benchmarked against the known (111) nanostructured islands on Cu(111). We also demonstrate the ability to adjust the Ce to O stoichiometry from CeO2(100) (100% Ce4+) to c-Ce2O3(100) (100% Ce3+), which can be readily recognized by characteristic surface reconstructions observed by low-energy electron diffraction. Finally, the discovery of the highly stable CeOx(100) phase onmore » a hexagonally close packed metal surface represents an unexpected growth mechanism of ceria on Cu(111), and it provides novel opportunities to prepare more elaborate models, benchmark surface chemical reactivity, and thus gain valuable insights into the redox chemistry of ceria in catalytic processes.« less

  17. Growth kinetics of Chlorococcum humicola - A potential feedstock for biomass with biofuel properties.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Jibu; Jayachithra, E V

    2015-11-01

    Economically viable production facilities for microalgae depend on the optimization of growth parameters with regard to nutrient requirements. Using microalgae to treat industrial effluents containing heavy metals presents an alternative to the current practice of using physical and chemical methods. Present work focuses on the statistical optimization of growth of Chlorococcum humicola to ascertain the maximum production of biomass. Plackett Burman design was carried out to screen the significant variables influencing biomass production. Further, Response Surface Methodology was employed to optimize the effect of inoculum, light intensity and pH on net biomass yield. Optimum conditions for maximum biomass yield were identified to be inoculum at 15%, light intensity to be 1500lx and pH 8.5. Theoretical and predicted values were in agreement and thus the model was found to be significant. Gas chromatography analyses of the FAME derivatives showed a high percentage of saturated fatty acids thereby confirming the biofuel properties of the oil derived from algal biomass. PMID:25791468

  18. Beyond plant defense: insights on the potential of salicylic and methylsalicylic acid to contain growth of the phytopathogen Botrytis cinerea.

    PubMed

    Dieryckx, Cindy; Gaudin, Vanessa; Dupuy, Jean-William; Bonneu, Marc; Girard, Vincent; Job, Dominique

    2015-01-01

    Using Botrytis cinerea we confirmed in the present work several previous studies showing that salicylic acid, a main plant hormone, inhibits fungal growth in vitro. Such an inhibitory effect was also observed for the two salicylic acid derivatives, methylsalicylic and acetylsalicylic acid. In marked contrast, 5-sulfosalicylic acid was totally inactive. Comparative proteomics from treated vs. control mycelia showed that both the intracellular and extracellular proteomes were affected in the presence of salicylic acid or methylsalicylic acid. These data suggest several mechanisms that could potentially account for the observed fungal growth inhibition, notably pH regulation, metal homeostasis, mitochondrial respiration, ROS accumulation and cell wall remodeling. The present observations support a role played by the phytohormone SA and derivatives in directly containing the pathogen. Data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD002873. PMID:26528317

  19. Beyond plant defense: insights on the potential of salicylic and methylsalicylic acid to contain growth of the phytopathogen Botrytis cinerea

    PubMed Central

    Dieryckx, Cindy; Gaudin, Vanessa; Dupuy, Jean-William; Bonneu, Marc; Girard, Vincent; Job, Dominique

    2015-01-01

    Using Botrytis cinerea we confirmed in the present work several previous studies showing that salicylic acid, a main plant hormone, inhibits fungal growth in vitro. Such an inhibitory effect was also observed for the two salicylic acid derivatives, methylsalicylic and acetylsalicylic acid. In marked contrast, 5-sulfosalicylic acid was totally inactive. Comparative proteomics from treated vs. control mycelia showed that both the intracellular and extracellular proteomes were affected in the presence of salicylic acid or methylsalicylic acid. These data suggest several mechanisms that could potentially account for the observed fungal growth inhibition, notably pH regulation, metal homeostasis, mitochondrial respiration, ROS accumulation and cell wall remodeling. The present observations support a role played by the phytohormone SA and derivatives in directly containing the pathogen. Data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD002873. PMID:26528317

  20. Growth and potential yield of perch (Perca spp.) in selected areas of Lake Baikal and the Laurentian Great Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Gorman, Robert; Bronte, Charles R.; Hatcher, Charles O.; Pronin, Nikolai M.; Sokolnikov, Yury

    1998-01-01

    We compared growth, mortality, and potential yield of Eurasian perch (Perca fluviatilis) from Chivirkui Bay in Lake Baikal with that of yellow perch (P. flavescens) from three areas of the Laurentian Great Lakes --Chequamegon Bay in Lake Superior, northeastern Lake Ontario, and southwestern Lake Erie. Graded mesh gill nets were fished in August to sample perch in lakes Baikal (1993), Ontario (1985-93), and Erie (1994). Bottom trawls were fished in July-August to sample perch in Lake Superior (1973-93). Adult yellow perch from the Laurentian Great Lakes were heavier at most lengths than adult Eurasian perch from Lake Baikal. The increase in body weight per unit increase in length was greatest in Lake Erie. Total annual mortality of perch was low in Lake Baikal (0.31), intermediate in lakes Superior (0.41) and Ontario (0.54), and high in Lake Erie (0.66). Annual fishing mortality (u) for perch in Lake Baikal was 60%-70% lower than that for perch in the Great Lakes. At ages 1-3, perch in Lake Erie were longer than those in lakes Baikal, Superior, and Ontario but at ages 4-9 perch in Lake Baikal were longer than those in the other lakes. Although Eurasian perch in Lake Baikal were longer at age 4 and older, growth in length, as measured by the Brody growth coefficient, K, was lower there than in the other lakes and was similar to that in Lake Superior; yellow perch in Lake Erie grew the fastest. Yield-per-recruit was lowest in Lake Erie and highest in Lake Superior. Potential yield was influenced by growth rates and fishing mortality.

  1. Isolation and Screening of Bacteria for Their Diazotrophic Potential and Their Influence on Growth Promotion of Maize Seedlings in Greenhouses.

    PubMed

    Kifle, Medhin H; Laing, Mark D

    2015-01-01

    Poor soil fertility is one of the major constraints for crop production. Nitrogen is the most limiting nutrient for increasing crop productivity. Therefore, there is a need to identify diazotrophic inoculants as an alternative or supplement to N-fertilizers for sustainable agriculture. In the current study, a number of free-living diazotrophic bacteria were isolated from soils collected from maize rhizosphere and from leaves and roots of maize within the KwaZulu-Natal Province, Republic of South Africa. Ninety-two isolates were selected for further screening because they were able to grow on N-free media containing different carbon sources. Isolates that were very slow to grow on N-free media were discarded. The isolates were screened in vitro for diazotrophic potential tests for ammonia production and acetylene reduction. Ethylene (C2H4) production was quantified and ranged from 4 to 73 nmoles of C2H4h(-1) culture(-1). The top 20 isolates were re-screened on maize seedlings, and eight isolates significantly (P = 0.001) enhanced some growth parameters of maize above the un-inoculated control. Isolates that showed significant effect on at least two growth parameters were identified at species or genera level. In conclusion, selected diazotrophic isolates may be potentially beneficial but they should be tested more in greenhouse and field conditions with maize to confirm their potential for application as biofertilizers. PMID:26779245

  2. Isolation and Screening of Bacteria for Their Diazotrophic Potential and Their Influence on Growth Promotion of Maize Seedlings in Greenhouses

    PubMed Central

    Kifle, Medhin H.; Laing, Mark D.

    2016-01-01

    Poor soil fertility is one of the major constraints for crop production. Nitrogen is the most limiting nutrient for increasing crop productivity. Therefore, there is a need to identify diazotrophic inoculants as an alternative or supplement to N-fertilizers for sustainable agriculture. In the current study, a number of free-living diazotrophic bacteria were isolated from soils collected from maize rhizosphere and from leaves and roots of maize within the KwaZulu-Natal Province, Republic of South Africa. Ninety-two isolates were selected for further screening because they were able to grow on N-free media containing different carbon sources. Isolates that were very slow to grow on N-free media were discarded. The isolates were screened in vitro for diazotrophic potential tests for ammonia production and acetylene reduction. Ethylene (C2H4) production was quantified and ranged from 4 to 73 nmoles of C2H4h−1 culture−1. The top 20 isolates were re-screened on maize seedlings, and eight isolates significantly (P = 0.001) enhanced some growth parameters of maize above the un-inoculated control. Isolates that showed significant effect on at least two growth parameters were identified at species or genera level. In conclusion, selected diazotrophic isolates may be potentially beneficial but they should be tested more in greenhouse and field conditions with maize to confirm their potential for application as biofertilizers. PMID:26779245

  3. Profiling CCK-mediated pancreatic growth: the dynamic genetic program and the role of STATs as potential regulators

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jackie Y.; Guo, LiLi; Ernst, Stephen A.; Williams, John A.

    2012-01-01

    Feeding mice with protease inhibitor (PI) leads to increased endogenous cholecystokinin (CCK) release and results in pancreatic growth. This adaptive response requires calcineurin (CN)-NFAT and AKT-mTOR pathways, but the genes involved, the dynamics of their expression, and other regulatory pathways remain unknown. Here, we examined the early (1–8 h) transcriptional program that underlies pancreatic growth. We found 314 upregulated and 219 downregulated genes with diverse temporal and functional profiles. Several new identifications include the following: stress response genes Gdf15 and Txnip, metabolic mediators Pitpnc1 and Hmges2, as well as components of growth factor response Fgf21, Atf3, and Egr1. The genes fell into seven self-organizing clusters, each with a distinct pattern of expression; a representative gene within each of the upregulated clusters (Egr1, Gadd45b, Rgs2, and Serpinb1a) was validated by qRT-PCR. Genes up at any point throughout the time course and CN-dependent genes were subjected to further bioinformatics-based networking and promoter analysis, yielding STATs as potential transcriptional regulators. As shown by PCR, qPCR, and Western blots, the active phospho-form of STAT3 and the Jak-STAT feedback inhibitor Socs2 were both increased throughout early pancreatic growth. Moreover, immunohistochemistry showed a CCK-dependent and acinar cell-specific increase in nuclear localization of p-STAT3, with >75% nuclear occupancy in PI-fed mice vs. <0.1% in controls. Thus, the study identified novel genes likely to be important for CCK-driven pancreatic growth, characterized and biologically validated the dynamic pattern of their expression and investigated STAT-Socs signaling as a new player in this trophic response. PMID:22010007

  4. Insulin-like growth factors and their potential role in cardiac epigenetics.

    PubMed

    Iosef Husted, Cristiana; Valencik, Maria

    2016-08-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) constitutes a major public health threat worldwide, accounting for 17.3 million deaths annually. Heart disease and stroke account for the majority of healthcare costs in the developed world. While much has been accomplished in understanding the pathophysiology, molecular biology and genetics underlying the diagnosis and treatment of CVD, we know less about the role of epigenetics and their molecular determinants. The impact of environmental changes and epigenetics in CVD is now emerging as critically important in understanding the origin of disease and the development of new therapeutic approaches to prevention and treatment. This review focuses on the emerging role of epigenetics mediated by insulin like-growth factors-I and -II in major CVDs such as heart failure, cardiac hypertrophy and diabetes. PMID:27061217

  5. Potential for growth of Clostridium perfringens from spores in pork scrapple during cooling.

    PubMed

    Juneja, Vijay K; Porto-Fett, Anna C S; Gartner, Kelly; Tufft, Linda; Luchansky, John B

    2010-02-01

    We conducted stabilization studies to determine the ability of Clostridium perfringens spores to germinate and grow during exponential cooling of a commercial formulation of pork scrapple. Scrapple was inoculated with a mixture of three strains of C. perfringens spores (NTCC 8238, NCTC 8239, and ATCC 10288), vacuum packaged, and reheated (20 min/93.3 degrees C) in a circulating water bath. The cooked samples were cooled (30 s) in an ice bath before being transferred to a programmable water bath to cool through the temperature range of 54.4 degrees C to 7.2 degrees C in 12, 14, or 21 h to simulate deviations from the required cooling time of 6.5 h. After cooling, the samples, in duplicate, were analyzed to determine if growth from spores had occurred. The samples were plated onto tryptose-sulfite-cycloserine agar and incubated anaerobically at 37 degrees C for 48 h before counting the colonies. Minimal growth (less than 1.0 log) was observed during a 12- or 14 h cooling period. However, when the time to achieve 7.2 degrees C was extended to 21 h, C. perfringens spores germinated and grew from an inoculum of approximately 3.0 log(10) to approximately 7.8 log(10) CFU/g. Thus, scrapple must be cooled after cooking to 7.2 degrees C within 6.5 h, but for no more than 14 h, to prevent a food safety hazard from outgrowth of C. perfringens spores during cooling. PMID:19785539

  6. Draft Genome Sequence of a Natural Root Isolate, Bacillus subtilis UD1022, a Potential Plant Growth-Promoting Biocontrol Agent.

    PubMed

    Bishnoi, Usha; Polson, Shawn W; Sherrier, D Janine; Bais, Harsh P

    2015-01-01

    Bacillus subtilis, which belongs to the phylum Firmicutes, is the most widely studied Gram-positive model organism. It is found in a wide variety of environments and is particularly abundant in soils and in the gastrointestinal tracts of ruminants and humans. Here, we present the complete genome sequence of the newly described B. subtilis strain UD1022. The UD1022 genome consists of a 4.025-Mbp chromosome, and other major findings from our analysis will provide insights into the genomic basis of it being a plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium (PGPR) with biocontrol potential. PMID:26159522

  7. Autonomous Byte Stream Randomizer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paloulian, George K.; Woo, Simon S.; Chow, Edward T.

    2013-01-01

    Net-centric networking environments are often faced with limited resources and must utilize bandwidth as efficiently as possible. In networking environments that span wide areas, the data transmission has to be efficient without any redundant or exuberant metadata. The Autonomous Byte Stream Randomizer software provides an extra level of security on top of existing data encryption methods. Randomizing the data s byte stream adds an extra layer to existing data protection methods, thus making it harder for an attacker to decrypt protected data. Based on a generated crypto-graphically secure random seed, a random sequence of numbers is used to intelligently and efficiently swap the organization of bytes in data using the unbiased and memory-efficient in-place Fisher-Yates shuffle method. Swapping bytes and reorganizing the crucial structure of the byte data renders the data file unreadable and leaves the data in a deconstructed state. This deconstruction adds an extra level of security requiring the byte stream to be reconstructed with the random seed in order to be readable. Once the data byte stream has been randomized, the software enables the data to be distributed to N nodes in an environment. Each piece of the data in randomized and distributed form is a separate entity unreadable on its own right, but when combined with all N pieces, is able to be reconstructed back to one. Reconstruction requires possession of the key used for randomizing the bytes, leading to the generation of the same cryptographically secure random sequence of numbers used to randomize the data. This software is a cornerstone capability possessing the ability to generate the same cryptographically secure sequence on different machines and time intervals, thus allowing this software to be used more heavily in net-centric environments where data transfer bandwidth is limited.

  8. Dialkoxyquinazolines: Screening Epidermal Growth Factor ReceptorTyrosine Kinase Inhibitors for Potential Tumor Imaging Probes

    SciTech Connect

    VanBrocklin, Henry F.; Lim, John K.; Coffing, Stephanie L.; Hom,Darren L.; Negash, Kitaw; Ono, Michele Y.; Hanrahan, Stephen M.; Taylor,Scott E.; Vanderpoel, Jennifer L.; Slavik, Sarah M.; Morris, Andrew B.; Riese II, David J.

    2005-09-01

    The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), a long-standingdrug development target, is also a desirable target for imaging. Sixteendialkoxyquinazoline analogs, suitable for labeling with positron-emittingisotopes, have been synthesized and evaluated in a battery of in vitroassays to ascertain their chemical and biological properties. Thesecharacteristics provided the basis for the adoption of a selection schemato identify lead molecules for labeling and in vivo evaluation. A newEGFR tyrosine kinase radiometric binding assay revealed that all of thecompounds possessed suitable affinity (IC50 = 0.4 - 51 nM) for the EGFRtyrosine kinase. All of the analogs inhibited ligand-induced EGFRtyrosine phosphorylation (IC50 = 0.8 - 20 nM). The HPLC-estimatedoctanol/water partition coefficients ranged from 2.0-5.5. Four compounds,4-(2'-fluoroanilino)- and 4-(3'-fluoroanilino)-6,7-diethoxyquinazoline aswell as 4-(3'-chloroanilino)- and4-(3'-bromoanilino)-6,7-dimethoxyquinazoline, possess the bestcombination of characteristics that warrant radioisotope labeling andfurther evaluation in tumor-bearing mice.

  9. Human keratinocyte growth and differentiation on acellular porcine dermal matrix in relation to wound healing potential.

    PubMed

    Zajicek, Robert; Mandys, Vaclav; Mestak, Ondrej; Sevcik, Jan; Königova, Radana; Matouskova, Eva

    2012-01-01

    A number of implantable biomaterials derived from animal tissues are now used in modern surgery. Xe-Derma is a dry, sterile, acellular porcine dermis. It has a remarkable healing effect on burns and other wounds. Our hypothesis was that the natural biological structure of Xe-Derma plays an important role in keratinocyte proliferation and formation of epidermal architecture in vitro as well as in vivo. The bioactivity of Xe-Derma was studied by a cell culture assay. We analyzed growth and differentiation of human keratinocytes cultured in vitro on Xe-Derma, and we compared the results with formation of neoepidermis in the deep dermal wounds treated with Xe-Derma. Keratinocytes cultured on Xe-Derma submerged in the culture medium achieved confluence in 7-10 days. After lifting the cultures to the air-liquid interface, the keratinocytes were stratified and differentiated within one week, forming an epidermis with basal, spinous, granular, and stratum corneum layers. Immunohistochemical detection of high-molecular weight cytokeratins (HMW CKs), CD29, p63, and involucrin confirmed the similarity of organization and differentiation of the cultured epidermal cells to the normal epidermis. The results suggest that the firm natural structure of Xe-Derma stimulates proliferation and differentiation of human primary keratinocytes and by this way improves wound healing. PMID:22629190

  10. High-density lipoprotein is a potential growth factor for adrenocortical cells

    SciTech Connect

    Murao, Koji . E-mail: mkoji@kms.ac.jp; Imachi, Hitomi; Cao, Wenming; Yu, Xiao; Li, Junhua; Yoshida, Kazuya; Ahmed, Rania A.M.; Matsumoto, Kensuke; Nishiuchi, Takamasa; Ishida, Toshihiko; Wong, Norman C.W.

    2006-05-26

    The entry of cholesterol contained within high-density lipoprotein (HDL) into adrenocortical cells is mediated by a human homologue of SR-BI, CD36, and LIMPII Analogous-1 (CLA-1) and thus augmenting their growth. To address the role of CLA-1, we created a mutant mCLA that lacked the C-terminal tail. HDL CE selective uptake by cells carrying the mCLA-1 receptor was fully active and equivalent to those transfected with full-length CLA-1 (fCLA-1). Expression of mCLA inhibited the proliferation of an adrenocortical cell line and the incorporation of [{sup 3}H]thymidine into the cells. This effect was sensitive to wortmannin, an inhibitor of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K). Our transcriptional studies revealed that the inhibitory action of mCLA required the transcriptional factor AP-1 and the effect of HDL on AP-1 activation was also abrogated by wortmannin. These findings raise the possibility that the inhibitors of the effects of HDL may be of therapeutic value for adrenocortical tumor.

  11. GM trees with increased resistance to herbivores: trait efficiency and their potential to promote tree growth

    PubMed Central

    Hjältén, Joakim; Axelsson, E. Petter

    2015-01-01

    Climate change, as well as a more intensive forestry, is expected to increase the risk of damage by pests and pathogens on trees, which can already be a severe problem in tree plantations. Recent development of biotechnology theoretically allows for resistance enhancement that could help reduce these risks but we still lack a comprehensive understanding of benefits and tradeoffs with pest resistant GM (genetically modified) trees. We synthesized the current knowledge on the effectiveness of GM forest trees with increased resistance to herbivores. There is ample evidence that induction of exogenous Bacillus thuringiensis genes reduce performance of target pests whereas upregulation of endogenous resistance traits e.g., phenolics, generates variable results. Our review identified very few studies estimating the realized benefits in tree growth of GM trees in the field. This is concerning as the realized benefit with insect resistant GM plants seems to be context-dependent and likely manifested only if herbivore pressure is sufficiently high. Future studies of secondary pest species and resistance evolution in pest to GM trees should be prioritized. But most importantly we need more long-term field tests to evaluate the benefits and risks with pest resistant GM trees. PMID:25983736

  12. Potential for growth of Si-Ge bulk crystals by modified FZ technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonik, M. A.

    2014-01-01

    The technique for crucibleless crystal growth of silicon and its alloy with germanium is developed on the basis of the floating zone (FZ) setup equipped with an additional so-called axial heating process (AHP) heater. The heater forms around itself the melt zone being suspended by forces of surface tension between its top surfaces and the growing crystal, as well as between the top surfaces of the AHP heater and the feeding rod. To investigate into the problem of the capillary stability of the pulling process, numerical computations of shaping of the free Si and Ge melt surface during the crystal pulling were performed. The dependences of the crystal radius and the thickness of the melt film on the parameters of the process are analyzed. It is demonstrated that, in the modified FZ method, the thickness of the melt layer between the crystal and the heater can be considerably larger than the capillary constant. A number of Si and Si-Ge crystals with a diameter up to 15 mm are grown. The range of a Si-Ge melt layer, which one could establish as high as possible, was found to be equal to 11-18 mm.

  13. Des-γ-carboxy prothrombin (DCP) as a potential autologous growth factor for the development of hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yu-Sheng; Chu, Jia-Hui; Cui, Shu-Xiang; Song, Zhi-Yu; Qu, Xian-Jun

    2014-01-01

    Des-γ-carboxy prothrombin (DCP) is a prothrombin precursor produced in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Because of deficiency of vitamin K or γ-glutamyl carboxylase in HCC cells, the 10 glutamic acid (Glu) residues in prothrombin precursor did not completely carboxylate to γ-carboxylated glutamic acid (Gla) residues, leaving some Glu residues remained in N-terminal domain. These prothrombin precursors with Glu residues are called DCPs. DCP displays insufficient coagulation activity. Since Liebman reported an elevated plasma DCP in patients with HCC, DCP has been used in the diagnosis of HCC. Recently, its biological malignant potential has been specified to describe DCP as an autologous growth factor to stimulate HCC growth and a paracrine factor to integrate HCC with vascular endothelial cells. DCP was found to stimulate HCC growth through activation of the DCP-Met-JAK1-STAT3 signaling pathway. DCP might increase HCC invasion and metastasis through activation of matrix metalloproteinase (MMPs) and the ERK1/2 MAPK signaling pathway. DCP has also been found to play a crucial role in the formation of angiogenesis. DCP could increase the angiogenic factors released from HCC and vascular endothelial cells. These effects of DCP in angiogenesis might be related to activation of the DCP-KDR-PLC-γ-MAPK signaling pathway. In this article, we summarized recent studies on DCP in biological roles related to cancer progression and angiogenesis in HCC. PMID:25200250

  14. Vestibular influences on autonomic cardiovascular control in humans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biaggioni, I.; Costa, F.; Kaufmann, H.; Robertson, D. (Principal Investigator)

    1998-01-01

    There is substantial evidence that anatomical connections exist between vestibular and autonomic nuclei. Animal studies have shown functional interactions between the vestibular and autonomic systems. The nature of these interactions, however, is complex and has not been fully defined. Vestibular stimulation has been consistently found to reduce blood pressure in animals. Given the potential interaction between vestibular and autonomic pathways this finding could be explained by a reduction in sympathetic activity. However, rather than sympathetic inhibition, vestibular stimulation has consistently been shown to increase sympathetic outflow in cardiac and splanchnic vascular beds in most experimental models. Several clinical observations suggest that a link between vestibular and autonomic systems may also exist in humans. However, direct evidence for vestibular/autonomic interactions in humans is sparse. Motion sickness has been found to induce forearm vasodilation and reduce baroreflex gain, and head down neck flexion induces transient forearm and calf vasoconstriction. On the other hand, studies using optokinetic stimulation have found either very small, variable, or inconsistent changes in heart rate and blood pressure, despite substantial symptoms of motion sickness. Furthermore, caloric stimulation severe enough to produce nystagmus, dizziness, and nausea had no effect on sympathetic nerve activity measured directly with microneurography. No effect was observed on heart rate, blood pressure, or plasma norepinephrine. Several factors may explain the apparent discordance of these results, but more research is needed before we can define the potential importance of vestibular input to cardiovascular regulation and orthostatic tolerance in humans.

  15. Vestibular influences on autonomic cardiovascular control in humans.

    PubMed

    Biaggioni, I; Costa, F; Kaufmann, H

    1998-01-01

    There is substantial evidence that anatomical connections exist between vestibular and autonomic nuclei. Animal studies have shown functional interactions between the vestibular and autonomic systems. The nature of these interactions, however, is complex and has not been fully defined. Vestibular stimulation has been consistently found to reduce blood pressure in animals. Given the potential interaction between vestibular and autonomic pathways this finding could be explained by a reduction in sympathetic activity. However, rather than sympathetic inhibition, vestibular stimulation has consistently been shown to increase sympathetic outflow in cardiac and splanchnic vascular beds in most experimental models. Several clinical observations suggest that a link between vestibular and autonomic systems may also exist in humans. However, direct evidence for vestibular/autonomic interactions in humans is sparse. Motion sickness has been found to induce forearm vasodilation and reduce baroreflex gain, and head down neck flexion induces transient forearm and calf vasoconstriction. On the other hand, studies using optokinetic stimulation have found either very small, variable, or inconsistent changes in heart rate and blood pressure, despite substantial symptoms of motion sickness. Furthermore, caloric stimulation severe enough to produce nystagmus, dizziness, and nausea had no effect on sympathetic nerve activity measured directly with microneurography. No effect was observed on heart rate, blood pressure, or plasma norepinephrine. Several factors may explain the apparent discordance of these results, but more research is needed before we can define the potential importance of vestibular input to cardiovascular regulation and orthostatic tolerance in humans. PMID:9416587

  16. CSBF/C10orf99, a novel potential cytokine, inhibits colon cancer cell growth through inducing G1 arrest.

    PubMed

    Pan, Wen; Cheng, Yingying; Zhang, Heyu; Liu, Baocai; Mo, Xiaoning; Li, Ting; Li, Lin; Cheng, Xiaojing; Zhang, Lianhai; Ji, Jiafu; Wang, Pingzhang; Han, Wenling

    2014-01-01

    Cytokines are soluble proteins that exert their functions by binding specific receptors. Many cytokines play essential roles in carcinogenesis and have been developed for the treatment of cancer. In this study, we identified a novel potential cytokine using immunogenomics designated colon-derived SUSD2 binding factor (CSBF), also known as chromosome 10 open reading frame 99 (C10orf99). CSBF/C10orf99 is a classical secreted protein with predicted molecular mass of 6.5 kDa, and a functional ligand of Sushi Domain Containing 2 (SUSD2). CSBF/C10orf99 has the highest expression level in colon tissue. Both CSBF/C10orf99 and SUSD2 are down-regulated in colon cancer tissues and cell lines with different regulation mechanisms. CSBF/C10orf99 interacts with SUSD2 to inhibit colon cancer cell growth and induce G1 cell cycle arrest by down-regulating cyclin D and cyclin-dependent kinase 6 (CDK6). CSBF/C10orf99 displays a bell-shaped activity curve with the optimal effect at ~10 ng/ml. Its growth inhibitory effects can be blocked by sSUSD2-Fc soluble protein. Our results suggest that CSBF/C10orf99 is a novel potential cytokine with tumor suppressor functions. PMID:25351403

  17. Palmatine inhibits growth and invasion in prostate cancer cell: Potential role for rpS6/NFκB/FLIP.

    PubMed

    Hambright, Heather G; Batth, Izhar Singh; Xie, Jianping; Ghosh, Rita; Kumar, Addanki Pratap

    2015-10-01

    Novel agents are desperately needed for improving the quality of life and 5-year survival to more than 30% for metastatic castrate-resistant prostate cancer. Previously we showed that Nexrutine, Phellodendron amurense bark extract, inhibits prostate tumor growth in vitro and in vivo. Subsequently using biochemical fractionation we identified butanol fraction contributes to the observed biological activities. We report here that palmatine, which is present in the butanol fraction, selectively inhibits growth of prostate cancer cells without significant effect on non-tumorigenic prostate epithelial cells. By screening receptor tyrosine kinases in a protein kinase array, we identified ribosomal protein S6, a downstream target of p70S6K and the Akt/mTOR signaling cascade as a potential target. We further show that palmatine treatment is associated with decreased activation of NFκB and its downstream target gene FLIP. These events led to inhibition of invasion. Similar results were obtained using parent extract Nexrutine (Nx) suggesting that palmatine either in the purified form or as one of the components in Nx is a potent cytotoxic agent with tumor invasion inhibitory properties. Synergistic inhibition of rpS6/NFκB/FLIP axis with palmatine may have therapeutic potential for the treatment of prostate cancer and possibly other malignancies with their constitutive activation. These data support a biological link between rpS6/NFκB/FLIP in mediating palmatine-induced inhibitory effects and warrants additional preclinical studies to test its therapeutic efficacy. PMID:25043857

  18. CSBF/C10orf99, a novel potential cytokine, inhibits colon cancer cell growth through inducing G1 arrest

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Wen; Cheng, Yingying; Zhang, Heyu; Liu, Baocai; Mo, Xiaoning; Li, Ting; Li, Lin; Cheng, Xiaojing; Zhang, Lianhai; Ji, Jiafu; Wang, Pingzhang; Han, Wenling

    2014-01-01

    Cytokines are soluble proteins that exert their functions by binding specific receptors. Many cytokines play essential roles in carcinogenesis and have been developed for the treatment of cancer. In this study, we identified a novel potential cytokine using immunogenomics designated colon-derived SUSD2 binding factor (CSBF), also known as chromosome 10 open reading frame 99 (C10orf99). CSBF/C10orf99 is a classical secreted protein with predicted molecular mass of 6.5 kDa, and a functional ligand of Sushi Domain Containing 2 (SUSD2). CSBF/C10orf99 has the highest expression level in colon tissue. Both CSBF/C10orf99 and SUSD2 are down-regulated in colon cancer tissues and cell lines with different regulation mechanisms. CSBF/C10orf99 interacts with SUSD2 to inhibit colon cancer cell growth and induce G1 cell cycle arrest by down-regulating cyclin D and cyclin-dependent kinase 6 (CDK6). CSBF/C10orf99 displays a bell-shaped activity curve with the optimal effect at ~10 ng/ml. Its growth inhibitory effects can be blocked by sSUSD2-Fc soluble protein. Our results suggest that CSBF/C10orf99 is a novel potential cytokine with tumor suppressor functions. PMID:25351403

  19. Effects of vatalanib on tumor growth can be potentiated by mTOR blockade in vivo.

    PubMed

    Jaeger-Lansky, Agnes; Cejka, Daniel; Ying, Liu; Preusser, Matthias; Hoeflmayer, Doris; Fuereder, Thorsten; Koehrer, Stefan; Wacheck, Volker

    2010-06-01

    The vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a central mediator of tumor-induced angiogenesis. Everolimus, a mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitor, decreases VEGF-secretion of cancer cells. Vatalanib is a selective inhibitor of VEGF receptors 1-3. In the present study it was hypothesized that dual inhibition of VEGF signaling by inhibition of VEGF production and VEGF receptor signaling leads to synergistic anti-tumor effects. In vitro, effects of vatalanib and everolimus on cell proliferation, cell cycle, apoptosis and signal transduction were examined in three gastric cancer cell lines. Effects on angiogenesis were assessed using tube formation assays of cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). In vivo, the antitumor effect of compounds was studied using a gastric cancer xenograft nude mouse model. VEGF of murine origin (mVEGF) and human cancer cell-derived VEGF (hVEGF) were studied separately by specific ELISAs. Tumor vascularization and proliferation were quantified by immunohistochemistry. In vitro, everolimus but not vatalanib decreased gastric cancer proliferation without inducing apoptosis. Vatalanib abolished endothelial cell tube formation, whereas inhibition of tube formation by everolimus was incomplete. In vivo, the combination of vatalanib with everolimus was superior to single agent treatments and reduced tumor size by about 50% relative to everolimus monotherapy (p < 0.005). Pharmacodynamic analysis of VEGF plasma level showed a decrease of hVEGF by everolimus and indicated a trend towards lower mVEGF level only in the combination group. In line, there was a tendency for lower vascular density and proliferation for combination treatment. We conclude that in a preclinical model of gastric cancer the antitumor activity of vatalanib can be augmented by everolimus. PMID:20404549

  20. Serum levels of hepatocyte growth factor as a potential tumor marker in patients with malignant melanoma.

    PubMed

    Hügel, Rainer; Muendlein, Axel; Volbeding, Lennart; Drexel, Heinz; Richtig, Erika; Wehkamp, Ulrike; Painsi, Clemes; Lange-Asschenfeldt, Bernhard; Hauschild, Axel; Egberts, Friederike

    2016-08-01

    Serum markers can be important tools for prognostic classification and treatment monitoring in cancer patients. The MAP-kinase pathway, which is upregulated in the majority of melanoma patients, can be activated by hepatocyte-growth factor (HGF) through the proto-oncogene c-MET. The aim of this study was to evaluate the predictive and prognostic value of circulating HGF in terms of treatment outcome and survival compared with a widely established serum marker, protein S-100B, in patients with advanced metastatic melanoma. HGF and S-100B were measured in serum samples of 101 patients with metastatic melanoma (American Joint Committee on Cancer stage IV) before and after treatment and 50 patients with stage I/II melanoma. HGF and S-100B correlated significantly with the stage of disease (P=0.032 and P<0.001, respectively). In stage IV melanoma patients, baseline serum levels of HGF and S-100B were significantly associated with treatment response (P=0.012 and 0.006, respectively). Furthermore, the Cox regression analysis confirmed that serum levels of HGF and S-100B proved to have a significant prognostic impact on progression-free survival (hazard ratio=1.39 and 1.29, respectively) and overall survival (hazard ratio=1.27 and 1.29, respectively) in advanced metastatic melanoma patients. In melanoma patients, serum levels of HGF and S-100B correlate significantly with the stage of disease. In stage IV melanoma, both markers are prognostic factors and correlate significantly with progression-free survival and overall survival. Measurement of serum HGF levels might be a useful additional tool in the management of melanoma patients. PMID:27206057

  1. The role of epidermal growth factor receptor in chordoma pathogenesis: a potential therapeutic target.

    PubMed

    Shalaby, Asem; Presneau, Nadège; Ye, Hongtao; Halai, Dina; Berisha, Fitim; Idowu, Bernadine; Leithner, Andreas; Liegl, Bernadette; Briggs, Timothy R W; Bacsi, Krisztian; Kindblom, Lars-Gunnar; Athanasou, Nicholas; Amary, Maria Fernanda; Hogendoorn, Pancras C W; Tirabosco, Roberto; Flanagan, Adrienne M

    2011-02-01

    Chordoma, the molecular hallmark of which is T (brachyury), is a rare malignant bone tumour with a high risk of local recurrence and a tumour from which metastatic disease is a common late event. Currently, there is no effective drug therapy for treating chordomas, although there is evidence that some patients respond to the empirical use of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) antagonists. The aim of this study was to determine the role of EGFR in the pathogenesis of chordoma. Paraffin-embedded material from 173 chordomas from 160 patients [sacro-coccygeal (n = 94), skull-based (n = 50), and mobile spine (n = 16)] was analysed by immunohistochemistry and revealed total EGFR expression in 69% of cases analysed. Of 147 informative chordomas analysed by FISH, 38% revealed high-level EGFR polysomy, 4% high-level polysomy with focal amplification, 18% low-level polysomy, and 39% disomy. Phospho-receptor tyrosine kinase array membranes showed EGFR activation in the chordoma cell line U-CH1 and all of the three chordomas analysed. Direct sequencing of EGFR (exons 18-21), KRAS, NRAS, HRAS (exons 2, 3), and BRAF (exons 11, 15) using DNA from 62 chordomas failed to reveal mutations. PTEN expression was absent by immunohistochemistry in 19 of 147 (13%) analysed chordomas, only one of which revealed high-level polysomy of EGFR. The EGFR inhibitor tyrphostin (AG 1478) markedly inhibited proliferation of the chordoma cell line U-CH1 in vitro and diminished EGFR phosphorylation in a dose-dependant manner, a finding supported by inhibition of phosphorylated Erk1/2. p-Akt was suppressed to a much lesser degree in these experiments. There was no reduction of T as assessed by western blotting. These data implicate aberrant EGFR signalling in the pathogenesis of chordoma. This study provides a strategy for patient stratification for treatment with EGFR antagonists. PMID:21171079

  2. Autonomic control of the eye.

    PubMed

    McDougal, David H; Gamlin, Paul D

    2015-01-01

    The autonomic nervous system influences numerous ocular functions. It does this by way of parasympathetic innervation from postganglionic fibers that originate from neurons in the ciliary and pterygopalatine ganglia, and by way of sympathetic innervation from postganglionic fibers that originate from neurons in the superior cervical ganglion. Ciliary ganglion neurons project to the ciliary body and the sphincter pupillae muscle of the iris to control ocular accommodation and pupil constriction, respectively. Superior cervical ganglion neurons project to the dilator pupillae muscle of the iris to control pupil dilation. Ocular blood flow is controlled both via direct autonomic influences on the vasculature of the optic nerve, choroid, ciliary body, and iris, as well as via indirect influences on retinal blood flow. In mammals, this vasculature is innervated by vasodilatory fibers from the pterygopalatine ganglion, and by vasoconstrictive fibers from the superior cervical ganglion. Intraocular pressure is regulated primarily through the balance of aqueous humor formation and outflow. Autonomic regulation of ciliary body blood vessels and the ciliary epithelium is an important determinant of aqueous humor formation; autonomic regulation of the trabecular meshwork and episcleral blood vessels is an important determinant of aqueous humor outflow. These tissues are all innervated by fibers from the pterygopalatine and superior cervical ganglia. In addition to these classical autonomic pathways, trigeminal sensory fibers exert local, intrinsic influences on many of these regions of the eye, as well as on some neurons within the ciliary and pterygopalatine ganglia. PMID:25589275

  3. Autonomic control of the eye

    PubMed Central

    McDougal, David H.; Gamlin, Paul D.

    2016-01-01

    The autonomic nervous system influences numerous ocular functions. It does this by way of parasympathetic innervation from postganglionic fibers that originate from neurons in the ciliary and pterygopalatine ganglia, and by way of sympathetic innervation from postganglionic fibers that originate from neurons in the superior cervical ganglion. Ciliary ganglion neurons project to the ciliary body and the sphincter pupillae muscle of the iris to control ocular accommodation and pupil constriction, respectively. Superior cervical ganglion neurons project to the dilator pupillae muscle of the iris to control pupil dilation. Ocular blood flow is controlled both via direct autonomic influences on the vasculature of the optic nerve, choroid, ciliary body, and iris, as well as via indirect influences on retinal blood flow. In mammals, this vasculature is innervated by vasodilatory fibers from the pterygopalatine ganglion, and by vasoconstrictive fibers from the superior cervical ganglion. Intraocular pressure is regulated primarily through the balance of aqueous humor formation and outflow. Autonomic regulation of ciliary body blood vessels and the ciliary epithelium is an important determinant of aqueous humor formation; autonomic regulation of the trabecular meshwork and episcleral blood vessels is an important determinant of aqueous humor outflow. These tissues are all innervated by fibers from the pterygopalatine and superior cervical ganglia. In addition to these classical autonomic pathways, trigeminal sensory fibers exert local, intrinsic influences on many of these regions of the eye, as well as on some neurons within the ciliary and pterygopalatine ganglia. PMID:25589275

  4. The stem cell marker prominin-1/CD133 interacts with vascular endothelial growth factor and potentiates its action.

    PubMed

    Adini, Avner; Adini, Irit; Ghosh, Kaustabh; Benny, Ofra; Pravda, Elke; Hu, Ron; Luyindula, Dema; D'Amato, Robert J

    2013-04-01

    Prominin-1, a pentaspan transmembrane protein, is a unique cell surface marker commonly used to identify stem cells, including endothelial progenitor cells and cancer stem cells. However, recent studies have shown that prominin-1 expression is not restricted to stem cells but also occurs in modified forms in many mature adult human cells. Although prominin-1 has been studied extensively as a stem cell marker, its physiological function of the protein has not been elucidated. We investigated prominin-1 function in two cell lines, primary human endothelial cells and B16-F10 melanoma cells, both of which express high levels of prominin-1. We found that prominin-1 directly interacts with the angiogenic and tumor survival factor vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in both the primary endothelial cells and the melanoma cells. Knocking down prominin-1 in the endothelial cells disrupted capillary formation in vitro and decreased angiogenesis in vivo. Similarly, tumors derived from prominin-1 knockdown melanoma cells had a reduced growth rate in vivo. Further, melanoma cells with knocked down prominin-1 had diminished ability to interact with VEGF, which was associated with decreased bcl-2 protein levels and increased apoptosis. In vitro studies with soluble prominin-1 showed that it stabilized dimer formation of VEGF164, but not VEGF121. Taken together, our findings support the notion that prominin-1 plays an active role in cell growth through its ability to interact and potentiate the anti-apoptotic and pro-angiogenic activities of VEGF. Additionally, prominin-1 promotes tumor growth by supporting angiogenesis and inhibiting tumor cell apoptosis. PMID:23150059

  5. Identifying potential sources of Sudan I contamination in Capsicum fruits over its growth period.

    PubMed

    Wu, Naiying; Gao, Wei; Zhou, Li; Lian, Yunhe; Li, Fengfei; Han, Wenjie

    2015-04-15

    Sudan dyes in spices are often assumed to arise from cross-contamination or malicious addition. Here, experiments were carried out to identify the potential source of Sudan I-IV in Capsicum fruits through investigation of their contents in native Capsicum tissues, soils and associated agronomic materials. Sudan II-IV was not detected in any of the tested samples. Sudan I was found in almost all samples except for the mulching film. Sudan I concentrations decreased from stems to leaves and then to fruits or roots. Sudan I levels in soils were significantly elevated by vegetation treatment. These results exclude the possibility of soil as the main source for Sudan I contamination in Capsicum fruits. Further study found out pesticide and fertilizer constitutes the major source of Sudan I contamination. This work represents a preliminary step for a detailed Sudan I assessment to support Capsicum management and protection in the studied region. PMID:25466000

  6. Increased perinatal remodelling of the pancreas in somatostatin-deficient mice: potential role of transforming growth factor-beta signalling in regulating beta cell growth in early life.

    PubMed

    Richardson, C C; To, K; Foot, V L; Hauge-Evans, A C; Carmignac, D; Christie, M R

    2015-01-01

    Early postnatal life is a critical period for development of the endocrine pancreas, involving remodelling of islet cells and maturation of secretory responses. Factors that regulate these processes are undefined. Somatostatin-secreting delta-cells are abundant in the developing pancreas and, because somatostatin inhibits growth, the hormone may regulate islet expansion in early life. The aim of this study was to investigate effects of somatostatin-deficiency on proliferation, apoptosis and pancreas expansion in the first 3 weeks of life in mice. Pancreases from control or somatostatin-knockout mice were analysed for beta cell, alpha cell and pancreatic volumes by morphometry, proliferation by BrdU incorporation and apoptosis by TUNEL labelling. Signalling pathways associated with proliferation and apoptosis were studied by immunohistochemistry and Western blotting. Knockout mice grew normally in the first 3 weeks of life, but had high circulating insulin that normalised by day 21. Beta cell, alpha cell and pancreatic volumes were decreased in knockout mice, accompanied by reduced proliferation and increased apoptosis in the pancreas. Decreased growth was not due to impaired Akt signalling, as Akt phosphorylation and nuclear cyclin-D2 increased in the knockout pancreas. Levels of TGF-β1, a factor implicated in tissue remodelling, together with SMAD phosphorylation through which TGF-β mediates its effects, were increased in the knockout pancreas. Beta cell expansion was impaired in knockout mice, potentially compensating for increased insulin secretion from islets lacking inhibitory effects of somatostatin, and was associated with increased TGF-β1 levels. TGF-β1 may represent an important regulator of beta cell mass in early life. PMID:25350519

  7. Autonomic Cluster Management System (ACMS): A Demonstration of Autonomic Principles at Work

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baldassari, James D.; Kopec, Christopher L.; Leshay, Eric S.; Truszkowski, Walt; Finkel, David

    2005-01-01

    Cluster computing, whereby a large number of simple processors or nodes are combined together to apparently function as a single powerful computer, has emerged as a research area in its own right. The approach offers a relatively inexpensive means of achieving significant computational capabilities for high-performance computing applications, while simultaneously affording the ability to. increase that capability simply by adding more (inexpensive) processors. However, the task of manually managing and con.guring a cluster quickly becomes impossible as the cluster grows in size. Autonomic computing is a relatively new approach to managing complex systems that can potentially solve many of the problems inherent in cluster management. We describe the development of a prototype Automatic Cluster Management System (ACMS) that exploits autonomic properties in automating cluster management.

  8. Effects of sire growth potential, growing-finishing strategy, and time on feed on performance, composition, and efficiency of steers.

    PubMed

    Short, R E; Grings, E E; MacNeil, M D; Heitschmidt, R K; Williams, C B; Bennett, G L

    1999-09-01

    Beef production systems that increase use of unharvested forages and use animals with greater potential for gain affect age and size of animals placed on a finishing regimen. This experiment was conducted to evaluate effects of genetic potential for gain, age at the start of a finishing period, and time on feed on composition, quantity, and quality of beef produced and efficiency of production during finishing. Crossbred cows were bred by AI to Charolais or Line 1 Hereford bulls that represented potentially high (HG) or moderate growth (MG) rates, respectively, to produce spring- or fall-born calves. Steer calves from these matings were placed on an individually fed finishing diet at three ages (A). Spring-born steers were started at 6 or 18 mo of age (A6 and A18), and fall-born steers were started at 12 mo of age (A12). Slaughter times (T) were at 0, 90, 180, and 270 d for A6; 68, 136, and 204 d for A12; and 0, 45, 90, and 135 d for A18. Data collected on each animal included feed intake, growth, chemical composition of the complete body and carcass, and quantitative and qualitative assessment of the meat produced. Four steers of each sire group were slaughtered in each of the 11 A-T treatment groups, and the experiment was repeated for 2 yr in the A12 groups and 3 yr in the A6 and A18 groups (n = 237). Steers sired by HG bulls were larger and produced larger carcasses and more carcass protein than MG-sired steers (S, P < .05 or .01). Steers sired by MG bulls were fatter, had higher quality grades, and accumulated fat at a faster rate than HG-sired steers, and this effect was greater in older steers (G and GA, P < .05 or .01). Sire growth potential did not affect gain, intake, live weight efficiency, tenderness, or taste panel scores (P > .2). Steers sired by HG bulls were more efficient at producing carcass weight and carcass protein at A12 and A18 than were MG-sired steers. At the end of the finishing period, older (A18), HG-sired steers were too large with

  9. Hyperpolarization of the Membrane Potential Caused by Somatostatin in Dissociated Human Pituitary Adenoma Cells that Secrete Growth Hormone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamashita, Naohide; Shibuya, Naohiko; Ogata, Etsuro

    1986-08-01

    Membrane electrical properties and the response to somatostatin were examined in dissociated human pituitary adenoma cells that secrete growth hormone (GH). Under current clamp condition with a patch electrode, the resting potential was -52.4 ± 8.0 mV, and spontaneous action potentials were observed in 58% of the cells. Under voltage clamp condition an outward K+ current, a tetrodotoxin-sensitive Na+ current, and a Ca2+ current were observed. Cobalt ions suppressed the Ca2+ current. The threshold of Ca2+ current activation was about -60 mV. Somatostatin elicited a membrane hyperpolarization associated with increased membrane permeability in these cells. The reversal potential of somatostatin-induced hyperpolarization was -78.4 ± 4.3 mV in 6 mM K+ medium and -97.2 ± 6.4 mV in 3 mM K+ medium. These reversal potential values and a shift with the external K+ concentration indicated that membrane hyperpolarization was caused by increased permeability to K+. The hyperpolarized membrane potential induced by somatostatin was -63.6 ± 5.9 mV in the standard medium. This level was subthreshold for Ca2+ and Na+ currents and was sufficient to inhibit spontaneous action potentials. Hormone secretion was significantly suppressed by somatostatin and cobalt ions. Therefore, we suggest that Ca2+ entering the cell through voltage-dependent channels are playing an important role for GH secretion and that somatostatin suppresses GH secretion by blocking Ca2+ currents. Finally, we discuss other possibilities for the inhibitory effect of somatostatin on GH secretion.

  10. Autonomous mobile robots: Vehicles with cognitive control

    SciTech Connect

    Meystel, A.

    1987-01-01

    This book explores a new rapidly developing area of robotics. It describes the state-of-the-art intelligence control, applied machine intelligence, and research and initial stages of manufacturing of autonomous mobile robots. A complete account of the theoretical and experimental results obtained during the last two decades together with some generalizations on Autonomous Mobile Systems are included in this book. Contents: Introduction; Requirements and Specifications; State-of-the-art in Autonomous Mobile Robots Area; Structure of Intelligent Mobile Autonomous System; Planner, Navigator; Pilot; Cartographer; Actuation Control; Computer Simulation of Autonomous Operation; Testing the Autonomous Mobile Robot; Conclusions; Bibliography.

  11. Air Launch: Examining Performance Potential of Various Configurations and Growth Options

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waters, Eric D.; Creech, Dennis M.; Philips, Alan D.

    2013-01-01

    The Advanced Concepts Office at NASA's George C. Marshall Space Flight Center conducted a high-level analysis of various air launch vehicle configurations, objectively determining maximum launch vehicle payload while considering carrier aircraft capabilities and given dimensional constraints. With the renewed interest in aerial launch of low-earth orbit payloads, referenced by programs such as Stratolaunch and Spaceship2, there exists a need to qualify the boundaries of the trade space, identify performance envelopes, and understand advantages and limiting factors of designing for maximum payload capability. Using the NASA/DARPA Horizontal Launch Study (HLS) Point Design 2 (PD-2) as a pointof- departure configuration, two independent design actions were undertaken. Both designs utilized a Boeing 747-400F as the carrier aircraft, LOX/RP-1 first stage and LOX/LH2 second stage. Each design was sized to meet dimensional and mass constraints while optimizing propellant loads and stage delta V splits. All concepts, when fully loaded, exceeded the allowable Gross Takeoff Weight (GTOW) of the aircraft platform. This excess mass was evaluated as propellant/fuel offload available for a potential in-flight propellant loading scenario. Results indicate many advantages such as payload delivery of approximately 47,000 lbm and significant mission flexibility including variable launch site inclination and launch window. However, in-flight cryogenic fluid transfer and carrier aircraft platform integration are substantial technical hurdles to the realization of such a system configuration.

  12. Air Launch: Examining Performance Potential of Various Configurations and Growth Options

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waters, Eric D.; Creech, Dennis M.; Philips, Alan

    2013-01-01

    The Advanced Concepts Office at NASA's George C. Marshall Space Flight Center conducted a high-level analysis of various air launch vehicle configurations, objectively determining maximum launch vehicle payload while considering carrier aircraft capabilities and given dimensional constraints. With the renewed interest in aerial launch of low-earth orbit payloads, referenced by programs such as Stratolaunch and Spaceship2, there existed a need to qualify the boundaries of the trade space, identify performance envelopes, and understand advantages and limiting factors of designing for maximum payload capability. Using the NASA/DARPA Horizontal Launch Study (HLS) Point Design 2 (PD-2) as a point-of-departure configuration, two independent design actions were undertaken. Both configurations utilized a Boeing 747-400F as the carrier aircraft, LOX/RP-1 first stage and LOX/LH2 second stage. Each design was sized to meet dimensional and mass constraints while optimizing propellant loads and stage delta V (?V) splits. All concepts, when fully loaded, exceeded the allowable Gross Takeoff Weight (GTOW) of the aircraft platform. This excess mass was evaluated as propellant/fuel offload available for a potential in-flight refueling scenario. Results indicate many advantages such as large, relative payload delivery of approximately 47,000 lbm and significant mission flexibility, such as variable launch site inclination and launch window; however, in-flight cryogenic fluid transfer and carrier aircraft platform integration are substantial technical hurdles to the realization of such a system configuration.

  13. Growth In Buprenorphine Waivers For Physicians Increased Potential Access To Opioid Agonist Treatment, 2002-11.

    PubMed

    Dick, Andrew W; Pacula, Rosalie L; Gordon, Adam J; Sorbero, Mark; Burns, Rachel M; Leslie, Douglas; Stein, Bradley D

    2015-06-01

    Opioid use disorders are a significant public health problem, affecting two million people in the United States. Treatment with buprenorphine, methadone, or both is predominantly offered in methadone clinics, yet many people do not receive the treatment they need. In 2002 the Food and Drug Administration approved buprenorphine for prescription by physicians who completed a course and received a waiver from the Drug Enforcement Administration, exempting them from requirements in the Controlled Substances Act. To determine the waiver program's impact on the availability of opioid agonist treatment, we analyzed data for the period 2002-11 to identify counties with opioid treatment shortages. We found that the percentage of counties with a shortage of waivered physicians fell sharply, from 98.9 percent in 2002 to 46.8 percent in 2011. As a result, the percentage of the US population residing in what we classified as opioid treatment shortage counties declined from 48.6 percent in 2002 to 10.4 percent in 2011. These findings suggest that the increase in waivered physicians has dramatically increased potential access to opioid agonist treatment. Policy makers should focus their efforts on further increasing the number and geographical distribution of physicians, particularly in more rural counties, where prescription opioid misuse is rapidly growing. PMID:26056209

  14. Frontiers in growth and remodeling.

    PubMed

    Menzel, Andreas; Kuhl, Ellen

    2012-06-01

    Unlike common engineering materials, living matter can autonomously respond to environmental changes. Living structures can grow stronger, weaker, larger, or smaller within months, weeks, or days as a result of a continuous microstructural turnover and renewal. Hard tissues can adapt by increasing their density and grow strong. Soft tissues can adapt by increasing their volume and grow large. For more than three decades, the mechanics community has actively contributed to understand the phenomena of growth and remodeling from a mechanistic point of view. However, to date, there is no single, unified characterization of growth, which is equally accepted by all scientists in the field. Here we shed light on the continuum modeling of growth and remodeling of living matter, and give a comprehensive overview of historical developments and trends. We provide a state-of-the-art review of current research highlights, and discuss challenges and potential future directions. Using the example of volumetric growth, we illustrate how we can establish and utilize growth theories to characterize the functional adaptation of soft living matter. We anticipate this review to be the starting point for critical discussions and future research in growth and remodeling, with a potential impact on life science and medicine. PMID:22919118

  15. Frontiers in growth and remodeling

    PubMed Central

    Menzel, Andreas; Kuhl, Ellen

    2012-01-01

    Unlike common engineering materials, living matter can autonomously respond to environmental changes. Living structures can grow stronger, weaker, larger, or smaller within months, weeks, or days as a result of a continuous microstructural turnover and renewal. Hard tissues can adapt by increasing their density and grow strong. Soft tissues can adapt by increasing their volume and grow large. For more than three decades, the mechanics community has actively contributed to understand the phenomena of growth and remodeling from a mechanistic point of view. However, to date, there is no single, unified characterization of growth, which is equally accepted by all scientists in the field. Here we shed light on the continuum modeling of growth and remodeling of living matter, and give a comprehensive overview of historical developments and trends. We provide a state-of-the-art review of current research highlights, and discuss challenges and potential future directions. Using the example of volumetric growth, we illustrate how we can establish and utilize growth theories to characterize the functional adaptation of soft living matter. We anticipate this review to be the starting point for critical discussions and future research in growth and remodeling, with a potential impact on life science and medicine. PMID:22919118

  16. A potential cause for kidney stone formation during space flights: enhanced growth of nanobacteria in microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ciftcioglu, Neva; Haddad, Ruwaida S.; Golden, D. C.; Morrison, Dennis R.; McKay, David S.

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Although some information is available regarding the cellular/molecular changes in immune system exposed to microgravity, little is known about the reasons of the increase in the kidney stone formation in astronauts during and/or after long duration missions at zero gravity (0 g). In our earlier studies, we have assessed a unique agent, nanobacteria (NB), in kidney stones and hypothesized that NB have an active role in calcium phosphate-carbonate deposition in kidney. In this research we studied effect of microgravity on multiplication and calcification of NB in vitro. METHODS: We examined NB cultures in High Aspect Rotating Vessels (HARVs) designed at the NASA's Johnson Space Center, which are designed to stimulate some aspects of microgravity. Multiplication rate and calcium phosphate composition of those NB were compared with NB cultured on stationary and shaker flasks. Collected aliquots of the cultures from different incubation periods were analyzed using spectrophotometer, SEM, TEM, EDX, and x-ray diffraction techniques. RESULTS: The results showed that NB multiplied 4.6x faster in HARVs compared to stationary cultures, and 3.2x faster than shaker flask conditions. X-ray diffraction and EDX analysis showed that the degree of apatite crystal formation and the properties of the apatite depend on the specific culture conditions used. CONCLUSION: We now report an increased multiplication rate of NB in microgravity-simulated conditions. Thus, NB infection may have a potential role in kidney stone formation in crew members during space flights. For further proof to this hypothesis, screening of the NB antigen and antibody level in flight crew before and after flight would be necessary.

  17. Potential of Multitemporal Tandem-X Derived Crop Surface Models for Maize Growth Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hütt, C.; Tilly, N.; Schiedung, H.; Bareth, G.

    2016-06-01

    In this study, first results of retrieving plant heights of maize fields from multitemporal TanDEM-X images are shown. Three TanDEM-X dual polarization spotlight acquisitions were taken over a rural area in Germany in the growing season 2014. By interferometric processing, digital terrain models (DTM) were derived for each date with 5m resolution. From the data of the first acquisition (June 1st) taken before planting, a DTM of the bare ground is generated. The data of the following acquisition dates (July 15th, July 26th) are used to establish crop surface models (CSM). A CSM represents the crop surface of a whole field in a high resolution. By subtracting the DTM of the ground from each CSM, the actual plant height is calculated. Within these data sets 30 maize fields in the area of interest could be detected and verified by external land use data. Besides the spaceborne measurements, one of the maize fields was intensively investigated using terrestrial laser scanning (TLS), which was carried out at the same dates as the predicted TanDEM-X acquisitions. Visual inspection of the derived plant heights, and accordance of the individually processed polarisations over the maize fields, demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed method. Unfortunately, the infield variability of the intensively monitored field could not be successfully captured in the TanDEM-X derived plant heights and merely the general trend is visible. Nevertheless, the study shows the potential of the TanDEM-X constellation for maize height monitoring on field level.

  18. Contingency Software in Autonomous Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lutz, Robyn; Patterson-Hine, Ann

    2006-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the development of contingency software for autonomous systems. Autonomous vehicles currently have a limited capacity to diagnose and mitigate failures. There is a need to be able to handle a broader range of contingencies. The goals of the project are: 1. Speed up diagnosis and mitigation of anomalous situations.2.Automatically handle contingencies, not just failures.3.Enable projects to select a degree of autonomy consistent with their needs and to incrementally introduce more autonomy.4.Augment on-board fault protection with verified contingency scripts

  19. Miniature Autonomous Robotic Vehicle (MARV)

    SciTech Connect

    Feddema, J.T.; Kwok, K.S.; Driessen, B.J.; Spletzer, B.L.; Weber, T.M.

    1996-12-31

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has recently developed a 16 cm{sup 3} (1 in{sup 3}) autonomous robotic vehicle which is capable of tracking a single conducting wire carrying a 96 kHz signal. This vehicle was developed to assess the limiting factors in using commercial technology to build miniature autonomous vehicles. Particular attention was paid to the design of the control system to search out the wire, track it, and recover if the wire was lost. This paper describes the test vehicle and the control analysis. Presented in the paper are the vehicle model, control laws, a stability analysis, simulation studies and experimental results.

  20. Progress towards autonomous, intelligent systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lum, Henry; Heer, Ewald

    1987-01-01

    An aggressive program has been initiated to develop, integrate, and implement autonomous systems technologies starting with today's expert systems and evolving to autonomous, intelligent systems by the end of the 1990s. This program includes core technology developments and demonstration projects for technology evaluation and validation. This paper discusses key operational frameworks in the content of systems autonomy applications and then identifies major technological challenges, primarily in artificial intelligence areas. Program content and progress made towards critical technologies and demonstrations that have been initiated to achieve the required future capabilities in the year 2000 era are discussed.

  1. Intelligent, autonomous systems in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lum, H.; Heer, E.

    1988-01-01

    The Space Station is expected to be equipped with intelligent, autonomous capabilities; to achieve and incorporate these capabilities, the required technologies need to be identitifed, developed and validated within realistic application scenarios. The critical technologies for the development of intelligent, autonomous systems are discussed in the context of a generalized functional architecture. The present state of this technology implies that it be introduced and applied in an evolutionary process which must start during the Space Station design phase. An approach is proposed to accomplish design information acquisition and management for knowledge-base development.

  2. Gas House Autonomous System Monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Luke; Edsall, Ashley

    2015-01-01

    Gas House Autonomous System Monitoring (GHASM) will employ Integrated System Health Monitoring (ISHM) of cryogenic fluids in the High Pressure Gas Facility at Stennis Space Center. The preliminary focus of development incorporates the passive monitoring and eventual commanding of the Nitrogen System. ISHM offers generic system awareness, adept at using concepts rather than specific error cases. As an enabler for autonomy, ISHM provides capabilities inclusive of anomaly detection, diagnosis, and abnormality prediction. Advancing ISHM and Autonomous Operation functional capabilities enhances quality of data, optimizes safety, improves cost effectiveness, and has direct benefits to a wide spectrum of aerospace applications.

  3. Discerning non-autonomous dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clemson, Philip T.; Stefanovska, Aneta

    2014-09-01

    Structure and function go hand in hand. However, while a complex structure can be relatively safely broken down into the minutest parts, and technology is now delving into nanoscales, the function of complex systems requires a completely different approach. Here the complexity clearly arises from nonlinear interactions, which prevents us from obtaining a realistic description of a system by dissecting it into its structural component parts. At best, the result of such investigations does not substantially add to our understanding or at worst it can even be misleading. Not surprisingly, the dynamics of complex systems, facilitated by increasing computational efficiency, is now readily tackled in the case of measured time series. Moreover, time series can now be collected in practically every branch of science and in any structural scale-from protein dynamics in a living cell to data collected in astrophysics or even via social networks. In searching for deterministic patterns in such data we are limited by the fact that no complex system in the real world is autonomous. Hence, as an alternative to the stochastic approach that is predominantly applied to data from inherently non-autonomous complex systems, theory and methods specifically tailored to non-autonomous systems are needed. Indeed, in the last decade we have faced a huge advance in mathematical methods, including the introduction of pullback attractors, as well as time series methods that cope with the most important characteristic of non-autonomous systems-their time-dependent behaviour. Here we review current methods for the analysis of non-autonomous dynamics including those for extracting properties of interactions and the direction of couplings. We illustrate each method by applying it to three sets of systems typical for chaotic, stochastic and non-autonomous behaviour. For the chaotic class we select the Lorenz system, for the stochastic the noise-forced Duffing system and for the non-autonomous the

  4. Critically Reflective Work Behaviour within Autonomous Professionals' Learning Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Groot, Esther; van den Berg, B. A. M.; Endedijk, M. D.; van Beukelen, P.; Simons, P. R. J.

    2011-01-01

    Informal learning communities in which participants show critically reflective work behaviour (CRWB) have the potential to support lifelong learning. In practice this behaviour does not always occur in groups of autonomous professionals. This study explores design principles (DPs) that could act as social affordances for CRWB, within the context…

  5. Chromium reduction, plant growth-promoting potentials, and metal solubilizatrion by Bacillus sp. isolated from alluvial soil.

    PubMed

    Wani, Parvaze Ahmad; Khan, Mohammad Saghir; Zaidi, Almas

    2007-03-01

    The plant growth-promoting potentials, production of siderophore and solubilization of insoluble phosphorus (P) and zinc and lead by the chromium (vi) -reducing Bacillus species, PSB 1, PSB 7, and PSB 10, was assessed both in the presence and absence of chromium under in vitro conditions. The Bacillus strains tolerated chromium up to the concentration of 500 (PSB1), 400 (PSB7), and 550 microg ml(-1) (PSB10), respectively, on nutrient agar plates. Bacillus sp. PSB 10 reduced Cr (vi) by 87% at pH 7, which was followed by Bacillus sp. PSB 1 (83%) and PSB 7 (74%) in nutrient broth after 120 h of incubation. A concentration of 50 microg ml(-1) of Cr (vi) was completely reduced by Bacillus sp. PSB 1 and PSB 10 (after 100 h) and PSB 7 (after 120 h). The Bacillus strains PSB 1, PSB 7, and PSB 10 produced 19.3, 17.7, and 17.4 microg ml(-1) of indole acetic acid, respectively, in luria bertani broth at 100 microg ml(-1) of tryptophan, which consistently decreased with an increase in chromium concentration. The Bacillus strains were positive for siderophore, HCN, and ammonia both in the absence and presence of chromium. The Bacillus strains solubilized 375 (PSB 1), 340 (PSB 7), and 379 (PSB 10) microg ml(-1) P, respectively, in Pikovskaya broth devoid of chromium. In contrast, chromium at 150 microg ml(-1) reduced the amount of P solubilized by 17 (PSB 1), 15 (PSB 7), and 9% (PSB 10) compared to control. The tested bacterial strains solubilized a considerable amount of zinc and lead in nutrient broth both in the absence and presence of chromium. Generally, the chromium reduction and the plant growth-promoting potentials of chromium-reducing Bacillus were strongly correlated at the tested concentration of chromium. The present observations demonstrated that the chromium-reducing, metal-solubilizing, and plant growth-promoting potentials of the Bacillus strains PSB1, PSB 7, and PSB10 were not adversely affected by the chromium application and, hence, may be applied for raising

  6. Growth Differentiation Factor-15 (GDF-15) is a potential marker of radiation response and radiation sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Sándor, Nikolett; Schilling-Tóth, Boglárka; Kis, Enikő; Benedek, Anett; Lumniczky, Katalin; Sáfrány, Géza; Hegyesi, Hargita

    2015-11-01

    We have investigated the importance of GDF-15 (secreted cytokine belonging to the TGF-β superfamily) in low and high dose radiation-induced cellular responses. A telomerase immortalized human fibroblast cell line (F11hT) was used in the experiments. A lentiviral system encoding small hairpin RNAs (shRNA) was used to establish GDF-15 silenced cells. Secreted GDF-15 levels were measured in culture medium by ELISA. Cell cycle analysis was performed by flow cytometry. The experiments demonstrated that in irradiated human fibroblasts GDF-15 expression increased with dose starting from 100mGy. Elevated GDF-15 expression was not detected in bystander cells. The potential role of GDF-15 in radiation response was investigated by silencing GDF-15 in immortalized human fibroblasts with five different shRNA encoded in lentiviral vectors. Cell lines with considerably reduced GDF-15 levels presented increased radiation sensitivity, while a cell line with elevated GDF-15 was more radiation resistant than wild type cells. We have investigated how the reduced GDF-15 levels alter the response of several known radiation inducible genes. In F11hT-shGDF-15 cells the basal expression level of CDKN1A was unaltered relative to F11hT cells, while GADD45A and TGF-β1 mRNA levels were slightly higher, and TP53INP1 was considerably reduced. The radiation-induced expression of TP53INP1 was lower in the silenced than in wild type fibroblast cells. Cell cycle analysis indicated that radiation-induced early G2/M arrest was abrogated in GDF-15 silenced cells. Moreover, radiation-induced bystander effect was less pronounced in GDF-15 silenced fibroblasts. In conclusion, the results suggest that GDF-15 works as a radiation inducible radiation resistance increasing factor in normal human fibroblast cells, acts by regulating the radiation-induced transcription of several genes and might serve as a radiation-induced early biomarker in exposed cells. PMID:26520384

  7. Plant Growth Promotion Potential Is Equally Represented in Diverse Grapevine Root-Associated Bacterial Communities from Different Biopedoclimatic Environments

    PubMed Central

    Fusi, Marco; Cherif, Ameur; Abou-Hadid, Ayman; El-Bahairy, Usama; Sorlini, Claudia; Daffonchio, Daniele

    2013-01-01

    Plant-associated bacteria provide important services to host plants. Environmental factors such as cultivar type and pedoclimatic conditions contribute to shape their diversity. However, whether these environmental factors may influence the plant growth promoting (PGP) potential of the root-associated bacteria is not widely understood. To address this issue, the diversity and PGP potential of the bacterial assemblage associated with the grapevine root system of different cultivars in three Mediterranean environments along a macrotransect identifying an aridity gradient were assessed by culture-dependent and independent approaches. According to 16S rRNA gene PCR-DGGE, the structure of endosphere and rhizosphere bacterial communities was highly diverse (P = 0.03) and was associated with a cultivar/latitudinal/climatic effect. Despite being diverse, the bacterial communities associated with Egyptian grapevines shared a higher similarity with the Tunisian grapevines than those cultivated in North Italy. A similar distribution, according to the cultivar/latitude/aridity gradients, was observed for the cultivable bacteria. Many isolates (23%) presented in vitro multiple stress resistance capabilities and PGP activities, the most frequent being auxin synthesis (82%), insoluble phosphate solubilisation (61%), and ammonia production (70%). The comparable numbers and types of potential PGP traits among the three different environmental settings indicate a strong functional homeostasis of beneficial bacteria associated with grape root. PMID:23878810

  8. Plant growth promotion potential is equally represented in diverse grapevine root-associated bacterial communities from different biopedoclimatic environments.

    PubMed

    Marasco, Ramona; Rolli, Eleonora; Fusi, Marco; Cherif, Ameur; Abou-Hadid, Ayman; El-Bahairy, Usama; Borin, Sara; Sorlini, Claudia; Daffonchio, Daniele

    2013-01-01

    Plant-associated bacteria provide important services to host plants. Environmental factors such as cultivar type and pedoclimatic conditions contribute to shape their diversity. However, whether these environmental factors may influence the plant growth promoting (PGP) potential of the root-associated bacteria is not widely understood. To address this issue, the diversity and PGP potential of the bacterial assemblage associated with the grapevine root system of different cultivars in three Mediterranean environments along a macrotransect identifying an aridity gradient were assessed by culture-dependent and independent approaches. According to 16S rRNA gene PCR-DGGE, the structure of endosphere and rhizosphere bacterial communities was highly diverse (P = 0.03) and was associated with a cultivar/latitudinal/climatic effect. Despite being diverse, the bacterial communities associated with Egyptian grapevines shared a higher similarity with the Tunisian grapevines than those cultivated in North Italy. A similar distribution, according to the cultivar/latitude/aridity gradients, was observed for the cultivable bacteria. Many isolates (23%) presented in vitro multiple stress resistance capabilities and PGP activities, the most frequent being auxin synthesis (82%), insoluble phosphate solubilisation (61%), and ammonia production (70%). The comparable numbers and types of potential PGP traits among the three different environmental settings indicate a strong functional homeostasis of beneficial bacteria associated with grape root. PMID:23878810

  9. Autonomous satellite navigation with the Global Positioning System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fuchs, A. J.; Wooden, W. H., II; Long, A. C.

    1977-01-01

    This paper discusses the potential of using the Global Positioning System (GPS) to provide autonomous navigation capability to NASA satellites in the 1980 era. Some of the driving forces motivating autonomous navigation are presented. These include such factors as advances in attitude control systems, onboard science annotation, and onboard gridding of imaging data. Simulation results which demonstrate baseline orbit determination accuracies using GPS data on Seasat, Landsat-D, and the Solar Maximum Mission are presented. Emphasis is placed on identifying error sources such as GPS time, GPS ephemeris, user timing biases, and user orbit dynamics, and in a parametric sense on evaluating their contribution to the orbit determination accuracies.

  10. Mamdani Fuzzy System for Indoor Autonomous Mobile Robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, M. K. A. Ahamed; Rashid, Razif; Elamvazuthi, I.

    2011-06-01

    Several control algorithms for autonomous mobile robot navigation have been proposed in the literature. Recently, the employment of non-analytical methods of computing such as fuzzy logic, evolutionary computation, and neural networks has demonstrated the utility and potential of these paradigms for intelligent control of mobile robot navigation. In this paper, Mamdani fuzzy system for an autonomous mobile robot is developed. The paper begins with the discussion on the conventional controller and then followed by the description of fuzzy logic controller in detail.

  11. An Analytical Thermal Model for Autonomous Soaring Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, Michael

    2006-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation describing an analytical thermal model used to enable research on autonomous soaring for a small UAV aircraft is given. The topics include: 1) Purpose; 2) Approach; 3) SURFRAD Data; 4) Convective Layer Thickness; 5) Surface Heat Budget; 6) Surface Virtual Potential Temperature Flux; 7) Convective Scaling Velocity; 8) Other Calculations; 9) Yearly trends; 10) Scale Factors; 11) Scale Factor Test Matrix; 12) Statistical Model; 13) Updraft Strength Calculation; 14) Updraft Diameter; 15) Updraft Shape; 16) Smoothed Updraft Shape; 17) Updraft Spacing; 18) Environment Sink; 19) Updraft Lifespan; 20) Autonomous Soaring Research; 21) Planned Flight Test; and 22) Mixing Ratio.

  12. A Robust Compositional Architecture for Autonomous Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brat, Guillaume; Deney, Ewen; Farrell, Kimberley; Giannakopoulos, Dimitra; Jonsson, Ari; Frank, Jeremy; Bobby, Mark; Carpenter, Todd; Estlin, Tara

    2006-01-01

    Space exploration applications can benefit greatly from autonomous systems. Great distances, limited communications and high costs make direct operations impossible while mandating operations reliability and efficiency beyond what traditional commanding can provide. Autonomous systems can improve reliability and enhance spacecraft capability significantly. However, there is reluctance to utilizing autonomous systems. In part this is due to general hesitation about new technologies, but a more tangible concern is that of reliability of predictability of autonomous software. In this paper, we describe ongoing work aimed at increasing robustness and predictability of autonomous software, with the ultimate goal of building trust in such systems. The work combines state-of-the-art technologies and capabilities in autonomous systems with advanced validation and synthesis techniques. The focus of this paper is on the autonomous system architecture that has been defined, and on how it enables the application of validation techniques for resulting autonomous systems.

  13. Autonomic dysfunction in acute ischemic stroke: an underexplored therapeutic area?

    PubMed

    De Raedt, Sylvie; De Vos, Aurelie; De Keyser, Jacques

    2015-01-15

    Impaired autonomic function, characterized by a predominance of sympathetic activity, is common in patients with acute ischemic stroke. This review describes methods to measure autonomic dysfunction in stroke patients. It summarizes a potential relationship between ischemic stroke-associated autonomic dysfunction and factors that have been associated with worse outcome, including cardiac complications, blood pressure variability changes, hyperglycemia, immune depression, sleep disordered breathing, thrombotic effects, and malignant edema. Involvement of the insular cortex has been suspected to play an important role in causing sympathovagal imbalance, but its exact role and that of other brain regions remain unclear. Although sympathetic overactivity in patients with ischemic stroke appears to be a negative prognostic factor, it remains to be seen whether therapeutic strategies that reduce sympathetic activity or increase parasympathetic activity might improve outcome. PMID:25541326

  14. Effects of Deep Brain Stimulation on Autonomic Function.

    PubMed

    Basiago, Adam; Binder, Devin K

    2016-01-01

    Over the course of the development of deep brain stimulation (DBS) into a well-established therapy for Parkinson's disease, essential tremor, and dystonia, its utility as a potential treatment for autonomic dysfunction has emerged. Dysfunction of autonomic processes is common in neurological diseases. Depending on the specific target in the brain, DBS has been shown to raise or lower blood pressure, normalize the baroreflex, to alter the caliber of bronchioles, and eliminate hyperhidrosis, all through modulation of the sympathetic nervous system. It has also been shown to improve cortical control of the bladder, directly induce or inhibit the micturition reflex, and to improve deglutition and gastric emptying. In this review, we will attempt to summarize the relevant available studies describing these effects of DBS on autonomic function, which vary greatly in character and magnitude with respect to stimulation target. PMID:27537920

  15. Growth and Heavy Metal Accumulation of Koelreuteria Paniculata Seedlings and Their Potential for Restoring Manganese Mine Wastelands in Hunan, China

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Zhihong; Xiang, Wenhua; Ma, Yu’e; Lei, Pifeng; Tian, Dalun; Deng, Xiangwen; Yan, Wende; Fang, Xi

    2015-01-01

    The planting of trees on mine wastelands is an effective, long-term technique for phytoremediation of heavy metal-contaminated wastes. In this study, a pot experiment with seedlings of Koelreuteria paniculata under six treatments of local mine wastes was designed to determine the major constraints on tree establishment and to evaluate the feasibility of planting K. paniculata on manganese mine wastelands. Results showed that K. paniculata grew well in mine tailings, and also under a regime of equal amounts of mine tailings and soil provided in adjacent halves of pots. In contrast, mine sludge did not favor survival and growth because its clay texture limited fine root development. The bio-concentration factor and the translocation factor were mostly less than 1, indicating a low phytoextraction potential for K. paniculata. K. paniculata is suited to restore manganese mine sludge by mixing the mine sludge with local mine tailings or soil. PMID:25654773

  16. PDK1 and SGK3 contribute to the growth of BRAF mutant melanomas and are potential therapeutic targets

    PubMed Central

    Scortegagna, Marzia; Lau, Eric; Zhang, Tongwu; Feng, Yongmei; Sereduk, Chris; Yin, Hongwei; De, Surya K.; Meeth, Katrina; Platt, James T.; Langdon, Casey G.; Halaban, Ruth; Pellecchia, Maurizio; Davies, Michael A.; Brown, Kevin; Stern, David F.; Bosenberg, Marcus; Ronai, Ze’ev A.

    2015-01-01

    Melanoma development involves members of the AGC kinase family including AKT, PKC and, most recently, PDK1, as elucidated recently in studies of Braf::Pten mutant melanomas. Here we report that PDK1 contributes functionally to skin pigmentation and to the development of melanomas harboring a wild-type PTEN genotype, which occurs in ~70% of human melanomas. The PDK1 substrate SGK3 was determined to be is an important mediator of PDK1 activities in melanoma cells. Genetic or pharmacological inhibition of PDK1 and SGK3 attenuated melanoma growth by inducing G1 phase cell cycle arrest. In a synthetic lethal screen, pan-PI3K inhibition synergized with PDK1 inhibition to suppress melanoma growth, suggesting that focused blockade of PDK1/PI3K signaling might offer a new therapeutic modality for wild-type PTEN tumors. We also noted that responsiveness to PDK1 inhibition associated with decreased expression of pigmentation genes and increased expression of cytokines and inflammatory genes, suggesting a method to stratify melanoma patients for PDK1-based therapies. Overall, our work highlights the potential significance of PDK1 as a therapeutic target to improve melanoma treatment. PMID:25712345

  17. Suppression of the Insulin Receptors in Adult Schistosoma japonicum Impacts on Parasite Growth and Development: Further Evidence of Vaccine Potential.

    PubMed

    You, Hong; Gobert, Geoffrey N; Cai, Pengfei; Mou, Rong; Nawaratna, Sujeevi; Fang, Guofu; Villinger, Francois; McManus, Donald P

    2015-05-01

    To further investigate the importance of insulin signaling in the growth, development, sexual maturation and egg production of adult schistosomes, we have focused attention on the insulin receptors (SjIRs) of Schistosoma japonicum, which we have previously cloned and partially characterised. We now show, by Biolayer Interferometry, that human insulin can bind the L1 subdomain (insulin binding domain) of recombinant (r)SjIR1 and rSjIR2 (designated SjLD1 and SjLD2) produced using the Drosophila S2 protein expression system. We have then used RNA interference (RNAi) to knock down the expression of the SjIRs in adult S. japonicum in vitro and show that, in addition to their reduced transcription, the transcript levels of other important downstream genes within the insulin pathway, associated with glucose metabolism and schistosome fecundity, were also impacted substantially. Further, a significant decrease in glucose uptake was observed in the SjIR-knockdown worms compared with luciferase controls. In vaccine/challenge experiments, we found that rSjLD1 and rSjLD2 depressed female growth, intestinal granuloma density and faecal egg production in S. japonicum in mice presented with a low dose challenge infection. These data re-emphasize the potential of the SjIRs as veterinary transmission blocking vaccine candidates against zoonotic schistosomiasis japonica in China and the Philippines. PMID:25961574

  18. Plant growth promoting potential of free-living diazotrophs and other rhizobacteria isolated from Northern Indian soil.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Farah; Ahmad, Iqbal; Aqil, Farrukh; Ahmed Wani, Aijaz; Sousche, Yogesh S

    2006-10-01

    The viable count of free-living diazotrophic bacteria in different crop rhizospheres varied from 1.11 x 10(4) to 8.5 x 10(5) CFU/g of soil. The majority of the diazotrophs phenotypically belong to either Azotobacter chroococcum, non-A. chroococcum type and to a heterogenous group tentatively named putative nitrogen-fixing (PNF) bacteria. In this study, 25 isolates of the PNF group were screened for their multiple plant growth-promoting (PGP) traits and grouped into 5 PGP types. An isolate, PNF(11) showed promising PGP potential in vitro and was characterized as a species of Achromobacter by 16S rRNA analysis. The isolate PNF(11) along with three other previously isolated PGP bacteria, Azotobacter sp. (AZS(3)), fluorescent pseudomonas (Ps(5)), Bacillus sp. (Bc(1)) were selected for crop inoculation response in green house experiment on Vigna radiata var.T44. Plants from inoculated and control pots were sampled and analyzed at 30, 45 and 60 days after sowing for various vegetative, nodule-related data and yield parameters. The findings indicated that selected isolate of PNF bacteria, and other PGP isolates with multiple activities significantly improve the plant growth parameters, yield parameters of Vigna radiata T44 over control and also show good compatibility with Bradyrhizobium inoculation. PMID:17004301

  19. Algal growth potentials and heavy-metal concentrations of the primary streams to upper Beaver Lake. Technical completion report

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, R.L.; Green, W.R.; Steele, K.F.; Wickliff, D.

    1986-06-01

    Algal-growth potential was inhibited by heavy metals in upper Beaver Lake, Arkansas. Upper Beaver Lake receives water from three tributaries. One contains a small reservoir and the combined streams receive sewage input. Collections were made approximately monthly at eight sites for the Algal Assay Bottle Test (AABT) and heavy-metal analysis. In general, AABT results indicated that the collections above the sewage input were phosphorus-limited while those below were nitrogen- or combined nitrogen- and phosphorus-limited. Growth inhibition occurred during summer and early fall at various sites with greater inhibition at the confluence of the streams. No inhibitions occurred at the site below the sewage input. Heavy-metal concentrations had an overall tendency to increase downstream. Values within the small reservoir were 50-100% higher than in the feeder stream. Highest values of Pb were observed below the reservoir. SO/sub 4/, Cl, Mg, Ca, Na and K had high values during low flow in August-October. Mn, Pb, and Fe exceeded EPA-recommended standards for drinking water.

  20. Predators with multiple ontogenetic niche shifts have limited potential for population growth and top-down control of their prey.

    PubMed

    van Leeuwen, Anieke; Huss, Magnus; Gårdmark, Anna; Casini, Michele; Vitale, Francesca; Hjelm, Joakim; Persson, Lennart; de Roos, André M

    2013-07-01

    Catastrophic collapses of top predators have revealed trophic cascades and community structuring by top-down control. When populations fail to recover after a collapse, this may indicate alternative stable states in the system. Overfishing has caused several of the most compelling cases of these dynamics, and in particular Atlantic cod stocks exemplify such lack of recovery. Often, competition between prey species and juvenile predators is hypothesized to explain the lack of recovery of predator populations. The predator is then considered to compete with its prey for one resource when small and to subsequently shift to piscivory. Yet predator life history is often more complex than that, including multiple ontogenetic diet shifts. Here we show that no alternative stable states occur when predators in an intermediate life stage feed on an additional resource (exclusive to the predator) before switching to piscivory, because predation and competition between prey and predator do not simultaneously structure community dynamics. We find top-down control by the predator only when there is no feedback from predator foraging on the additional resource. Otherwise, the predator population dynamics are governed by a bottleneck in individual growth occurring in the intermediate life stage. Therefore, additional resources for predators may be beneficial or detrimental for predator population growth and strongly influence the potential for top-down community control. PMID:23778226

  1. Suppression of the Insulin Receptors in Adult Schistosoma japonicum Impacts on Parasite Growth and Development: Further Evidence of Vaccine Potential

    PubMed Central

    You, Hong; Gobert, Geoffrey N.; Cai, Pengfei; Mou, Rong; Nawaratna, Sujeevi; Fang, Guofu; Villinger, Francois; McManus, Donald P.

    2015-01-01

    To further investigate the importance of insulin signaling in the growth, development, sexual maturation and egg production of adult schistosomes, we have focused attention on the insulin receptors (SjIRs) of Schistosoma japonicum, which we have previously cloned and partially characterised. We now show, by Biolayer Interferometry, that human insulin can bind the L1 subdomain (insulin binding domain) of recombinant (r)SjIR1 and rSjIR2 (designated SjLD1 and SjLD2) produced using the Drosophila S2 protein expression system. We have then used RNA interference (RNAi) to knock down the expression of the SjIRs in adult S. japonicum in vitro and show that, in addition to their reduced transcription, the transcript levels of other important downstream genes within the insulin pathway, associated with glucose metabolism and schistosome fecundity, were also impacted substantially. Further, a significant decrease in glucose uptake was observed in the SjIR-knockdown worms compared with luciferase controls. In vaccine/challenge experiments, we found that rSjLD1 and rSjLD2 depressed female growth, intestinal granuloma density and faecal egg production in S. japonicum in mice presented with a low dose challenge infection. These data re-emphasize the potential of the SjIRs as veterinary transmission blocking vaccine candidates against zoonotic schistosomiasis japonica in China and the Philippines. PMID:25961574

  2. Characterization of cadmium-resistant bacteria for its potential in promoting plant growth and cadmium accumulation in Sesbania bispinosa root.

    PubMed

    Kartik, V P; Jinal, H N; Amaresan, N

    2016-11-01

    The cadmium (Cd) resistant bacteria were isolated from soils of Damanganga river, Vapi, and identified 11 potential Cd resistant bacteria based on 16S rDNA sequences. The Cd resistant bacteria belonged to four different genera: Providencia spp., Morganella sp., Stenotrophomonas sp., and Bacillus spp. The assessment of plant growth-promoting (PGP) parameters revealed that the Cd tolerant bacteria showed one or more PGP properties. Further, a pot experiment was conducted to elucidate the effects of Cd resistant bacteria on the plant growth and the uptake of Cd by Sesbania bispinosa. The bacterized seedlings recorded 36.0-74.8% and 21.2-32.9% higher root and shoot lengths, respectively, in Cd amended soil compared with control. The Cd mobilization in the root of S. bispinosa by microbial inoculants ranged from 0.02 ± 0.01 to 1.11 ± 0.06 ppm. The enhanced concentrations of Cd accumulation in S. bispinosa roots correspond to the effect of the bacterial strains on metal mobilization in soil. The present observations showed that the Cd resistant strains protect the plants against the inhibitory effects of Cd, probably due to the production of PGP properties. The present results provided a new insight into the phytoremediation of Cd contaminated soil. PMID:27185302

  3. Hyaluronic acid: evaluation as a potential delivery vehicle for vitronectin:growth factor complexes in wound healing applications.

    PubMed

    Xie, Yan; Upton, Zee; Richards, Sean; Rizzi, Simone C; Leavesley, David I

    2011-08-10

    We have previously reported that novel vitronectin:growth factor (VN:GF) complexes significantly increase re-epithelialization in a porcine deep dermal partial-thickness burn model. However, the potential exists to further enhance the healing response through combination with an appropriate delivery vehicle which facilitates sustained local release and reduced doses of VN:GF complexes. Hyaluronic acid (HA), an abundant constituent of the interstitium, is known to function as a reservoir for growth factors and other bioactive species. The physicochemical properties of HA confer it with an ability to sustain elevated pericellular concentrations of these species. This has been proposed to arise via HA prolonging interactions of the bioactive species with cell surface receptors and/or protecting them from degradation. In view of this, the potential of HA to facilitate the topical delivery of VN:GF complexes was evaluated. Two-dimensional (2D) monolayer cell cultures and 3D de-epidermised dermis (DED) human skin equivalent (HSE) models were used to test skin cell responses to HA and VN:GF complexes. Our 2D studies revealed that VN:GF complexes and HA stimulate the proliferation of human fibroblasts but not keratinocytes. Experiments in our 3D DED-HSE models showed that VN:GF complexes, both alone and in conjunction with HA, led to enhanced development of both the proliferative and differentiating layers in the DED-HSE models. However, there was no significant difference between the thicknesses of the epidermis treated with VN:GF complexes alone and VN:GF complexes together with HA. While the addition of HA did not enhance all the cellular responses to VN:GF complexes examined, it was not inhibitory, and may confer other advantages related to enhanced absorption and transport that could be beneficial in delivery of the VN:GF complexes to wounds. PMID:21457738

  4. The Functioning of Autonomous Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rao, V. Pala Prasada; Rao, Digumarti Bhaskara

    2012-01-01

    The college gets separated from the university, though not completely, when it is an autonomous college, which is practice in India. Academic package will become flexible and the decision-making is internalized, changes and updating could be easily carried out, depending on the need as reflected from the feedback taken from alumni, user sectors,…

  5. Computing architecture for autonomous microgrids

    SciTech Connect

    Goldsmith, Steven Y.

    2015-09-29

    A computing architecture that facilitates autonomously controlling operations of a microgrid is described herein. A microgrid network includes numerous computing devices that execute intelligent agents, each of which is assigned to a particular entity (load, source, storage device, or switch) in the microgrid. The intelligent agents can execute in accordance with predefined protocols to collectively perform computations that facilitate uninterrupted control of the .

  6. AARD - Autonomous Airborne Refueling Demonstration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ewers, Dick

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph document reviews the Autonomous Airborne Refueling Demonstration program, and NASA Dryden's work in the program. The primary goal of the program is to make one fully automatic probe-to-drogue engagement using the AARD system. There are pictures of the aircraft approaching to the docking.

  7. An Autonomous Spacecraft Agent Prototype

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pell, Barney; Bernard, Douglas E.; Chien, Steve A.; Gat, Erann; Muscettola, Nicola; Nayak, P. Pandurang; Wagner, Michael D.; Williams, Brian C.

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes the New Millennium Remote Agent (NMRA) architecture for autonomous spacecraft control systems. This architecture integrates traditional real-time monitoring and control with constraint-based planning and scheduling, robust multi-threaded execution, and model-based diagnosis and reconfiguration.

  8. Stimulation of methane oxidation potential and effects on vegetation growth by bottom ash addition in a landfill final evapotranspiration cover.

    PubMed

    Kim, Gil Won; Ho, Adrian; Kim, Pil Joo; Kim, Sang Yoon

    2016-09-01

    The landfilling of municipal solid waste is a significant source of atmospheric methane (CH4), contributing up to 20% of total anthropogenic CH4 emissions. The evapotranspiration (ET) cover system, an alternative final cover system in waste landfills, has been considered to be a promising way to mitigate CH4 emissions, as well as to prevent water infiltration using vegetation on landfill cover soils. In our previous studies, bottom ash from coal-fired power plants was selected among several industrial residues (blast furnace slag, bottom ash, construction waste, steel manufacture slag, stone powder sludge, and waste gypsum) as the best additive for ET cover systems, with the highest mechanical performance achieved for a 35% (wtwt(-1)) bottom ash content in soil. In this study, to evaluate the field applicability of bottom ash mixed soil as ET cover, four sets of lysimeters (height 1.2m×width 2m×length 6m) were constructed in 2007, and four different treatments were installed: (i) soil+bottom ash (35% wtwt(-1)) (SB); (ii) soil+compost (2% wtwt(-1), approximately corresponding to 40Mgha(-1) in arable field scale) (SC); (iii) soil+bottom ash+compost (SBC); and (iv) soil only as the control (S). The effects of bottom ash mixing in ET cover soil on CH4 oxidation potential and vegetation growth were evaluated in a pilot ET cover system in the 5th year after installation by pilot experiments using the treatments. Our results showed that soil properties were significantly improved by bottom ash mixing, resulting in higher plant growth. Bottom ash addition significantly increased the CH4 oxidation potential of the ET cover soil, mainly due to improved organic matter and available copper concentration, enhancing methanotrophic abundances in soil amended with bottom ash. Conclusively, bottom ash could be a good alternative as a soil additive in the ET cover system to improve vegetation growth and mitigate CH4 emission impact in the waste landfill system. PMID:27067424

  9. Bioenergetic model estimates of interannual and spatial patterns in consumption demand and growth potential of juvenile pink salmon ( Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) in the Gulf of Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moss, Jamal H.; Beauchamp, David A.; Cross, Alison D.; Farley, Edward V.; Murphy, James M.; Helle, John H.; Walker, Robert V.; Myers, Katherine W.

    2009-12-01

    A bioenergetic model of juvenile pink salmon ( Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) was used to estimate daily prey consumption and growth potential of four ocean habitats in the Gulf of Alaska during 2001 and 2002. Growth potential was not significantly higher in 2002 than in 2001 at an alpha level of 0.05 ( P=0.073). Average differences in growth potential across habitats were minimal (slope habitat=0.844 g d -1, shelf habitat=0.806 g d -1, offshore habitat=0.820 g d -1, and nearshore habitat=0.703 g d -1) and not significantly different ( P=0.630). Consumption demand differed significantly between hatchery and wild stocks ( P=0.035) when examined within year due to the interaction between hatchery verses wild origin and year. However, the overall effect of origin across years was not significant ( P=0.705) due to similar total amounts of prey consumed by all juvenile pink salmon in both study years. We anticipated that years in which ocean survival was high would have had high growth potential, but this relationship did not prove to be true. Therefore, modeled growth potential may not be useful as a tool for forecasting survival of Prince William Sound hatchery pink salmon stocks. Significant differences in consumption demand and a two-fold difference in nearshore abundance during 2001 of hatchery and wild pink salmon confirmed the existence of strong and variable interannual competition and the importance of the nearshore region as being a potential competitive bottleneck.

  10. Bioenergetic model estimates of interannual and spatial patterns in consumption demand and growth potential of juvenile pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) in the Gulf of Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moss, J.H.; Beauchamp, D.A.; Cross, A.D.; Farley, E.V.; Murphy, J.M.; Helle, J.H.; Walker, R.V.; Myers, K.W.

    2009-01-01

    A bioenergetic model of juvenile pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) was used to estimate daily prey consumption and growth potential of four ocean habitats in the Gulf of Alaska during 2001 and 2002. Growth potential was not significantly higher in 2002 than in 2001 at an alpha level of 0.05 (P=0.073). Average differences in growth potential across habitats were minimal (slope habitat=0.844 g d-1, shelf habitat=0.806 g d-1, offshore habitat=0.820 g d-1, and nearshore habitat=0.703 g d-1) and not significantly different (P=0.630). Consumption demand differed significantly between hatchery and wild stocks (P=0.035) when examined within year due to the interaction between hatchery verses wild origin and year. However, the overall effect of origin across years was not significant (P=0.705) due to similar total amounts of prey consumed by all juvenile pink salmon in both study years. We anticipated that years in which ocean survival was high would have had high growth potential, but this relationship did not prove to be true. Therefore, modeled growth potential may not be useful as a tool for forecasting survival of Prince William Sound hatchery pink salmon stocks. Significant differences in consumption demand and a two-fold difference in nearshore abundance during 2001 of hatchery and wild pink salmon confirmed the existence of strong and variable interannual competition and the importance of the nearshore region as being a potential competitive bottleneck.

  11. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor and nerve growth factor potentiate excitatory synaptic transmission in the rat visual cortex.

    PubMed Central

    Carmignoto, G; Pizzorusso, T; Tia, S; Vicini, S

    1997-01-01

    1. The effect of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and nerve growth factor (NGF) on excitatory synaptic transmission in the developing visual cortex was studied by whole-cell patch-clamp recordings from rat brain slices. 2. Both neurotrophins induced a rapid increase in the amplitude of impulse-evoked excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs). BDNF also increased the frequency of spontaneous EPSCs. 3. Analysis of the currents revealed that alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-isoxazole propionic acid (AMPA) and N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor-mediated components contributing to the EPSC peak amplitude were equally potentiated by the neurotrophins. 4. When synaptic transmission was studied by minimal stimulation of intracortical afferents, neurotrophins induced a decrease in the occurrence of release failures. 5. A number of neurones were insensitive to the effects of the neurotrophins, possibly related to the considerable heterogeneity of neuronal types and to the uneven distribution of neurotrophin receptors in the visual cortex. 6. The probability of neurotransmitter release represents a rapidly modifiable synaptic feature by which neurotrophins can potentiate the efficacy of excitatory synaptic transmission in the visual cortex. PMID:9023775

  12. Application of Direct Current Potential Drop for the J-integral vs. Crack Growth Resistance Curve Characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Xiang; Nanstad, Randy K; Sokolov, Mikhail A

    2014-01-01

    The direct current potential drop (DCPD) technique has been applied to derive the J-integral vs. crack growth resistance curve (J-R curve) for fracture toughness characterization of structural materials. The test matrix covered three materials including type 316LN stainless steels, Ni-based alloy 617, and one ferritic-martensitic steel, three specimen configurations including standard compact, single edge bending, and disk-shaped compact specimens, and temperatures ranging from 20 C to 650 C. When compared with baseline J-R curves derived from the ASTM normalization method, the original J-R curves from the DCPD technique yielded much smaller Jq values due to the influence of crack blunting, plastic deformation, etc. on potential drop. To counter these effects, a new procedure for adjusting DCPD J-R curves was proposed. After applying the new adjustment procedure, the average difference in Jq between the DCPD technique and the normalization method was only 5.2% and the difference in tearing modulus was 7.4%. The promising result demonstrates the applicability of the DCPD technique for the J-R curve characterization especially in extreme environments, such as elevated temperatures, where the conventional elastic unloading compliance method faces considerable challenges.

  13. The EphB4 Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Promotes Lung Cancer Growth: A Potential Novel Therapeutic Target

    PubMed Central

    Ferguson, Benjamin D.; Liu, Ren; Rolle, Cleo E.; Tan, Yi-Hung Carol; Krasnoperov, Valery; Kanteti, Rajani; Tretiakova, Maria S.; Cervantes, Gustavo M.; Hasina, Rifat; Hseu, Robyn D.; Iafrate, A. John; Karrison, Theodore; Ferguson, Mark K.; Husain, Aliya N.; Faoro, Leonardo; Vokes, Everett E.; Gill, Parkash S.; Salgia, Ravi

    2013-01-01

    Despite progress in locoregional and systemic therapies, patient survival from lung cancer remains a challenge. Receptor tyrosine kinases are frequently implicated in lung cancer pathogenesis, and some tyrosine kinase inhibition strategies have been effective clinically. The EphB4 receptor tyrosine kinase has recently emerged as a potential target in several other cancers. We sought to systematically study the role of EphB4 in lung cancer. Here, we demonstrate that EphB4 is overexpressed 3-fold in lung tumors compared to paired normal tissues and frequently exhibits gene copy number increases in lung cancer. We also show that overexpression of EphB4 promotes cellular proliferation, colony formation, and motility, while EphB4 inhibition reduces cellular viability in vitro, halts the growth of established tumors in mouse xenograft models when used as a single-target strategy, and causes near-complete regression of established tumors when used in combination with paclitaxel. Taken together, these data suggest an important role for EphB4 as a potential novel therapeutic target in lung cancer. Clinical trials investigating the efficacy of anti-EphB4 therapies as well as combination therapy involving EphB4 inhibition may be warranted. PMID:23844053

  14. Growth and Potential Damage of Human Bone-Derived Cells Cultured on Fresh and Aged C60/Ti Films

    PubMed Central

    Kopova, Ivana; Lavrentiev, Vasily; Vacik, Jiri; Bacakova, Lucie

    2015-01-01

    Thin films of binary C60/Ti composites, with various concentrations of Ti ranging from ~ 25% to ~ 70%, were deposited on microscopic glass coverslips and were tested for their potential use in bone tissue engineering as substrates for the adhesion and growth of bone cells. The novelty of this approach lies in the combination of Ti atoms (i.e., widely used biocompatible material for the construction of stomatological and orthopedic implants) with atoms of fullerene C60, which can act as very efficient radical scavengers. However, fullerenes and their derivatives are able to generate harmful reactive oxygen species and to have cytotoxic effects. In order to stabilize C60 molecules and to prevent their possible cytotoxic effects, deposition in the compact form of Ti/C60 composites (with various Ti concentrations) was chosen. The reactivity of C60/Ti composites may change in time due to the physicochemical changes of molecules in an air atmosphere. In this study, we therefore tested the dependence between the age of C60/Ti films (from one week to one year) and the adhesion, morphology, proliferation, viability, metabolic activity and potential DNA damage to human osteosarcoma cells (lines MG-63 and U-2 OS). After 7 days of cultivation, we did not observe any negative influence of fresh or aged C60/Ti layers on cell behavior, including the DNA damage response. The presence of Ti atoms resulted in improved properties of the C60 layers, which became more suitable for cell cultivation. PMID:25875338

  15. Autonomous docking ground demonstration (category 3)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lamkin, Steve L.; Eick, Richard E.; Baxter, James M.; Boyd, M. G.; Clark, Fred D.; Lee, Thomas Q.; Othon, L. T.; Prather, Joseph L.; Spehar, Peter T.; Teders, Rebecca J.

    1991-01-01

    The NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) is involved in the development of an autonomous docking ground demonstration. The demonstration combines the technologies, expertise and facilities of the JSC Tracking and Communications Division (EE), Structures and Mechanics Division (ES), and the Navigation, Guidance and Control Division (EG) and their supporting contractors. The autonomous docking ground demonstration is an evaluation of the capabilities of the laser sensor system to support the docking phase (12ft to contact) when operated in conjunction with the Guidance, Navigation and Control Software. The docking mechanism being used was developed for the Apollo Soyuz Test Program. This demonstration will be conducted using the Six-Degrees of Freedom (6-DOF) Dynamic Test System (DTS). The DTS environment simulates the Space Station Freedom as the stationary or target vehicle and the Orbiter as the active or chase vehicle. For this demonstration the laser sensor will be mounted on the target vehicle and the retroreflectors on the chase vehicle. This arrangement was used to prevent potential damage to the laser. The sensor system. GN&C and 6-DOF DTS will be operated closed-loop. Initial condition to simulate vehicle misalignments, translational and rotational, will be introduced within the constraints of the systems involved. Detailed description of each of the demonstration components (e.g., Sensor System, GN&C, 6-DOF DTS and supporting computer configuration) including their capabilities and limitations will be discussed. A demonstration architecture drawing and photographs of the test configuration will be presented.

  16. Small fibre function in primary autonomic failure.

    PubMed

    Baron, R; Feldmann, R; Lindner, V

    1993-12-01

    A case of primary autonomic failure (AF) with uncomplicated Parkinson's disease is presented with clinical and neurophysiological data. Special emphasis is placed on new methods of examining impairment of unmyelinated sympathetic and afferent C-fibres. Sympathetic vasoconstrictor responses in the skin induced by deep inspiration were examined quantitatively with laser Doppler flowmetry. The vasoconstriction was markedly depressed in primary AF compared with healthy controls and similar to secondary forms of AF. Peripheral nociceptive C-fibre function was quantitatively assessed by measurement of axon reflex vasodilatation induced by histamine iontophoresis. The axon reflex vasodilatation was completely intact in primary AF in contrast to patients with secondary peripheral small fibre neuropathy. The results indicate that sympathetic C-fibres are considerably affected by the degenerative disease, whereas the afferent C-fibres seem to be totally preserved. Modern neurophysiological methods of testing sympathetic and afferent small fibre function in combination with other neurophysiological tests, e.g. brain-stem auditory evoked potentials, might help to diagnose and differentiate primary AF in early stages and make it easier to distinguish between secondary autonomic neuropathies of unknown origin that often also involve unmyelinated afferent fibres. PMID:8138830

  17. Nutritional stimulation of the autonomic nervous system.

    PubMed

    Luyer, Misha D P; Habes, Quirine; van Hak, Richard; Buurman, Wim

    2011-09-14

    Disturbance of the inflammatory response in the gut is important in several clinical diseases ranging from inflammatory bowel disease to postoperative ileus. Several feedback mechanisms exist that control the inflammatory cascade and avoid collateral damage. In the gastrointestinal tract, it is of particular importance to control the immune response to maintain the balance that allows dietary uptake and utilization of nutrients on one hand, while preventing invasion of bacteria and toxins on the other hand. The process of digestion and absorption of nutrients requires a relative hyporesponsiveness of the immune cells in the gut to luminal contents which is not yet fully understood. Recently, the autonomic nervous system has been identified as an important pathway to control local and systemic inflammation and gut barrier integrity. Activation of the pathway is possible via electrical or via pharmacological interventions, but is also achieved in a physiological manner by ingestion of dietary lipids. Administration of dietary lipids has been shown to be very effective in reducing the inflammatory cascade and maintaining intestinal barrier integrity in several experimental studies. This beneficial effect of nutrition on the inflammatory response and intestinal barrier integrity opens new therapeutic opportunities for treatment of certain gastrointestinal disorders. Furthermore, this neural feedback mechanism provides more insight in the relative hyporesponsiveness of the immune cells in the gut. Here, we will discuss the regulatory function of the autonomic nervous system on the inflammatory response and gut barrier function and the potential benefit in a clinical setting. PMID:22025873

  18. Nutritional stimulation of the autonomic nervous system

    PubMed Central

    Luyer, Misha DP; Habes, Quirine; van Hak, Richard; Buurman, Wim

    2011-01-01

    Disturbance of the inflammatory response in the gut is important in several clinical diseases ranging from inflammatory bowel disease to postoperative ileus. Several feedback mechanisms exist that control the inflammatory cascade and avoid collateral damage. In the gastrointestinal tract, it is of particular importance to control the immune response to maintain the balance that allows dietary uptake and utilization of nutrients on one hand, while preventing invasion of bacteria and toxins on the other hand. The process of digestion and absorption of nutrients requires a relative hyporesponsiveness of the immune cells in the gut to luminal contents which is not yet fully understood. Recently, the autonomic nervous system has been identified as an important pathway to control local and systemic inflammation and gut barrier integrity. Activation of the pathway is possible via electrical or via pharmacological interventions, but is also achieved in a physiological manner by ingestion of dietary lipids. Administration of dietary lipids has been shown to be very effective in reducing the inflammatory cascade and maintaining intestinal barrier integrity in several experimental studies. This beneficial effect of nutrition on the inflammatory response and intestinal barrier integrity opens new therapeutic opportunities for treatment of certain gastrointestinal disorders. Furthermore, this neural feedback mechanism provides more insight in the relative hyporesponsiveness of the immune cells in the gut. Here, we will discuss the regulatory function of the autonomic nervous system on the inflammatory response and gut barrier function and the potential benefit in a clinical setting. PMID:22025873

  19. Autonomic Computing: Freedom or a Threat?

    SciTech Connect

    Fink, Glenn A.; Frincke, Deb

    2007-12-01

    No longer is the question whether autonomic computing will gain general acceptance but when. Experts expect autonomic computing to be widely used within 10 years. When it does become mainstream, how will autonomics change system administration and corporations, and will the change be for better or worse? The answer depends on how well we anticipate the limitations of what autonomic systems are suited to do, whether we can collectively address the vulnerabilities of autonomic approaches as we draw upon the advantages, and whether administrators, companies, partners, and users are prepared for the transition. This article presents some design considerations to address the first two issues and some suggested survival techniques for the third.

  20. Autonomous microdevices for phototherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zharov, Vladimir P.; Naumov, Sergey A.; Khlusov, Igor A.

    2001-09-01

    In photomedicine in some of cases radiation delivery to local zones through optical fibers can be changed for the direct placing of tiny optical sources like micro lasers or LED in required zones of ears, nostrils, larynx, nasopharynx cochlea or alimentary tract. Our study focuses on the creation of optoelectronic microdevices for local photo therapy. Now, they are taking pre-clinical trials in stomatology to treat inflammatory processes in the mouth cavity, in otolaryngology to treat otitis and for treatment of the gastro-intestinal tract. This paper is more emphasized on development optical microdevices for phototherapy of the gastro-intestinal tract. The influence of radiation from phototherapetic micromodules on composition of intestinal microflroa and the immunologic inspection of patients with dysbacteriosis of the intestine as a result of diseases of the gastrointestinal tract and after antibacterial therapy for other disturbances are studied. The obtained result are comparable with indices of the control group. At the same time, it should be noted that stimulation of growth of natural flora is recorded in the main group of patients which inhibits the activity of conditioned pathogenic microflora.

  1. Autonomous Cryogenics Loading Operations Simulation Software: Knowledgebase Autonomous Test Engineer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wehner, Walter S.

    2012-01-01

    The Simulation Software, KATE (Knowledgebase Autonomous Test Engineer), is used to demonstrate the automatic identification of faults in a system. The ACLO (Autonomous Cryogenics Loading Operation) project uses KATE to monitor and find faults in the loading of the cryogenics int o a vehicle fuel tank. The KATE software interfaces with the IHM (Integrated Health Management) systems bus to communicate with other systems that are part of ACLO. One system that KATE uses the IHM bus to communicate with is AIS (Advanced Inspection System). KATE will send messages to AIS when there is a detected anomaly. These messages include visual inspection of specific valves, pressure gauges and control messages to have AIS open or close manual valves. My goals include implementing the connection to the IHM bus within KATE and for the AIS project. I will also be working on implementing changes to KATE's Ul and implementing the physics objects in KATE that will model portions of the cryogenics loading operation.

  2. Autonomous Cryogenics Loading Operations Simulation Software: Knowledgebase Autonomous Test Engineer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wehner, Walter S., Jr.

    2013-01-01

    Working on the ACLO (Autonomous Cryogenics Loading Operations) project I have had the opportunity to add functionality to the physics simulation software known as KATE (Knowledgebase Autonomous Test Engineer), create a new application allowing WYSIWYG (what-you-see-is-what-you-get) creation of KATE schematic files and begin a preliminary design and implementation of a new subsystem that will provide vision services on the IHM (Integrated Health Management) bus. The functionality I added to KATE over the past few months includes a dynamic visual representation of the fluid height in a pipe based on number of gallons of fluid in the pipe and implementing the IHM bus connection within KATE. I also fixed a broken feature in the system called the Browser Display, implemented many bug fixes and made changes to the GUI (Graphical User Interface).

  3. Comparative Analysis of Evolutionarily Conserved Motifs of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor 2 (HER2) Predicts Novel Potential Therapeutic Epitopes

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Xiaohong; Zheng, Xuxu; Yang, Huanming; Moreira, José Manuel Afonso; Brünner, Nils; Christensen, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    Overexpression of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) is associated with tumor aggressiveness and poor prognosis in breast cancer. With the availability of therapeutic antibodies against HER2, great strides have been made in the clinical management of HER2 overexpressing breast cancer. However, de novo and acquired resistance to these antibodies presents a serious limitation to successful HER2 targeting treatment. The identification of novel epitopes of HER2 that can be used for functional/region-specific blockade could represent a central step in the development of new clinically relevant anti-HER2 antibodies. In the present study, we present a novel computational approach as an auxiliary tool for identification of novel HER2 epitopes. We hypothesized that the structurally and linearly evolutionarily conserved motifs of the extracellular domain of HER2 (ECD HER2) contain potential druggable epitopes/targets. We employed the PROSITE Scan to detect structurally conserved motifs and PRINTS to search for linearly conserved motifs of ECD HER2. We found that the epitopes recognized by trastuzumab and pertuzumab are located in the predicted conserved motifs of ECD HER2, supporting our initial hypothesis. Considering that structurally and linearly conserved motifs can provide functional specific configurations, we propose that by comparing the two types of conserved motifs, additional druggable epitopes/targets in the ECD HER2 protein can be identified, which can be further modified for potential therapeutic application. Thus, this novel computational process for predicting or searching for potential epitopes or key target sites may contribute to epitope-based vaccine and function-selected drug design, especially when x-ray crystal structure protein data is not available. PMID:25192037

  4. Endophytic Bacteria Associated with Hieracium piloselloides: Their Potential for Hydrocarbon-Utilizing and Plant Growth-Promotion.

    PubMed

    Pawlik, Małgorzata; Piotrowska-Seget, Zofia

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the potential of 18 crude-oil-degrading endophytic bacteria for removal of hydrocarbons and promotion of plant growth. Strains were isolated from Hieracium piloselloides (tall hawkweed), which grows in soil heavily polluted with petroleum hydrocarbons. Bacteria from the genus Pseudomonas were abundant among the isolates. The potential for hydrocarbon degradation was evaluated by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analyses of the genes alkB, alkH, C23O, P450, and pah. It was found that 88.89% of the endophytic bacteria contained gene-encoding polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) initial dioxygenase, 61% possessed the 2,3-catechol dioxygenase gene, and 39% of strains that were tested had the cytochrome P-450 hydroxylase gene. All isolates were capable of producing indole-3-acetic acid (1.8-76.4 μg/ml). Only 17% of them were able to produce siderophores, excrete cellulase, and solubilize phosphate. Hydrogen cyanide synthesis occurred in 33% of endophytic bacteria. The 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase activity in isolates that were screened was in the range of 2.6 to 74.1 μmol α-ketobutyrate/mg/h. This feature of the bacteria indicated that isolates may enhance the phytoremediation process. Data suggest that crude-oil-degrading endophytic bacteria possess potential to be promising candidates for enhancement of phytoremediation of hydrocarbon-contaminated soil. Further evaluation of these bacteria is needed in order to assess the role played in the degradation of petroleum hydrocarbons. PMID:26167752

  5. Morphologic Changes in Autonomic Nerves in Diabetic Autonomic Neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Jin, Heung Yong; Baek, Hong Sun; Park, Tae Sun

    2015-12-01

    Diabetic neuropathy is one of the major complications of diabetes, and it increases morbidity and mortality in patients with both type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Because the autonomic nervous system, for example, parasympathetic axons, has a diffuse and wide distribution, we do not know the morphological changes that occur in autonomic neural control and their exact mechanisms in diabetic patients with diabetic autonomic neuropathy (DAN). Although the prevalence of sympathetic and parasympathetic neuropathy is similar in T1DM versus T2DM patients, sympathetic nerve function correlates with parasympathetic neuropathy only in T1DM patients. The explanation for these discrepancies might be that parasympathetic nerve function was more severely affected among T2DM patients. As parasympathetic nerve damage seems to be more advanced than sympathetic nerve damage, it might be that parasympathetic neuropathy precedes sympathetic neuropathy in T2DM, which was Ewing's concept. This could be explained by the intrinsic morphologic difference. Therefore, the morphological changes in the sympathetic and parasympathetic nerves of involved organs in T1DM and T2DM patients who have DAN should be evaluated. In this review, evaluation methods for morphological changes in the epidermal nerves of skin, and the intrinsic nerves of the stomach will be discussed. PMID:26706915

  6. Effects of potential probiotic Bacillus cereus EN25 on growth, immunity and disease resistance of juvenile sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yancui; Yuan, Lei; Wan, Junli; Sun, Zhenxing; Wang, Yiyan; Sun, Hushan

    2016-02-01

    This study was conducted to determine effects of potential probiotic Bacillus cereus EN25 (isolated from mud of sea cucumber culturing water bodies) on growth, immunity and disease resistance against Vibrio splendidus infection in juvenile sea cucumbers Apostichopus japonicus. Animals were respectively fed diets with B. cereus EN25 at 0 (control), 10(5), 10(7) and 10(9) CFU/g for 30 days. Results showed that dietary B. cereus EN25 had no significant effects on growth, total coelomocytes counts and acid phosphatase activity of A. japonicus (P > 0.05). Dietary EN25 at 10(7) CFU/g had significantly improved the phagocytosis, respiratory burst activity and total nitric oxide synthase activity of animals (P < 0.05). Compared to control, dietary EN25 at 10(5) or 10(7) CFU/g had no significant effects on superoxide dismutase activity of A. japonicus (P > 0.05), whereas dietary EN25 at 10(9) CFU/g had significantly decreased its activity (P < 0.05). The cumulative mortality after V. splendidus challenge decreased significantly in sea cucumbers fed with EN25 at 10(7) CFU/g (P < 0.05). The present study confirmed dietary B. cereus EN25 at 10(7) CFU/g could significantly improve immunity and disease resistance in juvenile A. japonicus. PMID:26723266

  7. Paradox of plant growth promotion potential of rhizobacteria and their actual promotion effect on growth of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) under salt stress.

    PubMed

    Cardinale, Massimiliano; Ratering, Stefan; Suarez, Christian; Zapata Montoya, Ana Maria; Geissler-Plaum, Rita; Schnell, Sylvia

    2015-12-01

    From the rhizosphere of two salt tolerant plant species, Hordeum secalinum and Plantago winteri growing in a naturally salt meadow, 100 strains were isolation on enrichment media for various plant growth-promoting (PGP) functions (ACC deaminase activity, auxin synthesis, calcium phosphate mobilization and nitrogen fixation). Based on the taxonomic affiliation of the isolated bacteria and their enrichment medium 22 isolates were selected to test their growth promotion effect on the crop barley (Hordeum vulgare) under salt stress in pot experiment. In parallel the isolates were characterized in pure culture for their plant growth-promoting activities. Surprisingly the best promotors did not display a promising set of PGP activities. Isolates with multiple PGP-activities in pure culture like Microbacterium natoriense strain E38 and Pseudomonas brassicacearum strain E8 did not promote plant growth. The most effective isolate was strain E108 identified as Curtobacterium flaccumfaciens, which increased barley growth up to 300%. In pure culture strain E108 showed only two out of six plant growth promoting activities and would have been neglected. Our results highlight that screening based on pure culture assays may not be suitable for recognition of best plant growth promotion candidates and could preclude the detection of both new PGPR and new plant promotion mechanisms. PMID:26640049

  8. Growth rates and milk production potential of Sahelian and Red Sokoto breeds of goats in northern Guinea Savannah.

    PubMed

    Makun, H J; Ajanusi, J O; Ehoche, O W; Lakpini, C A M; Otaru, S M

    2008-02-15

    The milk production potentials and growth rates of Red Sokoto and Sahelian goats fed basal diets of maize stover and Digitaria smutsii (wolly finger grass) supplemented with concentrate was investigated in two separate trials. In experiment 1, ten multi-parous does were allocated to intensive management following kidding. Does were hand-milked twice weekly and the milk production recorded. Body weight changes of dam and kid, milk fat, milk solid were determined weekly over 12 weeks period. The average birth weight of the Sahelian (2.2+/-0.23 kg) was significantly (p<0.05) higher than the Red Sokoto kids (1.0+/-0.17). At weaning age, the average kid weight of the Sahelian (5.6+/-0.42 kg) was significantly higher than the Red Sokoto (3.9+/-0.44 kg). There was no significant difference (p>0.05) in daily milk yield and total lactation between the two breeds. The total solids and milk fat of 16.4+/-0.39 and 3.7+/-0.13% were significantly (p<0.05) higher for the Red Sokoto than the Sahelian (15.1+/-0.39 and 3.2+/-0.13%). The second trial was to evaluate the comparative growth of the Sahelian and Red Sokoto breeds of goats. Animals were group-fed based on sex and fed Digitaria smutsii hay supplemented with concentrate. The growth trial lasted for 150 days with a 14 day digestibility trial. The Average Daily Gain (ADG) were significantly (p<0.05) different for breed, as well as sex. The Red Sokoto (66.9+/-1.59) kids had higher ADG than the Sahelian (46.6+/-1.59). Similarly the males of the Red Sokoto (61.9+/-1.59) had higher ADG than the Sahelian males (46.7+/-0.59) and the females of both breed. The experiments demonstrated a linear increase in weight gains of Red Sokoto over the Sahelian and a slightly higher milk yield obtained from the Sahelian providing the basis to conclude that the Sahelian goat can adapted and fit into the production systems of Sudan Savannah rural farmers. PMID:18817133

  9. The hypertension of autonomic failure and its treatment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shannon, J.; Jordan, J.; Costa, F.; Robertson, R. M.; Biaggioni, I.

    1997-01-01

    We studied the incidence and severity of supine hypertension in 117 patients with severe primary autonomic failure presenting to a referral center over a 9-year period. Patients were uniformly characterized by disabling orthostatic hypotension, lack of compensatory heart rate increase, abnormal autonomic function tests, and unresponsive plasma norepinephrine. Fifty-four patients had isolated autonomic impairment (pure autonomic failure). Sixty-three patients had central nervous system involvement in addition to autonomic impairment (multiple-system atrophy). Patients were studied off medications, in a metabolic ward, and on a controlled diet containing 150 mEq of sodium. Fifty-six percent of patients had supine diastolic blood pressure > or =90 mm Hg. The prevalence of hypertension was slightly greater in females (63%) than in males (52%). Potential mechanisms responsible for this hypertension were investigated. No correlation was found between blood volume and blood pressure. Similarly, plasma norepinephrine (92+/-15 pg/mL) and plasma renin activity (0.3+/-0.05 ng/mL per hour) were very low in the subset of patients with pure autonomic failure and supine hypertension (mean systolic/diastolic pressure, 177 +/- 6/108 +/- 2 mm Hg, range 167/97 to 219/121). Supine hypertension represents a challenge in the treatment of orthostatic hypotension. We found these patients to be particularly responsive to the hypotensive effects of transdermal nitroglycerin. Doses ranging from 0.025 to 0.1 mg/h decreased systolic blood pressure by 36+/-7 mm Hg and may effectively treat supine hypertension overnight, but the dose should be individualized and used with caution.

  10. Noninvasive subject-specific monitoring of autonomic-cardiac regulation.

    PubMed

    Ataee, Pedram; Hahn, Jin-Oh; Dumont, Guy A; Boyce, W Thomas

    2014-04-01

    This paper presents a feasibility study of a model-based approach to noninvasive and subject-specific monitoring of autonomic-cardiac regulation. The proposed approach is built upon individualizing a physiologically-based model by applying a parameter estimation method to routine clinical observations, thereby assuring physical transparency, computational efficiency, and clinical adaptability. To develop an efficient parameter estimation procedure, a parametric sensitivity analysis was performed on the autonomic-cardiac regulation model to identify high-sensitivity model parameters whose changes exert significant impacts on the system outputs. Then, a parameter estimation problem formulated as a nonlinear optimization was solved to estimate high-sensitivity model parameters associated with autonomic-cardiac regulation, whereas the remaining parameters were fixed at their nominal values. The proposed approach can potentially monitor temporal changes in autonomic-cardiac regulation by identifying time-varying changes in the autonomic-cardiac model parameters, including sympathetic and parasympathetic nerve activities on the heart (modulating heart rate), and sympathetic nerve activity on the arterial tree (modulating total peripheral resistance). The proof-of-concept for the proposed approach was tested using a number of experimental data from the MIMIC database and the orthostatic hypotension tests. Our finding shows that the proposed approach is able to provide low-variance estimates of the autonomic-cardiac model parameters, which are consistent with their anticipated behaviors inferred from the physiologic knowledge. An extensive comparison study must be conducted in the future to establish the clinical validity of the proposed approach. PMID:24658244

  11. Transient Responses of Cell Turgor and Growth of Maize Roots as Affected by Changes in Water Potential.

    PubMed

    Frensch, J.; Hsiao, T. C.

    1994-01-01

    Transient responses of cell turgor (P) and root elongation to changes in water potential were measured in maize (Zea mays L.) to evaluate mechanisms of adaptation to water stress. Changes of water potential were induced by exposing roots to solutions of KCl and mannitol (osmotic pressure about 0.3 MPa). Prior to a treatment, root elongation was about 1.2 mm h-1 and P was about 0.67 MPa across the cortex of the expansion zone (3-10 mm behind the root tip). Upon addition of an osmoticum, P decreased rapidly and growth stopped completely at pressure below approximately 0.6 MPa, which indicated that the yield threshold (Ytrans,1) was just below the initial turgor. Turgor recovered partly within the next 30 min and reached a new steady value at about 0.53 MPa. The root continued to elongate as soon as P rose above a new threshold (Ytrans,2) of about 0.45 MPa. The time between Ytrans,1 and Ytrans,2 was about 10 min. During this transition turgor gradients of as much as 0.15 MPa were measured across the cortex. They resulted from a faster rate of turgor recovery of cells deeper inside the tissue compared with cells near the root periphery. Presumably, the phloem was the source of the compounds for the osmotic adjustment. Turgor recovery was restricted to the expansion zone, as was confirmed by measurements of pressure kinetics in mature root tissue. Withdrawal of the osmoticum caused an enormous transient increase of elongation, which was related to only a small initial increase of P. Throughout the experiment, the relationship between root elongation rate and turgor was nonlinear. Consequently, when Y were calculated from steady-state conditions of P and root elongation before and after the osmotic treatment, Yss was only 0.21 MPa and significantly smaller compared with the values obtained from direct measurements (0.42-0.64 MPa). Thus, we strongly emphasize the need for measurements of short-term responses of elongation and turgor to determine cell wall mechanics

  12. Autonomous spacecraft maintenance study group

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marshall, M. H.; Low, G. D.

    1981-01-01

    A plan to incorporate autonomous spacecraft maintenance (ASM) capabilities into Air Force spacecraft by 1989 is outlined. It includes the successful operation of the spacecraft without ground operator intervention for extended periods of time. Mechanisms, along with a fault tolerant data processing system (including a nonvolatile backup memory) and an autonomous navigation capability, are needed to replace the routine servicing that is presently performed by the ground system. The state of the art fault handling capabilities of various spacecraft and computers are described, and a set conceptual design requirements needed to achieve ASM is established. Implementations for near term technology development needed for an ASM proof of concept demonstration by 1985, and a research agenda addressing long range academic research for an advanced ASM system for 1990s are established.

  13. Treatment of gastrointestinal autonomic neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Törnblom, Hans

    2016-03-01

    The symptoms caused by gastrointestinal autonomic neuropathy in diabetes mellitus is important to highlight since it affects a large proportion of people with diabetes, regardless of whether this is type 1 or type 2. Gastroparesis and general signs of bowel dysfunction, such as constipation, diarrhoea and abdominal pain are most often encountered and involve both pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatment options. This mini-review summarises a presentation given at the 'Diagnosis and treatment of autonomic diabetic neuropathy in the gut' symposium at the 2015 annual meeting of the EASD. It is accompanied by another mini-review on a topic from this symposium (by Azpiroz and Malagelada, DOI: 10.1007/s00125-015-3831-1 ) and a commentary by the Session Chair, Péter Kempler (DOI: 10.1007/s00125-015-3826-y ). PMID:26634570

  14. Human fibroblast growth factor 20 (FGF-20; CG53135-05): a novel cytoprotectant with radioprotective potential.

    PubMed

    Maclachlan, T; Narayanan, B; Gerlach, V L; Smithson, G; Gerwien, R W; Folkerts, O; Fey, E G; Watkins, B; Seed, T; Alvarez, E

    2005-08-01

    The aim was to evaluate the radioprotective properties of recombinant human fibroblast growth factor 20 (FGF-20; CG53135-05) in vitro and in vivo and to examine its effects on known cellular pathways of radioprotection. Relative transcript levels of the cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2), Mn-super oxide dismutase (SOD), CuZn-SOD, extracellular (EC)-SOD, nuclear respiratory factor 2 (Nrf2), glutathione peroxidase 1 (GPX1) and intestinal trefoil factor 3 (ITF3) genes, which are involved in radiation response pathways, were assessed by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) in NIH/3T3, IEC18, CCD-18Co, CCD-1070sk and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) cells exposed to FGF-20. Activation of the radioprotective signal transduction pathways initiating with the serine/threonine Akt kinase and the extracellular regulated kinase (ERK) were analysed. Levels of intracellular hydrogen peroxide and cytosolic redox potential were also measured in irradiated and unirradiated cells in the presence or absence of FGF-20. The effects of FGF-20 on cell survival in vitro following ionizing radiation were evaluated using clonogenic assays. To test the potential activity of FGF-20 as a radioprotectant in vivo, mice were administered a single dose of FGF-20 (4 mg kg(-1), intraperitoneally (i.p.) 1 day before lethal total-body irradiation and evaluated for survival. In vitro exposure to FGF-20 increased expression of the Nrf2 transcription factor and oxygen radical scavenging enzymes such as MnSOD, activated signal transduction pathways (ERK and Akt) and resulted in increased survival of irradiated cells in vitro. FGF-20 treatment also resulted in a concomitant reduction in intracellular levels of injurious reactive oxygen species (ROS) following acute ionizing irradiation. Finally, prophylactic administration of FGF-20 to mice before potentially lethal, whole-body X-irradiation led to significant increases in overall survival. FGF-20 reduced the lethal effects of acute

  15. Autonomous spacecraft rendezvous and docking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tietz, J. C.; Almand, B. J.

    1985-01-01

    A storyboard display is presented which summarizes work done recently in design and simulation of autonomous video rendezvous and docking systems for spacecraft. This display includes: photographs of the simulation hardware, plots of chase vehicle trajectories from simulations, pictures of the docking aid including image processing interpretations, and drawings of the control system strategy. Viewgraph-style sheets on the display bulletin board summarize the simulation objectives, benefits, special considerations, approach, and results.

  16. Autonomic Computing: Panacea or Poppycock?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sterritt, Roy; Hinchey, Mike

    2005-01-01

    Autonomic Computing arose out of a need for a means to cope with rapidly growing complexity of integrating, managing, and operating computer-based systems as well as a need to reduce the total cost of ownership of today's systems. Autonomic Computing (AC) as a discipline was proposed by IBM in 2001, with the vision to develop self-managing systems. As the name implies, the influence for the new paradigm is the human body's autonomic system, which regulates vital bodily functions such as the control of heart rate, the body's temperature and blood flow-all without conscious effort. The vision is to create selfivare through self-* properties. The initial set of properties, in terms of objectives, were self-configuring, self-healing, self-optimizing and self-protecting, along with attributes of self-awareness, self-monitoring and self-adjusting. This self-* list has grown: self-anticipating, self-critical, self-defining, self-destructing, self-diagnosis, self-governing, self-organized, self-reflecting, and self-simulation, for instance.

  17. Semi autonomous mine detection system

    SciTech Connect

    Douglas Few; Roelof Versteeg; Herman Herman

    2010-04-01

    CMMAD is a risk reduction effort for the AMDS program. As part of CMMAD, multiple instances of semi autonomous robotic mine detection systems were created. Each instance consists of a robotic vehicle equipped with sensors required for navigation and marking, a countermine sensors and a number of integrated software packages which provide for real time processing of the countermine sensor data as well as integrated control of the robotic vehicle, the sensor actuator and the sensor. These systems were used to investigate critical interest functions (CIF) related to countermine robotic systems. To address the autonomy CIF, the INL developed RIK was extended to allow for interaction with a mine sensor processing code (MSPC). In limited field testing this system performed well in detecting, marking and avoiding both AT and AP mines. Based on the results of the CMMAD investigation we conclude that autonomous robotic mine detection is feasible. In addition, CMMAD contributed critical technical advances with regard to sensing, data processing and sensor manipulation, which will advance the performance of future fieldable systems. As a result, no substantial technical barriers exist which preclude – from an autonomous robotic perspective – the rapid development and deployment of fieldable systems.

  18. Autonomic Neuropathy in Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Verrotti, Alberto; Prezioso, Giovanni; Scattoni, Raffaella; Chiarelli, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    Diabetic autonomic neuropathy (DAN) is a serious and common complication of diabetes, often overlooked and misdiagnosed. It is a systemic-wide disorder that may be asymptomatic in the early stages. The most studied and clinically important form of DAN is cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy defined as the impairment of autonomic control of the cardiovascular system in patients with diabetes after exclusion of other causes. The reported prevalence of DAN varies widely depending on inconsistent definition, different diagnostic method, different patient cohorts studied. The pathogenesis is still unclear and probably multifactorial. Once DAN becomes clinically evident, no form of therapy has been identified, which can effectively stop or reverse it. Prevention strategies are based on strict glycemic control with intensive insulin treatment, multifactorial intervention, and lifestyle modification including control of hypertension, dyslipidemia, stop smoking, weight loss, and adequate physical exercise. The present review summarizes the latest knowledge regarding clinical presentation, epidemiology, pathogenesis, and management of DAN, with some mention to childhood and adolescent population. PMID:25520703

  19. Integrated System for Autonomous Science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chien, Steve; Sherwood, Robert; Tran, Daniel; Cichy, Benjamin; Davies, Ashley; Castano, Rebecca; Rabideau, Gregg; Frye, Stuart; Trout, Bruce; Shulman, Seth; Doggett, Thomas; Ip, Felipe; Greeley, Ron; Baker, Victor; Dohn, James; Boyer, Darrell

    2006-01-01

    The New Millennium Program Space Technology 6 Project Autonomous Sciencecraft software implements an integrated system for autonomous planning and execution of scientific, engineering, and spacecraft-coordination actions. A prior version of this software was reported in "The TechSat 21 Autonomous Sciencecraft Experiment" (NPO-30784), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 28, No. 3 (March 2004), page 33. This software is now in continuous use aboard the Earth Orbiter 1 (EO-1) spacecraft mission and is being adapted for use in the Mars Odyssey and Mars Exploration Rovers missions. This software enables EO-1 to detect and respond to such events of scientific interest as volcanic activity, flooding, and freezing and thawing of water. It uses classification algorithms to analyze imagery onboard to detect changes, including events of scientific interest. Detection of such events triggers acquisition of follow-up imagery. The mission-planning component of the software develops a response plan that accounts for visibility of targets and operational constraints. The plan is then executed under control by a task-execution component of the software that is capable of responding to anomalies.

  20. Cytotoxic Potential of Bacillus cereus Strains ATCC 11778 and 14579 Against Human Lung Epithelial Cells Under Microaerobic Growth Conditions.

    PubMed

    Kilcullen, Kathleen; Teunis, Allison; Popova, Taissia G; Popov, Serguei G

    2016-01-01

    Bacillus cereus, a food poisoning bacterium closely related to Bacillus anthracis, secretes a multitude of virulence factors including enterotoxins, hemolysins, and phospholipases. However, the majority of the in vitro experiments evaluating the cytotoxic potential of B. cereus were carried out in the conditions of aeration, and the impact of the oxygen limitation in conditions encountered by the microbe in natural environment such as gastrointestinal tract remains poorly understood. This research reports comparative analysis of ATCC strains 11778 (BC1) and 14579 (BC2) in aerobic and microaerobic (static) cultures with regard to their toxicity for human lung epithelial cells. We showed that BC1 increased its toxicity upon oxygen limitation while BC2 was highly cytotoxic in both growth conditions. The combined effect of the pore-forming, cholesterol-dependent hemolysin, cereolysin O (CLO), and metabolic product(s) such as succinate produced in microaerobic conditions provided substantial contribution to the toxicity of BC1 but not BC2 which relied mainly on other toxins. This mechanism is shared between CB1 and B. anthracis. It involves the permeabilization of the cell membrane which facilitates transport of toxic bacterial metabolites into the cell. The toxicity of BC1 was potentiated in the presence of bovine serum albumin which appeared to serve as reservoir for bacteria-derived nitric oxide participating in the downstream production of reactive oxidizing species with the properties of peroxynitrite. In agreement with this the BC1 cultures demonstrated the increased oxidation of the indicator dye Amplex Red catalyzed by peroxidase as well as the increased toxicity in the presence of externally added ascorbic acid. PMID:26870026

  1. Cytotoxic Potential of Bacillus cereus Strains ATCC 11778 and 14579 Against Human Lung Epithelial Cells Under Microaerobic Growth Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Kilcullen, Kathleen; Teunis, Allison; Popova, Taissia G.; Popov, Serguei G.

    2016-01-01

    Bacillus cereus, a food poisoning bacterium closely related to Bacillus anthracis, secretes a multitude of virulence factors including enterotoxins, hemolysins, and phospholipases. However, the majority of the in vitro experiments evaluating the cytotoxic potential of B. cereus were carried out in the conditions of aeration, and the impact of the oxygen limitation in conditions encountered by the microbe in natural environment such as gastrointestinal tract remains poorly understood. This research reports comparative analysis of ATCC strains 11778 (BC1) and 14579 (BC2) in aerobic and microaerobic (static) cultures with regard to their toxicity for human lung epithelial cells. We showed that BC1 increased its toxicity upon oxygen limitation while BC2 was highly cytotoxic in both growth conditions. The combined effect of the pore-forming, cholesterol-dependent hemolysin, cereolysin O (CLO), and metabolic product(s) such as succinate produced in microaerobic conditions provided substantial contribution to the toxicity of BC1 but not BC2 which relied mainly on other toxins. This mechanism is shared between CB1 and B. anthracis. It involves the permeabilization of the cell membrane which facilitates transport of toxic bacterial metabolites into the cell. The toxicity of BC1 was potentiated in the presence of bovine serum albumin which appeared to serve as reservoir for bacteria-derived nitric oxide participating in the downstream production of reactive oxidizing species with the properties of peroxynitrite. In agreement with this the BC1 cultures demonstrated the increased oxidation of the indicator dye Amplex Red catalyzed by peroxidase as well as the increased toxicity in the presence of externally added ascorbic acid. PMID:26870026

  2. Keratinocyte growth factor-2 and autologous serum potentiate the regenerative effect of mesenchymal stem cells in cornea damage in rats

    PubMed Central

    Pınarlı, Ferda Alpaslan; Ökten, Gülsen; Beden, Ümit; Fışgın, Tunç; Kefeli, Mehmet; Kara, Nurten; Duru, Feride; Tomak, Leman

    2014-01-01

    AIM To investigate the healing process after severe corneal epithelial damage in rats treated with mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) cultured with or without keratinocyte growth factor (KGF-2) and autologous serum (AS) on amniotic membrane (AM). Many patients are blind and devastated by severe ocular surface diseases due to limbal stem cell deficiency. Bone marrow-derived MSCs are potential sources for cell-based tissue engineering to repair or replace the corneal tissue, having the potential to differentiate to epithelial cells. METHODS The study included 5 groups each including 10 female “Sprague Dawley” rats in addition to 20 male rats used as bone marrow donors. Group I rats received AM+MSCs, Group II rats AM+MSCs cultured with KGF-2, Group III rats AM+MSCs cultured with KGF-2+AS, Group IV rats only AM and Group V rats, none. AS was derived from blood drawn from male rats and bone marrow was obtained from the femur and tibia bones of the same animals. Therapeutic effect was evaluated with clinical, histopathological and immunohistochemical assessment. MSC engraftment was demonstrated via detection of donor genotype (Y+) in the recipient tissue (X) with polymerase chain reaction. RESULTS Corneal healing was significantly better in Groups I-III rats treated with MSC transplantation compared to Group IV and Group V rats with supportive treatment only. The best results were obtained in Group III rats with 90% transparency, 70% lack of neovascularization, and 100% epithelium damage limited to less than 1/4 of cornea. CONCLUSION We suggest that culture of MSCs with KGF-2 and AS on AM is effective in corneal repair in case of irreversible damage to limbal stem cells. PMID:24790860

  3. Pilot In Command: A Feasibility Assessment of Autonomous Flight Management Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wing, David J.; Ballin, Mark G.; Krishnamurthy, Karthik

    2004-01-01

    Several years of NASA research have produced the air traffic management operational concept of Autonomous Flight Management with high potential for operational feasibility, significant system and user benefits, and safety. Among the chief potential benefits are demand-adaptive or scalable capacity, user flexibility and autonomy that may finally enable truly successful business strategies, and compatibility with current-day operations such that the implementation rate can be driven from within the user community. A concept summary of Autonomous Flight Management is provided, including a description of how these operations would integrate in shared airspace with existing ground-controlled flight operations. The mechanisms enabling the primary benefits are discussed, and key findings of a feasibility assessment of airborne autonomous operations are summarized. Concept characteristics that impact safety are presented, and the potential for initially implementing Autonomous Flight Management is discussed.

  4. Generation, modulation and maintenance of the plasma membrane asymmetric phospholipid composition in yeast cells during growth: their relation to surface potential and membrane protein activity.

    PubMed

    Cerbón, J; Calderón, V

    1995-04-12

    During growth a cyclic exposure of anionic phospholipids to the external surface of the plasma membrane was found. The surface charge density (sigma) increased gradually reaching a maximum in the first 5 h of growth and returned gradually to their initial value at the end of the logarithmic phase of growth (10-12 h). Phosphatidylinositol, that determines to a large extent the magnitude of the sigma, increased 83% in the yeast cells during the first 4 h of growth and returned gradually to their initial level at 10-12 h. During the stationary phase (12-24 h), both sigma and the anionic/zwitterionic phospholipid ratio, remained without any significant variation. The high-affinity H-linked glutamate transport system that behaves as a sensor of the changes in the membrane surface potential (phi) increased its activity in the first 5 h and then decreased it, following with great accuracy the sigma variations and remained without changes during the stationary phase of growth. The phosphatidylserine (PS) relative concentration in the cells (9.0%) did not significantly change during the whole growth curve, but their asymmetric distribution varied, contributing to the changes in sigma. PS facing the outer membrane surface increased 2.45-times during the first 5 h of growth and then returned to their original value at the end of the log phase (12 h). Phosphatidylcholine (PC) remained constant during the whole growth curve (50%), while phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) decreased 3-fold in the first 4 h and then increased to its original value at 10 h. Interestingly, PE at the outer membrane surface remained constant (3% of the total phospholipids) during the whole growth curve. During growth yeast cells change their phospholipid composition originating altered patterns of the plasma membrane phospholipid composition and IN-OUT distribution. This dynamic asymmetry is involved in the regulation of the surface potential and membrane protein activity. PMID:7718598

  5. Long-term exposure to fluoxetine reduces growth and reproductive potential in the dominant rocky intertidal mussel, Mytilus californianus.

    PubMed

    Peters, Joseph R; Granek, Elise F

    2016-03-01

    Environmental stressors shape community composition and ecosystem functioning. Contaminants such as pharmaceuticals are of increasing concern as an environmental stressor due to their persistence in surface waters worldwide. Limited attention has been paid to the effects of pharmaceuticals on marine life, despite widespread detection of these contaminants in the marine environment. Of the existing studies, the majority assess the negative effects of pharmaceuticals over an exposure period of 30 days or less and focus on cellular and subcellular biomarkers. Longer studies are required to determine if chronic contaminant exposure poses risks to marine life at environmentally relevant concentrations; and examination of whole organism effects are necessary to identify potential community-level consequences in estuarine and marine ecosystems. We conducted a long-term exposure study (107 days) with the anti-depressant pharmaceutical, fluoxetine (the active constituent in Prozac®) to determine whether minimal concentrations affected whole organism metrics in the California mussel, Mytilus californianus. We measured algal clearance rates, mussel growth, and the gonadosomatic index, a measure of reproductive health. We found that fluoxetine negatively affects all measured characteristics, however many effects were mediated by length of exposure. Our results fill an important data gap, highlighting organism-level effects of chronic exposure periods; such data more explicitly identify the overall impacts of pharmaceuticals and other contaminants on marine communities and ecosystems. PMID:26766390

  6. Effect of essential oils on Aspergillus spore germination, growth and mycotoxin production: a potential source of botanical food preservative

    PubMed Central

    Gemeda, Negero; Woldeamanuel, Yimtubezinash; Asrat, Daniel; Debella, Asfaw

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate effect of essential oils on Aspergillus spore germination, growth and mycotoxin production. Method In vitro antifungal and antiaflatoxigenic activity of essential oils was carried out using poisoned food techniques, spore germination assay, agar dilution assay, and aflatoxin arresting assay on toxigenic strains of Aspergillus species. Results Cymbopogon martinii, Foeniculum vulgare and Trachyspermum ammi (T. ammi) essential oils were tested against toxicogenic isolates of Aspergillus species. T. ammi oil showed highest antifungal activity. Absolute mycelial inhibition was recorded at 1 µl/mL by essential oils of T. ammi. The oil also showed, complete inhibition of spore germination at a concentration of 2 µl/mL. In addition, T. ammi oil showed significant antiaflatoxigenic potency by totally inhibiting aflatoxin production from Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus flavus at 0.5 and 0.75 µl/mL, respectively. Cymbopogon martinii, Foeniculum vulgare and T. ammi oils as antifungal were found superior over synthetic preservative. Moreover, a concentration of 5 336.297 µl/kg body weight was recorded for LC50 on mice indicating the low mammalian toxicity and strengthening its traditional reputations. Conclusions In conclusion, the essential oils from T. ammi can be a potential source of safe natural food preservative for food commodities contamination by storage fungi. PMID:25183114

  7. A Comprehensive Tool for Exploring the Availability, Scalability and Growth Potential of Conventional and Renewable Energy Sources and Technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jack-Scott, E.; Arnott, J. C.; Katzenberger, J.; Davis, S. J.; Delman, E.

    2015-12-01

    It has been a generational challenge to simultaneously meet the world's energy requirements, while remaining within the bounds of acceptable cost and environmental impact. To this end, substantial research has explored various energy futures on a global scale, leaving decision-makers and the public overwhelmed by information on energy options. In response, this interactive energy table was developed as a comprehensive resource through which users can explore the availability, scalability, and growth potentials of all energy technologies currently in use or development. Extensive research from peer-reviewed papers and reports was compiled and summarized, detailing technology costs, technical considerations, imminent breakthroughs, and obstacles to integration, as well as political, social, and environmental considerations. Energy technologies fall within categories of coal, oil, natural gas, nuclear, solar, wind, hydropower, ocean, geothermal and biomass. In addition to 360 expandable cells of cited data, the interactive table also features educational windows with background information on each energy technology. The table seeks not to advocate for specific energy futures, but to succinctly and accurately centralize peer-reviewed research and information in an interactive, accessible resource. With this tool, decision-makers, researchers and the public alike can explore various combinations of energy technologies and their quantitative and qualitative attributes that can satisfy the world's total primary energy supply (TPES) while making progress towards a near zero carbon future.

  8. Nerve growth factor and diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-D): a potential therapeutic target?*

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xiao-juan; Liu, Liang; Yao, Shu-kun

    2016-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common functional gastrointestinal disorder characterized by recurrent abdominal pain or discomfort associated with abnormal bowel habits. Diarrhea-predominant IBS (IBS-D) is a major subtype of IBS, the predominant manifestations of which are abdominal pain and diarrhea. The pathogenesis of IBS-D remained unknown until recently. The effects of psychosocial stress, central hypervigilance, neuroendocrine abnormality, disturbed gastrointestinal motility, mucosal immune activation, intestinal barrier dysfunction, visceral hypersensitivity (VH), altered gut flora, and genetic susceptibility may be involved in its development. Recently, increased attention has been placed on the neural-immune-endocrine network mechanism in IBS-D, especially the role of various neuroendocrine mediators. As a member of the neurotrophin family, nerve growth factor (NGF) has diverse biological effects, and participates in the pathogenesis of many diseases. Basic studies have demonstrated that NGF is associated with inflammatory- and stress-related VH, as well as stress-related intestinal barrier dysfunction. The aim of this study is to summarize recent literature and discuss the role of NGF in the pathophysiology of IBS-D, especially in VH and intestinal barrier dysfunction, as well as its potential as a therapeutic target in IBS-D. PMID:26739521

  9. [Anatomic characterization of growth-rings in 80 potential tree species for dendrocronological studies in the Central Forest, Perú].

    PubMed

    Beltrán Gutiérrez, Lizandro Adal; Valencia Ramos, Gina Mariela

    2013-09-01

    The knowledge about the existence of annual tree rings in tropical trees, which was already found at the beginning of the last century, was ignored by many scientists for a long time. Wood samples of 80 tree species from seven different sites belonging to Satipo and Chanchamayo provinces in Central Forest, Perú. Wood slices were taken at 1.30 m height, following the Peruvian Technical Norms (NTP) 251-008, COPANT norms 30:1-019 and IAWA (1989). Results showed that 24 of the 80 tree species analyzed showed a potential for dendrocronological studies, 25 had problems for growth-rings analysis, and 31 did not have potential. The problems most frequently found were: barely visible or irregular ring growth, parenchyma bands and multiseriate rays difficult to be identified in rings growth. The "T" Student test showed that the significant variation in vessel and fiber diameters between growth zones (Early-wood and late-wood) of species with potential for dendrocronology, do have a periodic cells production, so is possible to suggest the annual formation of each growth-ring. However, those species without potential to dendrocronology may be influenced by of a lot of factors, such as biotic and abiotic conditions of environment, as well as the genetic aspect of each species. PMID:24027905

  10. The Stored Waste Autonomous Mobile Inspector (SWAMI)

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, K.D.; Ward, C.R.

    1995-12-31

    A mobile robot system called Stored Waste Autonomous Mobile Inspector (SWAMI) is under development by the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) Robotics Group of Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) to perform mandated inspections of waste drums stored in warehouse facilities. The system will reduce personnel exposure to potential hazards and create accurate, high-quality documentation to ensure regulatory compliance and enhance waste management operations. Development work is coordinated among several Department of Energy (DOE), academic, and commercial entities in accordance wit DOE`s technology transfer initiative. The prototype system, SWAMI I, was demonstrated at Savannah River Site (SRS) in November, 1993. SWAMI II is now under development for field trails at the Fernald site.

  11. Objective speckle velocimetry for autonomous vehicle odometry.

    PubMed

    Francis, D; Charrett, T O H; Waugh, L; Tatam, R P

    2012-06-01

    Speckle velocimetry is investigated as a means of determining odometry data with potential for application on autonomous robotic vehicles. The technique described here relies on the integration of translation measurements made by normalized cross-correlation of speckle patterns to determine the change in position over time. The use of objective (non-imaged) speckle offers a number of advantages over subjective (imaged) speckle, such as a reduction in the number of optical components, reduced modulation of speckles at the edges of the image, and improved light efficiency. The influence of the source/detector configuration on the speckle translation to vehicle translation scaling factor for objective speckle is investigated using a computer model and verified experimentally. Experimental measurements are presented at velocities up to 80  mm s(-1) which show accuracy better than 0.4%. PMID:22695586

  12. Biomorphic architectures for autonomous Nanosat designs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hasslacher, Brosl; Tilden, Mark W.

    1995-01-01

    Modern space tool design is the science of making a machine both massively complex while at the same time extremely robust and dependable. We propose a novel nonlinear control technique that produces capable, self-organizing, micron-scale space machines at low cost and in large numbers by parallel silicon assembly. Experiments using biomorphic architectures (with ideal space attributes) have produced a wide spectrum of survival-oriented machines that are reliably domesticated for work applications in specific environments. In particular, several one-chip satellite prototypes show interesting control properties that can be turned into numerous application-specific machines for autonomous, disposable space tasks. We believe that the real power of these architectures lies in their potential to self-assemble into larger, robust, loosely coupled structures. Assembly takes place at hierarchical space scales, with different attendant properties, allowing for inexpensive solutions to many daunting work tasks. The nature of biomorphic control, design, engineering options, and applications are discussed.

  13. Autonomous Formations of Multi-Agent Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dhali, Sanjana; Joshi, Suresh M.

    2013-01-01

    Autonomous formation control of multi-agent dynamic systems has a number of applications that include ground-based and aerial robots and satellite formations. For air vehicles, formation flight ("flocking") has the potential to significantly increase airspace utilization as well as fuel efficiency. This presentation addresses two main problems in multi-agent formations: optimal role assignment to minimize the total cost (e.g., combined distance traveled by all agents); and maintaining formation geometry during flock motion. The Kuhn-Munkres ("Hungarian") algorithm is used for optimal assignment, and consensus-based leader-follower type control architecture is used to maintain formation shape despite the leader s independent movements. The methods are demonstrated by animated simulations.

  14. Path planning strategies for autonomous ground vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gifford, Kevin Kent

    Several key issues involved with the planning and executing of optimally generated paths for autonomous vehicles are addressed. Two new path planning algorithms are developed, and examined, which effectively minimize replanning as unmapped hazards are encountered. The individual algorithms are compared via extensive simulation. The search strategy results are implemented and tested using the University of Colorado's autonomous vehicle test-bed, RoboCar, and results show the advantages of solving the single-destination all-paths problem for autonomous vehicle path planning. Both path planners implement a graph search methodology incorporating dynamic programming that solves the single-destination shortest-paths problem. Algorithm 1, termed DP for dynamic programming, searches a state space where each state represents a potential vehicle location in a breadth-first fashion expanding from the goal to all potential start locations in the state space. Algorithm 2, termed DP*, couples the heuristic search power of the well-known A* search procedure (Nilsson-80) with the dynamic programming principle applied to graph searching to efficiently make use of overlapping subproblems. DP* is the primary research contribution of the work contained within this thesis. The advantage of solving the single-destination shortest-paths problem is that the entire terrain map is solved in terms of reaching a specified goal. Therefore, if the robot is diverted from the pre-planned path, an alternative path is already computed. The search algorithms are extended to include a probabilistic approach using empirical loss functions to incorporate terrain map uncertainties into the path considering terrain planning process. The results show the importance of considering terrain uncertainty. If the map representation ignores uncertainty by marking any area with less than perfect confidence as unpassable or assigns it the worst case rating, then the paths are longer than intuitively necessary. A

  15. Autonomous Cryogenic Load Operations: Knowledge-Based Autonomous Test Engineer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schrading, J. Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    The Knowledge-Based Autonomous Test Engineer (KATE) program has a long history at KSC. Now a part of the Autonomous Cryogenic Load Operations (ACLO) mission, this software system has been sporadically developed over the past 20 years. Originally designed to provide health and status monitoring for a simple water-based fluid system, it was proven to be a capable autonomous test engineer for determining sources of failure in the system. As part of a new goal to provide this same anomaly-detection capability for a complicated cryogenic fluid system, software engineers, physicists, interns and KATE experts are working to upgrade the software capabilities and graphical user interface. Much progress was made during this effort to improve KATE. A display of the entire cryogenic system's graph, with nodes for components and edges for their connections, was added to the KATE software. A searching functionality was added to the new graph display, so that users could easily center their screen on specific components. The GUI was also modified so that it displayed information relevant to the new project goals. In addition, work began on adding new pneumatic and electronic subsystems into the KATE knowledge base, so that it could provide health and status monitoring for those systems. Finally, many fixes for bugs, memory leaks, and memory errors were implemented and the system was moved into a state in which it could be presented to stakeholders. Overall, the KATE system was improved and necessary additional features were added so that a presentation of the program and its functionality in the next few months would be a success.

  16. Autonomous Cryogenic Load Operations: KSC Autonomous Test Engineer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shrading, Nicholas J.

    2012-01-01

    The KSC Autonomous Test Engineer (KATE) program has a long history at KSC. Now a part of the Autonomous Cryogenic Load Operations (ACLO) mission, this software system has been sporadically developed over the past 20+ years. Originally designed to provide health and status monitoring for a simple water-based fluid system, it was proven to be a capable autonomous test engineer for determining sources of failure in. the system, As part.of a new goal to provide this same anomaly-detection capability for a complicated cryogenic fluid system, software engineers, physicists, interns and KATE experts are working to upgrade the software capabilities and graphical user interface. Much progress was made during this effort to improve KATE. A display ofthe entire cryogenic system's graph, with nodes for components and edges for their connections, was added to the KATE software. A searching functionality was added to the new graph display, so that users could easily center their screen on specific components. The GUI was also modified so that it displayed information relevant to the new project goals. In addition, work began on adding new pneumatic and electronic subsystems into the KATE knowledgebase, so that it could provide health and status monitoring for those systems. Finally, many fixes for bugs, memory leaks, and memory errors were implemented and the system was moved into a state in which it could be presented to stakeholders. Overall, the KATE system was improved and necessary additional features were added so that a presentation of the program and its functionality in the next few months would be a success.

  17. Role of the Autonomic Nervous System in Atrial Fibrillation: Pathophysiology and Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Peng-Sheng; Chen, Lan S.; Fishbein, Michael C.; Lin, Shien-Fong; Nattel, Stanley

    2014-01-01

    Autonomic nervous system activation can induce significant and heterogeneous changes of atrial electrophysiology and induce atrial tachyarrhythmias, including atrial tachycardia (AT) and atrial fibrillation (AF). The importance of the autonomic nervous system in atrial arrhythmogenesis is also supported by circadian variation in the incidence of symptomatic AF in humans. Methods that reduce autonomic innervation or outflow have been shown to reduce the incidence of spontaneous or induced atrial arrhythmias, suggesting that neuromodulation may be helpful in controlling AF. In this review we focus on the relationship between the autonomic nervous system and the pathophysiology of AF, and the potential benefit and limitations of neuromodulation in the management of this arrhythmia. We conclude that autonomic nerve activity plays an important role in the initiation and maintenance of AF, and modulating autonomic nerve function may contribute to AF control. Potential therapeutic applications include ganglionated plexus ablation, renal sympathetic denervation, cervical vagal nerve stimulation, baroreflex stimulation, cutaneous stimulation, novel drug approaches and biological therapies. While the role of the autonomic nervous system has long been recognized, new science and new technologies promise exciting prospects for the future. PMID:24763467

  18. [Acute idiopathic autonomic neuropathy with local autonomic failure in a child].

    PubMed

    Arai, Hidee; Kubota, Hiroaki; Omata, Taku; Tanabe, Yuzo

    2010-09-01

    A 5-year-old girl presented with flushing and sweating on the left arm with coldness on the left palm that had persisted for approximately 24 hours. She had a fever and chicken pox-like exanthemas on her skin. She had no weakness, sensory disturbance or other autonomic dysfunction, such as orthostatic hypotension. Physical, neurological, blood and cerebrospinal fluid findings, including those of a viral study, were normal. A spinal MRI revealed no abnormal signals. Motor nerve conduction velocity, compound muscle action potential and sensory nerve conduction velocity in both medial nerves were normal, although compound sensory nerve action potential was low in the left medial nerve. F waves were absent in both medial nerves. The amplitude of the sympathetic skin response was low in the left palm. The cold-induced vasodilatation test showed bilateral sympathetic nerve dysfunction, especially on the left side. The coefficient of variation of RR intervals was low. Aciclovir was administered until chicken pox was ruled out. Subsequently, her symptoms improved. However, a sympathetic skin response and cold-induced vasodilatation findings 9 months later revealed sympathetic nerve dysfunction. These findings suggested autonomic neuropathy with local sympathetic dysfunction and a mild sensory nerve disturbance. PMID:20845769

  19. Assessment of the cardiovascular and gastrointestinal autonomic complications of diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Brock, Christina; Brock, Birgitte; Pedersen, Anne Grave; Drewes, Asbjørn Mohr; Jessen, Niels; Farmer, Adam D

    2016-01-01

    The global prevalence of diabetes mellitus is increasing; arguably as a consequence of changes in diet, lifestyle and the trend towards urbanization. Unsurprisingly, the incidence of both micro and macrovascular complications of diabetes mirrors this increasing prevalence. Amongst the complications with the highest symptom burden, yet frequently under-diagnosed and sub-optimally treated, is diabetic autonomic neuropathy, itself potentially resulting in cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy and gastrointestinal (GI) tract dysmotility. The aims of this review are fourfold. Firstly to provide an overview of the pathophysiological processes that cause diabetic autonomic neuropathy. Secondly, to discuss both the established and emerging cardiometric methods for evaluating autonomic nervous system function in vivo. Thirdly, to examine the tools for assessing pan-GI and segmental motility and finally, we will provide the reader with a summary of putative non-invasive biomarkers that provide a pathophysiological link between low-grade neuro inflammation and diabetes, which may allow earlier diagnosis and intervention, which in future may improve patient outcomes. PMID:27625746

  20. Assessment of the cardiovascular and gastrointestinal autonomic complications of diabetes.

    PubMed

    Brock, Christina; Brock, Birgitte; Pedersen, Anne Grave; Drewes, Asbjørn Mohr; Jessen, Niels; Farmer, Adam D

    2016-08-25

    The global prevalence of diabetes mellitus is increasing; arguably as a consequence of changes in diet, lifestyle and the trend towards urbanization. Unsurprisingly, the incidence of both micro and macrovascular complications of diabetes mirrors this increasing prevalence. Amongst the complications with the highest symptom burden, yet frequently under-diagnosed and sub-optimally treated, is diabetic autonomic neuropathy, itself potentially resulting in cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy and gastrointestinal (GI) tract dysmotility. The aims of this review are fourfold. Firstly to provide an overview of the pathophysiological processes that cause diabetic autonomic neuropathy. Secondly, to discuss both the established and emerging cardiometric methods for evaluating autonomic nervous system function in vivo. Thirdly, to examine the tools for assessing pan-GI and segmental motility and finally, we will provide the reader with a summary of putative non-invasive biomarkers that provide a pathophysiological link between low-grade neuro inflammation and diabetes, which may allow earlier diagnosis and intervention, which in future may improve patient outcomes. PMID:27625746

  1. Tele/Autonomous Robot For Nuclear Facilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Backes, Paul G.; Tso, Kam S.

    1994-01-01

    Fail-safe tele/autonomous robotic system makes it unnecessary for human technicians to enter nuclear-fuel-reprocessing facilities and other high-radiation or otherwise hazardous industrial environments. Used to carry out experiments as exchanging equipment modules, turning bolts, cleaning surfaces, and grappling turning objects by use of mixture of autonomous actions and teleoperation with either single arm or two cooperating arms. System capable of fully autonomous operation, teleoperation or shared control.

  2. Sustainable and Autonomic Space Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinchey, Michael G.; Sterritt, Roy; Rouff, Christopher; Rash, James L.; Truszkowski, Walter

    2006-01-01

    Visions for future space exploration have long term science missions in sight, resulting in the need for sustainable missions. Survivability is a critical property of sustainable systems and may be addressed through autonomicity, an emerging paradigm for self-management of future computer-based systems based on inspiration from the human autonomic nervous system. This paper examines some of the ongoing research efforts to realize these survivable systems visions, with specific emphasis on developments in Autonomic Policies.

  3. The EO-1 Autonomous Science Agent Architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chien, Steve; Sherwood, Rob; Tran, Daniel; Cichy, Benjamin; Rabideau, Gregg; Castano, Rebecca; Davies, Ashley; Lee, Rachel; Mandl, Dan; Frye, Stuart; Trout, Bruce; Hengemihle, Jerry; D'Agostino, Jeff; Shulman, Seth; Ungar, Stephen; Brakke, Thomas; Boyer, Darrell; Van Gaasbeck, Jim; Greeley, Ronald; Doggett, Thomas; Baker, Victor; Dohm, James; Ip, Felipe

    2004-01-01

    An Autonomous Science Agent is currently flying onboard the Earth Observing One Spacecraft. This software enables the spacecraft to autonomously detect and respond to science events occurring on the Earth. The package includes software systems that perform science data analysis, deliberative planning, and run-time robust execution. Because of the deployment to a remote spacecraft, this Autonomous Science Agent has stringent constraints of autonomy, reliability, and limited computing resources. We describe these constraints and how they are reflected in our agent architecture.

  4. Novel components of leaf bacterial communities of field-grown tomato plants and their potential for plant growth promotion and biocontrol of tomato diseases.

    PubMed

    Romero, Fernando M; Marina, María; Pieckenstain, Fernando L

    2016-04-01

    This work aimed to characterize potentially endophytic culturable bacteria from leaves of cultivated tomato and analyze their potential for growth promotion and biocontrol of diseases caused by Botrytis cinerea and Pseudomonas syringae. Bacteria were obtained from inner tissues of surface-disinfected tomato leaves of field-grown plants. Analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences identified bacterial isolates related to Exiguobacterium aurantiacum (isolates BT3 and MT8), Exiguobacterium spp. (isolate GT4), Staphylococcus xylosus (isolate BT5), Pantoea eucalypti (isolate NT6), Bacillus methylotrophicus (isolate MT3), Pseudomonas veronii (isolates BT4 and NT2), Pseudomonas rhodesiae (isolate BT2) and Pseudomonas cichorii (isolate NT3). After seed inoculation, BT2, BT4, MT3, MT8, NT2 and NT6 were re-isolated from leaf extracts. NT2, BT2, MT3 and NT6 inhibited growth of Botrytis cinerea and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato in vitro, produced antimicrobial compounds and reduced leaf damage caused by B. cinerea. Some of these isolates also promoted growth of tomato plants, produced siderophores, the auxin indole-3-acetic and solubilized inorganic phosphate. Thus, bacterial communities of leaves from field-grown tomato plants were found to harbor potentially endophytic culturable beneficial bacteria capable of antagonizing pathogenic microorganisms and promoting plant growth, which could be used as biological control agents and biofertilizers/biostimulators for promotion of tomato plant growth. PMID:26654914

  5. MUC4 potentiates invasion and metastasis of pancreatic cancer cells through stabilization of fibroblast growth factor receptor 1

    PubMed Central

    Macha, Muzafar A; Ponnusamy, Moorthy P.; Batra, Surinder K

    2012-01-01

    MUC4 is a type-1 transmembrane mucin differentially expressed in multiple cancers and has previously been shown to potentiate progression and metastasis of pancreatic cancer. In this study, we investigated the molecular mechanisms associated with the MUC4-induced invasion and metastasis in pancreatic cancer. Stable silencing of MUC4 in multiple pancreatic cancer cells resulted in the downregulation of N-cadherin and its interacting partner fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 (FGFR1) through downregulation of partly by pFAK, pMKK7, pJNK and pc-Jun pathway and partly through PI-3K/Akt pathway. The downregulation of FGFR1 in turn led to downregulation of pAkt, pERK1/2, pNF-κB, pIkBα, uPA, MMP-9, vimentin, N-cadherin, Twist, Slug and Zeb1 and upregulation of E-cadherin, Occludin, Cytokeratin-18 and Caspase-9 in MUC4 knockdown BXPC3 and Capan1 cells compared with scramble vector transfected cells. Further, downregulation of FGFR1 was associated with a significant change in morphology and reorganization of the actin-cytoskeleton, leading to a significant decrease in motility (P < 0.00001) and invasion (P < 0.0001) in vitro and decreased tumorigenicity and incidence of metastasis in vivo upon orthotopic implantation in the athymic mice. Taken together, the results of the present study suggest that MUC4 promotes invasion and metastasis by FGFR1 stabilization through the N-cadherin upregulation. PMID:22791819

  6. Integrated gene co-expression network analysis in the growth phase of Mycobacterium tuberculosis reveals new potential drug targets.

    PubMed

    Puniya, Bhanwar Lal; Kulshreshtha, Deepika; Verma, Srikant Prasad; Kumar, Sanjiv; Ramachandran, Srinivasan

    2013-11-01

    We have carried out weighted gene co-expression network analysis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis to gain insights into gene expression architecture during log phase growth. The differentially expressed genes between at least one pair of 11 different M. tuberculosis strains as source of biological variability were used for co-expression network analysis. This data included genes with highest coefficient of variation in expression. Five distinct modules were identified using topological overlap based clustering. All the modules together showed significant enrichment in biological processes: fatty acid biosynthesis, cell membrane, intracellular membrane bound organelle, DNA replication, Quinone biosynthesis, cell shape and peptidoglycan biosynthesis, ribosome and structural constituents of ribosome and transposition. We then extracted the co-expressed connections which were supported either by transcriptional regulatory network or STRING database or high edge weight of topological overlap. The genes trpC, nadC, pitA, Rv3404c, atpA, pknA, Rv0996, purB, Rv2106 and Rv0796 emerged as top hub genes. After overlaying this network on the iNJ661 metabolic network, the reactions catalyzed by 15 highly connected metabolic genes were knocked down in silico and evaluated by Flux Balance Analysis. The results showed that in 12 out of 15 cases, in 11 more than 50% of reactions catalyzed by genes connected through co-expressed connections also had altered fluxes. The modules 'Turquoise', 'Blue' and 'Red' also showed enrichment in essential genes. We could map 152 of the previously known or proposed drug targets in these modules and identified 15 new potential drug targets based on their high degree of co-expressed connections and strong correlation with module eigengenes. PMID:24056838

  7. Potential Predictors of Plasma Fibroblast Growth Factor 23 Concentrations: Cross-Sectional Analysis in the EPIC-Germany Study

    PubMed Central

    di Giuseppe, Romina; Kühn, Tilman; Hirche, Frank; Buijsse, Brian; Dierkes, Jutta; Fritsche, Andreas; Kaaks, Rudolf; Boeing, Heiner; Stangl, Gabriele I.; Weikert, Cornelia

    2015-01-01

    Background Increased fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23), a bone-derived hormone involved in the regulation of phosphate and vitamin D metabolism, has been related to the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in chronic kidney disease patients and in the general population. However, what determines higher FGF23 levels is still unclear. Also, little is known about the influence of diet on FGF23. The aim of this study was therefore to identify demographic, clinical and dietary correlates of high FGF23 concentrations in the general population. Methods We performed a cross-sectional analysis within a randomly selected subcohort of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-Germany comprising 2134 middle-aged men and women. The Human FGF23 (C-Terminal) ELISA kit was used to measure FGF23 in citrate plasma. Dietary data were obtained at baseline via validated food frequency questionnaires including up to 148 food items. Results Multivariable adjusted logistic regression showed that men had a 66% lower and smokers a 64% higher probability of having higher FGF23 (≥ 90 RU/mL) levels compared, respectively, with women and nonsmokers. Each doubling in parathyroid hormone, creatinine, and C-reactive protein was related to higher FGF23. Among the dietary factors, each doubling in calcium and total energy intake was related, respectively, to a 1.75 and to a 4.41 fold increased probability of having higher FGF23. Finally, each doubling in the intake of iron was related to an 82% lower probability of having higher FGF23 levels. Results did not substantially change after exclusion of participants with lower kidney function. Conclusions In middle-aged men and women traditional and non-traditional CVD risk factors were related to higher FGF23 concentrations. These findings may contribute to the understanding of the potential mechanisms linking increased FGF23 to increased CVD risk. PMID:26193703

  8. Hyperactive transforming growth factor-β1 signaling potentiates skeletal defects in a neurofibromatosis type 1 mouse model.

    PubMed

    Rhodes, Steven D; Wu, Xiaohua; He, Yongzheng; Chen, Shi; Yang, Hao; Staser, Karl W; Wang, Jiapeng; Zhang, Ping; Jiang, Chang; Yokota, Hiroki; Dong, Ruizhi; Peng, Xianghong; Yang, Xianlin; Murthy, Sreemala; Azhar, Mohamad; Mohammad, Khalid S; Xu, Mingjiang; Guise, Theresa A; Yang, Feng-Chun

    2013-12-01

    Dysregulated transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) signaling is associated with a spectrum of osseous defects as seen in Loeys-Dietz syndrome, Marfan syndrome, and Camurati-Engelmann disease. Intriguingly, neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) patients exhibit many of these characteristic skeletal features, including kyphoscoliosis, osteoporosis, tibial dysplasia, and pseudarthrosis; however, the molecular mechanisms mediating these phenotypes remain unclear. Here, we provide genetic and pharmacologic evidence that hyperactive TGF-β1 signaling pivotally underpins osseous defects in Nf1(flox/-) ;Col2.3Cre mice, a model which closely recapitulates the skeletal abnormalities found in the human disease. Compared to controls, we show that serum TGF-β1 levels are fivefold to sixfold increased both in Nf1(flox/-) ;Col2.3Cre mice and in a cohort of NF1 patients. Nf1-deficient osteoblasts, the principal source of TGF-β1 in bone, overexpress TGF-β1 in a gene dosage-dependent fashion. Moreover, Nf1-deficient osteoblasts and osteoclasts are hyperresponsive to TGF-β1 stimulation, potentiating osteoclast bone resorptive activity while inhibiting osteoblast differentiation. These cellular phenotypes are further accompanied by p21-Ras-dependent hyperactivation of the canonical TGF-β1-Smad pathway. Reexpression of the human, full-length neurofibromin guanosine triphosphatase (GTPase)-activating protein (GAP)-related domain (NF1 GRD) in primary Nf1-deficient osteoblast progenitors, attenuated TGF-β1 expression levels and reduced Smad phosphorylation in response to TGF-β1 stimulation. As an in vivo proof of principle, we demonstrate that administration of the TGF-β receptor 1 (TβRI) kinase inhibitor, SD-208, can rescue bone mass deficits and prevent tibial fracture nonunion in Nf1(flox/-) ;Col2.3Cre mice. In sum, these data demonstrate a pivotal role for hyperactive TGF-β1 signaling in the pathogenesis of NF1-associated osteoporosis and pseudarthrosis, thus implicating the TGF

  9. General autonomic components of motion sickness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cowings, Patricia S.; Suter, Steve; Toscano, William B.; Kamiya, Joe; Naifeh, Karen

    1986-01-01

    This report refers to a body of investigations directed toward the examination of autonomic nervous system responses to motion sickness. Heart rate, respiration rate, finger pulse volume, and basal skin resistance were measured on 127 men and women before, during, and after exposure to a nauseogenic rotating chair test. Significant changes in all autonomic responses were observed across the tests (p less than .05). Significant differences in autonomic responses among groups divided according to motion sickness susceptibility were also observed (p less than .05). Results suggest that the examination of autonomic responses as an objective indicator of motion sickness malaise is warranted and may contribute to the overall understanding of the syndrome.

  10. Autonomic dysfunction in primary sleep disorders.

    PubMed

    Miglis, Mitchell G

    2016-03-01

    The autonomic nervous system plays an important role in the coordination of many important physiologic functions during sleep. Many patients with untreated sleep disorders will describe symptoms of autonomic impairment, and a majority of patients with autonomic impairment have some form of sleep disorder. This article will explore possible explanations for this connection, as well as review the current literature on autonomic impairment in common primary sleep disorders including obstructive sleep apnea, insomnia, restless legs syndrome, periodic limb movement disorder, narcolepsy, and rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder. PMID:27198946

  11. Autonomic Computing for Spacecraft Ground Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Zhenping; Savkli, Cetin; Jones, Lori

    2007-01-01

    Autonomic computing for spacecraft ground systems increases the system reliability and reduces the cost of spacecraft operations and software maintenance. In this paper, we present an autonomic computing solution for spacecraft ground systems at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), which consists of an open standard for a message oriented architecture referred to as the GMSEC architecture (Goddard Mission Services Evolution Center), and an autonomic computing tool, the Criteria Action Table (CAT). This solution has been used in many upgraded ground systems for NASA 's missions, and provides a framework for developing solutions with higher autonomic maturity.

  12. Effect of K+ and Ca2+ on the indole-3-acetic acid- and fusicoccin-induced growth and membrane potential in maize coleoptile cells

    PubMed Central

    Siemieniuk, Agnieszka; Karcz, Waldemar

    2015-01-01

    The role of potassium (K+) and calcium (Ca2+) in the regulation of plant growth and development is complex and needs a diverse range of physiological studies. Both elements are essential for satisfactory crop production. Here, the effects of K+ and Ca2+ ions on endogenous growth and growth in the presence of either indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) or fusicoccin (FC) were studied in maize (Zea mays) coleoptiles. Membrane potentials of coleoptile parenchymal cells, incubated in media containing IAA, FC and different concentrations of K+ and Ca2+, were also determined. Growth experiments have shown that in the absence of K+ in the incubation medium, both endogenous and IAA- or FC-induced growth were significantly inhibited by 0.1 and 1 mM Ca2+, respectively, while in the presence of 1 mM K+ they were inhibited only by 1 mM Ca2+. At 10 mM K+, endogenous growth and growth induced by either IAA or FC did not depend on Ca2+ concentration. TEA-Cl, a potassium channel blocker, added 1 h before IAA or FC, caused a reduction of growth by 59 or 45 %, respectively. In contrast to TEA-Cl, verapamil, the Ca2+ channel blocker, did not affect IAA- and FC-induced growth. It was also found that in parenchymal cells of maize coleoptile segments, membrane potential (Em) was strongly affected by the medium K+, independently of Ca2+. However, lack of Ca2+ in the incubation medium significantly reduced the IAA- and FC-induced membrane potential hyperpolarization. TEA-Cl applied to the control medium in the same way as in growth experiments caused Em hyperpolarization synergistic with hyperpolarization produced by IAA or FC. Verapamil did not change either the Em of parenchymal cells incubated in the control medium or the IAA- and FC-induced membrane hyperpolarization. The data presented here have been discussed considering the role of K+ uptake channels in regulation of plant cell growth. PMID:26134122

  13. Effect of K+ and Ca2+ on the indole-3-acetic acid- and fusicoccin-induced growth and membrane potential in maize coleoptile cells.

    PubMed

    Siemieniuk, Agnieszka; Karcz, Waldemar

    2015-01-01

    The role of potassium (K(+)) and calcium (Ca(2+)) in the regulation of plant growth and development is complex and needs a diverse range of physiological studies. Both elements are essential for satisfactory crop production. Here, the effects of K(+) and Ca(2+) ions on endogenous growth and growth in the presence of either indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) or fusicoccin (FC) were studied in maize (Zea mays) coleoptiles. Membrane potentials of coleoptile parenchymal cells, incubated in media containing IAA, FC and different concentrations of K(+) and Ca(2+), were also determined. Growth experiments have shown that in the absence of K(+) in the incubation medium, both endogenous and IAA- or FC-induced growth were significantly inhibited by 0.1 and 1 mM Ca(2+), respectively, while in the presence of 1 mM K(+) they were inhibited only by 1 mM Ca(2+). At 10 mM K(+), endogenous growth and growth induced by either IAA or FC did not depend on Ca(2+) concentration. TEA-Cl, a potassium channel blocker, added 1 h before IAA or FC, caused a reduction of growth by 59 or 45 %, respectively. In contrast to TEA-Cl, verapamil, the Ca(2+) channel blocker, did not affect IAA- and FC-induced growth. It was also found that in parenchymal cells of maize coleoptile segments, membrane potential (Em) was strongly affected by the medium K(+), independently of Ca(2+). However, lack of Ca(2+) in the incubation medium significantly reduced the IAA- and FC-induced membrane potential hyperpolarization. TEA-Cl applied to the control medium in the same way as in growth experiments caused Em hyperpolarization synergistic with hyperpolarization produced by IAA or FC. Verapamil did not change either the Em of parenchymal cells incubated in the control medium or the IAA- and FC-induced membrane hyperpolarization. The data presented here have been discussed considering the role of K(+) uptake channels in regulation of plant cell growth. PMID:26134122

  14. Autonomous Formation Flying from Ground to Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chapman, Keith B.; Dell, Gregory T.; Rosenberg, Duane L.; Bristow, John

    1999-01-01

    received with significant, and probably appropriate trepidation. A number of safeguards have been designed in both AutoCon and the interfacing systems to alleviate the potential of mission-impacting anomalies from the on-board autonomous system. This paper describes the error checking, input data integrity validation and limits set on maneuvers in AutoCon and the on-board system.

  15. Glial TDP-43 regulates axon wrapping, GluRIIA clustering and fly motility by autonomous and non-autonomous mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Romano, Giulia; Appocher, Chiara; Scorzeto, Michele; Klima, Raffaella; Baralle, Francisco E.; Megighian, Aram; Feiguin, Fabian

    2015-01-01

    Alterations in the glial function of TDP-43 are becoming increasingly associated with the neurological symptoms observed in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS), however, the physiological role of this protein in the glia or the mechanisms that may lead to neurodegeneration are unknown. To address these issues, we modulated the expression levels of TDP-43 in the Drosophila glia and found that the protein was required to regulate the subcellular wrapping of motoneuron axons, promote synaptic growth and the formation of glutamate receptor clusters at the neuromuscular junctions. Interestingly, we determined that the glutamate transporter EAAT1 mediated the regulatory functions of TDP-43 in the glia and demonstrated that genetic or pharmacological compensations of EAAT1 activity were sufficient to modulate glutamate receptor clustering and locomotive behaviors in flies. The data uncovers autonomous and non-autonomous functions of TDP-43 in the glia and suggests new experimentally based therapeutic strategies in ALS. PMID:26276811

  16. A STUDY OF THE POTENTIAL WAYS IN WHICH OZONE COULD REDUCE ROOT GROWTH AND NODULATION OF SOYBEAN

    EPA Science Inventory

    The possible mechanisms by which the ozone reduces root growth and nodulation of soybean were investigated. Ozone did not appreciably penetrate the plant growth substrates nor did it oxidize soil organic matter to form compounds inhibitory to Rhizobium. When ozone was excluded fr...

  17. Potential use of the bioreactor to determine effects of microgravity and other environmental parameters on growth of hybridoma cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ley, Kenneth D.

    1987-01-01

    It is argued that the bioreactor being developed at NASA will allow researchers to determine the optimal conditions (e.g., pH, O sub 2, CO sub 2, nutrients) for growth of hybridoma cells, and to determine whether cell growth and antibody production are enhanced in the microgravity of space.

  18. Investigation of the Optimum Farming Temperature for Grifola frondosa and Growth Promotion using the Bio-Electric Potential as an Index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanagibashi, Hideyuki; Hirama, Junji; Matsuda, Masato; Miyamoto, Toshio

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the optimum farming conditions for mushrooms from the view point of engineering field. As the bio-electric potential of mushrooms is considered to be closely related to the activation of mushroom cells, this relationship has been used to analyze the dependence of the morphogenetic characteristics of Grifola frondosa on farming temperatures (from 16 to 22 degree C). The experimental results indicated that a maximum response was exhibited, with correspondingly favorable morphogenesis obtained at 18 degree C. Based on the experimental results, including those in a previous study, it was assumed that the larger the bio-electric potential becomes, the higher the growth yield reaches. In order to support this assumption, growth promotion was conducted by intentionally activating the bio-electric potential within the mushrooms by stimulating them with short bursts of illumination. The resulting observation of growth promotion permitted the conclusion that the bio-electric potential can, indeed, be regarded as an index of growth.

  19. Current knowledge on the environmental fate, potential impact, and management of growth-promoting steroids used in the US beef cattle industry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Growth promoting steroids and steroid-like compounds (GPSC) used by the US beef cattle industry are potential contaminants to water resources. Manure generated in concentrated animal feeding operations contains GPSCs that may enter the environment. Several studies have focused on off-site impacts of...

  20. Draft Genome Sequences of Pseudomonas fluorescens Strains SF39a and SF4c, Potential Plant Growth Promotion and Biocontrol Agents

    PubMed Central

    Ly, Lindsey K.; Underwood, Grace E.; McCully, Lucy M.; Bitzer, Adam S.; Godino, Agustina; Bucci, Vanni; Brigham, Christopher J.; Príncipe, Analía; Fischer, Sonia E.

    2015-01-01

    Pseudomonas fluorescens SF4c and SF39a, strains isolated from wheat rhizosphere, have potential applications in plant growth promotion and biocontrol of fungal diseases of crop plants. We report the draft genome sequences of SF4c and SF39a with estimated sizes of 6.5 Mb and 5.9 Mb, respectively. PMID:25814613

  1. Autonomous navigation - The ARMMS concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, L. J.; Jones, J. B.; Mease, K. D.; Kwok, J. H.; Goltz, G. L.; Kechichian, J. A.

    1984-08-01

    A conceptual design is outlined for the navigation subsystem of the Autonomous Redundancy and Maintenance Management Subsystem (ARMMS). The principal function of this navigation subsystem is to maintain the spacecraft over a specified equatorial longitude to within + or - 3 deg. In addition, the navigation subsystem must detect and correct internal faults. It comprises elements for a navigation executive and for orbit determination, trajectory, maneuver planning, and maneuver command. Each of these elements is described. The navigation subsystem is to be used in the DSCS III spacecraft.

  2. Autonomous sensor manager agents (ASMA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osadciw, Lisa A.

    2004-04-01

    Autonomous sensor manager agents are presented as an algorithm to perform sensor management within a multisensor fusion network. The design of the hybrid ant system/particle swarm agents is described in detail with some insight into their performance. Although the algorithm is designed for the general sensor management problem, a simulation example involving 2 radar systems is presented. Algorithmic parameters are determined by the size of the region covered by the sensor network, the number of sensors, and the number of parameters to be selected. With straight forward modifications, this algorithm can be adapted for most sensor management problems.

  3. Autonomous Real Time Requirements Tracing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plattsmier, George I.; Stetson, Howard K.

    2014-01-01

    One of the more challenging aspects of software development is the ability to verify and validate the functional software requirements dictated by the Software Requirements Specification (SRS) and the Software Detail Design (SDD). Insuring the software has achieved the intended requirements is the responsibility of the Software Quality team and the Software Test team. The utilization of Timeliner-TLX(sup TM) Auto-Procedures for relocating ground operations positions to ISS automated on-board operations has begun the transition that would be required for manned deep space missions with minimal crew requirements. This transition also moves the auto-procedures from the procedure realm into the flight software arena and as such the operational requirements and testing will be more structured and rigorous. The autoprocedures would be required to meet NASA software standards as specified in the Software Safety Standard (NASASTD- 8719), the Software Engineering Requirements (NPR 7150), the Software Assurance Standard (NASA-STD-8739) and also the Human Rating Requirements (NPR-8705). The Autonomous Fluid Transfer System (AFTS) test-bed utilizes the Timeliner-TLX(sup TM) Language for development of autonomous command and control software. The Timeliner- TLX(sup TM) system has the unique feature of providing the current line of the statement in execution during real-time execution of the software. The feature of execution line number internal reporting unlocks the capability of monitoring the execution autonomously by use of a companion Timeliner-TLX(sup TM) sequence as the line number reporting is embedded inside the Timeliner-TLX(sup TM) execution engine. This negates I/O processing of this type data as the line number status of executing sequences is built-in as a function reference. This paper will outline the design and capabilities of the AFTS Autonomous Requirements Tracker, which traces and logs SRS requirements as they are being met during real-time execution of the

  4. Knowledge acquisition for autonomous systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lum, Henry; Heer, Ewald

    1988-01-01

    Knowledge-based capabilities for autonomous aerospace systems, such as the NASA Space Station, must encompass conflict-resolution functions comparable to those of human operators, with all elements of the system working toward system goals in a concurrent, asynchronous-but-coordinated fashion. Knowledge extracted from a design database will support robotic systems by furnishing geometric, structural, and causal descriptions required for repair, disassembly, and assembly. The factual knowledge for these databases will be obtained from a master database through a technical management information system, and it will in many cases have to be augmented by domain-specific heuristic knowledge acquired from domain experts.

  5. Autonomous Real Time Requirements Tracing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plattsmier, George; Stetson, Howard

    2014-01-01

    One of the more challenging aspects of software development is the ability to verify and validate the functional software requirements dictated by the Software Requirements Specification (SRS) and the Software Detail Design (SDD). Insuring the software has achieved the intended requirements is the responsibility of the Software Quality team and the Software Test team. The utilization of Timeliner-TLX(sup TM) Auto- Procedures for relocating ground operations positions to ISS automated on-board operations has begun the transition that would be required for manned deep space missions with minimal crew requirements. This transition also moves the auto-procedures from the procedure realm into the flight software arena and as such the operational requirements and testing will be more structured and rigorous. The autoprocedures would be required to meet NASA software standards as specified in the Software Safety Standard (NASASTD- 8719), the Software Engineering Requirements (NPR 7150), the Software Assurance Standard (NASA-STD-8739) and also the Human Rating Requirements (NPR-8705). The Autonomous Fluid Transfer System (AFTS) test-bed utilizes the Timeliner-TLX(sup TM) Language for development of autonomous command and control software. The Timeliner-TLX(sup TM) system has the unique feature of providing the current line of the statement in execution during real-time execution of the software. The feature of execution line number internal reporting unlocks the capability of monitoring the execution autonomously by use of a companion Timeliner-TLX(sup TM) sequence as the line number reporting is embedded inside the Timeliner-TLX(sup TM) execution engine. This negates I/O processing of this type data as the line number status of executing sequences is built-in as a function reference. This paper will outline the design and capabilities of the AFTS Autonomous Requirements Tracker, which traces and logs SRS requirements as they are being met during real-time execution of the

  6. The Autonomous Pathogen Detection System

    SciTech Connect

    Dzenitis, J M; Makarewicz, A J

    2009-01-13

    We developed, tested, and now operate a civilian biological defense capability that continuously monitors the air for biological threat agents. The Autonomous Pathogen Detection System (APDS) collects, prepares, reads, analyzes, and reports results of multiplexed immunoassays and multiplexed PCR assays using Luminex{copyright} xMAP technology and flow cytometer. The mission we conduct is particularly demanding: continuous monitoring, multiple threat agents, high sensitivity, challenging environments, and ultimately extremely low false positive rates. Here, we introduce the mission requirements and metrics, show the system engineering and analysis framework, and describe the progress to date including early development and current status.

  7. Effect of solvents on the bulk growth of 4-aminobenzophenone single crystals: a potential material for blue and green lasers.

    PubMed

    Natarajan, V; Usharani, S; Arivanandhan, M; Anandan, P; Hayakawa, Y

    2015-06-15

    Although 4-aminobenzophenone (4-ABP) is the best derivative of benzophenone with 260 times higher second harmonic generation (SHG) efficiency than potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KDP), growth of high quality bulk crystal still remains a difficult task. In the present work, the effect of solvents on solubility and growth aspects of 4-ABP was investigated to grow inclusion free 4-ABP crystals. The growth processes were discussed based on solute-solvent interaction in two different growth media of ethyl acetate and ethanol. The growth rate and thereby solvent inclusions are relatively higher in ethyl acetate grown crystal than the crystal grown from ethanol. The structural, thermal and optical properties of 4-ABP crystals were studied. The enthalpy of 4-ABP melting process was estimated from differential thermal analysis. The optical transmission study shows that 4-ABP crystals grown from ethanol has high transparency compared to ethyl acetate grown sample due to solvent inclusion in the later crystal. PMID:25795606

  8. Effect of solvents on the bulk growth of 4-aminobenzophenone single crystals: A potential material for blue and green lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Natarajan, V.; Usharani, S.; Arivanandhan, M.; Anandan, P.; Hayakawa, Y.

    2015-06-01

    Although 4-aminobenzophenone (4-ABP) is the best derivative of benzophenone with 260 times higher second harmonic generation (SHG) efficiency than potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KDP), growth of high quality bulk crystal still remains a difficult task. In the present work, the effect of solvents on solubility and growth aspects of 4-ABP was investigated to grow inclusion free 4-ABP crystals. The growth processes were discussed based on solute-solvent interaction in two different growth media of ethyl acetate and ethanol. The growth rate and thereby solvent inclusions are relatively higher in ethyl acetate grown crystal than the crystal grown from ethanol. The structural, thermal and optical properties of 4-ABP crystals were studied. The enthalpy of 4-ABP melting process was estimated from differential thermal analysis. The optical transmission study shows that 4-ABP crystals grown from ethanol has high transparency compared to ethyl acetate grown sample due to solvent inclusion in the later crystal.

  9. Remote radioactive waste drum inspection with an autonomous mobile robot

    SciTech Connect

    Heckendorn, F.M.; Ward, C.R.; Wagner, D.G.

    1992-11-01

    An autonomous mobile robot is being developed to perform remote surveillance and inspection task on large numbers of stored radioactive waste drums. The robot will be self guided through narrow storage aisles and record the visual image of each viewable drum for subsequent off line analysis and archiving. The system will remove the personnel from potential exposure to radiation, perform the require inspections, and improve the ability to assess the long term trends in drum conditions.

  10. Remote radioactive waste drum inspection with an autonomous mobile robot

    SciTech Connect

    Heckendorn, F.M.; Ward, C.R.; Wagner, D.G.

    1992-01-01

    An autonomous mobile robot is being developed to perform remote surveillance and inspection task on large numbers of stored radioactive waste drums. The robot will be self guided through narrow storage aisles and record the visual image of each viewable drum for subsequent off line analysis and archiving. The system will remove the personnel from potential exposure to radiation, perform the require inspections, and improve the ability to assess the long term trends in drum conditions.

  11. Large minimal period orbits of periodic autonomous systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campos, Juan; Tarallo, Massimo

    2004-01-01

    We prove the existence of periodic orbits with minimal period greater than any prescribed number for a natural Lagrangian autonomous system in several variables that is analytic and periodic in each variable and whose potential is nonconstant. Work supported by Acción Integrada Italia-España HI2000-0112, Azione Integrata Italia-Spagna IT-117, MCYT BFM2002-01308, Spain.

  12. Fuzzy Behavior Modulation with Threshold Activation for Autonomous Vehicle Navigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tunstel, Edward

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes fuzzy logic techniques used in a hierarchical behavior-based architecture for robot navigation. An architectural feature for threshold activation of fuzzy-behaviors is emphasized, which is potentially useful for tuning navigation performance in real world applications. The target application is autonomous local navigation of a small planetary rover. Threshold activation of low-level navigation behaviors is the primary focus. A preliminary assessment of its impact on local navigation performance is provided based on computer simulations.

  13. Multi-agent autonomous system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fink, Wolfgang (Inventor); Dohm, James (Inventor); Tarbell, Mark A. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A multi-agent autonomous system for exploration of hazardous or inaccessible locations. The multi-agent autonomous system includes simple surface-based agents or craft controlled by an airborne tracking and command system. The airborne tracking and command system includes an instrument suite used to image an operational area and any craft deployed within the operational area. The image data is used to identify the craft, targets for exploration, and obstacles in the operational area. The tracking and command system determines paths for the surface-based craft using the identified targets and obstacles and commands the craft using simple movement commands to move through the operational area to the targets while avoiding the obstacles. Each craft includes its own instrument suite to collect information about the operational area that is transmitted back to the tracking and command system. The tracking and command system may be further coupled to a satellite system to provide additional image information about the operational area and provide operational and location commands to the tracking and command system.

  14. Autonomous Mine Detection Sensors (AMDS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navish, Frank, III; May, Michael

    2006-05-01

    The Autonomous Mine Detection Sensors (AMDS) program is developing a prototype autonomous mine-detection sensor suite designed to be mounted on a small robotic platform that can find buried anti-personnel mines. Over the past two years, CyTerra Corp. and NIITEK, Inc. have developed complementary senor suites using a variety of ground penetrating radar (GPR) and electromagnetic induction (EMI) sensor configurations. The AMDS program is also working with industry and academia to develop automatic target recognition (ATR) algorithms. This paper provides a brief overview of evaluations that have been performed at Army facilities. Probability of Detection (Pd) and Probability of False Alarm (Pfa) results are provided for signal-to-noise type detection algorithms and also for promising pattern classification and neural network algorithms that were developed by Duke University, the University of Missouri-Columbia, and the University of Florida. After an evaluation in October 2005, both contractors' sensors performed comparably (about 90% Pd and 40% Pfa) against low-metal anti-personnel mines at an Army test site seeded with typical clutter. In some cases, university-developed pattern classification and neural network algorithms have reduced the Pfa by a factor of two against these clutter sets.

  15. Coming Out and the Potential for Growth in Sexual Minorities: The Role of Social Reactions and Internalized Homonegativity.

    PubMed

    Solomon, David; McAbee, James; Åsberg, Kia; McGee, Ashley

    2015-01-01

    Coming out is a significant and sometimes difficult process in the lives of sexual minorities, but disclosure can also affect wellbeing in positive ways, including reduced distress and greater relationship satisfaction. This study investigates the possibility of stress-related growth and depreciation following coming out. To obtain a diverse sample with varying coming-out experiences, data were collected from undergraduate students as well as from online sources, including lesbian, gay, and bisexual support groups and Pride groups. Regression analyses indicated that negative social reactions to coming out predicted both growth and depreciation, although they more strongly predicted depreciation. Positive social reactions were positively related to stress-related growth, while internalized homonegativity was inversely associated with growth. Although the two sample sources (online and campus) differed in some ways, sample source was not a significant predictor in the regressions, nor was it indicated as a moderator in exploratory ANOVA analyses. PMID:26182185

  16. High molecular weight fibroblast growth factor-2 in the human heart is a potential target for prevention of cardiac remodeling.

    PubMed

    Santiago, Jon-Jon; McNaughton, Leslie J; Koleini, Navid; Ma, Xin; Bestvater, Brian; Nickel, Barbara E; Fandrich, Robert R; Wigle, Jeffrey T; Freed, Darren H; Arora, Rakesh C; Kardami, Elissavet

    2014-01-01

    Fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF-2) is a multifunctional protein synthesized as high (Hi-) and low (Lo-) molecular weight isoforms. Studies using rodent models showed that Hi- and Lo-FGF-2 exert distinct biological activities: after myocardial infarction, rat Lo-FGF-2, but not Hi-FGF-2, promoted sustained cardioprotection and angiogenesis, while Hi-FGF-2, but not Lo-FGF-2, promoted myocardial hypertrophy and reduced contractile function. Because there is no information regarding Hi-FGF-2 in human myocardium, we undertook to investigate expression, regulation, secretion and potential tissue remodeling-associated activities of human cardiac (atrial) Hi-FGF-2. Human patient-derived atrial tissue extracts, as well as pericardial fluid, contained Hi-FGF-2 isoforms, comprising, respectively, 53%(±20 SD) and 68% (±25 SD) of total FGF-2, assessed by western blotting. Human atrial tissue-derived primary myofibroblasts (hMFs) expressed and secreted predominantly Hi-FGF-2, at about 80% of total. Angiotensin II (Ang II) up-regulated Hi-FGF-2 in hMFs, via activation of both type 1 and type 2 Ang II receptors; the ERK pathway; and matrix metalloprotease-2. Treatment of hMFs with neutralizing antibodies selective for human Hi-FGF-2 (neu-AbHi-FGF-2) reduced accumulation of proteins associated with fibroblast-to-myofibroblast conversion and fibrosis, including α-smooth muscle actin, extra-domain A fibronectin, and procollagen. Stimulation of hMFs with recombinant human Hi-FGF-2 was significantly more potent than Lo-FGF-2 in upregulating inflammation-associated proteins such as pro-interleukin-1β and plasminogen-activator-inhibitor-1. Culture media conditioned by hMFs promoted cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, an effect that was prevented by neu-AbHi-FGF-2 in vitro. In conclusion, we have documented that Hi-FGF-2 represents a substantial fraction of FGF-2 in human cardiac (atrial) tissue and in pericardial fluid, and have shown that human Hi-FGF-2, unlike Lo-FGF-2, promotes deleterious

  17. New Small Autonomous Schools District Policy. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oakland Unified School District, CA.

    Inspired by the gains in student achievement realized by the small schools movement in New York City, the Oakland Unified School District (California) has proposed creating a network of 10 new, small autonomous (NSA) schools over the next 3 years. School size will range between 250 and 500 students, depending on grade level. "Autonomous" means…

  18. Autonomic Physiological Response Patterns Related to Intelligence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melis, Cor; van Boxtel, Anton

    2007-01-01

    We examined autonomic physiological responses induced by six different cognitive ability tasks, varying in complexity, that were selected on the basis of on Guilford's Structure of Intellect model. In a group of 52 participants, task performance was measured together with nine different autonomic response measures and respiration rate. Weighted…

  19. Planning Flight Paths of Autonomous Aerobots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kulczycki, Eric; Elfes, Alberto; Sharma, Shivanjli

    2009-01-01

    Algorithms for planning flight paths of autonomous aerobots (robotic blimps) to be deployed in scientific exploration of remote planets are undergoing development. These algorithms are also adaptable to terrestrial applications involving robotic submarines as well as aerobots and other autonomous aircraft used to acquire scientific data or to perform surveying or monitoring functions.

  20. Autonomous Control of Space Reactor Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Belle R. Upadhyaya; K. Zhao; S.R.P. Perillo; Xiaojia Xu; M.G. Na

    2007-11-30

    Autonomous and semi-autonomous control is a key element of space reactor design in order to meet the mission requirements of safety, reliability, survivability, and life expectancy. Interrestrial nuclear power plants, human operators are avilable to perform intelligent control functions that are necessary for both normal and abnormal operational conditions.